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  1. Santa Barbara Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Hacker, Angela; Hansen, Sherman; Watkins, Ashley

    2013-11-30

    This report serves as the Final Report for Santa Barbara County’s Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant (EECBG) BetterBuildings Neighborhood Program (BBNP) award from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). This report explains how DOE BBNP funding was invested to develop robust program infrastructure designed to help property owners complete energy improvements, thereby generating substantial outcomes for the local environment and economy. It provides an overview of program development and design within the grant period, program accomplishments and challenges to date, and a plan for the future sustainability of emPower, the County’s innovative clean energy and building efficiency program. During the grant period, Santa Barbara County’s emPower program primarily targeted 32,000 owner occupied, single family, detached residential homes over 25 years old within the County. In order to help these homeowners and their contractors overcome market barriers to completing residential energy improvements, the program developed and promoted six voluntary, market-based service areas: 1) low cost residential financing (loan loss reserve with two local credit unions), 2) residential rebates, 3) local customer service, 4) expert energy advising, 5) workforce development and training, and 6) marketing, education and outreach. The main goals of the program were to lower building energy use, create jobs and develop a lasting regional building performance market. These services have generated important early outcomes and lessons after the program’s first two years in service. The DOE BBNP funding was extended through October 2014 to enable Santa Barbara County to generate continued outcomes. In fact, funding related to residential financing remains wholly available for the foreseeable future to continue offering Home Upgrade Loans to approximately 1,300 homeowners. The County’s investment of DOE BBNP funding was used to build a lasting, effective, and innovative

  2. Geologic Map of the Santa Barbara Coastal Plain Area, Santa Barbara County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Minor, Scott A.; Kellogg, Karl S.; Stanley, Richard G.; Gurrola, Larry D.; Keller, Edward A.; Brandt, Theodore R.

    2009-01-01

    This report presents a newly revised and expanded digital geologic map of the Santa Barbara coastal plain area at a compilation scale of 1:24,000 (one inch on the map to 2,000 feet on the ground)1 and with a horizontal positional accuracy of at least 20 m. The map depicts the distribution of bedrock units and surficial deposits and associated deformation underlying and adjacent to the coastal plain within the contiguous Dos Pueblos Canyon, Goleta, Santa Barbara, and Carpinteria 7.5' quadrangles. The new map supersedes an earlier preliminary geologic map of the central part of the coastal plain (Minor and others, 2002; revised 2006) that provided coastal coverage only within the Goleta and Santa Barbara quadrangles. In addition to new mapping to the west and east, geologic mapping in parts of the central map area has been significantly revised from the preliminary map compilation - especially north of downtown Santa Barbara in the Mission Ridge area - based on new structural interpretations supplemented by new biostratigraphic data. All surficial and bedrock map units, including several new units recognized in the areas of expanded mapping, are described in detail in the accompanying pamphlet. Abundant new biostratigraphic and biochronologic data based on microfossil identifications are presented in expanded unit descriptions of the marine Neogene Monterey and Sisquoc Formations. Site-specific fault kinematic observations embedded in the digital map database are more complete owing to the addition of slip-sense determinations. Finally, the pamphlet accompanying the present report includes an expanded and refined summary of stratigraphic and structural observations and interpretations that are based on the composite geologic data contained in the new map compilation. The Santa Barbara coastal plain is located in the western Transverse Ranges physiographic province along an east-west-trending segment of the southern California coastline about 100 km (62 mi) northwest

  3. ChE at UC Santa Barbara.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seborg, Dale E.

    1981-01-01

    Describes the chemical engineering program at the University of California, Santa Barbara, including history of the department, faculty research interests and professional activities, graduate and undergraduate programs, and research in nuclear engineering. (SK)

  4. Educational and Demographic Profile: Santa Barbara County

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Postsecondary Education Commission, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This profile uniquely presents a variety of educational and socioeconomic information for Santa Barbara County, nearby counties, and the state. The profile highlights the relationship between various factors that affect the economic well-being of individuals and communities. This presentation of information provides a framework for enhanced…

  5. 33 CFR 80.1126 - Santa Barbara Harbor, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Santa Barbara Harbor, CA. 80.1126 Section 80.1126 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1126 Santa Barbara Harbor, CA. A line...

  6. Santa Barbara microwave backscattering model for woodlands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Y.; Day, J.; Sun, G.

    1993-01-01

    The Santa Barbara microwave backscattering model for woodland vegetation with discontinuous tree canopies is described, with an emphasis on the construction of the model from probability-weighted sub-components. The modelling approach is to treat individual tree crowns as scatterers and attenuators, using the probabilities of scattering and attenuation to compute total backscatter. Four major model components are defined: surface backscattering, crown volume scattering, multi-path interactions between crown and ground, and double-bounce trunk-ground interactions. Each component is divided into subcomponents having distinct scattering and attenuation paths. The scattering of each subcomponent is computed and weighted by the probability of its occurrence. Total backscatter from a simulated woodland stand is computed by incoherent summation of the components. Recent revisions to the model have modified the subcomponent definitions and improved the probability formulation.

  7. Environmental Law Series Links Campus and Community in Santa Barbara.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGinnes, J. Marc

    1981-01-01

    Describes a three-course series in environmental law developed at the University of California, Santa Barbara as part of the undergraduate Environmental Studies Program. The series progresses from theory to simulation to field experience. (Author/WB)

  8. Monterey fractured reservoir, Santa Barbara Channel, California

    SciTech Connect

    Belfield, W.C.; Helwig, J.; La Pointe, P.R.; Dahleen, W.K.

    1983-03-01

    The South Elwood field in the Santa Barbara Channel is a faulted anticline with cumulative production of 14.5 million bbl from the Monterey Formation as of September 1, 1982. The distributions of pressure, flow rates, and oil-water contacts and the low average matrix permeability of 0.2 md require a fractured reservoir. Core and outcrop studies show a dominant fracture set characterized by vertical, lithologically controlled fractures oriented across strike, and breccias controlled by lithology and structure. Generally, the fracture intensity is unaffected by structural position or bed curvature but is controlled by lithology and bed thickness. Other varieties of fracturing in the Monterey are related to a protracted history of diagenesis, deformation, and fluid injection. Three types of tar-bearing breccias occur in the Monterey Formation: stratigraphic breccia, coalescent-fracture breccia, and fault-related breccia. Formation of breccias probably involves high pore pressures. Because of their polygenetic origin, breccia masses have diverse orientations paralleling bedding or fracture/fault systems. In conclusions, fracturing and brecciation of the Monterey Formation reflect the interplay between processes of diagenesis, deformation, and fluid dynamics. The most important features of the reservoir in the area of the present study are: (1) vertical fractures oriented normal to the structural trends and inferred to be favorably oriented (to remain open) with respect to the regional minimum horizontal stress; and (2) breccias that are both stratigraphically and structurally controlled and inferred to be related to the interaction of rock stress and fluid dynamics.

  9. Santa Barbara Cluster Comparison Test with DISPH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saitoh, Takayuki R.; Makino, Junichiro

    2016-06-01

    The Santa Barbara cluster comparison project revealed that there is a systematic difference between entropy profiles of clusters of galaxies obtained by Eulerian mesh and Lagrangian smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) codes: mesh codes gave a core with a constant entropy, whereas SPH codes did not. One possible reason for this difference is that mesh codes are not Galilean invariant. Another possible reason is the problem of the SPH method, which might give too much “protection” to cold clumps because of the unphysical surface tension induced at contact discontinuities. In this paper, we apply the density-independent formulation of SPH (DISPH), which can handle contact discontinuities accurately, to simulations of a cluster of galaxies and compare the results with those with the standard SPH. We obtained the entropy core when we adopt DISPH. The size of the core is, however, significantly smaller than those obtained with mesh simulations and is comparable to those obtained with quasi-Lagrangian schemes such as “moving mesh” and “mesh free” schemes. We conclude that both the standard SPH without artificial conductivity and Eulerian mesh codes have serious problems even with such an idealized simulation, while DISPH, SPH with artificial conductivity, and quasi-Lagrangian schemes have sufficient capability to deal with it.

  10. Strain accumulation in the Santa Barbara Channel, 1971-1987

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larsen, Shawn; King, Nancy; Agnew, Duncan; Hager, Bradford

    1988-01-01

    Geophysical evidence suggests a significant amount of north-south convergence occurs across the Santa Barbara Channel. Tectonic studies indicate a discrepancy between observed fault slip in California and the North American-Pacific plate motion. Newer plate motion models (NUVEL-1) yield a lower rate of convergence. Global Positioning System (GPS) data collected in the Santa Barbara Channel in 1987, when combined with 1971 trilateration measurements, should be sufficient to resolve the present-day convergence rate. In early 1987. from January 3 to 7, GPS data were collected at 14 sites in California and at 5 additional stations throughout North America. The data can be used to estimate the rate of crustal deformation (convergence) ocurring across the Santa Barbara Channel. The GPS baselines were computed with the Bernese 2nd generation software. A comparison was made between baseline lengths obtained with the Burnese and MIT softwares. Baseline changes from 1971 to January, 1987 (GPS-Bernese) across the Santa Barbara Channel were computed. A uniform strain model was calculated from the baseline changes. The present-day rate of convergence across the Santa Barbara Channel was determined to be 8 to 10 mm/yr. This conclusion is obtained from changes in the baseline length measured with a 1971 trilateration survey and a January, 1987, GPS survey. The rapid convergence rate, in addition to the history of large seismic events, suggests this region is a prime target for future geodetic and geophysical studies.

  11. Coastal Processes Study of Santa Barbara and Ventura Counties, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnard, Patrick L.; Revell, David L.; Hoover, Dan; Warrick, Jon; Brocatus, John; Draut, Amy E.; Dartnell, Pete; Elias, Edwin; Mustain, Neomi; Hart, Pat E.; Ryan, Holly F.

    2009-01-01

    , significant transport reversals occur intermittently in the east/south, especially adjacent to the Ventura and Channel Islands Harbors. For this reason, and due to the episodic nature of flood and storm wave events, using dredging rates from the harbors at Ventura and Channel Islands as a proxy for drift rates may be invalid. An extensive grain-size investigation of the surface and shallow subsurface in the nearshore region of the SBLC identified only two sites for potential beach-nourishment material: offshore of Santa Barbara Harbor and Oil Piers. However, seismic-reflection lines offshore of Santa Barbara suggest shallow bedrock (< 1 m), so the volume of coarse material in this area may be limited. Sampling of the Santa Clara River delta was minimal, but this site could be promising. Numerical modeling shows that local beach behavior is primarily influenced by local littoral-drift gradients, which are in turn controlled by natural shoreline orientation. Given the high rates of net littoral drift and the relatively insignificant cross-shore transport in the SBLC, the SBLC should be considered a sediment-limited system (as opposed to a transport-limited system). Management actions, such as any future beach nourishment, would likely have a severely limited life span without employing additional measures that adequately address local littoral-drift gradients to retain added sand.

  12. Santa Barbara City College: 1999-02 College Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santa Barbara City Coll., CA.

    This document presents Santa Barbara City College's 1999-2002 College Plan. It is intended to be used as the central organizing document for decision making, planning, and budgeting throughout the College during the 1999-2002 period. This plan is the result of thoughtful and substantive dialogue involving individuals and groups throughout the…

  13. Santa Barbara City College: 2002-05 College Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santa Barbara City Coll., CA.

    This document summarizes the Santa Barbara City College 2002-2005 College Plan. The plan's goals are: (1) to develop and implement strategies to increase assistance to students in identifying learning needs and defining educational, career, and life goals; (2) to increase the percentage of students attaining educational goals; (3) to increase…

  14. California State Waters Map Series: offshore of Santa Barbara, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Samuel Y.; Dartnell, Peter; Cochrane, Guy R.; Golden, Nadine E.; Phillips, Eleyne L.; Ritchie, Andrew C.; Greene, H. Gary; Krigsman, Lisa M.; Kvitek, Rikk G.; Dieter, Bryan E.; Endris, Charles A.; Seitz, Gordon G.; Sliter, Ray W.; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Gutierrez, Carlos I.; Wong, Florence L.; Yoklavich, Mary M.; Draut, Amy E.; Hart, Patrick E.; Conrad, James E.; Cochran, Susan A.

    2013-01-01

    In 2007, the California Ocean Protection Council initiated the California Seafloor Mapping Program (CSMP), designed to create a comprehensive seafloor map of high-resolution bathymetry, marine benthic habitats, and geology within the 3-nautical-mile limit of California’s State Waters. The CSMP approach is to create highly detailed seafloor maps through collection, integration, interpretation, and visualization of swath sonar data, acoustic backscatter, seafloor video, seafloor photography, high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles, and bottom-sediment sampling data. The map products display seafloor morphology and character, identify potential marine benthic habitats, and illustrate both the surficial seafloor geology and shallow (to about 100 m) subsurface geology. The Offshore of Santa Barbara map area lies within the central Santa Barbara Channel region of the Southern California Bight. This geologically complex region forms a major biogeographic transition zone, separating the cold-temperate Oregonian province north of Point Conception from the warm-temperate California province to the south. The map area is in the southern part of the Western Transverse Ranges geologic province, which is north of the California Continental Borderland. Significant clockwise rotation—at least 90°—since the early Miocene has been proposed for the Western Transverse Ranges province, and geodetic studies indicate that the region is presently undergoing north-south shortening. Uplift rates (as much as 2.2 mm/yr) that are based on studies of onland marine terraces provide further evidence of significant shortening. The city of Santa Barbara, the main coastal population center in the map area, is part of a contiguous urban area that extends from Carpinteria to Goleta. This urban area was developed on the coalescing alluvial surfaces, uplifted marine terraces, and low hills that lie south of the east-west-trending Santa Ynez Mountains. Several beaches line the actively

  15. 33 CFR 165.1157 - Security Zone; Cruise Ships, Santa Barbara, California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Security Zone; Cruise Ships... § 165.1157 Security Zone; Cruise Ships, Santa Barbara, California. (a) Location. The following areas are... cruise ship located within 3 nautical miles of the Santa Barbara Harbor Breakwater Light (Light...

  16. 33 CFR 165.1157 - Security Zone; Cruise Ships, Santa Barbara, California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Security Zone; Cruise Ships... § 165.1157 Security Zone; Cruise Ships, Santa Barbara, California. (a) Location. The following areas are... cruise ship located within 3 nautical miles of the Santa Barbara Harbor Breakwater Light (Light...

  17. Funds from telethon stay at home. Santa Barbara Cottage Hospital with Children's Miracle Network.

    PubMed

    Botvin, J D

    2001-01-01

    Santa Barbara Cottage Hospital, California, works with the nonprofit Children's Miracle Network in fund raising efforts, and all money raised through its telethon remains in the local community. Volunteer efforts and donations form the core of Santa Barbara's financial support. PMID:11552593

  18. SRTM Perspective View with Landsat Overlay: Santa Barbara, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Santa Barbara, California, is often called 'America's Riviera.' It enjoys a Mediterranean climate, a mountain backdrop, and a long and varied coastline. This perspective view of the Santa Barbara region was generated using data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) and an enhanced Landsat satellite image. The view is toward the northeast, from the Goleta Valley in the foreground to a snow-capped Mount Abel (elevation 2526 m or 8286 feet) along the skyline. The coast here generally faces south. Consequently, Fall and Winter sunrises occur over the ocean, which is unusual for the U.S. west coast. The Santa Barbara 'back country' is very rugged and largely remains as undeveloped wilderness and an important watershed for local communities. Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data match the 30-meter resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyses of the large and growing Landsat image archive. For visualization purposes, topographic heights displayed in this image are exaggerated two times. Colors approximate natural colors.

    The elevation data used in this image was acquired by SRTM aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of Earth's land surface.

    To collect the 3-D SRTM data, engineers added a mast 60 meters (about 200-feet) long, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense, and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise,Washington, D.C. JPL

  19. Bathymetry and Acoustic Backscatter: Northern Santa Barbara Channel, Southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dartnell, Pete; Finlayson, David; Conrad, Jamie; Cochrane, Guy; Johnson, Samuel

    2010-01-01

    In the summer of 2008, as part of the California Seafloor Mapping Program (CSMP) the U.S. Geological Survey, Coastal and Marine Geology mapped a nearshore region of the northern Santa Barbara Channel in Southern California (fig 1). The CSMP is a cooperative partnership between Federal and State agencies, Universities, and Industry to create a comprehensive coastal/marine geologic and habitat basemap series to support the Marine Life Protection Act (MLPA) inititive. The program is supported by the California Ocean Protection Council and the California Coastal Conservancy. The 2008 mapping collected high resolution bathymetry and acoustic backscatter data using a bathymetric side scan system within State waters from about the 10-m isobath out over 3-nautical miles. This Open-File Report provides these data in a number of different formats, as well as a summary of the mapping mission, maps of bathymetry and backscatter, and FGDC metadata.

  20. Metagenomes from two microbial consortia associated with Santa Barbara seep oil.

    PubMed

    Hawley, Erik R; Malfatti, Stephanie A; Pagani, Ioanna; Huntemann, Marcel; Chen, Amy; Foster, Brian; Copeland, Alexander; del Rio, Tijana Glavina; Pati, Amrita; Jansson, Janet R; Gilbert, Jack A; Tringe, Susannah Green; Lorenson, Thomas D; Hess, Matthias

    2014-12-01

    The metagenomes from two microbial consortia associated with natural oils seeping into the Pacific Ocean offshore the coast of Santa Barbara (California, USA) were determined to complement already existing metagenomes generated from microbial communities associated with hydrocarbons that pollute the marine ecosystem. This genomics resource article is the first of two publications reporting a total of four new metagenomes from oils that seep into the Santa Barbara Channel. PMID:24958360

  1. Denitrification and flushing of the Santa Barbara Basin bottom waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goericke, Ralf; Bograd, Steven J.; Grundle, Damian S.

    2015-02-01

    The sediments of the Santa Barbara Basin (SBB) are an important paleoecological resource since their structure reflects the oxygenation of the bottom waters and the quality and quantity of the particulate matter which is sequestered to the bottom of the basin. These properties are controlled by regional atmospheric and oceanic climate. The California Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries Investigations (CalCOFI) program has been monitoring the bottom waters of the SBB on a regular basis since 1986. Over the last decade, properties of SBB bottom waters have undergone dramatic changes: low concentrations of nitrate were observed more frequently and concentrations of nitrite, at times, reached values of 7 μM, in contrast to maximum concentrations of 0.2 μM observed during the earlier time period. Here we study the links between regional climate and conditions at the bottom of the SBB by relating recent changes in bottom water chemistry to local and regional forcing of the basin. Varying rates of primary production of the overlying water or rates of export production were not significantly related to the observed biogeochemical changes in the basin. Rather, the frequency or rate of flushing, as inferred from phosphate concentration changes at the bottom of the basin, and decreasing concentrations of oxygen in the waters outside the basins could be related to the observed changes. The episodic more than 10-fold increases of nitrite in the bottom waters likely represent a tipping point in the biogeochemical system driven by decreasing concentrations of oxygen in the bottom waters.

  2. Water-resources optimization model for Santa Barbara, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nishikawa, T.

    1998-01-01

    A simulation-optimization model has been developed for the optimal management of the city of Santa Barbara's water resources during a drought. The model, which links groundwater simulation with linear programming, has a planning horizon of 5 years. The objective is to minimize the cost of water supply subject to: water demand constraints, hydraulic head constraints to control seawater intrusion, and water capacity constraints. The decision variables are montly water deliveries from surface water and groundwater. The state variables are hydraulic heads. The drought of 1947-51 is the city's worst drought on record, and simulated surface-water supplies for this period were used as a basis for testing optimal management of current water resources under drought conditions. The simulation-optimization model was applied using three reservoir operation rules. In addition, the model's sensitivity to demand, carry over [the storage of water in one year for use in the later year(s)], head constraints, and capacity constraints was tested.

  3. The Santa Barbara Channel - Santa Maria Basin Study: A model for Coastal Ocean Observing Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winant, C. D.

    2002-12-01

    The need to anticipate the potential impact of oil exploration and production activities on coastal resources, and the information needs of agencies charged with responding to coastal emergencies motivated the development of the oil-spill response system for the Santa Barbara Channel (SBC) and the Santa Maria Basin (SMB), along the California coast, between Ventura and Morro Bay. In the Santa Barbara Channel (SBC), moorings and drifter trajectories document a persistent cyclonic circulation with a typical re-circulation period between three and five days. In the spring currents near the mainland are weaker than near the Channel Islands and the overall flow is toward the southeast. Trajectories document the possibility for water parcels to leave the channel through the inter-island passes. In the late fall and winter, a poleward flow with velocities often exceeding 0.5 m/s is confined within 20 km of the mainland. Between these two seasons, the cyclonic tendency is enhanced although most of the drifters eventually migrate westward. The trajectories of drifters released at the same time from sites only 20 km apart can be remarkably different. In the Santa Maria Basin (SMB), the direction and amplitude of the flow is strongly depth dependent. Near the surface, moorings and drifters show the flow to be equatorward except during late fall and early winter when the surface flow is poleward. Beneath the surface layer the flow is poleward except in March and April, right after the spring transition. The observations provide a basis on which several data assimilating model of the circulation are based. The models reproduce all the major observed features of the circulation, including individual drifter trajectories. With little effort these models could be used to maintain an operational predictive capability with real predictive skills over periods of a few days.

  4. Validation and Application of PHYDOTax In The Santa Barbara Channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schafer, C. B.; Palacios, S. L.; Broughton, J.; Kudela, R. M.

    2013-12-01

    Phytoplankton Functional Types(PFTs) are conceptual groupings of phytoplankton based on physical or functional characteristics. Understanding phytoplankton is essential in our study of how ecosystems function and in monitoring carbon flow. PHYDOTax is a PFT algorithm that discriminates taxon-specific biomass in images from airborne and spaceborne hyperspectral sensors. The PHYDOTax algorithm uses a spectral library and an inverse matrix approach to deconvolve pure phytoplankton spectral end-members from spectra of natural waters. The spectral library used in development was created from phytoplankton taxa found in Monterey Bay, CA and the California Current System (CCS). PHYDOTax has only been validated in Monterey Bay and for only one airborne sensor, Spectroscopic Aerial Mapping System with On-board Navigation (SAMSON). The objectives of this research were to apply PHYDOTax to a different region of the CCS, Santa Barbara Channel (SBC), and to test the usability of PHYDOTax with a different airborne imager, Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS). PHYDOTax was modified to accommodate the reduced spectral resolution of AVIRIS, which has fewer wavelengths than the SAMSON imagery that was used to validate the model for Monterey Bay. PHYDOTax's predictions were consistent with cell-count data from whole water samples on June 5, 2013, courtesy of the Plumes and Blooms Cruise (UCSB). PHYDOTax's ability to perform in another area of the CCS shows promise that it may be accurately applied to the west coast of the US. PHYDOTax's ability to perform with lower spectral resolution imagery, suggests that it may it may be robust enough to be down-sampled to multi-spectral resolution inputs. This opens the possibility of applying PHYDOTax to historical (SeaWiFS, MODIS, MERIS), existing (VIIRS, HICO), and future (PACE, GEO-CAPE) sensors to describe temporal trends in phytoplankton distribution and carbon flow in the ocean and to build continuity among the sensor

  5. Ground-water monitoring at Santa Barbara, California; Phase 2, Effects of pumping on water levels and on water quality in the Santa Barbara ground-water basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martin, Peter

    1984-01-01

    From July 1978 to January 1980, water levels in the southern part of the Santa Barbara ground-water basin declined more than 100 feet. These water-level declines resulted from increases in municipal pumping since July 1978. The increase in municipal pumping was part of a basin-testing program designed to determine the usable quantity of ground water in storage. The pumping, centered in the city less than 1 mile from the coast, has caused water-level declines to altitudes below sea level in the main water-bearing zones. As a result, the ground-water basin would be subject to saltwater intrusion if the study-period pumpage were maintained or increased. Data indicate that saltwater intrusion has degraded the quality of the water yielded from six coastal wells. During the study period, the six coastal wells all yielded water with chloride concentrations in excess of 250 milligrams per liter, and four of the wells yielded water with chloride concentrations in excess of 1,000 milligrams per liter. Previous investigators believed that saltwater intrusion was limited to the shallow part of the aquifer, directly adjacent to the coast. The possibility of saltwater intrusion into the deeper water-bearing deposits in the aquifer was thought to be remote because an offshore fault truncates these deeper deposits so that they lie against consolidated rocks on the seaward side of the fault. Results of this study indicate, however, that ocean water has intruded the deeper water-bearing deposits, and to a much greater extent than in the shallow part of the aquifer. Apparently the offshore fault is not an effective barrier to saltwater intrusion. No physical barriers are known to exist between the coast and the municipal well field. Therefore, if the pumping rate maintained during the basin-testing program were continued, the degraded water along the coast could move inland and contaminate the municipal supply wells. The time required for the degraded water to move from the coast to

  6. Permeability of the South Ellwood Fault, Offshore Santa Barbara, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boles, J. R.; Horner, S.; Garven, G.

    2009-12-01

    Natural methane migrates from faulted and fractured siliceous Miocene-age shale hydrocarbon reservoirs to the seabed of the Santa Barbara channel in southern California. At one locality near Platform Holly, about 2 km offshore, where seepage is monitored from two steel and concrete tents on the seabed (area~1860 m2), seepage rate can be related to wells producing 1 km beneath the tents. A new well, perforated at 914 m (3000 ft) beneath the collection tents, directly affects the seepage into the tents. When the well is shut down, seepage production rates increase at a constant rate of 45.3 m3 day/day (1.6 MCF/day/day) to 31.2 m3 day/day (1.1 MCF/day/day) over shutdown periods ranging from 21 days in 2003 to 45 days in 2005, respectively. Using seismic and well data, a fault with about 60 m (200 ft) of throw has been identified running along the crest of the South Ellwood anticline. Using these changes in flow rate, the estimated pressure differences between the seep tent and the perforation intervals in the well, we have calculated the permeability with respect to gas for the 914 m fracture/fault flow path, assuming steady Darcian flow, to be about 3.0E-14 m2 (30 millidarcys, md). In another well, no longer in production, we observe tidal-cycle pressure variations indicating communication with the seabed and anomalous pressure build up that indicates influx of about 5 m3 (25 barrels) of seawater per day. Chemical and isotopic analysis confirms seawater mixing into the reservoir. Using an estimated fault volume of 6.3E+05 m3, we calculate a permeability of 1.9E-14 m2 (19 md) from the Darcy equation (Boles and Horner, 2003) for this well. These two permeability estimates, calculated by different methods, are remarkably similar and indicate that large fault conduits can have permeability of 10’s of md over kilometer length scales. Note: MCF= thousand cubic feet

  7. Quaternary hyperpycnal fans on the shelf of an active margin basin, Northern Santa Barbara Channel, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steel, E.; Simms, A.; Warrick, J. A.

    2013-12-01

    The small mountainous rivers draining the Transverse Ranges of southern California are known to form sediment-rich hyperpycnal plumes on the adjacent shelf during flooding events. Six fans were recently identified using sonar and lidar data in the northern Santa Barbara Channel and represent a unique opportunity to sample hyperpycnal deposits that have not been reworked or remobilized by other sedimentary processes. The two largest of these fans are those located directly offshore of Refugio and Tajiguas Creeks and are found in 20m to 70m water depths. We conducted shallow seismic surveys to image the morphology and internal architecture of the two fans. Internal reflectors define three seismic packages within the fans and isopach maps of these packages are presented. Geometries of the seismic reflections are interpreted to represent a shift from erosion of material over the most proximal fan locations to deposition of sediment with little or no erosion in distal portions. In several locations, dipping reflections can be clearly seen beneath an unconformity. Where present, this unconformity is interpreted to represent the base of the Holocene section overlying deformed Neogene strata. We report the results of a coring campaign on one of these fans designed to characterize the grain size, grain shape, and facies trends of hyperpycnal deposits. Additionally, petrology of core samples was compared to modern river samples to determine source regions. By analyzing sedimentation patterns and structures found in the fans of the Santa Barbara Channel, we hope to identify features that can be used to distinguish hyperpycnal deposition from other density-driven flows.

  8. U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Western Region; Santa Barbara Channel Coastal and Ocean Science

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Samuel Y.

    2009-01-01

    USGS coastal and ocean science in the Western United States and the Pacific integrates scientific expertise in geology, water resources, biology, and geography. Operating from 10 major science centers in the Western Region, the USGS is addressing a broad geographic and thematic range of important coastal and marine issues. In California, the Santa Barbara Channel represents one area of focus.

  9. 33 CFR 110.222 - Pacific Ocean at Santa Barbara Island, Calif.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at Santa Barbara Island, Calif. 110.222 Section 110.222 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.222 Pacific Ocean at...

  10. 33 CFR 110.222 - Pacific Ocean at Santa Barbara Island, Calif.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at Santa Barbara Island, Calif. 110.222 Section 110.222 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.222 Pacific Ocean at...

  11. 33 CFR 110.222 - Pacific Ocean at Santa Barbara Island, Calif.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at Santa Barbara Island, Calif. 110.222 Section 110.222 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.222 Pacific Ocean at...

  12. 33 CFR 110.222 - Pacific Ocean at Santa Barbara Island, Calif.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at Santa Barbara Island, Calif. 110.222 Section 110.222 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.222 Pacific Ocean at...

  13. 33 CFR 110.222 - Pacific Ocean at Santa Barbara Island, Calif.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at Santa Barbara Island, Calif. 110.222 Section 110.222 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.222 Pacific Ocean at...

  14. 78 FR 32274 - Scorpion Pier Replacement Project, Channel Islands National Park, Santa Barbara County, California

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-29

    ... National Park Service Scorpion Pier Replacement Project, Channel Islands National Park, Santa Barbara... Environmental Impact Statement. SUMMARY: Pursuant to Sec. 102(2)(C) of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), and pursuant to the Council on Environmental Quality Regulations (40 CFR part...

  15. 76 FR 5319 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Santa Barbara Air Pollution Control...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-31

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Santa Barbara Air Pollution Control District, Placer County Air Pollution Control District, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District, and Ventura County Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency...

  16. 76 FR 5277 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Santa Barbara Air Pollution Control...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-31

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Santa Barbara Air Pollution Control District, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management District, Ventura County Air Pollution Control District and Placer County Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency...

  17. 75 FR 28056 - Cachuma Lake Resource Management Plan, Santa Barbara County, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-19

    ... (73 FR 43472). The written comment period on the Draft EIS ended on September 23, 2008. On October 9, 2008 a notice was published in the Federal Register (73 FR 59669) extending the comment period on the... Bureau of Reclamation Cachuma Lake Resource Management Plan, Santa Barbara County, CA AGENCY: Bureau...

  18. The Santa Barbara Channel-Santa Maria Basin Circulation Study: A National Model for Applied Oceanographic Research and Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Browne, D. R.

    2002-12-01

    In 1991 the Minerals Management System (MMS) and Scripps Institution of Oceanography (Scripps), through a Cooperative Agreement, devised a multi-year research program to ascertain the various surface circulation patterns characteristic of the Santa Barbara Channel (SBC) and the Santa Maria Basin (SMB). The resulting SBC-SMB Circulation Study serves as an excellent model for a balanced approach to physical oceanographic research and monitoring. The strategy of blending field observation efforts in these two adjacent, dynamically linked areas has produced a spatially and temporally coherent six-year time series of a suite of oceanographic and meteorological observations for the entire SBC-SMB area. Causal forcing and spatially coherent patterns of the surface circulation have been established from analysis of this carefully planned density and diversity of field measurements. The effects of interannual events, like the 1997 El Nino, on the physical oceanography of the area are being analyzed and reported. This extensive observational effort, combined with numerical modeling of surface current processes, has produced an unusually good understanding of the oceanic surface circulation in an oceanographically complex area. The applied research effort includes the development of a six-year, four-per-day, time series of synoptic current maps of the entire SBC-SMB area based solely on the extensive observational data set. This state-of-the-art data set has tremendous impact on the accuracy of oil spill trajectory and ocean surface circulation models. A second applied research product is a six-year, four-per-day time series of synoptic current maps developed from the application of numerical modeling techniques to the previous observational data driven six-year time series. It will be available in late 2003. This blended observations-modeling product will add increased spatial density of surface current values to the present domain, and will spatially expand the domain from

  19. Dynamic Models of Earthquakes and Tsunamis in the Santa Barbara Channel, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oglesby, David; Ryan, Kenny; Geist, Eric

    2016-04-01

    The Santa Barbara Channel and the adjacent Ventura Basin in California are the location of a number of large faults that extend offshore and could potentially produce earthquakes of magnitude greater than 7. The area is also home to hundreds of thousands of coastal residents. To properly evaluate the earthquake and tsunami hazard in this region requires the characterization of possible earthquake sources as well as the analysis of tsunami generation, propagation and inundation. Toward this end, we perform spontaneous dynamic earthquake rupture models of potential events on the Pitas Point/Lower Red Mountain faults, a linked offshore thrust fault system. Using the 3D finite element method, a realistic nonplanar fault geometry, and rate-state friction, we find that this fault system can produce an earthquake of up to magnitude 7.7, consistent with estimates from geological and paleoseismological studies. We use the final vertical ground deformation from our models as initial conditions for the generation and propagation of tsunamis to the shore, where we calculate inundation. We find that path and site effects lead to large tsunami amplitudes northward and eastward of the fault system, and in particular we find significant tsunami inundation in the low-lying cities of Ventura and Oxnard. The results illustrate the utility of dynamic earthquake modeling to produce physically plausible slip patterns and associated seafloor deformation that can be used for tsunami generation.

  20. Ground-water monitoring at Santa Barbara, California; Phase 2, effects of pumping on water levels and water quality in the Santa Barbara ground-water basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martin, Peter

    1982-01-01

    From July 1978 to January 1980, water levels declined more than 100 feet in the coastal area of the Santa Barbara ground-water basin in southern California. The water-level declines are the result of increases in municipal pumping since July 1978. The pumping, centered in the city less than 1 mile from the coast, has caused water-level declines in the main water-bearing zones to altitudes below sea level. Consequently, the ground-water basin is threatened with salt-water intrusion if the present pumpage is maintained or increased. Water-quality data suggest that salt-water intrusion has already degraded the water yielded from six coastal wells. Chloride concentrations in the six wells ranged from about 400 to 4,000 milligrams per liter. Municipal supply wells near the coast currently yield water of suitable quality for domestic use. There is, however, no known physical barrier to the continued inland advance salt water. Management alternatives to control salt-water intrusion in the Santa Barbara area include (1) decreasing municipal pumping, (2) increasing the quantity of water available for recharge by releasing surplus water to Mission Creek, (3) artificially recharing the basin using injection wells, and (4) locating municipal supply wells farther from the coast and farther apart to minimize drawdown. (USGS)

  1. Geology and tsunamigenic potential of submarine landslides in Santa Barbara Channel, Southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fisher, M.A.; Normark, W.R.; Greene, H. Gary; Lee, H.J.; Sliter, R.W.

    2005-01-01

    A large submarine landslide complex and four small landslides developed under the Santa Barbara Channel, suggesting a potential hazard from landslide-generated tsunamis. We integrate offshore stratigraphy and geologic structure, multibeam bathymetric information, and several kinds of seismic-reflection data to understand how and when the submarine landslides formed. Seismic-reflection data show that mass failure along the slope began at least 200 ka ago. Landslides appear as zones of poor reflectivity having an irregular upper surface, and these zones alternate vertically with strong parallel reflections. The emplacement ages of two of the three main landslide lobes are well established at 8 and 10 ka. The source material for the youngest part of the landslide complex was sediment of probable late Pleistocene and Holocene age that accumulated in a shelf-edge delta. Directly under this delta, growth of faults and anticlines was particularly intense and tended to oversteepen the deltaic deposits. These active structures also formed migration pathways and reservoirs for aqueous and hydrocarbon fluids from the deep basin. Tsunami deposits have been described from a low-lying area near Santa Barbara, and numerical modeling of tsunamis generated by hypothetical landslides in Santa Barbara Channel indicates a moderate to severe threat [Borrero, J.C., Dolan, J.F. and Synolakis, C.E., 2001. Tsunamis within the eastern Santa Barbara Channel. Geophys. Res. Lett., 28(4): 643-646.], involving wave runups of 2-20 m, for a range of assumed landslide volumes. Inundation from these waves, however, is expected to be highly focused so that only narrow (???10-km) sections of the shoreline would be affected. Crown Copyright ?? 2005 Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Preliminary report on water storage capacity of unconsolidated deposits beneath the Lompoc Plain, Santa Barbara County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Upson, Joseph E.

    1943-01-01

    The Lompoc Plain is the central lowland of a topographic and structural basin that forms the western and lower part of the Santa Ynes Valley in Santa Barbara County, California. It extends inland about 11 miles from the coast and is 1 mile fto about 3 miles wide.

  3. Optical assessment of particle size and composition in the Santa Barbara Channel, California.

    PubMed

    Kostadinov, Tihomir Sabinov; Siegel, David A; Maritorena, Stéphane; Guillocheau, Nathalie

    2012-06-01

    The suspended particle assemblage in complex coastal waters is a mixture of living phytoplankton, other autochthonous matter, and materials of terrestrial origin. The characterization of suspended particles is important for understanding regional primary productivity and rates of carbon sequestration, the fate of anthropogenic materials released to the coastal environment, as well as its effects on bulk optical properties, which influence the passive optical remote sensing of the coastal ocean. Here, the extensive bio-optical Plumes and Blooms data set is used to characterize the surface particle assemblage in the Santa Barbara Channel, California, a highly productive, upwelling-dominated, coastal site affected by episodic sediment inputs. Available variables sensitive to characteristics of the particle assemblage include particle beam attenuation and backscattering coefficients, High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) pigment concentration observations, chlorophyll and particulate organic carbon concentration, particulate and phytoplankton absorption coefficients, and Laser In-situ Scattering and Transmissometry (LISST) 100-X particle sizer observations. Comparisons among these particle assemblage proxy variables indicate good agreement and internal consistency among the data set. Correlations among chlorophyll concentration, particulate organic carbon concentration (POC), HPLC pigments, and proxies sensitive to the entire particle assemblage such as backscattering and LISST data strongly indicate that in spite of its coastal character, variability in the particle assemblage in the Santa Barbara Channel is dominated by its marine biogenic component. Relatively high estimates of the bulk real index of refraction and its positive correlation with chlorophyll and lithogenic silica concentration tentatively indicate that there is minerogenic particle influence in the Santa Barbara Channel that tends to covary with the phytoplankton blooms. Limitations of each

  4. Conventional U-Pb dating versus SHRIMP of the Santa Barbara Granite Massif, Rondonia, Brazil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sparrenberger, I.; Bettencourt, Jorge S.; Tosdal, R.M.; Wooden, J.L.

    2002-01-01

    The Santa Ba??rbara Granite Massif is part of the Younger Granites of Rondo??nia (998 - 974 Ma) and is included in the Rondo??nia Tin Province (SW Amazonian Craton). It comprises three highly fractionated metaluminous to peraluminous within-plate A-type granite units emplaced in older medium-grade metamorphic rocks. Sn-mineralization is closely associated with the late-stage unit. U-Pb monazite conventional dating of the early-stage Serra do Cicero facies and late-stage Serra Azul facies yielded ages of 993 ?? 5 Ma and 989 ?? 13 Ma, respectively. Conventional multigrain U-Pb isotope analyses of zircon demonstrate isotopic disturbance (discordance) and the preservation of inherited older zircons of several different ages and thus yield little about the ages of Sn-granite magmatism. SHRIMP U-Pb ages for the Santa Ba??rbara facies association yielded a 207Pb/206Pb weighted-mean age of 978 ?? 13 Ma. The textural complexity of the zircon crystals of the Santa Ba??rbara facies association, the variable concentrations of U, Th and Pb, as well as the mixed inheritance of zircon populations are major obstacles to using conventional multigrain U-Pb isotopic analyses. Sm-Nd model ages and ??Nd (T) values reveal anomalous isotopic data, attesting to the complex isotopic behaviour within these highly fractionated granites. Thus, SHRIMP U-Pb zircon and conventional U-Pb monazite dating methods are the most appropriate to constrain the crystallization age of the Sn-bearing granite systems in the Rondo??nia Tin Province.

  5. Plumes and Blooms: Modeling the Case II Waters of the Santa Barbara Channel. Chapter 15

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siegel, D. A.; Maritorena, S.; Nelson, N. B.

    2003-01-01

    The goal of the Plumes and Blooms (PnB) project is to develop, validate and apply to imagery state-of-the-art ocean color algorithms for quantifying sediment plumes and phytoplankton blooms for the Case II environment of the Santa Barbara Channel. We conduct monthly to twice-monthly transect observations across the Santa Barbara Channel to develop an algorithm development and product validation data set. The PnB field program started in the summer of 1996. At each of the 7 PnB stations, a complete verification bio-geo-optical data set is collected. Included are redundant measures of apparent optical properties (remote sensing reflectance and diffuse attenuation spectra), as well as in situ profiles of spectral absorption, beam attenuation and backscattering coefficients. Water samples are analyzed for component in vivo absorption spectra, fluorometric chlorophyll, phytoplankton pigment (by the SDSU CHORS laboratory), and inorganic nutrient concentrations. A primary goal is to use the PnB field data set to objectively tune semi-analytical models of ocean color for this site and apply them using available satellite imagery (SeaWiFS and MODIS). In support of this goal, we have also been addressing SeaWiFS ocean color and AVHRR SST imagery. We also are using the PnB data set to address time/space variability of water masses in the Santa Barbara Channel and its relationship to the 1997/1998 El Nino. However, the comparison between PnB field observations and satellite estimates of primary products has been disappointing. We find that field estimates of water-leaving radiance, L(sub wN)(lambda), correspond poorly to satellite estimates for both SeaWiFS and MODIS local area coverage imagery. We believe this is due to poor atmospheric correction due to complex mixtures of aerosol types found in these near-coastal regions. Last, we remain active in outreach activities.

  6. A rapid compatibility analysis of potential offshore sand sources for beaches of the Santa Barbara Littoral Cell

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mustain, N.; Griggs, G.; Barnard, P.L.

    2007-01-01

    The beaches of the Santa Barbara Littoral Cell, which are narrow as a result of either natural and/or anthropogenic factors, may benefit from nourishment. Sand compatibility is fundamental to beach nourishment success and grain size is the parameter often used to evaluate equivalence. Only after understanding which sand sizes naturally compose beaches in a specific cell, especially the smallest size that remains on the beach, can the potential compatibility of source areas, such as offshore borrow sites, be accurately assessed. This study examines sediments on the beach and in the nearshore (5-20m depth) for the entire Santa Barbara Littoral Cell east of Point Conception. A digital bed sediment camera, the Eyeball??, and spatial autocorrelation technique were used to determine sediment grain size. Here we report on whether nearshore sediments are comparable and compatible with beach sands of the Santa Barbara Littoral Cell. ?? 2007 ASCE.

  7. Littoral transport rates in the Santa Barbara Littoral Cell: a process-based model analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elias, E. P. L.; Barnard, Patrick L.; Brocatus, John

    2009-01-01

    Identification of the sediment transport patterns and pathways is essential for sustainable coastal zone management of the heavily modified coastline of Santa Barbara and Ventura County (California, USA). A process-based model application, based on Delft3D Online Morphology, is used to investigate the littoral transport potential along the Santa Barbara Littoral Cell (between Point Conception and Mugu Canyon). An advanced optimalization procedure is applied to enable annual sediment transport computations by reducing the ocean wave climate in 10 wave height - direction classes. Modeled littoral transport rates compare well with observed dredging volumes, and erosion or sedimentation hotspots coincide with the modeled divergence and convergence of the transport gradients. Sediment transport rates are strongly dependent on the alongshore variation in wave height due to wave sheltering, diffraction and focusing by the Northern Channel Islands, and the local orientation of the geologically-controlled coastline. Local transport gradients exceed the net eastward littoral transport, and are considered a primary driver for hot-spot erosion.

  8. The Impact of Climatological Variables on Kelp Canopy Area in the Santa Barbara Channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zigner, K.; Bausell, J.; Kudela, R. M.

    2015-12-01

    Kelp canopy area (KCA), a proxy for kelp forest health, has important implications for small and large-scale processes pertaining to fisheries, near shore currents, and marine ecosystems. As part of the NASA Airborne Science Research Program (SARP), this study examines the impact of ocean chemistry and climatological variables on KCA in the Santa Barbara Channel through time series analysis. El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO), North Pacific Gyre Oscillation (NPGO), North Pacific Oscillation (NPO), and upwelling indices as well as sea surface temperature (SST), salinity, nitrate, and chlorophyll-a concentrations taken within the Santa Barbara channel (1990-2014) were acquired from the Climate Prediction Center (CPC), California Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries Investigation (CalCOFI), and Di Lorenzo's NPGO websites. These data were then averaged for winter (November-January) and summer (May-August) seasons and compared to KCA measurements derived from Landsat images via unsupervised classification. Regression, cumulative sum tests, and cross-correlation coefficients revealed a two year lag between KCA and the NPGO, indicating the presence of an additional factor driving both variables. Further analyses suggests that the NPO may be this driving factor, as indicated by the correlation (lag 0) with KCA. Comparing relationships between kelp and other variables over various time periods supports the acceleration of the NPGO and other variables in more recent years. Exploring relationships between KCA, NPGO, and NPO may provide insight into potential impacts of climate change on coastal marine ecosystems.

  9. Geochemical characterization of tarballs on beaches along the California coast. Part I - Shallow seepage impacting the Santa Barbara Channel Islands, Santa Cruz, Santa Rosa and San Miguel

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hostettler, F.D.; Rosenbauer, R.J.; Lorenson, T.D.; Dougherty, J.

    2004-01-01

    Tarballs are common along the southern California coastline. This study investigates tarballs from beaches along this coastline, with a focus on Santa Cruz, Santa Rosa, and San Miquel Islands in the Santa Barbara Channel. The tarballs were fingerprinted using biomarker and stable carbon isotope parameters, and then grouped according to genetic similarities. The data show that the tarballs are of natural and not anthropogenic origin and that all originate from source rock within the Miocene Monterey Formation via shallow seeps offshore. Sterane biomarker parameters were found to vary widely in the sample set. Biodegradation, especially of the regular steranes, is the primary process impacting the biomarker distributions in a large group of samples. The most common tarball occurrences appear to come from offshore seepage near the west end of Santa Cruz Island. Another major group most likely was transported north from near Santa Monica Bay. Several individual occurrences of some of these tarball groups also were found on beaches as far north as Pt. Reyes and as far south as San Diego, indicating significant long-distance dispersal by ocean currents. This study begins a library of tarball fingerprints to be used as a database to help distinguish between natural and anthropogenic tar occurrences all along the California coast, and to compare shallow seepage with future samples of deeper production oils from the same area.

  10. A conceptual model for river water and sediment dispersal in the Santa Barbara Channel, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Warrick, J.A.; Mertes, L.A.K.; Washburn, L.; Siegel, D.A.

    2004-01-01

    The ephemeral Santa Clara River delivers large amounts of freshwater and sediment to the eastern Santa Barbara Channel during brief, episodic discharge events. This discharge into the channel was characterized here with shipboard measurements during floods of 1997 and 1998. Within approximately 1-km of the river mouth, the river discharge quickly stratifies into a freshened, turbid surface plume and a bottom nephloid layer. Observations immediately off the Santa Clara River mouth on a peak day of river discharge revealed that sediment rapidly settled from the freshened surface waters, as suspended sediment in the freshened surface plume contained only ???6% of the sediment mass expected if the sediment mixed conservatively. On the two subsequent days the reduction of sediment mass in the surface plume continued at ???50% per day. These observations suggest that river sediment undergoes rapid initial settling within ???1-km of the river mouth, followed by somewhat slower rates of settling. Although we did not measure sedimentation or bottom boundary layer processes, our mass balance results suggest that almost all of the river sediment either escapes along or deposits upon the inner shelf seabed.

  11. Santa Barbara and California's Central Coast Region: Images and Encounters. A Pathways in Geography Resource Publication No. 15.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betts, Jeanette Gardner, Ed.; Hardwick, Susan W., Ed.; Hobbs, Gail L., Ed.

    This annual meeting site guide is the fourth to be published by the National Council for Geographic Education as part of the "Pathways in Geography" series. The chapters illustrate some of the interactions between people and place that have helped shape the Santa Barbara (California) region over the centuries. The book includes an introduction by…

  12. A preliminary study of the Santa Barbara, California, earthquake of August 13, 1978, and its major aftershocks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, William Hung Kan; Johnson, C.E.; Henyey, T.L.; Yerkes, R.L.

    1978-01-01

    The ML5.1 Santa Barbara earthquake of August 13, 1978 occurred at lat 34 ? 22.2'N., long 119 ? 43.0' 4 km south of Santa Barbara, Calif. at a depth of 12.5 km in the northeast Santa Barbara Channel, part of the western Transverse Ranges geomorphic-structural province. This part of the province is characterized by seismically active, east-trending reverse faults and rates of coastal uplift that have averaged up to about 10 m/1000 years over the last 45,000 years. No surface rupture was detected onshore. Subsurface rupture propagated northwest from the main shock toward Goleta, 15 km west of Santa Barbara, where a maximum acceleration of 0.44 g was measured at ground level and extensive minor damage occurred; only minor injuries were reported. A fairly well-constrained fault-plane solution of the main shock and distribution of the aftershocks indicate that left-reverse-oblique slip occurred on west-northwest-trending, north-dipping reverse faults; inadequate dip control precludes good correlation with any one of several mapped faults. Had the earthquake been larger and rupture propagated to the southeast or a greater distance to the northwest, it could have posed a hazard to oilfield operations. The fault-plane solution and aftershock pattern closely fit the model of regional deformation and the solution closely resembles those of five previously mapped events located within a 15-km radius.

  13. Soils and vegetation of Santa Barbara Island, Channel Islands National Park, California, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halvorson, William L.; Fenn, Dennis B.; Allardice, William R.

    1988-01-01

    The multifaceted development of an erosion surface on Santa Barbara Island, Channel Islands National Park, California, has led to this study of the relationship between soils and vegetation. A dry Mediterranean climate and past attempts at farming and introductions of alien species have led to vegetative degradation accompanied by both gully and surface erosion. Soil and vegetation analyses show this erosion to be in a location of transition. The soils are Typic Chromoxererts (Vertisol Order) with high clay, salinity, and sodium contents. The vegetation is ecotonal in nature, grading from a principally alien annual grassland with Avena fatua and Atriplex semibaccata to a shrub community dominated by the native Suaeda californica. Management toward revegetation and stabilization of this island ecosystem will be difficult with high clay, saline-sodic soils and disturbed vegetation.

  14. Bathymetry and acoustic backscatter-outer mainland shelf, eastern Santa Barbara Channel, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dartnell, Peter; Finlayson, David P.; Ritchie, Andrew C.; Cochrane, Guy R.; Erdey, Mercedes D.

    2012-01-01

    In 2010 and 2011, scientists from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Pacific Coastal and Marine Science Center (PCMSC), acquired bathymetry and acoustic-backscatter data from the outer shelf region of the eastern Santa Barbara Channel, California. These surveys were conducted in cooperation with the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM). BOEM is interested in maps of hard-bottom substrates, particularly natural outcrops that support reef communities in areas near oil and gas extraction activity. The surveys were conducted using the USGS R/V Parke Snavely, outfitted with an interferometric sidescan sonar for swath mapping and real-time kinematic navigation equipment. This report provides the bathymetry and backscatter data acquired during these surveys in several formats, a summary of the mapping mission, maps of bathymetry and backscatter, and Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) metadata.

  15. Biotic response to late Quaternary rapid climate switches in Santa Barbara Basin: Ecological and evolutionary implications

    SciTech Connect

    Cannariato, K.G.; Kennett, J.P.; Behl, R.J.

    1999-01-01

    Benthic foraminiferal assemblages from Santa Barbara Basin exhibit major faunal and ecological switches associated with late Quaternary millennial- to decadal-scale global climate oscillations. Repeated turnovers of entire faunas occurred rapidly (<40--400 yr) without extinction or speciation in conjunction with Dansgaard-Oeschger shifts in thermohaline circulation, ventilation, and climate, confirming evolutionary model predictions of Roy et al. Consistent faunal successions of dysoxic taxa during successive interstadials reflect the extreme sensitivity and adaptation of the benthic ecosystem to the rapid environmental changes that marked the late Quaternary and possibly other transitional intervals in the history of the Earth`s ocean-atmosphere-cryosphere system. These data support the hypothesis that broad segments of the biosphere are well adapted to rapid climate change.

  16. Hyperpycnal plume-derived fans in the Santa Barbara Channel, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warrick, Jonathan A.; Simms, Alexander R.; Ritchie, Andy; Steel, Elisabeth; Dartnell, Pete; Conrad, James E.; Finlayson, David P.

    2013-05-01

    gravity currents rapidly transport sediment across shore from rivers to the continental shelf and deep sea. Although these geophysical processes are important sediment dispersal mechanisms, few distinct geomorphic features on the continental shelf can be attributed to hyperpycnal flows. Here we provide evidence of large depositional features derived from hyperpycnal plumes on the continental shelf of the northern Santa Barbara Channel, California, from the combination of new sonar, lidar, and seismic reflection data. These data reveal lobate fans directly offshore of the mouths of several watersheds known to produce hyperpycnal concentrations of suspended sediment. The fans occur on an upwardly concave section of the shelf where slopes decrease from 0.04 to 0.01, and the location of these fans is consistent with wave- and auto-suspending sediment gravity current theories. Thus, we provide the first documentation that the morphology of sediment deposits on the continental shelf can be dictated by river-generated hyperpycnal flows.

  17. Probabilistic seismic hazard analysis for offshore structures in the Santa Barbara Channel phase 2 report

    SciTech Connect

    Foxall, W; Savy, J

    1999-08-06

    This report summarizes progress through Phase 2 of the probabilistic seismic hazards analysis (PSHA) for the Santa Barbara Channel being carried out by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) for the Minerals Management Service (MMS) of the US Department of the Interior. The purpose of the PSHA is to provide a basis for development by MMS of regulations governing evaluation of applications to re-license existing oil platforms in federal waters within the Channel with respect to seismic loading. The final product of the analysis will be hazard maps of ground motion parameters at specified probability levels of exceedence. This report summarizes the characterization of local earthquake sources within the Channel and onshore areas of the Western Transverse Ranges, development of a ground motion attenuation model for the region, and presents preliminary hazard results at three selected sites.

  18. Hyperpycnal plume-derived fans in the Santa Barbara Channel, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Warrick, Jonathan A.; Simms, Alexander R.; Ritchie, Andy; Steel, Elisabeth; Dartnell, Pete; Conrad, James E.; Finlayson, David P.

    2013-01-01

    Hyperpycnal gravity currents rapidly transport sediment across shore from rivers to the continental shelf and deep sea. Although these geophysical processes are important sediment dispersal mechanisms, few distinct geomorphic features on the continental shelf can be attributed to hyperpycnal flows. Here we provide evidence of large depositional features derived from hyperpycnal plumes on the continental shelf of the northern Santa Barbara Channel, California, from the combination of new sonar, lidar, and seismic reflection data. These data reveal lobate fans directly offshore of the mouths of several watersheds known to produce hyperpycnal concentrations of suspended sediment. The fans occur on an upwardly concave section of the shelf where slopes decrease from 0.04 to 0.01, and the location of these fans is consistent with wave- and auto-suspending sediment gravity current theories. Thus, we provide the first documentation that the morphology of sediment deposits on the continental shelf can be dictated by river-generated hyperpycnal flows.

  19. Large-Scale Multi-Objective Optimization for the Management of Seawater Intrusion, Santa Barbara, CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanko, Z. P.; Nishikawa, T.; Paulinski, S. R.

    2015-12-01

    The City of Santa Barbara, located in coastal southern California, is concerned that excessive groundwater pumping will lead to chloride (Cl) contamination of its groundwater system from seawater intrusion (SWI). In addition, the city wishes to estimate the effect of continued pumping on the groundwater basin under a variety of initial and climatic conditions. A SEAWAT-based groundwater-flow and solute-transport model of the Santa Barbara groundwater basin was optimized to produce optimal pumping schedules assuming 5 different scenarios. Borg, a multi-objective genetic algorithm, was coupled with the SEAWAT model to identify optimal management strategies. The optimization problems were formulated as multi-objective so that the tradeoffs between maximizing pumping, minimizing SWI, and minimizing drawdowns can be examined by the city. Decisions can then be made on a pumping schedule in light of current preferences and climatic conditions. Borg was used to produce Pareto optimal results for all 5 scenarios, which vary in their initial conditions (high water levels, low water levels, or current basin state), simulated climate (normal or drought conditions), and problem formulation (objective equations and decision-variable aggregation). Results show mostly well-defined Pareto surfaces with a few singularities. Furthermore, the results identify the precise pumping schedule per well that was suitable given the desired restriction on drawdown and Cl concentrations. A system of decision-making is then possible based on various observations of the basin's hydrologic states and climatic trends without having to run any further optimizations. In addition, an assessment of selected Pareto-optimal solutions was analyzed with sensitivity information using the simulation model alone. A wide range of possible groundwater pumping scenarios is available and depends heavily on the future climate scenarios and the Pareto-optimal solution selected while managing the pumping wells.

  20. Dad's in the Garage: Santa Barbara Physicists in the Long 1970s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mody, Cyrus

    2013-03-01

    American physicists faced many challenges in the 1970s: declining research budgets; public skepticism of scientific authority; declining student enrollments; and pressure to shift to topics such as biomedicine, environmental remediation, alternative energy, public housing and transport, and disability technologies. This paper examines the responses to these challenges of a small group of Santa Barbara physicists. While this group is not representative of the American physics profession, the success and failure of their responses to changed conditions tells us something about how American physicists got through the 1970s, and about the origins of some features of American physics today. The three physicists examined here are Philip Wyatt, David Phillips, and Virgil Elings. In the late `60s, Wyatt left a defense think tank to found an instrumentation firm. The Santa Barbara oil spill and other factors pushed that firm toward civilian markets in biomedicine and pollution measurement. Phillips joined Wyatt's firm from UCSB, while also founding his own company, largely to sell electronic devices for parapsychology. Phillips was also the junior partner in a master's of scientific instrumentation degree curriculum founded by Elings in order to save UCSB Physics' graduate program. Through the MSI program, Elings moved into biomedical research and became a serial entrepreneur. By the 1990s, Wyatt, Phillips, and Elings' turn toward academic entrepreneurship, dual military-civilian markets for physics start-ups, and interdisciplinary collaborations between physicists and life scientists were no longer unusual. Together, their journey through the `70s shows how varied the physics' profession's response to crisis was, and how much it pivoted on new interactions between university and industry.

  1. Coastal groundwater dynamics off Santa Barbara, California: combining geochemical tracers, electromagnetic seepmeters, and electrical resistivity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swarzenski, Peter W.; Izbicki, John A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents repeat field measurements of 222Rn and 223,224,226,228Ra, electromagnetic seepage meter-derived advective fluxes, and multi-electrode, stationary and continuous marine resistivity surveys collected between November 2005 and April 2007 to study coastal groundwater dynamics within a marine beach in Santa Barbara, California. The study provides insight into magnitude and dynamics of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) and associated nutrient loadings into near-shore coastal waters, where the predominant SGD drivers can be both spatially and temporally separated. Rn-222 and 223,224,226,228Ra were utilized to quantify the total and saline contribution, respectively, of SGD. The two short-lived 224,223Ra isotopes provided an estimate of apparent near-shore water mass age, as well as an estimate of the Ra-derived eddy diffusion coefficient, Kh (224Ra = 2.86 ?? 0.7 m2 s-1; 223Ra = 1.32 ?? 0.5 m2 s-1). Because 222Rn (t1/2 = 3.8 day) and 224Ra (t1/2 = 3.66 day) have comparable half-lives and production terms, they were used in concert to examine respective water column removal rates. Electromagnetic seepage meters recorded the physical, bi-directional exchange across the sediment/water interface, which ranged from -6.7 to 14.5 cm day-1, depending on the sampling period and position relative to the low tide line. Multi-day time-series 222Rn measurements in the near-shore water column yielded total (saline + fresh) SGD rates that ranged from 3.1 ?? 2.6 to 9.2 ?? 0.8 cm day-1, depending on the sampling season. Offshore 226Ra (t1/2 = 1600 year) and 222Rn gradients were used with the calculated Kh values to determine seabed flux estimates (dpm m-2 day-1), which were then converted into SGD rates (7.1 and 7.9 cm day-1, respectively). Lastly, SGD rates were used to calculate associated nutrient loads for the near-shore coastal waters off Santa Barbara. Depending on both the season and the SGD method utilized, the following SGD-derived nutrient inputs were

  2. Contrasting spatial patterns in the diurnal and semidiurnal temperature variability in the Santa Barbara Channel, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aristizábal, María. F.; Fewings, Melanie R.; Washburn, Libe

    2016-01-01

    The Santa Barbara Channel, California, experiences large temperature fluctuations during summer that have been associated with the input of nutrients to the euphotic zone. We studied the temperature fluctuations in the diurnal and semidiurnal bands, which account for as much as 65% of the total variance. We analyzed data from 25 moorings along the mainland and the Northern Channel Islands deployed at depths 8-18 m during 1999-2012. In the diurnal band, the temperature fluctuations vary almost simultaneously within two distinct regions, with a lag of 5 h between the regions: the mainland east of Point Conception and the west part of the Channel exposed to the large-scale winds. The two regions of in-phase temperature variability are in agreement with a previously published division of zones according to the wind characteristics. The portion of the diurnal temperature variance that is wind driven does not propagate along the coastline, but rather is directly forced by the wind. The semidiurnal temperature oscillations are more substantial in the Northern Channel Islands. These findings are consistent with a numerical study that predicted that the steep slopes of the Santa Cruz Basin, located south of the Channel Islands, are a source of semidiurnal internal tides. We conclude that the contrast between the spatial patterns of the diurnal and semidiurnal temperature oscillations on scales of tens of kilometers reflects the spatial distribution of the main forcing in each band, namely the diurnal wind and the locally generated semidiurnal internal tide. The spatial patterns of the diurnal and semidiurnal oscillations reflect the forcing in each band.

  3. Circulation, Water Temperature, and Larval Settlement Over the Inner Continental Shelves of the Santa Barbara Channel, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fewings, M. R.; Washburn, L.; Ohlmann, C.; Blanchette, C.; Caselle, J.; Gotschalk, C.

    2008-12-01

    We use seven-year time series of wind stress, water velocity, and temperature in 15-18 m water depth to describe the circulation and water temperature over the inner continental shelves of the Channel Islands and California mainland in the Santa Barbara Basin. This area is strongly influenced by the California Current upwelling system. In turn, the water circulation in the Santa Barbara Basin influences the local marine ecosystem by affecting the water temperature and the supply of nutrients and larval fish and invertebrates. Larvae and nutrients traveling from the coast to the open ocean and back again must somehow pass through the inner shelf. The water circulation over the inner continental shelf of the Northern Channel Islands has not been described. Due to the shallowness of the water, an inner shelf has different physical dynamics than either the surfzone or the middle and outer continental shelf. We discuss the relative importance of upwelling- favorable along-shelf winds and of cross-shelf winds as forcing mechanisms for coastal upwelling circulations over the inner shelf; test whether the cross-shelf wind stress and surface gravity waves are important for cross-shelf circulation in the Santa Barbara Basin; and describe the subtidal patterns of water temperature, stratification, and velocity around the Channel Islands and their relation to observed larval settlement patterns. Cross-shelf circulation and the movement of water masses into and out of the Basin have implications for settlement and recruitment of many coastal species, including the economically important kelp rockfish, kelp bass, and sea urchin. Understanding the circulation of the Santa Barbara Basin and its inner shelves is a precursor to determining the source locations of the planktonic larvae. That information on source locations is essential for the design, siting, and assessment of existing and future marine protected areas in California and elsewhere.

  4. A simulation-optimization model for water-resources management, Santa Barbara, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nishikawa, Tracy

    1998-01-01

    In times of drought, the local water supplies of the city of Santa Barbara, California, are insufficient to satisfy water demand. In response, the city has built a seawater desalination plant and gained access to imported water in 1997. Of primary concern to the city is delivering water from the various sources at a minimum cost while satisfying water demand and controlling seawater intrusion that might result from the overpumping of ground water. A simulation-optimization model has been developed for the optimal management of Santa Barbara?s water resources. The objective is to minimize the cost of water supply while satisfying various physical and institutional constraints such as meeting water demand, maintaining minimum hydraulic heads at selected sites, and not exceeding water-delivery or pumping capacities. The model is formulated as a linear programming problem with monthly management periods and a total planning horizon of 5 years. The decision variables are water deliveries from surface water (Gibraltar Reservoir, Cachuma Reservoir, Cachuma Reservoir cumulative annual carryover, Mission Tunnel, State Water Project, and desalinated seawater) and ground water (13 production wells). The state variables are hydraulic heads. Basic assumptions for all simulations are that (1) the cost of water varies with source but is fixed over time, and (2) only existing or planned city wells are considered; that is, the construction of new wells is not allowed. The drought of 1947?51 is Santa Barbara?s worst drought on record, and simulated surface-water supplies for this period were used as a basis for testing optimal management of current water resources under drought conditions. Assumptions that were made for this base case include a head constraint equal to sea level at the coastal nodes; Cachuma Reservoir carryover of 3,000 acre-feet per year, with a maximum carryover of 8,277 acre-feet; a maximum annual demand of 15,000 acre-feet; and average monthly capacities for the

  5. Terrestrial sources homogenize bacterial water quality during rainfall in two urbanized watersheds in Santa Barbara, CA.

    PubMed

    Sercu, Bram; Van De Werfhorst, Laurie C; Murray, Jill L S; Holden, Patricia A

    2011-10-01

    Microbiological contamination from runoff is a human health concern in urbanized coastal environments, but the contamination sources are often unknown. This study quantified fecal indicator bacteria and compared the distributions of human-specific genetic markers and bacterial community composition during dry and wet weather in urban creeks draining two neighboring watersheds in Santa Barbara, CA. In a prior study conducted during exclusively dry weather, the creeks were contaminated with human waste as indicated by elevated numbers of the human-specific Bacteroidales marker HF183 (Sercu et al. in Environ Sci Technol 43:293-298, 2009). During the storm, fecal indicator bacterial numbers and loads increased orders of magnitude above dry weather conditions. Moreover, bacterial community composition drastically changed during rainfall and differed from dry weather flow by (1) increased bacterial diversity, (2) reduced spatial heterogeneity within and between watersheds, and (3) clone library sequences more related to terrestrial than freshwater taxa. Finally, the spatial patterns of human-associated genetic markers (HF183 and Methanobrevibacter smithii nifH gene) changed during wet weather, and the contribution of surface soils to M. smithii nifH gene detection was suspected. The increased fecal indicator bacteria numbers during wet weather were likely associated with terrestrial sources, instead of human waste sources that dominated during dry weather flow. PMID:21617896

  6. Controls on temporal patterns in phytoplankton community structure in the Santa Barbara Channel, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Clarissa R.; Siegel, David A.; Brzezinski, Mark A.; Guillocheau, Nathalie

    2008-04-01

    Characterizing phytoplankton succession in the context of physical and chemical processes is important for understanding the mechanisms driving phytoplankton species composition and succession. An understanding of these processes ultimately influences the ability to predict the contribution of phytoplankton to carbon cycling, the initiation and persistence of harmful algal blooms, and the ability to use satellites for the remote sensing of specific phytoplankton taxa important for biogeochemistry. A statistical analysis of 5 years (1998-2003) of phytoplankton pigment concentrations from the Santa Barbara Channel using empirical orthogonal functions reveals four dominant modes of variability that explain 80% of the variance in the pigment data set. The annual cycle is characterized by a switching from a mixed-phytoplankton assemblage mode to modes dominated by either diatoms, dinoflagellates, or a combination of nano- and pico-phytoplankton. The dominant two modes correspond to a prebloom condition that precedes upwelling conditions, with all identified phytoplankton groups present in low abundance and a diatom-dominated upwelling state that develops following spring upwelling. In 2001, the EOF analysis indicated a transition toward more intense diatom blooms in spring and summer and fewer, large dinoflagellate blooms. This trend was corroborated by analyses of diagnostic pigments and CHEMTAX analysis and may be linked to an increase in local upwelling intensity between 2001 and 2003. Both spring diatom blooms occurring after 2001 were dominated by toxic Pseudo-nitzschia species and led to significant marine mammal deaths in the channel in 2003.

  7. Initial source and site characterization studies for the U.C. Santa Barbara campus

    SciTech Connect

    Archuleta, R.; Nicholson, C.; Steidl, J.; Gurrola, L.; Alex, C.; Cochran, E.; Ely, G.; Tyler, T.

    1997-12-01

    The University of California Campus-Laboratory Collaboration (CLC) project is an integrated 3 year effort involving Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and four UC campuses - Los Angeles (UCLA), Riverside (UCR), Santa Barbara (UCSB), and San Diego (UCSD) - plus additional collaborators at San Diego State University (SDSU), at Los Alamos National Laboratory and in industry. The primary purpose of the project is to estimate potential ground motions from large earthquakes and to predict site-specific ground motions for one critical structure on each campus. This project thus combines the disciplines of geology, seismology, geodesy, soil dynamics, and earthquake engineering into a fully integrated approach. Once completed, the CLC project will provide a template to evaluate other buildings at each of the four UC campuses, as well as provide a methodology for evaluating seismic hazards at other critical sites in California, including other UC locations at risk from large earthquakes. Another important objective of the CLC project is the education of students and other professional in the application of this integrated, multidisciplinary, state-of-the-art approach to the assessment of earthquake hazard. For each campus targeted by the CLC project, the seismic hazard study will consist of four phases: Phase I - Initial source and site characterization, Phase II - Drilling, logging, seismic monitoring, and laboratory dynamic soil testing, Phase III - Modeling of predicted site-specific earthquake ground motions, and Phase IV - Calculations of 3D building response. This report cover Phase I for the UCSB campus and incudes results up through March 1997.

  8. Remote sensing study of historical changes in natural oil slick volumes in the Santa Barbara Channel

    SciTech Connect

    Scepan, J.; Estes, J.; Hornafius, J.S.

    1996-12-31

    Large natural oil slicks are continually forming in the Santa Barbara Channel as a result of natural hydrocarbon seeps that occur above subsurface oil accumulations. Evaporation of volatile constituents in these oil slicks is a significant source of air pollution. In this study we employed a suite of remote sensing data along with a variety of image processing and geographic information system techniques to analyze the location, extent and changes in sea surface oil slicks during the period of 1975 - present. An extensive collection of airborne and spaceborne remote sensor data was accessed and examined for this study, including aerial photography, airborne spectral and microwave data, Landsat MSS and TM data and Shuttle Imaging Radar. Areas of oil slick accumulations were identified, delineated, georeferenced, measured and mapped to a common scale using both manual and digital techniques. A Gaussian mathematical model was employed to provide quantitative estimates of surface oil accumulations identified within each image over the entire twenty year period. This study indicates that variances in mapped oil slick location and extent as well as the estimated amounts of oil present within each image may be attributed to image type and quality as well as environmental conditions.

  9. Remote sensing study of historical changes in natural oil slick volumes in the Santa Barbara Channel

    SciTech Connect

    Scepan, J.; Estes, J.; Hornafius, J.S. )

    1996-01-01

    Large natural oil slicks are continually forming in the Santa Barbara Channel as a result of natural hydrocarbon seeps that occur above subsurface oil accumulations. Evaporation of volatile constituents in these oil slicks is a significant source of air pollution. In this study we employed a suite of remote sensing data along with a variety of image processing and geographic information system techniques to analyze the location, extent and changes in sea surface oil slicks during the period of 1975 - present. An extensive collection of airborne and spaceborne remote sensor data was accessed and examined for this study, including aerial photography, airborne spectral and microwave data, Landsat MSS and TM data and Shuttle Imaging Radar. Areas of oil slick accumulations were identified, delineated, georeferenced, measured and mapped to a common scale using both manual and digital techniques. A Gaussian mathematical model was employed to provide quantitative estimates of surface oil accumulations identified within each image over the entire twenty year period. This study indicates that variances in mapped oil slick location and extent as well as the estimated amounts of oil present within each image may be attributed to image type and quality as well as environmental conditions.

  10. Anomalously high uplift rates along the Ventura-Santa Barbara Coast, California-tectonic implications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wehmiller, J. F.; Sarna-Wojcicki, A.; Yerkes, R.F.; Lajoie, K.R.

    1979-01-01

    The NW-SE trending segments of the California coastline from Point Arena to Point Conception (500 km) and from Los Angeles to San Diego (200 km) generally parallel major right-lateral strike-slip fault systems. Minor vertical crustal movements associated with the dominant horizontal displacements along these fault systems are recorded in local sedimentary basins and slightly deformed marine terraces. Typical maximum uplift rates during Late Quaternary time are about 0.3 m/ka, based on U-series ages of corals and amino-acid age estimates of fossil mollusks from the lowest emergent terraces. In contrast, the E-W-trending segments of the California coastline between Point Conception and Los Angeles (200 km) parallel predominantly northward-dipping thrust and high-angle reverse faults of the western Transverse Ranges. Along this coast, marine terraces display significantly greater vertical deformation. Amino-acid age estimates of mollusks from elevated marine terraces along the Ventura-Santa Barbara coast imply anomalously high uplift rates of between 1 and 6 m/ka over the past 40 to 100 ka. The deduced rate of terrace uplift decreases from Ventura to Los Angeles, conforming with a similar trend observed by others in contemporary geodetic data. The more rapid rates of terrace uplift in the western Transverse Ranges reflect N-S crustal shortening that is probably a local accommodation of the dominant right-lateral shear strain along coastal California. ?? 1979.

  11. Seastacks buried beneath newly reported Lower Miocene sandstone, northern Santa Barbara County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Fritsche, A.E.; Hanna, F.M.

    1985-04-01

    Three large, isolated exposures of a light-gray, coarse-grained, thick-bedded sandstone unit occur in the northern San Rafael Mountains of Santa Barbara County, California. These rocks are moderately fossiliferous and contain Vertipecten bowersi, Amussiopecten vanvlecki, Aequipecten andersoni, Otrea howelli, shark teeth, whale bones, and regular echinoid spines. The fossils indicate that the sandstone unit, although previously reported as upper(.) Miocene, correlates best with the lower Miocene Vaqueros Formation. This unit was deposited in angular unconformity on a Cretaceous, greenish-gray turbidite sequence of interbedded sandstone and shale, and onlaps the unconformity erosion surface from west to east, the unit being thicker in the west and older at its base. The underlying Cretaceous sandstone beds are well indurated, and during the eastward transgression of the early Miocene sea, they resisted wave erosion and stood as seastacks offshore of the advancing coastline, thus creating a very irregular topographic surface upon which the Vaqueros Formation was deposited. Some seastacks were as much as 4 m tall, as indicated by inliers of Cretaceous rock surrounded by 4-m thick sections of the Vaqueros Formation.

  12. Abundance, Composition, and Sinking Rates of Fish Fecal Pellets in the Santa Barbara Channel

    PubMed Central

    Saba, Grace K.; Steinberg, Deborah K.

    2012-01-01

    Rapidly sinking fecal pellets are an important component of the vertical flux of particulate organic matter (POM) from the surface to the ocean's interior; however, few studies have examined the role fish play in this export. We determined abundance, size, prey composition, particulate organic carbon/nitrogen (POC/PON), and sinking rates of fecal pellets produced by a forage fish, likely the northern anchovy, in the Santa Barbara Channel. Pellet abundance ranged from 0.1–5.9 pellets m−3. POC and PON contents averaged 21.7 µg C pellet−1 and 2.7 µg N pellet−1. The sinking rate averaged 787 m d−1; thus pellets produced at the surface would reach the benthos (~500 m) in <1 day. Estimated downward flux of fish fecal POC reached a maximum of 251 mg C m−2 d−1. This is equal to or exceeds previous measurements of sediment trap POM flux, and thus may transport significant amounts of repackaged surface material to depth. PMID:23056908

  13. Flood-Derived Sand Lobes on the Shelf of the Northern Santa Barbara Channel, Southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steel, E.; Simms, A.; Warrick, J. A.; Yokoyama, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Gravity flows in the Santa Barbara Channel (SBC) of Southern California have the potential to damage pipelines leading to offshore petroleum platforms, yet their recurrence intervals and initiation mechanisms remain unknown. The recent discovery of seven fans on the continental shelf of the SBC poses an important question; namely, are the SBC fans deposited by sediment gravity flows capable of damaging shelf infrastructure? The fans lie directly offshore from small mountainous creeks that exceed the suspended sediment threshold of 40 g/L required for plunging at the fluvial-marine interface. Here, we present grain size trends, radiocarbon dates, and overall stratigraphic architecture of two fans in the SBC from eight cores and nine grab samples collected in October, 2013. The snub-nosed geometry of each lobe implies en masse freezing of deposits, but the incorporation of shell material and evidence of erosion in shallow seismic profiles indicate an initially turbulent flow regime. The location and geometry of these features suggests that the fans in the SBC are the result of hybrid hyperpycnal-debris flows, likely during floods associated with El Niño Southern Oscillation. A small shoreface slope break found immediately up-dip from these features suggests that seafloor geometry may play a key role in their deposition. The absence of a similar shoreface slope brake in areas without fans suggests a relationship between fan formation and shelf gradient.

  14. Methane oxidation in permeable sediments at hydrocarbon seeps in the Santa Barbara Channel, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treude, T.; Ziebis, W.

    2010-03-01

    A shallow-water area in the Santa Barbara Channel (California), known collectively as the Coal Oil Point seep field, is one the largest natural submarine oil and gas emission areas in the world. Both gas and oil are seeping constantly through a predominantly sandy seabed into the ocean. This study focused on the methanotrophic activity within the surface sediments (0-15 cm) of the permeable seabed in the so-called Brian Seep area at a water depth ~10 m. Detailed investigations of biogeochemical parameters in the sediment surrounding active gas vents indicated that methane seepage through the permeable seabed induces a convective transport of fluids within the surface sediment layer, which results in a deeper penetration of oxidants (oxygen, sulfate) into the sediment, as well as in a faster removal of potentially inhibiting reduced end products (e.g. hydrogen sulfide). Methanotrophic activity was often found close to the sediment-water interface, indicating the involvement of aerobic bacteria. However, biogeochemical data suggests that the majority of methane is consumed by anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) coupled to sulfate reduction below the surface layer (>15 cm), where sulfate is still available in high concentrations. This subsurface maximum of AOM activity in permeable sands is in contrast to known deep-sea seep habitats, where upward fluid advection through more fine-grained sediments leads to an accumulation of AOM activity within the top 10 cm of the sediments, because sulfate is rapidly depleted.

  15. Microbial Oxidation of Ethane within Seep Sediment at Coal Oil Point, Santa Barbara, CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendes, S. D.; Duncombe, R.; Scarlett, R. D.; Shaffer, J.; Lensch, S.; Valentine, D. L.

    2013-12-01

    The hydrocarbon seep field at Coal Oil Point (COP), off the coast of Santa Barbara, California, releases more than 10^10 g of thermogenic natural gas each year. Only a fraction of this methane, ethane, propane, and butane reaches the atmosphere, and is instead consumed by marine microbes in both the sediment and water column. Bacterial respiration of these gases has been observed in aerobic and anaerobic conditions, with the exception of ethane (aerobic only) (Kniemeyer et. al 2007). This work seeks to quantify the rate of ethane oxidation (both aerobic and anaerobic) in marine sediment. A series of experiments, to be conducted using COP seep sediment aboard the R/V Atlantis in October 2013, will test how varying oxygen conditions impact ethane oxidation rate. Oxidation rates will be quantified using sensitive 3H-ethane tracers. Preliminary data from Shane's Seep, located within the COP seep field, indicates that ethane oxidation is restricted to the top 6 cm of sediment. This suggests that oxygen is a limiting factor, but further work is needed to establish if ethane oxidation is restricted to exclusively aerobic environments.

  16. Geologic Controls on Channel Morphology and Low-Flow Habitat; Rattlesnake Creek, Santa Barbara, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bean, G.; Keller, E.

    2006-12-01

    Channel morphology and baseflow are limiting factors in sustaining low-flow habitat for the spawning and rearing of endangered southern steelhead trout in southern California. To aid the recovery of steelhead trout, it is imperative to determine how pools are formed and maintained in steep mountain streams, and what hydrogeologic factors control baseflow. Rattlesnake Creek, a steep (6 to 31%) boulder-bedrock channel in Santa Barbara, California, was investigated to determine if geologic and hydrogeologic properties, specifically rock strength and fracture density, control channel morphology and low-flow habitat. Analysis of rock strength, fracture density, and channel morphology using a single-factor analysis of variance, Kolmorgorov-Smirnov test and t-test suggest that rock strength and fracture density of the underlying lithology (bed and banks) does not significantly affect the channel morphology at the 0.05 level of significance. However, this study does show that boulder large roughness elements (LREs) armor the channel, controlling channel gradient and the location, abundance and type of pools. Step pools are the dominant pool type, found in reaches up to 18% where cascades might be expected, and steps are composed of resistant sandstone boulder LREs. Although fracture density does not influence the morphology of the channel, baseflow for low-flow habitat is predominantly supplied through fractures in the coldwater sandstone.

  17. Ground-water quality in the Santa Rita, Buellton, and Los Olivos hydrologic subareas of the Santa Ynez River basin, Santa Barbara County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hamlin, S.N.

    1985-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the upper Santa Ynez River Valley in Santa Barbara County has degraded due to both natural and anthropogenic causes. The semiarid climate and uneven distribution of rainfall has limited freshwater recharge and caused salt buildup in water supplies. Tertiary rocks supply mineralized water. Agricultural activities (irrigation return flow containing fertilizers and pesticides, cultivation, feedlot waste disposal) are a primary cause of water quality degradation. Urban development, which also causes water quality degradation (introduced contaminants, wastewater disposal, septic system discharge, and land fill disposal of waste), has imposed stricter requirements on water supply quality. A well network was designed to monitor changes in groundwater quality related to anthropogenic activities. Information from this network may aid in efficient management of the groundwater basins as public water supplies, centered around three basic goals. First is to increase freshwater recharge to the basins by conjunctive surface/groundwater use and surface-spreading techniques. Second is to optimize groundwater discharge by efficient timing and spacing of pumping. Third is to control and reduce sources of groundwater contamination by regulating wastewater quality and distribution and, preferably, by exporting wastewaters from the basin. (USGS)

  18. A 150 year record of inter-annual climate variability and organic carbon burial in Santa Monica and Santa Barbara Basins

    SciTech Connect

    Hagadorn, J.W.; Stott, L.D.; Sinha, A.; Rincon, M. . Dept. of Geological Sciences); Schimmelmann, A. . Scripps Inst. of Oceanography)

    1992-01-01

    Stable isotopic measurements were conducted on total organic carbon (TOC) and fossil planktonic foraminifera in laminated sediments collected from Santa Monica and Santa Barbara Basins, California Borderland, in order to investigate relationships between climatic variability and organic carbon burial. These data currently provide biannual sample resolution back to 1750 AD. During the past 150 years, there has been a positive covariance between the carbon isotopic composition of fossil planktonic foraminifera and of TOC. Periods of increased delta C-13 of TOC and foraminifera correspond to higher organic carbon burial in Santa Monica and Santa Barbara Basins. When combined, these patterns are interpreted as variation in productivity within the basins. Isotopic variability in TOC and planktonic foraminifera is significantly higher prior to 1900 AD. Although spring sea surface temperatures were also significantly more variable during this period, the authors do not recognize a systematic relationship between temperature and organic carbon burial. Spectral analysis of isotopic compositions of fossil foraminifera calcite, TOC, organic carbon burial and lamination frequency in the sediments reveal distinct spectral peaks at 5 and 7.7 years, corresponding to ENSO/El Nino frequencies. Additional spectral peaks occur at 19 and 20 years. Previous time series analyses of tree ring width records indicate similar decadal-scale frequencies and suggest a possible link to solar and/or lunar nodal tidal cycles. While these initial results suggest a relationship between climate-cyclicity, primary productivity and organic carbon burial, the phase relationship cannot be deciphered from this preliminary data set.

  19. Magnitude and composition of sinking particulate phosphorus fluxes in Santa Barbara Basin, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekula-Wood, Emily; Benitez-Nelson, Claudia R.; Bennett, Melissa A.; Thunell, Robert

    2012-06-01

    The composition and bioavailability of particulate P influence marine biological community production on both modern and geologic time-scales, and continental margins play a critical role in the supply, modification, and storage of particulate P. This study examined particulate P cycling in the Santa Barbara Basin (SBB) off the coast of southern California using a ˜520 m deep-moored sediment trap deployed from 1993-2006 and a sediment core collected in 2005 directly beneath the sediment trap at 590 m. Total particulate P (TPP), particulate inorganic P (PIP), and particulate organic P (POP) were quantified using a 5-step sequential extraction method (SEDEX) that chemically separates PIP into loosely bound, oxide-bound, authigenic, and detrital P phases. POP fluxes, while similar in magnitude to other coastal regions (22 ± 10 μmol m-2 d-1) were a small component of the TPP pool (15%). Seasonal trends revealed significant increases in POP fluxes during upwelling due to increased biological production in surface waters by organisms that increased mineral ballast. High particulate organic carbon (POC) to POP ratios (337 ± 18) further indicated rapid and efficient remineralization of POP relative to POC as particles sank through the oxic water column; however, further reduction of POP ceased in the deeper anoxic waters. Loosely bound, oxide-bound, and authigenic P, dominated the TPP pool, with PIP fluxes substantially higher than those measured in other coastal settings. Strong correlations between oxide-associated, authigenic, and detrital P fluxes with lithogenic material indicated a terrestrial source associated with riverine discharge. Furthermore, more than 30% of the loosely bound and oxide-bound P was remineralized prior to burial, with the magnitude of dissolution far exceeding that of POP. These results highlight the dynamic nature of the particulate P pool in coastal ecosystems and how changes in P source can alter the composition and lability of P that

  20. Development of an ultra-high temperature infrared scene projector at Santa Barbara Infrared Inc.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franks, Greg; Laveigne, Joe; Danielson, Tom; McHugh, Steve; Lannon, John; Goodwin, Scott

    2015-05-01

    The rapid development of very-large format infrared detector arrays has challenged the IR scene projector community to develop correspondingly larger-format infrared emitter arrays to support the testing needs of systems incorporating these detectors. As with most integrated circuits, fabrication yields for the read-in integrated circuit (RIIC) that drives the emitter pixel array are expected to drop dramatically with increasing size, making monolithic RIICs larger than the current 1024x1024 format impractical and unaffordable. Additionally, many scene projector users require much higher simulated temperatures than current technology can generate to fully evaluate the performance of their systems and associated processing algorithms. Under the Ultra High Temperature (UHT) development program, Santa Barbara Infrared Inc. (SBIR) is developing a new infrared scene projector architecture capable of producing both very large format (>1024x1024) resistive emitter arrays and improved emitter pixel technology capable of simulating very high apparent temperatures. During an earlier phase of the program, SBIR demonstrated materials with MWIR apparent temperatures in excess of 1000K. New emitter materials have subsequently been selected to produce pixels that achieve even higher apparent temperatures. Test results from pixels fabricated using the new material set will be presented and discussed. Also in development under the same UHT program is a 'scalable' RIIC that will be used to drive the high temperature pixels. This RIIC will utilize through-silicon vias (TSVs) and quilt packaging (QP) technologies to allow seamless tiling of multiple chips to fabricate very large arrays, and thus overcome the inherent yield limitations of very-large-scale integrated circuits. Current status of the RIIC development effort will also be presented.

  1. Alterations in guano phosphates and mio-pliocene carbonates of table mountain Santa Barbara, Curacao

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Have, Ton Ten; Heijnen, Wim; Nickel, Enno

    1982-02-01

    The Table Mountain Santa Barbara, consisting of the Mio-Pliocene Seroe Domi Limestone Formation, was probably covered with a guano layer in the Pleistocene (?). Solutions, carrying guano-derived phosphate, percolated downwards, resulting in partial phosphatization of the underlying limestones. Only two phosphate minerals are present in the Table Mountain: apatite, and whitlockite. Phosphatization includes both replacement of the original carbonate or (pre-phosphate) dolomite, and cementation in primary- as well as secondary porosity (cryptocrystalline, isotropic phosphate cement, (micro)crystalline apatite, isopachous apatite fringe cement, multiple-zoned apatite crusts, rhombic whitlockite cements). Two factors controlled the final distribution of the phosphate within the Table Mountain. Firstly, changing positions of the sea level (and, therefore, of the diagenetic environments) determined the overall distribution of the phosphatized interval, a horizontal layer (98-128 m above sea level) sandwiched between two non-phosphatized limestone units. Original carbonate facies and -mineralogy was the second controlling factor causing the final variations in degree of phosphatization. The limestones comprise two lithofacies: (a) coralliferous limestone lenses erratically distributed amidst; and (b) micritic limestones. These coralliferous limestones are phosphatized preferentially forming so-called "phosphate pockets", sharply outlined within a non-phosphatized micritic limestone "host". These pockets are characteristically organized into five zones which are described in detail. Higher original porosity/permeability of the coralliferous limestone lenses as compared to the micrites, additionally enhanced by a phase of pre-phosphate dolomitization, determined preferential phosphatization of this facies type. A second controlling factor was the original carbonate mineralogy and resulting dia-

  2. Morphology, acoustic characteristics, and Late Quaternary growth of conception Fan, Santa Barbara basin, California

    SciTech Connect

    Kraemer, S.M.C.

    1986-04-01

    A radial borderland-basin fan in the western half of the Santa Barbara basin, the Conception Fan, shows characteristics of a debris slope. More than 3000 mi of closely spaced (3.5 kHz) high-resolution profiles, 270 gravity cores, and 8 borings were used to map channel and fan morphology, and channel, levee, and lobe acoustic facies. Two major unconformities are recognized on the seismic profiles. The upper unconformity represents the 10-k.y.B.P. horizon. The lower unconformity is the erosional surface of the late Wisconsinan lowstand of sea level, 18-26 k.y.B.P. Eustasy and tectonism produced two pulses of deposition, each from a different point source, during the Flandrian transgression. Prior to the late Pleistocene, the Conception Fan was fed by one major canyon/channel system, above the western part of the fan. During the late Pleistocene, two small submarine canyons were cut into the slope 7 mi east. Four major channels, smaller than the western channel system, were incised into the fan surface, indicating the eustatic decrease in sediment input. The fault-controlled western canyon (Sacate) fed all but the eastern channel. Faulting and slumping on the slope cut the eastern canyon (Gaviota) and formed the eastern channel. Numerous slope gullies influenced eastern canyon and channel development. Holocene currents rounding Point Conception have winnowed fine sediments in the western channel region, resulting in hummocky topography and the scoured appearance of the channel. Hemipelagic deposition dominates the lower-middle and lower fan of the eastern part of the fan. The western part of the fan seems to be receiving slope-like deposits over the relict fan surface.

  3. Planktonic foraminiferal response to ocean acidification in the Santa Barbara Basin over the last century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osborne, E.; Bizimis, M.; Cai, W. J.; Wang, Y.; Iglesias-Rodriguez, D.; Benitez-Nelson, C. R.; Holm, J. A.; Thunell, R.

    2014-12-01

    Since the onset of the industrial revolution, atmospheric CO2 concentrations have increased by more than 40% (120 ppm) due to anthropogenic activities. While nearly half of these carbon emissions remain in the atmosphere, the ocean has absorbed approximately 30% of the excess CO2. The increase in the ocean aqueous CO2 inventory has resulted in a significant change in seawater chemistry, most notably the decline of mean seawater pH (0.1 units since 1750). Some marine calcifiers, such as planktonic foraminifera, have shown an adverse response to ocean acidification exhibited as a reduction in calcification efficiency. Estimates indicate that planktonic foraminifera are responsible for up to 55% of the total open marine calcium carbonate flux and also serve as low tropic food web members making them an important constituent for chemical and biological processes in the oceans. This study utilizes morphometric (area density) and geochemical (B/Ca) analyses of planktonic foraminifera to calibrate species-specific responses to changes in modern ocean carbonate chemistry. These proxy methods have been applied to down-core records with nearly annual to sub-annual resolution to reconstruct past changes that have occured since the onset of the Industrial Revolution. The sediments used for this study were collected in the Santa Barbara Basin within the California Current System (CSS), which has been identified as a region of rapidly increasing ocean acidification due to natural upwelling processes and increasing atmospheric CO2. This study will evaluate the effect of ocean acidification on several species of planktonic foraminifera to improve our understanding of the response of these organisms to modern changes in atmospheric CO2.

  4. Contaminant exposures at the 4H shell mounds in the Santa Barbara Channel.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Charles R; Salazar, Michael H; Salazar, Sandra M; Snyder, Barry J

    2006-12-01

    Remobilization, bioavailability, and potential toxicity of chemical contaminants were evaluated at the 4H shell mounds - the site of abandoned offshore oil and gas production platforms in the Santa Barbara Channel region of the Southern California Bight. Evaluations used a weight-of-evidence approach based on results from bulk phase chemical analyses and laboratory toxicity testing of shell mound cores, in situ field bioassays using caged mussels, and surficial sediment chemistry. Shell mound cores contained elevated concentrations of metals associated with drilling wastes (e.g., Ba, Cr, Pb, and Zn), as well as monocyclic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The highest concentrations along with pockets of free oil were associated with the middle "cuttings" stratum. Sediments composited from all core strata caused significant acute toxicity and bioaccumulation of Ba and PAHs in test organisms during laboratory exposures. In contrast, caged mussels placed at each of the shell mounds for a period of 57-58 days had greater than 90% survival, and there were no significant differences in survival of mussels placed at the shell mounds and corresponding reference sites. While all mussel samples exhibited increases in shell length, whole animal weight, and tissue lipid content, in some cases growth metrics for the shell mound mussels were significantly higher than those for the reference sites. Concentrations of metals, PAHs, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in tissues of the shell mound mussels were not significantly different from those at reference sites. The presence of labile aromatic hydrocarbons in shell mound cores and absence of significant contaminant accumulation of tissues of caged mussels indicated that chemical contaminants are not being remobilized from the 4H shell mounds. Surficial bottom sediments near the shell mounds contained elevated Ba concentrations that probably were associated with drilling wastes. However, concentrations did not

  5. Fluvial Tufa Evidence of Late Pleistocene Wet Intervals from Santa Barbara, Southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibarra, Y.; Corsetti, F. A.; Feakins, S. J.; Rhodes, E. J.; Kirby, M. E.

    2014-12-01

    Past pluvials in the western United States provide valuable context for understanding regional hydroclimate variability. Here we report evidence of conditions substantially wetter than today from fluvial tufa deposits located near Zaca Lake, Santa Barbara County, California that have been dated by radiocarbon (14C) and Infra-Red Stimulated Luminescence (IRSL). Two successions of tufa deposition occur within a small catchment that drains Miocene Monterey Formation bedrock: 1) a fluvial deposit (0-0.5 m thick, 200 m in extent) that formed along a narrow valley below a modern spring, and 2) a perched deposit about 10 m higher (2 m thick, 15 m in extent). IRSL and radiocarbon dating of the perched carbonates suggests at least two episodes of carbonate growth: one at 19.4 ± 2.4 (1σ) through 17.8 ± 2.8 (1σ) ka and another at 11.9 ± 1.5 (1σ) ka verified with a charcoal 14C age of 10.95 ± 0.12 (2σ) cal ka BP. The relationship between the perched and fluvial spring deposits is inferred to represent a drop in the water table of more than 10 m associated with a transition from a wet climate in the late glacial to a dry Holocene today. The wet period indicated by tufa growth between 19.4 and 17.8 ka is relatively consistent with other California climate records both north and south of Zaca Lake. However, tufa growth ca. 12 to 11 ka demonstrates wet conditions occurred as far south as Zaca Lake during the Younger Dryas event, in contrast to climate records farther south in Lake Elsinore indicating persistently dry conditions through this interval. A small shift north in the average position of the winter season storm track could explain wet winters at Zaca while at the same time generating dry winters at Lake Elsinore, 275 km southwest of Zaca. If true, these data indicate that rather small latitudinal shifts in the average winter season storm track can produce large changes in regional hydroclimate.

  6. Sources and Pathways of Bacterial Contamination in Urban Streams and Ocean Beaches, Santa Barbara, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, R. D.; Mendez, G. O.; La, J. X.; Izbicki, J. A.

    2005-12-01

    Streams and ocean beaches in Santa Barbara, California, occasionally have concentrations of fecal indicator bacteria that exceed public health standards for recreational water, forcing temporary beach closures. Possible sources of fecal bacteria contamination include transient human populations, animal populations, and leaking sewer lines. The purpose of this three-year study is to identify important sources of fecal bacteria affecting the urban streams and beaches and to identify important pathways of transport. Contamination may enter streams and beaches directly by surface runoff, but also may be transmitted short distances through shallow ground water. Our analysis of existing historical data shows that fecal indicator bacteria concentrations are higher in near-shore ocean water following extreme high tides. The possible role of near shore ground water in supplying contaminants to the sea will be investigated by sampling water from an array of shallow wells installed for this study between an older city sewer line and the ocean. The ground water flux to the ocean will be inferred from water levels in these wells, and further tested by radium isotope values in near shore ocean samples. Two additional well arrays will be installed to test for leakage from residential sewage hookups and measure associated exchanges between ground water, streams, and ocean. Preliminary data collected by this study show fecal indicator bacteria concentrations in urban reaches of Mission Creek and its tributaries, the principle drainage through the city, are higher during low flow periods than during periods of higher flow. Analysis of preliminary data also shows short-term temporal variations in bacterial concentrations during twenty-four hour periods. Human enterovirus has been detected in our sample from one urban-drain tributary to Mission Creek. In order to identify the origins of fecal indicator bacteria water samples from Mission Creek, its tributaries, urban drains, and

  7. Constraining the variability of optical properties in the Santa Barbara Channel, CA: A phytoplankton story

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barron, Rebecca Katherine

    The research presented in this dissertation evaluates the direct relationships of phytoplankton community composition and inherent optical properties (IOP); that is, the absorption and scattering of light in the ocean. Phytoplankton community composition affect IOPs in both direct and indirect ways, thus creating challenges for optical measurements of biological and biogeochemical properties in aquatic systems. Studies were performed in the Santa Barbara Channel (SBC), CA where an array of optical and biogeochemical measurements were made. Phytoplankton community structure was characterized by an empirical orthogonal functional analysis (EOF) using phytoplankton accessory pigments. The results showed that phytoplankton community significantly correlated to all IOPs, e.g. phytoplankton specific absorption, detrital absorption, CDOM absorption and particle backscattering coefficients. Furthermore, the EOF analysis was unique in splitting the microphytoplankton size class into separate diatom and dinoflagellate regimes allowing for assessment optical property differences within the same size class, a technique previously not systematically achievable. The phytoplankton functional group dinoflagellates were particularly influential to IOPs in surprising ways. Dinoflagellates showed higher backscattering efficiencies than would be predicted based on Mie theory, and significantly influenced CDOM absorption via direct association with dissolved mycosproine-like amino acid absorption (MAA) peaks in CDOM spectra. A new index was developed in this work to quantify MAA absorption peaks in CDOM spectra, and was named the MAA Index. Prior to this research dissolved MAA absorption in natural waters was never quantified, and CDOM data containing these peaks were often disregarded and discarded from analysis. CDOM dynamics in the SBC were assessed for a 15-year study period, and this work shows that significantly large MAA Index values, e.g. MAA Index > 1, were present in

  8. Authigenic molybdenum formation in marine sediments: A link to pore water sulfide in the Santa Barbara Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zheng, Yen; Anderson, Robert F.; VanGeen, A.; Kuwabara, J.

    2000-01-01

    Pore water and sediment Mo concentrations were measured in a suite of multicores collected at four sites along the northeastern flank of the Santa Barbara Basin to examine the connection between authigenic Mo formation and pore water sulfide concentration. Only at the deepest site (580 m), where pore water sulfide concentrations rise to >0.1 ??M right below the sediment water interface, was there active authigenic Mo formation. At shallower sites (550,430, and 340 m), where pore water sulfide concentrations were consistently <0.05 ??M, Mo precipitation was not occuring at the time of sampling. A sulfide concentration of ???0.1 ??M appears to be a threshold for the onset of Mo-Fe-S co-precipitation. A second threshold sulfide concentration of ???100 ??M is required for Mo precipitation without Fe, possibly as Mo-S or as particle-bound Mo. Mass budgets for Mo were constructed by combining pore water and sediment results for Mo with analyses of sediment trap material from Santa Barbara Basin as well as sediment accumulation rates derived from 210Pb. The calculations show that most of the authigenic Mo in the sediment at the deepest site is supplied by diffusion from overlying bottom waters. There is, however, a non-lithogenic particulate Mo associated with sinking particles that contributes ???15% to the total authigenic Mo accumulation. Analysis of sediment trap samples and supernant brine solutions indicates the presence of non-lithogenic particulate Mo, a large fraction of which is easily remobilized and, perhaps, associated with Mn-oxides. Our observations show that even with the very high flux of organic carbon reaching the sediment of Santa Barbara Basin, active formation of sedimentary authigenic Mo requires a bottom water oxygen concentration below 3 ??M. However, small but measurable rates of authigenic Mo accumulation were observed at sites where bottom water oxygen ranged between 5 and 23 ??M, indicating that the formation of authigenic Mo occured in the

  9. Petroleum Weathering Associated with Hydrocarbon Migration and Seepage, a Case Study From the Santa Barbara Channel, CA.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wardlaw, G. D.; Nelson, R. K.; Reddy, C. M.; Valentine, D. L.

    2005-12-01

    A 2003 report by the National Research Council estimates that 50 to 70 percent of oil that is released into the sea is from natural seeps (National Research Council, 2003), indicating that catastrophic oil spills or the runoff from roads and highways are not the major sources of oil in the marine environment. For example, approximately 37 tons of petroleum is emitted daily from seeps off the coast of Santa Barbara, California (Quigley et al. 1996). The Santa Barbara seeps are some of the most active in the world and have been releasing petroleum for thousands of years. Sheens of oil on the water surface and tar patches on the beaches are ubiquitous along the coastline of Santa Barbara and are continuing reminders of this natural process. Although the geochemistry of these seeps have been studied in the past, it has been hindered by the complexity of the petroleum hydrocarbons and the inability of traditional gas chromatography to separate, identify, and quantify each component of the oil. To expand on these previous efforts, we have begun to use comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GCxGC). This new technology provides at least an order of magnitude increase in the resolution and detection of petroleum hydrocarbons compared to traditional methods. Preliminary work using GCxGC has focused on examining the chemical composition of unrefined petroleum as it migrates up from depth through natural faults to the seafloor, from the seafloor to the sea surface, and from the sea surface to local beaches. Petroleum collected from a subsurface reservoir (Platform Holly Well 2342-15) is composed of a wide range of resolved petroleum hydrocarbons including n-alkanes, branched alkanes, cycloalkanes, linear alkane benzenes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, steranes, hopanes, cyclic isoprenoids, and very large branched biomarkers with 38 to 40 carbons. This product is significantly different than oil emerging from the seafloor at the Jackpot seep, which we believe is

  10. 33 CFR 334.730 - Waters of Santa Rosa Sound and Gulf of Mexico adjacent to Santa Rosa Island, Air Force Proving...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Gulf of Mexico adjacent to Santa Rosa Island, Air Force Proving Ground Command, Eglin Air Force Base... Sound and Gulf of Mexico adjacent to Santa Rosa Island, Air Force Proving Ground Command, Eglin Air Force Base, Fla. (a) The danger zones—(1) Prohibited area. Waters of Santa Rosa Sound and Gulf of...

  11. 33 CFR 334.730 - Waters of Santa Rosa Sound and Gulf of Mexico adjacent to Santa Rosa Island, Air Force Proving...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Gulf of Mexico adjacent to Santa Rosa Island, Air Force Proving Ground Command, Eglin Air Force Base... Sound and Gulf of Mexico adjacent to Santa Rosa Island, Air Force Proving Ground Command, Eglin Air Force Base, Fla. (a) The danger zones—(1) Prohibited area. Waters of Santa Rosa Sound and Gulf of...

  12. SYSTEMS APPROACH TO RECOVERY AND REUSE OF ORGANIC MATERIAL FLOWS IN SANTA BARBARA COUNTY TO EXTRACT MAXIMUM VALUE AND ELIMINATE WASTE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goal of the project is to calculate the net social, environmental, and economic benefits of a systems approach to organic waste and resource management in Santa Barbara County. To calculate these benefits, a comparative method was chosen of the proposed desi...

  13. The Santa Barbara Assets and Risks Assessment to Predict Recidivism among Male and Female Juveniles: An Investigation of Inter-Rater Reliability and Predictive Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jimerson, Shane R.; Sharkey, Jill D.; O'Brien, Kathryn M.; Furlong, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    This study aims to advance our understanding of the assessment of numerous factors associated with recidivism among females and males involved in the juvenile justice system. In particular, this study examined the reliability (i.e., inter-rater) and validity (i.e., construct, criterion, and predictive) of the Santa Barbara Assets and Risks…

  14. Development of Multiscale Biological Image Data Analysis: Review of 2006 International Workshop on Multiscale Biological Imaging, Data Mining and Informatics, Santa Barbara, USA (BII06)

    PubMed Central

    Auer, Manfred; Peng, Hanchuan; Singh, Ambuj

    2007-01-01

    The 2006 International Workshop on Multiscale Biological Imaging, Data Mining and Informatics was held at Santa Barbara, on Sept 7–8, 2006. Based on the presentations at the workshop, we selected and compiled this collection of research articles related to novel algorithms and enabling techniques for bio- and biomedical image analysis, mining, visualization, and biology applications. PMID:17634090

  15. Radiolarian indicators of El Nino and anti-El Nino events in Holocene sediments of Santa Barbara basin

    SciTech Connect

    Weinheimer, A.L.

    1986-04-01

    Radiolarian distributions and physical oceanographic data from the Santa Barbara basin indicate the following. Strong anti-El Nino periods can be characterized by (1) intermediate radiolarian density, (2) high percentage of transition-central radiolarian fauna, and (3) low percentage and number of warm-water radiolarian fauna. This distribution pattern is attributed to strong wind-driven upwelling and reduced northward transport by the California Countercurrent during anti-El Nino periods. Strong El Nino periods are typically (1) high in radiolarian density, and (2) low in percentage but high in number of warm-water fauna. This distribution is attributed to reduced wind-driven upwelling, enhanced northward countercurrent transport, and geostrophic doming of the cold-water masses in the shear zone between the California Current and California Countercurrent.

  16. Evaluation of Ocean Color Scanner (OCS) photographic and digital data: Santa Barbara Channel test site, 29 October 1975 overflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kraus, S. P.; Estes, J. E.; Kronenberg, M. R.; Hajic, E. J.

    1977-01-01

    A summary of Ocean Color Scanner data was examined to evaluate detection and discrimination capabilities of the system for marine resources, oil pollution and man-made sea surface targets of opportunity in the Santa Barbara Channel. Assessment of the utility of OCS for the determination of sediment transport patterns along the coastal zone was a secondary goal. Data products provided 1975 overflight were in digital and analog formats. In evaluating the OCS data, automated and manual procedures were employed. A total of four channels of data in digital format were analyzed, as well as three channels of color combined imagery, and four channels of black and white imagery. In addition, 1:120,000 scale color infrared imagery acquired simultaneously with the OCS data were provided for comparative analysis purposes.

  17. Post-Last Glacial Maximum (Latest Pleistocene to Holocene) geology of the Santa Barbara shelf, southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, S. Y.; Ritchie, A. C.; Conrad, J. E.; Dartnell, P.; Phillips, E.; Sliter, R. W.

    2011-12-01

    High-resolution bathymetric and seismic-reflection data collected for the California Seafloor Mapping Program (http://walrus.wr.usgs.gov/mapping/csmp/) provide new insights for understanding the post-Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) evolution of the Santa Barbara shelf, highlighting relationships between tectonics, eustasy, and sediment supply. The west-trending shelf extends offshore for 5 to 7 km and is bounded on the south by the deep Santa Barbara basin and on the north by a narrow coastal zone and the steep, rapidly uplifting Santa Ynez Mountains. The active, west-trending, north-dipping Ventura-Pitas Point-North Channel and Red Mountain fault systems form the structural boundary between two distinct shelf domains. The smooth, gently sloping, southern shelf is flooded by thick (35 to 40 m), prograding Santa Clara and Ventura River deltaic deposits. These thick strata drape the shelfbreak and fill the accommodation space created by rising sea level, largely masking the influence of active tectonics. In contrast, the northern shelf has complex bathymetry and a well-defined, sharp shelfbreak at ~90 m water depth. The northern shelf is relatively sediment starved (mean sediment thickness is 3 to 4 m), with thickest accumulations (up to ~18 m) forming shallow (< 30 m), discontinuous to laterally coalescing, inner-shelf bars that are best developed at the mouths of steep coastal watersheds. These watersheds also feed several distinct, coarse-grained sediment lobes (as large as ~1.5 km2, extending to 3 km offshore and depths of 70 m) that probably formed during massive flood events. The relative lack of offshore deposits on the northern shelf suggests sediment transport is dominated by easterly nearshore drift. Faulting and folding on the northern shelf are significant controls on sediment distribution and thickness, the occurrence of bedrock uplifts, and common hydrocarbon-associated seeps, pockmarks, and mounds. Bedrock, typically "soft" Neogene strata, is especially

  18. Sedimentary pyrite δ34S differs from porewater sulfide in Santa Barbara Basin: Proposed role of organic sulfur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raven, Morgan Reed; Sessions, Alex L.; Fischer, Woodward W.; Adkins, Jess F.

    2016-08-01

    Santa Barbara Basin sediments host a complex network of abiotic and metabolic chemical reactions that knit together the carbon, sulfur, and iron cycles. From a 2.1-m sediment core collected in the center of the basin, we present high-resolution profiles of the concentrations and isotopic compositions of all the major species in this system: sulfate, sulfide (∑H2S), elemental sulfur (S0), pyrite, extractable organic sulfur (OS), proto-kerogen S, total organic and dissolved inorganic carbon, and total and reducible iron. Below 10 cm depth, the core is characterized by low apparent sulfate reduction rates (<0.01 mM/yr) except near the sulfate-methane transition zone. Surprisingly, pyrite forming in shallow sediments is ∼30‰ more 34S-depleted than coexisting ∑H2S in porewater. S0 has the same strongly 34S-depleted composition as pyrite where it forms near the sediment-water interface, though not at depth. This pattern is not easily explained by conventional hypotheses in which sedimentary pyrite derives from abiotic reactions with porewater ∑H2S or from the products of S0 disproportionation. Instead, we propose that pyrite formation in this environment occurs within sulfate reducing microbial aggregates or biofilms, where it reflects the isotopic composition of the immediate products of bacterial sulfate reduction. Porewater ∑H2S in Santa Barbara Basin may be more 34S-enriched than pyrite due to equilibration with relatively 34S-enriched OS. The difference between OS and pyrite δ34S values would then reflect the balance between microbial sulfide formation and the abundance of exchangeable OS. Both OS and pyrite δ34S records thus have the potential to provide valuable information about biogeochemical cycles and redox structure in sedimentary paleoenvironments.

  19. 33 CFR 334.730 - Waters of Santa Rosa Sound and Gulf of Mexico adjacent to Santa Rosa Island, Armament Center...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... CFR part 329, including the waters of Santa Rosa Sound and Gulf of Mexico within a circle one nautical... defined at 33 CFR part 329, including the waters of Santa Rosa Sound and Gulf of Mexico, surrounding the... Gulf of Mexico adjacent to Santa Rosa Island, Armament Center, Eglin Air Force Base, Fla.......

  20. 33 CFR 334.730 - Waters of Santa Rosa Sound and Gulf of Mexico adjacent to Santa Rosa Island, Armament Center...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... CFR part 329, including the waters of Santa Rosa Sound and Gulf of Mexico within a circle one nautical... defined at 33 CFR part 329, including the waters of Santa Rosa Sound and Gulf of Mexico, surrounding the... Gulf of Mexico adjacent to Santa Rosa Island, Armament Center, Eglin Air Force Base, Fla.......

  1. 33 CFR 334.730 - Waters of Santa Rosa Sound and Gulf of Mexico adjacent to Santa Rosa Island, Armament Center...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... CFR part 329, including the waters of Santa Rosa Sound and Gulf of Mexico within a circle one nautical... defined at 33 CFR part 329, including the waters of Santa Rosa Sound and Gulf of Mexico, surrounding the... Gulf of Mexico adjacent to Santa Rosa Island, Armament Center, Eglin Air Force Base, Fla.......

  2. Facts relating to Well No. 5, Lease OCS-P 0234, Pitas Point Unit area, and the earthquake of August 13, 1978, Santa Barbara Channel, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wayland, Russell G.; Acuff, A. Dewey; McCulloh, Thane M.; Raleigh, C. Barry; Vedder, John G.; Yenne, Keith A.

    1978-01-01

    A build-up of pressures developed in an exploratory well being drilled in the Santa Barbara Channel during the period August 9 to 15, 1978. Nearly coincidentally, a sharp earthquake occurred 2 miles south of the city of Santa Barbara at 3:55 p.m. PDT on August 13, 1978. A task group was formed by the Director, Geological Survey, on August 14, mainly because of concern over the high down-hole pressures in the well. The charge to the task group was to study the situation fully in order that appropriate and immediate measures could be directed to protect against a fracturing of rock formations in the vicinity of the hole that might permit the escape of gas or oil to the surface. The task group was also asked to look into the possibility of any relationship between the well problems and the earthquake.

  3. Eustatic and structural control of submarine-fan sedimentation, Conception fan, Santa Barbara basin, California

    SciTech Connect

    Thor, D.R.

    1984-04-01

    Eustatic sea level lows provide an opportunity for submarine-fan development; topography and structure, however, can control depositional-sequence geometry. Analysis of high-resolution seismic data provides a basis to evaluate to the evolution and geometry of the Pleistocene-Holocene Conception fan. The fan formed in the restricted, tectonically active Santo Barbara basin. It consists of 4 vertically stacked depositional sequences, each bounded by nondepositional unconformities. The unconformities are defined by seismic-sequence boundaries and were formed during sea-level falls that are related to Pleistocene glacioeustatic changes. Each depositional sequence consists of lowstand, sandrich facies (fan channel, levee, and lobe) topped by highstand, mud-rich facies. The geometry of the depositional sequences tends to be rectilinear, not arcuate, because lateral progradation is restricted by topographically high structures. The modern fan surface and the Holocene depositional sequence provide a good analog for the older, underlying depositional sequences. The fan surface is characterized by 4 main channels, 2 of which head into submarine canyons incised into the shelf. Submarine canyons that fed the other 2 channels are now filled and have no topographic expression. In addition, numerous partially buried channel segments occur in the interchannel areas. The Holocene depositional sequence consists of lenticular and sheet-drape deposits interpreted to be channel, levee, and lobe facies. The facies geometry suggests that Mutti's topographic compensation, channel migration, and avulsion were typical processes on Conception fan.

  4. Landslides: Geomorphology and Sea Cliff Hazard Potential, Santa Barbara - Isla Vista, California J.F. Klath and E.A. Keller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klath, J. F.; Keller, E. A.

    2015-12-01

    Coastal areas are often characterized by high population densities in an ever changing, dynamic environment. The world's coasts are often dominated by steeply sloping sea cliffs, the morphology of which reflects rock type, wave erosion, and surface erosion, as well as human activities such changing vegetation, urban runoff, and construction of coastal defenses. The Santa Barbara and Goleta area, with over 17 km of sea cliffs and beaches, extends from Santa Barbara Point west to the hamlet of Isla Vista. A deeper understanding of the local geology and the physical processes generating slope failure and, thus, landward cliff retreat is important for general public safety, as well as future development and planning. Our research objective includes assessment of landslide hazard potential through investigation of previous landslides and how these events relate to various physical variables and characteristics within the surrounding bedrock. How does landslide frequency, volume, and type relate to varying local bedrock and structure? Two geologic formations dominate the sea cliffs of the Santa Barbara area: Monterey shale (upper, middle, and lower) and Monterey Sisquoc shale. Geology varies from hard cemented shale and diatomaceous, low specific gravity shale to compaction shale. Variations in landslide characteristics are linked closely to the geology of a specific site that affects how easily rock units are weathered and eroded by wave erosion, naturally occurring oil and water seeps, burnt shale events, and landslide type and frequency on steeply dipped bedding planes/daylighting beds. Naturally occurring features linked to human processes often weaken bedrock and, thus, increase the likelihood of landslides. We categorize landslide frequency, type, and triggers; location of beach access, drainage pipes, and water; and oil and tar seeps in order to develop suggestions to minimize landslide potential. Lastly, using previously published erosion cliff retreat rates and

  5. Historical oceanographic events reflected in13C/12C ratio of total organic carbon in laminated Santa Barbara Basin Sediment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schimmelmann, Arndt; Tegner, Mia J.

    1991-06-01

    An 1844-1987 time series of carbon stable isotope ratios from dated sedimentary total organic carbon (TOC) from the center of the Santa Barbara Basin (SBB) is compared with historical climate and oceanographic records. Four isotopically distinct biogeochemical sources of TOC are important: phytoplankton-derived marine biomass, macroalgal biomass from kelp forests, terrigenous biomass (mainly flushed into the SBB via river discharge), and redeposited fossil organic carbon. The significance of the latter two sources is largely limited to a few unusual flood and oil spill events, whereas the combination of 13C-depleted phytoplankton and 13C-enriched macroalgal biomass appears to be responsible for most of the isotopic variance of the marine coastal biomass as recorded in sedimentary TOC. The isotopic response of marine organic carbon in sediments records strong El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the frequently associated severe storm and wave events in SBB varved sediments. The plausible major isotopic mechanisms are (1) increased physical liberation of 13C-enriched kelp carbon from locally abundant giant kelp (Macrocystis spp.) forests during times of physical and environmental stress, and (2) decreased productivity of 13C-depleted phytoplankton during ENSO events.

  6. Detangling the Web of Sulfur Metabolisms in Santa Barbara Basin with High-Resolution δ34S and Genomic Profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raven, M. R.; Adkins, J. F.; Sessions, A. L.; Dawson, K.; Connon, S. A.; Orphan, V. J.

    2014-12-01

    Sulfur metabolisms are major drivers of organic matter remineralization and microbial growth in marine sediments. Sulfur-isotope systematics are particularly powerful for interrogating metabolic processes in these systems due to the large sulfur-isotope fractionations associated with bacterial sulfate reduction (BSR) and some other metabolic reactions. Recent analytical advancements have made it possible to measure δ34S values of very small samples (>50 nmol), including aqueous sulfate and sulfide as well as pyrite, elemental sulfur, and multiple fractions of sedimentary organic matter. We have generated comprehensive 2.5 cm-resolution depth profiles of these sulfur pools over a 2-m core from Santa Barbara Basin, a sub-oxic environment off the California coast. We find that the porewater sulfide δ34S values appear to be strongly influenced by anaerobic sulfide oxidation and sulfur disproportionation in addition to BSR. These sulfur-isotope signals can be tracked over the course of several thousand years of sediment diagenesis, moving from the oxic-anoxic transition at the sediment-water interface to the sulfate-methane transition zone in deeper sediments. Shifts in δ34S relationships among sulfur pools correlate with changes in microbial community composition as shown in TAG genomic data, which supports the existence of the metabolisms indicated by δ34S profiles. Our results suggest that the existence and activity of multiple microbial communities and coexisting sulfur metabolisms have the potential to be recorded in sedimentary δ34S records.

  7. Survey for least bell's vireo in riparian habitat on Vandenberg Air Force Base, Santa Barbara County, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breininger, David R.

    1988-01-01

    The least bell's vireo (Vireo bellii pusillus) was listed in 1986 as an endangered species by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Because of the possibility of the species existing on Vandenberg Air Force Base (VAFB), this survey was conducted to determine if they exist, and if so to prepare a distribution map of the species on the base. Major riparian areas were surveyed on foot for 17 days in April, May, and July 1987. No least bell's vireo were sighted; based on past studies, it is unlikely that there is a significant population on VAFB. There are, however, at least 13 other species of special concern that inhabit VAFB riparian woodlands. Most of these species have declined along the south coast of Santa Barbara County, and many have declined in much of the southern half of California. Riparian areas on VAFB are an important environmental resource for the southern half of California; many of these areas, however, show signs of degradation.

  8. Phytoplankton primary productivity in the Santa Barbara Channel: Effects of wind-driven upwelling and mesoscale eddies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brzezinski, Mark A.; Washburn, Libe

    2011-12-01

    The patterns and drivers of phytoplankton primary productivity in the Santa Barbara Channel (SBC) were examined on 16 cruises conducted 3 times each year from 2001 to 2006. Empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis revealed 3 modes of variability that explained 89% of the variance in the productivity data set. The first mode, strongest during spring, describes seasonal productivity changes driven by coastal upwelling. The second mode, largest in spring and fall, describes productivity changes over the western SBC associated with cyclonic eddies. Eddy-enhanced productivity changes were superimposed on variable levels of channel-wide productivity caused by upwelling within the SBC. The cyclonic eddies influenced productivity through enhanced nutrient supply associated with the uplift of isopycnal surfaces and through the occasional entrainment of phytoplankton and nutrients from water upwelled north of Point Conception. The third EOF mode describes productivity gradients on the continental shelf along the mainland coast with enhanced productivity in the east during spring and fall. Overall, our analysis shows that coastal upwelling combined with the effects of cyclonic circulation on particle retention and vertical nutrient supply combine to enhance phytoplankton biomass and productivity in the western SBC.

  9. Estimating suspended sediment concentrations in turbid coastal waters of the Santa Barbara Channel with SeaWiFS

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Warrick, J.A.; Mertes, L.A.K.; Siegel, D.A.; Mackenzie, C.

    2004-01-01

    A technique is presented for estimating suspended sediment concentrations of turbid coastal waters with remotely sensed multi-spectral data. The method improves upon many standard techniques, since it incorporates analyses of multiple wavelength bands (four for Sea-viewing Wide Field of view Sensor (SeaWiFS)) and a nonlinear calibration, which produce highly accurate results (expected errors are approximately ±10%). Further, potential errors produced by erroneous atmospheric calibration in excessively turbid waters and influences of dissolved organic materials, chlorophyll pigments and atmospheric aerosols are limited by a dark pixel subtraction and removal of the violet to blue wavelength bands. Results are presented for the Santa Barbara Channel, California where suspended sediment concentrations ranged from 0–200+ mg l−1 (±20 mg l−1) immediately after large river runoff events. The largest plumes were observed 10–30 km off the coast and occurred immediately following large El Niño winter floods.

  10. Holocene dinoflagellate cyst record of climate and marine primary productivity change in the Santa Barbara Basin, southern California.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pospelova, Vera; Mertens, Kenneth N.; Hendy, Ingrid, L.; Pedersen, Thomas F.

    2015-04-01

    High-resolution sedimentary records of dinoflagellate cysts and other marine palynomorphs from the Santa Barbara Basin (Ocean Drilling Program Hole 893A) demonstrate large variability of primary productivity during the Holocene, as the California Current System responded to climate change. Throughout the sequence, dinoflagellate cyst assemblages are characterized by the dominance of cysts produced by heterotrophic dinoflagellates, and particularly by Brigantedinium, accompanied by other upwelling-related taxa such as Echinidinium and cysts of Protoperidinium americanum. During the early Holocene (~12-7 ka), the species richness is relatively low (16 taxa) and genius Brigantedinium reaches the highest relative abundance, thus indicating nutrient-rich and highly productive waters. The middle Holocene (~7-3.5 ka) is characterized by relatively constant cyst concentrations, and dinoflagellate cyst assemblages are indicative of a slight decrease in sea-surface temperature. A noticeable increase and greater range of fluctuations in the cyst concentrations during the late Holocene (~3.5-1 ka) indicate enhanced marine primary productivity and increased climatic variability, most likely related to the intensification of El Niño-like conditions. Keywords: dinoflagellate cysts, Holocene, North Pacific, climate, primary productivity.

  11. Natural Offshore Oil Seepage and Related Tarball Accumulation on the California Coastline - Santa Barbara Channel and the Southern Santa Maria Basin: Source Identification and Inventory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lorenson, T.D.; Hostettler, Frances D.; Rosenbauer, Robert J.; Peters, Kenneth E.; Dougherty, Jennifer A.; Kvenvolden, Keith A.; Gutmacher, Christina E.; Wong, Florence L.; Normark, William R.

    2009-01-01

    Oil spillage from natural sources is very common in the waters of southern California. Active oil extraction and shipping is occurring concurrently within the region and it is of great interest to resource managers to be able to distinguish between natural seepage and anthropogenic oil spillage. The major goal of this study was to establish the geologic setting, sources, and ultimate dispersal of natural oil seeps in the offshore southern Santa Maria Basin and Santa Barbara Basins. Our surveys focused on likely areas of hydrocarbon seepage that are known to occur between Point Arguello and Ventura, California. Our approach was to 1) document the locations and geochemically fingerprint natural seep oils or tar; 2) geochemically fingerprint coastal tar residues and potential tar sources in this region, both onshore and offshore; 3) establish chemical correlations between offshore active seeps and coastal residues thus linking seep sources to oil residues; 4) measure the rate of natural seepage of individual seeps and attempt to assess regional natural oil and gas seepage rates; and 5) interpret the petroleum system history for the natural seeps. To document the location of sub-sea oil seeps, we first looked into previous studies within and near our survey area. We measured the concentration of methane gas in the water column in areas of reported seepage and found numerous gas plumes and measured high concentrations of methane in the water column. The result of this work showed that the seeps were widely distributed between Point Conception east to the vicinity of Coal Oil Point, and that they by in large occur within the 3-mile limit of California State waters. Subsequent cruises used sidescan and high resolution seismic to map the seafloor, from just south of Point Arguello, east to near Gaviota, California. The results of the methane survey guided the exploration of the area west of Point Conception east to Gaviota using a combination of seismic instruments. The

  12. Abrupt termination of Marine Isotope Stage 16 (Termination VII) at 631.5 ka in Santa Barbara Basin, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dean, Walter E.; Kennett, James P.; Behl, Richard J.; Nicholson, Craig; Sorlien, Christopher C.

    2015-10-01

    The Marine Isotope Stage 16-15 boundary (Termination VII) is the first deglacial warming step of the late Quaternary following the mid-Pleistocene transition (MPT), when 41 kyr climatic cycles shifted to strong 100 kyr cycles. The detailed structure of this important climatic event has remained unknown until now. Core MV0508-19JPC from Santa Barbara Basin, California, contains a decadal-scale climatic and geochemical sediment record of 4000 years duration that includes the early part of this deglacial episode. This record reveals that the climatic shift during the early deglacial occurred rapidly (<700 years), in a progression of three abrupt warming steps. The onset of Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 15 was remarkably abrupt with 4-5°C sea surface warming in ~50 years. The deglacial sequence contains the well-dated Lava Creek tephra (631.3 ± 4 ka) from Yellowstone Caldera used to date the onset of Termination VII at 631.5 ka. The late MIS 16 and early MIS 15 interval exhibits multiple decadal-scale negative excursions in δ13C of planktic foraminifera, likely the result of repeated discharges of methane from methane hydrates associated with both ocean warming and low sea level. A warm interstadial that interrupts late MIS 16 is marked by elevated concentrations of redox-sensitive elements indicating sulfidic, oxygen-deficient bottom and pore-waters, and elevated concentrations of total organic carbon and Cd, reflecting increased surface productivity. Unlike younger sediments on the California margin, these indicators of increased productivity and low dissolved oxygen do not consistently correspond with each other or with preserved laminations, possibly reflecting instability of a still evolving ocean-atmosphere system following the MPT.

  13. Organic matter cycling across the sulfate-methane transition zone of the Santa Barbara Basin, California Borderland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komada, Tomoko; Burdige, David J.; Li, Huan-Lei; Magen, Cédric; Chanton, Jeffrey P.; Cada, Abraham K.

    2016-03-01

    Consumption of sulfate (SO42-) in the sulfate-methane transition zone (SMTZ) has often been considered to be due solely to anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM). However, recent studies show SO42- fluxes into the SMTZ that exceed methane (CH4) fluxes, thereby challenging this conceptual model. Co-occurrence of organoclastic SO42- reduction (oSR) with AOM in the SMTZ has been hypothesized to be the cause for this flux imbalance, but conclusive evidence is lacking. To address this knowledge gap, we investigated organic matter cycling in the SMTZ of the organic-rich sediments of the Santa Barbara Basin, California Borderland, and examined the occurrence of oSR within this zone using bulk solute profiles and Δ14C and δ13C values of selected carbon pools. We also tested the hypothesis that the SMTZ acts as an oxidation front not just for CH4, but also for dissolved organic carbon (DOC) that is produced below the SMTZ and migrates upward. Mass balance calculations for the SMTZ based on reaction stoichiometry and Δ14C and δ13C values of associated carbon fluxes indicate that ∼35-45% of total SO42- reduction in the SMTZ occurs via oSR, with the remainder attributable to AOM. The δ13C value of net DOC production is distinct from that of the fraction of bulk POC undergoing degradation, suggesting that pore-water DOC represents a compositionally unique slice of the metabolizable POC pool. DOC diffusing upward at 450 cm is virtually free of 14C and contain low levels of short-chain organic acids. Radiocarbon mass balance shows that >30% of this pre-aged, and presumably refractory, DOC is removed from the pore waters within or immediately below the SMTZ. Although the SMTZ does not appear to be a major net DOC oxidation front, these results show that DOC dynamics provide unique insights into organic matter processing in these subsurface sediments.

  14. Time Slice Reconstruction of Bathymetry and Shoreline, Santa Barbara Channel Area, Southern California, Past 20 k.y.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frazier, J. M.; Behl, R.

    2002-12-01

    The Santa Barbara Channel area has been the focus of numerous marine geology, paleoceanography and tectonic studies. The coastal area also hosts important archeological resources. This study creates a series of incremental maps for every 2,000 years of the region to present a stepped view of how sea level, sedimentary and tectonic processes governed the position and shape of the coastline over the last 20,000 years. This data lends insight into the potential locations of ancient archeological sites along the coast, as well as geological processes operating in margin-proximal basins and shorelines. Bathymetric data compiled by the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute were integrated with digitized, published sedimentary and tectonic data in a GIS database. Faults with a significantly high slip rate were considered in the reconstruction, along with many sedimentation rates distributed across the basin, slopes and shelves. Over the last 20,000 years, sedimentation rates of 1.2-1.73 m/k.y. have been recorded within the basin center and 0-3 m/k.y. recorded on the slopes and shelf areas. The Oak Ridge and Pitas Point reverse faults experience a relatively high average slip rate of 6 m/k.y. and 3 m/k.y., respectively. This reconstruction indicates that the Montalvo Ridge area may have been more of a promontory than an island, as previously proposed considering only change in sea level. The geomorphic evolution of the basin is determined by the combined effect of sedimentation (supply and current distribution), tectonics and eustatic sea level. Additional sedimentation and uplift rate data along the slopes and shelves, specifically west of Ventura, within the submarine fan south of Point Conception, and along the shelves surrounding the Channel Islands, would assist in a more complete reconstruction of the study area.

  15. Ground-water monitoring at Santa Barbara, California; Phase 3, development of a three-dimensional digital ground-water flow model for storage unit I of the Santa Barbara ground-water basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martin, Peter; Berenbrock, Charles

    1986-01-01

    Water-bearing rocks within the 7 sq mi of Storage Unit I of the Santa Barbara Groundwater Basin, consist of unconsolidated deposits that range in thickness from < 300 ft along the north perimeter of the unit to > 1,000 ft near the Pacific Ocean. The groundwater system was simulated as two horizontal layers separated by a confining bed. The model boundaries coincide with mapped faults on all sides. The faults were considered no-flow boundaries except for the offshore fault that forms the south boundary. This boundary was simulated as a general-head boundary , which allows water to move into and out of the modeled area. The model was calibrated by simulating both steady-state conditions (approximated by July 1978 and February 1983 water levels) and transient-state conditions (represented by May 1978 through December 1979 water level changes). The calibrated model was then used to simulate the period from January 1980 through December 1983 in order to verify the model. Model results generally closely matched measured data throughout Storage Unit I. During the transient and verification simulations, 9,980 acre-ft of groundwater was pumped from Storage Unit I for municipal use. Results of the model indicate that 42% (4,190 acre-ft) of the water pumped from the system was withdrawn from storage, 33% (3,290 acre-ft) was derived from changes in underflow across the offshore fault, and 25% (2,500 acre-ft) was derived from decreased groundwater discharge to drains. The model simulated that municipal pumpage induced about 1,380 acre-ft of water to move across the offshore fault toward Storage Unit I. Several model simulations were used to estimate aquifer response to different municipal pumpage patterns that could be used as management alternatives. Results of the simulations indicate that spreading municipal pumpage more evenly throughout Storage Unit I, by increasing the number of wells while reducing the pumping rate at the individual wells to maintain the same total

  16. Modeling of depth to base of Last Glacial Maximum and seafloor sediment thickness for the California State Waters Map Series, eastern Santa Barbara Channel, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wong, Florence L.; Phillips, Eleyne L.; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Sliter, Ray W.

    2012-01-01

    Models of the depth to the base of Last Glacial Maximum and sediment thickness over the base of Last Glacial Maximum for the eastern Santa Barbara Channel are a key part of the maps of shallow subsurface geology and structure for offshore Refugio to Hueneme Canyon, California, in the California State Waters Map Series. A satisfactory interpolation of the two datasets that accounted for regional geologic structure was developed using geographic information systems modeling and graphics software tools. Regional sediment volumes were determined from the model. Source data files suitable for geographic information systems mapping applications are provided.

  17. Dansgaard-Oeschger Cycles and the California Current System: Planktonic foraminiferal response to rapid climate change in Santa Barbara Basin, Ocean Drilling Program Hole 893A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendy, Ingrid L.; Kennett, James P.

    2000-02-01

    High-resolution planktonic foraminiferal census data from Santa Barbara Basin (Ocean Drilling Program hole 893A) demonstrate major assemblage switches between 25 and 60 ka that were associated with Dansgaard-Oeschger cycles. Stadials dominated by Neogloboquadrina pachyderma (sinistral), and Globigerinoides glutinata suggest a strong subpolar California Current influence, while interstadials marked by abundant N. pachyderma (dextral) and G. bulloides indicate a relative increase in subtropical countercurrent influence. Modern analog technique and transfer function (F-20RSC) temperature reconstructions support δ18O evidence of large rapid (70 years or less) sea surface temperature shifts (3° to 5°C) between stadials and interstadials. Changes in the vertical temperature gradient and water column structure (thermocline depth) are recorded by planktonic faunal oscillations suggest bimodal stability in the organization of North Pacific surface ocean circulation. Santa Barbara Basin surface water demonstrates the rapid response of the California Current System to reorganization of North Pacific atmospheric circulation during rapid climate change. Supporting assemblage data are, available on diskette or via Anonymous FTP from Kosmos.agu.org, Directory APEND (username = anonymous, Password = guest). Diskette may be ordered from American Geophysical Union, 2000 Florida Avenue, N.W., Washington, DC 20009 or by phone at 800-966-2481; $5.00. Payment must accompany order.

  18. Tracking Identity: Opportunity, Success, and Affiliation with Science among Fifth-Grade Latina/o Youth of Santa Barbara, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maas, Grayson Ford

    This dissertation is an investigation into the American public education system at the elementary school level. It highlights important factors that shape the organizational structure of schools and classrooms, and in turn, how they engender disparities in the ways students experience education, namely, in the opportunities made available to them to achieve and succeed at a high level. This dissertation operates at the confluence of notions about class, gender, language, and race, especially as they revolve around public education and the hegemonic meritocratic discourse on which it is founded. This dissertation engages and contributes to scholarship within the following areas: The political economy of education; discourse and the dialectical relationship between agency and structure; cultural perspectives on identity, voice, and learning; and, Latinas/os in science education. The data that serve as the basis for the findings presented in this dissertation were collected throughout a three-phase yearlong ethnographic study of the two tracked fifth-grade classrooms at Amblen Elementary School, serving a socioeconomically disadvantaged Latina/o student population in Santa Barbara, California. In classrooms all across the nation, while it remains true that Latina/o students disproportionally take up space in the lower-tracked courses and not in the higher ones, this study does not examine inequality in tracking assignments made along ethnic/racial lines (as 100% of the students that participated in this research identify as Latina/o), rather, it investigates the consequences of what happens when Latina/o students are tracked according to symbolic markers of their ethnic/racial identity, that is, their varying levels of English language competency. Using data from participant observation, semi-structured interviews, students' drawings, as well as free-list and rank-order exercises, I was able to answer the following central research questions: In what ways do the

  19. WIMP Dark Matter Limit-Direct Detection Data and Sensitivity Plots from the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search II and the University of California at Santa Barbara

    DOE Data Explorer

    Expectations for non-baryonic dark matter are founded principally in Big Bang nucleosynthesis calculations, which indicate that the missing mass of the universe is not likely to be baryonic. The supersymmetric standard model (SUSY) offers a promising framework for expectations of particle species which could satisfy the observed properties of dark matter. WIMPs are the most likely SUSY candidate for a dark matter particle. The High Energy Physics Group at University of California, Santa Barbara, is part of the CDMSII Collaboration and have provided the Interactive Plotter for WIMP Dark Matter Limit-Direct Detection Data on their website. They invite other collaborations working on dark matter research to submit datasets and, as a result, have more than 150 data sets now available for use with the plotting tool. The published source of the data is provided with each data set.

  20. Prehistoric fires and the shaping of colonial transported landscapes in southern California: A paleoenvironmental study at Dune Pond, Santa Barbara County

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ejarque, Ana; Anderson, R. Scott; Simms, Alexander R.; Gentry, Beau J.

    2015-03-01

    Using a novel combination of paleoecologic proxies including pollen, non-pollen palynomorphs (NPPs), macroscopic charcoal, and Spheroidal Carbonaceous Particles (SCPs), 5000 years of landscape change, fire history and land-use have been reconstructed from Dune Pond, Santa Barbara County, California. The pond was sensitive to Holocene regional climatic variability, showing different phases of lower (4600-3700 cal yr BP, 2100-700 cal yr BP, historical period) and higher (3700-2100 cal yr BP, 700-150 cal yr BP) local moisture availability. During this period the landscape was dominated by a coastal mosaic vegetation including dune mats, coastal scrub and salt marshes on the dunes and backdunes, with chaparral and oak woodland growing in the valley plains and foothills. Fire was intimately linked with such dominating mosaic vegetation, and the combination of wet conditions and the presence of nearby human settlement were a trigger favoring coastal fires for at least two periods: from 3100 to 1500 cal yr BP and from 650 cal yr BP until the 18th century. In both cases fire was an important tool to keep an open coastal landscape attractive to hunting wildlife. Finally, matching this varied range of high-resolution paleoecological proxies with historical records we could characterize the development of colonial transported landscapes following the Euro-American settlement of Santa Barbara. The introduction of livestock grazing by Spanish colonists favored erosive processes and the introduction of fecal-borne parasites in freshwater bodies, negatively impacted salt and brackish coastal marshes, and promoted the invasion of alien grasses and ruderals. This agro-pastoral landscape was consolidated during the American period, with a greater role for cultivation, the development of industrial activities and increased population. Despite negative environmental consequences such as the loss of native habitats, exotic land-uses and plants introduced during the historical period

  1. Report on the Program “Fluid-mediated particle transport in geophysical flows” at the Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics, UC Santa Barbara, September 23 to December 12, 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, James T.; Meiburg, Eckart; Valance, Alexandre

    2015-09-15

    The Kavli Institute of Theoretical Physics (KITP) program held at UC Santa Barbara in the fall of 2013 addressed the dynamics of dispersed particulate flows in the environment. By focusing on the prototypes of aeolian transport and turbidity currents, it aimed to establish the current state of our understanding of such two-phase flows, to identify key open questions, and to develop collaborative research strategies for addressing these questions. Here, we provide a brief summary of the program outcome.

  2. Orbital- to Sub-Orbital-Scale Cyclicity in Seismic Reflections and Sediment Character in Early to Middle Pleistocene Mudstone, Santa Barbara Basin, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, C. D.; Behl, R. J.; Nicholson, C.; Lisiecki, L. E.; Sorlien, C. C.

    2009-12-01

    High-resolution seismic reflection records and well logs from the Santa Barbara Channel suggest that large parts of the Pleistocene succession records climate variability on orbital to sub-orbital scales with remarkable sensitivity, much like the well-studied sediments of the last glacial cycle (ODP Site 893). Spectral analysis of seismic reflection data and gamma ray logs from stratigraphically similar Pleistocene sections finds similar cyclic character and shifts through the section. This correlation suggests that acoustic impedance and physical properties of sediment are linked by basin-scale, likely climatically-driven, oscillations in lithologic composition and fabric during deposition, and that seismic profiling can provide a method for remote identification and correlation of orbital- and sub-orbital-scale sedimentary cyclicity. Where it crops out along the northern shelf of the central Santa Barbara Channel, the early to middle Pleistocene succession (~1.8-1.2 Ma) is a bathyal hemipelagic mudstone with remarkably rhythmic planar bedding, finely laminated fabric, and well-preserved foraminifera, none of which have been significantly altered, or obscured by post-depositional diagenesis or tectonic deformation. Unlike the coarser, turbiditic successions in the central Ventura and Los Angeles basins, this sequence has the potential to record Quaternary global climate change at high resolution. Seismic reflection data (towed chirp) collected on the R/V Melville 2008 Cruise (MV08) penetrate 10's of meters below seafloor into a ~1 km-long sequence of south-dipping seismic reflectors. Sampling parallel to the seafloor permits acquisition of consistent signal amplitude for similar reflectors without spreading loss. Based on established age ranges for this section, sedimentation rates may range from 0.4 to 1.4 meters/kyr, therefore suggesting that the most powerful cycles are orbital- to sub-orbital-scale. Discrete sets of cycles with high power show an abrupt shift

  3. Evaluation of ground-water flow and solute transport in the Lompoc area, Santa Barbara County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bright, Daniel J.; Nash, David B.; Martin, Peter

    1997-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the Lompoc area, especially in the Lompoc plain, is only marginally acceptable for most uses. Demand for ground water has increased for municipal use since the late 1950's and has continued to be high for irrigation on the Lompoc plain, the principal agricultural area in the Santa Ynez River basin. As use has increased, the quality of ground water has deteriorated in some areas of the Lompoc plain. The dissolved-solids concentration in the main zone of the upper aquifer beneath most of the central and western plains has increased from less than 1,000 milligrams per liter in the 1940's to greater than 2,000 milligrams per liter in the 1960's. Dissolved- solids concentration have remained relatively constant since the 1960's. A three-dimensional finite-difference model was used to simulate ground-water flow in the Lompoc area and a two-dimensional finite-element model was used to simulate solute transport to gain a better understanding of the ground-water system and to evaluate the effects of proposed management plans for the ground-water basin. The aquifer system was simulated in the flow model as four horizontal layers. In the area of the Lompoc plain, the layers represent the shallow, middle, and main zones of the upper aquifer, and the lower aquifer. For the Lompoc upland and Lompoc terrace, the four layers represent the lower aquifer. The solute transport model was used to simulate dissolved-solids transport in the main zone of the upper aquifer beneath the Lompoc plain. The flow and solute-transport models were calibrated to transient conditions for 1941-88. A steady-state simulation was made to provide initial conditions for the transient-state simulation by using long-term average (1941-88) recharge rates. Model- simulated hydraulic heads generally were within 5 feet of measured heads in the main zone for transient conditions. Model-simulated dissolved- solids concentrations for the main zone generally differed less than 200milligrams

  4. Sources of phytoplankton to the inner continental shelf in the Santa Barbara Channel inferred from cross-shelf gradients in biological, physical and chemical parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodman, Jo; Brzezinski, Mark A.; Halewood, Elisa R.; Carlson, Craig A.

    2012-10-01

    Phytoplankton are a major food resource for filter-feeding organisms occupying intertidal and subtidal habitats of the inner continental shelf. Phytoplankton in these nearshore waters experience different anthropogenic and natural forcing compared to those offshore such that cross-shelf exchange would allow phytoplankton that were produced offshore to serve as a subsidy to inner shelf consumers when phytoplankton production on the shelf is negatively impacted. In the Santa Barbara Channel (SBC) the continental shelf is only a few kilometers wide facilitating exchange with offshore waters. Physical, chemical and biological gradients were examined monthly along a 3-km cross-shelf transect in the SBC from January, 2008 through April, 2009. Chemical and biological distributions followed temporal changes in physical forcing with higher nutrient concentrations and a more intense period of biological production associated with spring upwelling. Chlorophyll was relatively evenly distributed across the shelf during upwelling, but was present at higher concentrations on the inner shelf under stratified conditions. Similarly, cross-shelf gradients in the distribution of dominant phytoplankton genera were weakest during upwelling when blooms of the prymnesiophyte, Phaeocystis, and the diatoms, Eucampia spp. and Thalassiosira spp. occurred across most of the shelf. Upon stratification, blooms were largely confined to the inner shelf within 0.75 km of the shoreline with an initial bloom of the diatom Leptocylindrus spp. followed by Pseudo-nitzschia spp. and series of dinoflagellate blooms with Prorocentrum spp. and Lingulodinium spp. attaining the highest abundances. Phytoplankton taxonomic similarity decreased with increasing distance separating stations along the transect and was inversely related to stratification intensity. The observed distribution patterns and the trends in taxonomic similarity imply that for most of the year consumers within rocky intertidal and subtidal

  5. A History of Warming Sea Surface Temperature and Ocean Acidification Recorded by Planktonic Foraminifera Geochemistry from the Santa Barbara Basin, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osborne, E.; Thunell, R.; Bizimis, M.; Buckley, W. P., Jr.; benitez-Nelson, C. R.; Chartier, C. J.

    2015-12-01

    The geochemistry of foraminiferal shells has been widely used to reconstruct past conditions of the ocean and climate. Since the onset of the Industrial Revolution, anthropogenically produced CO2 has resulted in an increase in global temperatures and a decline in the mean pH of the world's oceans. The California Current System is a particularly susceptible region to ocean acidification due to natural upwelling processes that also cause a reduction in seawater pH. The trace element concentration of magnesium and boron in planktonic foraminiferal shells are used here as proxies for temperature and carbonate ion concentration ([CO32-]), respectively. Newly developed calibrations relating Mg/Ca ratios to temperature (R2 0.91) and B/Ca ratios to [CO32-] (R2 0.84) for the surface-mixed layer species Globogerina bulloides were generated using material collected in the Santa Barbara Basin sediment trap time-series. Using these empirical relationships, temperature and [CO32-] are reconstructed using a 0.5 meter long multi-core collected within the basin. 210Pb activities were used to determine a sedimentation rate for the core to estimate ages for core samples (sedimentation rate: 0.341 cm/yr). A spike in 137Cs activity is used as a tie-point to the year 1965 coinciding with the peak of nuclear bomb testing. Our down-core record extends through the mid-19th century to create a history of rising sea surface temperatures and declining [CO32-] as a result of anthropogenic CO2 emissions.

  6. Radiocarbon Evidence for Active Turnover of Pore-Water Dissolved Organic Carbon in the Methanogenic and Sulfate-Methane-Transition Zones of Santa Barbara Basin Sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komada, T.; Li, H. L.; Cada, A. K.; Burdige, D.; Magen, C.; Chanton, J.; Grose, A. M.

    2014-12-01

    Diverse metabolic activities have been documented in the deep biosphere. However, how these activities affect carbon cycling in the subsurface, and how they in turn affect the marine and global cycles of carbon are still unclear. Here we present natural-abundance 14C and 13C data from the uppermost 4.5 m of the sediments of the Santa Barbara Basin, California Borderland, showing active turnover of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) within, and immediately below, the sulfate-methane transition zone (SMTZ; ~1.25 m). DOC concentrations increased with depth throughout the core, indicating net production within the sediment column. Enhanced DOC production was observed near the sediment-water interface, and also at ~30 cm below the SMTZ (~1.55 m). ∆14C values of DOC increased across the sediment-water interface, then decreased with depth, consistent with net production of modern DOC near the sediment-water interface, and input of 14C-depleted DOC from deeper horizons. An isotope mixing plot constructed with these data shows that the DOC diffusing upward at the base of the core is devoid of 14C, yet the DOC diffusing into and out of the SMTZ is relatively enriched (-460‰ and -300‰, respectively). This difference in 14C content of the DOC flux can only be reconciled if the following two are occurring within, and immediately below, the SMTZ: (1) >90% of the 14C-dead basal DOC flux is removed from the pore water (by, e.g., oxidation, fermentation, methanogenesis, precipitation), and (2) this DOC is replaced by material produced in this region at a rate that exceeds the upward basal flux. The 14C and 13C signatures suggest sedimentary organic matter to be the dominant source of DOC in process (2). Our data provide a unique insight into the active transformation of DOC and sedimentary organic matter in the subsurface.

  7. Tectonic, Seasonal, and Anthropogenic Deformation Rates in the Western Transverse Ranges, California from the San Andreas to the Santa Barbara Channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, S. T.; Funning, G. J.; Owen, S. E.

    2011-12-01

    Geodetic data from the Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) provide a complex and evolving picture of current deformation rates in the western Transverse Ranges of southern California. We combine data from 52 continuous GPS sites in the PBO network with InSAR time series formed from ENVISAT ASAR scenes to determine the rates of seasonal, anthropogenic, and tectonic deformation. To characterize seasonal motions we independently estimate phases and amplitudes of annual and semiannual motions for each GPS time series. Once these seasonal terms are removed from the data, the resultant time series are dominantly linear suggesting that seasonal motions have been successfully removed. To determine if any of the remaining motions are non-tectonic in origin, we use a persistent scatterer InSAR (PSI) data set comprised of 20 ENVISAT scenes. The PSI data show potential anthropogenic subsidence in the Oxnard/Ventura area as well as at a location just south of the Oak Ridge; however, no GPS sites are situated in locations that are likely to be contaminated by these non-tectonic motions. The relative lack of significant anthropogenic motions in the western Transverse Ranges is in stark contrast to the nearby Los Angeles basin where anthropogenic motions can exceed 40 mm/yr. To determine the local deformation rates, we remove strain associated with the nearby San Andreas fault using a rectangular dislocation model. The resultant velocity field shows dominantly north-northwest directed contraction. The central Ventura basin shows the fastest contraction rates with approximately 6 mm/yr of shortening. To the east, approaching the San Andreas fault, contraction rates slow to about 2 mm/yr Contraction rates across the Santa Barbara Channel appear to monotonically decrease westward from approximately 6 mm/yr near at the longitude of Anacapa Island to 2 mm/yr at the longitude of San Miguel Island. To model the interseismic deformation and determine the likely fault slip rates, we use a

  8. Multi-scale monitoring of a marine geologic methane source in the Santa Barbara Channel using imaging spectrometry, ARCTAS-CARB in situ sampling and coastal hourly total hydrocarbon measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradley, E. S.; Leifer, I.; Roberts, D.; Dennison, P. E.; Margolis, J.; Moritsch, M.; Diskin, G. S.; Sachse, G. W.

    2009-12-01

    The Coal Oil Point (COP) hydrocarbon seep field off the coast of Santa Barbara, CA is one of the most active and best-studied marine geologic methane sources in the world and contributes to elevated terrestrial methane concentrations downwind. In this study, we investigate the spatiotemporal variability of this local source and the influence of meteorological conditions on transport and concentration. A methane plume emanating from Trilogy Seep was mapped with the Airborne Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer at a 7.5 m resolution with a short-wave infrared band ratio technique. This structure agrees with the local wind speed and direction and is orthogonal to the surface currents. ARCTAS-CARB aircraft in situ sampling of lower-troposphere methane is compared to sub-hour total hydrocarbon concentration (THC) measurements from the Santa Barbara Air Pollution Control District (SBAPCD) station located near COP. Hourly SBAPCD THC values from 1980-2008 demonstrate a decrease in seep source strength until the late 1990s, followed by a consistent increase. The occurrence of elevated SBAPCD THC values for onshore wind conditions as well as numerous positive outliers as high as 17 ppm suggests that seep field emissions are both quasi-steady state and transient, direct (bubble) and diffuse (outgassing). As demonstrated for the COP seeps, the combination of imaging spectrometry, aircraft in situ sampling, and ground-based monitoring provides a powerful approach for understanding local methane sources and transport processes.

  9. Barbara Cooney.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horne, Jackie C.

    2000-01-01

    Profiles the life/work of the award winning picture-book author-illustrator Barbara Cooney. Includes her early development as an artist; early attempts at the picture-book form; experimentation with different media: watercolor, pen/ink with wash, charcoal, acrylics, pastels, and collage; later work that draws upon folk-art traditions; her love of…

  10. Resumption of exploratory drilling operations by Texaco, Inc. : state oil and gas lesses - PRC 2725. 1 (Jade Prospect), PRC 2206. 1 (Anita Prospect), PRC 2955. 1 (Refugio Prospect), Santa Barbara County. Final environmental impact report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-04-01

    An update is presented on air quality conditions in Santa Barbara County, Califorina. Data on photochemical oxidants (measured as ozone), nitrogen dioxide, sulfide dioxide, carbon monoxide, and total suspended particulates are included. Also included are the comments received during the public review and during the public hearing on the Draft Environmental Impact Report on Texaco, Inc.'s proposed Resumption of Exploratory Drilling Operations, State Oil and Gas Leases PRC 2725.1, PRC 2206.1 and PRC 2955.1, responses to these written and oral (hearing) comments, and a modification to the Draft EIR Air Quality Setting section, incorporating updated ambient air quality data. This volume, when added to the Draft Environmental Impact Report, constitutes the Final Environmental Impact Report in accordance with the California Environmental Quality Act (CEQA) and the State Lands Commission's regulations implementing CEQA.

  11. High-resolution paleoclimatology of the Santa Barbara Basin during the Medieval Climate Anomaly and early Little Ice Age based on diatom and silicoflagellate assemblages in Kasten core SPR0901-02KC

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barron, John A.; Bukry, David B.; Hendy, Ingrid L.

    2015-01-01

    Diatom and silicoflagellate assemblages documented in a high-resolution time series spanning 800 to 1600 AD in varved sediment recovered in Kasten core SPR0901-02KC (34°16.845’ N, 120°02.332’ W, water depth 588 m) from the Santa Barbara Basin (SBB) reveal that SBB surface water conditions during the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) and the early part of the Little Ice Age (LIA) were not extreme by modern standards, mostly falling within one standard deviation of mean conditions during the pre anthropogenic interval of 1748 to 1900. No clear differences between the character of MCA and the early LIA conditions are apparent. During intervals of extreme droughts identified by terrigenous proxy scanning XRF analyses, diatom and silicoflagellate proxies for coastal upwelling typically exceed one standard deviation above mean values for 1748-1900, supporting the hypothesis that droughts in southern California are associated with cooler (or La Niña-like) sea surface temperatures (SSTs). Increased percentages of diatoms transported downslope generally coincide with intervals of increased siliciclastic flux to the SBB identified by scanning XRF analyses. Diatom assemblages suggest only two intervals of the MCA (at ~897 to 922 and ~1151 to 1167) when proxy SSTs exceeded one standard deviation above mean values for 1748 to 1900. Conversely, silicoflagellates imply extreme warm water events only at ~830 to 860 (early MCA) and ~1360 to 1370 (early LIA) that are not supported by the diatom data. Silicoflagellates appear to be more suitable for characterizing average climate during the 5 to 11 year-long sample intervals studied in the SPR0901-02KC core than diatoms, probably because diatom relative abundances may be dominated by seasonal blooms of a particular year.

  12. 33 CFR 334.710 - The Narrows and Gulf of Mexico adjacent to Santa Rosa Island, Headquarters Air Armament Center...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false The Narrows and Gulf of Mexico... DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.710 The Narrows and Gulf of Mexico adjacent to... part 329, including the waters of The Narrows and the Gulf of Mexico easterly of the periphery of...

  13. 33 CFR 334.710 - The Narrows and Gulf of Mexico adjacent to Santa Rosa Island, Headquarters Air Armament Center...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false The Narrows and Gulf of Mexico... DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.710 The Narrows and Gulf of Mexico adjacent to... part 329, including the waters of The Narrows and the Gulf of Mexico easterly of the periphery of...

  14. 33 CFR 334.710 - The Narrows and Gulf of Mexico adjacent to Santa Rosa Island, Headquarters Air Armament Center...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false The Narrows and Gulf of Mexico... DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.710 The Narrows and Gulf of Mexico adjacent to... part 329, including the waters of The Narrows and the Gulf of Mexico easterly of the periphery of...

  15. Anthropogenic and authigenic uranium in marine sediments of the central Gulf of California adjacent to the Santa Rosalía mining region.

    PubMed

    Shumilin, Evgueni; Rodríguez-Figueroa, Griselda; Sapozhnikov, Dmitry; Sapozhnikov, Yuri; Choumiline, Konstantin

    2012-10-01

    To investigate the causes of uranium (U) enrichment in marine sediments in the eastern sector of the Gulf of California, surface sediments and sediment cores were collected adjacent to the Santa Rosalía copper mining region in the Baja California peninsula. Three coastal sediment cores were found to display high concentrations of U (from 54.2 ± 7.3 mg kg(-1) to 110 ± 13 mg kg(-1)) exceeding those found in the deeper cores (1.36 ± 0.26 mg kg(-1) in the Guaymas Basin to 9.31 ± 3.03 mg kg(-1) in the SR63 core from the suboxic zone). The contribution of non-lithogenic U (estimated using scandium to normalize) to the total U content in sediments of three coastal cores varied from 97.2 ± 0.4 % to 98.82 % versus 49.8 ± 3 % (Guaymas Basin) to 84.2 ± 8.2 % (SR62 core) in the deeper cores. The U content record in a lead-210 ((210)Pb)-dated core had two peaks (in 1923 and 1967) corresponding to the history of ancient mining and smelting activities in Santa Rosalía. PMID:22722804

  16. Characterization of the Hosgri Fault Zone and adjacent structures in the offshore Santa Maria Basin, south-central California: Chapter CC of Evolution of sedimentary basins/onshore oil and gas investigations - Santa Maria province

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Willingham, C. Richard; Rietman, Jan D.; Heck, Ronald G.; Lettis, William R.

    2013-01-01

    The Hosgri Fault Zone trends subparallel to the south-central California coast for 110 km from north of Point Estero to south of Purisima Point and forms the eastern margin of the present offshore Santa Maria Basin. Knowledge of the attributes of the Hosgri Fault Zone is important for petroleum development, seismic engineering, and environmental planning in the region. Because it lies offshore along its entire reach, our characterizations of the Hosgri Fault Zone and adjacent structures are primarily based on the analysis of over 10,000 km of common-depth-point marine seismic reflection data collected from a 5,000-km2 area of the central and eastern parts of the offshore Santa Maria Basin. We describe and illustrate the along-strike and downdip geometry of the Hosgri Fault Zone over its entire length and provide examples of interpreted seismic reflection records and a map of the structural trends of the fault zone and adjacent structures in the eastern offshore Santa Maria Basin. The seismic data are integrated with offshore well and seafloor geologic data to describe the age and seismic appearance of offshore geologic units and marker horizons. We develop a basin-wide seismic velocity model for depth conversions and map three major unconformities along the eastern offshore Santa Maria Basin. Accompanying plates include maps that are also presented as figures in the report. Appendix A provides microfossil data from selected wells and appendix B includes uninterpreted copies of the annotated seismic record sections illustrated in the chapter. Features of the Hosgri Fault Zone documented in this investigation are suggestive of both lateral and reverse slip. Characteristics indicative of lateral slip include (1) the linear to curvilinear character of the mapped trace of the fault zone, (2) changes in structural trend along and across the fault zone that diminish in magnitude toward the ends of the fault zone, (3) localized compressional and extensional structures

  17. 77 FR 65621 - Security Zone; Cruise Ships, Santa Barbara Harbor, Santa Barbara, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-30

    ... determine the exact time and date of these zones via Broadcast Notice to Mariners, or via visual.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Table of Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice... the Federal Register on June 20, 2012 (77 FR 36955). Previously, temporary security zones had...

  18. 77 FR 36955 - Security Zone; Cruise Ships, Santa Barbara Harbor, Santa Barbara, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-20

    ... zones would encompass all navigable waters from the surface to the sea floor within a 100-yard radius of..., 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public... sea floor within a 100-yard radius of any cruise ship which is located within 3 nautical miles...

  19. Geology, Geochemistry and Re-Os systematics of manganese deposits from the Santa Rosalía Basin and adjacent areas in Baja California Sur, México

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Rio Salas, R.; Ruiz, J.; Ochoa-Landín, L.; Noriega, O.; Barra, F.; Meza-Figueroa, D.; Paz-Moreno, F.

    2008-06-01

    The manganese ores in the Santa Rosalía region, western Mexico, are mainly stratiform horizons or mantos, constrained to the initial stages of sedimentary cycles of the Miocene Boléo Formation. The manganese mineralization is generally restricted to isolated paleo-basins and related to NW-SE faults formed during the early stages of the opening of the Gulf of California. Jasper, Fe, and Mn oxides associated to the NW-SE structures may represent feeder zones for the mineralized system. The manganese oxide minerals include pyrolusite, cryptomelane, todorokite, hollandite, jacobsite, and pyrochroite. Trace elements in the manganese ores indicate a hydrothermal origin for the deposits of the Santa Rosalía area. Rare earth elements (REE) patterns obtained for manganese minerals from the Lucifer and El Gavilán deposits also support a hydrothermal origin, whereas the middle REE enrichment observed in samples from the Boléo district indicates mixing between hydrothermal and hydrogenous sources. Osmium and rhenium concentrations of the manganese minerals range between 33-173 ppt and 0.14-89 ppb, respectively. The initial 187Os/188Os ratios in the manganese oxides from Lucifer and the Boléo district range between 0.43 to 0.51 and 0.70 to 0.74, respectively. These ratios are different from seawater at 7 Ma (0.84-0.89), which suggests important contributions of osmium from underlying rocks such as the Miocene volcanic rocks and the Cretaceous quartz-monzonite basement. Field evidence, manganese oxide mineralogy coupled with major and trace element geochemistry and Re-Os systematics support a hydrothermal origin for the manganese deposits from the Santa Rosalía region. The ore deposition style indicates an exhalative-intraformational environment restricted to isolated basins in a diagenetic stage related to the initial evolution of the Gulf of California.

  20. 33 CFR 334.710 - The Narrows and Gulf of Mexico adjacent to Santa Rosa Island, Air Force Proving Ground Command...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false The Narrows and Gulf of Mexico... DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.710 The Narrows and Gulf of Mexico adjacent to.... The waters of The Narrows and the Gulf of Mexico easterly of the periphery of a circular area...

  1. 33 CFR 334.710 - The Narrows and Gulf of Mexico adjacent to Santa Rosa Island, Air Force Proving Ground Command...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false The Narrows and Gulf of Mexico... DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.710 The Narrows and Gulf of Mexico adjacent to.... The waters of The Narrows and the Gulf of Mexico easterly of the periphery of a circular area...

  2. 27 CFR 9.217 - Happy Canyon of Santa Barbara.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... the “Y” in an unimproved road 0.1 mile south of the 800-foot elevation line, west of Happy Canyon Road... Olivos map, and continuing to the marked 1,324-foot elevation point, 0.5 mile southwest of Bar G O Ranch... Figueroa Mountain Road, T8N, R30W; then (12) Proceed east-northeast in a straight line, returning to...

  3. 27 CFR 9.217 - Happy Canyon of Santa Barbara.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... the “Y” in an unimproved road 0.1 mile south of the 800-foot elevation line, west of Happy Canyon Road... Olivos map, and continuing to the marked 1,324-foot elevation point, 0.5 mile southwest of Bar G O Ranch... Figueroa Mountain Road, T8N, R30W; then (12) Proceed east-northeast in a straight line, returning to...

  4. PROGRAM DESCRIPTION, SANTA BARBARA CITY SCHOOLS SPECIAL EDUCATION DEPARTMENT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MURPHY, THOMAS J.; AND OTHERS

    SINCE ITS BEGINNING IN 1928, THE PROGRAM HAS EXPANDED TO BECOME A DEPARTMENT (1953), AND IN 1964, THE DEPARTMENT PROCESSED 1,500 CASES. SERVICES ARE PROVIDED FOR CHILDREN WHO ARE PHYSICALLY HANDICAPPED, EDUCABLE MENTALLY HANDICAPPED, TRAINABLE MENTALLY HANDICAPPED, CONFINED TO HOME OR HOSPITAL, VISUALLY HANDICAPPED, SPEECH HANDICAPPED,…

  5. CO2 adsorption on Santa Barbara Amorphous-15 (SBA-15) and amine-modified Santa Barbara Amorphous-15 (SBA-15) with and without controlled microporosity.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xinlong; Komarneni, Sridhar; Yan, Zifeng

    2013-01-15

    Mesoporous silica SBA-15 samples with and without controlled framework microporosity were prepared and used directly or impregnated with polymer amine as adsorbent for CO(2). These samples were evaluated for their ability to adsorb CO(2) by obtaining their equilibrium adsorption isotherms using volumetric adsorption at three different temperatures of 273 K, 278 K and 283 K. The data obtained were analyzed using Freundlich adsorption isotherm model while the isosteric heats of adsorption were estimated by the Clausius-Clapeyron equation. Under comparable conditions, the adsorption performance of silica SBA-15 was found to be strongly dependent upon the framework microporosity. However, the microporosity contribution to CO(2) adsorption in amine-modified SBA-15 was not obvious as amine blocked micropores and dominated CO(2) adsorption. The SBA-15 sample with higher microporosity displayed higher CO(2) uptake and the CO(2) uptake by amine-modified SBA-15 samples correlated with their total surface areas, as expected. These findings revealed the importance of surface area in designing an adsorbent for CO(2.). PMID:23084869

  6. Mentors, Muses, and Mutuality: Honoring Barbara Snell Dohrenwend

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulvey, Anne

    2012-01-01

    I describe feminist community psychology principles that have the potential to expand and enrich mentoring and that honor Barbara Snell Dohrenwend, a leader who contributed to the research, theory, and profession of community psychology. I reflect on the affect that Barbara Dohrenwend had on life and on the development of feminist community…

  7. Conditions for Learning: Responding to Barbara and Derek Ball

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Paul

    2007-01-01

    This is the author's response to Barbara and Derek Ball's comments to their three papers. Barbara and Derek believe that the "school run" infantilises children. The author disagrees. The school run does not infantilise children, but reflects officially sanctioned untruths and a systemic avoidance of issues of equity. The school run derives from…

  8. Barbara Grier and the world she built.

    PubMed

    Passet, Joanne E

    2014-01-01

    Mentored in the art of lesbian literary detection by Jeannette Howard Foster, Barbara Grier became part of a vibrant print-based network of lesbians through her involvement with The Ladder. Building on that foundation, she developed Naiad Press into a successful lesbian business, one that opened doors for lesbian writers and preserved lesbian classics for new generations of readers. Shaped by her class and the times in which she came of age, Grier understood the power of print to change women's lives. Some challenged her commitment to lesbian feminism, but few questioned her dedication to building Naiad into a press that heightened lesbian visibility, fostered self-understanding, and contributed to the creation of community. PMID:25298096

  9. 76 FR 60376 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Santa Barbara Air Pollution Control...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-29

    ... SIP on April 2, 1998 (64 FR 15922). We approved an earlier version of SMAQMD Rule 466 into the SIP on May 5, 2010 (75 FR 24406). We approved an earlier version of SCAQMD Rule 1171 into the SIP on July 1, 2005 (70 FR 38023). There are no previous versions of SCAMQD Rule 1148.1 in the SIP. C. What is...

  10. 75 FR 65646 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permit, Santa Barbara County, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-26

    ... FR 22041). The Gaviota Tarplant was listed as endangered on March 20, 2000 (65 FR 14888) and has been... take of the federally endangered El Segundo Blue Butterfly incidental to otherwise lawful activities that would result in the loss of Coast Buckwheat, which serves as butterfly habitat. We invite...

  11. Petrology and provenance of Upper Cretaceous Sandstone, southern San Rafael Mountains, Santa Barbara County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Toyne, C.D.

    1987-05-01

    Petrologic analysis of 24 medium to coarse-grained sandstone samples, collected from a 2950-m submarine fan complex of late Campanian-early Maestrichtian age exposed within Mono Creek Canyon, reveal commonly calcite cemented, poorly sorted, subangular biotic arkoses. Framework averages 86.0%. Matrix - primarily detrital quartz, feldspar, and lithic fragments finer than 0.03 mm and mechanically and chemically altered phyllosilicates and labile aphanites - averages 8.9%. Calcite cement averages 4.2%. Porosity averages 0.9%. Gazzi-Dickinson point counts of 400 framework grains per slide yield modal averages of Q/sub 37.7/ F/sub 49.8/ L/sub 12.5/; Qm/sub 27.4/ F/sub 49.8/ Lt/sub 22.8/; Qm/sub 35.6/ P/sub 43.7/ K/sub 20.7/; and Qp/sub 49.4/ Lv/sub 22.1/ Ls/sub 28.5/. P/F averages 0.68, Lv/L averages 0.45, Qp/Q averages 0.27, and detrital phyllosilicate, predominantly biotite, averages 5.7% of total framework. Neither primary nor secondary parameters vary systematically with stratigraphic position. Miscellaneous constituents average 1.3% of framework and include epidote, garnet, amphibole, pyroxene, zircon, and tourmaline as well as carbonaceous blebs, opaque minerals, and unidentifiable lithic fragments. Separate analysis of 100 medium sized quartz grains per slide indicates a mean population of 63.0% non-undulatory monocrystalline quartz, 9.1% undulatory monocrystalline quartz, 10.1% polycrystalline quartz of 2 to 3 crystals, and 17.9% polycrystalline quartz composed of more than 3 crystals. Modal data, plotted upon provenance discrimination diagrams, indicate a plutonic provenance transitional between a dissected magmatic arc and uplifted basement terrane. Paleocurrent data, neglecting possible clockwise rotation, indicate sediment transport from the north.

  12. El Plan de Santa Barbara; A Chicano Plan for Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chicano Coordinating Council on Higher Education, Santa Barbara, CA.

    Published by La Causa Publications, the document is a Chicano plan for higher education in the universities and colleges in California. The manifesto found in the booklet states that "the self-determination of our community is now the only acceptable mandate for social and political action; it is the essence of Chicano commitment....Chicanos…

  13. 78 FR 21581 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Santa Barbara County Air Pollution Control...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-11

    ... compound (VOC) and oxides of nitrogen (NO X ) emissions from gas-fired fan-type central furnaces, small... Fan-Type Central Furnaces and Small Water Heaters and SCAQMD Rule 461 Gasoline Transfer and...

  14. 78 FR 21542 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Santa Barbara County Air Pollution Control...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-11

    ... into the SIP on December 20, 2000 (65 FR 79752). We approved an earlier version of SCAQMD Rule 461 into the SIP on April 11, 2006 (71 FR 18216). The SCAQMD adopted revisions to the SIP-approved version on... review by the Office of Management and Budget under Executive Order 12866 (58 FR 51735, October 4,...

  15. 78 FR 61986 - City of Santa Barbara, California; Notice of Preliminary Determination of a Qualifying Conduit...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-09

    ... Qualifying Conduit Hydropower Facility and Soliciting Comments and Motions To Intervene On September 24, 2013... hydropower facility, pursuant to section 30 of the Federal Power Act, as amended by section 4 of the Hydropower Regulatory Efficiency Act of 2013 (HREA). The Gibraltar Conduit Hydroelectric Project would...

  16. Remote Sensing Information Sciences Research Group, Santa Barbara Information Sciences Research Group, year 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estes, J. E.; Smith, T.; Star, J. L.

    1986-01-01

    Research continues to focus on improving the type, quantity, and quality of information which can be derived from remotely sensed data. The focus is on remote sensing and application for the Earth Observing System (Eos) and Space Station, including associated polar and co-orbiting platforms. The remote sensing research activities are being expanded, integrated, and extended into the areas of global science, georeferenced information systems, machine assissted information extraction from image data, and artificial intelligence. The accomplishments in these areas are examined.

  17. 76 FR 60405 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Santa Barbara Air Pollution Control...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-29

    ... compound (VOC) emissions from solvent cleaning machines and solvent cleaning operations and oil and gas... local rules: SBAPCD Rule 321, ``Solvent Cleaning Machines and Solvent Cleaning'', SMAQMD Rule...

  18. 77 FR 34991 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of California, Santa Barbara, Repository of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-12

    .... No known individual was identified. No associated funerary objects are present. The age of the human... stone fragments, 1 metate, 2 manos, 5 utilized pebbles, 1 stone bowl, 4 stone projectile points (1... fragments, 6 ground stone objects, 1 chert core, and 1 rubbing stone which were all physically...

  19. Laboratories for the 21st Century: Case Studies: Donald Bren Hall, Santa Barbara, California

    SciTech Connect

    Nancy Carlisle: NREL

    2004-03-23

    This publication is one of a series of case studies of energy-efficient modern laboratories; it was prepared for "Laboratories for the 21st Century," a joint program of the Environmental Protection Agency and the U.S. DOE Federal Energy Management Program

  20. Analysis of fracturing and fluid-flow characteristics of the Monterey formation, Santa Barbara channel, CA

    SciTech Connect

    LaPointe, P.R.; Belfield, W.C.; Helwig, J.A.

    1984-04-01

    Analysis of fracturing in the Monterey formation in core and outcrop demonstrates the interrelations among the regional stress field, the fracture pattern geometry and connectivity, and the hydrocarbon migration and production characteristics of the Monterey. The spatially and temporally persistent fracturing consists of four predominant subvertical sets striking approximately N30E, N55E, N67W and N15-30W. The northeasterly sets possess the greatest areal density and are often the primary set against which others terminate. They are also the most frequently filled with tar and calcite, particularly where they are near oblique-slip faults. A regional northeasterly maximum compressive stress field that has persisted from Pliocene time to the present selectively enhanced subvertical northeasterly-striking fractures. This stress field made the northeasterly joints the favored fractures for the migration of fluids through the fracture network. Statistical analysis of the joint network indicates a northeasterly direction for the maximum fracture network permeability, consistent with offshore production data. Computer-generated synthetic fracture networks constructed from the field data illustrate the impact that faults, major joints and slump or breccia zones may have on integrating poorly connected fracture network clusters, thereby enhancing directional flows.

  1. Remote Sensing Information Sciences Research Group: Santa Barbara Information Sciences Research Group, year 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estes, John E.; Smith, Terence; Star, Jeffrey L.

    1987-01-01

    Information Sciences Research Group (ISRG) research continues to focus on improving the type, quantity, and quality of information which can be derived from remotely sensed data. Particular focus in on the needs of the remote sensing research and application science community which will be served by the Earth Observing System (EOS) and Space Station, including associated polar and co-orbiting platforms. The areas of georeferenced information systems, machine assisted information extraction from image data, artificial intelligence and both natural and cultural vegetation analysis and modeling research will be expanded.

  2. 33 CFR 167.452 - In the Santa Barbara Channel: Between Point Conception and Point Arguello.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... traffic lane for westbound traffic is established between the separation zone and a line connecting the...) A traffic lane for eastbound traffic is established between the separation zone and a...

  3. 33 CFR 167.451 - In the Santa Barbara Channel: Between Point Vicente and Point Conception.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...°17.46′ W. 34°18.90′ N 120°30.96′ W. (b) A traffic lane for north-westbound traffic is established... 34°21.80′ N 120°29.96′ W. 34°04.80′ N 119°15.16′ W. 33°45.80′ N 118°35.15′ W. (c) A traffic lane...

  4. 33 CFR 167.452 - In the Santa Barbara Channel: Between Point Conception and Point Arguello.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... traffic lane for westbound traffic is established between the separation zone and a line connecting the...) A traffic lane for eastbound traffic is established between the separation zone and a...

  5. 33 CFR 167.452 - In the Santa Barbara Channel: Between Point Conception and Point Arguello.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... traffic lane for westbound traffic is established between the separation zone and a line connecting the...) A traffic lane for eastbound traffic is established between the separation zone and a...

  6. 33 CFR 167.451 - In the Santa Barbara Channel: Between Point Vicente and Point Conception.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...°17.46′ W. 34°18.90′ N 120°30.96′ W. (b) A traffic lane for north-westbound traffic is established... 34°21.80′ N 120°29.96′ W. 34°04.80′ N 119°15.16′ W. 33°45.80′ N 118°35.15′ W. (c) A traffic lane...

  7. 33 CFR 167.452 - In the Santa Barbara Channel: Between Point Conception and Point Arguello.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... traffic lane for westbound traffic is established between the separation zone and a line connecting the...) A traffic lane for eastbound traffic is established between the separation zone and a...

  8. 33 CFR 167.451 - In the Santa Barbara Channel: Between Point Vicente and Point Conception.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...°17.46′ W. 34°18.90′ N 120°30.96′ W. (b) A traffic lane for north-westbound traffic is established... 34°21.80′ N 120°29.96′ W. 34°04.80′ N 119°15.16′ W. 33°45.80′ N 118°35.15′ W. (c) A traffic lane...

  9. 33 CFR 167.451 - In the Santa Barbara Channel: Between Point Vicente and Point Conception.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...°17.46′ W. 34°18.90′ N 120°30.96′ W. (b) A traffic lane for north-westbound traffic is established... 34°21.80′ N 120°29.96′ W. 34°04.80′ N 119°15.16′ W. 33°45.80′ N 118°35.15′ W. (c) A traffic lane...

  10. 33 CFR 167.452 - In the Santa Barbara Channel: Between Point Conception and Point Arguello.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... traffic lane for westbound traffic is established between the separation zone and a line connecting the...) A traffic lane for eastbound traffic is established between the separation zone and a...

  11. 33 CFR 167.451 - In the Santa Barbara Channel: Between Point Vicente and Point Conception.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...°17.46′ W. 34°18.90′ N 120°30.96′ W. (b) A traffic lane for north-westbound traffic is established... 34°21.80′ N 120°29.96′ W. 34°04.80′ N 119°15.16′ W. 33°45.80′ N 118°35.15′ W. (c) A traffic lane...

  12. 75 FR 77000 - South Coast Conduit/Upper Reach Reliability Project, Santa Barbara County, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-10

    ... on Wednesday, August 20, 2008 (73 FR 49218). The written comment period on the Draft EIS/EIR ended... reliability to Cachuma Project (CP) and State Water Project (SWP) customers on the South Coast of...

  13. A comparison of artifical and natural slope failures: the Santa Barbara earthquake of August 13, 1978.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harp, E.L.; Keefer, D.K.; Wilson, R.C.

    1980-01-01

    The earthquake triggered rockfalls and rockslides from steep road cuts and coastal cliffs. The landslide reconnaissance survey which was carried out is described, with separate comments on each landslide site recorded. The general regional slope response to the earthquake is briefly considered. -R. House

  14. 78 FR 53680 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer, Santa Barbara and Ventura County...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-30

    ..., 1996 (61 FR 37390). A previous version of SBCAPCD 353 was approved into the SIP on April 5, 2000 (65 FR 17771). The most recent version of VCAPCD Rule 74.20 was approved into the SIP on 11/24/2008 (70 FR... and Budget under Executive Order 12866 (58 FR 51735, October 4, 1993); does not impose an...

  15. 78 FR 53711 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer, Santa Barbara and Ventura County...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-30

    ... revisions concern volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from adhesives and sealants. We are proposing to... local rules: PCAPCD Rule 235, Adhesives, SBCAPCD Rule 353, Adhesives and Sealants and VCAPCD Rule 74.20, Adhesives and Sealants. In the Rules and Regulations section of this Federal Register, we are...

  16. Especially for Parents--Santa Barbara County Schools Environmental Education Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santa Barbara County Schools, CA.

    The bilingual (Spanish and English) packet of materials was developed to provide answers to parent concerns about the children attending the Environmental Education Outdoor School Program. The first pamphlet describes the program, giving information on the faculty and response to emergency situations, climate and clothes, natural hazards, mail to…

  17. 75 FR 45082 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Santa Barbara County Air Pollution Control...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-02

    .... SBCAPCD 333 Control of Emissions from 06/19/08 10/20/08 Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines. On... proposed a limited approval and a limited disapproval (60 FR 6049) but did not finalize the action. The... FR 55620, November 25, 1992. 2. ``Issues Relating to VOC Regulation Cutpoints, Deficiencies,...

  18. 76 FR 31242 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Santa Barbara County Air Pollution Control...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-31

    ... IV. Statutory and Executive Order Reviews I. Proposed Action On August 2, 2010 (75 FR 45082), EPA..., result from this action. E. Executive Order 13132, Federalism Federalism (64 FR 43255, August 10, 1999... Tribal Governments'' (65 FR 67249, November 9, 2000), requires EPA to develop an accountable process...

  19. Potential for Large Transpressional Earthquakes along the Santa Cruz-Catalina Ridge, California Continental Borderland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legg, M.; Kohler, M. D.; Weeraratne, D. S.; Castillo, C. M.

    2015-12-01

    Transpressional fault systems comprise networks of high-angle strike-slip and more gently-dipping oblique-slip faults. Large oblique-slip earthquakes may involve complex ruptures of multiple faults with both strike-slip and dip-slip. Geophysical data including high-resolution multibeam bathymetry maps, multichannel seismic reflection (MCS) profiles, and relocated seismicity catalogs enable detailed mapping of the 3-D structure of seismogenic fault systems offshore in the California Continental Borderland. Seafloor morphology along the San Clemente fault system displays numerous features associated with active strike-slip faulting including scarps, linear ridges and valleys, and offset channels. Detailed maps of the seafloor faulting have been produced along more than 400 km of the fault zone. Interpretation of fault geometry has been extended to shallow crustal depths using 2-D MCS profiles and to seismogenic depths using catalogs of relocated southern California seismicity. We examine the 3-D fault character along the transpressional Santa Cruz-Catalina Ridge (SCCR) section of the fault system to investigate the potential for large earthquakes involving multi-fault ruptures. The 1981 Santa Barbara Island (M6.0) earthquake was a right-slip event on a vertical fault zone along the northeast flank of the SCCR. Aftershock hypocenters define at least three sub-parallel high-angle fault surfaces that lie beneath a hillside valley. Mainshock rupture for this moderate earthquake appears to have been bilateral, initiating at a small discontinuity in the fault geometry (~5-km pressure ridge) near Kidney Bank. The rupture terminated to the southeast at a significant releasing step-over or bend and to the northeast within a small (~10-km) restraining bend. An aftershock cluster occurred beyond the southeast asperity along the East San Clemente fault. Active transpression is manifest by reverse-slip earthquakes located in the region adjacent to the principal displacement zone

  20. Barbara Bodichon's Travel Writing: Her Epistolary Articulation of "Bildung"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon-Martin, Meritxell

    2016-01-01

    English painter Barbara Bodichon received a dynamic home education, consisting of engaging lessons, reading sessions, family discussions, sketching excursions, and trips at home and abroad. As an adult, Bodichon led a nomadic life, living between Algeria and England and travelling across Europe and America. Seeking to unpack travelling and travel…

  1. Barbara Thayer-Bacon on Knowers and the Known

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenzie, Jim

    2002-01-01

    Barbara Thayer-Bacon (1999) objects to the minimum proficiency examinations that are mandated for school students in Ohio. Similar tests are required by, or are under consideration by, governments in many other parts of the world. Various writers have objected to one or other of these tests by arguing that they are crude, invalid, unreliable,…

  2. The Quintessential Searcher: The Wit & Wisdom of Barbara Quint.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Block, Marylaine, Ed.

    This book presents selected writings by Barbara Quint (BQ) on online searching. The selections are organized into the following chapters: (1) "The Art of Searching," including finding out what the patron wants, preparing for the search, knowing when the search is done, search styles, rules of online searching, cost issues, Quint's Laws, and…

  3. Santa Cruz River Options

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation summarizes qualitative research insights gained during development of a nonmarket valuation survey for changes to the Santa Cruz River in Southern Arizona. Qualitative research provides an important avenue for understanding how the public interprets valuation s...

  4. Adjacent segment disease.

    PubMed

    Virk, Sohrab S; Niedermeier, Steven; Yu, Elizabeth; Khan, Safdar N

    2014-08-01

    EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES As a result of reading this article, physicians should be able to: 1. Understand the forces that predispose adjacent cervical segments to degeneration. 2. Understand the challenges of radiographic evaluation in the diagnosis of cervical and lumbar adjacent segment disease. 3. Describe the changes in biomechanical forces applied to adjacent segments of lumbar vertebrae with fusion. 4. Know the risk factors for adjacent segment disease in spinal fusion. Adjacent segment disease (ASD) is a broad term encompassing many complications of spinal fusion, including listhesis, instability, herniated nucleus pulposus, stenosis, hypertrophic facet arthritis, scoliosis, and vertebral compression fracture. The area of the cervical spine where most fusions occur (C3-C7) is adjacent to a highly mobile upper cervical region, and this contributes to the biomechanical stress put on the adjacent cervical segments postfusion. Studies have shown that after fusion surgery, there is increased load on adjacent segments. Definitive treatment of ASD is a topic of continuing research, but in general, treatment choices are dictated by patient age and degree of debilitation. Investigators have also studied the risk factors associated with spinal fusion that may predispose certain patients to ASD postfusion, and these data are invaluable for properly counseling patients considering spinal fusion surgery. Biomechanical studies have confirmed the added stress on adjacent segments in the cervical and lumbar spine. The diagnosis of cervical ASD is complicated given the imprecise correlation of radiographic and clinical findings. Although radiological and clinical diagnoses do not always correlate, radiographs and clinical examination dictate how a patient with prolonged pain is treated. Options for both cervical and lumbar spine ASD include fusion and/or decompression. Current studies are encouraging regarding the adoption of arthroplasty in spinal surgery, but more long

  5. 1. 'SANTA ANA RIVER IN SANTA ANA CANYON. ORANGE COUNTY.' ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. 'SANTA ANA RIVER IN SANTA ANA CANYON. ORANGE COUNTY.' This is an oblique aerial view to the northeast taken from the northeast extremity of the canyon, showing, in the middle distance, the confluence of Chino Creek and the Santa Ana River, site of the future Prado Dam. File number written on negative: R & H 80 026. - Prado Dam, Santa Ana River near junction of State Highways 71 & 91, Corona, Riverside County, CA

  6. Lesbis sustineo! Naiad press authors remember Barbara Grier.

    PubMed

    Cantrell, Jaime

    2014-01-01

    Drawing from semi-structured interviews with some of Naiad Press's most celebrated women, including Katherine V. Forrest, Barbara's supervising editor at Naiad from 1983-1993; Sheila Ortiz Taylor, author of what is considered by many to be the first lesbian novel with a Chicana heroine; and the incomparable Lee Lynch, this work aims to sustain an ongoing remembrance of Grier's life and work by encouraging memory exploration--a symphonic blending of the printed and spoken word. PMID:25298097

  7. The Santa Dilemma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imber, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Discusses legal issues related to the celebration of Christmas in public schools. Concludes that schools can display secular symbols of Christmas such as reindeer, elves, and Santa Clause, but not religious ones, such as wise men, angels, and nativity scenes. (PKP)

  8. The Santa Ana Partnership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cournoyer, David, Ed.

    2004-01-01

    One of the priority interests of the W.K. Kellogg Foundation is to connect the knowledge and resources of institutions with communities in order to improve the quality of life in community. Partnerships achieve uncommon results. In Santa Ana, California, an unusual partnership of public schools, community college, universities, community…

  9. Space Radar Image of Santa Cruz Island, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This space radar image shows the rugged topography of Santa Cruz Island, part of the Channel Islands National Park in the Pacific Ocean off the coast of Santa Barbara and Ventura, Calif. Santa Cruz, the largest island of the national park, is host to hundreds of species of plants, animals and birds, at least eight of which are known nowhere else in the world. The island is bisected by the Santa Cruz Island fault, which appears as a prominent line running from the upper left to the lower right in this image. The fault is part of the Transverse Range fault system, which extends eastward from this area across Los Angeles to near Palm Springs, Calif. Color variations in this image are related to the different types of vegetation and soils at the surface. For example, grass-covered coastal lowlands appear gold, while chaparral and other scrub areas appear pink and blue. The image is 35 kilometers by 32 kilometers (22 miles by 20 miles) and is centered at 33.8 degrees north latitude, 119.6 degrees west longitude. North is toward upper right. The colors are assigned to different radar frequencies and polarizations as follows: red is L-band, horizontally transmitted and received; green is C-band, horizontally transmitted and received; and blue is C-band, horizontally transmitted and vertically received. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) on October 10, 1994, onboard the space shuttle Endeavour. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth program.

  10. Barbara McClintock and the transposition concept.

    PubMed

    Barahona, A

    1997-12-01

    Barbara McClintock was awarded Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1983 for the discovery and characterization of jumping genes or transposons. In 1948 she described for the first time maize controlling elements. She proposed 'transposition' as a mechanism that relates phenotypic characteristics with the presence of unstable genes. This discovery was 'ignored' even though she was recognized as a brilliant cytogeneticist. In this paper I approach the matter of the maize research groups within which McClintock developed all of her work, and the problem of variegation in relation to unstable genes and transposition. PMID:11619571

  11. Introduction: the influence and legacy of Barbara Grier.

    PubMed

    DeMuth, Danielle M

    2014-01-01

    This special issue of the Journal of Lesbian Studies focuses on the life and legacy of the lesbian publisher, editor, and author Barbara Grier. Through Grier's "Lesbiana" column in Daughters of Bilitis's magazine The Ladder, three editions of The Lesbian in Literature (1967, 1975, 1985), to her role as publisher of the Naiad Press from 1973-2003, Grier introduced hundreds of new lesbian books to readers and kept several lesbian classics on the literary horizon. The articles in this issue focus on Grier's biography, history, and impact through archival analysis, interviews, and content analysis. This introduction contextualizes and outlines the articles in this special issue. PMID:25298095

  12. Santa and the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barthel, P.

    2012-05-01

    This article reflects on the use of illustrations of the Moon in images of Santa Claus, on Christmas gift-wrapping paper and in children's books, in two countries which have been important in shaping the image of Santa Claus and his predecessor Sinterklaas: the USA and the Netherlands. The appearance of the Moon in Halloween illustrations is also considered. The lack of either knowledge concerning the physical origin of the Moon's phases, or interest in understanding them, is found to be widespread in the Netherlands, but is also clearly present in the USA, and is quite possibly global. Certainly incomplete, but surely representative, lists that compile occurrences of both scientifically correct and scientifically incorrect gift- wrapping paper and children's books are also presented.

  13. Critical Issues in Foster Care: Lessons the Children's Ark Learned from Barbara and Nathan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, Janet; Kretchmar, Molly D.; Worsham, Nancy L.

    2008-01-01

    Using an attachment theory framework, this article explores several critical issues in foster care as reflected in the case of Barbara and her 9-month-old son, Nathan. Barbara and Nathan participated in The Children's Ark, an innovative intervention for families in foster care that allowed mothers who had lost custody of their children to live,…

  14. Papers from the Hokan-Penutian Languages Conference (Santa Barbara, CA, June 27, 1992) and the J. P. Harrington Conference (Santa Barbara, CA, June 24-27, 1992). Occasional Papers on Linguistics, Number 17.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redden, James E., Ed.

    Dedicated to Margaret Langdon at the University of California, San Diego, for her contributions to Yuman studies, this volume of occasional papers contains papers presented at two conferences on Hokan-Penutian languages. The papers and presenters are as follows: "Yuman Linguistics: The Work of Margaret Langdon" (Leanne Hinton), which is both a…

  15. 'Santa Anita' Panorama

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for 'Santa Anita' Panorama (QTVR)

    This color mosaic taken on May 21, 25 and 26, 2004, by the panoramic camera on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit was acquired from a position roughly three-fourths the way between 'Bonneville Crater' and the base of the 'Columbia Hills.' The area is within a low thermal inertia unit (an area that heats up and cools off quickly) identified from orbit by the Mars Odyssey thermal emission imaging system instrument. The rover was roughly 600 meters (1,968 feet) from the base of the hills.

    This mosaic, referred to as the 'Santa Anita Panorama,' is comprised of 64 pointings, acquired with six of the panoramic camera's color filters, including one designed specifically to allow comparisons between orbital and surface brightness data. A total of 384 images were acquired as part of this panorama. The mosaic is an approximate true-color rendering constructed from images using the camera's 750-, 530- and and 480-nanometer filters, and is presented at the full resolution of the camera.

  16. Geological map and digital database of the San Rafael Mtn. 7.5-minute quadrangle, Santa Barbara County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vedder, John G.; Stanley, Richard G.; Graham, S.E.; Valin, Z.C.

    2001-01-01

    Geologic mapping of the San Rafael Primitive Area (now the San Rafael Wilderness) by Gower and others (1966) and Vedder and others (1967) did not include all of the San Rafael Mtn. quadrangle, and the part that was mapped was done in reconnaissance fashion. To help resolve some of the structural and stratigraphic ambiguities of the earlier mapping and to complete the mapping of the quadrangle, additional field work was done during short intervals in 1980 and 1981 and from 1996 to 1998. Contacts within the belt of Franciscan rocks at the southwestern corner of the quadrangle were generalized from the detailed map by Wahl (1998). Because extensive areas were inaccessible owing to impenetrable chaparral, observations from several helicopter overflights (1965, 1980, 1981) and interpretations from aerial photographs were used as compilation aids. Consequently, some of the depicted contacts and faults are highly inferential, particularly within the Upper Cretaceous rocks throughout the middle part of the quadrangle.

  17. In the Beginning … An Interview with Debra Lieberman, PhD, University of California, Santa Barbara.

    PubMed

    2012-04-01

    Someone once said the difference between creativity and innovation is that creativity is original thought, whereas innovation is new impactful action. Were it not for my guest in this issue's Q&A, games for health would not be making the contributions they are today. Debra Lieberman is both a creator and an innovator, and her relentless quest for new and better ways to improve human well-being began before the Internet and put her in the company of similar-minded people across the educational and media landscapes. As such, Debra worked on the research and design of several noteworthy early games for learning and health behavior change. I am pleased to say that Debra, an Associate Editor of Games for Health Journal, is modest, cheerful, and a wealth of knowledge, and her story is both informative and enjoyable. PMID:26193181

  18. Economic Education in the Precollege Setting: Proceedings of the Towbes Conference (Santa Barbara, California, August 10-13, 1988).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reason Foundation, Santa Monica, CA.

    This collection of 23 papers delivered by a diverse array of participants at a conference on elementary/secondary economics instruction reflects a concern that U.S. students have limited understanding of how or why the U.S. economy operates the way it does. The papers included are: "Economic Education: Leading the Way to Educational Reform" (M.…

  19. Using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography to explore the geochemistry of the Santa Barbara oil seeps

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, Christopher; Nelson, Robert

    2013-03-27

    The development of comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC x GC) has expanded the analytical window for studying complex mixtures like oil. Compared to traditional gas chromatography, this technology separates and resolves at least an order of magnitude more compounds, has a much larger signal to noise ratio, and sorts compounds based on their chemical class; hence, providing highly refined inventories of petroleum hydrocarbons in geochemical samples that was previously unattainable. In addition to the increased resolution afforded by GC x GC, the resulting chromatograms have been used to estimate the liquid vapor pressures, aqueous solubilities, octanol-water partition coefficients, and vaporization enthalpies of petroleum hydrocarbons. With these relationships, powerful and incisive analyses of phase-transfer processes affecting petroleum hydrocarbon mixtures in the environment are available. For example, GC x GC retention data has been used to quantitatively deconvolve the effects of phase transfer processes such as water washing and evaporation. In short, the positive attributes of GC x GC-analysis have led to a methodology that has revolutionized the analysis of petroleum hydrocarbons. Overall, this research has opened numerous fields of study on the biogeochemical "genetics" (referred to as petroleomics) of petroleum samples in both subsurface and surface environments. Furthermore, these new findings have already been applied to the behavior of oil at other seeps as well, for petroleum exploration and oil spill studies.

  20. 75 FR 67393 - Notice of Realty Action: Direct Sale of Public Lands in Santa Barbara County, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-02

    ... exception of oil and gas, the lands identified for sale are considered to have no known mineral value and... reservation of all oil and gas to the United States together with the right to prospect for, mine, and remove such oil and gas resources under applicable law and any regulations as the Secretary of the...

  1. Post-irradiation Examination Plan for ORNL and University of California Santa Barbara Assessment of UCSB ATR-2 Irradiation Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Nanstad, R. K.; Yamamoto, T.; Sokolov, M. A.

    2014-01-25

    New and existing databases will be combined to support development of physically based models of transition temperature shifts (TTS) for high fluence-low flux (φ < 10{sup 11}n/cm{sup 2}-s) conditions, beyond the existing surveillance database, to neutron fluences of at least 1×10{sup 20} n/cm{sup 2} (>1 MeV). All references to neutron flux and fluence in this report are for fast neutrons (>1 MeV). The reactor pressure vessel (RPV) task of the Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program is working with various organizations to obtain archival surveillance materials from commercial nuclear power plants to allow for comparisons of the irradiation-induced microstructural features from reactor surveillance materials with those from similar materials irradiated under high flux conditions in test reactors

  2. Were fossil spring-associated carbonates near Zaca Lake, Santa Barbara, California deposited under an ambient or thermal regime?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibarra, Yadira; Corsetti, Frank A.; Cheetham, Michael I.; Feakins, Sarah J.

    2014-03-01

    A previously undescribed succession of currently-inactive spring-associated carbonates located near Zaca Lake, Southern California, was investigated in order to determine the nature of deposition (ambient temperature or hydrothermal water, as both are found within the region). The carbonate deposits are up to ~ 1 m thick and formed discontinuously for over 200 m in a narrow valley between two ridges that drain Miocene Monterey Formation bedrock. Depositional facies along the presently dry fluvial path include barrage deposits, narrow fluvial channels, and cascade deposits. The carbonates are mesoscopically banded and contain ubiquitous micro- to macrophyte calcite encrusted fabrics. All of the depositional facies contain alternating bands (~ .05 mm to 5 mm thick) of dark brown and light brown isopachous calcite; the dark brown bands are composed of dense isopachous bladed calcite, whereas the light brown bands are composed of bundles of calcite tubules interpreted as the biosignature of the desmid microalgae Oocardium stratum. Oxygen isotope thermometry utilizing modern water δ18O values from the piped spring reveal depositional water temperature estimates that collectively range from ~ 11 to 16 °C. Stable isotope carbon values exhibit a mean δ13C value of - 9.01 ± 0.62‰ (1σ, n = 27). Our petrographic and geochemical data demonstrate that (1) inactive carbonates were likely sourced from ambient temperature water with a strong soil-zone δ13C signal, (2) the Oocardium calcite biosignature can be used to infer depositional temperature and flow conditions, and (3) the occurrence of extensive carbonates (especially the presence of a perched cascade deposit) indicate the carbonates formed when conditions were much wetter.

  3. 78 FR 21537 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Santa Barbara and San Diego County Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-11

    ...) portions of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP). These revisions concern volatile organic... SBCAPCD Rule 337 into the SIP on February 12, 1997 (61 FR 5288). There are no approved earlier versions of..., August 21, 2001 (the Little Bluebook), 3. ``Control Techniques Guidelines for Control of Volatile...

  4. 78 FR 21580 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Santa Barbara and San Diego County Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-11

    ... surface coating of aerospace vehicles and components and from wood products coating operations. We are... INFORMATION: This proposal addresses the following local rules: SBCAPCD Rule 337, Surface Coating of...

  5. An Assessment to Increase the Capacity to Provide a Free and Appropriate Education in the Santa Barbara School Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones-McNeil, Anissa

    2010-01-01

    The Education for All Handicapped Children Act of 1975 established the basis for the mandate to provide all children with disabilities a Free Appropriate Public Education (FAPE) in the Least Restrictive Environment (LRE) and aligned the state and school districts ability to receive federal funding. The most recent legislation, Individuals with…

  6. Effect of Organic Amendment Application Rate on Greenhouse Gas Emissions at an Organic Farm in Santa Barbara County, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oyewole, M.; King, J. Y.; Cleveland, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    Though greenhouse gas emissions (GHGEs) from mineral fertilizer application in agriculture have been well studied, the effect of organic amendment (OA) application rate on GHGEs is not yet understood. Application of multiple OAs can improve different properties that control soil fertility, including nutrient availability, aggregate stability, and water-holding capacity. We measured nitrous oxide (N2O), carbon dioxide (CO2), and methane (CH4) flux at an organic farm in Goleta, CA in order to understand how OA application rate affects GHGEs and crop yield from agricultural soils. Based on management practices in the region, we asked farm managers to establish high compost (HC) and low compost (LC) treatments during the growing season of an annual crop (18.2, 9.13 Mg ha-1, respectively), and we measured GHGEs in beds and furrows using static chambers. Organic fertilizer (672 kg ha-1) was applied equally to HC and LC beds six weeks after compost application. Overall, emissions of N2O and CO2 were higher in HC than LC, but yield-scaled emissions were higher in LC. Importantly, treatment differences in both N2O and CO2 emissions were not apparent until after mid-season fertilizer application. Net CH4 uptake was higher in HC than LC in the furrows, but there was no difference in the beds. Our data suggest that high compost application rates likely increased SOM mineralization, soil water content, and nitrification and denitrification rates in HC relative to LC, which led to higher N2O emissions during the growing season. Fertilization primed SOM decomposition and increased soil respiration, which led to increased CO2 emissions. Our results suggest that improved management of application rate and timing during use of multiple OAs could reduce GHGEs while maintaining high crop yield. Understanding the mechanisms by which OA application rates alter the balance between GHGEs and yield is an important step toward reducing agriculture's contribution to climate change through policy.

  7. University of california at Santa Barbara Anisotropy Program: degree scale results from the South Pole 1990-1991.

    PubMed Central

    Gaier, T; Schuster, J; Gundersen, J; Meinhold, P; Lubin, P

    1993-01-01

    We report on the preliminary result of a search for anisotropy in the cosmic background radiation (CBR). Our receiver operates with four equally spaced channels from 25 to 35 GHz with a beam size of approximately 1.5 degrees full width at half maximum. The system operated successfully for 500 hr at the South Pole during 1990-1991 austral summer. The data from one region, representing 25 hr after editing, are presented here. A strong signal is present in the lower-frequency channels with a spectrum unlike CBR fluctuations. The highest-frequency channel has the smallest contribution from this signal and has been used to set a 95% confidence level upper limit DeltaT/T

  8. Disturbance of deep-water reef communities by exploratory oil and gas operations in the Santa Maria basin and Santa Barbara channel. Final report, September 1992-September 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Diener, D.; Benech, S.V.; Busnardo, M.; Davis, N.; Evans, J.

    1995-09-01

    A study was undertaken to investigate the impacts to deep-water, hard-bottom benthic communities associated with disturbances caused by oil and gas exploratory operations on the Outer Continental Shelf of California. A literature survey compiled a history of exploratory oil and gas development and located wellsites where disturbances due to anchoring or discharges probably impacted hard-bottom communities. A photographic survey of the selected sites collected data for subsequent analyses on the type, distribution, and longevity of anchoring disturbances. Analyses of the field data revealed that less than one percent of hard-bottom habitat within the area of the mooring system was disturbed. The results of the study indicated that hard-bottom epifaunal communities do recover from these disturbances; however, recovery is highly dependent on the type of disturbance.

  9. High-resolution boomer seismic-reflection profiles of the shelf off southern California from cruise A-1-00-SC: Santa Monica Bay to San Diego

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gutmacher, Christina E.; Ross, Stephanie L.; Triezenberg, Peter J.; Sliter, Ray W.; Normark, William R.; Edwards, Brian D.

    2006-01-01

    High-resolution boomer data were collected in the California Continental Borderland as part of the southern California Earthquake Hazards Task of the Southern California Coastal and Marine Geology Regional Investigations Project. During the period from 1997 to 2002, five data-acquisition cruises collected seismic-reflection data using several different systems from offshore Santa Barbara, California, south to the Exclusive Economic Zone boundary with Mexico. A key mission of this project was to map late Quaternary deformation in addition to improving our understanding of which offshore fault zones might have potential to damage highly populated areas of southern California. State regulations concerning the use of seismic-reflection equipment within three miles of the coastline precluded the routine gathering of high-resolution multichannel data in that swath adjacent to the coast. Boomer seismic-reflection data, however, can be obtained within the state 3-mile limit provided the operation receives authorization from the California State Lands Commission. The Geopulse boomer data accessible through this report were collected on the cruise A-1-00-SC, which was the only survey where we requested permission to work inside the 3-mile limit of the State of California. These data are critical to discovering connections between onshore and offshore faults, the overall lengths of which are related to the potential size of an earthquake that might be generated along them. The 2000 survey was designed to fill the gap between onshore data and reflection data obtained in deeper water on previous cruises as well as data anticipated from future surveys. This report includes trackline maps showing the location of the data, as well as both digital data files (SEG-Y) and images of all of the profiles.

  10. Santa Maria Volcano, Guatemala

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The eruption of Santa Maria volcano in 1902 was one of the largest eruptions of the 20th century, forming a large crater on the mountain's southwest flank. Since 1922, a lava-dome complex, Santiaguito, has been forming in the 1902 crater. Growth of the dome has produced pyroclastic flows as recently as the 2001-they can be identified in this image. The city of Quezaltenango (approximately 90,000 people in 1989) sits below the 3772 m summit. The volcano is considered dangerous because of the possibility of a dome collapse such as one that occurred in 1929, which killed about 5000 people. A second hazard results from the flow of volcanic debris into rivers south of Santiaguito, which can lead to catastrophic flooding and mud flows. More information on this volcano can be found at web sites maintained by the Smithsonian Institution, Volcano World, and Michigan Tech University. ISS004-ESC-7999 was taken 17 February 2002 from the International Space Station using a digital camera. The image is provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. Searching and viewing of additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts is available at the NASA-JSC Gateway to

  11. Sections and View of Santa Clara Pueblo looking west from ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Sections and View of Santa Clara Pueblo looking west from channel of Santa Clara Creek - Pueblo of Santa Clara, Central Portion, State Road 30 Vicinity, Espanola Vicinity, Santa Clara Pueblo, Rio Arriba County, NM

  12. Santa Ana Forecasting and Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rolinski, T.; Eichhorn, D.; D'Agostino, B. J.; Vanderburg, S.; Means, J. D.

    2011-12-01

    Southern California experiences wildfires every year, but under certain circumstances these fires grow into extremely large and destructive fires, such as the Cedar Fire of 2003 and the Witch Fire of 2007. The Cedar Fire burned over 1100 km2 , destroyed more than 2200 homes and killed 15 people; the Witch fire burned more than 800 km2, destroyed more than 1000 homes and killed 2 people. Fires can quickly become too large and dangerous to fight if they are accompanied by a very strong "Santa Ana" condition, which is a foehn-like wind that may bring strong winds and very low humidities. However there is an entire range of specific weather conditions that fall into the broad category of Santa Anas, from cold and blustery to hot with very little wind. All types are characterized by clear skies and low humidity. Since the potential for destructive fire is dependent on the characteristics of Santa Anas, as well as the level of fuel moisture, there exists a need for further classification, such as is done with tropical cyclones and after-the-fact with tornadoes. We use surface data and fuel moisture combined with reanalysis to diagnose those conditions that result in Santa Anas with the greatest potential for destructive fires. We use this data to produce a new classification system for Santa Anas. This classification system should be useful for informing the relevant agencies for mitigation and response planning. In the future this same classification may be made available to the general public.

  13. Accumulation rates of biogenous silica and terrigenous detritus in late Miocene-early Pliocene Santa Maria basin, California

    SciTech Connect

    Ramiriz, P.C.

    1988-03-01

    The upper-Miocene-lower Pliocene laminated to massive diatomaceous strata of the Santa Maria basin encompass portions of the Monterey and overlying conformable to nonconformable Sisquoc Formations and record the continued accumulation of admixed siliceous (mostly diatoms) and terrigenous (silt and clay) components in a Neogene borderland basin. Lithologies, which vary from diatomite to diatomaceous mudstone, are the result of fluctuations in slope-accumulating silica and terrigenous debris. Bulk accumulation rates, as well as silica and terrigenous component accumulation rates, were calculated for four measured sections using accurate stratal thicknesses, absolute ages, rock compositions, and bulk densities. Bulk accumulation rates range from less than 20 to greater than 70 mg/cm/sup 2//year and are comparable to bulk accumulation rates in the present-day Santa Barbara basin and Gulf o f California. Silica accumulation rates (20-30 mg/cm/sup 2//year) suggest that sedimentation took place beneath productive waters and they exceed those encountered in other high-productivity oceanic areas, such as the Bering Sea and Peruvian coastal waters. Relatively high terrigenous accumulation rates (18-35 mg/cm/sup 2//year) reflect the dilution of these high-productivity waters by continentally derived detritus. Comparison of calculated accumulation rates with rates determined for similarly aged strata of the Santa Barbara basin reveals that silica and terrigenous debris were accumulating at higher rates within the Santa Maria basin. These differences are due to the complex interplay of tectonics and oceanographics and to the proximity of the basins relative to the strandline.

  14. Santa Clara Demonstration Status

    SciTech Connect

    Leo, Anthony J.; Skok, Andrew J.; O'Shea, Thomas P.

    1996-08-01

    Fuel Cell Engineering Corporation (FCE) is in the fourth year of a DOE Cooperative Agreement Program (private-sector cost-shared) aimed at the demonstration of ERC's direct carbonate fuel cell (DFC) technology at full scale. FCE is a wholly owned subsidiary of Energy Research Corporation (ERC), which has been pursuing the development of the DFC for commercialization near the end of this decade. The DFC produces power directly from hydrocarbon fuels electrochemically, without the need for external reforming or intermediate mechanical conversion steps. As a result, the DFC has the potential to achieve very high efficiency with very low levels of environmental emissions. Modular DFC power plants, which can be shop-fabricated and sited near the user, are ideally suited for distributed generation, cogeneration, industrial, and defense applications. This project is an integral part of the ERC effort to commercialize the technology to serve these applications. Potential users of the commercial DFC power plant under development at ERC will require that the technology be demonstrated at or near the full scale of the commercial products. The objective of the Santa Clara Demonstration Project (SCDP) is to provide the first such demonstration of the technology. The approach ERC has taken in the commercialization of the DFC is described in detail elsewhere [1]. Briefly, an aggressive core technology development program is in place which is focused by ongoing contact with customers and vendors to optimize the design of the commercial power plant. ERC has selected a 2.85 MW power plant unit for initial market entry. Two ERC subsidiaries are supporting the commercialization effort: The Fuel Cell Manufacturing Corporation (FCMC) and the Fuel Cell Engineering Corporation (FCE). FCMC manufactures carbonate stacks and multi-stack modules, currently from its manufacturing facility in Torrington, CT. FCE is responsible for power plant design, integration of all subsystems, sales

  15. University of California, Santa Cruz.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McHenry, Dean E.

    1993-01-01

    An overview of the evolution of the innovative University of California, Santa Cruz, looks at its origins, campus organization, curriculum and instructional philosophy, campus design, leadership and faculty, student population, campus life, and curriculum design. Strategies for and obstacles to effective change are highlighted. (MSE)

  16. The helminth fauna of the barbary partridge Alectoris barbara in Tenerife, Canary Islands.

    PubMed

    Foronda, P; Casanova, J C; Figueruelo, E; Abreu, N; Feliu, C

    2005-06-01

    The helminth fauna of the barbary partridge (Alectoris barbara) in Tenerife Island (Canary Archipelago) was studied from 2001 to 2002, as there were no records of helminths from this host in the Canary Islands. Seven helminth species were identified: two cestodes Choanotaenia infundibulum and Lyruterina nigropunctata, and five nematodes Aonchotheca caudinflata, Baruscapillaria obsignata, Eucoleus annulatus, Ascaridia galli and Heterakis gallinarum. Lyruterina nigropunctata, A. galli and E. annulatus are recorded for first time in A. barbara. An analysis of available data on Alectoris spp. reveals the importance of intermediate hosts such as arthropods and earthworms in the diet of partridges. Terrestrial helminths are dominant species, with monoxenous and heteroxenous species being present in similar numbers in different Alectoris species along their geographical distribution. Helminth species found in Tenerife from A. barbara are poor indicators of the host colonization from North Africa because these helminths are species that are commonly found in fowl with a cosmopolitan distribution. PMID:15946395

  17. A Brief Review of Barbara K. Townsend's Contributions to the Literature of Community College and Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katsinas, Stephen G.

    2009-01-01

    Barbara K. Townsend's faculty profile on the Web site of the University of Missouri-Columbia lists three areas of inquiry: access to and attainment of the baccalaureate, community college faculty, and teacher education in the community college. Many people who knew Barbara are well aware that her interests were far wider and more expansive. This…

  18. Mapping the Distribution of Wildfire Fuels Using AVIRIS in the Santa Monica Mountains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Dar; Gardner, M.; Regelbrugge, J.; Pedreros, D.; Ustin, S.

    1998-01-01

    Catastrophic wildfires, such as the 1990 Painted Cave Fire in Santa Barbara or Oakland fire of 1991, attest to the destructive potential of fire in the wildland/urban interface. For example, during the Painted Cave Fire, 673 structures were consumed over a period of only six hours at an estimated cost of 250 million dollars (Gomes et al., 1993). One of the primary sources of fuels is chaparral, which consists of plant species that are adapted to frequent fires and may actually promote its ignition and spread of through volatile organic compounds in foliage. As one of the most widely distributed plant communities in Southern California, and one of the most common vegetation types along the wildland urban interface, chaparral represents one of the greatest sources of wildfire hazard in the region. An ongoing NASA funded research project was initiated in 1994 to study the potential of AVIRIS for mapping wildfire fuel properties in Southern California chaparral. The project was initiated in the Santa Monica Mountains, an east-west trending range in western Los Angeles County that has experienced extremely high fire frequencies over the past 70 years. The Santa Monica Mountains were selected because they exemplify many of the problems facing the southwest, forming a complex mosaic of land ownership intermixed with a diversity of chaparral age classes and fuel loads. Furthermore, the area has a wide diversity of chaparral community types and a rich background in supporting geographic information including fire history, soils and topography. Recent fires in the Santa Monica Mountains, including several in 1993 and the Calabasas fire of 1996 attest to the active fire regime present in the area. The long term objectives of this project are to improve existing maps of wildland fuel properties in the area, link AVIRIS derived products to fuel models under development for the region, then predict fire hazard through models that simulate fire spread. In this paper, we describe

  19. Values in Doing and Writing Science: The Case of Barbara McClintock.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosner, Mary

    1994-01-01

    Articulates the perspective that regards science as a form of manufactured knowledge that is not objective but, like other forms of knowledge, culture-bound and historically specific. Suggests how some communicative difficulties suffered by the scientist Barbara McClintock can be traced to her unconventional practice. (HB)

  20. Research that Matters: An Interview with Barbara Townsend, April 25, 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bragg, Debra D.

    2009-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Barbara Townsend, recipient of the 2009 Exemplary Research Award from the American Educational Research Association (AERA), Division J, recognizing the impact of her work on the field. The "Community College Journal of Research and Practice" ("CCJRP") has been an important outlet for sharing Townsend's work…

  1. Christa McAuliffe and Barbara Morgan pose for photos after training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Sharon Christa McAuliffe (right), the Teacher in Space Payload specialist assigned to the 51-L mission, and her backup, Barbara R. Morgan pose for photos after training in the Shuttle mockup and integration laboratory at JSC. The Shuttle crew compartment, in a launch mode, can be seen in the background.

  2. Senator Barbara Mikulski and the Contagious “Learning Bug” | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    Sen. Barbara Mikulski came to NIH on April 11 to say goodbye. Following this fall’s election, the longest-serving woman in congressional history will relinquish her Maryland Senate seat, bringing to a close a 40-year national political career in which she staunchly supported NIH and biomedical research.

  3. Influential Practical Holism and Interdisciplinary Bridge Building: "An Interview with Barbara Clark"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henshon, Suzanna E.

    2007-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Dr. Barbara Clark, a Professor Emeritus of the Charter College of Education, California State University, Los Angeles. She was named California State University, Los Angeles Outstanding Professor of 1978-1979 and was nominated twice for the California State Universities and Colleges Trustees Award for…

  4. The non-convex shape of (234) Barbara, the first Barbarian*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanga, P.; Carry, B.; Colas, F.; Delbo, M.; Matter, A.; Hanuš, J.; Alí Lagoa, V.; Andrei, A. H.; Assafin, M.; Audejean, M.; Behrend, R.; Camargo, J. I. B.; Carbognani, A.; Cedrés Reyes, M.; Conjat, M.; Cornero, N.; Coward, D.; Crippa, R.; de Ferra Fantin, E.; Devogéle, M.; Dubos, G.; Frappa, E.; Gillon, M.; Hamanowa, H.; Jehin, E.; Klotz, A.; Kryszczyńska, A.; Lecacheux, J.; Leroy, A.; Manfroid, J.; Manzini, F.; Maquet, L.; Morelle, E.; Mottola, S.; Polińska, M.; Roy, R.; Todd, M.; Vachier, F.; Vera Hernández, C.; Wiggins, P.

    2015-04-01

    Asteroid (234) Barbara is the prototype of a category of asteroids that has been shown to be extremely rich in refractory inclusions, the oldest material ever found in the Solar system. It exhibits several peculiar features, most notably its polarimetric behaviour. In recent years other objects sharing the same property (collectively known as `Barbarians') have been discovered. Interferometric observations in the mid-infrared with the ESO VLTI (Very Large Telescope Interferometer) suggested that (234) Barbara might have a bi-lobated shape or even a large companion satellite. We use a large set of 57 optical light curves acquired between 1979 and 2014, together with the timings of two stellar occultations in 2009, to determine the rotation period, spin-vector coordinates, and 3-D shape of (234) Barbara, using two different shape reconstruction algorithms. By using the light curves combined to the results obtained from stellar occultations, we are able to show that the shape of (234) Barbara exhibits large concave areas. Possible links of the shape to the polarimetric properties and the object evolution are discussed. We also show that VLTI data can be modelled without the presence of a satellite.

  5. Live Supervision in Family Therapy: An Interview With Barbara Okun and Fred Piercy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, John D.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Describes special program on live supervision in family therapy given at 1988 annual American Association for Counseling and Development (AACD) Conference that featured experts Barbara Okun and Fred Piercy discussing "cotherapy" and "one-way mirror" live supervision approaches. Provides edited transcript of their program. (Author/CM)

  6. 76 FR 28226 - Ndahendekire Barbara v. African Shipping; Njoroge Muhia; Alco Logistics, Llc; Brenda Alexander...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-16

    ... Ndahendekire Barbara v. African Shipping; Njoroge Muhia; Alco Logistics, Llc; Brenda Alexander; and AIR 7 Seas... ``Complainant,'' against African Shipping; Njoroge Muhia, ALCO Logistics, LLC; Brenda Alexander; and Air 7 Seas Transport Logistics, Inc.; hereinafter ``Respondents''. Complainant asserts that she is acting agent...

  7. 77 FR 39638 - Safety Zone; Barbara Harder Wedding Fireworks, Lake Erie, Lake View, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-05

    ... DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking A... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Barbara Harder Wedding Fireworks, Lake Erie, Lake View, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard...

  8. Ano Nuevo to Santa Cruz, California : a photographic tour of the coastline

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chezar, Henry; Wong, Florence L.

    2000-01-01

    This interactive CD ROM contains over 500 overlapping photographic images of the California coastline from A?o Nuevo to Santa Cruz. The images were taken from the R/V David Johnston to illustrate the coastal geology adjacent to part of the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary. The introductory home page starts a series of links to a regional map, more detailed area maps, and finally the individual photographic images.

  9. 2. OBLIQUE VIEW TO NORTHEAST ALONG FRONT OF SANTA ANA ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. OBLIQUE VIEW TO NORTHEAST ALONG FRONT OF SANTA ANA RIVER DIVERSION DAM. NOTE CABLE CAR SUSPENSION CABLE AT GATE ATOP DAM. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, Santa Ana River Diversion Dam, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  10. The Monterey Formation of the Santa Ynez Unit, Part II: Fractures, borehole images, and production

    SciTech Connect

    Lockman, D.F.; Schwalbach, J.R. )

    1996-01-01

    The Santa Ynez Unit (SYU), operated by Exxon, USA, comprises sixteen Federal OCS leases in the western portion of the Santa Barbara Channel, offshore California. The three accumulations, Hondo, Pescado, and Sacate Fields, are trapped in a large complex of east-west trending anticlines. The Hondo and Harmony platforms produce from the Hondo structure, and the Heritage platform produces from the Pescado structure. Hondo platform production began in 1981, and approximately 130 MBO and 200 BCF have been produced. Drilling began from Harmony and Heritage platforms in 1993. The primary reservoir is the Miocene Monterey Formation, consisting of very thin interbeds of fine-grained siliceous mudstones, charts, porcelanites, and carbonate rocks. The majority of the recoverable reserves are contained in and produced from the extensive, high-permeability fracture network. Part of our formation evaluation program emphasizes fracture characterization and quantification by integrating a number of new technologies. We have calibrated borehole images to approximately 1000 feet of continuous cores from the main producing zones. This enables us to quantify levels of fracturing in wells without core, and to develop strategies for selective perforation of the most highly-productive intervals. Production logs and wireline formation tests provide valuable information about the relation between fluid entry to the well bore and fracture distribution. Borehole images also provide valuable information about fracture orientations, bed orientations, locally-developed chert folds, and lithofacies.

  11. The Monterey Formation of the Santa Ynez Unit, Part II: Fractures, borehole images, and production

    SciTech Connect

    Lockman, D.F.; Schwalbach, J.R.

    1996-12-31

    The Santa Ynez Unit (SYU), operated by Exxon, USA, comprises sixteen Federal OCS leases in the western portion of the Santa Barbara Channel, offshore California. The three accumulations, Hondo, Pescado, and Sacate Fields, are trapped in a large complex of east-west trending anticlines. The Hondo and Harmony platforms produce from the Hondo structure, and the Heritage platform produces from the Pescado structure. Hondo platform production began in 1981, and approximately 130 MBO and 200 BCF have been produced. Drilling began from Harmony and Heritage platforms in 1993. The primary reservoir is the Miocene Monterey Formation, consisting of very thin interbeds of fine-grained siliceous mudstones, charts, porcelanites, and carbonate rocks. The majority of the recoverable reserves are contained in and produced from the extensive, high-permeability fracture network. Part of our formation evaluation program emphasizes fracture characterization and quantification by integrating a number of new technologies. We have calibrated borehole images to approximately 1000 feet of continuous cores from the main producing zones. This enables us to quantify levels of fracturing in wells without core, and to develop strategies for selective perforation of the most highly-productive intervals. Production logs and wireline formation tests provide valuable information about the relation between fluid entry to the well bore and fracture distribution. Borehole images also provide valuable information about fracture orientations, bed orientations, locally-developed chert folds, and lithofacies.

  12. Assessment of the Santa Margarita Sandstone as a source of drinking water for the Scotts Valley area, Santa Cruz County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muir, K.S.

    1981-01-01

    Scotts Valley, Calif., is a rural residential area with a rapidly expanding population. Its mediterranean-type climate yields an average annual rainfall of 40 inches. The Santa Margarita Sandstone is the principal aquifer in the area, supplying about 90 percent of all water for domestic purposes. Sources of recharge for the Santa Margarita Sandstone are natural recharge, subsurface inflow from adjacent areas, artificial recharge, and deep penetration of excess irrigation water. Total domestic water use in 1979 was about 2,600 acre-feet. The quantity of ground water pumped for domestic use is expected to increase at a rate of 7 percent per year. Evapotranspiration, estimated to be about 29 inches per year, is the largest form of ground-water discharge. Ground water from the Santa Margarita Sandstone is generally suitable for domestic use. Potential for water-quality degradation exists from urban runoff, leachates from a solid-waste disposal site, and liquid wastes. Several agencies and individuals monitor surface-water and ground-water quality in the Scotts Valley area. Water from streams and the city of Santa Cruz are potential alternate sources of drinking water for the Scotts Valley area. (USGS)

  13. You're a "What"? Santa Claus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Royster, Sara

    2013-01-01

    Professional Santas entertain children and adults during the holiday season at all types of events. They work at shopping malls or stores; entertain crowds at parades and tree lightings; and make appearances at holiday parties, charity events, and people's homes. Most Santas work during the Christmas holiday season, which usually lasts from late…

  14. Santa Claus, Ga./Ind.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The towns of Santa Claus, Ga., (top) and Santa Claus, Ind. (bottom), are shown in these two images from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) instrument on NASA's Terra satellite. They are the only two Santa Claus towns in the United States with post offices and zip codes, although there are 11 towns with this name in the United States. Santa Claus, Ga. is located in Toombs County, and has a population of 237. Santa Claus, Ind. is located in Spencer County, and has a population of 2,041. Its name was accepted by the United States Postal Service in 1856. The images were acquired on July 3, 2000 (top) and June 16, 2001 (bottom), respectively.

    With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is the U.S. science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Earth Science

  15. Christa McAuliffe and Barbara Morgan train with Airiflex camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Two women in training at JSC as part of the Teacher-in-Space Project and a position on NASA's STS 51-L mission learn handling of the Airiflex motion picture camera used on Shuttle flights. Sharon Christa McAuliffe (left) was named as prime crewmember for the 51-L flight; and Barbara R. Morgan, here lending help with camera's lens, will serve as backup.

  16. 46 CFR 148.445 - Adjacent spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Adjacent spaces. 148.445 Section 148.445 Shipping COAST... THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Additional Special Requirements § 148.445 Adjacent spaces. When... following requirements must be met: (a) Each space adjacent to a cargo hold must be ventilated by...

  17. 46 CFR 148.445 - Adjacent spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Adjacent spaces. 148.445 Section 148.445 Shipping COAST... THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Additional Special Requirements § 148.445 Adjacent spaces. When... following requirements must be met: (a) Each space adjacent to a cargo hold must be ventilated by...

  18. 46 CFR 148.445 - Adjacent spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Adjacent spaces. 148.445 Section 148.445 Shipping COAST... THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Additional Special Requirements § 148.445 Adjacent spaces. When... following requirements must be met: (a) Each space adjacent to a cargo hold must be ventilated by...

  19. 46 CFR 148.445 - Adjacent spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Adjacent spaces. 148.445 Section 148.445 Shipping COAST... THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Additional Special Requirements § 148.445 Adjacent spaces. When... following requirements must be met: (a) Each space adjacent to a cargo hold must be ventilated by...

  20. Characterizing benthic substrates of Santa Monica Bay with seafloor photography and multibeam sonar imagery.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Brian D; Dartnell, Peter; Chezar, Henry

    2003-01-01

    Seafloor photography from three cruises is combined with multibeam sonar imagery to characterize benthic substrates and associated fauna of Santa Monica Bay, California. The multibeam EM1000 imagery was collected in 1996. Two sampling cruises (in 1998 and 1999) provided photographs at 142 sites throughout the Bay; a final cruise (in 2000) collected still photographs and continuous video along nine transects on the mainland shelf from Pt. Dume to the Palos Verdes peninsula. Muddy substrates (typically low backscatter) were the predominant habitat throughout the Santa Monica Bay, from the 20 m isobath to the adjacent Santa Monica basin floor (780 m). Bioturbation was pervasive as evidenced by abundant open burrows, mounds, and faunal tracks and trails. Sandy substrates (typically intermediate to high backscatter) were restricted to the innermost mainland shelf and a narrow outer shelf band north of Santa Monica Canyon. Cobble and gravel substrates (high backscatter) were restricted to the innermost shelf south of El Segundo and limited parts of the shelf edge. Rocky substrates (high backscatter) with interspersed patches of sand and gravel occurred on the high-relief marginal plateau and along parts of the shelf break offshore of Malibu. PMID:12648949

  1. Geohistory analysis of the Santa Maria basin, California, and its relationship to tectonic evolution of the continental margin

    SciTech Connect

    McCrory, P.A.; Arends, R.G. ); Ingle, J.C. Jr. ); Isaacs, C.M.; Stanley, R.G. ); Thornton, M.L.C. )

    1991-02-01

    The Santa Maria basin of central California is a geologically complex area located along the tectonically active California continental margin. The record of Cenozoic tectonism preserved in Santa Maria strata provides an opportunity to compare the evolution of the region with plate tectonic models for Cenozoic interactions along the margin. Geohistory analysis of Neogene Santa Maria basin strata provides important constraints for hypotheses of the tectonic evolution of the central California margin during its transition from a convergent to a transform plate boundary. Preliminary analyses suggest that the tectonic evolution of the Santa Maria area was dominated by coupling between adjacent oceanic plates and the continental margin. This coupling is reflected in the timing of major hiatuses within the basin sedimentary sequence and margin subsidence and uplift which occurred during periods of tectonic plate adjustment. Stratigraphic evidence indicates that the Santa Maria basin originated on the continental shelf in early Miocene time. A component of margin subsidence is postulated to have been caused by cessation of spreading on adjacent offshore microplates approximately 19-18 ma. A sharp reduction in rate of tectonic subsidence in middle Miocene time, observed in the Santa Maria basin both onshore and offshore, was coeval with rotation of crustal blocks as major shearing shifts shoreward. Tectonic uplift of two eastern sites, offshore Point Arguello and near Point Sal, in the late Miocene may have been related to a change to transpressional motion between the Pacific and North American plates, as well as to rotation of the western Transverse Ranges in a restraining geometry.

  2. Italy - Adriatic Sea - Barbara - A giant gas field marked by seismic velocity anomaly - A subtle trap

    SciTech Connect

    Ianniello, A.; Bolelli, W.; Di Scala, L. )

    1990-09-01

    Barbara gas field, discovered in 1971, is located in the northern sector of the Adriatic offshore. The field is a gentle anticline involving Quaternary clastic sediments and shaped by carbonate Mesozoic morphology. The presence of shallow gas pockets at the crest of the structure distort the seismic signal to such an extent that structural reconstruction using seismic data is not possible. Moreover, time delays and ray-path anomalies do not allow the use of staking velocities for the depth conversion. Seismic attribute analysis, instead of velocities, and time delays on the isochrone maps are providing a key to the understanding of seismic anomalies and are an indirect tool for reconstructing the real structural configuration of the field. The appraisal story of the field illustrates how the previously mentioned complications influenced its delineation and how an understanding of these complications helped in upgrading the reserves from an initial value of 10 billion ECM of gas to 40 billion ECM. Additional data acquired with the development wells tend to increase the estimate. Therefore, Barbara field is the most important Italian gas field of the decade. The producing formation is composed of very thin-bedded sandstone and shale intercalations, representing the peculiarity of this reservoir. Development of the field is being achieved with six production platforms and 72 wells.

  3. School/College/Business Partnerships. Proceedings: The Conference of the University/Urban Schools National Task Force (10th, Santa Barbara, California, November 4-5, 1988).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bossone, Richard M., Ed.; Polishook, Irwin H., Ed.

    The participants in this conference were in virtual agreement that improvement in urban public education is largely dependent on economic and racial equity and that schools, colleges, and businesses must unite through collaborative projects to ensure this improvement. Papers presented were the following: (1) Businessman: "Private Sector Support…

  4. Technical Report from the High Energy Physics Group of the University of California, Santa Barbara, DOE grant DE-FG02-91ER40618

    SciTech Connect

    Richman, Jeffrey; Berenstein, David; Campagnari, Claudio; Giddings, Steven; Incandela, Joseph; Nelson, Harry; Stuart, David; Witherell, Michael

    2014-09-11

    The research program of the UCSB high energy physics group encompasses advanced projects in both experimental and theoretical particle physics. This program has been strongly supported by the DOE Office of High Energy Physics for many years. The program addresses questions related to the properties of matter, the fundamental forces of nature, the origin and evolution of the universe, and the nature of spacetime. The mission of the group also has a strong educational component, and the training of physicists in advanced research is a key part of our program.

  5. 75 FR 55709 - Port Access Route Study: In the Approaches to Los Angeles-Long Beach and in the Santa Barbara...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-14

    ... may decrease the potential for collisions, oil spills, and other events that could threaten the marine... a notice of study in the Federal Register on April 7, 2010 (75 FR 17562), entitled ``Port Access... Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Information on Service for Individuals With Disabilities For information...

  6. 76 FR 67395 - Port Access Route Study: In the Approaches to Los Angeles-Long Beach and in the Santa Barbara...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-01

    ... with particular caution and within which the direction of traffic flow may be recommended. Traffic lane... published a notice of study in the Federal Register on April 7, 2010 (75 FR 17562), entitled ``Port...

  7. 75 FR 17562 - Port Access Route Study: In the Approaches to Los Angeles-Long Beach and in the Santa Barbara...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-07

    ... particular caution and within which the direction of traffic flow may be recommended. Recommended route means..., 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). II. Definitions The following definitions (except... (61 FR 55248). The study recommended shifting the southern approach lanes of the existing TSS off...

  8. Population size of island loggerhead shrikes on Santa Rosa and Santa Cruz Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stanley, Thomas R.; Teel, Susan; Hall, Linnea S.; Dye, Linda C.; Laughrin, Lyndal L.

    2012-01-01

    Island loggerhead shrikes (Lanius ludovicianus anthonyi) are an endemic, genetically distinct subspecies of loggerhead shrike on California's Santa Rosa, Santa Cruz, and Santa Catalina Islands (USA). This subspecies is listed as a Species of Special Concern by the California Department of Fish and Game and has been petitioned for federal listing under the Endangered Species Act. The combination of suspected low numbers and the possibility of federal listing, prompted us to undertake a study to rigorously estimate the number of remaining individuals on Santa Rosa and Santa Cruz Islands. During the 2009 and 2010 breeding seasons, we surveyed sample units on Santa Rosa and Santa Cruz Islands using a double-observer method with independent observers to estimate joint detection probabilities (p), where we selected units under a stratified random sampling design. We estimated shrike abundance to be 169 in 2009 (p = 0.476) and 240 in 2010 (p = 0.825) for Santa Rosa Island, and 35 in 2009 (p = 0.816) and 42 in 2010 (p = 0.710) for Santa Cruz Island. These numbers, especially for Santa Rosa Island, are higher than previously reported but nevertheless are still low. Rapid vegetation change on both islands due to recent removal of nonnative herbivores may threaten the habitat and status of this subspecies and, therefore, we suggest that intensive demographic and habitat use research be initiated immediately to obtain additional information vital for the management of this subspecies. Published 2012. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  9. 43 CFR 420.3 - Adjacent lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Adjacent lands. 420.3 Section 420.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...-managing agencies on adjacent lands (both public and private)....

  10. 43 CFR 420.3 - Adjacent lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Adjacent lands. 420.3 Section 420.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...-managing agencies on adjacent lands (both public and private)....

  11. 43 CFR 420.3 - Adjacent lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Adjacent lands. 420.3 Section 420.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFF-ROAD VEHICLE USE § 420.3 Adjacent lands. When administratively feasible, the regulation of off-road vehicle use on Reclamation lands will...

  12. 43 CFR 420.3 - Adjacent lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Adjacent lands. 420.3 Section 420.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...-managing agencies on adjacent lands (both public and private)....

  13. 43 CFR 420.3 - Adjacent lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Adjacent lands. 420.3 Section 420.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFF-ROAD VEHICLE USE § 420.3 Adjacent lands. When administratively feasible, the regulation of...

  14. Nine endangered taxa, one recovering ecosystem: Identifying common ground for recovery on Santa Cruz Island, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McEachern, A. Kathryn; Wilken, Dieter H.

    2011-01-01

    It is not uncommon to have several rare and listed taxa occupying habitats in one landscape or management area where conservation amounts to defense against the possibility of further loss. It is uncommon and extremely exciting, however, to have several listed taxa occupying one island that is managed cooperatively for conservation and recovery. On Santa Cruz Island, the largest of the northern California island group in the Santa Barbara Channel, we have a golden opportunity to marry ecological knowledge and institutional "good will" in a field test of holistic rare plant conservation. Here, the last feral livestock have been removed, active weed control is underway, and management is focused on understanding and demonstrating system response to conservation management. Yet funding limitations still exist and we need to plan the most fiscally conservative and marketable approach to rare plant restoration. We still experience the tension between desirable quick results and the ecological pace of system recovery. Therefore, our research has focused on identifying fundamental constraints on species recovery at individual, demographic, habitat, and ecosystem levels, and then developing suites of actions that might be taken across taxa and landscapes. At the same time, we seek a performance middle ground that balances an institutional need for quick demonstration of hands-on positive results with a contrasting approach that allows ecosystem recovery to facilitate species recovery in the long term. We find that constraints vary across breeding systems, life-histories, and island locations. We take a hybrid approach in which we identify several actions that we can take now to enhance population size or habitat occupancy for some taxa by active restoration, while allowing others to recover at the pace of ecosystem change. We make our recommendations on the basis of data we have collected over the last decade, so that management is firmly grounded in ecological observation.

  15. Estimating the population size of island loggerhead shrikes on Santa Rosa and Santa Cruz Islands, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stanley, Thomas R.; Teel, Susan; Hall, Linnea S.; Dye, Linda C.; Laughrin, Lyndal L.

    2012-01-01

    Island loggerhead shrikes (Lanius ludovicianus anthonyi) are an endemic, genetically distinct subspecies of loggerhead shrike on California’s Santa Rosa and Santa Cruz Islands. This subspecies is listed as a Species of Special Concern by the California Department of Fish and Game and has been petitioned for federal listing under the Endangered Species Act. Because of suspected low numbers and the possibility of federal listing, there was an urgent need to rigorously estimate the number of remaining individuals on the Islands. In 2009 and 2010, biologists from the U.S. Geological Survey and the National Park Service surveyed sample units on Santa Rosa and Santa Cruz Islands using a double-observer method with independent observers, where units were selected under a stratified random sampling design. Shrike abundance was estimated to be 169 in 2009 and 240 in 2010 for Santa Rosa Island, and 35 in 2009 and 42 in 2010 for Santa Cruz Island. These numbers, especially for Santa Rosa Island, are higher than previously reported but nevertheless are still low. Rapid vegetation change on both islands due to recent removal of non-native herbivores may threaten the habitat and status of this subspecies. In view of this circumstance and the still-low numbers of shrikes, additional intensive demographic and habitat-use studies are critical for obtaining information vital for the perpetuation of this subspecies.

  16. Lens-effect in Santa Monica?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alex, Carmen M.; Olsen, Kim B.

    We used finite-difference simulations of 10-Hz P-SV and SH waves to estimate the contribution from the deep basin structure to the large ground motion amplification in Santa Monica, California, observed for seismic waves incident from the north. Our simulations of a 17-km deep Northridge aftershock with epicenter 30 km north of Santa Monica show that focusing at the lens-shaped boundary of the sediments can only account for less than half the amplification observed in the area that was heavily damaged during the 1994 M 6.7 Northridge earthquake. The focusing in the simulations caused amplification of up to 1.6 times in a zone 0.65-2.4 km south of the Santa Monica fault and de-amplification at sites just south of the fault where some of the largest amplification is observed in the data.

  17. 60. NEEDLE AND NOZZLE TIP, SANTA ANA NO. 1, SOUTHERN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    60. NEEDLE AND NOZZLE TIP, SANTA ANA NO. 1, SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA EDISON CO., APR. 28, 1910, REVISED MAY 12, 1910. SCE drawing no. 4500. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, SAR-1 Powerhouse, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  18. 34. ELEVATION OF RELAY AND CONTROL SWITCHBOARD, SANTA ANA RIVER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. ELEVATION OF RELAY AND CONTROL SWITCHBOARD, SANTA ANA RIVER P.H. #3, JUNE 23, 1943. SCE drawing no. 413187-1. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, SAR-3 Powerhouse, San Bernardino National Forest, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  19. 4. PENSTOCKS. EXHIBIT L, SANTA ANA RIVER NO. 1 PROJECT, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. PENSTOCKS. EXHIBIT L, SANTA ANA RIVER NO. 1 PROJECT, APR. 30, 1945. SCE drawing no. 523197 (sheet no. 7; for filing with Federal Power Commission). - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, SAR-1 Forebay & Penstock, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  20. 52. INDOOR SWITCHRACK, ELEVATION AND SECTIONS. SANTA ANA RIVER NO. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    52. INDOOR SWITCHRACK, ELEVATION AND SECTIONS. SANTA ANA RIVER NO. 2, DEC. 11, 1951, AND MAR. 20, 1952. SCE drawing no. 534986-2. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, SAR-2 Powerhouse, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  1. 54. ALDER CREEK DIVERSION, PROJECT 1933, EXHIBIT F, SANTA ANA ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    54. ALDER CREEK DIVERSION, PROJECT 1933, EXHIBIT F, SANTA ANA POWERHOUSE NO. 2 SCE drawing no. 5206858, no date (FERC no. 1933-48). - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  2. 53. NEW BCB AND LIGHTNING ARRESTER ARRANGEMENT, SANTA ANA RIVER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    53. NEW BCB AND LIGHTNING ARRESTER ARRANGEMENT, SANTA ANA RIVER NO. 2, JAN. 24, 1977. SCE drawing no. 455670-0. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, SAR-2 Powerhouse, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  3. 3. TAILRACE AND FOREBAY, SANTA ANA NO. 3, EXHIBIT L, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. TAILRACE AND FOREBAY, SANTA ANA NO. 3, EXHIBIT L, JAN. 25, 1956. SCE drawing no. 541475 (sheet 6; for filing with Federal Power Commission). - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, SAR-3 Forebay & Penstock, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  4. 32. SHAW BOX 5 TON CRANE, SANTA ANA RIVER NO. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. SHAW BOX 5 TON CRANE, SANTA ANA RIVER NO. 3, JAN. 24, 1977. SCE drawing no. 455678-0. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, SAR-3 Powerhouse, San Bernardino National Forest, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  5. 41. EXTERNAL ELEVATIONS, POWER HOUSE SANTA ANA RIVER NO. 2, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    41. EXTERNAL ELEVATIONS, POWER HOUSE SANTA ANA RIVER NO. 2, EDISON ELECTRIC CO., NOV. 3, 1904. SCE drawing no. 5392. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, SAR-2 Powerhouse, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  6. 56. CROSS SECTION OF POWERHOUSE, PROJECT 1933, EXHIBIT F, SANTA ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    56. CROSS SECTION OF POWERHOUSE, PROJECT 1933, EXHIBIT F, SANTA ANA POWERHOUSE NO. 1. SCE drawing no. 5206856 (no date; FERC no. 1933-46). - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, SAR-1 Powerhouse, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  7. 54. PLAN OF POWERHOUSE, PROJECT 1933, EXHIBIT F, SANTA ANA ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    54. PLAN OF POWERHOUSE, PROJECT 1933, EXHIBIT F, SANTA ANA POWERHOUSE NO. 1. SCE drawing no. 5206855 (no date; FERC no. 1933-45). - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, SAR-1 Powerhouse, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  8. 51. SWITCHBOARD ELEVATIONS, SANTA ANA RIVER NO. 2, DEC. 14, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    51. SWITCHBOARD ELEVATIONS, SANTA ANA RIVER NO. 2, DEC. 14, 1951; REVISIONS, MAR. 20 AND SEPT. 19, 1952. SCE drawing no. 534984-2. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, SAR-2 Powerhouse, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  9. 4. INTERIOR OF ABANDONED SANTA ANA CANAL TUNNEL, SHOWING CEMENT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. INTERIOR OF ABANDONED SANTA ANA CANAL TUNNEL, SHOWING CEMENT TROUGH FLOOR AND UNFINISHED GRANITE ROOF. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, Abandoned Tunnel, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  10. 53. SIPHON NO. 1, SANTA ANA RIVER NO. 2 PROJECT, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    53. SIPHON NO. 1, SANTA ANA RIVER NO. 2 PROJECT, EXHIBIT L, PROJECT 1933, MAY 1973. SCE drawing no. 5110869 (sheet no. 11; for filing with Federal Power Commission). - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  11. 42. FOUNDATIONS TAIL RACE, ETC., POWER HOUSE SANTA ANA ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. FOUNDATIONS - TAIL RACE, ETC., POWER HOUSE SANTA ANA RIVER NO. 2, EDISON ELECTRIC CO., NOV. 3, 1904. SCE drawing no. 5393. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, SAR-2 Powerhouse, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  12. 57. ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT PLOT PLAN, SANTA ANA NO. 1 HYDRO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    57. ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT PLOT PLAN, SANTA ANA NO. 1 HYDRO PLANT, OCTOBER 10, 1958. SCE drawing no. 428615-0. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, SAR-1 Powerhouse, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  13. 49. BEAR CREEK AND SANTA ANA RIVER DIVERSION DAMS AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    49. BEAR CREEK AND SANTA ANA RIVER DIVERSION DAMS AND CONCRETE CONDUIT NO. 1, PROJECT 1933, EXHIBIT F, SANTA ANA POWERHOUSE NO. 1. SCE drawing no. 5206851, no date (FERC no. 1933-41). - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  14. 52. POWER HOUSE AREA, SANTA ANA NO. 2; DETAIL MAP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    52. POWER HOUSE AREA, SANTA ANA NO. 2; DETAIL MAP OF SANTA ANA NO. 1 AND NO. 2 HYDROELECTRIC PROJECT, EXHIBIT K, APR. 30, 1945. SCE drawing no. 523691 (sheet no. 6; for filing with the Federal Power Commission). - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  15. 33 CFR 80.1102 - Santa Catalina Island, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Santa Catalina Island, CA. 80... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1102 Santa Catalina Island, CA. The 72 COLREGS shall apply to the harbors on Santa Catalina Island....

  16. 33 CFR 80.1102 - Santa Catalina Island, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Santa Catalina Island, CA. 80... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1102 Santa Catalina Island, CA. The 72 COLREGS shall apply to the harbors on Santa Catalina Island....

  17. 33 CFR 80.1102 - Santa Catalina Island, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Santa Catalina Island, CA. 80... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1102 Santa Catalina Island, CA. The 72 COLREGS shall apply to the harbors on Santa Catalina Island....

  18. 33 CFR 80.1102 - Santa Catalina Island, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Santa Catalina Island, CA. 80... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1102 Santa Catalina Island, CA. The 72 COLREGS shall apply to the harbors on Santa Catalina Island....

  19. 33 CFR 80.1102 - Santa Catalina Island, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Santa Catalina Island, CA. 80... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1102 Santa Catalina Island, CA. The 72 COLREGS shall apply to the harbors on Santa Catalina Island....

  20. 78 FR 66982 - Santa Clara Pueblo Disaster #NM-00039

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-07

    ... ADMINISTRATION Santa Clara Pueblo Disaster NM-00039 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice... for the Santa Clara Pueblo (FEMA- 4151-DR), dated 10/29/2013. Incident: Severe Storms and Flooding... disaster: Primary Areas: Santa Clara Pueblo. The Interest Rates are: Percent For Physical Damage:...

  1. 51. INTAKE AND POWER HOUSE AREAS, SANTA ANA NO. 1; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    51. INTAKE AND POWER HOUSE AREAS, SANTA ANA NO. 1; DETAIL MAP OF SANTA ANA NO. 1 AND NO. 2 HYDROELECTRIC PROJECT, EXHIBIT K, APR. 30, 1945. SCE drawing no. 523690 (sheet no. 5; for filing with the Federal Power Commission). - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  2. 2. 'SANTA ANA RIVER AT CHINO CREEK, RIVERSIDE COUNTY.' This ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. 'SANTA ANA RIVER AT CHINO CREEK, RIVERSIDE COUNTY.' This is an oblique aerial view to the north, looking over the flooded fields between Chino Creek and the Santa Ana River, just upstream of the Prado Dam site. File number written on negative: R & H 80 024. - Prado Dam, Santa Ana River near junction of State Highways 71 & 91, Corona, Riverside County, CA

  3. Barbara L. Bonner: Award for Distinguished Contributions of Applications of Psychology to Education and Training.

    PubMed

    2014-11-01

    The Award for Distinguished Contributions of Applications of Psychology to Education and Training acknowledges psychologists who contribute to new teaching methods or solutions to learning problems through the use of research findings or evidence-based practices. Particular emphasis is placed on the use of psychological knowledge to improve learning in educational settings, including prekindergarten to Grade 12, or in communities. The 2014 recipient is Barbara L. Bonner. She is acknowledged for "her passionate determination to improve the lives of children throughout the world by training countless professionals to be leaders in the field of child maltreatment, for her leadership in establishing one of the most highly respected centers for the study of child maltreatment in the nation, and for directing an interdisciplinary training program on child maltreatment. Bonner's award citation, biography, and a selected bibliography are presented here. PMID:25486157

  4. School Public Relations and the Principalship: An Interview with Barbara Chester, President of the National Association of Elementary School Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steaffens, Susan

    2011-01-01

    As the current president of National Association of Elementary School Principals (NAESP), Barbara Chester has the responsibility of representing the organization's members in their efforts as advocates for children. Principal Chester's answers to the interview questions reflect the challenges facing schools and the role that principals need to…

  5. 75 FR 76453 - CAlifornians for Renewable Energy, Inc., (CARE), and Barbara Durkin v. National Grid, Cape Wind...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-08

    .... National Grid, Cape Wind, and the Massachusetts Department of Public Utilities; Notice of Complaint...) and Barbara Durkin (Complainants) filed a complaint against National Grid, Cape Wind, and the... rates for electricity under its jurisdiction. Any person desiring to intervene or to protest this...

  6. An Interview with Barbara Keogh: Observations of Her Career and the Role of Context in Understanding Children with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chamberlain, Steven P.

    2011-01-01

    Barbara Keogh is a true Californian. She was born in Glendale, received her education and professional training in California colleges and universities, and has been a professor at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) for more than 40 years, where she is now Emerita. She is a licensed clinical psychologist and has worked as a…

  7. A new species of Eimeria Schneider, 1875 (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from Alectoris barbara (Aves: Phasianidae) from the Canary Islands (Spain).

    PubMed

    Fernández-Alvarez, A; Modry, D; Foronda, P

    2016-05-01

    The present study was conducted with the objective of identifying the species of Eimeria present in a cynegetic farm. A new coccidian (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) species is described from Barbary partridge, Alectoris barbara, from the Canary Islands. Experimental infections were carried out in order to determine the prepatent period, sporulation time, site of infection, and morphology of endogenous stages. One species is described as new. Eimeria barbarae n. sp. has ellipsoidal oocysts, 20.0 × 14.4 (16-23 × 13-16) μm, with a shape-index (SI) of 1.39. Sporocysts are almond-shaped, 9.0 × 5.4 (6.5-11 × 4.5-6) μm, SI = 1.56. The endogenous development takes place along the intestine. The present study showed that E. barbarae causes severe pathologies in A. barbara chickens, with impact on their health condition. Control strategies needs to be implemented to reduce the loss due to coccidiosis at studied farm. PMID:26792431

  8. Geology of the Continental Margin Beneath Santa Monica Bay, Southern California, from Small-Airgun, Seismic-Reflection Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, M. A.; Normark, W. R.; Bohannon, R. G.; Sliter, R. W.; Calvert, A. J.

    2001-12-01

    Small-airgun, multichannel-seismic-reflection (MCS) data collected in Santa Monica Bay reveal the geologic structure of the continental shelf and of the adjacent basin slope and deep-water basins. The Palos Verdes fault under the northern, shallow part of the bay cannot be identified in seismic-reflection data, even though many studies suggest its presence. This fault neither offsets the seafloor nor cuts through an undeformed sediment apron. Other major faults, such as the east-west Dume fault under the northern part of Santa Monica Bay, show evidence for recent activity. Tomographic-velocity data, derived from arrivals along the LARSE, deep-crustal MCS streamer, show that metamorphic rocks, probably the Catalina schist, underlie Santa Monica Bay and the deep-water Santa Monica basin to the south. The Santa Monica canyon marks a significant change in deformation of the lower slope of the Santa Monica Basin. North and northwest of this canyon, the slope is underlain by a little-deformed sediment apron; the main apron structures are two anticlines that extend toward Point Dume and are cored by reverse or thrust faults. Southeast of the canyon, lower-slope rocks are deformed by a complex zone of strike-slip, normal and reverse faults. The San Pedro bathymetric escarpment rises abruptly along the southeast side of Santa Monica Canyon. Structures underpinning this escarpment steepen progressively southeastward; they cut downward into basement rocks, and merge with the San Pedro Basin fault zone, which is nearly vertical and possibly strike-slip. The escarpment and its attendant structures extend for 60 km along the margin, separating the continental shelf from the mid-bathyal Santa Monica and San Pedro basins. The Santa Monica Basin, the more extensive of the two, contains about 1.5 km of turbidite fill that is deformed only near the northern basin margin. Data from ODP site 1015 indicate that this fill is most likely no older than Quaternary, and possibly no older

  9. SOUTH SANTA CLARA COUNTY MIGRANT TREATMENT CLINIC.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SKILLICORN, STANLEY A.

    IN THE SUMMER OF 1965, A MIGRANT HEALTH CLINIC WAS STARTED IN THE SOUTHERN PART OF SANTA CLARA COUNTY, CALIFORNIA. THE CLINIC DIFFERS FROM THE PUBLIC HEALTH DEPARTMENT'S CLINICS BY OFFERING TREATMENT AND MEDICATION, INSTEAD OF ONLY PREVENTIVE SERVICES. THE ENTIRE STAFF, FROM DOCTORS TO BABY-SITTERS, VOLUNTEERS ITS TIME, AND THE CLINIC IS NOW OPEN…

  10. Santa Claus and the Conservation of Energy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hassani, Sadri

    2005-01-01

    This article examines an amusing application of the concept of kinetic energy. Using some rudimentary physical notions, we have analysed the energetics of the motion of Santa Claus. The results, which are quite surprising, can be of interest to high school and early college physics educators when they teach kinetic energy, and energy conservation…

  11. Santa Cruz Community Service Television Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frederiksen, Herbert Allan

    A non-profit corporation, called the Santa Cruz Community Service Television Project (S.C.C.S.T.P.), is proposed that would produce videotape for the purpose of intra-community communication. The corporation would use portable videotape equipment to record a variety of community programs, such as an ecological history of the Monterey Bay area, the…

  12. Santa Rosa, California: Solar in Action (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-10-01

    This brochure provides an overview of the challenges and successes of Santa Rosa, CA, a 2008 Solar America City awardee, on the path toward becoming a solar-powered community. Accomplishments, case studies, key lessons learned, and local resource information are given.

  13. Educational and Demographic Profile: Santa Clara County

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Postsecondary Education Commission, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This profile uniquely presents a variety of educational and socioeconomic information for Santa Clara County, nearby counties, and the state. The profile highlights the relationship between various factors that affect the economic well-being of individuals and communities. This presentation of information provides a framework for enhanced…

  14. Educational and Demographic Profile: Santa Cruz County

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Postsecondary Education Commission, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This profile uniquely presents a variety of educational and socioeconomic information for Santa Cruz County, nearby counties, and the state. The profile highlights the relationship between various factors that affect the economic well-being of individuals and communities. This presentation provides a framework for enhanced communication and…

  15. Ecotourism: The Santa Elena Rainforest Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wearing, Stephen

    1993-01-01

    Describes an ecotourism project in which the community of Santa Elena, Costa Rica, are developing a rainforest reserve on government land leased permanently to the local high school. Discusses the impact of the project on the community's economy and environment. (Contains 30 references.) (MDH)

  16. USEPA Santa Cruz River Public Survey Research

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA Office of Research and Development, Western Ecology Division is investigating how urban households value different possibilities for the Santa Cruz River in southern Arizona. A random sample of households in the Phoenix and Tucson areas are being asked to provide their ...

  17. Evaluation of animal control measures on pet demographics in Santa Clara County, California, 1993–2006

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Karen L.; Weng, Hsin-Yi

    2013-01-01

    The measurable benefits of animal control programs are unknown and the aim of this study was to determine the impact of these programs on pet population changes. A prospective cross-sectional study of 1000 households was implemented in 2005 to evaluate characteristics of the owned and unowned population of dogs and cats in Santa Clara County, California. The same population was previously studied 12 years earlier. During this time period, the county instituted in 1994 and then subsequently disestablished a municipal spay/neuter voucher program for cats. Dog intakes declined from 1992–2005, as they similarly did for an adjacent county (San Mateo). However, cat intakes declined significantly more in Santa Clara County than San Mateo, with an average annual decline of approximately 700 cats for the 12 year period. Time series analysis showed a greater than expected decline in the number of cats surrendered to shelters in Santa Clara County during the years the voucher program was in effect (1994–2005). The net savings to the county by reducing the number of cat shelter intakes was estimated at approximately $1.5 million. The measurable benefits of animal control programs are unknown and the aim of this study was to determine the impact of these programs on pet population changes. PMID:23638352

  18. Evaluation of animal control measures on pet demographics in Santa Clara County, California, 1993-2006.

    PubMed

    Kass, Philip H; Johnson, Karen L; Weng, Hsin-Yi

    2013-01-01

    The measurable benefits of animal control programs are unknown and the aim of this study was to determine the impact of these programs on pet population changes. A prospective cross-sectional study of 1000 households was implemented in 2005 to evaluate characteristics of the owned and unowned population of dogs and cats in Santa Clara County, California. The same population was previously studied 12 years earlier. During this time period, the county instituted in 1994 and then subsequently disestablished a municipal spay/neuter voucher program for cats. Dog intakes declined from 1992-2005, as they similarly did for an adjacent county (San Mateo). However, cat intakes declined significantly more in Santa Clara County than San Mateo, with an average annual decline of approximately 700 cats for the 12 year period. Time series analysis showed a greater than expected decline in the number of cats surrendered to shelters in Santa Clara County during the years the voucher program was in effect (1994-2005). The net savings to the county by reducing the number of cat shelter intakes was estimated at approximately $1.5 million. The measurable benefits of animal control programs are unknown and the aim of this study was to determine the impact of these programs on pet population changes. PMID:23638352

  19. Comparing the historic olive trees (Olea europaea L.) of Santa Cruz with contemporaneous trees in the Santa Barbara, CA area: a case study of diversity and structure in an introduced agricultural species conserved in situ

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Historic populations of crop species outside their centers of origin and diversity, like the domestic olive (Olea europaea L.) in North America, are genetic resources for contemporary agriculture, including genotypes that could be adapted to, local conditions. The primary goal of this study was to d...

  20. Debris flows and Record Floods from Extreme Mesoscale Convective Thunderstorms over the Santa Catalina Mountains, Arizona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magirl, C. S.; Shoemaker, C.; Webb, R. H.; Schaffner, M.; Griffiths, P. G.; Pytlak, E.

    2006-12-01

    Ample geologic evidence indicates early Holocene and Pleistocene debris flows from the south side of the Santa Catalina Mountains north of Tucson, Arizona, but few records document historical events. On July 31, 2006, an unusual set of atmospheric conditions aligned to produce record floods and an unprecedented number of debris flows in the Santa Catalinas. During the week prior to the event, an upper-level area of low pressure centered near Albuquerque, New Mexico generated widespread heavy rainfall in southern Arizona. After midnight on July 31, a strong and widespread complex of thunderstorms developed over the Mogollon Rim in central Arizona in a deformation zone that formed on the back side of the upper-level low. High atmospheric moisture (50 mm of precipitable water) coupled with cooling aloft spawned a mesoscale thunderstorm complex that moved southeast into the Tucson basin. These thunderstorms interacted with a low- to mid-level zone of atmospheric instability to create an initial wave of rainfall across the Tucson metropolitan area in the early morning hours. A second wave of thunderstorms and heavy rain developed over the Santa Catalina Mountain near dawn. A 15-20 knot low-level southwesterly wind developed with a significant upslope component over the south face of the Santa Catalina Mountains advecting moist and unstable air into the merging storms. NEXRAD radar indicates that a swath of 75-150 mm of rainfall occurred over the lower and middle elevations of the southern Santa Catalina Mountains in three increments: (1) from 2-6 AM, moderate intensity rainfall up to 65 mm; (2) from 6-7 AM, intensities up to 75 mm in 45 minutes; and (3) a final burst approaching 50 mm in 45 minutes from 8-9 AM. This intense rain falling on saturated soil triggered multiple debris flows in four adjacent canyons. Sabino Canyon, a heavily used recreation area administered by the U.S. Forest Service, was the epicenter of mass wasting where at least 18 debris flows removed

  1. Debris Flows and Record Floods from Extreme Mesoscale Convective Thunderstorms over the Santa Catalina Mountains, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Magirl, Christopher S.; Shoemaker, Craig; Webb, Robert H.; Schaffner, Mike; Griffiths, Peter G.; Pytlak, Erik

    2007-01-01

    Ample geologic evidence indicates early Holocene and Pleistocene debris flows from the south side of the Santa Catalina Mountains north of Tucson, Arizona, but few records document historical events. On July 31, 2006, an unusual set of atmospheric conditions aligned to produce record floods and an unprecedented number of debris flows in the Santa Catalinas. During the week prior to the event, an upper-level area of low pressure centered near Albuquerque, New Mexico generated widespread heavy rainfall in southern Arizona. After midnight on July 31, a strong complex of thunderstorms developed over central Arizona in a deformation zone that formed on the back side of the upper-level low. High atmospheric moisture (2.00' of precipitable water) coupled with cooling aloft spawned a mesoscale thunderstorm complex that moved southeast into the Tucson basin. A 15-20 knot low-level southwesterly wind developed with a significant upslope component over the south face of the Santa Catalina Mountains advecting moist and unstable air into the merging storms. National Weather Service radar indicated that a swath of 3-6' of rainfall occurred over the lower and middle elevations of the southern Santa Catalina Mountains. This intense rain falling on saturated soil triggered over 250 hillslope failures and debris flows throughout the mountain range. Sabino Canyon, a heavily used recreation area administered by the U.S. Forest Service, was the epicenter of mass wasting, where at least 18 debris flows removed structures, destroyed the roadway in multiple locations, and closed public access for months. The debris flows were followed by streamflow floods which eclipsed the record discharge in the 75-year gaging record of Sabino Creek. In five canyons adjacent to Sabino Canyon, debris flows approached or excited the mountain front, compromising floow conveyance structures and flooding some homes.

  2. On the time-course of adjacent and non-adjacent transposed-letter priming

    PubMed Central

    Ktori, Maria; Kingma, Brechtsje; Hannagan, Thomas; Holcomb, Phillip J.; Grainger, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    We compared effects of adjacent (e.g., atricle-ARTICLE) and non-adjacent (e.g., actirle-ARTICLE) transposed-letter (TL) primes in an ERP study using the sandwich priming technique. TL priming was measured relative to the standard double-substitution condition. We found significantly stronger priming effects for adjacent transpositions than non-adjacent transpositions (with 2 intervening letters) in behavioral responses (lexical decision latencies), and the adjacent priming effects emerged earlier in the ERP signal, at around 200 ms post-target onset. Non-adjacent priming effects emerged about 50 ms later and were short-lived, being significant only in the 250-300 ms time-window. Adjacent transpositions on the other hand continued to produce priming in the N400 time-window (300-500 ms post-target onset). This qualitatively different pattern of priming effects for adjacent and non-adjacent transpositions is discussed in the light of different accounts of letter transposition effects, and the utility of drawing a distinction between positional flexibility and positional noise. PMID:25364497

  3. Sea Level Rise in Santa Clara County

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milesi, Cristina

    2005-01-01

    Presentation by Cristina Milesi, First Author, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA at the "Meeting the Challenge of Sea Level Rise in Santa Clara County" on June 19, 2005 Santa Clara County, bordering with the southern portion of the San Francisco Bay, is highly vulnerable to flooding and to sea level rise (SLR). In this presentation, the latest sea level rise projections for the San Francisco Bay will be discussed in the context of extreme water height frequency and extent of flooding vulnerability. I will also present preliminary estimations of levee requirements and possible mitigation through tidal restoration of existing salt ponds. The examples will draw mainly from the work done by the NASA Climate Adaptation Science Investigators at NASA Ames.

  4. Structural development in the Santa Catharina meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarke, R. S., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    A metallographic study was undertaken to seek support for the idea that Santa Catharina is really massive cloudy taenite. Available metal-rich nuggets of Santa Catharina appear to have been single crystals of taenite in the few centimeter size range, separated from each other by grain boundaries occupied by troilite and schreibersite. Metallographic and electron microprobe data allow one to postulate the following cooling and structural development history: (1) single crystal taenite formed at high temperature; (2) phosphate formed within the taenite and grain boundary schreibersite formed at interfaces with troilite or with other taenite crystals; (3) schreibersite began to precipitate within taenite at about 650 C; (4) at about 450 C the meteorite entered the three phase field at which point kamacite precipitated and started growing; and (5) kamacite/schreibersite interface measurements indicate that cooling continued down to about 350 C, with large Ni diffusion gradients developing within schreibersites.

  5. "The real point is control": the reception of Barbara McClintock's controlling elements.

    PubMed

    Comfort, N C

    1999-01-01

    In the standard narrative of her life, Barbara McClintock discovered genetic transposition in the 1940s but no one believed her. She was ignored until molecular biologists of the 1970s "rediscovered" transposition and vindicated her heretical discovery. New archival documents, as well as interviews and close reading of published papers, belie this narrative. Transposition was accepted immediately by both maize and bacterial geneticists. Maize geneticists confirmed it repeatedly in the early 1950s and by the late 1950s it was considered a classic discovery. But for McClintock, movable elements were part of an elaborate system of genetic control that she hypothesized to explain development and differentiation. This theory was highly speculative and was not widely accepted, even by those who had discovered transposition independently. When Jacob and Monod presented their alternative model for gene regulation, the operon, her controller argument was discarded as incorrect. Transposition, however, was soon discovered in microorganisms and by the late 1970s was recognized as a phenomenon of biomedical importance. For McClintock, the award of the 1983 Nobel Prize to her for the discovery of movable genetic elements, long treated as a legitimation, may well have been bittersweet. This new look at McClintock's experiments and theory has implications for the intellectual history of biology, the social history of American genetics, and McClintock's role in the historiography of women in science. PMID:11623812

  6. Creating a team that thrives: an annotated conversation with Marlene Williamson, MSN, RN, NE-BC. Interview by Barbara Balik.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Marlene

    2011-01-01

    How do successful leaders do that? In this interview with Marlene Williamson, director of In-patient Nursing Services at Winchester Hospital in Winchester, MA, she describes the leadership behaviors that created a float team that thrives, provides highly valued care, continually improves their individual performance, and usually has a waiting list of internal applicants. Barbara Balik's analysis of Marlene Williamson's comments are in indented paragraphs. PMID:21961126

  7. Creating a team that thrives: an annotated conversation with Marlene Williamson, MSN, RN, NE-BC. Interview by Barbara Balik.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Marlene

    2011-01-01

    How do successful leaders do that? In this interview with Marlene Williamson, director of In-patient Nursing Services at Winchester Hospital in Winchester, MA, she describes the leadership behaviors that created a float team that thrives, provides highly valued care, continually improves their individual performance, and usually has a waiting list of internal applicants. Barbara Balik's analysis of Marlene Williamson's comments are in indented paragraphs. PMID:21961134

  8. SOLIDS TRANSPORT BETWEEN ADJACENT CAFB FLUIDIZED BEDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an experimental investigation of a pulsed, dense-phase pneumatic transport system for controlled circulation between adjacent fluidized beds. A model was developed to predict performance. The program provides technical support for EPA's program to demo...

  9. Border separation for adjacent orthogonal fields

    SciTech Connect

    Werner, B.L.; Khan, F.M.; Sharma, S.C.; Lee, C.K.; Kim, T.H. )

    1991-06-01

    Field border separations for adjacent orthogonal fields can be calculated geometrically, given the validity of some important assumptions such as beam alignment and field uniformity. Thermoluminescent dosimetry (TLD) measurements were used to investigate dose uniformity across field junctions as a function of field separation and, in particular, to review the CCSG recommendation for the treatment of medulloblastoma with separate head and spine fields.

  10. Field Surveys of Rare Plants on Santa Cruz Island, California, 2003-2006: Historical Records and Current Distributions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McEachern, A. Kathryn; Chess, Katherine A.; Niessen, Ken

    2010-01-01

    recovery. Several taxa have particular problems evidenced by lack of fruit set, very small population sizes, or unstable habitats. We collected seeds of all but two taxa for seed banking, and live cuttings of two clonal shrubs for cultivation at the Santa Barbara Botanic Garden. The survey data, seeds and cuttings provide a baseline and a foundation for planning, conducting, and tracking recovery of the nine federally listed plant taxa of Santa Cruz Island.

  11. Ephemeral stream reaches preserve the evolutionary and distributional history of threespine stickleback in the Santa Clara and Ventura River watersheds of southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Richmond, Jonathan Q.; Jacobs, David K.; Backlin, Adam R.; Swift, Camm C.; Dellith, Chris; Fisher, Robert N.

    2015-01-01

    Much remains to be understood about the evolutionary history and contemporary landscape genetics of unarmored threespine stickleback in southern California, where populations collectively referred to as Gasterosteus aculeatus williamsoni have severely declined over the past 70+ years and are now endangered. We used mitochondrial sequence and microsatellite data to assess the population genetics and phylogeography of unarmored populations sampled immediately downstream from the type locality of G. a. williamsoni in the upper Santa Clara River, and assessed their distinctiveness with respect to low-armor populations in the downstream sections of the river and the adjacent Ventura River. We also characterized the geographic limits of different plate morphs and evaluated the congruence of those boundaries with barriers to dispersal in both river systems and to neutral genetic variation. We show substantial population structuring within the upper reach of the Santa Clara River, but little partitioning between the lower Santa Clara and Ventura Rivers—we attribute these patterns to different ancestry between spatially subdivided populations within the same drainage, a predominance of downstream gene flow, and ability for coastal dispersal between the Santa Clara and Ventura Rivers. We also show that alleles from introduced low-plate stock have infiltrated a native population in at least one upper Santa Clara River tributary, causing this formerly unarmored population to become gradually low-plated over a 30 + year time period. Measures of genetic diversity, census surveys, and severe habitat disturbance all indicate that unarmored stickleback near the type locality are currently at high risk of extinction.

  12. Adjacent Segment Pathology after Lumbar Spinal Fusion.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae Chul; Choi, Sung-Woo

    2015-10-01

    One of the major clinical issues encountered after lumbar spinal fusion is the development of adjacent segment pathology (ASP) caused by increased mechanical stress at adjacent segments, and resulting in various radiographic changes and clinical symptoms. This condition may require surgical intervention. The incidence of ASP varies with both the definition and methodology adopted in individual studies; various risk factors for this condition have been identified, although a significant controversy still exists regarding their significance. Motion-preserving devices have been developed, and some studies have shown their efficacy of preventing ASP. Surgeons should be aware of the risk factors of ASP when planning a surgery, and accordingly counsel their patients preoperatively. PMID:26435804

  13. [Legal abortion. Preliminary evaluations at the S. Barbara di Rogliano Hospital].

    PubMed

    Giannice, C; De Santis, F

    1981-05-01

    After briefly describing the history of legal abortion in several West and East European countries, the article examines the Italian law of May 1978. Induced abortion is legal in Italy within the first 90 days of gestation provided a doctor states that pregnancy would endanger the physical or mental wellbeing of the mother, whether the danger is due to economic or social reasons, or when the pregnancy is result of rape or incest, or when there is a chance of malformations in the new born. After 7 days from the first interview with a doctor, the abortion can take place. In the hospital of S. Barbara of Rogliano, Italy, there were 24 requests of abortion in 1978, and 75 in 1979. All women underwent a complete and careful gynecological examination, and were told about the details of the procedure. Anesthesia was in all cases by paracervical block, and the procedure by vacuum aspiration followed by curettage. The majority of patients were in the 1-11 week of gestation, most were either multiparous or nulliparous, and between 18-29. The majority came from districts outside of Rogliano and were married; the number of students and employees taken together exceeded that of housewives. There were 6 cases of metrorrhagia and 3 cases of fever, but no major complications. After the procedure all women were advised to rest, not to engage in sexual activities, and to return to the hospital in case of hemorrhage or abdominal pain. It is hoped that improved contraceptive techniques will reduce the number of requests for legal abortion. PMID:7254670

  14. Mixteco de Santa Maria Penoles, Oaxaca (Mixtec of Santa Maria Penoles, Oaxaca).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mexico Coll. (Mexico City)

    This document is one of 17 volumes on indigenous Mexican languages and is the result of a project undertaken Archivo de Lenguas Indigenas de Mexico. This volume contains information on Mixtec, an indigenous language of Mexico spoken in Santa Maria Penoles in the state of Oaxaca. The objective of collecting such a representative sampling of the…

  15. Chocho de Santa Catarina Ocotlan, Oaxaca (Chocho of Santa Catarina Ocotlan, Oaxaca).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mexico Coll. (Mexico City)

    This document is one of 17 volumes on indigenous Mexican languages and is the result of a project undertaken by the Archivo de Lenguas Indigenas de Mexico. This volume contains information on Chocho, an indigenous language of Mexico spoken in Santa Catarina Ocotlan, in the state of Oaxaca. The objective of collecting such a representative sampling…

  16. Adjacent Segment Pathology after Anterior Cervical Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Jae Yoon; Park, Jong-Beom; Seo, Hyoung-Yeon

    2016-01-01

    Anterior cervical fusion has become a standard of care for numerous pathologic conditions of the cervical spine. However, subsequent development of clinically significant disc disease at levels adjacent to fused discs is a serious long-term complication of this procedure. As more patients live longer after surgery, it is foreseeable that adjacent segment pathology (ASP) will develop in increasing numbers of patients. Also, ASP has been studied more intensively with the recent popularity of motion preservation technologies like total disc arthroplasty. The true nature and scope of ASP remains poorly understood. The etiology of ASP is most likely multifactorial. Various factors including altered biomechanical stresses, surgical disruption of soft tissue and the natural history of cervical disc disease contribute to the development of ASP. General factors associated with disc degeneration including gender, age, smoking and sports may play a role in the development of ASP. Postoperative sagittal alignment and type of surgery are also considered potential causes of ASP. Therefore, a spine surgeon must be particularly careful to avoid unnecessary disruption of the musculoligamentous structures, reduced risk of direct injury to the disc during dissection and maintain a safe margin between the plate edge and adjacent vertebrae during anterior cervical fusion. PMID:27340541

  17. Adjacent Segment Pathology after Anterior Cervical Fusion.

    PubMed

    Chung, Jae Yoon; Park, Jong-Beom; Seo, Hyoung-Yeon; Kim, Sung Kyu

    2016-06-01

    Anterior cervical fusion has become a standard of care for numerous pathologic conditions of the cervical spine. However, subsequent development of clinically significant disc disease at levels adjacent to fused discs is a serious long-term complication of this procedure. As more patients live longer after surgery, it is foreseeable that adjacent segment pathology (ASP) will develop in increasing numbers of patients. Also, ASP has been studied more intensively with the recent popularity of motion preservation technologies like total disc arthroplasty. The true nature and scope of ASP remains poorly understood. The etiology of ASP is most likely multifactorial. Various factors including altered biomechanical stresses, surgical disruption of soft tissue and the natural history of cervical disc disease contribute to the development of ASP. General factors associated with disc degeneration including gender, age, smoking and sports may play a role in the development of ASP. Postoperative sagittal alignment and type of surgery are also considered potential causes of ASP. Therefore, a spine surgeon must be particularly careful to avoid unnecessary disruption of the musculoligamentous structures, reduced risk of direct injury to the disc during dissection and maintain a safe margin between the plate edge and adjacent vertebrae during anterior cervical fusion. PMID:27340541

  18. 2. SPILLWAYS AND ROCKDROP, SANTA ANA NO. 3, EXHIBIT L, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. SPILLWAYS AND ROCK-DROP, SANTA ANA NO. 3, EXHIBIT L, JAN. 25, 1956. SCE drawing no. 541724 (sheet 5; for filing with Federal Power Commission). - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, SAR-3 Forebay & Penstock, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  19. 43. FLOOR PLAN OF POWER HOUSE, EXHIBIT L, SANTA ANA ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    43. FLOOR PLAN OF POWER HOUSE, EXHIBIT L, SANTA ANA RIVER NO. 2 PROJECT, APR. 30, 1945. SCE drawing no. 523643 (sheet no. 14; for filing with Federal Power Commission). - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, SAR-2 Powerhouse, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  20. 4. FOREBAY AND PENSTOCK, EXHIBIT L, SANTA ANA RIVER NO. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. FOREBAY AND PENSTOCK, EXHIBIT L, SANTA ANA RIVER NO. 2 PROJECT, APR. 30, 1945. SCE drawing no. 523642 (sheet no. 13; for filing with the Federal Power Commission). - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, SAR-2 Forebay & Penstock, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  1. 10. TYPICAL DETAILS OF LENNON FLUME, SANTA ANA NO. 3, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. TYPICAL DETAILS OF LENNON FLUME, SANTA ANA NO. 3, EXHIBIT L, JAN. 25, 1956. SCE drawing no. 541722 (sheet 4; for filing with Federal Power Commission). - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, Warm Springs Canyon-SAR-3 Flumes, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  2. 48. MAP OF SANTA ANA RIVER POWER PLANT NO. 2 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    48. MAP OF SANTA ANA RIVER POWER PLANT NO. 2 OF THE EDISON ELECTRIC CO. THROUGH UNSURVEYED LAND IN THE SAN BERNARDINO FOREST RESERVE, APPROVED MAY 26, 1904, F. C. FINKLE, CHIEF HYDRAULIC ENGINEER. SCE drawing no. 53988. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  3. 9. HIGH LENNON FLUME, SANTA ANA NO 3, EXHIBIT L, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. HIGH LENNON FLUME, SANTA ANA NO 3, EXHIBIT L, JAN. 25, 1956. SCE drawing no. 541723 (sheet 3; for filing with Federal Power Commission). - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, Warm Springs Canyon-SAR-3 Flumes, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  4. 5. SANDBOX BETWEEN TUNNELS 12. SANTA ANA NO. 3, EXHIBIT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. SANDBOX BETWEEN TUNNELS 1-2. SANTA ANA NO. 3, EXHIBIT L, JAN. 25, 1956. SCE drawing no. 541727 (sheet 2; for filing with Federal Power Commission). - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, Sandbox, SAR-3 Flowline, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  5. 28. PLANS AND SECTIONS OF POWERHOUSE. SANTA ANA NO. 3, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. PLANS AND SECTIONS OF POWERHOUSE. SANTA ANA NO. 3, EXHIBIT L, JAN. 25, 1956 (SHEET 8; FOR FILING WITH FEDERAL POWER COMMISSION). SCE drawing no. 541729. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, SAR-3 Powerhouse, San Bernardino National Forest, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  6. 4. PLAN AND PROFILES OF PENSTOCK AND SPILLWAY PIPE, SANTA ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. PLAN AND PROFILES OF PENSTOCK AND SPILLWAY PIPE, SANTA ANA NO. 3, EXHIBIT L, JAN. 25, 1956. SCE drawing no. 541726 (sheet 7; for filing with Federal Power Commission). - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, SAR-3 Forebay & Penstock, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  7. 11. INTAKE FLUME AND TUNNEL SECTIONS, SANTA ANA NO. 3, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. INTAKE FLUME AND TUNNEL SECTIONS, SANTA ANA NO. 3, EXHIBIT L, JAN. 25, 1956. SCE drawing no. 541728 (sheet 1; for filing with Federal Power Commission). - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, Warm Springs Canyon-SAR-3 Flumes, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  8. 55. CROSS SECTION OF POWER HOUSE, EXHIBIT L, SANTA ANA ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    55. CROSS SECTION OF POWER HOUSE, EXHIBIT L, SANTA ANA RIVER NO. 1 PROJECT, APR. 30, 1945. SCE drawing no. 523199 (sheet no. 9, for filing with Federal Power Commission). - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, SAR-1 Powerhouse, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  9. 44. SECTIONS OF POWER HOUSE, EXHIBIT L, SANTA ANA RIVER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    44. SECTIONS OF POWER HOUSE, EXHIBIT L, SANTA ANA RIVER NO. 2 PROJECT, APR. 30, 1945. SCE drawing no. 523644 (sheet no. 15; for filing with Federal Power Commission). - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, SAR-2 Powerhouse, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  10. 46 CFR 7.115 - Santa Catalina Island, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Santa Catalina Island, CA. 7.115 Section 7.115 Shipping... Coast § 7.115 Santa Catalina Island, CA. (a) A line drawn from the northernmost point of Lion Head to the north tangent of Bird Rock Island; thence to the northernmost point of Blue Cavern Point. (b)...

  11. 46 CFR 7.115 - Santa Catalina Island, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Santa Catalina Island, CA. 7.115 Section 7.115 Shipping... Coast § 7.115 Santa Catalina Island, CA. (a) A line drawn from the northernmost point of Lion Head to the north tangent of Bird Rock Island; thence to the northernmost point of Blue Cavern Point. (b)...

  12. 46 CFR 7.115 - Santa Catalina Island, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Santa Catalina Island, CA. 7.115 Section 7.115 Shipping... Coast § 7.115 Santa Catalina Island, CA. (a) A line drawn from the northernmost point of Lion Head to the north tangent of Bird Rock Island; thence to the northernmost point of Blue Cavern Point. (b)...

  13. 46 CFR 7.115 - Santa Catalina Island, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Santa Catalina Island, CA. 7.115 Section 7.115 Shipping... Coast § 7.115 Santa Catalina Island, CA. (a) A line drawn from the northernmost point of Lion Head to the north tangent of Bird Rock Island; thence to the northernmost point of Blue Cavern Point. (b)...

  14. Public Values Related to the Santa Cruz River

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Santa Cruz Basin is a focus geography for EPA Southwestern ecosystem services research, and the focal resource is water. The goal of one component of the Santa Cruz effort is to characterize the ways in which basin residents value the river, and environmental resources relate...

  15. AmeriFlux US-SRC Santa Rita Creosote

    SciTech Connect

    Kurc, Shirley

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-SRC Santa Rita Creosote. Site Description - Part of the Santa Rita Experimental Range since 1901; Site vegetation has been dominated by Creosote bush since at least 1934

  16. AmeriFlux US-SRG Santa Rita Grassland

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, Russell

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-SRG Santa Rita Grassland. Site Description - Semidesert C4 grassland, lies in Pasture 1 on the Santa Rita Experimental Range. This is the companion site for US-SRM, but has much less mesquite encroachment.

  17. 46 CFR 7.115 - Santa Catalina Island, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Santa Catalina Island, CA. 7.115 Section 7.115 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC BOUNDARY LINES Pacific Coast § 7.115 Santa Catalina Island, CA. (a) A line drawn from the northernmost point of Lion Head...

  18. 27 CFR 9.31 - Santa Cruz Mountains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Santa Cruz Mountains. 9.31... Cruz Mountains. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Santa Cruz Mountains.” (b) Approved maps. The 24 approved U.S.G.S. maps for determining the boundaries are 23...

  19. 27 CFR 9.31 - Santa Cruz Mountains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Santa Cruz Mountains. 9.31... Cruz Mountains. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Santa Cruz Mountains.” (b) Approved maps. The 24 approved U.S.G.S. maps for determining the boundaries are 23...

  20. 27 CFR 9.31 - Santa Cruz Mountains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Santa Cruz Mountains. 9.31... Cruz Mountains. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Santa Cruz Mountains.” (b) Approved maps. The 24 approved U.S.G.S. maps for determining the boundaries are 23...

  1. 27 CFR 9.31 - Santa Cruz Mountains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Santa Cruz Mountains. 9.31... Cruz Mountains. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Santa Cruz Mountains.” (b) Approved maps. The 24 approved U.S.G.S. maps for determining the boundaries are 23...

  2. 27 CFR 9.31 - Santa Cruz Mountains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Santa Cruz Mountains. 9.31... Cruz Mountains. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Santa Cruz Mountains.” (b) Approved maps. The 24 approved U.S.G.S. maps for determining the boundaries are 23...

  3. 46. GENERAL MAP OF SANTA ANA NO. 3 PROJECT MAP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    46. GENERAL MAP OF SANTA ANA NO. 3 PROJECT MAP OF ALL THREE POWER HOUSE SYSTEMS, EXHIBIT J, JAN. 25, 1956. SCE drawing no. 535041 (sheet no. 1; for filing with Federal Power Commission). - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  4. Free inside: The Music Class at Santa Ana Jail

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fierro, Joe

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the workings of the music class at the Santa Ana Jail in Santa Ana, California. It gives us insight into a jail system and a music class focused on helping inmates position themselves to become productive members of society. In this article I examine how the facility encourages inmates' good behaviour and why the music class…

  5. 29. ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT. PLAN FOR POWER HOUSE, SANTA ANA RIVER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT. PLAN FOR POWER HOUSE, SANTA ANA RIVER P. H. NO. 3, JUNE 23, 1943; REVISIONS, MAR. 14, 1945 AND MAY 17, 1954. SCE drawing no. 523219-2. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, SAR-3 Powerhouse, San Bernardino National Forest, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  6. 33 CFR 80.1138 - Santa Cruz Harbor, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Santa Cruz Harbor, CA. 80.1138 Section 80.1138 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1138 Santa Cruz Harbor, CA. A line drawn...

  7. PRELIMINARY RESULTS OF SANTA ROSA SOUND MONITORING STUDY, 1997 - PRESENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Beginning in May 1997 water samples have been collected quarterly from 37 stations in Santa Rosa Sound, from the Pensacola Beach Bridge eastward to Ft. Walton Beach. Quarterly averages for Santa Rosa Sound showing quarterly and annual variations in concentrations of dissolved ni...

  8. OCCURRENCE OF 'ESOX NIGER' IN SANTA ROSA SOUND, FLORIDA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is the first report of Esox niger collected from the normally saline portion of the lower Pensacola estuary. A 109 mm standard length chain pickerel was seined on 7 August 1975 from Santa Rosa Sound, in Santa Rosa County, Florida, from Thalassia beds about 300 m W. of the N....

  9. Reconstructing genome mixtures from partial adjacencies.

    PubMed

    Mahmoody, Ahmad; Kahn, Crystal L; Raphael, Benjamin J

    2012-01-01

    Many cancer genome sequencing efforts are underway with the goal of identifying the somatic mutations that drive cancer progression. A major difficulty in these studies is that tumors are typically heterogeneous, with individual cells in a tumor having different complements of somatic mutations. However, nearly all DNA sequencing technologies sequence DNA from multiple cells, thus resulting in measurement of mutations from a mixture of genomes. Genome rearrangements are a major class of somatic mutations in many tumors, and the novel adjacencies (i.e. breakpoints) resulting from these rearrangements are readily detected from DNA sequencing reads. However, the assignment of each rearrangement, or adjacency, to an individual cancer genome in the mixture is not known. Moreover, the quantity of DNA sequence reads may be insufficient to measure all rearrangements in all genomes in the tumor. Motivated by this application, we formulate the k-minimum completion problem (k-MCP). In this problem, we aim to reconstruct k genomes derived from a single reference genome, given partial information about the adjacencies present in the mixture of these genomes. We show that the 1-MCP is solvable in linear time in the cases where: (i) the measured, incomplete genome has a single circular or linear chromosome; (ii) there are no restrictions on the chromosomal content of the measured, incomplete genome. We also show that the k-MCP problem, for k ≥ 3 in general, and the 2-MCP problem with the double-cut-and-join (DCJ) distance are NP-complete, when there are no restriction on the chromosomal structure of the measured, incomplete genome. These results lay the foundation for future algorithmic studies of the k-MCP and the application of these algorithms to real cancer sequencing data. PMID:23282028

  10. Exchange coupling between laterally adjacent nanomagnets.

    PubMed

    Dey, H; Csaba, G; Bernstein, G H; Porod, W

    2016-09-30

    We experimentally demonstrate exchange-coupling between laterally adjacent nanomagnets. Our results show that two neighboring nanomagnets that are each antiferromagnetically exchange-coupled to a common ferromagnetic bottom layer can be brought into strong ferromagnetic interaction. Simulations show that interlayer exchange coupling effectively promotes ferromagnetic alignment between the two nanomagnets, as opposed to antiferromagnetic alignment due to dipole-coupling. In order to experimentally demonstrate the proposed scheme, we fabricated arrays of pairs of elongated, single-domain nanomagnets. Magnetic force microscopy measurements show that most of the pairs are ferromagnetically ordered. The results are in agreement with micromagnetic simulations. The presented scheme can achieve coupling strengths that are significantly stronger than dipole coupling, potentially enabling far-reaching applications in Nanomagnet Logic, spin-wave devices and three-dimensional storage and computing. PMID:27535227

  11. Seismicity in Azerbaijan and Adjacent Caspian Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Panahi, Behrouz M.

    2006-03-23

    So far no general view on the geodynamic evolution of the Black Sea to the Caspian Sea region is elaborated. This is associated with the geological and structural complexities of the region revealed by geophysical, geochemical, petrologic, structural, and other studies. A clash of opinions on geodynamic conditions of the Caucasus region, sometimes mutually exclusive, can be explained by a simplified interpretation of the seismic data. In this paper I analyze available data on earthquake occurrences in Azerbaijan and the adjacent Caspian Sea region. The results of the analysis of macroseismic and instrumental data, seismic regime, and earthquake reoccurrence indicate that a level of seismicity in the region is moderate, and seismic event are concentrated in the shallow part of the lithosphere. Seismicity is mostly intra-plate, and spatial distribution of earthquake epicenters does not correlate with the plate boundaries.

  12. Boundary Layers of Air Adjacent to Cylinders

    PubMed Central

    Nobel, Park S.

    1974-01-01

    Using existing heat transfer data, a relatively simple expression was developed for estimating the effective thickness of the boundary layer of air surrounding cylinders. For wind velocities from 10 to 1000 cm/second, the calculated boundary-layer thickness agreed with that determined for water vapor diffusion from a moistened cylindrical surface 2 cm in diameter. It correctly predicted the resistance for water vapor movement across the boundary layers adjacent to the (cylindrical) inflorescence stems of Xanthorrhoea australis R. Br. and Scirpus validus Vahl and the leaves of Allium cepa L. The boundary-layer thickness decreased as the turbulence intensity increased. For a turbulence intensity representative of field conditions (0.5) and for νwindd between 200 and 30,000 cm2/second (where νwind is the mean wind velocity and d is the cylinder diameter), the effective boundary-layer thickness in centimeters was equal to [Formula: see text]. PMID:16658855

  13. Early Neogene unroofing of the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta along the Bucaramanga -Santa Marta Fault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piraquive Bermúdez, Alejandro; Pinzón, Edna; Bernet, Matthias; Kammer, Andreas; Von Quadt, Albrecht; Sarmiento, Gustavo

    2016-04-01

    Plate interaction between Caribbean and Nazca plates with Southamerica gave rise to an intricate pattern of tectonic blocks in the Northandean realm. Among these microblocks the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta (SNSM) represents a fault-bounded triangular massif composed of a representative crustal section of the Northandean margin, in which a Precambrian to Late Paleozoic metamorphic belt is overlain by a Triassic to Jurassic magmatic arc and collateral volcanic suites. Its western border fault belongs to the composite Bucaramanga - Santa Marta fault with a combined left lateral-normal displacement. SE of Santa Marta it exposes remnants of an Oligocene marginal basin, which attests to a first Cenoizoic activation of this crustal-scale lineament. The basin fill consists of a sequence of coarse-grained cobble-pebble conglomerates > 1000 m thick that unconformably overlay the Triassic-Jurassic magmatic arc. Its lower sequence is composed of interbedded siltstones; topwards the sequence becomes dominated by coarser fractions. These sedimentary sequences yields valuable information about exhumation and coeval sedimentation processes that affected the massif's western border since the Upper Eocene. In order to analyse uplifting processes associated with tectonics during early Neogene we performed detrital zircon U-Pb geochronology, detrital thermochronology of zircon and apatites coupled with the description of a stratigraphic section and its facies composition. We compared samples from the Aracataca basin with analog sequences found at an equivalent basin at the Oca Fault at the northern margin of the SNSM. Our results show that sediments of both basins were sourced from Precambrian gneisses, along with Mesozoic acid to intermediate plutons; sedimentation started in the Upper Eocene-Oligocene according to palynomorphs, subsequently in the Upper Oligocene a completion of Jurassic to Cretaceous sources was followed by an increase of Precambrian input that became the dominant

  14. 30 CFR 56.9103 - Clearance on adjacent tracks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Clearance on adjacent tracks. 56.9103 Section..., Hauling, and Dumping Traffic Safety § 56.9103 Clearance on adjacent tracks. Railcars shall not be left on side tracks unless clearance is provided for traffic on adjacent tracks....

  15. 30 CFR 57.9103 - Clearance on adjacent tracks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Clearance on adjacent tracks. 57.9103 Section..., Hauling, and Dumping Traffic Safety § 57.9103 Clearance on adjacent tracks. Railcars shall not be left on side tracks unless clearance is provided for traffic on adjacent tracks....

  16. 30 CFR 56.9103 - Clearance on adjacent tracks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Clearance on adjacent tracks. 56.9103 Section..., Hauling, and Dumping Traffic Safety § 56.9103 Clearance on adjacent tracks. Railcars shall not be left on side tracks unless clearance is provided for traffic on adjacent tracks....

  17. 30 CFR 57.9103 - Clearance on adjacent tracks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Clearance on adjacent tracks. 57.9103 Section..., Hauling, and Dumping Traffic Safety § 57.9103 Clearance on adjacent tracks. Railcars shall not be left on side tracks unless clearance is provided for traffic on adjacent tracks....

  18. 33 CFR 80.1395 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Thirteenth District § 80.1395 Puget Sound and adjacent waters. The 72 COLREGS shall apply on all waters of Puget Sound and adjacent waters, including Lake...

  19. 33 CFR 80.1395 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Thirteenth District § 80.1395 Puget Sound and adjacent waters. The 72 COLREGS shall apply on all waters of Puget Sound and adjacent waters, including Lake...

  20. 33 CFR 80.1395 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Thirteenth District § 80.1395 Puget Sound and adjacent waters. The 72 COLREGS shall apply on all waters of Puget Sound and adjacent waters, including Lake...

  1. 33 CFR 80.1395 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Thirteenth District § 80.1395 Puget Sound and adjacent waters. The 72 COLREGS shall apply on all waters of Puget Sound and adjacent waters, including Lake...

  2. 33 CFR 80.1395 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Thirteenth District § 80.1395 Puget Sound and adjacent waters. The 72 COLREGS shall apply on all waters of Puget Sound and adjacent waters, including Lake...

  3. Discovery of Cyanuric Acid During an Assessment of Natural Organic Matter in Stormflow Water of the Santa Ana River, Southern California, 2003-2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leenheer, Jerry A.; Izbicki, John A.; Rostad, Colleen E.; Noyes, Ted I.; Woodside, Greg

    2007-01-01

    A stormflow study of natural organic matter and organic contaminants in the Santa Ana River, the Mill Creek tributary, and an urban drain tributary discovered cyanuric acid in variable concentrations up to 510 ?g/L. Cyanuric acid was isolated with a hydrophilic natural organic matter (NOM) fraction, and its identity was confirmed by a combination of infrared spectrometry, 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance (13C-NMR) spectrometry, and electrospray ionization/mass spectrometry. Cyanuric acid concentrations, based upon 13C-NMR spectral quantitation, increased during the peak and recessional flows of the storm hydrographs during three storms at three sites. The greatest fluxes of cyanuric acid were observed in the Santa Ana River during the third storm. The most likely source of cyanuric acid is as a metabolite of triazine herbicides, based on hydrographs, land uses of the drainage basins, and the yearly application rates of triazine herbicides. The daily flux of cyanuric acid in Santa Ana River stormflow during the third storm was calculated to be about 1 percent of the yearly application rate for triazine herbicides. Cyanuric acid was not detected in ground water at wells adjacent to the Santa Ana River.

  4. Gravity Modelling of the Santa Marta Impact Structure, Northeastern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasconcelos, M. A. R.; Crósta, A. P.; Leite, E. P.

    2014-09-01

    The gravity signature of the Santa Marta impact structure shows an asymmetry of the structure with more elevated strata in the western rim compared to the eastern rim. Our model also shows the center roughly marked by an uplift.

  5. 75 FR 53371 - Environmental Impact Statement; Santa Rosa County, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-31

    ... Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement; Santa Rosa County, FL AGENCY: Federal... advise the public that an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) will be prepared for a proposed highway..., Environmental Specialist, Federal Highway Administration, 545 John Knox Road, Suite 200, Tallahassee,...

  6. Interaction between adjacent lightning discharges in clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yanhui; Zhang, Guangshu; Zhang, Tong; Li, Yajun; Wu, Bin; Zhang, Tinglong

    2013-07-01

    Using a 3D lightning radiation source locating system (LLS), three pairs of associated lightning discharges (two or more adjacent lightning discharges following an arbitrary rule that their space-gap was less than 10 km and their time-gap was less than 800 ms) were observed, and the interaction between associated lightning discharges was analyzed. All these three pairs of associated lightning discharges were found to involve three or more charge regions (the ground was considered as a special charge region). Moreover, at least one charge region involved two lightning discharges per pair of associated lightning discharges. Identified from electric field changes, the subsequent lightning discharges were suppressed by the prior lightning discharges. However, it is possible that the prior lightning discharge provided a remaining discharge channel to facilitate the subsequent lightning discharge. The third case provided evidence of this possibility. Together, the results suggested that, if the charges in the main negative charge region can be consumed using artificial lightning above the main negative charge regions, lightning accidents on the ground could be greatly reduced, on the condition that the height of the main negative charge region and the charge intensity of the lower positive charge region are suitable.

  7. Streamflow in the upper Santa Cruz River basin, Santa Cruz and Pima Counties, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Condes de la Torre, Alberto

    1970-01-01

    Streamflow records obtained in the upper Santa Cruz River basin of southern Arizona, United States, and northern Sonora, Mexico, have been analyzed to aid in the appraisal of the surface-water resources of the area. Records are available for 15 sites, and the length of record ranges from 60 years for the gaging station on the Santa .Cruz River at Tucson to 6 years for Pantano Wash near Vail. The analysis provides information on flow duration, low-flow frequency magnitude, flood-volume frequency and magnitude, and storage requirements to maintain selected draft rates. Flood-peak information collected from the gaging stations has been projected on a regional basis from which estimates of flood magnitude and frequency may be made for any site in the basin. Most streams in the 3,503-square-mile basin are ephemeral. Ground water sustains low flows only at Santa Cruz River near Nogales, Sonoita Creek near Patagonia, and Pantano Wash near Vail. Elsewhere, flow occurs only in direct response to precipitation. The median number of days per year in which there is no flow ranges from 4 at Sonoita Creek near Patagonia to 335 at Rillito Creek near Tomson. The streamflow is extremely variable from year to year, and annual flows have a coefficient of variation close to or exceeding unity at most stations. Although the amount of flow in the basin is small most of the time, the area is subject to floods. Most floods result from high-intensity precipitation caused by thunderstorms during the period ,July to September. Occasionally, when snowfall at the lower altitudes is followed by rain, winter floods produce large volumes of flow.

  8. 75 FR 30389 - City of Santa Fe, NM; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting Comments, Motions...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-01

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission City of Santa Fe, NM; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing and.... Date filed: May 10, 2010. d. Applicant: City of Santa Fe, New Mexico. e. Name of Project: Santa Fe... located on a pipeline in the City of Santa Fe's water distribution system located in Santa Fe County,...

  9. On inspiration and leadership: a conversation with Barbara Sabol, MA, RN, and Henrie M. Treadwell, PhD. Interview by Kathleen M. Nelson.

    PubMed

    Sabol, Barbara; Treadwell, Henrie M

    2008-09-01

    This article began with Barbara Sabol and Henrie Treadwell's conversations about public health leadership and their assertion that today's leaders must take bolder steps to ensure health care for the underserved. They discuss a number of characteristics that they consider essential if leaders are to reach beyond the status quo and create change in their hospitals, health systems, and communities. PMID:18633076

  10. On inspiration and leadership: a conversation with Barbara Sabol, MA, RN, and Henrie M. Treadwell, PhD. Interview by Kathleen M. Nelson.

    PubMed

    Sabol, Barbara; Treadwell, Henrie M

    2008-09-01

    This article began with Barbara Sabol and Henrie Treadwell's conversations about public health leadership and their assertion that today's leaders must take bolder steps to ensure health care for the underserved. They discuss a number of characteristics that they consider essential if leaders are to reach beyond the status quo and create change in their hospitals, health systems, and communities. PMID:18687594

  11. A Womb with a Political View: Barbara Park's "MA! There's Nothing to Do Here!" Prenatal Parenting, and the Battle over Personhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abate, Michelle Ann

    2013-01-01

    This essay makes the case that Barbara Park's picture book "MA! There's Nothing to Do Here!: A Word from Your Baby-in-Waiting" (2008) adds another equal-parts absurdist and alarming item to the ever-growing responsibilities of expecting mothers: ensuring that their fetus is entertained. The messages that Park's narrative…

  12. Petroleum basins of Sakhalin and adjacent shelf

    SciTech Connect

    Mavrinski, Y.; Koblov, E. )

    1993-09-01

    Sixty-seven oil and gas fields have been discovered on Sakhalin and the adjacent shelf but the distribution of fields is uneven in north Sakhalin, south Sakhalin, and the Tatar basins. The sedimentary cover is composed of sandy, clayey, and siliceous rocks, with volcanogenic and coal-bearing deposits of Upper Cretaceous, Paleogene, and Neogene 8-12 km thick. Marine clayey and siliceous oil source rocks are regionally developed in the section at different stratigraphic levels; the organic matter is of mixed type and the content varies from 0.5 to 1.5%. The upper Oligocene and middle-upper Miocene source rocks in the north Sakhalin basin are typical, and the organic carbon content ranges from 1 to 5%. The level of organic matter catagenesis and conversion into hydrocarbons is high because of the high differential geothermal gradient in the basins, 30-50[degrees]C per km. Porous sandstones in the Miocene form the reservoirs in all fields with the exception of Okruzhnoye, where the pay zone is a siliceous claystone. Growth-fault rollovers and anticlines form the main traps ranging in area from 5 to 300 km[sup 2], with amplitudes between 100 and 600 m. both stratigraphic and structural traps have been identified. Considerable volumes of reserves are associated with the Miocene deposits of north Sakhalin, which are characterized by an optimum combination of oil source rocks, focused migration paths, and thick sequences of reservoirs and cap rocks. Six large fields have been discovered in the past 15 yr. Oil and condensate reserves stand at over 300 million MT, and gas reserves are about 900 billion m[sup 3].

  13. Millennial-scale Denudation Rates of the Santa Lucia Mountains, CA: Implications for Landscape Thresholds from a Steep, High Relief, Coastal Mountain Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, H.; Hilley, G. E.; Kiefer, K.; Blisniuk, K.

    2015-12-01

    We report new, 10-Be-derived denudation rates measured from river sands in basins of the Santa Lucia Range, central California. The Santa Lucia Mountains of the California Coast Range are an asymmetrical northwest-southeast trending range bounded by the San Gregorio-Hosgri (SG-HFZ ) and Rinconada-Reliz faults. This area provides an additional opportunity to analyze the relationships between topographic form, denudation rates, and mapped underlying geologic substrate in an actively deforming landscape. Analysis of in situ-produced 10-Be from alluvial sand samples collected in the Santa Lucia Mountains has yielded measurements of spatially varying basin-scale denudation rates. Despite the impressive relief of the Santa Lucia's, denudation rates within catchments draining the coastal side of the range are uniformly low, generally varying between ~90 m/Myr and ~350 m/Myr, with one basin eroding at ~500 m/Myr. Preliminary data suggest the lowest erosion rates are located within the northern interior of the range in sedimentary and granitic lithologies, while higher rates are located directly along the coast in metasedimentary bedrock. This overall trend is punctuated by a single high denudation rate, which is hosted by a watershed whose geometry suggests that it previously has, and continues to experience divide migration as it captures the adjacent watershed's area. Spatial distribution of basins with higher denudation rates is inferred to indicate a zone of uplift adjacent to the SG-HFZ. We compare erosion rates to basin mean channel steepness index, extracted from a 10 m digital elevation model. Denudation rate generally increases with channel steepness index until ~250 m/Myr, at which point the relationship becomes invariant, suggesting a non-linear erosion model may best characterize this region. These hypotheses will be tested further as additional denudation rate results are analyzed.

  14. Santa Fe Alliance for Science: The First Eight Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisenstein, Robert A.

    2013-04-01

    The Santa Fe Alliance for Science (SFAFS) was founded in May, 2005. SFAFS exists to provide assistance in K-14 math and science education in the greater Santa Fe area. It does this via extensive programs (1) in math and science tutoring at Santa Fe High School, Santa Fe Community College and to a lesser degree at other schools, (2) science fair advising and judging, (3) its ``Santa Fe Science Cafe for Young Thinkers'' series, (4) a program of professional enrichment for K-12 math and science teachers, and (5) a fledging math intervention program in middle school math. Well over 150 STEM professionals, working mostly as volunteers, have contributed since our beginning. Participation by students, parents and teachers has increased dramatically over the years, leading to much more positive views of math and science, especially among elementary school students and teachers. Support from the community and from local school districts has been very strong. I will present a brief status report on SFAFS activities, discuss some of the lessons learned along the way and describe briefly some ideas for the future. More information can be found at the SFAFS website, www.sfafs.org.

  15. SRTM Perspective View with Landsat Overlay: Santa Paula, and Santa Clara River Valley, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Rectangular fields of the agriculturally rich Santa Clara River Valley are visible in this perspective view generated using data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission and an enhanced Landsat image. The Santa Clara River, which lends its name to this valley, flows from headwaters near Acton, California, 160 km (100 miles) to the Pacific Ocean, and is one of only two natural river systems remaining in southern California. In the foreground of this image, the largely dry riverbed can be seen as a bright feature as it winds its way along the base of South Mountain. The bright region at the right end of this portion of the valley is the city of Santa Paula, California. Founded in 1902, this small, picturesque town at the geographic center of Ventura County is referred to as the 'Citrus Capital of the World.' The city is surrounded by orange, lemon, and avocado groves and is a major distribution point for citrus fruits in the United States. The bright, linear feature in the center of the valley is State Highway 126, the valley's 'main drag.' For visualization purposes, topographic heights displayed in this image are exaggerated two times. Colors, from Landsat data, approximate natural color.

    The elevation data used in this image was acquired by SRTM aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of Earth's land surface. To collect the 3-D SRTM data, engineers added a mast 60 meters (about 200 feet)long, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense, and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory

  16. Ius Chasma Tributary Valleys and Adjacent Plains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    This image covers valley tributaries of Ius Chasma, as well as the plains adjacent to the valleys. Ius Chasma is one of several canyons that make up the Valles Marineris canyon system. Valles Marineris likely formed by extension associated with the growth of the large volcanoes and topographic high of Tharsis to the northwest. As the ground was pulled apart, large and deep gaps resulted in the valleys seen in the top and bottom of this HiRISE image. Ice that was once in the ground could have also melted to create additional removal of material in the formation of the valleys. HiRISE is able to see the rocks along the walls of both these valleys and also impact craters in the image. Rock layers that appear lower down in elevation appear rougher and are shedding boulders. Near the top of the walls and also seen in patches along the smooth plains are brighter layers. These brighter layers are not shedding boulders so they must represent a different kind of rock formed in a different kind of environment than those further down the walls. Because they are highest in elevation, the bright layers are youngest in age. HiRISE is able to see dozens of the bright layers, which are perhaps only a meter in thickness. Darker sand dunes and ripples cover most of the plains and fill the floors of impact craters.

    Image PSP_001351_1715 was taken by the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft on November 9, 2006. The complete image is centered at -8.3 degrees latitude, 275.4 degrees East longitude. The range to the target site was 254.3 km (158.9 miles). At this distance the image scale ranges from 25.4 cm/pixel (with 1 x 1 binning) to 101.8 cm/pixel (with 4 x 4 binning). The image shown here has been map-projected to 25 cm/pixel and north is up. The image was taken at a local Mars time of 3:32 PM and the scene is illuminated from the west with a solar incidence angle of 59 degrees, thus the sun was about

  17. Surface geology of the northern Midway-Sunset Field and adjacent Temblor Range, Kern County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Wylie, A.S. Jr.; Sturm, D.H.; Gardiner, R.L.; Mercer, M.F. )

    1996-01-01

    New surface mapping at a 1:12000 scale adjacent to the 2 billion barrel Midway Sunset Field has revealed complex intraformational stratigraphy within the upper Miocene Santa Margarita Formation (Tms). Locally known as the Potter and Spellacy Formations in the subsurface, these sandstone and conglomerate heavy oil reservoirs produce the majority of Midway Sunset daily production of 164,000 barrels of oil via thermal EOR processes. The Tms consists mostly of conglomerate inserted into the Belridge Diatomite (Tmb) interval. The stratigraphically lower intervals of the Tms clearly fill deeply incised valleys or submarine canyons cut into Tmb and locally into the underlying Antelope Shale (Tma). The basal intervals of Tms; are very coarse grained, containing boulders of granitic and metamorphic rock as large as 4 meters that were derived from the Salinian block west of the San Andreas Fault. The upper intervals of Tms are more sheet-like and interbedded containing clasts less than 50 cm in length. The incised valleys have a spacing of about one mile in outcrop, with a gap located in the area of the older Republic Sandstone (Tmr). Paleocurrents from Tms regionally suggest sediment transport to the northeast. The sedimentary structures of Tms suggest deposition in deep-water conditions, probably a slope (bathyal) setting. Shelf environments should have been present to the southwest (now stripped away by erosion) and submarine-fan and basin-floor environments to the northeast.

  18. Surface geology of the northern Midway-Sunset Field and adjacent Temblor Range, Kern County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Wylie, A.S. Jr.; Sturm, D.H.; Gardiner, R.L.; Mercer, M.F.

    1996-12-31

    New surface mapping at a 1:12000 scale adjacent to the 2 billion barrel Midway Sunset Field has revealed complex intraformational stratigraphy within the upper Miocene Santa Margarita Formation (Tms). Locally known as the Potter and Spellacy Formations in the subsurface, these sandstone and conglomerate heavy oil reservoirs produce the majority of Midway Sunset daily production of 164,000 barrels of oil via thermal EOR processes. The Tms consists mostly of conglomerate inserted into the Belridge Diatomite (Tmb) interval. The stratigraphically lower intervals of the Tms clearly fill deeply incised valleys or submarine canyons cut into Tmb and locally into the underlying Antelope Shale (Tma). The basal intervals of Tms; are very coarse grained, containing boulders of granitic and metamorphic rock as large as 4 meters that were derived from the Salinian block west of the San Andreas Fault. The upper intervals of Tms are more sheet-like and interbedded containing clasts less than 50 cm in length. The incised valleys have a spacing of about one mile in outcrop, with a gap located in the area of the older Republic Sandstone (Tmr). Paleocurrents from Tms regionally suggest sediment transport to the northeast. The sedimentary structures of Tms suggest deposition in deep-water conditions, probably a slope (bathyal) setting. Shelf environments should have been present to the southwest (now stripped away by erosion) and submarine-fan and basin-floor environments to the northeast.

  19. 1. RUINED PORTION OF SANTA ANA CANAL INTAKE ALONGSIDE SAR3 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. RUINED PORTION OF SANTA ANA CANAL INTAKE ALONGSIDE SAR-3 SYSTEM TUNNEL, JUST TO SOUTH OF SAR-2. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, Abandoned Tunnel, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  20. 31. CRANE RUNWAY FOR 5TON PUSH TYPE CRANE, SANTA ANA ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. CRANE RUNWAY FOR 5-TON PUSH TYPE CRANE, SANTA ANA RIVER NO. 3, SEPT. 4, 1945. SCE drawing no. 523856-2. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, SAR-3 Powerhouse, San Bernardino National Forest, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  1. View of north side from exterior stairs of adjacent building, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of north side from exterior stairs of adjacent building, bottom cut off by fringed buildings, view facing south-southwest - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Industrial X-Ray Building, Off Sixth Street, adjacent to and south of Facility No. 11, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  2. Learning Non-Adjacent Regularities at Age 0 ; 7

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gervain, Judit; Werker, Janet F.

    2013-01-01

    One important mechanism suggested to underlie the acquisition of grammar is rule learning. Indeed, infants aged 0 ; 7 are able to learn rules based on simple identity relations (adjacent repetitions, ABB: "wo fe fe" and non-adjacent repetitions, ABA: "wo fe wo", respectively; Marcus et al., 1999). One unexplored issue is…

  3. Delayed Acquisition of Non-Adjacent Vocalic Distributional Regularities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-Gomez, Nayeli; Nazzi, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    The ability to compute non-adjacent regularities is key in the acquisition of a new language. In the domain of phonology/phonotactics, sensitivity to non-adjacent regularities between consonants has been found to appear between 7 and 10 months. The present study focuses on the emergence of a posterior-anterior (PA) bias, a regularity involving two…

  4. Separation of site effects and structural focusing in Santa Monica, California: A study of high-frequency weak motions from earthquakes and blasts recorded during the Los Angeles Region Seismic Experiment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baher, S.; Davis, P.M.; Fuis, G.

    2002-01-01

    Near-surface site factors and the effects of deep structural focusing were estimated in the Santa Monica Mountains and Santa Monica, California, from a portable array of 75 seismic stations deployed during the Los Angeles Region Seismic Experiment, Phase II (LARSE II). The objective was to examine further the origin of seismic wave amplification in the region of intense damage south of the Santa Monica Fault from the Northridge earthquake. The analysis used normalized spectral amplitudes in the 4- to 8- and 8- to 12-Hz range in direct and coda waves from local earthquakes in Santa Paula, Northridge, Redlands, and Hector Mine. Coda waves indicated that site factor amplifications are larger south of the Santa Monica fault relative to the north. Spectral ratios of direct S waves, corrected for site effects, show additional amplificaton south of, and adjacent to, the Santa Monica fault, attributable to focusing by a deeper structure. Gao et al. (1996) concluded that localized focusing effects contributed to anomalous P- and S-wave amplification in the Santa Monica damage zone for Northridge aftershocks within a specified range of azimuths. In an attempt to reproduce the hypothesized focusing from the Northridge earthquake, two shots (4000 and 3750 lb.) were detonated, one at Pyramid Lake, a distance of about 69 km to the north-northwest of central Santa Monica, and the other near Fort Tejon, a distance of 91 km. The azimuth of the shots was chosen to be that expected to give anomalous amplification. At these distance steeply incident seismic energy from Pg/PmP waves are expected to pass through the underground focusing structure and be selectively amplified. After the local site factors are removed, the waveforms from the Fort Tejon shot exhibited localized amplification adjacent to and south of the fault, 2-3 times larger than that of the surrounding area. The effect is less for waves from the Pyramid Lake shot, which could be due to their higher angle of incidence

  5. Local smoke-free policy development in Santa Fe, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Glantz, Stanton A

    2010-01-01

    Objective To describe the process of approval and implementation of a comprehensive smoke-free law in the province of Santa Fe, Argentina, between 2005 and 2009. Methods Review of the Santa Fe smoke-free legislation, articles published in local newspapers and documentation on two lawsuits filed against the law, and interviews with key individuals in Santa Fe. Results Efforts to implement smoke-free policies in Santa Fe began during the 1990s without success, and resumed in 2005 when the provincial Legislature approved the first 100% smoke-free subnational law in Argentina. There was no strong opposition during the discussions within the legislature. As in other parts of the world, pro-tobacco industry interests attempted to block the implementation of the law using well known strategies. These efforts included a controversy media campaign set up, the creation of a hospitality industry association and a virtual smokers' rights group, the introduction of a counterproposal seeking modification of the law, the challenge of the law in the Supreme Court, and the proposal of a weak national bill that would ‘conflict’ with the subnational law. Tobacco control advocates sought media attention as a strategy to protect the law. Conclusions Santa Fe is the first subnational jurisdiction in Latin America to have enacted a comprehensive smoke-free policy following the recommendations of the World Health Organization (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. After 3 years of implementation, pro-tobacco industry forces failed to undermine the law. Other subnational jurisdictions in Argentina, as well as in Mexico and Brazil are following the Santa Fe example. PMID:19955534

  6. Sources of emergency water supplies in Santa Clara County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Akers, J.P.

    1977-01-01

    Water distribution systems in Santa Clara County, Calif., may be damaged and rendered inoperable by a large earthquake or other disaster. In such an event, individual agencies may have to implement emergency measures to supply water for drinking, firefighting, decontamination, or other purposes. In Santa Clara County, 128 wells have been identified as potential water-supply sources in emergencies. The criteria used to select the wells are: yield of at least 3 liters per second (50 gallons per minute), good water quality, ready accessibility, and available emergency power. Purification methods of small water supplies are described. (Woodard-USGS)

  7. Field-trip guide to the southeastern foothills of the Santa Cruz Mountains in Santa Clara County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stoffer, Philip W.; Messina, Paula

    2002-01-01

    This field trip is an introduction to the geology of the southeastern foothills of the Santa Cruz Mountains in southern Santa Clara County. Seven stops include four short hikes to access rock exposures and views of the foothills east of Loma Prieta Peak between Gilroy and San José. Field-trip destinations highlight the dominant rock types of the "Franciscan assemblage" including outcrops of serpentinite, basalt, limestone, ribbon chert, graywacke sandstone, and shale. General discussions include how the rocks formed, and how tectonism and stream erosion have changed the landscape through time. All field trip stops are on public land; most are near reservoir dams of the Santa Clara Valley Water District. In addition, stops include examination of an Ohlone Indian heritage site and the New Almaden Mining Museum.

  8. 78 FR 66756 - Santa Clara Pueblo; Amendment No. 1 to Notice of a Major Disaster Declaration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-06

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Santa Clara Pueblo; Amendment No. 1 to Notice of a Major... amends the notice of a major disaster declaration for the Santa Clara Pueblo (FEMA-4147-DR), dated... disaster declaration for the Santa Clara Pueblo is hereby amended to include Public Assistance...

  9. 78 FR 66756 - Santa Clara Pueblo; Amendment No. 1 to Notice of a Major Disaster Declaration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-06

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Santa Clara Pueblo; Amendment No. 1 to Notice of a Major... amends the notice of a major disaster declaration for the Santa Clara Pueblo (FEMA-4151-DR), dated... disaster declaration for the Santa Clara Pueblo is hereby amended to include Public Assistance...

  10. 78 FR 67382 - Santa Clara Pueblo; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-12

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Santa Clara Pueblo; Major Disaster and Related Determinations... Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the Santa Clara Pueblo (FEMA-4151-DR), dated October 24, 2013... Act''), as follows: I have determined that the damage to the lands associated with the Santa...

  11. 78 FR 64233 - Santa Clara Pueblo; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-28

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Santa Clara Pueblo; Major Disaster and Related Determinations... Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the Santa Clara Pueblo (FEMA-4147-DR), dated September 27... Santa Clara Pueblo resulting from severe storms and flooding during the period of July 19-21, 2013,...

  12. 75 FR 81846 - Expansion of the Santa Maria Valley Viticultural Area

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-29

    ..., published T.D. ATF-89 in the Federal Register at 46 FR 39811 (August 5, 1981), establishing the Santa Maria... the proposed expansion of the Santa Maria Valley viticultural area in the Federal Register at 75 FR... onto the Santa Maria N.I. 10-6 map to the 3,016-foot summit of Los Coches Mountain; then (4)...

  13. Lithostratigraphy and depositional environments of the Vaqueros Formation in Hondo field, Capitan field, and the western Santa Ynez Mountains, California

    SciTech Connect

    Rigsby, C.A. ); Miles, G.A. ); Schwartz, D.E. )

    1991-02-01

    The Santa Ynez Mountains and the adjacent offshore areas are situated on the northwest edge of the western Transverse Range province. Oligocene-lower Miocene strata in this province record complex interactions among local and regional eustatics and local and regional tectonics and shed light on the sedimentary and tectonic history of this poorly understood region. Correlation of lithofacies units in Oligocene-lower Miocene Vaqueros Formation outcrops the Santa Ynez Mountains with Vaqueros cores from the Hondo and Capital fields leads to the delineation of three major facies tracts within the offshore and coastal areas: fan-delta conglomerates, shoreline sandstones and conglomerates, and inner shelf sandstones. Vaqueros strata at both Hondo and Capital fields are part of the inner shelf sandstone facies tract. Outcrops of the inner shelf facies typically consist of amalgamated packets of locally burrowed, cross-bedded, gravelly sandstones. In outcrop, bioturbation is most common near the tops of the cross-bed sets. In Hondo field a thinner, more basinward portion of this facies is characterized by bioturbated medium- to coarse-grained sandstones. Both in outcrops and at Hondo the base of the Vaqueros is marked by a sharp grain-size change and by a change from interbedded fluvial/deltaic strata below (the Alegria/Sespe formations) to inner shelf strata above (the Vaqueros Formation). The inner shelf facies tract represented by these three localities, fines, thins, and becomes more pervasively bioturbated in the present-day offshore direction suggesting a similar shoreline polarity however, the Oligocene-early Miocene paleogeography is more complex. Facies tracts present in outcrop in the western Santa Ynez Mountains become thinner and coarser in the present-day westerly direction and record deposition on a topographically and geomorphically complex shoreline.

  14. The Santa Lucia-Aiguá-Merin rifting (Uruguay): an early aborted branch of the South Atlantic break-up

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossello, E.; López-Gamundí, O. R.; Veroslavsky, G.; de Santa Ana, H.

    2012-04-01

    The Santa Lucía-Aigua-Merin (SaLAM) rift is emplaced in the cratonic basement of SE Uruguay. It covers 450 km from the Rio de La Plata to the southwest to Laguna Merin to the northeast running broadly parallel to the South American plate boundary. It is a narrow, pull apart trough trending N 70° with two distinct depocenters (Santa Lucía and Merin) filled predominantly by Mesozoic volcaniclastic sediments. Alkaline magmatic rocks have been identified in the Minas-Aigua-Lescano uplifted segment that separates both depocenters. The Santa Lucía depocenter or sub basin was filled with a up to 2,500 m thick column of upper Jurassic to Cenozoic volcaniclastic sediments that rest on the structured Precambrian basement. The Merin sub basin is dominated by a thick volcanic sequence associated with a significant gravity anomaly. The SaLAM rift joins southwestard into a triple-junction configuration with the NW-SE trending Salado Basin is was buried by Lower Tertiary to Recent sediments. The SaLAM trough can be interpreted as an aborted branch of the South Atlantic break up; its orientation was probably controlled, at least partially, by the structural grain of the pre-existing Gondwana crystalline basement. Its accessible outcrops provide an excellent opportunity to study the sedimentary, magmatic and tectonic evolution of the early stages of the South Atlantic break up and its potential reactivation during the Andean orogeny that seemed to have affected significant parts of the adjacent large continental platform of Uruguay and Argentina.

  15. A comparative analysis of infiltration rates below a pasture and a secondary forest on Santa Cruz Island, Galapagos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    d'Ozouville, N.; Pryet, A.; Tournebize, J.; Chaumont, C.; Gonzáles, A.; Dominguez, C.; Fuente-Tomai, P.; Fernandez, J.; Violette, S.

    2011-12-01

    The potential effects of land use changes on groundwater recharge are being investigated on the windward side of Santa Cruz Island, Galapagos. Comparative studies allow the identification of the processes (evaporation, transpiration, soil water storage) at the vegetation/soil interface leading to contrasting recharge rates under different land covers. During one year, we monitored soil water dynamics under two adjacent study plots differing only by their vegetation cover: a pasture and a secondary forest. Climatic variables were monitored above the pasture and completed by throughfall monitoring under the forest. Tensiometers provide a direct measurement of the driving force of water dynamics in the soil: the hydraulic head gradient. In the two plots, tensiometers were set up in vertical profiles together with soil water content probes and connected to an automatic acquisition device. The forest stand has a higher canopy storage capacity and aerodynamic resistance, which causes evaporation losses to be higher. This is confirmed by throughfall measurements: only ca. 80% of gross precipitation reaches the ground. Expectedly, soil water tension profiles present clearly different behaviors in the pasture and in the forest. Despite high uncertainties on estimated recharge rates, we show that parallel monitoring of soil hydrodynamics in these two study plots provides valuable insights and may help to manage or anticipate the potential effect of deforestation or invasion by introduced plants on the hydrology of Santa Cruz Island, Galapagos.

  16. Promoting medical innovation while developing sound social and business policy: a conversation with Thomas G. Roberts. Interview by Barbara J. Culliton.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Thomas G

    2008-01-01

    The development of "targeted biologics" as cancer therapy has made the field ripe for investment from the private sector and is changing the face of cancer medicine, while also raising important policy concerns about price, profit, and continued innovation. In this interview Barbara Culliton talks with Thomas Roberts, who sees this world from a unique perspective. Roberts, an oncologist, has practiced at the Massachusetts General Hospital and is currently thinking about innovation as a hedge fund manager. PMID:18042561

  17. Submarine Landslides at Santa Catalina Island, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legg, M. R.; Francis, R. D.

    2011-12-01

    Santa Catalina Island is an active tectonic block of volcanic and metamorphic rocks originally exposed during middle Miocene transtension along the evolving Pacific-North America transform plate boundary. Post-Miocene transpression created the existing large pop-up structure along the major strike-slip restraining bend of the Catalina fault that forms the southwest flank of the uplift. Prominent submerged marine terraces apparent in high-resolution bathymetric maps interrupt the steep submarine slopes in the upper ~400 meters subsea depths. Steep subaerial slopes of the island are covered by Quaternary landslides, especially at the sea cliffs and in the blueschist metamorphic rocks. The submarine slopes also show numerous landslides that range in area from a few hectares to more than three sq-km (300 hectares). Three or more landslides of recent origin exist between the nearshore and first submerged terrace along the north-facing shelf of the island's West End. One of these slides occurred during September 2005 when divers observed a remarkable change in the seafloor configuration after previous dives in the area. Near a sunken yacht at about 45-ft depth where the bottom had sloped gently into deeper water, a "sinkhole" had formed that dropped steeply to 100-ft or greater depths. Some bubbling sand was observed in the shallow water areas that may be related to the landslide process. High-resolution multibeam bathymetry acquired in 2008 by CSU Monterey Bay show this "fresh" slide and at least two other slides of varying age along the West End. The slides are each roughly 2 hectares in area and their debris aprons are spread across the first terrace at about 85-m water depth that is likely associated with the Last Glacial Maximum sealevel lowstand. Larger submarine slides exist along the steep Catalina and Catalina Ridge escarpments along the southwest flank of the island platform. A prominent slide block, exceeding 3 sq-km in area, appears to have slipped more than

  18. Thermoelastic response of thin metal films and their adjacent materials

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, S.; Yoon, Y.; Kim, J.; Kim, W.

    2013-01-14

    A pulsed laser beam applied to a thin metal film is capable of launching an acoustic wave due to thermal expansion. Heat transfer from the thin metal film to adjacent materials can also induce thermal expansion; thus, the properties of these adjacent materials (as well as the thin metal film) should be considered for a complete description of the thermoelastic response. Here, we show that adjacent materials with a small specific heat and large thermal expansion coefficient can generate an enhanced acoustic wave and we demonstrate a three-fold increase in the peak pressure of the generated acoustic wave on substitution of parylene for polydimethylsiloxane.

  19. Evaluation of Santa Clara Pueblo Library Literacy Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zastrow, Leona M.

    A literacy program was developed and conducted through the tribal library for the members of Santa Clara Pueblo (New Mexico). Two library staff members surveyed the community, developed a literacy program, and then implemented it. The program included both individual and group tutoring. The group classes were more successful, with 64 enrollees and…

  20. 27 CFR 9.54 - Santa Ynez Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... dividing the La Laguna and San Carlos de Jonata Land Grants. (5) Then east following the boundary between the La Laguna and the San Carlos de Jonata Land Grants to the intersection with Canada de Santa Ynez... of the La Laguna and Sisquoc Land Grants with the Los Padres National Forest. (10) Then following...

  1. Breeding and trade of wildlife in Santa Catarina state, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Kuhnen, V V; Remor, J O; Lima, R E M

    2012-02-01

    The wildlife trade is becoming increasingly more relevant in discussions concerning conservation biology and the sustainable management of natural resources. The aim of this study was to document the trade and breeding of wildlife in Santa Catarina state, in southern Brazil. Data was collected from annual reports (1996-2008) of wildlife breeders which were sent to IBAMA. By the end of 2008, there were 79 wildlife breeders and 11 wildlife traders distributed in Santa Catarina. Commercial breeding accounted for the highest number of breeders (51%). In total, there are 213 species of wild animals bred in the state: 177 birds, 19 mammals and 17 reptiles. Of these, 48% are native to Santa Catarina, 32% occur in other Brazilian states and 20% are exotic to Brazil. Nine percent of the species bred are vulnerable or endangered. It was observed that some breeders reported breeding unauthorized species. Altogether, 93 species are bred illegally by 19 breeders. Of these species, 48 are native to Santa Catarina and three are classified as vulnerable or in danger of extinction. We hope the data presented in this paper contributes to the development of conservation strategies and conscious use of wildlife resources in Brazil. PMID:22437385

  2. 40. Topeka and Santa Fe Railway Company, Los Angeles, California, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    40. Topeka and Santa Fe Railway Company, Los Angeles, California, dated July 1937. (Microfiched drawings located at the Denver Service Center, #113/41906-set of 2) IMPROVEMENTS IN SEWAGE TREATMENT AND FILTER CHAMBER. - Water Reclamation Plant, Grand Canyon, Coconino County, AZ

  3. 27 CFR 9.28 - Santa Maria Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... significance. (b) Approved maps. The six United States Geological Survey maps used to determine the boundary of... at the intersection of U.S. Route 101 and Clark Avenue, section 18 north boundary line, T9N/R33W, then proceed generally north along U.S. Route 101 approximately 10 miles onto the Santa...

  4. AmeriFlux US-SRM Santa Rita Mesquite

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, Russell

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-SRM Santa Rita Mesquite. Site Description - Semidesert grassland encroached by mesquite (Prosopis velutina) trees. Please see Scott et al. 2009 JGR-Biogeo, 114, G04004

  5. Seafloor off Lighthouse Point Park, Santa Cruz, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Storlazzi, Curt D.; Golden, Nadine E.; Gibbons, Helen

    2013-01-01

    The seafloor off Lighthouse Point Park, Santa Cruz, California, is extremely varied, with sandy flats, boulder fields, faults, and complex bedrock ridges. These ridges support rich marine ecosystems; some of them form the "reefs" that produce world-class surf breaks. Colors indicate seafloor depth, from red-orange (about 2 meters or 7 feet) to magenta (25 meters or 82 feet).

  6. Seafloor off Pleasure Point, Santa Cruz County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Storlazzi, Curt D.; Golden, Nadine E.; Gibbons, Helen

    2013-01-01

    The seafloor off Pleasure Point, Santa Cruz County, California, is extremely varied, with sandy flats, boulder fields, faults, and complex bedrock ridges. These ridges support rich marine ecosystems; some of them form the "reefs" that produce world-class surf breaks. Colors indicate seafloor depth, from red-orange (about 2 meters or 7 feet) to magenta (25 meters or 82 feet)

  7. Seafloor off Natural Bridges State Beach, Santa Cruz, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Storlazzi, Curt D.; Golden, Nadine E.; Gibbons, Helen

    2013-01-01

    The seafloor off Natural Bridges State Beach, Santa Cruz, California, is extremely varied, with sandy flats, boulder fields, faults, and complex bedrock ridges. These ridges support rich marine ecosystems; some of them form the "reefs" that produce world-class surf breaks. Colors indicate seafloor depth, from red-orange (about 2 meters or 7 feet) to magenta (25 meters or 82 feet).

  8. Status of Santa Clara MCFC product development test

    SciTech Connect

    Leo, A.J.; O`Shea, T.P.

    1995-12-01

    The 2MW plant is the world`s first application of a commercial-scale carbonate fuel cell power plant on an electric utility system. It is located at 1255 Space Park Drive in the City of Santa Clara, CA. The balance of plant pretesting effort will continue through Sept. 1995, when the stack installation effort will be initiated.

  9. Exemplary Teaching and Programs in Santa Clara Unified School District.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Norman

    Gathered together are descriptions of exemplary teaching programs, systems, techniques, innovations, teaching items, or methods that have been collected from teachers and administrators in the Santa Clara Unified School District. Listed under schools, each description offers different learning conventions that have proved successful or useful.…

  10. 78 FR 67210 - Santa Clara Pueblo Disaster #NM-00038

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Santa Clara Pueblo Disaster NM-00038 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice...: Submit completed loan applications to: U.S. Small Business Administration, Processing and...

  11. Bilingual Education Project, Santa Clara County, California. Final Report, 1972.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santa Clara County Office of Education, San Jose, CA.

    The Spanish Dame Bilingual Education Project, located in Santa Clara County, California, served 190 children who came from homes where the primary language was Spanish and who resided within the target area schools of the Alum Rock School District. The objectives of the preschool project were (1) to demonstrate a home-teaching procedure designed…

  12. 77 FR 39726 - Land Acquisitions: Pueblo of Santa Clara

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-05

    ... Ray, Realty Specialist, Southwest Regional Office, Bureau of Indian Affairs, 1001 Indian School Road..., in Santa Fe, New Mexico. Together With T. 20 N., R. 7 E., Sec. 17, lots 1 to 8, inclusive; Sec. 18, lots 5 to 12, inclusive; Sec. 19, lots 12 to 17, inclusive, lots 19, 21, 23, all that portion of...

  13. SANTA MONICA BAY RESTORATION PROJECT IMPLEMENTATION REVIEW 2002

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Santa Monica Bay Restoration Project Implementation Review (IR) summarizes the progress and challenges ahead for the Project through examination of it activities in relation to the CCMP. Contents of the IR include: implementation progress with a financing for plan implementat...

  14. 21. ORIGINAL COMPANY HOUSE AT CORNER OF SANTA ANA AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. ORIGINAL COMPANY HOUSE AT CORNER OF SANTA ANA AND ANAHEIM BLVDS. (BEHIND HOUSE IN CA-242-20), WHICH IS BEING PREPARED FOR DEMOLITION. - Gene Pump Plant, South of Gene Wash Reservoir, 2 miles west of Whitsett Pump Plant, Parker Dam, San Bernardino County, CA

  15. Council Minutes, February 4-6, 2011: Santa Monica, California

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Researcher, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This article presents minutes of the American Educational Research Association's meetings held in Santa Monica, California, on February 4-6, 2011. President Kris D. Gutierrez led a discussion of the meeting dates for the summer Executive Board and Council meetings. It was agreed that members of Council will be polled to determine the best dates…

  16. Pertinent spatio-temporal scale of observation to understand suspended sediment yield control factors in the Andean region: the case of the Santa River (Peru)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morera, S. B.; Condom, T.; Vauchel, P.; Guyot, J.-L.; Galvez, C.; Crave, A.

    2013-11-01

    Hydro-sedimentology development is a great challenge in Peru due to limited data as well as sparse and confidential information. This study aimed to quantify and to understand the suspended sediment yield from the west-central Andes Mountains and to identify the main erosion-control factors and their relevance. The Tablachaca River (3132 km2) and the Santa River (6815 km2), located in two adjacent Andes catchments, showed similar statistical daily rainfall and discharge variability but large differences in specific suspended-sediment yield (SSY). In order to investigate the main erosion factors, daily water discharge and suspended sediment concentration (SSC) datasets of the Santa and Tablachaca rivers were analysed. Mining activity in specific lithologies was identified as the major factor that controls the high SSY of the Tablachaca (2204 t km2 yr-1), which is four times greater than the Santa's SSY. These results show that the analysis of control factors of regional SSY at the Andes scale should be done carefully. Indeed, spatial data at kilometric scale and also daily water discharge and SSC time series are needed to define the main erosion factors along the entire Andean range.

  17. Developing and Validating a Santa Ana Wildfire Threat Index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capps, S. B.; Rolinski, T.; DAgostino, B.; Vanderburg, S.; Fovell, R. G.; Cao, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Santa Ana winds, common to southern California during the fall through spring, are a type of katabatic wind that originates from a direction generally ranging from 360°/0° to 100° and is usually accompanied by very low humidity. Since fuel conditions tend to be driest from late September through the middle of November, Santa Ana winds occurring during this period have the greatest potential to produce large, devastating fires when an ignition occurs. Such catastrophic fires occurred in 1993, 2003, 2007, and 2008. Because of the destructive nature of these fires, there has been a growing desire to categorize Santa Ana wind events in much the same way that tropical cyclones have been categorized. The Santa Ana Wildfire Threat index (SAWT) is an attempt to categorize such events with respect to fire activity, based on surface wind velocity, dew point depression, and forecasted fuel conditions. The index, a USDA Forest Service product, was developed by the Forest Service in collaboration with San Diego Gas and Electric Utility (SDG&E), the Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences at UCLA, The Desert Research Institute (DRI), and Vertum Partners. The methodology behind the SAWT index, along with the index itself will be presented in detail. Also, there will be a discussion on the construction of a 30-year climatology of the index, which includes various meteorological and fuel parameters. We will demonstrate the usefulness of the index as another decision support tool for fire agencies and first responders, and how it could assist the general public and private industry in the preparation of critical Santa Ana wind events.

  18. Late Quaternary slip on the Santa Cruz Island fault, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pinter, N.; Lueddecke, S.B.; Keller, E.A.; Simmons, K.R.

    1998-01-01

    The style, timing, and pattern of slip on the Santa Cruz Island fault were investigated by trenching the fault and by analysis of offset late Quaternary landforms. A trench excavated across the fault at Christi Beach, on the western coast of the island, exposed deformation of latest Pleistocene to Holocene sediments and pre-Quaternary rocks, recording repeated large-magnitude rupture events. The most recent earthquake at this site occurred ca. 5 ka. Coastal terraces preserved on western Santa Cruz Island have been dated using the uranium-series technique and by extrapolation using terrace elevations and the eustatic record. Offset of terraces and other landforms indicates that the Santa Cruz Island fault is predominantly left lateral, having a horizontal slip rate of not more than 1.1 mm/yr and probably about 0.8 mm/yr. The fault also has a smaller reverse component, slipping at a rate of between 0.1 and 0.2 mm/yr. Combined with measurements of slip per event, this information suggests a long-term average recurrence interval of at least 2.7 k.y. and probably 4-5 k.y., and average earthquake magnitudes of Mw 7.2-7.5. Sense of slip, recurrence interval, and earthquake magnitudes calculated here for the Santa Cruz Island fault are very similar to recent results for other faults along the southern margin of the western Transverse Range, including the Malibu Coast fault, the Santa Monica fault, the Hollywood fault, and the Raymond fault, supporting the contention that these faults constitute a continuous and linked fault system, which is characterized by large but relatively infrequent earthquakes.

  19. The Impact of Santa Ana Winds on Wildland Fire Regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billmire, M.; Loboda, T. V.; French, N. H.; Tyner, M.

    2011-12-01

    Santa Ana winds have been implicated as major drivers of extensive wildfires that occur annually in southern California. While numerous anecdotal reports dictate an obvious relationship, there is little quantitative analysis in current literature on how this loosely-defined weather phenomenon impacts fire progression regimes. A new satellite-derived fire progression dataset developed using MODIS and Landsat was linked to a network of 82 Remote Automated Weather Stations (RAWS) to evaluate three differing a priori classifications of Santa Ana events defined using three weather parameters: wind speed, wind direction, and relative humidity. The fire progression dataset comprised 528 burn area polygons representing 151 distinct fire events from 2001-2009 in southern California. Each burn area polygon was assigned weather data from one of the RAWS units by shortest straight-line distance. These data and methods show quantitatively that burn area is dramatically larger under Santa Ana conditions than under non-Santa Ana conditions (see table). Outliers of both types (large burn areas under non-SA conditions; small burn areas under SA conditions) were identified and closely examined to identify potentially confounding variables. Time-lag effects (particularly with respect to cumulative precipitation preceding day of burn) and effects with regard to local vs. regional measurements were examined as well. We tested 17 variables (3 relative humidity variables, 5 wind speed variables, 3 temperature variables, 3 moisture variables, previous day burn area, census-derived population density, and the number of hours meeting one Santa Ana classification) individually and in combination for correlation with both burn area and burn area change from the previous day to test their predictive power. Mean daily relative humidity was found to have the strongest correlation (Pearson's r = -0.451) with burn area. All variables except moisture variables were more strongly correlated with the

  20. 73. PASSAGE ADJACENT TO ROOM 232, EAST WING, SECOND FLOOR, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    73. PASSAGE ADJACENT TO ROOM 232, EAST WING, SECOND FLOOR, LOOKING WEST BY NORTHWEST, SHOWING EASTERNMOST ARCH OF FORMER GREAT HALL NORTH ARCADE - Smithsonian Institution Building, 1000 Jefferson Drive, between Ninth & Twelfth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  1. View of viaduct, looking SE from roof of adjacent parking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of viaduct, looking SE from roof of adjacent parking garage. - Mulberry Street Viaduct, Spanning Paxton Creek & Cameron Street (State Route 230) at Mulberry Street (State Route 3012), Harrisburg, Dauphin County, PA

  2. Cement Leakage into Adjacent Vertebral Body Following Percutaneous Vertebroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jae Hoo; Kim, Hyeun Sung

    2016-01-01

    Percutaneous vertebroplasty (PV) is a minimally invasive procedure for osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures that fail to respond to conventional conservative treatment. It significantly improves intolerable back pain within hours, and has a low complication rate. Although rare, PV is not free of complications, most of which are directly related to cement leakage. Because of its association with new adjacent fracture, the importance of cement leakage into the adjacent disc space is paramount. Here, we report an interesting case of cement leakage into the adjacent upper vertebral body as well as disc space following PV. To the best of our knowledge, there has been no report of cement leakage into the adjacent vertebral body following PV. This rare case is presented along with a review of the literature. PMID:27437018

  3. 1. HEBRONVILLE MILL COMPLEX ADJACENT TO NORTHEAST CORRIDOR. HEBRONVILLE, BRISTOL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. HEBRONVILLE MILL COMPLEX ADJACENT TO NORTHEAST CORRIDOR. HEBRONVILLE, BRISTOL CO., MA. Sec. 4116, MP 193.75. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between RI/MA State Line & South Station, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  4. 3. DODGEVILLE MILL COMPLEX ADJACENT TO NORTHEAST CORRIDOR DODGEVILLE, BRISTOL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. DODGEVILLE MILL COMPLEX ADJACENT TO NORTHEAST CORRIDOR DODGEVILLE, BRISTOL CO., MA. Sec. 4116, MP 195.55. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between RI/MA State Line & South Station, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  5. 33. HISTORIC PLAQUE MARKING WHERE JOHNSTON DIED, ADJACENT TO PATHWAY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. HISTORIC PLAQUE MARKING WHERE JOHNSTON DIED, ADJACENT TO PATHWAY WITH CONCRETE CULVERT LEADING NORTH OUT OF RAVINE TOWARD JOHNSTON MEMORIAL SITE. VIEW NW. - Shiloh National Military Park Tour Roads, Shiloh, Hardin County, TN

  6. Lock 4 View east of lock wall and adjacent ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Lock 4 - View east of lock wall and adjacent roadway built atop tow path. The gate pocket can be seen at center. - Savannah & Ogeechee Barge Canal, Between Ogeechee & Savannah Rivers, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  7. 1. Ninth Street (west) facade. Adjacent on the north is ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Ninth Street (west) facade. Adjacent on the north is the 9th Street facade of 816 E Street. Both buildings were originally one property. - Riley Building, Rendezvous Adult Magazines & Films, 437 Ninth Street, Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  8. 2. THREEQUARTER VIEW FROM ADJACENT ACCESS ROAD SHOWING THREE SPANS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. THREE-QUARTER VIEW FROM ADJACENT ACCESS ROAD SHOWING THREE SPANS AND NORTHWEST APPROACH SPANS, LOOKING SOUTHEAST - Red River Bridge, Spanning Red River at U.S. Highway 82, Garland, Miller County, AR

  9. 1. VIEW FROM ROOFTOP OF BUILDING (MOTEL) ADJACENT TO TECHWOOD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW FROM ROOFTOP OF BUILDING (MOTEL) ADJACENT TO TECHWOOD HOMES, LOOKING SOUTH. GARAGE TO EXTREME LEFT, BUILDING 1 TO EXTREME RIGHT. - Techwood Homes (Public Housing), Bounded by North Avenue, Parker Street, William Street & Lovejoy Street, Atlanta, Fulton County, GA

  10. 3. View of north side of house facing from adjacent ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. View of north side of house facing from adjacent vacant property. Original wood lap siding and trim is covered by aluminum siding. Recessed side porch is in middle. - 645 South Eighteenth Street (House), Louisville, Jefferson County, KY

  11. 1. A BRICK AND CONCRETE FAN HOUSING ADJACENT TO ONE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. A BRICK AND CONCRETE FAN HOUSING ADJACENT TO ONE OF THE ADIT OPENINGS (VIEW TO THE NORTH). - Foster Gulch Mine, Fan Housing, Bear Creek 1 mile Southwest of Town of Bear Creek, Red Lodge, Carbon County, MT

  12. 7. August, 1970 9 ORANGE STREET, ADJACENT TO UNITARIAN CHURCH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. August, 1970 9 ORANGE STREET, ADJACENT TO UNITARIAN CHURCH (NOT IN STUDY AREA) - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  13. OBLIQUE OF SOUTHWEST END AND SOUTHEAST SIDE, WITH ADJACENT FACILITY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE OF SOUTHWEST END AND SOUTHEAST SIDE, WITH ADJACENT FACILITY 391 IN THE FOREGROUND. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Joint Intelligence Center, Makalapa Drive in Makalapa Administration Area, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  14. Complications in exodontia--accidental dislodgment to adjacent anatomical areas.

    PubMed

    Grandini, S A; Barros, V M; Salata, L A; Rosa, A L; Soares, U N

    1993-01-01

    The authors report 4 cases of accidental dislodgement of teeth to adjacent anatomical areas during extraction. The causes and their prevention are discussed and solutions for the problem are suggested. PMID:8241759

  15. 6. Detail, vertical guides adjacent to east portal of Tunnel ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Detail, vertical guides adjacent to east portal of Tunnel 28, view to southwest, 135mm lens with electronic flash fill. - Central Pacific Transcontinental Railroad, Tunnel No. 28, Milepost 134.75, Applegate, Placer County, CA

  16. VIEW OF CONSTRUCTION CAMP ROCK FEATURE WITH OVER, ADJACENT TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF CONSTRUCTION CAMP ROCK FEATURE WITH OVER, ADJACENT TO THE COLUMBIA SOUTHERN CANAL. LOOKING NORTHWEST - Tumalo Irrigation District, Tumalo Project, West of Deschutes River, Tumalo, Deschutes County, OR

  17. Pump house adjacent to the superintendent's house at the west ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Pump house adjacent to the superintendent's house at the west end of the complex near Highway 101. Detail of Holloshaft pump. View to the south. - Prairie Creek Fish Hatchery, Hwy. 101, Orick, Humboldt County, CA

  18. VIEW OF NORTHERN AND EASTERN SIDES FROM PARKING LOT ADJACENT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF NORTHERN AND EASTERN SIDES FROM PARKING LOT ADJACENT TO BUILDING 199 (POLICE STATION) - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Post Office, Avenue A near Eleventh Avenue, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  19. 24. INTERIOR VIEW, WILLIAM GRAY AT SIZING GUAGE ADJACENT TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. INTERIOR VIEW, WILLIAM GRAY AT SIZING GUAGE ADJACENT TO BRADLEY HAMMER; NOTE THIS IS THE SAME TOOL AS BEING FORGED ABOVE - Warwood Tool Company, Foot of Nineteenth Street, Wheeling, Ohio County, WV

  20. Detail exterior view looking north showing piping system adjacent to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail exterior view looking north showing piping system adjacent to engine house. Gas cooling system is on far right. - Burnsville Natural Gas Pumping Station, Saratoga Avenue between Little Kanawha River & C&O Railroad line, Burnsville, Braxton County, WV

  1. VIEW OF LAMP FIXTURE (EXTERIOR) ADJACENT TO ENTRANCE AT SOUTHWEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF LAMP FIXTURE (EXTERIOR) ADJACENT TO ENTRANCE AT SOUTHWEST CORNER OF BUILDING 23, FACING NORTH - Roosevelt Base, Auditorium-Gymnasium, West Virginia Street between Richardson & Reeves Avenues, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  2. 14. Charles Acey Cobb standing adjacent to the fish screen ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Charles Acey Cobb standing adjacent to the fish screen he designed and installed in the Congdon Canal, facing southeast. Photo dates ca. late 1920's. - Congdon Canal, Fish Screen, Naches River, Yakima, Yakima County, WA

  3. 52. EASTSIDE PLANT: GENERAL VIEW OF GOVERNOR ADJACENT TO GENERATOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    52. EASTSIDE PLANT: GENERAL VIEW OF GOVERNOR ADJACENT TO GENERATOR - American Falls Water, Power & Light Company, Island Power Plant, Snake River, below American Falls Dam, American Falls, Power County, ID

  4. Interior building details of Building A, dungeon cell adjacent to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior building details of Building A, dungeon cell adjacent to northwest cell: granite and brick threshold, poured concrete floors, plastered finished walls, vaulted veiling; northwesterly view - San Quentin State Prison, Building 22, Point San Quentin, San Quentin, Marin County, CA

  5. VIEW OF CONCRETE CHANNEL ADJACENT TO TUMALO FEED CANAL INTAKE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF CONCRETE CHANNEL ADJACENT TO TUMALO FEED CANAL INTAKE STRUCTURE (DOWNSTREAM SIDE). LOOKING EAST/NORTHEAST - Tumalo Irrigation District, Tumalo Project, West of Deschutes River, Tumalo, Deschutes County, OR

  6. Adjacent Segment Disease Perspective and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Saavedra-Pozo, Fanor M.; Deusdara, Renato A. M.; Benzel, Edward C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Adjacent segment disease has become a common topic in spine surgery circles because of the significant increase in fusion surgery in recent years and the development of motion preservation technologies that theoretically should lead to a decrease in this pathology. The purpose of this review is to organize the evidence available in the current literature on this subject. Methods For this literature review, a search was conducted in PubMed with the following keywords: adjacent segment degeneration and disease. Selection, review, and analysis of the literature were completed according to level of evidence. Results The PubMed search identified 850 articles, from which 41 articles were selected and reviewed. The incidence of adjacent segment disease in the cervical spine is close to 3% without a significant statistical difference between surgical techniques (fusion vs arthroplasty). Authors report the incidence of adjacent segment disease in the lumbar spine to range from 2% to 14%. Damage to the posterior ligamentous complex and sagittal imbalances are important risk factors for both degeneration and disease. Conclusion Insufficient evidence exists at this point to support the idea that total disc arthroplasty is superior to fusion procedures in minimizing the incidence of adjacent segment disease. The etiology is most likely multifactorial but it is becoming abundantly clear that adjacent segment disease is not caused by motion segment fusion alone. Fusion plus the presence of abnormal end-fusion alignment appears to be a major factor in creating end-fusion stresses that result in adjacent segment degeneration and subsequent disease. The data presented cast further doubt on previously established rationales for total disc arthroplasty, at least with regard to the effect of total disc arthroplasty on adjacent segment degeneration pathology. PMID:24688337

  7. Approximating the largest eigenvalue of network adjacency matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Restrepo, Juan G.; Ott, Edward; Hunt, Brian R.

    2007-11-01

    The largest eigenvalue of the adjacency matrix of a network plays an important role in several network processes (e.g., synchronization of oscillators, percolation on directed networks, and linear stability of equilibria of network coupled systems). In this paper we develop approximations to the largest eigenvalue of adjacency matrices and discuss the relationships between these approximations. Numerical experiments on simulated networks are used to test our results.

  8. Development and calibration of a two-dimensional digital model for the analysis of the ground-water flow system in the San Antonio Creek Valley, Santa Barbara County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martin, Peter

    1985-01-01

    A two-dimensional finite-difference model was used to simulate ground-water flow conditions in San Antonio Creek valley. The model was calibrated to simulate steady-state conditions as approximated by ground-water conditions in 1943 and transient conditions during the period 1944-77. The transmissivity of the aquifer and the vertical hydraulic conductivity of the confining bed underlying Barka Slough at the western edge of the basin were calibrated during the steady-stage simulation. Calibrated transmissivity values ranged from more than 20,000 feet squared per day along the axis of the valley to less than 100 feet squared per day along the perimeter. Net flux values (the difference between recharge and net discharge) along the San Antonio Creek channel were determined during the transient-state simulation by a least-squares calibration technique. Results of the calibration indicated that the net flux out of the system along the stream channel increased by about 4,030 acre-feet per year from 1943 to 1977. The model simulated that about 70 percent of the increase in net flux was derived from the reduction in ground-water discharge to Barka Slough and about 30 percent from water coming out of storage. (USGS)

  9. The Dark Side of Science. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Pacific Division, American Association for the Advancement of Science (63rd, Santa Barbara, CA, June 23, 1982). Volume 1, Part 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilbourne, Brock K., Ed.; Kilbourne, Maria T., Ed.

    This book constitutes the proceedings of a symposium ("Science, Deviance, and Society") designed to provide a constructive response to the social problem of deviance in science (departures from the prescribed and proscribed norms of science). Individual papers are presented in five parts. These papers are (in part one) "The Games of Science:…

  10. Evaluation of water-level recovery, 1996-97 to 1999-2000, and comparison of 1999-2000 and 1972-73 water levels in Goleta Central Subbasin, Santa Barbara County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Densmore, Jill N.; Scrudato, Matthew C.; Houston, Ernest R.

    2001-01-01

    Ground-water levels were measured during January 1999-June 2000 to evaluate the rate of water-level recovery in the Goleta Central ground-water subbasin that has resulted from injection of about 2,225 acre-feet of surplus water for storage in the ground-water basin. Injection of surplus water was tabulated and compared with water-level rises since 1996 to evaluate the effectiveness of the recharge effort. Water levels have risen about 4 to 37 feet since 1996-97. A preliminary water budget was compiled to assess recharge and discharge in the basin, and it is estimated that total inflow exceeded total outflow during 1998-99 by about 2,844 to 7,518 acre-feet. In addition, water levels for 1999-2000 were compared with water levels for 1972-73 to determine if a 'drought buffer' exists. Water levels measured in two wells during January 1999-June 2000 exceeded January 1972-June 1973 levels. Water levels in the remaining wells measured during January 1999-June 2000 ranged from less than 1 foot to about 32 feet below 1972-73 water levels. In general, the largest water-level rise between 1996-97 and 1999-2000 was about 37 feet in the southeastern end of the basin; the rise was less than 4 feet in the western end of the basin and about 10 feet north of the Goleta Fault. Long-term hydrographs indicate that water levels have been recovering throughout the basin since the early 1990's.

  11. Map of the Carpinteria area and vicinity, Santa Barbara County, California, showing water-level contours for March 1983, and net change in water level between March 1982 and March 1983

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moyle, W.R., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    A water-level contour map of the Carpinteria area, California, was constructed using 34 water-level measurements made by the Carpinteria County Water District in March 1983. Also shown on the map are five hydrographs that show water-level fluctuations in each well between 1978 and 1983. In addition, a water-level net-change map for March 1982 to March 1983 is shown. (USGS)

  12. National Forum on the Future of Automated Materials Processing in US Industry: The Role of Sensors. Report of a workshop (1st) held at Santa Barbara, California on December 16-17, 1985

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yolken, H. T.; Mehrabian, R.

    1985-12-01

    These are the proceedings of the workshop A National Forum on the Future of Automated Materials Processing in U.S. Industry - The Role of Sensors. This is the first of two workshops to be sponsored by the Industrial Research Institute and the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy, Committee on Materials Working Group on Automation of Materials Processing. The second workshop will address the other two key components required for automated materials processing, process models and artificial intelligence coupled with computer integration of the system. The objective of these workshops is to identify and assess important issues afecting the competitive position of U.S. industry related to its ability to automate production processes for basic and advanced materials and to develop approaches for improved capability through cooperative R&D and associated efforts.

  13. Hispanic-Americans and Business in the United States: Linking Up for a Stronger Future. Report of the Aspen Institute Conference "Hispanic-Americans and the Business Community" (Santa Barbara, CA, August 7-10, 1985).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aspen Inst. for Humanistic Studies, New York, NY.

    In this report from the final session of a conference on Hispanic Americans and the business community, some general conclusions are presented. Participants, it is said, believed that the advancement of Hispanic-Americans in business depends on growing ties of mutual benefit between Hispanics and the general community. Despite the great attention…

  14. Antarctica: A Keystone in a Changing World--Online Proceedings for the Tenth International Symposium on Antarctic Earth Sciences. Santa Barbara, California, U.S.A.--August 26 to September 1, 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    2007-01-01

    Overview: The International Symposium on Antarctic Earth Sciences (ISAES) is held once every four years to provide an international forum for presenting research results and new ideas and for planning future Antarctic geoscience research projects. This Tenth ISAES coincides with the International Polar Year (IPY; 50th Anniversary of the International Geophysical Year) and has been structured to showcase the great breadth of geoscience research being done in Antarctic regions by more than more than 100 institutions located in over 30 countries. The science program of the Symposium encompasses six broad themes that cover key topics on evolution and interactions of the geosphere, cryosphere and biosphere and their cross-linkages with past and historic paleoclimates. Emphasis is also on deciphering the climate records in ice cores, geologic cores, rock outcrops and those inferred from climate models. New technologies for the coming decades of geoscience data collection are also highlighted. Ten keynote presentations at the symposium outline the foundation for the research sessions of the symposium and the structure of the Online Proceedings and Proceedings Book for the Tenth ISAES. The ISAES is traditionally a cornerstone meeting for the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR). In recognition of the Tenth ISAES being held in the U.S. for the first time in 30 years and during IPY, the publication of the symposium proceedings is being handled as a special collaborative effort of the U.S. National Science Foundation, the U.S. Geological Survey, The National Academies Polar Research Board and The National Academies Press. The National Academies Polar Research Board oversees the activities of SCAR in the U.S. Special attention has been directed at publication formats for the symposium, to expedite the open and wide sharing of mature and preliminary research results presented in talks and posters at the Tenth ISAES. All symposium presentations are documented by a short Summary printed in the Symposium Program Booklet and either a short research paper or an extended abstract. The research papers and extended abstracts are compiled in this Online Proceedings and are replicated on a DVD-ROM that is placed in the back of the Tenth ISAES Proceedings Book. The Proceedings Book has printed versions of the keynote talks and an overview paper of the symposium. The short research papers and extended abstracts have been handled differently. Research papers present mature research results and syntheses. They have been peer-reviewed using standard journal procedures. Following revisions and acceptances by co-editors, the papers have been formatted for publication and proofread by authors. Each paper has been assigned a Digital Object Identification (DOI) number and separate html link, and posted online (as part of this USGS Open-File Report series) to ensure open and wide access to the research results. Extended abstracts focus on preliminary research results and have not been peer reviewed. They have had only minimal editorial review and revision. Authors have formatted and proofread their papers. Extended abstracts were not given DOI numbers and are included together in a separate chapter of this online Proceedings. USGS publications staff and Stanford-student editorial assistants indexed and compiled the PDF versions of the short research papers and extended abstracts for inclusion in this online Proceedings. USGS staff created the master DVD-ROM that contains a replica of the Online Proceedings for the Tenth ISAES, and provided the DVD-ROM copies that are included in the Tenth ISAES Proceedings Book published by The National Academies Press in the U.S. A team of more than 25 co-editors coordinated with the numerous authors and peer reviewers in handling the many research papers and extended abstracts that are included herein. Handling the large volume of short papers and extended abstracts, getting most of them onli

  15. Use of fecal steroids to infer the sources of fecal indicator bacteria in the Lower Santa Ana River Watershed, California: sewage is unlikely a significant source.

    PubMed

    Noblet, James A; Young, Diana L; Zeng, Eddy Y; Ensari, Semsi

    2004-11-15

    The Santa Ana River (SAR), CA and adjacent wetlands have been identified as potential sources of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) to the surf zone at Huntington Beach, CA. A suite of fecal steroids, including coprostanol (COP), epicoprostanol (eCOP), cholesterol (CHOE), cholestanol (CHOA), alpha-cholestanone (aONE), beta-cholestanone (bONE), beta-sitosterol (bSIT), stigmasterol (STIG), stigmastanol (STAN), and campesterol (CAM), were used as chemical markers to examine whether sewage was a significant source of FIB within the lower Santa Ana River watershed. A total of 54 water samples were collected from three locations in the intertidal zone near the mouth of the Santa Ana River at different tidal stages. Steroid ratios in SAR samples were different from those found in raw and treated sewage from a local wastewater treatment plant or in nearby effluent plume and did not appear to be influenced by the sampling location, daily tides, and spring/neap tidal cycle. The characteristics of steroid ratios suggested a diagenetic ratherthan a biogenic source forthe COP content of the samples. The log-based concentrations of COP and FIB in the SAR samples were not significantly correlated, inconsistent with sewage being the source of FIB in the study area. In addition, multivariate statistical analysis showed that the concentrations of FIB were better correlated with bird fecal steroids than with the typical sewage sterols. The results implied that sewage was not a significant source of fecal steroids, and therefore perhaps FIB to the study area. Instead, birds may be one possible source of the intermittently high levels of FIB observed in the lower Santa Ana River watershed and the nearby surf zone. PMID:15573599

  16. Contrasting controls on wildland fires in Southern California during periods with and without Santa Ana winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Yufang; Randerson, James T.; Faivre, Nicolas; Capps, Scott; Hall, Alex; Goulden, Michael L.

    2014-03-01

    Wildland fires in Southern California can be divided into two categories: fall fires, which are typically driven by strong offshore Santa Ana winds, and summer fires, which occur with comparatively weak onshore winds and hot and dry weather. Both types of fire contribute significantly to annual burned area and economic loss. An improved understanding of the relationship between Southern California's meteorology and fire is needed to improve predictions of how fire will change in the future and to anticipate management needs. We used output from a regional climate model constrained by reanalysis observations to identify Santa Ana events and partition fires into those occurring during periods with and without Santa Ana conditions during 1959-2009. We then developed separate empirical regression models for Santa Ana and non-Santa Ana fires to quantify the effects of meteorology on fire number and size. These models explained approximately 58% of the seasonal and interannual variation in the number of Santa Ana fires and 36% of the variation in non-Santa Ana fires. The number of Santa Ana fires increased during years when relative humidity during Santa Ana events and fall precipitation were below average, indicating that fuel moisture is a key controller of ignition. Relative humidity strongly affected Santa Ana fire size. Cumulative precipitation during the previous three winters was significantly correlated with the number of non-Santa Ana fires, presumably through increased fine fuel density and connectivity between infrastructure and nearby vegetation. Both relative humidity and the preceding wet season precipitation influenced non-Santa Ana fire size. Regression models driven by meteorology explained 57% of the temporal variation in Santa Ana burned area and 22% of the variation in non-Santa Ana burned area. The area burned by non-Santa Ana fires has increased steadily by 1.7% year-1 since 1959 (p < 0.006) the occurrence of extremely large Santa Ana fires has

  17. Depositional environments of the Santa Margarita Formation in the Miocene Santa Maria basin, Huasna syncline

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, R.L. )

    1991-02-01

    Preliminary investigation of the depositional environments of the middle sandstone member of the late middle Miocene Santa Margarita Formation in the Huasna syncline suggests a current-dominated shallow shelf environment. Progradation of coarse-grained clastic and bioclastic-rich sediment over siltstone documents the initial stage of deposition of this sand body. Overlying the basal intensely bioturbated bioclastic sediments are large-scale tabular cross-beds, up to 16 m thick, interbedded with tabular lag deposits of barnacles, oysters, and echinoids. The tabular fossil-rich beds, which form sequences up to 6 m thick between the large-scale cross-beds, represent either deposition of bottom set beds of the large-scale cross-beds or current swept lag deposits. Increasing energy conditions are recorded vertically by a decrease in the amount of bioturbation and by an increase in large-scale cross-bed sets and cosets. however, in the northern outcrop area subtidal channels are incised into the upper bioclastic sediments suggesting local shoaling conditions. Paleocurrent data record a unidirectional southwest-directed current trend normal to the basin axis and the East Huasna fault. The coarse clastic deposition terminates with deposition of siltstone as energy conditions decreased and water depth again increased. A current-swept shallow shelf containing extensive sandwaves comprises the major depositional environments. The paleocurrent data and large-scale cross-beds suggest that the shallow shelf extended to the east of the Huasna syncline and that the currents were most likely tidal in origin.

  18. DOM in recharge waters of the Santa Ana River Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leenheer, J.A.; Aiken, G.R.; Woodside, G.; O'Connor-Patel, K.

    2007-01-01

    The urban Santa Ana River in California is the primary source of recharge water for Orange County's groundwater basin, which provides water to more than two million residents. This study was undertaken to determine the unidentified portion of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in various natural surface and reclaimed waters of the Santa Ana River Basin and to assess the potential health risk of this material. The most abundant organic contaminants were anionic detergent degradation products (constituting about 12% of the DOM), which have no known adverse health effects. In addition, high percentages of dissolved colloids from bacterial cell walls were found during storm flows; these colloids foul membranes used in water treatment. Although no significant health risks were ascribed to the newly characterized DOM, the authors note that even the small amounts of humic substances deposited during storm flow periods were responsible for significant increases in disinfection by_product formation potential in these waters.

  19. 9. "SANTA FE RAILWAY SPUR TO OPERATIONAL AREA, DIRECTORATE OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. "SANTA FE RAILWAY SPUR TO OPERATIONAL AREA, DIRECTORATE OF MISSILE CAPTIVE TEST, EDWARDS AFB"; Photo no. "11,381 57; G-AFFTC 18 SEPT 57". Test Area 1-115. Photo shows engine no. 712 pulling one car. The superstructure of Test Stand 1-4 is prominent in the background. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Leuhman Ridge near Highways 58 & 395, Boron, Kern County, CA

  20. Status of Santa Clara MCFC product development test

    SciTech Connect

    Leo, A.J.; O`Shea, T.P.

    1995-08-01

    The objective of the 2MW Santa Clara Demonstration Project is the demonstration of the carbonate fuel cell technology at full scale. Additional objectives of the project include the demonstration of specific advantages of the direct carbonate fuel cell power plant, such as high efficiency, low emissions, reactive power capability, and high reliability and availability. The project will also provide design input for precommercial early production power plants.

  1. Santa Fe Community College Fact Book, 2002-2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santa Fe Community Coll., Gainesville, FL. Office of Institutional Research and Planning.

    This fact book offers information on Santa Fe Community College (SFCC) (Florida) for fiscal year 2001-2002. SFCC had a total enrollment of 21,932 in 2001-02. Degrees and certificates awarded in that year totaled 2,593. The total faculty was 563, with 264 full-time and 299 adjunct instructors. The college has an annual operating budget of over $50…

  2. Urbanisation of yellow fever in Santa Cruz, Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Van der Stuyft, P; Gianella, A; Pirard, M; Cespedes, J; Lora, J; Peredo, C; Pelegrino, J L; Vorndam, V; Boelaert, M

    1999-05-01

    Until recently, urban yellow fever had not been reported from the Americas since 1954, but jungle yellow fever increasingly affects forest dwellers in Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru. The reinvasion by Aedes aegypti of cities in the Americas now threatens to urbanize yellow fever. After yellow fever infection was identified in a resident of Santa Cruz, Bolivia, in December 1997, all subsequent suspected cases were investigated. Active surveillance of yellow fever was introduced in the Santa Cruz area, with hospitals and selected urban and rural health centers reporting all suspected cases. Patients were serologically screened for yellow fever, dengue, hepatitis A and B, and leptospirosis; clinical and epidemiological data were collected from patients' records and through interviews; and a population-based serosurvey was conducted in the neighborhood of one case. Between December 1997 and June 1998, symptomatic yellow fever infection was confirmed in 6 residents of Santa Cruz, of whom 5 died. 5 lived in the southern sector of the city. 2 cases did not leave the city during their incubation period, and 1 had visited only an area in which sylvatic transmission was deemed impossible. Of the 281 people covered in the serosurvey, 16 (6%) were positive for IgM antibody to yellow fever. Among 5 people for whom that result could not be explained by recent vaccination, there were 2 pairs of neighbors. This instance of urban yellow fever transmission was limited in both time and space. PMID:10334253

  3. Landscapes of Santa Rosa Island, Channel Islands National Park, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schumann, R. Randall; Minor, Scott A.; Muhs, Daniel R.; Pigati, Jeffery S.

    2014-01-01

    Santa Rosa Island (SRI) is the second-largest of the California Channel Islands. It is one of 4 east–west aligned islands forming the northern Channel Islands chain, and one of the 5 islands in Channel Islands National Park. The landforms, and collections of landforms called landscapes, of Santa Rosa Island have been created by tectonic uplift and faulting, rising and falling sea level, landslides, erosion and deposition, floods, and droughts. Landscape features, and areas delineating groups of related features on Santa Rosa Island, are mapped, classified, and described in this paper. Notable landscapes on the island include beaches, coastal plains formed on marine terraces, sand dunes, and sand sheets. In this study, the inland physiography has been classified into 4 areas based on relief and degree of fluvial dissection. Most of the larger streams on the island occupy broad valleys that have been filled with alluvium and later incised to form steep- to vertical-walled arroyos, or barrancas, leaving a relict floodplain above the present channel. A better understanding of the processes and mechanisms that created these landscapes enhances visitors’ enjoyment of their surroundings and contributes to improving land and resource management strategies in order to optimize and balance the multiple goals of conservation, preservation, restoration, and visitor experience.

  4. Santa Clara County Planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Fred Mitlitsky; Sara Mulhauser; David Chien; Deepak Shukla; David Weingaertner

    2009-11-14

    The Santa Clara County Planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (PSOFC) project demonstrated the technical viability of pre-commercial PSOFC technology at the County 911 Communications headquarters, as well as the input fuel flexibility of the PSOFC. PSOFC operation was demonstrated on natural gas and denatured ethanol. The Santa Clara County Planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (PSOFC) project goals were to acquire, site, and demonstrate the technical viability of a pre-commercial PSOFC technology at the County 911 Communications headquarters. Additional goals included educating local permit approval authorities, and other governmental entities about PSOFC technology, existing fuel cell standards and specific code requirements. The project demonstrated the Bloom Energy (BE) PSOFC technology in grid parallel mode, delivering a minimum 15 kW over 8760 operational hours. The PSOFC system demonstrated greater than 81% electricity availability and 41% electrical efficiency (LHV net AC), providing reliable, stable power to a critical, sensitive 911 communications system that serves geographical boundaries of the entire Santa Clara County. The project also demonstrated input fuel flexibility. BE developed and demonstrated the capability to run its prototype PSOFC system on ethanol. BE designed the hardware necessary to deliver ethanol into its existing PSOFC system. Operational parameters were determined for running the system on ethanol, natural gas (NG), and a combination of both. Required modeling was performed to determine viable operational regimes and regimes where coking could occur.

  5. Laplacian versus adjacency matrix in quantum walk search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Thomas G.; Tarrataca, Luís; Nahimov, Nikolay

    2016-06-01

    A quantum particle evolving by Schrödinger's equation contains, from the kinetic energy of the particle, a term in its Hamiltonian proportional to Laplace's operator. In discrete space, this is replaced by the discrete or graph Laplacian, which gives rise to a continuous-time quantum walk. Besides this natural definition, some quantum walk algorithms instead use the adjacency matrix to effect the walk. While this is equivalent to the Laplacian for regular graphs, it is different for non-regular graphs and is thus an inequivalent quantum walk. We algorithmically explore this distinction by analyzing search on the complete bipartite graph with multiple marked vertices, using both the Laplacian and adjacency matrix. The two walks differ qualitatively and quantitatively in their required jumping rate, runtime, sampling of marked vertices, and in what constitutes a natural initial state. Thus the choice of the Laplacian or adjacency matrix to effect the walk has important algorithmic consequences.

  6. Map Showing Seacliff Response to Climatic and Seismic Events, Seabright Beach, Santa Cruz County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hapke, Cheryl J.; Richmond, Bruce M.; D'Iorio, Mimi M.

    2002-01-01

    the type or style of slope failure. Seabright Beach extends 0.9 km from San Lorenzo Point on the west to the Santa Cruz Yacht Harbor on the east. The cliffs at Seabright Beach are completely protected from wave attack by a wide beach. The protective beach is a relatively recent feature that formed after the emplacement of the Santa Cruz Yacht Harbor jetty in 1963-1964. Prior to the completion of the jetty, the cliffs at Seabright Beach were subject to daily wave attack. The data in this study are post-jetty construction; therefore, the sea cliff failures and cliff retreat are the result of nonmarine processes (rainfall, groundwater and seismic shaking). The 8 to 15 m high cliffs at Seabright Beach are composed of the Miocene to Pliocene Purisima Formation, which is overlain by unconsolidated Pleistocene terrace deposits. The relative thickness of these units varies along the length of the cliff. At the west end of Seabright Beach, including San Lorenzo Point, nearly the entire cliff section is composed of Purisima Formation and is capped by less than 2 m of terrace deposits. In this exposure, the Purisima Formation is a moderately weathered, moderately indurated massive sandstone. The height of the cliffs and the thickness of the Purisima Formation decrease to the east. In the cliffs immediately adjacent to the harbor, the entire exposure is composed of terrace deposits. Toe-slope debris and wind-blown sand form a nearly continuous fan along the cliff base that obscure the lower portion of the cliff. This study documents the impacts of earthquakes and large storms to the sea cliffs in the Seabright Beach section. The first event is the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake, a M7.1 earthquake that caused widespread damage to the area stretching from Santa Cruz to the San Francisco Bay. The epicenter of the earthquake was located in the Santa Cruz Mountains, approximately 9 km inland from the coast. Extensive block and debris falls, induced by the seismic shaking, occ

  7. On the Adjacent Eccentric Distance Sum Index of Graphs

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Hui; Cao, Shujuan

    2015-01-01

    For a given graph G, ε(v) and deg(v) denote the eccentricity and the degree of the vertex v in G, respectively. The adjacent eccentric distance sum index of a graph G is defined as ξsv(G)=∑v∈V(G)ε(v)D(v)deg(v), where D(v)=∑u∈V(G)d(u,v) is the sum of all distances from the vertex v. In this paper we derive some bounds for the adjacent eccentric distance sum index in terms of some graph parameters, such as independence number, covering number, vertex connectivity, chromatic number, diameter and some other graph topological indices. PMID:26091095

  8. Nonlinear spin wave coupling in adjacent magnonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadovnikov, A. V.; Beginin, E. N.; Morozova, M. A.; Sharaevskii, Yu. P.; Grishin, S. V.; Sheshukova, S. E.; Nikitov, S. A.

    2016-07-01

    We have experimentally studied the coupling of spin waves in the adjacent magnonic crystals. Space- and time-resolved Brillouin light-scattering spectroscopy is used to demonstrate the frequency and intensity dependent spin-wave energy exchange between the side-coupled magnonic crystals. The experiments and the numerical simulation of spin wave propagation in the coupled periodic structures show that the nonlinear phase shift of spin wave in the adjacent magnonic crystals leads to the nonlinear switching regime at the frequencies near the forbidden magnonic gap. The proposed side-coupled magnonic crystals represent a significant advance towards the all-magnonic signal processing in the integrated magnonic circuits.

  9. Molecular disorganization of axons adjacent to human lacunar infarcts

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Monica D.; Tung, Spencer; Vinters, Harry V.; Carmichael, S. Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Cerebral microvascular disease predominantly affects brain white matter and deep grey matter, resulting in ischaemic damage that ranges from lacunar infarcts to white matter hyperintensities seen on magnetic resonance imaging. These lesions are common and result in both clinical stroke syndromes and accumulate over time, resulting in cognitive deficits and dementia. Magnetic resonance imaging studies suggest that these lesions progress over time, accumulate adjacent to prior lesions and have a penumbral region susceptible to further injury. The pathological correlates of this adjacent injury in surviving myelinated axons have not been previously defined. In this study, we sought to determine the molecular organization of axons in tissue adjacent to lacunar infarcts and in the regions surrounding microinfarcts, by determining critical elements in axonal function: the morphology and length of node of Ranvier segments and adjacent paranodal segments. We examined post-mortem brain tissue from six patients with lacunar infarcts and tissue from two patients with autosomal dominant retinal vasculopathy and cerebral leukoencephalopathy (previously known as hereditary endotheliopathy with retinopathy, nephropathy and stroke) who accumulate progressive white matter ischaemic lesions in the form of lacunar and microinfarcts. In axons adjacent to lacunar infarcts yet extending up to 150% of the infarct diameter away, both nodal and paranodal length increase by ∼20% and 80%, respectively, reflecting a loss of normal cell-cell adhesion and signalling between axons and oligodendrocytes. Using premorbid magnetic resonance images, brain regions from patients with retinal vasculopathy and cerebral leukoencephalopathy that harboured periventricular white matter hyperintensities were selected and the molecular organization of axons was determined within these regions. As in regions adjacent to lacunar infarcts, nodal and paranodal length in white matter of these patients is

  10. Precursory Activity of the 2005 Eruption of Santa Ana Volcano, El Salvador.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colvin, A.; Patrick, M.; Rose, W. I.; Escobar, D.; Montalvo, F.; Gutierrez, E.; Olmos, R.

    2007-12-01

    After a period of unrest, Santa Ana (Illamatepec) volcano in El Salvador erupted suddenly on October 1st, 2005 at 1420 UTC (0820 local time), ejecting its acidic crater lake and generating a gas-and-ash plume ~10 km above the volcano. The short-lived eruption (~1 hr duration) deposited ballistics and ash up to 5m thick at the crater rim and depositing ash up to 40 km to the west. Underlying phreatomagmatic deposits exposed in the crater suggest that larger eruptions of this type are characteristic of recent historic activity. In this study, precursory activity to the 2005 eruption is investigated by analyzing physical and chemical parameters of the crater lake. Data has been compiled on water chemistry, temperature, and color of the lake from direct sampling and ground observations from 2004-2007. Lake water data suggests three phases of activity: (1) constant, well constrained activity from Jan. 2004 to Dec. 2004 showing SO4 ~10,000 ppm, Cl ~6000 ppm, and SO4/Cl ~1.6; (2) potential precursory activity from Jan. 2005 to Oct. 2005 expressed as a ramping up of SO4 to 11,625 ppm in May with a sudden decrease to 8250 ppm one month later, increased variability in Cl, and color change from dark coffee color to green in mid-September; and (3) post- eruption activity to present showing increasing Cl to a maximum of 22340 ppm, low SO4/Cl=0.38-0.8, an increase in temperature to 65.6 degrees C, and color change to yellowish-green). Analysis of high resolution satellite imagery from the ASTER sensor (15-90m/pixel) from 2000 to 2007 provides further information on lake size, temperature, and color. ASTER images show that the lake re-established itself further to the west after the eruption, drowning the adjacent high temperature fumarole field (max. 875 degrees C) which potentially contributed to the observed post-eruption changes in the lake. The combination of synoptic satellite-based remote sensing data with ground measurements will enhance the capabilities to recognize and

  11. Field-trip guide to the geology of the Lexington Reservoir and Loma Prieta areas in the Santa Cruz Mountains, Santa Clara and Santa Cruz counties, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stoffer, Philip W.; Messina, Paula

    2002-01-01

    This guide contains a road log and five stop descriptions for a field trip in the southern Santa Cruz Mountains. The trip officially begins at the boat dock parking area on Alma Bridge Road near the dam of Lexington Reservoir. Stop 1 involves a walk up the Limekiln Trail to examine a large landslide in serpentinite that frequently takes out the trail. Stop 2 is at Miller Point picnic area along the shore of the reservoir where exposures of massive, fractured graywacke sandstone are capped with terrace gravel deposits. Stop 3 is along Highland Way in the Santa Cruz Mountains where large landslides have occasionally force the closure of the road. Stop 4A-C are several closely spaced outcrop areas along Loma Prieta Avenue and Summit-Mt. Madonna Road in the Loma Prieta summit area. A walk to scenic vista points provide opportunity to discuss the evolution of regional landscape along the crest of the Sierra Azul. In addition, a variety of rock types are exposed in the Stop 4 area along a series of road cuts, including Cretaceous age conglomerate, turbidites (consisting of interbedded sandstone and shale), and fossiliferous mudstone. Stop 5 involves returning to the boat dock parking area to examine geology and the placement of the Lexington Dam in the Los Gatos Creek canyon.

  12. 78 FR 58459 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Antelope Valley Air Quality Management...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-24

    ... Management District, Santa Barbara County Air Pollution Control District, South Coast Air Quality Management District and Ventura County Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... Management District (AVAQMD), Santa Barbara County Air Pollution Control District (SBCAPCD), South Coast...

  13. 1. View along centerline of Palm Avenue showing setting; 208 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. View along centerline of Palm Avenue showing setting; 208 Palm at extreme left; note commercial intrusion at right; view to southwest. - T.J. Young Cottage, 208 Palm Avenue, Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara County, CA

  14. 12. VIEW EAST ALONG DECK CENTERLINE, PRIOR TO CANTILEVERING SIDEWALK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. VIEW EAST ALONG DECK CENTERLINE, PRIOR TO CANTILEVERING SIDEWALK ON DOWNSTREAM SIDE File photo, Caltrans Office of Strutures Maintenance, March 1938. Photographer unknown. Photocopy of photograph - San Roque Canyon Bridge, State Highway 192, Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara County, CA

  15. 1. Photocopy of photograph (Original source unknown, date unknown) EXTERIOR, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Photocopy of photograph (Original source unknown, date unknown) EXTERIOR, SOUTH FRONT OF ADOBE INCLUDING ENVIRONS - Gaspar Orena House, East de la Guerra Street, Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara County, CA

  16. 6. Detail, north corner of cottage, showing corner boards, entablature ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Detail, north corner of cottage, showing corner boards, entablature strip, paired brackets, replacement porch post, engaged half-column; view to south. - T.J. Young Cottage, 208 Palm Avenue, Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara County, CA

  17. 7. VIEW OF WATER TREATMENT PLANT, ADJACENT TO THE COAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW OF WATER TREATMENT PLANT, ADJACENT TO THE COAL CONVEYOR; IN THE DISTANCE IS THE FREQUENCY CHANGER HOUSE, WHICH IS ATTACHED TO SWITCH HOUSE NO. 1; LOOKING WEST. - Commonwealth Electric Company, Fisk Street Electrical Generating Station, 1111 West Cermak Avenue, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  18. Colposcopy of vaginal and vulvar human papillomavirus and adjacent sites.

    PubMed

    Hatch, K

    1993-03-01

    Human papillomaviral infections can affect the entire lower female genital tract as multifocal or multicentric disease as well as the surrounding anatomic and adjacent sites. The traditional colposcopic methods are necessary to assist in the diagnosis and help differentiate these infections from other disease mimics. PMID:8392676

  19. Biogeochemistry of hydrothermally and adjacent non-altered soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As a field/lab project, students in the Soil Biogeochemistry class of the University of Nevada, Reno described and characterized seven pedons, developed in hydrothermally and adjacent non-hydrothermally altered andesitic parent material near Reno, NV. Hydrothermally altered soils had considerably lo...

  20. 22. Float located adjacent to entry stair in filtration bed. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. Float located adjacent to entry stair in filtration bed. The float actuates a valve that maintains water level over the bed. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Filtration Plant, South side of Armory Street between Edgehill Road & Whitney Avenue, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

  1. 2. VIEW FROM ROOFTOP OF BUILDING (MOTEL) ADJACENT TO TECHWOOD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW FROM ROOFTOP OF BUILDING (MOTEL) ADJACENT TO TECHWOOD HOMES, LOOKING WEST. GEORGIA TECH DORMITORY BUILDING, 581-587 TECHWOOD DRIVE, IN FOREGROUND. - Techwood Homes (Public Housing), Bounded by North Avenue, Parker Street, William Street & Lovejoy Street, Atlanta, Fulton County, GA

  2. 10. Detail and contextual view of bridge and adjacent farmstead ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Detail and contextual view of bridge and adjacent farmstead setting. Note laced vertical compression members, latticed portal strut, decorative strut bracing, and lightness of diagonal and lateral tension members. View to southeast through southeast portal from truss mid-span. - Red Bank Creek Bridge, Spanning Red Bank Creek at Rawson Road, Red Bluff, Tehama County, CA

  3. LEHR NO. 2 AND LEHR NO. 3 ADJACENT TO FURNACE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    LEHR NO. 2 AND LEHR NO. 3 ADJACENT TO FURNACE ROOM; THE PIPES AT THE BOTTOM ARE PART OF THE RADIANT HEATING SYSTEM USED FOR HEATING THE FACTORY DURING COLD WEATHER. - Westmoreland Glass Company, Seventh & Kier Streets, Grapeville, Westmoreland County, PA

  4. Effects on stink bugs of field edges adjacent to woodland

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Producers face significant crop losses from stink bug species in the southeastern USA, but the high mobility and polyphagy of the bugs make predictions of their presence in crops difficult. While there is some evidence that they colonize crops from adjacent crops, there are no studies of their colo...

  5. VIEW FROM ATOP ADJACENT RESIDENTIAL TOWER, SHOWING INTERSECTION OF ACACIA ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW FROM ATOP ADJACENT RESIDENTIAL TOWER, SHOWING INTERSECTION OF ACACIA ROAD WITH BIRCH CIRCLE. VIEW FACING NORTHEAST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Intersection of Acacia Road and Brich Circle, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  6. VIEW FROM ATOP ADJACENT RESIDENTIAL TOWER, SHOWING RECREATION AREA AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW FROM ATOP ADJACENT RESIDENTIAL TOWER, SHOWING RECREATION AREA AND ENTRY TO NEIGHBORHOOD. VIEW FACING SOUTHEAST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Intersection of Acacia Road and Brich Circle, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  7. VIEW FROM ATOP ADJACENT RESIDENTIAL TOWER, SHOWING WESTERN SIDE OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW FROM ATOP ADJACENT RESIDENTIAL TOWER, SHOWING WESTERN SIDE OF NEIGHBORHOOD. VIEW FACING NORTHWEST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Intersection of Acacia Road and Brich Circle, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  8. VIEW FROM ATOP ADJACENT RESIDENTIAL TOWER, SHOWING RECREATION AREA ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW FROM ATOP ADJACENT RESIDENTIAL TOWER, SHOWING RECREATION AREA ON RIGHT, AND HOUSING AREA ON LEFT. VIEW FACING EAST/NORTHEAST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Intersection of Acacia Road and Brich Circle, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  9. How subaerial salt extrusions influence water quality in adjacent aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehdizadeh, Razieh; Zarei, Mehdi; Raeisi, Ezzat

    2015-12-01

    Brines supplied from salt extrusions cause significant groundwater salinization in arid and semi-arid regions where salt rock is exposed to dissolution by episodic rainfalls. Here we focus on 62 of the 122 diapirs of Hormuz salt emergent in the southern Iran. To consider managing the degradation effect that salt extrusions have on the quality of adjoining aquifers, it is first necessary to understand how they influence adjacent water resources. We evaluate here the impacts that these diapirs have on adjacent aquifers based on investigating their geomorphologies, geologies, hydrologies and hydrogeologies. The results indicate that 28/62 (45%) of our sample of salt diapirs have no significant impact on the quality of groundwater in adjoining aquifers (namely Type N), while the remaining 34/62 (55%) degrade nearby groundwater quality. We offer simple conceptual models that account for how brines flowing from each of these types of salt extrusions contaminate adjacent aquifers. We identify three main mechanisms that lead to contamination: surface impact (Type A), subsurface intrusion (Type B) and indirect infiltration (Type C). A combination of all these mechanisms degrades the water quality in nearby aquifers in 19/62 (31%) of the salt diapirs studied. Having characterized the mechanism(s) by which each diapir affects the adjacent aquifer, we suggest a few possible remediation strategies to be considered. For instance, engineering the surface runoff of diapirs Types A and C into nearby evaporation basins would improve groundwater quality.

  10. 45. 1915 CLOTH ROOM ADJACENT TO PICKER ROOM, SECOND FLOOR, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. 1915 CLOTH ROOM ADJACENT TO PICKER ROOM, SECOND FLOOR, NORTH END OF MILL NO. 2, WALL ON LEFT DIVIDING CLOTH ROOM ADDED LATER (PROBABLY C. 1970s). - Prattville Manufacturing Company, Number One, 242 South Court Street, Prattville, Autauga County, AL

  11. Detail of north intermediate abutment pylon showing proximity of adjacent ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of north intermediate abutment pylon showing proximity of adjacent 1001-1007 East First Street (James K. Hill and Sons Pickle Works Building), facing east - First Street Bridge, Spanning Los Angeles River at First Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  12. 8. Exterior view, showing tank and associated piping adjacent to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Exterior view, showing tank and associated piping adjacent to Test Cell 6, Systems Integration Laboratory Building (T-28), looking south. - Air Force Plant PJKS, Systems Integration Laboratory, Systems Integration Laboratory Building, Waterton Canyon Road & Colorado Highway 121, Lakewood, Jefferson County, CO

  13. 4. REAR ELEVATION, DETAIL OF CONSTRUCTION, ADJACENT CORNER POSTS BETWEEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. REAR ELEVATION, DETAIL OF CONSTRUCTION, ADJACENT CORNER POSTS BETWEEN BUILDING PERIODS 1 AND 3. NOTE REUSED WOOD STRIP NAILED TO BUILDING PERIOD 1 POST INSCRIBED 'ST. LEONARD'. THERE ARE NO NAIL HOLES IN THE PERIOD 3 POST, THE FARRING STRIPS ADJUST FOR CLADDING - Charles' Gift, State Routes 2 & 4, Lusby, Calvert County, MD

  14. 1. OVERVIEW SHOWING FIRING CONTROL BLOCKHOUSE 0502 AND ADJACENT OBSERVATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. OVERVIEW SHOWING FIRING CONTROL BLOCKHOUSE 0502 AND ADJACENT OBSERVATION TOWER. WATER BRAKE TROUGH SEGMENT AT LOWER RIGHT. Looking north northeast. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Firing & Control Blockhouse for 10,000-foot Track, South of Sled Track at midpoint of 20,000-foot track, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

  15. 4. Elevation looking southwest from adjacent hills on northeast side ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Elevation looking southwest from adjacent hills on northeast side of bridge, taken from river level. Note entire east side and substructure. - Presumpscot Falls Bridge, Spanning Presumptscot River at Allen Avenue extension, 0.75 mile west of U.S. Interstate 95, Falmouth, Cumberland County, ME

  16. 49 CFR 236.404 - Signals at adjacent control points.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Signals at adjacent control points. 236.404 Section 236.404 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES, STANDARDS, AND INSTRUCTIONS GOVERNING THE INSTALLATION, INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR...

  17. 12. LOG FOUNDATION ELEMENTS OF THE SAWMILL ADJACENT TO THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. LOG FOUNDATION ELEMENTS OF THE SAWMILL ADJACENT TO THE CANAL, LOOKING EAST. BARREN AREA IN FOREGROUND IS DECOMPOSING SAWDUST. DIRT PILE IN BACKGROUND IS THE EDGE OF THE SUMMIT COUNTY LANDFILL. - Snake River Ditch, Headgate on north bank of Snake River, Dillon, Summit County, CO

  18. Identifying What Matters to Students: Improving Satisfaction and Defining Priorities at Santa Fe Community College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kress, Anne M.

    2006-01-01

    This chapter describes Santa Fe Community College's use of the Noel-Levitz Student Satisfaction Inventory to guide iterative development of institutional improvements associated with student satisfaction.

  19. Soils of the coastal area of Santa Fé and Santa Cruz islands (Galápagos). Their micromorphology, mineralogy and genesis compared.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoops, Georges; Dumon, Mathijs; Van Ranst, Eric

    2015-04-01

    Santa Fé is a small island situated about 15 km SW of Santa Cruz and has a similar petrographic composition. The centre of Santa Cruz reaches up to 950 m a.s.l., Santa Fé is nowhere higher that 255 m. Even in the dry season the high mountain region of Santa Cruz profits therefore of an almost continuous drizzly rain (garrúa) resulting from the cooling of the rising moist air. The dry coastal zones are covered by sparse Opuntia vegetation. In the coastal soils a double to open spaced porphyric c/f related distribution pattern prevails. The micromass is greyish to yellowish brown on Santa Fé, reddish on Santa Cruz. The b-fabric is weakly granostriated, rarely calcitic crystallitic. The coarse material is restricted to fresh grains of plagioclase > iddingsite > augite > rare olivine, and some fresh basalt fragments. Remnants of illuvial clay coatings are more common on Santa Cruz. Only on Santa Fé hard, yellowish nodules (up to 700 µm) with a strongly mosaic speckled b-fabric and first order grey interference colours occur; their nature and genesis is a point of discussion. X-ray diffraction revealed the clay fraction of these soils to be comparable: poorly crystalline 2:1 phyllosilicates with broad irregular 001 reflections swelling to 1.8 nm after glycolation and collapsing to 1.0 nm after K-saturation and heating. Poorly crystalline kaolinite reflections are more prominent on Santa Cruz, whereas mica-like components (1.00 nm reflections) are restricted to Santa Fé. The presence of unweathered coarse material in an abundant micromass of alteration clay indicates a disequilibrium, and points to a transport of the fine material, in solid phase (colluvium) and/or as solution rather than an in situ weathering. Comparing the total chemical composition (corrected for LOI) of the coastal soils of Santa Cruz and Santa Fé with the average rock composition of both islands, one notes in the soils an increase in Al, Fe, Ti and K, and a loss of Mg, Ca and Na. On Santa F

  20. Sources and growth dynamics of fecal indicator bacteria in a coastal wetland system and potential impacts to adjacent waters.

    PubMed

    Evanson, Melissa; Ambrose, Richard F

    2006-02-01

    Coastal wetlands are receiving increased attention as a putative source of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) in Southern California coastal waters. We examined temporal trends of water and sediment-associated FIB after rain events along with spatial sediment characteristics at two sites within the Santa Ana River wetlands and made comparisons to FIB levels observed in adjacent surf zone waters. During the first two rain events, total coliforms (TC), Escherichia coli (EC) and enterococci (ENT) in wetland water and sediment samples peaked either on the same day or within several days of the rain event, while the third resulted in elevated wetlands sediment TC levels only. TC in adjacent coastal waters consistently peaked on the same day as the rain event and decreased quickly thereafter (within 1 day). The TC/EC ratios of surf zone samples consistently fell below 10, indicating an increased probability of human fecal contamination whereas wetland TC/EC ratios were higher, averaging approximately 60 and 14 at each site. These results suggest sediment-associated FIB populations may be distinct from those found in the water samples, or at least have internal dynamics independent of water-borne populations. Increases in sediment-associated FIB may be due to in situ population growth and/or increased survival due to changes in environmental parameters (salinity, moisture and nutrient input) resulting from the rain events. Spatial differences in between the two sites may be due to sediment differences such as organic content and finer grain size and/or discrete sources of FIB. PMID:16386284