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Sample records for adjacent stromal cells

  1. Mitochondria “fuel” breast cancer metabolism: Fifteen markers of mitochondrial biogenesis label epithelial cancer cells, but are excluded from adjacent stromal cells

    PubMed Central

    Sotgia, Federica; Whitaker-Menezes, Diana; Martinez-Outschoorn, Ubaldo E.; Salem, Ahmed F.; Tsirigos, Aristotelis; Lamb, Rebecca; Sneddon, Sharon; Hulit, James; Howell, Anthony; Lisanti, Michael P.

    2012-01-01

    Here, we present new genetic and morphological evidence that human tumors consist of two distinct metabolic compartments. First, re-analysis of genome-wide transcriptional profiling data revealed that > 95 gene transcripts associated with mitochondrial biogenesis and/or mitochondrial translation were significantly elevated in human breast cancer cells, as compared with adjacent stromal tissue. Remarkably, nearly 40 of these upregulated gene transcripts were mitochondrial ribosomal proteins (MRPs), functionally associated with mitochondrial translation of protein components of the OXPHOS complex. Second, during validation by immunohistochemistry, we observed that antibodies directed against 15 markers of mitochondrial biogenesis and/or mitochondrial translation (AKAP1, GOLPH3, GOLPH3L, MCT1, MRPL40, MRPS7, MRPS15, MRPS22, NRF1, NRF2, PGC1-α, POLRMT, TFAM, TIMM9 and TOMM70A) selectively labeled epithelial breast cancer cells. These same mitochondrial markers were largely absent or excluded from adjacent tumor stromal cells. Finally, markers of mitochondrial lipid synthesis (GOLPH3) and mitochondrial translation (POLRMT) were associated with poor clinical outcome in human breast cancer patients. Thus, we conclude that human breast cancers contain two distinct metabolic compartments—a glycolytic tumor stroma, which surrounds oxidative epithelial cancer cells—that are mitochondria-rich. The co-existence of these two compartments is indicative of metabolic symbiosis between epithelial cancer cells and their surrounding stroma. As such, epithelial breast cancer cells should be viewed as predatory metabolic “parasites,” which undergo anabolic reprogramming to amplify their mitochondrial “power.” This notion is consistent with the observation that the anti-malarial agent chloroquine may be an effective anticancer agent. New anticancer therapies should be developed to target mitochondrial biogenesis and/or mitochondrial translation in human cancer cells. PMID

  2. Know thy neighbor: stromal cells can contribute oncogenic signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tlsty, T. D.; Hein, P. W.

    2001-01-01

    Although the stroma within carcinogenic lesions is known to be supportive and responsive to tumors, new data increasingly show that the stroma also has a more active, oncogenic role in tumorigenesis. Stromal cells and their products can transform adjacent tissues in the absence of pre-existing tumor cells by inciting phenotypic and genomic changes in the epithelial cells. The oncogenic action of distinctive stromal components has been demonstrated through a variety of approaches, which provide clues about the cellular pathways involved.

  3. Identification of a New Stromal Cell Type Involved in the Regulation of Inflamed B Cell Follicles

    PubMed Central

    Mionnet, Cyrille; Mondor, Isabelle; Jorquera, Audrey; Loosveld, Marie; Maurizio, Julien; Arcangeli, Marie-Laure; Ruddle, Nancy H.; Nowak, Jonathan; Aurrand-Lions, Michel; Luche, Hervé; Bajénoff, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Lymph node (LN) stromal cells provide survival signals and adhesive substrata to lymphocytes. During an immune response, B cell follicles enlarge, questioning how LN stromal cells manage these cellular demands. Herein, we used a murine fate mapping system to describe a new stromal cell type that resides in the T cell zone of resting LNs. We demonstrated that upon inflammation, B cell follicles progressively trespassed into the adjacent T cell zone and surrounded and converted these stromal cells into CXCL13 secreting cells that in return delineated the new boundaries of the growing follicle. Acute B cell ablation in inflamed LNs abolished CXCL13 secretion in these cells, while LT-β deficiency in B cells drastically affected this conversion. Altogether, we reveal the existence of a dormant stromal cell subset that can be functionally awakened by B cells to delineate the transient boundaries of their expanding territories upon inflammation. PMID:24130458

  4. Central Nervous System Stromal Cells Control Local CD8(+) T Cell Responses during Virus-Induced Neuroinflammation.

    PubMed

    Cupovic, Jovana; Onder, Lucas; Gil-Cruz, Cristina; Weiler, Elke; Caviezel-Firner, Sonja; Perez-Shibayama, Christian; Rülicke, Thomas; Bechmann, Ingo; Ludewig, Burkhard

    2016-03-15

    Stromal cells generate a complex cellular scaffold that provides specialized microenvironments for lymphocyte activation in secondary lymphoid organs. Here, we assessed whether local activation of stromal cells in the central nervous system (CNS) is mandatory to transfer immune recognition from secondary lymphoid organs into the infected tissue. We report that neurotropic virus infection in mice triggered the establishment of such stromal cell niches in the CNS. CNS stromal cell activation was dominated by a rapid and vigorous production of CC-motif chemokine receptor (CCR) 7 ligands CCL19 and CCL21 by vascular endothelial cells and adjacent fibroblastic reticular cell (FRC)-like cells in the perivascular space. Moreover, CCR7 ligands produced by CNS stromal cells were crucial to support recruitment and local re-activation of antiviral CD8(+) T cells and to protect the host from lethal neuroinflammatory disease, indicating that CNS stromal cells generate confined microenvironments that control protective T cell immunity. PMID:26921107

  5. Stromal cell-based immunotherapy in transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Charles, Ronald; Lu, Lina; Qian, Shiguang; Fung, John J

    2012-01-01

    Organs are composed of parenchymal cells that characterize organ function and nonparenchymal cells that are composed of cells in transit, as well as tissue connective tissue, also referred to as tissue stromal cells. It was originally thought that these tissue stromal cells provided only structural and functional support for parenchymal cells and were relatively inert. However, we have come to realize that tissue stromal cells, not restricted to in the thymus and lymphoid organs, also play an active role in modulating the immune system and its response to antigens. The recognition of these elements and the elucidation of their mechanisms of action have provided valuable insight into peripheral immune regulation. Extrapolation of these principles may allow us to utilize their potential for clinical application. In this article, we will summarize a number of tissue stromal elements/cell types that have been shown to induce hyporesponsiveness to transplants. We will also discuss the mechanisms by which these stromal cells create a tolerogenic environment, which in turn results in long-term allograft survival. PMID:22091683

  6. Malignant Potential of Murine Stromal Cells after Transplantation of Human Tumors into Nude Mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldenberg, David M.; Pavia, Rose A.

    1981-04-01

    Human malignant cancer tumors grafted into nude mice produce tumors containing both human cancer cells and the host's stromal cells. After short-term propagation of these tumors in vitro, the murine mesenchymal cells appear transformed and are tumorigenic in nude mice. However, established human cancer cell lines fail to similarly alter adjacent murine stromal cells when used to produce tumors in nude mice. These experiments suggest that cancer cells may recruit normal cells to become malignant, qualifying the view of the clonal (unicellular) origin of cancer.

  7. Stromal cells can contribute oncogenic signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tlsty, T. D.

    2001-01-01

    The majority of studies of neoplastic transformation have focused attention on events that occur within transformed cells. These cell autonomous events result in the disruption of molecular pathways that regulate basic activities of the cells such as proliferation, death, movement and genomic integrity. Other studies have addressed the microenvironment of tumor cells and documented its importance in supporting tumor progression. Recent work has begun to expand on these initial studies of tumor microenvironment and now provide novel insights into the possible initiation and progression of malignant cells. This review will address the transforming effect of stromal cells on epithelial components. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  8. Stromal Cell Contribution to Human Follicular Lymphoma Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Mourcin, Frédéric; Pangault, Céline; Amin-Ali, Rada; Amé-Thomas, Patricia; Tarte, Karin

    2012-01-01

    Follicular lymphoma (FL) is the prototypical model of indolent B cell lymphoma displaying a strong dependence on a specialized cell microenvironment mimicking normal germinal center. Within malignant cell niches in invaded lymph nodes and bone marrow, external stimuli provided by infiltrating stromal cells make a pivotal contribution to disease development, progression, and drug resistance. The crosstalk between FL B cells and stromal cells is bidirectional, causing activation of both partners. In agreement, FL stromal cells exhibit specific phenotypic, transcriptomic, and functional properties. This review highlights the critical pathways involved in the direct tumor-promoting activity of stromal cells but also their role in the organization of FL cell niche through the recruitment of accessory immune cells and their polarization to a B cell supportive phenotype. Finally, deciphering the interplay between stromal cells and FL cells provides potential new therapeutic targets with the aim to mobilize malignant cells outside their protective microenvironment and increase their sensitivity to conventional treatment. PMID:22973275

  9. Lymphoid Tissue Mesenchymal Stromal Cells in Development and Tissue Remodeling

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Secondary lymphoid organs (SLOs) are sites that facilitate cell-cell interactions required for generating adaptive immune responses. Nonhematopoietic mesenchymal stromal cells have been shown to play a critical role in SLO function, organization, and tissue homeostasis. The stromal microenvironment undergoes profound remodeling to support immune responses. However, chronic inflammatory conditions can promote uncontrolled stromal cell activation and aberrant tissue remodeling including fibrosis, thus leading to tissue damage. Despite recent advancements, the origin and role of mesenchymal stromal cells involved in SLO development and remodeling remain unclear. PMID:27190524

  10. Stromal cells and stem cells in clinical bone regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Grayson, Warren L.; Bunnell, Bruce A.; Martin, Elizabeth; Frazier, Trivia; Hung, Ben P.; Gimble, Jeffrey M.

    2015-01-01

    Stem-cell-mediated bone repair has been used in clinical trials for the regeneration of large craniomaxillofacial defects, to slow the process of bone degeneration in patients with osteonecrosis of the femoral head and for prophylactic treatment of distal tibial fractures. Successful regenerative outcomes in these investigations have provided a solid foundation for wider use of stromal cells in skeletal repair therapy. However, employing stromal cells to facilitate or enhance bone repair is far from being adopted into clinical practice. Scientific, technical, practical and regulatory obstacles prevent the widespread therapeutic use of stromal cells. Ironically, one of the major challenges lies in the limited understanding of the mechanisms via which transplanted cells mediate regeneration. Animal models have been used to provide insight, but these models largely fail to reproduce the nuances of human diseases and bone defects. Consequently, the development of targeted approaches to optimize cell-mediated outcomes is difficult. In this Review, we highlight the successes and challenges reported in several clinical trials that involved the use of bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal or adipose-tissue-derived stromal cells. We identify several obstacles blocking the mainstream use of stromal cells to enhance skeletal repair and highlight technological innovations or areas in which novel techniques might be particularly fruitful in continuing to advance the field of skeletal regenerative medicine. PMID:25560703

  11. Characterizing natural hydrogel for reconstruction of three-dimensional lymphoid stromal network to model T-cell interactions.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jiwon; Wu, Biming; Niedzielski, Steven M; Hill, Matthew T; Coleman, Rhima M; Ono, Akira; Shikanov, Ariella

    2015-08-01

    Hydrogels have been used in regenerative medicine because they provide a three-dimensional environment similar to soft tissues, allow diffusion of nutrients, present critical biological signals, and degrade via endogenous enzymatic mechanisms. Herein, we developed in vitro system mimicking cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions in secondary lymphoid organs (SLOs). Existing in vitro culture systems cannot accurately represent the complex interactions happening between T-cells and stromal cells in immune response. To model T-cell interaction in SLOs in vitro, we encapsulated stromal cells in fibrin, collagen, or fibrin-collagen hydrogels and studied how different mechanical and biological properties affect stromal network formation. Overall, fibrin supplemented with aprotinin was superior to collagen and fibrin-collagen in terms of network formation and promotion of T-cell penetration. After 8 days of culture, stromal networks formed through branching and joining with other adjacent cell populations. T-cells added to the newly formed stromal networks migrated and attached to stromal cells, similar to the T-cell zones of the lymph nodes in vivo. Our results suggest that the constructed three-dimensional lymphoid stromal network can mimic the in vivo environment and allow the modeling of T-cell interaction in SLOs.

  12. Mesenchymal Stem/Stromal Cells in Stromal Evolution and Cancer Progression

    PubMed Central

    Cammarota, Francesca; Laukkanen, Mikko O.

    2016-01-01

    The study of cancer biology has mainly focused on malignant epithelial cancer cells, although tumors also contain a stromal compartment, which is composed of stem cells, tumor-associated fibroblasts (TAFs), endothelial cells, immune cells, adipocytes, cytokines, and various types of macromolecules comprising the extracellular matrix (ECM). The tumor stroma develops gradually in response to the needs of epithelial cancer cells during malignant progression initiating from increased local vascular permeability and ending to remodeling of desmoplastic loosely vascularized stromal ECM. The constant bidirectional interaction of epithelial cancer cells with the surrounding microenvironment allows damaged stromal cell usage as a source of nutrients for cancer cells, maintains the stroma renewal thus resembling a wound that does not heal, and affects the characteristics of tumor mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs). Although MSCs have been shown to coordinate tumor cell growth, dormancy, migration, invasion, metastasis, and drug resistance, recently they have been successfully used in treatment of hematopoietic malignancies to enhance the effect of total body irradiation-hematopoietic stem cell transplantation therapy. Hence, targeting the stromal elements in combination with conventional chemotherapeutics and usage of MSCs to attenuate graft-versus-host disease may offer new strategies to overcome cancer treatment failure and relapse of the disease. PMID:26798356

  13. Epigenetic Classification of Human Mesenchymal Stromal Cells.

    PubMed

    de Almeida, Danilo Candido; Ferreira, Marcelo R P; Franzen, Julia; Weidner, Carola I; Frobel, Joana; Zenke, Martin; Costa, Ivan G; Wagner, Wolfgang

    2016-02-01

    Standardization of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) is hampered by the lack of a precise definition for these cell preparations; for example, there are no molecular markers to discern MSCs and fibroblasts. In this study, we followed the hypothesis that specific DNA methylation (DNAm) patterns can assist classification of MSCs. We utilized 190 DNAm profiles to address the impact of tissue of origin, donor age, replicative senescence, and serum supplements on the epigenetic makeup. Based on this, we elaborated a simple epigenetic signature based on two CpG sites to classify MSCs and fibroblasts, referred to as the Epi-MSC-Score. Another two-CpG signature can distinguish between MSCs from bone marrow and adipose tissue, referred to as the Epi-Tissue-Score. These assays were validated by site-specific pyrosequencing analysis in 34 primary cell preparations. Furthermore, even individual subclones of MSCs were correctly classified by our epigenetic signatures. In summary, we propose an alternative concept to use DNAm patterns for molecular definition of cell preparations, and our epigenetic scores facilitate robust and cost-effective quality control of MSC cultures. PMID:26862701

  14. Interleukin-8 derived from local tissue-resident stromal cells promotes tumor cell invasion.

    PubMed

    Welte, Gabriel; Alt, Eckhard; Devarajan, Eswaran; Krishnappa, Srinivasalu; Jotzu, Constantin; Song, Yao-Hua

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the role of adipose tissue resident stromal cells on tumor cell invasion. Our data show that a subpopulation of adipose tissue derived stromal cells expressing Nestin, NG2, α-smooth muscle actin and PDGFR-α migrate toward the cancer cells. Microarray analysis revealed the upregulation of IL-8 in the migrated cells. We demonstrated that stromal cell derived IL-8 promote the invasion and the anchorage-independent growth of cancer cells. We conclude that human breast cancer cells attract a subpopulation of stromal cells that secrete IL-8 to promote tumor cell invasion in a paracrine fashion.

  15. Prognostic Impact of Reduced Connexin43 Expression and Gap Junction Coupling of Neoplastic Stromal Cells in Giant Cell Tumor of Bone

    PubMed Central

    Balla, Peter; Maros, Mate Elod; Barna, Gabor; Antal, Imre; Papp, Gergo; Sapi, Zoltan; Athanasou, Nicholas Anthony; Benassi, Maria Serena; Picci, Pierro; Krenacs, Tibor

    2015-01-01

    Missense mutations of the GJA1 gene encoding the gap junction channel protein connexin43 (Cx43) cause bone malformations resulting in oculodentodigital dysplasia (ODDD), while GJA1 null and ODDD mutant mice develop osteopenia. In this study we investigated Cx43 expression and channel functions in giant cell tumor of bone (GCTB), a locally aggressive osteolytic lesion with uncertain progression. Cx43 protein levels assessed by immunohistochemistry were correlated with GCTB cell types, clinico-radiological stages and progression free survival in tissue microarrays of 89 primary and 34 recurrent GCTB cases. Cx43 expression, phosphorylation, subcellular distribution and gap junction coupling was also investigated and compared between cultured neoplastic GCTB stromal cells and bone marow stromal cells or HDFa fibroblasts as a control. In GCTB tissues, most Cx43 was produced by CD163 negative neoplastic stromal cells and less by CD163 positive reactive monocytes/macrophages or by giant cells. Significantly less Cx43 was detected in α-smooth muscle actin positive than α-smooth muscle actin negative stromal cells and in osteoclast-rich tumor nests than in the adjacent reactive stroma. Progressively reduced Cx43 production in GCTB was significantly linked to advanced clinico-radiological stages and worse progression free survival. In neoplastic GCTB stromal cell cultures most Cx43 protein was localized in the paranuclear-Golgi region, while it was concentrated in the cell membranes both in bone marrow stromal cells and HDFa fibroblasts. In Western blots, alkaline phosphatase sensitive bands, linked to serine residues (Ser369, Ser372 or Ser373) detected in control cells, were missing in GCTB stromal cells. Defective cell membrane localization of Cx43 channels was in line with the significantly reduced transfer of the 622 Da fluorescing calcein dye between GCTB stromal cells. Our results show that significant downregulation of Cx43 expression and gap junction coupling in

  16. Thymic stromal cell subsets for T cell development.

    PubMed

    Nitta, Takeshi; Suzuki, Harumi

    2016-03-01

    The thymus provides a specialized microenvironment in which a variety of stromal cells of both hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic origin regulate development and repertoire selection of T cells. Recent studies have been unraveling the inter- and intracellular signals and transcriptional networks for spatiotemporal regulation of development of thymic stromal cells, mainly thymic epithelial cells (TECs), and the molecular mechanisms of how different TEC subsets control T cell development and selection. TECs are classified into two functionally different subsets: cortical TECs (cTECs) and medullary TECs (mTECs). cTECs induce positive selection of diverse and functionally distinct T cells by virtue of unique antigen-processing systems, while mTECs are essential for establishing T cell tolerance via ectopic expression of peripheral tissue-restricted antigens and cooperation with dendritic cells. In addition to reviewing the role of the thymic stroma in conventional T cell development, we will discuss recently discovered novel functions of TECs in the development of unconventional T cells, such as natural killer T cells and γδT cells. PMID:26825337

  17. In vitro characterization of patches of human mesenchymal stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Roux, Stephan; Bodivit, Gwellaouen; Bartis, Widy; Lebouvier, Angélique; Chevallier, Nathalie; Fialaire-Legendre, Anne; Bierling, Philippe; Rouard, Helene

    2015-02-01

    Stem cells may represent an excellent strategy to improve the healing of skin ulcers. Today the administration mode of stem cells to skin defects remains unsatisfactory. Delivering stem cells with topical treatments represents a new strategy and answering the patients' need. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) have been shown to improve wound healing of cutaneous lesions and amniotic membrane (AM) is known to represent a natural scaffold for cells. The aim of this study is to develop a tissue-engineered product combining MSC and AM for clinical use. In this work we investigated whether the stromal matrix of intact human AM could constitute a scaffold for human MSC derived from either bone marrow (BM) or adipose tissue (AT). For this purpose, clinical-grade AM, MSC, and culture medium were used. We performed experiments of short-term adherence and proliferation for 15 days after the seeding of the cells. Morphological aspects and secretion profiles of MSC onto AM were studied, respectively, by scanning electron microscopy and Luminex analysis. Results demonstrated that the stromal matrix allow the adherence in much greater amount of MSC from BM or AT compared to 2D material. Experiments of proliferation showed that both kinds of MSC could proliferate on the stromal matrix and remain viable 15 days after the seeding of the cells. The 3D analysis of MSC culture demonstrated that both types of MSC invaded the stromal matrix and grew in multiple layers while retaining their fibroblastic morphology. By studying the secretion profile of MSC onto the stromal matrix, we found that both kinds of MSC secrete important cytokines and growth factors for wound healing of cutaneous lesions, such as vascular endothelial growth factor, hepatocyte growth factor, and basic fibroblast growth factor. In conclusion, these results suggest that the stromal matrix of AM seeded with MSC represents a bioactive scaffold that should be evaluated in patients with a nonhealing cutaneous wound.

  18. In Vitro Characterization of Patches of Human Mesenchymal Stromal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Roux, Stephan; Bodivit, Gwellaouen; Bartis, Widy; Lebouvier, Angélique; Chevallier, Nathalie; Fialaire-Legendre, Anne; Bierling, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Stem cells may represent an excellent strategy to improve the healing of skin ulcers. Today the administration mode of stem cells to skin defects remains unsatisfactory. Delivering stem cells with topical treatments represents a new strategy and answering the patients' need. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) have been shown to improve wound healing of cutaneous lesions and amniotic membrane (AM) is known to represent a natural scaffold for cells. The aim of this study is to develop a tissue-engineered product combining MSC and AM for clinical use. In this work we investigated whether the stromal matrix of intact human AM could constitute a scaffold for human MSC derived from either bone marrow (BM) or adipose tissue (AT). For this purpose, clinical-grade AM, MSC, and culture medium were used. We performed experiments of short-term adherence and proliferation for 15 days after the seeding of the cells. Morphological aspects and secretion profiles of MSC onto AM were studied, respectively, by scanning electron microscopy and Luminex analysis. Results demonstrated that the stromal matrix allow the adherence in much greater amount of MSC from BM or AT compared to 2D material. Experiments of proliferation showed that both kinds of MSC could proliferate on the stromal matrix and remain viable 15 days after the seeding of the cells. The 3D analysis of MSC culture demonstrated that both types of MSC invaded the stromal matrix and grew in multiple layers while retaining their fibroblastic morphology. By studying the secretion profile of MSC onto the stromal matrix, we found that both kinds of MSC secrete important cytokines and growth factors for wound healing of cutaneous lesions, such as vascular endothelial growth factor, hepatocyte growth factor, and basic fibroblast growth factor. In conclusion, these results suggest that the stromal matrix of AM seeded with MSC represents a bioactive scaffold that should be evaluated in patients with a nonhealing cutaneous wound. PMID

  19. Heterogeneity of stromal cells in the human splenic white pulp. Fibroblastic reticulum cells, follicular dendritic cells and a third superficial stromal cell type

    PubMed Central

    Steiniger, Birte S; Wilhelmi, Verena; Seiler, Anja; Lampp, Katrin; Stachniss, Vitus

    2014-01-01

    At least three phenotypically and morphologically distinguishable types of branched stromal cells are revealed in the human splenic white pulp by subtractive immunohistological double-staining. CD271 is expressed in fibroblastic reticulum cells of T-cell zones and in follicular dendritic cells of follicles. In addition, there is a third CD271− and CD271+/− stromal cell population surrounding T-cell zones and follicles. At the surface of follicles the third population consists of individually variable partially overlapping shells of stromal cells exhibiting CD90 (Thy-1), MAdCAM-1, CD105 (endoglin), CD141 (thrombomodulin) and smooth muscle α-actin (SMA) with expression of CD90 characterizing the broadest shell and SMA the smallest. In addition, CXCL12, CXCL13 and CCL21 are also present in third-population stromal cells and/or along fibres. Not only CD27+ and switched B lymphocytes, but also scattered IgD++ B lymphocytes and variable numbers of CD4+ T lymphocytes often occur close to the third stromal cell population or one of its subpopulations at the surface of the follicles. In contrast to human lymph nodes, neither podoplanin nor RANKL (CD254) were detected in adult human splenic white pulp stromal cells. The superficial stromal cells of the human splenic white pulp belong to a widespread cell type, which is also found at the surface of red pulp arterioles surrounded by a mixed T-cell/B-cell population. Superficial white pulp stromal cells differ from fibroblastic reticulum cells and follicular dendritic cells not only in humans, but apparently also in mice and perhaps in rats. However, the phenotype of white pulp stromal cells is species-specific and more heterogeneous than described so far. PMID:24890772

  20. Prostate stromal cell proteomics analysis discriminates normal from tumour reactive stromal phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Webber, Jason P.; Spary, Lisa K.; Mason, Malcolm D.; Tabi, Zsuzsanna; Brewis, Ian A.; Clayton, Aled

    2016-01-01

    Changes within interstitial stromal compartments often accompany carcinogenesis, and this is true of prostate cancer. Typically, the tissue becomes populated by myofibroblasts that can promote progression. Not all myofibroblasts exhibit the same negative influence, however, and identifying the aggressive form of myofibroblast may provide useful information at diagnosis. A means of molecularly defining such myofibroblasts is unknown. We compared protein profiles of normal and diseased stroma isolated from prostate cancer patients to identify discriminating hallmarks of disease-associated stroma. We included the stimulation of normal stromal cells with known myofibroblast inducers namely soluble TGFβ and exosome-associated-TGFβ and compared the function and protein profiles arising. In all 6-patients examined, diseased stroma exhibited a pro-angiogenic influence on endothelial cells, generating large multicellular vessel-like structures. Identical structures were apparent following stimulation of normal stroma with exosomes (5/6 patients), but TGFβ-stimulation generated a non-angiogenic stroma. Proteomics highlighted disease-related cytoskeleton alterations such as elevated Transgelin (TAGLN). Many of these were also changed following TGFβ or exosome stimulation and did not well discriminate the nature of the stimulus. Soluble TGFβ, however triggered differential expression of proteins related to mitochondrial function including voltage dependent ion channels VDAC1 and 2, and this was not found in the other stromal types studied. Surprisingly, Aldehyde Dehydrogenase (ALDH1A1), a stem-cell associated protein was detected in normal stromal cells and found to decrease in disease. In summary, we have discovered a set of proteins that contribute to defining disease-associated myofibroblasts, and emphasise the similarity between exosome-generated myofibroblasts and those naturally arising in situ. PMID:26934553

  1. Ex vivo Co-culture of Lymphoid Tissue Stromal Cells and T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Ming; Haase, Ashley T.

    2016-01-01

    Stromal cells within lymphoid tissues produce IL-7, which is critical for the survival and function of T cells. This protocol is to be used to isolate primary human lymphoid tissue stromal cells to study their impact on the survival of T cells in an ex vivo co-culture system.

  2. Stromal myofibroblasts in oral leukoplakia and oral squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    de-Assis, Eliene M.; Pimenta, Luiz G.G.S.; Costa-e-Silva, Edson; Souza, Paulo E.A.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Oral leukoplakia (OL) is the main potentially malignant disorder and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the most common malignancy of the oral mucosa. Stromal myofibroblasts play an important role in tumor invasion and metastasis, due to its ability to modify the extracellular matrix. This study aimed to evaluate the presence of stromal myofibroblasts in OL and OSCC. Differences in the presence of myofibroblasts among OL with distinct grades of epithelial dysplasia as well as between histologically high- and low-invasive OSCC were also assessed. Study Design: A total of 30 OL and 41 OSCC from archival formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded specimens were evaluated. 10 samples of normal oral mucosa were used as a control. Myofibroblasts were identified by immunohistochemical detection of alpha smooth muscle actin and its presence was classified as negative, scanty or abundant. Differences in the presence of myofibroblasts among OL with distinct grades of epithelial dysplasia as well as between high- and low-invasive OSCC were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney test. Results: Myofibroblasts were not detected in normal oral mucosa and OL, whatever its histological grade. In OSCC, the presence of stromal myofibroblasts was classified as negative in 11 (26.8%), scanty in 15 (36.6%), and abundant in 15 samples (36.6%). The presence of stromal myofibroblasts was statistically higher in high-invasive OSCC than in low-invasive OSCC (p<0.05). Conclusions: Stromal myofibroblasts were not detected in OL, indicating that these cells are not important during oral carcinogenesis. Nevertheless, stromal myofibroblasts were heterogeneously detected in OSCC and its presence was higher in tumors with a more diffuse histological pattern of invasion. These findings suggest that myofibroblasts are associated with the creation of a permissive environment for tumor invasion in OSCC. Key words:Leukoplakia, oral squamous cell carcinoma, myofibroblast. PMID:22322518

  3. Sheep stromal-epithelial cell interactions and ovarian tumor progression.

    PubMed

    Wang-Johanning, Feng; Huang, Miao; Liu, Jinsong; Rycaj, Kiera; Plummer, Joshua B; Barnhart, Kirstin F; Satterfield, William C; Johanning, Gary L

    2007-11-15

    Previous studies suggest that underlying ovarian stromal cues may regulate the ovarian surface epithelium. However, little is known about the interaction between ovarian stromal cells (OSC) and ovarian surface epithelial cells (OSE) under normal physiologic and pathologic conditions, largely because of the lack of a suitable model. In the current study, the OSC obtained from a sheep were immortalized with SV-40 T/t antigen (designated IOSC) and telomerase reverse transcriptase (designated IOSCH), followed by transfection with the oncogenic allele of the human H-Ras oncogene (designated IOSChR). IOSC cells transfected with H-Ras before immortalization with telomerase were designated IOSCRH. These sheep OSCs were used in both in vitro and in vivo model systems to evaluate mechanisms by which OSCs influence ovarian tumor progression. Normal sheep OSCs were found to inhibit the growth of SKOV3 and OVCAR3 human ovarian cancer cells, but not normal sheep OSE and human OSE cells (hOSE137 cells). In contrast, IOSChR and IOSCRH cells stimulated the growth of normal sheep and human OSE cells, as well as cancer cells. These findings were confirmed by in vivo studies. Our data provide compelling support for the importance of stromal-epithelial cell interactions during tumor progression, and show for the first time that immortalized and transformed OSCs promote growth of ovarian epithelial tumors.

  4. Mesenchymal Stem Cells with Increased Stromal Cell-Derived Factor 1 Expression Enhanced Fracture Healing

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Chih-Yuan; Hua, Jia; Coathup, Melanie; Kalia, Priya; Blunn, Gordon

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of critical size bone defects pose a challenge in orthopedics. Stem cell therapy together with cytokines has the potential to improve bone repair as they cause the migration and homing of stem cells to the defect site. However, the engraftment, participation, and recruitment of other cells within the regenerating tissue are important. To enhance stem cell involvement, this study investigated overexpression of stem cells with stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1) using an adenovirus. We hypothesized that these engineered cells would effectively increase the migration of native cells to the site of fracture, enhancing bone repair. Before implantation, we showed that SDF-1 secreted by transfected cells increased the migration of nontransfected cells. In a rat defect bone model, bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells overexpressing SDF-1 showed significantly (p=0.003) more new bone formation within the gap and less bone mineral loss at the area adjacent to the defect site during the early bone healing stage. In conclusion, SDF-1 was shown to play an important role in accelerating fracture repair and contributing to bone repair in rat models, by recruiting more host stem cells to the defect site and encouraging osteogenic differentiation and production of bone. PMID:25251779

  5. The Cell Surface Proteome of Human Mesenchymal Stromal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Pursche, Theresia; Bornhäuser, Martin; Corbeil, Denis; Hoflack, Bernard

    2011-01-01

    Background Multipotent human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs) are considered as promising biological tools for regenerative medicine. Their antibody-based isolation relies on the identification of reliable cell surface markers. Methodology/Principal Findings To obtain a comprehensive view of the cell surface proteome of bone marrow-derived hMSCs, we have developed an analytical pipeline relying on cell surface biotinylation of intact cells using cell impermeable, cleavable sulfo-NHS-SS-biotin to enrich the plasma membrane proteins and mass spectrometry for identification with extremely high confidence. Among the 888 proteins identified, we found ≈200 bona fide plasma membrane proteins including 33 cell adhesion molecules and 26 signaling receptors. In total 41 CD markers including 5 novel ones (CD97, CD112, CD239, CD276, and CD316) were identified. The CD markers are distributed homogenously within plastic-adherent hMSC populations and their expression is modulated during the process of adipogenesis or osteogenesis. Moreover, our in silico analysis revealed a significant difference between the cell surface proteome of hMSCs and that of human embryonic stem cells reported previously. Conclusions/Significance Collectively, our analytical methods not only provide a basis for further studies of mechanisms maintaining the multipotency of hMSCs within their niches and triggering their differentiation after signaling, but also a toolbox for a refined antibody-based identification of hMSC populations from different tissues and their isolation for therapeutic intervention. PMID:21637820

  6. Interior building details of Building A, dungeon cell adjacent to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior building details of Building A, dungeon cell adjacent to northwest cell: granite and brick threshold, poured concrete floors, plastered finished walls, vaulted veiling; northwesterly view - San Quentin State Prison, Building 22, Point San Quentin, San Quentin, Marin County, CA

  7. Mesenchymal Stromal Cells: Updates and Therapeutic Outlook in Rheumatic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Pers, Yves-Marie; Jorgensen, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells or mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are adult stem cells exhibiting functional properties that have opened the way for cell-based clinical therapies. MSCs have been reported to exhibit immunosuppressive as well as healing properties, improving angiogenesis and preventing apoptosis or fibrosis through the secretion of paracrine mediators. This review summarizes recent progress on the clinical application of stem cells therapy in some inflammatory and degenerative rheumatic diseases. To date, most of the available data have been obtained in preclinical models and clinical efficacy needs to be evaluated through controlled randomized double-blind trials. PMID:26237144

  8. Multivariate biophysical markers predictive of mesenchymal stromal cell multipotency

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Wong Cheng; Shi, Hui; Poon, Zhiyong; Nyan, Lin Myint; Kaushik, Tanwi; Shivashankar, G. V.; Chan, Jerry K. Y.; Lim, Chwee Teck; Han, Jongyoon; Van Vliet, Krystyn J.

    2014-01-01

    The capacity to produce therapeutically relevant quantities of multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) via in vitro culture is a common prerequisite for stem cell-based therapies. Although culture expanded MSCs are widely studied and considered for therapeutic applications, it has remained challenging to identify a unique set of characteristics that enables robust identification and isolation of the multipotent stem cells. New means to describe and separate this rare cell type and its downstream progenitor cells within heterogeneous cell populations will contribute significantly to basic biological understanding and can potentially improve efficacy of stem and progenitor cell-based therapies. Here, we use multivariate biophysical analysis of culture-expanded, bone marrow-derived MSCs, correlating these quantitative measures with biomolecular markers and in vitro and in vivo functionality. We find that, although no single biophysical property robustly predicts stem cell multipotency, there exists a unique and minimal set of three biophysical markers that together are predictive of multipotent subpopulations, in vitro and in vivo. Subpopulations of culture-expanded stromal cells from both adult and fetal bone marrow that exhibit sufficiently small cell diameter, low cell stiffness, and high nuclear membrane fluctuations are highly clonogenic and also exhibit gene, protein, and functional signatures of multipotency. Further, we show that high-throughput inertial microfluidics enables efficient sorting of committed osteoprogenitor cells, as distinct from these mesenchymal stem cells, in adult bone marrow. Together, these results demonstrate novel methods and markers of stemness that facilitate physical isolation, study, and therapeutic use of culture-expanded, stromal cell subpopulations. PMID:25298531

  9. A Stromal Cell Niche for Human and Mouse Type 3 Innate Lymphoid Cells.

    PubMed

    Hoorweg, Kerim; Narang, Priyanka; Li, Zhi; Thuery, Anne; Papazian, Natalie; Withers, David R; Coles, Mark C; Cupedo, Tom

    2015-11-01

    Adaptive immunity critically depends on the functional compartmentalization of secondary lymphoid organs. Mesenchymal stromal cells create and maintain specialized niches that support survival, activation, and expansion of T and B cells, and integrated analysis of lymphocytes and their niche has been instrumental in understanding adaptive immunity. Lymphoid organs are also home to type 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3), innate effector cells essential for barrier immunity. However, a specialized stromal niche for ILC3 has not been identified. A novel lineage-tracing approach now identifies a subset of murine fetal lymphoid tissue organizer cells that gives rise exclusively to adult marginal reticular cells. Moreover, both cell types are conserved from mice to humans and colocalize with ILC3 in secondary lymphoid tissues throughout life. In sum, we provide evidence that fetal stromal organizers give rise to adult marginal reticular cells and form a dedicated stromal niche for innate ILC3 in adaptive lymphoid organs.

  10. Differences in phenotype and gene expression of prostate stromal cells from patients of varying ages and their influence on tumour formation by prostate epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yong-Chuan; Yu, Sheng-Qiang; Wang, Xiao-Hai; Han, Bang-Min; Zhao, Fu-Jun; Zhu, Guang-Hui; Hong, Yan; Xia, Shu-Jie

    2011-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is an age-related disease, and the stromal microenvironment plays an important role in prostatic malignant progression. However, the differences in prostate stromal cells present in young and old tissue are still obscure. We established primary cultured stromal cells from normal prostatic peripheral zone (PZ) of donors of varying ages and found that cultured stromal cells from old donors (PZ-old) were more enlarged and polygonal than those from young donors (PZ-young). Furthermore, based on immunocytochemical and ultrastructural analysis, the components of stromal cells changed from a majority of fibroblasts to a mixture of fibroblasts and myofibroblasts with increasing donor age. Using a three-dimensional in vitro culture system, we found that PZ-old stromal cells could enhance the proliferation, migration and invasion of cocultured benign BPH-1 and PC-3 cells. Using an in vivo tissue recombination system, we also found that PZ-old stromal cells are more effective than PZ-young cells in promoting tumour formation by BPH-1 cells of high passage(>100) and PC-3 cells. To probe the possible mechanism of these effects, we performed cDNA microarray analysis and profiled 509 upregulated genes and 188 downregulated genes in PZ-old cells. Among the changed genes, we found genes coding for a subset of paracrine factors that are capable of influencing adjacent epithelial cells; these include hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), fibroblast growth factor 5 (FGF5), insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2), insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 4 (IGFBP4), IGFBP5 and matrix metallopeptidase 1 (MMP1). Changes in the expression of these genes were further confirmed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), Western blotting and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Overall, our findings indicate that stromal cells from prostate PZ of old donors are more active than similar cells from young donors in promoting the malignant process of adjacent

  11. Fetal liver stromal cells promote hematopoietic cell expansion

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Kun; Hu, Caihong; Zhou, Zhigang; Huang, Lifang; Liu, Wenli; Sun, Hanying

    2009-09-25

    Future application of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) in clinical therapies largely depends on their successful expansion in vitro. Fetal liver (FL) is a unique hematopoietic organ in which hematopoietic cells markedly expand in number, but the mechanisms involved remain unclear. Stromal cells (StroCs) have been suggested to provide a suitable cellular environment for in vitro expansion of HSPCs. In this study, murine StroCs derived from FL at E14.5, with a high level of Sonic hedgehog (Shh) and Wnt expression, were found to have an increased ability to support the proliferation of HSPCs. This effect was inhibited by blocking Shh signaling. Supplementation with soluble Shh-N promoted the proliferation of hematopoietic cells by activating Wnt signaling. Our findings suggest that FL-derived StroCs support proliferation of HSPCs via Shh inducing an autocrine Wnt signaling loop. The use of FL-derived StroCs and regulation of the Shh pathway might further enhance HPSC expansion.

  12. Mesenchymal stromal cells and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Bernardo, Maria Ester; Fibbe, Willem E

    2015-12-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) comprise a heterogeneous population of multipotent cells that can be isolated from various human tissues and culture-expanded ex vivo for clinical use. Due to their immunoregulatory properties and their ability to secrete growth factors, MSCs play a key role in the regulation of hematopoiesis and in the modulation of immune responses against allo- and autoantigens. In light of these properties, MSCs have been employed in clinical trials in the context of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) to facilitate engraftment of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and to prevent graft failure, as well as to treat steroid-resistant acute graft-versus-host disease (GvHD). The available clinical evidence derived from these studies indicates that MSC administration is safe. Moreover, promising preliminary results in terms of efficacy have been reported in some clinical trials, especially in the treatment of acute GvHD. In this review we critically discuss recent advances in MSC therapy by reporting on the most relevant studies in the field of HSCT.

  13. Functional Characteristics of Multipotent Mesenchymal Stromal Cells from Pituitary Adenomas.

    PubMed

    Megnis, Kaspars; Mandrika, Ilona; Petrovska, Ramona; Stukens, Janis; Rovite, Vita; Balcere, Inga; Jansone, Laima Sabine; Peculis, Raitis; Pirags, Valdis; Klovins, Janis

    2016-01-01

    Pituitary adenomas are one of the most common endocrine and intracranial neoplasms. Although they are theoretically monoclonal in origin, several studies have shown that they contain different multipotent cell types that are thought to play an important role in tumor initiation, maintenance, and recurrence after therapy. In the present study, we isolated and characterized cell populations from seven pituitary somatotroph, nonhormonal, and lactotroph adenomas. The obtained cells showed characteristics of multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells as observed by cell morphology, cell surface marker CD90, CD105, CD44, and vimentin expression, as well as differentiation to osteogenic and adipogenic lineages. They are capable of growth and passaging under standard laboratory cell culture conditions and do not manifest any hormonal cell characteristics. Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells are present in pituitary adenomas regardless of their clinical manifestation and show no considerable expression of somatostatin 1-5 and dopamine 2 receptors. Most likely obtained cells are a part of tissue-supportive cells in pituitary adenoma microenvironment. PMID:27340409

  14. Targeting stromal-cancer cell interactions with siRNAs.

    PubMed

    Aharinejad, Seyedhossein; Sioud, Mouldy; Lucas, Trevor; Abraham, Dietmar

    2009-01-01

    Tumors are composed of both malignant and normal cells, including fibroblasts, endothelial cells, mesenchymal stem cells, and inflammatory immune cells such as macrophages. These various stromal components interact with cancer cells to promote growth and metastasis. For example, macrophages, attracted by colony-stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1) produced by tumor cells, in turn produce various growth factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor, which supports the growth of tumor cells and their interaction with blood vessels leading to enhanced tumor cell spreading. The activation of autocrine and paracrine oncogenic signaling pathways by stroma-derived growth factors and cytokines has been implicated in promoting tumor cell proliferation and metastasis. Furthermore, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) derived from both tumor cells and the stromal compartment are regarded as major players assisting tumor cells during metastasis. Collectively, these recent findings indicate that targeting tumor-stroma interactions is a promising strategy in the search for novel treatment modalities in human cancer. This chapter summarizes our current understanding of the tumor microenvironment and highlights some potential targets for therapeutic intervention with small interfering RNAs.

  15. Functional Characteristics of Multipotent Mesenchymal Stromal Cells from Pituitary Adenomas

    PubMed Central

    Megnis, Kaspars; Mandrika, Ilona; Petrovska, Ramona; Stukens, Janis; Rovite, Vita; Balcere, Inga; Jansone, Laima Sabine; Peculis, Raitis; Pirags, Valdis

    2016-01-01

    Pituitary adenomas are one of the most common endocrine and intracranial neoplasms. Although they are theoretically monoclonal in origin, several studies have shown that they contain different multipotent cell types that are thought to play an important role in tumor initiation, maintenance, and recurrence after therapy. In the present study, we isolated and characterized cell populations from seven pituitary somatotroph, nonhormonal, and lactotroph adenomas. The obtained cells showed characteristics of multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells as observed by cell morphology, cell surface marker CD90, CD105, CD44, and vimentin expression, as well as differentiation to osteogenic and adipogenic lineages. They are capable of growth and passaging under standard laboratory cell culture conditions and do not manifest any hormonal cell characteristics. Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells are present in pituitary adenomas regardless of their clinical manifestation and show no considerable expression of somatostatin 1–5 and dopamine 2 receptors. Most likely obtained cells are a part of tissue-supportive cells in pituitary adenoma microenvironment. PMID:27340409

  16. Stromal-cell and cancer-cell exosomes leading the metastatic exodus for the promised niche.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Robert M

    2013-01-01

    Exosomes are thought to play an important role in metastasis. Luga and colleagues have described the production of exosomes by stromal cells such as cancer-associated fibroblasts that are taken up by breast cancer cells and are then loaded with Wnt 11, which is associated with stimulation of the invasiveness and metastasis of the breast cancer cells. Previous studies have shown that exosomes produced by breast cancer cells are taken up by stromal fibroblasts and other stromal cells, suggesting that exosomes are agents of cross-talk between cancer and stromal cells to stimulate metastasis. Imaging of exosomes by labeling with fluorescent proteins will enlighten the process by which exosomes enhance metastasis, including premetastatic niche formation.

  17. An optimized protocol for isolating lymphoid stromal cells from the intestinal lamina propria.

    PubMed

    Stzepourginski, Igor; Eberl, Gérard; Peduto, Lucie

    2015-06-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells in lymphoid organs, also called lymphoid stromal cells (LSCs), play a pivotal role in immunity by forming specialized microenvironments that provide signals for leukocyte migration, positioning, and survival. Best characterized in lymphoid organs, LSCs are also abundant in the intestinal mucosa, which harbors a rich repertoire of immune cells. However, the lack of efficient procedures for isolation and purification of LSCs from the intestine has been a major limitation to their characterization. Here we report a new method to efficiently isolate, in addition to immune cells, viable lymphoid stromal cells and other stromal subsets from the intestinal lamina propria for subsequent phenotypic and functional analysis.

  18. Therapeutic effect of mesenchymal multipotent stromal cells on memory in animals with Alzheimer-type neurodegeneration.

    PubMed

    Bobkova, N V; Poltavtseva, R A; Samokhin, A N; Sukhikh, G T

    2013-11-01

    Transplantation of human mesenchymal multipotent stromal cells improved spatial memory in bulbectomized mice with Alzheimer-type neurodegeneration. The positive effect was observed in 1 month after intracerebral transplantation and in 3 months after systemic injection of mesenchymal multipotent stromal cells. No cases of malignant transformation were noted. These findings indicate prospects of using mesenchymal multipotent stromal cells for the therapy of Alzheimer disease and the possibility of their systemic administration for attaining the therapeutic effect.

  19. Stromal cells expressing hedgehog-interacting protein regulate the proliferation of myeloid neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Kobune, M; Iyama, S; Kikuchi, S; Horiguchi, H; Sato, T; Murase, K; Kawano, Y; Takada, K; Ono, K; Kamihara, Y; Hayashi, T; Miyanishi, K; Sato, Y; Takimoto, R; Kato, J

    2012-01-01

    Aberrant reactivation of hedgehog (Hh) signaling has been described in a wide variety of human cancers including cancer stem cells. However, involvement of the Hh-signaling system in the bone marrow (BM) microenvironment during the development of myeloid neoplasms is unknown. In this study, we assessed the expression of Hh-related genes in primary human CD34+ cells, CD34+ blastic cells and BM stromal cells. Both Indian Hh (Ihh) and its signal transducer, smoothened (SMO), were expressed in CD34+ acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS)-derived cells. However, Ihh expression was relatively low in BM stromal cells. Remarkably, expression of the intrinsic Hh-signaling inhibitor, human Hh-interacting protein (HHIP) in AML/MDS-derived stromal cells was markedly lower than in healthy donor-derived stromal cells. Moreover, HHIP expression levels in BM stromal cells highly correlated with their supporting activity for SMO+ leukemic cells. Knockdown of HHIP gene in stromal cells increased their supporting activity although control cells marginally supported SMO+ leukemic cell proliferation. The demethylating agent, 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine rescued HHIP expression via demethylation of HHIP gene and reduced the leukemic cell-supporting activity of AML/MDS-derived stromal cells. This indicates that suppression of stromal HHIP could be associated with the proliferation of AML/MDS cells. PMID:22961059

  20. Native human adipose stromal cells: localization, morphology and phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Maumus, M; Peyrafitte, J-A; D'Angelo, R; Fournier-Wirth, C; Bouloumié, A; Casteilla, L; Sengenès, C; Bourin, P

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Beside having roles in energy homeostasis and endocrine modulation, adipose tissue (AT) is now considered a promising source of mesenchymal stromal cells (adipose-derived stromal cells or ASCs) for regenerative medicine. Despite numerous studies on cultured ASCs, native human ASCs are rarely investigated. Indeed, the phenotype of ASCs in their native state, their localization within AT and comparison with bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (BM-MSCs) has been poorly investigated. Design: To address these issues, the stroma vascular fraction (SVF) of human AT was extracted and native cell subtypes were isolated by immunoselection to study their clonogenic potential in culture. Immunohistology on samples of human AT in combination with reconstruction of confocal sections were performed in order to localize ASCs. Results: Compared with BM-MNCs, all native ASCs were found in the CD34+ cell fraction of the AT-SVF. Native ASCs expressed classical mesenchymal markers described for BM-MSCs. Interestingly, CD34 expression decreased during ASC cell culture and was negatively correlated with cell proliferation rate. Immunohistological analysis revealed that native ASCs exhibited specific morphological features with protrusions. They were found scattered in AT stroma and did not express in vivo pericytic markers such as NG2, CD140b or alpha-smooth muscle actin, which appeared during the culture process. Finally, ASCs spontaneous commitment to adipocytic lineage was enhanced in AT from obese humans. Conclusions: The use of complementary methodological approaches to study native human ASCs revealed their immunophenotype, their specific morphology, their location within AT and their stemness. Furthermore, our data strongly suggest that human ASCs participate in adipogenesis during AT development. PMID:21266947

  1. T cells stimulate catabolic gene expression by the stromal cells from giant cell tumor of bone

    SciTech Connect

    Cowan, Robert W.; Ghert, Michelle; Singh, Gurmit

    2012-03-23

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two T cell lines stimulate PTHrP, RANKL, MMP13 gene expression in GCT cell cultures. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CD40 expressed by stromal cells; CD40L detected in whole tumor but not cultures. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Effect of CD40L treatment on GCT cells increased PTHrP and MMP13 gene expression. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PTHrP treatment increased MMP13 expression, while inhibition decreased expression. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer T cells may stimulate GCT stromal cells and promote the osteolysis of the tumor. -- Abstract: The factors that promote the localized bone resorption by giant cell tumor of bone (GCT) are not fully understood. We investigated whether T cells could contribute to bone resorption by stimulating expression of genes for parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-13, and the receptor activator of nuclear-factor {kappa}B ligand (RANKL). Two cell lines, Jurkat clone E6-1 and D1.1, were co-cultured with isolated GCT stromal cells. Real-time PCR analyses demonstrated a significant increase of all three genes following 48 h incubation, and PTHrP and MMP-13 gene expression was also increased at 24 h. Further, we examined the expression of CD40 ligand (CD40L), a protein expressed by activated T cells, and its receptor, CD40, in GCT. Immunohistochemistry results revealed expression of the CD40 receptor in both the stromal cells and giant cells of the tumor. RNA collected from whole GCT tissues showed expression of CD40LG, which was absent in cultured stromal cells, and suggests that CD40L is expressed within GCT. Stimulation of GCT stromal cells with CD40L significantly increased expression of the PTHrP and MMP-13 genes. Moreover, we show that inhibition of PTHrP with neutralizing antibodies significantly decreased MMP13 expression by the stromal cells compared to IgG-matched controls, whereas stimulation with PTHrP (1-34) increased MMP-13 gene expression. These

  2. Degradation of polysaccharide hydrogels seeded with bone marrow stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Jahromi, Shiva H; Grover, Liam M; Paxton, Jennifer Z; Smith, Alan M

    2011-10-01

    In order to produce hydrogel cell culture substrates that are fit for the purpose, it is important that the mechanical properties are well understood not only at the point of cell seeding but throughout the culture period. In this study the change in the mechanical properties of three biopolymer hydrogels alginate, low methoxy pectin and gellan gum have been assessed in cell culture conditions. Samples of the gels were prepared encapsulating rat bone marrow stromal cells which were then cultured in osteogenic media. Acellular samples were also prepared and incubated in standard cell culture media. The rheological properties of the gels were measured over a culture period of 28 days and it was found that the gels degraded at very different rates. The degradation occurred most rapidly in the order alginate > Low methoxy pectin > gellan gum. The ability of each hydrogel to support differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells to osteoblasts was also verified by evidence of mineral deposits in all three of the materials. These results highlight that the mechanical properties of biopolymer hydrogels can vary greatly during in vitro culture, and provide the potential of selecting hydrogel cell culture substrates with mechanical properties that are tissue specific.

  3. Perivascular Stromal Cells as a Potential Reservoir of Human Cytomegalovirus

    PubMed Central

    Soland, M. A.; Keyes, L. R.; Bayne, R.; Moon, J.; Porada, C. D.; St. Jeor, S.; Almeida-Porada, G.

    2014-01-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection is an important cause of morbidity and mortality among both solid organ and hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. Identification of cells throughout the body that can potentially serve as a viral reservoir is essential to dissect mechanisms of cell tropism and latency and to develop novel therapies. Here, we tested and compared the permissivity of liver-, brain-, lung (LNG)- and bone marrow (BM)-derived perivascular mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) to HCMV infection and their ability to propagate and produce infectious virus. Perivascular MSC isolated from the different organs have in common the expression of CD146 and Stro-1. While all these cells were permissive to HCMV infection, the highest rate of HCMV infection was seen with LNG-MSC, as determined by viral copy number and production of viral particles by these cells. In addition, we showed that, although the supernatants from each of the HCMV-infected cultures contained infectious virus, the viral copy number and the quantity and timing of virus production varied among the various organ-specific MSC. Furthermore, using quantitative polymerase chain reaction, we were able to detect HCMV DNA in BM-MSC isolated from 7 out of 19 healthy, HCMV-seropositive adults, suggesting that BM-derived perivascular stromal cells may constitute an unrecognized natural HCMV reservoir. PMID:24592822

  4. Manufacturing mesenchymal stromal cells for phase I clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Hanley, Patrick J; Mei, Zhuyong; da Graca Cabreira-Hansen, Maria; Klis, Mariola; Li, Wei; Zhao, Yali; Durett, April G; Zheng, Xingwu; Wang, Yongping; Gee, Adrian P; Horwitz, Edwin M

    2013-04-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are multipotent progenitor cells capable of differentiating into adipocytes, osteoblasts and chondroblasts as well as secreting a vast array of soluble mediators. This potentially makes MSCs important mediators of a variety of therapeutic applications. They are actively under evaluation for immunomodulatory purposes such as graft-versus-host disease and Crohn's disease as well as regenerative applications such as stroke and congestive heart failure. We report our method of generating clinical-grade MSCs together with suggestions gathered from manufacturing experience in our Good Manufacturing Practices facility. PMID:23480951

  5. Integrins and bone metastasis: integrating tumor cell and stromal cell interactions.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Jochen G; Amend, Sarah R; Weilbaecher, Katherine N

    2011-01-01

    Integrins on both tumor cells and the supporting host stromal cells in bone (osteoclasts, new blood vessels, inflammatory cells, platelets and bone marrow stromal cells) play key roles in enhancing bone metastasis. Tumor cells localize to specific tissues through integrin-mediated contacts with extracellular matrix and stromal cells. Integrin expression and signaling are perturbed in cancer cells, allowing them to "escape" from cell-cell and cell-matrix tethers, invade, migrate and colonize within new tissues and matrices. Integrin signaling through αvβ3 and VLA-4 on tumor cells can promote tumor metastasis to and proliferation in the bone microenvironment. Osteoclast (OC) mediated bone resorption is a critical component of bone metastasis and can promote tumor growth in bone and αvβ3 integrins are critical to OC function and development. Tumors in the bone microenvironment can recruit new blood vessel formation, platelets, pro-tumor immune cells and bone marrow stromal cells that promote tumor growth and invasion in bone. Integrins and their ligands play critical roles in platelet aggregation (αvβ3 and αIIbβ3), hematopoietic cell mobilization (VLA-4 and osteopontin), neoangiogenesis (αvβ3, αvβ5, α6β4, and β1 integrin) and stromal function (osteopontin and VLA-4). Integrins are involved in the pathogenesis of bone metastasis at many levels and further study to define integrin dysregulation by cancer will yield new therapeutic targets for the prevention and treatment of bone metastasis.

  6. Melanoma educates mesenchymal stromal cells towards vasculogenic mimicry

    PubMed Central

    VARTANIAN, AMALIA; KARSHIEVA, SAIDA; DOMBROVSKY, VLADISLAV; BELYAVSKY, ALEXANDER

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are recruited to the tumor, and promote tumor development and growth. The present study was performed to investigate the communication between aggressive melanoma and MSCs in vasculogenic mimicry (VM). Normal human MSCs plated on Matrigel were unable to form capillary-like structures (CLSs). By contrast, MSCs co-cultured with aggressive melanoma cell lines, namely, Mel Cher, Mel Kor and Mel P, generated CLSs. Significantly, MSCs co-cultured with poorly aggressive melanoma cells, namely, Mel Me, failed to form CLSs. To identify factors responsible for VM, the effects of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA), pro-epidermal growth factor, basic fibroblast growth factor and stromal cell-derived factor 1α on the formation of CLSs by MSCs were tested. VM was induced by the addition of VEGFA, whereas other cytokines were inefficient. To confirm the hypothesis that aggressive tumor cells can increase the vasculogenic ability of MSCs, a standard B16/F10 mouse melanoma test system was used. MSCs isolated from the adipose tissues of C57BL/6 mice with melanoma formed a vascular-like network on Matrigel, whereas MSCs from healthy mice failed to form such structures. This study provides the first direct evidence that melanoma tumors educate MSCs to engage in VM. The education may occur distantly. These findings offer promise for novel therapeutic directions in the treatment of metastatic melanoma. PMID:27313776

  7. Anchored and soluble gangliosides contribute to myelosupportivity of stromal cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ziulkoski, Ana L.; Santos, Aline X.S. dos; Andrade, Claudia M.B.; Trindade, Vera M.T.; Daniotti, Jose Luis; Borojevic, Radovan; Guma, Fatima C.R.

    2009-10-09

    Stroma-mediated myelopoiesis depends upon growth factors and an appropriate intercellular microenvironment. Previous studies have demonstrated that gangliosides, produced by hepatic stromal cell types, are required for optimal myelosupportive function. Here, we compared the mielossuportive functions of a bone marrow stroma (S17) and skin fibroblasts (SF) regarding their ganglioside pattern of synthesis and shedding. The survival and proliferation of a myeloid precursor cell (FDC-P1) were used as reporter. Although the ganglioside synthesis of the two stromal cells was similar, their relative content and shedding were distinct. The ganglioside requirement for mielossuportive function was confirmed by the decreased proliferation of FDC-P1 cells in ganglioside synthesis-inhibited cultures and in presence of an antibody to GM3 ganglioside. The distinct mielossuportive activities of the S17 and SF stromata may be related to differences on plasma membrane ganglioside concentrations or to differences on the gangliosides shed and their subsequent uptake by myeloid cells, specially, GM3 ganglioside.

  8. Potential Effect of CD271 on Human Mesenchymal Stromal Cell Proliferation and Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Calabrese, Giovanna; Giuffrida, Raffaella; Lo Furno, Debora; Parrinello, Nunziatina Laura; Forte, Stefano; Gulino, Rosario; Colarossi, Cristina; Schinocca, Luciana Rita; Giuffrida, Rosario; Cardile, Venera; Memeo, Lorenzo

    2015-01-01

    The Low-Affinity Nerve Growth Factor Receptor (LNGFR), also known as CD271, is a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily. The CD271 cell surface marker defines a subset of multipotential mesenchymal stromal cells and may be used to isolate and enrich cells derived from bone marrow aspirate. In this study, we compare the proliferative and differentiation potentials of CD271+ and CD271− mesenchymal stromal cells. Mesenchymal stromal cells were isolated from bone marrow aspirate and adipose tissue by plastic adherence and positive selection. The proliferation and differentiation potentials of CD271+ and CD271− mesenchymal stromal cells were assessed by inducing osteogenic, adipogenic and chondrogenic in vitro differentiation. Compared to CD271+, CD271− mesenchymal stromal cells showed a lower proliferation rate and a decreased ability to give rise to osteocytes, adipocytes and chondrocytes. Furthermore, we observed that CD271+ mesenchymal stromal cells isolated from adipose tissue displayed a higher efficiency of proliferation and trilineage differentiation compared to CD271+ mesenchymal stromal cells isolated from bone marrow samples, although the CD271 expression levels were comparable. In conclusion, these data show that both the presence of CD271 antigen and the source of mesenchymal stromal cells represent important factors in determining the ability of the cells to proliferate and differentiate. PMID:26184166

  9. Potential Effect of CD271 on Human Mesenchymal Stromal Cell Proliferation and Differentiation.

    PubMed

    Calabrese, Giovanna; Giuffrida, Raffaella; Lo Furno, Debora; Parrinello, Nunziatina Laura; Forte, Stefano; Gulino, Rosario; Colarossi, Cristina; Schinocca, Luciana Rita; Giuffrida, Rosario; Cardile, Venera; Memeo, Lorenzo

    2015-01-01

    The Low-Affinity Nerve Growth Factor Receptor (LNGFR), also known as CD271, is a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily. The CD271 cell surface marker defines a subset of multipotential mesenchymal stromal cells and may be used to isolate and enrich cells derived from bone marrow aspirate. In this study, we compare the proliferative and differentiation potentials of CD271+ and CD271- mesenchymal stromal cells. Mesenchymal stromal cells were isolated from bone marrow aspirate and adipose tissue by plastic adherence and positive selection. The proliferation and differentiation potentials of CD271+ and CD271- mesenchymal stromal cells were assessed by inducing osteogenic, adipogenic and chondrogenic in vitro differentiation. Compared to CD271+, CD271- mesenchymal stromal cells showed a lower proliferation rate and a decreased ability to give rise to osteocytes, adipocytes and chondrocytes. Furthermore, we observed that CD271+ mesenchymal stromal cells isolated from adipose tissue displayed a higher efficiency of proliferation and trilineage differentiation compared to CD271+ mesenchymal stromal cells isolated from bone marrow samples, although the CD271 expression levels were comparable. In conclusion, these data show that both the presence of CD271 antigen and the source of mesenchymal stromal cells represent important factors in determining the ability of the cells to proliferate and differentiate. PMID:26184166

  10. Zfp423 promotes adipogenic differentiation of bovine stromal vascular cells.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yan; Das, Arun Kr; Yang, Qi-Yuan; Zhu, Mei-Jun; Du, Min

    2012-01-01

    Intramuscular fat or marbling is critical for the palatability of beef. In mice, very recent studies show that adipocytes and fibroblasts share a common pool of progenitor cells, with Zinc finger protein 423 (Zfp423) as a key initiator of adipogenic differentiation. To evaluate the role of Zfp423 in intramuscular adipogenesis and marbling in beef cattle, we sampled beef muscle for separation of stromal vascular cells. These cells were immortalized with pCI neo-hEST2 and individual clones were selected by G418. A total of 288 clones (3×96 well plates) were isolated and induced to adipogenesis. The presence of adipocytes was assessed by Oil-Red-O staining. Three clones with high and low adipogenic potential respectively were selected for further analyses. In addition, fibro/adipogenic progenitor cells were selected using a surface marker, platelet derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) α. The expression of Zfp423 was much higher (307.4±61.9%, P<0.05) in high adipogenic cells, while transforming growth factor (TGF)-β was higher (156.1±48.7%, P<0.05) in low adipogenic cells. Following adipogenic differentiation, the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein α (C/EBPα) were much higher (239.4±84.1% and 310.7±138.4%, respectively, P<0.05) in high adipogenic cells. Over-expression of Zfp423 in stromal vascular cells and cloned low adipogenic cells dramatically increased their adipogenic differentiation, accompanied with the inhibition of TGF-β expression. Zfp423 knockdown by shRNA in high adipogenic cells largely prevented their adipogenic differentiation. The differential regulation of Zfp423 and TGF-β between low and high adipogenic cells is associated with the DNA methylation in their promoters. In conclusion, data show that Zfp423 is a critical regulator of adipogenesis in stromal vascular cells of bovine muscle, and Zfp423 may provide a molecular target for enhancing intramuscular adipogenesis

  11. [Therapeutic Effects of Multipotent Mesenchymal Stromal Cells after Irradiation].

    PubMed

    Kalmykova, N V; Alexandrova, S A

    2016-01-01

    Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) are now considered to be a perspective multifunctional treatment option for radiation side effects. At present.a great number of sufficient evidence has been collected in favor of therapeutic effects of MSCs in acute radiation reactions. It has been shown that MSC-based products injected locally or systemically have therapeutic effects on irradiated organs and tissues. This review presents summarized experimental and clinical data about protective and regenerative effects of MSCs on different radiation-injured organs and tissues; the main probable therapeutic mechanisms of their action are also discussed. PMID:27534063

  12. Assessment of DNA damage in human bone marrow cells and multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Nikitina, V A; Chausheva, A I; Zhanataev, A K; Osipova, E Yu; Durnev, A D; Bochkov, N P

    2011-08-01

    We carried out a comparative analysis of DNA damage (percentage of DNA in comet tail) and frequencies of comets in apoptotic cells in BM samples and cultures of BM multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells at different terms of culturing (passages 3-11). The levels of DNA damage in mesenchymal stromal cells remained unchanged during culturing (3.5 ± 0.9 and 4.4 ± 1.2%) and did not differ from those in BM cells (3.6 ± 0.8%). In BM samples, 10-28% atypical cells with high level of DNA damage were detected. In mesenchymal stromal cells, 2.8 ± 0.9 and 3.6 ± 1.8% apoptotic cells were detected at early and late passages, respectively. PMID:22448389

  13. Tumor-associated stromal cells as key contributors to the tumor microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Bussard, Karen M; Mutkus, Lysette; Stumpf, Kristina; Gomez-Manzano, Candelaria; Marini, Frank C

    2016-01-01

    The tumor microenvironment is a heterogeneous population of cells consisting of the tumor bulk plus supporting cells. It is becoming increasingly evident that these supporting cells are recruited by cancer cells from nearby endogenous host stroma and promote events such as tumor angiogenesis, proliferation, invasion, and metastasis, as well as mediate mechanisms of therapeutic resistance. In addition, recruited stromal cells range in type and include vascular endothelial cells, pericytes, adipocytes, fibroblasts, and bone-marrow mesenchymal stromal cells. During normal wound healing and inflammatory processes, local stromal cells change their phenotype to become that of reactive stroma. Under certain conditions, however, tumor cells can co-opt these reactive stromal cells and further transition them into tumor-associated stromal cells (TASCs). These TASCs express higher levels of proteins, including alpha-smooth muscle actin, fibroblast activating protein, and matrix metalloproteinases, compared with their normal, non-reactive counterparts. TASCs are also known to secrete many pro-tumorigenic factors, including IL-6, IL-8, stromal-derived factor-1 alpha, vascular endothelial growth factor, tenascin-C, and matrix metalloproteinases, among others, which recruit additional tumor and pro-tumorigenic cells to the developing microenvironment. Here, we review the current literature pertaining to the origins of recruited host stroma, contributions toward tumor progression, tumor-associated stromal cells, and mechanisms of crosstalk between endogenous host stroma and tumor cells. PMID:27515302

  14. Stromal cell-mediated glycolytic switch in CLL cells involves Notch-c-Myc signaling.

    PubMed

    Jitschin, Regina; Braun, Martina; Qorraj, Mirjeta; Saul, Domenica; Le Blanc, Katarina; Zenz, Thorsten; Mougiakakos, Dimitrios

    2015-05-28

    It is well established that the stromal niche exerts a protective effect on chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells, thereby also affecting their drug sensitivity. One hallmark of malignant cells is metabolic reprogramming, which is mostly represented by a glycolytic shift known as the Warburg effect. Because treatment resistance can be linked to metabolic alterations, we investigated whether bone marrow stromal cells impact the bioenergetics of primary CLL cells. In fact, stromal contact led to an increase of aerobic glycolysis and the cells' overall glycolytic capacity accompanied by an increased glucose uptake, expression of glucose transporter, and glycolytic enzymes. Activation of Notch signaling and of its direct transcriptional target c-Myc contributed to this metabolic switch. Based on these observations, CLL cells' acquired increased glucose dependency as well as Notch-c-Myc signaling could be therapeutically exploited in an effort to overcome stroma-mediated drug resistance.

  15. Regenerative Potential of Mesenchymal Stromal Cells: Age-Related Changes.

    PubMed

    Bruna, Flavia; Contador, David; Conget, Paulette; Erranz, Benjamín; Sossa, Claudia L; Arango-Rodríguez, Martha L

    2016-01-01

    Preclinical and clinical studies have shown that a therapeutic effect results from mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) transplant. No systematic information is currently available regarding whether donor age modifies MSC regenerative potential on cutaneous wound healing. Here, we evaluate whether donor age influences this potential. Two different doses of bone marrow MSCs (BM-MSCs) from young, adult, or old mouse donors or two doses of their acellular derivatives mesenchymal stromal cells (acd-MSCs) were intradermally injected around wounds in the midline of C57BL/6 mice. Every two days, wound healing was macroscopically assessed (wound closure) and microscopically assessed (reepithelialization, dermal-epidermal junction, skin appendage regeneration, granulation tissue, leukocyte infiltration, and density dermal collagen fibers) after 12 days from MSC transplant. Significant differences in the wound closure kinetic, quality, and healing of skin regenerated were observed in lesions which received BM-MSCs from different ages or their acd-MSCs compared to lesions which received vehicle. Nevertheless, our data shows that adult's BM-MSCs or their acd-MSCs were the most efficient for recovery of most parameters analyzed. Our data suggest that MSC efficacy was negatively affected by donor age, where the treatment with adult's BM-MSCs or their acd-MSCs in cutaneous wound promotes a better tissue repair/regeneration. This is due to their paracrine factors secretion. PMID:27247575

  16. Regenerative Potential of Mesenchymal Stromal Cells: Age-Related Changes

    PubMed Central

    Bruna, Flavia; Contador, David; Conget, Paulette; Erranz, Benjamín; Sossa, Claudia L.; Arango-Rodríguez, Martha L.

    2016-01-01

    Preclinical and clinical studies have shown that a therapeutic effect results from mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) transplant. No systematic information is currently available regarding whether donor age modifies MSC regenerative potential on cutaneous wound healing. Here, we evaluate whether donor age influences this potential. Two different doses of bone marrow MSCs (BM-MSCs) from young, adult, or old mouse donors or two doses of their acellular derivatives mesenchymal stromal cells (acd-MSCs) were intradermally injected around wounds in the midline of C57BL/6 mice. Every two days, wound healing was macroscopically assessed (wound closure) and microscopically assessed (reepithelialization, dermal-epidermal junction, skin appendage regeneration, granulation tissue, leukocyte infiltration, and density dermal collagen fibers) after 12 days from MSC transplant. Significant differences in the wound closure kinetic, quality, and healing of skin regenerated were observed in lesions which received BM-MSCs from different ages or their acd-MSCs compared to lesions which received vehicle. Nevertheless, our data shows that adult's BM-MSCs or their acd-MSCs were the most efficient for recovery of most parameters analyzed. Our data suggest that MSC efficacy was negatively affected by donor age, where the treatment with adult's BM-MSCs or their acd-MSCs in cutaneous wound promotes a better tissue repair/regeneration. This is due to their paracrine factors secretion. PMID:27247575

  17. A molecular classification of human mesenchymal stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Rohart, Florian; Mason, Elizabeth A; Matigian, Nicholas; Mosbergen, Rowland; Korn, Othmar; Chen, Tyrone; Butcher, Suzanne; Patel, Jatin; Atkinson, Kerry; Khosrotehrani, Kiarash; Fisk, Nicholas M; Lê Cao, Kim-Anh; Wells, Christine A

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) are widely used for the study of mesenchymal tissue repair, and increasingly adopted for cell therapy, despite the lack of consensus on the identity of these cells. In part this is due to the lack of specificity of MSC markers. Distinguishing MSC from other stromal cells such as fibroblasts is particularly difficult using standard analysis of surface proteins, and there is an urgent need for improved classification approaches. Transcriptome profiling is commonly used to describe and compare different cell types; however, efforts to identify specific markers of rare cellular subsets may be confounded by the small sample sizes of most studies. Consequently, it is difficult to derive reproducible, and therefore useful markers. We addressed the question of MSC classification with a large integrative analysis of many public MSC datasets. We derived a sparse classifier (The Rohart MSC test) that accurately distinguished MSC from non-MSC samples with >97% accuracy on an internal training set of 635 samples from 41 studies derived on 10 different microarray platforms. The classifier was validated on an external test set of 1,291 samples from 65 studies derived on 15 different platforms, with >95% accuracy. The genes that contribute to the MSC classifier formed a protein-interaction network that included known MSC markers. Further evidence of the relevance of this new MSC panel came from the high number of Mendelian disorders associated with mutations in more than 65% of the network. These result in mesenchymal defects, particularly impacting on skeletal growth and function. The Rohart MSC test is a simple in silico test that accurately discriminates MSC from fibroblasts, other adult stem/progenitor cell types or differentiated stromal cells. It has been implemented in the www.stemformatics.org resource, to assist researchers wishing to benchmark their own MSC datasets or data from the public domain. The code is available from the CRAN

  18. Hospicells (ascites-derived stromal cells) promote tumorigenicity and angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Pasquet, Marlene; Golzio, Muriel; Mery, Eliane; Rafii, Arash; Benabbou, Nadia; Mirshahi, Pezhman; Hennebelle, Isabelle; Bourin, Philippe; Allal, Ben; Teissie, Justin; Mirshahi, Massoud; Couderc, Bettina

    2010-05-01

    The microenvironment is known to play a dominant role in cancer progression. Cells closely associated with tumoral cells, named hospicells, have been recently isolated from the ascites of ovarian cancer patients. Whilst these cells present no specific markers from known cell lineages, they do share some homology with bone marrow-derived or adipose tissue-derived human mesenchymal stem cells (CD9, CD10, CD29, CD146, CD166, HLA-1). We studied the role of hospicells in ovarian carcinoma progression. In vitro, these cells had no effect on the growth of human ovarian carcinoma cell lines OVCAR-3, SKOV-1 and IGROV-1. In vivo, their co-injection with adenocarcinoma cells enhanced tumor growth whatever the tumor model used (subcutaneous and intraperitoneally established xenografts in athymic mice). In addition, their injection increased the development of ascites in tumor-bearing mice. Fluorescent macroscopy revealed an association between hospicells and ovarian adenocarcinoma cells within the tumor mass. Tumors obtained by coinjection of hospicells and human ovarian adenocarcinoma cells presented an increased microvascularization indicating that the hospicells could promote tumorigenicity of ovarian tumor cells in vivovia their action on angiogenesis. This effect on angiogenesis could be attributed to the increased HIF1alpha and VEGF expression associated with the presence of the hospicells. Collectively, these data indicate a role for these ascite-derived stromal cells in promoting tumor growth by increasing angiogenesis.

  19. Low Reactive Level Laser Therapy for Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Therapies

    PubMed Central

    Kushibiki, Toshihiro; Hirasawa, Takeshi; Okawa, Shinpei; Ishihara, Miya

    2015-01-01

    Low reactive level laser therapy (LLLT) is mainly focused on the activation of intracellular or extracellular chromophore and the initiation of cellular signaling by using low power lasers. Over the past forty years, it was realized that the laser therapy had the potential to improve wound healing and reduce pain and inflammation. In recent years, the term LLLT has become widely recognized in the field of regenerative medicine. In this review, we will describe the mechanisms of action of LLLT at a cellular level and introduce the application to mesenchymal stem cells and mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) therapies. Finally, our recent research results that LLLT enhanced the MSCs differentiation to osteoblast will also be described. PMID:26273309

  20. Good manufacturing practices production of mesenchymal stem/stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Sensebé, Luc; Bourin, Philippe; Tarte, Karin

    2011-01-01

    Because of their multi/pluripotency and immunosuppressive properties mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) are important tools for treating immune disorders and for tissue repair. The increasing use of MSCs has led to production processes that need to be in accordance with Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP). In cellular therapy, safety remains one of the main concerns and refers to donor validation, choice of starting material, processes, and the controls used, not only at the batch release level but also during the development of processes. The culture processes should be reproducible, robust, and efficient. Moreover, they should be adapted to closed systems that are easy to use. Implementing controls during the manufacturing of clinical-grade MSCs is essential. The controls should ensure microbiological safety but also avoid potential side effects linked to genomic instability driving transformation and senescence or decrease of cell functions (immunoregulation, differentiation potential). In this rapidly evolving field, a new approach to controls is needed.

  1. Human Dermis Harbors Distinct Mesenchymal Stromal Cell Subsets

    PubMed Central

    Vaculik, Christine; Schuster, Christopher; Bauer, Wolfgang; Iram, Nousheen; Pfisterer, Karin; Kramer, Gero; Reinisch, Andreas; Strunk, Dirk; Elbe-Bürger, Adelheid

    2012-01-01

    Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are found in a variety of adult tissues including human dermis. These MSCs are morphologically similar to bone marrow–derived MSCs, but are of unclear phenotype. To shed light on the characteristics of human dermal MSCs, this study was designed to identify and isolate dermal MSCs by a specific marker expression profile, and subsequently rate their mesenchymal differentiation potential. Immunohistochemical staining showed that MSC markers CD73/CD90/CD105, as well as CD271 and SSEA-4, are expressed on dermal cells in situ. Flow cytometric analysis revealed a phenotype similar to bone marrow–derived MSCs. Human dermal cells isolated by plastic adherence had a lower differentiation capacity as compared with bone marrow–derived MSCs. To distinguish dermal MSCs from differentiated fibroblasts, we immunoselected CD271+ and SSEA-4+ cells from adherent dermal cells and investigated their mesenchymal differentiation capacity. This revealed that cells with increased adipogenic, osteogenic, and chondrogenic potential were enriched in the dermal CD271+ population. The differentiation potential of dermal SSEA-4+ cells, in contrast, appeared to be limited to adipogenesis. These results indicate that specific cell populations with variable mesenchymal differentiation potential can be isolated from human dermis. Moreover, we identified three different subsets of dermal mesenchymal progenitor cells. PMID:22048731

  2. Human dermis harbors distinct mesenchymal stromal cell subsets.

    PubMed

    Vaculik, Christine; Schuster, Christopher; Bauer, Wolfgang; Iram, Nousheen; Pfisterer, Karin; Kramer, Gero; Reinisch, Andreas; Strunk, Dirk; Elbe-Bürger, Adelheid

    2012-03-01

    Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are found in a variety of adult tissues including human dermis. These MSCs are morphologically similar to bone marrow-derived MSCs, but are of unclear phenotype. To shed light on the characteristics of human dermal MSCs, this study was designed to identify and isolate dermal MSCs by a specific marker expression profile, and subsequently rate their mesenchymal differentiation potential. Immunohistochemical staining showed that MSC markers CD73/CD90/CD105, as well as CD271 and SSEA-4, are expressed on dermal cells in situ. Flow cytometric analysis revealed a phenotype similar to bone marrow-derived MSCs. Human dermal cells isolated by plastic adherence had a lower differentiation capacity as compared with bone marrow-derived MSCs. To distinguish dermal MSCs from differentiated fibroblasts, we immunoselected CD271(+) and SSEA-4(+) cells from adherent dermal cells and investigated their mesenchymal differentiation capacity. This revealed that cells with increased adipogenic, osteogenic, and chondrogenic potential were enriched in the dermal CD271(+) population. The differentiation potential of dermal SSEA-4(+) cells, in contrast, appeared to be limited to adipogenesis. These results indicate that specific cell populations with variable mesenchymal differentiation potential can be isolated from human dermis. Moreover, we identified three different subsets of dermal mesenchymal progenitor cells.

  3. Marginal reticular cells: a stromal subset directly descended from the lymphoid tissue organizer

    PubMed Central

    Katakai, Tomoya

    2012-01-01

    The architecture of secondary lymphoid organs (SLOs) is supported by several non-hematopoietic stromal cells. Currently it is established that two distinct stromal subsets, follicular dendritic cells and fibroblastic reticular cells, play crucial roles in the formation of tissue compartments within SLOs, i.e., the follicle and T zone, respectively. Although stromal cells in the anlagen are essential for SLO development, the relationship between these primordial cells and the subsets in adulthood remains poorly understood. In addition, the roles of stromal cells in the entry of antigens into the compartments through some tissue structures peculiar to SLOs remain unclear. A recently identified stromal subset, marginal reticular cells (MRCs), covers the margin of SLOs that are primarily located in the outer edge of follicles and construct a unique reticulum. MRCs are closely associated with specialized endothelial or epithelial structures for antigen transport. The similarities in marker expression profiles and successive localization during development suggest that MRCs directly descend from organizer stromal cells in the anlagen. Therefore, MRCs are thought to be a crucial stromal component for the organization and function of SLOs. PMID:22807928

  4. B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia and stromal cells communicate through Galectin-3

    PubMed Central

    Fei, Fei; Joo, Eun Ji; Tarighat, Somayeh S.; Schiffer, Isabelle; Paz, Helicia; Fabbri, Muller; Abdel-Azim, Hisham; Groffen, John; Heisterkamp, Nora

    2015-01-01

    The molecular interactions between B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (pre-B ALL) cells and stromal cells in the bone marrow that provide microenvironmentally-mediated protection against therapeutic drugs are not well-defined. Galectin-3 (Lgals3) is a multifunctional galactose-binding lectin with reported location in the nucleus, cytoplasm and extracellular space in different cell types. We previously reported that ALL cells co-cultured with stroma contain high levels of Galectin-3. We here establish that, in contrast to more mature B-lineage cancers, Galectin-3 detected in and on the ALL cells originates from stromal cells, which express it on their surface, secrete it as soluble protein and also in exosomes. Soluble and stromal-bound Galectin-3 is internalized by ALL cells, transported to the nucleus and stimulates transcription of endogenous LGALS3 mRNA. When human and mouse ALL cells develop tolerance to different drugs while in contact with protective stromal cells, Galectin-3 protein levels are consistently increased. This correlates with induction of Galectin-3 transcription in the ALL cells. Thus Galectin-3 sourced from stroma becomes supplemented by endogenous Galectin-3 production in the pre-B ALL cells that are under continuous stress from drug treatment. Our data suggest that stromal Galectin-3 may protect ALL cells through auto-induction of Galectin-3 mRNA and tonic NFκB pathway activation. Since endogenously synthesized Galectin-3 protects pre-B ALL cells against drug treatment, we identify Galectin-3 as one possible target to counteract the protective effects of stroma. PMID:25869099

  5. Mechanisms of mesenchymal stem/stromal cell function.

    PubMed

    Spees, Jeffrey L; Lee, Ryang Hwa; Gregory, Carl A

    2016-01-01

    The past decade has seen an explosion of research directed toward better understanding of the mechanisms of mesenchymal stem/stromal cell (MSC) function during rescue and repair of injured organs and tissues. In addition to delineating cell-cell signaling and molecular controls for MSC differentiation, the field has made particular progress in defining several other mechanisms through which administered MSCs can promote tissue rescue/repair. These include: 1) paracrine activity that involves secretion of proteins/peptides and hormones; 2) transfer of mitochondria by way of tunneling nanotubes or microvesicles; and 3) transfer of exosomes or microvesicles containing RNA and other molecules. Improved understanding of MSC function holds great promise for the application of cell therapy and also for the development of powerful cell-derived therapeutics for regenerative medicine. Focusing on these three mechanisms, we discuss MSC-mediated effects on immune cell responses, cell survival, and fibrosis and review recent progress with MSC-based or MSC-derived therapeutics. PMID:27581859

  6. Hitting the right spot with mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs)

    PubMed Central

    Tolar, Jakub; Le Blanc, Katarina; Keating, Armand; Blazar, Bruce R.

    2013-01-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells or mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have captured considerable scientific and public interest because of their potential to limit physical and immune injury, to produce bioactive molecules and to regenerate tissues. MSCs are phenotypically heterogeneous, and distinct subpopulations within MSC cultures are presumed to contribute to tissue repair and the modulation of allogeneic immune responses. As the first example of efficacy, clinical trials for prevention and treatment of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) after hematopoietic cell transplantation show that MSCs can effectively treat human disease. The view of the mechanisms whereby MSCs function as immunomodulatory and reparative cells has evolved simultaneously. Initially, donor MSC were thought to replace damaged cells in injured tissues of the recipient. More recently, however, it has become increasingly clear that even transient MSC engraftment may exert favorable effects through the secretion of cytokines and other paracrine factors, which engage and recruit recipient cells in productive tissue repair. Thus, an important reason to investigate MSCs in mechanistic preclinical models and in clinical trials with well defined end-points and controls is to better understand the therapeutic potential of these multifunctional cells. Here, we review the controversies and recent insights into MSC biology, the regulation of alloresponses by MSCs in preclinical models, as well as clinical experience with MSC infusions and the challenges of manufacturing a ready supply of highly defined transplantable MSCs. PMID:20597105

  7. Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Affect Disease Outcomes via Macrophage Polarization

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Guoping; Ge, Menghua; Qiu, Guanguan; Shu, Qiang; Xu, Jianguo

    2015-01-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are multipotent and self-renewable cells that reside in almost all postnatal tissues. In recent years, many studies have reported the effect of MSCs on the innate and adaptive immune systems. MSCs regulate the proliferation, activation, and effector function of T lymphocytes, professional antigen presenting cells (dendritic cells, macrophages, and B lymphocytes), and NK cells via direct cell-to-cell contact or production of soluble factors including indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase, prostaglandin E2, tumor necrosis factor-α stimulated gene/protein 6, nitric oxide, and IL-10. MSCs are also able to reprogram macrophages from a proinflammatory M1 phenotype toward an anti-inflammatory M2 phenotype capable of regulating immune response. Because of their capacity for differentiation and immunomodulation, MSCs have been used in many preclinical and clinical studies as possible new therapeutic agents for the treatment of autoimmune, degenerative, and inflammatory diseases. In this review, we discuss the central role of MSCs in macrophage polarization and outcomes of diseases such as wound healing, brain/spinal cord injuries, and diseases of heart, lung, and kidney in animal models. PMID:26257791

  8. Comparative characterization of stromal vascular cells derived from three types of vascular wall and adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Yang, Santsun; Eto, Hitomi; Kato, Harunosuke; Doi, Kentaro; Kuno, Shinichiro; Kinoshita, Kahori; Ma, Hsu; Tsai, Chi-Han; Chou, Wan-Ting; Yoshimura, Kotaro

    2013-12-01

    Multipotent stem/progenitor cells localize perivascularly in many organs and vessel walls. These tissue-resident stem/progenitor cells differentiate into vascular endothelial cells, pericytes, and other mesenchymal lineages, and participate in physiological maintenance and repair of vasculatures. In this study, we characterized stromal vascular cells obtained through the explant culture method from three different vessel walls in humans: arterial wall (ART; >500 μm in diameter), venous wall (VN; >500 μm in diameter), and small vessels in adipose tissue (SV; arterioles and venules, <100 μm in diameter). These were examined for functionality and compared with adipose-derived stem/stromal cells (ASCs). All stromal vascular cells of different origins presented fibroblast-like morphology and we could not visually discriminate one population from another. Flow cytometry showed that the cultured population heterogeneously expressed a variety of surface antigens associated with stem/progenitor cells, but CD105 was expressed by most cells in all groups, suggesting that the cells generally shared the characteristics of mesenchymal stem cells. Our histological and flow cytometric data suggested that the main population of vessel wall-derived stromal vascular cells were CD34(+)/CD31(-) and came from the tunica adventitia and areola tissue surrounding the adventitia. CD271 (p75NTR) was expressed by the vasa vasorum in the VN adventitia and by a limited population in the adventitia of SV. All three populations differentiated into multiple lineages as did ASCs. ART cells induced the largest quantity of calcium formation in the osteogenic medium, whereas ASCs showed the greatest adipogenic differentiation. SV and VN stromal cells had greater potency for network formation than did ART stromal cells. In conclusion, the three stromal vascular populations exhibited differential functional properties. Our results have clinical implications for vascular diseases such as

  9. Impaired function of bone marrow stromal cells in systemic mastocytosis.

    PubMed

    Nemeth, Krisztian; Wilson, Todd M; Ren, Jiaqiang J; Sabatino, Marianna; Stroncek, David M; Krepuska, Miklos; Bai, Yun; Robey, Pamela G; Metcalfe, Dean D; Mezey, Eva

    2015-07-01

    Patients with systemic mastocytosis (SM) have a wide variety of problems, including skeletal abnormalities. The disease results from a mutation of the stem cell receptor (c-kit) in mast cells and we wondered if the function of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs; also known as MSCs or mesenchymal stem cells) might be affected by the invasion of bone marrow by mutant mast cells. As expected, BMSCs from SM patients do not have a mutation in c-kit, but they proliferate poorly. In addition, while osteogenic differentiation of the BMSCs seems to be deficient, their adipogenic potential appears to be increased. Since the hematopoietic supportive abilities of BMSCs are also important, we also studied the engraftment in NSG mice of human CD34(+) hematopoietic progenitors, after being co-cultured with BMSCs of healthy volunteers vs. BMSCs derived from patients with SM. BMSCs derived from the bone marrow of patients with SM could not support hematopoiesis to the extent that healthy BMSCs do. Finally, we performed an expression analysis and found significant differences between healthy and SM derived BMSCs in the expression of genes with a variety of functions, including the WNT signaling, ossification, and bone remodeling. We suggest that some of the symptoms associated with SM might be driven by epigenetic changes in BMSCs caused by dysfunctional mast cells in the bone marrow of the patients.

  10. Cryopreservation and Revival of Human Mesenchymal Stromal Cells.

    PubMed

    Haack-Sørensen, Mandana; Ekblond, Annette; Kastrup, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Cell-based therapy is a promising and innovative new treatment for different degenerative and autoimmune diseases, and mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) from the bone marrow have demonstrated great therapeutic potential due to their immunosuppressive and regenerative capacities.The establishment of methods for large-scale expansion of clinical-grade MSCs in vitro has paved the way for their therapeutic use in clinical trials. However, the clinical application of MSCs also requires cryopreservation and banking of the cell products. To preserve autologous or allogeneic MSCs for future clinical applications, a reliable and effective cryopreservation method is required.Developing a successful cryopreservation protocol for clinical stem cell products, cryopreservation media, cryoprotectant agents (CPAs), the freezing container, the freezing temperature, and the cooling and warming rate are all aspects which should be considered.A major challenge is the selection of a suitable cryoprotectant which is able to penetrate the cells and yet has low toxicity.This chapter focuses on recent technological developments relevant for the cryopreservation of MSCs using the most commonly used cryopreservation medium containing DMSO and animal serum or human-derived products for research use and the animal protein-free cryopreservation media CryoStor (BioLife Solutions) for clinical use.

  11. Cryopreservation and Revival of Human Mesenchymal Stromal Cells.

    PubMed

    Haack-Sørensen, Mandana; Ekblond, Annette; Kastrup, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Cell-based therapy is a promising and innovative new treatment for different degenerative and autoimmune diseases, and mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) from the bone marrow have demonstrated great therapeutic potential due to their immunosuppressive and regenerative capacities.The establishment of methods for large-scale expansion of clinical-grade MSCs in vitro has paved the way for their therapeutic use in clinical trials. However, the clinical application of MSCs also requires cryopreservation and banking of the cell products. To preserve autologous or allogeneic MSCs for future clinical applications, a reliable and effective cryopreservation method is required.Developing a successful cryopreservation protocol for clinical stem cell products, cryopreservation media, cryoprotectant agents (CPAs), the freezing container, the freezing temperature, and the cooling and warming rate are all aspects which should be considered.A major challenge is the selection of a suitable cryoprotectant which is able to penetrate the cells and yet has low toxicity.This chapter focuses on recent technological developments relevant for the cryopreservation of MSCs using the most commonly used cryopreservation medium containing DMSO and animal serum or human-derived products for research use and the animal protein-free cryopreservation media CryoStor (BioLife Solutions) for clinical use. PMID:27236683

  12. HOX and TALE signatures specify human stromal stem cell populations from different sources.

    PubMed

    Picchi, Jacopo; Trombi, Luisa; Spugnesi, Laura; Barachini, Serena; Maroni, Giorgia; Brodano, Giovanni Barbanti; Boriani, Stefano; Valtieri, Mauro; Petrini, Mario; Magli, Maria Cristina

    2013-04-01

    Human stromal stem cell populations reside in different tissues and anatomical sites, however a critical question related to their efficient use in regenerative medicine is whether they exhibit equivalent biological properties. Here, we compared cellular and molecular characteristics of stromal stem cells derived from the bone marrow, at different body sites (iliac crest, sternum, and vertebrae) and other tissues (dental pulp and colon). In particular, we investigated whether homeobox genes of the HOX and TALE subfamilies might provide suitable markers to identify distinct stromal cell populations, as HOX proteins control cell positional identity and, together with their co-factors TALE, are involved in orchestrating differentiation of adult tissues. Our results show that stromal populations from different sources, although immunophenotypically similar, display distinct HOX and TALE signatures, as well as different growth and differentiation abilities. Stromal stem cells from different tissues are characterized by specific HOX profiles, differing in the number and type of active genes, as well as in their level of expression. Conversely, bone marrow-derived cell populations can be essentially distinguished for the expression levels of specific HOX members, strongly suggesting that quantitative differences in HOX activity may be crucial. Taken together, our data indicate that the HOX and TALE profiles provide positional, embryological and hierarchical identity of human stromal stem cells. Furthermore, our data suggest that cell populations derived from different body sites may not represent equivalent cell sources for cell-based therapeutical strategies for regeneration and repair of specific tissues.

  13. The effect of autologous bone marrow stromal cells differentiated on scaffolds for canine tibial bone reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Özdal-Kurt, F; Tuğlu, I; Vatansever, H S; Tong, S; Deliloğlu-Gürhan, S I

    2015-01-01

    Bone marrow contains mesenchymal stem cells that form many tissues. Various scaffolds are available for bone reconstruction by tissue engineering. Osteoblastic differentiated bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC) promote osteogenesis on scaffolds and stimulate bone regeneration. We investigated the use of cultured autologous BMSC on different scaffolds for healing defects in tibias of adult male canines. BMSC were isolated from canine humerus bone marrow, differentiated into osteoblasts in culture and loaded onto porous ceramic scaffolds including hydroxyapatite 1, hydroxyapatite gel and calcium phosphate. Osteoblast differentiation was verified by osteonectine and osteocalcine immunocytochemistry. The scaffolds with stromal cells were implanted in the tibial defect. Scaffolds without stromal cells were used as controls. Sections from the defects were processed for histological, ultrastructural, immunohistochemical and histomorphometric analyses to analyze the healing of the defects. BMSC were spread, allowed to proliferate and differentiate to osteoblasts as shown by alizarin red histochemistry, and osteocalcine and osteonectine immunostaining. Scanning electron microscopy showed that BMSC on the scaffolds were more active and adhesive to the calcium phosphate scaffold compared to the others. Macroscopic bone formation was observed in all groups, but scaffolds with stromal cells produced significantly better results. Bone healing occurred earlier and faster with stromal cells on the calcium phosphate scaffold and produced more callus compared to other scaffolds. Tissue healing and osteoblastic marker expression also were better with stromal cells on the scaffolds. Increased trabecula formation, cell density and decreased fibrosis were observed in the calcium phosphate scaffold with stromal cells. Autologous cultured stromal cells on the scaffolds were useful for healing of canine tibial bone defects. The calcium phosphate scaffold was the best for both cell

  14. CollagenVI-Cre mice: A new tool to target stromal cells in secondary lymphoid organs.

    PubMed

    Prados, Alejandro; Kollias, George; Koliaraki, Vasiliki

    2016-01-01

    Stromal cells in secondary lymphoid organs (SLOs) are non-hematopoietic cells involved in the regulation of adaptive immune responses. Three major stromal populations have been identified in adult SLOs: fibroblastic reticular cells (FRCs), follicular dendritic cells (FDCs) and marginal reticular cells (MRCs). The properties of these individual populations are not clearly defined, mainly due to the lack of appropriate genetic tools, especially for MRCs. Here, we analyzed stromal cell targeting in SLOs from a transgenic mouse strain that expresses Cre recombinase under the CollagenVI promoter, using lineage tracing approaches. We show that these mice target specifically MRCs and FDCs, but not FRCs in Peyer's patches and isolated lymphoid follicles in the intestine. In contrast, stromal cells in lymph nodes and the spleen do not express the transgene, which renders ColVI-cre mice ideal for the specific targeting of stromal cells in the gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT). This funding further supports the hypothesis of organ-specific stromal precursors in SLOs. Interestingly, in all tissues analyzed, there was also high specificity for perivascular cells, which have been proposed to act as FDC precursors. Taken together, ColVI-Cre mice are a useful new tool for the dissection of MRC- and FDC-specific functions and plasticity in the GALT. PMID:27604178

  15. CollagenVI-Cre mice: A new tool to target stromal cells in secondary lymphoid organs.

    PubMed

    Prados, Alejandro; Kollias, George; Koliaraki, Vasiliki

    2016-09-08

    Stromal cells in secondary lymphoid organs (SLOs) are non-hematopoietic cells involved in the regulation of adaptive immune responses. Three major stromal populations have been identified in adult SLOs: fibroblastic reticular cells (FRCs), follicular dendritic cells (FDCs) and marginal reticular cells (MRCs). The properties of these individual populations are not clearly defined, mainly due to the lack of appropriate genetic tools, especially for MRCs. Here, we analyzed stromal cell targeting in SLOs from a transgenic mouse strain that expresses Cre recombinase under the CollagenVI promoter, using lineage tracing approaches. We show that these mice target specifically MRCs and FDCs, but not FRCs in Peyer's patches and isolated lymphoid follicles in the intestine. In contrast, stromal cells in lymph nodes and the spleen do not express the transgene, which renders ColVI-cre mice ideal for the specific targeting of stromal cells in the gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT). This funding further supports the hypothesis of organ-specific stromal precursors in SLOs. Interestingly, in all tissues analyzed, there was also high specificity for perivascular cells, which have been proposed to act as FDC precursors. Taken together, ColVI-Cre mice are a useful new tool for the dissection of MRC- and FDC-specific functions and plasticity in the GALT.

  16. Stromal cell migration precedes hemopoietic repopulation of the bone marrow after irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Werts, E.D.; Gibson, D.P.; Knapp, S.A.; DeGowin, R.L.

    1980-01-01

    Circulation of hemopoietic stem cells into an irradiated site has been thoroughly documented, but migration of stromal cells to repair radiation damage has not. We determined the radiosensitivity of mouse bone marrow stroma and evaluated stromal and hemopoietic repopulation in x-irradiated marrow. The D/sub 0/ for growth of colonies of marrow stromal cells (MSC) was 215 to 230 rad. Total-body irradiation (TB) obliterated marrow stromal and hemopoietic cells within 3 days. In contrast, 1 day after 1000 rad leg irradiation (LI), MSC rose to 80% of normal, but fell to 34% by 3 days and recovered to 72% by 30 days. However, femoral nucleated cells diminished to 20% by 3 days and recovered to 74% of normal by 30 days. Likewise, differentiated marrow cells and hemopoietic stem cells were initially depleted. With 1000 rad LI followed 3 h later by 1000 rad to the body while shielding the leg, MSC and femoral nucleated cells recovered to values intermediate between 1000 rad TB and 1000 rad LI. We concluded that: (1) the D/sub 0/ for MSC was 215 to 230 rad, (2) stromal repopulation preceded hemopoietic recovery, and (3) immigration of stromal cells from an unirradiated sanctuary facilitated hemopoietic repopulation of a heavily irradiated site.

  17. CollagenVI-Cre mice: A new tool to target stromal cells in secondary lymphoid organs

    PubMed Central

    Prados, Alejandro; Kollias, George; Koliaraki, Vasiliki

    2016-01-01

    Stromal cells in secondary lymphoid organs (SLOs) are non-hematopoietic cells involved in the regulation of adaptive immune responses. Three major stromal populations have been identified in adult SLOs: fibroblastic reticular cells (FRCs), follicular dendritic cells (FDCs) and marginal reticular cells (MRCs). The properties of these individual populations are not clearly defined, mainly due to the lack of appropriate genetic tools, especially for MRCs. Here, we analyzed stromal cell targeting in SLOs from a transgenic mouse strain that expresses Cre recombinase under the CollagenVI promoter, using lineage tracing approaches. We show that these mice target specifically MRCs and FDCs, but not FRCs in Peyer’s patches and isolated lymphoid follicles in the intestine. In contrast, stromal cells in lymph nodes and the spleen do not express the transgene, which renders ColVI-cre mice ideal for the specific targeting of stromal cells in the gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT). This funding further supports the hypothesis of organ-specific stromal precursors in SLOs. Interestingly, in all tissues analyzed, there was also high specificity for perivascular cells, which have been proposed to act as FDC precursors. Taken together, ColVI-Cre mice are a useful new tool for the dissection of MRC- and FDC-specific functions and plasticity in the GALT. PMID:27604178

  18. Diesel Exhaust Particle-Exposed Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells Induce Dendritic Cell Maturation and Polarization via Thymic Stromal Lymphopoietin

    PubMed Central

    Bleck, Bertram; Tse, Doris B.; Curotto de Lafaille, Maria A.; Zhang, Feijie

    2009-01-01

    Human exposure to air pollutants, including ambient particulate matter, has been proposed as a mechanism for the rise in allergic disorders. Diesel exhaust particles, a major component of ambient particulate matter, induce sensitization to neoallergens, but the mechanisms by which sensitization occur remain unclear. We show that diesel exhaust particles upregulate thymic stromal lymphopoietin in human bronchial epithelial cells in an oxidant-dependent manner. Thymic stromal lymphopoietin induced by diesel exhaust particles was associated with maturation of myeloid dendritic cells, which was blocked by anti-thymic stromal lymphopoietin antibodies or silencing epithelial cell-derived thymic stromal lymphopoietin. Dendritic cells exposed to diesel exhaust particle-treated human bronchial epithelial cells induced Th2 polarization in a thymic stromal lymphopoietin-dependent manner. These findings provide new insight into the mechanisms by which diesel exhaust particles modify human lung mucosal immunity. PMID:18049884

  19. Mesenchymal stromal cells in renal transplantation: opportunities and challenges.

    PubMed

    Casiraghi, Federica; Perico, Norberto; Cortinovis, Monica; Remuzzi, Giuseppe

    2016-04-01

    Lifelong immunosuppressive therapy is essential to prevent allograft rejection in transplant recipients. Long-term, nonspecific immunosuppression can, however, result in life-threatening complications and fail to prevent chronic graft rejection. Bone marrow (BM)-derived multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have emerged as a potential candidate for cell-based therapy to modulate the immune response in organ transplantation. These cells can repair tissue after injury and downregulate many of the effector functions of immune cells that participate in the alloimmune response, converting them into regulatory cells. The findings of preclinical and initial clinical studies support the potential tolerance-inducing effects of MSCs and highlight the unanticipated complexity of MSC therapy in kidney transplantation. In animal models of transplantation MSCs promote donor-specific tolerance through the generation of regulatory T cells and antigen-presenting cells. In some settings, however, MSCs can acquire proinflammatory properties and contribute to allograft dysfunction. The available data from small clinical studies suggest that cell infusion is safe and well tolerated by kidney transplant recipients. Ongoing and future trials will provide evidence regarding the long-term safety of MSC therapy and determine the optimum cell source (either autologous or allogeneic) and infusion protocol to achieve operational tolerance in kidney transplant recipients. These studies will also provide additional evidence regarding the risks and benefits of MSC infusion and will hopefully offer definitive answers to the important questions of when, where, how many and which types of MSCs should be infused to fully exploit their immunomodulatory, pro-tolerogenic and tissue-repairing properties. PMID:26853275

  20. WINGLESS (WNT) signaling is a progesterone target for rat uterine stromal cell proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Talbott, Alex; Bhusri, Anuradha; Krumsick, Zach; Foster, Sierra; Wormington, Joshua; Kimler, Bruce F

    2016-01-01

    Preparation of mammalian uterus for embryo implantation requires a precise sequence of cell proliferation. In rodent uterus, estradiol stimulates proliferation of epithelial cells. Progesterone operates as a molecular switch and redirects proliferation to the stroma by down-regulating glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) and stimulating β-catenin accumulation in the periluminal stromal cells. In this study, the WNT signal involved in the progesterone-dependent proliferative switch was investigated. Transcripts of four candidate Wnt genes were measured in the uteri from ovariectomized (OVX) rats, progesterone-pretreated (3 days of progesterone, 2mg/daily) rats, and progesterone-pretreated rats given a single dose (0.2µg) of estradiol. The spatial distribution of the WNT proteins was determined in the uteri after the same treatments. Wnt5a increased in response to progesterone and the protein emerged in the periluminal stromal cells of progesterone-pretreated rat uteri. To investigate whether WNT5A was required for proliferation, uterine stromal cell lines were stimulated with progesterone (1µM) and fibroblast growth factor (FGF, 50ng/mL). Proliferating stromal cells expressed a two-fold increase in WNT5A protein at 12h post stimulation. Stimulated stromal cells were cultured with actinomycin D (25µg/mL) to inhibit new RNA synthesis. Relative Wnt5a expression increased at 4 and 6 h of culture, suggesting that progesterone plus FGF preferentially increased Wnt5a mRNA stability. Knockdown of Wnt5a in uterine stromal cell lines inhibited stromal cell proliferation and decreased Wnt5a mRNA. The results indicate that progesterone initiates and synchronizes uterine stromal cell proliferation by increasing WNT5A expression and signaling. PMID:26975616

  1. Multipotent Mesenchymal Stromal Cells: Possible Culprits in Solid Tumors?

    PubMed Central

    Johann, Pascal David; Müller, Ingo

    2015-01-01

    The clinical use of bone marrow derived multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (BM-MSCs) in different settings ranging from tissue engineering to immunotherapies has prompted investigations on the properties of these cells in a variety of other tissues. Particularly the role of MSCs in solid tumors has been the subject of many experimental approaches. While a clear phenotypical distinction of tumor associated fibroblasts (TAFs) and MSCs within the tumor microenvironment is still missing, the homing of bone marrow MSCs in tumor sites has been extensively studied. Both, tumor-promoting and tumor-inhibiting effects of BM-MSCs have been described in this context. This ambiguity requires a reappraisal of the different studies and experimental methods employed. Here, we review the current literature on tumor-promoting and tumor-inhibiting effects of BM-MSCs with a particular emphasis on their interplay with components of the immune system and also highlight a potential role of MSCs as cell of origin for certain mesenchymal tumors. PMID:26273308

  2. Craniofacial defect regeneration using engineered bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yi; Hallgrimsson, Benedikt; Putnins, Edward E

    2011-10-01

    Large craniofacial bony defects remain a significant clinical challenge. Bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (BM-MSCs) constitute a multipotent population. Previously, we developed a novel approach for BM-MSC expansion on 3D CultiSpher-S gelatin microcarrier beads in spin culture with preservation of their multipotentiality, reduction of apoptosis, and enhancement of bone formation in vivo. Here, we hypothesized that such cultured BM-MSCs without exogenous growth factors would respond to the orthopedic microenvironment, thus promoting craniofacial defect regeneration. BM-MSCs isolated from green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgenic rats were ex vivo expanded and transplanted into critical-sized (5-mm diameter) rat calvaria defects. Gelatin beads or defect alone served as controls. By 28 and 42 days, rats were sacrificed for microcomputed tomography (microCT), histologic, and immunohistochemistry examination. MicroCT results demonstrated that BM-MSCs were a statistically significant factor contributing to new bone volume regeneration. Histologic assessment showed that the BM-MSCs group produced more and higher quality new bone compared with beads or defect-alone groups in both osteoinductive and osteoconductive manners. Specifically, immunohistochemical staining identified GFP(+) cells residing in new bone lacunae in conjunction with non-GFP(+) cells. Therefore, ex vivo expanded BM-MSCs at least in part regenerated critical-sized calvaria defects by osteogenic differentiation in vivo.

  3. Dll4 Blockade in Stromal Cells Mediates Antitumor Effects in Preclinical Models of Ovarian Cancer.

    PubMed

    Kuhnert, Frank; Chen, Guoying; Coetzee, Sandra; Thambi, Nithya; Hickey, Carlos; Shan, Jing; Kovalenko, Pavel; Noguera-Troise, Irene; Smith, Eric; Fairhurst, Jeanette; Andreev, Julian; Kirshner, Jessica R; Papadopoulos, Nicholas; Thurston, Gavin

    2015-10-01

    The Notch ligand delta-like 4 (Dll4) has been identified as a promising target in tumor angiogenesis in preclinical studies, and Dll4 inhibitors have recently entered clinical trials for solid tumors, including ovarian cancers. In this study, we report the development of REGN421 (enoticumab), a fully human IgG1 monoclonal antibody that binds human Dll4 with sub-nanomolar affinity and inhibits Notch signaling. Administering REGN421 to immunodeficient mice engineered to express human Dll4 inhibited the growth of several human tumor xenografts in association with the formation of nonfunctional tumor blood vessels. In ovarian tumor xenograft models, Dll4 was expressed specifically by the tumor endothelium, and Dll4 blockade by human-specific or mouse-specific Dll4 antibodies exerted potent antitumor activity, which relied entirely on targeting Dll4 expressed by tumor stromal cells but not by the tumor cells themselves. However, Dll4 blockade reduced Notch signaling in both blood vessels and tumor cells surrounding the blood vessels, suggesting that endothelial-expressed Dll4 might induce Notch signaling in adjacent ovarian tumor cells. The antitumor effects of targeting Dll4 were augmented significantly by simultaneous inhibition of VEGF signaling, whereas this combined blockade reversed normal organ vascular changes induced by Dll4 blockade alone. Overall, our findings deepen the rationale for antibody-based strategies to target Dll4 in ovarian cancers, especially in combination with VEGF blockade.

  4. Simvastatin Modulates Mesenchymal Stromal Cell Proliferation and Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Zanette, Dalila Lucíola; Lorenzi, Julio Cesar Cetrulo; Panepucci, Rodrigo Alexandre; Palma, Patricia Vianna Bonini; dos Santos, Daiane Fernanda; Prata, Karen Lima; Silva, Wilson Araújo

    2015-01-01

    Statins are widely used hypocholesterolemic drugs that block the mevalonate pathway, responsible for the biosysnthesis of cholesterol. However, statins also have pleiotropic effects that interfere with several signaling pathways. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) are a heterogeneous mixture of cells that can be isolated from a variety of tissues and are identified by the expression of a panel of surface markers and by their ability to differentiate in vitro into osteocytes, adipocytes and chondrocytes. MSC were isolated from amniotic membranes and bone marrows and characterized based on ISCT (International Society for Cell Therapy) minimal criteria. Simvastatin-treated cells and controls were directly assayed by CFSE (Carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester) staining to assess their cell proliferation and their RNA was used for microarray analyses and quantitative PCR (qPCR). These MSC were also evaluated for their ability to inhibit PBMC (peripheral blood mononuclear cells) proliferation. We show here that simvastatin negatively modulates MSC proliferation in a dose-dependent way and regulates the expression of proliferation-related genes. Importantly, we observed that simvastatin increased the percentage of a subset of smaller MSC, which also were actively proliferating. The association of MSC decreased size with increased pluripotency and the accumulating evidence that statins may prevent cellular senescence led us to hypothesize that simvastatin induces a smaller subpopulation that may have increased ability to maintain the entire pool of MSC and also to protect them from cellular senescence induced by long-term cultures/passages in vitro. These results may be important to better understand the pleiotropic effects of statins and its effects on the biology of cells with regenerative potential. PMID:25874574

  5. A mouse model of luciferase-transfected stromal cells of giant cell tumor of bone.

    PubMed

    Lau, Carol P Y; Wong, Kwok Chuen; Huang, Lin; Li, Gang; Tsui, Stephen K W; Kumta, Shekhar Madhukar

    2015-11-01

    A major barrier towards the study of the effects of drugs on Giant Cell Tumor of Bone (GCT) has been the lack of an animal model. In this study, we created an animal model in which GCT stromal cells survived and functioned as proliferating neoplastic cells. A proliferative cell line of GCT stromal cells was used to create a stable and luciferase-transduced cell line, Luc-G33. The cell line was characterized and was found that there were no significant differences on cell proliferation rate and recruitment of monocytes when compared with the wild type GCT stromal cells. We delivered the Luc-G33 cells either subcutaneously on the back or to the tibiae of the nude mice. The presence of viable Luc-G33 cells was assessed using real-time live imaging by the IVIS 200 bioluminescent imaging (BLI) system. The tumor cells initially propagated and remained viable on site for 7 weeks in the subcutaneous tumor model. We also tested in vivo antitumor effects of Zoledronate (ZOL) and Geranylgeranyl transferase-I inhibitor (GGTI-298) alone or their combinations in Luc-G33-transplanted nude mice. ZOL alone at 400 µg/kg and the co-treatment of ZOL at 400 µg/kg and GGTI-298 at 1.16 mg/kg reduced tumor cell viability in the model. Furthermore, the anti-tumor effects by ZOL, GGTI-298 and the co-treatment in subcutaneous tumor model were also confirmed by immunohistochemical (IHC) staining. In conclusion, we established a nude mice model of GCT stromal cells which allows non-invasive, real-time assessments of tumor development and testing the in vivo effects of different adjuvants for treating GCT.

  6. Inflammation, Innate Immunity, and the Intestinal Stromal Cell Niche: Opportunities and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Owens, Benjamin M. J.

    2015-01-01

    Stromal cells of multiple tissues contribute to immune-mediated protective responses and, conversely, the pathological tissue changes associated with chronic inflammatory disease. However, unlike hematopoietic immune cells, tissue stromal cell populations remain poorly characterized with respect to specific surface marker expression, their ontogeny, self-renewal, and proliferative capacity within tissues and the extent to which they undergo phenotypic immunological changes during the course of an infectious or inflammatory insult. Extending our knowledge of the immunological features of stromal cells provides an exciting opportunity to further dissect the underlying biology of many important immune-mediated diseases, although several challenges remain in bringing the emerging field of stromal immunology to equivalence with the study of the hematopoietic immune cell compartment. This review highlights recent studies that have begun unraveling the complexity of tissue stromal cell function in immune responses, with a focus on the intestine, and proposes strategies for the development of the field to uncover the great potential for stromal immunology to contribute to our understanding of the fundamental pathophysiology of disease, and the opening of new therapeutic avenues in multiple chronic inflammatory conditions. PMID:26150817

  7. Management of fibrosis: the mesenchymal stromal cells breakthrough.

    PubMed

    Usunier, Benoît; Benderitter, Marc; Tamarat, Radia; Chapel, Alain

    2014-01-01

    Fibrosis is the endpoint of many chronic inflammatory diseases and is defined by an abnormal accumulation of extracellular matrix components. Despite its slow progression, it leads to organ malfunction. Fibrosis can affect almost any tissue. Due to its high frequency, in particular in the heart, lungs, liver, and kidneys, many studies have been conducted to find satisfactory treatments. Despite these efforts, current fibrosis management therapies either are insufficiently effective or induce severe adverse effects. In the light of these facts, innovative experimental therapies are being investigated. Among these, cell therapy is regarded as one of the best candidates. In particular, mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have great potential in the treatment of inflammatory diseases. The value of their immunomodulatory effects and their ability to act on profibrotic factors such as oxidative stress, hypoxia, and the transforming growth factor-β1 pathway has already been highlighted in preclinical and clinical studies. Furthermore, their propensity to act depending on the microenvironment surrounding them enhances their curative properties. In this paper, we review a large range of studies addressing the use of MSCs in the treatment of fibrotic diseases. The results reported here suggest that MSCs have antifibrotic potential for several organs. PMID:25132856

  8. Adipose stromal cells-secreted neuroprotective media against neuronal apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Wei, X; Zhao, L; Zhong, J; Gu, H; Feng, D; Johnstone, B H; March, K L; Farlow, M R; Du, Y

    2009-10-01

    Transplantation of pluripotent adipose stem/stromal cells (ASC) alleviates tissue damage and improves functional deficits in both stroke and cardiovascular disease animal models. Recent studies indicate that the primary mechanism of ASC-induced repair may not be directly related to tissue regeneration through differentiation, but rather through paracrine mechanisms provided by secreted pro-survival and repair-inducing trophic factors. In this study, we have found that ASC-conditioned medium (ASC-CM) potently protected cerebellar granule neurons (CGN) from apoptosis induced by serum and potassium deprivation. Neural cell protection was mostly attributable to activated caspase-3 and Akt-mediated neuroprotective pathway signaling. Specific neutralization of neurotrophic factor activity demonstrated that serum and potassium deprivation-induced Akt-mediated neuroprotection and caspase-3-dependent apoptosis were mainly modulated by IGF-1. These data suggest that of the many neuroprotective factors secreted by ASC, IGF-1 is the major factor that mediates protection against serum and potassium deprivation-induced CGN apoptosis. This study establishes a mechanistic basis supporting the therapeutic application of ASC for neurological disorders, specifically through paracrine support provided by trophic factor secretion. PMID:19549558

  9. A dendritic cell-stromal axis maintains immune responses in lymph nodes

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Varsha; Dasoveanu, Dragos C.; Chyou, Susan; Tzeng, Te-Chen; Rozo, Cristina; Liang, Yong; Stohl, William; Fu, Yang-Xin; Ruddle, Nancy; Lu, Theresa T.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Within secondary lymphoid tissues, stromal reticular cells support lymphocyte function, and targeting reticular cells is a potential strategy for controlling pathogenic lymphocytes in disease. However, the mechanisms that regulate reticular cell function are not well understood. Here we found that during an immune response in lymph nodes, dendritic cells (DCs) maintain reticular cell survival in multiple compartments. DC-derived lymphotoxin beta receptor (LTβR) ligands were critical mediators, and LTβR signaling on reticular cells mediated cell survival by modulating podoplanin (PDPN). PDPN modulated integrin-mediated cell adhesion, which maintained cell survival. This DC-stromal axis maintained lymphocyte survival and the ongoing immune response. Our findings provide insight into the functions of DCs, LTβR, and PDPN and delineate a DC-stromal axis that can potentially be targeted in autoimmune or lymphoproliferative diseases. PMID:25902483

  10. The Cannabinoid Receptor Type 2 as Mediator of Mesenchymal Stromal Cell Immunosuppressive Properties

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Francesca; Bernardo, Maria Ester; Bellini, Giulia; Luongo, Livio; Conforti, Antonella; Manzo, Iolanda; Guida, Francesca; Cristino, Luigia; Imperatore, Roberta; Petrosino, Stefania; Nobili, Bruno; Di Marzo, Vincenzo

    2013-01-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells are non-hematopoietic, multipotent progenitor cells producing cytokines, chemokines, and extracellular matrix proteins that support hematopoietic stem cell survival and engraftment, influence immune effector cell development, maturation, and function, and inhibit alloreactive T-cell responses. The immunosuppressive properties of human mesenchymal stromal cells have attracted much attention from immunologists, stem cell biologists and clinicians. Recently, the presence of the endocannabinoid system in hematopoietic and neural stem cells has been demonstrated. Endocannabinoids, mainly acting through the cannabinoid receptor subtype 2, are able to modulate cytokine release and to act as immunosuppressant when added to activated T lymphocytes. In the present study, we have investigated, through a multidisciplinary approach, the involvement of the endocannabinoids in migration, viability and cytokine release of human mesenchymal stromal cells. We show, for the first time, that cultures of human mesenchymal stromal cells express all of the components of the endocannabinoid system, suggesting a potential role for the cannabinoid CB2 receptor as a mediator of anti-inflammatory properties of human mesenchymal stromal cells, as well as of their survival pathways and their capability to home and migrate towards endocannabinoid sources. PMID:24312195

  11. Human resident CD34+ stromal cells/telocytes have progenitor capacity and are a source of αSMA+ cells during repair.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Flores, L; Gutiérrez, R; García, M P; González, M; Sáez, F J; Aparicio, F; Díaz-Flores, L; Madrid, J F

    2015-05-01

    We studied the progenitor capacity of human resident CD34+ stromal cells/telocytes (SC/TCs) in the enteric wall affected by inflammatory/repair processes (appendicitis, diverticulitis of large bowel and Crohn's disease of the terminal ileum) at different stages of evolution (inflammatory, proliferative and remodelling). In these conditions, CD34+ SC/TCs are activated, showing changes, which include the following overlapping events: 1) separation from adjacent structures (e.g., from vascular walls) and location in oedematous spaces, 2) morphological modifications (in cell shape and size) with presence of transitional cell forms between quiescent and activated CD34+ SC/TCs, 3) rapid proliferation and 4) loss of CD34 expression and gain of αSMA expression. These events mainly occur in the inflammatory and proliferative stages. During the loss of CD34 expression, the following findings are observed: a) irregular cell labelling intensity for anti-CD34, b) co-localization of CD34 and actin, c) concurrent irregular labelling intensity for αSMA and d) αSMA expression in all stromal cells, with total loss of CD34 expression. While CD34 expression was conserved, a high proliferative capacity (Ki-67 expression) was observed and vice versa. In the segments of the ileum affected by Crohn's disease, the stromal cells around fissures were αSMA+ and, in the transitional zones with normal enteric wall, activated CD34+ SC/TCs were observed. In conclusion, human resident CD34+ SC/TCs in the enteric wall have progenitor capacity and are activated with or without differentiation into αSMA+ stromal cells during inflammatory/repair processes.

  12. Bone Marrow Stromal Cells Generate Muscle Cells and Repair Muscle Degeneration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dezawa, Mari; Ishikawa, Hiroto; Itokazu, Yutaka; Yoshihara, Tomoyuki; Hoshino, Mikio; Takeda, Shin-ichi; Ide, Chizuka; Nabeshima, Yo-ichi

    2005-07-01

    Bone marrow stromal cells (MSCs) have great potential as therapeutic agents. We report a method for inducing skeletal muscle lineage cells from human and rat general adherent MSCs with an efficiency of 89%. Induced cells differentiated into muscle fibers upon transplantation into degenerated muscles of rats and mdx-nude mice. The induced population contained Pax7-positive cells that contributed to subsequent regeneration of muscle upon repetitive damage without additional transplantation of cells. These MSCs represent a more ready supply of myogenic cells than do the rare myogenic stem cells normally found in muscle and bone marrow.

  13. A relativity concept in mesenchymal stromal cell manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Martin, Ivan; De Boer, Jan; Sensebe, Luc

    2016-05-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are being experimentally tested in several biological systems and clinical settings with the aim of verifying possible therapeutic effects for a variety of indications. MSCs are also known to be heterogeneous populations, with phenotypic and functional features that depend heavily on the individual donor, the harvest site, and the culture conditions. In the context of this multidimensional complexity, a recurrent question is whether it is feasible to produce MSC batches as "standard" therapeutics, possibly within scalable manufacturing systems. Here, we provide a short overview of the literature on different culture methods for MSCs, including those employing innovative technologies, and of some typically assessed functional features (e.g., growth, senescence, genomic stability, clonogenicity, etc.). We then offer our perspective of a roadmap on how to identify and refine manufacturing systems for MSCs intended for specific clinical indications. We submit that the vision of producing MSCs according to a unique standard, although commercially attractive, cannot yet be scientifically substantiated. Instead, efforts should be concentrated on standardizing methods for characterization of MSCs generated by different groups, possibly covering a vast gamut of functionalities. Such assessments, combined with hypotheses on the therapeutic mode of action and associated clinical data, should ultimately allow definition of in-process controls and measurable release criteria for MSC manufacturing. These will have to be validated as predictive of potency in suitable pre-clinical models and of therapeutic efficacy in patients.

  14. A relativity concept in mesenchymal stromal cell manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Martin, Ivan; De Boer, Jan; Sensebe, Luc

    2016-05-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are being experimentally tested in several biological systems and clinical settings with the aim of verifying possible therapeutic effects for a variety of indications. MSCs are also known to be heterogeneous populations, with phenotypic and functional features that depend heavily on the individual donor, the harvest site, and the culture conditions. In the context of this multidimensional complexity, a recurrent question is whether it is feasible to produce MSC batches as "standard" therapeutics, possibly within scalable manufacturing systems. Here, we provide a short overview of the literature on different culture methods for MSCs, including those employing innovative technologies, and of some typically assessed functional features (e.g., growth, senescence, genomic stability, clonogenicity, etc.). We then offer our perspective of a roadmap on how to identify and refine manufacturing systems for MSCs intended for specific clinical indications. We submit that the vision of producing MSCs according to a unique standard, although commercially attractive, cannot yet be scientifically substantiated. Instead, efforts should be concentrated on standardizing methods for characterization of MSCs generated by different groups, possibly covering a vast gamut of functionalities. Such assessments, combined with hypotheses on the therapeutic mode of action and associated clinical data, should ultimately allow definition of in-process controls and measurable release criteria for MSC manufacturing. These will have to be validated as predictive of potency in suitable pre-clinical models and of therapeutic efficacy in patients. PMID:27059199

  15. Osteogenic differentiation of amniotic fluid mesenchymal stromal cells and their bone regeneration potential.

    PubMed

    Pipino, Caterina; Pandolfi, Assunta

    2015-05-26

    In orthopedics, tissue engineering approach using stem cells is a valid line of treatment for patients with bone defects. In this context, mesenchymal stromal cells of various origins have been extensively studied and continue to be a matter of debate. Although mesenchymal stromal cells from bone marrow are already clinically applied, recent evidence suggests that one may use mesenchymal stromal cells from extra-embryonic tissues, such as amniotic fluid, as an innovative and advantageous resource for bone regeneration. The use of cells from amniotic fluid does not raise ethical problems and provides a sufficient number of cells without invasive procedures. Furthermore, they do not develop into teratomas when transplanted, a consequence observed with pluripotent stem cells. In addition, their multipotent differentiation ability, low immunogenicity, and anti-inflammatory properties make them ideal candidates for bone regenerative medicine. We here present an overview of the features of amniotic fluid mesenchymal stromal cells and their potential in the osteogenic differentiation process. We have examined the papers actually available on this regard, with particular interest in the strategies applied to improve in vitro osteogenesis. Importantly, a detailed understanding of the behavior of amniotic fluid mesenchymal stromal cells and their osteogenic ability is desirable considering a feasible application in bone regenerative medicine.

  16. Osteogenic differentiation of amniotic fluid mesenchymal stromal cells and their bone regeneration potential

    PubMed Central

    Pipino, Caterina; Pandolfi, Assunta

    2015-01-01

    In orthopedics, tissue engineering approach using stem cells is a valid line of treatment for patients with bone defects. In this context, mesenchymal stromal cells of various origins have been extensively studied and continue to be a matter of debate. Although mesenchymal stromal cells from bone marrow are already clinically applied, recent evidence suggests that one may use mesenchymal stromal cells from extra-embryonic tissues, such as amniotic fluid, as an innovative and advantageous resource for bone regeneration. The use of cells from amniotic fluid does not raise ethical problems and provides a sufficient number of cells without invasive procedures. Furthermore, they do not develop into teratomas when transplanted, a consequence observed with pluripotent stem cells. In addition, their multipotent differentiation ability, low immunogenicity, and anti-inflammatory properties make them ideal candidates for bone regenerative medicine. We here present an overview of the features of amniotic fluid mesenchymal stromal cells and their potential in the osteogenic differentiation process. We have examined the papers actually available on this regard, with particular interest in the strategies applied to improve in vitro osteogenesis. Importantly, a detailed understanding of the behavior of amniotic fluid mesenchymal stromal cells and their osteogenic ability is desirable considering a feasible application in bone regenerative medicine. PMID:26029340

  17. Patient factors influencing the concentration of stromal vascular fraction (SVF) for adipose-derived stromal cell (ASC) therapy in dogs.

    PubMed

    Astor, Donniel E; Hoelzler, Michael G; Harman, Robert; Bastian, Richard P

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether patient factors influence the concentration of the stromal vascular fraction (SVF) in fat for adipose-derived stromal cell (ASC) therapy in dogs. A total of 1265 dogs underwent adipose collection surgeries by veterinarians for processing by the Vet-Stem laboratory and data on cell counts and patient factors were collected. Body condition score (BCS) and breed size did not significantly affect the viable cells per gram (VCPG) of adipose tissue that represents the viable SVF. Age significantly affected the VCPG, with dogs in age quartile 1 having a significantly higher VCPG than those in quartile 2 (P = 0.003) and quartile 4 (P = 0.002). Adipose tissue collected at the falciform location had significantly fewer VCPG than tissue collected at the thoracic wall and inguinal locations (P < 0.001). When the interaction of gender and location was evaluated, there were significantly fewer VCPG in tissue collected at the falciform location than at the thoracic wall and inguinal locations in female spayed dogs (P < 0.001) and male neutered dogs (P < 0.001), but not in female intact dogs (P = 0.743) or male intact dogs (P = 0.208). It was concluded that specific patient factors should be taken into consideration in order to obtain the maximal yield of VCPG from an adipose collection procedure.

  18. Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Expressing Heme Oxygenase-1 Reverse Pulmonary Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Olin D.; Mitsialis, S. Alex; Chang, Mun Seog; Vergadi, Eleni; Lee, Changjin; Aslam, Muhammad; Fernandez-Gonzalez, Angeles; Liu, Xianlan; Baveja, Rajiv; Kourembanas, Stella

    2012-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) remains a serious disease, and, while current treatments may prolong and improve quality of life, search for novel and effective therapies is warranted. Using genetically-modified mouse lines, we tested the ability of bone marrow-derived stromal cells (MSCs), to treat chronic hypoxia-induced PAH. Recipient mice were exposed for five weeks to normobaric hypoxia (8%–10% O2), MSC preparations were delivered through jugular vein injection and their effect on PAH was assessed after two additional weeks in hypoxia. Donor MSCs derived from wild-type (WT) mice or Heme Oxygenase-1 (HO-1) null mice (Hmox1KO) conferred partial protection from PAH when transplanted into WT or Hmox1KO recipients, whereas treatment with MSCs isolated from transgenic mice harboring a human HO-1 transgene under the control of surfactant protein C promoter (SHO1 line) reversed established disease in WT recipients. SH01-MSC treatment of Hmox1KO animals, which develop right ventricular (RV) infarction under prolonged hypoxia, resulted in normal RV systolic pressure, significant reduction of RV hypertrophy and prevention of RV infarction. Donor MSCs isolated from a bitransgenic mouse line with doxycycline-inducible, lung-specific expression of HO-1 exhibited similar therapeutic efficacy only upon doxycycline treatment of the recipients. In vitro experiments indicate that potential mechanisms of MSC action include modulation of hypoxia-induced lung inflammation and inhibition of smooth muscle cell proliferation. Cumulative, our results demonstrate that MSCs ameliorate chronic hypoxia – induced PAH and their efficacy is highly augmented by lung-specific HO-1 expression in the transplanted cells, suggesting an interplay between HO-1 dependent and HO-1 independent protective pathways. PMID:20957739

  19. Does transmembrane communication through gap junctions enable stem cells to overcome stromal inhibition?

    PubMed

    Rosendaal, M; Mayen, A; de Koning, A; Dunina-Barkovskaya, T; Krenács, T; Ploemacher, R

    1997-08-01

    When long-term bone marrow cultures are treated with Amphotericin B (AB) their haemopoietic stem cells (HSC) cease growing. This is not a toxic effect of the drug because once that is removed, HSC resume clonal growth and, given sufficient time, form as many cells as HSC in untreated cultures. Amphotericin B-evoked inhibition of blood formation is probably mediated by transmembrane communication between HSC and stroma for the following reasons: (1) AB does not stop HSC forming colony-forming units in culture (CFU-c) when HSC are separated from stroma by culturing them on Transwell inserts above the stroma. (2) Conditioned media (CM) from AB-containing or normal long-term cultures (LTC) does not inhibit normal marrow cells forming colonies in semi-solid cultures without stromal underlays. (3) AB itself does not stop bone marrow cells forming colonies in semi-solid cultures nor does it stop stromal cells growing or prejudice their long-term maintenance. (4) Furthermore, growing stromal cells with AB does not alter the number of transcripts they form for cytokines and chemokines to any large extent, including TGF-beta1. We have extensive, though circumstantial, evidence that gap junctions are involved in this communication. AB only stopped the growth of HSC when we blocked intercellular communication via gap junctions (GJIC) (tested by micro-injection of lucifer yellow). Lipophilic compounds that do not affect GJIC had no effect on the growth of HSC. Looking at a series of stromal cell lines from foetal liver and neonatal bone marrow we found that extensive GJIC correlated with stromal support of the late-appearing clones formed by primitive HSC (week 3-5 cobblestone-area forming cells, CAFC). We propose that the proliferation of HSC is regulated via transmembrane communication between stromal and HSC. Our findings support the proposal that gap junctions play a part in this stromal-dependent regulation. PMID:9264382

  20. Inflammation influences steroid hormone receptors targeted by progestins in endometrial stromal cells from women with endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Grandi, Giovanni; Mueller, Michael D; Papadia, Andrea; Kocbek, Vida; Bersinger, Nick A; Petraglia, Felice; Cagnacci, Angelo; McKinnon, Brett

    2016-09-01

    Endometriosis is an estrogen-dependent disease characterised by the growth of endometrial epithelial and stromal cells outside the uterus creating a chronic inflammatory environment that further contributes to disease progression. The first choice treatment for endometriosis is currently progestin mediated hormone modulation. In addition to their progestogenic activity however, progestins also have the potential to bind to other nuclear receptors influencing their local activity on endometriotic cells. This local activity will be dependent on the steroid hormone receptor expression that occurs in endometrial cells in a chronic inflammatory environment. We therefore aimed to quantify receptors targeted by progestins in endometrial stromal cells after exposure to inflammation. Using primary endometrial stromal cells isolated from women with endometriosis we examined the mRNA and protein expression of the progesterone receptors A and B, membrane progesterone receptors 1 and 2, androgen receptors, mineralocorticoid receptors and glucocorticoid receptors after exposure to the inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) and interleukin 1β (IL-1β). The results indicate that both cytokines reduced the expression of progesterone receptors and increased the expression of the glucocorticoid receptors in the endometrial stromal cells. The change in expression of progestin targets in endometrial stromal cells in an inflammatory environment could contribute to the progesterone resistance observed in endometriotic cells and ultimately influence the design of hormonal therapies aimed at treating this disease. PMID:27371899

  1. Response of hemopoietic, progenitor, and multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells to administration of ketanserin during pulmonary fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Dygai, A M; Skurikhin, E G; Pershina, O V; Stepanova, I E; Khmelevskaya, E S; Ermakova, N N; Reztsova, A M; Krupin, V A; Reikhart, D V; Goldberg, V E

    2014-11-01

    We studied the effect of ketanserin on hemopoietic progenitor cells (Lin(-)Sca-1(+)c-Kit(+)CD34- and Lin(-)Sca-1(+)c-Kit(+)CD34(+)), progenitor hemopoietic cells (Lin(-)Sca-1(+)c-kit(+)), and multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (CD45(-)CD73(+)CD106(+)) in C57Bl/6 mice during pulmonary fibrosis. It was shown that the blocker of 5-HT2A receptors lowers the activity of bleomycin-induced inflammation in the lungs and prevents the infiltration of alveolar interstitium and alveolar ducts by hemopoietic stem and hemopoietic progenitor cells; in this case, they are more numerous in the bone marrow of sick animals. Ketanserin reduces the capacity for self-renewal of lung multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells in the fibrotic phase of the disease and inhibits their differentiation into stromal cell lines (adipocytes, chondrocytes, and fibroblasts) simultaneously with the decrease in the percentage of connective tissue in the lung parenchyma. PMID:25403389

  2. Contact- and growth factor-dependent survival in a canine marrow-derived stromal cell line.

    PubMed

    Huss, R; Hoy, C A; Deeg, H J

    1995-05-01

    Cell-cell interactions and the presence of growth factors such as stem cell factor (SCF; or c-kit ligand) or interleukin-6 (IL-6) are involved in the proliferation and differentiation of the canine marrow-derived stromal cell line DO64. In the presence of SCF, stromal cells are induced to differentiate, but not to proliferate. In contrast, in the presence of IL-6, stromal cells are induced to proliferate rather than to differentiate in culture. Both SCF and IL-6 are produced by the stromal cells themselves and, thus, act as autocrine factors. In addition, DO64 cells also interact physically with each other in culture when grown under optimal culture conditions (70% to 90% cell confluence and in the presence of serum), thereby supporting proliferation and maintaining viability. Under conditions of lower cell density or low serum or growth factor concentrations in culture, DO64 cells tend to aggregate and form clusters. This increase in local cell concentration is associated with preservation of viability, presumably because of the accumulation of autocrine factors. If no signal, neither intercellular nor soluble, is provided, and DO64 cells are not able to reach a critical cell density or to produce sufficient factors in an autocrine fashion, the cells cease to proliferate and eventually die.

  3. Periostin expression in intra-tumoral stromal cells is prognostic and predictive for colorectal carcinoma via creating a cancer-supportive niche

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Xiaojie; Ding, Yibo; Luo, Yanxin; Cai, Hui; Liu, Yan; Gao, Xianhua; Liu, Qizhi; Yu, Yongwei; Du, Yan; Wang, Hao; Ma, Liye; Wang, Jianping; Chen, Kun; Ding, Yanqing; Fu, Chuangang; Cao, Guangwen

    2016-01-01

    Periostin (POSTN) expression in cancer cells and circulation has been related to poor prognosis of colorectal carcinoma (CRC). However, the role of POSTN expressed in intra-tumoral stroma on CRC progression remains largely unknown. This study enrolled 1098 CRC patients who received surgical treatment in Shanghai and Guangzhou, Mainland China. In Shanghai cohort, immunohistochemistry score of stromal POSTN expression increased consecutively from adjacent mucosa, primary CRC tissues, to metastatic CRC tissues (P < 0.001), while medium- and high-stromal POSTN expression, rather than epithelial POSTN expression, independently predicted unfavorable prognoses of CRC, adjusted for covariates including TNM stage and postoperative chemotherapy in multivariate Cox models. The results in Shanghai cohort were faithfully replicated in Guangzhou cohort. Stromal POSTN expression dose-dependently predicted an unfavorable prognosis of stage III CRC patients with postoperative chemotherapy in both cohorts. POSTN derived from colonic fibroblasts or recombinant POSTN significantly promoted proliferation, anchorage independent growth, invasion, and chemo-resistance of CRC cells; whereas these effects were counteracted via targeting to PI3K/Akt or Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. CRC cell RKO-derived factor(s) significantly induced POSTN production in colonic fibroblasts and autocrine POSTN promoted proliferation, migration, and anchorage independent growth of fibroblasts. Conclusively, stromal POSTN is prognostic and predictive for CRC via creating a niche to facilitate cancer progression. Targeting POSTN-induced signaling pathways may be therapeutic options for metastatic or chemoresistant CRC. PMID:26556874

  4. Inflammatory response of a prostate stromal cell line induced by Trichomonas vaginalis.

    PubMed

    Im, S J; Han, I H; Kim, J H; Gu, N Y; Seo, M Y; Chung, Y H; Ryu, J S

    2016-04-01

    While Trichomonas vaginalis, a cause of sexually transmitted infection, is known as a surface-dwelling protozoa, trichomonads have been detected in prostatic tissue from benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostatitis by immunoperoxidase assay or PCR. However, the immune response of prostate stromal cells infected with T. vaginalis has not been investigated. Our objective was to investigate whether T. vaginalis could induce an inflammatory response in prostate stromal cells. Incubation of a human prostate stromal myofibroblast cells (WPMY-1) with live T. vaginalis T016 increased expression of the inflammatory chemokines CXCL8 and CCL2. In addition, TLR4, ROS, MAPK and NF-κB expression increased, while inhibitors of TLR4, ROS, MAPKs and NF-κB reduced CXCL8 and CCL2 production. Medium conditioned by incubation of WPMY-1 cells with T. vaginalis stimulated the migration of human neutrophils and monocytes (THP-1 cells). We conclude that T. vaginalis increases CXCL8 and CCL2 production by human prostate stromal cells by activating TLR4, ROS, MAPKs and NF-κB, and this in turn attracts neutrophils and monocytes and leads to an inflammatory response. This study is the first attempt to demonstrate an inflammatory reaction in prostate stromal cells caused by T. vaginalis. PMID:26832322

  5. Inflammatory response of a prostate stromal cell line induced by Trichomonas vaginalis.

    PubMed

    Im, S J; Han, I H; Kim, J H; Gu, N Y; Seo, M Y; Chung, Y H; Ryu, J S

    2016-04-01

    While Trichomonas vaginalis, a cause of sexually transmitted infection, is known as a surface-dwelling protozoa, trichomonads have been detected in prostatic tissue from benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostatitis by immunoperoxidase assay or PCR. However, the immune response of prostate stromal cells infected with T. vaginalis has not been investigated. Our objective was to investigate whether T. vaginalis could induce an inflammatory response in prostate stromal cells. Incubation of a human prostate stromal myofibroblast cells (WPMY-1) with live T. vaginalis T016 increased expression of the inflammatory chemokines CXCL8 and CCL2. In addition, TLR4, ROS, MAPK and NF-κB expression increased, while inhibitors of TLR4, ROS, MAPKs and NF-κB reduced CXCL8 and CCL2 production. Medium conditioned by incubation of WPMY-1 cells with T. vaginalis stimulated the migration of human neutrophils and monocytes (THP-1 cells). We conclude that T. vaginalis increases CXCL8 and CCL2 production by human prostate stromal cells by activating TLR4, ROS, MAPKs and NF-κB, and this in turn attracts neutrophils and monocytes and leads to an inflammatory response. This study is the first attempt to demonstrate an inflammatory reaction in prostate stromal cells caused by T. vaginalis.

  6. Dynamic mast cell-stromal cell interactions promote growth of pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Ying; Hwang, Rosa F.; Logsdon, Craig D.; Ullrich, Stephen E.

    2013-01-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) exists in a complex desmoplastic microenvironment, which includes cancer-associated fibroblasts (also known as pancreatic stellate cells, PSCs) and immune cells that provide a fibrotic niche that impedes successful cancer therapy. We have found that mast cells are essential for PDAC tumorigenesis. Whether mast cells contribute to the growth of PDAC and/or PSCs is unknown. Here we tested the hypothesis that mast cells contribute to the growth of PSCs and tumor cells, thus contributing to PDAC development. Tumor cells promoted mast cell migration. Both tumor cells and PSCs stimulated mast cell activation. Conversely, mast cell-derived IL-13 and tryptase stimulated PSC proliferation. Treating tumor-bearing mice with agents that block mast cell migration and function depressed PDAC growth. Our findings suggest that mast cells exacerbate the cellular and extracellular dynamics of the tumor microenvironment found in PDAC. Therefore, targeting mast cells may inhibit stromal formation and improve therapy. PMID:23633481

  7. Fetal liver hepatic progenitors are supportive stromal cells for hematopoietic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Chou, Song; Lodish, Harvey F

    2010-04-27

    Previously we showed that the ~2% of fetal liver cells reactive with an anti-CD3epsilon monoclonal antibody support ex vivo expansion of both fetal liver and bone marrow hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs); these cells express two proteins important for HSC ex vivo expansion, IGF2, and angiopoietin-like 3. Here we show that these cells do not express any CD3 protein and are not T cells; rather, we purified these HSC-supportive stromal cells based on the surface phenotype of SCF(+)DLK(+). Competitive repopulating experiments show that SCF(+)DLK(+) cells support the maintenance of HSCs in ex vivo culture. These are the principal fetal liver cells that express not only angiopoietin-like 3 and IGF2, but also SCF and thrombopoietin, two other growth factors important for HSC expansion. They are also the principal fetal liver cells that express CXCL12, a factor required for HSC homing, and also alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), indicating that they are fetal hepatic stem or progenitor cells. Immunocytochemistry shows that >93% of the SCF(+) cells express DLK and Angptl3, and a portion of SCF(+) cells also expresses CXCL12. Thus SCF(+)DLK(+) cells are a highly homogenous population that express a complete set of factors for HSC expansion and are likely the primary stromal cells that support HSC expansion in the fetal liver.

  8. Identification of a novel variant hepatocyte growth factor secreted by spleen-derived stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Miau, L H; Jan, Y W; Shen, B J; Tsai, W H; Lee, H S; Lee, S C

    1996-06-25

    Stromal cells can interact with parenchymal cells by secreting various cytokines to affect the growth, differentiation or movement of the latter. Here we report the identification and characterization of a novel variant hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) from the conditioned medium of stromal cells derived from mouse spleen. Compared to human HGF, it has much lower heparin-binding activity and lacks the beta-chain. Its molecular weight, 70 kDa, is very close to that of the alpha-chain of HGF. Human HGF homologue was not found in the conditioned medium. The conditioned medium of stromal cells, like recombinant HGF, could inhibit the growth of rat hepatoma cells. The inhibitory activity was presumably attributed to this novel HGF because the inhibitory activity, as the existence of this novel HGF, was confined to the identical fractions after heparin-column chromatography. Furthermore, this activity could be specifically abrogated by neutralizing anti-HGF antibodies.

  9. Label-Retaining Stromal Cells in Mouse Endometrium Awaken for Expansion and Repair After Parturition

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Mingzhu; Yeung, William S.B.

    2015-01-01

    Human and mouse endometrium undergo dramatic cellular reorganization during pregnancy and postpartum. Somatic stem cells maintain homeostasis of the tissue by providing a cell reservoir for regeneration. We hypothesized that endometrial cells with quiescent properties (stem/progenitor cells) were involved in the regeneration of the endometrial tissue. Given that stem cells divide infrequently, they can retain the DNA synthesis label [bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU)] after a prolonged chase period. In this study, prepubertal mice were pulsed with BrdU and after a 6-week chase a small population of label-retaining stromal cells (LRSC) was located primarily beneath the luminal epithelium, adjacent to blood vessels, and near the endometrial–myometrial junction. Marker analyses suggested that they were of mesenchymal origin expressing CD44+, CD90+, CD140b+, CD146+, and Sca-1+. During pregnancy, nonproliferating LRSC predominately resided at the interimplantation/placental loci of the gestational endometrium. Immediately after parturition, a significant portion of the LRSC underwent proliferation (BrdU+/Ki-67+) and expressed total and active β-catenin. The β-catenin expression in the LRSC was transiently elevated at postpartum day (PPD) 1. The proliferation of LRSC resulted in a significant decline in the proportion of LRSC in the postpartum uterus. The LRSC returned to dormancy at PPD7, and the percentage of LRSC remained stable thereafter until 11 weeks. This study demonstrated that LRSC can respond efficiently to physiological stimuli upon initiation of uterine involution and return to its quiescent state after postpartum repair. PMID:25386902

  10. Identification of Factors Produced and Secreted by Mesenchymal Stromal Cells with the SILAC Method.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Beatriz; Calamia, Valentina; Blanco, Francisco J; Ruiz-Romero, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) secrete a large variety of proteins and factors, which shape the secretome. These proteins participate in multiple cellular functions, including the promotion of regenerative processes in the damaged tissue. Secretomes derived from either undifferentiated MSCs or these cells undergoing osteogenic, chondrogenic, or adipogenic differentiation have been characterized using different liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)-based quantitative proteomic approaches. In this chapter, we describe the use of the Stable Isotope Labeling by Amino Acids in Cell culture (SILAC) strategy for the identification and relative quantification of the mesenchymal stromal cell secretome, specifically during chondrogenesis.

  11. A novel bacterial artificial chromosome-transgenic podoplanin-cre mouse targets lymphoid organ stromal cells in vivo.

    PubMed

    Onder, Lucas; Scandella, Elke; Chai, Qian; Firner, Sonja; Mayer, Christian T; Sparwasser, Tim; Thiel, Volker; Rülicke, Thomas; Ludewig, Burkhard

    2011-01-01

    Stromal cells provide the structural foundation of secondary lymphoid organs (SLOs), and regulate leukocyte access and cell migration within the different compartments of spleen and lymph nodes (LNs). Furthermore, several stromal cell subsets have been implied in shaping of T cell responses through direct presentation of antigen. Despite significant gain of knowledge on the biology of different SLO-resident stromal cell subsets, their molecular and functional characterization has remained incomplete. To address this need, we have generated a bacterial artificial chromosome-transgenic mouse model that utilizes the podoplanin (pdpn) promoter to express the Cre-recombinase exclusively in stromal cells of SLOs. The characterization of the Pdpn-Cre mouse revealed transgene expression in subsets of fibroblastic reticular cells and lymphatic endothelial cells in LNs. Furthermore, the transgene facilitated the identification of a novel splenic perivascular stromal cell subpopulation that forms web-like structures around central arterioles. Assessment of the in vivo antigen expression in the genetically tagged stromal cells in Pdpn-Cre mice revealed activation of both MHC I and II-restricted TCR transgenic T cells. Taken together, stromal pdpn-Cre expression is well-suited to characterize the phenotype and to dissect the function of lymphoid organ stromal cells.

  12. Stimulated stromal cells induce gamma-globin gene expression in erythroid cells via nitric oxide production

    PubMed Central

    Čokić, Vladan P.; Beleslin-Čokić, Bojana B.; Smith, Reginald D.; Economou, Antaeus P.; Wahl, Larry M.; Noguchi, Constance T.; Schechter, Alan N.

    2009-01-01

    Objective We have previously shown that nitric oxide (NO) is involved in the hydroxyurea-induced increase of gamma-globin gene expression in cultured human erythroid progenitor cells and that hydroxyurea increases NO production in endothelial cells via endothelial NO synthase (NOS). We have now expanded those studies to demonstrate that the stimulation of gamma-globin gene expression is also mediated by NOS induction in stromal cells within the bone marrow microenvironment. Materials and Methods Using NO analyzer, we measured NO production in endothelial and macrophage cell cultures. In co-culture studies of erythroid and stromal cells we measured globin gene expression during stimulation by NO inducers. Results Hydroxyurea (30–100 μM) induced NOS-dependent production of NO in human macrophages (up to 1.2 μM). Co-culture studies of human macrophages with erythroid progenitor cells also resulted in induction of gamma-globin mRNA expression (up to 3 fold) in the presence of hydroxyurea. NOS-dependent stimulation of NO by lipopolysaccharide (up to 0.6 μM) has been observed in human macrophages. We found that lipopolysaccharide and interferon-gamma together increased gamma-globin gene expression (up to 2 fold) in human macrophage/erythroid cell co-cultures. Co-culture of human bone marrow endothelial cells with erythroid progenitor cells also induced gamma-globin mRNA expression (2.4 fold) in the presence of hydroxyurea (40 μM). Conclusion These results demonstrate an arrangement by which NO and fetal hemoglobin inducers may stimulate globin genes in erythroid cells via the common paracrine effect of bone marrow stromal cells. PMID:19576950

  13. Large-scale gene expression profiling data of bone marrow stromal cells from osteoarthritic donors.

    PubMed

    Stiehler, Maik; Rauh, Juliane; Bünger, Cody; Jacobi, Angela; Vater, Corina; Schildberg, Theresa; Liebers, Cornelia; Günther, Klaus-Peter; Bretschneider, Henriette

    2016-09-01

    This data article contains data related to the research article entitled, "in vitro characterization of bone marrow stromal cells from osteoarthritic donors" [1]. Osteoarthritis (OA) represents the main indication for total joint arthroplasty and is one of the most frequent degenerative joint disorders. However, the exact etiology of OA remains unknown. Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) can be easily isolated from bone marrow aspirates and provide an excellent source of progenitor cells. The data shows the identification of pivotal genes and pathways involved in osteoarthritis by comparing gene expression patterns of BMSCs from osteoarthritic versus healthy donors using an array-based approach.

  14. Mouse bone marrow stromal cells differentiate to neuron-like cells upon inhibition of BMP signaling.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Monika; Prashar, Paritosh; Yadav, Prem Swaroop; Sen, Jonaki

    2016-01-01

    Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) are a source of autologous stem cells that have the potential for undergoing differentiation into multiple cell types including neurons. Although the neuronal differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells has been studied for a long time, the molecular players involved are still not defined. Here we report that the genetic deletion of two members of the bone morphogenetic protein (Bmp) family, Bmp2 and Bmp4 in mouse BMSCs causes their differentiation into cells with neuron-like morphology. Surprisingly these cells expressed certain markers characteristic of both neuronal and glial cells. Based on this observation, we inhibited BMP signaling in mouse BMSCs through a brief exposure to Noggin protein which also led to their differentiation into cells expressing both neuronal and glial markers. Such cells seem to have the potential for further differentiation into subtypes of neuronal and glial cells and thus could be utilized for cell-based therapeutic applications.

  15. Identification of Meflin as a Potential Marker for Mesenchymal Stromal Cells.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Keiko; Enomoto, Atsushi; Hara, Akitoshi; Asai, Naoya; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Horinouchi, Asuka; Maruyama, Shoichi; Ishikawa, Yuichi; Nishiyama, Takahiro; Kiyoi, Hitoshi; Kato, Takuya; Ando, Kenju; Weng, Liang; Mii, Shinji; Asai, Masato; Mizutani, Yasuyuki; Watanabe, Osamu; Hirooka, Yoshiki; Goto, Hidemi; Takahashi, Masahide

    2016-02-29

    Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (BM-MSCs) in culture are derived from BM stromal cells or skeletal stem cells. Whereas MSCs have been exploited in clinical medicine, the identification of MSC-specific markers has been limited. Here, we report that a cell surface and secreted protein, Meflin, is expressed in cultured MSCs, fibroblasts and pericytes, but not other types of cells including epithelial, endothelial and smooth muscle cells. In vivo, Meflin is expressed by immature osteoblasts and chondroblasts. In addition, Meflin is found on stromal cells distributed throughout the BM, and on pericytes and perivascular cells in multiple organs. Meflin maintains the undifferentiated state of cultured MSCs and is downregulated upon their differentiation, consistent with the observation that Meflin-deficient mice exhibit increased number of osteoblasts and accelerated bone development. In the bone and BM, Meflin is more highly expressed in primitive stromal cells that express platelet-derived growth factor receptor α and Sca-1 than the Sca-1-negative adipo-osteogenic progenitors, which create a niche for hematopoiesis. Those results are consistent with a decrease in the number of clonogenic colony-forming unit-fibroblasts within the BM of Meflin-deficient mice. These preliminary data suggest that Meflin is a potential marker for cultured MSCs and their source cells in vivo.

  16. Identification of Meflin as a Potential Marker for Mesenchymal Stromal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Maeda, Keiko; Enomoto, Atsushi; Hara, Akitoshi; Asai, Naoya; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Horinouchi, Asuka; Maruyama, Shoichi; Ishikawa, Yuichi; Nishiyama, Takahiro; Kiyoi, Hitoshi; Kato, Takuya; Ando, Kenju; Weng, Liang; Mii, Shinji; Asai, Masato; Mizutani, Yasuyuki; Watanabe, Osamu; Hirooka, Yoshiki; Goto, Hidemi; Takahashi, Masahide

    2016-01-01

    Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (BM-MSCs) in culture are derived from BM stromal cells or skeletal stem cells. Whereas MSCs have been exploited in clinical medicine, the identification of MSC-specific markers has been limited. Here, we report that a cell surface and secreted protein, Meflin, is expressed in cultured MSCs, fibroblasts and pericytes, but not other types of cells including epithelial, endothelial and smooth muscle cells. In vivo, Meflin is expressed by immature osteoblasts and chondroblasts. In addition, Meflin is found on stromal cells distributed throughout the BM, and on pericytes and perivascular cells in multiple organs. Meflin maintains the undifferentiated state of cultured MSCs and is downregulated upon their differentiation, consistent with the observation that Meflin-deficient mice exhibit increased number of osteoblasts and accelerated bone development. In the bone and BM, Meflin is more highly expressed in primitive stromal cells that express platelet-derived growth factor receptor α and Sca-1 than the Sca-1-negative adipo-osteogenic progenitors, which create a niche for hematopoiesis. Those results are consistent with a decrease in the number of clonogenic colony-forming unit-fibroblasts within the BM of Meflin-deficient mice. These preliminary data suggest that Meflin is a potential marker for cultured MSCs and their source cells in vivo. PMID:26924503

  17. Ex vivo expanded SSEA-4+ human limbal stromal cells are multipotent and do not express other embryonic stem cell markers

    PubMed Central

    Hussin, Noor Hamidah; Othman, Ainoon; Umapathy, Thiageswari; Baharuddin, Puteri; Jamal, Rahman; Zakaria, Zubaidah

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The presence of multipotent human limbal stromal cells resembling mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) provides new insights to the characteristic of these cells and its therapeutic potential. However, little is known about the expression of stage-specific embryonic antigen 4 (SSEA-4) and the embryonic stem cell (ESC)-like properties of these cells. We studied the expression of SSEA-4 surface protein and the various ESC and MSC markers in the ex vivo cultured limbal stromal cells. The phenotypes and multipotent differentiation potential of these cells were also evaluated. Methods Limbal stromal cells were derived from corneoscleral rims. The SSEA-4+ and SSEA-4- limbal stromal cells were sorted by fluorescence-activated cells sorting (FACS). Isolated cells were expanded and reanalyzed for their expression of SSEA-4. Expression of MSC and ESC markers on these cells were also analyzed by FACS. In addition, expression of limbal epithelial and corneal stromal proteins such as ATP-binding cassette sub-family G member 2 (ABCG2), tumour protein p63 (p63), paired box 6 (Pax6), cytokeratin 3 (AE5), cytokeratin 10, and keratocan sulfate were evaluated either by immunofluorecence staining or reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Appropriate induction medium was used to differentiate these cells into adipocytes, osteocytes, and chondrocytes. Results Expanded limbal stromal cells expressed the majority of mesenchymal markers. These cells were negative for ABCG2, p63, Pax6, AE-5, and keratocan sulfate. After passaged, a subpopulation of these cells showed low expression of SSEA-4 but were negative for other important ESC surface markers such as Tra-1–60, Tra-1–81, and transcription factors like octamer-binding transcription factor 4 (Oct4), SRY(sex determining region Y)-box 2 (Sox2), and Nanog. Early passaged cells when induced were able to differentiate into adipocytes, osteocytes and chondrocytes. Conclusions The expanded limbal stromal cells showed features

  18. Autophagy and mitochondrial remodelling in mouse mesenchymal stromal cells challenged with Staphylococcus epidermidis.

    PubMed

    Gorbunov, Nikolai V; McDaniel, Dennis P; Zhai, Min; Liao, Pei-Jyun; Garrison, Bradley R; Kiang, Juliann G

    2015-05-01

    The bone marrow stroma constitutes the marrow-blood barrier, which sustains immunochemical homoeostasis and protection of the haematopoietic tissue in sequelae of systemic bacterial infections. Under these conditions, the bone marrow stromal cells affected by circulating bacterial pathogens shall elicit the adaptive stress-response mechanisms to maintain integrity of the barrier. The objective of this communication was to demonstrate (i) that in vitro challenge of mesenchymal stromal cells, i.e. colony-forming unit fibroblasts (CFU-F), with Staphylococcus epidermidis can activate the autophagy pathway to execute antibacterial defence response, and (ii) that homoeostatic shift because of the bacteria-induced stress includes the mitochondrial remodelling and sequestration of compromised organelles via mitophagy. Implication of Drp1 and PINK1-PARK2-dependent mechanisms in the mitophagy turnover of the aberrant mitochondria in mesenchymal stromal cells is investigated and discussed.

  19. Autophagy and mitochondrial remodelling in mouse mesenchymal stromal cells challenged with Staphylococcus epidermidis.

    PubMed

    Gorbunov, Nikolai V; McDaniel, Dennis P; Zhai, Min; Liao, Pei-Jyun; Garrison, Bradley R; Kiang, Juliann G

    2015-05-01

    The bone marrow stroma constitutes the marrow-blood barrier, which sustains immunochemical homoeostasis and protection of the haematopoietic tissue in sequelae of systemic bacterial infections. Under these conditions, the bone marrow stromal cells affected by circulating bacterial pathogens shall elicit the adaptive stress-response mechanisms to maintain integrity of the barrier. The objective of this communication was to demonstrate (i) that in vitro challenge of mesenchymal stromal cells, i.e. colony-forming unit fibroblasts (CFU-F), with Staphylococcus epidermidis can activate the autophagy pathway to execute antibacterial defence response, and (ii) that homoeostatic shift because of the bacteria-induced stress includes the mitochondrial remodelling and sequestration of compromised organelles via mitophagy. Implication of Drp1 and PINK1-PARK2-dependent mechanisms in the mitophagy turnover of the aberrant mitochondria in mesenchymal stromal cells is investigated and discussed. PMID:25721260

  20. Hematopoietic microenvironment. Origin, lineage, and transplantability of the stromal cells in long-term bone marrow cultures from chimeric mice

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, S.; Fleischman, R.A.

    1988-04-01

    Studies of bone marrow transplant patients have suggested that the stromal cells of the in vitro hematopoietic microenvironment are transplantable into conditioned recipients. Moreover, in patients with myeloproliferative disorders, all of the stromal cells, which include presumptive endothelial cells, appear to be derived from hematopoietic precursors. To confirm these findings, we have constructed two chimeric mouse models: (a) traditional radiation chimeras, and (b) fetal chimeras, produced by placental injection of bone marrow into genetically anemic Wx/Wv fetuses, a technique that essentially precludes engraftment of nonhematopoietic cells. Using two-color indirect immunofluorescence, the stromal cells in long-term bone marrow culture derived from these chimeras were analyzed for donor or host origin by strain-specific H-2 antigens, and for cell lineage by a variety of other specific markers. 75-95% of the stromal cells were shown to be hematopoietic cells of the monocyte-macrophage lineage, based upon donor origin, phagocytosis, and expression of specific hematopoietic surface antigens. The remaining 5-25% of the stromal cells were exclusively host in origin. Apart from occasional fat cells, these cells uniformly expressed collagen type IV, laminin, and a surface antigen associated with endothelial cells. Since these endothelial-like cells are not transplantable into radiation or fetal chimeras, they are not derived from hematopoietic stem cells. The contrast between our findings and human studies suggests either unexpected species differences in the origin of stromal lineages or limitations in the previous methodology used to detect nonhematopoietic stromal cells.

  1. Immune suppressor factor confers stromal cell line with enhanced supporting activity for hematopoietic stem cells

    SciTech Connect

    Nakajima, Hideaki . E-mail: hnakajim@ims.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Shibata, Fumi; Fukuchi, Yumi; Goto-Koshino, Yuko; Ito, Miyuki; Urano, Atsushi; Nakahata, Tatsutoshi; Aburatani, Hiroyuki; Kitamura, Toshio

    2006-02-03

    Immune suppressor factor (ISF) is a subunit of the vacuolar ATPase proton pump. We earlier identified a short form of ISF (ShIF) as a stroma-derived factor that supports cytokine-independent growth of mutant Ba/F3 cells. Here, we report that ISF/ShIF supports self-renewal and expansion of primary hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). Co-culture of murine bone marrow cells with a stromal cell line overexpressing ISF or ShIF (MS10/ISF or MS10/ShIF) not only enhanced their colony-forming activity and the numbers of long-term culture initiating cells, but also maintained the competitive repopulating activity of HSC. This stem cell supporting activity depended on the proton-transfer function of ISF/ShIF. Gene expression analysis of ISF/ShIF-transfected cell lines revealed down-regulation of secreted frizzled-related protein-1 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-3, and the restoration of their expressions in MS10/ISF cells partially reversed its enhanced LTC-IC supporting activity to a normal level. These results suggest that ISF/ShIF confers stromal cells with enhanced supporting activities for HSCs by modulating Wnt-activity and the extracellular matrix.

  2. The differentiation directions of the bone marrow stromal cells under modeling microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nesterenko, Olga; Rodionova, Natalia; Katkova, Olena

    Within experiments on rats simulating microgravity by base load remove from back limbs (duration of the experiment 1,5 months) on marrow stromal cells cultures (ex vivo, in vitro) comprising osteogenic cells-predecessors, extracted from femurs, studied their peculiarities of the colony formation ablity, the cell structure, some cytological and ultra-structural characteristics and differentiation direction. It was found that that under microgravity conditions there is a decline of the stromal cells colony formation intensity, decrease of the colonies size and cells mitotic activity that indicates decrease of their growth potential. Both in control and in experiment the colonies were presented by population of low-differentiated cells, differentiated cells and mature cells. The comparative cytological and morphometric analysis have shown that the studied stromal cells in colonies have the smaller sizes, more elongated shape, and higher nucleocytoplasmic ratio. Cells composition in the experiment colonies is reliably different by the ratio of the low-differentiating to being differentiated cells; a ratio of low-differentiated to already differentiated cells; ratio of differentiated cells to total number of all cells. In comparison with control group, amount of the cells passed trough a differentiation stage and mature cells in colonies is decreased by 3 to 4 times. Among the differentiated stromal cells in colonies increasing amount of adipocytes was revealed. The analysis of electron microscope microphotographs showed that in osteogenic cells differentiated under microgravity conditions, there is a reduction of the specific volume of a granular endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi's complex and quantity of nuclei reduction that indicates depression of the specific biosyntheses process intensity in cells. The increase of lysosomes and myelinic structures quantity is linked to organelles partial reduction. Consolidation of mitochondrias is an evidence of the cells’ energy

  3. A continuous lineage of rat adenohypophysis stromal cells: characterisation and effects on GH(3)B(6) prolactin-secreting cell behaviour.

    PubMed

    Alves, Leandro M; Werneck, Cláudio C; Martins Rd, Rita de Cássia L; Silva, Luiz Cláudio F; Taffarel, Marília; Borojevic, Radovan; Nasciutti, Luiz E

    2002-11-01

    Although some studies have shown a possible modulation of the stroma on the hormonal secretion, it is not clear as to what are the requirements for these cellular interactions. In the present work, a homogeneous and continuous lineage of rat adenohypophysis stromal cells (APS9 cells) obtained from rat adenohypophysis primary culture was established. Using immunocytochemical methods and electron microscopy, we have characterised APS9 cells as elongated fibroblastoid-like cells with intercellular contacts, expressing alpha-smooth muscle actin, type IV collagen and laminin. By biochemical procedures, higher amounts of chondroitin sulphate and heparan sulphate were found in the pericellular and extracellular compartments of APS9 cell culture. In order to evaluate the possible effects of APS9 cell on GH(3)B(6) prolactin-secreting cell survival and/or proliferation, we established co-culture and proliferation assays. When GH(3)B(6) cells were cultivated on APS9 cell substrate, they displayed an organisation of many cellular cords strongly attached and covering all the stromal cell area, establishing punctual interactions or extensive surface associations between adjacent cells. Prolactin immunoreactivity appeared to be more scattered throughout the cytoplasm and accumulated in its periphery. When plated on glass coverslips, on newborn rat skin fibroblasts, on murine haematopoietic bone marrow stroma cell line or on murine foetal liver stroma cell line, GH(3)B(6) cells changed their organisation and presented a decrease in cell number and adherence to the substrate. Our results showed that the APS9 cell/GH(3)B(6) cell interactions favour cell growth and probably PRL secretion, and raises questions about the specificity of different organs and/or animal species stromas on the hormone secretion.

  4. Melanoma-Derived BRAF(V600E) Mutation in Peritumoral Stromal Cells: Implications for in Vivo Cell Fusion.

    PubMed

    Kurgyis, Zsuzsanna; Kemény, Lajos V; Buknicz, Tünde; Groma, Gergely; Oláh, Judit; Jakab, Ádám; Polyánka, Hilda; Zänker, Kurt; Dittmar, Thomas; Kemény, Lajos; Németh, István B

    2016-01-01

    Melanoma often recurs in patients after the removal of the primary tumor, suggesting the presence of recurrent tumor-initiating cells that are undetectable using standard diagnostic methods. As cell fusion has been implicated to facilitate the alteration of a cell's phenotype, we hypothesized that cells in the peritumoral stroma having a stromal phenotype that initiate recurrent tumors might originate from the fusion of tumor and stromal cells. Here, we show that in patients with BRAF(V600E) melanoma, melanoma antigen recognized by T-cells (MART1)-negative peritumoral stromal cells express BRAF(V600E) protein. To confirm the presence of the oncogene at the genetic level, peritumoral stromal cells were microdissected and screened for the presence of BRAF(V600E) with a mutation-specific polymerase chain reaction. Interestingly, cells carrying the BRAF(V600E) mutation were not only found among cells surrounding the primary tumor but were also present in the stroma of melanoma metastases as well as in a histologically tumor-free re-excision sample from a patient who subsequently developed a local recurrence. We did not detect any BRAF(V600E) mutation or protein in the peritumoral stroma of BRAF(WT) melanoma. Therefore, our results suggest that peritumoral stromal cells contain melanoma-derived oncogenic information, potentially as a result of cell fusion. These hybrid cells display the phenotype of stromal cells and are therefore undetectable using routine histological assessments. Our results highlight the importance of genetic analyses and the application of mutation-specific antibodies in the identification of potentially recurrent-tumor-initiating cells, which may help better predict patient survival and disease outcome. PMID:27338362

  5. Melanoma-Derived BRAFV600E Mutation in Peritumoral Stromal Cells: Implications for in Vivo Cell Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Kurgyis, Zsuzsanna; Kemény, Lajos V.; Buknicz, Tünde; Groma, Gergely; Oláh, Judit; Jakab, Ádám; Polyánka, Hilda; Zänker, Kurt; Dittmar, Thomas; Kemény, Lajos; Németh, István B.

    2016-01-01

    Melanoma often recurs in patients after the removal of the primary tumor, suggesting the presence of recurrent tumor-initiating cells that are undetectable using standard diagnostic methods. As cell fusion has been implicated to facilitate the alteration of a cell’s phenotype, we hypothesized that cells in the peritumoral stroma having a stromal phenotype that initiate recurrent tumors might originate from the fusion of tumor and stromal cells. Here, we show that in patients with BRAFV600E melanoma, melanoma antigen recognized by T-cells (MART1)-negative peritumoral stromal cells express BRAFV600E protein. To confirm the presence of the oncogene at the genetic level, peritumoral stromal cells were microdissected and screened for the presence of BRAFV600E with a mutation-specific polymerase chain reaction. Interestingly, cells carrying the BRAFV600E mutation were not only found among cells surrounding the primary tumor but were also present in the stroma of melanoma metastases as well as in a histologically tumor-free re-excision sample from a patient who subsequently developed a local recurrence. We did not detect any BRAFV600E mutation or protein in the peritumoral stroma of BRAFWT melanoma. Therefore, our results suggest that peritumoral stromal cells contain melanoma-derived oncogenic information, potentially as a result of cell fusion. These hybrid cells display the phenotype of stromal cells and are therefore undetectable using routine histological assessments. Our results highlight the importance of genetic analyses and the application of mutation-specific antibodies in the identification of potentially recurrent-tumor-initiating cells, which may help better predict patient survival and disease outcome. PMID:27338362

  6. LIM domain only 2 over-expression in prostate stromal cells facilitates prostate cancer progression through paracrine of Interleukin-11

    PubMed Central

    Ruan, Yuan; Wang, Xiao-Hai; Zhao, Wei; Wang, Xing-Jie; Zhu, Yi-Ping; Gao, Yuan; Hao, Kui-Yuan; Chen, Lei; Han, Bang-Min; Xia, Shu-Jie; Zhao, Fu-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Mechanisms of stromal-epithelial crosstalk are essential for Prostate cancer (PCa) tumorigenesis and progression. Peripheral zone of the prostate gland possesses a stronger inclination for PCa than transition zone. We previously found a variety of genes that differently expressed among different prostate stromal cells, including LIM domain only 2 (LMO2) which highly expressed in peripheral zone derived stromal cells (PZSCs) and PCa associated fibroblasts (CAFs) compared to transition zone derived stromal cells (TZSCs). Studies on its role in tumors have highlighted LMO2 as an oncogene. Herein, we aim to study the potential mechanisms of stromal LMO2 in promoting PCa progression. The in vitro cells co-culture and in vivo cells recombination revealed that LMO2 over-expressed prostate stromal cells could promote the proliferation and invasiveness of either prostate epithelial or cancer cells. Further protein array screening confirmed that stromal LMO2 stimulated the secretion of Interleukin-11 (IL-11), which could promote proliferation and invasiveness of PCa cells via IL-11 receptor α (IL11Rα) – STAT3 signaling. Moreover, stromal LMO2 over-expression could suppress miR-204-5p which was proven to be a negative regulator of IL-11 expression. Taken together, results of our study demonstrate that prostate stromal LMO2 is capable of stimulating IL-11 secretion and by which activates IL11Rα – STAT3 signaling in PCa cells and then facilitates PCa progression. These results may make stromal LMO2 responsible for zonal characteristic of PCa and as a target for PCa microenvironment-targeted therapy. PMID:27028859

  7. The graft of autologous adipose-derived stem cells in the corneal stromal after mechanic damage.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiao-Yun; Bao, Hui-Jing; Cui, Lei; Zou, Jun

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to explore the feasibility of using autologous rabbit adipose derived stem cells (rASCs) as seed cells and polylactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) as a scaffold for repairing corneal stromal defects. rASCs isolated from rabbit nape adipose tissue were expanded and seeded on a PLGA scaffold to fabricate cell-scaffold constructs. After 1 week of cultivation in vitro, the cell-scaffold complexes were transplanted into corneal stromal defects in rabbits. In vivo, the autologous rASCs-PLGA constructed corneal stroma gradually became transparent without corneal neovascularization after 12 weeks. Hematoxylin and eosin staining and transmission electron microscopy examination revealed that their histological structure and collagen fibril distribution at 24 weeks after implantation were similar to native counterparts. As to the defect treated with PLGA alone, the stromal defects remained. And scar tissue was observed in the untreated-group. The implanted autologous ASCs survived up to 24 weeks post-transplantation and differentiated into functional keratocytes, as assessed by the expression of aldehyde-3-dehydrogenase1A1 (ALDH1A1) and cornea-specific proteoglycan keratocan. Our results revealed that autologous rASCs could be one of the cell sources for corneal stromal restoration in diseased corneas or for tissue engineering of a corneal equivalent.

  8. Connexin-43 gap junctions are involved in multiconnexin-expressing stromal support of hemopoietic progenitors and stem cells.

    PubMed

    Cancelas, J A; Koevoet, W L; de Koning, A E; Mayen, A E; Rombouts, E J; Ploemacher, R E

    2000-07-15

    Gap junctions (GJs) provide for a unique system of intercellular communication (IC) allowing rapid transport of small molecules from cell to cell. GJs are formed by a large family of proteins named connexins (Cxs). Cx43 has been considered as the predominantly expressed Cx by hematopoietic-supporting stroma. To investigate the role of the Cx family in hemopoiesis, we analyzed the expression of 11 different Cx species in different stromal cell lines derived from murine bone marrow (BM) or fetal liver (FL). We found that up to 5 Cxs are expressed in FL stromal cells (Cx43, Cx45, Cx30.3, Cx31, and Cx31.1), whereas only Cx43, Cx45, and Cx31 were clearly detectable in BM stromal cells. In vivo, the Cx43-deficient 14.5- to 15-day FL cobblestone area-forming cells (CAFC)-week 1-4 and colony-forming unit contents were 26%-38% and 39%-47% lower than in their wild-type counterparts, respectively. The reintroduction of the Cx43 gene into Cx43-deficient FL stromal cells was able to restore their diminished IC to the level of the wild-type FL stromal cells. In addition, these Cx43-reintroduced stromal cells showed an increased support ability (3.7-fold) for CAFC-week 1 in normal mouse BM and 5-fold higher supportive ability for CAFC-week 4 in 5-fluorouracil-treated BM cells as compared with Cx43-deficient FL stromal cells. These findings suggest that stromal Cx43-mediated IC, although not responsible for all GJ-mediated IC of stromal cells, plays a role in the supportive ability for hemopoietic progenitors and stem cells. (Blood. 2000;96:498-505) PMID:10887111

  9. Virally and physically transgenized equine adipose-derived stromal cells as a cargo for paracrine secreted factors

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Adipose-Derived Stromal Cells have been shown to have multiple lineage differentiation properties and to be suitable for tissues regeneration in many degenerative processes. Their use has been proposed for the therapy of joint diseases and tendon injuries in the horse. In the present report the genetic manipulation of Equine Adipose-Derived Stromal Cells has been investigated. Results Equine Adipose-Derived Stromal Cells were successfully virally transduced as well as transiently and stably transfected with appropriate parameters, without detrimental effect on their differentiation properties. Moreover, green fluorescent protein alone, fused to neo gene, or co-expressed as bi-cistronic reporter constructs, driven by viral and house-keeping gene promoters, were tested. The better expressed cassette was employed to stably transfect Adipose-Derived Stromal Cells for cell therapy purposes. Stably transfected Equine Adipose-Derived Stromal Cells with a heterologous secreted viral antigen were able to immunize horses upon injection into the lateral wall of the neck. Conclusion This study provides the methods to successfully transgenize Adipose-Derived Stromal Cells both by lentiviral vector and by transfection using optimized constructs with suitable promoters and reporter genes. In conclusion these findings provide a working platform for the delivery of potentially therapeutic proteins to the site of cells injection via transgenized Equine Adipose-Derived Stromal Cells. PMID:20863390

  10. Catecholamine regulation of stromal precursors and hemopoietic stem cells in cytostatic myelosuppression.

    PubMed

    Dygai, A M; Khmelevskaya, E S; Skurikhin, E G; Pershina, O V; Andreeva, T V; Ermakova, N N

    2012-04-01

    Effects of a sympatholytic drug on bone marrow stromal and hemopoietic precursors were studied on the model of cyclophosphamide-induced myelosuppression. Sympatholytic treatment increased the content of hemopoietic stem cells of different classes in the bone marrow. Selective stimulation of differentiation of polypotent precursors into granulocyte-macrophage precursors was noted. Acceleration of proliferation and maturation of granulocytic precursors was observed at later terms during regeneration of the hemopoietic tissue. The sympatholytic inhibited proliferation of stromal precursors and reduced feeder activity of fibroblasts for granulocyte precursors.

  11. FGF7 supports hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells and niche-dependent myeloblastoma cells via autocrine action on bone marrow stromal cells in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Ishino, Ruri; Minami, Kaori; Tanaka, Satowa; Nagai, Mami; Matsui, Keiji; Hasegawa, Natsumi; Roeder, Robert G.; Asano, Shigetaka; Ito, Mitsuhiro

    2013-10-11

    Highlights: •FGF7 is downregulated in MED1-deficient mesenchymal cells. •FGF7 produced by mesenchymal stromal cells is a novel hematopoietic niche molecule. •FGF7 supports hematopoietic progenitor cells and niche-dependent leukemia cells. •FGF7 activates FGFR2IIIb of bone marrow stromal cells in an autocrine manner. •FGF7 indirectly acts on hematopoietic cells lacking FGFR2IIIb via stromal cells. -- Abstract: FGF1 and FGF2 support hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) under stress conditions. In this study, we show that fibroblast growth factor (FGF7) may be a novel niche factor for HSPC support and leukemic growth. FGF7 expression was attenuated in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) deficient for the MED1 subunit of the Mediator transcriptional coregulator complex. When normal mouse bone marrow (BM) cells were cocultured with Med1{sup +/+} MEFs or BM stromal cells in the presence of anti-FGF7 antibody, the growth of BM cells and the number of long-time culture-initiating cells (LTC-ICs) decreased significantly. Anti-FGF7 antibody also attenuated the proliferation and cobblestone formation of MB1 stromal cell-dependent myeloblastoma cells. The addition of recombinant FGF7 to the coculture of BM cells and Med1{sup −/−} MEFs increased BM cells and LTC-ICs. FGF7 and its cognate receptor, FGFR2IIIb, were undetectable in BM cells, but MEFs and BM stromal cells expressed both. FGF7 activated downstream targets of FGFR2IIIb in Med1{sup +/+} and Med1{sup −/−} MEFs and BM stromal cells. Taken together, we propose that FGF7 supports HSPCs and leukemia-initiating cells indirectly via FGFR2IIIb expressed on stromal cells.

  12. Release of platelet activating factor (PAF) and eicosanoids in UVC-irradiated corneal stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Y; Birkle, D L

    1995-05-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation provokes acute inflammation of the eye, and can be used to model processes that occur in response to damage to the anterior segment. This study characterized ultraviolet-C (UVC, 254 nm) irradiation-induced PAF synthesis, and arachidonic acid (20:4) and eicosanoid release in rabbit corneal stromal cells maintained in vitro. PAF was measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA) after exposing cultured corneal stromal cells to UVC irradiation (20 min, 2, 5, 10 mW/cm2). 14C-20:4-labeled stromal cells were also stimulated with UVC and radiolabeled phospholipids, neutral lipids and eicosanoids were measured. Synthesis of cell-associated and secreted PAF from corneal stromal cells was increased by UV irradiation. UV irradiation (254 nm, 5mW/cm2) enhanced 20:4 release from triacylglycerols, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylethanolamine, and increased levels of 20:4-diacylglycerol and unesterified 20:4. The released 20:4 entered both the cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase pathways after UVC irradiation. The PAF antagonist, BN52021 (10 microM) reduced UVC irradiation-induced stimulation of prostaglandin production, but failed to inhibit UVC-induced 20:4 release and synthesis of lipoxygenase products. Furthermore, exogenous PAF (1 microM) stimulated prostaglandin production, but did not increase the synthesis of lipoxygenase products from radiolabeled 20:4. The effects of PAF on prostaglandin synthesis were inhibited by BN52021. These findings indicate that responses to injury in cultured corneal stromal cells include PAF synthesis, release of 20:4 from glycerolipids, accumulation of diacylglycerol and synthesis of eicosanoids. The data further suggest that during UVC irradiation in vitro, PAF is not a primary or initial mediator of 20:4 release and synthesis of lipoxygenase products, but may mediate UVC-induced prostaglandin synthesis. PMID:7648859

  13. Regenerative stromal cell therapy in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: Current impact and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Auletta, Jeffery J.; Cooke, Kenneth R.; Solchaga, Luis A.; Deans, Robert J.; Hof, Wouter van’t

    2014-01-01

    Regenerative stromal cell therapy (RSCT) has the potential to become a novel therapy for preventing and treating acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) in the allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipient. However, enthusiasm for using RSCT in allogeneic HSCT has been tempered by limited clinical data and poorly-defined in vivo mechanisms of action. As a result, the full clinical potential of RSCT in supporting hematopoietic reconstitution and as treatment for GVHD remains to be determined. This manuscript reviews the immunomodulatory activity of regenerative stromal cells in pre-clinical models of allogeneic HSCT and emphasizes an emerging literature suggesting that microenvironment influences RSC activation and function. Understanding this key finding may ultimately define the proper niche for RSCT in allogeneic HSCT. In particular, mechanistic studies are needed to delineate the in vivo effects of RSCT in response to inflammation and injury associated with allogeneic HSCT and to define the relevant sites of RSC interaction with immune cells in the transplant recipient. Furthermore, development of in vivo imaging technology to correlate biodistribution patterns, desired RSC effect, and clinical outcome will be crucial to establishing dose-response effects and minimal biologic-dose thresholds needed to advance translational treatment strategies for complications like GVHD. PMID:20018250

  14. Two methods for establishing primary human endometrial stromal cells from hysterectomy specimens.

    PubMed

    Jividen, Kasey; Movassagh, Mercedeh Javanbakht; Jazaeri, Amir; Li, Hui

    2014-01-01

    Many efforts have been devoted to establish in vitro cell culture systems. These systems are designed to model a vast number of in vivo processes. Cell culture systems arising from human endometrial samples are no exception. Applications range from normal cyclic physiological processes to endometrial pathologies such as gynecological cancers, infectious diseases, and reproductive deficiencies. Here, we provide two methods for establishing primary endometrial stromal cells from surgically resected endometrial hysterectomy specimens. The first method is referred to as "the scraping method" and incorporates mechanical scraping using surgical or razor blades whereas the second method is termed "the trypsin method." This latter method uses the enzymatic activity of trypsin to promote the separation of cells and primary cell outgrowth. We illustrate step-by-step methodology through digital images and microscopy. We also provide examples for validating endometrial stromal cell lines via quantitative real time polymerase chain reactions (qPCR) and immunofluorescence (IF). PMID:24894444

  15. Restricted myogenic potential of mesenchymal stromal cells isolated from umbilical cord.

    PubMed

    Grabowska, Iwona; Brzoska, Edyta; Gawrysiak, Agnieszka; Streminska, Wladyslawa; Moraczewski, Jerzy; Polanski, Zbigniew; Hoser, Grazyna; Kawiak, Jerzy; Machaj, Eugeniusz K; Pojda, Zygmunt; Ciemerych, Maria A

    2012-01-01

    Nonhematopoietic cord blood cells and mesenchymal cells of umbilical cord Wharton's jelly have been shown to be able to differentiate into various cell types. Thus, as they are readily available and do not raise any ethical issues, these cells are considered to be a potential source of material that can be used in regenerative medicine. In our previous study, we tested the potential of whole mononucleated fraction of human umbilical cord blood cells and showed that they are able to participate in the regeneration of injured mouse skeletal muscle. In the current study, we focused at the umbilical cord mesenchymal stromal cells isolated from Wharton's jelly. We documented that limited fraction of these cells express markers of pluripotent and myogenic cells. Moreover, they are able to undergo myogenic differentiation in vitro, as proved by coculture with C2C12 myoblasts. They also colonize injured skeletal muscle and, with low frequency, participate in the formation of new muscle fibers. Pretreatment of Wharton's jelly mesenchymal stromal cells with SDF-1 has no impact on their incorporation into regenerating muscle fibers but significantly increased muscle mass. As a result, transplantation of mesenchymal stromal cells enhances the skeletal muscle regeneration.

  16. Identification of stromal cell products that interact with pre-B cells

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    Our understanding of lympho-hematopoietic microenvironments is incomplete, and a new cloning strategy was developed to identify molecules that bind to B lineage lymphocyte precursors. A cell sorting procedure was used for initial enrichment of cDNAs from stromal cell mRNA that contained signal sequences and were therefore likely to encode transmembrane or secreted proteins. A second step involved expression of the library as soluble Ig fusion proteins. Finally, pools representing these proteins were screened for the ability to recognize pre-B cells. This approach resulted in the cloning of biglycan, syndecan 4, collagen type I, clusterin, matrix glycoprotein sc1, osteonectin, and one unknown molecule (designated SIM). The full-length cDNA of SIM revealed that it is a type I transmembrane protein, and its intracellular domain has weak homology with myosin heavy chain and related proteins. Staining of established cell lines and freshly isolated hematopoietic cells with the Ig fusion proteins revealed distinct patterns of reactivity and differential dependence on divalent cations. Biglycan-, sc1-, and SIM-Ig fusion proteins selectively increased interleukin 7-dependent proliferation of pre-B cells. Overexpression of the entire SIM protein affected the morphology of 293T cells, while expression of just the extracellular portion was without effect. Thus, a series of stromal cell surface molecules has been identified that interact with blood cell precursors. Three of them promoted the survival and/or proliferation of pre-B cells in culture, and all merit further study in relation to lympho-hematopoiesis. PMID:8707854

  17. Cancer cells enter dormancy after cannibalizing mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs)

    PubMed Central

    Bartosh, Thomas J.; Ullah, Mujib; Zeitouni, Suzanne; Beaver, Joshua; Prockop, Darwin J.

    2016-01-01

    Patients with breast cancer often develop malignant regrowth of residual drug-resistant dormant tumor cells years after primary treatment, a process defined as cancer relapse. Deciphering the causal basis of tumor dormancy therefore has obvious therapeutic significance. Because cancer cell behavior is strongly influenced by stromal cells, particularly the mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) that are actively recruited into tumor-associated stroma, we assessed the impact of MSCs on breast cancer cell (BCC) dormancy. Using 3D cocultures to mimic the cellular interactions of an emerging tumor niche, we observed that MSCs sequentially surrounded the BCCs, promoted formation of cancer spheroids, and then were internalized/degraded through a process resembling the well-documented yet ill-defined clinical phenomenon of cancer cell cannibalism. This suspected feeding behavior was less appreciable in the presence of a rho kinase inhibitor and in 2D monolayer cocultures. Notably, cannibalism of MSCs enhanced survival of BCCs deprived of nutrients but suppressed their tumorigenicity, together suggesting the cancer cells entered dormancy. Transcriptome profiles revealed that the resulting BCCs acquired a unique molecular signature enriched in prosurvival factors and tumor suppressors, as well as inflammatory mediators that demarcate the secretome of senescent cells, also referred to as the senescence-associated secretory phenotype. Overall, our results provide intriguing evidence that cancer cells under duress enter dormancy after cannibalizing MSCs. Importantly, our practical 3D coculture model could provide a valuable tool to understand the antitumor activity of MSCs and cell cannibalism further, and therefore open new therapeutic avenues for the prevention of cancer recurrence. PMID:27698134

  18. Stromal Activation by Tumor Cells: An in Vitro Study in Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Merlino, Giuseppe; Miodini, Patrizia; Paolini, Biagio; Carcangiu, Maria Luisa; Gennaro, Massimiliano; Dugo, Matteo; Daidone, Maria Grazia; Cappelletti, Vera

    2016-01-01

    Background: The tumor microenvironment participates in the regulation of tumor progression and influences treatment sensitivity. In breast cancer, it also may play a role in determining the fate of non-invasive lesions such as ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), a non-obligate precursor of invasive diseases, which is aggressively treated despite its indolent nature in many patients since no biomarkers are available to predict the progression of DCIS to invasive disease. In vitro models of stromal activation by breast tumor cells might provide clues as to specific stromal genes crucial for the transition from DCIS to invasive disease. Methods: normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDF) were treated under serum-free conditions with cell culture media conditioned by breast cancer cell lines (SkBr3, MDA-MB-468, T47D) for 72 h and subjected to gene expression profiling with Illumina platform. Results: TGM2, coding for a tissue transglutaminase, was identified as candidate gene for stromal activation. In public transcriptomic datasets of invasive breast tumors TGM2 expression proved to provide prognostic information. Conversely, its role as an early biosensor of tumor invasiveness needs to be further investigated by in situ analyses. Conclusion: Stromal TGM2 might probably be associated with precancerous evolution at earlier stages compared to DCIS. PMID:27600076

  19. Stromal Activation by Tumor Cells: An in Vitro Study in Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Merlino, Giuseppe; Miodini, Patrizia; Paolini, Biagio; Carcangiu, Maria Luisa; Gennaro, Massimiliano; Dugo, Matteo; Daidone, Maria Grazia; Cappelletti, Vera

    2016-01-01

    Background: The tumor microenvironment participates in the regulation of tumor progression and influences treatment sensitivity. In breast cancer, it also may play a role in determining the fate of non-invasive lesions such as ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), a non-obligate precursor of invasive diseases, which is aggressively treated despite its indolent nature in many patients since no biomarkers are available to predict the progression of DCIS to invasive disease. In vitro models of stromal activation by breast tumor cells might provide clues as to specific stromal genes crucial for the transition from DCIS to invasive disease. Methods: normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDF) were treated under serum-free conditions with cell culture media conditioned by breast cancer cell lines (SkBr3, MDA-MB-468, T47D) for 72 h and subjected to gene expression profiling with Illumina platform. Results: TGM2, coding for a tissue transglutaminase, was identified as candidate gene for stromal activation. In public transcriptomic datasets of invasive breast tumors TGM2 expression proved to provide prognostic information. Conversely, its role as an early biosensor of tumor invasiveness needs to be further investigated by in situ analyses. Conclusion: Stromal TGM2 might probably be associated with precancerous evolution at earlier stages compared to DCIS.

  20. Enhanced Healing of Diabetic Wounds by Topical Administration of Adipose Tissue-Derived Stromal Cells Overexpressing Stromal-Derived Factor-1: Biodistribution and Engraftment Analysis by Bioluminescent Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Di Rocco, Giuliana; Gentile, Antonietta; Antonini, Annalisa; Ceradini, Francesca; Wu, Joseph C.; Capogrossi, Maurizio C.; Toietta, Gabriele

    2011-01-01

    Chronic ulcers represent a major health problem in diabetic patients resulting in pain and discomfort. Conventional therapy does not guarantee adequate wound repair. In diabetes, impaired healing is partly due to poor endothelial progenitor cells mobilisation and homing, with altered levels of the chemokine stromal-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) at the wound site. Adipose tissue-associated stromal cells (AT-SCs) can provide an accessible source of progenitor cells secreting proangiogenic factors and differentiating into endothelial-like cells. We demonstrated that topical administration of AT-SCs genetically modified ex vivo to overexpress SDF-1, promotes wound healing into diabetic mice. In particular, by in vivo bioluminescent imaging analysis, we monitored biodistribution and survival after transplantation of luciferase-expressing cells. In conclusion, this study indicates the therapeutic potential of AT-SCs administration in wound healing, through cell differentiation, enhanced cellular recruitment at the wound site, and paracrine effects associated with local growth-factors production. PMID:21234108

  1. Enhanced healing of diabetic wounds by topical administration of adipose tissue-derived stromal cells overexpressing stromal-derived factor-1: biodistribution and engraftment analysis by bioluminescent imaging.

    PubMed

    Di Rocco, Giuliana; Gentile, Antonietta; Antonini, Annalisa; Ceradini, Francesca; Wu, Joseph C; Capogrossi, Maurizio C; Toietta, Gabriele

    2010-01-01

    Chronic ulcers represent a major health problem in diabetic patients resulting in pain and discomfort. Conventional therapy does not guarantee adequate wound repair. In diabetes, impaired healing is partly due to poor endothelial progenitor cells mobilisation and homing, with altered levels of the chemokine stromal-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) at the wound site. Adipose tissue-associated stromal cells (AT-SCs) can provide an accessible source of progenitor cells secreting proangiogenic factors and differentiating into endothelial-like cells. We demonstrated that topical administration of AT-SCs genetically modified ex vivo to overexpress SDF-1, promotes wound healing into diabetic mice. In particular, by in vivo bioluminescent imaging analysis, we monitored biodistribution and survival after transplantation of luciferase-expressing cells. In conclusion, this study indicates the therapeutic potential of AT-SCs administration in wound healing, through cell differentiation, enhanced cellular recruitment at the wound site, and paracrine effects associated with local growth-factors production. PMID:21234108

  2. Radiation-induced DNA damage in canine hemopoietic cells and stromal cells as measured by the comet assay

    SciTech Connect

    Kreja, L.; Selig, C.; Plappert, U.; Nothdurft, W.

    1996-12-31

    Stromal cell progenitors (fibroblastoid colony-forming unit; CFU-Fs) are representative of the progenitor cell population of the hemopoietic microenvironment in bone marrow (BM). Previous studies of the radiation dose-effect relationships for colony formation have shown that canine CFU-Fs are relatively radioresistant as characterized by a D{sub 0} value of about 2.4 Gy. In contrast, hemopoietic progenitors are particularly radiosensitive (D{sub 0} values = 0.12-0.60 Gy). In the present study, the alkaline single-cell gel electrophoresis technique for the in situ quantitation of DNA strand breaks and alkalilabile site was employed. Canine buffy coat cells from BM aspirates and cells harvested from CFU-F colonies or from mixed populations of adherent BM stromal cell (SC) layers were exposed to increasing doses of X-rays, embedded in agarose gel on slides, lysed with detergents, and placed in an electric field. DNA migrating from single cells in the gel was made visible as {open_quotes}comets{close_quotes} by ethidium bromide staining. Immediate DNA damage was much less in cultured stromal cells than in hemopoietic cells in BM aspirates. These results suggest that the observed differences in clonogenic survival could be partly due to differences in the type of the initial DNA damage between stromal cells and hemopoietic cells. 37 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Ezrin expression in stromal cells of capillary hemangioblastoma. An immunohistochemical survey of brain tumors.

    PubMed Central

    Böhling, T.; Turunen, O.; Jääskeläinen, J.; Carpen, O.; Sainio, M.; Wahlström, T.; Vaheri, A.; Haltia, M.

    1996-01-01

    Ezrin is a cytoskeleton-associated protein that appears to link actin filaments to the plasma membrane. Immunocytochemical studies suggest that ezrin is expressed in epithelial cells but not in mesenchymal cells. In addition, ezrin is expressed by certain epithelial tumors, such as renal cell adenocarcinomas. Ezrin serves as a tyrosine kinase substrate, and is phosphorylated in epidermal growth factor-stimulated cells. Ezrin may thus mediate regulatory signals in different cell functions. We studied the distribution of ezrin in 104 cases of primary tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) by immunocytochemistry. Special interest was focused on capillary hemangioblastoma, owing to its resemblance to renal cell adenocarcinoma, and on malignant gliomas, owing to their frequent epidermal growth factor receptor amplification. The stromal cells of hemangioblastomas were found to be strongly positive for ezrin. No expression was detected in gliomas and, except for hemangioblastomas, ezrin expression was restricted to those few CNS tumors that show epithelial differentiation, ie, choroid plexus papillomas, craniopharyngiomas, ependymomas, and cysts. The diffuse cytoplasmic expression of ezrin in the stromal cells of capillary hemangioblastoma may indicate that stromal cells overexpress ezrin or express ezrin with deficient binding properties. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:8579099

  4. Isolation and Characterisation of Mesenchymal Stem/Stromal Cells in the Ovine Endometrium

    PubMed Central

    Deane, James A.; Ulrich, Daniela; Gurung, Shanti; Ong, Y. Rue; Gargett, Caroline E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSC) were recently discovered in the human endometrium. These cells possess key stem cell properties and show promising results in small animal models when used for preclinical tissue engineering studies. A small number of surface markers have been identified that enrich for MSC from bone marrow and human endometrium, including the Sushi Domain-containing 2 (SUSD2; W5C5) and CD271 markers. In preparation for developing a large animal preclinical model for urological and gynecological tissue engineering applications we aimed to identify and characterise MSC in ovine endometrium and determine surface markers to enable their prospective isolation. Materials and Methods Ovine endometrium was obtained from hysterectomised ewes following progesterone synchronisation, dissociated into single cell suspensions and tested for MSC surface markers and key stem cell properties. Purified stromal cells were obtained by flow cytometry sorting with CD49f and CD45 to remove epithelial cells and leukocytes respectively, and MSC properties investigated. Results There was a small population CD271+ stromal cells (4.5 ± 2.3%) in the ovine endometrium. Double labelling with CD271 and CD49f showed that the sorted CD271+CD49f- stromal cell population possessed significantly higher cloning efficiency, serial cloning capacity and a qualitative increased ability to differentiate into 4 mesodermal lineages (adipocytic, smooth muscle, chondrocytic and osteoblastic) than CD271-CD49f- cells. Immunolabelling studies identified an adventitial perivascular location for ovine endometrial CD271+ cells. Conclusion This is the first study to characterise MSC in the ovine endometrium and identify a surface marker profile identifying their location and enabling their prospective isolation. This knowledge will allow future preclinical studies with a large animal model that is well established for pelvic organ prolapse research. PMID:25992577

  5. O-GlcNAcylation Negatively Regulates Cardiomyogenic Fate in Adult Mouse Cardiac Mesenchymal Stromal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zafir, Ayesha; Bradley, James A.; Long, Bethany W.; Muthusamy, Senthilkumar; Li, Qianhong; Hill, Bradford G.; Wysoczynski, Marcin; Prabhu, Sumanth D.; Bhatnagar, Aruni; Bolli, Roberto; Jones, Steven P.

    2015-01-01

    In both preclinical and clinical studies, cell transplantation of several cell types is used to promote repair of damaged organs and tissues. Nevertheless, despite the widespread use of such strategies, there remains little understanding of how the efficacy of cell therapy is regulated. We showed previously that augmentation of a unique, metabolically derived stress signal (i.e., O-GlcNAc) improves survival of cardiac mesenchymal stromal cells; however, it is not known whether enhancing O-GlcNAcylation affects lineage commitment or other aspects of cell competency. In this study, we assessed the role of O-GlcNAc in differentiation of cardiac mesenchymal stromal cells. Exposure of these cells to routine differentiation protocols in culture increased markers of the cardiomyogenic lineage such as Nkx2.5 and connexin 40, and augmented the abundance of transcripts associated with endothelial and fibroblast cell fates. Differentiation significantly decreased the abundance of O-GlcNAcylated proteins. To determine if O-GlcNAc is involved in stromal cell differentiation, O-GlcNAcylation was increased pharmacologically during the differentiation protocol. Although elevated O-GlcNAc levels did not significantly affect fibroblast and endothelial marker expression, acquisition of cardiomyocyte markers was limited. In addition, increasing O-GlcNAcylation further elevated smooth muscle actin expression. In addition to lineage commitment, we also evaluated proliferation and migration, and found that increasing O-GlcNAcylation did not significantly affect either; however, we found that O-GlcNAc transferase—the protein responsible for adding O-GlcNAc to proteins—is at least partially required for maintaining cellular proliferative and migratory capacities. We conclude that O-GlcNAcylation contributes significantly to cardiac mesenchymal stromal cell lineage and function. O-GlcNAcylation and pathological conditions that may affect O-GlcNAc levels (such as diabetes) should be

  6. The Bone Marrow-Derived Stromal Cells: Commitment and Regulation of Adipogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Tencerova, Michaela; Kassem, Moustapha

    2016-01-01

    Bone marrow (BM) microenvironment represents an important compartment of bone that regulates bone homeostasis and the balance between bone formation and bone resorption depending on the physiological needs of the organism. Abnormalities of BM microenvironmental dynamics can lead to metabolic bone diseases. BM stromal cells (also known as skeletal or mesenchymal stem cells) [bone marrow stromal stem cell (BMSC)] are multipotent stem cells located within BM stroma and give rise to osteoblasts and adipocytes. However, cellular and molecular mechanisms of BMSC lineage commitment to adipocytic lineage and regulation of BM adipocyte formation are not fully understood. In this review, we will discuss recent findings pertaining to identification and characterization of adipocyte progenitor cells in BM and the regulation of differentiation into mature adipocytes. We have also emphasized the clinical relevance of these findings. PMID:27708616

  7. CD34+ stromal cells/fibroblasts/fibrocytes/telocytes as a tissue reserve and a principal source of mesenchymal cells. Location, morphology, function and role in pathology.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Flores, L; Gutiérrez, R; García, M P; Sáez, F J; Díaz-Flores, L; Valladares, F; Madrid, J F

    2014-07-01

    We review the morphofunctional characteristics of CD34+ stromal fibroblastic/fibrocytic cells (CD34+ SFCs) and report our observations. We consider the following aspects of CD34+ SFCs: A) The confusing terms applied to this cell type, often combining the prefix CD34 with numerous names, including fibroblasts, fibrocytes, dendrocytes, keratocytes, telocytes and stromal, dendritic, adventitial, supraadventitial, perivascular, paravascular and delimiting cells; B) Changes in their immunophenotype, e.g., loss of CD34 expression and gain of other markers, such as those defining mesenchymal and derivate cells (myofibroblasts, osteoblasts, chondroblasts, adipocytes); C) Morphology (elongated or triangular cell body and thin, moniliform, bipolar or multipolar cytoplasmic processes), immunohistochemistry (co-expression of and changes in molecular expression) and structure (characteristics of nucleus and cytoplasmic organelles, and points of contact and junctions in quiescent and activated stages by light and electron microscopy); D) Location and distribution in the vessels (adventitia or external layer), in the tissues (connective, adipose, blood, muscle and nervous) and in the organs and systems (skin, oral cavity and oropharynx, respiratory, digestive, urinary, male, female, endocrine and lymphoid systems, serosal and synovial membranes, heart, eye and meninges); E) Origin from the mesoderm and cranial neural crest in the embryo, and from stem cells (themselves or other cells) and/or peripheral blood pluripotent stem cells (circulating progenitor cells) in post-natal life; F) Functions, such as synthesis of different molecules, progenitor of mesenchymal cells, immunomodulation, parenchymal regulation (growth, maturation and differentiation of adjacent cells), induction of angiogenesis, scaffolding support of other cells and phagocytic properties. Since CD34+ SFCs are the main reservoir of tissue mesenchymal cells (great mesenchymal potential, probably higher than that

  8. Zebrafish embryonic stromal trunk (ZEST) cells support hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC) proliferation, survival, and differentiation.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Clyde; Su, Tammy; Lau, Ryan P; Shah, Arpit; Laurie, Payton C; Avalos, Brenda; Aggio, Julian; Harris, Elena; Traver, David; Stachura, David L

    2015-12-01

    Forward genetic screens in zebrafish have been used to identify genes essential for the generation of primitive blood and the emergence of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), but have not elucidated the genes essential for hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC) proliferation and differentiation because of the lack of methodologies to functionally assess these processes. We previously described techniques used to test the developmental potential of HSPCs by culturing them on zebrafish kidney stromal (ZKS) cells, derived from the main site of hematopoiesis in the adult teleost. Here we describe an additional primary stromal cell line we refer to as zebrafish embryonic stromal trunk (ZEST) cells, derived from tissue surrounding the embryonic dorsal aorta, the site of HSC emergence in developing fish. ZEST cells encouraged HSPC differentiation toward the myeloid, lymphoid, and erythroid pathways when assessed by morphologic and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analyses. Additionally, ZEST cells significantly expanded the number of cultured HSPCs in vitro, indicating that these stromal cells are supportive of both HSPC proliferation and multilineage differentiation. Examination of ZEST cells indicates that they express numerous cytokines and Notch ligands and possess endothelial characteristics. Further characterization of ZEST cells should prove to be invaluable in understanding the complex signaling cascades instigated by the embryonic hematopoietic niche required to expand and differentiate HSPCs. Elucidating these processes and identifying possibilities for the modulation of these molecular pathways should allow the in vitro expansion of HSPCs for a multitude of therapeutic uses.

  9. Stromal niche communalities underscore the contribution of the matricellular protein SPARC to B-cell development and lymphoid malignancies.

    PubMed

    Sangaletti, Sabina; Tripodo, Claudio; Portararo, Paola; Dugo, Matteo; Vitali, Caterina; Botti, Laura; Guarnotta, Carla; Cappetti, Barbara; Gulino, Alessandro; Torselli, Ilaria; Casalini, Patrizia; Chiodoni, Claudia; Colombo, Mario P

    2014-01-01

    Neoplastic B-cell clones commonly arise within secondary lymphoid organs (SLO). However, during disease progression, lymphomatous cells may also colonize the bone marrow (BM), where they localize within specialized stromal niches, namely the osteoblastic and the vascular niche, according to their germinal center- or extra-follicular-derivation, respectively. We hypothesized the existence of common stromal motifs in BM and SLO B-cell lymphoid niches involved in licensing normal B-cell development as well as in fostering transformed B lymphoid cells. Thus, we tested the expression of prototypical mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC) markers and regulatory matricellular proteins in human BM and SLO under physiologically unperturbed conditions and during B-cell lymphoma occurrence. We identified common stromal features in the BM osteoblastic niche and SLO germinal center (GC) microenvironments, traits that were also enriched within BM infiltrates of GC-associated B-cell lymphomas, suggesting that stromal programs involved in central and peripheral B-cell lymphopoiesis are also involved in malignant B-cell nurturing. Among factors co-expressed by stromal elements within these different specialized niches, we identified the pleiotropic matricellular protein secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC). The actual role of stromal SPARC in normal B-cell lymphopoiesis, investigated in Sparc(-/-) mice and BM chimeras retaining the Sparc(-/-) genotype in host stroma, demonstrated defective BM and splenic B-cell lymphopoiesis. Moreover, in the Trp53 knockout (KO) lymphoma model, p53(-/-)/Sparc(-/-) double-KO mice displayed impaired spontaneous splenic B-cell lymphomagenesis and reduced neoplastic clone BM infiltration in comparison with their p53(-/-)/Sparc(+/+) counterparts. Our results are among the first to demonstrate the existence of common stromal programs regulating both the BM osteoblastic niche and the SLO GC lymphopoietic functions potentially fostering the genesis

  10. Stromal niche communalities underscore the contribution of the matricellular protein SPARC to B-cell development and lymphoid malignancies.

    PubMed

    Sangaletti, Sabina; Tripodo, Claudio; Portararo, Paola; Dugo, Matteo; Vitali, Caterina; Botti, Laura; Guarnotta, Carla; Cappetti, Barbara; Gulino, Alessandro; Torselli, Ilaria; Casalini, Patrizia; Chiodoni, Claudia; Colombo, Mario P

    2014-01-01

    Neoplastic B-cell clones commonly arise within secondary lymphoid organs (SLO). However, during disease progression, lymphomatous cells may also colonize the bone marrow (BM), where they localize within specialized stromal niches, namely the osteoblastic and the vascular niche, according to their germinal center- or extra-follicular-derivation, respectively. We hypothesized the existence of common stromal motifs in BM and SLO B-cell lymphoid niches involved in licensing normal B-cell development as well as in fostering transformed B lymphoid cells. Thus, we tested the expression of prototypical mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC) markers and regulatory matricellular proteins in human BM and SLO under physiologically unperturbed conditions and during B-cell lymphoma occurrence. We identified common stromal features in the BM osteoblastic niche and SLO germinal center (GC) microenvironments, traits that were also enriched within BM infiltrates of GC-associated B-cell lymphomas, suggesting that stromal programs involved in central and peripheral B-cell lymphopoiesis are also involved in malignant B-cell nurturing. Among factors co-expressed by stromal elements within these different specialized niches, we identified the pleiotropic matricellular protein secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC). The actual role of stromal SPARC in normal B-cell lymphopoiesis, investigated in Sparc(-/-) mice and BM chimeras retaining the Sparc(-/-) genotype in host stroma, demonstrated defective BM and splenic B-cell lymphopoiesis. Moreover, in the Trp53 knockout (KO) lymphoma model, p53(-/-)/Sparc(-/-) double-KO mice displayed impaired spontaneous splenic B-cell lymphomagenesis and reduced neoplastic clone BM infiltration in comparison with their p53(-/-)/Sparc(+/+) counterparts. Our results are among the first to demonstrate the existence of common stromal programs regulating both the BM osteoblastic niche and the SLO GC lymphopoietic functions potentially fostering the genesis

  11. Isolation and enrichment of human adipose-derived stromal cells for enhanced osteogenesis.

    PubMed

    Zielins, Elizabeth R; Tevlin, Ruth; Hu, Michael S; Chung, Michael T; McArdle, Adrian; Paik, Kevin J; Atashroo, David; Duldulao, Christopher R; Luan, Anna; Senarath-Yapa, Kshemendra; Walmsley, Graham G; Wearda, Taylor; Longaker, Michael T; Wan, Derrick C

    2015-01-12

    Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (BM-MSCs) are considered the gold standard for stem cell-based tissue engineering applications. However, the process by which they must be harvested can be associated with significant donor site morbidity. In contrast, adipose-derived stromal cells (ASCs) are more readily abundant and more easily harvested, making them an appealing alternative to BM-MSCs. Like BM-MSCs, ASCs can differentiate into osteogenic lineage cells and can be used in tissue engineering applications, such as seeding onto scaffolds for use in craniofacial skeletal defects. ASCs are obtained from the stromal vascular fraction (SVF) of digested adipose tissue, which is a heterogeneous mixture of ASCs, vascular endothelial and mural cells, smooth muscle cells, pericytes, fibroblasts, and circulating cells. Flow cytometric analysis has shown that the surface marker profile for ASCs is similar to that for BM-MSCs. Despite several published reports establishing markers for the ASC phenotype, there is still a lack of consensus over profiles identifying osteoprogenitor cells in this heterogeneous population. This protocol describes how to isolate and use a subpopulation of ASCs with enhanced osteogenic capacity to repair critical-sized calvarial defects.

  12. Decidualization and syndecan-1 knock down sensitize endometrial stromal cells to apoptosis induced by embryonic stimuli.

    PubMed

    Boeddeker, Sarah Jean; Baston-Buest, Dunja Maria; Fehm, Tanja; Kruessel, Jan; Hess, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    Human embryo invasion and implantation into the inner wall of the maternal uterus, the endometrium, is the pivotal process for a successful pregnancy. Whereas disruption of the endometrial epithelial layer was already correlated with the programmed cell death, the role of apoptosis of the subjacent endometrial stromal cells during implantation is indistinct. The aim was to clarify whether apoptosis plays a role in the stromal invasion and to characterize if the apoptotic susceptibility of endometrial stromal cells to embryonic stimuli is influenced by decidualization and Syndecan-1. Therefore, the immortalized human endometrial stromal cell line St-T1 was used to first generate a new cell line with a stable Syndecan-1 knock down (KdS1), and second to further decidualize the cells with progesterone. As a replacement for the ethically inapplicable embryo all cells were treated with the embryonic factors and secretion products interleukin-1β, interferon-γ, tumor necrosis factor-α, transforming growth factor-β1 and anti-Fas antibody to mimic the embryo contact. Detection of apoptosis was verified via Caspase ELISAs, PARP cleavage and Annexin V staining. Apoptosis-related proteins were investigated via antibody arrays and underlying signaling pathways were analyzed by Western blot. Non-decidualized endometrial stromal cells showed a resistance towards apoptosis which was rescinded by decidualization and Syndecan-1 knock down independent of decidualization. This was correlated with an altered expression of several pro- and anti-apoptotic proteins and connected to a higher activation of pro-survival Akt in non-differentiated St-T1 as an upstream mediator of apoptotis-related proteins. This study provides insight into the largely elusive process of implantation, proposing an important role for stromal cell apoptosis to successfully establish a pregnancy. The impact of Syndecan-1 in attenuating the apoptotic signal is particularly interesting in the light of an already

  13. Making surrogate β-cells from mesenchymal stromal cells: perspectives and future endeavors.

    PubMed

    Bhonde, Ramesh R; Sheshadri, Preethi; Sharma, Shikha; Kumar, Anujith

    2014-01-01

    Generation of surrogate β-cells is the need of the day to compensate the short supply of islets for transplantation to diabetic patients requiring daily shots of insulin. Over the years several sources of stem cells have been claimed to cater to the need of insulin producing cells. These include human embryonic stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells, human perinatal tissues such as amnion, placenta, umbilical cord and postnatal tissues involving adipose tissue, bone marrow, blood monocytes, cord blood, dental pulp, endometrium, liver, labia minora dermis-derived fibroblasts and pancreas. Despite the availability of such heterogonous sources, there is no substantial breakthrough in selecting and implementing an ideal source for generating large number of stable insulin producing cells. Although the progress in derivation of β-cell like cells from embryonic stem cells has taken a greater leap, their application is limited due to controversy surrounding the destruction of human embryo and immune rejection. Since multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells are free of ethical and immunological complications, they could provide unprecedented opportunity as starting material to derive insulin secreting cells. The main focus of this review is to discuss the merits and demerits of MSCs obtained from human peri- and post-natal tissue sources to yield abundant glucose responsive insulin producing cells as ideal candidates for prospective stem cell therapy to treat diabetes.

  14. Phenotypic characteristics of hybrid cells generated by transferring neuronal nuclei into bone marrow stromal cell cytoplasts.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhujuan; Xu, Yan; Zhong, Qi; Zheng, Jian

    2012-02-10

    Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) are promising donor cells for transplantation therapies for a variety of diseases. However, there still lack efficient ways to induce directional differentiation of BMSCs to promote their practical use in transplantation therapy. In this study, we constructed hybrid cells by transferring neuronal nuclei into BMSC cytoplasts and investigated the proliferative capacity and phenotypic characteristics of the hybrid cells. The neuronal nuclei were labeled with Hoechst 33342 before the transfer process, and the cell membrane antigen CD71 was used as a marker of BMSC cytoplasts. The BMSC cytoplasts and neuronal karyoplasts were separated by Ficoll density gradient ultracentrifugation. The hybrid cells were generated by the polyethylene glycol-mediated fusion of BMSC cytoplasts with neuronal karyoplasts. The hybrid cells exhibited Hoechst 33342 staining in their nuclei and CD71 staining on their cytomembranes, which confirmed the success of cell fusion. The hybrid cells were positive for BrdU immunostaining. Viability analysis of the cultured hybrid cells by the MTT assay demonstrated their proliferative ability. Immunocytochemical staining revealed the expression of the neuron-specific markers NeuN and MAP2 in the third passage hybrid cells, which indicated their neuronal phenotypic characteristics. The results demonstrated that the hybrid cells produced by fusing neuronal karyoplasts with BMSC cytoplasts had proliferative capability and expressed the neuron-specific markers. Further study is required to investigate the phenotype of the hybrid cells both structurally and functionally.

  15. Making surrogate β-cells from mesenchymal stromal cells: perspectives and future endeavors.

    PubMed

    Bhonde, Ramesh R; Sheshadri, Preethi; Sharma, Shikha; Kumar, Anujith

    2014-01-01

    Generation of surrogate β-cells is the need of the day to compensate the short supply of islets for transplantation to diabetic patients requiring daily shots of insulin. Over the years several sources of stem cells have been claimed to cater to the need of insulin producing cells. These include human embryonic stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells, human perinatal tissues such as amnion, placenta, umbilical cord and postnatal tissues involving adipose tissue, bone marrow, blood monocytes, cord blood, dental pulp, endometrium, liver, labia minora dermis-derived fibroblasts and pancreas. Despite the availability of such heterogonous sources, there is no substantial breakthrough in selecting and implementing an ideal source for generating large number of stable insulin producing cells. Although the progress in derivation of β-cell like cells from embryonic stem cells has taken a greater leap, their application is limited due to controversy surrounding the destruction of human embryo and immune rejection. Since multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells are free of ethical and immunological complications, they could provide unprecedented opportunity as starting material to derive insulin secreting cells. The main focus of this review is to discuss the merits and demerits of MSCs obtained from human peri- and post-natal tissue sources to yield abundant glucose responsive insulin producing cells as ideal candidates for prospective stem cell therapy to treat diabetes. PMID:24275096

  16. Murine lymph node-derived stromal cells effectively support survival but induce no activation/proliferation of peripheral resting T cells in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yan-wen; Aritake, Sayoko; Tri Endharti, Agustina; Wu, Jianghong; Hayakawa, Akemi; Nakashima, Izumi; Suzuki, Haruhiko

    2003-01-01

    Little is known about the homeostatic mechanisms by which the levels of peripheral lymphocytes are maintained. The survival of naïve T cells in vivo must be maintained by some factors that have not been characterized in an in vitro culture system. In this study, we established a culture system of stromal cells derived from murine lymph nodes and investigated the action of the stromal cells in supporting the survival of resting T cells in vitro. Most of the T cells cocultured with the stromal cells did not die, and the supernatant of cultured stromal cells increase the viability of T cells. This T-cell survival-supporting activity was maintained for more than 7 days. Although interleukin (IL)-4, IL-6, IL-7, and interferon-β also rescued peripheral T cells from spontaneous cell death, medium-soluble and heat-sensitive factor(s) derived from the stromal cells supported the survival of T cells more effectively and for a longer time than did these cytokines. T cells maintained in the culture system with the stromal cells appeared to remain in a resting G0/G1 state and did not show remarkable DNA synthesis. From these results, it is presumed that some soluble factor(s) other than the tested cytokines that have been identified as supporting T-cell survival are produced from lymph node stromal cells. These factor(s) play an important role in maintenance of resting T cells. PMID:12871215

  17. Human amniotic membrane-derived stromal cells (hAMSC) interact depending on breast cancer cell type through secreted molecules.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sun-Hee; Bang, So Hee; Kang, So Yeong; Park, Ki Dae; Eom, Jun Ho; Oh, Il Ung; Yoo, Si Hyung; Kim, Chan-Wha; Baek, Sun Young

    2015-02-01

    Human amniotic membrane-derived stromal cells (hAMSC) are candidates for cell-based therapies. We examined the characteristics of hAMSC including the interaction between hAMSC and breast cancer cells, MCF-7, and MDA-MB-231. Human amniotic membrane-derived stromal cells showed typical MSC properties, including fibroblast-like morphology, surface antigen expression, and mesodermal differentiation. To investigate cell-cell interaction via secreted molecules, we cultured breast cancer cells in hAMSC-conditioned medium (hAMSC-CM) and analyzed their proliferation, migration, and secretome profiles. MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells exposed to hAMSC-CM showed increased proliferation and migration. However, in hAMSC-CM, MCF-7 cells proliferated significantly faster than MDA-MB-231 cells. When cultured in hAMSC-CM, MCF-7 cells migrated faster than MDA-MB-231 cells. Two cell types showed different profiles of secreted factors. MCF-7 cells expressed much amounts of IL-8, GRO, and MCP-1 in hAMSC-CM. Human amniotic membrane-derived stromal cells interact with breast cancer cells through secreted molecules. Factors secreted by hAMSCs promote the proliferation and migration of MCF-7 breast cancer cells. For much safe cell-based therapies using hAMSC, it is necessary to study carefully about interaction between hAMSC and cancer cells.

  18. Prediagnostic Obesity and Physical Inactivity Are Associated with Shorter Telomere Length in Prostate Stromal Cells.

    PubMed

    Joshu, Corinne E; Peskoe, Sarah B; Heaphy, Christopher M; Kenfield, Stacey A; Van Blarigan, Erin L; Mucci, Lorelei A; Giovannucci, Edward L; Stampfer, Meir J; Yoon, GhilSuk; Lee, Thomas K; Hicks, Jessica L; De Marzo, Angelo M; Meeker, Alan K; Platz, Elizabeth A

    2015-08-01

    Obesity and inactivity have been associated with advanced-stage prostate cancer, and poor prostate cancer outcomes, though the underlying mechanism(s) is unknown. To determine whether telomere shortening, which has been associated with lethal prostate cancer, may be a potential underlying mechanism, we prospectively evaluated the association between measures of adiposity, physical activity, and telomere length in 596 participants in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study, who were surgically treated for prostate cancer. Using tissue microarrays, we measured telomere length in cancer and benign cells using a telomere-specific FISH assay. Adiposity and activity were assessed via questionnaire within 2 years of diagnosis. Adjusting for age, pathologic stage, and grade, the median and SD of the per cell telomere signals were determined for each man for stromal cells and cancer cells by adiposity and activity categories. Overweight/obese men (54%) were similar to normal weight men on most factors, but had higher Gleason sum and lower activity levels. Overweight/obese men had 7.4% shorter telomeres in stromal cells than normal weight men (P = 0.06). The least active men had shorter telomeres in stromal cells than more active men (Ptrend = 0.002). Men who were overweight/obese and the least active had the shortest telomeres in stromal cells (20.7% shorter; P = 0.0005) compared with normal weight men who were the most active. Cancer cell telomere length and telomere length variability did not differ by measures of adiposity or activity. Telomere shortening in prostate cells may be one mechanism through which lifestyle influences prostate cancer risk and outcomes.

  19. Apoptosis induction of human endometriotic epithelial and stromal cells by noscapine

    PubMed Central

    Khazaei, Mohammad Rasoul; Rashidi, Zahra; Chobsaz, Farzaneh; Khazaei, Mozafar

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): Endometriosis is a complex gynecologic disease with unknown etiology. Noscapine has been introduced as a cancer cell suppressor. Endometriosis was considered as a cancer like disorder, The aim of present study was to investigate noscapine apoptotic effect on human endometriotic epithelial and stromal cells in vitro. Materials and Methods: In this in vitro study, endometrial biopsies from endometriosis patients (n=9) were prepared and digested by an enzymatic method (collagenase I, 2 mg/ml). Stromal and epithelial cells were separated by sequential filtration through a cell strainer and ficoll layering. The cells of each sample were divided into five groups: control (0), 10, 25, 50 and 100 micromole/liter (µM) concentration of noscapine and were cultured for three different periods of times; 24, 48 and 72 hr. Cell viability was assessed by colorimetric assay. Nitric oxide (NO) concentration was measured by Griess reagent. Cell death was analyzed by Acridine Orange (AO)–Ethidium Bromide (EB) double staining and Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT) dUTP Nick-End Labeling (TUNEL) assay. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA. Results: Viability of endometrial epithelial and stromal cells significantly decreased in 10, 25, 50 and 100 µM noscapine concentration in 24, 48, 72 hr (P<0.05) and apoptotic index increased in 25, 50 and 100 µM noscapine concentrations in 48 hr significantly (P<0.05). Concentrations of NO didn’t show a significant decrease. Conclusion: Noscapine increased endometriotic epithelial and stromal cell death and can be suggested as a treatment for endometriosis. PMID:27803780

  20. Behavior of in situ human native adipose tissue CD34+ stromal/progenitor cells during different stages of repair. Tissue-resident CD34+ stromal cells as a source of myofibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Flores, Lucio; Gutiérrez, Ricardo; Lizartza, Koldo; Goméz, Miriam González; García, M Del Pino; Sáez, Francisco J; Díaz-Flores, Lucio; Madrid, Juan F

    2015-05-01

    CD34+ adipose stromal cells are scattered in the adipose tissue and found in the CD34+ population of the stromal vascular fraction (SVF). This fraction includes adipose-derived stromal/stem/progenitor cells (ASCs), which have attracted considerable attention and show great promise for the future of regenerative medicine. Studies in this field have been undertaken mainly in vitro. In this work, however, we assessed the characteristics of human adipose tissue-resident CD34+ stromal cells in normal conditions and when activated in vivo during inflammatory/repair processes at different stages of evolution. In normal adipose tissue, these cells showed a characteristic location (peri/paravascular and between adipocytes), a fusiform or stellate morphology, long and moniliform processes, and scarce organelles. During inflammatory/repair stages, native CD34+ stromal cells increased in size, proliferated, developed numerous organelles of synthesis, lost CD34 expression, and differentiated into myofibroblasts (αSMA expression and typical ultrastructure). In double-stained sections, cells expressing both CD34 and αSMA were observed. CD34 expression correlated positively with a high proliferative capacity (Ki-67 expression). Conversely, CD34 expression was lost with successive mitoses and with increased numbers of macrophages in the granulation tissue. CD34+ stromal cell behavior varied depending on proximity to (with myofibroblast differentiation) or remoteness from (with activated plump cells conserving CD34 expression) injury. In conclusion, our observations point to human adipose tissue-resident CD34+ stromal cells as an important source of myofibroblasts during inflammatory/repair processes. Moreover, stromal cell activation may occur with or without αSMA expression (with or without myofibroblast transformation) and with loss or persistence of CD34 expression, respectively.

  1. Adult human mesenchymal stromal cells and the treatment of graft versus host disease

    PubMed Central

    Herrmann, Richard P; Sturm, Marian J

    2014-01-01

    Graft versus host disease is a difficult and potentially lethal complication of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. It occurs with minor human leucocyte antigen (HLA) mismatch and is normally treated with corticosteroid and other immunosuppressive therapy. When it is refractory to steroid therapy, mortality approaches 80%. Mesenchymal stromal cells are rare cells found in bone marrow and other tissues. They can be expanded in culture and possess complex and diverse immunomodulatory activity. Moreover, human mesenchymal stromal cells carry low levels of class 1 and no class 2 HLA antigens, making them immunoprivileged and able to be used without HLA matching. Their use in steroid-refractory graft versus host disease was first described in 2004. Subsequently, they have been used in a number of Phase I and II trials in acute and chronic graft versus host disease trials with success. We discuss their mode of action, the results, their production, and potential dangers with a view to future application. PMID:24627644

  2. Stromal cell contributions to the homeostasis and functionality of the immune system

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Scott N.; Germain, Ronald N.

    2009-01-01

    A defining characteristic of the immune system is the constant movement of many of its constituent cells through the secondary lymphoid tissues, mainly the spleen and lymph nodes, where crucial interactions that underlie homeostatic regulation, peripheral tolerance, and effective development of adaptive immunity take place. What has only recently been recognized is the role that non-haematopoietic stromal elements have in multiple aspects of immune cell migration, activation and survival. In this Review, we summarize our current understanding of lymphoid compartment stromal cells, examine their possible heterogeneity, discuss how these cells contribute to immune homeostasis and the efficient initiation of adaptive immunity, and highlight how targeting of these elements by some pathogens can influence the host response. PMID:19644499

  3. Chlorella vulgaris up-modulation of myelossupression induced by lead: the role of stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Queiroz, Mary L S; Torello, Cristiane O; Perhs, Simone M C; Rocha, Michelle C; Bechara, Etelvino J H; Morgano, Marcelo A; Valadares, Marize C; Rodrigues, Ana Paula O; Ramos, Aline Lisie; Soares, Chrislaine O

    2008-09-01

    In this study, Chlorella vulgaris (CV) was examined for its chelating effects on the ability of bone marrow stromal cell layer to display myeloid progenitor cells in vitro in lead-exposed mice, using the long-term bone marrow culture (LTBMC). In addition, the levels of interleukin (IL)-6, an important hematopoietic stimulator, as well as the numbers of adherent and non-adherent cells were also investigated. Mice were gavage treated daily with a single 50mg/kg dose of CV for 10 days, concomitant to continuous offering of 1300ppm lead acetate in drinking water. We found that CV up-modulates the reduced ability of stromal cell layer to display myeloid progenitor cells in vitro in lead-exposed mice and restores both the reduced number of non-adherent cells and the ability of stromal cells from these mice to produce IL-6. Monitoring of lead poisoning demonstrated that CV treatment significantly reduced lead levels in blood and tissues, completely restored the normal hepatic ALA levels, decreased the abnormally high plasma ALA and partly recovered the liver capacity to produce porphyrins. These findings provide evidence for a beneficial use of CV for combination or alternative chelating therapy to protect the host from the damage induced by lead poisoning.

  4. Distinct effects of SIRT1 in cancer and stromal cells on tumor promotion.

    PubMed

    Shin, Dong Hoon; Choi, Yong-Joon; Jin, Peng; Yoon, Haejin; Chun, Yang-Sook; Shin, Hyun-Woo; Kim, Ja-Eun; Park, Jong-Wan

    2016-04-26

    The lysyl deacetylase SIRT1 acts as a metabolic sensor in adjusting metabolic imbalance. To explore the role of SIRT1 in tumor-stroma interplay, we designed an in vivo tumor model using SIRT1-transgenic mice. B16F10 mouse melanoma grew more quickly in SIRT1-transgenic mice than in wild-type mice, whereas SIRT1-overexpressing one grew slowly in both mice. Of human tumors, SIRT1 expression in stromal fibroblasts was found to correlate with poor prognosis in ovarian cancer. B16F10 and human ovarian cancer (SKOV3 and SNU840) cells were more proliferative in co-culture with SIRT1-overexpressiong fibroblasts. In contrast, SIRT1 within cancer cells has a negative effect on cell proliferation. In conditioned media from SIRT1-overexpressing fibroblasts, matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP3) was identified in cytokine arrays to be secreted from fibroblasts SIRT1-dependently. Fibroblast-derived MMP3 stimulated cancer cell proliferation, and such a role of MMP3 was also demonstrated in cancer/fibroblast co-grafts. In conclusion, SIRT1 plays differential roles in cancer and stromal cells. SIRT1 in stromal cells promotes cancer growth by producing MMP3, whereas SIRT1 in cancer cells inhibits growth via an intracellular event. The present study provides a basis for setting new anticancer strategies targeting SIRT1. PMID:26992208

  5. Inhibins Tune the Thymocyte Selection Process by Regulating Thymic Stromal Cell Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Carbajal-Franco, Ebzadrel; de la Fuente-Granada, Marisol; Alemán-Muench, Germán R.; García-Zepeda, Eduardo A.; Soldevila, Gloria

    2015-01-01

    Inhibins and Activins are members of the TGF-β superfamily that regulate the differentiation of several cell types. These ligands were initially identified as hormones that regulate the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis; however, increasing evidence has demonstrated that they are key regulators in the immune system. We have previously demonstrated that Inhibins are the main Activin ligands expressed in the murine thymus and that they regulate thymocyte differentiation, promoting the DN3-DN4 transition and the selection of SP thymocytes. As Inhibins are mainly produced by thymic stromal cells, which also express Activin receptors and Smad proteins, we hypothesized that Inhibins might play a role in stromal cell differentiation and function. Here, we demonstrate that, in the absence of Inhibins, thymic conventional dendritic cells display reduced levels of MHC Class II (MHCII) and CD86. In addition, the ratio between cTECs and mTECs was affected, indicating that mTEC differentiation was favoured and cTEC diminished in the absence of Inhibins. These changes appeared to impact thymocyte selection leading to a decreased selection of CD4SP thymocytes and increased generation of natural regulatory T cells. These findings demonstrate that Inhibins tune the T cell selection process by regulating both thymocyte and stromal cell differentiation. PMID:25973437

  6. Distinct effects of SIRT1 in cancer and stromal cells on tumor promotion

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Dong Hoon; Choi, Yong-Joon; Jin, Peng; Yoon, Haejin; Chun, Yang-Sook; Shin, Hyun-Woo; Kim, Ja-Eun; Park, Jong-Wan

    2016-01-01

    The lysyl deacetylase SIRT1 acts as a metabolic sensor in adjusting metabolic imbalance. To explore the role of SIRT1 in tumor-stroma interplay, we designed an in vivo tumor model using SIRT1-transgenic mice. B16F10 mouse melanoma grew more quickly in SIRT1-transgenic mice than in wild-type mice, whereas SIRT1-overexpressing one grew slowly in both mice. Of human tumors, SIRT1 expression in stromal fibroblasts was found to correlate with poor prognosis in ovarian cancer. B16F10 and human ovarian cancer (SKOV3 and SNU840) cells were more proliferative in co-culture with SIRT1-overexpressiong fibroblasts. In contrast, SIRT1 within cancer cells has a negative effect on cell proliferation. In conditioned media from SIRT1-overexpressing fibroblasts, matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP3) was identified in cytokine arrays to be secreted from fibroblasts SIRT1-dependently. Fibroblast-derived MMP3 stimulated cancer cell proliferation, and such a role of MMP3 was also demonstrated in cancer/fibroblast co-grafts. In conclusion, SIRT1 plays differential roles in cancer and stromal cells. SIRT1 in stromal cells promotes cancer growth by producing MMP3, whereas SIRT1 in cancer cells inhibits growth via an intracellular event. The present study provides a basis for setting new anticancer strategies targeting SIRT1. PMID:26992208

  7. Histological Study of Bone Marrow and Umbilical Cord Stromal Cell Transplantation in Regenerating Rat Peripheral Nerve

    PubMed Central

    Zarbakhsh, Sam; Goudarzi, Nasim; Shirmohammadi, Maryam; Safari, Manouchehr

    2016-01-01

    Objective Bone marrow and umbilical cord stromal cells are multipotential stem cells that have the ability to produce growth factors that play an important role in survival and generation of axons. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effects of the two different mesenchymal stem cells on peripheral nerve regeneration. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, a 10 mm segment of the left sciatic nerve of male Wistar rats (250-300 g) was removed with a silicone tube interposed into this nerve gap. Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) and human umbilical cord stromal cells (HUCSCs) were respectively obtained from rat and human. The cells were sepa- rately cultured and transplanted into the nerve gap. The sciatic nerve regeneration was evaluated by immunohistochemistry, and light and electron microscopy. Moreover, histo- morphology of the gastrocnemius muscle was observed. Results The nerve regeneration in the BMSCs and HUCSCs groups that had received the stem cells was significantly more favorable than the control group. In addition, the BM- SCs group was significantly more favorable than the HUCSCs group (P<0.05). Conclusion The results of this study suggest that both homograft BMSCs and het- erograft HUCSCs may have the potential to regenerate peripheral nerve injury and transplantation of BMSCs may be more effective than HUCSCs in rat. PMID:26862526

  8. Stromal cells from term fetal membrane are highly suppressive in allogeneic settings in vitro.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, H; Erkers, T; Nava, S; Ruhm, S; Westgren, M; Ringdén, O

    2012-03-01

    Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (BM-MSCs) have immunosuppressive properties and have been used to treat steroid-refractory acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) in stem cell transplant patients. Cells with similar capacities can also be found in term placental tissue. We have isolated stromal cells from term fetal membrane (FMSCs), umbilical cords (UCSCs) and placental villi (PVSCs) as well as from bone marrow and compared their immunoregulatory capacity in allogeneic settings. We found that FMSCs and UCSCs suppressed proliferation significantly in mixed lymphocyte reactions (MLRs), whereas PVSCs showed inconsistent suppressive effects. When added to MLR cultures, FMSCs suppressed the production of interferon (IFN)-γ and interleukin (IL)-17, whereas UCSCs and PVSCs promoted the production of IL-17 instead. Secretion of IL-10 was increased after addition of FMSCs and UCSCs. In this setting, BM-MSCs had no significant effect on secretion of IFN-γ, IL-17 or IL-10 in MLR cultures. When analysing the expression of adhesion markers, we noted that FMSCs expressed the highest levels of CD29 (β1), CD49d (α4) and CD54 (ICAM-1) compared to the other types of stromal cells. Thus, our data indicate that stromal cells isolated from term fetal membrane have great immunosuppressive capacity in terms of proliferation and production of proinflammatory cytokines from alloreactive T cells, and also promote anti-inflammatory IL-10. They express high levels of integrins that may be of importance in homing to inflamed tissues. Fetal membrane may provide a valuable source of cells with immunosuppressive properties and could possibly be used for treatment of acute GVHD and other inflammatory disorders.

  9. Mesenchymal stromal cells from bone marrow treated with bovine tendon extract acquire the phenotype of mature tenocytes☆

    PubMed Central

    Augusto, Lívia Maria Mendonça; Aguiar, Diego Pinheiro; Bonfim, Danielle Cabral; dos Santos Cavalcanti, Amanda; Casado, Priscila Ladeira; Duarte, Maria Eugênia Leite

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study evaluated in vitro differentiation of mesenchymal stromal cells isolated from bone marrow, in tenocytes after treatment with bovine tendon extract. Methods Bovine tendons were used for preparation of the extract and were stored at −80 °C. Mesenchymal stromal cells from the bone marrow of three donors were used for cytotoxicity tests by means of MTT and cell differentiation by means of qPCR. Results The data showed that mesenchymal stromal cells from bone marrow treated for up to 21 days in the presence of bovine tendon extract diluted at diminishing concentrations (1:10, 1:50 and 1:250) promoted activation of biglycan, collagen type I and fibromodulin expression. Conclusion Our results show that bovine tendon extract is capable of promoting differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells in tenocytes. PMID:26962503

  10. Cell surface and transcriptional characterization of human adipose-derived adherent stromal (hADAS) cells.

    PubMed

    Katz, Adam J; Tholpady, Ashok; Tholpady, Sunil S; Shang, Hulan; Ogle, Roy C

    2005-03-01

    Adult human subcutaneous adipose tissue contains cells with intriguing multilineage developmental plasticity, much like marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells. Putative stem or progenitor cells from fat have been given many different names in the literature, reflecting an early and evolving consensus regarding their phenotypic characterization. The study reported here used microarrays to evaluate over 170 genes relating to angiogenesis and extracellular matrix in undifferentiated, early-passage human adipose-derived adherent stromal (hADAS) cells isolated from three separate donors. The hADAS populations unanimously transcribed 66% of the screened genes, and 83% were transcribed by at least two of the three populations. The most highly transcribed genes relate to functional groupings such as cell adhesion, matrix proteins, growth factors and receptors, and proteases. The transcriptome of hADAS cells demonstrated by this work reveals many similarities to published profiles of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). In addition, flow analysis of over 24 hADAS cell surface proteins (n = 7 donors) both confirms and expands on the existing literature and reveals strong intergroup correlation, despite an inconsistent nomenclature and the lack of standardized protocols for cell isolation and culture. Finally, based on flow analysis and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction studies, our results suggest that hADAS cells do not express several proteins that are implicated as markers of "stemness" in other stem cell populations, including telomerase, CD133, and the membrane transporter ABCG2.

  11. Human limbal biopsy-derived stromal stem cells prevent corneal scarring.

    PubMed

    Basu, Sayan; Hertsenberg, Andrew J; Funderburgh, Martha L; Burrow, Michael K; Mann, Mary M; Du, Yiqin; Lathrop, Kira L; Syed-Picard, Fatima N; Adams, Sheila M; Birk, David E; Funderburgh, James L

    2014-12-10

    Conventional allograft therapy for corneal scarring is widespread and successful, but donor tissue is not universally available, and some grafts fail owing to rejection and complications such as endothelial failure. We investigated direct treatment of corneal scarring using autologous stem cells, a therapy that, if successful, could reduce the need for corneal grafts. Mesenchymal cells were expanded from small superficial, clinically replicable limbal biopsies of human cadaveric corneo-scleral rims. Limbal biopsy-derived stromal cells (LBSCs) expanded rapidly in media containing human serum, were highly clonogenic, and could generate spheres expressing stem cell genes (ABCG2, Nestin, NGFR, Oct4, PAX6, and Sox2). Human LBSCs differentiated into keratocytes expressing characteristic marker genes (ALDH3A1, AQP1, KERA, and PTGDS) and organized a thick lamellar stroma-like tissue containing aligned collagen and keratan sulfate proteoglycans when cultured on aligned nanofiber substrata. When engrafted into mouse corneal wounds, LBSCs prevented formation of light-scattering scar tissue containing fibrotic matrix components. The presence of LBSCs induced regeneration of ablated stroma with tissue exhibiting lamellar structure and collagen organization indistinguishable from that of native tissue. Because the limbus can be easily biopsied from either eye of an affected individual and LBSCs capable of corneal stromal remodeling can be expanded under xeno-free autologous conditions, these cells present a potential for autologous stem cell-based treatment of corneal stromal blindness.

  12. Multiparameter Analysis of Human Bone Marrow Stromal Cells Identifies Distinct Immunomodulatory and Differentiation-Competent Subtypes

    PubMed Central

    James, Sally; Fox, James; Afsari, Farinaz; Lee, Jennifer; Clough, Sally; Knight, Charlotte; Ashmore, James; Ashton, Peter; Preham, Olivier; Hoogduijn, Martin; Ponzoni, Raquel De Almeida Rocha; Hancock, Y.; Coles, Mark; Genever, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Summary Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs, also called bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells) provide hematopoietic support and immunoregulation and contain a stem cell fraction capable of skeletogenic differentiation. We used immortalized human BMSC clonal lines for multi-level analysis of functional markers for BMSC subsets. All clones expressed typical BMSC cell-surface antigens; however, clones with trilineage differentiation capacity exhibited enhanced vascular interaction gene sets, whereas non-differentiating clones were uniquely CD317 positive with significantly enriched immunomodulatory transcriptional networks and high IL-7 production. IL-7 lineage tracing and CD317 immunolocalization confirmed the existence of a rare non-differentiating BMSC subtype, distinct from Cxcl12-DsRed+ perivascular stromal cells in vivo. Colony-forming CD317+ IL-7hi cells, identified at ∼1%–3% frequency in heterogeneous human BMSC fractions, were found to have the same biomolecular profile as non-differentiating BMSC clones using Raman spectroscopy. Distinct functional identities can be assigned to BMSC subpopulations, which are likely to have specific roles in immune control, lymphopoiesis, and bone homeostasis. PMID:26070611

  13. Round cell pattern of prostatic stromal tumor of uncertain malignant potential: a subtle newly recognized variant.

    PubMed

    Sadimin, Evita T; Epstein, Jonathan I

    2016-06-01

    Prostatic stromal tumor of uncertain malignant potential (STUMP) is a distinct entity which includes several different patterns. Four patterns of STUMP have been described including stroma with (1) degenerative atypia, (2) hypercellular spindle cells, (3) myxoid spindle cells, and (4) phyllodes-like pattern. The current study identified a novel round cell pattern. We searched our database from 1999 to 2015 and identified 7 patients with round cell pattern out of a total number of 98 patients with STUMP. All 7 cases showed mildly increased stromal cellularity with rounded nuclei, diagnosed on core biopsies in 5 cases, transurethral resection in 1 case, and radical prostatectomy in 1 case. Some degree of glandular displacement was observed in 4 cases. In 2 of the cases, STUMP was not recognized histologically by the referring pathologists and was initially diagnosed as benign prostatic hyperplasia. As has been described with other patterns of STUMP, several cases showed associated epithelial proliferations that in some instances masked the neoplastic stromal process. The round cell pattern of STUMP is a new deceptively subtle pattern that may not be recognized as a neoplasm and may be misdiagnosed as benign prostatic hyperplasia. Although there was no direct evidence in our study that the round cell pattern of STUMP has the same behavior as other variants of STUMPs, increased recognition of this entity will hopefully lead to additional studies to further understand its malignant potential. PMID:26980017

  14. Gastrospheres of human gastric mucosa cells: an in vitro model of stromal and epithelial stem cell niche reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Santos, Carlos A N; Andrade, Leonardo R; Costa, Márcia H M; Souza, Heitor S P; Granjeiro, José M; Takiya, Christina M; Borojevic, Radovan; Nasciutti, Luiz E

    2016-08-01

    The molecular characterization of mechanisms involved in the gastrointestinal tract disorders needs an in vitro 3D culture model able to mimic the in vivo gastric microenvironment. Herein, we propose a 3D coculture system where gastric epithelial and stromal cells are grown together building spherical and solid structures using the NASA bioreactor - cell culture system (RCCS), a bioreactor. Epithelial and stromal cells from human antral gastric mucosa were isolated from endoscopic gastric biopsies. Thereafter, these cells were mechanically and enzymatically dispersed by treatment with dispase and collagenase, respectively. Using specific culture procedures, these cells formed 3D structures by using a RCCS, named "gastrospheres". Briefly, gastrospheres were obtained by initial seeding of 2.5x10⁴ cells/well in 96 well culture plates. At 24 h after their formation, they were transferred into RCCS, and maintained for 7, 14, 21, and 28 days. The gastrospheres were morphologically characterized by immunocytochemisty to evaluate extracellular matrix (ECM), and by electron microscopy. These analysis of gastrospheres revealed that the epithelial cells were cytokeratin (CK) and lectin reactive and were arranged in the outer layer; stromal cells presented long cytoplasmic processes and were localized inside the gastrosphere. They were vimentin (VIM) and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) positive and expressed ECM components such as laminin (LN), fibronectin (FN), and type IV collagen (CIV). Electron microscopy revealed groups of cohesive gastric cells surrounded by complex stromal structures, with multiple microvilli, and tight cellular junctions interspersed with extracellular matrix fibrils and fibers. The presence of some nestin-positive cells was observed in the inner region of the gastrospheres, suggesting an intermediary localization between epithelial and stromal cells. Altogether, our data suggest that in vitro gastrospheres recapitulate the in vivo gastric niche

  15. Stromal inhibition of prostatic epithelial cell proliferation not mediated by transforming growth factor beta.

    PubMed Central

    Kooistra, A.; van den Eijnden-van Raaij, A. J.; Klaij, I. A.; Romijn, J. C.; Schröder, F. H.

    1995-01-01

    The paracrine influence of prostatic stroma on the proliferation of prostatic epithelial cells was investigated. Stromal cells from the human prostate have previously been shown to inhibit anchorage-dependent as well as anchorage-independent growth of the prostatic tumour epithelial cell lines PC-3 and LNCaP. Antiproliferative activity, mediated by a diffusible factor in the stromal cell conditioned medium, was found to be produced specifically by prostatic stromal cells. In the present study the characteristics of this factor were examined. It is demonstrated that prostate stroma-derived inhibiting factor is an acid- and heat-labile, dithiothreitol-sensitive protein. Although some similarities with type beta transforming growth factor (TGF-beta)-like inhibitors are apparent, evidence is presented that the factor is not identical to TGF-beta or to the TGF-beta-like factors activin and inhibin. Absence of TGF-beta activity was shown by the lack of inhibitory response of the TGF-beta-sensitive mink lung cell line CCL-64 to prostate stromal cell conditioned medium and to concentrated, partially purified preparations of the inhibitor. Furthermore, neutralising antibodies against TGF-beta 1 or TGF-beta 2 did not cause a decline in the level of PC-3 growth inhibition caused by partially purified inhibitor. Using Northern blot analyses, we excluded the involvement of inhibin or activin. It is concluded that the prostate stroma-derived factor may be a novel growth inhibitor different from any of the currently described inhibiting factors. Images Figure 5 PMID:7543773

  16. Fibroblast Activation Protein Expression by Stromal Cells and Tumor-Associated Macrophages in Human Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Julia, Tchou; Zhang Paul, J; Yingtao, Bi; Celine, Satija; Rajrupa, Marjumdar; Stephen, TL; Lo, A; Haiying, Chen; Carolyn, Mies; June, Carl H; Jose, Conejo-Garcia; Ellen, Puré

    2013-01-01

    Summary Fibroblast activation protein (FAP) has long been known to be expressed in the stroma of breast cancer. However, very little is known if the magnitude of FAP expression within the stroma may have prognostic value and reflect the heterogeneous biology of the tumor cell. An earlier study had suggested that stromal FAP expression in breast cancer was inversely proportional to prognosis. We, therefore, hypothesized that stromal FAP expression may correlate with clinicopathologic variables and may serve as an adjunct prognostic factor in breast cancer. We evaluated the expression of FAP in a panel of breast cancer tissues (n=52) using a combination of immunostain analyses at the tissue and single cell level using freshly frozen or freshly digested human breast tumor samples respectively. Our results showed that FAP expression was abundantly expressed in the stroma across all breast cancer subtypes without significant correlation with clinicopathologic factors. We further identified a subset of FAP positive or FAP+ stromal cells that also expressed CD45, a pan-leukocyte marker. Using freshly dissociated human breast tumor specimens (n=5), we demonstrated that some of these FAP+ CD45+ cells were CD11b+CD14+MHC-II+ indicating that they were likely tumor associated macrophages (TAMs). Although FAP+CD45+ cells have been demonstrated in the mouse tumor stroma, our results demonstrating that human breast TAMs expressed FAP was novel and suggested that existing and future FAP directed therapy may have dual therapeutic benefits targeting both stromal mesenchymal cells and immune cells such as TAMs. More work is needed to explore the role of FAP as a potential targetable molecule in breast cancer treatment. PMID:24074532

  17. Fat4/Dchs1 signaling between stromal and cap mesenchyme cells influences nephrogenesis and ureteric bud branching.

    PubMed

    Mao, Yaopan; Francis-West, Philippa; Irvine, Kenneth D

    2015-08-01

    Formation of the kidney requires reciprocal signaling among the ureteric tubules, cap mesenchyme and surrounding stromal mesenchyme to orchestrate complex morphogenetic events. The protocadherin Fat4 influences signaling from stromal to cap mesenchyme cells to regulate their differentiation into nephrons. Here, we characterize the role of a putative binding partner of Fat4, the protocadherin Dchs1. Mutation of Dchs1 in mice leads to increased numbers of cap mesenchyme cells, which are abnormally arranged around the ureteric bud tips, and impairment of nephron morphogenesis. Mutation of Dchs1 also reduces branching of the ureteric bud and impairs differentiation of ureteric bud tip cells into trunk cells. Genetically, Dchs1 is required specifically within cap mesenchyme cells. The similarity of Dchs1 phenotypes to stromal-less kidneys and to those of Fat4 mutants implicates Dchs1 in Fat4-dependent stroma-to-cap mesenchyme signaling. Antibody staining of genetic mosaics reveals that Dchs1 protein localization is polarized within cap mesenchyme cells, where it accumulates at the interface with stromal cells, implying that it interacts directly with a stromal protein. Our observations identify a role for Fat4 and Dchs1 in signaling between cell layers, implicate Dchs1 as a Fat4 receptor for stromal signaling that is essential for kidney development, and establish that vertebrate Dchs1 can be molecularly polarized in vivo. PMID:26116666

  18. Role of stromal cell-mediated Notch signaling in CLL resistance to chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Kamdje, A H Nwabo; Bassi, G; Pacelli, L; Malpeli, G; Amati, E; Nichele, I; Pizzolo, G; Krampera, M

    2012-01-01

    Stromal cells are essential components of the bone marrow (BM) microenvironment that regulate and support the survival of different tumors, including chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). In this study, we investigated the role of Notch signaling in the promotion of survival and chemoresistance of human CLL cells in coculture with human BM-mesenchymal stromal cells (hBM-MSCs) of both autologous and allogeneic origin. The presence of BM-MSCs rescued CLL cells from apoptosis both spontaneously and following induction with various drugs, including Fludarabine, Cyclophosphamide, Bendamustine, Prednisone and Hydrocortisone. The treatment with a combination of anti-Notch-1, Notch-2 and Notch-4 antibodies or γ-secretase inhibitor XII (GSI XII) reverted this protective effect by day 3, even in presence of the above-mentioned drugs. Overall, our findings show that stromal cell-mediated Notch-1, Notch-2 and Notch-4 signaling has a role in CLL survival and resistance to chemotherapy. Therefore, its blocking could be an additional tool to overcome drug resistance and improve the therapeutic strategies for CLL. PMID:22829975

  19. Notch signalling drives bone marrow stromal cell-mediated chemoresistance in acute myeloid leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Kamga, Paul Takam; Bassi, Giulio; Cassaro, Adriana; Midolo, Martina; Di Trapani, Mariano; Gatti, Alessandro; Carusone, Roberta; Resci, Federica; Perbellini, Omar; Gottardi, Michele; Bonifacio, Massimiliano; Kamdje, Armel Hervé Nwabo; Ambrosetti, Achille; Krampera, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    Both preclinical and clinical investigations suggest that Notch signalling is critical for the development of many cancers and for their response to chemotherapy. We previously showed that Notch inhibition abrogates stromal-induced chemoresistance in lymphoid neoplasms. However, the role of Notch in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and its contribution to the crosstalk between leukemia cells and bone marrow stromal cells remain controversial. Thus, we evaluated the role of the Notch pathway in the proliferation, survival and chemoresistance of AML cells in co-culture with bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells expanded from both healthy donors (hBM-MSCs) and AML patients (hBM-MSCs*). As compared to hBM-MSCs, hBM-MSCs* showed higher level of Notch1, Jagged1 as well as the main Notch target gene HES1. Notably, hBM-MSCs* induced expression and activation of Notch signalling in AML cells, supporting AML proliferation and being more efficientin inducing AML chemoresistance than hBM-MSCs*. Pharmacological inhibition of Notch using combinations of Notch receptor-blocking antibodies or gamma-secretase inhibitors (GSIs), in presence of chemotherapeutic agents, significant lowered the supportive effect of hBM-MSCs and hBM-MSCs* towards AML cells, by activating apoptotic cascade and reducing protein level of STAT3, AKT and NF-κB. These results suggest that Notch signalling inhibition, by overcoming the stromal-mediated promotion of chemoresistance,may represent a potential therapeutic targetnot only for lymphoid neoplasms, but also for AML. PMID:26967055

  20. MiR-183 Regulates ITGB1P Expression and Promotes Invasion of Endometrial Stromal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jie; Gu, Lin; Ni, Jie; Hu, Ping; Hu, Kai; Shi, Ying-Li

    2015-01-01

    We applied in the previous study miRNA microarray screening analysis to identify several differentially expressed miRNAs, including miR-183 in normal, eutopic, and ectopic endometrium. Knockdown of miR-183 expression induced the invasiveness and inhibition of apoptosis in endometrial stromal cells. The current study aims to identify the miR-183 targets with relevance to cell functions in endometrial stromal cells, to verify the interaction of miR-183 with its target genes, and to confirm the role of miR-183 in the process of endometriosis. Using microarray analysis, we identified 27 differentially expressed genes (19 were upregulated and 8 downregulated), from which we selected 4 downregulated genes (ITGB1, AMIGO2, VAV3, and PSEN2) based on GO databases for functional analysis and significant pathway analysis. Western blotting analyses showed that integrin β1 (ITGB1), but not AMIGO2, was affected by miR-183 overexpression, whereas no protein expression of VAV3 and PSEN2 was detected. Luciferase reporter assay verified that ITGB1 is a target gene of miR-183. Moreover, we found that ITGB1 is overexpressed in the endometrium of endometriosis patients. Furthermore, overexpression of ITGB1 rescued the repressive effects of miR-183 on the invasiveness of endometrial stromal cells. These findings, together with the fact that ITGB1 is a critical factor for cell adhesion and invasiveness, suggest that miR-183 may be involved in the development of endometriosis by regulating ITGB1 in endometrial stromal cells. PMID:26357653

  1. Mesenchymal Stromal Cells as Cell-Based Therapeutics for Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    Malhotra, Samir; Hu, Michael S.; Marshall, Clement D.; Leavitt, Tripp; Cheung, Alexander T. M.; Gonzalez, Jennifer G.; Kaur, Harleen; Lorenz, H. Peter; Longaker, Michael T.

    2016-01-01

    Chronic wounds are a source of substantial morbidity for patients and are a major financial burden for the healthcare system. There are no current therapies that reliably improve nonhealing wounds or reverse pathological scarring. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are a promising source of novel cell-based therapies due to the ease of their harvest and their integral role in the native wound repair process. Recent work has addressed the problems of loss of plasticity and off-target delivery through use of modern bioengineering techniques. Here we describe the applications of MSCs harvested from different sources to the wound healing process and recent advances in delivery of MSCs to targeted sites of injury. PMID:26966438

  2. Multipotent stromal cells for autologous cell therapy approaches in the guinea pig model.

    PubMed

    Frölich, Katrin; Scherzed, Agmal; Mlynski, Robert; Technau, Antje; Hagen, Rudolf; Kleinsasser, Norbert; Radeloff, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Multipotent stromal cells have become of increasing interest due to their potential to provide therapeutic approaches for autologous tissue repair. However, these cells are not well defined in the guinea pig, which represents an important model in hearing research. Adipose-tissue-derived stem cells (ADSC) and bone-marrow-derived stem cells (BMSC) were isolated from different donor sites, and growth curves were generated to judge the proliferation potential. Adipogenic, chondrogenic and osteogenic differentiation was induced and confirmed histologically. Finally, the capability of guinea pig ADSC to differentiate into neuron-like cells was investigated. With regard to the expansion potential, total cell number and doubling time, ADSC from the neck were the most suitable cells of the tested donor sites. Both ADSC and BMSC showed nearly identical behaviour and ability to undergo multilineage differentiation. Thus, we identified ADSC from the neck as a promising cell source for autologous cell-based approaches in hearing research using the guinea pig model. PMID:20975314

  3. In vitro inhibitory effects of imatinib mesylate on stromal cells and hematopoietic progenitors from bone marrow

    PubMed Central

    Soares, P.B.; Jeremias, T.S.; Alvarez-Silva, M.; Licínio, M.A.; Santos-Silva, M.C.; Vituri, C.L.

    2012-01-01

    Imatinib mesylate (IM) is used to treat chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) because it selectively inhibits tyrosine kinase, which is a hallmark of CML oncogenesis. Recent studies have shown that IM inhibits the growth of several non-malignant hematopoietic and fibroblast cells from bone marrow (BM). The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of IM on stromal and hematopoietic progenitor cells, specifically in the colony-forming units of granulocyte/macrophage (CFU-GM), using BM cultures from 108 1.5- to 2-month-old healthy Swiss mice. The results showed that low concentrations of IM (1.25 µM) reduced the growth of CFU-GM in clonogenic assays. In culture assays with stromal cells, fibroblast proliferation and α-SMA expression by immunocytochemistry analysis were also reduced in a concentration-dependent manner, with a survival rate of approximately 50% with a dose of 2.5 µM. Cell viability and morphology were analyzed using MTT and staining with acrydine orange/ethidium bromide. Most cells were found to be viable after treatment with 5 µM IM, although there was gradual growth inhibition of fibroblastic cells while the number of round cells (macrophage-like cells) increased. At higher concentrations (15 µM), the majority of cells were apoptotic and cell growth ceased completely. Oil red staining revealed the presence of adipocytes only in untreated cells (control). Cell cycle analysis of stromal cells by flow cytometry showed a blockade at the G0/G1 phases in groups treated with 5-15 µM. These results suggest that IM differentially inhibits the survival of different types of BM cells since toxic effects were achieved. PMID:23011404

  4. CD34 defines an osteoprogenitor cell population in mouse bone marrow stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Abdallah, Basem M; Al-Shammary, Asma; Skagen, Peter; Abu Dawud, Raed; Adjaye, James; Aldahmash, Abdullah; Kassem, Moustapha

    2015-11-01

    Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs, also known as bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells) and their progenitors have been identified based on retrospective functional criteria. CD markers are employed to define cell populations with distinct functional characteristics. However, defining and prospective isolation of BMSCs and committed progenitors are lacking. Here, we compared the transcriptome profile of CD markers expressed at baseline and during the course of osteoblast and adipocyte differentiation of two well-characterized osteogenic-committed murine BMSCs (mBMSC(Bone)) and adipogenic-committed mBMSCs (mBMSC(Adipo)), respectively. Bioinformatic analysis revealed the presence of a core set of canonical mBMSC CD markers with comparable expression levels in mBMSC(Bone) and mBMSC(Adipo) at baseline and during their differentiation. We identified 11 CD markers that are differentially expressed between mBMSC(Adipo) and mBMSC(Bone). Among these, we identified osteoprogenitor-associated CD markers expressed only in mBMSC(Bone): CD34, CD54, CD73, CD132, CD200, CD227 and adipoprogenitor-associated CD markers expressed only in mBMSC(Adipo): CD53, CD80, CD134, CD141 and CD212. FACS analysis confirmed these results. We selected CD34 for further analysis. CD34 was expressed at baseline of mouse stromal cell line ST2, primary mBMSCs, mBMSC(Bone) and its expression decreased during osteoblast differentiation. FACS-sorted CD34(+) primary mBMSCs exhibited higher expression of 70% osteoblast-associated genes, and formed significantly higher heterotopic bone in vivo when implanted subcutaneously in immune-deficient mice compared with CD34(-) primary mBMSCs. Our results demonstrate that a set of CD markers can distinguish osteoprogenitor versus adipoprogenitor populations of mBMSCs. CD34 is suitable for prospective isolation of mouse bone marrow osteoprogenitors. PMID:26413784

  5. Hsp90 and PKM2 Drive the Expression of Aromatase in Li-Fraumeni Syndrome Breast Adipose Stromal Cells.

    PubMed

    Subbaramaiah, Kotha; Brown, Kristy A; Zahid, Heba; Balmus, Gabriel; Weiss, Robert S; Herbert, Brittney-Shea; Dannenberg, Andrew J

    2016-07-29

    Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS) patients harbor germ line mutations in the TP53 gene and are at increased risk of hormone receptor-positive breast cancers. Recently, elevated levels of aromatase, the rate-limiting enzyme for estrogen biosynthesis, were found in the breast tissue of LFS patients. Although p53 down-regulates aromatase expression, the underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood. In the present study, we found that LFS stromal cells expressed higher levels of Hsp90 ATPase activity and aromatase compared with wild-type stromal cells. Inhibition of Hsp90 ATPase suppressed aromatase expression. Silencing Aha1 (activator of Hsp90 ATPase 1), a co-chaperone of Hsp90 required for its ATPase activity, led to both inhibition of Hsp90 ATPase activity and reduced aromatase expression. In comparison with wild-type stromal cells, increased levels of the Hsp90 client proteins, HIF-1α, and PKM2 were found in LFS stromal cells. A complex comprised of HIF-1α and PKM2 was recruited to the aromatase promoter II in LFS stromal cells. Silencing either HIF-1α or PKM2 suppressed aromatase expression in LFS stromal cells. CP-31398, a p53 rescue compound, suppressed levels of Aha1, Hsp90 ATPase activity, levels of PKM2 and HIF-1α, and aromatase expression in LFS stromal cells. Consistent with these in vitro findings, levels of Hsp90 ATPase activity, Aha1, HIF-1α, PKM2, and aromatase were increased in the mammary glands of p53 null versus wild-type mice. PKM2 and HIF-1α were shown to co-localize in the nucleus of stromal cells of LFS breast tissue. Taken together, our results show that the Aha1-Hsp90-PKM2/HIF-1α axis mediates the induction of aromatase in LFS. PMID:27467582

  6. Stromal uptake and transmission of acid is a pathway for venting cancer cell-generated acid.

    PubMed

    Hulikova, Alzbeta; Black, Nicholas; Hsia, Lin-Ting; Wilding, Jennifer; Bodmer, Walter F; Swietach, Pawel

    2016-09-01

    Proliferation and invasion of cancer cells require favorable pH, yet potentially toxic quantities of acid are produced metabolically. Membrane-bound transporters extrude acid from cancer cells, but little is known about the mechanisms that handle acid once it is released into the poorly perfused extracellular space. Here, we studied acid handling by myofibroblasts (colon cancer-derived Hs675.T, intestinal InMyoFib, embryonic colon-derived CCD-112-CoN), skin fibroblasts (NHDF-Ad), and colorectal cancer (CRC) cells (HCT116, HT29) grown in monoculture or coculture. Expression of the acid-loading transporter anion exchanger 2 (AE2) (SLC4A2 product) was detected in myofibroblasts and fibroblasts, but not in CRC cells. Compared with CRC cells, Hs675.T and InMyoFib myofibroblasts had very high capacity to absorb extracellular acid. Acid uptake into CCD-112-CoN and NHDF-Ad cells was slower and comparable to levels in CRC cells, but increased alongside SLC4A2 expression under stimulation with transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ1), a cytokine involved in cancer-stroma interplay. Myofibroblasts and fibroblasts are connected by gap junctions formed by proteins such as connexin-43, which allows the absorbed acid load to be transmitted across the stromal syncytium. To match the stimulatory effect on acid uptake, cell-to-cell coupling in NHDF-Ad and CCD-112-CoN cells was strengthened with TGFβ1. In contrast, acid transmission was absent between CRC cells, even after treatment with TGFβ1. Thus, stromal cells have the necessary molecular apparatus for assembling an acid-venting route that can improve the flow of metabolic acid through tumors. Importantly, the activities of stromal AE2 and connexin-43 do not place an energetic burden on cancer cells, allowing resources to be diverted for other activities. PMID:27543333

  7. Stromal uptake and transmission of acid is a pathway for venting cancer cell-generated acid

    PubMed Central

    Hulikova, Alzbeta; Black, Nicholas; Hsia, Lin-Ting; Wilding, Jennifer; Bodmer, Walter F.; Swietach, Pawel

    2016-01-01

    Proliferation and invasion of cancer cells require favorable pH, yet potentially toxic quantities of acid are produced metabolically. Membrane-bound transporters extrude acid from cancer cells, but little is known about the mechanisms that handle acid once it is released into the poorly perfused extracellular space. Here, we studied acid handling by myofibroblasts (colon cancer-derived Hs675.T, intestinal InMyoFib, embryonic colon-derived CCD-112-CoN), skin fibroblasts (NHDF-Ad), and colorectal cancer (CRC) cells (HCT116, HT29) grown in monoculture or coculture. Expression of the acid-loading transporter anion exchanger 2 (AE2) (SLC4A2 product) was detected in myofibroblasts and fibroblasts, but not in CRC cells. Compared with CRC cells, Hs675.T and InMyoFib myofibroblasts had very high capacity to absorb extracellular acid. Acid uptake into CCD-112-CoN and NHDF-Ad cells was slower and comparable to levels in CRC cells, but increased alongside SLC4A2 expression under stimulation with transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ1), a cytokine involved in cancer–stroma interplay. Myofibroblasts and fibroblasts are connected by gap junctions formed by proteins such as connexin-43, which allows the absorbed acid load to be transmitted across the stromal syncytium. To match the stimulatory effect on acid uptake, cell-to-cell coupling in NHDF-Ad and CCD-112-CoN cells was strengthened with TGFβ1. In contrast, acid transmission was absent between CRC cells, even after treatment with TGFβ1. Thus, stromal cells have the necessary molecular apparatus for assembling an acid-venting route that can improve the flow of metabolic acid through tumors. Importantly, the activities of stromal AE2 and connexin-43 do not place an energetic burden on cancer cells, allowing resources to be diverted for other activities. PMID:27543333

  8. Engraftment Outcomes after HPC Co-Culture with Mesenchymal Stromal Cells and Osteoblasts.

    PubMed

    Cook, Matthew M; Doran, Michael R; Kollar, Katarina; Barbier, Valerie; Winkler, Ingrid G; Levesque, Jean-Pierre; Brooke, Gary; Atkinson, Kerry

    2013-01-01

    Haematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplantation is an established cell-based therapy for a number of haematological diseases. To enhance this therapy, there is considerable interest in expanding HSCs in artificial niches prior to transplantation. This study compared murine HSC expansion supported through co-culture on monolayers of either undifferentiated mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) or osteoblasts. Sorted Lineage(-) Sca-1(+) c-kit(+) (LSK) haematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HPC) demonstrated proliferative capacity on both stromal monolayers with the greatest expansion of LSK shown in cultures supported by osteoblast monolayers. After transplantation, both types of bulk-expanded cultures were capable of engrafting and repopulating lethally irradiated primary and secondary murine recipients. LSKs co-cultured on MSCs showed comparable, but not superior, reconstitution ability to that of freshly isolated LSKs. Surprisingly, however, osteoblast co-cultured LSKs showed significantly poorer haematopoietic reconstitution compared to LSKs co-cultured on MSCs, likely due to a delay in short-term reconstitution. We demonstrated that stromal monolayers can be used to maintain, but not expand, functional HSCs without a need for additional haematopoietic growth factors. We also demonstrated that despite apparently superior in vitro performance, co-injection of bulk cultures of osteoblasts and LSKs in vivo was detrimental to recipient survival and should be avoided in translation to clinical practice.

  9. Adipose-derived stromal cells for the reconstruction of a human vesical equivalent.

    PubMed

    Rousseau, Alexandre; Fradette, Julie; Bernard, Geneviève; Gauvin, Robert; Laterreur, Véronique; Bolduc, Stéphane

    2015-11-01

    Despite a wide panel of tissue-engineering models available for vesical reconstruction, the lack of a differentiated urothelium remains their main common limitation. For the first time to our knowledge, an entirely human vesical equivalent, free of exogenous matrix, has been reconstructed using the self-assembly method. Moreover, we tested the contribution of adipose-derived stromal cells, an easily available source of mesenchymal cells featuring many potential advantages, by reconstructing three types of equivalent, named fibroblast vesical equivalent, adipose-derived stromal cell vesical equivalent and hybrid vesical equivalent--the latter containing both adipose-derived stromal cells and fibroblasts. The new substitutes have been compared and characterized for matrix composition and organization, functionality and mechanical behaviour. Although all three vesical equivalents displayed adequate collagen type I and III expression, only two of them, fibroblast vesical equivalent and hybrid vesical equivalent, sustained the development of a differentiated and functional urothelium. The presence of uroplakins Ib, II and III and the tight junction marker ZO-1 was detected and correlated with impermeability. The mechanical resistance of these tissues was sufficient for use by surgeons. We present here in vitro tissue-engineered vesical equivalents, built without the use of any exogenous matrix, able to sustain mechanical stress and to support the formation of a functional urothelium, i.e. able to display a barrier function similar to that of native tissue.

  10. Targeting Stromal-Cancer Cell Crosstalk Networks in Ovarian Cancer Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Yeung, Tsz-Lun; Leung, Cecilia S.; Li, Fuhai; Wong, Stephen T. C.; Mok, Samuel C.

    2016-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is a histologically, clinically, and molecularly diverse disease with a five-year survival rate of less than 30%. It has been estimated that approximately 21,980 new cases of epithelial ovarian cancer will be diagnosed and 14,270 deaths will occur in the United States in 2015, making it the most lethal gynecologic malignancy. Ovarian tumor tissue is composed of cancer cells and a collection of different stromal cells. There is increasing evidence that demonstrates that stromal involvement is important in ovarian cancer pathogenesis. Therefore, stroma-specific signaling pathways, stroma-derived factors, and genetic changes in the tumor stroma present unique opportunities for improving the diagnosis and treatment of ovarian cancer. Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are one of the major components of the tumor stroma that have demonstrated supportive roles in tumor progression. In this review, we highlight various types of signaling crosstalk between ovarian cancer cells and stromal cells, particularly with CAFs. In addition to evaluating the importance of signaling crosstalk in ovarian cancer progression, we discuss approaches that can be used to target tumor-promoting signaling crosstalk and how these approaches can be translated into potential ovarian cancer treatment. PMID:26751490

  11. Mesenchymal stromal cells and immunomodulation: A gathering of regulatory immune cells.

    PubMed

    Najar, Mehdi; Raicevic, Gordana; Fayyad-Kazan, Hussein; Bron, Dominique; Toungouz, Michel; Lagneaux, Laurence

    2016-02-01

    Because of their well-recognized immunomodulatory properties, mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) represent an attractive cell population for therapeutic purposes. In particular, there is growing interest in the use of MSCs as cellular immunotherapeutics for tolerance induction in allogeneic transplantations and the treatment of autoimmune diseases. However, multiple mechanisms have been identified to mediate the immunomodulatory effects of MSCs, sometimes with several ambiguities and inconsistencies. Although published studies have mainly reported the role of soluble factors, we believe that a sizeable cellular component plays a critical role in MSC immunomodulation. We refer to these cells as regulatory immune cells, which are generated from both the innate and adaptive responses after co-culture with MSCs. In this review, we discuss the nature and role of these immune regulatory cells as well as the role of different mediators, and, in particular, regulatory immune cell induction by MSCs through interleukin-10. Once induced, immune regulatory cells accumulate and converge their regulatory pathways to create a tolerogenic environment conducive for immunomodulation. Thus, a better understanding of these regulatory immune cells, in terms of how they can be optimally manipulated and induced, would be suitable for improving MSC-based immunomodulatory therapeutic strategies.

  12. Melanoma Cells Can Adopt the Phenotype of Stromal Fibroblasts and Macrophages by Spontaneous Cell Fusion in Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Kemény, Lajos V.; Kurgyis, Zsuzsanna; Buknicz, Tünde; Groma, Gergely; Jakab, Ádám; Zänker, Kurt; Dittmar, Thomas; Kemény, Lajos; Németh, István B.

    2016-01-01

    After the removal of primary cutaneous melanoma some patients develop local recurrences, even after having histologically tumor-free re-excision. A potential explanation behind this phenomenon is that tumor cells switch their phenotype, making their recognition via standard histopathological assessments extremely difficult. Tumor-stromal cell fusion has been proposed as a potential mechanism for tumor cells to acquire mesenchymal traits; therefore, we hypothesized that melanoma cells could acquire fibroblast- and macrophage-like phenotypes via cell fusion. We show that melanoma cells spontaneously fuse with human dermal fibroblasts and human peripheral blood monocytes in vitro. The hybrid cells’ nuclei contain chromosomes from both parental cells and are indistinguishable from the parental fibroblasts or macrophages based on their morphology and immunophenotype, as they could lose the melanoma specific MART1 marker, but express the fibroblast marker smooth muscle actin or the macrophage marker CD68. Our results suggest that, by spontaneous cell fusion in vitro, tumor cells can adopt the morphology and immunophenotype of stromal cells while still carrying oncogenic, tumor-derived genetic information. Therefore, melanoma–stromal cell fusion might play a role in missing tumor cells by routine histopathological assessments. PMID:27271591

  13. Gremlin 1 Identifies a Skeletal Stem Cell with Bone, Cartilage, and Reticular Stromal Potential

    PubMed Central

    Worthley, Daniel L.; Churchill, Michael; Compton, Jocelyn T.; Tailor, Yagnesh; Rao, Meenakshi; Si, Yiling; Levin, Daniel; Schwartz, Matthew G.; Uygur, Aysu; Hayakawa, Yoku; Gross, Stefanie; Renz, Bernhard W.; Setlik, Wanda; Martinez, Ashley N.; Chen, Xiaowei; Nizami, Saqib; Lee, Heon Goo; Kang, H. Paco; Caldwell, Jon-Michael; Asfaha, Samuel; Westphalen, C. Benedikt; Graham, Trevor; Jin, Guangchun; Nagar, Karan; Wang, Hongshan; Kheirbek, Mazen A.; Kolhe, Alka; Carpenter, Jared; Glaire, Mark; Nair, Abhinav; Renders, Simon; Manieri, Nicholas; Muthupalani, Sureshkumar; Fox, James G.; Reichert, Maximilian; Giraud, Andrew S.; Schwabe, Robert F.; Pradere, Jean-Phillipe; Walton, Katherine; Prakash, Ajay; Gumucio, Deborah; Rustgi, Anil K.; Stappenbeck, Thaddeus S.; Friedman, Richard A.; Gershon, Michael D.; Sims, Peter; Grikscheit, Tracy; Lee, Francis Y.; Karsenty, Gerard; Mukherjee, Siddhartha; Wang, Timothy C.

    2014-01-01

    The stem cells that maintain and repair the postnatal skeleton remain undefined. One model suggests that perisinusoidal mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) give rise to osteoblasts, chondrocytes, marrow stromal cells, and adipocytes, although the existence of these cells has not been proven through fate-mapping experiments. We demonstrate here that expression of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) antagonist gremlin 1 defines a population of osteochondroreticular (OCR) stem cells in the bone marrow. OCR stem cells self-renew and generate osteoblasts, chondrocytes, and reticular marrow stromal cells, but not adipocytes. OCR stem cells are concentrated within the metaphysis of long bones not in the perisinusoidal space and are needed for bone development, bone remodeling, and fracture repair. Grem1 expression also identifies intestinal reticular stem cells (iRSCs) that are cells of origin for the periepithelial intestinal mesenchymal sheath. Grem1 expression identifies distinct connective tissue stem cells in both the bone (OCR stem cells) and the intestine (iRSCs). PMID:25594183

  14. Secretome from resident cardiac stromal cells stimulates proliferation, cardiomyogenesis and angiogenesis of progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Reus, Thamile Luciane; Robert, Anny Waloski; Da Costa, Marise Brenner Affonso; de Aguiar, Alessandra Melo; Stimamiglio, Marco Augusto

    2016-10-15

    In the heart, tissue-derived signals play a central role on recruiting/activating stem cell sources to induce cardiac lineage specification for maintenance of tissue homeostasis and repair. Cardiac resident stromal cells (CRSCs) may play a pivotal role in cardiac repair throughout their secretome. Here, we performed the characterization of CRSCs and their secretome by analyzing the composition of their culture-derived extracellular matrix (ECM) and conditioned medium (CM) and by investigating their potential effect on adipose-derived stem cell (ADSC) and progenitor cell behavior. We confirmed that CRSCs are a heterogeneous cell population whose secretome is composed by proteins related to cellular growth, immune response and cardiovascular development and function. We also observed that CRSC secretome was unable to change the behavior of ADSCs, except for proliferation. Additionally, CM from CRSCs demonstrated the potential to drive proliferation and cardiac differentiation of H9c2 cells and also the ability to induce angiogenesis in vitro. Our data suggest that the CRSCs can be a source of important modulating signals for cardiac progenitor cell recruitment/activation. PMID:27404713

  15. Stromal cells in phyllodes tumors of the breast are enriched for EZH2 and stem cell marker expression.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanhong; Liss, Adam L; Chung, Eugene; Pierce, Lori J; Kleer, Celina G

    2016-07-01

    Phyllodes tumors (PTs) of the breast are fibroepithelial neoplasms with stromal hypercellularity, which is the basis for their classification as benign, borderline, and malignant. The histologic diagnosis of PTs is often difficult, and the pathological features may not always predict clinical behavior. The pathobiology of PT remains poorly understood. Enhancer of Zeste 2 (EZH2) epigenetically regulates cell-type identity, cellular differentiation, and breast cancer stem cells. EZH2 exerts oncogenic functions in breast cancer and is associated with metastasis. We hypothesized that in PTs, EZH2 and the stem cell marker ALDH1 may be expressed in stromal cells and may be associated with their degree of differentiation. Forty PTs were histologically characterized at our institution following the World Health Organization criteria. We investigated the expression of EZH2 and ALDH1 by immunohistochemistry and recorded as percentage of positive epithelial and stromal cells. EZH2 was positive when over 10 % of cells exhibited nuclear staining; ALDH1 was positive when over 5 % of cells had cytoplasmic staining. Of the 40 PTs, 24 (60 %) were histologically benign, 8 (20 %) borderline, and 8 (20 %) malignant. Stromal EZH2 was significantly associated with the diagnosis of malignant PT, as it was detected in 1 of 24 (4 %) benign, 3 of 8 (37.5 %) borderline, and 5 of 8 (62.5 %) malignant tumors. Stromal EZH2 was significantly associated with stromal overgrowth (p = 0.01), atypia (p = 0.01), hypercellularity (p = 0.01), and mitoses (p = 0.02), all features of malignant PT. Stromal EZH2 and ALDH1 were significantly associated with grade of PT (p = 0.01 and p < 0.05 respectively). In conclusion, EZH2 and ALDH1 expression in the stroma of PT may mark malignant progression and may be helpful to distinguish histologically benign from borderline and malignant tumors in challenging cases. Our study also suggests that PTs contain mesenchymal stem cells, shedding light

  16. The Role of the Transcriptional Regulation of Stromal Cells in Chronic Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Valin, Alvaro; Pablos, José L.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic inflammation is a common process connecting pathologies that vary in their etiology and pathogenesis such as cancer, autoimmune diseases, and infections. The response of the immune system to tissue damage involves a carefully choreographed series of cellular interactions between immune and non-immune cells. In recent years, it has become clear that stromal resident cells have an essential role perpetuating the inflammatory environment and dictating in many cases the outcome of inflammatory based pathologies. Signal transduction pathways remain the main focus of study to understand how stimuli contribute to perpetuating the inflammatory response, mainly due to their potential role as therapeutic targets. However, molecular events orchestrated in the nucleus by transcription factors add additional levels of complexity and may be equally important for understanding the phenotypic differences of activated stromal components during the chronic inflammatory process. In this review, we focus on the contribution of transcription factors to the selective regulation of inducible proinflammatory genes, with special attention given to the regulation of the stromal fibroblastic cell function and response. PMID:26501341

  17. The orphan nuclear receptor Nur77 regulates decidual prolactin expression in human endometrial stromal cells

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Yue; Hu, Yali; Zhao, Jing; Zhen, Xin; Yan, Guijun; Sun, Haixiang

    2011-01-14

    Research highlights: {yields} Decidually produced PRL plays a key role during pregnancy. {yields} Overexpression of Nur77 increased PRL mRNA expression and enhanced decidual PRL promoter activity. {yields} Knockdown of Nur77 decreased decidual PRL secretion induced by 8-Br-cAMP and MPA. {yields} Nur77 is a novel transcription factor that plays an active role in decidual prolactin expression. -- Abstract: Prolactin (PRL) is synthesized and released by several extrapituitary tissues, including decidualized stromal cells. Despite the important role of decidual PRL during pregnancy, little is understood about the factors involved in the proper regulation of decidual PRL expression. Here we present evidence that the transcription factor Nur77 plays an active role in decidual prolactin expression in human endometrial stromal cells (hESCs). Nur77 mRNA expression in hESCs was significantly increased after decidualization stimulated by 8-Br-cAMP and medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA). Adenovirus-mediated overexpression of Nur77 in hESCs markedly increased PRL mRNA expression and enhanced decidual PRL promoter (dPRL/-332Luc) activity in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, knockdown of Nur77 in hESCs significantly decreased decidual PRL promoter activation and substantially attenuated PRL mRNA expression and PRL secretion (P < 0.01) induced by 8-Br-cAMP and MPA. These results demonstrate that Nur77 is a novel transcription factor that contributes significantly to the regulation of prolactin gene expression in human endometrial stromal cells.

  18. Human Olfactory Mucosa Multipotent Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Promote Survival, Proliferation, and Differentiation of Human Hematopoietic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Diaz-Solano, Dylana; Wittig, Olga; Ayala-Grosso, Carlos; Pieruzzini, Rosalinda

    2012-01-01

    Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) from the human olfactory mucosa (OM) are cells that have been proposed as a niche for neural progenitors. OM-MSCs share phenotypic and functional properties with bone marrow (BM) MSCs, which constitute fundamental components of the hematopoietic niche. In this work, we investigated whether human OM-MSCs may promote the survival, proliferation, and differentiation of human hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). For this purpose, human bone marrow cells (BMCs) were co-cultured with OM-MSCs in the absence of exogenous cytokines. At different intervals, nonadherent cells (NACs) were harvested from BMC/OM-MSC co-cultures, and examined for the expression of blood cell markers by flow cytometry. OM-MSCs supported the survival (cell viability >90%) and proliferation of BMCs, after 54 days of co-culture. At 20 days of co-culture, flow cytometric and microscopic analyses showed a high percentage (73%) of cells expressing the pan-leukocyte marker CD45, and the presence of cells of myeloid origin, including polymorphonuclear leukocytes, monocytes, basophils, eosinophils, erythroid cells, and megakaryocytes. Likewise, T (CD3), B (CD19), and NK (CD56/CD16) cells were detected in the NAC fraction. Colony-forming unit–granulocyte/macrophage (CFU-GM) progenitors and CD34+ cells were found, at 43 days of co-culture. Reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) studies showed that OM-MSCs constitutively express early and late-acting hematopoietic cytokines (i.e., stem cell factor [SCF] and granulocyte- macrophage colony-stimulating factor [GM-CSF]). These results constitute the first evidence that OM-MSCs may provide an in vitro microenvironment for HSCs. The capacity of OM-MSCs to support the survival and differentiation of HSCs may be related with the capacity of OM-MSCs to produce hematopoietic cytokines. PMID:22471939

  19. Human olfactory mucosa multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells promote survival, proliferation, and differentiation of human hematopoietic cells.

    PubMed

    Diaz-Solano, Dylana; Wittig, Olga; Ayala-Grosso, Carlos; Pieruzzini, Rosalinda; Cardier, Jose E

    2012-11-20

    Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) from the human olfactory mucosa (OM) are cells that have been proposed as a niche for neural progenitors. OM-MSCs share phenotypic and functional properties with bone marrow (BM) MSCs, which constitute fundamental components of the hematopoietic niche. In this work, we investigated whether human OM-MSCs may promote the survival, proliferation, and differentiation of human hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). For this purpose, human bone marrow cells (BMCs) were co-cultured with OM-MSCs in the absence of exogenous cytokines. At different intervals, nonadherent cells (NACs) were harvested from BMC/OM-MSC co-cultures, and examined for the expression of blood cell markers by flow cytometry. OM-MSCs supported the survival (cell viability >90%) and proliferation of BMCs, after 54 days of co-culture. At 20 days of co-culture, flow cytometric and microscopic analyses showed a high percentage (73%) of cells expressing the pan-leukocyte marker CD45, and the presence of cells of myeloid origin, including polymorphonuclear leukocytes, monocytes, basophils, eosinophils, erythroid cells, and megakaryocytes. Likewise, T (CD3), B (CD19), and NK (CD56/CD16) cells were detected in the NAC fraction. Colony-forming unit-granulocyte/macrophage (CFU-GM) progenitors and CD34(+) cells were found, at 43 days of co-culture. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) studies showed that OM-MSCs constitutively express early and late-acting hematopoietic cytokines (i.e., stem cell factor [SCF] and granulocyte- macrophage colony-stimulating factor [GM-CSF]). These results constitute the first evidence that OM-MSCs may provide an in vitro microenvironment for HSCs. The capacity of OM-MSCs to support the survival and differentiation of HSCs may be related with the capacity of OM-MSCs to produce hematopoietic cytokines.

  20. Down-regulation of Dicer1 promotes cellular senescence and decreases the differentiation and stem cell-supporting capacities of mesenchymal stromal cells in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Youshan; Wu, Dong; Fei, Chengming; Guo, Juan; Gu, Shuncheng; Zhu, Yang; Xu, Feng; Zhang, Zheng; Wu, Lingyun; Li, Xiao; Chang, Chunkang

    2015-02-01

    Although it has been reported that mesenchymal stromal cells are unable to provide sufficient hematopoietic support in myelodysplastic syndrome, the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. In this study, we found that mesenchymal stromal cells from patients with myelodysplastic syndrome displayed a significant increase in senescence, as evidenced by their decreased proliferative capacity, flattened morphology and increased expression of SA-β-gal and p21. Senescent mesenchymal stromal cells from patients had decreased differentiation potential and decreased stem cell support capacity. Gene knockdown of Dicer1, which was down-regulated in mesenchymal stromal cells from patients, induced senescence. The differentiation and stem cell-supporting capacities were significantly inhibited by Dicer1 knockdown. Overexpression of Dicer1 in mesenchymal stromal cells from patients reversed cellular senescence and enhanced stem cell properties. Furthermore, we identified reduced expression in the microRNA-17 family (miR-17-5p, miR-20a/b, miR-106a/b and miR-93) as a potential factor responsible for increased p21 expression, a key senescence mediator, in Dicer1 knockdown cells. Moreover, we found that miR-93 and miR-20a expression levels were significantly reduced in mesenchymal stromal cells from patients and miR-93/miR-20a gain of function resulted in a decrease of cellular senescence. Collectively, the results of our study show that mesenchymal stromal cells from patients with myelodysplastic syndrome are prone to senescence and that Dicer1 down-regulation promotes cellular senescence and decreases the differentiation and stem cell-supporting capacities of mesenchymal stromal cells. Dicer1 down-regulation seems to contribute to the insufficient hematopoietic support capacities of mesenchymal stromal cells from patients with myelodysplastic syndrome.

  1. Role of A2B Adenosine Receptors in Regulation of Paracrine Functions of Stem Cell Antigen 1-Positive Cardiac Stromal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ryzhov, Sergey; Goldstein, Anna E.; Novitskiy, Sergey V.; Blackburn, Michael R.; Biaggioni, Italo

    2012-01-01

    The existence of multipotent cardiac stromal cells expressing stem cell antigen (Sca)-1 has been reported, and their proangiogenic properties have been demonstrated in myocardial infarction models. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that stimulation of adenosine receptors on cardiac Sca-1+ cells up-regulates their secretion of proangiogenic factors. We found that Sca-1 is expressed in subsets of mouse cardiac stromal CD31− and endothelial CD31+ cells. The population of Sca-1+CD31+ endothelial cells was significantly reduced, whereas the population of Sca-1+CD31− stromal cells was increased 1 week after myocardial infarction, indicating their relative functional importance in this pathophysiological process. An increase in adenosine levels in adenosine deaminase-deficient mice in vivo significantly augmented vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) production in cardiac Sca-1+CD31− stromal cells but not in Sca-1+CD31+ endothelial cells. We found that mouse cardiac Sca-1+CD31− stromal cells predominantly express mRNA encoding A2B adenosine receptors. Stimulation of adenosine receptors significantly increased interleukin (IL)-6, CXCL1 (a mouse ortholog of human IL-8), and VEGF release from these cells. Using conditionally immortalized Sca-1+CD31− stromal cells obtained from wild-type and A2B receptor knockout mouse hearts, we demonstrated that A2B receptors are essential for adenosine-dependent up-regulation of their paracrine functions. We found that the human heart also harbors a population of stromal cells similar to the mouse cardiac Sca-1+CD31− stromal cells that increase release of IL-6, IL-8, and VEGF in response to A2B receptor stimulation. Thus, our study identified A2B adenosine receptors on cardiac stromal cells as potential targets for up-regulation of proangiogenic factors in the ischemic heart. PMID:22431204

  2. Different Procoagulant Activity of Therapeutic Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Derived from Bone Marrow and Placental Decidua.

    PubMed

    Moll, Guido; Ignatowicz, Lech; Catar, Rusan; Luecht, Christian; Sadeghi, Behnam; Hamad, Osama; Jungebluth, Philipp; Dragun, Duska; Schmidtchen, Artur; Ringdén, Olle

    2015-10-01

    While therapeutic mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) have usually been obtained from bone marrow, perinatal tissues have emerged as promising new sources of cells for stromal cell therapy. In this study, we present a first safety follow-up on our clinical experience with placenta-derived decidual stromal cells (DSCs), used as supportive immunomodulatory and regenerative therapy for patients with severe complications after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). We found that DSCs are smaller, almost half the volume of MSCs, which may favor microvascular passage. DSCs also show different hemocompatibility, with increased triggering of the clotting cascade after exposure to human blood and plasma in vitro. After infusion of DSCs in HSCT patients, we observed a weak activation of the fibrinolytic system, but the other blood activation markers remained stable, excluding major adverse events. Expression profiling identified differential levels of key factors implicated in regulation of hemostasis, such as a lack of prostacyclin synthase and increased tissue factor expression in DSCs, suggesting that these cells have intrinsic blood-activating properties. The stronger triggering of the clotting cascade by DSCs could be antagonized by optimizing the cell graft reconstitution before infusion, for example, by use of low-dose heparin anticoagulant in the cell infusion buffer. We conclude that DSCs are smaller and have stronger hemostatic properties than MSCs, thus triggering stronger activation of the clotting system, which can be antagonized by optimizing the cell graft preparation before infusion. Our results highlight the importance of hemocompatibility safety testing for every novel cell therapy product before clinical use, when applied using systemic delivery. PMID:26192403

  3. IKKbeta mediates cell shape-induced aromatase expression and estrogen biosynthesis in adipose stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Sagar; Choudary, Ahsan; Ghosh, Sangeeta; Musi, Nicolas; Hu, Yanfen; Li, Rong

    2009-05-01

    Aromatase (Cyp19) is a key enzyme in estrogen biosynthesis and an important target in breast cancer therapy. Within tumor microenvironment, tumor cells stimulate aromatase expression in adipose stromal cells (ASCs), which in turn promotes estrogen-dependent growth of estrogen receptor (ER)-positive tumor cells. However, it is not clear how aromatase transcription and estrogen biosynthesis are regulated in ASCs under a precancerous condition. Here we demonstrate that cell shape change alone is sufficient to induce aromatase expression in primary ASCs from cancer-free individuals. The activation of aromatase transcription is mediated by IkappaB kinase-beta (IKKbeta), a kinase previously known for its cancer-promoting activity in tumor cells. Activation of IKKbeta leads to elevated expression of transcription factor CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-beta (C/EBPbeta), which binds to and stimulates two breast cancer-associated promoters of the aromatase gene. We also show that shape-induced estrogen production in ASCs can stimulate estrogen-dependent transcription in ER-positive breast tumor cells. We suggest that IKKbeta-dependent aromatase induction due to changes in cellular architecture in adipose tissue may contribute to the breast cancer risks associated with high mammagraphic density and obesity.

  4. Small interfering RNA silencing of interleukin-6 in mesenchymal stromal cells inhibits multiple myeloma cell growth.

    PubMed

    Teoh, Hoon Koon; Chong, Pei Pei; Abdullah, Maha; Sekawi, Zamberi; Tan, Geok Chin; Leong, Chooi Fun; Cheong, Soon Keng

    2016-01-01

    Studies demonstrated that mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) from bone marrow stroma produced high concentration of interleukin-6 (IL-6) that promoted multiple myeloma cell growth. In view of the failure of IL-6 monoclonal antibody therapy to demonstrate substantial clinical responses in early clinical trials, more effective methods are needed in order to disrupt the favourable microenvironment provided by the bone marrow stroma. In this study, we evaluated the short interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated silencing of IL-6 in MSC and the efficacy of these genetically modified MSC, with IL-6 suppression, on inhibition of U266 multiple myeloma cell growth. IL-6 mRNA and protein were significantly suppressed by 72h post IL-6 siRNA transfection without affecting the biological properties of MSC. Here we show significant inhibition of cell growth and IL-6 production in U266 cells co-cultured with MSC transfected with IL-6 siRNA when compared to U266 cells co-cultured with control MSC. We also show that the tumour volume and mitotic index of tumours in nude mice co-injected with U266 and MSC transfected with IL-6 siRNA were significantly reduced compared to tumours of mice co-injected with control MSC. Our results suggest potential use of RNA interference mediated therapy for multiple myeloma.

  5. The Promyelocytic Leukemia Zinc Finger Transcription Factor Is Critical for Human Endometrial Stromal Cell Decidualization.

    PubMed

    Kommagani, Ramakrishna; Szwarc, Maria M; Vasquez, Yasmin M; Peavey, Mary C; Mazur, Erik C; Gibbons, William E; Lanz, Rainer B; DeMayo, Francesco J; Lydon, John P

    2016-04-01

    Progesterone, via the progesterone receptor (PGR), is essential for endometrial stromal cell decidualization, a cellular transformation event in which stromal fibroblasts differentiate into decidual cells. Uterine decidualization supports embryo implantation and placentation as well as subsequent events, which together ensure a successful pregnancy. Accordingly, impaired decidualization results not only in implantation failure or early fetal miscarriage, but also may lead to potential adverse outcomes in all three pregnancy trimesters. Transcriptional reprogramming on a genome-wide scale underlies progesterone dependent decidualization of the human endometrial stromal cell (hESC). However, identification of the functionally essential signals encoded by these global transcriptional changes remains incomplete. Importantly, this knowledge-gap undercuts future efforts to improve diagnosis and treatment of implantation failure based on a dysfunctional endometrium. By integrating genome-wide datasets derived from decidualization of hESCs in culture, we reveal that the promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger (PLZF) transcription factor is rapidly induced by progesterone and that this induction is indispensable for progesterone-dependent decidualization. Chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by next generation sequencing (ChIP-Seq) identified at least ten progesterone response elements within the PLZF gene, indicating that PLZF may act as a direct target of PGR signaling. The spatiotemporal expression profile for PLZF in both the human and mouse endometrium offers further support for stromal PLZF as a mediator of the progesterone decidual signal. To identify functional targets of PLZF, integration of PLZF ChIP-Seq and RNA Pol II RNA-Seq datasets revealed that the early growth response 1 (EGR1) transcription factor is a PLZF target for which its level of expression must be reduced to enable progesterone dependent hESC decidualization. Apart from furnishing essential insights

  6. The Promyelocytic Leukemia Zinc Finger Transcription Factor Is Critical for Human Endometrial Stromal Cell Decidualization

    PubMed Central

    Kommagani, Ramakrishna; Szwarc, Maria M.; Vasquez, Yasmin M.; Peavey, Mary C.; Mazur, Erik C.; Gibbons, William E.; Lanz, Rainer B.; DeMayo, Francesco J.; Lydon, John P.

    2016-01-01

    Progesterone, via the progesterone receptor (PGR), is essential for endometrial stromal cell decidualization, a cellular transformation event in which stromal fibroblasts differentiate into decidual cells. Uterine decidualization supports embryo implantation and placentation as well as subsequent events, which together ensure a successful pregnancy. Accordingly, impaired decidualization results not only in implantation failure or early fetal miscarriage, but also may lead to potential adverse outcomes in all three pregnancy trimesters. Transcriptional reprogramming on a genome-wide scale underlies progesterone dependent decidualization of the human endometrial stromal cell (hESC). However, identification of the functionally essential signals encoded by these global transcriptional changes remains incomplete. Importantly, this knowledge-gap undercuts future efforts to improve diagnosis and treatment of implantation failure based on a dysfunctional endometrium. By integrating genome-wide datasets derived from decidualization of hESCs in culture, we reveal that the promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger (PLZF) transcription factor is rapidly induced by progesterone and that this induction is indispensable for progesterone-dependent decidualization. Chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by next generation sequencing (ChIP-Seq) identified at least ten progesterone response elements within the PLZF gene, indicating that PLZF may act as a direct target of PGR signaling. The spatiotemporal expression profile for PLZF in both the human and mouse endometrium offers further support for stromal PLZF as a mediator of the progesterone decidual signal. To identify functional targets of PLZF, integration of PLZF ChIP-Seq and RNA Pol II RNA-Seq datasets revealed that the early growth response 1 (EGR1) transcription factor is a PLZF target for which its level of expression must be reduced to enable progesterone dependent hESC decidualization. Apart from furnishing essential insights

  7. Combining xanthan and chitosan membranes to multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells as bioactive dressings for dermo-epidermal wounds.

    PubMed

    Bellini, Márcia Z; Caliari-Oliveira, Carolina; Mizukami, Amanda; Swiech, Kamilla; Covas, Dimas T; Donadi, Eduardo A; Oliva-Neto, Pedro; Moraes, Ângela M

    2015-03-01

    The association between tridimensional scaffolds to cells of interest has provided excellent perspectives for obtaining viable complex tissues in vitro, such as skin, resulting in impressive advances in the field of tissue engineering applied to regenerative therapies. The use of multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells in the treatment of dermo-epidermal wounds is particularly promising due to several relevant properties of these cells, such as high capacity of proliferation in culture, potential of differentiation in multiple skin cell types, important paracrine and immunomodulatory effects, among others. Membranes of chitosan complexed with xanthan may be potentially useful as scaffolds for multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells, given that they present suitable physico-chemical characteristics and have adequate tridimensional structure for the adhesion, growth, and maintenance of cell function. Therefore, the purpose of this work was to assess the applicability of bioactive dressings associating dense and porous chitosan-xanthan membranes to multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells for the treatment of skin wounds. The membranes showed to be non-mutagenic and allowed efficient adhesion and proliferation of the mesenchymal stromal cells in vitro. In vivo assays performed with mesenchymal stromal cells grown on the surface of the dense membranes showed acceleration of wound healing in Wistar rats, thus indicating that the use of this cell-scaffold association for tissue engineering purposes is feasible and attractive.

  8. Adipose-derived stromal cells inhibit prostate cancer cell proliferation inducing apoptosis

    SciTech Connect

    Takahara, Kiyoshi; Ii, Masaaki; Inamoto, Teruo; Komura, Kazumasa; Ibuki, Naokazu; Minami, Koichiro; Uehara, Hirofumi; Hirano, Hajime; Nomi, Hayahito; Kiyama, Satoshi; Asahi, Michio; Azuma, Haruhito

    2014-04-18

    Highlights: • AdSC transplantation exhibits inhibitory effect on tumor progressions of PCa cells. • AdSC-induced PCa cell apoptosis may occur via the TGF-β signaling pathway. • High expression of the TGF-β1 gene in AdSCs. - Abstract: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have generated a great deal of interest in the field of regenerative medicine. Adipose-derived stromal cells (AdSCs) are known to exhibit extensive proliferation potential and can undergo multilineage differentiation, sharing similar characteristics to bone marrow-derived MSCs. However, as the effect of AdSCs on tumor growth has not been studied sufficiently, we assessed the degree to which AdSCs affect the proliferation of prostate cancer (PCa) cell. Human AdSCs exerted an inhibitory effect on the proliferation of androgen-responsive (LNCaP) and androgen-nonresponsive (PC3) human PCa cells, while normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDFs) did not, and in fact promoted PCa cell proliferation to a degree. Moreover, AdSCs induced apoptosis of LNCaP cells and PC3 cells, activating the caspase3/7 signaling pathway. cDNA microarray analysis suggested that AdSC-induced apoptosis in both LNCaP and PC3 cells was related to the TGF-β signaling pathway. Consistent with our in vitro observations, local transplantation of AdSCs delayed the growth of tumors derived from both LNCaP- and PC3-xenografts in immunodeficient mice. This is the first preclinical study to have directly demonstrated that AdSC-induced PCa cell apoptosis may occur via the TGF-β signaling pathway, irrespective of androgen-responsiveness. Since autologous AdSCs can be easily isolated from adipose tissue without any ethical concerns, we suggest that therapy with these cells could be a novel approach for patients with PCa.

  9. Immunomodulation of endothelial differentiated mesenchymal stromal cells: impact on T and NK cells.

    PubMed

    El Omar, Reine; Xiong, Yu; Dostert, Gabriel; Louis, Huguette; Gentils, Monique; Menu, Patrick; Stoltz, Jean-François; Velot, Émilie; Decot, Véronique

    2016-04-01

    Wharton's jelly mesenchymal stromal cells (WJ-MSCs) are promising candidates for tissue engineering, as their immunomodulatory activity allows them to escape immune recognition and to suppress several immune cell functions. To date, however, few studies have investigated the effect of differentiation of the MSCs on this immunomodulation. To address this question, we sought to determine the impact of differentiation toward endothelial cells on immunoregulation by WJ-MSCs. Following differentiation, the endothelial-like cells (ELCs) were positive for CD31, vascular endothelial cadherin and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2, and able to take up acetylated low-density lipoproteins. The expression of HLA-DR and CD86, which contribute to MSCs immunoprivilege, was still weak after differentiation. We then co-cultured un- and differentiated MSCs with immune cells, under conditions of both direct and indirect contact. The proliferation and phenotype of the immune cells were analyzed and the mediators secreted by both ELCs and WJ-MSCs quantified. Interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β, prostaglandin E2 and in particular indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase expression were upregulated in ELCs on stimulation by T and NK cells, suggesting the possible involvement of these factors in allosuppression. ELCs co-cultured with T cells were able to generate CD25(+) T cells, which were shown to be of the CD4(+)CD25(+)FoxP3(+) regulatory subset. Direct contact between NK cells and ELCs or WJ-MSCs decreased the level of NK-activating receptor natural-killer group 2, member D. Moreover, direct co-culturing with ELCs stimulates CD73 acquisition on NK cells, a mechanism which may induce adenosine secretion by the cells and lead to an immunosuppressive function. Taken together, our results show that ELCs obtained following differentiation of WJ-MSCs remain largely immunosuppressive. PMID:26510892

  10. Interleukin-18 produced by bone marrow-derived stromal cells supports T-cell acute leukaemia progression

    PubMed Central

    Uzan, Benjamin; Poglio, Sandrine; Gerby, Bastien; Wu, Ching-Lien; Gross, Julia; Armstrong, Florence; Calvo, Julien; Cahu, Xavier; Deswarte, Caroline; Dumont, Florent; Passaro, Diana; Besnard-Guérin, Corinne; Leblanc, Thierry; Baruchel, André; Landman-Parker, Judith; Ballerini, Paola; Baud, Véronique; Ghysdael, Jacques; Baleydier, Frédéric; Porteu, Francoise; Pflumio, Francoise

    2014-01-01

    Development of novel therapies is critical for T-cell acute leukaemia (T-ALL). Here, we investigated the effect of inhibiting the MAPK/MEK/ERK pathway on T-ALL cell growth. Unexpectedly, MEK inhibitors (MEKi) enhanced growth of 70% of human T-ALL cell samples cultured on stromal cells independently of NOTCH activation and maintained their ability to propagate in vivo. Similar results were obtained when T-ALL cells were cultured with ERK1/2-knockdown stromal cells or with conditioned medium from MEKi-treated stromal cells. Microarray analysis identified interleukin 18 (IL-18) as transcriptionally up-regulated in MEKi-treated MS5 cells. Recombinant IL-18 promoted T-ALL growth in vitro, whereas the loss of function of IL-18 receptor in T-ALL blast cells decreased blast proliferation in vitro and in NSG mice. The NFKB pathway that is downstream to IL-18R was activated by IL-18 in blast cells. IL-18 circulating levels were increased in T-ALL-xenografted mice and also in T-ALL patients in comparison with controls. This study uncovers a novel role of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-18 and outlines the microenvironment involvement in human T-ALL development. PMID:24778454

  11. Stromal cells and integrins: conforming to the needs of the tumor microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Alphonso, Aimee; Alahari, Suresh K

    2009-12-01

    The microenvironment of a tumor is constituted of a heterogenous population of stromal cells, extracellular matrix components, and secreted factors, all of which make the tumor microenvironment distinct from that of normal tissue. Unlike healthy cells, tumor cells require these unique surroundings to metastasize, spread, and form a secondary tumor at a distant site. In this review, we discuss that stromal cells such as fibroblasts and immune cells including macrophages, their secreted factors, such as vascular endothelial growth factor, transforming growth factor beta, and various chemokines, and the integrins that connect the various cell types play a particularly vital role in the survival of a growing tumor mass. Macrophages and fibroblasts are uniquely plastic cells because they are not only able to switch from tumor suppressing to tumor supporting phenotypes but also able to adopt various tumor-supporting functions based on their location within the microenvironment. Integrins serve as the backbone for all of these prometastatic operations because their function as cell-cell and cell-matrix signal transducers are important for the heterogenous components of the microenvironment to communicate.

  12. Perivascular epithelioid cell tumor of the liver coexisting with a gastrointestinal stromal tumor.

    PubMed

    Paiva, Carlos Eduardo; Moraes Neto, Francisco Alves; Agaimy, Abbas; Custodio Domingues, Maria Aparecida; Rogatto, Silvia Regina

    2008-02-01

    Approximately 10% of patients with gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) develop other neoplasms, either synchronously or metachronously. In this report we describe coexistence of a gastrointestinal stromal tumor and a hepatic perivascular epithelioid cell tumor (PEComa) in a 51-year-old woman with no evidence of tuberous sclerosis. A subcapsular hepatic nodule (0.8 cm in diameter) was found during surgery for symptomatic gastric neoplasm (15 cm in diameter) arising from the lesser curvature. Both tumors revealed histomorphological and immunohistochemical features confirming a diagnosis of a small incidental hepatic PEComa and a high risky extramural gastric GIST, respectively. The patient remained disease-free 25 mo after surgery with no evidence of tumor recurrence or new neoplasms. To our knowledge, this is the first report of PEComa in a patient with GIST. Hepatic lesions detected synchronously or metachronously in patients with GISTs may represent histogenetically distinct lesions and should be sampled to confirm or exclude metastatic GISTs.

  13. Desmoplastic nested spindle cell tumours and nested stromal epithelial tumours of the liver.

    PubMed

    Misra, Sunayana; Bihari, Chhagan

    2016-04-01

    Desmoplastic nested spindle cell tumour of liver (DNSTL), nested stromal-epithelial tumour (NSET) and calcifying nested stromal-epithelial tumour (CNSET) are recently described entities with similar morphology, immunohistochemistry and molecular genetics. These are rare entities with only three large case series described till date. These tumours commonly present in the paediatric age group. NSETs, in addition have been described to be associated with ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) production and Cushingoid features. It is important to discuss this rare group of tumours with a low malignant potential as the most common radiological differential diagnosis is hepatoblastoma, which has a relatively poorer prognosis. Thus, a pathologist needs to keep this entity in mind, so as to offer a correct histological diagnosis.

  14. Redox modulation of adjacent thiols in VLA-4 by AS101 converts myeloid leukemia cells from a drug-resistant to drug-sensitive state.

    PubMed

    Layani-Bazar, Adi; Skornick, Itai; Berrebi, Alain; Pauker, Maor H; Noy, Elad; Silberman, Alon; Albeck, Michael; Longo, Dan L; Kalechman, Yona; Sredni, Benjamin

    2014-06-01

    Interaction between the integrin VLA-4 on acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) cells with stromal fibronectin is a decisive factor in chemotherapeutic resistance. In this study, we provide a rationale for a drug repositioning strategy to blunt integrin activation in AML cells and restore their sensitivity to chemotherapy. Specifically, we demonstrate that the nontoxic tellurium compound AS101, currently being evaluated in clinical trials, can abrogate the acquired resistance of AML. Mechanistic investigations revealed that AS101 caused redox inactivation of adjacent thiols in the exofacial domain of VLA-4 after its ligation to stromal fibronectin. This effect triggered cytoskeletal conformational changes that decreased PI3K/Akt/Bcl2 signaling, an obligatory step in chemosensitization by AS101. In a mouse xenograft of AML derived from patient leukemic cells with high VLA-4 expression and activity, we demonstrated that AS101 abrogated drug resistance and prolonged survival in mice receiving chemotherapy. Decreased integrin activity was confirmed on AML cells in vivo. The chemosensitizing activity of AS101 persisted in hosts with defective adaptive and innate immunity, consistent with evidence that integrin deactivation was not mediated by heightening immune attack. Our findings provide a mechanistic rationale to reposition the experimental clinical agent, AS101, to degrade VLA-4-mediated chemoresistance and improve clinical responses in patients with AML.

  15. Bone marrow stromal cell assays – in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Robey, Pamela Gehron; Kuznetsov, Sergei A.; Riminucci, Mara; Bianco, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Summary Populations of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs, also known as bone marrow-derived “mesenchymal stem cells”) contain a a subset of cells that are able to recapitulate the formation of a bone/marrow organ (skeletal stem cells, SSCs). The biological properties of BMSC cultures are assessed by a variety of assays, both in vitro and in vivo. Application of these assays in an appropriate fashion provide a great deal of information on the role of BMSCs, and the subset of SSCs, in health and in disease. PMID:24482181

  16. A simple and efficient method for deriving neurospheres from bone marrow stromal cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yang Qin; Mu Jun; Li Qi; Li Ao; Zeng Zhilei; Yang Jun; Zhang Xiaodong; Tang Jin; Xie Peng

    2008-08-08

    Bone marrow stromal cells (MSCs) can be differentiated into neuronal and glial-like cell types under appropriate experimental conditions. However, previously reported methods are complicated and involve the use of toxic reagents. Here, we present a simplified and nontoxic method for efficient conversion of rat MSCs into neurospheres that express the neuroectodermal marker nestin. These neurospheres can proliferate and differentiate into neuron, astrocyte, and oligodendrocyte phenotypes. We thus propose that MSCs are an emerging model cell for the treatment of a variety of neurological diseases.

  17. [Intracellular immunoglobulins in Namalwa and U266 cells co-cultivated with mesenchymal stromal cells].

    PubMed

    Aĭzenshtadt, A A; Ivanova, N A; Bagaeva, V V; Smolianinov, A B; Pinevich, A A; Samoĭlovich, M P; Klimovich, V B

    2014-01-01

    There are contradictory data concerning the influence of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) on immunoglobulin (Ig) production. Most of them were obtained using MSC from bone marrow. Properties of MSC from other tissues are elusive. In the present work MSC cultures were derived from umbilical cord, adipose tissue, and bone marrow of healthy donors, as well as from bone marrow of patients with autoimmune diseases. MSC from all these sources had similar surface markers phenotype. The influence of co-cultivation with MSC at exponential or stationary phase on IgM and IgE content in Namalva and U266 cells was evaluated. MSC from bone marrow of healthy donors had no effect on IgM and IgE production. Proliferating MSC obtained from patients with Crohn's disease and multiple sclerosis stimulated Ig production. Exponentially growing MSC derived from umbilical cord and adipose tissue also stimulated Ig synthesis. MSC at stationary cultures amplified IgM production in Namalva cells and suppressed IgE synthesis in U266. Thus, MSC with similar phenotype but derived from different sources differ in their capacity to modulate Ig production in B-lymphoid cells. The effect of MSC depends on their growth stage and may differ for lymphoblastoid and myeloma cells. PMID:25509151

  18. Epigenetic rejuvenation of mesenchymal stromal cells derived from induced pluripotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    Frobel, Joana; Hemeda, Hatim; Lenz, Michael; Abagnale, Giulio; Joussen, Sylvia; Denecke, Bernd; Sarić, Tomo; Zenke, Martin; Wagner, Wolfgang

    2014-09-01

    Standardization of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) remains a major obstacle in regenerative medicine. Starting material and culture expansion affect cell preparations and render comparison between studies difficult. In contrast, induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) assimilate toward a ground state and may therefore give rise to more standardized cell preparations. We reprogrammed MSCs into iPSCs, which were subsequently redifferentiated toward MSCs. These iPS-MSCs revealed similar morphology, immunophenotype, in vitro differentiation potential, and gene expression profiles as primary MSCs. However, iPS-MSCs were impaired in suppressing T cell proliferation. DNA methylation (DNAm) profiles of iPSCs maintained donor-specific characteristics, whereas tissue-specific, senescence-associated, and age-related DNAm patterns were erased during reprogramming. iPS-MSCs reacquired senescence-associated DNAm during culture expansion, but they remained rejuvenated with regard to age-related DNAm. Overall, iPS-MSCs are similar to MSCs, but they reveal incomplete reacquisition of immunomodulatory function and MSC-specific DNAm patterns-particularly of DNAm patterns associated with tissue type and aging. PMID:25241740

  19. Expression of Stromal Cell-Derived Factor-1 and of Its Receptor CXCR4 in Liver Regeneration from Oval Cells in Rat

    PubMed Central

    Mavier, Philippe; Martin, Nadine; Couchie, Dominique; Préaux, Anne-Marie; Laperche, Yannick; Zafrani, Elie Serge

    2004-01-01

    Stromal cell-derived factor-1 is a chemokine that plays a major role during embryogenesis. Since stromal cell-derived factor-1 and its unique receptor CXCR4 are involved in the differentiation of progenitor cells, we studied the expression of this chemokine and of its receptor in hepatic regeneration from precursor oval cells. Hepatic regeneration was induced by treating rats with 2-acetylaminofluorene, and followed by partial hepatectomy. Oval cell accumulation, which predominated in periportal regions, reached a maximum at days 9 to 14 after hepatectomy and declined thereafter. Oval cells strongly expressed stromal cell-derived factor-1 protein and mRNA. CXCR4 mRNA hepatic level paralleled the number of oval cells and in situ hybridization showed CXCR4 mRNA expression by these cells. Treatment of rats with fucoidan, a sulfated polysaccharide which binds to stromal cell-derived factor-1 and blocks its biological effects, markedly decreased oval cell accumulation in five of the seven treated rats. In conclusion, our data demonstrate an expression of stromal cell-derived factor-1 and of its receptor CXCR4 in oval cells during hepatic regeneration and strongly suggest that stromal cell-derived factor-1 stimulates the proliferation of these precursor cells through an autocrine/paracrine pathway. PMID:15579440

  20. Exosomes released by chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells induce the transition of stromal cells into cancer-associated fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Paggetti, Jerome; Haderk, Franziska; Seiffert, Martina; Janji, Bassam; Distler, Ute; Ammerlaan, Wim; Kim, Yeoun Jin; Adam, Julien; Lichter, Peter; Solary, Eric; Berchem, Guy; Moussay, Etienne

    2015-08-27

    Exosomes derived from solid tumor cells are involved in immune suppression, angiogenesis, and metastasis, but the role of leukemia-derived exosomes has been less investigated. The pathogenesis of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is stringently associated with a tumor-supportive microenvironment and a dysfunctional immune system. Here, we explore the role of CLL-derived exosomes in the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which malignant cells create this favorable surrounding. We show that CLL-derived exosomes are actively incorporated by endothelial and mesenchymal stem cells ex vivo and in vivo and that the transfer of exosomal protein and microRNA induces an inflammatory phenotype in the target cells, which resembles the phenotype of cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs). As a result, stromal cells show enhanced proliferation, migration, and secretion of inflammatory cytokines, contributing to a tumor-supportive microenvironment. Exosome uptake by endothelial cells increased angiogenesis ex vivo and in vivo, and coinjection of CLL-derived exosomes and CLL cells promoted tumor growth in immunodeficient mice. Finally, we detected α-smooth actin-positive stromal cells in lymph nodes of CLL patients. These findings demonstrate that CLL-derived exosomes actively promote disease progression by modulating several functions of surrounding stromal cells that acquire features of cancer-associated fibroblasts.

  1. Enrichment of c-Met+ tumorigenic stromal cells of giant cell tumor of bone and targeting by cabozantinib.

    PubMed

    Liu, L; Aleksandrowicz, E; Fan, P; Schönsiegel, F; Zhang, Y; Sähr, H; Gladkich, J; Mattern, J; Depeweg, D; Lehner, B; Fellenberg, J; Herr, I

    2014-10-16

    Giant cell tumor of bone (GCTB) is a very rare tumor entity, which is little examined owing to the lack of established cell lines and mouse models and the restriction of available primary cell lines. The stromal cells of GCTB have been made responsible for the aggressive growth and metastasis, emphasizing the presence of a cancer stem cell population. To identify and target such tumor-initiating cells, stromal cells were isolated from eight freshly resected GCTB tissues. Tumorigenic properties were examined by colony and spheroid formation, differentiation, migration, MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay, immunohistochemistry, antibody protein array, Alu in situ hybridization, FACS analysis and xenotransplantation into fertilized chicken eggs and mice. A sub-population of the neoplastic stromal cells formed spheroids and colonies, differentiated to osteoblasts, migrated to wounded regions and expressed the metastasis marker CXC-chemokine receptor type 4, indicating self-renewal, invasion and differentiation potential. Compared with adherent-growing cells, markers for pluripotency, stemness and cancer progression, including the CSC surface marker c-Met, were enhanced in spheroidal cells. This c-Met-enriched sub-population formed xenograft tumors in fertilized chicken eggs and mice. Cabozantinib, an inhibitor of c-Met in phase II trials, eliminated CSC features with a higher therapeutic effect than standard chemotherapy. This study identifies a c-Met(+) tumorigenic sub-population within stromal GCTB cells and suggests the c-Met inhibitor cabozantinib as a new therapeutic option for targeted elimination of unresectable or recurrent GCTB.

  2. Autologous bone marrow stromal cells are promising candidates for cell therapy approaches to treat bone degeneration in sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Lebouvier, Angélique; Poignard, Alexandre; Coquelin-Salsac, Laura; Léotot, Julie; Homma, Yasuhiro; Jullien, Nicolas; Bierling, Philippe; Galactéros, Frédéric; Hernigou, Philippe; Chevallier, Nathalie; Rouard, Hélène

    2015-11-01

    Osteonecrosis of the femoral head is a frequent complication in adult patients with sickle cell disease (SCD). To delay hip arthroplasty, core decompression combined with concentrated total bone marrow (BM) treatment is currently performed in the early stages of the osteonecrosis. Cell therapy efficacy depends on the quantity of implanted BM stromal cells. For this reason, expanded bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs, also known as bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells) can be used to improve osteonecrosis treatment in SCD patients. In this study, we quantitatively and qualitatively evaluated the function of BMSCs isolated from a large number of SCD patients with osteonecrosis (SCD-ON) compared with control groups (patients with osteonecrosis not related to SCD (ON) and normal donors (N)). BM total nuclear cells and colony-forming efficiency values (CFE) were significantly higher in SCD-ON patients than in age and sex-matched controls. The BMSCs from SCD-ON patients were similar to BMSCs from the control groups in terms of their phenotypic and functional properties. SCD-ON patients have a higher frequency of BMSCs that retain their bone regeneration potential. Our findings suggest that BMSCs isolated from SCD-ON patients can be used clinically in cell therapy approaches. This work provides important preclinical data that is necessary for the clinical application of expanded BMSCs in advanced therapies and medical products. PMID:26492634

  3. Autologous bone marrow stromal cells are promising candidates for cell therapy approaches to treat bone degeneration in sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Lebouvier, Angélique; Poignard, Alexandre; Coquelin-Salsac, Laura; Léotot, Julie; Homma, Yasuhiro; Jullien, Nicolas; Bierling, Philippe; Galactéros, Frédéric; Hernigou, Philippe; Chevallier, Nathalie; Rouard, Hélène

    2015-11-01

    Osteonecrosis of the femoral head is a frequent complication in adult patients with sickle cell disease (SCD). To delay hip arthroplasty, core decompression combined with concentrated total bone marrow (BM) treatment is currently performed in the early stages of the osteonecrosis. Cell therapy efficacy depends on the quantity of implanted BM stromal cells. For this reason, expanded bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs, also known as bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells) can be used to improve osteonecrosis treatment in SCD patients. In this study, we quantitatively and qualitatively evaluated the function of BMSCs isolated from a large number of SCD patients with osteonecrosis (SCD-ON) compared with control groups (patients with osteonecrosis not related to SCD (ON) and normal donors (N)). BM total nuclear cells and colony-forming efficiency values (CFE) were significantly higher in SCD-ON patients than in age and sex-matched controls. The BMSCs from SCD-ON patients were similar to BMSCs from the control groups in terms of their phenotypic and functional properties. SCD-ON patients have a higher frequency of BMSCs that retain their bone regeneration potential. Our findings suggest that BMSCs isolated from SCD-ON patients can be used clinically in cell therapy approaches. This work provides important preclinical data that is necessary for the clinical application of expanded BMSCs in advanced therapies and medical products.

  4. Cell-cell contact between marrow stromal cells and myeloma cells via VCAM-1 and alpha(4)beta(1)-integrin enhances production of osteoclast-stimulating activity.

    PubMed

    Michigami, T; Shimizu, N; Williams, P J; Niewolna, M; Dallas, S L; Mundy, G R; Yoneda, T

    2000-09-01

    Myeloma is a unique hematologic malignancy that exclusively homes in the bone marrow and induces massive osteoclastic bone destruction presumably by producing cytokines that promote the differentiation of the hematopoietic progenitors to osteoclasts (osteoclastogenesis). It is recognized that neighboring bone marrow stromal cells influence the expression of the malignant phenotype in myeloma cells. This study examined the role of the interactions between myeloma cells and neighboring stromal cells in the production of osteoclastogenic factors to elucidate the mechanism underlying extensive osteoclastic bone destruction. A murine myeloma cell line 5TGM1, which causes severe osteolysis, expresses alpha(4)beta(1)-integrin and tightly adheres to the mouse marrow stromal cell line ST2, which expresses the vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), a ligand for alpha(4)beta(1)-integrin. Co-cultures of 5TGM1 with primary bone marrow cells generated tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-positive multinucleated bone-resorbing osteoclasts. Co-cultures of 5TGM1 with ST2 showed increased production of bone-resorbing activity and neutralizing antibodies against VCAM-1 or alpha(4)beta(1)-integrin inhibited this. The 5TGM1 cells contacting recombinant VCAM-1 produced increased osteoclastogenic and bone-resorbing activity. The activity was not blocked by the neutralizing antibody to known osteoclastogenic cytokines including interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor, or parathyroid hormone-related peptide. These data suggest that myeloma cells are responsible for producing osteoclastogenic activity and that establishment of direct contact with marrow stromal cells via alpha(4)beta(1)-integrin/VCAM-1 increases the production of this activity by myeloma cells. They also suggest that the presence of stromal cells may provide a microenvironment that allows exclusive colonization of myeloma cells in the bone marrow. (Blood. 2000;96:1953-1960) PMID:10961900

  5. Toad skin extract cinobufatini inhibits migration of human breast carcinoma MDA-MB-231 cells into a model stromal tissue.

    PubMed

    Nakata, Munehiro; Mori, Shuya; Kamoshida, Yo; Kawaguchi, Shota; Fujita-Yamaguchi, Yoko; Gao, Bo; Tang, Wei

    2015-08-01

    Toad skin extract cinobufatini study has been focused on anticancer activity, especially apoptosis-inducing activity by bufosteroids. The present study examined effect of the toad skin extract on cancer cell migration into model stromal tissues. Human breast carcinoma cell line MDA-MB-231 was incubated in the presence or absence of toad skin extract on a surface of reconstituted type I collagen gel as a model stromal tissue allowing the cells to migrate into the gel. Frozen sections were microscopically observed after azan staining. Data showed a decrease of cell number in a microscopic field and shortening of cell migration into the model stromal tissue in a dose dependent manner. This suggests that toad skin extract may possess migration-preventing activity in addition to cell toxicity such as apoptosis-inducing activity. The multifaceted effects including apoptosis-inducing and cancer cell migration-preventing activities would improve usefulness of toad skin extract cinobufatini as an anticancer medicine.

  6. Substrate Induced Osteoblast-Like Differentiation of Stromal Stem Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belizar, Jacqueline; Glaser, Reena; Hung, Matthew; Simon, Marcia; Jurukovski, Vladimir; Rafailovich, Miriam; Shih, Alice

    2009-03-01

    We have demonstrated that Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) can be induced to biomineralize on a polybutadiene (PB) coated Si substrate. The cells began to generate calcium phosphate deposits after a five-day incubation period in the absence of dexamethasone. Control cells plated on tissue culture PS culture dish (TCP) did not biomineralize. In addition, the biomineralizing culture retained proliferative cells In order to determine whether the induction was transient, we transferred the cells exposed to polybutadiene after 14 and 28-day incubation periods to TCP dishes. These cells continued to biominerlize. Genetic testing is underway which will determine whether differentiation is maintained after transfer.

  7. Proteome analysis of proliferative response of bystander cells adjacent to cells exposed to ionizing radiation

    PubMed Central

    Gerashchenko, Bogdan I.; Yamagata, Akira; Oofusa, Ken; Yoshizato, Katsutoshi; de Toledo, Sonia M.; Howell, Roger W.

    2010-01-01

    Recently (Cytometry 2003, 56A, 71–80), we reported that direct cell-to-cell contact is required for stimulating proliferation of bystander rat liver cells (WB-F344) cocultured with irradiated cells, and neither functional gap junction intercellular communication nor long-range extracellular factors appear to be involved in this proliferative bystander response (PBR). The molecular basis for this response is unknown. Confluent monolayers of WB-F344 cells were exposed to 5-Gray (Gy) of γ-rays. Irradiated cells were mixed with unirradiated cells and co-cultured for 24 h. Cells were harvested and protein expression was examined using 2-DE. Protein expression was also determined in cultures of unirradiated and 5-Gy irradiated cells. Proteins were identified by MS. Nucleophosmin (NPM)-1, a multifunctional nucleolar protein, was more highly expressed in bystander cells than in either unirradiated or 5-Gy irradiated cells. Enolase-α, a glycolytic enzyme, was present in acidic and basic variants in unirradiated cells. In bystander and 5-Gy irradiated cells, the basic variant was weakly expressed, whereas the acidic variant was overwhelmingly present. These data indicate that the presence of irradiated cells can affect NPM-1 and enolase-α in adjacent bystander cells. These proteins appear to participate in molecular events related to the PBR and suggest that this response may involve cellular defense, proliferation, and metabolism. PMID:17514680

  8. Proteome analysis of proliferative response of bystander cells adjacent to cells exposed to ionizing radiation.

    PubMed

    Gerashchenko, Bogdan I; Yamagata, Akira; Oofusa, Ken; Yoshizato, Katsutoshi; de Toledo, Sonia M; Howell, Roger W

    2007-06-01

    Recently (Cytometry 2003, 56A, 71-80), we reported that direct cell-to-cell contact is required for stimulating proliferation of bystander rat liver cells (WB-F344) cocultured with irradiated cells, and neither functional gap junction intercellular communication nor long-range extracellular factors appear to be involved in this proliferative bystander response (PBR). The molecular basis for this response is unknown. Confluent monolayers of WB-F344 cells were exposed to 5-Gray (Gy) of gamma-rays. Irradiated cells were mixed with unirradiated cells and co-cultured for 24 h. Cells were harvested and protein expression was examined using 2-DE. Protein expression was also determined in cultures of unirradiated and 5-Gy irradiated cells. Proteins were identified by MS. Nucleophosmin (NPM)-1, a multifunctional nucleolar protein, was more highly expressed in bystander cells than in either unirradiated or 5-Gy irradiated cells. Enolase-alpha, a glycolytic enzyme, was present in acidic and basic variants in unirradiated cells. In bystander and 5-Gy irradiated cells, the basic variant was weakly expressed, whereas the acidic variant was overwhelmingly present. These data indicate that the presence of irradiated cells can affect NPM-1 and enolase-alpha in adjacent bystander cells. These proteins appear to participate in molecular events related to the PBR and suggest that this response may involve cellular defense, proliferation, and metabolism.

  9. Automated quantification of hematopoietic cell - stromal cell interactions in histological images of undecalcified bone.

    PubMed

    Zehentmeier, Sandra; Cseresnyes, Zoltan; Escribano Navarro, Juan; Niesner, Raluca A; Hauser, Anja E

    2015-01-01

    Confocal microscopy is the method of choice for the analysis of localization of multiple cell types within complex tissues such as the bone marrow. However, the analysis and quantification of cellular localization is difficult, as in many cases it relies on manual counting, thus bearing the risk of introducing a rater-dependent bias and reducing interrater reliability. Moreover, it is often difficult to judge whether the co-localization between two cells results from random positioning, especially when cell types differ strongly in the frequency of their occurrence. Here, a method for unbiased quantification of cellular co-localization in the bone marrow is introduced. The protocol describes the sample preparation used to obtain histological sections of whole murine long bones including the bone marrow, as well as the staining protocol and the acquisition of high-resolution images. An analysis workflow spanning from the recognition of hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cell types in 2-dimensional (2D) bone marrow images to the quantification of the direct contacts between those cells is presented. This also includes a neighborhood analysis, to obtain information about the cellular microenvironment surrounding a certain cell type. In order to evaluate whether co-localization of two cell types is the mere result of random cell positioning or reflects preferential associations between the cells, a simulation tool which is suitable for testing this hypothesis in the case of hematopoietic as well as stromal cells, is used. This approach is not limited to the bone marrow, and can be extended to other tissues to permit reproducible, quantitative analysis of histological data.

  10. Characteristics of Multipotent Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Isolated from Human Endometrium and Endometriosis Lesions.

    PubMed

    Savilova, A M; Yushina, M N; Rudimova, Yu V; Khabas, G N; Chuprynin, V D; Sukhikh, G T

    2016-08-01

    Cell cultures isolated from endometriosis lesions by enzymatic dissociation consisted of fibroblast-like cells expressing CD90, CD73, and CD105; cell viability in these cultures was >90%, but this parameter decreased by passage 3. Zero passage cultures contained 10-25% epithelial cells expressing cytokeratin-7, but by passage 2, the cultures became more homogeneous and epithelial cells disappeared. The proportion of proliferating cells and population doubling level increased from passage 1 to passage 3. The cultures from the endometrium were induced to adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation in vitro. The cultures derived from ectopic endometrium have properties of multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells that exhibited in vitro similarities and differences from cell cultures from eutopic endometrium, which allows using this cell model for the search and testing of new drugs and technologies aimed at suppression of the growth and spread of endometriosis lesions. PMID:27590769

  11. Bead transfection: rapid and efficient gene transfer into marrow stromal and other adherent mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Matthews, K E; Mills, G B; Horsfall, W; Hack, N; Skorecki, K; Keating, A

    1993-05-01

    We report a simple, rapid, efficient and cost-effective method of gene transfer into bone marrow stromal and other adherent mammalian cells. Our approach involves brief incubation of cells with glass beads in a solution containing the DNA to be transferred. We optimized the technique using COS cells (SV40 transformed kidney cell line from African green monkey) and a transient expression assay for chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT). Factors affecting gene transfer include size and condition of the beads and DNA concentration, but not DNA conformation. Gene transfer efficiency, assessed in a transient expression assay for beta-galactosidase activity, was 5 and 3% in nontransformed human bone marrow stromal cells and COS cells, respectively. Long-term stable expression with the selectable marker, neomycin phosphotransferase, was demonstrated in clonogenic COS cells at a frequency of 27%. Southern analysis of resistant clones revealed the transferred DNA to be integrated in low copy number at one or two sites in the host cell genome. Comparison with electroporation and DEAE-dextran indicates that bead transfection is more efficient than the latter and less costly than either of these methods. In view of its simplicity and because the use of retroviral sequences can be avoided, bead transfection may be an attractive means of gene insertion for gene therapy.

  12. Scalable microcarrier-based manufacturing of mesenchymal stem/stromal cells.

    PubMed

    de Soure, António M; Fernandes-Platzgummer, Ana; da Silva, Cláudia L; Cabral, Joaquim M S

    2016-10-20

    Due to their unique features, mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSC) have been exploited in clinical settings as therapeutic candidates for the treatment of a variety of diseases. However, the success in obtaining clinically-relevant MSC numbers for cell-based therapies is dependent on efficient isolation and ex vivo expansion protocols, able to comply with good manufacturing practices (GMP). In this context, the 2-dimensional static culture systems typically used for the expansion of these cells present several limitations that may lead to reduced cell numbers and compromise cell functions. Furthermore, many studies in the literature report the expansion of MSC using fetal bovine serum (FBS)-supplemented medium, which has been critically rated by regulatory agencies. Alternative platforms for the scalable manufacturing of MSC have been developed, namely using microcarriers in bioreactors, with also a considerable number of studies now reporting the production of MSC using xenogeneic/serum-free medium formulations. In this review we provide a comprehensive overview on the scalable manufacturing of human mesenchymal stem/stromal cells, depicting the various steps involved in the process from cell isolation to ex vivo expansion, using different cell tissue sources and culture medium formulations and exploiting bioprocess engineering tools namely microcarrier technology and bioreactors.

  13. Mechanical Stimulation Increases Knee Meniscus Gene RNA-level Expression in Adipose-derived Stromal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Meier, Elizabeth M.; Wu, Bin; Siddiqui, Aamir; Tepper, Donna G.; Longaker, Michael T.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Efforts have been made to engineer knee meniscus tissue for injury repair, yet most attempts have been unsuccessful. Creating a cell source that resembles the complex, heterogeneous phenotype of the meniscus cell remains difficult. Stem cell differentiation has been investigated, mainly using bone marrow mesenchymal cells and biochemical means for differentiation, resulting in no solution. Mechanical stimulation has been investigated to an extent with no conclusion. Here, we explore the potential for and effectiveness of mechanical stimulation to induce the meniscal phenotype in adipose-derived stromal cells. Methods: Human adipose-derived stromal cells were chosen for their fibrogenic nature and conduciveness for chondrogenesis. Biochemical and mechanical stimulation were investigated. Biochemical stimulation included fibrogenic and chondrogenic media. For mechanical stimulation, a custom-built device was used to apply constant, cyclical, uniaxial strain for up to 6 hours. Strain and frequency varied. Results: Under biochemical stimulation, both fibrogenic (collagen I, versican) and chondrogenic (collagen II, Sox9, aggrecan) genes were expressed by cells exposed to either fibrogenic or chondrogenic biochemical factors. Mechanical strain was found to preferentially promote fibrogenesis over chondrogenesis, confirming that tensile strain is an effective fibrogenic cue. Three hours at 10% strain and 1 Hz in chondrogenic media resulted in the highest expression of fibrochondrogenic genes. Although mechanical stimulation did not seem to affect protein level expression, biochemical means did affect protein level presence of collagen fibers. Conclusion: Mechanical stimulation can be a useful differentiation tool for mechanoresponsive cell types as long as biochemical factors are also integrated. PMID:27757329

  14. Isolation, Culture, and Characterization of Human Umbilical Cord Blood-Derived Mesenchymal Stromal Cells.

    PubMed

    Bieback, Karen; Netsch, Philipp

    2016-01-01

    Umbilical cord blood (CB) is considered one of the youngest available sources of adult stem cells. Besides hematopoietic stem cells, CB has been shown to contain endothelial progenitor cells as well as mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSC). To isolate MSC from cord blood, CB is collected into a sterile bag containing the anticoagulant citrate-phosphate-dextrose (CPD). The CB is then processed by density-gradient centrifugation to obtain mononuclear cells (MNC). These are cultured until the outgrowth of fibroblastoid cell colonies appears. After reaching a subconfluent stage, cells are harvested, expanded, and characterized as cord blood mesenchymal stromal cells (CB-MSC) according to standard criteria: plastic adherence, fibroblast morphology, CFU-f assay, proliferation potential, immune phenotype, and differentiation potential.Apparently, the frequency of MSC in CB is extremely low. Thus, not every CB unit will provide adequate MSC isolation yields. Different strategies have been proposed aiming to optimize the isolation success by selecting CB units of optimal quality. It is commonly agreed on that a high CB volume, a high cellular content, and a short time frame between birth and MSC isolation are criteria that will enhance the MSC isolation success.The procedures in this chapter are standardized protocols that were established and optimized in the authors' research laboratory; however, various modifications of the protocols are possible. PMID:27236676

  15. Mesenchymal Stromal Cell Therapy in MDR/XDR Tuberculosis: A Concise Review.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Lavanya; Chelluri, Lakshmi Kiran; Gaddam, Sumanlatha

    2015-12-01

    Multi-drug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis is a major public health problem worldwide. Drug resistance arises due to non-compliance of antibiotic therapy. Herein, we explored the therapeutic options available ranging from conservative treatment approaches to alternate adjunct therapies such as mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC) therapy interventions. It is attractive to understand the scientific rationale of using cells as drugs, in particular mesenchymal stem/stromal cells. The review dwells and attempts to analyze the mechanistic approaches of the current treatment modalities to modern therapies. MSCs have demonstrated profound capacity to regenerate and repair. They appear to modulate that the activities of dendritic cells regulate T cells, both in vivo and in vitro. While there seems to be some benefit of such therapies, its use warrants further research. The merits and de-merits of autologous therapy/allogeneic therapy are ill understood. The challenges of requirement of large number of cells for infusion, the route of administration, choice of timing are complex issues that need to be addressed. Furthermore, the host immune responses, environmental factors and epigenetic mechanisms compound the problem. Although, clinical studies are being performed using autologous MSCs in different inflammatory models, it is important that such an intervention should be based on sound scientific rationale. The current review examines the immunomodulatory properties of MSCs, its interactions with other cell types, in assessing the basis for autologous/allogeneic cell-based therapies in the treatment of XDR/MDR tuberculosis.

  16. Engraftment of a clonal bone marrow stromal cell line in vivo stimulates hematopoietic recovery from total body irradiation.

    PubMed Central

    Anklesaria, P; Kase, K; Glowacki, J; Holland, C A; Sakakeeny, M A; Wright, J A; FitzGerald, T J; Lee, C Y; Greenberger, J S

    1987-01-01

    Whether bone marrow stromal cells of donors contribute physiologically to hematopoietic stem cell reconstitution after marrow transplantation is unknown. To determine the transplantability of nonhematopoietic marrow stromal cells, stable clonal stromal cell line (GB1/6) expressing the a isoenzyme of glucose-6-phosphate isomerase (Glu6PI-a, D-glucose-6-phosphate ketol-isomerase; EC 5.3.1.9) was derived from murine long-term bone marrow cultures and made resistant to neomycin analogue G418 by retroviral gene transfer. GB1/6 cells were fibronectin+, laminin+, and collagen-type IV+ and collagen type I-; these GB1/6 cells supported in vitro growth of hematopoietic stem cells forming colony-forming units of spleen cells (CFU-S) and of granulocytes, erythrocytes, and macrophage/megakarocytes (CFU-GEMM) in the absence of detectable growth factors interleukin 3 (multi-colony-stimulating factor), granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor, granulocyte-stimulating factor, or their poly(A)+ mRNAs. The GB1/6 cells produced macrophage colony-stimulating factor constitutively. Recipient C57BL/6J (glucose-6-phosphate isomerase b) mice that received 3-Gy total-body irradiation and 13 Gy to the right hind limb were injected i.v. with GB1/6 cells. Engrafted mice demonstrated donor-originating Glu6PI-a+ stromal cells in marrow sinuses in situ 2 mo after transplantation and a significantly enhanced hematopoietic recovery compared with control irradiated nontransplanted mice. Continuous (over numerous passages) marrow cultures derived from transplanted mice demonstrated G418-resistant, Glu6PI-a+ stromal colony-forming cells and greater cumulative production of multipotential stem cells of recipient origin compared with cultures established from irradiated, nontransplanted control mice. These data are evidence for physiological function in vivo of a transplanted bone marrow stromal cell line. Images PMID:2890167

  17. Efficient differentiation of neural stem cells induced by the rat bone marrow stromal cells

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Ping; Qiu, Fu-Cheng; Han, Rui; Zhang, Zhong-Xia; Dong, Ci; Zhang, Li-Na; Wang, Yan-Yong; Ma, Qing-Ying; Yan, Bao-Yong

    2015-01-01

    Neural stem cells (NSCs) are valuable self-renewing cells that can maintain the capacity to differentiate into specific brain cell types. NSCs may repair and even replace the brain tissue, and ultimatley promoting the central nervous system regeneration. Therefore, it is important, for scientists and pjysicians, to study the method for efficient culture and differentiation of NSCs. Our previous study demonstrated that Bone Marrow Stromal Cells (BMSCs) can directly regulate the differentiation of NSCs into neurons, and soluble molecules excreted by BMSCs played a key role in this process. Hereby, we further identified the BMSCs-induced neurons could form the synapses, convey dopamine and express voltage-depend and receptor-depend calcium channels. Moreover, the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase ERK1/2 pathway was founded to be involved in the process of neuron differentiation and proliferation by the in vitro experiments. Finally, by using protein array, we, for the first time, found that the cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant-3 (CINC-3, a small molecule cytokine) can promote the leukocytes invasion into the inflammation site, and have the ability to induce mesencephal NSCs into neurons. Consequently, these positive findings suggested that our BMSCs-induced culture system could provide a useful tool to investigate the molecular mechanisms of neural differentiation of NSCs, which may be benifical for neurodegenerative diseases in the near future. PMID:26221209

  18. Immunomodulation of mesenchymal stromal cells on regulatory T cells and its possible mechanism.

    PubMed

    Yan, Zhidong; Zhuansun, Yongxun; Chen, Rui; Li, Jianguo; Ran, Pixin

    2014-05-15

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) and regulatory T cells (Tregs) have both garnered abundant interests from immunologists worldwide, as both MSCs and Tregs can be considered immunosuppressive in their own right. But a little attention has been paid to the impacts of MSCs on Tregs. To clarify the effects of MSCs on Tregs, we performed the coculture systems within MSCs and Tregs. We confirmed that MSC-exposed Tregs are capable of more immunosuppressive than Tregs without coculturing with MSCs. And this augmenting suppressive capacity was accompanied with an upregulation of programmed cell death 1 receptor (PD-1) on Tregs. Importantly, we found that cell viability of Tregs was excluded from the influences of MSCs. Finally, we showed that PD-1/B7-H1 interactions and IL-10 might be responsible for the enhanced suppressive capability of MSC-exposed Tregs. Further analysis revealed that PD-1/B7-H1 interactions were not responsible for the productions of IL-10 and TGF-β1 in the MSC-Treg coculture systems; in contrast, IL-10 rather than TGF-β1 played a role in the upregualtion of PD-1. Furthermore, this is the first explorative study to evaluate the immunomodulation of MSCs on the suppressive capacity of Tregs in MSC-Treg in vitro coculture setting.

  19. Mouse adipose tissue stromal cells give rise to skeletal and cardiomyogenic cell sub-populations.

    PubMed

    Dromard, Cécile; Barreau, Corinne; André, Mireille; Berger-Müller, Sandra; Casteilla, Louis; Planat-Benard, Valerie

    2014-01-01

    We previously reported that adipose tissue could generate cardiomyocyte-like cells from crude stromal vascular fraction (SVF) in vitro that improved cardiac function in a myocardial infarction context. However, it is not clear whether these adipose-derived cardiomyogenic cells (AD-CMG) constitute a homogenous population and if AD-CMG progenitors could be isolated as a pure population from the SVF of adipose tissue. This study aims to characterize the different cell types that constitute myogenic clusters and identify the earliest AD-CMG progenitors in vitro for establishing a complete phenotype and use it to sort AD-CMG progenitors from crude SVF. Here, we report cell heterogeneity among adipose-derived clusters during their course of maturation and highlighted sub-populations that exhibit original mixed cardiac/skeletal muscle phenotypes with a progressive loss of cardiac phenotype with time in liquid culture conditions. Moreover, we completed the phenotype of AD-CMG progenitors but we failed to sort them from the SVF. We demonstrated that micro-environment is required for the maturation of myogenic phenotype by co-culture experiments. These findings bring complementary data on AD-CMG and suggest that their emergence results from in vitro events.

  20. Homing and migration of mesenchymal stromal cells: How to improve the efficacy of cell therapy?

    PubMed Central

    De Becker, Ann; Riet, Ivan Van

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are currently being investigated for use in a wide variety of clinical applications. For most of these applications, systemic delivery of the cells is preferred. However, this requires the homing and migration of MSCs to a target tissue. Although MSC homing has been described, this process does not appear to be highly efficacious because only a few cells reach the target tissue and remain there after systemic administration. This has been ascribed to low expression levels of homing molecules, the loss of expression of such molecules during expansion, and the heterogeneity of MSCs in cultures and MSC culture protocols. To overcome these limitations, different methods to improve the homing capacity of MSCs have been examined. Here, we review the current understanding of MSC homing, with a particular focus on homing to bone marrow. In addition, we summarize the strategies that have been developed to improve this process. A better understanding of MSC biology, MSC migration and homing mechanisms will allow us to prepare MSCs with optimal homing capacities. The efficacy of therapeutic applications is dependent on efficient delivery of the cells and can, therefore, only benefit from better insights into the homing mechanisms. PMID:27022438

  1. Stromal Cells from Human Decidua Exert a Strong Inhibitory Effect on NK Cell Function and Dendritic Cell Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Canegallo, Francesca; Conte, Romana; Venturini, Pier Luigi; Moretta, Lorenzo; Mingari, Maria Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Stromal cells (SC) are an important component of decidual tissues where they are in strict proximity with both NK and CD14+ myelomonocytic cells that play a role in the maintenance of pregnancy. In this study we analyzed whether decidual SC (DSC) could exert a regulatory role on NK and CD14+ cells that migrate from peripheral blood (PB) to decidua during pregnancy. We show that DSCs inhibit the IL15-mediated up-regulation of major activating NK receptors in PB-derived NK cells. In addition, the IL15-induced NK cell proliferation, cytolytic activity and IFN-γ production were severely impaired. DSCs sharply inhibited dendritic cells differentiation and their ability to induce allogeneic T cell proliferation. Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) mediated the inhibitory effect of DSCs. Our results strongly suggest an important role of DSCs in preventing potentially dangerous immune response, thus contributing to maintenance of pregnancy. PMID:24586479

  2. Defining Essential Stem Cell Characteristics in Adipose-Derived Stromal Cells Extracted from Distinct Anatomical Sites

    PubMed Central

    Sachs, Patrick C.; Francis, Michael P.; Zhao, Min; Brumelle, Jenni; Rao, Raj R.; Elmore, Lynne W.; Holt, Shawn E.

    2013-01-01

    The discovery of adipose-derived stromal cells (ASCs) has created many opportunities for the development of patient-specific cell-based replacement therapies. We have isolated multiple cell strains of ASCs from various anatomical sites (abdomen, arms/legs, breast, buttocks), indicating wide-spread distribution of ASCs throughout the body. Unfortunately, there exists a general lack of agreement in the literature as to their “stem cell” characteristics. We find that telomerase activity and expression of its catalytic subunit in ASCs are both below the levels of detection, independent of age and culturing conditions. ASCs also undergo telomere attrition and eventually senesce, while maintaining a stable karyotype without the development of spontaneous tumor-associated abnormalities. Using a set of cell surface markers that have been promoted to identify ASCs, we find that they failed to distinguish ASCs from normal fibroblasts, as both are positive for CD29, CD73, and CD105 and negative for CD14, CD31, and CD45. All of the ASC isolates are multipotent, capable of differentiating into osteocytes, chondrocytes, and adipocytes, while fibroblasts show no differentiation potential. Our ASC strains also show elevated expression of genes associated with pluripotent cells, Oct-4, SOX2, and NANOG when compared to fibroblasts and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs), although the levels were lower than induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS). Together, our data suggest that while the cell surface profile of ASCs does not distinguish them from normal fibroblasts, their differentiation capacity and the expression of genes closely linked to pluripotency clearly define ASCs as multipotent stem cells, regardless of tissue isolation location. PMID:22628159

  3. Quantification of stromal vascular cell mechanics with a linear cell monolayer rheometer

    SciTech Connect

    Elkins, Claire M. Fuller, Gerald G.; Shen, Wen-Jun; Khor, Victor K.; Kraemer, Fredric B.

    2015-01-15

    Over the past few decades researchers have developed a variety of methods for measuring the mechanical properties of whole cells, including traction force microscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and single-cell tensile testing. Though each of these techniques provides insight into cell mechanics, most also involve some nonideal conditions for acquiring live cell data, such as probing only one portion of a cell at a time, or placing the cell in a nonrepresentative geometry during testing. In the present work, we describe the development of a linear cell monolayer rheometer (LCMR) and its application to measure the mechanics of a live, confluent monolayer of stromal vascular cells. In the LCMR, a monolayer of cells is contacted on both top and bottom by two collagen-coated plates and allowed to adhere. The top plate then shears the monolayer by stepping forward to induce a predetermined step strain, while a force transducer attached to the top plate collects stress information. The stress and strain data are then used to determine the maximum relaxation modulus recorded after step-strain, G{sub r}{sup 0}, referred to as the zero-time relaxation modulus of the cell monolayer. The present study validates the ability of the LCMR to quantify cell mechanics by measuring the change in G{sub r}{sup 0} of a confluent cell monolayer upon the selective inhibition of three major cytoskeletal components (actin microfilaments, vimentin intermediate filaments, and microtubules). The LCMR results indicate that both actin- and vimentin-deficient cells had ∼50% lower G{sub r}{sup 0} values than wild-type, whereas tubulin deficiency resulted in ∼100% higher G{sub r}{sup 0} values. These findings constitute the first use of a cell monolayer rheometer to quantitatively distinguish the roles of different cytoskeletal elements in maintaining cell stiffness and structure. Significantly, they are consistent with results obtained using single-cell mechanical testing methods

  4. Tumor and Stromal-Based Contributions to Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma Invasion

    PubMed Central

    Markwell, Steven M.; Weed, Scott A.

    2015-01-01

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is typically diagnosed at advanced stages with evident loco-regional and/or distal metastases. The prevalence of metastatic lesions directly correlates with poor patient outcome, resulting in high patient mortality rates following metastatic development. The progression to metastatic disease requires changes not only in the carcinoma cells, but also in the surrounding stromal cells and tumor microenvironment. Within the microenvironment, acellular contributions from the surrounding extracellular matrix, along with contributions from various infiltrating immune cells, tumor associated fibroblasts, and endothelial cells facilitate the spread of tumor cells from the primary site to the rest of the body. Thus far, most attempts to limit metastatic spread through therapeutic intervention have failed to show patient benefit in clinic trails. The goal of this review is highlight the complexity of invasion-promoting interactions in the HNSCC tumor microenvironment, focusing on contributions from tumor and stromal cells in order to assist future therapeutic development and patient treatment. PMID:25734659

  5. Changes in global gene expression during in vitro decidualization of rat endometrial stromal cells

    PubMed Central

    Vallejo, Griselda; Maschi, Darío; Citrinovitz, Ana Cecilia Mestre; Aiba, Kazuhiro; Maronna, Ricardo; Yohai, Victor; Ko, Minoru S. H.; Beato, Miguel; Saragüeta, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    During the preimplantation phase of pregnancy the endometrial stroma differentiates into decidua, a process that implies numerous morphological changes and is an example of physiological transdifferentiation. Here we show that UIII rat endometrial stromal cells cultured in the presence of calf serum acquired morphological features of decidual cells and expressed decidual markers. To identify genes involved in decidualization we compared gene expression patterns of control and decidualized UIII cells using cDNA microarray. We found 322 annotated genes exhibiting significant differences in expression (>3 fold, FDR > 0.005), of which 312 have not been previously related to decidualization. Analysis of overrepresented functions revealed that protein synthesis, gene expression and chromatin architecture and remodeling are the most relevant modified functions during decidualization. Relevant genes are also found in the functional terms differentiation, cell proliferation, signal transduction, and matrix/structural proteins. Several of these new genes involved in decidualization (Csdc2, Trim27, Eef1a1, Bmp1, Wt1, Aes, Gna12, and Men1) are shown to be also regulated in uterine decidua during normal pregnancy. Thus, the UIII cell culture model will allow future mechanistic studies to define the transcriptional network regulating reprogramming of stromal cells into decidual cells. PMID:19780023

  6. Targeting eradication of malignant cells derived from human bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Yingbin; Cai, Shaoxi; Yang, Li; Yu, Shuhui; Jiang, Jiahuan; Yan, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Haoxing; Liu, Lan; Liu, Qun; Du, Jun; Cai, Shaohui; Sung, K.L. Paul

    2010-12-10

    Human bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (hBMSC) have been shown to participate in malignant transformation. However, hampered by the low frequency of malignant transformation of hBMSC, we do not yet know how to prevent malignant transformation of implanted hBMSC. In this study, in order to establish a model for the eradication of hBMSC-derived malignant cells, a gene fusion consisting of a human telomerase (hTERT) promoter modified with both c-Myc and myeloid zinc finger protein2 (MZF-2) binding elements and followed by the E. coli cytosine deaminase (CD) and luciferase genes was stably transferred into hBMSC via lentiviral transduction; n-phosphonacelyl-L-aspartic acid (PALA) selection was used to generate malignant cell colonies derived from transduced hBMSC after treatment with the carcinogenic reagent BPDE. Cells that were amplified after PALA selection were used for transplantation and 5-FC pro-drug cytotoxicity tests. The results showed that PALA-resistant malignant cells could be generated from hBMSC co-induced with lentiviral transduction and treatment with Benzo(a)pyrene Diol Epoxide (BPDE); the modification of c-Myc and MZF-2 binding elements could remarkably enhance the transcriptional activities of the hTERT promoter in malignant cells, whereas transcriptional activity was depressed in normal hBMSC; malignant cells stably expressing CD under the control of the modified hTERT promoter could be eliminated by 5-FC administration. This study has provided a method for targeted eradication of malignant cells derived from hBMSC.

  7. Epithelial Cell Differentiation of Human Mesenchymal Stromal Cells in Decellularized Lung Scaffolds

    PubMed Central

    Mendez, Julio J.; Ghaedi, Mahboobe; Steinbacher, Derek

    2014-01-01

    Identification of appropriate donor cell types is important for lung cell therapy and for lung regeneration. Previous studies have indicated that mesenchymal stromal cells derived from human bone marrow (hBM-MSCs) and from human adipose tissue (hAT-MSCs) may have the ability to trans-differentiate into lung epithelial cells. However, these data remain controversial. Herein, the ability of hBM-MSCs and hAT-MSCs to repopulate acellular rodent lung tissue was evaluated. hBM-MSCs and hAT-MSCs were isolated from bone marrow aspirate and lipoaspirate, respectively. Rat lungs were decellularized with CHAPS detergent, followed by seeding the matrix with hBM-MSCs and hAT-MSCs. Under appropriate culture conditions, both human MSC populations attached to and proliferated within the lung tissue scaffold. In addition, cells were capable of type 2 pneumocyte differentiation, as assessed by marker expression of surfactant protein C (pro-SPC) at the protein and the RNA level, and by the presence of lamellar bodies by transmission electron microscopy. Additionally, hAT-MSCs contributed to Clara-like cells that lined the airways in the lung scaffolds, whereas the hBM-MSCs did not. We also tested the differentiation potential of MSCs on different extracellular matrix components in vitro, and found that protein substrate influences MSC epithelial differentiation. Together our data show the capacity for human MSCs to differentiate toward lung epithelial phenotypes, and the possibility of using these cells for lung cell therapies and tissue engineering. PMID:24393055

  8. Role of Nanog in the maintenance of marrow stromal stem cells during post natal bone regeneration

    SciTech Connect

    Bais, Manish V.; Shabin, Zabrina M.; Young, Megan; Einhorn, Thomas A.; Kotton, Darrell N.; Gerstnefeld, Louis C.

    2012-01-06

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanog is related to marrow stromal stem cell maintenance. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Increasing Nanog expression is seen during post natal surgical bone repair. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanog knockdown decreases post surgical bone regeneration. -- Abstract: Post natal bone repair elicits a regenerative mechanism that restores the injured tissue to its pre-injury cellular composition and structure and is believed to recapitulate the embryological processes of bone formation. Prior studies showed that Nanog, a central epigenetic regulator associated with the maintenance of embryonic stem cells (ESC) was transiently expressed during fracture healing, Bais et al. . In this study, we show that murine bone marrow stromal cells (MSCs) before they are induced to undergo osteogenic differentiation express {approx}50 Multiplication-Sign the background levels of Nanog seen in murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) and the W20-17 murine marrow stromal cell line stably expresses Nanog at {approx}80 Multiplication-Sign the MEF levels. Nanog expression in this cell line was inhibited by BMP7 treatment and Nanog lentivrial shRNA knockdown induced the expression of the terminal osteogenic gene osteocalcin. Lentivrial shRNA knockdown or lentiviral overexpression of Nanog in bone MSCs had inverse effects on proliferation, with knockdown decreasing and overexpression increasing MSC cell proliferation. Surgical marrow ablation of mouse tibia by medullary reaming led to a {approx}3-fold increase in Nanog that preceded osteogenic differentiation during intramembranous bone formation. Lentiviral shRNA knockdown of Nanog after surgical ablation led to an initial overexpression of osteogenic gene expression with no initial effect on bone formation but during subsequent remodeling of the newly formed bone a {approx}50% decrease was seen in the expression of terminal osteogenic gene expression and a {approx}50% loss in trabecular bone mass. This

  9. Optimal protocol for the differentiation and metabolic analysis of human adipose stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Mi-Jeong; Fried, Susan K

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is reaching epidemic proportions so there is growing interest in the mechanisms that regulates adipose tissue development and function. Although murine adipose cell lines are useful for many mechanistic studies, primary human adipose stromal cells (ASCs), which can be isolated from distinct adipose depots and cultured in vitro, have clear translational relevance. We describe the methods to isolate, culture, and differentiate human ASCs to adipocytes that respond to physiologically relevant hormones, such as insulin and β-adrenergic agonists. We also describe methods for assaying hormonal effects on glucose transport and lipolysis.

  10. Isolation and Manufacture of Clinical-Grade Bone Marrow-Derived Human Mesenchymal Stromal Cells.

    PubMed

    Miller, Renuka P; Hanley, Patrick J

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are multipotent cells with both regenerative and immunomodulatory capacities. These unique properties make them appealing as a biologic, with multiple phase 1-3 clinical trials currently testing their safety and efficacy. Although expanding MSCs does not require extensive manipulation, expanding MSCs for use in clinical trials does require the knowledge and safety that are delineated in current good manufacturing practices (GMPs). Here we briefly detail the characteristics of MSCs and considerations for expanding them for clinical use. We then include a step-by-step protocol for expanding MSCs for early phase clinical trials, with important notes to consider during the expansion of these MSCs. PMID:27236680

  11. Comparative Study on Functional Effects of Allotransplantation of Bone Marrow Stromal Cells and Adipose Derived Stromal Vascular Fraction on Tendon Repair: A Biomechanical Study in Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Behfar, Mehdi; Javanmardi, Sara; Sarrafzadeh-Rezaei, Farshid

    2014-01-01

    Objective Tendon never returns to its complete biological and mechanical properties after repair. Bone marrow and, recently, adipose tissue have been used as sources of mesenchymal stem cells which have been proven to enhance tendon healing. In the present study, we compared the effects of allotransplantation of bone marrow derived mesenchymal stromal cells (BMSCs) and adipose derived stromal vascular fraction (SVF) on tendon mechanical properties after experimentally induced flexor tendon transection. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, we used 48 adult male New Zealand white rabbits. Twelve of rabbits were used as donors of bone marrow and adipose tissue, the rest were divided into control and treatment groups. The injury model was a unilateral complete transection of the deep digital flexor tendon. Immediately after suture repair, 4×106cells of either fresh SVF from enzymatic digestion of adipose tissue or cultured BMSCs were intratendinously injected into tendon stumps in the treatment groups. Controls received phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). Immobilization with a cast was continued for two weeks after surgery. Animals were sacrificed three and eight weeks after surgery and tendons underwent mechanical evaluations. The differences among the groups were analyzed using the analysis of variance (ANOVA) test followed by Tukey’s multiple comparisons test. Results Stromal cell transplantation resulted in a significant increase in ultimate and yield loads, energy absorption, and stress of repairs compared to the controls. However, there were no statistically significant changes detected in terms of stiffness. In comparison, we observed no significant differences at the third week between SVF and BMSCs treated tendons in terms of all load related properties. However, at the eighth week SVF transplantation resulted in significantly increased energy absorption, stress and stiffness compared to BMSCs. Conclusion The enhanced biomechanical properties of

  12. Demineralized bone promotes chondrocyte or osteoblast differentiation of human marrow stromal cells cultured in collagen sponges.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Shuanhu; Yates, Karen E; Eid, Karim; Glowacki, Julie

    2005-01-01

    Demineralized bone implants have been used for many types of craniomaxillofacial, orthopedic, periodontal, and hand reconstruction procedures. In previous studies, we showed that demineralized bone powder (DBP) induces chondrogenesis of human dermal fibroblasts in a DBP/collagen sponge system that optimized interactions between particles of DBP and target cells in cell culture. In this study, we test the hypothesis that DBP promotes chondrogenesis or osteogenesis of human marrow stromal cells (hMSCs) in 3-D collagen sponge culture, depending upon the culture conditions. We first confirmed that hMSCs have chondrogenic potential when treated with TGF-beta, either in 2-D monolayer cultures or in 3-D porous collagen sponges. Second, we found that DBP markedly enhanced chondrogenesis in hMSCs in 3-D sponges, as assessed by metachromasia and expression of chondrocyte-specific genes AGGRECAN, COL II, and COL X. Human dermal fibroblasts (hDFs) were used to define mechanisms of chondroinduction because unlike hMSCs they have no inherent chondrogenic potential. In situ hybridization revealed that hDFs vicinal to DBPs express chondrocyte-specific genes AGGRECAN or COL II. Macroarray analysis showed that DBP activates TGF-beta/BMP signaling pathway genes in hDFs. Finally, DBP induced hMSCs to express the osteoblast phenotype when cultured with osteogenic supplements. These studies show how culture conditions can influence the differentiation pathway that human marrow stromal cells follow when stimulated by DBP. These results support the potential to engineer cartilage or bone in vitro by using human bone marrow stromal cells and DBP/collagen scaffolds. PMID:15735899

  13. Ovarian endometriosis-associated stromal cells reveal persistently high affinity for iron

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Masahiko; Ito, Fumiya; Shi, Lei; Wang, Yue; Ishida, Chiharu; Hattori, Yuka; Niwa, Masato; Hirayama, Tasuku; Nagasawa, Hideko; Iwase, Akira; Kikkawa, Fumitaka; Toyokuni, Shinya

    2015-01-01

    Ovarian endometriosis is a recognized risk for infertility and epithelial ovarian cancer, presumably due to iron overload resulting from repeated hemorrhage. To find a clue for early detection and prevention of ovarian endometriosis-associated cancer, it is mandatory to evaluate catalytic (labile) ferrous iron (catalytic Fe(II)) and to study iron manipulation in ovarian endometriotic lesions. By the use of tissues from women of ovarian endometriosis as well as endometrial tissue from women with and without endometriosis, we for the first time performed histological analysis and cellular detection of catalytic Fe(II) with a specific fluorescent probe (HMRhoNox-M), and further evaluated iron transport proteins in the human specimens and in co-culture experiments using immortalized human eutopic/ectopic endometrial stromal cells (ESCs) in the presence or absence of epithelial cells (EpCs). The amounts of catalytic Fe(II) were higher in ectopic endometrial stromal cells (ecESCs) than in normal eutopic endometrial stromal cells (n-euESCs) both in the tissues and in the corresponding immortalized ESCs. ecESCs exhibited higher transferrin receptor 1 expression both in vivo and in vitro and lower ferroportin expression in vivo than n-euESCs, leading to sustained iron uptake. In co-culture experiments of ESCs with iron-loaded EpCs, ecESCs received catalytic ferrous iron from EpCs, but n-euESCs did not. These data suggest that ecESC play a protective role for cancer-target epithelial cells by collecting excess iron, and that these characteristics are retained in the immortalized ecESCs. PMID:26498255

  14. Ovarian endometriosis-associated stromal cells reveal persistently high affinity for iron.

    PubMed

    Mori, Masahiko; Ito, Fumiya; Shi, Lei; Wang, Yue; Ishida, Chiharu; Hattori, Yuka; Niwa, Masato; Hirayama, Tasuku; Nagasawa, Hideko; Iwase, Akira; Kikkawa, Fumitaka; Toyokuni, Shinya

    2015-12-01

    Ovarian endometriosis is a recognized risk for infertility and epithelial ovarian cancer, presumably due to iron overload resulting from repeated hemorrhage. To find a clue for early detection and prevention of ovarian endometriosis-associated cancer, it is mandatory to evaluate catalytic (labile) ferrous iron (catalytic Fe(II)) and to study iron manipulation in ovarian endometriotic lesions. By the use of tissues from women of ovarian endometriosis as well as endometrial tissue from women with and without endometriosis, we for the first time performed histological analysis and cellular detection of catalytic Fe(II) with a specific fluorescent probe (HMRhoNox-M), and further evaluated iron transport proteins in the human specimens and in co-culture experiments using immortalized human eutopic/ectopic endometrial stromal cells (ESCs) in the presence or absence of epithelial cells (EpCs). The amounts of catalytic Fe(II) were higher in ectopic endometrial stromal cells (ecESCs) than in normal eutopic endometrial stromal cells (n-euESCs) both in the tissues and in the corresponding immortalized ESCs. ecESCs exhibited higher transferrin receptor 1 expression both in vivo and in vitro and lower ferroportin expression in vivo than n-euESCs, leading to sustained iron uptake. In co-culture experiments of ESCs with iron-loaded EpCs, ecESCs received catalytic ferrous iron from EpCs, but n-euESCs did not. These data suggest that ecESC play a protective role for cancer-target epithelial cells by collecting excess iron, and that these characteristics are retained in the immortalized ecESCs.

  15. Myeloma cells can corrupt senescent mesenchymal stromal cells and impair their anti-tumor activity

    PubMed Central

    Özcan, Servet; Alessio, Nicola; Acar, Mustafa Burak; Toprak, Güler; Gönen, Zeynep Burcin; Peluso, Gianfranco; Galderisi, Umberto

    2015-01-01

    Senescent cells secrete several molecules that help to prevent the progression of cancer. However, cancer cells can also misuse these secreted elements to survive and grow. Since the molecular and functional bases of these different elements remain poorly understood, we analyzed the effect of senescent mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC) secretome on the biology of ARH-77 myeloma cells. In addition to differentiating in mesodermal derivatives, MSCs have sustained interest among researchers by supporting hematopoiesis, contributing to tissue homeostasis, and modulating inflammatory response, all activities accomplished primarily by the secretion of cytokines and growth factors. Moreover, senescence profoundly affects the composition of MSC secretome. In this study, we induced MSC senescence by oxidative stress, DNA damage, and replicative exhaustion. While the first two are considered to induce acute senescence, extensive proliferation triggers replicative (i.e., chronic) senescence. We cultivated cancer cells in the presence of acute and chronic senescent MSC-conditioned media and evaluated their proliferation, DNA damage, apoptosis, and senescence. Our findings revealed that senescent secretomes induced apoptosis or senescence, if not both, to different extents. This anti-tumor activity became heavily impaired when secretomes were collected from senescent cells previously in contact (i.e., primed) with cancer cells. Our analysis of senescent MSC secretomes with LC-MS/MS followed by Gene Ontology classification further indicated that priming with cancer profoundly affected secretome composition by abrogating the production of pro-senescent and apoptotic factors. We thus showed for the first time that compared with cancer-primed MSCs, naïve senescent MSCs can exert different effects on tumor progression. PMID:26498687

  16. Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Engage Complement and Complement Receptor Bearing Innate Effector Cells to Modulate Immune Responses

    PubMed Central

    Moll, Guido; Jitschin, Regina; von Bahr, Lena; Rasmusson-Duprez, Ida; Sundberg, Berit; Lönnies, Lena; Elgue, Graciela; Nilsson-Ekdahl, Kristina; Mougiakakos, Dimitrios; Lambris, John D.; Ringdén, Olle; Le Blanc, Katarina; Nilsson, Bo

    2011-01-01

    Infusion of human third-party mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) appears to be a promising therapy for acute graft-versus-host disease (aGvHD). To date, little is known about how MSCs interact with the body's innate immune system after clinical infusion. This study shows, that exposure of MSCs to blood type ABO-matched human blood activates the complement system, which triggers complement-mediated lymphoid and myeloid effector cell activation in blood. We found deposition of complement component C3-derived fragments iC3b and C3dg on MSCs and fluid-phase generation of the chemotactic anaphylatoxins C3a and C5a. MSCs bound low amounts of immunoglobulins and lacked expression of complement regulatory proteins MCP (CD46) and DAF (CD55), but were protected from complement lysis via expression of protectin (CD59). Cell-surface-opsonization and anaphylatoxin-formation triggered complement receptor 3 (CD11b/CD18)-mediated effector cell activation in blood. The complement-activating properties of individual MSCs were furthermore correlated with their potency to inhibit PBMC-proliferation in vitro, and both effector cell activation and the immunosuppressive effect could be blocked either by using complement inhibitor Compstatin or by depletion of CD14/CD11b-high myeloid effector cells from mixed lymphocyte reactions. Our study demonstrates for the first time a major role of the complement system in governing the immunomodulatory activity of MSCs and elucidates how complement activation mediates the interaction with other immune cells. PMID:21747949

  17. GPR30 Promotes Prostate Stromal Cell Activation via Suppression of ERα Expression and Its Downstream Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Jia, Bona; Gao, Yu; Li, Mingming; Shi, Jiandang; Peng, Yanfei; Du, Xiaoling; Klocker, Helmut; Sampson, Natalie; Shen, Yongmei; Liu, Mengyang; Zhang, Ju

    2016-08-01

    Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) play a vital role in malignant transformation and progression of prostate cancer (PCa), and accumulating evidence suggests an enhancing effect of estrogens on PCa. The present study aimed to investigate the possible origin of prostate CAFs and the effects of estrogen receptors, G protein-coupled receptor 30 (GPR30) and estrogen receptor (ER)-α, on stromal cell activation. High expression of fibroblast activation protein (FAP), CD44, and nonmuscle myosin heavy chain B (SMemb) accompanied by low expression of smooth muscle differentiation markers was found in the stromal cells of PCa tissues and in cultured human prostate CAFs. Additionally, SMemb expression, which is coupled to cell phenotype switching and proliferation, was coexpressed with FAP, a marker of activated stromal cells, and with the stem cell marker CD44 in the stromal cells of PCa tissue. Prostate CAFs showed high GPR30 and low ERα expression. Moreover, GPR30 was coexpressed with FAP, CD44, and SMemb. Furthermore, the study demonstrated that the overexpression of GPR30 or the knockdown of ERα in prostate stromal cells induced the up-regulation of FAP, CD44, Smemb, and the down-regulation of smooth muscle markers. The conditioned medium from these cells promoted the proliferation and migration of LNCaP and PC3 PCa cells. GPR30 knockdown or ERα overexpression showed opposite effects. Finally, we present a novel mechanism whereby GPR30 limits ERα expression via inhibition of the cAMP/protein kinase A signaling pathway. These results suggest that stem-like cells within the stroma are a possible source of prostate CAFs and that the negative regulation of ERα expression by GPR30 is centrally involved in prostate stromal cell activation. PMID:27163843

  18. Concise review: Adipose-derived stromal vascular fraction cells and stem cells: let's not get lost in translation.

    PubMed

    Gimble, Jeffrey M; Bunnell, Bruce A; Chiu, Ernest S; Guilak, Farshid

    2011-05-01

    Subcutaneous fat has emerged as an alternative tissue source for stromal/stem cells in regenerative medicine. Over the past decade, international research efforts have established a wealth of basic science and preclinical evidence regarding the differentiation potential and regenerative properties of both freshly processed, heterogeneous stromal vascular fraction cells and culture expanded, relatively homogeneous adipose-derived stromal/stem cells. The stage has been set for clinicians to translate adipose-derived cells from the bench to the bedside; however, this process will involve "development" steps that fall outside of traditional "hypothesis-driven, mechanism-based" paradigm. This concise review examines the next stages of the development process for therapeutic applications of adipose-derived cells and highlights the current state of the art regarding clinical trials. It is recommended that the experiments addressing these issues be reported comprehensively in the peer-review literature. This transparency will accelerate the standardization and reproducibility of adipose-derived cell therapies with respect to their efficacy and safety.

  19. [The influence of extreme factors on homing multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells].

    PubMed

    Maklakova, I Yu; Grebnev, Y D; Yastrebov, A P

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we studied homing multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells under influence of extreme factors: after radiation exposure, acute blood loss. Absorbed dose ionizing radiation amounted to 4.0 C (causes acute radiation sickness in mice), acute blood loss was caused by bleeding from the tail vein of the mouse in the amount of 2% of the body weight of the animal. Label MMSC used fluorochrome DAPI, ready to use. The experiments were performed on 60 Mature mice (males) age 6-8 months, weighing 20-25 g. Experiments on the culture of multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells from the placenta (chorion) performed on laboratory mice female at the age of 3-4 months in the gestation period of 14 days. Introduction suspensions of MMSC was carried out at a dose of 6 million cells/mouse, suspended in 0.2 ml 0.9% NaCl solution. The control group of laboratory animals MMSC transplantation was carried out also in the amount of 6 million cells/mouse. The assessment was made of tissue chimerism in the peripheral blood, bone marrow, spleen, small intestine, liver, lung, kidney, heart after 1 and 24 hours after transplantation of labeled cells. It was found a significant decrease in the content of labeled MMSC in the peripheral blood at extreme impact, indicating a migration of the transplanted cells in the damaged tissue. Homing transplanted MMSC is realized mainly in those tissues that underwent the most damage. PMID:27116883

  20. The Effects of Fungal Volatile Organic Compounds on Bone Marrow Stromal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hokeness, Kirsten; Lux, Hillary; Kratch, Jaqueline; Nadolny, Christina; Aicardi, Kristie; Reid, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Evidence has shown that individuals exposed to indoor toxic molds for extended periods of time have elevated risk of developing numerous respiratory illnesses and certain types of cancer. It is not clear at the cellular level, what impact mold exposure has on the immune system. Herein we show that two fungal volatiles (E)-2-octenal and oct-1-en-3-ol have cytotoxic effects on murine bone marrow stromal (BMS) cells. To further analyze alterations to the cell, we evaluated the impact these VOCs have on membrane composition and hence fluidity. Both (E)-2-octenal and oct-1-en-3-ol exposure caused a shift to unsaturated fatty acids and lower cholesterol levels in the membrane. This indicates that the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) under investigation increased membrane fluidity. These vast changes to the cell membrane are known to contribute to the breakdown of normal cell function and possibly lead to death. Since bone marrow stromal cells are vital for the appropriate development and activation of immune cells, this study provides the foundation for understanding the mechanism at a cellular level for how mold exposure can lead to immune-related disease conditions. PMID:24392920

  1. Isolation of adipose-derived stromal cells without enzymatic treatment: expansion, phenotypical, and functional characterization.

    PubMed

    Busser, Hélène; De Bruyn, Cécile; Urbain, Frédéric; Najar, Mehdi; Pieters, Karlien; Raicevic, Gordana; Meuleman, Nathalie; Bron, Dominique; Lagneaux, Laurence

    2014-10-01

    Stem cell therapy is a potential method for the treatment of numerous diseases. The most frequent cellular source is bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (BM-MSCs). Human adipose-derived stromal cells (ADSCs) share similar properties with BM-MSCs as they support hematopoiesis, modulate ongoing immune responses, and differentiate into cells of mesodermal origin. On the other hand, ADSCs have higher frequency in situ, higher availability, and very few ethical issues compared with BM-MSCs, giving them an advantage over BM-MSCs for clinical use. Most of the methods used to isolate ADSCs contain a collagenase digestion step, but the type of collagenase and time of sample digestion vary among studies and these differences could have an impact on the cell properties and thus in result comparison. To overcome this obstacle, we propose a new method to isolate ADSCs from lipoaspirate without collagenase digestion step. We compared ADSCs obtained with our method versus classical protocol using collagenase digestion. Cells obtained with our method are equivalent but they have a better long-term hematopoietic support than those obtained with classical method. Moreover, our method has an advantage over the classical one as it is easier, safer, faster, less expensive, and more consistent with good manufacturing practices to obtain large number of ADSCs ex vivo. PMID:24805167

  2. Thiol-ene Michael-type formation of gelatin/poly(ethylene glycol) biomatrices for three-dimensional mesenchymal stromal/stem cell administration to cutaneous wounds.

    PubMed

    Xu, Kedi; Cantu, David Antonio; Fu, Yao; Kim, Jaehyup; Zheng, Xiaoxiang; Hematti, Peiman; Kao, W John

    2013-11-01

    Mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) are considered promising cellular therapeutics in the fields of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. MSCs secrete high concentrations of immunomodulatory cytokines and growth factors, which exert paracrine effects on infiltrating immune and resident cells in the wound microenvironment that could favorably promote healing after acute injury. However, better spatial delivery and improved retention at the site of injury are two factors that could improve the clinical application of MSCs. In this study, we utilized thiol-ene Michael-type addition for rapid encapsulation of MSCs within a gelatin/poly(ethylene glycol) biomatrix. This biomatrix was also applied as a provisional dressing to full thickness wounds in Sprague-Dawley rats. The three-way interaction of MSCs, gelatin/poly(ethylene glycol) biomatrices, and host immune cells and adjacent resident cells in the wound microenvironment favorably modulated wound progression and host response. In this model we observed attenuated immune cell infiltration, lack of foreign giant cell (FBGC) formation, accelerated wound closure and re-epithelialization, as well as enhanced neovascularization and granulation tissue formation by 7 days. The MSC entrapped in the gelatin/poly(ethylene glycol) biomatrix localized cell presentation adjacent to the wound microenvironment and thus mediated the early resolution of inflammatory events and facilitated the proliferative phases in wound healing. PMID:23811217

  3. Prostate cancer cells and bone stromal cells mutually interact with each other through bone morphogenetic protein-mediated signals.

    PubMed

    Nishimori, Hikaru; Ehata, Shogo; Suzuki, Hiroshi I; Katsuno, Yoko; Miyazono, Kohei

    2012-06-01

    Functional interactions between cancer cells and the bone microenvironment contribute to the development of bone metastasis. Although the bone metastasis of prostate cancer is characterized by increased ossification, the molecular mechanisms involved in this process are not fully understood. Here, the roles of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) in the interactions between prostate cancer cells and bone stromal cells were investigated. In human prostate cancer LNCaP cells, BMP-4 induced the production of Sonic hedgehog (SHH) through a Smad-dependent pathway. In mouse stromal MC3T3-E1 cells, SHH up-regulated the expression of activin receptor IIB (ActR-IIB) and Smad1, which in turn enhanced BMP-responsive reporter activities in these cells. The combined stimulation with BMP-4 and SHH of MC3T3-E1 cells cooperatively induced the expression of osteoblastic markers, including alkaline phosphatase, bone sialoprotein, collagen type II α1, and osteocalcin. When MC3T3-E1 cells and LNCaP cells were co-cultured, the osteoblastic differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells, which was induced by BMP-4, was accelerated by SHH from LNCaP cells. Furthermore, LNCaP cells and BMP-4 cooperatively induced the production of growth factors, including fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-2 and epidermal growth factor (EGF) in MC3T3-E1 cells, and these may promote the proliferation of LNCaP cells. Taken together, our findings suggest that BMPs provide favorable circumstances for the survival of prostate cancer cells and the differentiation of bone stromal cells in the bone microenvironment, possibly leading to the osteoblastic metastasis of prostate cancer.

  4. Bone marrow stromal cells as an inducer for cardiomyocyte differentiation from mouse embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Yue, Fengming; Johkura, Kohei; Tomotsune, Daihachiro; Shirasawa, Sakiko; Yokoyama, Tadayuki; Nagai, Mika; Sasaki, Katsunori

    2010-09-20

    Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) secrete soluble factors and display varied cell-biological functions. To confirm the ability and efficiency of BMSCs to induce embryonic stem cells (ESCs) into cardiomyocytes, mouse embryoid bodies (EBs) were co-cultured with rat BMSCs. After about 10 days, areas of rhythmically contracting cells in more solid aggregates became evident with bundle-like structures formed along borders between EB outgrowth and BMSC layer. ESC-derived cardiomyocytes exhibited sarcomeric striations when stained with troponin I (Trop I), organized in separated bundles. Besides, the staining for connexin 43 was detected in cell-cell junctions, which demonstrated that ESC-derived cardiomyocytes were coupled by gap junction in culture. The related genes of cardiomyocytes were found in these beating and no-beating EBs co-cultured with BMSCs. In addition, an improved efficiency of cardiomyocyte differentiation from ESC-BMSC co-culture was found in the serum-free medium: 5-fold up-regulation in the number of beating area compared with the serum medium. Effective cardiac differentiation was also recognized in transfer filter assay and in condition medium obtained from BMSC culture. A clear increase in the expression of cardiac genes and TropI protein confirmed further cardiac differentiation by BMP4 and Retinoic Acid (RA) treatment. These results demonstrate that BMSCs can induce cardiomyocyte differentiation from ESCs through soluble factors and enhance it with BMP4 or RA treatment. Serum-free ESC-BMSC co-culture represents a defined in vitro model for identifying the cardiomyocyte-inducing activity from BMSCs and, in addition, a straightforward experimental system for assessing clinical applications. PMID:20801009

  5. Modern Interpretation of Giant Cell Tumor of Bone: Predominantly Osteoclastogenic Stromal Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yuhree; Nizami, Saqib; Goto, Hana

    2012-01-01

    Owing to striking features of numerous multinucleated cells and bone destruction, giant cell tumor (GCT) of bone, often called as osteoclastoma, has drawn major attractions from orthopaedic surgeons, pathologists, and radiologists. The name GCT or osteoclastoma gives a false impression of a tumor comprising of proliferating osteoclasts or osteoclast precursors. The underlying mechanisms for excessive osteoclastogenesis are intriguing and GCT has served as an exciting disease model representing a paradigm of osteoclastogenesis for bone biologists. The modern interpretation of GCT is predominantly osteoclastogenic stromal cell tumors of mesenchymal origin. A diverse array of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines disrupts osteoblastic differentiation and promotes the formation of excessive multi-nucleated osteoclastic cells. Pro-osteoclastogenic cytokines such as receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL), interleukin (IL)-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) as well as monocyte-recruiting chemokines such as stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 participate in unfavorable osteoclastogenesis and bone destruction. This model represents a self-sufficient osteoclastogenic paracrine loop in a localized area. Consistent with this paradigm, a recombinant RANK-Fc protein and bisphosphonates are currently being tried for GCT treatment in addition to surgical excision and conventional topical adjuvant therapies. PMID:22662295

  6. Regulation of inflammatory and angiogenesis mediators in a functional model of decidualized endometrial stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Bourdiec, Amélie; Ahmad, Syed-Furquan; Lachhab, Asmaa; Akoum, Ali

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms involving the expression of interleukin (IL) 1 family members in the process of preparing the endometrium to receive an embryo remain unclear. In this study, decidualization differentially skewed the balance of IL1 family receptor expression in a pattern that increases endometrial stromal cell receptivity to IL1, IL18 and IL33. Additionally, endometrial cells showed increased expression of homeobox HOXA10 and HOXA11 and LIFR, which are known to be involved in endometrial embryo receptivity. Further analyses of decidual endometrial cells revealed a significant increase in the release of potent proinflammatory, remodelling and angiogenic factors implicated in the embryo invasion process, such as VEGF (P = 0.0305), MMP9 (P = 0.0003), TIMP3 (P = 0.0001), RANTES (P = 0.0020), MCP1 (P = 0.0001) and MIF (P = 0.0068). No significant changes in endogenous IL1B secretion were observed. Decreased secretion of IL18 and decidualization increased secretion of IL33. These findings reveal a significant modulation of endometrial cell receptivity to IL1 family members during endometrial stromal cell decidualization, and suggest that the involvement of IL1 family members is important in physiological processes of endometrial receptivity, including adaptive immunology. This may be relevant to establishing a favourable uterine microenvironment for embryo implantation. PMID:26602943

  7. Sca-1(+) mesenchymal stromal cells inhibit splenic marginal zone B lymphocytes commitment through Caspase-3.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yaozhen; Yang, Jialei; Zhang, Hui-Jie; Fan, Hong; An, Ning; Xin, Jiajia; Li, Na; Xu, Jinmei; Yin, Wen; Wu, Zhongliang; Hu, Xingbin

    2016-05-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have been characterized as an important component of hematopoietic niche, which are capable of modulating the immune system through interaction with a wide range of immune cells. Marginal zone B cells, one main type of mature B lymphocytes, play a central role in eliciting antibody response against pathogens. However, how MSCs and its subpopulations regulate marginal zone B cells commitment is unknown yet. In this study, we assessed the contribution of Sca-1(+) MSCs on marginal zone B cells commitment. Our results showed that Sca-1(+) MSCs inhibit the commitment of marginal zone B lymphocytes. The inhibition was exerted through lowered Caspase-3 expression. Furthermore, we found marginal zone B lymphocytes in spleen of Caspase-3 knockout mice decreased and Caspase-3 knockout Sca-1(+) MSCs accounted for the MZB lymphocytes decrease. In conclusion, our investigation provided clues about Sca-1(+) MSCs regulation on the commitment of marginal zone B cells through Caspase-3 gene.

  8. Neural cell adhesion molecule modulates mesenchymal stromal cell migration via activation of MAPK/ERK signaling.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yu; Xia, Yin-Yan; Wang, Lei; Liu, Rui; Khoo, King-Shung; Feng, Zhi-Wei

    2012-10-15

    Mesenchymal Stromal Cells (MSCs) represent promising tools for cellular therapy owing to their multipotentiality and ability to localize to injured, inflamed sites and tumor. Various approaches to manipulate expression of MSC surface markers, including adhesion molecules and chemokine receptors, have been explored to enhance homing of MSCs. Recently, Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule (NCAM) has been found to be expressed on MSCs yet its function remains largely elusive. Herein, we show that bone marrow-derived MSCs from NCAM deficient mice exhibit defective migratory ability and significantly impaired adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation potential. We further explore the mechanism governing NCAM mediated migration of MSCs by showing the interplay between NCAM and Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor (FGFR) induces activation of MAPK/ERK signaling, thereby the migration of MSCs. In addition, re-expression of NCAM180, but not NCAM140, could restore the defective MAPK/ERK signaling thereby the migration of NCAM deficient MSCs. Finally, we demonstrate that NCAM180 expression level could be manipulated by pro-inflammatory cytokine Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF)-α treatment. Overall, our data reveal the vital function of NCAM in MSCs migration and differentiation thus raising the possibility of manipulating NCAM expression to enhance homing and therapeutic potential of MSCs in cellular therapy.

  9. Early postradition recovery of hematopoietic stromal precursor cells

    SciTech Connect

    Todriya, T.V.

    1985-04-01

    The aim of this investigation was an immunohistochemical study of alpha-endorphin-producing cells and also a study of rat mast cells (MC in the antral mucosa of the human stomach. Men aged 18 to 30 years undergoing in-patient treatment wre studied. According to the results of radioimmunoassay, antibodies against alpha-endorphin did not react with enkephalins, beta-endorphin, or the C-terminal fragment of beta-endorphin, but had cross reactivity of about 10% with gammaendorphin. Results were subjected to statistical analysis by Student's test at a 85% level of significance and they are shown. The facts presented here suggest that MC of human gastric mucosa include argyrophilic cells which contain alpha-endorphin.

  10. Sound insulation property of membrane-type acoustic metamaterials carrying different masses at adjacent cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yuguang; Wen, Jihong; Zhao, Honggang; Yu, Dianlong; Cai, Li; Wen, Xisen

    2013-08-01

    We present the experimental realization and theoretical understanding of membrane-type acoustic metamaterials embedded with different masses at adjacent cells, capable of increasing the transmission loss at low frequency. Owing to the reverse vibration of adjacent cells, Transmission loss (TL) peaks appear, and the magnitudes of the TL peaks exceed the predicted results of the composite wall. Compared with commonly used configuration, i.e., all cells carrying with identical mass, the nonuniformity of attaching masses causes another much low TL peak. Finite element analysis was employed to validate and provide insights into the TL behavior of the structure.

  11. Solid tumor therapy by selectively targeting stromal endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shihui; Liu, Jie; Ma, Qian; Cao, Liu; Fattah, Rasem J; Yu, Zuxi; Bugge, Thomas H; Finkel, Toren; Leppla, Stephen H

    2016-07-12

    Engineered tumor-targeted anthrax lethal toxin proteins have been shown to strongly suppress growth of solid tumors in mice. These toxins work through the native toxin receptors tumor endothelium marker-8 and capillary morphogenesis protein-2 (CMG2), which, in other contexts, have been described as markers of tumor endothelium. We found that neither receptor is required for tumor growth. We further demonstrate that tumor cells, which are resistant to the toxin when grown in vitro, become highly sensitive when implanted in mice. Using a range of tissue-specific loss-of-function and gain-of-function genetic models, we determined that this in vivo toxin sensitivity requires CMG2 expression on host-derived tumor endothelial cells. Notably, engineered toxins were shown to suppress the proliferation of isolated tumor endothelial cells. Finally, we demonstrate that administering an immunosuppressive regimen allows animals to receive multiple toxin dosages and thereby produces a strong and durable antitumor effect. The ability to give repeated doses of toxins, coupled with the specific targeting of tumor endothelial cells, suggests that our strategy should be efficacious for a wide range of solid tumors. PMID:27357689

  12. Thiol-ene Michael-type formation of gelatin/poly(ethylene glycol) biomatrices for three-dimensional mesenchymal stromal/stem cell administration to cutaneous wounds

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Kedi; Cantu, David Antonio; Fu, Yao; Kim, Jaehyup; Zheng, Xiaoxiang; Hematti, Peiman; Kao, W. John

    2013-01-01

    Mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) are considered promising cellular therapeutics in the fields of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. MSCs secrete high concentrations of immunomodulatory cytokines and growth factors, which exert paracrine effects on infiltrating immune and resident cells of the wound microenvironment that could favorably promote healing after acute injury. However, better spatial delivery and improved retention at the site of injury are two factors that could improve the clinical application of MSCs. In this study, we utilized thiol-ene Michael-type addition for rapid encapsulation of MSCs within a gelatin/poly(ethylene glycol) biomatrix; this biomatrix was also applied as a provisional dressing to full-thickness wounds in Sprague-Dawley rats. The three-way interaction of MSCs, gelatin/poly(ethylene glycol) biomatrices, and host immune cells and adjacent resident cells of the wound microenvironment favorably modulated wound progression and host response. In this model we observed attenuated immune cell infiltration, lack of foreign giant cell (FBGC) formation, accelerated wound closure and re-epithelialization, as well as enhanced neovascularization and granulation tissue formation by 7 days. The MSC-entrapped gelatin/poly(ethylene glycol) biomatrix localized the presentation of MSCs adjacent to the wound microenvironment and thus, mediated early resolution of inflammatory events and facilitated proliferative phases in wound healing. PMID:23811217

  13. [Transplantation of adipose tissue multipotent stromal cells in the treatment of chronic ischemia of the lower extremities].

    PubMed

    Saliutin, R V; Palianytsia, S S; Sirman, V M; Panchenko, L A; Komarova, L S

    2014-07-01

    The expediency of the stromal cells application, obtained from adipose tissue, was determined in a frame of preclinical investigations conduction, concerning experimental works on laboratory rats, in whom the extremity ischemia was simulated. Histologic and immunohistochemical changes were studied in muscular tissue after transplantation of multipotent stromal cells of own adipose tissue in patients, suffering ischemia of the lower extremity. Reduction of severity of the myofibrills ischemic damage, rapid activation of the muscles regenerative power, accurate stimulation of the angiogenesis processes in 3 mo after transplantation of the cells were demonstrated. PMID:25252413

  14. Antigen Presenting Cells and Stromal Cells Trigger Human Natural Killer Lymphocytes to Autoreactivity: Evidence for the Involvement of Natural Cytotoxicity Receptors (NCR) and NKG2D

    PubMed Central

    Poggi, Alessandro; Zocchi, Maria Raffaella

    2006-01-01

    Human natural killer (NK) lymphocytes should not damage autologous cells due to the engagement of inhibitory receptor superfamily (IRS) members by HLA-I. Nevertheless, NK cells kill self cells expressing low levels or lacking HLA-I, as it may occur during viral infections (missing-self hypothesis). Herein, we show that human NK cells can be activated upon binding with self antigen presenting cells or stromal cells despite the expression of HLA-I. Indeed, NK cells can kill and produce pro-inflammatory and regulating cytokines as IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL10 during interaction with autologous dendritic cells or bone marrow stromal cells or skin fibroblasts. The killing of antigen presenting and stromal cells is dependent on LFA1/ICAM1 interaction. Further, the natural cytotoxicity receptors (NCR) NKp30 and NKp46 are responsible for the delivery of lethal hit to DC, whereas NKG2D activating receptor, the ligand of the MHC-related molecule MIC-A and the UL16 binding protein, is involved in stromal cell killing. These findings indicate that different activating receptors are involved in cell to self cell interaction. Finally, NK cells can revert the veto effect of stromal cells on mixed lymphocyte reaction further supporting the idea that NK cells may alter the interaction between T lymphocytes and microenvironment leading to autoreactivity. PMID:17162374

  15. IFITM1 increases osteogenesis through Runx2 in human alveolar-derived bone marrow stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Beom-Su; Kim, Hyung-Jin; Kim, Jin Seong; You, Yong-Ouk; Zadeh, Homa; Shin, Hong-In; Lee, Seung-Jin; Park, Yoon-Jeong; Takata, Takashi; Pi, Sung-Hee; Lee, Jun; You, Hyung-Keun

    2012-09-01

    The exact molecular mechanisms governing the differentiation of bone marrow stromal stem/progenitor cells (BMSCs) into osteoblasts remain largely unknown. In this study, a highly expressed protein that had a high degree of homology with interferon-induced transmembrane protein 1 (IFITM1) was identified using differentially expressed gene (DEG) screening. We sought to determine whether IFITM1 influenced osteoblast differentiation. During differentiation, IFITM1 expression gradually increased from 5 to 10days and subsequently decreased at 15 days in culture. Analysis of IFITM1 protein expression in several cell lines as well as in situ studies on human tissues revealed its selective expression in bone cells and human bone. Proliferation of human alveolar-derived bone marrow stromal cells (hAD-BMSCs) was significantly inhibited by IFITM1 knockdown by using short hairpin RNA, as were bone specific markers such as alkaline phosphatase, collagen type I α 1, bone sialoprotein, osteocalcin, and osterix were decreased. Calcium accumulation also decreased following IFITM1 knockdown. Moreover, IFITM1 knockdown in hAD-BMSCs was associated with inhibition of Runx2 mRNA and protein expression. Collectively, the present data provide evidence for the role of IFITM1 in osteoblast differentiation. The exact mechanisms of IFITM1's involvement in osteoblast differentiation are still under investigation.

  16. Measuring the Refractive Index of Bovine Corneal Stromal Cells Using Quantitative Phase Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Steven J.; White, Nick; Albon, Julie; Knupp, Carlo; Kamma-Lorger, Christina S.; Meek, Keith M.

    2015-01-01

    The cornea is the primary refractive lens in the eye and transmits >90% of incident visible light. It has been suggested that the development of postoperative corneal haze could be due to an increase in light scattering from activated corneal stromal cells. Quiescent keratocytes are thought to produce crystallins that match the refractive index of their cytoplasm to the surrounding extracellular material, reducing the amount of light scattering. To test this, we measured the refractive index (RI) of bovine corneal stromal cells, using quantitative phase imaging of live cells in vitro, together with confocal microscopy. The RI of quiescent keratocytes (RI = 1.381 ± 0.004) matched the surrounding matrix, thus supporting the hypothesis that keratocyte cytoplasm does not scatter light in the normal cornea. We also observed that the RI drops after keratocyte activation (RI = 1.365 ± 0.003), leading to a mismatch with the surrounding intercellular matrix. Theoretical scattering models showed that this mismatch would reduce light transmission in the cornea. We conclude that corneal transparency depends on the matching of refractive indices between quiescent keratocytes and the surrounding tissue, and that after surgery or wounding, the resulting RI mismatch between the activated cells and their surrounds significantly contributes to light scattering. PMID:26488650

  17. Comparative Ability of Mesenchymal Stromal Cells from Different Tissues to Limit Neutrophil Recruitment to Inflamed Endothelium

    PubMed Central

    Munir, Hafsa; Luu, Nguyet-Thin; Clarke, Lewis S. C.; Nash, Gerard B.; McGettrick, Helen M.

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) are tissue-resident stromal cells capable of modulating immune responses, including leukocyte recruitment by endothelial cells (EC). However, the comparative potency of MSC from different sources in suppressing recruitment, and the necessity for close contact with endothelium remain uncertain, although these factors have implications for use of MSC in therapy. We thus compared the effects of MSC isolated from bone marrow, Wharton’s jelly, and trabecular bone on neutrophil recruitment to cytokine-stimulated EC, using co-culture models with different degrees of proximity between MSC and EC. All types of MSC suppressed neutrophil adhesion to inflamed endothelium but not neutrophil transmigration, whether directly incorporated into endothelial monolayers or separated from them by thin micropore filters. Further increase in the separation of the two cell types tended to reduce efficacy, although this diminution was least for the bone marrow MSC. Immuno-protective effects of MSC were also diminished with repeated passage; with BMMSC, but not WJMSC, completing losing their suppressive effect by passage 7. Conditioned media from all co-cultures suppressed neutrophil recruitment, and IL-6 was identified as a common bioactive mediator. These results suggest endogenous MSC have a homeostatic role in limiting inflammatory leukocyte infiltration in a range of tissues. Since released soluble mediators might have effects locally or remotely, infusion of MSC into blood or direct injection into target organs might be efficacious, but in either case, cross-talk between EC and MSC appears necessary. PMID:27171357

  18. Doxazosin treatment alters stromal cell behavior and increases elastic system fibers deposition in rat prostate.

    PubMed

    Delella, Flávia Karina; Felisbino, Sérgio Luis

    2010-10-01

    Doxazosin (DOX), an α-adrenoceptor antagonist, induces the relaxation of smooth muscle cell tonus and reduces the clinical symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). However, the effects of DOX in the prostate stromal microenvironment are not fully known. In a previous study, we showed that DOX treatment for 30 days increased deposition of collagen fibers in the three rat prostatic lobes. Herein, we investigated the effects of DOX on stromal cell ultrastructure and elastic fiber deposition. Adult Wistar rats were treated with DOX (25 mg/kg/day); and the ventral, dorsal, and anterior prostates were excised at 30 days of treatment. The prostatic lobes were submitted to histochemical and stereological-morphometric analyze and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Histochemical staining plus stereological analysis of the elastic fiber system showed that DOX-treated prostatic lobes presented more elaunin and elastic fibers than controls, mainly in the ventral lobe. Ultrastructural analysis showed that fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells from DOX-treated prostates presented active synthetic phenotypes, evidenced by enlarged rough endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus cisterns, and confirmed the observation of thickened elaunin fibers. Our findings suggest that, under α-adrenergic blockade by DOX, the fibroblasts become more active and smooth muscle cells shift from a predominantly contractile to a more synthetic phenotype. The deposition of collagen and elastic system fibers in the prostatic stroma may counterbalance the absence of smooth muscle tone during α-blockers treatment.

  19. Measuring the Refractive Index of Bovine Corneal Stromal Cells Using Quantitative Phase Imaging.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Steven J; White, Nick; Albon, Julie; Knupp, Carlo; Kamma-Lorger, Christina S; Meek, Keith M

    2015-10-20

    The cornea is the primary refractive lens in the eye and transmits >90% of incident visible light. It has been suggested that the development of postoperative corneal haze could be due to an increase in light scattering from activated corneal stromal cells. Quiescent keratocytes are thought to produce crystallins that match the refractive index of their cytoplasm to the surrounding extracellular material, reducing the amount of light scattering. To test this, we measured the refractive index (RI) of bovine corneal stromal cells, using quantitative phase imaging of live cells in vitro, together with confocal microscopy. The RI of quiescent keratocytes (RI = 1.381 ± 0.004) matched the surrounding matrix, thus supporting the hypothesis that keratocyte cytoplasm does not scatter light in the normal cornea. We also observed that the RI drops after keratocyte activation (RI = 1.365 ± 0.003), leading to a mismatch with the surrounding intercellular matrix. Theoretical scattering models showed that this mismatch would reduce light transmission in the cornea. We conclude that corneal transparency depends on the matching of refractive indices between quiescent keratocytes and the surrounding tissue, and that after surgery or wounding, the resulting RI mismatch between the activated cells and their surrounds significantly contributes to light scattering.

  20. Exosomes derived from endometriotic stromal cells have enhanced angiogenic effects in vitro.

    PubMed

    Harp, Djana; Driss, Adel; Mehrabi, Sharifeh; Chowdhury, Indrajit; Xu, Wei; Liu, Dong; Garcia-Barrio, Minerva; Taylor, Robert N; Gold, Bert; Jefferson, Samantha; Sidell, Neil; Thompson, Winston

    2016-07-01

    Our objective has been to establish a pro-angiogenic role for exosomes in endometriosis and to determine whether a differential expression profile of cellular and exosomal microRNAs (miRNAs) exists in endometriosis. We performed an in vitro study of human primary endometrial stromal cells (ESCs) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). We isolated and characterized exosomes from ESCs from five endometriosis patients and five phase-matched controls. Exosomes were characterized by transmission electron microscopy and NanoSight technology. MiRNA was assessed by deep sequencing and reverse transcription with quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Exosome uptake studies were achieved by means of confocal microscopy. The pro-angiogenic experiments were executed by treating HUVECs with ESC-derived exosomes. We observed differential profiles of exosomal miRNA expression between exosomes derived from endometriosis lesion cells and diseased eutopic stromal cells compared with exosomes derived from control ESCs. We also demonstrated autocrine cellular uptake of exosomes and paracrine functional angiogenic effects of exosomes on HUVECs. The results of this study support the hypothesis that exosomes derived from ESCs play autocrine/paracrine roles in the development of endometriosis, potentially modulating angiogenesis. The broader clinical implications are that Sampson's theory of retrograde menstruation possibly encompasses the finding that exosomes work as intercellular communication modulators in endometriosis. PMID:26841879

  1. Sera of overweight people promote in vitro adipocyte differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Overweight status should not be considered merely an aesthetic concern; rather, it can incur health risks since it may trigger a cascade of events that produce further fat tissue through altered levels of circulating signaling molecules. There have been few studies addressing the effect of overweight status on the physiological functions of stem cells, including mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which are the progenitors of adipocytes and osteocytes and are a subset of the bone marrow stromal cell population. Methods We decided to investigate the influence of overweight individuals’ sera on in vitro MSC proliferation and differentiation. Results We observed that in vitro incubation of bone marrow stromal cells with the sera of overweight individuals promotes the adipogenic differentiation of MSCs while partially impairing proper osteogenesis. Conclusions These results, which represent a pilot study, might suggest that becoming overweight triggers further weight gains by promoting a bias in the differentiation potential of MSCs toward adipogenesis. The circulating factors involved in this phenomenon remain to be determined, since the great majority of the well known pro-inflammatory cytokines and adipocyte-secreted factors we investigated did not show relevant modifications in overweight serum samples compared with controls. PMID:24405848

  2. Reproducible establishment of hemopoietic supportive stromal cell lines from murine bone marrow

    SciTech Connect

    Itoh, K.; Tezuka, H.; Sakoda, H.; Konno, M.; Nagata, K.; Uchiyama, T.; Uchino, H.; Mori, K.J.

    1989-02-01

    Stromal cell lines, designated MS-1, -2, -3, -4, -5, -6, and -7 were established by irradiating the adherent cells in long-term bone marrow cultures with 900-rad x-rays. Two of the cell lines, MS-1 and MS-5, have the capacity to support the growth of hemopoietic stem cells (spleen colony-forming cells and granulocyte-macrophage colony-forming cells) for greater than 2 months in vitro. These two cell lines were alkaline phosphatase-, peroxidase-, and factor VIII-negative and positive for periodic acid-Schiff and nonspecific esterase. Extracellular matrix proteins such as fibronectin, laminin, and collagen type I were produced by these two cell lines. Neither MS-1 cell- nor MS-5 cell-conditioned medium supported the growth of hemopoietic stem cells, and hemopoietic stem cells were found preferentially to be under and on MS-1 and MS-5 layers rather than in suspension. Close contact with the MS-1 cell layer or the MS-5 cell layer appears to be essential in maintaining hemopoiesis in vitro. Conditioned media from MS-1 cells and MS-5 cells stimulated granulocyte colony formation from murine bone marrow cells in semisolid culture.

  3. Systemic impact molds mesenchymal stromal/stem cell aging.

    PubMed

    Reitinger, Stephan; Schimke, Magdalena; Klepsch, Sebastian; de Sneeuw, Snezana; Yani, Stella Lukas; Gaßner, Robert; Ertl, Peter; Lepperdinger, Günter

    2015-06-01

    Aging is associated with an accruing emergence of non-functional tissues. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) bring forth progenitors with multi-lineage differentiation potential, yet, they also exhibit anti-inflammatory and tissue-protective properties. Due to aging, altered tissue microenvironments constrict controlled stem cell proliferation and progenitor differentiation, thus diminishing the fitness of MSC. Therefore, deepening our understanding of metabolic, molecular and environmental factors impacting on MSC during human aging as well as providing new vistas on their role in promoting healthy aging and preventing age-associated disease is pivot. It is anticipated that integrative quantification of systemic parameters dominantly impacting on MSC will also enable effective personalized prognosis and provision of effective early medical interventions. Working along this line, it can be envisaged that standards in medical therapies can be individually adjusted by accounting not solely for the patient's chronological age or other physical parameters rather than specific physiological parameters which are believed to functionally shape stem cell niches within the bone marrow. PMID:25910539

  4. Detection of Osteogenic Differentiation by Differential Mineralized Matrix Production in Mesenchymal Stromal Cells by Raman Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Chen, He-Guei; Chiang, Hui-Hua Kenny; Lee, Oscar Kuang-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) hold great potential in skeletal tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. However, conventional methods that are used in molecular biology to evaluate osteogenic differentiation of MSCs require a relatively large amount of cells. Cell lysis and cell fixation are also required and all these steps are time-consuming. Therefore, it is imperative to develop a facile technique which can provide real-time information with high sensitivity and selectivity to detect the osteogenic maturation of MSCs. In this study, we use Raman spectroscopy as a biosensor to monitor the production of mineralized matrices during osteogenic induction of MSCs. In summary, Raman spectroscopy is an excellent biosensor to detect the extent of maturation level during MSCs-osteoblast differentiation with a non-disruptive, real-time and label free manner. We expect that this study will promote further investigation of stem cell research and clinical applications. PMID:23734254

  5. Generation of clinical grade human bone marrow stromal cells for use in bone regeneration.

    PubMed

    Robey, Pamela G; Kuznetsov, Sergei A; Ren, Jiaqiang; Klein, Harvey G; Sabatino, Marianna; Stroncek, David F

    2015-01-01

    In current orthopaedic practice, there is a need to increase the ability to reconstruct large segments of bone lost due to trauma, resection of tumors and skeletal deformities, or when normal regenerative processes have failed such as in non-unions and avascular necrosis. Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs, also known as bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells), when used in conjunction with appropriate carriers, represent a means by which to achieve bone regeneration in such cases. While much has been done at the bench and in pre-clinical studies, moving towards clinical application requires the generation of clinical grade cells. What is described herein is an FDA-approved cell manufacturing procedure for the ex vivo expansion of high quality, biologically active human BMSCs. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Stem Cells and Bone. PMID:25064527

  6. [Mesenchymal stromal cells in the treatment of graft-versus-host disease: where do we stand?].

    PubMed

    Schüle, Silke; Berger, André

    2015-11-01

    Medicinal products based on mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) are expected to have a therapeutic benefit in a variety of conditions and, accordingly, are being tested in many clinical studies. The treatment and prevention of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is one of the world's most widely studied MSC therapy concepts. So far, one MSC medicinal product has been approved for the treatment of GvHD. This article gives an overview of the particular features related to the production of MSC-based medicinal products, the state of non-clinical research, and the clinical development status of MSCs and the associated challenges, especially in the context of GvHD.

  7. Canonical Wnt Pathway Signaling Suppresses VCAM-1 Expression by Marrow Stromal and Hematopoietic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Malhotra, Sachin; Kincade, Paul W.

    2009-01-01

    Objective The Wnt family may contribute to hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) maintenance in bone marrow, but many questions remain concerning mechanisms. Vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) is expressed in cellular compartments of the bone marrow and might contribute to the HSC niche, but mechanisms concerning its constitutive expression are largely unknown. We now explore the influence of Wnt signaling on cellular adhesion molecule (CAM) expression by bone marrow stromal and hematopoietic cells. Methods Recombinant Wnt ligands, retroviral Wnt transductions and co-cultures with Wnt secreting cells were used to analyze the effect of Wnt on adhesion molecule expression by stromal and hematopoietic cells. In vivo experiments were also done to assess the ability of Wnt3a induced, VCAM-1 deficient hematopoietic cells to engraft bone marrow. Results We now report that the beta-catenin dependent canonical Wnt signaling pathway negatively regulates VCAM-1 expression on two types of bone marrow cells. Wnt pathway inhibitors, Axin (intracellular) or Dkk1 (extracellular) blocked the regulation of VCAM-1 by diffusible Wnt3a. Interestingly, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) restored a substantial degree of VCAM-1 expression, suggesting functional cross-talk between Wnt and TLR4 signaling pathways. Decreasing VCAM-1 on HSC enriched Lin- Sca-1+ c-KitHi Thy1.1Lo cells by exposure to Wnt3a did not prevent their successful transplantation. Conclusions Our results suggest that cells comprising and residing in the HSC niche can respond to Wnt ligands and extinguish VCAM-1. This response may be important for export of hematopoietic cells. Given the known contribution of VCAM-1 to inflammation, this may represent a new avenue for therapeutic intervention. PMID:18951693

  8. Metabolic programming of mesenchymal stromal cells by oxygen tension directs chondrogenic cell fate.

    PubMed

    Leijten, Jeroen; Georgi, Nicole; Moreira Teixeira, Liliana; van Blitterswijk, Clemens A; Post, Janine N; Karperien, Marcel

    2014-09-23

    Actively steering the chondrogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) into either permanent cartilage or hypertrophic cartilage destined to be replaced by bone has not yet been possible. During limb development, the developing long bone is exposed to a concentration gradient of oxygen, with lower oxygen tension in the region destined to become articular cartilage and higher oxygen tension in transient hypertrophic cartilage. Here, we prove that metabolic programming of MSCs by oxygen tension directs chondrogenesis into either permanent or transient hyaline cartilage. Human MSCs chondrogenically differentiated in vitro under hypoxia (2.5% O2) produced more hyaline cartilage, which expressed typical articular cartilage biomarkers, including established inhibitors of hypertrophic differentiation. In contrast, normoxia (21% O2) prevented the expression of these inhibitors and was associated with increased hypertrophic differentiation. Interestingly, gene network analysis revealed that oxygen tension resulted in metabolic programming of the MSCs directing chondrogenesis into articular- or epiphyseal cartilage-like tissue. This differentiation program resembled the embryological development of these distinct types of hyaline cartilage. Remarkably, the distinct cartilage phenotypes were preserved upon implantation in mice. Hypoxia-preconditioned implants remained cartilaginous, whereas normoxia-preconditioned implants readily underwent calcification, vascular invasion, and subsequent endochondral ossification. In conclusion, metabolic programming of MSCs by oxygen tension provides a simple yet effective mechanism by which to direct the chondrogenic differentiation program into either permanent articular-like cartilage or hypertrophic cartilage that is destined to become endochondral bone.

  9. Derivation of stromal (skeletal and mesenchymal) stem-like cells from human embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Mahmood, Amer; Harkness, Linda; Abdallah, Basem M; Elsafadi, Mona; Al-Nbaheen, May S; Aldahmash, Abdullah; Kassem, Moustapha

    2012-11-20

    Derivation of bone forming cells (osteoblasts) from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) is a prerequisite for their use in clinical applications. However, there is no standard protocol for differentiating hESCs into osteoblastic cells. The aim of this study was to identify the emergence of a human stromal (mesenchymal and skeletal) stem cell (hMSC)-like population, known to be osteoblastic cell precursors and to test their osteoblastic differentiation capacity in ex vivo cultures and in vivo. We cultured hESCs in a feeder-free environment using serum replacement and as suspension aggregates (embryoid bodies; hEBs). Over a 20 day developmental period, the hEBs demonstrated increasing enrichment for cells expressing hMSC markers: CD29, CD44, CD63, CD56, CD71, CD73, CD105, CD106, and CD166 as revealed by immunohistochemical staining and flow cytometry (fluorescence-activated cell sorting) analysis. Ex vivo differentiation of hEBs using bone morphogenic protein 2 (BMP2) combined with standard osteoblast induction medium led to weak osteoblastic induction. Conversely, subcutaneous in vivo implantation of day 20 hEBs in immune deficient mice, mixed with hydroxyapatite/tricalcium phosphate (HA/TCP) as an osteoconductive scaffold, revealed bone and cartilage, and fibrous tissue elements after 8 weeks. These tissues were of human origin and there was no evidence of differentiation to nonmesodermal tissues. hEBs implanted in the absence of HA/TCP formed vacuolated tissue containing glandular, fibrous and muscle-like tissue elements. Conversely, implantation of undifferentiated hESCs resulted in the formation of a teratoma containing a mixture of endodermal, mesodermal, and ectodermal tissues. Our study demonstrates that hMSC-like cells can be obtained from hESCs and they can be induced to form skeletal tissues in vivo when combined with HA/TCP. These findings are relevant for tissue engineering and suggest that differentiated hEBs can provide an unlimited source for

  10. Microencapsulation of Neuroblastoma Cells and Mesenchymal Stromal Cells in Collagen Microspheres: A 3D Model for Cancer Cell Niche Study

    PubMed Central

    Yeung, Pan; Sin, Hoi Shun; Chan, Shing; Chan, Godfrey Chi Fung; Chan, Barbara Pui

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing trend for researchers to use in vitro 3D models in cancer studies, as they can better recapitulate the complex in vivo situation. And the fact that the progression and development of tumor are closely associated to its stromal microenvironment has been increasingly recognized. The establishment of such tumor supportive niche is vital in understanding tumor progress and metastasis. The mesenchymal origin of many cells residing in the cancer niche provides the rationale to include MSCs in mimicking the niche in neuroblastoma. Here we co-encapsulate and co-culture NBCs and MSCs in a 3D in vitro model and investigate the morphology, growth kinetics and matrix remodeling in the reconstituted stromal environment. Results showed that the incorporation of MSCs in the model lead to accelerated growth of cancer cells as well as recapitulation of at least partially the tumor microenvironment in vivo. The current study therefore demonstrates the feasibility for the collagen microsphere to act as a 3D in vitro cancer model for various topics in cancer studies. PMID:26657086

  11. Adult Stromal Cells Derived from Human Adipose Tissue Provoke Pancreatic Cancer Cell Death both In Vitro and In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Cousin, Beatrice; Ravet, Emmanuel; Poglio, Sandrine; De Toni, Fabienne; Bertuzzi, Mélanie; Lulka, Hubert; Touil, Ismahane; André, Mireille; Grolleau, Jean-Louis; Péron, Jean-Marie; Chavoin, Jean-Pierre; Bourin, Philippe; Pénicaud, Luc; Casteilla, Louis; Buscail, Louis; Cordelier, Pierre

    2009-01-01

    Background Normal tissue homeostasis is maintained by dynamic interactions between epithelial cells and their microenvironment. Disrupting this homeostasis can induce aberrant cell proliferation, adhesion, function and migration that might promote malignant behavior. Indeed, aberrant stromal-epithelial interactions contribute to pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) spread and metastasis, and this raises the possibility that novel stroma-targeted therapies represent additional approaches for combating this malignant disease. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of human stromal cells derived from adipose tissue (ADSC) on pancreatic tumor cell proliferation. Principal Findings Co-culturing pancreatic tumor cells with ADSC and ADSC-conditioned medium sampled from different donors inhibited cancer cell viability and proliferation. ADSC-mediated inhibitory effect was further extended to other epithelial cancer-derived cell lines (liver, colon, prostate). ADSC conditioned medium induced cancer cell necrosis following G1-phase arrest, without evidence of apoptosis. In vivo, a single intra-tumoral injection of ADSC in a model of pancreatic adenocarcinoma induced a strong and long-lasting inhibition of tumor growth. Conclusion These data indicate that ADSC strongly inhibit PDAC proliferation, both in vitro and in vivo and induce tumor cell death by altering cell cycle progression. Therefore, ADSC may constitute a potential cell-based therapeutic alternative for the treatment of PDAC for which no effective cure is available. PMID:19609435

  12. Pancreatic tissue resident mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC)-like cells as a source of in vitro islet neogenesis.

    PubMed

    Gopurappilly, Renjitha; Bhat, Vijay; Bhonde, Ramesh

    2013-10-01

    Insufficient β-cell mass is a common denominator for both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. In vitro generation of β-cells from islet precursor cells, exocrine cells or ductal epithelia provide an alternative source of insulin-producing cells. However the presence of multipotent precursor cells within the pancreas is also deliberated. In this study we isolated mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC)-like cells from adult mouse pancreas by collagenase digestion. We used Knockout DMEM for our isolation procedure and the floating islets and acini were removed after 48 h. This strategy permitted the adhesion of stromal cells with typical mesenchymal morphology. These cells not only expressed MSC-specific markers like Sca-1, CD90.2, CD73, and CD44 but also generated osteocytes, adipocytes, and neurons when induced with specific growth media. Upon exposure to islet differentiation serum-free cocktail a significant upregulation of pancreatic markers like Nkx2.2, Nkx6.1, Pdx1, insulin, and somatostatin was seen. The differentiated islet-like cell aggregates (ICAs) secreted insulin which increased over the days in culture in presence of basal glucose levels. Taken together, our data strongly indicate that there is a tissue-resident precursor population within the pancreas that can be exploited for islet neogenesis in vitro. PMID:23606308

  13. Human Bone Marrow Stromal Cell Confluence: Effects on Cell Characteristics and Methods of Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Jiaqiang; Wang, Huan; Tran, Katherine; Civini, Sara; Jin, Ping; Castiello, Luciano; Feng, Ji; Kuznetsov, Sergei A; Robey, Pamela G.; Sabatino, Marianna; Stroncek, David F.

    2015-01-01

    Background Aims Ex vivo expansion and serial passage of human Bone Marrow Stromal Cells (BMSCs, also known as bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells) is required to obtain sufficient quantities for clinical therapy. The BMSC confluence criteria used to determine passage and harvest timing vary widely and the impact of confluence on BMSC properties remains controversial. The effects of confluence on BMSC properties were studied and confluence-associated markers were identified. Methods BMSC characteristics were analyzed as they grew from 50% to 100% confluence including viability, population doubling time (PDT), apoptosis, colony formation, immunosuppression, surface marker expression, global gene expression and microRNA expression. In addition, culture supernatant protein, glucose, lactate and pH levels were analyzed Results Confluence-dependent changes were detected in the expression of several cell surface markers, 39 culture supernatant proteins, 26 microRNAs and 2078 genes. Many of these surface markers, proteins, microRNAs and genes have been reported to be important in BMSC function. The PEDF/VEGF ratio increased with confluence, but 80% and 100% confluent BMSCs demonstrated a similar level of immunosuppression of mixed lymphocyte reactions. In addition, changes in lactate and glucose levels correlated with BMSC density. Discussion BMSC characteristics change as confluence increases. 100% confluent BMSCs may have compromised pro-angiogenesis properties, but may retain their immunomodulatory properties. Supernatant lactate and glucose levels can be used to estimate confluence and ensure consistency in passage and harvest timing. Flow cytometry or microRNA expression can be used to confirm that the BMSCs have been harvested at the appropriate confluence. PMID:25882666

  14. A dynamic population of stromal cells contributes to the follicle stem cell niche in the Drosophila ovary

    PubMed Central

    Sahai-Hernandez, Pankaj; Nystul, Todd G.

    2013-01-01

    Epithelial stem cells are maintained within niches that promote self-renewal by providing signals that specify the stem cell fate. In the Drosophila ovary, epithelial follicle stem cells (FSCs) reside in niches at the anterior tip of the tissue and support continuous growth of the ovarian follicle epithelium. Here, we demonstrate that a neighboring dynamic population of stromal cells, called escort cells, are FSC niche cells. We show that escort cells produce both Wingless and Hedgehog ligands for the FSC lineage, and that Wingless signaling is specific for the FSC niche whereas Hedgehog signaling is active in both FSCs and daughter cells. In addition, we show that multiple escort cells simultaneously encapsulate germ cell cysts and contact FSCs. Thus, FSCs are maintained in a dynamic niche by a non-dedicated population of niche cells. PMID:24131631

  15. Senescent stromal cells induce cancer cell migration via inhibition of RhoA/ROCK/myosin-based cell contractility.

    PubMed

    Aifuwa, Ivie; Giri, Anjil; Longe, Nick; Lee, Sang Hyuk; An, Steven S; Wirtz, Denis

    2015-10-13

    Cells induced into senescence exhibit a marked increase in the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines termed senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP). Here we report that SASP from senescent stromal fibroblasts promote spontaneous morphological changes accompanied by an aggressive migratory behavior in originally non-motile human breast cancer cells. This phenotypic switch is coordinated, in space and time, by a dramatic reorganization of the actin and microtubule filament networks, a discrete polarization of EB1 comets, and an unconventional front-to-back inversion of nucleus-MTOC polarity. SASP-induced morphological/migratory changes are critically dependent on microtubule integrity and dynamics, and are coordinated by the inhibition of RhoA and cell contractility. RhoA/ROCK inhibition reduces focal adhesions and traction forces, while promoting a novel gliding mode of migration. PMID:26483365

  16. Characterization and Angiogenic Potential of Human Neonatal and Infant Thymus Mesenchymal Stromal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shuyun; Mundada, Lakshmi; Johnson, Sean; Wong, Joshua; Witt, Russell; Ohye, Richard G.

    2015-01-01

    Resident mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are involved in angiogenesis during thymus regeneration. We have previously shown that MSCs can be isolated from enzymatically digested human neonatal and infant thymus tissue that is normally discarded during pediatric cardiac surgical procedures. In this paper, we demonstrate that thymus MSCs can also be isolated by explant culture of discarded thymus tissue and that these cells share many of the characteristics of bone marrow MSCs. Human neonatal thymus MSCs are clonogenic, demonstrate exponential growth in nearly 30 population doublings, have a characteristic surface marker profile, and express pluripotency genes. Furthermore, thymus MSCs have potent proangiogenic behavior in vitro with sprout formation and angiogenic growth factor production. Thymus MSCs promote neoangiogenesis and cooperate with endothelial cells to form functional human blood vessels in vivo. These characteristics make thymus MSCs a potential candidate for use as an angiogenic cell therapeutic agent and for vascularizing engineered tissues in vitro. PMID:25713463

  17. Isolation and Expansion of Mesenchymal Stem/Stromal Cells Derived from Human Placenta Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Pelekanos, Rebecca A.; Sardesai, Varda S.; Futrega, Kathryn; Lott, William B.; Kuhn, Michael; Doran, Michael R.

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSC) are promising candidates for use in cell-based therapies. In most cases, therapeutic response appears to be cell-dose dependent. Human term placenta is rich in MSC and is a physically large tissue that is generally discarded following birth. Placenta is an ideal starting material for the large-scale manufacture of multiple cell doses of allogeneic MSC. The placenta is a fetomaternal organ from which either fetal or maternal tissue can be isolated. This article describes the placental anatomy and procedure to dissect apart the decidua (maternal), chorionic villi (fetal), and chorionic plate (fetal) tissue. The protocol then outlines how to isolate MSC from each dissected tissue region, and provides representative analysis of expanded MSC derived from the respective tissue types. These methods are intended for pre-clinical MSC isolation, but have also been adapted for clinical manufacture of placental MSC for human therapeutic use. PMID:27340821

  18. Characterization and angiogenic potential of human neonatal and infant thymus mesenchymal stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuyun; Mundada, Lakshmi; Johnson, Sean; Wong, Joshua; Witt, Russell; Ohye, Richard G; Si, Ming-Sing

    2015-04-01

    Resident mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are involved in angiogenesis during thymus regeneration. We have previously shown that MSCs can be isolated from enzymatically digested human neonatal and infant thymus tissue that is normally discarded during pediatric cardiac surgical procedures. In this paper, we demonstrate that thymus MSCs can also be isolated by explant culture of discarded thymus tissue and that these cells share many of the characteristics of bone marrow MSCs. Human neonatal thymus MSCs are clonogenic, demonstrate exponential growth in nearly 30 population doublings, have a characteristic surface marker profile, and express pluripotency genes. Furthermore, thymus MSCs have potent proangiogenic behavior in vitro with sprout formation and angiogenic growth factor production. Thymus MSCs promote neoangiogenesis and cooperate with endothelial cells to form functional human blood vessels in vivo. These characteristics make thymus MSCs a potential candidate for use as an angiogenic cell therapeutic agent and for vascularizing engineered tissues in vitro.

  19. Connective tissue growth factor is expressed in bone marrow stromal cells and promotes interleukin-7-dependent B lymphopoiesis.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Laurence C; Strickland, Deborah H; Howlett, Meegan; Ford, Jette; Charles, Adrian K; Lyons, Karen M; Brigstock, David R; Goldschmeding, Roel; Cole, Catherine H; Alexander, Warren S; Kees, Ursula R

    2014-07-01

    Hematopoiesis occurs in a complex bone marrow microenvironment in which bone marrow stromal cells provide critical support to the process through direct cell contact and indirectly through the secretion of cytokines and growth factors. We report that connective tissue growth factor (Ctgf, also known as Ccn2) is highly expressed in murine bone marrow stromal cells. In contrast, connective tissue growth factor is barely detectable in unfractionated adult bone marrow cells. While connective tissue growth factor has been implicated in hematopoietic malignancies, and is known to play critical roles in skeletogenesis and regulation of bone marrow stromal cells, its role in hematopoiesis has not been described. Here we demonstrate that the absence of connective tissue growth factor in mice results in impaired hematopoiesis. Using a chimeric fetal liver transplantation model, we show that absence of connective tissue growth factor has an impact on B-cell development, in particular from pro-B to more mature stages, which is linked to a requirement for connective tissue growth factor in bone marrow stromal cells. Using in vitro culture systems, we demonstrate that connective tissue growth factor potentiates B-cell proliferation and promotes pro-B to pre-B differentiation in the presence of interleukin-7. This study provides a better understanding of the functions of connective tissue growth factor within the bone marrow, showing the dual regulatory role of the growth factor in skeletogenesis and in stage-specific B lymphopoiesis.

  20. Osteoblasts and Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Control Hematopoietic Stem Cell Migration and Proliferation in 3D In Vitro Model

    PubMed Central

    de Barros, Ana Paula D. N.; Takiya, Christina M.; Garzoni, Luciana R.; Leal-Ferreira, Mona Lisa; Dutra, Hélio S.; Chiarini, Luciana B.; Meirelles, Maria Nazareth; Borojevic, Radovan; Rossi, Maria Isabel D.

    2010-01-01

    Background Migration, proliferation, and differentiation of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are dependent upon a complex three-dimensional (3D) bone marrow microenvironment. Although osteoblasts control the HSC pool, the subendosteal niche is complex and its cellular composition and the role of each cell population in HSC fate have not been established. In vivo models are complex and involve subtle species-specific differences, while bidimensional cultures do not reflect the 3D tissue organization. The aim of this study was to investigate in vitro the role of human bone marrow–derived mesenchymal stromal cells (BMSC) and active osteoblasts in control of migration, lodgment, and proliferation of HSCs. Methodology/Principal Findings A complex mixed multicellular spheroid in vitro model was developed with human BMSC, undifferentiated or induced for one week into osteoblasts. A clear limit between the two stromal cells was established, and deposition of extracellular matrix proteins fibronectin, collagens I and IV, laminin, and osteopontin was similar to the observed in vivo. Noninduced BMSC cultured as spheroid expressed higher levels of mRNA for the chemokine CXCL12, and the growth factors Wnt5a and Kit ligand. Cord blood and bone marrow CD34+ cells moved in and out the spheroids, and some lodged at the interface of the two stromal cells. Myeloid colony-forming cells were maintained after seven days of coculture with mixed spheroids, and the frequency of cycling CD34+ cells was decreased. Conclusions/Significance Undifferentiated and one-week osteo-induced BMSC self-assembled in a 3D spheroid and formed a microenvironment that is informative for hematopoietic progenitor cells, allowing their lodgment and controlling their proliferation. PMID:20161704

  1. Human adipose-derived stromal cells efficiently support hematopoiesis in vitro and in vivo: a key step for therapeutic studies.

    PubMed

    De Toni, Fabienne; Poglio, Sandrine; Youcef, Aissa Ben; Cousin, Béatrice; Pflumio, Françoise; Bourin, Philippe; Casteilla, Louis; Laharrague, Patrick

    2011-12-01

    Adipose-derived stromal cells (ADSCs) are close relatives of bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (BM-MSCs). The ease of access to subcutaneous fat pad and the abundance of stromal precursors make fat tissue an attractive source of stromal cells for clinicians. However, their ability to support hematopoietic stem cells in vitro and in vivo has not been established definitively. Thus, their usefulness in supporting hematopoietic stem cell engraftment is not as clear as with BM-MSCs. In this article, we show that human ADSCs, cultured with a good manufacturing practice medium, maintain in vitro human early and committed hematopoietic progenitors and support their complete differentiation toward myeloid and lymphoid lineages. Compared with BM-MSCs, ADSCs elicit a more precocious early progenitor formation and faster proliferation and differentiation of hematopoietic progenitors. Further, in vivo, when co-injected in NOD.Cg-Prkdc(scid) Il2(rgtm1Wjl)/SzJ (NSG) mice with a low number of human CD34(+) cells, ADSCs enabled the higher production of immature human hematopoietic progenitors and CD45(+) cells when compared with BM-MSCs. As a whole, our results indicate that human ADSCs, isolated and expanded under clinical-grade conditions, support hematopoiesis in vitro and in vivo and thus provide the rationale for their use in supporting hematopoietic reconstitution in clinical settings.

  2. Comparative proteomic analysis of normal and tumor stromal cells by tissue on chip based mass spectrometry (toc-MS)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    In carcinoma tissues, genetic and metabolic changes not only occur at the tumor cell level, but also in the surrounding stroma. This carcinoma-reactive stromal tissue is heterogeneous and consists e.g. of non-epithelial cells such as fibroblasts or fibrocytes, inflammatory cells and vasculature-related cells, which promote carcinoma growth and progression of carcinomas. Nevertheless, there is just little knowledge about the proteomic changes from normal connective tissue to tumor stroma. In the present study, we acquired and analysed specific protein patterns of small stromal sections surrounding head and neck cell complexes in comparison to normal subepithelial connective tissue. To gain defined stromal areas we used laser-based tissue microdissection. Because these stromal areas are limited in size we established the highly sensitive 'tissue on chip based mass spectrometry' (toc-MS). Therefore, the dissected areas were directly transferred to chromatographic arrays and the proteomic profiles were subsequently analysed with mass spectrometry. At least 100 cells were needed for an adequate spectrum. The locating of differentially expressed proteins enables a precise separation of normal and tumor stroma. The newly described toc-MS technology allows an initial insight into proteomic differences between small numbers of exactly defined cells from normal and tumor stroma. PMID:20205871

  3. Protein kinase G II-mediated proliferative effects in human cultured prostatic stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Cook, Anna-Louise M; Haynes, John M

    2004-02-01

    This study investigates the effect of protein kinase G (PKG) activation upon proliferation of human cultured prostatic stromal cells. The PKG II activator (8-pCPT-cGMP; IC50 of 113+/-42 nM) and the phosphodiesterase inhibitor, zaprinast (up to 50 microM), but not the PKG I isoform activators (APT-cGMP and PET-cGMP), reduced foetal calf serum-stimulated proliferation. The effect of 8-pCPT-cGMP (30 microM) was blocked by Rp-8-Br-cGMPS (5 microM) and Rp-8-pCPT-cGMP (5 microM), but not Rp-cAMPS (5 microM). 8-pCPT-cGMP (30 microM) and zaprinast (50 microM), but not PET-cGMP (30 microM), caused a significant increase in atypical nuclei and an increase in annexin-V staining. These data indicate that activation of PKG II induces apoptosis of human cultured prostatic stromal cells. PMID:14636895

  4. Characterization of a Murine Pressure Ulcer Model to Assess Efficacy of Adipose-derived Stromal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Strong, Amy L.; Bowles, Annie C.; MacCrimmon, Connor P.; Lee, Stephen J.; Frazier, Trivia P.; Katz, Adam J.; Gawronska-Kozak, Barbara; Bunnell, Bruce A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: As the world’s population lives longer, the number of individuals at risk for pressure ulcers will increase considerably in the coming decades. In developed countries, up to 18% of nursing home residents suffer from pressure ulcers and the resulting hospital costs can account for up to 4% of a nation’s health care budget. Although full-thickness surgical skin wounds have been used as a model, preclinical rodent studies have demonstrated that repeated cycles of ischemia and reperfusion created by exposure to magnets most closely mimic the human pressure ulcer condition. Methods: This study uses in vivo and in vitro quantitative parameters to characterize the temporal kinetics and histology of pressure ulcers in young, female C57BL/6 mice exposed to 2 or 3 ischemia-reperfusion cycles. This pressure ulcer model was validated further in studies examining the efficacy of adipose-derived stromal/stem cell administration. Results: Optimal results were obtained with the 2-cycle model based on the wound size, histology, and gene expression profile of representative angiogenic and reparative messenger RNAs. When treated with adipose-derived stromal/stem cells, pressure ulcer wounds displayed a dose-dependent and significant acceleration in wound closure rates and improved tissue histology. Conclusion: These findings document the utility of this simplified preclinical model for the evaluation of novel tissue engineering and medical approaches to treat pressure ulcers in humans. PMID:25878945

  5. Data on nitric oxide production by human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Najar, Mehdi; Fayyad-Kazan, Mohammad; Fayyad-Kazan, Hussein; Meuleman, Nathalie; Bron, Dominique; Lagneaux, Laurence

    2016-09-01

    Due to its anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive potential, Nitric oxide (NO), a gaseous radical, is of special importance during graft-versus-host diseases (GVHD) and feoto-maternal tolerance. NO is a major mediator of murine mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs)-immunosuppressive capacity. In this data article, we characterized NO production by human bone marrow-derived MSCs (hBMSCs). MSCs, isolated from healthy donors (n=5), were defined according to the International Society for cellular Therapy (ISCT) guidelines. Based on a fluorometric detection system, and upon using Nitrite ([Formula: see text])/Nitrate ( [Formula: see text]) Assay Kit, the amounts of NO metabolites ( [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text]) produced by hBMSCs, being grown in a culture medium either lacking (constitutive condition) or containing IL-4, IL-10 or a pro-inflammatory cytokine cocktail made of IL-1β, TNF-α, IFN-α and IFN-γ, were assessed. All assays were carried out in triplicates and the mean values are reported. The data from this study supports and corroborates the discussion associated with our previously published work entitled "The Immunomodulatory Potential of Mesenchymal Stromal Cells: A Story of a Regulatory Network" (Najar et al., 2016) [1]. PMID:27536712

  6. Comparison between Stromal Vascular Fraction and Adipose Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Remodeling Hypertrophic Scars

    PubMed Central

    Maumus, Marie; Toupet, Karine; Frouin, Eric; Rigau, Valérie; Vozenin, Marie-Catherine; Magalon, Guy; Jorgensen, Christian; Noël, Danièle

    2016-01-01

    Hypertrophic scars (HTS) are characterized by excessive amount of collagen deposition and principally occur following burn injuries or surgeries. In absence of effective treatments, the use of mesenchymal stem/stromal cells, which have been shown to attenuate fibrosis in various applications, seems of interest. The objectives of the present study were therefore to evaluate the effect of human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hASC) on a pre-existing HTS in a humanized skin graft model in Nude mice and to compare the efficacy of hASCs versus stromal vascular fraction (SVF). We found that injection of SVF or hASCs resulted in an attenuation of HTS as noticed after clinical evaluation of skin thickness, which was associated with lower total collagen contents in the skins of treated mice and a reduced dermis thickness after histological analysis. Although both SVF and hASCs were able to significantly reduce the clinical and histological parameters of HTS, hASCs appeared to be more efficient than SVF. The therapeutic effect of hASCs was attributed to higher expression of TGFβ3 and HGF, which are important anti-fibrotic mediators, and to higher levels of MMP-2 and MMP-2/TIMP-2 ratio, which reflect the remodelling activity responsible for fibrosis resorption. These results demonstrated the therapeutic potential of hASCs for clinical applications of hypertrophic scarring. PMID:27227960

  7. Comparison between Stromal Vascular Fraction and Adipose Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Remodeling Hypertrophic Scars.

    PubMed

    Domergue, Sophie; Bony, Claire; Maumus, Marie; Toupet, Karine; Frouin, Eric; Rigau, Valérie; Vozenin, Marie-Catherine; Magalon, Guy; Jorgensen, Christian; Noël, Danièle

    2016-01-01

    Hypertrophic scars (HTS) are characterized by excessive amount of collagen deposition and principally occur following burn injuries or surgeries. In absence of effective treatments, the use of mesenchymal stem/stromal cells, which have been shown to attenuate fibrosis in various applications, seems of interest. The objectives of the present study were therefore to evaluate the effect of human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hASC) on a pre-existing HTS in a humanized skin graft model in Nude mice and to compare the efficacy of hASCs versus stromal vascular fraction (SVF). We found that injection of SVF or hASCs resulted in an attenuation of HTS as noticed after clinical evaluation of skin thickness, which was associated with lower total collagen contents in the skins of treated mice and a reduced dermis thickness after histological analysis. Although both SVF and hASCs were able to significantly reduce the clinical and histological parameters of HTS, hASCs appeared to be more efficient than SVF. The therapeutic effect of hASCs was attributed to higher expression of TGFβ3 and HGF, which are important anti-fibrotic mediators, and to higher levels of MMP-2 and MMP-2/TIMP-2 ratio, which reflect the remodelling activity responsible for fibrosis resorption. These results demonstrated the therapeutic potential of hASCs for clinical applications of hypertrophic scarring.

  8. Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Derived from Human Umbilical Cord Tissues: Primitive Cells with Potential for Clinical and Tissue Engineering Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moretti, Pierre; Hatlapatka, Tim; Marten, Dana; Lavrentieva, Antonina; Majore, Ingrida; Hass, Ralf; Kasper, Cornelia

    Mesenchymal stem or stromal cells (MSCs) have a high potential for cell-based therapies as well as for tissue engineering applications. Since Friedenstein first isolated stem or precursor cells from the human bone marrow (BM) stroma that were capable of osteogenesis, BM is currently the most common source for MSCs. However, BM presents several disadvantages, namely low frequency of MSCs, high donor-dependent variations in quality, and painful invasive intervention. Thus, tremendous research efforts have been observed during recent years to find alternative sources for MSCs.

  9. Age-Related Changes in Population of Stromal Precursor Cells in Hematopoietic and Lymphoid Organs.

    PubMed

    Gorskaya, Yulia F.; Latzinik, Natalia V.; Shuklina, Ekaterina U.; Nesterenko, Vladimir G.

    2000-07-01

    It is shown that the content of precursor cells of stromal tissue (CFC-F) in the hemopoietic and lymphoid organs of SAMP (rapidly-ageing mice) and SAMR mice (mice with a normal ageing rate) decreases as the animals grow older. However the decrease in the content of CFC-F in SAMP mice begins substantially earlier - in the age group of 9-11 months, while in the SAMR mice - only in the age group of 16-19 months. It was found that the age reduction of the number to an equal degree relates to the whole population of CFC-F, in particular both the fraction of weakly-linked CFC-F, which is isolated by means of mechanical disaggregation of the tissue, and the fraction which may only be isolated using trypsin. It is shown that the concentration of inducible osteogenic precursor cells (IOPC) in the spleen of guinea pigs does not change with age, but their content in that organ in old animals (2-3 years old) drops by two times. It was found that in elderly animals the mass of the ectopic osseous tissue, formed by the implantation of an osteoinductor (autologous epithelium of the urinary bladder) in a system open for entrance of cells, decreases by two times. After curettage of the medullary cavity of guinea pig tibia (i.e. under conditions of an increased demand for osteogenic cells) the mass of induced ectopic osseous tissue decreases by 4 times, which indicates to the possible functional relationship between the pool of determined and inducible osteogenic precursor cells. On the whole, the obtained data show that during ageing there is a reduction in the number of stromal precursor cells (CFC-F and IOPC), which form a specific microenvironment for hemopoietic and lymphoid organs, which is important to understand the role of these cells in the development of age pathologies, in particular senile osteoporosis. PMID:12687170

  10. Alternate protein kinase A activity identifies a unique population of stromal cells in adult bone.

    PubMed

    Tsang, Kit Man; Starost, Matthew F; Nesterova, Maria; Boikos, Sosipatros A; Watkins, Tonya; Almeida, Madson Q; Harran, Michelle; Li, Andrew; Collins, Michael T; Cheadle, Christopher; Mertz, Edward L; Leikin, Sergey; Kirschner, Lawrence S; Robey, Pamela; Stratakis, Constantine A

    2010-05-11

    A population of stromal cells that retains osteogenic capacity in adult bone (adult bone stromal cells or aBSCs) exists and is under intense investigation. Mice heterozygous for a null allele of prkar1a (Prkar1a(+/-)), the primary receptor for cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and regulator of protein kinase A (PKA) activity, developed bone lesions that were derived from cAMP-responsive osteogenic cells and resembled fibrous dysplasia (FD). Prkar1a(+/-) mice were crossed with mice that were heterozygous for catalytic subunit Calpha (Prkaca(+/-)), the main PKA activity-mediating molecule, to generate a mouse model with double heterozygosity for prkar1a and prkaca (Prkar1a(+/-)Prkaca(+/-)). Unexpectedly, Prkar1a(+/-)Prkaca(+/-) mice developed a greater number of osseous lesions starting at 3 months of age that varied from the rare chondromas in the long bones and the ubiquitous osteochondrodysplasia of vertebral bodies to the occasional sarcoma in older animals. Cells from these lesions originated from an area proximal to the growth plate, expressed osteogenic cell markers, and showed higher PKA activity that was mostly type II (PKA-II) mediated by an alternate pattern of catalytic subunit expression. Gene expression profiling confirmed a preosteoblastic nature for these cells but also showed a signature that was indicative of mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition and increased Wnt signaling. These studies show that a specific subpopulation of aBSCs can be stimulated in adult bone by alternate PKA and catalytic subunit activity; abnormal proliferation of these cells leads to skeletal lesions that have similarities to human FD and bone tumors. PMID:20421483

  11. Suppression of SRC Signaling Is Effective in Reducing Synergy between Glioblastoma and Stromal Cells.

    PubMed

    Calgani, Alessia; Vignaroli, Giulia; Zamperini, Claudio; Coniglio, Federica; Festuccia, Claudio; Di Cesare, Ernesto; Gravina, Giovanni Luca; Mattei, Claudia; Vitale, Flora; Schenone, Silvia; Botta, Maurizio; Angelucci, Adriano

    2016-07-01

    Glioblastoma cells efficiently interact with and infiltrate the surrounding normal tissue, rendering surgical resection and adjuvant chemo/radiotherapy ineffective. New therapeutic targets, able to interfere with glioblastoma's capacity to synergize with normal brain tissue, are currently under investigation. The compound Si306, a pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine derivative, selected for its favorable activity against SRC, was tested in vitro and in vivo on glioblastoma cell lines. In vivo, combination treatment with Si306 and radiotherapy was strongly active in reducing U-87 xenograft growth with respect to control and single treatments. The histology revealed a significant difference in the stromal compartment of tumoral tissue derived from control or radiotherapy-treated samples with respect to Si306-treated samples, showing in the latter a reduced presence of collagen and α-SMA-positive cells. This effect was paralleled in vitro by the capacity of Si306 to interfere with myofibroblastic differentiation of normal fibroblasts induced by U-87 cells. In the presence of Si306, TGF-β released by U-87 cells, mainly in hypoxia, was ineffective in upregulating α-SMA and β-PDGFR in fibroblasts. Si306 efficiently reached the brain and significantly prolonged the survival of mice orthotopically injected with U-87 cells. Drugs that target SRC could represent an effective therapeutic strategy in glioblastoma, able to block positive paracrine loop with stromal cells based on the β-PDGFR axis and the formation of a tumor-promoting microenvironment. This approach could be important in combination with conventional treatments in the effort to reduce tumor resistance to therapy. Mol Cancer Ther; 15(7); 1535-44. ©2016 AACR. PMID:27196762

  12. Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Epithelial Transition Induced by Renal Tubular Cells-Derived Extracellular Vesicles

    PubMed Central

    Chiabotto, Giulia; Bruno, Stefania; Collino, Federica

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal-epithelial interactions play an important role in renal tubular morphogenesis and in maintaining the structure of the kidney. The aim of this study was to investigate whether extracellular vesicles (EVs) produced by human renal proximal tubular epithelial cells (RPTECs) may induce mesenchymal-epithelial transition of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs). To test this hypothesis, we characterized the phenotype and the RNA content of EVs and we evaluated the in vitro uptake and activity of EVs on MSCs. MicroRNA (miRNA) analysis suggested the possible implication of the miR-200 family carried by EVs in the epithelial commitment of MSCs. Bone marrow-derived MSCs were incubated with EVs, or RPTEC-derived total conditioned medium, or conditioned medium depleted of EVs. As a positive control, MSCs were co-cultured in a transwell system with RPTECs. Epithelial commitment of MSCs was assessed by real time PCR and by immunofluorescence analysis of cellular expression of specific mesenchymal and epithelial markers. After one week of incubation with EVs and total conditioned medium, we observed mesenchymal-epithelial transition in MSCs. Stimulation with conditioned medium depleted of EVs did not induce any change in mesenchymal and epithelial gene expression. Since EVs were found to contain the miR-200 family, we transfected MSCs using synthetic miR-200 mimics. After one week of transfection, mesenchymal-epithelial transition was induced in MSCs. In conclusion, miR-200 carrying EVs released from RPTECs induce the epithelial commitment of MSCs that may contribute to their regenerative potential. Based on experiments of MSC transfection with miR-200 mimics, we suggested that the miR-200 family may be involved in mesenchymal-epithelial transition of MSCs. PMID:27409796

  13. Molecular cloning and chromosomal mapping of bone marrow stromal cell surface gene, BST2, that may be involved in pre-B-cell growth

    SciTech Connect

    Ishikawa, Jun; Kaisho, Tsuneyasu; Tomizawa, Hitoshi

    1995-04-10

    Bone marrow stromal cells regulate B-cell growth and development through their surface molecules and cytokines. In this study, we generated a mAb, RS38, that recognized a novel human membrane protein, BST-2, expressed on bone marrow stromal cell lines and synovial cell lines. We cloned a cDNA encoding BST-2 from a rheumatoid arthritis-derived synovial cell line. BST-2 is a 30- to 36-kDa type II transmembrane protein, consisting of 180 amino acids. The BST-2 gene (HGMW-approved symbol BST2) is located on chromosome 19p13.2. BST-2 is expressed not only on certain bone marrow stromal cell lines but also on various normal tissues, although its expression pattern is different from that of another bone marrow stromal cell surface molecule, BST-1. BST-2 surface expression on fibroblast cell lines facilitated the stromal cell-dependent growth of a murine bone marrow-derived pre-B-cell line, DW34. The results suggest that BST-2 may be involved in pre-B-cell growth. 45 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Generation of a functional liver tissue mimic using adipose stromal vascular fraction cell-derived vasculatures

    PubMed Central

    Nunes, S. S.; Maijub, J. G.; Krishnan, L.; Ramakrishnan, V. M.; Clayton, L. R.; Williams, S. K.; Hoying, J. B.; Boyd, N. L.

    2013-01-01

    One of the major challenges in cell implantation therapies is to promote integration of the microcirculation between the implanted cells and the host. We used adipose-derived stromal vascular fraction (SVF) cells to vascularize a human liver cell (HepG2) implant. We hypothesized that the SVF cells would form a functional microcirculation via vascular assembly and inosculation with the host vasculature. Initially, we assessed the extent and character of neovasculatures formed by freshly isolated and cultured SVF cells and found that freshly isolated cells have a higher vascularization potential. Generation of a 3D implant containing fresh SVF and HepG2 cells formed a tissue in which HepG2 cells were entwined with a network of microvessels. Implanted HepG2 cells sequestered labeled LDL delivered by systemic intravascular injection only in SVF-vascularized implants demonstrating that SVF cell-derived vasculatures can effectively integrate with host vessels and interface with parenchymal cells to form a functional tissue mimic. PMID:23828203

  15. Late Adherent Human Bone Marrow Stromal Cells Form Bone and Restore the Hematopoietic Microenvironment In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Vianna, Verônica Fernandes; Bonfim, Danielle Cabral; Cavalcanti, Amanda dos Santos; Fernandes, Marco Cury; Kahn, Suzana Assad; Casado, Priscila Ladeira; Lima, Inayá Correa; Murray, Samuel S.; Murray, Elsa J. Brochmann; Duarte, Maria Eugenia Leite

    2013-01-01

    Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) are a valuable resource for skeletal regenerative medicine because of their osteogenic potential. In spite of the very general term “stem cell,” this population of cells is far from homogeneous, and different BMSCs clones have greatly different phenotypic properties and, therefore, potentially different therapeutic potential. Adherence to a culture flask surface is a primary defining characteristic of BMSCs. We hypothesized that based on the adherence time we could obtain an enriched population of cells with a greater therapeutic potential. We characterized two populations of bone marrow-derived cells, those that adhered by three days (R-cells) and those that did not adhere by three days but did by six days (L-cells). Clones derived from L-cells could be induced into adipogenic, chondrogenic, and osteogenic differentiation in vitro. L-cells appeared to have greater proliferative capacity, as manifested by larger colony diameter and clones with higher CD146 expression. Only clones from L-cells developed bone marrow stroma in vivo. We conclude that the use of late adherence of BMSCs is one parameter that can be used to enrich for cells that will constitute a superior final product for cell therapy in orthopedics. PMID:23710460

  16. Bone regeneration by implantation of adipose-derived stromal cells expressing BMP-2

    SciTech Connect

    Li Huiwu; Dai Kerong . E-mail: krdai@163.com; Tang Tingting; Zhang Xiaoling; Yan Mengning; Lou Jueren

    2007-05-18

    In this study, we reported that the adipose-derived stromal cells (ADSCs) genetically modified by bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) healed critical-sized canine ulnar bone defects. First, the osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation potential of the ADSCs derived from canine adipose tissue were demonstrated. And then the cells were modified by the BMP-2 gene and the expression and bone-induction ability of BMP-2 were identified. Finally, the cells modified by BMP-2 gene were applied to a {beta}-tricalcium phosphate (TCP) carrier and implanted into ulnar bone defects in the canine model. After 16 weeks, radiographic, histological, and histomorphometry analysis showed that ADSCs modified by BMP-2 gene produced a significant increase of newly formed bone area and healed or partly healed all of the bone defects. We conclude that ADSCs modified by the BMP-2 gene can enhance the repair of critical-sized bone defects in large animals.

  17. Cytocompatible, Photoreversible, and Self-Healing Hydrogels for Regulating Bone Marrow Stromal Cell Differentiation.

    PubMed

    Yu, Lianlian; Xu, Kaige; Ge, Liangpeng; Wan, Wenbing; Darabi, Ali; Xing, Malcolm; Zhong, Wen

    2016-09-01

    Photo-crosslinking and self-healing have received considerable attention for the design of intelligent materials. A novel photostimulated, self-healing, and cytocompatible hydrogel system is reported. A coumarin methacrylate crosslinker is synthesized to modify the polyacrylamide-based hydrogels. With the [2+2] cyclo-addition of coumarin moieties, the hydrogels exhibit excellent self-healing capacity when they are exposed to light with wavelengths at 280 and 365 nm, respectively. To enhance cell compatibility, a poly (amidoamine) crosslinker is also synthesized. Variations in light exposure times and irradiation wavelengths are found to alter the self-healing property of the hydrogels. The hydrogels are shown to induce a regular cellular pattern. The hydrogels are used to regulate bone marrow stromal cells differentiation. The relative mRNA expressions are recorded to monitor the osteogenic differentiation of the cells.

  18. Mesenchymal Stem/Stromal Cells in Regenerative Medicine: Can Preconditioning Strategies Improve Therapeutic Efficacy?

    PubMed Central

    Schäfer, Richard; Spohn, Gabriele; Baer, Patrick C.

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) are becoming increasingly important for the development of cell therapeutics in regenerative medicine. Featuring immunomodulatory potential as well as secreting a variety of trophic factors, MSCs showed remarkable therapeutic effects in numerous preclinical disease models. However, sustainable translation of MSC therapies to the clinic is hampered by heterogeneity of MSCs and non-standardized in vitro culture technologies. Moreover, potent MSC therapeutics require MSCs with maximum regenerative capacity. There is growing evidence that in vitro preconditioning strategies of MSCs can optimize their therapeutic potential. In the following we will discuss achievements and challenges of the development of MSC therapies in regenerative medicine highlighting specific in vitro preconditioning strategies prior to cell transplantation to increase their therapeutic efficacy. PMID:27721701

  19. The Control of Mesenchymal Stromal Cell Osteogenic Differentiation through Modified Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Logan, Niall; Brett, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Stem cells continue to receive widespread attention due to their potential to revolutionise treatments in the fields of both tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Adult stem cells, specifically mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs), play a vital role in the natural events surrounding bone healing and osseointegration through being stimulated to differentiate along their osteogenic lineage and in doing so, they form new cortical and trabecular bone tissue. Understanding how to control, manipulate, and enhance the intrinsic healing events modulated through osteogenic differentiation of MSCs by the use of modified surfaces and biomaterials could potentially advance the fields of both orthopaedics and dentistry. This could be by either using surface modification to generate greater implant stability and more rapid healing following implantation or the stimulation of MSCs ex vivo for reimplantation. This review aims to gather publications targeted at promoting, enhancing, and controlling the osteogenic differentiation of MSCs through biomaterials, nanotopographies, and modified surfaces for use in implant procedures. PMID:23766768

  20. Cytocompatible, Photoreversible, and Self-Healing Hydrogels for Regulating Bone Marrow Stromal Cell Differentiation.

    PubMed

    Yu, Lianlian; Xu, Kaige; Ge, Liangpeng; Wan, Wenbing; Darabi, Ali; Xing, Malcolm; Zhong, Wen

    2016-09-01

    Photo-crosslinking and self-healing have received considerable attention for the design of intelligent materials. A novel photostimulated, self-healing, and cytocompatible hydrogel system is reported. A coumarin methacrylate crosslinker is synthesized to modify the polyacrylamide-based hydrogels. With the [2+2] cyclo-addition of coumarin moieties, the hydrogels exhibit excellent self-healing capacity when they are exposed to light with wavelengths at 280 and 365 nm, respectively. To enhance cell compatibility, a poly (amidoamine) crosslinker is also synthesized. Variations in light exposure times and irradiation wavelengths are found to alter the self-healing property of the hydrogels. The hydrogels are shown to induce a regular cellular pattern. The hydrogels are used to regulate bone marrow stromal cells differentiation. The relative mRNA expressions are recorded to monitor the osteogenic differentiation of the cells. PMID:27280860

  1. The Control of Mesenchymal Stromal Cell Osteogenic Differentiation through Modified Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Stem cells continue to receive widespread attention due to their potential to revolutionise treatments in the fields of both tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Adult stem cells, specifically mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs), play a vital role in the natural events surrounding bone healing and osseointegration through being stimulated to differentiate along their osteogenic lineage and in doing so, they form new cortical and trabecular bone tissue. Understanding how to control, manipulate, and enhance the intrinsic healing events modulated through osteogenic differentiation of MSCs by the use of modified surfaces and biomaterials could potentially advance the fields of both orthopaedics and dentistry. This could be by either using surface modification to generate greater implant stability and more rapid healing following implantation or the stimulation of MSCs ex vivo for reimplantation. This review aims to gather publications targeted at promoting, enhancing, and controlling the osteogenic differentiation of MSCs through biomaterials, nanotopographies, and modified surfaces for use in implant procedures. PMID:23766768

  2. The Production of Interleukin-11 and Decidualization Are Compromised in Endometrial Stromal Cells Derived from Patients with Infertility

    PubMed Central

    Karpovich, Natalia; Klemmt, Petra; McVeigh, J. Enda; Barlow, David H.; Mardon, Helen J.; Hwang, Jung Hye; Heath, John K.

    2006-01-01

    IL-11 signaling is critical for decidualization of the endometrial stroma in early pregnancy in the mouse. In this study, we investigate the function of IL-11 signaling in cAMP-induced decidualization of human endometrial stromal cells. We show that treatment of endometrial stromal cells with 8-bromo-cAMP (8-Br-cAMP) results in an increase in the levels of secreted IL-11, whereas levels of cell surface IL-11 receptor α are similar with or without 8-Br-cAMP treatment. The production of IL-11 correlates with the production of molecular markers of decidualization, prolactin and IGF-binding protein-1. The expression of these markers is inhibited when IL-11 signaling is specifically blocked in decidualizing endometrial stromal cells by the IL-11 antagonist W147A. We demonstrate that 8-Br-cAMP-induced endometrial stromal cells derived from patients with primary infertility produce lower levels of prolactin, IGF-binding protein-1, and IL-11 than cells derived from fertile women. Our results suggest that IL-11 expression is critically important during decidualization in the human endometrium, and that aberrant regulation of endometrial IL-11 production may be associated with some types of infertility. PMID:15613426

  3. Growth hormone expression in stromal and non-stromal cells in the bursa of Fabricius during bursal development and involution: Causal relationships?

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Méndez, A J; Luna-Acosta, J L; Carranza, M; Harvey, S; Arámburo, C; Luna, M

    2010-06-01

    Growth hormone (GH) is expressed in the chicken bursa of Fabricius (BF), an organ that undergoes three distinct developmental stages: rapid growth (late embryogenesis until 6-8 weeks of age [w]), plateaued growth (between 10 and 15w), and involution (after 18-20w). The distribution and abundance of GH-immunoreactivity (GH-IR) and GH mRNA expression in stromal and non-stromal bursal cells during development, as well as the potential anti-apoptotic effect of GH in bursal cell survival were the focus of this study. GH mRNA expression was mainly in the epithelial layer and in epithelial buds at embryonic day (ED) 15; at 2w it was widely distributed within the follicle and in the interfollicular epithelium (IFE); at 10w it clearly diminished in the epithelium; whereas at 20w it occurred in only a few cortical cells and in the connective tissue. Parallel changes in the relative proportion of GH mRNA expression (12, 21, 13, 1%) and GH-IR (19, 18, 11, <3%) were observed at ED 15, 2w, 10w, and 20w, respectively. During embryogenesis, GH-IR co-localized considerably with IgM-IR, but scarcely with IgG-IR, whereas the opposite was observed after hatching. Significant differences in bursal cell death occurred during development, with 9.3% of cells being apoptotic at ED 15, 0.4% at 2w, 0.23% at 10w, and 21.1% at 20w. Addition of GH increased cultured cell survival by a mechanism that involved suppression (up to 41%) of caspase-3 activity. Results suggest that autocrine/paracrine actions of bursal GH are involved in the differentiation and proliferation of B lymphocytes and in BF growth and cell survival in embryonic and neonatal chicks, whereas diminished GH expression in adults may result in bursal involution.

  4. Generation and Characterization of an Immortalized Human Mesenchymal Stromal Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Skårn, Magne; Noordhuis, Paul; Wang, Meng-Yu; Veuger, Marjan; Kresse, Stine Henrichson; Egeland, Eivind Valen; Micci, Francesca; Namløs, Heidi Maria; Håkelien, Anne-Mari; Olafsrud, Solveig Mjelstad; Lorenz, Susanne; Haraldsen, Guttorm; Kvalheim, Gunnar; Meza-Zepeda, Leonardo Andrés

    2014-01-01

    Human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs) show great potential for clinical and experimental use due to their capacity to self-renew and differentiate into multiple mesenchymal lineages. However, disadvantages of primary cultures of hMSCs are the limited in vitro lifespan, and the variable properties of cells from different donors and over time in culture. In this article, we describe the generation of a telomerase-immortalized nontumorigenic human bone marrow-derived stromal mesenchymal cell line, and its detailed characterization after long-term culturing (up to 155 population doublings). The resulting cell line, iMSC#3, maintained a fibroblast-like phenotype comparable to early passages of primary hMSCs, and showed no major differences from hMSCs regarding surface marker expression. Furthermore, iMSC#3 had a normal karyotype, and high-resolution array comparative genomic hybridization confirmed normal copy numbers. The gene expression profiles of immortalized and primary hMSCs were also similar, whereas the corresponding DNA methylation profiles were more diverse. The cells also had proliferation characteristics comparable to primary hMSCs and maintained the capacity to differentiate into osteoblasts and adipocytes. A detailed characterization of the mRNA and microRNA transcriptomes during adipocyte differentiation also showed that the iMSC#3 recapitulates this process at the molecular level. In summary, the immortalized mesenchymal cells represent a valuable model system that can be used for studies of candidate genes and their role in differentiation or oncogenic transformation, and basic studies of mesenchymal biology. PMID:24857590

  5. Human fallopian tube mesenchymal stromal cells enhance bone regeneration in a xenotransplanted model.

    PubMed

    Jazedje, Tatiana; Bueno, Daniela F; Almada, Bruno V P; Caetano, Heloisa; Czeresnia, Carlos E; Perin, Paulo M; Halpern, Silvio; Maluf, Mariangela; Evangelista, Lucila P; Nisenbaum, Marcelo G; Martins, Marília T; Passos-Bueno, Maria R; Zatz, Mayana

    2012-06-01

    We have recently reported that human fallopian tubes, which are discarded during surgical procedures of women submitted to sterilization or hysterectomies, are a rich source of human fallopian tube mesenchymal stromal cells (htMSCs). It has been previously shown that human mesenchymal stromal cells may be useful in enhancing the speed of bone regeneration. This prompted us to investigate whether htMSCs might be useful for the treatment of osteoporosis or other bone diseases, since they present a pronounced capacity for osteogenic differentiation in vitro. Based on this prior knowledge, our aim was to evaluate, in vivo, the osteogenic capacity of htMSCs to regenerate bone through an already described xenotransplantation model: nonimmunosuppressed (NIS) rats with cranial defects. htMSCs were obtained from five 30-50 years old healthy women and characterized by flow cytometry and for their multipotenciality in vitro capacity (osteogenic, chondrogenic and adipogenic differentiations). Two symmetric full-thickness cranial defects on each parietal region of seven NIS rats were performed. The left side (LS) of six animals was covered with CellCeram (Scaffdex)-a bioabsorbable ceramic composite scaffold that contains 60% hydroxyapatite and 40% β-tricalciumphosphate-only, and the right side (RS) with the CellCeram and htMSCs (10(6) cells/scaffold). The animals were euthanized at 30, 60 and 90 days postoperatively and cranial tissue samples were taken for histological analysis. After 90 days we observed neobone formation in both sides. However, in animals euthanized 30 and 60 days after the procedure, a mature bone was observed only on the side with htMSCs. PCR and immunofluorescence analysis confirmed the presence of human DNA and thus that human cells were not rejected, which further supports the imunomodulatory property of htMSCs. In conclusion, htMSCs can be used successfully to enhance bone regeneration in vivo, opening a new field for future treatments of osteoporosis

  6. Imaging modalities for the in vivo surveillance of mesenchymal stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Mohammad Ayaz; Chowdhury, Tina; Bagul, Atul

    2015-11-01

    Bone marrow stromal cells exist as mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) and have the capacity to differentiate into multiple tissue types when subjected to appropriate culture conditions. This property of MSCs creates therapeutic opportunities in regenerative medicine for the treatment of damage to neural, cardiac and musculoskeletal tissues or acute kidney injury. The prerequisite for successful cell therapy is delivery of cells to the target tissue. Assessment of therapeutic outcomes utilize traditional methods to examine cell function of MSC populations involving routine biochemical or histological analysis for cell proliferation, protein synthesis and gene expression. However, these methods do not provide sufficient spatial and temporal information. In vivo surveillance of MSC migration to the site of interest can be performed through a variety of imaging modalities such as the use of radiolabelling, fluc protein expression bioluminescence imaging and paramagnetic nanoparticle magnetic resonance imaging. This review will outline the current methods of in vivo surveillance of exogenously administered MSCs in regenerative medicine while addressing potential technological developments. Furthermore, nanoparticles and microparticles for cellular labelling have shown that migration of MSCs can be spatially and temporally monitored. In vivo surveillance therefore permits time-stratified assessment in animal models without disruption of the target organ. In vivo tracking of MSCs is non-invasive, repeatable and non-toxic. Despite the excitement that nanoparticles for tracking MSCs offer, delivery methods are difficult because of the challenges with imaging three-dimensional systems. The current advances and growth in MSC research, is likely to provide a wealth of evidence overcoming these issues.

  7. Adipose-derived mesenchymal stromal cells from aged patients with coronary artery disease keep mesenchymal stromal cell properties but exhibit characteristics of aging and have impaired angiogenic potential.

    PubMed

    Efimenko, Anastasia; Dzhoyashvili, Nina; Kalinina, Natalia; Kochegura, Tatiana; Akchurin, Renat; Tkachuk, Vsevolod; Parfyonova, Yelena

    2014-01-01

    Tissue regeneration is impaired in aged individuals. Adipose-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (ADSCs), a promising source for cell therapy, were shown to secrete various angiogenic factors and improve vascularization of ischemic tissues. We analyzed how patient age affected the angiogenic properties of ADSCs. ADSCs were isolated from subcutaneous fat tissue of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD; n = 64, 43-77 years old) and without CAD (n = 31, 2-82 years old). ADSC phenotype characterized by flow cytometry was CD90(+)/CD73(+)/CD105(+)/CD45(-)/CD31(-) for all samples, and these cells were capable of adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation. ADSCs from aged patients had shorter telomeres (quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction) and a tendency to attenuated telomerase activity. ADSC-conditioned media (ADSC-CM) stimulated capillary-like tube formation by endothelial cells (EA.hy926), and this effect significantly decreased with the age of patients both with and without CAD. Angiogenic factors (vascular endothelial growth factor, placental growth factor, hepatocyte growth factor, angiopoetin-1, and angiogenin) in ADSC-CM measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay significantly decreased with patient age, whereas levels of antiangiogenic factors thrombospondin-1 and endostatin did not. Expression of angiogenic factors in ADSCs did not change with patient age (real-time polymerase chain reaction); however, gene expression of factors related to extracellular proteolysis (urokinase and its receptor, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1) and urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor surface expression increased in ADSCs from aged patients with CAD. ADSCs from aged patients both with and without CAD acquire aging characteristics, and their angiogenic potential declines because of decreasing proangiogenic factor secretion. This could restrict the effectiveness of autologous cell therapy with ADSCs in aged patients.

  8. Molecular signature and in vivo behavior of bone marrow endosteal and subendosteal stromal cell populations and their relevance to hematopoiesis

    SciTech Connect

    Balduino, Alex; Mello-Coelho, Valeria; Wang, Zhou; Taichman, Russell S.; Krebsbach, Paul H.; Weeraratna, Ashani T.; Becker, Kevin G.; Mello, Wallace de; Taub, Dennis D.; Borojevic, Radovan

    2012-11-15

    In the bone marrow cavity, hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) have been shown to reside in the endosteal and subendosteal perivascular niches, which play specific roles on HSC maintenance. Although cells with long-term ability to reconstitute full hematopoietic system can be isolated from both niches, several data support a heterogenous distribution regarding the cycling behavior of HSC. Whether this distinct behavior depends upon the role played by the stromal populations which distinctly create these two niches is a question that remains open. In the present report, we used our previously described in vivo assay to demonstrate that endosteal and subendosteal stromal populations are very distinct regarding skeletal lineage differentiation potential. This was further supported by a microarray-based analysis, which also demonstrated that these two stromal populations play distinct, albeit complementary, roles in HSC niche. Both stromal populations were preferentially isolated from the trabecular region and behave distinctly in vitro, as previously reported. Even though these two niches are organized in a very close range, in vivo assays and molecular analyses allowed us to identify endosteal stroma (F-OST) cells as fully committed osteoblasts and subendosteal stroma (F-RET) cells as uncommitted mesenchymal cells mainly represented by perivascular reticular cells expressing high levels of chemokine ligand, CXCL12. Interestingly, a number of cytokines and growth factors including interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-7, IL-15, Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and stem cell factor (SCF) matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) were also found to be differentially expressed by F-OST and F-RET cells. Further microarray analyses indicated important mechanisms used by the two stromal compartments in order to create and coordinate the 'quiescent' and 'proliferative' niches in which hematopoietic stem cells and progenitors reside.

  9. Enzymatically crosslinked gelatin hydrogel promotes the proliferation of adipose tissue-derived stromal cells

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Xiaomei; Long, Haiyan; Qian, Hong; Ma, Kunlong

    2016-01-01

    Gelatin hydrogel crosslinked by microbial transglutaminase (mTG) exhibits excellent performance in cell adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation. We examined the gelation time and gel strength of gelatin/mTG hydrogels in various proportions to investigate their physical properties and tested their degradation performances in vitro. Cell morphology and viability of adipose tissue-derived stromal cells (ADSCs) cultured on the 2D gel surface or in 3D hydrogel encapsulation were evaluated by immunofluorescence staining. Cell proliferation was tested via Alamar Blue assay. To investigate the hydrogel effect on cell differentiation, the cardiac-specific gene expression levelsof Nkx2.5, Myh6, Gja1, and Mef2c in encapsulated ADSCs with or without cardiac induction medium were detected by real-time RT-PCR. Cell release from the encapsulated status and cell migration in a 3D hydrogel model were assessed in vitro. Results show that the gelatin/mTG hydrogels are not cytotoxic and that their mechanical properties are adjustable. Hydrogel degradation is related to gel concentration and the resident cells. Cell growth morphology and proliferative capability in both 2D and 3D cultures were mainly affected by gel concentration. PCR result shows that hydrogel modulus together with induction medium affects the cardiac differentiation of ADSCs. The cell migration experiment and subcutaneous implantation show that the hydrogels are suitable for cell delivery. PMID:27703850

  10. Nestin-Expressing Precursors Give Rise to Both Endothelial as well as Nonendothelial Lymph Node Stromal Cells.

    PubMed

    Koning, Jasper J; Konijn, Tanja; Lakeman, Kim A; O'Toole, Tom; Kenswil, Keane J G; Raaijmakers, Marc H G P; Michurina, Tatyana V; Enikolopov, Grigori; Mebius, Reina E

    2016-10-01

    During embryogenesis, lymph nodes form through intimate interaction between lymphoid tissue inducer and lymphoid tissue organizer (LTo) cells. Shortly after birth in mice, specialized stromal cell subsets arise that organize microenvironments within the lymph nodes; however, their direct precursors have not yet been identified. In the bone marrow, mesenchymal stem cells are labeled with GFP in nestin-GFP mice, and we show that during all stages of development, nestin(+) cells are present within lymph nodes of these mice. At day of birth, both mesenchymal CD31(-) and endothelial CD31(+) LTo cells were GFP(+), and only the population of CD31(-) LTo cells contained mesenchymal precursors. These CD31(-)nestin(+) cells are found in the T and B cell zones or in close association with high endothelial venules in adult lymph nodes. Fate mapping of nestin(+) cells unambiguously revealed the contribution of nestin(+) precursor cells to the mesenchymal as well as the endothelial stromal populations within lymph nodes. However, postnatal tamoxifen induced targeting of nestin(+) cells in nes-creER mice showed that most endothelial cells and only a minority of the nonendothelial cells were labeled. Overall our data show that nestin(+) cells contribute to all subsets of the complex stromal populations that can be found in lymph nodes. PMID:27574301

  11. A first approach for the production of human adipose tissue-derived stromal cells for therapeutic use.

    PubMed

    Bourin, Philippe; Peyrafitte, Julie-Anne; Fleury-Cappellesso, Sandrine

    2011-01-01

    Adipose tissue-derived stromal cells (ASCs) are promising tools for the new therapeutic field of regenerative medicine. Many research teams are intent on producing these cells for therapeutic purposes. The cell production must follow strict rules for safety and for constant quality of the cell product to ensure a reliable effect in patients. These rules are grouped under the generic term Good Manufacturing Practices. In this chapter, we describe the general concepts of ASC production for therapeutic use, explaining new terms such as traceability and qualification. We also introduce general requirements for the installation, equipment, material, and staff for the cell production. Then, we outline a general strategy for building a cell culture process. Finally, as an example, we describe the use of CellStack™ chambers and specific tube sets that allow for producing cells beginning with the stromal vascular fraction under near-closed conditions.

  12. Transplantation of goat bone marrow stromal cells to the degenerating intervertebral disc in a goat disc-injury model

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yejia; Drapeau, Susan; An, Howard S.; Thonar, Eugene J-M.A.; Anderson, D. Greg

    2010-01-01

    Study Design In vivo randomized controlled study in the goat intervertebral disc (IVD) injury model. Objective To define the effects of allogeneic bone marrow-derived stromal cell injected into the degenerating goat IVDs. Summary of Background Data Transplantation of bone marrow stromal cells to the degenerating disc has been suggested as a means to correct the biologic incompetence of the disc. However, large animal models with IVDs similar in shape and size to those of humans are needed to define the efficacy and safety of this approach. Methods Goat IVD degeneration was induced by stabbing with a #15 blade. One month after disc injury, the injured discs were randomly selected to receive goat bone marrow-derived stromal cell (suspended in hydrogel), saline (control), or hydrogel (control) injections. Three and 6 months after stem cell transplantation, goats were euthanized and the IVD were examined for biochemical content and tissue morphology. MR images at 3- and 6-month time points were also examined. Results The goat large animal model shows early degenerative changes following disc injury. Degenerating IVDs injected with bone marrow stromal cells showed significantly increased proteoglycan (PG) accumulation within their nucleus pulposus (NP) region. However, collagen content, MRI grade and histology did not show statistically significant differences between the cell-treated and control IVDs. Conclusions Following transplantation of bone marrow stromal cells, NP tissue contained more PG than control discs. Although this result was promising, the rate and severity of degeneration in this goat disc injury were modest, suggesting that a more severe injury and a larger sample size is indicated for future studies to better define the utility of cell therapies in this model. PMID:20890267

  13. Reactive Oxygen Species Limit the Ability of Bone Marrow Stromal Cells to Support Hematopoietic Reconstitution in Aging Mice

    PubMed Central

    Khatri, Rahul; Krishnan, Shyam; Roy, Sushmita; Chattopadhyay, Saborni; Kumar, Vikash

    2016-01-01

    Aging of organ and abnormal tissue regeneration are recurrent problems in physiological and pathophysiological conditions. This is most crucial in case of high-turnover tissues, like bone marrow (BM). Using reciprocal transplantation experiments in mouse, we have shown that self-renewal potential of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) and BM cellularity are markedly influenced with the age of the recipient mice rather than donor mice. Moreover, accumulation of excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) in BM stromal cells compared to HSPC compartment, in time-dependent manner, suggests that oxidative stress is involved in suppression of BM cellularity by affecting microenvironment in aged mice. Treatment of these mice with a polyphenolic antioxidant curcumin is found to partially quench ROS, thereby rescues stromal cells from oxidative stress-dependent cellular injury. This rejuvenation of stromal cells significantly improves hematopoietic reconstitution in 18-month-old mice compared to age control mice. In conclusion, this study implicates the role of ROS in perturbation of stromal cell function upon aging, which in turn affects BM's reconstitution ability in aged mice. Thus, a rejuvenation therapy using curcumin, before HSPC transplantation, is found to be an efficient strategy for successful marrow reconstitution in older mice. PMID:27140293

  14. Direct Reprogramming of Human Bone Marrow Stromal Cells into Functional Renal Cells Using Cell-free Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Papadimou, Evangelia; Morigi, Marina; Iatropoulos, Paraskevas; Xinaris, Christodoulos; Tomasoni, Susanna; Benedetti, Valentina; Longaretti, Lorena; Rota, Cinzia; Todeschini, Marta; Rizzo, Paola; Introna, Martino; Grazia de Simoni, Maria; Remuzzi, Giuseppe; Goligorsky, Michael S.; Benigni, Ariela

    2015-01-01

    Summary The application of cell-based therapies in regenerative medicine is gaining recognition. Here, we show that human bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs), also known as bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal cells, can be reprogrammed into renal proximal tubular-like epithelial cells using cell-free extracts. Streptolysin-O-permeabilized BMSCs exposed to HK2-cell extracts underwent morphological changes—formation of “domes” and tubule-like structures—and acquired epithelial functional properties such as transepithelial-resistance, albumin-binding, and uptake and specific markers E-cadherin and aquaporin-1. Transmission electron microscopy revealed the presence of brush border microvilli and tight intercellular contacts. RNA sequencing showed tubular epithelial transcript abundance and revealed the upregulation of components of the EGFR pathway. Reprogrammed BMSCs integrated into self-forming kidney tissue and formed tubular structures. Reprogrammed BMSCs infused in immunodeficient mice with cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury engrafted into proximal tubuli, reduced renal injury and improved function. Thus, reprogrammed BMSCs are a promising cell resource for future cell therapy. PMID:25754206

  15. Direct reprogramming of human bone marrow stromal cells into functional renal cells using cell-free extracts.

    PubMed

    Papadimou, Evangelia; Morigi, Marina; Iatropoulos, Paraskevas; Xinaris, Christodoulos; Tomasoni, Susanna; Benedetti, Valentina; Longaretti, Lorena; Rota, Cinzia; Todeschini, Marta; Rizzo, Paola; Introna, Martino; Grazia de Simoni, Maria; Remuzzi, Giuseppe; Goligorsky, Michael S; Benigni, Ariela

    2015-04-14

    The application of cell-based therapies in regenerative medicine is gaining recognition. Here, we show that human bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs), also known as bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal cells, can be reprogrammed into renal proximal tubular-like epithelial cells using cell-free extracts. Streptolysin-O-permeabilized BMSCs exposed to HK2-cell extracts underwent morphological changes-formation of "domes" and tubule-like structures-and acquired epithelial functional properties such as transepithelial-resistance, albumin-binding, and uptake and specific markers E-cadherin and aquaporin-1. Transmission electron microscopy revealed the presence of brush border microvilli and tight intercellular contacts. RNA sequencing showed tubular epithelial transcript abundance and revealed the upregulation of components of the EGFR pathway. Reprogrammed BMSCs integrated into self-forming kidney tissue and formed tubular structures. Reprogrammed BMSCs infused in immunodeficient mice with cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury engrafted into proximal tubuli, reduced renal injury and improved function. Thus, reprogrammed BMSCs are a promising cell resource for future cell therapy.

  16. Bio- chemical and physical characterizations of mesenchymal stromal cells along the time course of directed differentiation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yin-Quan; Liu, Yi-Shiuan; Liu, Yu-An; Wu, Yi-Chang; Del Álamo, Juan C; Chiou, Arthur; Lee, Oscar K

    2016-01-01

    Cellular biophysical properties are novel biomarkers of cell phenotypes which may reflect the status of differentiating stem cells. Accurate characterizations of cellular biophysical properties, in conjunction with the corresponding biochemical properties could help to distinguish stem cells from primary cells, cancer cells, and differentiated cells. However, the correlated evolution of these properties in the course of directed stem cells differentiation has not been well characterized. In this study, we applied video particle tracking microrheology (VPTM) to measure intracellular viscoelasticity of differentiating human mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (hMSCs). Our results showed that osteogenesis not only increased both elastic and viscous moduli, but also converted the intracellular viscoelasticity of differentiating hMSCs from viscous-like to elastic-like. In contrast, adipogenesis decreased both elastic and viscous moduli while hMSCs remained viscous-like during the differentiation. In conjunction with bio- chemical and physical parameters, such as gene expression profiles, cell morphology, and cytoskeleton arrangement, we demonstrated that VPTM is a unique approach to quantify, with high data throughput, the maturation level of differentiating hMSCs and to anticipate their fate decisions. This approach is well suited for time-lapsed study of the mechanobiology of differentiating stem cells especially in three dimensional physico-chemical biomimetic environments including porous scaffolds.

  17. Bio- chemical and physical characterizations of mesenchymal stromal cells along the time course of directed differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yin-Quan; Liu, Yi-Shiuan; Liu, Yu-An; Wu, Yi-Chang; del Álamo, Juan C.; Chiou, Arthur; Lee, Oscar K.

    2016-01-01

    Cellular biophysical properties are novel biomarkers of cell phenotypes which may reflect the status of differentiating stem cells. Accurate characterizations of cellular biophysical properties, in conjunction with the corresponding biochemical properties could help to distinguish stem cells from primary cells, cancer cells, and differentiated cells. However, the correlated evolution of these properties in the course of directed stem cells differentiation has not been well characterized. In this study, we applied video particle tracking microrheology (VPTM) to measure intracellular viscoelasticity of differentiating human mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (hMSCs). Our results showed that osteogenesis not only increased both elastic and viscous moduli, but also converted the intracellular viscoelasticity of differentiating hMSCs from viscous-like to elastic-like. In contrast, adipogenesis decreased both elastic and viscous moduli while hMSCs remained viscous-like during the differentiation. In conjunction with bio- chemical and physical parameters, such as gene expression profiles, cell morphology, and cytoskeleton arrangement, we demonstrated that VPTM is a unique approach to quantify, with high data throughput, the maturation level of differentiating hMSCs and to anticipate their fate decisions. This approach is well suited for time-lapsed study of the mechanobiology of differentiating stem cells especially in three dimensional physico-chemical biomimetic environments including porous scaffolds. PMID:27526936

  18. Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cell therapy in renal disease and kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Reinders, Marlies E J; Fibbe, Willem E; Rabelink, Ton J

    2010-01-01

    Cell therapies aim at differentiation of stem cells into the specific cell type required to repair damaged or destroyed cells or tissues. Over recent years, cell therapy has been introduced in a variety of application areas, including cardiovascular repair, diabetes, musculoskeletal disorders and renal repair. Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs), often referred to as mesenchymal stem cells, are of particular interest as a cell therapy model, as this is one of the few cell types that are on the brink of entering the clinical arena in different areas of application. MSCs can be differentiated in vitro and in vivo into various cell types of mesenchymal origin such as bone, fat and cartilage. They have important effects on the innate and adaptive immune system and possess striking anti-inflammatory properties that make them attractive for potential use in diseases characterized by autoimmunity and inflammation. In addition, MSCs have been shown to migrate to sites of tissue injury and to enhance repair by secreting anti-fibrotic and pro-angiogenic factors. In this review, evidence for the renoprotective mechanisms of MSCs as well as their therapeutic possibilities and potential hazards in acute and chronic renal disease and allograft rejection is summarized. PMID:19861311

  19. Protein kinase c-β-dependent activation of NF-κB in stromal cells is indispensable for the survival of chronic lymphocytic leukemia B cells in vivo.

    PubMed

    Lutzny, Gloria; Kocher, Thomas; Schmidt-Supprian, Marc; Rudelius, Martina; Klein-Hitpass, Ludger; Finch, Andrew J; Dürig, Jan; Wagner, Michaela; Haferlach, Claudia; Kohlmann, Alexander; Schnittger, Susanne; Seifert, Marc; Wanninger, Stefan; Zaborsky, Nadja; Oostendorp, Robert; Ruland, Jürgen; Leitges, Michael; Kuhnt, Toni; Schäfer, Yvonne; Lampl, Benedikt; Peschel, Christian; Egle, Alexander; Ringshausen, Ingo

    2013-01-14

    Tumor cell survival critically depends on heterotypic communication with benign cells in the microenvironment. Here, we describe a survival signaling pathway activated in stromal cells by contact to B cells from patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). The expression of protein kinase C (PKC)-βII and the subsequent activation of NF-κB in bone marrow stromal cells are prerequisites to support the survival of malignant B cells. PKC-β knockout mice are insusceptible to CLL transplantations, underscoring the in vivo significance of the PKC-βII-NF-κB signaling pathway in the tumor microenvironment. Upregulated stromal PKC-βII in biopsies from patients with CLL, acute lymphoblastic leukemia, and mantle cell lymphoma suggests that this pathway may commonly be activated in a variety of hematological malignancies.

  20. Murine spleen tissue regeneration from neonatal spleen capsule requires lymphotoxin priming of stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Tan, Jonathan K H; Watanabe, Takeshi

    2014-08-01

    Spleen is a tissue with regenerative capacity, which allows autotransplantation of human spleen fragments to counteract the effects of splenectomy. We now reveal in a murine model that transplant of neonatal spleen capsule alone leads to the regeneration of full spleen tissue. This finding indicates that graft-derived spleen stromal cells, but not lymphocytes, are essential components of tissue neogenesis, a finding verified by transplant and regeneration of Rag1KO spleen capsules. We further demonstrate that lymphotoxin and lymphoid tissue inducer cells participate in two key elements of spleen neogenesis, bulk tissue regeneration and white pulp organization, identifying a lymphotoxin-dependent pathway for neonatal spleen regeneration that contrasts with previously defined lymphotoxin-independent embryonic spleen organogenesis.

  1. Polydatin induces bone marrow stromal cells migration by activation of ERK1/2.

    PubMed

    Chen, ZhenQiu; Wei, QiuShi; Hong, GuoJu; Chen, Da; Liang, Jiang; He, Wei; Chen, Mei Hui

    2016-08-01

    Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) have proven to be useful for the treatment of numerous human diseases. However, the reparative ability of BMSCs is limited by their poor migration. Polydatin, widely used in traditional Chinese remedies, has proven to exert protective effects to BMSCs. However, little is known about its role in BMSCs migration. In this study, we studied the effects of polydatin on rat BMSCs migration using the scratch wound healing and transwell migration assays. Our results showed polydatin could promote BMSCs migration. Further experiments showed activation of ERK 1/2, but not JNK, was required for polydatin-induced BMSCs migration, suggesting that polydatin may promote BMSCs migration via the ERK 1/2 signaling pathways. Taken together, our results indicate that polydatin might be beneficial for stem cell replacement therapy by improving BMSCs migration.

  2. Mesenchymal Stromal Cells as a Therapeutic Strategy to Support Islet Transplantation in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Busch, Sarah A; van Crutchen, Saskia T J; Deans, Robert J; Ting, Anthony E

    2011-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disorder that leads to destruction of pancreatic β islet cells and is a growing global health issue. While insulin replacement remains the standard therapy for type 1 diabetes, exogenous insulin does not mimic the physiology of insulin secretion. Transplantation of pancreatic islets has the potential to cure this disease; however, there are several major limitations to widespread implementation of islet transplants. The use of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) in the treatment of type 1 diabetes has been investigated as an adjunct therapy during islet graft administration to prevent initial islet loss and promote engraftment and revascularization of islets. In this review we will discuss the results of recent MSC studies in animal models of diabetes with a focus on islet transplantation and explore the potential for these findings to be extended to clinical use for the treatment of type 1 diabetes.

  3. Toll-Like Receptor 4 Mediates the Response of Epithelial and Stromal Cells to Lipopolysaccharide in the Endometrium

    PubMed Central

    Sheldon, Iain Martin; Roberts, Mark H.

    2010-01-01

    Background Ascending infections of the female genital tract with bacteria causes pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), preterm labour and infertility. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is the main component of the cell wall of Gram-negative bacteria. Innate immunity relies on the detection of LPS by Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) on host cells. Binding of LPS to TLR4 on immune cells stimulates secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-6, chemokines such as CXCL1 and CCL20, and prostaglandin E2. The present study tested the hypothesis that TLR4 on endometrial epithelial and stromal cells is essential for the innate immune response to LPS in the female genital tract. Methodology/Principal Findings Wild type (WT) mice expressed TLR4 in the endometrium. Intrauterine infusion of purified LPS caused pelvic inflammatory disease, with accumulation of granulocytes throughout the endometrium of WT but not Tlr4−/− mice. Intra-peritoneal infusion of LPS did not cause PID in WT or Tlr4−/− mice, indicating the importance of TLR4 in the endometrium for the detection of LPS in the female genital tract. Stromal and epithelial cells isolated from the endometrium of WT but not Tlr4−/− mice, secreted IL-6, CXCL1, CCL20 and prostaglandin E2 in response to LPS, in a concentration and time dependent manner. Co-culture of combinations of stromal and epithelial cells from WT and Tlr4−/− mice provided little evidence of stromal-epithelial interactions in the response to LPS. Conclusions/Significance The innate immune response to LPS in the female genital tract is dependent on TLR4 on the epithelial and stromal cells of the endometrium. PMID:20877575

  4. Microvesicles from Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Are Involved in HPC-Microenvironment Crosstalk in Myelodysplastic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Muntión, Sandra; Ramos, Teresa L.; Diez-Campelo, María; Rosón, Beatriz; Sánchez-Abarca, Luis Ignacio; Misiewicz-Krzeminska, Irena; Preciado, Silvia; Sarasquete, María-Eugenia; de las Rivas, Javier; González, Marcos; Sánchez-Guijo, Fermín; del Cañizo, María-Consuelo

    2016-01-01

    Exosomes/microvesicles (MVs) provide a mechanism of intercellular communication. Our hypothesis was that mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) from myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) patients could modify CD34+ cells properties by MVs. They were isolated from MSC from MDS patients and healthy donors (HD). MVs from 30 low-risk MDS patients and 27 HD were purified by ExoQuick-TC™ or ultracentrifugation and identified by transmission electron microscopy, flow cytometry (FC) and western blot for CD63. Incorporation of MVs into CD34+ cells was analyzed by FC, and confocal and fluorescence microscopy. Changes in hematopoietic progenitor cell (HPC) properties were assessed from modifications in microRNAs and gene expression in CD34+ cells as well as viability and clonogenic assays of CD34+ cells after MVs incorporation. Some microRNAs were overexpressed in MVs from patients MSC and two of them, miR-10a and miR-15a, were confirmed by RT-PCR. These microRNAs were transferred to CD34+ cells, modifying the expression of MDM2 and P53 genes, which was evaluated by RT-PCR and western blot. Finally, examining CD34+ cells properties after incorporation, higher cell viability (p = 0.025) and clonogenic capacity (p = 0.037) were observed when MVs from MDS patients were incorporated. In summary, we show that BM-MSC release MVs with a different cargo in MDS patients compared with HD. These structures are incorporated into HPC and modify their properties. PMID:26836120

  5. Isolation, characterization and cardiac differentiation of human thymus tissue derived mesenchymal stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ze Bang; Qian, Bo; Yang, Yu Zhong; Zhou, Kai; Sun, Jian; Mo, Xu Ming; Wu, Kai Hong

    2015-07-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are promising candidate donor cells for replacement of cardiomyocyte loss during ischemia and in vitro generation of myocardial tissue. We have successfully isolated MSCs from the discarded neonatal thymus gland during cardiac surgery. The thymus MSCs were characterized by cell-surface antigen expression. These cells have high ability for proliferation and are able to differentiate into osteoblasts and adipocytes in vitro. For cardiac differentiation, the cells were divided into 3 groups: untreated control; 5-azacytidine group and sequential exposure to 5-azacytidine, bone morphogenetic protein 4, and basic fibroblast growth factor. Thymus MSCs showed a fibrolast-like morphology and some differentiated cells increased in size, formed a ball-like appearance over time and spontaneously contracting cells were observed in sequential exposure group. Immunostaining studies, cardiac specific genes/protein expression confirmed the cardiomyocyte phenotype of the differentiated cells. These results demonstrate that thymus MSCs can be a promising cellular source for cardiac cell therapy and tissue engineering.

  6. Human chorionic villus mesenchymal stromal cells reveal strong endothelial conversion properties.

    PubMed

    Meraviglia, Viviana; Vecellio, Matteo; Grasselli, Annalisa; Baccarin, Marco; Farsetti, Antonella; Capogrossi, Maurizio C; Pompilio, Giulio; Coviello, Domenico A; Gaetano, Carlo; Di Segni, Marina; Rossini, Alessandra

    2012-06-01

    Chorion, amnion and villi are reservoirs of mesenchymal stromal cells (StC) and the hypothesis that StC from fetal tissues retain higher plasticity compared to adult StC has been suggested. Aimed at investigating this aspect, a series of in vitro experiments were performed with StC isolated from first trimester human chorionic villi (CVStC). CVStC were cultured in: (i) standard mesenchymal medium (MM) and (ii) AmniomaxII® (AM), specifically designed to grow amnion-derived cells in prenatal diagnostic procedures. Cells were then exposed to distinct differentiation treatments and distinguished according to morphology, immunophenotype and molecular markers. Human StC obtained from adult bone marrow (BMStC) were used as control. CVStC cultured either in MM or AM presented stromal morphology and immunophenotype, were negative for pluripotency factors (Nanog, Oct-4 and Sox-2), lacked detectable telomerase activity and retained high genomic stability. In AM, however, CVStC exhibited a faster proliferation rate compared to BMStC or CVStC kept in MM. During differentiation, CVStC were less efficient than BMStC in acquiring adipocytes and osteocytes features; the cardiomyogenic conversion occurred at low efficiency in both cell types. Remarkably, in the presence of pro-angiogenic factors, CVStC reprogrammed toward an endothelial-like phenotype at significantly higher efficiency than BMStC. This effect was particularly evident in CVStC expanded in AM. Mechanistically, the reduced CVStC expression of anti-angiogenic microRNA could support this process. The present study demonstrates that, despite of fetal origin, CVStC exhibit restricted plasticity, distinct from that of BMStC and predominantly directed toward the endothelial lineage.

  7. Differential effects of culture conditions on the migration pattern of stromal cell-derived factor-stimulated hematopoietic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Weidt, Corinna; Niggemann, Bernd; Hatzmann, Wolfgang; Zänker, Kurt S; Dittmar, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    Evidence is mounting that hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) play a critical role in bone marrow regeneration and tissue renewal, for which migration is an obvious prerequisite. Computer-aided analysis and a three-dimensional collagen matrix assay enabled us to analyze single-cell migratory characteristics of stromal cell-derived factor-1 alpha (SDF-1 alpha)-stimulated cord blood-derived HSCs. We defined and resolved specific migratory parameters in spontaneous and SDF-1 alpha-induced migration of these cells. The addition of interleukin 6 to the culture medium led to differential SDF-1 alpha-stimulated migratory response, which comprised a recruitment of nonmoving cells and an increase in speed and frequency of pauses but a decrease in pause duration. We were thus able to decipher the exact parameters that result in an increase in the migration of HSCs and demonstrate that extensive analysis of single-cell behavior is elementary in the study of stem cell migration.

  8. Genetic Deletion of the Stromal Cell Marker CD248 (Endosialin) Protects against the Development of Renal Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Stuart William; Croft, Adam Paul; Morris, Hannah Louise; Naylor, Amy Jane; Huso, David Leonard; Isacke, Clare Marie; Savage, Caroline Olivia Susan; Buckley, Christopher Dominic

    2016-01-01

    Background Tissue fibrosis and microvascular rarefaction are hallmarks of progressive renal disease. CD248 is a transmembrane glycoprotein expressed by key effector cells within the stroma of fibrotic kidneys including pericytes, myofibroblasts and stromal fibroblasts. In human disease, increased expression of CD248 by stromal cells predicts progression to end-stage renal failure. We therefore, hypothesized that the genetic deletion of the CD248 gene would protect against fibrosis following kidney injury. Methods Using the unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) model of renal fibrosis, we investigated the effect of genetic deletion of CD248 on post obstructive kidney fibrosis. Results CD248 null mice were protected from fibrosis and microvascular rarefaction following UUO. Although the precise mechanism is not known, this may to be due to a stabilizing effect of pericytes with less migration and differentiation of pericytes toward a myofibroblast phenotype in CD248-/- mice. CD248-/- fibroblasts also proliferated less and deposited less collagen in vitro. Conclusion These studies suggest that CD248 stromal cells have a pathogenic role in renal fibrosis and that targeting CD248 is effective at inhibiting both microvascular rarefaction and renal fibrosis through modulation of pericyte and stromal cell function. PMID:26633297

  9. [Risk of genetic transformation of multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells in vitro].

    PubMed

    Nikitina, V A; Chausheva, A I

    2014-01-01

    Proof of the efficacy of cell therapy by numerous studies and clinical trials inevitably has raised the question of improving the regulatory framework that governs its use. Particular attention should be paid to the genetic safety of cell preparations. The immune, genetic, and pharmacological modification and expansion of cells in vitro can lead to an undesired effect, which not only has reduced the healing, recovery, and regulatory potential of cell therapy, but also increased the risk of accumulating genetically aberrant cells and the oncogenic transformation of cell preparations. The article has presented the estimation of the parameters of the genetic stability of cultured multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) derived from bone marrow and adipose tissue. The study was conducted using classic methods of genotoxicology, i.e., the individual cells gel-electrophoresis (DNA comets) and the micronucleus test. We described a basic level of DNA damage and the frequency of micronucleus, identified genetically instable cultures, and conducted the comparison of genetic variability of MSCs isolated from different tissues. PMID:25711017

  10. The effect of donor variation and senescence on endothelial differentiation of human mesenchymal stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Portalska, Karolina Janeczek; Groen, Nathalie; Krenning, Guido; Georgi, Nicole; Mentink, Anouk; Harmsen, Martin C; van Blitterswijk, Clemens; de Boer, Jan

    2013-11-01

    Application of autologous cells is considered for a broad range of regenerative therapies because it is not surrounded by the immunological and ethical issues of allo- or xenogenic cells. However, isolation, expansion, and application of autologous cells do suffer from variability in therapeutic efficacy due to donor to donor differences and due to prolonged culture. One important source of autologous cells is mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs), which can differentiate toward endothelial-like cells, thus making them an ideal candidate as cell source for tissue vascularization. Here we screened MSCs from 20 donors for their endothelial differentiation capacity and correlated it with the gene expression profile of the whole genome in the undifferentiated state. Cells of all donors were able to form tubes on Matrigel and induced the expression of endothelial genes, although with quantitative differences. In addition, we analyzed the effect of prolonged in vitro expansion on the multipotency of human MSCs and found that endothelial differentiation is only mildly sensitive to expansion-induced loss of differentiation as compared to osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation. Our results show the robustness of the endothelial differentiation protocol and the gene expression data give insight in the differences in endothelial differentiation between donors.

  11. Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stromal cells in a sandwich approach for osteochondral tissue engineering

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Limin; Zhao, Liang; Detamore, Michael S.

    2013-01-01

    Cell sources and tissue integration between cartilage and bone regions are critical to successful osteochondral regeneration. In this study, human umbilical cord mesenchymal stromal cells (hUCMSCs), derived from Wharton’s jelly, were introduced to the field of osteochondral tissue engineering and a new strategy for osteochondral integration was developed by sandwiching a layer of cells between chondrogenic and osteogenic constructs before suturing them together. Specifically, hUCMSCs were cultured in biodegradable poly-l-lactic acid scaffolds for 3 weeks in either chondrogenic or osteogenic medium to differentiate cells toward cartilage or bone lineages, respectively. A highly concentrated cell solution containing undifferentiated hUCMSCs was pasted onto the surface of the bone layer at week 3 and the two layers were then sutured together to form an osteochondral composite for another 3 week culture period. Chondrogenic and osteogenic differentiation was initiated during the first 3 weeks, as evidenced by the expression of type II collagen and runt-related transcription factor 2 genes, respectively, and continued with the increase of extracellular matrix during the last 3 weeks. Histological and immunohistochemical staining, such as for glycosaminoglycans, type I collagen and calcium, revealed better integration and transition of these matrices between two layers in the composite group containing sandwiched cells compared to other control composites. These results suggest that hUCMSCs may be a suitable cell source for osteochondral regeneration, and the strategy of sandwiching cells between two layers may facilitate scaffold and tissue integration. PMID:21953869

  12. In vitro growth of hematopoietic progenitors and stromal bone marrow cells from patients with multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Jaramillo, Guadalupe; Vela-Ojeda, Jorge; Flores-Guzmán, Patricia; Mayani, Hector

    2011-02-01

    In the present study we have determined the content of hematopoietic and stromal progenitors in multiple myeloma (MM) bone marrow, and assessed their in vitro growth. Marrow cells were obtained from 17 MM patients at the time of diagnosis, and from 6 hematologically normal subjects. When mononuclear cells (MNC) from MM marrow were cultured, reduced numbers of hematopoietic progenitors were detected and their growth in long-term cultures was deficient, as compared to cultures of normal cells. When cell fractions enriched for CD34(+) Lin(-) cells were obtained, the levels of hematopoietic progenitors from MM marrow were within the normal range, and so was their growth kinetics in liquid suspension cultures. The levels of fibroblast progenitors in MM were not statistically different from those in normal marrow; however, their proliferation potential was significantly reduced. Conditioned media from MM-derived MNC and stroma cells contained factors that inhibited normal progenitor cell growth. Our observations suggest that hematopoietic progenitors in MM marrow are intrinsically normal; however, their growth in LTMC may be hampered by the presence of abnormal accessory and stroma cells. These results suggest that besides its role in the generation of osteolytic lesions and the expansion of the myeloma clone, the marrow microenvironment in MM may have a negative effect on hematopoiesis. PMID:20621354

  13. Stromal fibroblasts support dendritic cells to maintain IL-23/Th17 responses after exposure to ionizing radiation

    PubMed Central

    Malecka, Anna; Wang, Qunwei; Shah, Sabaria; Sutavani, Ruhcha V.; Spendlove, Ian; Ramage, Judith M.; Greensmith, Julie; Franks, Hester A.; Gough, Michael J.; Saalbach, Anja; Patel, Poulam M.; Jackson, Andrew M.

    2016-01-01

    Dendritic cell function is modulated by stromal cells, including fibroblasts. Although poorly understood, the signals delivered through this crosstalk substantially alter dendritic cell biology. This is well illustrated with release of TNF-α/IL-1β from activated dendritic cells, promoting PGE2 secretion from stromal fibroblasts. This instructs dendritic cells to up-regulate IL-23, a key Th17-polarizing cytokine. We previously showed that ionizing radiation inhibited IL-23 production by human dendritic cells in vitro. In the present study, we investigated the hypothesis that dendritic cell-fibroblast crosstalk overcomes the suppressive effect of ionizing radiation to support appropriately polarized Th17 responses. Radiation (1–6 Gy) markedly suppressed IL-23 secretion by activated dendritic cells (P < 0.0001) without adversely impacting their viability and consequently, inhibited the generation of Th17 responses. Cytokine suppression by ionizing radiation was selective, as there was no effect on IL-1β, -6, -10, and -27 or TNF-α and only a modest (11%) decrease in IL-12p70 secretion. Coculture with fibroblasts augmented IL-23 secretion by irradiated dendritic cells and increased Th17 responses. Importantly, in contrast to dendritic cells, irradiated fibroblasts maintained their capacity to respond to TNF-α/IL-1β and produce PGE2, thus providing the key intermediary signals for successful dendritic cell-fibroblasts crosstalk. In summary, stromal fibroblasts support Th17-polarizing cytokine production by dendritic cells that would otherwise be suppressed in an irradiated microenvironment. This has potential ramifications for understanding the immune response to local radiotherapy. These findings underscore the need to account for the impact of microenvironmental factors, including stromal cells, in understanding the control of immunity. PMID:27049023

  14. Enzymatic Detachment of Therapeutic Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Grown on Glass Carriers in a Bioreactor

    PubMed Central

    Salzig, Denise; Schmiermund, Alexandra; P. Grace, Pablo; Elseberg, Christiane; Weber, Christian; Czermak, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Cell therapies require the in vitro expansion of adherent cells such as mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs) in bioreactor systems or other culture environments, followed by cell harvest. As hMSCs are strictly adherent cells, cell harvest requires cell detachment. The use of hMSCs for cell therapy requires GMP production in accordance with the guidelines for advanced therapeutic medical products. Therefore, several GMP-conform available proteolytic enzymes were investigated for their ability to promote hMSC detachment. An allogeneic hMSC cell line (hMSC-TERT) that is used in clinical trials in the form of alginate cell capsules was chosen as a model. This study investigated the influence of several factors on the outcome of proteolytic hMSC-TERT detachment. Therefore, hMSC-TERT detachment was analyzed in different cultivation systems (static, dynamic) and in combination with further cell processing including encapsulation. Only two of the commercially available enzymes (AccutaseTM, TrypZeanTM) that fulfill all process requirements (commercial availability, cost, GMP conditions during manufacturing and non-animal origin) are found to be generally suitable for detaching hMSC-TERT. Combining cell detachment with encapsulation demonstrated a high impact of the experimental set up on cell damage. It was preferable to reduce the temperature during detachment and limit the detachment time to a maximum of 20 minutes. Cell detachment in static systems was not comparable with detachment in dynamic systems. Detachment yields in dynamic systems were lower and cell damage was higher for the same experimental conditions. Finally, only TrypZeanTM seemed to be suitable for the detachment of hMSC-TERT from dynamic reactor systems. PMID:24478807

  15. The phytoestrogen genistein enhances osteogenesis and represses adipogenic differentiation of human primary bone marrow stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Heim, M; Frank, O; Kampmann, G; Sochocky, N; Pennimpede, T; Fuchs, P; Hunziker, W; Weber, P; Martin, I; Bendik, I

    2004-02-01

    In the present study, we investigated the role of the phytoestrogen genistein and 17beta-estradiol in human bone marrow stromal cells, undergoing induced osteogenic or adipogenic differentiation. Profiling of estrogen receptors (ERs)-alpha, -beta1, -beta2, -beta3, -beta4, -beta5, and aromatase mRNAs revealed lineage-dependent expression patterns. During osteogenic differentiation, the osteoblast-determining core binding factor-alpha1 showed a progressive increase, whereas the adipogenic regulator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) was sequentially decreased. This temporal regulation of lineage-determining marker genes was strongly enhanced by genistein during the early osteogenic phase. Moreover, genistein increased alkaline phosphatase mRNA levels and activity, the osteoprotegerin:receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand gene expression ratio, and the expression of TGFbeta1. During adipogenic differentiation, down-regulation in the mRNA levels of PPARgamma and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-alpha at d 3 and decreased lipoprotein lipase and adipsin mRNA levels at d 21 were observed after genistein treatment. This led to a lower number of adipocytes and a reduction in the size of their lipid droplets. At d 3 of adipogenesis, TGFbeta1 was strongly up-regulated by genistein in an ER-dependent manner. Blocking the TGFbeta1 pathway abolished the effects of genistein on PPARgamma protein levels and led to a reduction in the proliferation rate of precursor cells. Overall, genistein enhanced the commitment and differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells to the osteoblast lineage but did not influence the late osteogenic maturation markers. Adipogenic differentiation and maturation, on the other hand, were reduced by genistein (and 17beta-estradiol) via an ER-dependent mechanism involving autocrine or paracrine TGFbeta1 signaling. PMID:14605006

  16. PDGFRβ Is a Novel Marker of Stromal Activation in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Han, Rong; Haines, Paul; Gallagher, George; Noonan, Vikki; Kukuruzinska, Maria; Monti, Stefano; Trojanowska, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Carcinoma associated fibroblasts (CAFs) form the main constituents of tumor stroma and play an important role in tumor growth and invasion. The presence of CAFs is a strong predictor of poor prognosis of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Despite significant progress in determining the role of CAFs in tumor progression, the mechanisms contributing to their activation remain poorly characterized, in part due to fibroblast heterogeneity and the scarcity of reliable fibroblast surface markers. To search for such markers in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), we applied a novel approach that uses RNA-sequencing data derived from the cancer genome atlas (TCGA). Specifically, our strategy allowed for an unbiased identification of genes whose expression was closely associated with a set of bona fide stroma-specific transcripts, namely the interstitial collagens COL1A1, COL1A2, and COL3A1. Among the top hits were genes involved in cellular matrix remodeling and tumor invasion and migration, including platelet-derived growth factor receptor beta (PDGFRβ), which was found to be the highest-ranking receptor protein genome-wide. Similar analyses performed on ten additional TCGA cancer datasets revealed that other tumor types shared CAF markers with OSCC, including PDGFRβ, which was found to significantly correlate with the reference collagen expression in ten of the 11 cancer types tested. Subsequent immunostaining of OSCC specimens demonstrated that PDGFRβ was abundantly expressed in stromal fibroblasts of all tested cases (12/12), while it was absent in tumor cells, with greater specificity than other known markers such as alpha smooth muscle actin or podoplanin (3/11). Overall, this study identified PDGFRβ as a novel marker of stromal activation in OSCC, and further characterized a list of promising candidate CAF markers that may be relevant to other carcinomas. Our novel approach provides for a fast and accurate method to identify CAF markers without the need for

  17. PDGFRβ Is a Novel Marker of Stromal Activation in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Kartha, Vinay K; Stawski, Lukasz; Han, Rong; Haines, Paul; Gallagher, George; Noonan, Vikki; Kukuruzinska, Maria; Monti, Stefano; Trojanowska, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Carcinoma associated fibroblasts (CAFs) form the main constituents of tumor stroma and play an important role in tumor growth and invasion. The presence of CAFs is a strong predictor of poor prognosis of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Despite significant progress in determining the role of CAFs in tumor progression, the mechanisms contributing to their activation remain poorly characterized, in part due to fibroblast heterogeneity and the scarcity of reliable fibroblast surface markers. To search for such markers in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), we applied a novel approach that uses RNA-sequencing data derived from the cancer genome atlas (TCGA). Specifically, our strategy allowed for an unbiased identification of genes whose expression was closely associated with a set of bona fide stroma-specific transcripts, namely the interstitial collagens COL1A1, COL1A2, and COL3A1. Among the top hits were genes involved in cellular matrix remodeling and tumor invasion and migration, including platelet-derived growth factor receptor beta (PDGFRβ), which was found to be the highest-ranking receptor protein genome-wide. Similar analyses performed on ten additional TCGA cancer datasets revealed that other tumor types shared CAF markers with OSCC, including PDGFRβ, which was found to significantly correlate with the reference collagen expression in ten of the 11 cancer types tested. Subsequent immunostaining of OSCC specimens demonstrated that PDGFRβ was abundantly expressed in stromal fibroblasts of all tested cases (12/12), while it was absent in tumor cells, with greater specificity than other known markers such as alpha smooth muscle actin or podoplanin (3/11). Overall, this study identified PDGFRβ as a novel marker of stromal activation in OSCC, and further characterized a list of promising candidate CAF markers that may be relevant to other carcinomas. Our novel approach provides for a fast and accurate method to identify CAF markers without the need for

  18. Failure of Intravenous or Intracardiac Delivery of Mesenchymal Stromal Cells to Improve Outcomes after Focal Traumatic Brain Injury in the Female Rat

    PubMed Central

    Turtzo, L. Christine; Budde, Matthew D.; Dean, Dana D.; Gold, Eric M.; Lewis, Bobbi K.; Janes, Lindsay; Lescher, Jacob; Coppola, Tiziana; Yarnell, Angela; Grunberg, Neil E.; Frank, Joseph A.

    2015-01-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells secrete a variety of anti-inflammatory factors and may provide a regenerative medicine option for the treatment of traumatic brain injury. The present study investigates the efficacy of multiple intravenous or intracardiac administrations of rat mesenchymal stromal cells or human mesenchymal stromal cells in female rats after controlled cortical impact by in vivo MRI, neurobehavior, and histopathology evaluation. Neither intravenous nor intracardiac administration of mesenchymal stromal cells derived from either rats or humans improved MRI measures of lesion volume or neurobehavioral outcome compared to saline treatment. Few mesenchymal stromal cells (<0.0005% of injected dose) were found within 3 days of last dosage at the site of injury after either delivery route, with no mesenchymal stromal cells being detectable in brain at 30 or 56 days post-injury. These findings suggest that non-autologous mesenchymal stromal cells therapy via intravenous or intracardiac administration is not a promising treatment after focal contusion traumatic brain injury in this female rodent model. PMID:25946089

  19. Trans-differentiation of prostatic stromal cells leads to decreased glycoprotein hormone alpha production.

    PubMed

    Rumpold, Holger; Mascher, Katarina; Untergasser, Gerold; Plas, Eugen; Hermann, Martin; Berger, Peter

    2002-11-01

    Age-related development of benign prostatic hyperplasia is an important health issue in developed countries. The histopathogenetic hallmark of this disease is the increase in relative and absolute numbers of smooth muscle cells (SMC). Glycoprotein hormone alpha-subunit (GPHalpha) is expressed in the human prostate, and, because of its structural similarities to other cystine knot growth factors, it has been considered to have growth regulatory functions of its own. Primary cell cultures allowing for selective cultivation of prostatic epithelial cells, fibroblasts, and SMC were established. Directed trans-differentiation and cellular homogeneity was pursued by confocal scanning laser microscopy with cell type-specific markers. GPHalpha production by these cells was assessed by immunofluorimetric assays. Its predominant source was young fibroblasts, whereas replicative senescent fibroblasts, SMC, and control fibroblasts from foreskin did not produce significant amounts. Functionally, GPHalpha reduced growth of stromal cells at concentrations of 10 and 100 nmol/liter as shown by cell viability assays. It is concluded that histogenetic reorganization over the adult lifetime, guided by endocrine factors like steroid hormones together with senescence of fibroblasts, leads to a decreased production of growth inhibitors, such as GPHalpha, favoring proliferation and the development of benign prostatic hyperplasia.

  20. A novel immortalized human endometrial stromal cell line with normal progestational response.

    PubMed

    Krikun, Graciela; Mor, Gil; Alvero, Ayesha; Guller, Seth; Schatz, Frederick; Sapi, Eva; Rahman, Mizanur; Caze, Rebeca; Qumsiyeh, Mazin; Lockwood, Charles J

    2004-05-01

    Obtaining primary human endometrial stromal cells (HESCs) for in vitro studies is limited by the scarcity of adequate human material and the inability to passage these cells in culture for long periods. Immortalization of these cells would greatly facilitate studies; however, the process of immortalization often results in abnormal karyotypes and aberrant functional characteristics. To meet this need, we have introduced telomerase into cultured HESCs to prevent the normal shortening of telomeres observed in adult somatic cells during mitosis. We have now developed and analyzed a newly immortalized HESC line that contains no clonal chromosomal structural or numerical abnormalities. In addition, when compared with the primary unpassaged parent cells, the new cell line displayed similar biochemical endpoints after treatment with ovarian steroids. Classical decidualization response to estradiol plus medroxyprogesterone acetate were seen in both morphologically, and progestin was seen to induce or regulate the expression of IGF binding protein-1, fibronectin, prolactin, tissue factor, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, and Fas/Fas ligand. In summary, an immortalized HESC line has been developed that is karyotypically, morphologically, and phenotypically similar to the primary parent cells, and it is a powerful and consistent resource for in vitro work.

  1. Myocardial Ischemic Subject’s Thymus Fat: A Novel Source of Multipotent Stromal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Salas, Julián; Lhamyani, Said; Gentile, Adriana-Mariel; Sarria García, Esteban; Hmadcha, Abdelkrim; Zayed, Hatem; Vega-Rioja, Antonio; Tinahones, Francisco J.; El Bekay, Rajaa

    2015-01-01

    Objective Adipose Tissue Stromal Cells (ASCs) have important clinical applications in the regenerative medicine, cell replacement and gene therapies. Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue (SAT) is the most common source of these cells. The adult human thymus degenerates into adipose tissue (TAT). However, it has never been studied before as a source of stem cells. Material and Methods We performed a comparative characterization of TAT-ASCs and SAT-ASCs from myocardial ischemic subjects (n = 32) according to the age of the subjects. Results TAT-ASCs and SAT-ASCs showed similar features regarding their adherence, morphology and in their capacity to form CFU-F. Moreover, they have the capacity to differentiate into osteocyte and adipocyte lineages; and they present a surface marker profile corresponding with stem cells derived from AT; CD73+CD90+CD105+CD14-CD19-CD45-HLA-DR. Interestingly, and in opposition to SAT-ASCs, TAT-ASCs have CD14+CD34+CD133+CD45- cells. Moreover, TAT-ASCs from elderly subjects showed higher adipogenic and osteogenic capacities compared to middle aged subjects, indicating that, rather than impairing; aging seems to increase adipogenic and osteogenic capacities of TAT-ASCs. Conclusions This study describes the human TAT as a source of mesenchymal stem cells, which may have an enormous potential for regenerative medicine. PMID:26657132

  2. Bortezomib inhibits the survival and proliferation of bone marrow stromal cells

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ha-Yon; Moon, Ji-Young; Ryu, Haewon; Choi, Yoon-Seok; Song, Ik-Chan; Lee, Hyo-Jin; Yun, Hwan-Jung; Kim, Samyong

    2015-01-01

    Background Bortezomib is widely used for the treatment of multiple myeloma. Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) endow myeloma cells with survival and growth advantages. However, the influence of bortezomib on BMSCs is not well elucidated. We examined the effects of bortezomib on the survival and growth of BMSCs in vitro. Methods The effects of bortezomib on the survival and proliferation of the BMSC MS-5 cell line and on BMSCs obtained from healthy individuals (N=4) and newly diagnosed myeloma patients (N=5) were investigated in vitro. Transmembrane cell migration was evaluated using the Transwell system. A short interfering RNA strategy was used to knock down the expression of chemokine (CXC motif) ligand 12 (CXCL12) mRNA. To examine the effects of bortezomib-exposed BMSCs on the migration and localization of myeloma cells, MS-5 monolayers were treated with bortezomib for 24 hr, washed, and then overlaid with human RPMI8226 myeloma cells. Results Bortezomib inhibited BMSC proliferation in a concentration-dependent manner, and induced cellular apoptosis. Bortezomib decreased CXCL12 production by BMSCs. Knockdown of CXCL12 mRNA in BMSCs revealed that CXCL12 served as an autocrine growth factor. Short-term bortezomib treatment of BMSC monolayers reduced the tendency of myeloma cells to locate to positions under the monolayers. Conclusion Bortezomib inhibits the survival and growth of BMSCs via downregulation of CXCL12, which may contribute to the clinical effects of this agent. PMID:26157778

  3. Stromal cell-mediated mitochondrial redox adaptation regulates drug resistance in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jizhong; Masurekar, Ashish; Johnson, Suzanne; Chakraborty, Sohini; Griffiths, John; Smith, Duncan; Alexander, Seema; Dempsey, Clare; Parker, Catriona; Harrison, Stephanie; Li, Yaoyong; Miller, Crispin; Di, Yujun; Ghosh, Zhumur; Krishnan, Shekhar; Saha, Vaskar

    2015-01-01

    Despite the high cure rates in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), relapsed ALL remains a significant clinical problem. Genetic heterogeneity does not adequately explain variations in response to therapy. The chemoprotective tumor microenvironment may additionally contribute to disease recurrence. This study identifies metabolic reprogramming of leukemic cells by bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC) as a putative mechanism of drug resistance. In a BMSC-extracellular matrix culture model, BMSC produced chemoprotective soluble factors and facilitated the emergence of a reversible multidrug resistant phenotype in ALL cells. BMSC environment induced a mitochondrial calcium influx leading to increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in ALL cells. In response to this oxidative stress, drug resistant cells underwent a redox adaptation process, characterized by a decrease in ROS levels and mitochondrial membrane potential with an upregulation of antioxidant production and MCL-1 expression. Similar expanded subpopulations of low ROS expressing and drug resistant cells were identified in pre-treatment bone marrow samples from ALL patients with slower response to therapy. This suggests that the bone marrow microenvironment induces a redox adaptation in ALL subclones that protects against cytotoxic stress and potentially gives rise to minimal residual disease. Targeting metabolic remodeling by inhibiting antioxidant production and antiapoptosis was able to overcome drug resistance. Thus metabolic plasticity in leukemic cell response to environmental factors contributes to chemoresistance and disease recurrence. Adjunctive strategies targeting such processes have the potential to overcome therapeutic failure in ALL. PMID:26474278

  4. Game theory in the death galaxy: interaction of cancer and stromal cells in tumour microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Wu, Amy; Liao, David; Tlsty, Thea D; Sturm, James C; Austin, Robert H

    2014-08-01

    Preventing relapse is the major challenge to effective therapy in cancer. Within the tumour, stromal (ST) cells play an important role in cancer progression and the emergence of drug resistance. During cancer treatment, the fitness of cancer cells can be enhanced by ST cells because their molecular signalling interaction delays the drug-induced apoptosis of cancer cells. On the other hand, competition among cancer and ST cells for space or resources should not be ignored. We explore the population dynamics of multiple myeloma (MM) versus bone marrow ST cells by using an experimental microecology that we call the death galaxy, with a stable drug gradient and connected microhabitats. Evolutionary game theory is a quantitative way to capture the frequency-dependent nature of interactive populations. Therefore, we use evolutionary game theory to model the populations in the death galaxy with the gradients of pay-offs and successfully predict the future densities of MM and ST cells. We discuss the possible clinical use of such analysis for predicting cancer progression.

  5. Ultrastructural study of cultured ovine bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Desantis, Salvatore; Accogli, Gianluca; Zizza, Sara; Mastrodonato, Maria; Blasi, Antonella; Francioso, Edda; Rossi, Roberta; Crovace, Antonio; Resta, Leonardo

    2015-09-01

    Ovine bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (oBM-MSCs) represent a good animal model for cell-based therapy and tissue engineering. Despite their use as a new therapeutic tool for several clinical applications, the morphological features of oBM-MSCs are yet unknown. Therefore, in this study the ultrastructural phenotype of these cells was analysed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The oBM-MSCs were isolated from the iliac crest and cultured until they reached near-confluence. After trypsinization, they were processed to investigate their ultrastructural features as well as specific surface marker proteins by flow cytometry and immunogold electron microscopy. Flow cytometry displayed that all oBM-MSCs lacked expression of CD31, CD34, CD45, HLA-DR whereas they expressed CD44, CD58, HLAI and a minor subset of the cell population (12%) exhibited CD90. TEM revealed the presence of two morphologically distinct cell types: cuboidal electron-lucent cells and spindle-shaped electron-dense cells, both expressing the CD90 antigen. Most of the electron-lucent cells showed glycogen aggregates, dilated cisternae of RER, moderately developed Golgi complex, and secretory activity. The electron-dense cell type was constituted by two different cell-populations: type A cells with numerous endosomes, dense bodies, rod-shaped mitochondria and filopodia; type B cells with elongated mitochondria, thin pseudopodia and cytoplasmic connectivity with electron-lucent cells. These morphological findings could provide a useful support to identify "in situ" the cellular components involved in the cell-therapy when cultured oBM-MSCs are injected.

  6. Ultrastructural study of cultured ovine bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Desantis, Salvatore; Accogli, Gianluca; Zizza, Sara; Mastrodonato, Maria; Blasi, Antonella; Francioso, Edda; Rossi, Roberta; Crovace, Antonio; Resta, Leonardo

    2015-09-01

    Ovine bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (oBM-MSCs) represent a good animal model for cell-based therapy and tissue engineering. Despite their use as a new therapeutic tool for several clinical applications, the morphological features of oBM-MSCs are yet unknown. Therefore, in this study the ultrastructural phenotype of these cells was analysed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The oBM-MSCs were isolated from the iliac crest and cultured until they reached near-confluence. After trypsinization, they were processed to investigate their ultrastructural features as well as specific surface marker proteins by flow cytometry and immunogold electron microscopy. Flow cytometry displayed that all oBM-MSCs lacked expression of CD31, CD34, CD45, HLA-DR whereas they expressed CD44, CD58, HLAI and a minor subset of the cell population (12%) exhibited CD90. TEM revealed the presence of two morphologically distinct cell types: cuboidal electron-lucent cells and spindle-shaped electron-dense cells, both expressing the CD90 antigen. Most of the electron-lucent cells showed glycogen aggregates, dilated cisternae of RER, moderately developed Golgi complex, and secretory activity. The electron-dense cell type was constituted by two different cell-populations: type A cells with numerous endosomes, dense bodies, rod-shaped mitochondria and filopodia; type B cells with elongated mitochondria, thin pseudopodia and cytoplasmic connectivity with electron-lucent cells. These morphological findings could provide a useful support to identify "in situ" the cellular components involved in the cell-therapy when cultured oBM-MSCs are injected. PMID:26196242

  7. Mortalin antibody-conjugated quantum dot transfer from human mesenchymal stromal cells to breast cancer cells requires cell-cell interaction.

    PubMed

    Pietilä, Mika; Lehenkari, Petri; Kuvaja, Paula; Kaakinen, Mika; Kaul, Sunil C; Wadhwa, Renu; Uemura, Toshimasa

    2013-11-01

    The role of tumor stroma in regulation of breast cancer growth has been widely studied. However, the details on the type of heterocellular cross-talk between stromal and breast cancer cells (BCCs) are still poorly known. In the present study, in order to investigate the intercellular communication between human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs) and breast cancer cells (BCCs, MDA-MB-231), we recruited cell-internalizing quantum dots (i-QD) generated by conjugation of cell-internalizing anti-mortalin antibody and quantum dots (QD). Co-culture of illuminated and color-coded hMSCs (QD655) and BCCs (QD585) revealed the intercellular transfer of QD655 signal from hMSCs to BCCs. The amount of QD double positive BCCs increased gradually within 48h of co-culture. We found prominent intercellular transfer of QD655 in hanging drop co-culture system and it was non-existent when hMSCs and BBCs cells were co-cultured in trans-well system lacking imminent cell-cell contact. Fluorescent and electron microscope analyses also supported that the direct cell-to-cell interactions may be required for the intercellular transfer of QD655 from hMSCs to BCCs. To the best of our knowledge, the study provides a first demonstration of transcellular crosstalk between stromal cells and BCCs that involve direct contact and may also include a transfer of mortalin, an anti-apoptotic and growth-promoting factor enriched in cancer cells.

  8. Nuclear Localization of β-Catenin in Sertoli Cell Tumors and Other Sex Cord-Stromal Tumors of the Testis: An Immunohistochemical Study of 87 Cases.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chen; Ulbright, Thomas M

    2015-10-01

    The diagnosis and subclassification of Sertoli cell tumors (SCT) of the testis are often challenging to general surgical pathologists because of the rarity of the tumors. Immunohistochemical study to date has limited diagnostic value. Nuclear localization of β-catenin, which correlated closely with CTNNB1 gene mutation, was recently reported in SCTs. We investigated the utility of β-catenin nuclear localization in diagnosing SCTs and differentiating them from other testicular sex cord-stromal tumors. Immunohistochemical staining for β-catenin was evaluated in 87 cases of testicular sex cord-stromal tumor: 33 SCTs, not otherwise specified (SCT-NOS) (15 with benign and 18 with malignant features), 10 sclerosing SCTs (SSCT), 5 large cell calcifying SCTs (LCCSCT), 6 Sertoli-stromal cell tumors, 10 Leydig cell tumors, 7 juvenile granulosa cell tumors, 4 adult granulosa cell tumors, and 12 sex cord-stromal tumors, unclassified. Twenty-one of 33 (64%) SCT-NOS, 6 of 10 (60%) SSCTs, and 4 of 6 (67%) Sertoli-stromal cell tumors showed strong, diffuse β-catenin nuclear staining. Nuclear β-catenin positivity was more frequent in SCTs-NOS with benign features than in those with malignant features (93% and 39%, respectively, P=0.13) and, in the Sertoli-stromal cell tumors, occurred only in the Sertoli component. All 5 LCCSCTs and all other types of sex cord-stromal tumor were negative for β-catenin nuclear staining. In conclusion, SCT-NOS and SSCT frequently show β-catenin nuclear localization. Positive nuclear staining of β-catenin is specific for SCT-NOS, SSCT, and Sertoli-stromal cell tumor among testicular sex cord-stromal tumors but has limited sensitivity (63%) in this group. The similar reactivity of SCT-NOS and SSCT provides additional support that these 2 variants are not distinct entities.

  9. Elimination of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Cells in Stromal Microenvironment by Targeting CPT with an Anti-Angina Drug Perhexiline

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Pan-pan; Liu, Jinyun; Jiang, Wen-qi; Carew, Jennifer S.; Ogasawara, Marcia A.; Pelicano, Hélène; Croce, Carlo M.; Estrov, Zeev; Xu, Rui-hua; Keating, Michael J.; Huang, Peng

    2016-01-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is the most common adult leukemia in the western countries and is currently incurable due in part to difficulty in eliminating the leukemia cells protected by stromal microenvironment. Based on previous observations that CLL cells exhibit mitochondrial dysfunction and altered lipid metabolism and that carnitine palmitoyltransferases (CPT) play a major role in transporting fatty acid into mitochondria to support cancer cell metabolism, we tested several clinically relevant inhibitors of lipid metabolism for their ability to eliminate primary CLL cells. We discovered that Perhexiline, an anti-angina agent that inhibits CPT, was highly effective in killing CLL cells in stromal microenvironment at clinically achievable concentrations. These effective concentrations caused low toxicity to normal lymphocytes and normal stromal cells. Mechanistic study revealed that CLL cells expressed high levels of CPT1 and CPT2. Suppression of fatty acid transport into mitochondria by inhibiting CPT using Perhexiline resulted in a depletion of cardiolipin, a key component of mitochondrial membranes, and compromised mitochondrial integrity leading to rapid depolarization and massive CLL cell death. The therapeutic activity of Perhexiline was further demonstrated in vivo using a CLL transgenic mouse model. Perhexiline significantly prolonged the overall animal survival by only 4 drug injections. Our study suggests that targeting CPT using an anti-angina drug is able to effectively eliminate leukemia cells in vivo, and is a novel therapeutic strategy for potential clinical treatment of CLL. PMID:27065330

  10. Osterix enhances proliferation and osteogenic potential of bone marrow stromal cells

    SciTech Connect

    Tu Qisheng; Valverde, Paloma . E-mail: paloma.valverde@tufts.edu; Chen, Jake

    2006-03-24

    Osterix (Osx) is a zinc-finger-containing transcription factor that is expressed in osteoblasts of all endochondral and membranous bones. In Osx null mice osteoblast differentiation is impaired and bone formation is absent. In this study, we hypothesized that overexpression of Osx in murine bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC) would be able to enhance their osteoblastic differentiation and mineralization in vitro. Retroviral transduction of Osx in BMSC cultured in non-differentiating medium did not affect expression of Runx2/Cbfa1, another key transcription factor of osteoblast differentiation, but induced an increase in the expression of other markers associated with the osteoblastic lineage including alkaline phosphatase, bone sialoprotein, osteocalcin, and osteopontin. Retroviral transduction of Osx in BMSC also increased their proliferation, alkaline phosphatase activity, and ability to form bone nodules. These events occurred without significant changes in the expression of {alpha}1(II) procollagen or lipoprotein lipase, which are markers of chondrogenic and adipogenic differentiation, respectively.

  11. Research using Mesenchymal Stem/Stromal Cells: quality metric towards developing a reference material

    PubMed Central

    Tanavde, Vivek; Vaz, Candida; Rao, Mahendra S; Vemuri, Mohan C; Pochampally, Radhika

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) have been extensively investigated for their regenerative, immune-modulatory, and wound healing properties. While the laboratory studies have suggested that MSC’s have a unique potential for modulating the etiopathology of multiple diseases, the results from clinical trials have not been encouraging or reproducible. One of the explanations for such variability is explained by the “art” of isolating and propagating MSCs. Therefore, establishing more than minimal criteria to define MSC would help understand best protocols to isolate, propagate and deliver MSCs. Developing a calibration standard, a database and a set of functional tests would be a better quality metric for MSCs. In this review, we discuss the importance of selecting a standard, issues associated with coming up with such a standard and how these issues can be mitigated. PMID:26276001

  12. Research using Mesenchymal Stem/Stromal Cells: quality metric towards developing a reference material.

    PubMed

    Tanavde, Vivek; Vaz, Candida; Rao, Mahendra S; Vemuri, Mohan C; Pochampally, Radhika R

    2015-09-01

    Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) have been extensively investigated for their regenerative, immune-modulatory, and wound healing properties. While the laboratory studies have suggested that MSC's have a unique potential for modulating the etiopathology of multiple diseases, the results from clinical trials have not been encouraging or reproducible. One of the explanations for such variability is explained by the "art" of isolating and propagating MSCs. Therefore, establishing more than minimal criteria to define MSC would help understand best protocols to isolate, propagate and deliver MSCs. Developing a calibration standard, a database and a set of functional tests would be a better quality metric for MSCs. In this review, we discuss the importance of selecting a standard, issues associated with coming up with such a standard and how these issues can be mitigated.

  13. Caffeine regulates osteogenic differentiation and mineralization of primary adipose-derived stem cells and a bone marrow stromal cell line.

    PubMed

    Su, Shu-Jem; Chang, Kee-Lung; Su, Shu-Hui; Yeh, Yao-Tsung; Shyu, Huey-Wen; Chen, Kuan-Ming

    2013-06-01

    Caffeine consumption reportedly influences bone mineral density and body weight. However, the effects of caffeine on bone metabolism are still controversial, and whether the dosage of caffeine influences osteogenic differentiation is yet to be clarified. In the present study, we cultured primary adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) and a bone marrow stromal cell line (M2-10B4) in osteogenic differentiation media containing varying concentrations of caffeine. Caffeine had biphasic effects: 0.1 mM caffeine significantly enhanced mineralization and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity. Consistent with these observations, a caffeine concentration of 0.1 mM upregulated the osteogenic differentiation marker genes ALP and osteocalcin (OCN), and elevated osteoprotegerin (OPG), Runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) and Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) levels. However, a concentration of caffeine greater than 0.3 mM suppressed the differentiation of both the cell types. These findings indicate that caffeine has a beneficial effect on ADSCs and bone marrow stromal cells, enhancing differentiation to osteoblasts; this effect, which is mediated via RUNX2 activation at low doses is significantly suppressed at high doses.

  14. Metallofullerene nanoparticles promote osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells through BMP signaling pathway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Kangning; Cao, Weipeng; Hao, Xiaohong; Xue, Xue; Zhao, Jing; Liu, Juan; Zhao, Yuliang; Meng, Jie; Sun, Baoyun; Zhang, Jinchao; Liang, Xing-Jie

    2013-01-01

    Although endohedral metallofullerenol [Gd@C82(OH)22]n nanoparticles have anti-tumor efficiency and mostly deposit in the bones of mice, how these nanoparticles act in bone marrow stromal cells (MSCs) remains largely unknown. Herein, we observed that [Gd@C82(OH)22]n nanoparticles facilitated the differentiation of MSCs toward osteoblasts, as evidenced by the enhancement of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and mineralized nodule formation upon [Gd@C82(OH)22]n nanoparticle treatment. Mechanistically, the effect of [Gd@C82(OH)22]n nanoparticles on ALP activity was inhibited by the addition of noggin as an inhibitor of the BMP signaling pathway. Moreover, the in vivo results of the ovariectomized rats further indicated that [Gd@C82(OH)22]n nanoparticles effectively improved bone density and prevented osteoporosis.Although endohedral metallofullerenol [Gd@C82(OH)22]n nanoparticles have anti-tumor efficiency and mostly deposit in the bones of mice, how these nanoparticles act in bone marrow stromal cells (MSCs) remains largely unknown. Herein, we observed that [Gd@C82(OH)22]n nanoparticles facilitated the differentiation of MSCs toward osteoblasts, as evidenced by the enhancement of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and mineralized nodule formation upon [Gd@C82(OH)22]n nanoparticle treatment. Mechanistically, the effect of [Gd@C82(OH)22]n nanoparticles on ALP activity was inhibited by the addition of noggin as an inhibitor of the BMP signaling pathway. Moreover, the in vivo results of the ovariectomized rats further indicated that [Gd@C82(OH)22]n nanoparticles effectively improved bone density and prevented osteoporosis. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c2nr33575a

  15. Mycoplasma Contamination Revisited: Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Harboring Mycoplasma hyorhinis Potently Inhibit Lymphocyte Proliferation In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Zinöcker, Severin; Wang, Meng-Yu; Gaustad, Peter; Kvalheim, Gunnar; Rolstad, Bent; Vaage, John T.

    2011-01-01

    Background Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) have important immunomodulatory effects that can be exploited in the clinical setting, e.g. in patients suffering from graft-versus-host disease after allogeneic stem cell transplantation. In an experimental animal model, cultures of rat T lymphocytes were stimulated in vitro either with the mitogen Concanavalin A or with irradiated allogeneic cells in mixed lymphocyte reactions, the latter to simulate allo-immunogenic activation of transplanted T cells in vivo. This study investigated the inhibitory effects of rat bone marrow-derived MSC subsequently found to be infected with a common mycoplasma species (Mycoplasma hyorhinis) on T cell activation in vitro and experimental graft-versus-host disease in vivo. Principal Findings We found that M. hyorhinis infection increased the anti-proliferative effect of MSC dramatically, as measured by both radiometric and fluorimetric methods. Inhibition could not be explained solely by the well-known ability of mycoplasmas to degrade tritiated thymidine, but likely was the result of rapid dissemination of M. hyorhinis in the lymphocyte culture. Conclusions This study demonstrates the potent inhibitory effect exerted by M. hyorhinis in standard lymphocyte proliferation assays in vitro. MSC are efficient vectors of mycoplasma infection, emphasizing the importance of monitoring cell cultures for contamination. PMID:21264307

  16. Triclosan and bisphenol a affect decidualization of human endometrial stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Forte, Maurizio; Mita, Luigi; Cobellis, Luigi; Merafina, Verdiana; Specchio, Raffaella; Rossi, Sergio; Mita, Damiano Gustavo; Mosca, Lavinia; Castaldi, Maria Antonietta; De Falco, Maria; Laforgia, Vincenza; Crispi, Stefania

    2016-02-15

    In recent years, impaired fertility and endometrium related diseases are increased. Many evidences suggest that environmental pollution might be considered a risk factor for endometrial physiopathology. Among environmental pollutants, endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) act on endocrine system, causing hormonal imbalance which, in turn, leads to female and male reproductive dysfunctions. In this work, we studied the effects of triclosan (TCL) and bisphenol A (BPA), two widespread EDCs, on human endometrial stromal cells (ESCs), derived from endometrial biopsies from woman not affected by endometriosis. Cell proliferation, cell cycle, migration and decidualization mechanisms were investigated. Treatments have been performed with both the EDCs separately or in presence and in absence of progesterone used as decidualization stimulus. Both TCL and BPA did not affect cell proliferation, but they arrested ESCs at G2/M phase of cell cycle enhancing cell migration. TCL and BPA also increased gene expression and protein levels of some decidualization markers, such as insulin growth factor binding protein 1 (IGFBP1) and prolactin (PRL), amplifying the effect of progesterone alone. All together, our data strongly suggest that TCL and BPA might alter human endometrium physiology so affecting fertility and pregnancy outcome. PMID:26604029

  17. Efficient expansion of mesenchymal stromal cells in a disposable fixed bed culture system.

    PubMed

    Mizukami, Amanda; Orellana, Maristela D; Caruso, Sâmia R; de Lima Prata, Karen; Covas, Dimas T; Swiech, Kamilla

    2013-01-01

    The need for efficient and reliable technologies for clinical-scale expansion of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) has led to the use of disposable bioreactors and culture systems. Here, we evaluate the expansion of cord blood-derived MSC in a disposable fixed bed culture system. Starting from an initial cell density of 6.0 × 10(7) cells, after 7 days of culture, it was possible to produce of 4.2(±0.8) × 10(8) cells, which represents a fold increase of 7.0 (±1.4). After enzymatic retrieval from Fibra-Cell disks, the cells were able to maintain their potential for differentiation into adipocytes and osteocytes and were positive for many markers common to MSC (CD73, CD90, and CD105). The results obtained in this study demonstrate that MSC can be efficiently expanded in the culture system. This novel approach presents several advantages over the current expansion systems, based on culture flasks or microcarrier-based spinner flasks and represents a key element for MSC cellular therapy according to GMP compliant clinical-scale production system.

  18. Comparative immunophenotyping of equine multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells: an approach toward a standardized definition.

    PubMed

    Paebst, Felicitas; Piehler, Daniel; Brehm, Walter; Heller, Sandra; Schroeck, Carmen; Tárnok, Attila; Burk, Janina

    2014-08-01

    Horses are an approved large animal model for therapies of the musculoskeletal system. Especially for tendon disease where cell-based therapy is commonly used in equine patients, the translation of achieved results to human medicine would be a great accomplishment. Immunophenotyping of equine mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) remains the last obstacle to meet the criteria of the International Society for Cellular Therapy (ISCT) definition of human MSCs. Therefore, the surface antigen expression of CD 29, CD 44, CD 73, CD 90, CD 105, CD 14, CD 34, CD 45, CD 79α, and MHC II in equine MSCs from adipose tissue, bone marrow, umbilical cord blood, umbilical cord tissue, and tendon tissue was analyzed using flow cytometry. Isolated cells from the different sources and donors varied in their expression pattern of MSC-defining antigens. In particular, CD 90 and 105 showed most heterogeneity. However, cells from all samples were robustly positive for CD 29 and CD 44, while being mostly negative for CD 73 and the exclusion markers CD 14, CD 34, CD 45, CD 79α and MHC II. Furthermore, it was evident that enzymes used for cell detachment after in vitro-culture affected the detection of antigen expression. These results emphasize the need of standardization of MSC isolation, culturing, and harvesting techniques. As the equine MSCs did not meet all criteria the ISCT defined for human MSCs, further investigations for a better characterization of the cell type should be conducted.

  19. High-Frequency Vibration Treatment of Human Bone Marrow Stromal Cells Increases Differentiation toward Bone Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Prè, D.; Ceccarelli, G.; Visai, L.; Benedetti, L.; Imbriani, M.; Cusella De Angelis, M. G.; Magenes, G.

    2013-01-01

    In order to verify whether differentiation of adult stem cells toward bone tissue is promoted by high-frequency vibration (HFV), bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) were mechanically stimulated with HFV (30 Hz) for 45 minutes a day for 21 or 40 days. Cells were seeded in osteogenic medium, which enhances differentiation towards bone tissue. The effects of the mechanical treatment on differentiation were measured by Alizarin Red test, (q) real-time PCR, and protein content of the extracellular matrix. In addition, we analyzed the proliferation rate and apoptosis of BMSC subjected to mechanical stimulation. A strong increase in all parameters characterizing differentiation was observed. Deposition of calcium was almost double in the treated samples; the expression of genes involved in later differentiation was significantly increased and protein content was higher for all osteogenic proteins. Lastly, proliferation results indicated that stimulated BMSCs have a decreased growth rate in comparison with controls, but both treated and untreated cells do not enter the apoptosis process. These findings could reduce the gap between research and clinical application for bone substitutes derived from patient cells by improving the differentiation protocol for autologous cells and a further implant of the bone graft into the patient. PMID:23585968

  20. Regeneration of mandibular defects using adipose tissue mesenchymal stromal cells in combination with human serum-derived scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Peña González, Ignacio; Álvarez-Viejo, María; Alonso-Montes, Cristina; Menéndez-Menéndez, Yolanda; Gutiérrez Álvarez, Fernando; de Vicente Rodríguez, Juan Carlos; Otero Hernández, Jesús; Meana Infiesta, Álvaro

    2016-09-01

    Bone regeneration is a challenging issue. Traditional solutions bring risks, potential complications, and morbidity. The aim of the present study was to regenerate critical-sized mandible defects in athymic rats with adipose tissue mesenchymal stromal cells (AT-MSCs) in combination with human serum-derived scaffolds. Two approaches to treatment were performed. The first approach used differentiated stromal cells that became osteogenic cell lines. The second approach used no pre-differentiation. Follow-up periods were 45 days and 90 days. Both cell types were combined with human serum-derived scaffolds. Afterward, histological (haematoxylin-eosin and Masson's Trichrome stain modified by Goldner), immunohistochemical (human vimentin and Stro-1), and radiological (microCT) studies were performed. The level of calcification between the groups was compared by analysis of variance, and statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. The results demonstrate that bone regeneration can be achieved with both undifferentiated and pre-differentiated cells, but that the structure and level of calcification were better achieved with pre-differentiated cells (p < 0.05). The scaffold is suitable for this cell type, is osteoconductive and simple to perform. This article highlights the possible application of adipose tissue mesenchymal stromal cells in combination with a non-mineralized scaffold in bone regeneration. PMID:27450897

  1. LPS/TLR4-mediated stromal cells acquire an invasive phenotype and are implicated in the pathogenesis of adenomyosis

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Jing; Chen, Li; Luo, Ning; Li, Caixia; Chen, Rong; Qu, Xiaoyan; Liu, Mingmin; Kang, Le; Cheng, Zhongping

    2016-01-01

    The present study tested whether the LPS/TLR4 signal pathway in endometrial stromal cells is essential for the pathogenesis of adenomyosis. We tested the expression of TLR4, MD2 in the endometrium without adenomyosis (CE), the eutopic endometrium with adenomyosis (EuE) and the ectopic endometrium with adenomyosis (EE). We isolated the stromal cells from CE, EuE and EE (CESC, EuESC, EESC), treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and TLR4 antagonist and detected the cell viability. And we also measured the key protein of the TLR4 signal pathway and inflammatory proliferation and invasive growth of experimental cells. We found that the viability of experimental cells treated with LPS was significantly greater than that of the non-treated cells, blocked by the TLR4 antagonist VIPER. TLR4 signal pathway and inflammatory proliferation and invasive growth of experimental cells stimulated by LPS, and it was inhibited by VIPER. This study suggested that stromal cells were activated by the TLR4 signalling pathway, which processed the cellular inflammatory proliferation and invasive growth involved in the pathogenesis of adenomyosis. PMID:26898650

  2. Malignant transformation of bone marrow stromal cells induced by the brain glioma niche in rats.

    PubMed

    He, Qiuping; Zou, Xifeng; Duan, Deyi; Liu, Yujun; Xu, Qunyuan

    2016-01-01

    Normal human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) can develop neoplastic cancer stem cell (CSC) properties after coculture with transformed hESCs in vitro. In the present study, the influence of the tumor microenvironment on malignant transformation of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) was studied after allografting a mixture of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-labeled BMSCs and C6 glioma cells into the rat brain to understand the influence of the cellular environment, especially the tumor environment, on the transformation of grafted BMSCs in the rat brain. We performed intracerebral transplantation in the rat brain using EGFP-labeled BMSCs coinjected with C6 tumor cells. After transplantation, the EGFP-labeled cells were isolated from the tumor using fluorescence-activated cell sorting, and the characteristics of the recovered cells were investigated. Glioma-specific biomarkers of the sorted cells and the biological characteristics of the tumors were analyzed. The BMSCs isolated from the cografts were transformed into glioma CSCs, as indicated by the marked expression of the glioma marker GFAP in glioma cells, and of Nestin and CD133 in neural stem cells and CSCs, as well as rapid cell growth, decreased level of the tumor suppressor gene p53, increased level of the oncogene murine double minute gene 2 (MDM2), and recapitulation of glioma tissues in the brain. These data suggest that BMSCs can be transformed into CSCs, which can be further directed toward glioma formation under certain conditions, supporting the notion that the tumor microenvironment is involved in transforming normal BMSCs into glial CSCs. PMID:26590986

  3. Molecular heterogeneity in adjacent cells in triple-negative breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Huebschman, Michael L; Lane, Nancy L; Liu, Huaying; Sarode, Venetia R; Devlin, Judith L; Frenkel, Eugene P

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study interrogates the molecular status of individual cells in patients with triple-negative breast cancers and explores the molecular identification and characterization of these tumors to consider the exploitation of a potential-targeted therapeutic approach. Patients and methods Hyperspectral immunologic cell by cell analysis was applied to touch imprint smears obtained from fresh tumors of breast cancer patients. Results Cell by cell analysis confirms significant intratumoral molecular heterogeneity in cancer markers with differences from polymerase chain reaction marker reporting. The individual cell heterogeneity was recognized in adjacent cells examined with panels of ten molecular markers in each single cell and included some markers that are considered to express “stem-cell” character. In addition, heterogeneity did not relate either to the size or stage of the primary tumor or to the site from within the cancer. Conclusion There is a very significant molecular heterogeneity when “adjacent cells” are examined in triple-negative breast cancer, thereby making a successful targeted approach unlikely. In addition, it is not reasonable to consider that these changes will provide an answer to tumor dormancy. PMID:26316815

  4. Studies with 1,2-dithiole-3-thione as a chemoprotector of hydroquinone-induced toxicity to DBA/2-derived bone marrow stromal cells.

    PubMed Central

    Twerdok, L E; Rembish, S J; Trush, M A

    1993-01-01

    Stromal cells from DBA/2 mouse bone marrow have been shown to be susceptible to cytotoxicity induced by several redox-active metabolites of benzene, including hydroquinone (HQ). Treatment with HQ also alters the composition of stromal cell populations by preferentially killing stromal macrophages compared to stromal fibroblasts. This cytotoxicity can be prevented by 1,2-dithiole-3-thione (DTT) as a result of the induction of quinone reductase (QR), a quinone-processing enzyme, and glutathione. The inductive activities of DTT protected stromal cells against HQ-induced cytotoxicity and against HQ-induced impairment of stromal cell ability to support myelopoiesis. In vivo feeding of DTT to DBA/2 mice increased QR activity within the bone marrow compartment and protected bone marrow stromal cells isolated from the DTT-fed animals from ex vivo HQ challenge. Thus, the inducibility of cellular defense mechanisms and xenobiotic-processing enzymes by chemoprotective agents such as DTT may be a useful strategy for protecting against chemically induced bone marrow toxicities. PMID:8354204

  5. Pre-diagnostic obesity and physical inactivity are associated with shorter telomere length in prostate stromal cells

    PubMed Central

    Joshu, Corinne E; Peskoe, Sarah B; Heaphy, Christopher M; Kenfield, Stacey A; Van Blarigan, Erin L; Mucci, Lorelei A; Giovannucci, Edward L; Stampfer, Meir J; Yun, GhilSuk; Lee, Thomas K; Hicks, Jessica L; De Marzo, Angelo M; Meeker, Alan K; Platz, Elizabeth A

    2015-01-01

    Obesity and inactivity have been with associated advanced stage prostate cancer, and poor prostate cancer outcomes, though the underlying mechanism(s) is unknown. To determine if telomere shortening, which has been associated with lethal prostate cancer, may be a potential underlying mechanism, we prospectively evaluated the association between measures of adiposity, physical activity and telomere length in 596 participants in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study, who were surgically treated for prostate cancer. Using tissue microarrays, we measured telomere length in cancer and benign cells using a telomere-specific fluorescence in situ hybridization assay. Adiposity and activity were assessed via questionnaire within 2 years of diagnosis. Adjusting for age, pathologic stage and grade, the median and standard deviation of the per cell telomere signals were determined for each man for stromal cells and cancer cells by adiposity and activity categories. Overweight/obese men (54%) were similar to normal weight men on most factors, but had higher Gleason sum and lower activity levels. Overweight/obese men had 7.4% shorter telomeres in stromal cells than normal weight men (P=0.06). The least active men had shorter telomeres in stromal cells than more active men (P-trend=0.002). Men who were overweight/obese and the least active had the shortest telomeres in stromal cells (20.7% shorter; P=0.0005) compared to normal weight men who were the most active. Cancer cell telomere length and telomere length variability did not differ by measures of adiposity or activity. Telomere shortening in prostate cells may be one mechanism through which lifestyle influences prostate cancer risk and outcomes. PMID:25990087

  6. Modes of Antigen Presentation by Lymph Node Stromal Cells and Their Immunological Implications

    PubMed Central

    Hirosue, Sachiko; Dubrot, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Antigen presentation is no longer the exclusive domain of cells of hematopoietic origin. Recent works have demonstrated that lymph node stromal cell (LNSC) populations, such as fibroblastic reticular cells, lymphatic and blood endothelial cells, not only provide a scaffold for lymphocyte interactions but also exhibit active immunomodulatory roles that are critical to mounting and resolving effective immune responses. Importantly, LNSCs possess the ability to present antigens and establish antigen-specific interactions with T cells. One example is the expression of peripheral tissue antigens, which are presented on major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-I molecules with tolerogenic consequences on T cells. Additionally, exogenous antigens, including self and tumor antigens, can be processed and presented on MHC-I complexes, which result in dysfunctional activation of antigen-specific CD8+ T cells. While MHC-I is widely expressed on cells of both hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic origins, antigen presentation via MHC-II is more precisely regulated. Nevertheless, LNSCs are capable of endogenously expressing, or alternatively, acquiring MHC-II molecules. Transfer of antigen between LNSC and dendritic cells in both directions has been recently suggested to promote tolerogenic roles of LNSCs on the CD4+ T cell compartment. Thus, antigen presentation by LNSCs is thought to be a mechanism that promotes the maintenance of peripheral tolerance as well as generates a pool of diverse antigen-experienced T cells for protective immunity. This review aims to integrate the current and emerging literature to highlight the importance of LNSCs in immune responses, and emphasize their role in antigen trafficking, retention, and presentation. PMID:26441957

  7. Ameliorating replicative senescence of human bone marrow stromal cells by PSMB5 overexpression

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Li; Song, Hui-Fang; Wei, Jiao-Long; Liu, Xue-Qin; Song, Wen-Hui; Yan, Ba-Yi; Yang, Gui-Jiao; Li, Ang; Yang, Wu-Lin

    2014-01-24

    Highlights: • PSMB5 overexpression restores the differentiation potential of aged hBMSCs. • PSMB5 overexpression enhances the proteasomal activity of late-stage hBMSCs. • PSMB5 overexpression inhibits replicative senescence and improved cell viability. • PSMB5 overexpression promotes cell growth by upregulating the Cyclin D1/CDK4 complex. - Abstract: Multipotent human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSCs) potentially serve as a source for cell-based therapy in regenerative medicine. However, in vitro expansion was inescapably accompanied with cell senescence, characterized by inhibited proliferation and compromised pluripotency. We have previously demonstrated that this aging process is closely associated with reduced 20S proteasomal activity, with down-regulation of rate-limiting catalytic β-subunits particularly evident. In the present study, we confirmed that proteasomal activity directly contributes to senescence of hBMSCs, which could be reversed by overexpression of the β5-subunit (PSMB5). Knocking down PSMB5 led to decreased proteasomal activity concurrent with reduced cell proliferation in early-stage hBMSCs, which is similar to the senescent phenotype observed in late-stage cells. In contrast, overexpressing PSMB5 in late-stage cells efficiently restored the normal activity of 20S proteasomes and promoted cell growth, possibly via upregulating the Cyclin D1/CDK4 complex. Additionally, PSMB5 could enhance cell resistance to oxidative stress, as evidenced by the increased cell survival upon exposing senescent hBMSCs to hydrogen peroxide. Furthermore, PSMB5 overexpression retained the pluripotency of late-stage hBMSCs by facilitating their neural differentiation both in vitro and in vivo. Collectively, our work reveals a critical role of PSMB5 in 20S proteasome-mediated protection against replicative senescence, pointing to a possible strategy for maintaining the integrity of culture-expanded hBMSCs by manipulating the expression of PSMB5.

  8. Dependency of colorectal cancer on a TGF-beta-driven programme in stromal cells for metastasis initiation

    PubMed Central

    Calon, Alexandre; Espinet, Elisa; Palomo-Ponce, Sergio; Tauriello, Daniele V. F.; Iglesias, Mar; Céspedes, María Virtudes; Sevillano, Marta; Nadal, Cristina; Jung, Peter; Zhang, Xiang H.-F.; Byrom, Daniel; Riera, Antoni; Rossell, David; Mangues, Ramón; Massague, Joan; Sancho, Elena; Batlle, Eduard

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY A large proportion of colorectal cancers (CRCs) display mutational inactivation of the TGF-beta pathway yet paradoxically, they are characterized by elevated TGF-beta production. Here, we unveil a prometastatic programme induced by TGF-beta in the microenvironment that associates with a high-risk of CRC relapse upon treatment. The activity of TGF-beta on stromal cells increases the efficiency of organ colonization by CRC cells whereas mice treated with a pharmacological inhibitor of TGFBR1 are resilient to metastasis formation. Secretion of IL11 by TGF-beta-stimulated cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) triggers GP130/STAT3 signalling in tumour cells. This crosstalk confers a survival advantage to metastatic cells. The dependency on the TGF-beta stromal programme for metastasis initiation could be exploited to improve the diagnosis and treatment of CRC. PMID:23153532

  9. Mesenchymal stromal cells as multifunctional cellular therapeutics - a potential role for extracellular vesicles.

    PubMed

    Stephen, Jillian; Bravo, Elena Lopez; Colligan, David; Fraser, Alasdair R; Petrik, Juraj; Campbell, John D M

    2016-08-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs), multipotent cells present in tissues throughout the body, can reconstitute adipogenic, osteogenic and chondrogenic tissues, but are also of great interest as mediators of immune modulation and suppression. MSCs are able to improve transplant engraftment, treat graft versus host disease and suppress T cell responses and therefore have great potential as therapeutic agents. Their immune modulatory capacity is mediated through both cell-to-cell contact and cytokine secretion, but it is becoming clear that extracellular vesicles (EV) produced by MSC also possess immunomodulatory properties. These vesicles are easy to prepare and store, do not carry nuclear material and cannot form tumours, and therefore also represent a highly desirable therapeutic agent. This review outlines the formation and characterisation of extracellular vesicles, the reported function of MSC-EVs in vitro and in vivo, and addresses some of the emerging issues with nomenclature, EV therapeutic dose and tissue source. The development of GMP-grade production protocols and effective characterisation of MSC extracellular vesicles is essential to their successful use as immune modulating therapeutic agents, and this review outlines the current status of the research in this area.

  10. The roles of serum CXCL16 in circulating Tregs and gastrointestinal stromal tumor cells

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Ya-Nan; Zhang, Jun-Yan; Xu, Hui-Mian

    2016-01-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) are the most common sarcomas of the digestive system. Abnormal expression of CXCL16 and its sole receptor, CXCR6, has been demonstrated in many cancers. However, no studies have shown the relationship between CXCL16 or CXCR6 expression and GIST. In this study, we detected CXCL16 and CXCR6 expression in GIST patient samples by using immunohistochemistry analysis and Western blot analysis. Serum CXCL16 level was determined by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Circulating Tregs were isolated by using flow cytometry. MTT assay, cell cycle assay, and transwell assay were used to test the effects of recombinant CXCL16 on Tregs and GIST cells in vitro. The levels of CXCL16 and CXCR6 protein were higher in cancer tissues than in normal tissues. Serum CXCL16 level and circulating Tregs were higher in GIST patients than that in the healthy volunteers. CXCL16, CXCR6, serum CXCL16, and circulating Tregs were significantly associated with a decreased survival time of patients. Relative to control cells, high concentration recombinant CXCL16 treated Tregs and GIST cells exhibited lower proliferation and mobility rates as assessed by MTT assay and transwell assay, respectively. Taken together, CXCL16 was observed to mediate the inhibitory effects in Tregs and GIST cells, and these involved suppression of the MEK/ERK signaling pathway. PMID:27418838

  11. Fast-proliferating adipose tissue mesenchymal-stromal-like cells for therapy.

    PubMed

    Aguilar, Elisabet; Bagó, Julio Rodriguez; Soler-Botija, Carol; Alieva, Maria; Rigola, Maria Angeles; Fuster, Carme; Vila, Olaia F; Rubio, Nuria; Blanco, Jeronimo

    2014-12-01

    Human mesenchymal stromal cells, whether from the bone marrow or adipose tissue (hASCs), are promising cell therapy agents. However, generation of abundant cells for therapy remains to be a challenge, due to the need of lengthy expansion and the risk of accumulating genomic defects during the process. We show that hASCs can be easily induced to a reversible fast-proliferating phenotype (FP-ASCs) that allows rapid generation of a clinically useful quantity of cells in <2 weeks of culture. Expanded FP-ASCs retain their finite expansion capacity and pluripotent properties. Despite the high proliferation rate, FP-ASCs show genomic stability by array-comparative genomic hybridization, and did not generate tumors when implanted for a long time in an SCID mouse model. Comparative analysis of gene expression patterns revealed a set of genes that can be used to characterize FP-ASCs and distinguish them from hASCs. As potential candidate therapeutic agents, FP-ASCs displayed high vasculogenic capacity in Matrigel assays. Moreover, application of hASCs and FP-ASCs in a fibrin scaffold over a myocardium infarct model in SCID mice showed that both cell types can differentiate to endothelial and myocardium lineages, although FP-ASCs were more potent angiogenesis inducers than hASCs, at promoting myocardium revascularization. PMID:25019281

  12. TLR4 signalling in pulmonary stromal cells is critical for inflammation and immunity in the airways.

    PubMed

    Perros, Frederic; Lambrecht, Bart N; Hammad, Hamida

    2011-01-01

    Inflammation of the airways, which is often associated with life-threatening infection by Gram-negative bacteria or presence of endotoxin in the bioaerosol, is still a major cause of severe airway diseases. Moreover, inhaled endotoxin may play an important role in the development and progression of airway inflammation in asthma. Pathologic changes induced by endotoxin inhalation include bronchospasm, airflow obstruction, recruitment of inflammatory cells, injury of the alveolar epithelium, and disruption of pulmonary capillary integrity leading to protein rich fluid leak in the alveolar space. Mammalian Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are important signalling receptors in innate host defense. Among these receptors, TLR4 plays a critical role in the response to endotoxin. Lungs are a complex compartmentalized organ with separate barriers, namely the alveolar-capillary barrier, the microvascular endothelium, and the alveolar epithelium. An emerging theme in the field of lung immunology is that structural cells (SCs) of the airways such as epithelial cells (ECs), endothelial cells, fibroblasts and other stromal cells produce activating cytokines that determine the quantity and quality of the lung immune response. This review focuses on the role of TLR4 in the innate and adaptive immune functions of the pulmonary SCs. PMID:21943186

  13. TLR4 signalling in pulmonary stromal cells is critical for inflammation and immunity in the airways

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Inflammation of the airways, which is often associated with life-threatening infection by Gram-negative bacteria or presence of endotoxin in the bioaerosol, is still a major cause of severe airway diseases. Moreover, inhaled endotoxin may play an important role in the development and progression of airway inflammation in asthma. Pathologic changes induced by endotoxin inhalation include bronchospasm, airflow obstruction, recruitment of inflammatory cells, injury of the alveolar epithelium, and disruption of pulmonary capillary integrity leading to protein rich fluid leak in the alveolar space. Mammalian Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are important signalling receptors in innate host defense. Among these receptors, TLR4 plays a critical role in the response to endotoxin. Lungs are a complex compartmentalized organ with separate barriers, namely the alveolar-capillary barrier, the microvascular endothelium, and the alveolar epithelium. An emerging theme in the field of lung immunology is that structural cells (SCs) of the airways such as epithelial cells (ECs), endothelial cells, fibroblasts and other stromal cells produce activating cytokines that determine the quantity and quality of the lung immune response. This review focuses on the role of TLR4 in the innate and adaptive immune functions of the pulmonary SCs. PMID:21943186

  14. Tracking mesenchymal stromal cells using an ultra-bright TAT-functionalized plasmonic-active nanoplatform.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Hsiangkuo; Gomez, Jose A; Chien, Jennifer S; Zhang, Lunan; Wilson, Christy M; Li, Shuqin; Fales, Andrew M; Liu, Yang; Grant, Gerald A; Mirotsou, Maria; Dzau, Victor J; Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    2016-04-01

    High-resolution tracking of stem cells remains a challenging task. An ultra-bright contrast agent with extended intracellular retention is suitable for in vivo high-resolution tracking of stem cells following the implantation. Here, a plasmonic-active nanoplatform was developed for tracking mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) in mice. The nanoplatform consisted of TAT peptide-functionalized gold nanostars (TAT-GNS) that emit ultra-bright two-photon photoluminescence capable of tracking MSCs under high-resolution optical imaging. In vitro experiment showed TAT-GNS-labeled MSCs retained a similar differentiability to that of non-labeled MSCs controls. Due to their star shape, TAT-GNS exhibited greater intracellular retention than that of commercial Q-Tracker. In vivo imaging of TAT-GNS-labeled MSCs five days following intra-arterial injections in mice kidneys showed possible MSCs implantation in juxta-glomerular (JG) regions, but non-specifically in glomeruli and afferent arterioles as well. With future design to optimize GNS labeling specificity and clearance, plasmonic-active nanoplatforms may be a useful intracellular tracking tool for stem cell research. An ultra-bright intracellular contrast agent is developed using TAT peptide-functionalized gold nanostars (TAT-GNS). It poses minimal influence on the stem cell differentiability. It exhibits stronger two-photon photoluminescence and superior labeling efficiency than commercial Q-Tracker. Following renal implantation, some TAT-GNS-labeled MSCs permeate blood vessels and migrate to the juxta-glomerular region. PMID:27095616

  15. Mesenchymal stromal cells as multifunctional cellular therapeutics - a potential role for extracellular vesicles.

    PubMed

    Stephen, Jillian; Bravo, Elena Lopez; Colligan, David; Fraser, Alasdair R; Petrik, Juraj; Campbell, John D M

    2016-08-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs), multipotent cells present in tissues throughout the body, can reconstitute adipogenic, osteogenic and chondrogenic tissues, but are also of great interest as mediators of immune modulation and suppression. MSCs are able to improve transplant engraftment, treat graft versus host disease and suppress T cell responses and therefore have great potential as therapeutic agents. Their immune modulatory capacity is mediated through both cell-to-cell contact and cytokine secretion, but it is becoming clear that extracellular vesicles (EV) produced by MSC also possess immunomodulatory properties. These vesicles are easy to prepare and store, do not carry nuclear material and cannot form tumours, and therefore also represent a highly desirable therapeutic agent. This review outlines the formation and characterisation of extracellular vesicles, the reported function of MSC-EVs in vitro and in vivo, and addresses some of the emerging issues with nomenclature, EV therapeutic dose and tissue source. The development of GMP-grade production protocols and effective characterisation of MSC extracellular vesicles is essential to their successful use as immune modulating therapeutic agents, and this review outlines the current status of the research in this area. PMID:27452645

  16. Stem cell factor and stromal cell co-culture prevent apoptosis in a subculture of the megakaryoblastic cell line, UT-7.

    PubMed

    Liesveld, J L; Harbol, A W; Abboud, C N

    1996-07-01

    The megakaryoblastic cell line, UT-7, is dependent for its growth upon interleukin-3 (IL-3), erythropoietin, or granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF). A subculture of this line can be maintained in recombinant human c-kit ligand [stem cell factor (SCF)] at 100 ng/ml without requirement for other growth factors. Removal of this subculture from SCF results in rapid loss of viability and decreased proliferation. Cells grown in SCF also can be maintained in GM-CSF but not vice versa. In this work, we have characterized the SCF dependence of this UT-7 subculture. Stem cell factor removal results in apoptosis and a decline in viability which can be restored partially by re-addition of SCF, GM-CSF, or co-culture with adherent marrow stromal cells. Apoptosis in the factor-starved UT-7 population has been documented by light microscopy, electron microscopy and DNA analysis, showing the typical 180 base pair laddering characteristic of apoptosis. To quantitate the degree of apoptosis in the cell populations, and to assess whether apoptosis decreased with re-exposure of starved cells to growth factors or stroma, we utilized flow cytometry. This confirmed that exposure of previously factor-starved cells to stroma decreased the percentage of cells undergoing apoptosis. Co-culture with an SCF-deficient murine stromal cell line was also able to prevent apoptosis, suggesting contribution of other stromal cell factors. Experiments performed using trans-well inserts which do not allow cell passage, showed greatest viability of cells in contact with stroma, but viability was also improved in cells cultured in the presence of, but not in contact with, stromal cells compared to those cultured above plastic, suggesting a role for soluble stroma-produced substances. These data demonstrate that SCF alone can prevent apoptosis in cells dependent upon its presence for proliferation. Also, marrow stromal cells can serve as a partial substitute for growth factor in the

  17. BST2 Mediates Osteoblast Differentiation via the BMP2 Signaling Pathway in Human Alveolar-Derived Bone Marrow Stromal Cells.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Su-Hyang; Kim, Jae Goo; Kim, Beom-Su; Lee, Jun; Pi, Sung-Hee; Lim, Hyun-Dae; Shin, Hong-In; Cho, Eui-Sic; You, Hyung-Keun

    2016-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms controlling the differentiation of bone marrow stromal stem cells into osteoblasts remain largely unknown. In this study, we investigated whether bone marrow stromal antigen 2 (BST2) influences differentiation toward the osteoblasts lineage. BST2 mRNA expression in human alveolar-derived bone marrow stromal cells (hAD-BMSCs) increased during differentiation into osteoblasts. hAD-BMSCs differentiation into osteoblasts and the mRNA expression of the bone-specific markers alkaline phosphatase, collagen type α 1, bone sialoprotein, osteocalcin, and osterix were reduced by BST2 knockdown using siRNA. Furthermore, BST2 knockdown in hAD-BMSCs resulted in decreased RUNX2 mRNA and protein expression. We hypothesized that BST2 is involved in differentiation of into osteoblasts via the BMP2 signaling pathway. Accordingly, we evaluated the mRNA expression levels of BMP2, BMP receptors (BMPR1 and 2), and the downstream signaling molecules SMAD1, SMAD4, and p-SMAD1/5/8 in BST2 knockdown cells. BMP2 expression following the induction of differentiation was significantly lower in BST2 knockdown cells than in cells treated with a non-targeting control siRNA. Similar results were found for the knockdown of the BMP2 receptor- BMPR1A. We also identified significantly lower expression of SMAD1, SMAD4, and p-SMAD1/5/8 in the BST2 knockdown cells than control cells. Our data provide the first evidence that BST2 is involved in the osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells via the regulation of the BMP2 signaling pathway. PMID:27359105

  18. BST2 Mediates Osteoblast Differentiation via the BMP2 Signaling Pathway in Human Alveolar-Derived Bone Marrow Stromal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Su-Hyang; Kim, Jae Goo; Kim, Beom-Su; Lee, Jun; Pi, Sung-Hee; Lim, Hyun-Dae; Shin, Hong-In; Cho, Eui-Sic

    2016-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms controlling the differentiation of bone marrow stromal stem cells into osteoblasts remain largely unknown. In this study, we investigated whether bone marrow stromal antigen 2 (BST2) influences differentiation toward the osteoblasts lineage. BST2 mRNA expression in human alveolar-derived bone marrow stromal cells (hAD-BMSCs) increased during differentiation into osteoblasts. hAD-BMSCs differentiation into osteoblasts and the mRNA expression of the bone-specific markers alkaline phosphatase, collagen type α 1, bone sialoprotein, osteocalcin, and osterix were reduced by BST2 knockdown using siRNA. Furthermore, BST2 knockdown in hAD-BMSCs resulted in decreased RUNX2 mRNA and protein expression. We hypothesized that BST2 is involved in differentiation of into osteoblasts via the BMP2 signaling pathway. Accordingly, we evaluated the mRNA expression levels of BMP2, BMP receptors (BMPR1 and 2), and the downstream signaling molecules SMAD1, SMAD4, and p-SMAD1/5/8 in BST2 knockdown cells. BMP2 expression following the induction of differentiation was significantly lower in BST2 knockdown cells than in cells treated with a non-targeting control siRNA. Similar results were found for the knockdown of the BMP2 receptor- BMPR1A. We also identified significantly lower expression of SMAD1, SMAD4, and p-SMAD1/5/8 in the BST2 knockdown cells than control cells. Our data provide the first evidence that BST2 is involved in the osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells via the regulation of the BMP2 signaling pathway. PMID:27359105

  19. Human placental multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells modulate placenta angiogenesis through Slit2-Robo signaling.

    PubMed

    Chen, Cheng-Yi; Tsai, Chin-Han; Chen, Chia-Yu; Wu, Yi-Hsin; Chen, Chie-Pein

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate whether human placental multipotent mesenchymal stromal cell (hPMSC)-derived Slit2 and endothelial cell Roundabout (Robo) receptors are involved in placental angiogenesis. The hPMSC-conditioned medium and human umbilical vein endothelial cells were studied for Slit2 and Robo receptor expression by immunoassay and RT-PCR. The effect of the conditioned medium of hPMSCs with or without Slit2 depletion on endothelial cells was investigated by in vitro angiogenesis using growth factor-reduced Matrigel. hPMSCs express Slit2 and both Robo1 and Robo4 are present in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells do not express Robo2 and Robo3. The hPMSC-conditioned medium and Slit2 recombinant protein significantly inhibit the endothelial cell migration, but not by the hPMSC-conditioned medium with Slit2 depletion. The hPMSC-conditioned medium and Slit2 significantly enhance endothelial tube formation with increased cumulated tube length, polygonal network number and vessel branching point number compared to endothelial cells alone. The tube formation is inhibited by the depletion of Slit2 from the conditioned medium, or following the expression of Robo1, Robo4, and both receptor knockdown using small interfering RNA. Furthermore, co-immunoprecipitation reveals Slit2 binds to Robo1 and Robo4. Robo1 interacts and forms a heterodimeric complex with Robo4. These results suggest the implication of both Robo receptors with Slit2 signaling, which is involved in endothelial cell angiogenesis. Slit2 in the conditioned medium of hPMSCs has functional effect on endothelial cells and may play a role in placental angiogenesis.

  20. Platelet-derived growth factors enhance proliferation of human stromal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Lucarelli, Enrico; Beccheroni, Amira; Donati, Davide; Sangiorgi, Luca; Cenacchi, Annarita; Del Vento, Anna M; Meotti, Carolina; Bertoja, Annarosa Zambon; Giardino, Roberto; Fornasari, Pier M; Mercuri, Mario; Picci, Piero

    2003-08-01

    Studies on new procedures for bone reconstruction suggest that autologous cells seeded on a resorbable scaffold can improve the treatment of bone defects. It is important to develop culture conditions for ex vivo expansion of stromal stem cells (SSC) that do not compromise their self-renewing and differentiation capability. Bone marrow SSC and platelet gel (PG) obtained by platelet-rich plasma provide an invaluable source for autologous progenitor cells and growth factors for bone reconstruction. In this study the effect of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) released by PG on SSC proliferation and differentiation was investigated. MTT assay was used to investigate the effect of PRP on proliferation: results showed that PRP induced SSC proliferation. The effect was dose dependent and 10% PRP is sufficient to induce a marked cell proliferation. Untreated cells served as controls. Upon treatment with 10% PRP, cells entered logarithmic growth. Removal of PRP restored the characteristic proliferation rate. Because SSC can gradually lose their capability to differentiate along the chondrogenic and osteogenic lineage during subculture in vitro, we tested whether 10% PRP treatment affected SSC ability to mineralize. SSC were first exposed to 10% PRP for five passages, at passage 6 PRP was washed away and plated cells were treated with dexamethasone (DEX). DEX induced a three-fold increase in the number of alkaline phosphatase positive cells and induced mineralization that is consistent with the differentiation of osteochondroprogenitor cells. In conclusion, 10% PRP promotes SSC proliferation; cells expanded with 10% PRP can mineralize the extracellular matrix once PRP is withdrawn.

  1. Preferential localization of IgG memory B cells adjacent to contracted germinal centers

    PubMed Central

    Aiba, Yuichi; Kometani, Kohei; Hamadate, Megumi; Moriyama, Saya; Sakaue-Sawano, Asako; Tomura, Michio; Luche, Hervé; Fehling, Hans Jörg; Casellas, Rafael; Kanagawa, Osami; Miyawaki, Atsushi; Kurosaki, Tomohiro

    2010-01-01

    It has long been presumed that after leaving the germinal centers (GCs), memory B cells colonize the marginal zone or join the recirculating pool. Here we demonstrate the preferential localization of nitrophenol-chicken γ-globulin-induced CD38+IgG1+ memory B cells adjacent to contracted GCs in the spleen. The memory B cells in this region proliferated after secondary immunization, a response that was abolished by depletion of CD4+ T cells. We also found that these IgG1+ memory B cells could present antigen on their surface, and that this activity was required for their activation. These results implicate this peri-GC region as an important site for survival and reactivation of memory B cells. PMID:20547847

  2. Deciphering the Stromal and Hematopoietic Cell Network of the Adventitia from Non-Aneurysmal and Aneurysmal Human Aorta

    PubMed Central

    Dutertre, Charles-Antoine; Clement, Marc; Morvan, Marion; Schäkel, Knut; Castier, Yves; Alsac, Jean-Marc; Michel, Jean-Baptiste; Nicoletti, Antonino

    2014-01-01

    Aneurysm is associated to a complex remodeling of arteries that affects all their layers. Although events taking place in the intima and the media have received a particular attention, molecular and cellular events taking place in the adventitia have started to be deciphered only recently. In this study, we have precisely described the composition and distribution of stromal and hematopoietic cells in human arterial adventitia, both at steady state and in the setting of aortic aneurysm. Using polychromatic immunofluorescent and flow cytometry analyses, we observed that unlike the medial layer (which comprises mostly macrophages and T cells among leukocytes), the adventitia comprises a much greater variety of leukocytes. We observed an altered balance in macrophages subsets in favor of M2-like macrophages, an increased proliferation of macrophages, a greater number of all stromal cells in aneurysmal aortas. We also confirmed that in this pathological setting, adventitia comprised blood vessels and arterial tertiary lymphoid organs (ATLOs), which contained also M-DC8+ dendritic cells (slanDCs) that could participate in the induction of T-cell responses. Finally, we showed that lymphatic vessels can be detected in aneurysmal adventitia, the functionality of which will have to be evaluated in future studies. All together, these observations provide an integrative outlook of the stromal and hematopoietic cell network of the human adventitia both at steady state and in the context of aneurysm. PMID:24587165

  3. Hybrid scaffolds of gelatin-siloxane releasing stromal derived factor-1 effective for cell recruitment.

    PubMed

    Dashnyam, Khandmaa; Perez, Roman; Lee, Eun-Jung; Yun, Ye-Rang; Jang, Jun-Hyeog; Wall, Ivan B; Kim, Hae-Won

    2014-06-01

    Scaffolds with the capacity to deliver signaling molecules are attractive for bone regeneration. Here, we developed bioactive siloxane-gelatin hybrid scaffolds via a sol gel process containing stromal derived factor-1 (SDF-1) to recruit osteoprogenitor/stem cells. The process was undertaken under room temperature aqueous conditions, which enabled therapeutic molecules to be effectively incorporated. After the sol-gel reaction and lyophilization process, well-crosslinked hybrid scaffolds were obtained with porosities of 80-90%. Dynamic mechanical analysis of the hybrid scaffolds showed significant improvement in storage modulus values (from 10 to 110 kPa) with increasing siloxane content. The protein release capacity of the scaffolds was investigated using a model protein cytochrome C (cyto C). The cyto C safely loaded onto the scaffolds exhibited, except the initial burst of 30% within a day, highly sustainable release, with approximately 70-80% of the loading amount for up to 4 weeks. Target molecule SDF-1 was loaded and released from the scaffolds, and the effects on the homing of mesenchymal stem cell were studied. Results demonstrated significant enhancement in the migration of cells to the SDF-1 loaded scaffolds. Taken together, the developed hybrid scaffolds are considered to be useful in loading and delivering signaling molecules such as SDF-1 to recruit osteoprogenitor /mesenchymal stem cells in the bone regeneration process.

  4. Growth and differentiation characteristics of equine mesenchymal stromal cells derived from different sources.

    PubMed

    Burk, Janina; Ribitsch, Iris; Gittel, Claudia; Juelke, Henriette; Kasper, Cornelia; Staszyk, Carsten; Brehm, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are a promising therapeutic tool for the treatment of equine tendon and other musculoskeletal injuries. While bone marrow is considered the 'gold standard' source of these cells, various other tissues contain MSCs with potentially useful features. The aim of this study was to compare clinically relevant characteristics of MSCs derived from bone marrow, umbilical cord blood and tissue and from adipose tissue and tendon. Cell yield, proliferation, migration, tendon marker expression and differentiation into adipocytes, chondrocytes and osteoblasts was assessed, quantified and compared. MSC numbers obtained from adipose, tendon or umbilical cord tissues were 222-fold higher than those obtained from bone marrow or cord blood. Cells derived from tendon and adipose tissues exhibited most rapid proliferation. Osteogenic differentiation was most prominent in MSCs derived from bone marrow, and was weak in MSCs derived from umbilical cord blood and tissue. In contrast, the highest levels of chondrogenic differentiation were observed in MSCs derived from these sources. Collagen 1A2 expression was highest in adipose- and tendon-derived MSCs, while scleraxis expression was highest in cord blood- and in tendon-derived MSCs. The findings indicate that MSCs from different sources display significantly diverse properties that may impact on their therapeutic application.

  5. WISP 1 is an important survival factor in human mesenchymal stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Schlegelmilch, Katrin; Keller, Alexander; Zehe, Viola; Hondke, Sylvia; Schilling, Tatjana; Jakob, Franz; Klein-Hitpass, Ludger; Schütze, Norbert

    2014-11-10

    WNT-induced secreted protein 1 (WISP1/CCN4), a member of the CCN protein family, acts as a downstream factor of the canonical WNT signaling pathway. Its expression is known to affect proliferation and differentiation of human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs), which are fundamental for the development and maintenance of the musculoskeletal system. Whereas a dysregulated, excessive expression of WISP1 often reflects its oncogenic potential via the inhibition of apoptosis, our study emphasizes the importance of WISP1 signaling for the survival of primary human cells. We have established the efficient and specific down-regulation of endogenous WISP1 transcripts by gene silencing in hMSCs and observed cell death as a consequence of WISP1 deficiency. This was confirmed by Annexin V staining for apoptotic cells. DNA microarray analyses of WISP1 down-regulated versus control samples revealed several clusters of differentially expressed genes important for apoptosis induction such as TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand 1 (TRAIL) and the corresponding apoptosis-inducing receptors TRAIL-R1 and -R2. An increased expression of TRAIL and its receptors TRAIL-R1 and -R2 in WISP1-deficient hMSCs was confirmed by immunocytofluorescence. Accordingly, WISP1 deficiency is likely to cause TRAIL-induced apoptosis. This is an important novel finding, which suggests that WISP1 is indispensable for the protection of healthy hMSCs against TRAIL-induced apoptosis.

  6. Proliferation and differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells under hypoxic conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Ren Hongying; Cai Huiguo; Han Zhongchao; Yang Renchi; Zhao, Qinjun; Cao Ying; Li Jing; Zhou Cixiang; Liao Lianming; Jia Mingyue; Zhao Qian; Chen Guoqiang . E-mail: chengq@shsmu.edu.cn; Zhao, R.C. |. E-mail: chunhuaz@public.tpt.tj.cn

    2006-08-18

    Low oxygen tension is a potent differentiation inducer of numerous cell types and an effective stimulus of many gene expressions. Here, we described that under 8% O{sub 2}, bone marrow stromal cells (MSCs) exhibited proliferative and morphologic changes. The level of differentiated antigen H-2Dd and the number of G{sub 2}/S/M phase cells increased evidently under 8% O{sub 2} condition. Also, the proportion of wide, flattened, and epithelial-like cells (which were alkaline phosphatase staining positive) in MSCs increased significantly. When cultured in adipogenic medium, there was a 5- to 6-fold increase in the number of lipid droplets under hypoxic conditions compared with that in normoxic culture. We also demonstrated the existence of MSC differentiation under hypoxic conditions by electron microscopy. Expression of Oct4 was inhibited under 8% O{sub 2} condition, but after adipocyte differentiation in normoxic culture and hypoxia-mimicking agents cobalt chloride (CoCl{sub 2}) and deferoxamine mesylate (DFX) treatments, Oct4 was still expressed in MSCs. These results indicate hypoxia accelerates MSC differentiation and hypoxia and hypoxia-mimicking agents exert different effects on MSC differentiation.

  7. Adult rat bone marrow stromal cells express genes associated with dopamine neurons

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, Brian C.; Woodbury, Dale . E-mail: WOODBURYDL@AOL.COM; Black, Ira B.

    2006-05-19

    An intensive search is underway to identify candidates to replace the cells that degenerate in Parkinson's disease (PD). To date, no suitable substitute has been found. We have recently found that adult rat bone marrow stromal cells (MSCs) can be induced to assume a neuronal phenotype in vitro. These findings may have particular relevance to the treatment of PD. We now report that adult MSCs express multiple dopaminergic genes, suggesting that they are potential candidates for cell therapy. Using RT-PCR, we have examined families of genes that are associated with the development and/or survival of dopaminergic neurons. MSCs transcribe a variety of dopaminergic genes including patched and smoothened (components of the Shh receptor), Gli-1 (downstream mediator of Shh), and Otx-1, a gene associated with formation of the mesencephalon during development. Furthermore, Shh treatment elicits a 1.5-fold increase in DNA synthesis in cultured MSCs, suggesting the presence of a functional Shh receptor complex. We have also found that MSCs transcribe and translate Nurr-1, a nuclear receptor essential for the development of dopamine neurons. In addition, MSCs express a variety of growth factor receptors including the glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol-anchored ligand-binding subunit of the GDNF receptor, GFR{alpha}1, as well as fibroblast growth factor receptors one and four. The expression of genes that are associated with the development and survival of dopamine neurons suggests a potential role for these cells in the treatment of Parkinson's disease.

  8. The role of mesenchymal stromal cells in spinal cord injury, regenerative medicine and possible clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Forostyak, Serhiy; Jendelova, Pavla; Sykova, Eva

    2013-12-01

    Diseases of the central nervous system still remain among the most challenging pathologies known to mankind, having no or limited therapeutic possibilities and a very pessimistic prognosis. Advances in stem cell biology in the last decade have shown that stem cells might provide an inexhaustible source of neurons and glia as well as exerting a neuroprotective effect on the host tissue, thus opening new horizons for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Here, we discuss the progress made in the cell-based therapy of spinal cord injury. An emphasis has been placed on the application of adult mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs). We then review the latest and most significant results from in vitro and in vivo research focusing on the regenerative/neuroprotective properties of MSCs. We also attempt to correlate the effect of MSCs with the pathological events that are taking place in the nervous tissue after SCI. Finally, we discuss the results from preclinical and clinical trials involving different routes of MSC application into patients with neurological disorders of the spinal cord.

  9. Zoledronic acid in vivo increases in vitro proliferation of rat mesenchymal stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Heino, Terhi J; Alm, Jessica J; Halkosaari, Heikki J; Välimäki, Ville-Valtteri

    2016-08-01

    Background and purpose - Bisphosphonates are widely used in the treatment of bone loss, but they might also have positive effects on osteoblastic cells and bone formation. We evaluated the effect of in vivo zoledronic acid (ZA) treatment and possible concomitant effects of ZA and fracture on the ex vivo osteogenic capacity of rat mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs). Methods - A closed femoral fracture model was used in adult female rats and ZA was administered as a single bolus or as weekly doses up to 8 weeks. Bone marrow MSCs were isolated and cultured for in vitro analyses. Fracture healing was evaluated by radiography, micro-computed tomography (μCT), and histology. Results - Both bolus and weekly ZA increased fracture-site bone mineral content and volume. MSCs from weekly ZA-treated animals showed increased ex vivo proliferative capacity, while no substantial effect on osteoblastic differentiation was observed. Fracture itself did not have any substantial effect on cell proliferation or differentiation at 8 weeks. Serum biochemical markers showed higher levels of bone formation in animals with fracture than in intact animals, while no difference in bone resorption was observed. Interestingly, ex vivo osteoblastic differentiation of MSCs was found to correlate with in vivo serum bone markers. Interpretation - Our data show that in vivo zoledronic acid treatment can influence ex vivo proliferation of MSCs, indicating that bisphosphonates can have sustainable effects on cells of the osteoblastic lineage. Further research is needed to investigate the mechanisms. PMID:27196705

  10. Stromal myofibroblasts in nonmetastatic and metastatic oral squamous cell carcinoma: An immunohistochemical study

    PubMed Central

    Sridhara, Sudheendra Udyavara; Choudaha, Nidhi; Kasetty, Sowmya; Joshi, Prathamesh Satish; Kallianpur, Shreenivas; Tijare, Manisha

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims: Myofibroblasts are one of the important components of the tumor microenvironment which could possibly play an important role in tumor progression. The purpose of this study was to compare the presence of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and CD34 positive fibroblasts in nonmetastatic and metastatic oral squamous cell carcinoma and to evaluate their role in tumor metastasis. Materials and Methods: Ten cases each of histologically proven metastatic and nonmetastatic oral squamous cell carcinoma formed the study group. The tissue sections were stained immunohistochemically for α-SMA and CD34. The stromal spindle cells positive for these markers in the study groups were counted and compared. Results: α-SMA positive cases were more in the metastatic group and CD34 positive cases were found to be more in the nonmetastatic tumors. Conclusions: Though difference in the staining pattern was statistically nonsignificant, the inverse relationship between α-SMA and CD34 positive cells is indicative of dynamic nature and the influence of tumor stroma in tumor progression and metastasis. PMID:24250077

  11. Tissue-specific Differentiation Potency of Mesenchymal Stromal Cells from Perinatal Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Ahlm; Kim, Yonggoo; Kim, Myungshin; Kim, Jiyeon; Choi, Hayoung; Jekarl, Dong Wook; Lee, Seungok; Kim, Jung Min; Shin, Jong-Chul; Park, In Yang

    2016-01-01

    Human perinatal tissue is an abundant source of mesenchymal stromal cells(MSCs) and lacks the ethical concerns. Perinatal MSCs can be obtained from various tissues as like amnion, chorion, and umbilical cord. Still, little is known of the distinct nature of each MSC type. In this study, we successfully isolated and cultured MSCs from amnion(AMSCs), chorion(CMSCs), and umbilical cord(UC-MSCs). Proliferation potential was different among them, that AMSCs revealed the lowest proliferation rate due to increased Annexin V and senescence-associated β-galactosidase positive cells. We demonstrated distinct characteristic gene expression according to the source of the original tissue using microarray. In particular, genes associated with apoptosis and senescence including CDKN2A were up-regulated in AMSCs. In CMSCs, genes associated with heart morphogenesis and blood circulation including HTR2B were up-regulated. Genes associated with neurological system processes including NPY were up-regulated in UC-MSCs. Quantitative RT-PCR confirmed the gene expression data. And in vitro differentiation of MSCs demonstrated that CMSCs and UC-MSCs had a more pronounced ability to differentiate into cardiomyocyte and neural cells, respectively. This study firstly demonstrated the innate tissue-specific differentiation potency of perinatal MSCs which can be helpful in choosing more adequate cell sources for better outcome in a specific disease. PMID:27045658

  12. Platelet-derived growth factors for GMP-compliant propagation of mesenchymal stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Schallmoser, Katharina; Rohde, Eva; Bartmann, Christina; Obenauf, Anna C; Reinisch, Andreas; Strunk, Dirk

    2009-01-01

    Stem cell-based therapies are a promising prospect for regenerative medicine. Particularly, human multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are currently in focus regarding their regenerative and immune modulating capacities. An increasing number of clinical trials investigating MSC efficiency and safety are ongoing. Ex vivo propagation of human MSCs is considered to be a prerequisite for MSC therapy. The to date standard use of fetal bovine serum in cell culture bears risks including xenoimmunization and transmission of pathogens. Alternatively, human platelet-derived growth factors have been efficiently implemented into routine MSC expansion protocols. In compliance with good manufacturing practice we established an effective time- and resource-saving procedure for MSC propagation in an animal serum-free system. Bone marrow was seeded without manipulation directly in pooled human platelet lysate (pHPL) and L-glutamine supplemented minimum essential medium without antibiotics. Clinical scale expanded MSCs were harvested already after primary culture. MSC quality, identity, purity and function were assessed according to a defined panel of release criteria and comparative genomic hybridization was used to determine genomic stability. Because various potential risks of MSCs have recently been reported, further research is required to prove efficiency and long-term safety of human MSCs for cell therapy. PMID:20042793

  13. CXCL1 mediates obesity-associated adipose stromal cell trafficking and function in the tumour microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tao; Tseng, Chieh; Zhang, Yan; Sirin, Olga; Corn, Paul G; Li-Ning-Tapia, Elsa M; Troncoso, Patricia; Davis, John; Pettaway, Curtis; Ward, John; Frazier, Marsha L; Logothetis, Christopher; Kolonin, Mikhail G

    2016-01-01

    White adipose tissue (WAT) overgrowth in obesity is linked with increased aggressiveness of certain cancers. Adipose stromal cells (ASCs) can become mobilized from WAT, recruited by tumours and promote cancer progression. Mechanisms underlying ASC trafficking are unclear. Here we demonstrate that chemokines CXCL1 and CXCL8 chemoattract ASC by signalling through their receptors, CXCR1 and CXCR2, in cell culture models. We further show that obese patients with prostate cancer have increased epithelial CXCL1 expression. Concomitantly, we observe that cells with ASC phenotype are mobilized and infiltrate tumours in obese patients. Using mouse models, we show that the CXCL1 chemokine gradient is required for the obesity-dependent tumour ASC recruitment, vascularization and tumour growth promotion. We demonstrate that αSMA expression in ASCs is induced by chemokine signalling and mediates the stimulatory effects of ASCs on endothelial cells. Our data suggest that ASC recruitment to tumours, driven by CXCL1 and CXCL8, promotes prostate cancer progression. PMID:27241286

  14. Culture and Use of Mesenchymal Stromal Cells in Phase I and II Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    Philippe, Bourin; Luc, Sensebé; Valérie, Planat-Bénard; Jérôme, Roncalli; Alessandra, Bura-Rivière; Louis, Casteilla

    2010-01-01

    Present in numerous tissues, mesenchymal stem cells/multipotent stromal cells (MSCs) can differentiate into different cell types from a mesoderm origin. Their potential has been extended to pluripotency, by their possibility of differentiating into tissues and cells of nonmesodermic origin. Through the release of cytokines, growth factors and biologically active molecules, MSCs exert important paracrine effects during tissue repair and inflammation. Moreover, MSCs have immunosuppressive properties related to non-HLA restricted immunosuppressive capacities. All these features lead to an increasing range of possible applications of MSCs, from treating immunological diseases to tissue and organ repair, that should be tested in phase I and II clinical trials. The most widely used MSCs are cultured from bone marrow or adipose tissue. For clinical trial implementation, BM MSCs and ADSCs should be produced according to Good Manufacturing Practices. Safety remains the major concern and must be ensured during culture and validated with relevant controls. We describe some applications of MSCs in clinical trials. PMID:21052537

  15. A Specific Subpopulation of Mesenchymal Stromal Cell Carriers Overrides Melanoma Resistance to an Oncolytic Adenovirus

    PubMed Central

    Bolontrade, Marcela F.; Sganga, Leonardo; Piaggio, Eduardo; Viale, Diego L.; Sorrentino, Miguel A.; Robinson, Aníbal; Sevlever, Gustavo; García, Mariana G.; Mazzolini, Guillermo

    2012-01-01

    The homing properties of mesenchymal stromal c´ells (MSCs) toward tumors turn them into attractive tools for combining cell and gene therapy. The aim of this study was to select in a feasible way a human bone marrow-derived MSC subpopulation that might exhibit a selective ability to target the tumor mass. Using differential in vitro adhesive capacities during cells isolation, we selected a specific MSC subpopulation (termed MO-MSCs) that exhibited enhanced multipotent capacity and increased cell surface expression of specific integrins (integrins α2, α3, and α5), which correlated with an enhanced MO-MSCs adhesiveness toward their specific ligands. Moreover, MO-MSCs exhibited a higher migration toward conditioned media from different cancer cell lines and fresh human breast cancer samples in the presence or not of a human microendothelium monolayer. Further in vivo studies demonstrated increased tumor homing of MO-MSCs toward established 578T and MD-MBA-231 breast cancer and A375N melanoma tumor xenografts. Tumor penetration by MO-MSCs was highly dependent on metallopeptidases production as it was inhibited by the specific inhibitor 1,10 phenantroline. Finally, systemically administered MO-MSCs preloaded with an oncolytic adenovirus significantly inhibited tumor growth in mice harboring established A375N melanomas, overcoming the natural resistance of the tumor to in situ administration of the oncolytic adenovirus. In summary, this work characterizes a novel MSC subpopulation with increased tumor homing capacity that can be used to transport therapeutic compounds. PMID:22462538

  16. Paracrine Factors of Multipotent Stromal Cells Ameliorate Lung Injury in an Elastase-induced Emphysema Model

    PubMed Central

    Katsha, Ahmed M; Ohkouchi, Shinya; Xin, Hong; Kanehira, Masahiko; Sun, Ruowen; Nukiwa, Toshihiro; Saijo, Yasuo

    2011-01-01

    Multipotent stromal cells (MSCs) ameliorate several types of lung injury. The differentiation of MSCs into specific cells at the injury site has been considered as the important process in the MSC effect. However, although MSCs reduce destruction in an elastase-induced lung emphysema model, MSC differentiation is relatively rare, suggesting that MSC differentiation into specific cells does not adequately explain the recuperation observed. Humoral factors secreted by MSCs may also play an important role in ameliorating emphysema. To confirm this hypothesis, emphysema was induced in the lungs of C57BL/6 mice by intratracheal elastase injection 14 days before intratracheal MSC or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) administration. Thereafter, lungs were collected at several time points and evaluated. Our results showed that MSCs reduced the destruction in elastase-induced emphysema. Furthermore, double immunofluorescence staining revealed infrequent MSC engraftment and differentiation into epithelial cells. Real-time PCR showed increased levels of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and epidermal growth factor (EGF). Real-time PCR and western blotting showed enhanced production of secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI) in the lung. In-vitro coculture studies confirmed the in vivo observations. Our findings suggest that paracrine factors derived from MSCs is the main mechanism for the protection of lung tissues from elastase injury. PMID:20842104

  17. The clock protein period 2 synchronizes mitotic expansion and decidual transformation of human endometrial stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Muter, Joanne; Lucas, Emma S; Chan, Yi-Wah; Brighton, Paul J; Moore, Jonathan D; Lacey, Lauren; Quenby, Siobhan; Lam, Eric W-F; Brosens, Jan J

    2015-04-01

    Implantation requires coordinated interactions between the conceptus and surrounding decidual cells, but the involvement of clock genes in this process is incompletely understood. Circadian oscillations are predicated on transcriptional-translational feedback loops, which balance the activities of the transcriptional activators CLOCK (circadian locomotor output cycles kaput) and brain muscle arnt-like 1 and repressors encoded by PER (Period) and Cryptochrome genes. We show that loss of PER2 expression silences circadian oscillations in decidualizing human endometrial stromal cells (HESCs). Down-regulation occurred between 12 and 24 hours following differentiation and coincided with reduced CLOCK binding to a noncanonical E-box enhancer in the PER2 promoter. RNA sequencing revealed that premature inhibition of PER2 by small interfering RNA knockdown leads to a grossly disorganized decidual response. Gene ontology analysis highlighted a preponderance of cell cycle regulators among the 1121 genes perturbed upon PER2 knockdown. Congruently, PER2 inhibition abrogated mitotic expansion of differentiating HESCs by inducing cell cycle block at G2/M. Analysis of 70 midluteal endometrial biopsies revealed an inverse correlation between PER2 transcript levels and the number of miscarriages in women suffering reproductive failure (Spearman rank test, ρ = -0.3260; P = 0.0046). Thus, PER2 synchronizes endometrial proliferation with initiation of aperiodic decidual gene expression; uncoupling of these events may cause recurrent pregnancy loss. PMID:25573754

  18. Bottlenecks in the Efficient Use of Advanced Therapy Medicinal Products Based on Mesenchymal Stromal Cells.

    PubMed

    Escacena, Natalia; Quesada-Hernández, Elena; Capilla-Gonzalez, Vivian; Soria, Bernat; Hmadcha, Abdelkrim

    2015-01-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have been established as promising candidate sources of universal donor cells for cell therapy due to their contributions to tissue and organ homeostasis, repair, and support by self-renewal and multidifferentiation, as well as by their anti-inflammatory, antiproliferative, immunomodulatory, trophic, and proangiogenic properties. Various diseases have been treated by MSCs in animal models. Additionally, hundreds of clinical trials related to the potential benefits of MSCs are in progress. However, although all MSCs are considered suitable to exert these functions, dissimilarities have been found among MSCs derived from different tissues. The same levels of efficacy and desired outcomes have not always been achieved in the diverse studies that have been performed thus far. Moreover, autologous MSCs can be affected by the disease status of patients, compromising their use. Therefore, collecting information regarding the characteristics of MSCs obtained from different sources and the influence of the host (patient) medical conditions on MSCs is important for assuring the safety and efficacy of cell-based therapies. This review provides relevant information regarding factors to consider for the clinical application of MSCs.

  19. Mesenchymal stromal cells derived from various tissues: Biological, clinical and cryopreservation aspects.

    PubMed

    Marquez-Curtis, Leah A; Janowska-Wieczorek, Anna; McGann, Locksley E; Elliott, Janet A W

    2015-10-01

    Originally isolated from bone marrow, mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have since been obtained from various fetal and post-natal tissues and are the focus of an increasing number of clinical trials. Because of their tremendous potential for cellular therapy, regenerative medicine and tissue engineering, it is desirable to cryopreserve and bank MSCs to increase their access and availability. A remarkable amount of research and resources have been expended towards optimizing the protocols, freezing media composition, cooling devices and storage containers, as well as developing good manufacturing practices in order to ensure that MSCs retain their therapeutic characteristics following cryopreservation and that they are safe for clinical use. Here, we first present an overview of the identification of MSCs, their tissue sources and the properties that render them suitable as a cellular therapeutic. Next, we discuss the responses of cells during freezing and focus on the traditional and novel approaches used to cryopreserve MSCs. We conclude that viable MSCs from diverse tissues can be recovered after cryopreservation using a variety of freezing protocols, cryoprotectants, storage periods and temperatures. However, alterations in certain functions of MSCs following cryopreservation warrant future investigations on the recovery of cells post-thaw followed by expansion of functional cells in order to achieve their full therapeutic potential. PMID:26186998

  20. CXCL1 mediates obesity-associated adipose stromal cell trafficking and function in the tumour microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Tao; Tseng, Chieh; Zhang, Yan; Sirin, Olga; Corn, Paul G.; Li-Ning-Tapia, Elsa M.; Troncoso, Patricia; Davis, John; Pettaway, Curtis; Ward, John; Frazier, Marsha L.; Logothetis, Christopher; Kolonin, Mikhail G.

    2016-01-01

    White adipose tissue (WAT) overgrowth in obesity is linked with increased aggressiveness of certain cancers. Adipose stromal cells (ASCs) can become mobilized from WAT, recruited by tumours and promote cancer progression. Mechanisms underlying ASC trafficking are unclear. Here we demonstrate that chemokines CXCL1 and CXCL8 chemoattract ASC by signalling through their receptors, CXCR1 and CXCR2, in cell culture models. We further show that obese patients with prostate cancer have increased epithelial CXCL1 expression. Concomitantly, we observe that cells with ASC phenotype are mobilized and infiltrate tumours in obese patients. Using mouse models, we show that the CXCL1 chemokine gradient is required for the obesity-dependent tumour ASC recruitment, vascularization and tumour growth promotion. We demonstrate that αSMA expression in ASCs is induced by chemokine signalling and mediates the stimulatory effects of ASCs on endothelial cells. Our data suggest that ASC recruitment to tumours, driven by CXCL1 and CXCL8, promotes prostate cancer progression. PMID:27241286

  1. Effects of continuous and pulsatile PTH treatments on rat bone marrow stromal cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yang Chiming; Frei, Hanspeter Burt, Helen M.; Rossi, Fabio

    2009-03-20

    Bone marrow stromal cells (MSCs) differentiation and proliferation are controlled by numerous growth factors and hormones. Continuous parathyroid hormone (PTH) treatment has been shown to decrease osteoblast differentiation, whereas pulsatile PTH increases osteoblast differentiation. However, the effects of PTH treatments on MSCs have not been investigated. This study showed continuous PTH treatment in the presence of dexamethasone (DEX) promoted osteogenic differentiation of rat MSCs in vitro, as demonstrated by increased alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, number of ALP expressing cells, and up-regulation of PTH receptor-1, ALP, and osteocalcin mRNA expressions. In contrast, pulsatile PTH treatment was found to suppress osteogenesis of rat MSCs, possibly by promoting the maintenance of undifferentiated cells. Additionally, the observed effects of PTH were strongly dependent on the presence of DEX. MSC proliferation however was not influenced by PTH independent of treatment regimen and presence or absence of DEX. Furthermore, our work raised the possibility that PTH treatment may modulate stem/progenitor cell activity within MSC cultures.

  2. Human mesenchymal stromal cell-secreted lactate induces M2-macrophage differentiation by metabolic reprogramming

    PubMed Central

    Civini, Sara; Pacelli, Consiglia; Dieng, Mame Massar; Lemieux, William; Jin, Ping; Bazin, Renée; Patey, Natacha; Marincola, Francesco M.; Moldovan, Florina; Zaouter, Charlotte; Trudeau, Louis-Eric; Benabdhalla, Basma; Louis, Isabelle; Beauséjour, Christian; Stroncek, David; Le Deist, Françoise; Haddad, Elie

    2016-01-01

    Human mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) have been shown to dampen immune response and promote tissue repair, but the underlying mechanisms are still under investigation. Herein, we demonstrate that umbilical cord-derived MSC (UC-MSC) alter the phenotype and function of monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DC) through lactate-mediated metabolic reprogramming. UC-MSC can secrete large quantities of lactate and, when present during monocyte-to-DC differentiation, induce instead the acquisition of M2-macrophage features in terms of morphology, surface markers, migratory properties and antigen presentation capacity. Microarray expression profiling indicates that UC-MSC modify the expression of metabolic-related genes and induce a M2-macrophage expression signature. Importantly, monocyte-derived DC obtained in presence of UC-MSC, polarize naïve allogeneic CD4+ T-cells into Th2 cells. Treatment of UC-MSC with an inhibitor of lactate dehydrogenase strongly decreases lactate concentration in culture supernatant and abrogates the effect on monocyte-to-DC differentiation. Metabolic analysis further revealed that UC-MSC decrease oxidative phosphorylation in differentiating monocytes while strongly increasing the spare respiratory capacity proportional to the amount of secreted lactate. Because both MSC and monocytes are recruited in vivo at the site of tissue damage and inflammation, we propose the local increase of lactate concentration induced by UC-MSC and the consequent enrichment in M2-macrophage generation as a mechanism to achieve immunomodulation. PMID:27070086

  3. Low dose radiation induced senescence of human mesenchymal stromal cells and impaired the autophagy process

    PubMed Central

    Alessio, Nicola; Del Gaudio, Stefania; Capasso, Stefania; Di Bernardo, Giovanni; Cappabianca, Salvatore; Cipollaro, Marilena; Peluso, Gianfranco; Galderisi, Umberto

    2015-01-01

    Low doses of radiation may have profound effects on cellular function. Individuals may be exposed to low doses of radiation either intentionally for medical purposes or accidentally, such as those exposed to radiological terrorism or those who live near illegal radioactive waste dumpsites. We studied the effects of low dose radiation on human bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC), which contain a subpopulation of stem cells able to differentiate in bone, cartilage, and fat; support hematopoiesis; and contribute to body's homeostasis. The main outcome of low radiation exposure, besides reduction of cell cycling, is the triggering of senescence, while the contribution to apoptosis is minimal. We also showed that low radiation affected the autophagic flux. We hypothesize that the autophagy prevented radiation deteriorative processes, and its decline contributed to senescence. An increase in ATM staining one and six hours post-irradiation and return to basal level at 48 hours, along with persistent gamma-H2AX staining, indicated that MSC properly activated the DNA repair signaling, though some damages remained unrepaired, mainly in non-cycling cells. This suggested that the impaired DNA repair capacity of irradiated MSC seemed mainly related to the reduced activity of a non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) system rather than HR (homologous recombination). PMID:25544750

  4. Tissue-specific Differentiation Potency of Mesenchymal Stromal Cells from Perinatal Tissues.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Ahlm; Kim, Yonggoo; Kim, Myungshin; Kim, Jiyeon; Choi, Hayoung; Jekarl, Dong Wook; Lee, Seungok; Kim, Jung Min; Shin, Jong-Chul; Park, In Yang

    2016-04-05

    Human perinatal tissue is an abundant source of mesenchymal stromal cells(MSCs) and lacks the ethical concerns. Perinatal MSCs can be obtained from various tissues as like amnion, chorion, and umbilical cord. Still, little is known of the distinct nature of each MSC type. In this study, we successfully isolated and cultured MSCs from amnion(AMSCs), chorion(CMSCs), and umbilical cord(UC-MSCs). Proliferation potential was different among them, that AMSCs revealed the lowest proliferation rate due to increased Annexin V and senescence-associated β-galactosidase positive cells. We demonstrated distinct characteristic gene expression according to the source of the original tissue using microarray. In particular, genes associated with apoptosis and senescence including CDKN2A were up-regulated in AMSCs. In CMSCs, genes associated with heart morphogenesis and blood circulation including HTR2B were up-regulated. Genes associated with neurological system processes including NPY were up-regulated in UC-MSCs. Quantitative RT-PCR confirmed the gene expression data. And in vitro differentiation of MSCs demonstrated that CMSCs and UC-MSCs had a more pronounced ability to differentiate into cardiomyocyte and neural cells, respectively. This study firstly demonstrated the innate tissue-specific differentiation potency of perinatal MSCs which can be helpful in choosing more adequate cell sources for better outcome in a specific disease.

  5. Cytotoxicity of pilocarpine to human corneal stromal cells and its underlying cytotoxic mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Xiao-Long; Wen, Qian; Zhang, Meng-Yu; Fan, Ting-Jun

    2016-01-01

    AIM To examine the cytotoxic effect of pilocarpine, an anti-glaucoma drug, on human corneal stromal (HCS) cells and its underlying cytotoxic mechanisms using an in vitro model of non-transfected HCS cells. METHODS After HCS cells were treated with pilocarpine at a concentration from 0.15625 g/L to 20.0 g/L, their morphology and viability were detected by light microscopy and MTT assay. The membrane permeability, DNA fragmentation and ultrastructure were examined by acridine orange (AO)/ethidium bromide (EB) double-staining. DNA electrophoresis and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), cell cycle, phosphatidylserine (PS) orientation and mitochondrial transmembrane potential (MTP) were assayed by flow cytometry (FCM). And the activation of caspases was checked by ELISA. RESULTS Morphology observations and viability assay showed that pilocarpine at concentrations above 0.625 g/L induced dose- and time-dependent morphological abnormality and viability decline of HCS cells. AO/EB double-staining, DNA electrophoresis and TEM noted that pilocarpine at concentrations above 0.625 g/L induced dose- and/or time-dependent membrane permeability elevation, DNA fragmentation, and apoptotic body formation of the cells. Moreover, FCM and ELISA assays revealed that 2.5 g/L pilocarpine also induced S phase arrest, PS externalization, MTP disruption, and caspase-8, -9 and -3 activation of the cells. CONCLUSION Pilocarpine at concentrations above 0.625 g/L (1/32 of its clinical therapeutic dosage) has a dose- and time-dependent cytotoxicity to HCS cells by inducing apoptosis in these cells, which is most probably regulated by a death receptor-mediated mitochondrion-dependent signaling pathway. PMID:27162720

  6. Bone marrow regeneration promoted by biophysically sorted osteoprogenitors from mesenchymal stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Poon, Zhiyong; Lee, Wong Cheng; Guan, Guofeng; Nyan, Lin Myint; Lim, Chwee Teck; Han, Jongyoon; Van Vliet, Krystyn J

    2015-01-01

    Human tissue repair deficiencies can be supplemented through strategies to isolate, expand in vitro, and reimplant regenerative cells that supplant damaged cells or stimulate endogenous repair mechanisms. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs), a subset of which is described as mesenchymal stem cells, are leading candidates for cell-mediated bone repair and wound healing, with hundreds of ongoing clinical trials worldwide. An outstanding key challenge for successful clinical translation of MSCs is the capacity to produce large quantities of cells in vitro with uniform and relevant therapeutic properties. By leveraging biophysical traits of MSC subpopulations and label-free microfluidic cell sorting, we hypothesized and experimentally verified that MSCs of large diameter within expanded MSC cultures were osteoprogenitors that exhibited significantly greater efficacy over other MSC subpopulations in bone marrow repair. Systemic administration of osteoprogenitor MSCs significantly improved survival rates (>80%) as compared with other MSC subpopulations (0%) for preclinical murine bone marrow injury models. Osteoprogenitor MSCs also exerted potent therapeutic effects as "cell factories" that secreted high levels of regenerative factors such as interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8), vascular endothelial growth factor A, bone morphogenetic protein 2, epidermal growth factor, fibroblast growth factor 1, and angiopoietin-1; this resulted in increased cell proliferation, vessel formation, and reduced apoptosis in bone marrow. This MSC subpopulation mediated rescue of damaged marrow tissue via restoration of the hematopoiesis-supporting stroma, as well as subsequent hematopoiesis. Together, the capabilities described herein for label-freeisolation of regenerative osteoprogenitor MSCs can markedly improve the efficacy of MSC-based therapies.

  7. Role of CD271 enrichment in the isolation of mesenchymal stromal cells from umbilical cord blood.

    PubMed

    Attar, Armin; Ghalyanchi Langeroudi, Arash; Vassaghi, Attyieh; Ahrari, Iman; Maharlooei, Mohsen Khosravi; Monabati, Ahmad

    2013-09-01

    Isolation of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) from the umbil