Science.gov

Sample records for adjacent surface features

  1. Surface-water features in Osceola County and adjacent areas, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hughes, G.H.; Frazee, James M.

    1979-01-01

    The western two-thirds of Osceola County, Fla., drains southward by way of the Kissimmee River and its tributaries; the eastern one-third drains eastward to the St. Johns River or to marshy areas that make up part of the headwaters of the St. Johns River. About 15 percent of the county is covered by several hundred lakes whose surface areas range in size from a few to several thousand acres. Much of the natural drainage has been altered by canalization or regulated by control structures. Under natural conditions streamflow is seasonal, usually high in September or October and low in May or June, in phase with the rainy season. Control structures are used to maintain lake levels within a relatively small range in stage, producing greater seasonal variations in river flow than before regulation. Dissolved-solids concentration of much of the surface water is less than 240 mg/l, in some, much less. The water typically is of calcium bicarbonate type. Color is fairly high, in water draining from swamps, where the pickup of humic acids is significant. (Kosco-USGS)

  2. Air bubble-shock wave interaction adjacent to gelantine surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lush, P. A.; Tomita, Y.; Onodera, O.; Takayama, K.; Sanada, N.; Kuwahara, M.; Ioritani, N.; Kitayama, O.

    1990-07-01

    The interaction between a shock wave and an air bubble-adjacent to a gelatine surface is investigated in order to simulate human tissue damage resulting from extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy. Using high speed cine photography it is found that a shock wave of strength 11 MPa causes 1-3 mm diameter bubbles to produce high velocity microjets with penetration rates of approximately 110 m/s and penetration depths approximately equal to twice the initial bubble diameter. Theoretical considerations for liquid impact on soft solid of similar density indicate that microjet velocities will be twice the penetration rate, i.e. 220 m/s in the present case. Such events are the probable cause of observed renal tissue damage.

  3. Assessment of heavy metal levels in surface sediments of estuaries and adjacent coastal areas in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xianbin; Li, Deliang; Song, Guisheng

    2017-03-01

    This article investigates the variations of contamination levels of heavy metals such as copper, lead, chromium, cadmium, zinc, arsenic, and mercury over time in surface sediments of the Changjiang River Estuary (CRE), Yellow River Estuary (YRE), Pearl River Estuary (PRE), and their adjacent coastal areas in China. The contamination factor (CF), pollution load index (PLI), and geoaccumulation index ( I geo) are used to evaluate the quality of the surface sediments in the study areas. The results showed that the CRE, YRE, and their adjacent coastal areas were at a low risk of contamination in terms of heavy metals, while the PRE and its adjacent coastal area were at a moderate level. By comparison, the concentrations of heavy metals in the surface sediments of the YRE and its adjacent coastal area were relatively lower than those in the CRE, PRE, and their adjacent coastal areas.

  4. Assessment of heavy metal levels in surface sediments of estuaries and adjacent coastal areas in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xianbin; Li, Deliang; Song, Guisheng

    2016-05-01

    This article investigates the variations of contamination levels of heavy metals such as copper, lead, chromium, cadmium, zinc, arsenic, and mercury over time in surface sediments of the Changjiang River Estuary (CRE), Yellow River Estuary (YRE), Pearl River Estuary (PRE), and their adjacent coastal areas in China. The contamination factor (CF), pollution load index (PLI), and geoaccumulation index (I geo) are used to evaluate the quality of the surface sediments in the study areas. The results showed that the CRE, YRE, and their adjacent coastal areas were at a low risk of contamination in terms of heavy metals, while the PRE and its adjacent coastal area were at a moderate level. By comparison, the concentrations of heavy metals in the surface sediments of the YRE and its adjacent coastal area were relatively lower than those in the CRE, PRE, and their adjacent coastal areas.

  5. Composite, ordered material having sharp surface features

    DOEpatents

    D'Urso, Brian R.; Simpson, John T.

    2006-12-19

    A composite material having sharp surface features includes a recessive phase and a protrusive phase, the recessive phase having a higher susceptibility to a preselected etchant than the protrusive phase, the composite material having an etched surface wherein the protrusive phase protrudes from the surface to form a sharp surface feature. The sharp surface features can be coated to make the surface super-hydrophobic.

  6. Motion of a cylinder adjacent to a free-surface: flow patterns and loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Q.; Lin, J.-C.; Unal, M. F.; Rockwell, D.

    The flow structure and loading due to combined translatory and sinusoidal motion of a cylinder adjacent to a free-surface are characterized using a cinema technique of high-image-density particle image velocimetry and simultaneous force measurements. The instantaneous patterns of vorticity and streamline topology are interpreted as a function of degree of submergence beneath the free-surface. The relative magnitudes of the peak vorticity and the circulation of vortices formed from the upper and lower surfaces of the cylinder, as well as vortex formation from the free-surface, are remarkably affected by the nominal submergence. The corresponding streamline topology, interpreted in terms of foci, saddle points, and multiple separation and reattachment points also exhibit substantial changes with submergence. All of these features affect the instantaneous loading of the cylinder. Calculation of instantaneous moments of vorticity and the incremental changes in these moments during the cylinder motion allow identification of those vortices that contribute most substantially to the instantaneous lift and drag. Furthermore, the calculated moments are in general accord with the time integrals of the measured lift and drag acting on the cylinder for sufficiently large submergence.

  7. Interaction between a microplasma array and an adjacent dielectric surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzikowski, Sebastian; Schulz-von der Gathen, Volker

    2016-09-01

    Microplasma pixel devices are interesting for applications such as surface modification. A representative is the metal grid array, which is a stable alternative to silicon-based arrays and consists of a dielectric, a grounded electrode and a metal grid with symmetrically arranged cavities. Typically, microplasma arrays are operated close to atmospheric pressure with noble gases like argon and helium. By applying a bipolar triangular voltage waveform with an amplitude of 700 V peak-to-peak and a frequency of 10 kHz to the metal grid, the discharge is ignited in the cavities having a diameter of about 200 and depth of 50 µm. For future applications, such as coating and catalysis, the interaction between the array and a dielectric surface positioned at close distance (< 200 µm) is of great importance. By application of phase resolved optical emission spectroscopy, the phase dependent expansion of the emission out of the cavities has been observed. Here, we present results of investigations on the dependence of emission structures of the cavities (individually or as group) on pressure, applied voltage and distance between grid and dielectric. Supported by the DFG in the Research Unit FOR1123.

  8. Sea-floor drainage features of Cascadia Basin and the adjacent continental slope, northeast Pacific Ocean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hampton, M.A.; Karl, Herman A.; Kenyon, Neil H.

    1989-01-01

    Sea-floor drainage features of Cascadia Basin and the adjacent continental slope include canyons, primary fan valleys, deep-sea valleys, and remnant valley segments. Long-range sidescan sonographs and associated seismic-reflection profiles indicate that the canyons may originate along a mid-slope escarpment and grow upslope by mass wasting and downslope by valley erosion or aggradation. Most canyons are partly filled with sediment, and Quillayute Canyon is almost completely filled. Under normal growth conditions, the larger canyons connect with primary fan valleys or deep-sea valleys in Cascadia Basin, but development of accretionary ridges blocks or re-routes most canyons, forcing abandonment of the associated valleys in the basin. Astoria Fan has a primary fan valley that connects with Astoria Canyon at the fan apex. The fan valley is bordered by parallel levees on the upper fan but becomes obscure on the lower fan, where a few valley segments appear on the sonographs. Apparently, Nitinat Fan does not presently have a primary fan valley; none of the numerous valleys on the fan connect with a canyon. The Willapa-Cascadia-Vancouver-Juan de Fuca deep-sea valley system bypasses the submarine fans and includes deeply incised valleys to broad shallow swales, as well as within-valley terraces and hanging-valley confluences. ?? 1989.

  9. Surface ultrastructure of the cornea and adjacent epidermis during metamorphosis of Rana pipiens: a scanning electron microscopic study

    SciTech Connect

    Kaltenbach, J.C.; Harding, C.V.; Susan, S.

    1980-01-01

    The external surface of the cornea and adjacent epidermis of larvae in representative developmental stages and of adult frogs, Rana pipiens, was studied by scanning electron microscopy. Surface cells are polygonal, usually hexagonal, in outline and covered with microprojections. During larval development prior to metamorphic stages, neither eyelids nor Harderian glands have developed; microprojections on the corneal surface are high and branched, and cell boundaries are elevated. On the anterior portion of the cornea and on the epidermis near the eye, the surface pattern is less dense, and ciliated cells are present. During metamorphic stages, corneal cell boundaries become less prominent and the pattern of microprojections more variable and markedly different from that of larvae of earlier stages. Corneal cells have a spongy appearance, are covered by a coating material, or are characterized as light or dark based on their brightness and surface texture. As eyelids develop in metamorphic stages XX-XXI, the numbers of ciliated cells increase dramatically, both on the corneal surface and on the edges of the developing lids. In later metamorphic stages XXII to XXV, lids and Harderian glands become well-developed, and cilia are no longer observed. The adjacent epidermal surface becomes devoid of cilia but perforated by openings of cutaneous glands. Its spongy appearance is similar to that of both the cornea and neighboring epidermis of the mature frog. Changes in corneal surface features are probably metamorphic events associated with development of lids and Harderian glands and a shift from an aqueous to an air environment.

  10. Some features of soil organic matter in parks and adjacent residential areas of Moscow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prokof'eva, T. V.; Rozanova, M. S.; Poputnikov, V. O.

    2013-03-01

    The humus-accumulative horizons of soils from two natural-historical parks of Moscow and the adjacent residential areas were studied. An increase in the concentration of organic matter was observed in the soils of the residential areas. A tendency toward the formation of fulvate humus typical for southern taiga soils persisted in the low-carbonate nongleyed humus-accumulative horizons. At the same time, the transformation rate, character, and content of organic matter in the urban soils were strongly affected by the contamination, calcareous invasion, and remediation of the soils and sediments.

  11. Reattachment of a Three-Dimensional, Incompressible Jet to an Adjacent Axisymmetric Inclined Surface

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-03-31

    on, Repeft) IS. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES I9. KEY WORDS (Continue on tavateo aide If necessary and identity by block number)THRUST EVERSER COANDA EFFECT ...mechanics of a thrust reverser jet reattaohing to an aircraft nozzle afterbody. The problem basically involves the Coanda effect flow of a three... Coanda effect flow of a three-dimensional, incompressible jet to an adjacent axisymmetric, inclined surface. The equationsO -en derived in integral

  12. Historic surface faulting in continental United States and adjacent parts of Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bonilla, M.G.

    1967-01-01

    This report summarizes geometric aspects of approximately 35 instances of historic faulting of the ground surface in the continental United States and adjacent parts of Mexico. This information is of immediate importance in the selection and evaluation of sites for vital structures such as nuclear power plants. The data are presented in a table and graphs which show the quantitative relations between various aspects of the faulting. Certain items in the table that are uncertain, poorly known, or not in the published literature are briefly described in the text.

  13. Relationship between Mesozoic and Cenozoic tectonic features in west central Arizona and adjacent southeastern California

    SciTech Connect

    Spencer, J.E.; Reynolds, S.J. )

    1990-01-10

    The Maria fold-and-thrust belt (MFTB) is a narrow belt of Mesozoic crustal shortening that is characterized by generally south vergent folds and thrusts that commonly displace Proterozoic crystalline rocks over deformed and metamorphosed Paleozoic and Mesozoic strata. The MFTB is cut by a south to southeast trending belt of mid-Tertiary extensional deformation. Extension was characterized by large displacements on low-angle normal faults, known as detachment faults, and by isostatic uplift of mylonitic midcrustal rocks now exposed in metamorphic core complexes. The geometry and style of extensional deformation change along the extensional belt and reveal the influence of the MFTB. Several extensional features are spatially coincident with the root zone of MFTB thrusts: (1) an areally extensive west-northwest trending belt of denuded Tertiary mylonitic fabrics in the Whipple and Harcuvar metamorphic core complexes, (2) a style of extension characterized by minimum extensional dismemberment of the upper plate and maximum denudation and uplift of deep-seated lower plate rocks, (3) an abrupt bend in the belt of arched, uplifted rocks below detachment faults, and (4) an abrupt bend in the trend of the breakaway zone of the detachment faults and an associated lateral ramp in the detachment fault system.

  14. Remote sensing of coastal sea-surface features off northern British Columbia

    SciTech Connect

    Jardine, I.D.; Thomson, K.A.; LeBlond, P.H. ); Foreman, M.G. )

    1993-06-01

    This article presents an overview of surface oceanographic features identified by AVHRR imagery in Hecate Strait and adjacent waters surrounding the Queen Charlotte Islands, Canada, an area still poor in in situ observations. The observed features and their temporal variability are interpreted in terms of meteorological and hydrological forcing. The effects of tidal mixing are discussed through the application of a finite element numerical model.

  15. 30 CFR 817.57 - Hydrologic balance: Surface activities in or adjacent to perennial or intermittent streams.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hydrologic balance: Surface activities in or adjacent to perennial or intermittent streams. 817.57 Section 817.57 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE... PERMANENT PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.57 Hydrologic balance:...

  16. 30 CFR 817.57 - Hydrologic balance: Surface activities in or adjacent to perennial or intermittent streams.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hydrologic balance: Surface activities in or adjacent to perennial or intermittent streams. 817.57 Section 817.57 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE... PERMANENT PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.57 Hydrologic balance:...

  17. Metacatalog of Planetary Surface Features for Multicriteria Evaluation of Surface Evolution: the Integrated Planetary Feature Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hargitai, Henrik

    2016-10-01

    We have created a metacatalog, or catalog or catalogs, of surface features of Mars that also includes the actual data in the catalogs listed. The goal is to make mesoscale surface feature databases available in one place, in a GIS-ready format. The databases can be directly imported to ArcGIS or other GIS platforms, like Google Mars. Some of the catalogs in our database are also ingested into the JMARS platform.All catalogs have been previously published in a peer-reviewed journal, but they may contain updates of the published catalogs. Many of the catalogs are "integrated", i.e. they merge databases or information from various papers on the same topic, including references to each individual features listed.Where available, we have included shapefiles with polygon or linear features, however, most of the catalogs only contain point data of their center points and morphological data.One of the unexpected results of the planetary feature metacatalog is that some features have been described by several papers, using different, i.e., conflicting designations. This shows the need for the development of an identification system suitable for mesoscale (100s m to km sized) features that tracks papers and thus prevents multiple naming of the same feature.The feature database can be used for multicriteria analysis of a terrain, thus enables easy distribution pattern analysis and the correlation of the distribution of different landforms and features on Mars. Such catalog makes a scientific evaluation of potential landing sites easier and more effective during the selection process and also supports automated landing site selections.The catalog is accessible at https://planetarydatabase.wordpress.com/.

  18. Robust Features Of Surface Electromyography Signal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabri, M. I.; Miskon, M. F.; Yaacob, M. R.

    2013-12-01

    Nowadays, application of robotics in human life has been explored widely. Robotics exoskeleton system are one of drastically areas in recent robotic research that shows mimic impact in human life. These system have been developed significantly to be used for human power augmentation, robotics rehabilitation, human power assist, and haptic interaction in virtual reality. This paper focus on solving challenges in problem using neural signals and extracting human intent. Commonly, surface electromyography signal (sEMG) are used in order to control human intent for application exoskeleton robot. But the problem lies on difficulty of pattern recognition of the sEMG features due to high noises which are electrode and cable motion artifact, electrode noise, dermic noise, alternating current power line interface, and other noise came from electronic instrument. The main objective in this paper is to study the best features of electromyography in term of time domain (statistical analysis) and frequency domain (Fast Fourier Transform).The secondary objectives is to map the relationship between torque and best features of muscle unit activation potential (MaxPS and RMS) of biceps brachii. This project scope use primary data of 2 male sample subject which using same dominant hand (right handed), age between 20-27 years old, muscle diameter 32cm to 35cm and using single channel muscle (biceps brachii muscle). The experiment conduct 2 times repeated task of contraction and relaxation of biceps brachii when lifting different load from no load to 3kg with ascending 1kg The result shows that Fast Fourier Transform maximum power spectrum (MaxPS) has less error than mean value of reading compare to root mean square (RMS) value. Thus, Fast Fourier Transform maximum power spectrum (MaxPS) show the linear relationship against torque experience by elbow joint to lift different load. As the conclusion, the best features is MaxPS because it has the lowest error than other features and show

  19. Surface geology of the northern Midway-Sunset Field and adjacent Temblor Range, Kern County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Wylie, A.S. Jr.; Sturm, D.H.; Gardiner, R.L.; Mercer, M.F.

    1996-12-31

    New surface mapping at a 1:12000 scale adjacent to the 2 billion barrel Midway Sunset Field has revealed complex intraformational stratigraphy within the upper Miocene Santa Margarita Formation (Tms). Locally known as the Potter and Spellacy Formations in the subsurface, these sandstone and conglomerate heavy oil reservoirs produce the majority of Midway Sunset daily production of 164,000 barrels of oil via thermal EOR processes. The Tms consists mostly of conglomerate inserted into the Belridge Diatomite (Tmb) interval. The stratigraphically lower intervals of the Tms clearly fill deeply incised valleys or submarine canyons cut into Tmb and locally into the underlying Antelope Shale (Tma). The basal intervals of Tms; are very coarse grained, containing boulders of granitic and metamorphic rock as large as 4 meters that were derived from the Salinian block west of the San Andreas Fault. The upper intervals of Tms are more sheet-like and interbedded containing clasts less than 50 cm in length. The incised valleys have a spacing of about one mile in outcrop, with a gap located in the area of the older Republic Sandstone (Tmr). Paleocurrents from Tms regionally suggest sediment transport to the northeast. The sedimentary structures of Tms suggest deposition in deep-water conditions, probably a slope (bathyal) setting. Shelf environments should have been present to the southwest (now stripped away by erosion) and submarine-fan and basin-floor environments to the northeast.

  20. Surface geology of the northern Midway-Sunset Field and adjacent Temblor Range, Kern County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Wylie, A.S. Jr.; Sturm, D.H.; Gardiner, R.L.; Mercer, M.F. )

    1996-01-01

    New surface mapping at a 1:12000 scale adjacent to the 2 billion barrel Midway Sunset Field has revealed complex intraformational stratigraphy within the upper Miocene Santa Margarita Formation (Tms). Locally known as the Potter and Spellacy Formations in the subsurface, these sandstone and conglomerate heavy oil reservoirs produce the majority of Midway Sunset daily production of 164,000 barrels of oil via thermal EOR processes. The Tms consists mostly of conglomerate inserted into the Belridge Diatomite (Tmb) interval. The stratigraphically lower intervals of the Tms clearly fill deeply incised valleys or submarine canyons cut into Tmb and locally into the underlying Antelope Shale (Tma). The basal intervals of Tms; are very coarse grained, containing boulders of granitic and metamorphic rock as large as 4 meters that were derived from the Salinian block west of the San Andreas Fault. The upper intervals of Tms are more sheet-like and interbedded containing clasts less than 50 cm in length. The incised valleys have a spacing of about one mile in outcrop, with a gap located in the area of the older Republic Sandstone (Tmr). Paleocurrents from Tms regionally suggest sediment transport to the northeast. The sedimentary structures of Tms suggest deposition in deep-water conditions, probably a slope (bathyal) setting. Shelf environments should have been present to the southwest (now stripped away by erosion) and submarine-fan and basin-floor environments to the northeast.

  1. Literature and data review for the surface-water pathway: Columbia River and adjacent coastal areas

    SciTech Connect

    Walters, W.H.; Dirkes, R.L.; Napier, B.A.

    1992-11-01

    As part of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project, Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories reviewed literature and data on radionuclide concentrations and distribution in the water, sediment, and biota of the Columbia River and adjacent coastal areas. Over 600 documents were reviewed including Hanford reports, reports by offsite agencies, journal articles, and graduate theses. Radionuclide concentration data were used in preliminary estimates of individual dose for the period 1964 through 1966. This report summarizes the literature and database reviews and the results of the preliminary dose estimates.

  2. Literature and data review for the surface-water pathway: Columbia River and adjacent coastal areas

    SciTech Connect

    Walters, W.H.; Dirkes, R.L.; Napier, B.A.

    1992-04-01

    As part of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project, Pacific Northwest Laboratory reviewed literature and data on radionuclide concentrations and distribution in the water, sediment, and biota of the Columbia River and adjacent coastal areas. Over 600 documents were reviewed including Hanford reports, reports by offsite agencies, journal articles, and graduate theses. Certain radionuclide concentration data were used in preliminary estimates of individual dose for the 1964--1966 time period. This report summarizes the literature and database review and the results of the preliminary dose estimates.

  3. A Thermal Monitoring Sheet with Low Influence from Adjacent Waterbolus for Tissue Surface Thermometry during Clinical Hyperthermia

    PubMed Central

    Arunachalam, K.; Maccarini, P.F.; Stauffer, P. R.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a complete thermal analysis of a novel conformal surface thermometer design with directional sensitivity for real time temperature monitoring during hyperthermia treatments of large superficial cancer. The thermal monitoring sheet (TMS) discussed in this paper consists of a two-dimensional array of fiberoptic sensors embedded between two layers of flexible, low loss and thermally conductive printed circuit board (PCB) film. Heat transfer across all interfaces from the tissue surface through multiple layers of insulating dielectrics surrounding the small buried temperature sensor and into an adjacent temperature regulated water coupling bolus was studied using 3D thermal simulation software. Theoretical analyses were carried out to identify the most effective differential TMS probe configuration possible with commercially available flexible PCB materials, and to compare their thermal responses with omni-directional probes commonly used in clinical hyperthermia. A TMS sensor design that employs 0.0508m Kapton MTB® and 0.2032 mm Kapton HN® flexible polyimide films is proposed for tissue surface thermometry with low influence from the adjacent waterbolus. Comparison of the thermal simulations with clinical probes indicate the new differential TMS probe design to outperform in terms of both transient response and steady state accuracy in selectively reading the tissue surface temperature, while decreasing the overall thermal barrier of the probe between the coupling waterbolus and tissue surface. PMID:18838365

  4. Pressure distributions induced by elevon deflections on swept wings and adjacent end-plate surfaces at Mach 6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, L. G., II; Johnson, C. B.

    1977-01-01

    Surface pressure distributions are presented for regions where three-dimensional separated flow effects are prominent on swept-wing-elevon-end-plate models of 0 degree, 50 degree, and 70 degree sweepback, and with 0 degree, 10 degree, 20 degree, and 30 degree elevon deflections. Surface-oil-flow photographs and pressure distributions on the flat-plate wing, elevon, and end-plate surfaces are presented for numerous geometric variations, including various spacings between the elevon and the end plate, with and without a tip fin. The data, for a free-stream Mach number of 6 and a wing-root-chord Reynolds number of 20 x 10 to the sixth power, reveal considerably larger regions of elevon induced loads on the adjacent end-plate surface than would be anticipated by using inviscid flow analyses.

  5. 30 CFR 784.28 - Surface activities in or adjacent to perennial or intermittent streams.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... itself, and those activities would occur on the surface of land subject to the buffer requirement of... buffer that you propose to implement instead of maintaining a 100-foot undisturbed buffer between surface activities and the perennial or intermittent stream; and (3) Explain how the lesser buffer, together with...

  6. 30 CFR 784.28 - Surface activities in or adjacent to perennial or intermittent streams.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...; and (ii) Minimize disturbances and adverse impacts on fish, wildlife, and related environmental values... or intermittent streams. 784.28 Section 784.28 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS PERMITS...

  7. 30 CFR 784.28 - Surface activities in or adjacent to perennial or intermittent streams.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...; and (ii) Minimize disturbances and adverse impacts on fish, wildlife, and related environmental values... or intermittent streams. 784.28 Section 784.28 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS PERMITS...

  8. 30 CFR 784.28 - Surface activities in or adjacent to perennial or intermittent streams.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...; and (ii) Minimize disturbances and adverse impacts on fish, wildlife, and related environmental values... or intermittent streams. 784.28 Section 784.28 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS PERMITS...

  9. Experimental Study of Surface Dissolution Features on Kimberlite Indicator Minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McIsaac, E.; Fedortchouk, Y.

    2009-05-01

    During the ascent to the Earth's surface kimberlite magmas entrain mantle minerals - chromites, ilmenites, garnets and the most desirable - diamonds. Kimberlite magma partially dissolves these minerals during the ascent, producing different types of surface features on the minerals. Experiments showed that surface features on diamonds can be used to constrain composition of magmatic fluid. However, examining mantle minerals with more complex chemical compositions, such as chromites and ilmenites, could provide more detailed information about the composition and evolution of fluid system in the magmas, as determination of the depth of their entrainment is possible. This study experimentally investigates dissolution of chromites and ilmenites in melts with C-O-H fluid. The surface features produced at these conditions are then compared to the surface features on minerals recovered from kimberlites. The experiments were done in a piston-cylinder apparatus at 1350 - 1400°C and 1 GPa. Rounded natural mineral grains were placed in a synthetic mixture of Ca-Mg-Si-C-H-O composition with 0, 5, 13, 15, and 31 wt% H2O and 0, 5, and 27 wt% CO2. The experimental results investigated using Field-Emission Scanning Electron Microscope showed that angular step-like dissolution surfaces, which are common for natural kimberlitic chromites, develop only in the presence of H2O-rich fluid phase. The reaction of chromite with H2O dissolved in the melt and with dry melt caused smoothing of chromite surfaces. Chromite dissolution in CO2-rich melts produced rounded and polyhedral relief features. Both the smooth and polyhedral types of features are not typical for natural kimberlite-hosted chromite grains. Ilmenite underwent rapid dissolution at our experimental conditions. In H2O-rich fluid ilmenite produced "pyramidal" type of surface features previously described as the most common for natural kimberlitic ilmenites. The experimental results were compared to the natural minerals

  10. Manufacturing of Superhydrophobic Surfaces with Nanoscale and Microscale Features

    SciTech Connect

    2009-06-01

    This factsheet describes a research project that will develop a technology that will enable nanoscale and microscale superhydrophobic (SHP) features to be imaged onto surfaces for the high-volume manufacturing of water-repellent components and coatings.

  11. Heavy metal distribution in surface sediments from the continental shelf adjacent to Nazaré canyon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, A.; Palma, C.; Valença, M.

    2011-12-01

    The continental shelf surface sediments around the Nazaré canyon have been analyzed for heavy metal contamination. Organic carbon content and grain size were also determined. The shelf area around the Nazaré canyon shows mean concentrations of Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb and Zn within the limits recommended by OSPAR (2008). Some enrichment and human impact was found for Cr and especially Pb. Local rivers, mainly the Mondego and southern creeks seem to be the major sources of heavy metals for the Nazaré area, showing similar contamination levels. A set of reference values for non-contaminated fine surface sediments (<63 μm) in the North-Eastern Atlantic are proposed for As, Al, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Li, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn.

  12. Coanda effect jet around a cylinder with an interacting adjacent surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Churchill, Randolph Allen

    The effects of placing a plane solid surface in close proximity to a Coanda effect jet turning over a cylindrical surface are investigated to help judge the possible application of this type of jet to manufacturing line processes. The Coanda jet is proposed as a coating control mechanism for fluidic coatings on sheets or a particulate removal device. A Coanda jet placed close to a surface will develop a strong tangential flow that will shear by viscous effects and pressure gradients. A turbulent k-epsilon finite element model, developed in FIDAP, is presented that studies the effects of cylinder-sheet separation distance and jet-to-gap angular placement of the jet. It is assumed that the operation is isothermal and that the sheet speed is negligible compared to the air jet speed. Unconstrained models and cases with a distant surface were run and compared to published experimental results for an unconstrained Coanda jet to validate the modeling method and optimize the empirical constants in the k-epsilon equations. Best agreement is found if the C(sub 2) parameter in the equations is increased from 1.92 to 3.0. Maximum shear stress and pressure gradient values increased exponentially for a decreasing gap size and physical geometric constraints will be the limiting factor to efficiency. For similar initial jets this study shows that the Coanda jet develops stripping forces about 1/2 as great as the regular air-knife, but has advantages such as directed flow. The Coanda jet is seen as a viable option to air-knives for certain operations.

  13. Surface deformation adjacent to the Hukou fault in Northwestern Taiwan detected by ENVISAT ASAR interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Y.; Chang, C.

    2007-12-01

    The Taiwan Island, which is young, as revealed by its dense seismic activities and rapid surface deformation, is located at the convergent zone between Eurasia plate and Philippine Sea plate. Because of the continued northwestward movement of the Philippine Sea plate and the active extension of the Okinawa Trough, the northern part of Taiwan is now under deformation. Since the northern Taiwan is the most populated area in Taiwan, the tectonic activity and the potential geological hazard of this area is an important issue for Taiwan. In order to realize the surface deformation behavior of this area, we apply DInSAR-technique to engage this study. The Hukou fault, main focus of this study, is one of the major and active structures in northwestern Taiwan, along which some industrial parks and communities are well developed. The SAR images used in this study are all acquired from 2003 to 2007 by ENVISAT satellite, which is launched by the European Space Agency in 2002. Our preliminary interferometric results reveal that the surface deformation in the urban areas are much clear than that in mountainous and rural areas. In some areas, juxtaposed against the fault zones, clear deformation patterns are obviously observed indicates that the deformation of this area is still active. After stacking all our interferometric results, we obtain that the average slant range displacement (SRD) reaches to around 0.5 cm/yr near the fault area. Radar Interferometry can efficiently be applied to observe the land surface deformation, and further help us to interpret and predict the underground tectonics and potential natural hazard.

  14. Engineering nanoscale surface features to sustain microparticle rolling in flow.

    PubMed

    Kalasin, Surachate; Santore, Maria M

    2015-05-26

    Nanoscopic features of channel walls are often engineered to facilitate microfluidic transport, for instance when surface charge enables electro-osmosis or when grooves drive mixing. The dynamic or rolling adhesion of flowing microparticles on a channel wall holds potential to accomplish particle sorting or to selectively transfer reactive species or signals between the wall and flowing particles. Inspired by cell rolling under the direction of adhesion molecules called selectins, we present an engineered platform in which the rolling of flowing microparticles is sustained through the incorporation of entirely synthetic, discrete, nanoscale, attractive features into the nonadhesive (electrostatically repulsive) surface of a flow channel. Focusing on one example or type of nanoscale feature and probing the impact of broad systematic variations in surface feature loading and processing parameters, this study demonstrates how relatively flat, weakly adhesive nanoscale features, positioned with average spacings on the order of tens of nanometers, can produce sustained microparticle rolling. We further demonstrate how the rolling velocity and travel distance depend on flow and surface design. We identify classes of related surfaces that fail to support rolling and present a state space that identifies combinations of surface and processing variables corresponding to transitions between rolling, free particle motion, and arrest. Finally we identify combinations of parameters (surface length scales, particle size, flow rates) where particles can be manipulated with size-selectivity.

  15. Potentiometric surface of the Floridan Aquifer, Southwest Florida Water Management District and adjacent areas, September 1978

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wolansky, R.M.; Mills, L.R.; Woodham, W.M.; Laughlin, C.P.

    1978-01-01

    A September 1978 potentiometric-surface map depicts the annual high water-level period of the Floridan aquifer in the Southwest Florida Management District. Potentiometric levels increased 10 to 25 feet between May 1978 and September 1978, in the citrus and farming sections of southern Hillsborough, northern Hardee, southwestern Polk and Manatee Counties. These areas are widely affected by pumping for irrigation and have the greatest fluctuations in water-levels between the low and high water-level periods. Water-level rises in coastal, northern and southern areas of the Water Management District ranged from 0 to 10 feet. (Woodard-USGS)

  16. Potentiometric surface of Floridan aquifer, Southwest Florida Water Management District and adjacent areas, September 1977

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ryder, P.D.; Mills, L.R.; Laughlin, C.P.

    1978-01-01

    A potentiometric-surface map of the Southwest Florida Water Management District depicts the annual high water-level period. Potentiometric levels increased 15 to 30 feet between May 1977 and September 1977 in the citrus and farming sections of southeastern Hillsborough, northern Hardee, and southwestern Polk Counties. These areas are widely affected by pumpage for irrigation and have the greatest range in water-level fluctuations between the low and high water-level periods. Water-level rises in coastal, northern, and southern areas of the Water Management District ranged from 0 to 15 feet. (Woodard-USGS)

  17. Fatty acid composition of surface sediments in the subtropical Pearl River estuary and adjacent shelf, Southern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Jianfang; Zhang, Hongbo; Peng, Ping'an

    2006-01-01

    Surface sediments (10 cm) of the subtropical Pearl River estuary and adjacent shelf, Southern China were collected. Fatty acids and compound-specific carbon isotopic analyses were determined to infer their sources and biogeochemical cycle of this lipid in the subtropical Pearl River estuary and adjacent northern South China Sea (SCS). The total concentrations of fatty acids ranged from ˜1.28 to ˜42.25 μg g -1 dry weight. The levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) were low (0.2-4.8% of total fatty acids), suggesting that fatty acids derived from algae were effectively recycled during the whole settling and depositing process. Bacterial fatty acids were significantly high and terrigenous fatty acids were low in the sediments. Principal component analysis (PCA) of the data also indicates that a clear separation of the biogeochemical sources can be seen. The δ13C values of bacterial fatty acids, i.e., i/ aiC 15 (-22.9‰ to -29.4‰) suggest that bacteria within the sediments mainly utilize a labile pool of organic matter derived from algae for their growth in the subtropical Pearl River estuary system.

  18. Intrepretation of surface features and surface processes on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gad-El-hak, M.; Howard, A.; Morton, J. B.; Pierce, D.

    1975-01-01

    Eolian erosion and deposition on earth was studied in order to interpret the eolian land forms of Mars. Emphasis of the wind tunnel studies was on the flow field around models of eolian forms. Areas of the wind tunnel studies include: simulation of the atmospheric boundary layer; velocity profile measurements around different models in the desert boundary layer, and estimating shear stress distributions on the model surfaces; flow visualization techniques; streamline mapping using tuft photographs; and roughness contrasts.

  19. An ontology design pattern for surface water features

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sinha, Gaurav; Mark, David; Kolas, Dave; Varanka, Dalia; Romero, Boleslo E.; Feng, Chen-Chieh; Usery, E. Lynn; Liebermann, Joshua; Sorokine, Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    Surface water is a primary concept of human experience but concepts are captured in cultures and languages in many different ways. Still, many commonalities exist due to the physical basis of many of the properties and categories. An abstract ontology of surface water features based only on those physical properties of landscape features has the best potential for serving as a foundational domain ontology for other more context-dependent ontologies. The Surface Water ontology design pattern was developed both for domain knowledge distillation and to serve as a conceptual building-block for more complex or specialized surface water ontologies. A fundamental distinction is made in this ontology between landscape features that act as containers (e.g., stream channels, basins) and the bodies of water (e.g., rivers, lakes) that occupy those containers. Concave (container) landforms semantics are specified in a Dry module and the semantics of contained bodies of water in a Wet module. The pattern is implemented in OWL, but Description Logic axioms and a detailed explanation is provided in this paper. The OWL ontology will be an important contribution to Semantic Web vocabulary for annotating surface water feature datasets. Also provided is a discussion of why there is a need to complement the pattern with other ontologies, especially the previously developed Surface Network pattern. Finally, the practical value of the pattern in semantic querying of surface water datasets is illustrated through an annotated geospatial dataset and sample queries using the classes of the Surface Water pattern.

  20. Potentiometric surface of Floridan Aquifer, Southwest Florida Water Management District and adjacent areas, May 1979

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wolansky, R.M.; Mills, L.R.; Woodham, W.M.; Laughlin, C.P.

    1979-01-01

    A May 1979 potentiometric-surface map depicts the annual low water-level period. Potentiometric levels declined 4 to 21 feet between September 1978 and May 1979, in the citrus and farming sections of southern Hillsborough, northern Hardee, southwestern Polk, northwestern DeSoto, and Manatee Counties. Water levels in these areas are widely affected by pumping for irrigation and have the greatest range in fluctuations. Water-level declines ranged from 0 to 6 feet in coastal, northern, and southern areas of the Water Management District. Generally potentiometric levels were higher than previous May levels due to heavy rains in April and May. In parts of Hillsborough, Pasco, and Pinellas Counties, May 1979 potentiometric levels were 18 feet higher than those of September 1978. (USGS)

  1. Comparisons of sensible and latent heat fluxes using surface and aircraft data over adjacent wet and dry surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Doran, J.C.; Hubbe, J.M.; Shaw, W.J.; Baldocchi, D.D.; Crawford, T.L.; Dobosy, R.J.; Meyers, T.J.

    1992-01-01

    In June 1991, a field study of surface fluxes of latent and sensible heat over heterogeneous surfaces was carried out near Boardman, Oregon (Doran et al., 1992). The object of the study was to develop improved methods of extrapolating from local measurements of fluxes to area-averaged values suitable for use in general circulation models (GCMs) applied to climate studies. A grid element in a GCM is likely to encompass regions whose fluxes vary significantly from one surface type to another. The problem of integrating these fluxes into a single, representative value for the whole element is not simple, and describing such a flux in terms of flux-gradient relationships, as is often done, presents additional difficulties.

  2. Relating sub-surface ice features to physiological stress in a climate sensitive mammal, the American pika (Ochotona princeps).

    PubMed

    Wilkening, Jennifer L; Ray, Chris; Varner, Johanna

    2015-01-01

    The American pika (Ochotona princeps) is considered a sentinel species for detecting ecological effects of climate change. Pikas are declining within a large portion of their range, and ongoing research suggests loss of sub-surface ice as a mechanism. However, no studies have demonstrated physiological responses of pikas to sub-surface ice features. Here we present the first analysis of physiological stress in pikas living in and adjacent to habitats underlain by ice. Fresh fecal samples were collected non-invasively from two adjacent sites in the Rocky Mountains (one with sub-surface ice and one without) and analyzed for glucocorticoid metabolites (GCM). We also measured sub-surface microclimates in each habitat. Results indicate lower GCM concentration in sites with sub-surface ice, suggesting that pikas are less stressed in favorable microclimates resulting from sub-surface ice features. GCM response was well predicted by habitat characteristics associated with sub-surface ice features, such as lower mean summer temperatures. These results suggest that pikas inhabiting areas without sub-surface ice features are experiencing higher levels of physiological stress and may be more susceptible to changing climates. Although post-deposition environmental effects can confound analyses based on fecal GCM, we found no evidence for such effects in this study. Sub-surface ice features are key to water cycling and storage and will likely represent an increasingly important component of water resources in a warming climate. Fecal samples collected from additional watersheds as part of current pika monitoring programs could be used to further characterize relationships between pika stress and sub-surface ice features.

  3. Relating Sub-Surface Ice Features to Physiological Stress in a Climate Sensitive Mammal, the American Pika (Ochotona princeps)

    PubMed Central

    Wilkening, Jennifer L.; Ray, Chris; Varner, Johanna

    2015-01-01

    The American pika (Ochotona princeps) is considered a sentinel species for detecting ecological effects of climate change. Pikas are declining within a large portion of their range, and ongoing research suggests loss of sub-surface ice as a mechanism. However, no studies have demonstrated physiological responses of pikas to sub-surface ice features. Here we present the first analysis of physiological stress in pikas living in and adjacent to habitats underlain by ice. Fresh fecal samples were collected non-invasively from two adjacent sites in the Rocky Mountains (one with sub-surface ice and one without) and analyzed for glucocorticoid metabolites (GCM). We also measured sub-surface microclimates in each habitat. Results indicate lower GCM concentration in sites with sub-surface ice, suggesting that pikas are less stressed in favorable microclimates resulting from sub-surface ice features. GCM response was well predicted by habitat characteristics associated with sub-surface ice features, such as lower mean summer temperatures. These results suggest that pikas inhabiting areas without sub-surface ice features are experiencing higher levels of physiological stress and may be more susceptible to changing climates. Although post-deposition environmental effects can confound analyses based on fecal GCM, we found no evidence for such effects in this study. Sub-surface ice features are key to water cycling and storage and will likely represent an increasingly important component of water resources in a warming climate. Fecal samples collected from additional watersheds as part of current pika monitoring programs could be used to further characterize relationships between pika stress and sub-surface ice features. PMID:25803587

  4. Sources of heavy metals in surface sediments and an ecological risk assessment from two adjacent Plateau reservoirs.

    PubMed

    Wu, Binbin; Wang, Guoqiang; Wu, Jin; Fu, Qing; Liu, Changming

    2014-01-01

    The concentrations of heavy metals (mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu) and arsenic (As)) in surface water and sediments were investigated in two adjacent drinking water reservoirs (Hongfeng and Baihua Reservoirs) on the Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau in Southwest China. Possible pollution sources were identified by spatial and statistical analyses. For both reservoirs, Cd was most likely from industrial activities, and As was from lithogenic sources. For the Hongfeng Reservoir, Pb, Cr and Cu might have originated from mixed sources (traffic pollution and residual effect of former industrial practices), and the sources of Hg included the inflows, which were different for the North (industrial activities) and South (lithogenic origin) Lakes, and atmospheric deposition resulting from coal combustion. For the Baihua Reservoir, the Hg, Cr and Cu were primarily derived from industrial activities, and the Pb originated from traffic pollution. The Hg in the Baihua Reservoir might also have been associated with coal combustion pollution. An analysis of ecological risk using sediment quality guidelines showed that there were moderate toxicological risks for sediment-dwelling organisms in both reservoirs, mainly from Hg and Cr. Ecological risk analysis using the Hakanson index suggested that there was a potential moderate to very high ecological risk to humans from fish in both reservoirs, mainly because of elevated levels of Hg and Cd. The upstream Hongfeng Reservoir acts as a buffer, but remains an important source of Cd, Cu and Pb and a moderately important source of Cr, for the downstream Baihua Reservoir. This study provides a replicable method for assessing aquatic ecosystem health in adjacent plateau reservoirs.

  5. Sources of Heavy Metals in Surface Sediments and an Ecological Risk Assessment from Two Adjacent Plateau Reservoirs

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Binbin; Wang, Guoqiang; Wu, Jin; Fu, Qing; Liu, Changming

    2014-01-01

    The concentrations of heavy metals (mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu) and arsenic (As)) in surface water and sediments were investigated in two adjacent drinking water reservoirs (Hongfeng and Baihua Reservoirs) on the Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau in Southwest China. Possible pollution sources were identified by spatial and statistical analyses. For both reservoirs, Cd was most likely from industrial activities, and As was from lithogenic sources. For the Hongfeng Reservoir, Pb, Cr and Cu might have originated from mixed sources (traffic pollution and residual effect of former industrial practices), and the sources of Hg included the inflows, which were different for the North (industrial activities) and South (lithogenic origin) Lakes, and atmospheric deposition resulting from coal combustion. For the Baihua Reservoir, the Hg, Cr and Cu were primarily derived from industrial activities, and the Pb originated from traffic pollution. The Hg in the Baihua Reservoir might also have been associated with coal combustion pollution. An analysis of ecological risk using sediment quality guidelines showed that there were moderate toxicological risks for sediment-dwelling organisms in both reservoirs, mainly from Hg and Cr. Ecological risk analysis using the Hakanson index suggested that there was a potential moderate to very high ecological risk to humans from fish in both reservoirs, mainly because of elevated levels of Hg and Cd. The upstream Hongfeng Reservoir acts as a buffer, but remains an important source of Cd, Cu and Pb and a moderately important source of Cr, for the downstream Baihua Reservoir. This study provides a replicable method for assessing aquatic ecosystem health in adjacent plateau reservoirs. PMID:25010771

  6. Mapping Surface Features Produced by an Active Landslide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parise, Mario; Gueguen, Erwan; Vennari, Carmela

    2016-10-01

    A large landslide reactivated on December 2013, at Montescaglioso, southern Italy, after 56 hours of rainfall. The landslide disrupted over 500 m of a freeway, involved a few warehouses, a supermarket, and private homes. After the event, it has been performed field surveys, aided by visual analysis of terrestrial and helicopter photographs, to compile a map of the surface deformations. The geomorphological features mapped included single fractures, sets of fractures, tension cracks, trenches, and pressure ridges. In this paper we present the methodology used, the map obtained through the intensive field work, and discuss the main surface features produced by the landslide.

  7. Molecular characterization of sulfate-reducing bacteria community in surface sediments from the adjacent area of Changjiang Estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yu; Zhen, Yu; Mi, Tiezhu; He, Hui; Yu, Zhigang

    2016-02-01

    Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB), which obtain energy from dissimilatory sulfate reduction, play a vital role in the carbon and sulfur cycles. The dissimilatory sulfite reductase (Dsr), catalyzing the last step in the sulfate reduction pathway, has been found in all known SRB that have been tested so far. In this study, the diversity of SRB was investigated in the surface sediments from the adjacent area of Changjiang Estuary by PCR amplification, cloning and sequencing of the dissimilatory sulfite reductase beta subunit gene ( dsrB). Based on dsrB clone libraries constructed in this study, diversified SRB were found, represented by 173 unique OTUs. Certain cloned sequences were associated with Desulfobacteraceae, Desulfobulbaceae, and a large fraction (60%) of novel sequences that have deeply branched groups in the dsrB tree, indicating that novel SRB inhabit the surface sediments. In addition, correlations of the SRB assemblages with environmental factors were analyzed by the linear model-based redundancy analysis (RDA). The result revealed that temperature, salinity and the content of TOC were most closely correlated with the SRB communities. More information on SRB community was obtained by applying the utility of UniFrac to published dsrB gene sequences from this study and other 9 different kinds of marine environments. The results demonstrated that there were highly similar SRB genotypes in the marine and estuarine sediments, and that geographic positions and environmental factors influenced the SRB community distribution.

  8. Impervious surface extraction using coupled spectral-spatial features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Xinju; Shen, Zhanfeng; Cheng, Xi; Xia, Liegang; Luo, Jiancheng

    2016-07-01

    Accurate extraction of urban impervious surface data from high-resolution imagery remains a challenging task because of the spectral heterogeneity of complex urban land-cover types. Since the high-resolution imagery simultaneously provides plentiful spectral and spatial features, the accurate extraction of impervious surfaces depends on effective extraction and integration of spectral-spatial multifeatures. Different features have different importance for determining a certain class; traditional multifeature fusion methods that treat all features equally during classification cannot utilize the joint effect of multifeatures fully. A fusion method of distance metric learning (DML) and support vector machines is proposed to find the impervious and pervious subclasses from Chinese ZiYuan-3 (ZY-3) imagery. In the procedure of finding appropriate spectral and spatial feature combinations with DML, optimized distance metric was obtained adaptively by learning from the similarity side-information generated from labeled samples. Compared with the traditional vector stacking method that used each feature equally for multifeatures fusion, the approach achieves an overall accuracy of 91.6% (4.1% higher than the prior one) for a suburban dataset, and an accuracy of 92.7% (3.4% higher) for a downtown dataset, indicating the effectiveness of the method for accurately extracting urban impervious surface data from ZY-3 imagery.

  9. Analysis of iris surface features in populations of diverse ancestry

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Melissa; Cha, David; Krithika, S.; Johnson, Monique; Parra, Esteban J.

    2016-01-01

    There are many textural elements that can be found in the human eye, including Fuchs’ crypts, Wolfflin nodules, pigment spots, contraction furrows and conjunctival melanosis. Although iris surface features have been well-studied in populations of European ancestry, the worldwide distribution of these traits is poorly understood. In this paper, we develop a new method of characterizing iris features from photographs of the iris. We then apply this method to a diverse sample of East Asian, European and South Asian ancestry. All five iris features showed significant differences in frequency between the three populations, indicating that iris features are largely population dependent. Although none of the features were correlated with each other in the East and South Asian groups, Fuchs’ crypts were significantly correlated with contraction furrows and pigment spots and contraction furrows were significantly associated with pigment spots in the European group. The genetic marker SEMA3A rs10235789 was significantly associated with Fuchs’ crypt grade in the European, East Asian and South Asian samples and a borderline association between TRAF3IP1 rs3739070 and contraction furrow grade was found in the European sample. The study of iris surface features in diverse populations may provide valuable information of forensic, biomedical and ophthalmological interest. PMID:26909168

  10. An Ontology Design Pattern for Surface Water Features

    SciTech Connect

    Sinha, Gaurav; Mark, David; Kolas, Dave; Varanka, Dalia; Romero, Boleslo E; Feng, Chen-Chieh; Usery, Lynn; Liebermann, Joshua; Sorokine, Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    Surface water is a primary concept of human experience but concepts are captured in cultures and languages in many different ways. Still, many commonalities can be found due to the physical basis of many of the properties and categories. An abstract ontology of surface water features based only on those physical properties of landscape features has the best potential for serving as a foundational domain ontology. It can then be used to systematically incor-porate concepts that are specific to a culture, language, or scientific domain. The Surface Water ontology design pattern was developed both for domain knowledge distillation and to serve as a conceptual building-block for more complex surface water ontologies. A fundamental distinction is made in this on-tology between landscape features that act as containers (e.g., stream channels, basins) and the bodies of water (e.g., rivers, lakes) that occupy those containers. Concave (container) landforms semantics are specified in a Dry module and the semantics of contained bodies of water in a Wet module. The pattern is imple-mented in OWL, but Description Logic axioms and a detailed explanation is provided. The OWL ontology will be an important contribution to Semantic Web vocabulary for annotating surface water feature datasets. A discussion about why there is a need to complement the pattern with other ontologies, es-pecially the previously developed Surface Network pattern is also provided. Fi-nally, the practical value of the pattern in semantic querying of surface water datasets is illustrated through a few queries and annotated geospatial datasets.

  11. Theoretical researches into planetary atmospheres and their influence upon surface features. [with emphasis on mars surface flow feature morphologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goody, R.

    1974-01-01

    The interface between certain geological and atmospheric phenomena on Mars was studied by examining those geological features which are associated with the presence of water in the liquid or solid phases. Several classes of Martian surface features thought to have had their origins in flow processes were studied in order to determine the role ice may have played in their creations. Preliminary studies concerning the behavior of Martian ice shelves were conducted, with the conclusion that flow rates of Martian and earth ice sheets are similar. Withdrawal of subsurface ice was found to be among the explanations for the origins of the chaotic terrains and drifted blocks.

  12. Distribution and enantiomeric profiles of organochlorine pesticides in surface sediments from the Bering Sea, Chukchi Sea and adjacent Arctic areas.

    PubMed

    Jin, Meiqing; Fu, Jie; Xue, Bin; Zhou, Shanshan; Zhang, Lina; Li, An

    2017-03-01

    The spatial distribution, compositional profiles, and enantiomer fractions (EFs) of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), including hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), and chlordanes (CHLs), in the surface sediments in the Bering Sea, Chukchi Sea and adjacent areas were investigated. The total concentrations of DDTs, HCHs and CHLs varied from 0.64 to 3.17 ng/g dw, 0.19-0.65 ng/g dw, and 0.03-0.16 ng/g dw, respectively. No significant difference was observed between the Bering Sea and Chukchi Sea for most pollutants except for trans-CHL, ΣCHLs (sum of trans- and cis-chlordane) and p,p'-DDD. Concentration ratios (e.g., α-HCH/γ-HCH, o,p'-DDT/p,p'-DDT) indicated that the contamination in the studied areas may result from inputs from multiple sources (e.g., historical usage of technical HCHs as well as new input of dicofol). Chiral analysis showed great variation in the enantioselective degradation of OCPs, resulting in excess of (+)-enantiomer for α-HCH in thirty of the 32 detectable samples, preferential depletion of (-)-enantiomer for o,p'-DDT in nineteen of the 35 detectable samples, and nonracemic in most samples for trans- and cis-chlordane. The ecological risks of the individual OCPs as well as the mixture were assessed based on the calculation of toxic units (TUs), and the results showed the predominance of DDT and γ-HCH in the mixture toxicity of the sediment. Overall, the TUs of OCPs in sediments from both the Bering and Chukchi Seas are less than one, indicating low ecological risk potential.

  13. Nanometer polymer surface features: the influence on surface energy, protein adsorption and endothelial cell adhesion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, Joseph; Khang, Dongwoo; Webster, Thomas J.

    2008-12-01

    Current small diameter (<5 mm) synthetic vascular graft materials exhibit poor long-term patency due to thrombosis and intimal hyperplasia. Tissue engineered solutions have yielded functional vascular tissue, but some require an eight-week in vitro culture period prior to implantation—too long for immediate clinical bedside applications. Previous in vitro studies have shown that nanostructured poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) surfaces elevated endothelial cell adhesion, proliferation, and extracellular matrix synthesis when compared to nanosmooth surfaces. Nonetheless, these studies failed to address the importance of lateral and vertical surface feature dimensionality coupled with surface free energy; nor did such studies elicit an optimum specific surface feature size for promoting endothelial cell adhesion. In this study, a series of highly ordered nanometer to submicron structured PLGA surfaces of identical chemistry were created using a technique employing polystyrene nanobeads and poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) molds. Results demonstrated increased endothelial cell adhesion on PLGA surfaces with vertical surface features of size less than 18.87 nm but greater than 0 nm due to increased surface energy and subsequently protein (fibronectin and collagen type IV) adsorption. Furthermore, this study provided evidence that the vertical dimension of nanometer surface features, rather than the lateral dimension, is largely responsible for these increases. In this manner, this study provides key design parameters that may promote vascular graft efficacy.

  14. Laser scatter feature of surface defect on apples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Xiuqin; Ying, Yibin; Cen, YiKe; Huang, Haibo

    2006-10-01

    A machine vision system for real-time fruit quality inspection was developed. The system consists of a chamber, a laser projector, a TMS-7DSP CCD camera (PULNIX Inc.), and a computer. A Meteor-II/MC frame grabber (Matrox Graphics Inc.) was inserted into the slot of the computer to grab fruit images. The laser projector and the camera were mounted at the ceiling of the chamber. An apple was put in the chamber, the spot of the laser projector was projected on the surface of the fruit, and an image was grabbed. 2 breed of apples was test, Each apple was imaged twice, one was imaged for the normal surface, and the other for the defect. The red component of the images was used to get the feature of the defect and the sound surface of the fruits. The average value, STD value and comentropy Value of red component of the laser scatter image were analyzed. The Standard Deviation value of red component of normal is more suitable to separate the defect surface from sound surface for the ShuijinFuji apples, but for bintang apples, there is more work need to do to separate the different surface with laser scatter image.

  15. Electrochemical planarization of copper surfaces with submicron features

    SciTech Connect

    Chalupa, R.; Andryushchenko, T.; Han, J.; Ghosh, T.; Shankar, S.; Fischer, P.

    2007-07-15

    Electrochemical planarization (ECP) of copper surfaces in a phosphoric acid-based electrolyte solution is discussed. A first-principles, quantum chemistry modeling work is presented that further validates the water-facilitated (and water rate limited) chemistry model for copper oxidation at the anode. This model has been previously deduced by other researchers [R. Vidal and A. West, J. Electrochem. Soc. 142, 2689 (1995); B. Du and I. I. Suni, J. Appl. Electrochem. 34, 1215 (2004); R. Vidal and A. West J. Electrochem. Soc. 142, 2682 (1995)] based on electrochemical experiments. Resulting water-limited model is validated against experimental data and applied to study the planarization behavior of a set of surface features. Aspect ratios and dimensions of these features were chosen to represent realistic (nonidealized, low aspect ratio structures) post-Damascene electroplate surface topography. Results are presented in a form of remaining feature amplitude versus mean copper thickness removed [A. C. West et al., J. Electrochem. Soc. 152, C652 (2005)]--allowing at-a-glance evaluation of the process against desired targets. The dominant effects of the mass transport boundary layer (BL) thickness on this planarization efficiency are discussed as are the challenges seen at typical flow conditions in ECP systems. Impact of changing the BL thickness and the requisite modulation of flow conditions analysis is included. Insights into practical challenges associated with BL buildup transient and associated surface roughening are summarized [D. Padhi et al., J. Electrochem. Soc. 150, 610 (2003)]. Challenges of applying ECP as a straightforward substitute to the robust chemical mechanical polish (CMP) process are significant. Practical modifications to upstream process flow to enable ECP would include optimized electroplating process or a CMP preprocessing step.

  16. CosmoQuest: A software platform for surface feature mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gay, Pamela

    2016-07-01

    While many tools exist for allowing individuals to mark features in images, it has previously been unwieldy to get entire teams collaboratively mapping out surface features, and to statistically compare each team members contributions. Our CSB software was initially developed to facilitate crowd-sourcing projects, including CosmoQuest's "Moon Mappers" project. Statistically study of its results (Robbins et al 2014) has shown that professionals using this software get results that are as good as those they get using other commonly used software packages. This has lead to an expansion of the software to facilitate professional science use of the software. In order to allow the greatest use of CSB, and to facilitate better science collaboration, CosmoQuest now allows teams to create private projects. Basic features include: using their own data sets, allowing multiple team members to annotate the images, performing basic statistics on the resulting data, downloading all results in either .sql or .csv formats. In this presentation, we will overview how best to use CSB to improve your own science collaboration. Current applications include surface science and transient object identification, and published results include both crater maps and the discovery of KBOs.

  17. Seasonal changes in Titan's weather and surface features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turtle, E. P.; Perry, J. E.; McEwen, A. S.; Barbara, J.; Del Genio, A.; West, R. A.; Hayes, A.; Schaller, E.

    2010-04-01

    Since Cassini's arrival at Saturn, the Titan's season has progressed from southern summer to just past the southern autumnal equinox (the equivalent of 12 January to 26 March), and accompanying changes in meteorology have been observed. Through 2004, large convective cloud systems were common over Titan's South Pole (e.g., Schaller et al., 2006); since 2005 such storms have been less common. Elongated streaks of clouds have been observed consistently at mid-southern latitudes, and became common at high northern latitudes in 2007. Only recently have clouds been detected at mid-northern latitudes. Changes have also been observed in surface features at high southern latitudes. A large dark area appeared between July 2004 and June 2005 (Turtle et al., 2009), and may have subsequently faded. Recent observations of Ontario Lacus suggest that its shoreline may have receded (e.g., Hayes et al., 2009). No changes have been observed to date in lakes and seas at high northern latitudes. Intriguingly, Cassini RADAR observations of Titan's South Pole reveal far fewer lakes than have been identified in the north (Stofan et al., 2007) and fewer than suggested by the number of dark features observed by ISS in this area (Turtle et al., 2009). This apparent discrepancy may indicate that not all of the dark south-polar features identified by ISS are filled with liquid. Alternatively, some lakes may be ephemeral: differences may be the result of precipitation and ponding of liquid methane and subsequent evaporation or infiltration thereof (Turtle et al., 2009) in the time between observations: ISS in mid-2004 and mid-2005 (equivalent of ~12 and ~25 January) and the RADAR observations starting in late 2007 (equivalent of ~28 February). We will present observations of Titan's meteorology and surface features, documenting seasonal changes and their implications for Titan's active methane cycle and atmospheric circulation.

  18. Hydrogeochemistry and stable isotopes of ground and surface waters from two adjacent closed basins, Atacama Desert, northern Chile

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alpers, C.N.; Whittemore, D.O.

    1990-01-01

    The geochemistry and stable isotopes of groundwaters, surface waters, and precipitation indicate different sources of some dissolved constituents, but a common source of recharge and other constituents in two adjacent closed basins in the Atacama Desert region of northern Chile (24??15???-24??45???S). Waters from artesian wells, trenches, and ephemeral streams in the Punta Negra Basin are characterized by concentrations of Na>Ca>Mg and Cl ???SO4, with TDS Mg ??? Ca and SO4 > Cl, with TDS also Mg ??? Ca and SO4 > Cl, but with TDS up to 40 g/l. The deep mine waters have pH between 3.2 and 3.9, and are high in dissolved CO2 (??13 C = -4.8%PDB), indicating probable interaction with oxidizing sulfides. The deep mine waters have ??18O values of ???-1.8%.compared with values < -3.5??? for other Hamburgo Basin waters; thus the mine waters may represent a mixture of meteoric waters with deeper "metamorphic" waters, which had interacted with rocks and exchanged oxygen isotopes at elevated temperatures. Alternatively, the deep mine waters may represent fossil meteoric waters which evolved isotopically along an evaporative trend starting from values quite depleted in ??18O and ??Dd relative to either precipitation or shallow groundwaters. High I/Br ratios in the Hamburgo Basin waters and La Escondida mine waters are consistent with regionally high I in surficial deposits in the Atacama Desert region and may represent dissolution of a wind-blown evaporite component. Rain and snow collected during June 1984, indicate systematic ??18O and ??D fractionation with increasing elevation between 3150 and 4180 m a.s.l. (-0.21??.??18O and -1.7??.??D per 100 m). Excluding the deep mine waters from La Escondida, the waters from the Hamburgo and Punta Negra Basins have similar ??D and ??18O values and together show a distinct evaporative trend (??D = 5.0 ??18O - 20.2). Snowmelt from the central Andes Cordillera to the east is the most likely source of recharge to both basins. Some of the

  19. Glacier surface feature detection and classification from airborne LiDAR data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Höfle, B.; Sailer, R.; Vetter, M.; Rutzinger, M.; Pfeifer, N.

    2009-04-01

    In recent years airborne LiDAR evolved to the state-of-the-art technology for topographic data acquisition. Up to now mainly the derived elevation information has been used in glaciology (e.g. roughness determination, multitemporal elevation and volume changes). Few studies have already shown the potential of using LiDAR signal intensities for glacier surface differentiation, primarily based on visual interpretation of signal intensity images. This contribution brings together the spatial and radiometric information provided by airborne LiDAR, in order to make an automatic glacier surface feature detection and classification possible. The automation of the processing workflow and the standardization of the used input data become important particularly for multitemporal analysis where surface changes and feature tracking are of major interest. This study is carried out at the Hintereisferner, Ötztal Alps/Austria, where 16 airborne LiDAR acquisitions have taken place since 2001. We aim at detecting the main glacier surface classes as defined by crevasses, snow, firn, ice and debris covered ice areas. Prior to the glacier facies differentiation, an automated glacier delineation based on roughness constraints is performed. It is assumed that the glacier surface, except the crevasse zone, tends to a smoother surface than the adjacent slopes and represents one large connected spatial unit. The developed method combines raster and point cloud based processing steps in an object-based segmentation and classification procedure where elevation and calibrated signal intensity are used as complementary input. The calibration of the recorded signal intensity removes known effects originating from the atmosphere, topography and scan geometry (e.g. distance to target) and hence provides a value proportional to surface reflectance in the wavelength of the laser system. Since the Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) of the scanned surface is not known beforehand

  20. Diamond Provenance Through Shape, Colour, Surface Features and Value

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, J.

    2002-05-01

    The physical properties of diamond provide a possible means by which run-of-mine productions may be identified. Such properties as shape, the regularity and angularity of the crystal form, the level of transparency, colour, syngenetic inclusion content and surface feature characteristics, all as a function of diamond size, can classify diamond productions. In early work, up to 1500 diamonds in specific sizes ranging from just under 2mm up to 6mm were evaluated. Using this procedure, most of the diamonds from the main mines in southern Africa have now been classified. Within South Africa, the mine at Swartruggens is the only one to have measurable levels of cube-shaped diamonds and an absence of the spinel twin form of diamond, more commonly known as the macle. In Botswana, the proportion of cube related forms at Jwaneng is about four times that at Orapa. Whilst the common diamond colours, colourless, yellow and brown, occur in most mines, there is a marked change in the proportion of transparent green-coated diamonds with depth in mines such as Finsch and Jwaneng. Individual mines may also have very small proportions of distinctive diamond colours, such as pinks at the Argyle mine in Australia and blues in the Premier mine in South Africa. More recently, classification emphasis has shifted away from large numbers of diamonds examined and particular attention has been paid to surface features, which reflect changes to the diamond either whilst still in the kimberlite, or subsequently during transport to an alluvial source. A classification of diamonds at the Venetia mine, South Africa, for example, showed that the proportion of diamonds with the feature referred to as corrosion sculpture, was distinctive between kimberlite types within the mine. With alluvial diamonds, transport causes further defects, particularly a general increase in the proportion of diamonds with surface features referred to as percussion marks and edge abrasion. The above observational

  1. Seasonal changes in Titan's meteorology and surface features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turtle, Elizabeth; Perry, Jason; McEwen, Alfred; Barbara, John; Del Genio, Anthony; West, Robert; Hayes, Alex; Schaller, Emily

    2010-05-01

    Since Cassini's arrival at Saturn in July 2004, the seasons on Titan have progressed from southern summer to just past the southern autumnal equinox (to date, the equivalent of 12 January to 26 March), and accompanying changes in cloud distribution and activity have been observed by Cassini's Imaging Science Subsystem (ISS). Through 2004, large convective cloud systems were common over Titan's South Pole (e.g., Schaller et al., 2006; Porco et al., 2005). However, since 2005 such storms have been less common. Elongated streaks of clouds (several hundred km long) have been observed consistently at mid-southern latitudes, and became common at high northern latitudes starting in 2007. Only recently have such clouds been detected at mid-northern latitudes. ISS has also observed changes in surface features at high southern latitudes. A new large dark area appeared between July 2004 and June 2005 (Turtle et al., 2009), and may have subsequently faded. Recent observations of Ontario Lacus suggest that its shoreline may have receded as well (e.g., Hayes et al., 2009). Such changes are interpreted to be the result of precipitation and ponding of liquid methane and the subsequent evaporation thereof (Turtle et al., 2009). No changes have been observed to date in the lakes and seas at high northern latitudes. Intriguingly, Cassini RADAR observations of areas near Titan's south pole (Lunine et al., 2008) reveal far fewer lakes than have been identified at high northern latitudes (Stofan et al., 2007) and fewer than suggested by the number of dark features observed by ISS in this area (Turtle et al., 2009). This apparent discrepancy may simply be a result of the fact that not all of the dark south-polar features identified by ISS are filled with liquid. However, another possible explanation is that some lakes are ephemeral and have disappeared as a result of a combination of evaporation and infiltration into the subsurface in the time that elapsed between the observations by ISS

  2. Structural features affecting variant surface glycoprotein expression in Trypanosoma brucei.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Böhme, Ulrike; Cross, George A M

    2003-05-01

    The glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored variant surface glycoprotein (VSG) of Trypanosoma brucei is the most abundant GPI-anchored protein expressed on any cell, and is an essential virulence factor. To determine what structural features affect efficient expression of VSG, we made a series of mutations in two VSGs. Inserting 18 amino acids, between the amino- and carboxy-terminal domains, reduced the expression of VSG 221 to about 3% of the wild-type level. When this insertion was combined with deletion of the single carboxy-terminal subdomain, expression was reduced a further three-fold. In VSG 117, which contains two carboxy-terminal subdomains, point mutation of the intervening N-glycosylation site reduced expression about 15-fold. Deleting the most carboxy-terminal subdomain and intervening region, including the N-glycosylation site, reduced expression to 15-20% of wild type VSG, and deletion of both subdomains reduced expression to <1%. Despite their low abundance, all VSG mutants were GPI anchored on the cell surface. Our results suggest that, for a protein to be efficiently displayed on the surface of bloodstream-form T. brucei, it is essential that it contains the conserved structural motifs of a T. brucei VSG. Serum resistance-associated protein (SRA), which confers human infectivity on T. brucei, strongly resembles a VSG deletion mutant. Expression of three epitope-tagged versions of SRA in T. brucei conferred total resistance to human serum. SRA possesses a canonical GPI signal sequence, but we were unable to obtain unequivocal evidence for the presence of a GPI anchor. SRA was not released during osmotic lysis, indicating that it is not GPI anchored on the cell surface.

  3. Ceres' deformational surface features compared to other planetary bodies.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von der Gathen, Isabel; Jaumann, Ralf; Krohn, Katrin; Buczkowski, Debra L.; Elgner, Stephan; Kersten, Elke; Matz, Klaus-Dieter; Nass, Andrea; Otto, Katharina; Preusker, Frank; Roatsch, Thomas; Schröder, Stefanus E.; Schulzeck, Franziska; Stephan, Katrin; Wagner, Roland; De Sanctis, Maria C.; Schenk, Paul; Scully, Jennifer E. C.; Williams, Dave A.; Raymond, Carol A.

    2016-04-01

    On March 2015, NASA's Dawn spacecraft arrived at the dwarf planet Ceres and has been providing images of its surface. Based on High Altitude Mapping Orbiter (HAMO) clear filter images (140 m/px res.), a Survey mosaic (~400 m/px) and a series of Low Altitude Mapping Orbiter (LAMO) clear filter images (35 m/px) of the Dawn mission [1], deformational features are identified on the surface of Ceres. In order to further our knowledge about the nature and origin of these features, we start a comparative analysis of similar features on different planetary bodies, like Enceladus, Ganymede and the Moon, based on images provided by the Cassini, Galileo and Lunar Orbiter mission. This study focuses on the small scale fractures, mostly located on Ceres' crater floors, in comparison with crater fractures on the planetary bodies named above. The fractures were analyzed concerning the morphology and shape, the distribution, orientation and possible building mechanisms. On Ceres, two different groups of fractures are distinct. The first one includes fractures, normally arranged in subparallel pattern, which are usually located on crater floors, but also on crater rims. Their sense of direction is relatively uniform but in some cases they get deformed by shearing. The second group consists of joint systems, which spread out of one single location, sometimes arranged concentric to the crater rim. They were likely formed by cooling-melting processes linked to the impact process or up doming material. Fractures located on crater floors are also common on the icy satellite Enceladus [3]. While Enceladus' fractures don't seem to have a lot in common compared to those on Ceres, we assume that similar fracture patterns and therefore similar building mechanism can be found e.g. on Ganymede and especially on the Moon [2]. Further work will include the comparison of the fractures with additional planetary bodies and the trial to explain why fracturing e.g. on Enceladus differs from that on

  4. Combination of 3D skin surface texture features and 2D ABCD features for improved melanoma diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yi; John, Nigel W; Smith, Lyndon; Sun, Jiuai; Smith, Melvyn

    2015-10-01

    Two-dimensional asymmetry, border irregularity, colour variegation and diameter (ABCD) features are important indicators currently used for computer-assisted diagnosis of malignant melanoma (MM); however, they often prove to be insufficient to make a convincing diagnosis. Previous work has demonstrated that 3D skin surface normal features in the form of tilt and slant pattern disruptions are promising new features independent from the existing 2D ABCD features. This work investigates that whether improved lesion classification can be achieved by combining the 3D features with the 2D ABCD features. Experiments using a nonlinear support vector machine classifier show that many combinations of the 2D ABCD features and the 3D features can give substantially better classification accuracy than using (1) single features and (2) many combinations of the 2D ABCD features. The best 2D and 3D feature combination includes the overall 3D skin surface disruption, the asymmetry and all the three colour channel features. It gives an overall 87.8 % successful classification, which is better than the best single feature with 78.0 % and the best 2D feature combination with 83.1 %. These demonstrate that (1) the 3D features have additive values to improve the existing lesion classification and (2) combining the 3D feature with all the 2D features does not lead to the best lesion classification. The two ABCD features not selected by the best 2D and 3D combination, namely (1) the border feature and (2) the diameter feature, were also studied in separate experiments. It found that inclusion of either feature in the 2D and 3D combination can successfully classify 3 out of 4 lesion groups. The only one group not accurately classified by either feature can be classified satisfactorily by the other. In both cases, they have shown better classification performances than those without the 3D feature in the combinations. This further demonstrates that (1) the 3D feature can be used to

  5. Replication of surface features from a master model to an amorphous metallic article

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, William L.; Bakke, Eric; Peker, Atakan

    1999-01-01

    The surface features of an article are replicated by preparing a master model having a preselected surface feature thereon which is to be replicated, and replicating the preselected surface feature of the master model. The replication is accomplished by providing a piece of a bulk-solidifying amorphous metallic alloy, contacting the piece of the bulk-solidifying amorphous metallic alloy to the surface of the master model at an elevated replication temperature to transfer a negative copy of the preselected surface feature of the master model to the piece, and separating the piece having the negative copy of the preselected surface feature from the master model.

  6. Amontonian friction induced by flexible surface features on microstructured silicon.

    PubMed

    Thormann, Esben; Yun, Sang Ho; Claesson, Per M; Linnros, Jan

    2011-09-01

    Friction between nonadhering sliding surfaces are normally described by Amontons' law, which states that there exists a linear relationship between the friction force and the normal applied load and that the friction force is independent of the macroscopic contact area between the surfaces and the sliding velocity. In this study we have measured friction as a function of applied load between a spherical silica particle and a microstructured silicon surface consisting of arrays of vertical microneedles, and we have challenged Amontons' law by changing the size of the silica particle and the sliding velocity. First, when looking at the friction as a function of time for a given applied load, the friction force was observed to oscillate with a period related to the spacing between the microneedles when using a small silica particle, whereas the friction force exhibited a more random variation when a larger silica particle was used. The oscillation in the friction force is a direct evidence for bending and release of individual microneedles and the observation illustrates that the energy dissipating mechanism becomes hidden in the friction data when the dimensions of the sliding body becomes much larger than the length scale of the surface features causing the friction. Second, when looking at the average friction force as a function of applied load we find, in accordance with Amontons' law, a linear relationship between the friction force and the applied load and the friction force is independent of both the size of the sliding silica particle and of the sliding velocity. One exception from this, however, was observed when sliding a small silica particle at low velocity, where a deviation from Amontons' law was noticed. The deviation from Amontons' law is suggested to be attributed to a change in the energy dissipating mechanism giving rise to the friction force. In light of that it is suggested that Amontons' law only is valid as long as the main energy dissipating

  7. Ground Penetrating Radar Investigation of Sinter Deposits at Old Faithful Geyser and Immediately Adjacent Hydrothermal Features, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foley, D.; Lynne, B. Y.; Jaworowski, C.; Heasler, H.; Smith, G.; Smith, I.

    2015-12-01

    Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) was used to evaluate the characteristics of the shallow subsurface siliceous sinter deposits around Old Faithful Geyser. Zones of fractures, areas of subsurface alteration and pre-eruption hydrologic changes at Old Faithful Geyser and surrounding hydrothermal mounds were observed. Despite being viewed directly by about 3,000,000 people a year, shallow subsurface geologic and hydrologic conditions on and near Old Faithful Geyser are poorly characterized. GPR transects of 5754 ft (1754m) show strong horizontal to sub-horizontal reflections, which are interpreted as 2.5 to 4.5 meters of sinter. Some discontinuities in reflections are interpreted as fractures in the sinter, some of which line up with known hydrothermal features and some of which have little to no surface expression. Zones with moderate and weak amplitude reflections are interpreted as sinter that has been hydrothermally altered. Temporal changes from stronger to weaker reflections are correlated with the eruption cycle of Old Faithful Geyser, and are interpreted as post-eruption draining of shallow fractures, followed by pre-eruption fracture filling with liquid or vapor thermal fluids.

  8. Simulation of Integrated Surface-Water/Ground-Water Flow and Salinity for a Coastal Wetland and Adjacent Estuary

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-01-01

    of MODFLOW (McDonald and Har- baugh, 1988) and MT3DMS (Zheng and Wang, 1999), was designed to solve the three-dimensional variable-density ground...hydraulically resistive layer at the land surface, which for the Everglades application, corresponds to the peat and marl unit overlying the Biscayne aquifer...0 is the density of the surface water [ML -3]. This approximation for the flux through the unsaturated zone is based on the approach used by MODFLOW

  9. 30 CFR 785.19 - Surface coal mining and reclamation operations on areas or adjacent to areas including alluvial...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... sufficiently detailed geologic, hydrologic, land use, soils, and vegetation data and analysis to demonstrate... flood irrigation, streamflow, water quality, soils, and topography; or (C) Subirrigation of the lands in..., rate and frequency of rainfall and runoff, surface roughness, slope and vegetative cover,...

  10. Immunohistochemical quantification of the cobalamin transport protein, cell surface receptor and Ki-67 in naturally occurring canine and feline malignant tumors and in adjacent normal tissues

    PubMed Central

    Sysel, Annette M.; Valli, Victor E.; Bauer, Joseph A.

    2015-01-01

    Cancer cells have an obligate need for cobalamin (vitamin B12) to enable DNA synthesis necessary for cellular replication. This study quantified the immunohistochemical expression of the cobalamin transport protein (transcobalamin II; TCII), cell surface receptor (transcobalamin II-R; TCII-R) and proliferation protein (Ki-67) in naturally occurring canine and feline malignant tumors, and compared these results to expression in corresponding adjacent normal tissues. All malignant tumor tissues stained positively for TCII, TCII-R and Ki-67 proteins; expression varied both within and between tumor types. Expression of TCII, TCII-R and Ki-67 was significantly higher in malignant tumor tissues than in corresponding adjacent normal tissues in both species. There was a strong correlation between TCII and TCII-R expression, and a modest correlation between TCII-R and Ki-67 expression in both species; a modest association between TCII and Ki-67 expression was present in canine tissues only. These results demonstrate a quantifiable, synchronous up-regulation of TCII and TCII-R expression by proliferating canine and feline malignant tumors. The potential to utilize these proteins as biomarkers to identify neoplastic tissues, streamline therapeutic options, evaluate response to anti-tumor therapy and monitor for recurrent disease has important implications in the advancement of cancer management for both human and companion animal patients. PMID:25633912

  11. Immunohistochemical Expression of CD105 and TGF-β1 in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Adjacent Apparently Normal Oral Mucosa and its Correlation With Clinicopathologic Features.

    PubMed

    Nair, Sindhu; Nayak, Ramakant; Bhat, Kishore; Kotrashetti, Vijayalakshmi S; Babji, Deepa

    2016-01-01

    Angiogenesis in oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC) is essential for its growth, invasion, and metastasis. This entails a shift in the balance between proangiogenic and antiangiogenic factors. CD105 and TGF-β1 are 2 such proangiogenic factors wherein CD105 exerts its angiogenic effect by binding to and modulating the TGF-β1 pathway. A total of 50 resected specimens of OSCC were considered. One tissue specimen was taken from tumor proper and another specimen from adjacent apparently normal mucosa (AANM). Both tissues were immunohistochemically stained using CD105 and TGF-β1 antibodies. The expression of each antibody was individually assessed and then compared. Pearson χ test was used for statistical comparison of expression. CD105 was significantly expressed in OSCC as compared with AANM and also correlated with increasing TNM stage. The mean microvessel density was higher in OSCC. TGF-β1 was significantly expressed in epithelium of OSCC as compared with AANM. On comparing expression of TGF-β1 and CD105, 79.54% of endothelial cells expressed positivity for both molecules. Both CD105 and TGF-β1 were increased in OSCC, although based on our results CD105 alone can be used as a prognostic marker. On the basis of immunohistochemical expression of CD105 and TGF-β1 in endothelial cells, our results demonstrate that CD105 acts as one of the receptors of TGF-β1 on endothelial cells and induces the angiogenic pathway in OSCC.

  12. Grain surface features of Apollo 17 orange and black glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckay, David S.; Wentworth, Sue J.

    1993-01-01

    Lunar soil sample 74220 and core samples 74001/2 consist mainly of orange glass droplets, droplet fragments, and their crystallized equivalents. These samples are now generally accepted to be pyroclastic ejecta from early lunar volcanic eruptions. It has been known that they contain surface coatings and material rich in volatile condensable phases including S, Zn, F, Cl, and many volatile metals. Meyer summarizes the voluminous published chemical data and calculates the volatile enrichment ratios for most of the surface condensates. In an attempt to more completely understand this enrichment of surface volatiles, we have searched for carbon and carbon-bearing phases on droplet surfaces. We have reviewed many of our existing photomicrographs and energy dispersive analysis (EDX) of grain surfaces and have reexamined some of our older SEM mounts using an improved EDXA system capable of light element detection and analysis (oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon). In addition, we have made fresh mounts using procedures which should minimize carbon contamination or extraneous carbon x-rays and have analyzed for carbon.

  13. Recent applications of liquid metals featuring nanoscale surface oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neumann, Taylor V.; Dickey, Michael D.

    2016-05-01

    This proceeding describes recent efforts from our group to control the shape and actuation of liquid metal. The liquid metal is an alloy of gallium and indium which is non-toxic, has negligible vapor pressure, and develops a thin, passivating surface oxide layer. The surface oxide allows the liquid metal to be patterned and shaped into structures that do not minimize interfacial energy. The surface oxide can be selectively removed by changes in pH or by applying a voltage. The surface oxide allows the liquid metal to be 3D printed to form free-standing structures. It also allows for the liquid metal to be injected into microfluidic channels and to maintain its shape within the channels. The selective removal of the oxide results in drastic changes in surface tension that can be used to control the flow behavior of the liquid metal. The metal can also wet thin, solid films of metal that accelerates droplets of the liquid along the metal traces .Here we discuss the properties and applications of liquid metal to make soft, reconfigurable electronics.

  14. Featuring the nucleosome surface as a therapeutic target.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Isabel Torres Gomes; de Oliveira, Paulo Sergio Lopes; Santos, Guilherme Martins

    2015-05-01

    Chromatin is the major regulator of gene expression and genome maintenance. Proteins that bind the nucleosome, the repetitive unit of chromatin, and the histone H4 tail are critical to establishing chromatin architecture and phenotypic outcomes. Intriguingly, nucleosome-binding proteins (NBPs) and the H4 tail peptide compete for the same binding site at an acidic region on the nucleosome surface. Although the essential facts about the nucleosome were revealed 17 years ago, new insights into its atomic structure and molecular mechanisms are still emerging. Several complex nucleosome:NBP structures were recently revealed, characterizing the NBP-binding sites on the nucleosome surface. Here we discuss the potential of the nucleosome surface as a therapeutic target and the impact and development of exogenous nucleosome-binding molecules (eNBMs).

  15. Features of surface topography and the geological activity of Pluto

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidmachenko, A. P.

    2016-05-01

    According to the data "New Horizons" of the spacecraft, researchers were able to specify the diameter of Pluto-2374 km. Its surface temperature in the equatorial region varies from 33 to 55 K over the planet's orbital period around the Sun in ~248 years. Presumably the surface of Pluto has a rocky base covered with a mantle of water ice, of frozen methane, nitrogen, ammonia and CO. Due to the large eccentricity of the orbit of Pluto, as it approaches the Sun, the ice melts, and the atmosphere is formed mainly of nitrogen and methane; while removing of the planet from the Sun - the atmosphere freezes out again.

  16. Adhering grains and surface features on two Itokawa particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobrică, E.; Ogliore, R. C.

    2016-02-01

    We investigated the surface texture and chemical compositions of two ~40-μm particles returned from the surface regolith of asteroid Itokawa (RB-DQ04-0062 and RB-DQ04-0091) by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency's Hayabusa mission. We identified splash melts, surface blistering, and many small adhering particles. Seven focused ion beam sections were extracted from both Itokawa particles, targeting one splash melt and ten adhering particles to investigate their composition and provenance and the role of micrometeoroid impacts on Itokawa's surface. Based on the particle's structure, mineralogy, and interface between the adhering particle and host grain, we identified lithic fragments and particles deposited by impact. These have morphologies and compositions consistent with impact-generated deposits: two have morphologies and compositions that are consistent with impact-generated silica glass, and one was a Ni-free, metallic Fe, and S-rich assemblage that was likely generated by vapor recondensation during a micrometeoroid impact. This study shows that, even though its regolith is young, micrometeoroid impacts have altered the regolith of asteroid Itokawa.

  17. Emerging Applications of Liquid Metals Featuring Surface Oxides

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Gallium and several of its alloys are liquid metals at or near room temperature. Gallium has low toxicity, essentially no vapor pressure, and a low viscosity. Despite these desirable properties, applications calling for liquid metal often use toxic mercury because gallium forms a thin oxide layer on its surface. The oxide interferes with electrochemical measurements, alters the physicochemical properties of the surface, and changes the fluid dynamic behavior of the metal in a way that has, until recently, been considered a nuisance. Here, we show that this solid oxide “skin” enables many new applications for liquid metals including soft electrodes and sensors, functional microcomponents for microfluidic devices, self-healing circuits, shape-reconfigurable conductors, and stretchable antennas, wires, and interconnects. PMID:25283244

  18. Broad features of surface ozone variations over Indian region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shende, R. R.; Jayaraman, K.; Sreedharan, C. R.; Tiwari, V. S.

    1994-01-01

    Surface ozone concentration at three Indian stations - New Delhi (28.6 deg N), Pune (18.5 deg N) and Thiruvananthapuram (formerly Trivandrum (8.3 deg N) - has been measured since 1973 with the help of an electrochemical continuous ozone recorder. These stations show diurnal, seasonal and annual cycles in surface ozone. Daily changes show that the minimum value occurs at sunrise and maximum in the afternoon. As regards seasonal variations, Thiruvananthapuram and Pune have a minimum value during monsoon season (June to August) while at New Delhi the minimum value occurs in January. However, New Delhi also records low ozone amount during monsoon season identical to the amounts show at Thiruvananthapuram and Pune. The annual cycles at these stations have been compared with similar measurements in the northern and southern hemispheres. The Indian measurements agree well with the annual cycles at these stations. Further, the analysis of the Indian data indicates that the major contribution in surface ozone comes from the natural sources like stratospheric-tropospheric exchange, turbulence, and mixing in the boundary layer; however, a small contribution from anthropogenic sources cannot be ruled out at Pune and probably at New Delhi, especially in winter and summer seasons.

  19. Body condition of the deep water demersal resources at two adjacent oligotrophic areas of the western Mediterranean and the influence of the environmental features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rueda, L.; Moranta, J.; Abelló, P.; Balbín, R.; Barberá, C.; Fernández de Puelles, M. L.; Olivar, M. P.; Ordines, F.; Ramón, M.; Torres, A. P.; Valls, M.; Massutí, E.

    2014-10-01

    Body condition indices not only are often used as reliable indicators of the nutritional status of individuals but also can they be utilized to provide insights regarding food availability and habitat quality. The aim of this study was to evaluate the connection between the body condition of the demersal species and the environmental features in the water column (i.e. the hydrographic conditions and the potential trophic resources) in two proximate areas, the north and south regions of the Balearic Islands (western Mediterranean), viz., the Balearic sub-basin (BsB) and the Algerian sub-basin (AsB), respectively, with different geomorphological and hydrodynamic features. Body condition indices were calculated for individuals of 21 demersal species including 11 teleosts, 4 elasmobranchs, 3 cephalopods and 3 crustaceans, which represented > 70-77% of the deep water resources, captured by bottom trawling. The morphometric indices, viz., Relative Condition Index (Kn) and Standardised Residuals (SR) from the length-weight relationship, were used. The results for each one of the 21 species indicated a significantly better condition in terms of Kn and SR in the BsB, for 7 and 9 species, respectively. In addition, a general model, including the 21 species together, showed better body condition in the BsB, and during the summer. The spatial and temporal differences in the body condition are discussed in the context of the environmental variables characterising both the study areas, which showed significant variations, for some of the hydrographic features (chlorophyll a, dissolved oxygen, salinity, potential density and temperature), as well as for some of the potential trophic resources (mesopelagic and epibenthic fauna). These findings suggest an environmental effect on the body condition of the deep-water resources in the Balearic Islands, one of the most oligotrophic areas of the western Mediterranean, and reveal more suitable environmental conditions for these species

  20. Relationships of surface water, pore water, and sediment chemistry in wetlands adjacent to Great Salt Lake, Utah, and potential impacts on plant community health.

    PubMed

    Carling, Gregory T; Richards, David C; Hoven, Heidi; Miller, Theron; Fernandez, Diego P; Rudd, Abigail; Pazmino, Eddy; Johnson, William P

    2013-01-15

    We collected surface water, pore water, and sediment samples at five impounded wetlands adjacent to Great Salt Lake, Utah, during 2010 and 2011 in order to characterize pond chemistry and to compare chemistry with plant community health metrics. We also collected pore water and sediment samples along multiple transects at two sheet flow wetlands during 2011 to investigate a potential link between wetland chemistry and encroachment of invasive emergent plant species. Samples were analyzed for a suite of trace and major elements, nutrients, and relevant field parameters. The extensive sampling campaign provides a broad assessment of Great Salt Lake wetlands, including a range of conditions from reference to highly degraded. We used nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMS) to characterize the wetland sites based on the multiple parameters measured in surface water, pore water, and sediment. NMS results showed that the impounded wetlands fall along a gradient of high salinity/low trace element concentrations to low salinity/high trace element concentrations, whereas the sheet flow wetlands have both elevated salinity and high trace element concentrations, reflecting either different sources of element loading or different biogeochemical/hydrological processes operating within the wetlands. Other geochemical distinctions were found among the wetlands, including Fe-reducing conditions at two sites and sulfate-reducing conditions at the remaining sites. Plant community health metrics in the impounded wetlands showed negative correlations with specific metal concentrations in sediment (THg, Cu, Zn, Cd, Sb, Pb, Ag, Tl), and negative correlations with nutrient concentrations in surface water (nitrite, phosphate, nitrate). In the sheet flow wetlands, invasive plant species were inversely correlated with pore water salinity. These results indicate that sediment and pore water chemistry play an important role in wetland plant community health, and that monitoring and

  1. Comparing maps of mean monthly surface temperature and precipitation for Alaska and adjacent areas of Canada produced by two different methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simpson, James J.; Hufford, Gary L.; Daly, Christopher; Berg, Jared S.; Fleming, Michael D.

    2005-01-01

    Maps of mean monthly surface temperature and precipitation for Alaska and adjacent areas of Canada, produced by Oregon State University's Spatial Climate Analysis Service (SCAS) and the Alaska Geospatial Data Clearinghouse (AGDC), were analyzed. Because both sets of maps are generally available and in use by the community, there is a need to document differences between the processes and input data sets used by the two groups to produce their respective set of maps and to identify similarities and differences between the two sets of maps and possible reasons for the differences. These differences do not affect the observed large-scale patterns of seasonal and annual variability. Alaska is divided into interior and coastal zones, with consistent but different variability, separated by a transition region. The transition region has high interannual variability but low long-term mean variability. Both data sets support the four major ecosystems and ecosystem transition zone identified in our earlier work. Differences between the two sets of maps do occur, however, on the regional scale; they reflect differences in physiographic domains and in the treatment of these domains by the two groups (AGDC, SCAS). These differences also provide guidance for an improved observational network for Alaska. On the basis of validation with independent in situ data, we conclude that the data set produced by SCAS provides the best spatial coverage of Alaskan long-term mean monthly surface temperature and precipitation currently available. ?? The Arctic Institute of North America.

  2. The structure of the CARD8 caspase-recruitment domain suggests its association with the FIIND domain and procaspases through adjacent surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Tengchuan; Huang, Mo; Smith, Patrick; Jiang, Jiansheng; Xiao, T. Sam

    2013-01-01

    CARD8 plays crucial roles in regulating apoptotic and inflammatory signaling pathways through the association of its caspase-recruitment domain (CARD) with those of procaspase-9 and procaspase-1. The CARD8 CARD has also been predicted to form an intramolecular complex with its FIIND domain. Here, the first crystal structure of the CARD8 CARD is reported; it adopts a six-helix bundle fold with a unique conformation of the α6 helix that is described here for the first time. The surface of the CARD8 CARD displays a prominent acidic patch at its α2, α3 and α5 helices that may interact with the procaspase-9 CARD, whereas an adjacent charged surface at its α3 and α4 helices may associate with the CARD8 FIIND domain without interfering with the CARD–CARD interaction. This suggests that the function of CARD8 may be regulated by both intramolecular and intermolecular interactions involving electrostatic attractions. PMID:23695559

  3. Characterization of surface-water resources in the Great Basin National Park area and their susceptibility to ground-water withdrawals in adjacent valleys, White Pine County, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elliott, Peggy E.; Beck, David A.; Prudic, David E.

    2006-01-01

    Eight drainage basins and one spring within the Great Basin National Park area were monitored continually from October 2002 to September 2004 to quantify stream discharge and assess the natural variability in flow. Mean annual discharge for the stream drainages ranged from 0 cubic feet per second at Decathon Canyon to 9.08 cubic feet per second at Baker Creek. Seasonal variability in streamflow generally was uniform throughout the network. Minimum and maximum mean monthly discharges occurred in February and June, respectively, at all but one of the perennial streamflow sites. Synoptic-discharge, specific-conductance, and water- and air-temperature measurements were collected during the spring, summer, and autumn of 2003 along selected reaches of Strawberry, Shingle, Lehman, Baker, and Snake Creeks, and Big Wash to determine areas where surface-water resources would be susceptible to ground-water withdrawals in adjacent valleys. Comparison of streamflow and water-property data to the geology along each stream indicated areas where surface-water resources likely or potentially would be susceptible to ground-water withdrawals. These areas consist of reaches where streams (1) are in contact with permeable rocks or sediments, or (2) receive water from either spring discharge or ground-water inflow.

  4. Engineered biomimicry: polymeric replication of surface features found on insects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pulsifer, Drew P.; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh; Martín-Palma, Raúl J.; Pantano, Carlo G.

    2011-04-01

    By combining the modified conformal-evaporated-film-by-rotation (M-CEFR) technique with nickel electroforming, we have produced master negatives of nonplanar biotemplates. An approximately 250-nm-thick conformal coating of nanocrystaline nickel is deposited on a surface structure of interest found in class Insecta, and the coating is then reinforced with a roughly 60-μm-thick structural layer of nickel by electroforming. This structural layer endows the M-CEFR coating with the mechanical robustness necessary for casting or stamping multiple polymer replicas of the biotemplate. We have made master negatives of blowfly corneas, beetle elytrons, and butterfly wings.

  5. Large-scale distribution and activity of prokaryotes in deep-sea surface sediments of the Mediterranean Sea and the adjacent Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Giovannelli, Donato; Molari, Massimiliano; d'Errico, Giuseppe; Baldrighi, Elisa; Pala, Claudia; Manini, Elena

    2013-01-01

    The deep-sea represents a substantial portion of the biosphere and has a major influence on carbon cycling and global biogeochemistry. Benthic deep-sea prokaryotes have crucial roles in this ecosystem, with their recycling of organic matter from the photic zone. Despite this, little is known about the large-scale distribution of prokaryotes in the surface deep-sea sediments. To assess the influence of environmental and trophic variables on the large-scale distribution of prokaryotes, we investigated the prokaryotic assemblage composition (Bacteria to Archaea and Euryarchaeota to Crenarchaeota ratio) and activity in the surface deep-sea sediments of the Mediterranean Sea and the adjacent North Atlantic Ocean. Prokaryotic abundance and biomass did not vary significantly across the Mediterranean Sea; however, there were depth-related trends in all areas. The abundance of prokaryotes was positively correlated with the sedimentary concentration of protein, an indicator of the quality and bioavailability of organic matter. Moving eastwards, the Bacteria contribution to the total prokaryotes decreased, which appears to be linked to the more oligotrophic conditions of the Eastern Mediterranean basins. Despite the increased importance of Archaea, the contributions of Crenarchaeota Marine Group I to the total pool was relatively constant across the investigated stations, with the exception of Matapan-Vavilov Deep, in which Euryarchaeota Marine Group II dominated. Overall, our data suggest that deeper areas of the Mediterranean Sea share more similar communities with each other than with shallower sites. Freshness and quality of sedimentary organic matter were identified through Generalized Additive Model analysis as the major factors for describing the variation in the prokaryotic community structure and activity in the surface deep-sea sediments. Longitude was also important in explaining the observed variability, which suggests that the overlying water masses might have a

  6. The effect of CO2 laser irradiation plus fluoride dentifrice on the inhibition of secondary caries on root surfaces adjacent to glass ionomer cement or composite resin restorations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, S. R.; Moraes, M.; Hanashiro, F. S.; Youssef, M. N.; Brugnera Junior, A.; Nobre-dos-Santos, M.; de Souza-Zaroni, W. C.

    2016-02-01

    Although the cariostatic effects of CO2 laser on the root surface have been shown, there is scarce information regarding its effects on root secondary caries. The objective of this research was to investigate the effect of the association of CO2 laser and a fluoride dentifrice on the inhibition of secondary caries on root surfaces adjacent to composite-resin or glass-ionomer-cement restorations. Dental blocks of human roots were divided into two groups: composite resin (CR) or glass ionomer cement (GIC). Subsequently, the blocks were divided into four subgroups (n  =  10): C, non-fluoride dentifrice; FD, fluoride dentifrice; L, CO2 laser with an energy density of 6.0 J cm-2  +  non-fluoride dentifrice; and L  +  FD, CO2 laser  +  fluoride dentifrice. The blocks were subjected to pH cycling to simulate a high cariogenic challenge. Dental demineralization around the restorations was quantified by microhardness analysis. The results were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the Tukey-Kramer test (p  ⩽  0.05). As for mineral loss, it can be observed that all the groups that were treated with a fluoride dentifrice and laser, used alone or not, were statistically similar and superior to the RC-C group. It was concluded that CO2 laser irradiation and a fluoride dentifrice used alone or combined with each other are efficient surface treatments for preventing secondary root caries, regardless of the restorative material used.

  7. Computer-aided detection of lung nodules using outer surface features.

    PubMed

    Demir, Önder; Yılmaz Çamurcu, Ali

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a computer-aided detection (CAD) system was developed for the detection of lung nodules in computed tomography images. The CAD system consists of four phases, including two-dimensional and three-dimensional preprocessing phases. In the feature extraction phase, four different groups of features are extracted from volume of interests: morphological features, statistical and histogram features, statistical and histogram features of outer surface, and texture features of outer surface. The support vector machine algorithm is optimized using particle swarm optimization for classification. The CAD system provides 97.37% sensitivity, 86.38% selectivity, 88.97% accuracy and 2.7 false positive per scan using three groups of classification features. After the inclusion of outer surface texture features, classification results of the CAD system reaches 98.03% sensitivity, 87.71% selectivity, 90.12% accuracy and 2.45 false positive per scan. Experimental results demonstrate that outer surface texture features of nodule candidates are useful to increase sensitivity and decrease the number of false positives in the detection of lung nodules in computed tomography images.

  8. Effect of a CO2 Laser on the Inhibition of Root Surface Caries Adjacent to Restorations of Glass Ionomer Cement or Composite Resin: An In Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Daniel, L. C.; Araújo, F. C.; Zancopé, B. R.; Hanashiro, F. S.; Nobre-dos-Santos, M.; Youssef, M. N.; Souza-Zaroni, W. C.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of CO2 laser irradiation on the inhibition of secondary caries on root surfaces adjacent to glass ionomer cement (GIC) or composite resin (CR) restorations. 40 dental blocks were divided into 4 groups: G1 (negative control): cavity preparation + adhesive restoration with CR; G2: (positive control) cavity preparation + GIC restoration; G3: equal to group 1 + CO2 laser with 6 J/cm2; G4: equal to group 2 + CO2 laser. The blocks were submitted to thermal and pH cycling. Dental demineralization around restorations was quantified using microhardness analyses and Light-Induced Fluorescence (QLF). The groups showed no significant differences in mineral loss at depths between 20 μm and 40 μm. At 60 μm, G2 and G3 ≠ G1, but G4 = G1, G2 and G3. At 80 μm, G4 ≠ G1, and at 100 μm, G4 = G2 = G1. At 140 and 220 μm, G2, G3, and G4 = G1. The averages obtained using QFL in groups 1, 2, 3, and 4 were 0.637, 0.162, 0.095, and 0.048, respectively. QLF and microhardness analyses showed that CO2 laser irradiation reduced mineral loss around the CR restorations but that it did not increase the anticariogenic effect of GIC restorations. PMID:26347900

  9. Turnover and release of P-, N-, Si-nutrients in the Mexicali Valley (Mexico): interactions between the lower Colorado River and adjacent ground- and surface water systems.

    PubMed

    Orozco-Durán, A; Daesslé, L W; Camacho-Ibar, V F; Ortiz-Campos, E; Barth, J A C

    2015-04-15

    A study on dissolved nitrate, ammonium, phosphate and silicate concentrations was carried out in various water compartments (rivers, drains, channels, springs, wetland, groundwater, tidal floodplains and ocean water) in the Mexicali Valley and the Colorado River delta between 2012 and 2013, to assess modern potential nutrient sources into the marine system after river damming. While nitrate and silicate appear to have a significant input into the coastal ocean, phosphate is rapidly transformed into a particulate phase. Nitrate is, in general, rapidly bio-consumed in the surface waters rich in micro algae, but its excess (up to 2.02 mg L(-1) of N from NO3 in winter) in the Santa Clara Wetland represents a potential average annual source to the coast of 59.4×10(3)kg N-NO3. Despite such localized inputs, continuous regional groundwater flow does not appear to be a source of nitrate to the estuary and coastal ocean. Silicate is associated with groundwaters that are also geothermally influenced. A silicate receiving agricultural drain adjacent to the tidal floodplain had maximum silicate concentrations of 16.1 mg L(-1) Si-SiO2. Seepage of drain water and/or mixing with seawater during high spring tides represents a potential source of dissolved silicate and nitrate into the Gulf of California.

  10. Generating Sub-Micron Features On Rough Surfaces Using Optical Trap Assisted Nanopatterning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Yu-Cheng; Fardel, Romain; Arnold, Craig B.

    2010-10-01

    Near-field intensity enhancement enables laser modification of materials with feature sizes below the classical diffraction limit. However, the need to maintain close distances between the objective element and the substrate typically limit demonstrations of this technology to flat surfaces, even though there are many cases where the ability to produce sub-micron features on rough or structured surfaces are needed. Here, we show the use of a new technique, optical trap assisted nanopatterning (OTAN), for the production of nanoscale features on rippled substrates. The ability to position a microbead near-field objective close to the surface without the need for active feedback and control allows one to continuously move the bead across a rough surface without sticking. Sub-micron patterning of polyimide is demonstrated on surfaces with 1.1 μm steps showing good uniformity. Finally, the enabling technology allows for straightforward parallelization where multiple patterns can be created simultaneously over surface.

  11. Aquatic risk assessment of pesticides in surface waters in and adjacent to the Everglades and Biscayne National Parks: II. Probabilistic analyses.

    PubMed

    Carriger, John F; Rand, Gary M

    2008-10-01

    A screening-level aquatic probabilistic risk assessment was completed to determine the potential risks of organic pesticides found in surface waters of the C-111 freshwater basin (11 sites at the east boundary of the Everglades National Park) and adjacent estuarine tidal zones (two sites in northeast Florida Bay, one site in south Biscayne Bay) in south Florida. It followed the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) ecological risk framework and focused only on the acute and chronic risks of endosulfan and chlorpyrifos individually and jointly with atrazine, metolachlor, and malathion by comparing distributions of surface water exposure concentrations with the distributions of species toxicity data. The highest risk of acute effects was associated with endosulfan exposure to freshwater arthropods at S-178/site C on the C-111 system, followed by endosulfan effects to estuarine arthropods at Joe Bay in northeast Florida Bay. The highest risk of acute effects from joint toxicity of pesticides was to estuarine arthropods in Joe Bay followed by freshwater arthropods in S-178/site C. For fish, the highest acute risk was for endosulfan at S-178/site C. There was low potential for acute risk of endosulfan to fish at estuarine sites. Joint probability curves indicated that the majority of potential risks to arthropods and fish were due to endosulfan concentrations and not to chlorpyrifos, at S-178/site C. In addition, the highest risk of acute effects for saltwater organisms was in Joe Bay, which receives water from the C-111. The potential risk of chronic effects from pesticide exposures was minimal at fresh- and saltwater sites except at S-178/site C, where endosulfan concentrations showed the highest exceedence of species toxicity values. In general, potential risks were higher in February than June.

  12. Orienting in Virtual Environments: How Are Surface Features and Environmental Geometry Weighted in an Orientation Task?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Debbie M.; Bischof, Walter F.

    2008-01-01

    We investigated how human adults orient in enclosed virtual environments, when discrete landmark information is not available and participants have to rely on geometric and featural information on the environmental surfaces. In contrast to earlier studies, where, for women, the featural information from discrete landmarks overshadowed the encoding…

  13. Lidar-based measurement of surface roughness features of single tree crowns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolditz, Melanie; Krahwinkler, Petra M.; Roßmann, Jürgen

    2011-11-01

    In remote sensing data, trees have a low interspecies variability and show a high variability within the tree species. Therefore, specific features that distinguish between unique properties of two tree species are required for a single tree based genera classification. To improve classification results, the suitability of seven surface roughness features, calculated on single tree crown regions, is studied. The algorithms developed to provide roughness parameters can be validated and prototyped in a Virtual Forest testbed. The features are extracted from a normalized digital surface model with a resolution of 0.4m per pixel. Within the test area of 340km2 more than 4000 single trees of eleven different species and additionally 200 buildings are available as reference data. Technical standards define several parameters to describe surface properties. These roughness features are evaluated in the context of single tree crowns. All of these features are based on the deviation of the height values of the tree crown to its mean height. As an additional feature the relationship between the crown's surface area and its occupied ground area is used. The evaluation results of these features regarding the discrimination of tree species on different levels - eleven single tree species, seven tree classes, deciduous and coniferous - and also towards discrimination of trees from buildings will be presented.

  14. Surface roughness extraction based on Markov random field model in wavelet feature domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Lei; Lei, Li-qiao

    2014-12-01

    Based on the computer texture analysis method, a new noncontact surface roughness measurement technique is proposed. The method is inspired by the nonredundant directional selectivity and highly discriminative nature of the wavelet representation and the capability of the Markov random field (MRF) model to capture statistical regularities. Surface roughness information contained in the texture features may be extracted based on an MRF stochastic model of textures in the wavelet feature domain. The model captures significant intrascale and interscale statistical dependencies between wavelet coefficients. To investigate the relationship between the texture features and surface roughness Ra, a simple research setup, which consists of a charge-coupled diode camera without a lens and a diode laser, was established, and the laser speckle texture patterns are acquired from some standard grinding surfaces. The research results have illustrated that surface roughness Ra has a good monotonic relationship with the texture features of the laser speckle pattern. If this measuring system is calibrated with the surface standard samples roughness beforehand, the surface roughness actual value Ra can be deduced in the case of the same material surfaces ground at the same manufacture conditions.

  15. Models of Martian Hydrothermal Circulation and Ice Melt with Implications for Surface Feature Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craft, K. L.; Lowell, R. P.; Kraal, E.

    2011-03-01

    Here we investigate the amount of fluid provided to the martian surface by dike- and sill-driven hydrothermal systems with overlying ice layers. The resulting fluid flow rates are then compared to model estimates for formation of surface features on Mars.

  16. Transient nonlinear optically-thick radiative-convective double-diffusive boundary layers in a Darcian porous medium adjacent to an impulsively started surface: Network simulation solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anwar Bég, O.; Zueco, J.; Takhar, H. S.; Bég, T. A.; Sajid, A.

    2009-11-01

    A boundary-layer model is described for the two-dimensional nonlinear transient thermal convection heat and mass transfer in an optically-thick fluid in a Darcian porous medium adjacent to an impulsively started vertical surface, in the presence of significant thermal radiation and buoyancy forces in an (X∗,Y∗,t∗) coordinate system. An algebraic approximation is employed to simplify the integro-differential equation of radiative transfer for unidirectional flux normal to the plate into the boundary-layer regime, by incorporating this flux term in the energy conservation equation. The conservation equations are non-dimensionalized into an (X,Y,T) coordinate system and solved using the Network Simulation Method (NSM), a robust numerical technique which demonstrates high efficiency and accuracy. The transient variation of non-dimensional streamwise velocity component (u) and temperature (T) and concentration (C) functions is computed for various selected values of Stark number (radiation-conduction interaction parameter) and Darcy number. Transient velocity (u) and steady-state local skin friction (τX) are also studied for various thermal Grashof number (Gr), species Grashof number (Gm), Schmidt number (Sc) and Stark number (N) values. These computations for the infinite permeability case (Da → ∞) are compared with previous finite difference solutions [Prasad et al. Int J Therm Sci 2007;46(12):1251-8] and shown to be in excellent agreement. An increase in Darcy number is seen to accelerate the flow and boost velocity. A decrease in Stark number (corresponding to an increase in thermal radiation heat transfer contribution) is shown to increase the velocity values. Temperature function is observed to fall in value with a rise in Da and increase with decrease in N (corresponding to an increase in thermal radiation heat transfer contribution). Applications of the study include rocket combustion chambers, astrophysical flows, spacecraft thermal fluid dynamics in

  17. PLGA nanometer surface features manipulate fibronectin interactions for improved vascular cell adhesion.

    PubMed

    Miller, Derick C; Haberstroh, Karen M; Webster, Thomas J

    2007-06-01

    The largest cause of mortality in the Western world is atherosclerotic vascular disease. Many of these diseases require synthetic vascular grafts; however, their patency rate is only 30% in small (<6 mm) diameter vascular grafts after 5 years of implantation. In an effort to increase small diameter vascular graft success, researchers have been designing random nanostructured surface features which enhance vascular cell functions. However, for the present study, highly-controllable, nanostructured features on poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) surfaces were formulated. To create ordered nanostructured roughness on PLGA surfaces, either 500, 200, or 100 nm polystyrene nanospheres were separately placed onto mica. These were then used as a template for creating an inverse poly(dimethylsiloxane) mold which was utilized to cast PLGA. Compared to all other PLGA films formulated, AFM results demonstrated greater initial fibronectin spreading on PLGA which possessed spherical 200 nm features. Compared to smooth PLGA, PLGA with 500 or 100 nm surface features, results further showed that PLGA with 200 nm spherical features promoted vascular cell (specifically, endothelial, and smooth muscle cell) adhesion. In this manner, the present study demonstrated a specific nanometer surface feature size that promoted fibronectin spreading and subsequent vascular cell adhesion; criteria critical to vascular graft success.

  18. Defining nanoscale metal features on an atomically clean silicon surface with a stencil.

    PubMed

    Linklater, A; Nogami, J

    2008-07-16

    Metal features with nanometer scale edge definition have been created on an atomically clean Si(001) surface with a stencil. These features were subsequently characterized by scanning tunneling microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The stencil was brought into contact with the substrate while allowing the stencil to pivot so that it self-aligned parallel to the substrate surface. With this simple method, feature edge spreading was reduced to less than 10 nm in the best case. At the same time, atomic resolution images of the metal feature/silicon boundary showed significant spreading of a sub-monolayer of metal beyond the deposited area. This spreading may pose a limit on the ultimate resolution that can be achieved for metals deposited on atomically clean silicon surfaces.

  19. Channels and Fan-like Features on Titan Surface Imaged by the Cassini RADAR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paganelli, F.; Elachi, C.; Lopes, R. M.; West, R.; Stiles, B.; Janssen, M. A.; Stofan, E. R.; Wood, C. A.; Lorenz, R. D.; Lunine, J. L.

    2005-01-01

    During two close flybys of Titan on October 26, 2004, and February 15, 2005, the Cassini s radar instrument acquired synthetic-aperture radar (SAR) data revealing Titan s complex surface and intriguing geological features. Fan-like and apparently flow-related features are connected to sinuous and linear features which resemble channels. The fan-like features and channels appear to be relatively SAR-bright and suggest surface roughness properties at the scale and bigger than the Ku-band, and possible volume scattering. A strong correlation between the SAR-bright and radiometric cold regions has been observed. The correlation is consistent with radiometric cold areas being caused by volume scattering at Ku as due to broken low-loss ice and resulting low emissivity as with the surfaces of Europa and Ganymede.

  20. Features of wind field over the sea surface in the coastal area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monzikova, A. K.; Kudryavtsev, V. N.; Myasoedov, A. G.; Chapron, B.; Zilitinkevich, S. S.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we analyze SAR wind field features, in particular the effects of wind shadowing. These effects represent the dynamics of the internal atmospheric boundary layer, which is formed due to the transition of the air flow arriving from the rough land surface to the "smooth" water surface. In the wind-shadowed area, the flow accelerates, and a surface wind stress increases with fetch. The width of the shadow depends not only on the wind speed and atmospheric boundary layer stratification, but also on geographic features such as windflow multiple transformations over the complex surface land-Lake Chudskoe-land-Gulf of Finland. Measurements showed that, in the area of wind acceleration, the surface stress normalized by an equilibrium value (far from the coast) is a universal function of dimensionless fetch Xf/G. Surface wind stress reaches an equilibrium value at Xf/G ≈ 0.4, which is the scale of the planetary-boundary-layer relaxation.

  1. Oxide Cathode Mechanisms: Electronic and Structural Features of Oxide Cathode Surfaces.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-01-01

    journals shall ensue as follows: (i) in form by Elsevier under the title Isorption and (Cont) 17. COSATI CODES 18. SUBJECT TERMS ( Continue on reverse it...Lminescence from Oxide Surfaces 19. ABSTRACT ( Continue on reverse if necesary and identify by block number) Continued fran Blk 11: and Structural...Features of Oxide Cathode Surfaces. Continued fran Blk 16: Catalysis om Oxide Surfaces" (ii) in JCS Faraday Transaction I as two scientific papers

  2. Feature-constrained surface reconstruction approach for point cloud data acquired with 3D laser scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yongbo; Sheng, Yehua; Lu, Guonian; Tian, Peng; Zhang, Kai

    2008-04-01

    Surface reconstruction is an important task in the field of 3d-GIS, computer aided design and computer graphics (CAD & CG), virtual simulation and so on. Based on available incremental surface reconstruction methods, a feature-constrained surface reconstruction approach for point cloud is presented. Firstly features are extracted from point cloud under the rules of curvature extremes and minimum spanning tree. By projecting local sample points to the fitted tangent planes and using extracted features to guide and constrain the process of local triangulation and surface propagation, topological relationship among sample points can be achieved. For the constructed models, a process named consistent normal adjustment and regularization is adopted to adjust normal of each face so that the correct surface model is achieved. Experiments show that the presented approach inherits the convenient implementation and high efficiency of traditional incremental surface reconstruction method, meanwhile, it avoids improper propagation of normal across sharp edges, which means the applicability of incremental surface reconstruction is greatly improved. Above all, appropriate k-neighborhood can help to recognize un-sufficient sampled areas and boundary parts, the presented approach can be used to reconstruct both open and close surfaces without additional interference.

  3. Considerations in the evaluation and correction of mid-spatial frequency surface features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Paul E.; Hall, Christopher A.

    2015-10-01

    Surfaces are commonly specified with peak to valley (PV) and root-mean-square (rms) requirements for surface form and roughness, describing surface quality with a few simple numbers. These specs ignore lateral feature sizes between form and roughness (so-called mid-spatial frequencies, or MSFs), however, making them inadequate for many modern optics fabricated with advanced technologies. Specifications sensitive to the lateral feature size, such as such as slope or power-spectral density (PSD), are increasingly employed to fill this void. Having a detailed view of the surface error as a function of lateral feature size can drive fabrication decisions. For example, a large aperture tool tends to correct small features well but performs less well on large features; while subaperture tools tend to do the opposite. Therefore after each fabrication step we want to know how the surface features at different lateral sizes evolved, so that we can optimize the choice of the next fabrication step. A spec like PSD often doesn't inform the fabricator whether it's failing because of a localized error (such as edge roll), continuous texture, or an artifact of metrology or computation. So while it may indicate the need for additional fabrication steps, it is not ideal for guiding specifically which fabrication step ought to be undertaken next. We have developed analyses to help determine what surface characteristics are failing spec, and thus optimize the next fabrication step. Finally, we demonstrate an example of how we have applied these techniques to fabricate parts with demanding slope and MSF specifications.

  4. FOCUSR: Feature Oriented Correspondence using Spectral Regularization–A Method for Precise Surface Matching

    PubMed Central

    Lombaert, Herve; Grady, Leo; Polimeni, Jonathan R.; Cheriet, Farida

    2013-01-01

    Existing methods for surface matching are limited by the trade-off between precision and computational efficiency. Here we present an improved algorithm for dense vertex-to-vertex correspondence that uses direct matching of features defined on a surface and improves it by using spectral correspondence as a regularization. This algorithm has the speed of both feature matching and spectral matching while exhibiting greatly improved precision (distance errors of 1.4%). The method, FOCUSR, incorporates implicitly such additional features to calculate the correspondence and relies on the smoothness of the lowest-frequency harmonics of a graph Laplacian to spatially regularize the features. In its simplest form, FOCUSR is an improved spectral correspondence method that nonrigidly deforms spectral embeddings. We provide here a full realization of spectral correspondence where virtually any feature can be used as additional information using weights on graph edges, but also on graph nodes and as extra embedded coordinates. As an example, the full power of FOCUSR is demonstrated in a real case scenario with the challenging task of brain surface matching across several individuals. Our results show that combining features and regularizing them in a spectral embedding greatly improves the matching precision (to a sub-millimeter level) while performing at much greater speed than existing methods. PMID:23868776

  5. FOCUSR: feature oriented correspondence using spectral regularization--a method for precise surface matching.

    PubMed

    Lombaert, Herve; Grady, Leo; Polimeni, Jonathan R; Cheriet, Farida

    2013-09-01

    Existing methods for surface matching are limited by the tradeoff between precision and computational efficiency. Here, we present an improved algorithm for dense vertex-to-vertex correspondence that uses direct matching of features defined on a surface and improves it by using spectral correspondence as a regularization. This algorithm has the speed of both feature matching and spectral matching while exhibiting greatly improved precision (distance errors of 1.4 percent). The method, FOCUSR, incorporates implicitly such additional features to calculate the correspondence and relies on the smoothness of the lowest-frequency harmonics of a graph Laplacian to spatially regularize the features. In its simplest form, FOCUSR is an improved spectral correspondence method that nonrigidly deforms spectral embeddings. We provide here a full realization of spectral correspondence where virtually any feature can be used as an additional information using weights on graph edges, but also on graph nodes and as extra embedded coordinates. As an example, the full power of FOCUSR is demonstrated in a real-case scenario with the challenging task of brain surface matching across several individuals. Our results show that combining features and regularizing them in a spectral embedding greatly improves the matching precision (to a submillimeter level) while performing at much greater speed than existing methods.

  6. Decreased lung carcinoma cell density on select polymer nanometer surface features for lung replacement therapies.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lijuan; Chun, Young Wook; Webster, Thomas J

    2010-05-13

    Poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) has been widely used as a biomaterial in regenerative medicine because of its biocompatibility and biodegradability properties. Previous studies have shown that cells (such as bladder smooth muscle cells, chondrocytes, and osteoblasts) respond differently to nanostructured PLGA surfaces compared with nanosmooth surfaces. The purpose of the present in vitro research was to prepare PLGA films with various nanometer surface features and determine whether lung cancer epithelial cells respond differently to such topographies. To create nanosurface features on PLGA, different sized (190 nm, 300 nm, 400 nm, and 530 nm diameter) polystyrene beads were used to cast polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) molds which were used as templates to create nanofeatured PLGA films. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) images and root mean square roughness (RMS) values indicated that the intended spherical surface nanotopographies on PLGA with RMS values of 2.23, 5.03, 5.42, and 36.90 nm were formed by employing 190, 300, 400, and 530 nm beads. A solution evaporation method was also utilized to modify PLGA surface features by using 8 wt% (to obtain an AFM RMS value of 0.62 nm) and 4 wt% (to obtain an AFM RMS value of 2.23 nm) PLGA in chloroform solutions. Most importantly, lung cancer epithelial cells adhered less on the PLGA surfaces with RMS values of 0.62, 2.23, and 5.42 nm after four hours of culture compared with any other PLGA surface created here. After three days, PLGA surfaces with an RMS value of 0.62 nm had much lower cell density than any other sample. In this manner, PLGA with specific nanometer surface features may inhibit lung cancer cell density which may provide an important biomaterial for the treatment of lung cancer (from drug delivery to regenerative medicine).

  7. A Statistical-Textural-Features Based Approach for Classification of Solid Drugs Using Surface Microscopic Images

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The quality of pharmaceutical products plays an important role in pharmaceutical industry as well as in our lives. Usage of defective tablets can be harmful for patients. In this research we proposed a nondestructive method to identify defective and nondefective tablets using their surface morphology. Three different environmental factors temperature, humidity and moisture are analyzed to evaluate the performance of the proposed method. Multiple textural features are extracted from the surface of the defective and nondefective tablets. These textural features are gray level cooccurrence matrix, run length matrix, histogram, autoregressive model and HAAR wavelet. Total textural features extracted from images are 281. We performed an analysis on all those 281, top 15, and top 2 features. Top 15 features are extracted using three different feature reduction techniques: chi-square, gain ratio and relief-F. In this research we have used three different classifiers: support vector machine, K-nearest neighbors and naïve Bayes to calculate the accuracies against proposed method using two experiments, that is, leave-one-out cross-validation technique and train test models. We tested each classifier against all selected features and then performed the comparison of their results. The experimental work resulted in that in most of the cases SVM performed better than the other two classifiers. PMID:25371702

  8. Ion microprobe elemental analyses of impact features on interplanetary dust experiment sensor surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Charles G.; Hunter, Jerry L.; Wortman, Jim J.; Griffis, Dieter P.

    1992-01-01

    Hypervelocity impact features from very small particles (less than 3 microns in diameter) on several of the electro-active dust sensors used in the Interplanetary Dust Experiment (IDE) were subjected to elemental analysis using an ion microscope. The same analytical techniques were applied to impact and containment features on a set of ultra-pure, highly polished single crystal germanium wafer witness plates that were mounted on tray B12. Very little unambiguously identifiable impactor debris was found in the central craters or shatter zones of small impacts in this crystalline surface. The surface contamination, ubiquitous on the surface of the Long Duration Exposure Facility, has greatly complicated data collection and interpretation from microparticle impacts on all surfaces.

  9. Interpretation of Impact Features on the Surface of the WFPC-2 Radiator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anz-Meador, P. D.; Christiansen, Eric L.; Kou, J.-C.

    2011-01-01

    An examination of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC-2) radiator assembly was conducted at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) during the summer of 2009. Immediately apparent was the predominance of impact features resident only in the thermal paint layer; similar phenomenology was observed during a prior survey of the WFPC-1 radiator. As well, larger impact features displayed spallation zones, darkened areas, and other features not encountered in impacts onto bare surfaces. Whereas the characterization of impact features by depth and diameter on unpainted surfaces has been long established, the mitigation provided by the painted layer presented a challenge to further analysis of the WFPC-2 features; a literature search revealed no systematic characterization of the ballistic limit equations of painted or coated surfaces. In order to characterize the impactors responsible for the observed damage, an understanding of the cratering and spallation phenomenology of the painted surface was required. To address that challenge, NASA sponsored a series of hypervelocity calibration shots at the White Sands Test Facility (WSTF). This effort required the following activities: the production, painting, and artificial ageing of test coupons in a manner similar to the actual radiator; the determination of the test matrix parameters projectile diameter and material (mass density), impact velocity, and impact angle, so as to enable both an adequate characterization of the impact by projectile and impact geometry and support hydrocode modeling to fill in and extend the applicability of the calibration shots; the selection of suitable projectiles; logistics; and an analysis of feature characteristics upon return of the coupons. This paper reports the results of the test campaign and presents ballistic limit equations for painted surfaces. We also present initial results of our interpretation methodologies.

  10. A surface intrinsic feature based method (SIFBM) for the characterization of optical microstructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheung, C. F.; Kong, L. B.; Lee, W. B.; To, S.

    2008-12-01

    Optical microstructures are small scale topologies which are generally classified as grooves, pyramids, microlens arrays, lenticulations, echells, etc. They are widely used in advanced optics applications. Currently, there is lack of methods for the characterization of surface quality for optical microstructures with sub-micromenter form accuracy and surface finish in the nanometer range. This paper presents a Surface Intrinsic Feature Based Method (SIFBM) which makes use of surface intrinsic properties such as curvatures, normal vectors, torsion, intrinsic frames, etc. They are mapped as special images and image processing techniques are then employed to conduct image registration or correspondences searching by some algorithms such as correlation functions. The surface matching is optimized by corresponding vectors deviations. In the present study, a prototype surface characterization system has been built based on the SIFBM. Primary experimental work has been conducted to validate the proposed method. The results demonstrate that the SIFBM has potential advantages over existing methods.

  11. Contributions of feature shapes and surface cues to the recognition of facial expressions.

    PubMed

    Sormaz, Mladen; Young, Andrew W; Andrews, Timothy J

    2016-10-01

    Theoretical accounts of face processing often emphasise feature shapes as the primary visual cue to the recognition of facial expressions. However, changes in facial expression also affect the surface properties of the face. In this study, we investigated whether this surface information can also be used in the recognition of facial expression. First, participants identified facial expressions (fear, anger, disgust, sadness, happiness) from images that were manipulated such that they varied mainly in shape or mainly in surface properties. We found that the categorization of facial expression is possible in either type of image, but that different expressions are relatively dependent on surface or shape properties. Next, we investigated the relative contributions of shape and surface information to the categorization of facial expressions. This employed a complementary method that involved combining the surface properties of one expression with the shape properties from a different expression. Our results showed that the categorization of facial expressions in these hybrid images was equally dependent on the surface and shape properties of the image. Together, these findings provide a direct demonstration that both feature shape and surface information make significant contributions to the recognition of facial expressions.

  12. Establishing Object Correspondence across Eye Movements: Flexible Use of Spatiotemporal and Surface Feature Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richard, Ashleigh M.; Luck, Steven J.; Hollingworth, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    Visual input is frequently disrupted by eye movements, blinks, and occlusion. The visual system must be able to establish correspondence between objects visible before and after a disruption. Current theories hold that correspondence is established solely on the basis of spatiotemporal information, with no contribution from surface features. In…

  13. The identification of molecular surfaces' feature regions based on spherical mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Meiling; Zhang, Jingqiao

    2017-02-01

    As possible active sites, the concave and convex feature regions of the molecule are the locations where the molecular docking will happen more possibly. Then how to search for those regions is valuable to study. In this paper, a new method is proposed for identifying concave and convex regions. Based on the established spherical mapping between molecular surfaces and its bounding-sphere surfaces, the concave and convex vertices of local areas can be determined according to the expansion distance defined by the spherical mapping. Then through mesh growing, a feature region can be firmed by a concave point or a convex point, also called center point, and its neighboring faces, whose normal vector has an angle in a specified range with the center point. After that, areas and volumes of feature regions are calculated. The experimental results indicate that the method can well identify the concave and convex characteristics of the molecule.

  14. Improved discrete Fourier transform based spectral feature for surface electromyogram signal classification.

    PubMed

    He, Jiayuan; Zhang, Dingguo; Sheng, Xinjun; Meng, Jianjun; Zhu, Xiangyang

    2013-01-01

    An improved discrete Fourier transform (iDFT) is presented in this study as a novel feature for surface electromyogram (sEMG) pattern classification. It employs the principle that the spectrum of sEMG signals changes regarding different motions. iDFT feature focuses on global information of local bands to increase the inter-class distance. The experiment results showed that iDFT feature had a better separability than two other spectral features, auto regression (AR) and Power spectral density (PSD), both on experienced and inexperienced subjects. The optimal bandwidth is between 30 and 50 Hz and influence of division methods is not significant. With the low computation cost and property of insensitivity to sampling frequency, our proposed method provides a competitive choice for prosthetic control.

  15. Abnormal changes of multidimensional surface features using multivariate pattern classification in amnestic mild cognitive impairment patients.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuyu; Yuan, Xiankun; Pu, Fang; Li, Deyu; Fan, Yubo; Wu, Liyong; Chao, Wang; Chen, Nan; He, Yong; Han, Ying

    2014-08-06

    Previous studies have suggested that amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) is associated with changes in cortical morphological features, such as cortical thickness, sulcal depth, surface area, gray matter volume, metric distortion, and mean curvature. These features have been proven to have specific neuropathological and genetic underpinnings. However, most studies primarily focused on mass-univariate methods, and cortical features were generally explored in isolation. Here, we used a multivariate method to characterize the complex and subtle structural changing pattern of cortical anatomy in 24 aMCI human participants and 26 normal human controls. Six cortical features were extracted for each participant, and the spatial patterns of brain abnormities in aMCI were identified by high classification weights using a support vector machine method. The classification accuracy in discriminating the two groups was 76% in the left hemisphere and 80% in the right hemisphere when all six cortical features were used. Regions showing high weights were subtle, spatially complex, and predominately located in the left medial temporal lobe and the supramarginal and right inferior parietal lobes. In addition, we also found that the six morphological features had different contributions in discriminating the two groups even for the same region. Our results indicated that the neuroanatomical patterns that discriminated individuals with aMCI from controls were truly multidimensional and had different effects on the morphological features. Furthermore, the regions identified by our method could potentially be useful for clinical diagnosis.

  16. Young (late Amazonian), near-surface, ground ice features near the equator, Athabasca Valles, Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burr, D.M.; Soare, R.J.; Wan, Bun Tseung J.-M.; Emery, J.P.

    2005-01-01

    A suite of four feature types in a ???20 km2 area near 10?? N, 204?? W in Athabasca Valles is interpreted to have resulted from near-surface ground ice. These features include mounds, conical forms with rimmed summit depressions, flatter irregularly-shaped forms with raised rims, and polygonal terrain. Based on morphology, size, and analogy to terrestrial ground ice forms, these Athabascan features are interpreted as pingos, collapsing pingos, pingo scars, and thermal contraction polygons, respectively. Thermal Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (THEMIS) data and geological features in the area are consistent with a sedimentary substrate underlying these features. These observations lead us to favor a ground ice interpretation, although we do not rule out volcanic and especially glaciofluvial hypotheses. The hypothesized ground ice that formed the mounds and rimmed features may have been emplaced via the deposition of saturated sediment during flooding; an alternative scenario invokes magmatically cycled groundwater. The ground ice implicit in the hypothesized thermal contraction polygons may have derived either from this flooding/ground water, or from atmospheric water vapor. The lack of obvious flood modification of the mounds and rimmed features indicates that they formed after the most recent flood inundated the area. Analogy with terrestrial pingos suggests that ground ice may be still extant within the positive relief mounds. As the water that flooded down Athabasca Valles emerged via a volcanotectonic fissure from a deep aquifer, any extant pingo ice may contain evidence of a deep subsurface biosphere. ?? 2005 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Separation of Atmospheric and Surface Spectral Features in Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) Spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Michael D.; Bandfield, Joshua L.; Christensen, Philip R.

    2000-01-01

    We present two algorithms for the separation of spectral features caused by atmospheric and surface components in Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) data. One algorithm uses radiative transfer and successive least squares fitting to find spectral shapes first for atmospheric dust, then for water-ice aerosols, and then, finally, for surface emissivity. A second independent algorithm uses a combination of factor analysis, target transformation, and deconvolution to simultaneously find dust, water ice, and surface emissivity spectral shapes. Both algorithms have been applied to TES spectra, and both find very similar atmospheric and surface spectral shapes. For TES spectra taken during aerobraking and science phasing periods in nadir-geometry these two algorithms give meaningful and usable surface emissivity spectra that can be used for mineralogical identification.

  18. Automatic feature detection for 3D surface reconstruction from HDTV endoscopic videos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groch, Anja; Baumhauer, Matthias; Meinzer, Hans-Peter; Maier-Hein, Lena

    2010-02-01

    A growing number of applications in the field of computer-assisted laparoscopic interventions depend on accurate and fast 3D surface acquisition. The most commonly applied methods for 3D reconstruction of organ surfaces from 2D endoscopic images involve establishment of correspondences in image pairs to allow for computation of 3D point coordinates via triangulation. The popular feature-based approach for correspondence search applies a feature descriptor to compute high-dimensional feature vectors describing the characteristics of selected image points. Correspondences are established between image points with similar feature vectors. In a previous study, the performance of a large set of state-of-the art descriptors for the use in minimally invasive surgery was assessed. However, standard Phase Alternating Line (PAL) endoscopic images were utilized for this purpose. In this paper, we apply some of the best performing feature descriptors to in-vivo PAL endoscopic images as well as to High Definition Television (HDTV) endoscopic images of the same scene and show that the quality of the correspondences can be increased significantly when using high resolution images.

  19. Ion microprobe elemental analyses of impact features on interplanetary dust experiment sensor surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Jerry L.; Wortman, Jim J.; Griffis, Dieter P.; Simon, Charles G.

    1991-01-01

    Hypervelocity impact features on several of the electro-active dust sensors utilized in the Interplanetary Dust Experiment (IDE) were subjected to elemental analysis using an ion microprobe. The negatively biased dust sensor surfaces acted as ion traps for cations produced in the plasma plumes of impacting particles. Impactor residue surrounds most impact features to two or three feature diameters. After etching away a layer of carbonaceous/silicaceous surface contamination, low mass resolution elemental survey scans are used to tentatively identify the presence of impactor debris. High mass resolution two-dimensional elemental maps and three dimensional depth profiling of the feature and surrounding area show the distribution and relative composition of the debris. The location of these sensors on the six primary Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) sides provides a unique opportunity to further define the debris environment. Researchers applied the same techniques to impact and contaminant features on a set of ultra-pure, highly polished single crystal germanium wafer witness plates that were mounted on row 12 and exposed to the environment during the entire mission.

  20. Surface Parameters of Titan Feature Classes From Cassini RADAR Backscatter Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wye, L. C.; Zebker, H. A.; Lopes, R. M.; Peckyno, R.; Le Gall, A.; Janssen, M. A.

    2008-12-01

    Multimode microwave measurements collected by the Cassini RADAR instrument during the spacecraft's first four years of operation form a fairly comprehensive set of radar backscatter data over a variety of Titan surface features. We use the real-aperture scatterometry processor to analyze the entire collection of active data, creating a uniformly-calibrated dataset that covers 93% of Titan's surface at a variety of viewing angles. Here, we examine how the measured backscatter response (radar reflectivity as a function of incidence angle) varies with surface feature type, such as dunes, cryovolcanic areas, and anomalous albedo terrain. We identify the feature classes using a combination of maps produced by the RADAR, ISS, and VIMS instruments. We then derive surface descriptors including roughness, dielectric constant, and degree of volume scatter. Radar backscatter on Titan is well-modeled as a superposition of large-scale surface scattering (quasispecular scattering) together with a combination of small-scale surface scattering and subsurface volume scattering (diffuse scattering). The viewing geometry determines which scattering mechanism is strongest. At low incidence angles, quasispecular scatter dominates the radar backscatter return. At higher incidence angles (angles greater than ~30°), diffuse scatter dominates the return. We use a composite model to separate the two scattering regimes; we model the quasispecular term with a combination of two traditional backscatter laws (we consider the Hagfors, Gaussian, and exponential models), following a technique developed by Sultan-Salem and Tyler [1], and we model the diffuse term, which encompasses both diffuse mechanisms, with a simple cosine power law. Using this total composite model, we analyze the backscatter curves of all features classes on Titan for which we have adequate angular coverage. In most cases, we find that the superposition of the Hagfors law with the exponential law best models the

  1. Effect of surface topographic features on the optical properties of skin: a phantom study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Guangli; Chen, Jianfeng; Zhao, Zuhua; Zhao, Gang; Dong, Erbao; Chu, Jiaru; Xu, Ronald X.

    2016-10-01

    Tissue-simulating phantoms are used to validate and calibrate optical imaging systems and to understand light transport in biological tissue. Light propagation in a strongly turbid medium such as skin tissue experiences multiple scattering and diffuse reflection from the surface. Surface roughness introduces phase shifts and optical path length differences for light which is scattered within the skin tissue and reflected from the surface. In this paper, we study the effect of mismatched surface roughness on optical measurement and subsequent determination of optical properties of skin tissue. A series of phantoms with controlled surface features and optical properties corresponding to normal human skin are fabricated. The fabrication of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) phantoms with known surface roughness follows a standard soft lithography process. Surface roughness of skin-simulating phantoms are measured with Bruker stylus profiler. The diffuse reflectance of the phantom is validated by a UV/VIS spectrophotometer. The results show that surface texture and roughness have considerable influence on the optical characteristics of skin. This study suggests that surface roughness should be considered as an important contributing factor for the determination of tissue optical properties.

  2. Predicting the Occurrence of Cave-Inhabiting Fauna Based on Features of the Earth Surface Environment

    PubMed Central

    Doctor, Daniel H.; Niemiller, Matthew L.; Weary, David J.; Young, John A.; Zigler, Kirk S.

    2016-01-01

    One of the most challenging fauna to study in situ is the obligate cave fauna because of the difficulty of sampling. Cave-limited species display patchy and restricted distributions, but it is often unclear whether the observed distribution is a sampling artifact or a true restriction in range. Further, the drivers of the distribution could be local environmental conditions, such as cave humidity, or they could be associated with surface features that are surrogates for cave conditions. If surface features can be used to predict the distribution of important cave taxa, then conservation management is more easily obtained. We examined the hypothesis that the presence of major faunal groups of cave obligate species could be predicted based on features of the earth surface. Georeferenced records of cave obligate amphipods, crayfish, fish, isopods, beetles, millipedes, pseudoscorpions, spiders, and springtails within the area of Appalachian Landscape Conservation Cooperative in the eastern United States (Illinois to Virginia and New York to Alabama) were assigned to 20 x 20 km grid cells. Habitat suitability for these faunal groups was modeled using logistic regression with twenty predictor variables within each grid cell, such as percent karst, soil features, temperature, precipitation, and elevation. Models successfully predicted the presence of a group greater than 65% of the time (mean = 88%) for the presence of single grid cell endemics, and for all faunal groups except pseudoscorpions. The most common predictor variables were latitude, percent karst, and the standard deviation of the Topographic Position Index (TPI), a measure of landscape rugosity within each grid cell. The overall success of these models points to a number of important connections between the surface and cave environments, and some of these, especially soil features and topographic variability, suggest new research directions. These models should prove to be useful tools in predicting the

  3. Predicting the occurrence of cave-inhabiting fauna based on features of the earth surface environment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christman, Mary C.; Doctor, Daniel H.; Niemiller, Matthew L.; Weary, David J.; Young, John A.; Zigler, Kirk S.; Culver, David C.

    2016-01-01

    One of the most challenging fauna to study in situ is the obligate cave fauna because of the difficulty of sampling. Cave-limited species display patchy and restricted distributions, but it is often unclear whether the observed distribution is a sampling artifact or a true restriction in range. Further, the drivers of the distribution could be local environmental conditions, such as cave humidity, or they could be associated with surface features that are surrogates for cave conditions. If surface features can be used to predict the distribution of important cave taxa, then conservation management is more easily obtained. We examined the hypothesis that the presence of major faunal groups of cave obligate species could be predicted based on features of the earth surface. Georeferenced records of cave obligate amphipods, crayfish, fish, isopods, beetles, millipedes, pseudoscorpions, spiders, and springtails within the area of Appalachian Landscape Conservation Cooperative in the eastern United States (Illinois to Virginia and New York to Alabama) were assigned to 20 x 20 km grid cells. Habitat suitability for these faunal groups was modeled using logistic regression with twenty predictor variables within each grid cell, such as percent karst, soil features, temperature, precipitation, and elevation. Models successfully predicted the presence of a group greater than 65% of the time (mean = 88%) for the presence of single grid cell endemics, and for all faunal groups except pseudoscorpions. The most common predictor variables were latitude, percent karst, and the standard deviation of the Topographic Position Index (TPI), a measure of landscape rugosity within each grid cell. The overall success of these models points to a number of important connections between the surface and cave environments, and some of these, especially soil features and topographic variability, suggest new research directions. These models should prove to be useful tools in predicting the

  4. Predicting the Occurrence of Cave-Inhabiting Fauna Based on Features of the Earth Surface Environment.

    PubMed

    Christman, Mary C; Doctor, Daniel H; Niemiller, Matthew L; Weary, David J; Young, John A; Zigler, Kirk S; Culver, David C

    2016-01-01

    One of the most challenging fauna to study in situ is the obligate cave fauna because of the difficulty of sampling. Cave-limited species display patchy and restricted distributions, but it is often unclear whether the observed distribution is a sampling artifact or a true restriction in range. Further, the drivers of the distribution could be local environmental conditions, such as cave humidity, or they could be associated with surface features that are surrogates for cave conditions. If surface features can be used to predict the distribution of important cave taxa, then conservation management is more easily obtained. We examined the hypothesis that the presence of major faunal groups of cave obligate species could be predicted based on features of the earth surface. Georeferenced records of cave obligate amphipods, crayfish, fish, isopods, beetles, millipedes, pseudoscorpions, spiders, and springtails within the area of Appalachian Landscape Conservation Cooperative in the eastern United States (Illinois to Virginia and New York to Alabama) were assigned to 20 x 20 km grid cells. Habitat suitability for these faunal groups was modeled using logistic regression with twenty predictor variables within each grid cell, such as percent karst, soil features, temperature, precipitation, and elevation. Models successfully predicted the presence of a group greater than 65% of the time (mean = 88%) for the presence of single grid cell endemics, and for all faunal groups except pseudoscorpions. The most common predictor variables were latitude, percent karst, and the standard deviation of the Topographic Position Index (TPI), a measure of landscape rugosity within each grid cell. The overall success of these models points to a number of important connections between the surface and cave environments, and some of these, especially soil features and topographic variability, suggest new research directions. These models should prove to be useful tools in predicting the

  5. Characterization and optimization of illumination vector for contouring surface form and feature using DSPI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Chaolong; Prasad A. S., Guru; Chan, Kelvin H. K.; Murukeshan, Vadakke Matham

    2016-06-01

    Surface defect or damage is one of the critical factors leading to the failure of engineering materials and structures. The methodologies for the measurement of surface shape and feature or defect have been extensively explored and developed over the past few decades, including both contact and non-contact methods. Speckle pattern interferometry, as a non-contact optical method, has been demonstrated to effectively contour the surface shape through adjusting the illumination vector. However, few studies have been made to investigate the effect of the initial position of the illumination source as well as the source translation direction. In this paper, we report to carry out a study of measuring the surface form and feature using digital speckle pattern interferometry system via a slight translation of illumination source. Through theoretically analyzing the sensitivity factor along with the experimental validation, it is shown that the contouring fringe is more sensitive to the surface height with an off-axis illumination than the paraxial illumination. It is also found that translating the source along axial and lateral direction can be both used for the surface shape re-construction.

  6. Meteorological data for four sites at surface-disruption features in Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, 1985--1986

    SciTech Connect

    Carman, R.L.

    1994-12-01

    Surface-disruption features, or craters, resulting from underground nuclear testing at the Nevada Test Site may increase the potential for ground-water recharge in an area that would normally produce little, if any, recharge. This report presents selected meteorological data resulting from a study of two surface-disruption features during May 1985 through June 1986. The data were collected at four adjacent sites in Yucca Flat, about 56 kilometers north of Mercury, Nevada. Three sites (one in each of two craters and one at an undisturbed site at the original land surface) were instrumented to collect meteorological data for calculating bare-soil evaporation. These data include (1) long-wave radiation, (2) short-wave radiation, (3) net radiation, (4) air temperature, and (5) soil surface temperature. Meteorological data also were collected at a weather station at an undisturbed site near the study craters. Data collected at this site include (1) air temperature, (2) relative humidity, (3) wind velocity, and (4) wind direction.

  7. Meteorological data for four sites at surface-disruption features in Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, 1985-86

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carman, Rita L.

    1994-01-01

    Surface-disruption features, or craters, resulting from underground nuclear testing at the Nevada Test Site may increase the potential for ground-water recharge in an area that would normally produce little, if any, recharge. This report presents selected meteorological data resulting from a study of two surface-disruption features during May 1985 through June 1986. The data were collected at four adjacent sites in Yucca Flat, about 56 kilometers north of Mercury, Nevada. Three sites (one in each of two craters and one at an undisturbed site at the original land surface) were instrumented to collect meteorological data for calculating bare-soil evaporation. These data include (1) long-wave radiation, (2) short-wave radiation, (3) net radiation, (4) air temperae, and (5) soil surface temperature. Meteorological data also were collected at a weather station at an undisturbed site near the study craters. Data collected at this site include (1) air temperature, (2) relative humidity, (3) wind velocity, and (4) wind direction.

  8. Distinct Surface Features of Ignimbrites Related to Post-depositional Degassing - Criteria for their Identification on Other Planetary Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Silva, S. L.; Bailey, J. E.

    2013-12-01

    Developing criteria to differentiate between different lithologies is crucial to unraveling the history of planetary surfaces. The presence of ignimbrites on Mars has been debated for over three decades. If correct, this interpretation has implications for the style of volcanism, the evolution of magmas and volatiles in the mantle and crust, the presence of water, and the evolution of the atmosphere. Ongoing work on the surface patterns of terrestrial ignimbrites in the Central Andes reveal a class of features related to post-depositional degassing that maybe unique to ignimbrites. We focus on interconnected broadly concentric zones of polygonally-fractured intense alteration that form the cores to an extensive radiating fracture network. These are informally called 'arachnids' or 'matrix bugs'. Field investigation reveals abundant sulphur and hydrothermal alteration of the cores with a clear thermal zonation. Resulting induration manifests as elevated core regions and indurated ridges that control the development of yardangs. The character and spacing of the arachnids suggests their formation is related to the presence of external water. The manifestation of these features varies with the degree of induration of the ignimbrites, which is a rough proxy for the volume of the deposit. Arachnids and bugs maybe part of a genre of post-depositional thermal and volatile release features in ignimbrites that include phreatic explosion craters, columnar jointing and fumarolic mounds. These features maybe unique to ignimbrites and may provide a distinct criterion for their identification with high resolution remotely sensed data in regions with little dust cover. Recognising such features in higher resolution data such as HiRiSe on Mars may be limited by the extensive dust cover.

  9. Literature and data review for the surface-water pathway: Columbia River and adjacent coastal areas. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    SciTech Connect

    Walters, W.H.; Dirkes, R.L.; Napier, B.A.

    1992-11-01

    As part of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project, Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories reviewed literature and data on radionuclide concentrations and distribution in the water, sediment, and biota of the Columbia River and adjacent coastal areas. Over 600 documents were reviewed including Hanford reports, reports by offsite agencies, journal articles, and graduate theses. Radionuclide concentration data were used in preliminary estimates of individual dose for the period 1964 through 1966. This report summarizes the literature and database reviews and the results of the preliminary dose estimates.

  10. Literature and data review for the surface-water pathway: Columbia River and adjacent coastal areas. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    SciTech Connect

    Walters, W.H.; Dirkes, R.L.; Napier, B.A.

    1992-04-01

    As part of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project, Pacific Northwest Laboratory reviewed literature and data on radionuclide concentrations and distribution in the water, sediment, and biota of the Columbia River and adjacent coastal areas. Over 600 documents were reviewed including Hanford reports, reports by offsite agencies, journal articles, and graduate theses. Certain radionuclide concentration data were used in preliminary estimates of individual dose for the 1964--1966 time period. This report summarizes the literature and database review and the results of the preliminary dose estimates.

  11. Thermal Behaviour of Unusual Local-Scale Surface Features on Vesta

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tosi, F.; Capria, M. T.; De Sanctis, M. C.; Palomba, E.; Grassi, D.; Capaccioni, F.; Ammannito, E.; Combe, J.-Ph.; Sunshine, J. M.; McCord, T. B.; Titus, T. N.; Russell, C. T.; Raymond, C. A.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Toplis, M. J.; Forni, O.; Sykes, M. V.

    2012-01-01

    On Vesta, the region of the infrared spectrum beyond approximately 3.5 micrometers is dominated by the thermal emission of the asteroid's surface, which can be used to determine surface temperature by means of temperature-retrieval algorithms. The thermal behavior of areas of unusual albedo seen at the local scale can be related to physical properties that can provide information about the origin of those materials. Dawn's Visible and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIR) hyperspectral cubes are used to retrieve surface temperatures, with high accuracy as long as temperatures are greater than 180 K. Data acquired in the Survey phase (23 July through 29 August 2011) show several unusual surface features: 1) high-albedo (bright) and low-albedo (dark) material deposits, 2) spectrally distinct ejecta, 3) regions suggesting finer-grained materials. Some of the unusual dark and bright features were re-observed by VIR in the subsequent High-Altitude Mapping Orbit (HAMO) and Low-Altitude Mapping Orbit (LAMO) phases at increased pixel resolution. To calculate surface temperatures, we applied a Bayesian approach to nonlinear inversion based on the Kirchhoff law and the Planck function. These results were cross-checked through application of alternative methods. Here we present temperature maps of several local-scale features that were observed by Dawn under different illumination conditions and different local solar times. Some bright terrains have an overall albedo in the visible as much as 40% brighter than surrounding areas. Data from the IR channel of VIR show that bright regions generally correspond to regions with lower thermal emission, i.e. lower temperature, while dark regions correspond to areas with higher thermal emission, i.e. higher temperature. This behavior confirms that many of the dark appearances in the VIS mainly reflect albedo variations. In particular, it is shown that during maximum daily insolation, dark features in the equatorial region may rise to

  12. Nanoporous Gold as a Neural Interface Coating: Effects of Topography, Surface Chemistry, and Feature Size

    DOE PAGES

    Chapman, Christopher A. R.; Chen, Hao; Stamou, Marianna; ...

    2015-02-23

    We report that designing neural interfaces that maintain close physical coupling of neurons to an electrode surface remains a major challenge for both implantable and in vitro neural recording electrode arrays. Typically, low-impedance nanostructured electrode coatings rely on chemical cues from pharmaceuticals or surface-immobilized peptides to suppress glial scar tissue formation over the electrode surface (astrogliosis), which is an obstacle to reliable neuron–electrode coupling. Nanoporous gold (np-Au), produced by an alloy corrosion process, is a promising candidate to reduce astrogliosis solely through topography by taking advantage of its tunable length scale. In the present in vitro study on np-Au’s interactionmore » with cortical neuron–glia co-cultures, we demonstrate that the nanostructure of np-Au achieves close physical coupling of neurons by maintaining a high neuron-to-astrocyte surface coverage ratio. Atomic layer deposition-based surface modification was employed to decouple the effect of morphology from surface chemistry. Additionally, length scale effects were systematically studied by controlling the characteristic feature size of np-Au through variations in the dealloying conditions. In conclusion, our results show that np-Au nanotopography, not surface chemistry, reduces astrocyte surface coverage while maintaining high neuronal coverage and may enhance neuron–electrode coupling through nanostructure-mediated suppression of scar tissue formation.« less

  13. Nanoporous Gold as a Neural Interface Coating: Effects of Topography, Surface Chemistry, and Feature Size

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, Christopher A. R.; Chen, Hao; Stamou, Marianna; Biener, Juergen; Biener, Monika M.; Lein, Pamela J.; Seker, Erkin

    2015-02-23

    We report that designing neural interfaces that maintain close physical coupling of neurons to an electrode surface remains a major challenge for both implantable and in vitro neural recording electrode arrays. Typically, low-impedance nanostructured electrode coatings rely on chemical cues from pharmaceuticals or surface-immobilized peptides to suppress glial scar tissue formation over the electrode surface (astrogliosis), which is an obstacle to reliable neuron–electrode coupling. Nanoporous gold (np-Au), produced by an alloy corrosion process, is a promising candidate to reduce astrogliosis solely through topography by taking advantage of its tunable length scale. In the present in vitro study on np-Au’s interaction with cortical neuron–glia co-cultures, we demonstrate that the nanostructure of np-Au achieves close physical coupling of neurons by maintaining a high neuron-to-astrocyte surface coverage ratio. Atomic layer deposition-based surface modification was employed to decouple the effect of morphology from surface chemistry. Additionally, length scale effects were systematically studied by controlling the characteristic feature size of np-Au through variations in the dealloying conditions. In conclusion, our results show that np-Au nanotopography, not surface chemistry, reduces astrocyte surface coverage while maintaining high neuronal coverage and may enhance neuron–electrode coupling through nanostructure-mediated suppression of scar tissue formation.

  14. Nanoporous Gold as a Neural Interface Coating: Effects of Topography, Surface Chemistry, and Feature Size

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Christopher A. R.; Chen, Hao; Stamou, Marianna; Biener, Juergen; Biener, Monika M.; Lein, Pamela J.; Seker, Erkin

    2015-01-01

    Designing neural-electrode interfaces that maintain close physical coupling of neurons to the electrode surface remains a major challenge for both implantable and in vitro neural recording electrode arrays. Typically, low-impedance nanostructured electrode coatings rely on chemical cues from pharmaceuticals or surface-immobilized peptides to suppress glial scar tissue formation over the electrode surface (astrogliosis), which is an obstacle to reliable neuron-electrode coupling. Nanoporous gold (np-Au), produced by an alloy corrosion process, is a promising candidate to reduce astrogliosis solely through topography by taking advantage of its tunable length scale. In the present in vitro study on np-Au’s interaction with cortical neuron-glia co-cultures, we demonstrate that the nanostructure of np-Au is achieving close physical coupling of neurons through maintaining a high neuron-to-astrocyte surface coverage ratio. Atomic layer deposition-based surface modification was employed to decouple the effect of morphology from surface chemistry. Additionally, length scale effects were systematically studied by controlling the characteristic feature size of np-Au through variations of the dealloying conditions. Our results show that np-Au nanotopography, not surface chemistry, reduces astrocyte surface coverage while maintaining high neuronal coverage, and may enhance the neuron-electrode coupling through nanostructure-mediated suppression of scar tissue formation. PMID:25706691

  15. Characterization of Surface Features in Detached Grown GeSi Crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cobb, S. D.; Volz, M. P.; Schweizer, M.; Kaiser, N.; Carpenter, P. K.; Szofran, F. R.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The growth of detached crystals by the Bridgman technique, in which the growing crystal is not in contact with the crucible wall, has been observed both on earth and in microgravity conditions. At present, the mechanisms contributing to the detachment are not completely understood and until recently detachment has not been reproducibly obtained. It is commonly understood that the main factors that promote the occurrence of detached growth include: high contact angle between the melt and the crucible material, high growth angle, and a pressure difference between the annular gap around the solid below the melt and the volume above the melt along the meniscus. These parameters were varied in Bridgman growth experiments to determine the conditions required to achieve detached growth terrestrially in Ge and GeSi alloys. These experiments are in preparation for experiments on the International Space Station (ISS). The detailed objectives of the flight experiments and a description of the growth methods employed are the subject of another presentation at this Congress. Detached crystals were achieved repeatedly in pyrolytic boron nitride ampoules when a pressure difference was employed. All crystals, except for those grown in fused silica ampoules, were easily removed from their containers; however, this fact alone is not sufficient to infer detached growth. Detachment was verified by comparing profilometer measurements of the radius of the samples with observations of the sample surfaces using optical and electron microscopy. The surfaces of the attached areas of the crystals had the same shape and surface texture as the interior crucible wall. Regions of detached growth contained many unique features and crystal facets could usually be observed. Several of these surface features have been correlated with mechanisms of detachment or free surface growth in general and others to processing events or conditions. These results will be compared with observations of surface

  16. Phobos and deimos: Analysis of surface features, ejecta dynamics and a volatile loss mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, D. R.; Chapman, C. R.; Greenberg, R.; Weidenschilling, S. J.

    1980-01-01

    The question of whether the crater population on Phobos represents a production population or an equilibrium population is considered. The absolute ages of cratered surfaces are interpreted and analyzed. A computer program was developed to study the dynamics of material ejected from Martian satellites and to investigate the hypothesis that at least some of the extensive set of linear features discovered on the surface of Phobos could be the result of secondary cratering from the Stickney impact. The possibility that Deimos was catastrophically disrupted by a large impact but subsequently reaccreted is considered as well as the probability the Phobos had an impact nearly large enough to disrupt it are also discussed.

  17. Thermal infrared remote sensing of surface features for renewable resource applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welker, J. E.

    1981-01-01

    The subjects of infrared remote sensing of surface features for renewable resource applications is reviewed with respect to the basic physical concepts involved at the Earth's surface and up through the atmosphere, as well as the historical development of satellite systems which produce such data at increasingly greater spatial resolution. With this general background in hand, the growth of a variety of specific renewable resource applications using the developing thermal infrared technology are discussed, including data from HCMM investigators. Recommendations are made for continued growth in this field of applications.

  18. Thermal Analysis of Unusual Local-scale Features on the Surface of Vesta

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tosi, F.; Capria, M. T.; DeSanctis, M. C.; Capaccioni, F.; Palomba, E.; Zambon, F.; Ammannito, E.; Blewett, D. T.; Combe, J.-Ph.; Denevi, B. W.; Li, J.-Y.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Palmer, E.; Sunshine, J. M.; Titus, T. N.; Raymond, C. A.; Russell, C. T.

    2013-01-01

    At 525 km in mean diameter, Vesta is the second-most massive object in the main asteroid belt of our Solar System. At all scales, pyroxene absorptions are the most prominent spectral features on Vesta and overall, Vesta mineralogy indicates a complex magmatic evolution that led to a differentiated crust and mantle [1]. The thermal behavior of areas of unusual albedo seen on the surface at the local scale can be related to physical properties that can provide information about the origin of those materials. Dawn's Visible and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIR) [2] hyperspectral images are routinely used, by means of temperature-retrieval algorithms, to compute surface temperatures along with spectral emissivities. Here we present temperature maps of several local-scale features of Vesta that were observed by Dawn under different illumination conditions and different local solar times.

  19. Cryovolcanic Features on Titan's Surface as Revealed by the Cassini RADAR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lopes, R. M.; Elachi, C.; Stofan, E.; Paganelli, F.; Wood, C.; Kirk, R.; Lorenz, R.; Fortes, A. D.; Lunine, J.

    2005-01-01

    The Cassini Titan Radar Mapper obtained Synthetic Aperture radar images of about 1.1% of Titan's surface during the spacecraft s first targeted fly-by on October 26, 2004 (referred to as the Ta fly-by). These images revealed that Titan is very complex geologically. Features identified include a possible volcanic dome or shield, craters that appear to be of volcanic origin, and extensive flows. We will discuss these features and others that will likely be revealed during Cassini s T3 Titan fly-by of February 15, 2005, during which a swath covering comparable amount of the surface will be obtained. Additional information is included in the original extended abstract.

  20. Dry granular flows can generate surface features resembling those seen in Martian gullies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinbrot, Troy; Duong, N.-H.; Kwan, L.; Alvarez, M. M.

    2004-06-01

    Over the past decade or more, contradictory evidence of Martian climate, indicating that surface temperatures seldom if ever approach the melting point of water at midlatitudes, and geomorphic features, consistent with liquid flows at these same latitudes, have proven difficult to reconcile. In this article, we demonstrate that several features of liquid-erosional flows can be produced by dry granular materials when individual particle settling is slower than characteristic debris flow speeds. Since the gravitational acceleration on Mars is about one-third that on Earth, and since particle settling speeds scale with gravity, we propose that some (although perhaps not all) Martian geomorphological features attributed to liquid flows may in fact be associated with dry granular flows in the presence of reduced gravity.

  1. Dry granular flows can generate surface features resembling those seen in Martian gullies.

    PubMed

    Shinbrot, Troy; Duong, N-H; Kwan, L; Alvarez, M M

    2004-06-08

    Over the past decade or more, contradictory evidence of Martian climate, indicating that surface temperatures seldom if ever approach the melting point of water at midlatitudes, and geomorphic features, consistent with liquid flows at these same latitudes, have proven difficult to reconcile. In this article, we demonstrate that several features of liquid-erosional flows can be produced by dry granular materials when individual particle settling is slower than characteristic debris flow speeds. Since the gravitational acceleration on Mars is about one-third that on Earth, and since particle settling speeds scale with gravity, we propose that some (although perhaps not all) Martian geomorphological features attributed to liquid flows may in fact be associated with dry granular flows in the presence of reduced gravity.

  2. Dry granular flows can generate surface features resembling those seen in Martian gullies

    PubMed Central

    Shinbrot, Troy; Duong, N.-H.; Kwan, L.; Alvarez, M. M.

    2004-01-01

    Over the past decade or more, contradictory evidence of Martian climate, indicating that surface temperatures seldom if ever approach the melting point of water at midlatitudes, and geomorphic features, consistent with liquid flows at these same latitudes, have proven difficult to reconcile. In this article, we demonstrate that several features of liquid-erosional flows can be produced by dry granular materials when individual particle settling is slower than characteristic debris flow speeds. Since the gravitational acceleration on Mars is about one-third that on Earth, and since particle settling speeds scale with gravity, we propose that some (although perhaps not all) Martian geomorphological features attributed to liquid flows may in fact be associated with dry granular flows in the presence of reduced gravity. PMID:15169960

  3. Surface features of central North America: a synoptic view from computer graphics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pike, R.J.

    1991-01-01

    A digital shaded-relief image of the 48 contiguous United States shows the details of large- and small-scale landforms, including several linear trends. The features faithfully reflect tectonism, continental glaciation, fluvial activity, volcanism, and other surface-shaping events and processes. The new map not only depicts topography accurately and in its true complexity, but does so in one synoptic view that provides a regional context for geologic analysis unobscured by clouds, culture, vegetation, or artistic constraints. -Author

  4. Taxonomically Important Features on the Surface of Floatoblasts in Plumatella (Bryozoa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, Kevin T.

    2000-05-01

    : At the species level, bryozoans (class Phylactolaemata) in the family Plumatellidae are difficult to organize taxonomically. Of principal concern is the absence of consistent distinguishing features due mainly to plasticity of the group, a common problem with soft-bodied invertebrates. Yet, within the last three decades, analysis of distinctive chitinous statoblasts—using scanning electron microscopy—has resolved certain taxonomic questions. I examined statoblasts from 30 similar collections, the majority from the midwestern United States, and identified four distinct subgroups. Also, nine new statoblast surface features were identified: fold, polar grooves, bead, cave, demarcation, parasutural zone, ridge, sutural band, and sutural knob. The surface features of floating statoblasts (floatoblasts) provide useful data for species identification. Most consistently useful in plumatellids is a suture which varies from one species to the next. Mound-like tubercles and net-like ridges are next in the extent of variability. Finally, folds and polar grooves are present but vary even within floatoblasts from the same colony. Analysis of the suture in PLUMATELLA FUNGOSA, over a 5-day germination period, reveals all features at the site remain intact regardless of the initial age of the floatoblast. Only the suture line itself splits lengthwise to permit emergence of the new animal.

  5. Geology and ground-water features of salt springs, seeps, and plains in the Arkansas and Red River basins of western Oklahoma and adjacent parts of Kansas and Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ward, P.E.

    1963-01-01

    The salt springs, seeps, and plains described in this report are in the Arkansas and Red River basins in western Oklahoma and adjacent areas in Kansas and Texas. The springs and seeps contribute significantly to the generally poor water quality of the rivers by bringing salt (HaCI) to the surface at an estimated daily rate of more than 8,000 tons. The region investigated is characterized by low hills and rolling plains. Many of the rivers are eroded 100 feet or more below the .surrounding upland surface and in places the valleys are bordered by steep bluffs. The alluvial plains of the major rivers are wide and the river channels are shallow and unstable. The flow of many surface streams is intermittent, especially in the western part of the area. All the natural salt-contributing areas studied are within the outcrop area of rocks of Permian age. The Permian rocks, commonly termed red beds, are composed principally of red and gray gypsiferous shale, siltstone, sandstone, gypsum, anhydrite, and dolomite. Many of the formations contain halite in the subsurface. The halite occurs mostly as discontinuous lenses in shale, although some of the thicker, more massive beds are extensive. It underlies the entire region studied at depths ranging from about 30 feet to more than 2,000 feet. The salt and associated strata show evidence of extensive removal of salt through solution by ground water. Although the salt generally occurs in relatively impervious shale small joints and fractures ,allow the passage of small quantities of water which dissolves the salt. Salt water occurs in the report area at depths ranging from less than 100 feet to more than 1,000 feet. Salt water occurs both as meteoric and connate, but the water emerging as salt springs is meteoric. Tritium analyses show that the age of the water from several springs is less than 20 years. The salt springs, seeps, and plains are confined to 13 local areas. The flow of the springs and seeps is small, but the chloride

  6. Memory for surface features of unfamiliar melodies: independent effects of changes in pitch and tempo.

    PubMed

    Schellenberg, E Glenn; Stalinski, Stephanie M; Marks, Bradley M

    2014-01-01

    A melody's identity is determined by relations between consecutive tones in terms of pitch and duration, whereas surface features (i.e., pitch level or key, tempo, and timbre) are irrelevant. Although surface features of highly familiar recordings are encoded into memory, little is known about listeners' mental representations of melodies heard once or twice. It is also unknown whether musical pitch is represented additively or interactively with temporal information. In two experiments, listeners heard unfamiliar melodies twice in an initial exposure phase. In a subsequent test phase, they heard the same (old) melodies interspersed with new melodies. Some of the old melodies were shifted in key, tempo, or key and tempo. Listeners' task was to rate how well they recognized each melody from the exposure phase while ignoring changes in key and tempo. Recognition ratings were higher for old melodies that stayed the same compared to those that were shifted in key or tempo, and detrimental effects of key and tempo changes were additive in between-subjects (Experiment 1) and within-subjects (Experiment 2) designs. The results confirm that surface features are remembered for melodies heard only twice. They also imply that key and tempo are processed and stored independently.

  7. Microdevice having interior cavity with high aspect ratio surface features and associated methods of manufacture and use

    DOEpatents

    Morales, Alfredo M.

    2002-01-01

    A microdevice having interior cavity with high aspect ratio features and ultrasmooth surfaces, and associated method of manufacture and use is described. An LIGA-produced shaped bit is used to contour polish the surface of a sacrificial mandrel. The contoured sacrificial mandrel is subsequently coated with a structural material and the mandrel removed to produce microdevices having micrometer-sized surface features and sub-micrometer RMS surface roughness.

  8. Spectral Analysis of Surface Features of Subaquaeous Pyroclastic Flow Deposits Around Santorini Volcano, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Croff, K. L.; Sigurdsson, H.; Carey, S.; Alexandri, M.; Sakellariou, D.; Nomikou, P.

    2006-12-01

    Multibeam bathymetry mapping and seismic airgun surveys of the submarine region around the Santorini volcanic field in the Hellenic Arc (Greece) have revealed regions of terraced or step-like topography. These features may be related to the transport and deposition of submarine pyroclastic flows from the last major eruption of this volcano (~3600yrs. B.P.). The uppermost sediment sequence identified in seismic records has an average thickness of approximately 29 meters and may represent the pyroclastic flow deposits from this eruption. These terraced or step-like features are mainly located in areas that are approximately five kilometers offshore and at depths in the range of 200 to 800 meters. The seafloor in these areas has slope ratios on the order of 1:20. Profiles of the seafloor topography were sampled from seismic profiles that radiate from the Sanotrini caldera in five regions of interest. Spectral analysis of seafloor topography has been carried out to determine spectral characteristics of these features, including power spectrum, periodicity and amplitude of the waveforms, variance, and roughness of topography. The results are compared to surface features of the subaqueous pyroclastic deposits from the 1883 explosive eruption of Krakatau (Indonesia) and other areas with similar environments, to determine the parameters that are characteristic of this new feature of submarine volcaniclastic deposits.

  9. Stability, surface features, and atom leaching of palladium nanoparticles: toward prediction of catalytic functionality.

    PubMed

    Ramezani-Dakhel, Hadi; Mirau, Peter A; Naik, Rajesh R; Knecht, Marc R; Heinz, Hendrik

    2013-04-21

    Surfactant-stabilized metal nanoparticles have shown promise as catalysts although specific surface features and their influence on catalytic performance have not been well understood. We quantify the thermodynamic stability, the facet composition of the surface, and distinct atom types that affect rates of atom leaching for a series of twenty near-spherical Pd nanoparticles of 1.8 to 3.1 nm size using computational models. Cohesive energies indicate higher stability of certain particles that feature an approximate 60/20/20 ratio of {111}, {100}, and {110} facets while less stable particles exhibit widely variable facet composition. Unique patterns of atom types on the surface cause apparent differences in binding energies and changes in reactivity. Estimates of the relative rate of atom leaching as a function of particle size were obtained by the summation of Boltzmann-weighted binding energies over all surface atoms. Computed leaching rates are in good qualitative correlation with the measured catalytic activity of peptide-stabilized Pd nanoparticles of the same shape and size in Stille coupling reactions. The agreement supports rate-controlling contributions by atom leaching in the presence of reactive substrates. The computational approach provides a pathway to estimate the catalytic activity of metal nanostructures of engineered shape and size, and possible further refinements are described.

  10. Reduced responses of macrophages on nanometer surface features of altered alumina crystalline phases.

    PubMed

    Khang, Dongwoo; Liu-Snyder, Peishan; Pareta, Rajesh; Lu, Jing; Webster, Thomas J

    2009-06-01

    Extensive prolonged interactions of inflammatory cells (such as macrophages) at the host-implant interface may lead to implant failure. While previous studies have shown increased in vitro and in vivo bone cell adhesion, proliferation and mineralization on nanophase compared to currently implanted ceramics, few studies have been conducted to elucidate inflammatory cell responses on such nanophase ceramics. Controlling surface feature size and corresponding surface roughness on implants may clearly alter immune cell responses, which would be an extremely important consideration for the use of nanostructured materials as improved biomaterials. In this study, reduced macrophage density was observed on alumina (Al(2)O(3)) compacts with greater nanometer surface roughness accompanied by changes in crystallinity for up to 24 h in culture. Since alumina is a commonly used ceramic in orthopedic applications, this in vitro study continues to support the use of nanophase ceramics as improved orthopedic implants by demonstrating reduced macrophage responses.

  11. Integration of Urban Features into a Coupled Groundwater-Surface Water Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhaskar, A. S.; Welty, C.; Maxwell, R. M.

    2012-12-01

    To better understand the feedbacks between urban development and water availability, we are coupling an integrated hydrologic model with an urban growth model, both of the Baltimore, Maryland, USA region. The urban growth model SLEUTH has been calibrated, validated and run by collaborators at Shippensburg University. We are using ParFlow.CLM as the integrated hydrologic model. This model is applied to the 13,000 sq. km. Baltimore metropolitan area, which spans the Gunpowder and Patapsco watersheds. The model domain includes both Piedmont and Coastal Plain physiographic provinces. We have incorporated characteristics of both the natural hydrogeologic system and the superimposed urban environment. Standard hydrogeologic information such as hydraulic conductivity of fractured bedrock, Coastal Plain sediments, and surficial soils, as well as saprolite thickness, porosity, and specific storage properties have been included. We have also quantified a number of aspects representing urban development, such as residential and municipal well pumping, municipal reservoir use, lawn watering, and water supply pipe leakage estimates. We have represented impervious surface coverage using low surface hydraulic conductivity values. The land surface fluxes in CLM (Common Land Model) use surface land cover and therefore represent reduced evapotranspiration in urban areas. A study of urban and natural watershed inflows and inflows in this region indicated some urban features significantly modify catchment water balances. We are particularly interested in the effects of these urban hydrologic features on groundwater recharge in the Baltimore area. Prior to inclusion of subsurface heterogeneity, we initialized the model by running it hourly from 2000 to 2007. The initialization was generated by a dynamic spin-up process, using the UMBC High Performance Computing Facility. Observed meteorological forcing, such as hourly precipitation and air temperature, are used by the land surface

  12. Feasibility of detecting near-surface feature with Rayleigh-wave diffraction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Xia, J.; Nyquist, J.E.; Xu, Y.; Roth, M.J.S.; Miller, R.D.

    2007-01-01

    Detection of near-surfaces features such as voids and faults is challenging due to the complexity of near-surface materials and the limited resolution of geophysical methods. Although multichannel, high-frequency, surface-wave techniques can provide reliable shear (S)-wave velocities in different geological settings, they are not suitable for detecting voids directly based on anomalies of the S-wave velocity because of limitations on the resolution of S-wave velocity profiles inverted from surface-wave phase velocities. Therefore, we studied the feasibility of directly detecting near-surfaces features with surface-wave diffractions. Based on the properties of surface waves, we have derived a Rayleigh-wave diffraction traveltime equation. We also have solved the equation for the depth to the top of a void and an average velocity of Rayleigh waves. Using these equations, the depth to the top of a void/fault can be determined based on traveltime data from a diffraction curve. In practice, only two diffraction times are necessary to define the depth to the top of a void/fault and the average Rayleigh-wave velocity that generates the diffraction curve. We used four two-dimensional square voids to demonstrate the feasibility of detecting a void with Rayleigh-wave diffractions: a 2??m by 2??m with a depth to the top of the void of 2??m, 4??m by 4??m with a depth to the top of the void of 7??m, and 6??m by 6??m with depths to the top of the void 12??m and 17??m. We also modeled surface waves due to a vertical fault. Rayleigh-wave diffractions were recognizable for all these models after FK filtering was applied to the synthetic data. The Rayleigh-wave diffraction traveltime equation was verified by the modeled data. Modeling results suggested that FK filtering is critical to enhance diffracted surface waves. A real-world example is presented to show how to utilize the derived equation of surface-wave diffractions. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Differential surface models for tactile perception of shape and on-line tracking of features

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hemami, H.

    1987-01-01

    Tactile perception of shape involves an on-line controller and a shape perceptor. The purpose of the on-line controller is to maintain gliding or rolling contact with the surface, and collect information, or track specific features of the surface such as edges of a certain sharpness. The shape perceptor uses the information to perceive, estimate the parameters of, or recognize the shape. The differential surface model depends on the information collected and on the a priori information known about the robot and its physical parameters. These differential models are certain functionals that are projections of the dynamics of the robot onto the surface gradient or onto the tangent plane. A number of differential properties may be directly measured from present day tactile sensors. Others may have to be indirectly computed from measurements. Others may constitute design objectives for distributed tactile sensors of the future. A parameterization of the surface leads to linear and nonlinear sequential parameter estimation techniques for identification of the surface. Many interesting compromises between measurement and computation are possible.

  14. In vitro bioactivity of micro metal injection moulded stainless steel with defined surface features.

    PubMed

    Bitar, Malak; Friederici, Vera; Imgrund, Philipp; Brose, Claudia; Bruinink, Arie

    2012-05-04

    Micrometre- and nanometre-scale surface structuring with ordered topography features may dramatically enhance orthopaedic implant integration. In this study we utilised a previously optimised micron metal injection moulding (µ-MIM) process to produce medical grade stainless steel surfaces bearing micrometre scale, protruding, hemispheres of controlled dimensions and spatial distribution. Additionally, the structured surfaces were characterised by the presence of submicrometre surface roughness resulting from metal grain boundary formation. Following cytocompatibility (cytotoxicity) evaluation using 3T3 mouse fibroblast cell line, the effect on primary human cell functionality was assessed focusing on cell attachment, shape and cytoskeleton conformation. In this respect, and by day 7 in culture, significant increase in focal adhesion size was associated with the microstructured surfaces compared to the planar control. The morphological conformation of the seeded cells, as revealed by fluorescence cytoskeleton labelling, also appeared to be guided in the vertical dimension between the hemisphere bodies. Quantitative evaluation of this guidance took place using live cytoplasm fluorescence labelling and image morphometry analysis utilising both, compactness and elongation shape descriptors. Significant increase in cell compactness was associated with the hemisphere arrays indicating collective increase in focused cell attachment to the hemisphere bodies across the entire cell population. Micrometre-scale hemisphere array patterns have therefore influenced cell attachment and conformation. Such influence may potentially aid in enhancing key cellular events such as, for example, neo-osteogenesis on implanted orthopaedic surfaces.

  15. Examining the Impact of Question Surface Features on Students' Answers to Constructed-Response Questions on Photosynthesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weston, Michele; Haudek, Kevin C.; Prevost, Luanna; Urban-Lurain, Mark; Merrill, John

    2015-01-01

    One challenge in science education assessment is that students often focus on surface features of questions rather than the underlying scientific principles. We investigated how student written responses to constructed-response questions about photosynthesis vary based on two surface features of the question: the species of plant and the order of…

  16. Surface and morphological features of laser-irradiated silicon under vacuum, nitrogen and ethanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayat, Asma; Bashir, Shazia; Akram, Mahreen; Mahmood, Khaliq; Iqbal, Muhammad Hassan

    2015-12-01

    Laser-induced surface and structural modification of silicon (Si) has been investigated under three different environments of vacuum, nitrogen (100 Torr) and ethanol. The interaction of 1000 pulses of KrF (λ ≈ 248 nm, τ ≈ 18 ns, repetition rate ≈ 30 Hz) Excimer laser at two different fluences of 2.8 J/cm2 and 4 J/cm2 resulted in formation of various kinds of features such as laser induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS), spikes, columns, cones and cracks. Surface morphology has been observed by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Whereas, structural modification of irradiated targets is explored by Raman spectroscopy. SEM analysis exhibits a non-uniform distribution of micro-scale pillars and spikes at the central ablated regime of silicon irradiated at low laser fluence of 2.8 J/cm2 under vacuum. Whereas cones, pits, cavities and ripples like features are seen at the boundaries. At higher fluence of 4 J/cm2, laser induced periodic structures as well as micro-columns are observed. In the case of ablation in nitrogen environment, melting, splashing, self-organized granular structures and cracks along with redeposition are observed at lower fluence. Such types of small scaled structures in nitrogen are attributed to confinement and shielding effects of nitrogen plasma. Whereas, a crater with multiple ablative layers is formed in the case of ablation at higher fluence. Significantly different surface morphology of Si is observed in the case of ablation in ethanol. It reveals the formation of cavities along with small scale pores and less redeposition. These results reveal that the growth of surface and morphological features of irradiated Si are strongly dependent upon the laser fluence as well as environmental conditions. The difference in surface morphology is attributable to cooling, confinement and shielding effects as well as difference in plasma temperature, density and pressure of environmental media that corresponds to different energy deposition

  17. Features of morphology and geology of surface of Jupiter satellite Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidmachenko, Anatoliy; Morozhenko, A.; Klyanchin, A.

    2011-12-01

    Comparison of large-scale images of "Vojager-2" and "Galileo" did not find out no noticeable changes on the surface of Europe. But "Galileo" images of Europe with a high spatial resolution was changed our picture of character and nature of its surface. A surface is an icy shell, covered by cracks and by ice-drifts. Under a comparatively thin shell, possibly, there is an ocean of liquid water in to a few ten of kilometres depth. Very small amount of shock craters specifies on relative youth of surface of Europe and, possibly, on its geological activity and now. The basic geological features of satellite are selected taking into account likeness of form, structure, color, illuminations etc. of Europe surfaces and other known types of surface: large plains regiones, areas of cracks (lines, bands) and mountain backbones (linea, lineaes), areas with chaotic relief (chaos, chaoses), craters and cycloid cracks (flexus). Presumably, global network of lines - it caused by tectonic processes in icy shell cracks, after filled the frozen dark matter of orange - red color. Correlation of stratum features with albedo allows to suppose that its young areas, which were less changed by subsequent endogenous and exogenous processes which would clean them, have less albedo. Classification of craters is based on the clearness of scopes of the thrown out breeds. Tracks of shots can be seen on the presence of concentric features; some - have well visible edges and shock texture; some have rays. On the Europe surface 41 craters with diameters a 2-50 km is found. In 2000 was found out a large crater which can be the result of collision in the past of asteroid with Europe. Size of external structure of Tayr object (diameter - 149 km) far more than size of its crater. This morphological detail appeared so original, that for it (and yet for 2-3 to it similar) it was necessary to offer the special name: large circular structures. If to examine satellite on the whole, to our opinion, it is

  18. Enhanced flyby science with onboard computer vision: Tracking and surface feature detection at small bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, Thomas J.; Thompson, David R.; Bue, Brian D.; Castillo-Rogez, Julie; Chien, Steve A.; Gharibian, Dero; Wagstaff, Kiri L.

    2015-10-01

    Spacecraft autonomy is crucial to increase the science return of optical remote sensing observations at distant primitive bodies. To date, most small bodies exploration has involved short timescale flybys that execute prescripted data collection sequences. Light time delay means that the spacecraft must operate completely autonomously without direct control from the ground, but in most cases the physical properties and morphologies of prospective targets are unknown before the flyby. Surface features of interest are highly localized, and successful observations must account for geometry and illumination constraints. Under these circumstances onboard computer vision can improve science yield by responding immediately to collected imagery. It can reacquire bad data or identify features of opportunity for additional targeted measurements. We present a comprehensive framework for onboard computer vision for flyby missions at small bodies. We introduce novel algorithms for target tracking, target segmentation, surface feature detection, and anomaly detection. The performance and generalization power are evaluated in detail using expert annotations on data sets from previous encounters with primitive bodies.

  19. Sub-surface oxide features at the aluminum-sapphire interface after low temperature annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, Sreya

    This work focuses on the formation of sub-surface oxide features that form at the aluminum-sapphire interface during a low temperature heat-treatment. The features consist of two parts, stable alpha-alumina ridges on the substrate, and faceted pyramidal structures composed of thin, low-temperature oxide shells that are bounded by the ridges. It is surprising to observe the formation of thermodynamically stable alpha-alumina at a low temperature. The ridges are epitaxial with the (0001) sapphire substrate and the overlying metal. The pyramidal features resemble closely the Wulff shape in aluminum. Experiments show that these features are underlying the annealing hillocks. This work is a detailed study of such oxide interfacial features associated with hollow hillocks. At the annealing temperatures (below the melting point of aluminum), the aluminum thin film is subjected to compressive stresses arising from the thermal expansion coefficient mismatch and this is aided by dewetting at the aluminum-sapphire interface. Creep cavitation and grain boundary sliding are postulated to help in the cavity formation. Annealing holes are also observed in the thin films. Two different types of holes are seen: dendritic branched holes and hexagonal faceted holes (drums). At lower temperature and thickness, dendritic holes are seen to be formed at the grain boundaries. The drums form within the grains at higher temperatures and in thicker films. The drums have a surface oxide layer suspended on the top. It is postulated that clustering of vacancies due to the presence of irregularities, defects, and dislocations at the interface as well as dewetting causes the nucleation of the drums at the interface. Numerous hillock-hole couples were seen. Thinning of the metal in areas near the hillocks could possibly aid in the hole formation process. It is speculated that the hole growth occurred during the cooling stage when the film was subjected to tensile stresses. Another interesting

  20. Observations of inner shelf cross-shore surface material transport adjacent to a coastal inlet in the northern Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, Mathias K.; MacMahan, Jamie; Reniers, Ad; Özgökmen, Tamay M.; Woodall, Kate; Haus, Brian

    2017-04-01

    Motivated by the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, the Surfzone and Coastal Oil Pathways Experiment obtained Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) Eulerian and GPS-drifter based Lagrangian ;surface; (<1 m) flow observations in the northern Gulf of Mexico to describe the influence of small-scale river plumes on surface material transport pathways in the nearshore. Lagrangian paths are qualitatively similar to surface pathlines derived from non-traditional, near-surface ADCP velocities, but both differ significantly from depth-averaged subsurface pathlines. Near-surface currents are linearly correlated with wind velocities (r =0.76 in the alongshore and r =0.85 in the cross-shore) at the 95% confidence level, and are 4-7 times larger than theoretical estimates of wind and wave-driven surface flow in an un-stratified water column. Differences in near-surface flow are attributed to the presence of a buoyant river plume forced by winds from passing extratropical storms. Plume boundary fronts induce a horizontal velocity gradient where drifters deployed outside of the plume in oceanic water routinely converge, slow, and are re-directed. When the plume flows west parallel to the beach, the seaward plume boundary front acts as a coastal barrier that prevents 100% of oceanic drifters from beaching within 27 km of the inlet. As a result, small-scale, wind-driven river plumes in the northern Gulf of Mexico act as coastal barriers that prevent offshore surface pollution from washing ashore west of river inlets.

  1. Hyperspectral interferometry: Sizing microscale surface features in the pine bark beetle.

    PubMed

    Beach, James M; Uertz, James L; Eckhardt, Lori G

    2015-10-01

    A new method of interferometry employing a Fabry-Perot etalon model was used to locate and size microscale features on the surface of the pine bark beetle. Oscillations in the reflected light spectrum, caused by self-interference of light reflecting from surfaces of foreleg setae and spores on the elytrum, were recorded using white light hyperspectral microscopy. By making the assumption that pairs of reflecting surfaces produce an etalon effect, the distance between surfaces could be determined from the oscillation frequency. Low frequencies of less than 0.08 nm(-1) were observed in the spectrum below 700 nm while higher frequencies generally occupied wavelengths from 600 to 850 nm. In many cases, two frequencies appeared separately or in combination across the spectrum. The etalon model gave a mean spore size of 3.04 ± 1.27 μm and a seta diameter of 5.44 ± 2.88 μm. The tapering near the setae tip was detected as a lowering of frequency. Spatial fringes were observed together with spectral oscillations from surfaces on the exoskeleton at higher magnification. These signals were consistent with embedded multi-layer reflecting surfaces. Possible applications for hyperspectral interferometry include medical imaging, detection of spore loads in insects and other fungal carriers, wafer surface and subsurface inspection, nanoscale materials, biological surface analysis, and spectroscopy calibration. This is, to our knowledge, the first report of oscillations directly observed by microscopy in the reflected light spectra from Coleoptera, and the first demonstration of broadband hyperspectral interferometry using microscopy that does not employ an internal interferometer.

  2. Cryovolcanic features on Titan's surface as revealed by the Cassini Titan Radar Mapper

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lopes, R.M.C.; Mitchell, K.L.; Stofan, E.R.; Lunine, J.I.; Lorenz, R.; Paganelli, F.; Kirk, R.L.; Wood, C.A.; Wall, S.D.; Robshaw, L.E.; Fortes, A.D.; Neish, C.D.; Radebaugh, J.; Reffet, E.; Ostro, S.J.; Elachi, C.; Allison, M.D.; Anderson, Y.; Boehmer, R.; Boubin, G.; Callahan, P.; Encrenaz, P.; Flamini, E.; Francescetti, G.; Gim, Y.; Hamilton, G.; Hensley, S.; Janssen, M.A.; Johnson, W.T.K.; Kelleher, K.; Muhleman, D.O.; Ori, G.; Orosei, R.; Picardi, G.; Posa, F.; Roth, L.E.; Seu, R.; Shaffer, S.; Soderblom, L.A.; Stiles, B.; Vetrella, S.; West, R.D.; Wye, L.; Zebker, H.A.

    2007-01-01

    The Cassini Titan Radar Mapper obtained Synthetic Aperture Radar images of Titan's surface during four fly-bys during the mission's first year. These images show that Titan's surface is very complex geologically, showing evidence of major planetary geologic processes, including cryovolcanism. This paper discusses the variety of cryovolcanic features identified from SAR images, their possible origin, and their geologic context. The features which we identify as cryovolcanic in origin include a large (180 km diameter) volcanic construct (dome or shield), several extensive flows, and three calderas which appear to be the source of flows. The composition of the cryomagma on Titan is still unknown, but constraints on rheological properties can be estimated using flow thickness. Rheological properties of one flow were estimated and appear inconsistent with ammonia-water slurries, and possibly more consistent with ammonia-water-methanol slurries. The extent of cryovolcanism on Titan is still not known, as only a small fraction of the surface has been imaged at sufficient resolution. Energetic considerations suggest that cryovolcanism may have been a dominant process in the resurfacing of Titan. ?? 2006 Elsevier Inc.

  3. The effects of droplet characteristics on the surface features in a rain field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, R.; Brown, H.; Liu, X.; Duncan, J. H.

    2013-11-01

    The characteristics of the shape of a water surface in response to the impact of simulated raindrops are studied experimentally in a 1.22-m-by-1.22-m water pool with a water depth of 0.3 m. A rain generator consisting of an open-surface water tank with an array of 22-gauge hypodermic needles (typical needle-to-needle spacing of about L0 = 3 . 5 cm) attached to holes in the tank bottom is mounted 2 m above the water pool. The tank is connected to a 2D translation stage to provide a small-radius (surface features, including the crown, stalk and ring waves, due to the impacts of the drops are measured with a cinematic laser-induced- fluorescence (LIF) technique. The dependence of these features on the rain characteristics are discussed. The support of the National Science Foundation, Division of Ocean Sciences, and the assistance of Mr. Larry Gong are gratefully acknowledged.

  4. Characterization of Surface Features in Detached Grown GeSi Crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cobb, S. D.; Volz, M. P.; Schweizer, M.; Kaiser, N.; Carpenter, P. K.; Szofran, F. R.; Curreri, Peter A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The growth of detached crystals by the Bridgman technique, in which the growing crystal is not in contact with the crucible wall, has been observed both on earth and in microgravity conditions. At present, the mechanisms contributing to the detachment are not completely understood and until recently detachment has not been reproducibly obtained. It is commonly understood that the main factors that promote the occurrence of detached growth include: high contact angle between the melt and the crucible material, high growth angle, and a pressure difference between the annular gap around the solid below the melt and the volume above the melt along the meniscus. These parameters were varied in Bridgman growth experiments to determine the conditions required to achieve detached growth terrestrially in Ge and GeSi alloys. These experiments are in preparation for experiments on the International Space Station (ISS). The detailed objectives of the flight experiments and a description of the growth methods employed are the subject of another presentation at this Conference. Detached crystals were achieved repeatedly in pyrolytic boron nitride ampoules when a pressure difference was employed. All crystals, except for those grown in fused silica ampoules, were easily removed from their containers, however, this fact alone is not sufficient to infer detached growth. Detachment was verified by comparing profilometer measurements of the radius of the samples with observations of the sample surfaces using optical and electron microscopy. The surfaces of the attached areas of the crystals had the same shape and surface texture as the interior crucible wall. Regions of detached growth contained many unique features and crystal facets could usually be observed. Several of these surface features have been correlated with mechanisms of detachment or free-surface growth and others to processing events or conditions.

  5. Geologically recent small-scale surface features in Meridiani Planum, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horne, David

    2013-04-01

    Leveed fissures and gutters, small scale (<1m) depositional and erosional features that have been imaged at several locations in the equatorial Meridiani Planum region by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity, occur in loose, dark basaltic sands that partly cover exposures of light-toned bedrock. Leveed fissures appear to have been formed by venting from beneath; possible explanations include wind creating blowholes near crater margins, volcanic fumarole activity, or gas/vapour escape resulting from the decomposition of small pockets of ground ice, methane clathrates or hydrated sulphate minerals. Some leveed fissures cross-cut and are therefore younger than aeolian ripples which are thought to have last been active c. 50,000 years ago. Some gutters are sharply defined and fresh, internally terraced, have a hole or hollow at or near one end, and in one case seem to give way to small depositional fans downslope; they have the appearance of having been formed by liquid flow rather than by wind erosion. There is evidence elsewhere that contemporary ground-ice thaw and consequent transient surface run-off may occur occasionally under present conditions in low, near-equatorial latitudes on Mars; short-lived (even for just a few minutes) meltwater emission and flow at the surface could erode gutters before evaporating. The decomposition of buried pockets of methane clathrates, which theoretical considerations suggest might be present and stable even in equatorial regions, could give rise to both methane venting (leveed fissures) and transient surface water (gutters). Yet another possibility is the decomposition, in response to local changes in thermal conditions, of hydrated magnesium sulphate minerals in the bedrock, which could release liquid water to the surface. Whatever their explanation, these features hint at previously unrecognized, young (perhaps even contemporary) martian surface processes.

  6. Smooth versus Textured Surfaces: Feature-Based Category Selectivity in Human Visual Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Tootell, Roger

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In fMRI studies, human lateral occipital (LO) cortex is thought to respond selectively to images of objects, compared with nonobjects. However, it remains unresolved whether all objects evoke equivalent levels of activity in LO, and, if not, which image features produce stronger activation. Here, we used an unbiased parametric texture model to predict preferred versus nonpreferred stimuli in LO. Observation and psychophysical results showed that predicted preferred stimuli (both objects and nonobjects) had smooth (rather than textured) surfaces. These predictions were confirmed using fMRI, for objects and nonobjects. Similar preferences were also found in the fusiform face area (FFA). Consistent with this: (1) FFA and LO responded more strongly to nonfreckled (smooth) faces, compared with otherwise identical freckled (textured) faces; and (2) strong functional connections were found between LO and FFA. Thus, LO and FFA may be part of an information-processing stream distinguished by feature-based category selectivity (smooth > textured). PMID:27699206

  7. Post-mortem surface features in larger foraminiferan Archaias angulatus as paleoenvironmental indicator

    SciTech Connect

    Cottey, T.L.

    1986-05-01

    Larger foraminifera are major contributors to sand-sized carbonate sediments. Archaias angulatus (Fichtel and Moll) is the dominant larger foraminiferan in the Caribbean region. A taphonomic study of this species revealed several stages of preservation from newly unaltered tests to complete destruction of outer calcite layers. Tests collected from contrasting environments in Key Largo, Florida, show different paths of degradation. Impact features and secondary growths predominate on tests collected from well-sorted sediments of the open platform, whereas dissolution features are most common on tests from the calm, muddy environment of Largo Sound. Tests from the open platform show major breakage, abundant scratches, and small, randomly spaced holes. Tests from Largo Sound show little breakage, few scratches, and loss of entire sections of the outer wall. Microborings are present on tests from both environments. This study shows that postmortem alterations of surface textures of larger foraminifera may be useful indicators of paleoenvironments of deposition.

  8. Apollo 14 visibility tests: Visibility of lunar surface features and lunar landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ziedman, K.

    1972-01-01

    An in-flight visibility test conducted on the Apollo 14 mission is discussed. The need for obtaining experimental data on lunar feature visibility arose from visibility problems associated with various aspects of the Apollo missions; and especially from anticipated difficulties of recognizing lunar surface features at the time of descent and landing under certain illumination conditions. Although visibility problems have influenced many other aspects of the Apollo mission, they have been particularly important for descent operations, due to the criticality of this mission phase and the crew's guidance and control role for landing site recognition and touchdown point selection. A series of analytical and photographic studies were conducted during the Apollo program (prior to as well as after the initial manned lunar operations) to delineate constraints imposed on landing operations by visibility limitations. The purpose of the visibility test conducted on Apollo 14 was to obtain data to reduce uncertainties and to extend the analytical models of visibility in the lunar environment.

  9. Monitoring surface geothermal features using time series of aerial and ground-based photographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bromley, C.; van Manen, S. M.; Graham, D.

    2010-12-01

    Geothermal systems are of high conservation and scientific value and monitoring of these is an important management tool to assess natural variations and changes resulting from development and utilization. This study examines time series of aerial and ground-based photographs of geothermal areas within the Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand. A time series of aerial photographs from 1946-2007 of the Broadlands Road Scenic Reserve (Taupo, New Zealand) highlights large changes to this small area as the result of the start of geothermal fluid production for the nearby Wairakei power plant in 1958 and other causes. Prior to the opening of the plant the area was not geothermally active, but expansion of steam zones due to pressure drawdown has resulted in significant thermal changes in the subsurface. These subsurface thermal changes are evident in the aerial photographs as the appearance of hydrothermal eruption craters and areas of thermal bare ground, which are too hot for vegetation to grown on. In addition, in the late 1960’s thermotolerant vegetation started to establish itself in the adjacent area. Changes in the surface area covered by each of these, reflect changes in the geothermal system as well as changes in management (e.g. exclusion of livestock), and a time series of these changes has been produced using ArcMap™. Monthly photographs of surface geothermal expressions in the Rotorua area show changes in colour and size of chloride springs with time. Colour and size changes are difficult to quantify due to varying exposure settings, weather conditions, and vantage points. However, these qualitative descriptions can be combined with quantitative time series such as temperature measurements, to provide better insight into surface changes that have occurred at this geothermal field. This study highlights the value of both qualitative and quantitative data that can be obtained from time series of photographs, including photographs that were obtained before the

  10. Delineating Surface Water Features In The Prairie Pothole Wetlands With MODIS Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, L.; Wylie, B. K.; Zhang, L.; Rover, J.; Tieszen, L. L.

    2007-12-01

    The Prairie Pothole Region (PPR), covered with thousands of shallow ponds known as potholes, is a large wetland area in central North America. The PPR wetlands are valuable because of the ecosystem services they provide, including water balance and flood mediation, habitat for migratory birds and waterfowl production, and carbon sequestration. During the last century, impacts of intense land use (agricultural and commercial development) and climate change have caused drastic reductions of surface water area and wetland habitat in the PPR. Spatial and temporal characterizations of the surface water dynamics are important for understanding the hydrological and ecological characteristics in the PPR wetlands. In this study, we use the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) surface reflectance data processed as 8-day composites at 500-meter resolution from 2000 to 2006. The modified normalized difference water index [MNDWI = (band 4 ¡§C band 6)/(band 4 + band 6)] was computed to delineate water features. By adjusting the MNDWI threshold, we generated three land-cover classes: water, land, and water/land mixture. Additionally, we acquired 26 Landsat TM/ETM+ scenes, 14 to calibrate the MODIS MDNWI threshold and 12 to independently validate the MODIS water feature products. For the validation, the maps of percent water area derived from MODIS were compared with the maps generated from the Landsat images at a 5-kilometer grid level. The comparison illustrates a low root mean square error (0.0034 percent) and a high correlation coefficient (0.95), suggesting satisfactory accuracy of the MODIS water products. We have produced and illustrated the MODIS water feature maps for the U.S. portion of the PPR at 32-day intervals for the growing seasons from 2000 to 2006. The time series of MODIS-derived water feature maps are useful for delineating water features and monitoring water area dynamics in this area, and these products provide coarse resolution information

  11. Free-surface tracking of submerged features to infer hydrodynamic flow characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandel, Tracy; Rosenzweig, Itay; Koseff, Jeffrey

    2016-11-01

    As sea level rise and stronger storm events threaten our coastlines, increased attention has been focused on coastal vegetation as a potentially resilient, financially viable tool to mitigate flooding and erosion. However, the actual effect of this "green infrastructure" on near-shore wave fields and flow patterns is not fully understood. For example, how do wave setup, wave nonlinearity, and canopy-generated instabilities change due to complex bottom roughness? Answering this question requires detailed knowledge of the free surface. We develop easy-to-use laboratory techniques to remotely measure physical processes by imaging the apparent distortion of the fixed features of a submerged cylinder array. Measurements of surface turbulence from a canopy-generated Kelvin-Helmholtz instability are possible with a single camera. A stereoscopic approach similar to Morris (2004) and Gomit et al. (2013) allows for measurement of waveform evolution and the effect of vegetation on wave steepness and nonlinearity.

  12. Biomaterial design for specific cellular interactions: Role of surface functionalization and geometric features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolhar, Poornima

    The areas of drug delivery and tissue engineering have experienced extraordinary growth in recent years with the application of engineering principles and their potential to support and improve the field of medicine. The tremendous progress in nanotechnology and biotechnology has lead to this explosion of research and development in biomedical applications. Biomaterials can now be engineered at a nanoscale and their specific interactions with the biological tissues can be modulated. Various design parameters are being established and researched for design of drug-delivery carriers and scaffolds to be implanted into humans. Nanoparticles made from versatile biomaterial can deliver both small-molecule drugs and various classes of bio-macromolecules, such as proteins and oligonucleotides. Similarly in the field of tissue engineering, current approaches emphasize nanoscale control of cell behavior by mimicking the natural extracellular matrix (ECM) unlike, traditional scaffolds. Drug delivery and tissue engineering are closely connected fields and both of these applications require materials with exceptional physical, chemical, biological, and biomechanical properties to provide superior therapy. In the current study the surface functionalization and the geometric features of the biomaterials has been explored. In particular, a synthetic surface for culture of human embryonic stem cells has been developed, demonstrating the importance of surface functionalization in maintaining the pluripotency of hESCs. In the second study, the geometric features of the drug delivery carriers are investigated and the polymeric nanoneedles mediated cellular permeabilization and direct cytoplasmic delivery is reported. In the third study, the combined effect of surface functionalization and geometric modification of carriers for vascular targeting is enunciated. These studies illustrate how the biomaterials can be designed to achieve various cellular behaviors and control the

  13. Lipase degradation of plasticized polyvinyl chloride endotracheal tube surfaces to create nanoscale features

    PubMed Central

    Machado, Mary C; Webster, Thomas J

    2017-01-01

    Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) endotracheal tubes (ETTs) nanoetched with a fungal lipase have been shown to reduce bacterial growth and biofilm formation and could be an inexpensive solution to the complex problem of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). Although bacterial growth and colonization on these nanoetched materials have been well characterized, little is known about the mechanism by which the fungal lipase degrades the PVC and, thus, alters its properties to minimize bacteria functions. This study used X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) to better describe the surface chemistry of both unetched and lipase nanoetched PVC ETT. ATR-FTIR analysis of the unetched and treated surfaces showed a similar presence of a plasticizer. This was confirmed by XPS analysis, which showed an increase of carbon and the presence of oxygen on both unetched and nanoetched surfaces. A quantitative comparison of the FTIR spectra revealed significant correlations (Pearson’s correlation, R=0.997 [R2=0.994, P<0.001]) between the unetched and nanomodified PVC ETT spectra, demonstrating similar surface chemistry. This analysis showed no shifting or widening of the bands in the spectra and no significant changes in the intensity of the infrared peaks due to the degradation of the plasticizer by the fungal lipase. In contrast, results from this study did demonstrate significantly increased nanoscale surface features on the lipase etched compared to non-etched PVC ETTs. This led to a change in surface energetics, which altered ion adsorption to the ETTs. Thus, these results showed that PVC surfaces nanoetched with a 0.1% lipase solution for 48 hours have no significant change on surface chemistry but do significantly increase nanoscale surface roughness and alters ion adsorption, which suggests that the unique properties of these materials, including their previously reported ability to decrease

  14. Artificial turf surfaces: perception of safety, sporting feature, satisfaction and preference of football users.

    PubMed

    Burillo, Pablo; Gallardo, Leonor; Felipe, Jose Luis; Gallardo, Ana Maria

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research is to understand the experience of the football sector on the use of artificial turf (satisfaction, safety, sporting feature, or the advantages and disadvantages). The study was conducted on a random selection of 627 male participants (404 amateur/semi-professional footballers, 101 coaches and 122 referees) that regularly train/compete on artificial turf in Spanish football leagues. The results of the skin abrasion, muscle strain and the possibility of sustaining an injury, on a Likert-type 10-point interval scale, gave a perception of 'somewhat dissatisfied' for the participants. The main advantages of artificial turf were their sports features, the evenness of the surface and the good state of conservation. Participants were satisfied with the artificial turf surface. Approximately three out of four participants gave an overall ranking of highly satisfied. The players were significantly less satisfied than the coaches and referees. The overall satisfaction with artificial turf fields was strongly influenced by previous experience, particularly those who had previously played on dirt pitches. These results highlight the versatility of artificial turf to adapt to any circumstance or requirement for local sport and top-level professional competitions alike.

  15. Near-Surface Geologic Units Exposed Along Ares Vallis and in Adjacent Areas: A Potential Source of Sediment at the Mars Pathfinder Landing Site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Treiman, Allan H.

    1997-01-01

    A sequence of layers, bright and dark, is exposed on the walls of canyons, impact craters and mesas throughout the Ares Vallis region, Chryse Planitia, and Xanthe Terra, Mars. Four layers can be seen: two pairs of alternating dark and bright albedo. The upper dark layer forms the top surface of many walls and mesas. The upper dark-bright pair was stripped as a unit from many streamlined mesas and from the walls of Ares Valles, leaving a bench at the top of the lower dark layer, approximately 250 m below the highland surface on streamlined islands and on the walls of Ares Vallis itself. Along Ares Vallis, the scarp between the highlands surface and this bench is commonly angular in plan view (not smoothly curving), suggesting that erosion of the upper dark-bright pair of layers controlled by planes of weakness, like fractures or joints. These near-surface layers in the Ares Vallis area have similar thicknesses, colors, and resistances to erosion to layers exposed near the tops of walls in Valles Marineris (Treiman et al.) and may represent the same pedogenic hardpan units. From this correlation, and from analogies with hardpans on Earth, the light-color layers may be cemented by calcite or gypsum. The dark layers are likely cemented by an iron-bearing mineral. Mars Pathfinder instruments should permit recognition and useful analyses of hardpan fragments, provided that clean uncoated surfaces are accessible. Even in hardpan-cemented materials, it should be possible to determine the broad types of lithologies in the Martian highlands. However, detailed geochemical modeling of highland rocks and soils may be compromised by the presence of hardpan cement minerals.

  16. Geologically recent small-scale surface features in Meridiani Planum and Gale Crater, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horne, David

    2014-05-01

    Enigmatic small scale (<1m) depositional and erosional features have been imaged at several locations in the equatorial Meridiani Planum region by the rover Opportunity. They occur in loose, dark basaltic sands partly covering exposures of light-toned bedrock. Leveed fissures are narrow, elongate, steep-sided depressions flanked by raised levees or half-cones of soil, typically 2-10 cm wide and up to 50 cm long in most cases. Some cross-cut and are therefore younger than eolian ripples thought to have last been active c. 50,000 years ago. Gutters are elongate, straight or sinuous surface depressions, typically 2-10cm wide and 1-5 cm deep, sometimes internally terraced or with a hollow near one end, and in one case seem to give way to small depositional fans downslope; they have the appearance of having been formed by liquid flow rather than by wind erosion. Leveed fissures were imaged at more than 25 locations by Opportunity between 2004 and 2013, particularly near the rims of Endurance, Erebus and Endeavour craters, but also on the plains between Santa Maria and Endeavour craters; sharply-defined gutters are less common but examples were imaged close to the rim of Endurance and on the approach to Endeavour, whereas subdued, possibly wind-softened examples are more widespread. Scrutiny of images obtained by the rover Spirit in Gusev Crater between 2004 and 2010 has so far failed to find any leveed fissures or gutters, but examples of both types of features, as well as numerous small holes suggestive of surface sediment falling into underlying voids, were imaged by the rover Curiosity in the Yellowknife Bay region of Gale Crater during 2013. Leveed fissures appear to have been formed by venting from beneath. Ground disturbance by the rover can be ruled out in many cases by the appearance of features in images taken before close approach. Blowholes seem plausible close to crater rims (where wind might enter a connected void system through a crater wall) but less so

  17. Are the circular, dark features on Comet Borrelly's surface albedo variations or pits?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, R.M.; Soderblom, L.A.; Hapke, B.W.

    2004-01-01

    The highest resolution images of Comet 19P/Borrelly show many dark features which, upon casual inspection, appear to be low albedo markings, but which may also be shadows or other photometric variations caused by a depression in the local topography. In order to distinguish between these two possible interpretations we conducted a photometric analysis of three of the most prominent of these features using six of the highest quality images from the September 22, 2001 Deep Space 1 (DS1) flyby. We find that: 1. The radiance in the darkest parts of each feature increases as phase angle decreases, similarly to the radiance behavior of the higher albedo surrounding terrain. The dark features could be either fully illuminated low albedo spots or, alternatively, they could be depressions. No part of any of the three regions was in full shadow. 2. One of the regions has a radiance profile consistent with a rimmed depression, the second, with a simple depression with no rim, and the third with a low albedo spot. 3. The regolith particles are backscattering and carbon black is one of the few candidate regolith materials that might explain this low albedo. We conclude that Borrelly's surface is geologically complex to the limit of resolution of the images with a combination complex topography, pits, troughs, peaks and ridges, and some very dark albedo markings, perhaps a factor of two to three darker than the average 3-4% albedo of the surrounding terrains. Our technique utilizing measured radiance profiles through the dark regions is able to discriminate between rimmed depressions, rimless depressions and simple albedo changes not associated with topography. ?? 2003 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Stream/bounce event perception reveals a temporal limit of motion correspondence based on surface feature over space and time.

    PubMed

    Kawachi, Yousuke; Kawabe, Takahiro; Gyoba, Jiro

    2011-01-01

    We examined how stream/bounce event perception is affected by motion correspondence based on the surface features of moving objects passing behind an occlusion. In the stream/bounce display two identical objects moving across each other in a two-dimensional display can be perceived as either streaming through or bouncing off each other at coincidence. Here, surface features such as colour (Experiments 1 and 2) or luminance (Experiment 3) were switched between the two objects at coincidence. The moment of coincidence was invisible to observers due to an occluder. Additionally, the presentation of the moving objects was manipulated in duration after the feature switch at coincidence. The results revealed that a postcoincidence duration of approximately 200 ms was required for the visual system to stabilize judgments of stream/bounce events by determining motion correspondence between the objects across the occlusion on the basis of the surface feature. The critical duration was similar across motion speeds of objects and types of surface features. Moreover, controls (Experiments 4a-4c) showed that cognitive bias based on feature (colour/luminance) congruency across the occlusion could not fully account for the effects of surface features on the stream/bounce judgments. We discuss the roles of motion correspondence, visual feature processing, and attentive tracking in the stream/bounce judgments.

  19. Stream/bounce event perception reveals a temporal limit of motion correspondence based on surface feature over space and time

    PubMed Central

    Kawachi, Yousuke; Kawabe, Takahiro; Gyoba, Jiro

    2011-01-01

    We examined how stream/bounce event perception is affected by motion correspondence based on the surface features of moving objects passing behind an occlusion. In the stream/bounce display two identical objects moving across each other in a two-dimensional display can be perceived as either streaming through or bouncing off each other at coincidence. Here, surface features such as colour (Experiments 1 and 2) or luminance (Experiment 3) were switched between the two objects at coincidence. The moment of coincidence was invisible to observers due to an occluder. Additionally, the presentation of the moving objects was manipulated in duration after the feature switch at coincidence. The results revealed that a postcoincidence duration of approximately 200 ms was required for the visual system to stabilize judgments of stream/bounce events by determining motion correspondence between the objects across the occlusion on the basis of the surface feature. The critical duration was similar across motion speeds of objects and types of surface features. Moreover, controls (Experiments 4a–4c) showed that cognitive bias based on feature (colour/luminance) congruency across the occlusion could not fully account for the effects of surface features on the stream/bounce judgments. We discuss the roles of motion correspondence, visual feature processing, and attentive tracking in the stream/bounce judgments. PMID:23145236

  20. Aquatic risk assessment of pesticides in surface waters in and adjacent to the Everglades and Biscayne National Parks: I. Hazard assessment and problem formulation.

    PubMed

    Carriger, John F; Rand, Gary M

    2008-10-01

    An aquatic risk assessment under the U.S. Environment Protection Agency (EPA) ecological risk framework was conducted for atrazine, metolachlor, malathion, chlorpyrifos, and endosulfan in the C-111 freshwater basin (eastern boundary of the Everglades National Park), northeast Florida Bay, and south Biscayne Bay in South Florida. Based on the use of the hazard quotient approach, measured concentrations of chlorpyrifos and endosulfan in surface waters suggest potential hazards to aquatic organisms and were, therefore, considered as chemicals of potential ecological concern (COPECs). The problem formulation included an overview of the physical/chemical and environmental fate characteristics and aquatic toxicology of the COPECs. Background surface water exposure concentrations of endosulfan and toxicity data from laboratory and field studies indicate that fish and invertebrate mortality may be a concern when endosulfan is applied in agricultural areas near aquatic ecosystems.

  1. Does soil water saturation mobilize metals from riparian soils to adjacent surface water? A field monitoring study in a metal contaminated region.

    PubMed

    Van Laer, Liesbeth; Smolders, Erik

    2013-06-01

    In the Noorderkempen (NW Belgium), a large area (about 280 km(2)) is contaminated with cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) due to historical pollution by the Zn smelters. Direct aquatic emissions of metals have diminished over time, however the surface water metal concentration largely exceeds quality standards, mainly during winter periods. Monitoring data were analyzed to reveal whether these fluctuations are related to seasonal redox reactions in associated contaminated riparian soils that drain into the rivers. A field survey was set up with soil pore-water and groundwater monitored for three years in transects of soil monitoring points perpendicular to rivers at contaminated and non-contaminated sites. Site averaged surface water concentrations of a 15 year dataset exceeded local quality standards 4 to 200-fold. Winter averaged metal concentrations significantly exceeded the corresponding summer values 1.3-1.8 (Zn) and 1.5-2.4 fold (Cd). Zinc and Cd concentrations in water were positively related to Fe and Mn but not to Ca, K or Na suggesting that redox reactions and not dilution processes are involved. In ground- and pore-water of the associated riparian soils, the concentrations of Zn fluctuate by the same order of magnitude as in surface water but were generally smaller than in the corresponding contaminated rivers. In addition, correlations of dissolved Zn with Fe and Mn were lacking. This analysis suggests that redox reactions in streams, and not in riparian soils, explain the seasonal trends of Zn and Cd in surface water. Hence, river sediments and not riparian soils may be the cause of the winter peaks of Zn and Cd in these rivers.

  2. Feature extraction and classifcation in surface grading application using multivariate statistical projection models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prats-Montalbán, José M.; López, Fernando; Valiente, José M.; Ferrer, Alberto

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we present an innovative way to simultaneously perform feature extraction and classification for the quality control issue of surface grading by applying two well known multivariate statistical projection tools (SIMCA and PLS-DA). These tools have been applied to compress the color texture data describing the visual appearance of surfaces (soft color texture descriptors) and to directly perform classification using statistics and predictions computed from the extracted projection models. Experiments have been carried out using an extensive image database of ceramic tiles (VxC TSG). This image database is comprised of 14 different models, 42 surface classes and 960 pieces. A factorial experimental design has been carried out to evaluate all the combinations of several factors affecting the accuracy rate. Factors include tile model, color representation scheme (CIE Lab, CIE Luv and RGB) and compression/classification approach (SIMCA and PLS-DA). In addition, a logistic regression model is fitted from the experiments to compute accuracy estimates and study the factors effect. The results show that PLS-DA performs better than SIMCA, achieving a mean accuracy rate of 98.95%. These results outperform those obtained in a previous work where the soft color texture descriptors in combination with the CIE Lab color space and the k-NN classi.er achieved a 97.36% of accuracy.

  3. Surface feature based classification of plant organs from 3D laserscanned point clouds for plant phenotyping

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Laserscanning recently has become a powerful and common method for plant parameterization and plant growth observation on nearly every scale range. However, 3D measurements with high accuracy, spatial resolution and speed result in a multitude of points that require processing and analysis. The primary objective of this research has been to establish a reliable and fast technique for high throughput phenotyping using differentiation, segmentation and classification of single plants by a fully automated system. In this report, we introduce a technique for automated classification of point clouds of plants and present the applicability for plant parameterization. Results A surface feature histogram based approach from the field of robotics was adapted to close-up laserscans of plants. Local geometric point features describe class characteristics, which were used to distinguish among different plant organs. This approach has been proven and tested on several plant species. Grapevine stems and leaves were classified with an accuracy of up to 98%. The proposed method was successfully transferred to 3D-laserscans of wheat plants for yield estimation. Wheat ears were separated with an accuracy of 96% from other plant organs. Subsequently, the ear volume was calculated and correlated to the ear weight, the kernel weights and the number of kernels. Furthermore the impact of the data resolution was evaluated considering point to point distances between 0.3 and 4.0 mm with respect to the classification accuracy. Conclusion We introduced an approach using surface feature histograms for automated plant organ parameterization. Highly reliable classification results of about 96% for the separation of grapevine and wheat organs have been obtained. This approach was found to be independent of the point to point distance and applicable to multiple plant species. Its reliability, flexibility and its high order of automation make this method well suited for the demands of

  4. Discharge, suspended sediment, and salinity in the Gulf Intracoastal Waterway and adjacent surface waters in South-Central Louisiana, 1997–2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swarzenski, Christopher M.; Perrien, Scott M.

    2015-10-19

    River water penetrates much of the Louisiana coast, as demonstrated by the large year-to-year fluctuations in salinity regimes of intradistributary basins in response to differences in flow regimes of the Mississippi and the Atchafalaya Rivers. This occurs directly through inflow along the GIWW and through controlled diversions and indirectly by transport into basin interiors after mixing with the Gulf of Mexico. The GIWW plays an important role in moderating salinity in intradistributary basins; for example, salinity in surface waters just south of the GIWW between Bayou Boeuf and the Houma Navigation Canal remained low even during a year with prolonged low water (2000).

  5. Analysis of copper surface features obtained using TEA CO2 laser at reduced air pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Momcilovic, M.; Trtica, M.; Ciganovic, J.; Savovic, J.; Stasic, J.; Kuzmanovic, M.

    2013-04-01

    Interaction of a transversely excited atmospheric (TEA) CO2 laser with rough copper surface, at reduced air pressure, was studied. Optical pulse duration of the laser employed was ∼2 μs, with the initial spike FWHM of ∼100 ns. Laser energy density of ∼32 J/cm2 (intensity ∼108 W/cm2) was above the plasma ignition threshold. Morphological features of the copper can be summarized as follows: (i) superficial damages, which take crater-shaped form at a higher number of accumulated laser pulses, (ii) development of melt pools with visible bubbles inside the damage region, (iii) formation of solid droplets at near periphery, and (iv) presence of “halo” effect at the irradiated surface. The laser induced surface changes were influenced by the target plasma formation. The formation of plasma influenced the laser-target interaction in two opposite ways: trough absorption of laser energy by the plasma, i.e. trough the effect of plasma shielding, and trough energy transfer from the plasma to the sample. Optical emission spectra were compared for laser induced plasma originated by a single and by cumulative laser pulses. It was found that plasma dimensions and emission intensities have a strong correlation with the number of accumulated laser pulses. Enhancement of both atomic and ionic copper lines was registered when laser induced plasma originated from a single pulse. Chemical analysis of the surface showed a tendency of copper content increase and oxygen content reduction when going from non-irradiated region to the central irradiated region. In the central damage zone, nearly pure copper was present which can be advantageous for some applications due to considerably lower contamination.

  6. Iceberg ploughmark features on bottom surface of the South-Eastern Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorokhov, Dmitry; Sivkov, Vadim; Dorokhova, Evgenia; Krechik, Viktor

    2016-04-01

    A detail swath bathymetry, side-scan sonar and acoustic profiling combined with sediment sampling during the 64th cruise of RV "Academic Mstislav Keldysh" (October 2015) allowed to identify new geomorphological features of the South-Eastern Baltic Sea bottom surface. The extended chaotic ploughmarks (furrows) in most cases filled with thin layer of mud were discovered on surface of the Gdansk-Gotland sill glacial deposits. They are observed on the depth of more than 70 m and have depth and width from 1 to 10 m. Most of them are v- or u-shaped stepped depressions. The side-scan records of similar geomorpholoical features are extensively reported from Northern Hemisphere and Antarctica (Goodwin et al., 1985; Dowdeswell et al., 1993). Ploughmarks are attributed to the action of icebergs scouring into the sediment as they touch bottom. We are suggest that furrows discovered in the South-Eastern Baltic Sea are also the result of iceberg scouring during the Baltic Ice Lake stage (more than 11 600 cal yr BP (Bjorck, 2008)). This assumption confirmed by occurrence of fragmental stones and boulders on the sea bottom surface which are good indicators of iceberg rafting (Lisitzin, 2003). Ice ploughmarks at sea bottom surface were not occurred before in the South-Eastern Baltic Sea. The study was financed by Russian Scientific Fund, grant number 14-37-00047. References Bjorck S. The late Quaternary development of the Baltic Sea Basin. In: The BACC Author Team (eds) Assessment of climate change for the Baltic Sea Basin. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. 2008. Dowdeswell J. A., Villinger H., Whittington R. J., Marienfeld P. Iceberg scouring in Scoresby Sund and on the East Greenland continental shelf // Marine Geology. V. 111. N. 1-2. 1993. P. 37-53. Goodwin C. R., Finley J. C., Howard L. M. Ice scour bibliography. Environmental Studies Revolving Funds Report No. 010. Ottawa. 1985. 99 pp. Lisitzin A. P. Sea-Ice and Iceberg Sedimentation in the Ocean: Recent and Past. Springer

  7. Surface Replication of Molded Products with Microneedle Features in Injection Molding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchiumi, Kazuyasu; Takayama, Tetsuo; Ito, Hiroshi; Inou, Akinori

    Micro-molding of microneedle features was conducted using several injection-molding techniques. Injection compression molding and injection molding were performed with supercritical carbon dioxide fluid and with or without vacuum processing inside the mold cavity. Effects of process parameters on processability and surface replication of the molded parts were evaluated. The height replication ratio for microneedles was improved using injection compression molding. At a shorter compression stroke, the needle height was improved, and the influence of compression delay time was also small. Moreover, the effects of vacuum processing inside the mold cavity under the filling process were slight. The height replication ratio for microneedles showed the highest values using injection molding using supercritical carbon dioxide fluid with vacuum inside the mold cavity.

  8. Short term memory for single surface features and bindings in ageing: A replication study.

    PubMed

    Isella, Valeria; Molteni, Federica; Mapelli, Cristina; Ferrarese, Carlo

    2015-06-01

    In the present study we replicated a previous experiment investigating visuo-spatial short term memory binding in young and older healthy individuals, in the attempt to verify the pattern of impairment that can be observed in normal elderly for short term memory for single items vs short term memory for bindings. Assessing a larger sample size (25 young and 25 older subjects), using a more appropriate measure of accuracy for a change detection task (A'), and adding the evaluation of speed of performance, we confirmed that old normals show a decline in short term memory for bindings of shape and colour that is of comparable extent, and not major, to the decline in memory for single shapes and single colours. The absence of a specific deficit of short term memory for conjunctions of surface features seems to distinguish cognitive ageing from Alzheimer's Disease.

  9. Crystal surface analysis using matrix textural features classified by a probabilistic neural network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawyer, Curry R.; Quach, Viet; Nason, Donald; van den Berg, Lodewijk

    1991-12-01

    A system is under development in which surface quality of a growing bulk mercuric iodide crystal is monitored by video camera at regular intervals for early detection of growth irregularities. Mercuric iodide single crystals are employed in radiation detectors. A microcomputer system is used for image capture and processing. The digitized image is divided into multiple overlapping sub-images and features are extracted from each sub-image based on statistical measures of the gray tone distribution, according to the method of Haralick. Twenty parameters are derived from each sub-image and presented to a probabilistic neural network (PNN) for classification. This number of parameters was found to be optimal for the system. The PNN is a hierarchical, feed-forward network that can be rapidly reconfigured as additional training data become available. Training data is gathered by reviewing digital images of many crystals during their growth cycle and compiling two sets of images, those with and without irregularities.

  10. Uncontrolled methane emissions from a MSW landfill surface: influence of landfill features and side slopes.

    PubMed

    Di Trapani, Daniele; Di Bella, Gaetano; Viviani, Gaspare

    2013-10-01

    Sanitary landfills for Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) disposal have been identified as one of the most important anthropogenic sources of methane (CH4) emissions; in order to minimize its negative effects on the environment, landfill gas (LFG) recovery is a suitable tool to control CH4 emissions from a landfill site; further, the measurement of CH4 emissions can represent a good way to evaluate the effectiveness of LFG recovering systems. In general, LFG will escape through any faults in the landfill capping or in the LFG collection system. Indeed, some areas of the capping can be more permeable than others (e.g. portions of a side slope), especially when considering a temporarily capped zone (covered area that is not expected to receive any further waste for a period of at least 3 months, but for engineering reasons does not have a permanent cap yet). These areas, which are characterized by abnormal emissions, are usually defined as "features": in particular, a feature is a small, discrete area or an installation where CH4 emissions significantly differ from the surrounding zones. In the present study, the influence that specific features have on CH4 emissions has been investigated, based on direct measurements carried out in different seasons by means of a flux chamber to the case study of Palermo (IT) landfill (Bellolampo). The results showed that the flux chamber method is reliable and easy to perform, and the contoured flux maps, obtained by processing the measured data were found to be a suitable tool for identifying areas with abnormal (high) emissions. Further, it was found that a relationship between methane emission rates and landfill side slope can be established. Concerning the influence of the temporary HDPE cover system on CH4 recovery efficiency, it contributed to a significant decrease of the free surface area available for uncontrolled emissions; this aspect, coupled to the increase of the CH4 volumes collected by the LFG recovery system, led to a

  11. Chemical and textural surface features of pyroclasts from hydrovolcanic eruption sequences

    SciTech Connect

    Wohletz, K.H.

    1987-12-31

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the vertical textural variations observed in stratigraphic sections of ash and show how these can be related to the eruptive history of volcanic vents. Samples were systematically taken from near-vent localities in vertical sequences of ash layers. Both size distributions and petrologic (chemical) constraints are among the features used in interpretation of textural features of the ash samples. The samples studied in this report were taken from four small (less than 2 km diameter) volcanoes: Crater Elegante and Cerro Colorado in Sonora, Mexico, and Panum Crater and Obsidian Dome, California. All four are typical volcanoes formed by hydrovolcanic eruptions. Crater Elegante is a basaltic tuff ring and Cerro Colorado is a tuff cone. The California examples are rhyolitic tuff rings. All are less than 10/sup 5/ years old. The significance of selecting these four volcanoes is that their pyroclasts have been formed by explosive mixing of meteoric water with magma as it approached the surface.

  12. Rupture features of the 2010 Mw 8.8 Chile earthquake extracted from surface waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yi-Ling; Hwang, Ruey-Der; Jhuang, Yi-Shan; Lin, Cai-Yi

    2017-03-01

    This study used the rupture directivity theory to derive the fault parameters of the 2010 Mw 8.8 Chile earthquake on the basis of the azimuth-dependent source duration obtained from the Rayleigh-wave phase velocity. Results revealed that the 2010 Chile earthquake featured asymmetric bilateral faulting. The two rupture directions were N171°E (northward) and N17°E (southward), with rupture lengths of approximately 313 and 118 km, respectively, and were related to the locking degree in the source region. The entire source duration was approximately 187 s. After excluding the rise time from the source duration, the northward rupture velocity was approximately 2.02 km/s, faster than the southward rupture velocity (1.74 km/s). On average, the rupture velocity derived from this study was slower than that estimated from finite-fault inversion; however, several historical earthquakes in the Chile region also showed slow rupture velocity when using low-frequency signals, as surface waves do. Two earlier studies through global-positioning-system data analysis showed that the static stress drop of 50-70 bars for the 2010 Chile earthquake was higher than that for subduction-zone earthquakes. Hence, a remarkable feature was that the 2010 Chile earthquake had a slow rupture velocity and a high static stress drop, which suggested an inverse relationship between rupture velocity and static stress drop.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  13. Effective method for detecting regions of given colors and the features of the region surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Yihong; Zhang, HongJiang

    1994-03-01

    Color can be used as a very important cue for image recognition. In industrial and commercial areas, color is widely used as a trademark or identifying feature in objects, such as packaged goods, advertising signs, etc. In image database systems, one may retrieve an image of interest by specifying prominent colors and their locations in the image (image retrieval by contents). These facts enable us to detect or identify a target object using colors. However, this task depends mainly on how effectively we can identify a color and detect regions of the given color under possibly non-uniform illumination conditions such as shade, highlight, and strong contrast. In this paper, we present an effective method to detect regions matching given colors, along with the features of the region surfaces. We adopt the HVC color coordinates in the method because of its ability of completely separating the luminant and chromatic components of colors. Three basis functions functionally serving as the low-pass, high-pass, and band-pass filters, respectively, are introduced.

  14. Integrating surface and mantle constraints for palaeo-ocean evolution: a tour of the Arctic and adjacent regions (Arne Richter Award for Outstanding Young Scientists Lecture)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shephard, Grace E.

    2016-04-01

    Plate tectonic reconstructions heavily rely on absolute motions derived from hotspot trails or palaeomagnetic data and ocean-floor magnetic anomaies and fracture-zone geometries to constrain the detailed history of ocean basins. However, as oceanic lithosphere is progressively recycled into the mantle, kinematic data regarding the history of these now extinct-oceans is lost. In order to better understand their evolution, novel workflows, which integrate a wide range of complementary yet independent geological and geophysical datasets from both the surface and deep mantle, must be utilised. In particular, the emergence of time-dependent, semi or self-consistent geodynamic models of ever-increasing temporal and spatial resolution are revealing some critical constraints on the evolution and fate of oceanic slabs. The tectonic evolution of the circum-Arctic is no exception; since the breakup of Pangea, this enigmatic region has seen major plate reorganizations and the opening and closure of several ocean basins. At the surface, a myriad of potential kinematic scenarios including polarity, timing, geometry and location of subduction have emerged, including for systems along continental margins and intra-oceanic settings. Furthermore, recent work has reignited a debate about the origins of 'anchor' slabs, such as the Farallon and Mongol-Okhotsk slabs, which have been used to refine absolute plate motions. Moving to the mantle, seismic tomography models reveal a region peppered with inferred slabs, however assumptions about their affinities and subduction location, timing, geometry and polarity are often made in isolation. Here, by integrating regional plate reconstructions with insights from seismic tomography, satellite derived gravity gradients, slab sinking rates and geochemistry, I explore some Mesozoic examples from the palaeo-Arctic, northern Panthalassa and western margin of North America, including evidence for a discrete and previously undescribed slab under

  15. Higher Surface Ozone Concentrations Over the Chesapeake Bay than Over the Adjacent Land: Observations and Models from the DISCOVER-AQ and CBODAQ Campaigns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, Daniel L.; Loughner, Christopher P.; Tzortziou, Maria; Stehr, Jeffrey W.; Pickering, Kenneth E.; Marufu, Lackson T.; Dickerson, Russell R.

    2013-01-01

    Air quality models, such as the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model, indicate decidedly higher ozone near the surface of large interior water bodies, such as the Great Lakes and Chesapeake Bay. In order to test the validity of the model output, we performed surface measurements of ozone (O3) and total reactive nitrogen (NOy) on the 26-m Delaware II NOAA Small Research Vessel experimental (SRVx), deployed in the Chesapeake Bay for 10 daytime cruises in July 2011 as part of NASA's GEO-CAPE CBODAQ oceanographic field campaign in conjunction with NASA's DISCOVER-AQ air quality field campaign. During this 10-day period, the EPA O3 regulatory standard of 75 ppbv averaged over an 8-h period was exceeded four times over water while ground stations in the area only exceeded the standard at most twice. This suggests that on days when the Baltimore/Washington region is in compliance with the EPA standard, air quality over the Chesapeake Bay might exceed the EPA standard. Ozone observations over the bay during the afternoon were consistently 10-20% higher than the closest upwind ground sites during the 10-day campaign; this pattern persisted during good and poor air quality days. A lower boundary layer, reduced cloud cover, slower dry deposition rates, and other lesser mechanisms, contribute to the local maximum of ozone over the Chesapeake Bay. Observations from this campaign were compared to a CMAQ simulation at 1.33 km resolution. The model is able to predict the regional maximum of ozone over the Chesapeake Bay accurately, but NOy concentrations are significantly overestimated. Explanations for the overestimation of NOy in the model simulations are also explored

  16. Obtaining 3d models of surface snow and ice features (penitentes) with a Xbox Kinect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholson, Lindsey; Partan, Benjamin; Pętlicki, Michał; MacDonell, Shelley

    2014-05-01

    Penitentes are snow or ice spikes that can reach several metres in height. They are a common feature of snow and ice surfaces in the semi-arid Andes as their formation is favoured by very low humidity, persistently low temperatures and sustained high solar radiation. While the conditions of their formation are relatively well constrained it is not yet clear how their presence influences the rate of mass loss and meltwater production from the mountain cryosphere and there is a need for accurate measurements of ablation within penitente fields through time in order to evaluate how well existing energy balance models perform for surfaces with penitentes. The complex surface morphology poses a challenge to measuring the mass loss at snow or glacier surfaces as (i) the spatial distribution of surface lowering within a penitente field is very heterogeneous, and (ii) the steep walls and sharp edges of the penitentes limit the line of sight view for surveying from fixed positions. In this work we explored whether these problems can be solved by using the Xbox Kinect sensor to generate small scale digital terrain models (DTMs) of sample areas of snow and ice penitentes. The study site was Glaciar Tapado in Chile (30°08'S; 69°55'W) where three sample sites were monitored from November 2013 to January 2014. The range of the Kinect sensor was found to be restricted to about 1 m over snow and ice, and scanning was only possible after dusk. Moving the sensor around the penitente field was challenging and often resulted in fragmented scans. However, despite these challenges, the scans obtained could be successfully combined in MeshLab software to produce good surface representations of the penitentes. GPS locations of target stakes in the sample plots allow the DTMs to be orientated correctly in space so the morphology of the penitente field and the volume loss through time can be fully described. At the study site in snow penitentes the Kinect DTM was compared with the quality

  17. Polarization controlled deep sub-wavelength periodic features written by femtosecond laser on nanodiamond thin film surface

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar Kuntumalla, Mohan; Srikanth, Vadali V. S. S.; Rajamudili, Kuladeep; Rao Desai, Narayana

    2014-04-21

    Deep sub-wavelength (Λ/λ = ∼0.22) periodic features are induced uniformly on a nanodiamond (ND) thin film surface using femtosecond (fs) laser irradiation (pulse duration = ∼110 fs and central wavelength of ∼800 nm). The topography of the surface features is controlled by the laser polarization. Orientation of features is perpendicular to laser polarization. Periodicity (spatial periodicity of < λ/4) of the surface features is less than the laser wavelength. This work gives an experimental proof of polarization controlled surface plasmon-fs laser coupling mechanism prompting the interaction between fs laser and solid matter (here ND thin film) which in turn is resulting in the periodic surface features. Scanning electron microscopy in conjunction with micro Raman scattering, X-ray diffraction, and atomic force microscopy are carried out to extract surface morphology and phase information of the laser irradiated regions. This work demonstrates an easy and efficient surface fabrication technique.

  18. Groundwater and surface-water resources in the Bureau of Land Management Moab Master Leasing Plan area and adjacent areas, Grand and San Juan Counties, Utah, and Mesa and Montrose Counties, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Masbruch, Melissa D.; Shope, Christopher L.

    2014-01-01

    The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Canyon Country District Office is preparing a leasing plan known as the Moab Master Leasing Plan (Moab MLP) for oil, gas, and potash mineral rights in an area encompassing 946,469 acres in southeastern Utah. The BLM has identified water resources as being potentially affected by oil, gas, and potash development and has requested that the U.S. Geological Survey prepare a summary of existing water-resources information for the Moab MLP area. This report includes a summary and synthesis of previous and ongoing investigations conducted in the Moab MLP and adjacent areas in Utah and Colorado from the early 1930s through the late 2000s.Eight principal aquifers and six confining units were identified within the study area. Permeability is a function of both the primary permeability from interstitial pore connectivity and secondary permeability created by karst features or faults and fractures. Vertical hydraulic connection generally is restricted to strongly folded and fractured zones, which are concentrated along steeply dipping monoclines and in narrow regions encompassing igneous and salt intrusive masses. Several studies have identified both an upper and lower aquifer system separated by the Pennsylvanian age Paradox Member of the Hermosa Formation evaporite, which is considered a confining unit and is present throughout large parts of the study area.Surface-water resources of the study area are dominated by the Colorado River. Several perennial and ephemeral or intermittent tributaries join the Colorado River as it flows from northeast to southwest across the study area. An annual spring snowmelt and runoff event dominates the hydrology of streams draining mountainous parts of the study area, and most perennial streams in the study area are snowmelt-dominated. A bimodal distribution is observed in hydrographs from some sites with a late-spring snowmelt-runoff peak followed by smaller peaks of shorter duration during the late summer

  19. Thermal measurements of dark and bright surface features on Vesta as derived from Dawn/VIR

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tosi, Federico; Capria, Maria Teresa; De Sanctis, M.C.; Combe, J.-Ph.; Zambon, F.; Nathues, A.; Schröder, S.E.; Li, J.-Y.; Palomba, E.; Longobardo, A.; Blewett, D.T.; Denevi, B.W.; Palmer, E.; Capaccioni, F.; Ammannito, E.; Titus, Timothy N.; Mittlefehldt, D.W.; Sunshine, J.M.; Russell, C.T.; Raymond, C.A.; Dawn/VIR Team,

    2014-01-01

    Remote sensing data acquired during Dawn’s orbital mission at Vesta showed several local concentrations of high-albedo (bright) and low-albedo (dark) material units, in addition to spectrally distinct meteorite impact ejecta. The thermal behavior of such areas seen at local scale (1-10 km) is related to physical properties that can provide information about the origin of those materials. We use Dawn’s Visible and InfraRed (VIR) mapping spectrometer hyperspectral data to retrieve surface temperatures and emissivities, with high accuracy as long as temperatures are greater than 220 K. Some of the dark and bright features were observed multiple times by VIR in the various mission phases at variable spatial resolution, illumination and observation angles, local solar time, and heliocentric distance. This work presents the first temperature maps and spectral emissivities of several kilometer-scale dark and bright material units on Vesta. Results retrieved from the infrared data acquired by VIR show that bright regions generally correspond to regions with lower temperature, while dark regions correspond to areas with higher temperature. During maximum daily insolation and in the range of heliocentric distances explored by Dawn, i.e. 2.23-2.54 AU, the warmest dark unit found on Vesta rises to a temperature of 273 K, while bright units observed under comparable conditions do not exceed 266 K. Similarly, dark units appear to have higher emissivity on average compared to bright units. Dark-material units show a weak anticorrelation between temperature and albedo, whereas the relation is stronger for bright material units observed under the same conditions. Individual features may show either evanescent or distinct margins in the thermal images, as a consequence of the cohesion of the surface material. Finally, for the two categories of dark and bright materials, we were able to highlight the influence of heliocentric distance on surface temperatures, and estimate an

  20. A Near-Infrared and Thermal Imager for Mapping Titan's Surface Features

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aslam, S.; Hewagma, T.; Jennings, D. E.; Nixon, C.

    2012-01-01

    Approximately 10% of the solar insolation reaches the surface of Titan through atmospheric spectral windows. We will discuss a filter based imaging system for a future Titan orbiter that will exploit these windows mapping surface features, cloud regions, polar storms. In the near-infrared (NIR), two filters (1.28 micrometer and 1.6 micrometer), strategically positioned between CH1 absorption bands, and InSb linear array pixels will explore the solar reflected radiation. We propose to map the mid, infrared (MIR) region with two filters: 9.76 micrometer and 5.88-to-6.06 micrometers with MCT linear arrays. The first will map MIR thermal emission variations due to surface albedo differences in the atmospheric window between gas phase CH3D and C2H4 opacity sources. The latter spans the crossover spectral region where observed radiation transitions from being dominated by thermal emission to solar reflected light component. The passively cooled linear arrays will be incorporated into the focal plane of a light-weight thin film stretched membrane 10 cm telescope. A rad-hard ASIC together with an FPGA will be used for detector pixel readout and detector linear array selection depending on if the field-of-view (FOV) is looking at the day- or night-side of Titan. The instantaneous FOV corresponds to 3.1, 15.6, and 31.2 mrad for the 1, 5, and 10 micrometer channels, respectively. For a 1500 km orbit, a 5 micrometer channel pixel represents a spatial resolution of 91 m, with a FOV that spans 23 kilometers, and Titan is mapped in a push-broom manner as determined by the orbital path. The system mass and power requirements are estimated to be 6 kg and 5 W, respectively. The package is proposed for a polar orbiter with a lifetime matching two Saturn seasons.

  1. The stress relaxation characteristics of composite matrices etched to produce nanoscale surface features

    PubMed Central

    Mirani, Rahul D.; Pratt, Jonathan; Iyer, Pooja; Madihally, Sundararajan V.

    2010-01-01

    Many synthetic and xenogenic natural matrices have been explored in tissue regeneration, however, they lack either mechanical strength or cell colonization characteristics found in natural tissue. Moreover natural matrices such as small intestinal submucosa (SIS) lack sample to sample homogeneity, leading to unpredictable clinical outcomes. This work explored a novel fabrication technique by blending together the useful characteristics of synthetic and natural polymers to form a composite structure by using a NaOH etching process that produces nanoscale surface features. The composite scaffold was formed by sandwiching a thin layer of PLGA between porous layers of gelatin–chitosan. The etching process increased the surface roughness of PLGA membrane, allowing easy spreading of the hydrophilic gelatin–chitosan solution on its hydrophobic surface and reducing the scaffold thickness by nearly 50% than otherwise. The viscoelastic properties of the scaffold, an area of mechanical analysis which remains largely unexplored in tissue regeneration was assessed. Stress relaxation experiments of the “ramp and hold” type performed at variable ranges of temperature (25 °C and 37 °C), loading rates (3.125% s−1 and 12.5% s−1) and relaxation times (60 s, 100 s and 200 s) found stress relaxation to be sensitive to temperature and the loading rate but less dependent on the relaxation time. Stress relaxation behavior of the composite matrix was compared with SIS structures at 25 °C (hydrated), 3.125% s−1 loading rate and 100 s relaxation time which showed that the synthetic matrix was found to be strain softening as compared to the strain hardening behavior exhibited by SIS. Popularly used quasi-linear viscoelastic (QLV) model to describe biomechanics of soft tissues was utilized. The QLV model predicted the loading behavior with an average error of 3%. The parameters of the QLV model predicted using nonlinear regression analysis appear to be in concurrence with soft

  2. Influence of Bacillus subtilis cell walls and EDTA on calcite dissolution rates and crystal surface features.

    PubMed

    Friis, A K; Davis, T A; Figueira, M M; Paquette, J; Mucci, A

    2003-06-01

    This study investigates the influence of EDTA and the Gram-positive cell walls of Bacillus subtilis on the dissolution rates and development of morphological features on the calcite [1014] surface. The calcite dissolution rates are compared at equivalent saturation indicies (SI) and relative to its dissolution behavior in distilled water (DW). Results indicate that the presence of metabolically inactive B. subtilis does not affect the dissolution rates significantly. Apparent increases in dissolution rates in the presence of the dead bacterial cells can be accounted for by a decrease of the saturation state of the solution with respect to calcite resulting from bonding of dissolved Ca2+ by functional groups on the cell walls. In contrast, the addition of EDTA to the experimental solutions results in a distinct increase in dissolution rates relative to those measured in DW and the bacterial cell suspensions. These results are partly explained by the 6.5-8 orders of magnitude greater stability of the Ca-EDTA complex relative to the Ca-B. subtilis complexes as well as its free diffusion to and direct attack of the calcite surface. Atomic force microscopy images of the [1014] surface of calcite crystals exposed to our experimental solutions reveal the development of dissolution pits with different morphologies according to the nature and concentration of the ligand. Highly anisotropic dissolution pits develop in the early stages of the dissolution reaction at low B. subtilis concentrations (0.004 mM functional group sites) and in DW. In contrast, at high functional group concentrations (4.0 mM EDTA or equivalent B. subtilis functional group sites), dissolution pits are more isotropic. These results suggest that the mechanism of calcite dissolution is modified by the presence of high concentrations of organic ligands. Since all the pits that developed on the calcite surfaces display some degree of anisotropy and dissolution rates are strongly SI dependent, the rate

  3. Charge-regulation phase transition on surface lattices of titratable sites adjacent to electrolyte solutions: An analog of the Ising antiferromagnet in a magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Shore, Joel D; Thurston, George M

    2015-12-01

    comparison with exact and approximate results for the nearest-neighbor case. We then use the simulations to map the charge-patterning phase boundary in the (pH-pK,W) plane. The physical parameters that determine W provide a framework for identifying and designing real surfaces that could exhibit charge-patterning phase transitions.

  4. Charge-regulation phase transition on surface lattices of titratable sites adjacent to electrolyte solutions: An analog of the Ising antiferromagnet in a magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shore, Joel D.; Thurston, George M.

    2015-12-01

    through comparison with exact and approximate results for the nearest-neighbor case. We then use the simulations to map the charge-patterning phase boundary in the (p H-p K ,W ) plane. The physical parameters that determine W provide a framework for identifying and designing real surfaces that could exhibit charge-patterning phase transitions.

  5. The ‘Excess’ Emission from the Warm Surface Adjacent to Active Fissures on Enceladus from Combined VIMS and CIRS Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goguen, Jay D.; Buratti, Bonnie J.; Howell, Robert R.

    2015-11-01

    The exciting discovery of thermal emission from the tiger stripe fissures at the S. pole of Enceladus is a major highlight of the Cassini mission. Both VIMS (Visible and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer) and CIRS (Composite InfraRed Spectrometer) detect the thermal ‘blackbody’ spectrum emitted from the warm fissure areas. The VIMS instrument is uniquely suited to measuring the hottest active locations because VIMS covers the 3 to 5 micron wavelength range where the rising edge of the Planck function for these T~200 K areas dominates the emission spectrum. At longer wavelengths, the spectrum is more complicated because contributions from small hot areas and larger cooler areas combine to form the broad emission spectrum that is detected by the CIRS instrument at wavelengths >6.7 microns. It is the combination of VIMS and CIRS spectra that paint a more complete portrait of the fissure heat transfer processes. Using spectra that span both the VIMS and CIRS wavelengths places a stronger constraint on the T distribution near the fissures than consideration of the spectra from either instrument alone.We show that when the best (= highest spatial resolution, 800 m/pixel and smaller) VIMS and CIRS spectra of the fissure thermal emission are considered together, there is a large (up to 400%) component of ‘excess’ emission spanning 7 to 17 microns that requires explanation. New analysis of ~2 km spatial resolution VIMS spectra of the Damascus hot spot on 8/13/2010 are similar to the highest resolution 4/14/2012 VIMS Baghdad spectra, confirming that differences in location or time between the best VIMS and CIRS spectra do not explain away the excess. The obvious interpretation is that there are processes that transfer heat from the fissure eruption to the surface within 400 m of the fissure center in addition to heat conduction through the fissure walls. Candidate heat transfer processes include fallback of large warm low velocity ice particles from the edges of the

  6. Surface textural features and its formation process of AISI 304 stainless steel subjected to massive LSP impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, K. Y.; Yao, H. X.; Dai, F. Z.; Lu, J. Z.

    2014-04-01

    The effects of massive laser shock peening (LSP) impacts on surface textural feature of AISI 304 stainless steel (AISI 304 SS), including surface waviness, surface roughness, and machining texture and direction, have been investigated by using WKYO-NT1100 surface profiler and TR300 stylus roughness shape measuring instrument. Experimental results show that massive LSP impacts have an important influence on the surface waviness of the AISI 304 SS sample, but do not have a measurable impact on the surface roughness. Moreover, massive LSP impacts with constraint and ablation mode generate a novel compound texture on the surface of the AISI 304 SS sample. In addition, the formation process of surface compound texture in AISI 304 SS by massive LSP impacts is also entirely revealed.

  7. Robust affine-invariant feature points matching for 3D surface reconstruction of complex landslide scenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stumpf, André; Malet, Jean-Philippe; Allemand, Pascal; Skupinski, Grzegorz; Deseilligny, Marc-Pierrot

    2013-04-01

    Multi-view stereo surface reconstruction from dense terrestrial photographs is being increasingly applied for geoscience applications such as quantitative geomorphology, and a number of different software solution and processing streamlines have been suggested. For image matching, camera self-calibration and bundle block adjustment, most approaches make use of scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT) to identify homologous points in multiple images. SIFT-like point matching is robust to apparent translation, rotation, and scaling of objects in multiple viewing geometries but the number of correctly identified matching points typically declines drastically with increasing angles between the viewpoints. For the application of multi-view stereo of complex landslide scenes, the viewing geometry is often constrained by the local topography and barriers such as rocks and vegetation occluding the target. Under such conditions it is not uncommon to encounter view angle differences of > 30% that hinder the image matching and eventually prohibit the joint estimation of the camera parameters from all views. Recently an affine invariant extension of the SIFT detector (ASIFT) has been demonstrated to provide more robust matches when large view-angle differences become an issue. In this study the ASIFT detector was adopted to detect homologous points in terrestrial photographs preceding 3D reconstruction of different parts (main scarp, toe) of the Super-Sauze landslide (Southern French Alps). 3D surface models for different time periods and different parts of the landslide were derived using the multi-view stereo framework implemented in MicMac (©IGN). The obtained 3D models were compared with reconstructions using the traditional SIFT detectors as well as alternative structure-from-motion implementations. An estimate of the absolute accuracy of the photogrammetric models was obtained through co-registration and comparison with high-resolution terrestrial LiDAR scans.

  8. The effects of combined micron-/submicron-scale surface roughness and nanoscale features on cell proliferation and differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Gittens I, Rolando A.; McLachlan, Taylor; Cai, Ye; Berner, Simon; Tannenbaum, Rina; Schwartz, Zvi; Sandhage, Kenneth H.; Boyan, Barbara D.

    2012-01-01

    Titanium (Ti) osseointegration is critical for the success of dental and orthopaedic implants. Previous studies have shown that surface roughness at the micro- and submicro-scales promotes osseointegration by enhancing osteoblast differentiation and local factor production. Only relatively recently have the effects of nanoscale roughness on cell response been considered. The aim of the present study was to develop a simple and scalable surface modification treatment that introduces nanoscale features to the surfaces of Ti substrates without greatly affecting other surface features, and to determine the effects of such superimposed nano-features on the differentiation and local factor production of osteoblasts. A simple oxidation treatment was developed for generating controlled nanoscale topographies on Ti surfaces, while retaining the starting micro-/submicro-scale roughness. Such nano-modified surfaces also possessed similar elemental compositions, and exhibited similar contact angles, as the original surfaces, but possessed a different surface crystal structure. MG63 cells were seeded on machined (PT), nano-modified PT (NMPT), sandblasted/acid-etched (SLA), and nano-modified SLA (NMSLA) Ti disks. The results suggested that the introduction of such nanoscale structures in combination with micro-/submicro-scale roughness improves osteoblast differentiation and local factor production, which, in turn, indicates the potential for improved implant osseointegration in vivo. PMID:21310480

  9. A Circular Polarizer with Beamforming Feature Based on Frequency Selective Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Yin, Jia Yuan; Wan, Xiang; Ren, Jian; Cui, Tie Jun

    2017-01-27

    We propose a circular polarizer with beamforming features based on frequency selective surface (FSS), in which a modified anchor-shaped unit cell is used to reach the circular polarizer function. The beamforming characteristic is realized by a particular design of the unit-phase distribution, which is obtained by varying the scale of the unit cell. Instead of using plane waves, a horn antenna is designed to feed the phase-variant FSS. The proposed two-layer FSS is fabricated and measured to verify the design. The measured results show that the proposed structure can convert the linearly polarized waves to circularly polarized waves. Compared with the feeding horn antenna, the transmitted beam of the FSS-added horn is 14.43° broader in one direction, while 3.77° narrower in the orthogonal direction. To our best knowledge, this is the first time to realize circular polarizer with beamforming as the extra function based on FSS, which is promising in satellite and communication systems for potential applications due to its simple design and good performance.

  10. Gross Morphological Features of the Organ Surface Primo-Vascular System Revealed by Hemacolor Staining

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Jong-Hyun; Kim, Yongbaek; Lee, So Yeong

    2013-01-01

    The primo-vascular system (PVS), which consists of primo-vessels (PVs) and primo-nodes (PNs), is a novel thread-like structure identified in many animal species. Various observational methods have been used to clarify its anatomical properties. Here, we used Hemacolor staining to examine the gross morphology of organ-surface PVS in rats. We observed a sinus structure (20–50 μm) with a remarkably low cellularity within PNs and PVs and several lines of ductules (3–5 μm) filled with single cells or granules (~1 μm) in PV. Both sinuses and ductules were linearly aligned along the longitudinal axis of the PVS. Such morphology of the PVS was further confirmed by acridine orange staining. In PN slices, there was a honeycomb-like structure containing the granules with pentagonal lumens (~10 μm). Both PVs and PNs were densely filled with WBCs, RBCs, and putative mast cells (MCs), which were 90.3%, 5.9%, and 3.8% of the cell population, respectively. Granules in putative MCs showed spontaneous vibrating movements. In conclusion, the results show that Hemacolor, a simple and rapid staining system, can reveal the gross morphological features reported previously. Our findings may help to elucidate the structure and function of the PVS in normal and disease states in future studies. PMID:23986781

  11. A Circular Polarizer with Beamforming Feature Based on Frequency Selective Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Jia Yuan; Wan, Xiang; Ren, Jian; Cui, Tie Jun

    2017-01-01

    We propose a circular polarizer with beamforming features based on frequency selective surface (FSS), in which a modified anchor-shaped unit cell is used to reach the circular polarizer function. The beamforming characteristic is realized by a particular design of the unit-phase distribution, which is obtained by varying the scale of the unit cell. Instead of using plane waves, a horn antenna is designed to feed the phase-variant FSS. The proposed two-layer FSS is fabricated and measured to verify the design. The measured results show that the proposed structure can convert the linearly polarized waves to circularly polarized waves. Compared with the feeding horn antenna, the transmitted beam of the FSS-added horn is 14.43° broader in one direction, while 3.77° narrower in the orthogonal direction. To our best knowledge, this is the first time to realize circular polarizer with beamforming as the extra function based on FSS, which is promising in satellite and communication systems for potential applications due to its simple design and good performance. PMID:28128345

  12. A Circular Polarizer with Beamforming Feature Based on Frequency Selective Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Jia Yuan; Wan, Xiang; Ren, Jian; Cui, Tie Jun

    2017-01-01

    We propose a circular polarizer with beamforming features based on frequency selective surface (FSS), in which a modified anchor-shaped unit cell is used to reach the circular polarizer function. The beamforming characteristic is realized by a particular design of the unit-phase distribution, which is obtained by varying the scale of the unit cell. Instead of using plane waves, a horn antenna is designed to feed the phase-variant FSS. The proposed two-layer FSS is fabricated and measured to verify the design. The measured results show that the proposed structure can convert the linearly polarized waves to circularly polarized waves. Compared with the feeding horn antenna, the transmitted beam of the FSS-added horn is 14.43° broader in one direction, while 3.77° narrower in the orthogonal direction. To our best knowledge, this is the first time to realize circular polarizer with beamforming as the extra function based on FSS, which is promising in satellite and communication systems for potential applications due to its simple design and good performance.

  13. Gross morphological features of the organ surface primo-vascular system revealed by hemacolor staining.

    PubMed

    Lim, Chae Jeong; Yoo, Jong-Hyun; Kim, Yongbaek; Lee, So Yeong; Ryu, Pan Dong

    2013-01-01

    The primo-vascular system (PVS), which consists of primo-vessels (PVs) and primo-nodes (PNs), is a novel thread-like structure identified in many animal species. Various observational methods have been used to clarify its anatomical properties. Here, we used Hemacolor staining to examine the gross morphology of organ-surface PVS in rats. We observed a sinus structure (20-50  μ m) with a remarkably low cellularity within PNs and PVs and several lines of ductules (3-5  μ m) filled with single cells or granules (~1  μ m) in PV. Both sinuses and ductules were linearly aligned along the longitudinal axis of the PVS. Such morphology of the PVS was further confirmed by acridine orange staining. In PN slices, there was a honeycomb-like structure containing the granules with pentagonal lumens (~10  μ m). Both PVs and PNs were densely filled with WBCs, RBCs, and putative mast cells (MCs), which were 90.3%, 5.9%, and 3.8% of the cell population, respectively. Granules in putative MCs showed spontaneous vibrating movements. In conclusion, the results show that Hemacolor, a simple and rapid staining system, can reveal the gross morphological features reported previously. Our findings may help to elucidate the structure and function of the PVS in normal and disease states in future studies.

  14. Local moving window to delineate near surface features from surficial curvature of potential field (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, M. D.; Morris, W. A.

    2013-12-01

    Many semi-automatic source depth estimation algorithms applied to potential field data implement an aspect of signal curvature in their computation. The location of a source body or lithological contrast is deemed valid when the spatial variation of the observed potential field signal matches some predetermined pattern. The curvature of the potential field is defined in terms of either the first or second horizontal, or vertical derivative of the observed potential field depending on the algorithm chosen. Currently the application of these methods is achieved by systematically running a local moving window across the data, independently finding all valid solutions and then attempting to identify meaningful solutions through use of exclusion criteria. However, the window size plays an important role as it determines the number of lineaments contained within the viewing area and ultimately what data will be analysed. The aim is to select a window size small enough to isolate a single lineament or a group of lineaments with similar characteristics (i.e. dyke swarm). Fundamentally, potential field anomalies can only have two basic forms: elongate linear 2D or compact 3D features. Linear sources are characterized by a high frequency positive or negative anomaly in profile view and near 1D in planar view. Describing these parameters in terms of curvature means that all true 2D sources will be associated with a magnetic signal surface which exhibits a large profile curvature and a small planform curvature. Using this basic concept on the output of different source edge routines it is possible to employ a simple curvature threshold procedure that can decide what is deemed a lineament and what the lineament describes. Lineaments extracted by the procedure may either be artefacts or true signal. Artificial lineaments may arise from issues such as: a) inaccurate survey procedures (inadequate line to line signal leveling); b) artefacts introduced during computation of the

  15. Object correspondence across brief occlusion is established on the basis of both spatiotemporal and surface feature cues.

    PubMed

    Hollingworth, Andrew; Franconeri, Steven L

    2009-11-01

    The correspondence problem is a classic issue in vision and cognition. Frequent perceptual disruptions, such as saccades and brief occlusion, create gaps in perceptual input. How does the visual system establish correspondence between objects visible before and after the disruption? Current theories hold that object correspondence is established solely on the basis of an object's spatiotemporal properties and that an object's surface feature properties (such as color or shape) are not consulted in correspondence operations. In five experiments, we tested the relative contributions of spatiotemporal and surface feature properties to establishing object correspondence across brief occlusion. Correspondence operations were strongly influenced both by the consistency of an object's spatiotemporal properties across occlusion and by the consistency of an object's surface feature properties across occlusion. These data argue against the claim that spatiotemporal cues dominate the computation of object correspondence. Instead, the visual system consults multiple sources of relevant information to establish continuity across perceptual disruption.

  16. Decay of isolated surface features driven by the Gibbs-Thomson effect in an analytic model and a simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLean, James G.; Krishnamachari, B.; Peale, D. R.; Chason, E.; Sethna, James P.; Cooper, B. H.

    1997-01-01

    A theory based on the thermodynamic Gibbs-Thomson relation is presented that provides the framework for understanding the time evolution of isolated nanoscale features (i.e., islands and pits) on surfaces. Two limiting cases are predicted, in which either diffusion or interface transfer is the limiting process. These cases correspond to similar regimes considered in previous works addressing the Ostwald ripening of ensembles of features. A third possible limiting case is noted for the special geometry of ``stacked'' islands. In these limiting cases, isolated features are predicted to decay in size with a power-law scaling in time: A~(t0-t)n, where A is the area of the feature, t0 is the time at which the feature disappears, and n=2/3 or 1. The constant of proportionality is related to parameters describing both the kinetic and equilibrium properties of the surface. A continuous-time Monte Carlo simulation is used to test the application of this theory to generic surfaces with atomic scale features. A method is described to obtain macroscopic kinetic parameters describing interfaces in such simulations. Simulation and analytic theory are compared directly, using measurements of the simulation to determine the constants of the analytic theory. Agreement between the two is very good over a range of surface parameters, suggesting that the analytic theory properly captures the necessary physics. It is anticipated that the simulation will be useful in modeling complex surface geometries often seen in experiments on physical surfaces, for which application of the analytic model is not straightforward.

  17. The relative influence of road characteristics and habitat on adjacent lizard populations in arid shrublands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hubbard, Kaylan A.; Chalfoun, Anna D.; Gerow, Kenneth G.

    2016-01-01

    As road networks continue to expand globally, indirect impacts to adjacent wildlife populations remain largely unknown. Simultaneously, reptile populations are declining worldwide and anthropogenic habitat loss and fragmentation are frequently cited causes. We evaluated the relative influence of three different road characteristics (surface treatment, width, and traffic volume) and habitat features on adjacent populations of Northern Sagebrush Lizards (Sceloporus graciosus graciosus), Plateau Fence Lizards (S. tristichus), and Greater Short-Horned Lizards (Phrynosoma hernandesi) in mixed arid shrubland habitats in southwest Wyoming. Neither odds of lizard presence nor relative abundance was significantly related to any of the assessed road characteristics, although there was a trend for higher Sceloporus spp. abundance adjacent to paved roads. Sceloporus spp. relative abundance did not vary systematically with distance to the nearest road. Rather, both Sceloporus spp. and Greater Short-Horned Lizards were associated strongly with particular habitat characteristics adjacent to roads. Sceloporus spp. presence and relative abundance increased with rock cover, relative abundance was associated positively with shrub cover, and presence was associated negatively with grass cover. Greater Short-Horned Lizard presence increased with bare ground and decreased marginally with shrub cover. Our results suggest that habitat attributes are stronger correlates of lizard presence and relative abundance than individual characteristics of adjacent roads, at least in our system. Therefore, an effective conservation approach for these species may be to consider the landscape through which new roads and their associated development would occur, and the impact that placement could have on fragment size and key habitat elements.

  18. A Feature-adaptive Subdivision Method for Real-time 3D Reconstruction of Repeated Topology Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jinhua; Wang, Yanjie; Sun, Honghai

    2017-03-01

    It's well known that rendering for a large number of triangles with GPU hardware tessellation has made great progress. However, due to the fixed nature of GPU pipeline, many off-line methods that perform well can not meet the on-line requirements. In this paper, an optimized Feature-adaptive subdivision method is proposed, which is more suitable for reconstructing surfaces with repeated cusps or creases. An Octree primitive is established in irregular regions where there are the same sharp vertices or creases, this method can find the neighbor geometry information quickly. Because of having the same topology structure between Octree primitive and feature region, the Octree feature points can match the arbitrary vertices in feature region more precisely. In the meanwhile, the patches is re-encoded in the Octree primitive by using the breadth-first strategy, resulting in a meta-table which allows for real-time reconstruction by GPU hardware tessellation unit. There is only one feature region needed to be calculated under Octree primitive, other regions with the same repeated feature generate their own meta-table directly, the reconstruction time is saved greatly for this step. With regard to the meshes having a large number of repeated topology feature, our algorithm improves the subdivision time by 17.575% and increases the average frame drawing time by 0.2373 ms compared to the traditional FAS (Feature-adaptive Subdivision), at the same time the model can be reconstructed in a watertight manner.

  19. A geographic comparison of selected large-scale planetary surface features

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meszaros, S. P.

    1984-01-01

    Photographic and cartographic comparisons of geographic features on Mercury, the Moon, Earth, Mars, Ganymede, Callisto, Mimas, and Tethys are presented. Planetary structures caused by impacts, volcanism, tectonics, and other natural forces are included. Each feature is discussed individually and then those of similar origin are compared at the same scale.

  20. The Benefit of Surface Uniformity for Encoding Boundary Features in Visual Working Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Sung-Ho; Kim, Jung-Oh

    2011-01-01

    Using a change detection paradigm, the present study examined an object-based encoding benefit in visual working memory (VWM) for two boundary features (two orientations in Experiments 1-2 and two shapes in Experiments 3-4) assigned to a single object. Participants remembered more boundary features when they were conjoined into a single object of…

  1. Surface vs. atmospheric origin of 2.1-2.5 micron absorption features in the Martian spectrum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, James F., III; Crisp, David

    1992-01-01

    For 20 years the origin of subtle absorption features in the spectrum of Mars near 2.3 micro-m ('K' band: 1.9-2.5 micro-m) has been debated. This spectral region contains gaseous absorption features predominantly from CO2 and CO on Mars and from telluric H2O and CO2. The authors have obtained new higher spectral resolution telescopic K band spectra of 10 surface regions using the Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) at Mauna Kea during 1990. The goals were to confirm the existence of broad features seen at lower spectral resolution and to determine whether these bands are caused by atmospheric gases, surface (or airborne dust) minerals, or a combination of both.

  2. Features of the concentration dependences of the surface tension of water suspensions of bentonites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dadashev, R. Kh.; Dzhambulatov, R. S.; Elimkhanov, D. Z.

    2015-08-01

    The concentration dependence of the surface tension of water suspensions of bentonites is studied experimentally. Possible reasons for the emergence of the minima on isotherms of the surface tensions of dispersed systems are analyzed.

  3. Internal Physical Features of a Land Surface Model Employing a Tangent Linear Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Runhua; Cohn, Stephen E.; daSilva, Arlindo; Joiner, Joanna; Houser, Paul R.

    1997-01-01

    The Earth's land surface, including its biomass, is an integral part of the Earth's weather and climate system. Land surface heterogeneity, such as the type and amount of vegetative covering., has a profound effect on local weather variability and therefore on regional variations of the global climate. Surface conditions affect local weather and climate through a number of mechanisms. First, they determine the re-distribution of the net radiative energy received at the surface, through the atmosphere, from the sun. A certain fraction of this energy increases the surface ground temperature, another warms the near-surface atmosphere, and the rest evaporates surface water, which in turn creates clouds and causes precipitation. Second, they determine how much rainfall and snowmelt can be stored in the soil and how much instead runs off into waterways. Finally, surface conditions influence the near-surface concentration and distribution of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide. The processes through which these mechanisms interact with the atmosphere can be modeled mathematically, to within some degree of uncertainty, on the basis of underlying physical principles. Such a land surface model provides predictive capability for surface variables including ground temperature, surface humidity, and soil moisture and temperature. This information is important for agriculture and industry, as well as for addressing fundamental scientific questions concerning global and local climate change. In this study we apply a methodology known as tangent linear modeling to help us understand more deeply, the behavior of the Mosaic land surface model, a model that has been developed over the past several years at NASA/GSFC. This methodology allows us to examine, directly and quantitatively, the dependence of prediction errors in land surface variables upon different vegetation conditions. The work also highlights the importance of accurate soil moisture information. Although surface

  4. Correlating hotspots on Io with surface features using Galileo eclipse images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radebaugh, J.; McEwen, A. S.

    2005-08-01

    During the early Galileo mission (1996-1998), the SSI visible to near-IR camera obtained global eclipse images of Jupiter's moon Io, in which hotspot emissions from active volcanoes appeared as sub-pixel source smear ellipsoids [1,2]. We reprojected these images onto high-resolution global Voyager and Galileo basemaps of Io to determine the locations of all hotspots with respect to surface features. We used known volcanic centers as tiepoints; e.g., Pele's hotspot position is known because thermal emission was detected in illuminated images. Correlating global Galileo eclipse images with underlying geography has enabled us to more precisely determine the locations of the hottest areas within flow fields (e.g., Gish Bar, Loki, Amirani, Isum). Many active hotspots (e.g., Zal, Marduk) are accompanied by diffuse red deposits related to ephemeral short-chain sulfur, typical of volcanically active regions on Io [1]. Some hotspots maintained consistently bright emissions from observation to observation, separated by months (e.g., Pele, Janus, Kanehekili), also seen later by groundbased [3,4]. Others were active during some observations and relatively inactive (no SSI signal) during others (e.g., Gish Bar, Pillan, Camaxtli). This indicates some volcanic centers have long-lived, steady eruptions, perhaps typical of insulated lava flows or lava lakes, while others erupt in bursts of energy and then fade [2,5,6]. A cluster of hotspots near the sub-Jovian point is likely related to concentration of tidal heating. Most of these hotspots are confined to small paterae (volcano-tectonic depressions); this corroborates the work of [7,8] that 79% of all hotspot eruptions occur within paterae. The authors acknowledge support of NASA's Planetary Geology and Geophysics program. References: [1] McEwen e.a. Icarus 1998; [2] Keszthelyi e.a. JGR 2001; [3] dePater e.a. Icarus 2004; [4] Marchis e.a. Icarus 2005; [5] Davies e.a. JGR 2001; [6] Lopes e.a. Icarus 2004; [7] Radebaugh e.a. LPSC

  5. Understanding convection features over Bay of Bengal using sea surface temperature and atmospheric variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uma, R.; Lakshmi Kumar, T. V.; Narayanan, M. S.

    2016-08-01

    Tropical oceanic regions are frequently prone to deep convections. Hence, it is very essential to understand the features of convection with the help of oceanic and atmospheric variables such as sea surface temperature (SST), outgoing longwave radiation (OLR), rainfall, relative humidity, columnar water vapour (CWV) etc. and the linkage among them. In our present study, we have divided the Bay of Bengal (BoB) into ten different subregions (SR) and have attempted to study the connection between the above-stated variables during convective and non-convective events in the southwest monsoon (SWM) season (June to September) for the period 1998-2010. The monthly behaviour of SST/OLR decreased by 0.5 °C/14 W/m2 from May to June and increased by 0.1 °C/7 W/m2 from September to October. Among the ten SRs, SR 5 and SR 10 are observed to be coldest and warmest, respectively, based on the SST variations. Intra-seasonal oscillations of the above-mentioned variables show the influences of quasi-biweekly oscillations (QBWO) and Madden-Julian oscillations (MJO). As the threshold values for SST, OLR and rainfall were already reported, we have drawn our attention to deduce a threshold value for water vapour in lower level troposphere (water vapour density (WVD) at 850 mb) which highly influences the convection. In arriving at a threshold of low-level water vapour, we have analysed the convective and non-convective events of each central 1 × 1° grid in all the SRs for the period from 1998 to 2010, along with water vapour scale height. Our analysis inferred that the low-level water vapour density at 850 mb varied above 12 g/m3during convective days and below 12 g/m3during non-convective days. We noticed that the variability in water vapour density is more in non-convective days than in convective days over BoB. The results of the study may be useful to understand the water vapour dynamics with SST, OLR and rainfall.

  6. Surface Proteins of Gram-Positive Pathogens: Using Crystallography to Uncover Novel Features in Drug and Vaccine Candidates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Edward N.; Proft, Thomas; Kang, Haejoo

    Proteins displayed on the cell surfaces of pathogenic organisms are the front-line troops of bacterial attack, playing critical roles in colonization, infection and virulence. Although such proteins can often be recognized from genome sequence data, through characteristic sequence motifs, their functions are often unknown. One such group of surface proteins is attached to the cell surface of Gram-positive pathogens through the action of sortase enzymes. Some of these proteins are now known to form pili: long filamentous structures that mediate attachment to human cells. Crystallographic analyses of these and other cell surface proteins have uncovered novel features in their structure, assembly and stability, including the presence of inter- and intramolecular isopeptide crosslinks. This improved understanding of structures on the bacterial cell surface offers opportunities for the development of some new drug targets and for novel approaches to vaccine design.

  7. Chemical and textural surface features of pyroclasts from hydrovolcanic eruption sequences

    SciTech Connect

    Wohletz, K.H.

    1983-01-01

    Hydrovolcanic pyroclasts are produced by the interaction of erupting magma with surface or near-surface water. Eruption energy determining pyroclast transport and depositional modes is dependent upon the amount of water interacting with magma. Grain morphologies, size distributions, surface textures, and chemical effects studied record the history of eruption cycles for volcanoes under consideration. Samples of crater-rim stratigraphic sequences from Crater Elegante and Cerro Colorado, Mexico, and from Panum Crater and Obsidian Dome, California, illustrate a basaltic tuff ring and tuff cone and two rhyolitic tuff rings respectively. Grain morphologies observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) reveal information on the process of melt fragmentation. Surface alteration and diagenesis have greater effect on pyroclasts from wet eruptions compared to dry ones. These textures are patchy overgrowths of microcrystalline and hydrated materials. Surface chemical characteristics observed with energy dispersive spectral analysis (EDS) show relative gains or losses of elements and an apparent enrichment of silica on altered surfaces.

  8. Diagnostic features of relief formations on the nanostructured titanium VT1-0 surface after laser shock-wave treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lytvynenko, I. V.; Lupenko, S. A.; Maruschak, P. O.; Panin, S. V.; Hats, Yu I.

    2017-02-01

    A new class of diagnostic features for conducting morphological analysis of relief formations induced by laser shock-wave treatment on the surface of the nanostructured titanium VT1-0 alloy is proposed. They are the coefficients of series expansions of statistical estimates for the orthogonal basis of Chebyshev, Laguerre, Kravchuk discrete polynomials and trigonometric functions. Based on the criterion of the minimum number of the diagnostic features in the above-mentioned bases, the Chebyshev one was selected as the most appropriate to solve this problem.

  9. Scanning electron microscopy of kidney cells in culture: surface features of polarized epithelia.

    PubMed

    McAteer, J A; Dougherty, G S; Gardner, K D; Evan, A P

    1986-01-01

    We have used scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to examine the surface morphology of the renal epithelial cell lines MDCK and LLC-PKl to determine the influence of alternative culture substrate conditions on cell polarity. We observed that regardless of physical culture conditions, cells established and maintained polarity, expressed by the characteristics of apical and basal surfaces. Culture conditions did, however, influence the orientation of cell polarity in vitro. MDCK cells were grown within collagen gel, in which individual cells exhibited clonal growth to form fluid-filled epithelial cysts. The cells of MDCK-cysts were polarized with apical surface facing the lumen and basal surface against the surrounding collagen gel. This configuration made it possible to gain direct visual access, by SEM, to the basal surface by removing the supportive collagen lattice. The apical surface of MDCK-cysts was lined by short microvilli. Each cell possessed a solitary cilium. In comparison, the basal surface had few appendages, although cell boundaries were marked by interdigitating short processes. LLC-PKl cells in monolayer culture bore solitary cilia and long microvilli at their apical surface. The basal surface of cells involved in dome formation was observed to possess only a sparse population of short, blunt processes. When LLC-PKl cells were raised in stationary suspension culture or in monolayer atop non-culture grade plastic, they formed cysts with the cell apex facing the surrounding medium. These cells showed variable apical morphology. The cells of large, highly expanded cysts were often attenuated and had a relatively smooth apical surface. The basal surface of cells of fractured LLC-PKl cysts commonly was also smooth, without prominent appendages.

  10. Computation of fractal features based on the fractal analysis of surface electromyogram to estimate force of contraction of different muscles.

    PubMed

    Poosapadi Arjunan, Sridhar; Kumar, Dinesh Kant

    2014-01-01

    This research study investigates the fractal properties of surface Electromyogram (sEMG) to estimate the force levels of contraction of three muscles with different cross-sectional areas (CSA): m. quadriceps--vastus lateralis, m. biceps brachii, andm. flexor digitorum superficialis. The fractal features were computed based on the fractal analysis of sEMG, signal recorded while performing sustained muscle contraction at different force levels. A comparison was performed between the fractal features and five other features reported in the literature. Linear regression analysis was carried out to determine the relationship between the force of contraction (20-100%) and features of sEMG. The results from the coefficients of regression r² show that the new fractal feature, maximum fractal length of the signal has highest correlation (range 0.88-0.90) when compared with other features which ranges from 0.34 to 0.74 for the three different muscles. This study suggests that the estimation of various levels of sustained contraction of muscles with varied CSA will provide a better insight into the biomechanics model that involves muscle properties and muscle activation.

  11. Competing descriptions of diffusion profiles with two features: Surface space-charge layer versus fast grain-boundary diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schraknepper, H.; De Souza, R. A.

    2016-02-01

    Two different physical processes, (i) fast grain-boundary diffusion (FGBD) of oxygen and (ii) hindered oxygen diffusion in a surface space-charge layer, yield oxygen isotope diffusion profiles in a similar form. Two features are observed, with the short, sharp profile close to the surface being followed by a longer, shallower profile. In this study, we develop a procedure for deciding which of the two descriptions applies to experimentally measured profiles. Specifically, we solve Fick's second law, using finite-element simulations, to obtain oxygen isotope diffusion profiles for the two cases. Each set of profiles is then analysed in terms of the competing description. In this manner, we derive falsifiable conditions that allow physical processes to be assigned unambiguously to the two features of such isotope profiles. Applying these conditions to experimental profiles for SrTiO3 single crystals published in the literature, we find that FGBD is an invalid model for describing the diffusion processes.

  12. Computer-aided diagnosis of pulmonary nodules on CT scans: improvement of classification performance with nodule surface features.

    PubMed

    Way, Ted W; Sahiner, Berkman; Chan, Heang-Ping; Hadjiiski, Lubomir; Cascade, Philip N; Chughtai, Aamer; Bogot, Naama; Kazerooni, Ella

    2009-07-01

    The purpose of this work is to develop a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system to differentiate malignant and benign lung nodules on CT scans. A fully automated system was designed to segment the nodule from its surrounding structured background in a local volume of interest (VOI) and to extract image features for classification. Image segmentation was performed with a 3D active contour method. The initial contour was obtained as the boundary of a binary object generated by k-means clustering within the VOI and smoothed by morphological opening. A data set of 256 lung nodules (124 malignant and 132 benign) from 152 patients was used in this study. In addition to morphological and texture features, the authors designed new nodule surface features to characterize the lung nodule surface smoothness and shape irregularity. The effects of two demographic features, age and gender, as adjunct to the image features were also investigated. A linear discriminant analysis (LDA) classifier built with features from stepwise feature selection was trained using simplex optimization to select the most effective features. A two-loop leave-one-out resampling scheme was developed to reduce the optimistic bias in estimating the test performance of the CAD system. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, A(z), for the test cases improved significantly (p < 0.05) from 0.821 +/- 0.026 to 0.857 +/- 0.023 when the newly developed image features were included with the original morphological and texture features. A similar experiment performed on the data set restricted to primary cancers and benign nodules, excluding the metastatic cancers, also resulted in an improved test A(z), though the improvement did not reach statistical significance (p = 0.07). The two demographic features did not significantly affect the performance of the CAD system (p > 0.05) when they were added to the feature space containing the morphological, texture, and new gradient field and radius

  13. Polarization dependent formation of femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structures near stepped features

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, Ryan D.; Torralva, Ben; Adams, David P.; Yalisove, Steven M.

    2014-06-09

    Laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) are formed near 110 nm-tall Au microstructured edges on Si substrates after single-pulse femtosecond irradiation with a 150 fs pulse centered near a 780 nm wavelength. We investigate the contributions of Fresnel diffraction from step-edges and surface plasmon polariton (SPP) excitation to LIPSS formation on Au and Si surfaces. For certain laser polarization vector orientations, LIPSS formation is dominated by SPP excitation; however, when SPP excitation is minimized, Fresnel diffraction dominates. The LIPSS orientation and period distributions are shown to depend on which mechanism is activated. These results support previous observations of the laser polarization vector influencing LIPSS formation on bulk surfaces.

  14. In Situ Experiments To Reveal the Role of Surface Feature Sidewalls in the Cassie–Wenzel Transition

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Waterproof and self-cleaning surfaces continue to attract much attention as they can be instrumental in various different technologies. Such surfaces are typically rough, allowing liquids to contact only the outermost tops of their asperities, with air being entrapped underneath. The formed solid–liquid–air interface is metastable and, hence, can be forced into a completely wetted solid surface. A detailed understanding of the wetting barrier and the dynamics of this transition is critically important for the practical use of the related surfaces. Toward this aim, wetting transitions were studied in situ at a set of patterned perfluoropolyether dimethacrylate (PFPEdma) polymer surfaces exhibiting surface features with different types of sidewall profiles. PFPEdma is intrinsically hydrophobic and exhibits a refractive index very similar to water. Upon immersion of the patterned surfaces into water, incident light was differently scattered at the solid–liquid–air and solid–liquid interface, which allows for distinguishing between both wetting states by dark-field microscopy. The wetting transition observed with this methodology was found to be determined by the sidewall profiles of the patterned structures. Partial recovery of the wetting was demonstrated to be induced by abrupt and continuous pressure reductions. A theoretical model based on Laplace’s law was developed and applied, allowing for the analytical calculation of the transition barrier and the potential to revert the wetting upon pressure reduction. PMID:25496232

  15. Endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cell function on poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) with nano-structured surface features.

    PubMed

    Miller, Derick C; Thapa, Anil; Haberstroh, Karen M; Webster, Thomas J

    2004-01-01

    Biomaterials that successfully integrate into surrounding tissue should match not only the tissue's mechanical properties, but also its topography. The cellular response to a biomaterial may be enhanced in synthetic polymer formulations by mimicking the surface roughness created by the associated nano-structured extra-cellular matrix components of natural tissue. As a first step towards this endeavor, the goal of the present in vitro study was to use these design parameters to develop a synthetic, nano-structured, polymeric biomaterial that promotes cell adhesion and growth for vascular applications. In a novel manner, poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) (50/50wt% mix) was synthesized to possess a range (from micron to nanometer) of surface features. Reduction of surface features was accomplished by treating conventional PLGA with various concentrations of NaOH for select periods of time. Results from cell experiments indicated that, compared to conventional PLGA, NaOH treated PLGA enhanced vascular smooth muscle cell adhesion and proliferation. However, PLGA prepared by soaking in NaOH decreased endothelial cell adhesion and proliferation compared to conventional PLGA. After further investigation, this finding was determined to be a result of chemical (and not topographical) changes during polymer synthesis. Surface chemistry effects were removed while retaining nano-structured topography by using polymer/elastomer casting methods. Results demonstrated that endothelial and smooth muscle cell densities increased on nano-structured cast PLGA. For these reasons, the present in vitro study provided the first evidence that nano-structured surface features can significantly improve vascular cell densities; such design criteria can be used in the synthesis of the next-generation of more successful tissue-engineered vascular grafts.

  16. Developments in convective heat transfer models featuring seamless and selected detail surfaces, employing electroless plating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stalmach, C. J., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Several model/instrument concepts employing electroless metallic skin were considered for improvement of surface condition, accuracy, and cost of contoured-geometry convective heat transfer models. A plated semi-infinite slab approach was chosen for development and evaluation in a hypersonic wind tunnel. The plated slab model consists of an epoxy casting containing fine constantan wires accurately placed at specified surface locations. An electroless alloy was deposited on the plastic surface that provides a hard, uniformly thick, seamless skin. The chosen alloy forms a high-output thermocouple junction with each exposed constantan wire, providing means of determining heat transfer during tunnel testing of the model. A selective electroless plating procedure was used to deposit scaled heatshield tiles on the lower surface of a 0.0175-scale shuttle orbiter model. Twenty-five percent of the tiles were randomly selected and plated to a height of 0.001-inch. The purpose was to assess the heating effects of surface roughness simulating misalignment of tiles that may occur during manufacture of the spacecraft.

  17. Mixed-Mode Fracture Behavior and Related Surface Topography Feature of a Typical Sandstone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, L.; Xie, L. Z.; Xie, H. P.; Ai, T.; He, B.

    2016-08-01

    The geo-mechanical properties of reservoirs, especially the morphology of the rock surface and the fracture properties of rocks, are of great importance in the modeling and simulation of hydraulic processes. To better understand these fundamental issues, five groups of mixed-mode fracture tests were conducted on sandstone using edge-cracked semi-circular bend specimens. Accordingly, the fracture loads, growth paths and fracture surfaces for different initial mixities of the mixed-mode loadings from pure mode I to pure mode II were then determined. A surface topography measurement for each rough fracture surface was conducted using a laser profilometer, and the fractal properties of these surfaces were then investigated. The fracture path evolution mechanism was also investigated via optical microscopy. Moreover, the mixed-mode fracture strength envelope and the crack propagation trajectories of sandstone were theoretically modeled using three widely accepted fracture criteria (i.e., the MTS, MSED and MERR criterions). The published test results in Hasanpour and Choupani (World Acad Sci Eng Tech 41:764-769, 2008) for limestone were also theoretically investigated to further examine the effectiveness of the above fracture criteria. However, none of these criteria could accurately predict the fracture envelopes of both sandstone and limestone. To better estimate the fracture strength of mixed-mode fractures, an empirical maximum tensile stress (EMTS) criterion was proposed and found to achieve good agreement with the test results. Finally, a uniformly pressurized fracture model was simulated for low pressurization rates using this criterion.

  18. Wavelet based multi-scale shape features on arbitrary surfaces for cortical thickness discrimination

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Won Hwa; Pachauri, Deepti; Hatt, Charles; Chung, Moo K.; Johnson, Sterling C.; Singh, Vikas

    2012-01-01

    Hypothesis testing on signals defined on surfaces (such as the cortical surface) is a fundamental component of a variety of studies in Neuroscience. The goal here is to identify regions that exhibit changes as a function of the clinical condition under study. As the clinical questions of interest move towards identifying very early signs of diseases, the corresponding statistical differences at the group level invariably become weaker and increasingly hard to identify. Indeed, after a multiple comparisons correction is adopted (to account for correlated statistical tests over all surface points), very few regions may survive. In contrast to hypothesis tests on point-wise measurements, in this paper, we make the case for performing statistical analysis on multi-scale shape descriptors that characterize the local topological context of the signal around each surface vertex. Our descriptors are based on recent results from harmonic analysis, that show how wavelet theory extends to non-Euclidean settings (i.e., irregular weighted graphs). We provide strong evidence that these descriptors successfully pick up group-wise differences, where traditional methods either fail or yield unsatisfactory results. Other than this primary application, we show how the framework allows performing cortical surface smoothing in the native space without mappint to a unit sphere. PMID:25284968

  19. Age-related leaf characteristics of surface features and ultrastructure of Dendropanax morbifera.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki Woo; Koo, Young Kuk; Yoon, Chul Jong

    2012-02-01

    Age-related morphological and anatomical changes were investigated by light and electron microscopy with juvenile and adult leaves of Dendropanax morbifera. Most juvenile leaves were glossy and palmate with five deep and narrow lobes divided nearly to two-thirds of the leaf base. Adult leaves were thick and possessed three lobes divided nearly to half of the leaf base. Stomata were ovoid and found on the abaxial surface. The epicuticular waxes of the plant included platelets, angular rodlets and threads. Platelets were attached to the surface at various angles. Distinct angular rodlets could be found on either the adaxial or the abaxial surface. Platelets on surface undulations occurred exclusively on the abaxial surface of adult leaves. Juvenile leaves were ca. 150 μm thick and had few intercellular spaces. Adult leaves were nearly two times thicker than juvenile leaves, and showed highly vacuolated cells and large intercellular spaces. The cuticle proper was apparent on the epidermis and showed distinctly alternating lamellate structures in juvenile leaves. The epidermal cell wall of adult leaves was covered with a cuticle layer for which a lamellate structure was not found. These results suggest that the species is heteroblastic in leaf characteristics with increasing leaf age.

  20. Fractal features of sea surface manifested in microwave remote sensing signatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glazman, Roman E.

    1988-01-01

    The wave number spectrum of a well developed sea includes a broad range of wavenumbers (the equilibrium range) where the spectral density is governed by a power law, k exp p. In the approximation of a Gaussian surface, the exponent p is related to the Hausdorff dimension. For p less than 4 the Hausdorff dimension is greater than 2 and the surface is characterized by an increased number of steep and breaking wavelets and by an increased number of specular points at near vertical incidence. The former results in the so-called spike component in the total return at oblique incidence, whereas the latter leads to an increased backscatter at nadir and near-nadir angles. Theory for both cases is reviewed and implications for satellite scatterometer and altimeter measurements of surface winds are discussed.

  1. Simulation study and guidelines to generate Laser-induced Surface Acoustic Waves for human skin feature detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Tingting; Fu, Xing; Chen, Kun; Dorantes-Gonzalez, Dante J.; Li, Yanning; Wu, Sen; Hu, Xiaotang

    2015-12-01

    Despite the seriously increasing number of people contracting skin cancer every year, limited attention has been given to the investigation of human skin tissues. To this regard, Laser-induced Surface Acoustic Wave (LSAW) technology, with its accurate, non-invasive and rapid testing characteristics, has recently shown promising results in biological and biomedical tissues. In order to improve the measurement accuracy and efficiency of detecting important features in highly opaque and soft surfaces such as human skin, this paper identifies the most important parameters of a pulse laser source, as well as provides practical guidelines to recommended proper ranges to generate Surface Acoustic Waves (SAWs) for characterization purposes. Considering that melanoma is a serious type of skin cancer, we conducted a finite element simulation-based research on the generation and propagation of surface waves in human skin containing a melanoma-like feature, determine best pulse laser parameter ranges of variation, simulation mesh size and time step, working bandwidth, and minimal size of detectable melanoma.

  2. Symmetry plays a key role in the erasing of patterned surface features

    SciTech Connect

    Benzaquen, Michael; Salez, Thomas; Raphaël, Elie; Ilton, Mark; Massa, Michael V.; Fowler, Paul; Dalnoki-Veress, Kari

    2015-08-03

    We report on how the relaxation of patterns prepared on a thin film can be controlled by manipulating the symmetry of the initial shape. The validity of a lubrication theory for the capillary-driven relaxation of surface profiles is verified by atomic force microscopy measurements, performed on films that were patterned using focused laser spike annealing. In particular, we observe that the shape of the surface profile at late times is entirely determined by the initial symmetry of the perturbation, in agreement with the theory. The results have relevance in the dynamical control of topographic perturbations for nanolithography and high density memory storage.

  3. C-band RISAT-1 imagery for geospatial mapping of cryospheric surface features in the Antarctic environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jawak, Shridhar D.; Panditrao, Satej N.; Luis, Alvarinho J.

    2016-05-01

    Cryospheric surface feature classification is one of the widely used applications in the field of polar remote sensing. Precise surface feature maps derived from remotely sensed imageries are the major requirement for many geoscientific applications in polar regions. The present study explores the capabilities of C-band dual polarimetric (HH & HV) SAR imagery from Indian Radar Imaging Satellite (RISAT-1) for land cryospheric surface feature mapping. The study areas selected for the present task were Larsemann Hills and Schirmacher Oasis, East Antarctica. RISAT-1 Fine Resolution STRIPMAP (FRS-1) mode data with 3-m spatial resolution was used in the present research attempt. In order to provide additional context to the amount of information in dual polarized RISAT-1 SAR data, a band HH+HV was introduced to make use of the original two polarizations. In addition to the data calibration, transformed divergence (TD) procedure was performed for class separability analysis to evaluate the quality of the statistics before image classification. For most of the class pairs the TD values were comparable, which indicated that the classes have good separability. Fuzzy and Artificial Neural Network classifiers were implemented and accuracy was checked. Nonparametric classifier Support Vector Machine (SVM) was also used to classify RISAT-1 data with an optimized polarization combination into three land-cover classes consisting of sea ice/snow/ice, rocks/landmass, and lakes/waterbodies. This study demonstrates that C-band FRS1 image mode data from the RISAT-1 mission can be exploited to identify, map and monitor land cover features in the polar regions, even during dark winter period. For better landcover classification and analysis, hybrid polarimetric data (cFRS-1 mode) from RISAT-1, which incorporates phase information, unlike the dual-pol linear (HH, HV) can be used for obtaining better polarization signatures.

  4. Outstanding Antibiofilm Features of Quanta-CuO Film on Glass Surface.

    PubMed

    Tripathy, Nirmalya; Ahmad, Rafiq; Bang, Seung Hyuck; Khang, Gilson; Min, Jiho; Hahn, Yoon-Bong

    2016-06-22

    Intelligently designed surface nanoarchitecture provides defined control over the behavior of cells and biomolecules at the solid-liquid interface. In this study, CuO quantum dots (quanta-CuO; ∼3-5 nm) were synthesized by a simple, low-temperature solution process and further formulated as paint to construct quanta-CuO thin film on glass. Surface morphological characterizations of the as-coated glass surface reveal a uniform film thickness (∼120 ± 10 nm) with homogeneous distribution of quanta-CuO. The antibiofilm assay showed a very high contact bacteria-killing capacity of as-coated quanta-CuO glass surfaces toward Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. This efficient antibacterial/antibiofilm activity was ascribed to the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by the quanta-CuO attached to the bacterial cells, which leads to an oxidative assault and finally results in bacterial cell death. Although there is a significant debate regarding the CuO nanostructure's antibacterial mode of action, we propose both contact killing and/or copper ion release killing mechanisms for the antibiofilm activity of quanta-CuO paint. Moreover, synergism of quanta-CuO with conventional antibiotics was also found to further enhance the antibacterial efficacy of commonly used antibiotics. Collectively, this state-of-the-art design of quanta-CuO coated glass can be envisioned as promising candidates for various biomedical and environmental device coatings.

  5. Reconciling diurnal features of thermal-andmicrowave-derived land surface temperature

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Land surface temperature (T), a key ingredient for physically-based retrieval algorithms of hydrological states and fluxes, remains a poorly constrained parameter for global scale studies. The main two observational methods to remotely measure T are based on thermal infrared (TIR) observations and p...

  6. Quantifying groundwater dependency of riparian surface hydrologic features using the exit gradient

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study examines groundwater exit gradients as a way to quantify groundwater interactions with surface water. We calibrated high resolution groundwater models for the basin fill sediments in the lower Calapooia watershed, Oregon, using data collected between 1928--2000. The e...

  7. Influence of surface features on the adhesion of Staphylococcus epidermidis to Ag-TiCN thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, Isabel; Henriques, Mariana; Oliveira, João Carlos; Filipa Almeida Alves, Cristiana; Piedade, Ana Paula; Carvalho, Sandra

    2013-06-01

    Staphylococcus epidermidis has emerged as one of the major nosocomial pathogens associated with infections of implanted medical devices. The initial adhesion of these organisms to the surface of biomaterials is assumed to be an important stage in their colonization. The main objective of this work is to assess the influence of surface features on the adhesion of S. epidermidis to Ag-TiCN coatings deposited by dc reactive magnetron sputtering. The structural results obtained by x-ray diffraction show that the coatings crystallize in a B1-NaCl crystal structure typical of TiC0.3N0.7. The increase of Ag content promoted the formation of Ag crystalline phases. According to the results obtained with atomic force microscopy, a decrease on the surface roughness of the films from 39 to 7 nm is observed as the Ag content increases from 0 to 15 at.%. Surface energy results show that the increase of Ag promotes an increase in hydrophobicity. Bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation on coatings were assessed by the enumeration of the number of viable cells. The results showed that the surface with lower roughness and higher hydrophobicity leads to greater bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation, highlighting that surface morphology and hydrophobicity rule the colonization of materials.

  8. Geological History of the Tyre Region of Europa: A Regional Perspective on Europan Surface Features and Ice Thickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kadel, Steven D.; Chuang, Frank C.; Greeley, Ronald; Moore, Jeffrey M.

    2000-01-01

    Galileo images of the Tyre Macula region of Europa at regional (170 m/pixel) and local (approx. 40 m/pixel) scales allow mapping and understanding of surface processes and landforms. Ridged plains, doublet and complex ridges, shallow pits, domes, "chaos" areas. impact structures, tilted blocks and massifs, and young fracture systems indicate a complex history of surface deformation on Europa. Regional and local morphologies of the Tyre region of Europa suggest that an impactor penetrated through several kilometers of water ice tc a mobile layer below. The surface morphology was initially dominated by formation of ridged plains, followed by development of ridge bands and doublet ridges, with chaos and fracture formation dominating the latter part of the geologic history of the Tyre region. Two distinct types of chaos have been identified which, along with upwarped dome materials, appear to represent a continuum of features (domes-play chaos-knobby chaos) resulting from increasing degree of surface disruption associated with local lithospheric heating and thinning. Local and regional stratigraphic relationships, block heights, and the morphology of the Tyre impact structure suggest the presence of low-viscosity ice or liquid water beneath a thin (severa1 kilometers) surface ice shell at the time of the impact. The very low impact crater density on the surface of Europa suggests that this thin shell has either formed or been thoroughly resurfaced in the very recent past.

  9. Geological history of the Tyre region of Europa: A regional perspective on Europan surface features and ice thickness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadel, Steven D.; Chuang, Frank C.; Greeley, Ronald; Moore, Jeffrey M.; Galileo SSI Team

    Galileo images of the Tyre Macula region of Europa at regional (170 m/pixel) and local (~40 m/pixel) scales allow mapping and understanding of surface processes and landforms. Ridged plains, doublet and complex ridges, shallow pits, domes, ``chaos'' areas, impact structures, tilted blocks and massifs, and young fracture systems indicate a complex history of surface deformation on Europa. Regional and local morphologies of the Tyre region of Europa suggest that an impactor penetrated through several kilometers of water ice to a mobile layer below. The surface morphology was initially dominated by formation of ridged plains, followed by development of ridge bands and doublet ridges, with chaos and fracture formation dominating the latter part of the geologic history of the Tyre region. Two distinct types of chaos have been identified which, along with upwarped dome materials, appear to represent a continuum of features (domes-platy chaos-knobby chaos) resulting from increasing degrees of surface disruption associated with local lithospheric heating and thinning. Local and regional stratigraphic relationships, block heights, and the morphology of the Tyre impact structure suggest the presence of low-viscosity ice or liquid water beneath a thin (several kilometers) surface ice shell at the time of the impact. The very low impact crater density on the surface of Europa suggests that this thin shell has either formed or been thoroughly resurfaced in the very recent past.

  10. Influence of surface features on the adhesion of Staphylococcus epidermidis to Ag–TiCN thin films

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Isabel; Henriques, Mariana; Oliveira, João Carlos; Almeida Alves, Cristiana Filipa; Piedade, Ana Paula; Carvalho, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    Staphylococcus epidermidis has emerged as one of the major nosocomial pathogens associated with infections of implanted medical devices. The initial adhesion of these organisms to the surface of biomaterials is assumed to be an important stage in their colonization. The main objective of this work is to assess the influence of surface features on the adhesion of S. epidermidis to Ag–TiCN coatings deposited by dc reactive magnetron sputtering. The structural results obtained by x-ray diffraction show that the coatings crystallize in a B1-NaCl crystal structure typical of TiC0.3N0.7. The increase of Ag content promoted the formation of Ag crystalline phases. According to the results obtained with atomic force microscopy, a decrease on the surface roughness of the films from 39 to 7 nm is observed as the Ag content increases from 0 to 15 at.%. Surface energy results show that the increase of Ag promotes an increase in hydrophobicity. Bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation on coatings were assessed by the enumeration of the number of viable cells. The results showed that the surface with lower roughness and higher hydrophobicity leads to greater bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation, highlighting that surface morphology and hydrophobicity rule the colonization of materials. PMID:27877582

  11. Features of surface enhanced Raman scattering in the systems with «hot spots»

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solovyeva, E. V.; Khazieva, D. A.; Denisova, A. S.

    2016-12-01

    In this work we demonstrate the features of SERS on the substrates with «hot spots» on the example of system «diaminostilbene - colloidal silver». We found that «hot spots» forming on aggregated nanoparticles exist on the metal substrates only at low concentration of ligand. This effect caused by the gradual filling of first monolayer by adsorbate molecules. Significantly higher enhancement factor is obtained for substrates with «hot spots», for which the participation of resonance processes in the formation of SERS signal is revealed also.

  12. The control network of Rhea. [surface feature coordinates for satellite mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davies, M. E.; Katayama, F. Y.

    1983-01-01

    A control network of the Saturnian satellite Rhea has been established photogrammetrically from pictures taken by the two Voyager spacecraft. Coordinates of 288 control points on Rhea have been computed and listed; some of these are identified on the preliminary U.S. Geological Survey map of Rhea and many of the control point features have been named. Pixel measurements of these points were made on 81 Voyager 1 and 3 Voyager 2 pictures. The longitude system on Rhea is defined by the crater Tore; the 340 deg meridian passes through the center of this crater. The mean radius of Rhea has been determined at 764 + or - 4 km.

  13. Wavelength calibration techniques and subtle surface and atmospheric absorption features in the Mariner 6, 7 IRS reflectance data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, James F., III; Roush, T. L.; Martin, T. Z.; Pollack, James B.; Freedman, R.

    1994-01-01

    1994 marks the 25th anniversary of the Mariner 6 and 7 flyby missions to Mars. Despite its age, the Mariner 6,7 Infrared Spectrometer (IRS) data are a unique set of measurements that can provide important information about the Martian surface, atmospheric, and atmospheric aerosol composition. For certain mid-IR wavelengths, the IRS spectra are the only such spacecraft data obtained for Mars. At other wavelengths, IRS measured surface regions different from those measured by Mariner 9 or Phobos 2 and under different dust opacity conditions. We are interested in examining the IRS reflectance data in the 1.8 to 3.0 micron region because there are numerous diagnostic absorption features at these wavelengths that could be indicative of hydrated silicate minerals or of carbonate- or sulfate-bearing minerals. Groundbased telescopic data and recent Phobos ISM measurements have provided controversial and somewhat contradictory evidence for the existence of mineralogic absorption features at these wavelengths. Our goal is to determine whether any such features can be seen in the IRS data and to use their presence or absence to re-assess the quality and interpretations of previous telescopic and spacecraft measurements.

  14. Initial heats of H{sub 2}S adsorption on activated carbons: Effect of surface features

    SciTech Connect

    Bagreev, A.; Adib, F.; Bandosz, T.J.

    1999-11-15

    The sorption of hydrogen sulfide was studied on activated carbons of various origins by means of inverse gas chromatography at infinite dilution. The conditions of the experiment were dry and anaerobic. Prior to the experiments the surface of some carbon samples was oxidized using either nitric acid or ammonium persulfate. Then the structural parameters of carbons were evaluated from the sorption of nitrogen. From the IGC experiments at various temperatures, heats of adsorption were calculated. The results showed that the heat of H{sub 2}S adsorption under dry anaerobic conditions does not depend on surface chemistry. The dependence of the heat of adsorption on the characteristic energy of nitrogen adsorption calculated from the Dubinin-Raduskevich equation was found. This correlation can be used to predict the heat of H{sub 2}S adsorption based on the results obtained from nitrogen adsorption.

  15. Morphological features of the copper surface layer under sliding with high density electric current

    SciTech Connect

    Fadin, V. V.; Aleutdinova, M. I.; Rubtsov, V. Ye.; Aleutdinova, V. A.

    2015-10-27

    Conductivity and wear intensity of copper under the influence of dry friction and electric current with contact density higher 100 A/cm{sup 2} are presented. It is shown that an increase in hardness and heat outflow from a friction zone leads to the reduction of wear intensity and current contact density increase corresponding to the beginning of catastrophic wear. Structural changes, such as the formation of FeO oxide and α-Fe particles in the copper surface layer, have also been found. It is observed that a worn surface is deformed according to a viscous liquid mechanism. Such singularity is explained in terms of appearance of high-excited atomic states in deforming micro-volumes near contact spots that lead to easy stress relaxation by local plastic shears in the vicinity of stress concentrators. In common this effect allows to achieve high wear resistance.

  16. Tuning anatase and rutile phase ratios and nanoscale surface features by anodization processing onto titanium substrate surfaces.

    PubMed

    Roach, M D; Williamson, R S; Blakely, I P; Didier, L M

    2016-01-01

    Both the anatase (A) and rutile (R) phases of titanium oxide have shown enhanced antimicrobial and bioactivity levels but the specific A/R phase ratio needed for the best results is still unknown. In this study titanium samples were anodized to produce specific ratios of anatase and rutile phases within the oxide layers. Specific ratios produced included maximum A minimum R, minimum A maximum R, 50% A 50% R, minimum A minimum R, and a non-anodized titanium control group. Samples were characterized for phase distributions within the oxide layers, surface porosity, corrosion resistance, and bioactivity. Results indicated the targeted phase ratios were reproducibly achieved during the anodization process. Samples containing the highest levels of anatase showed the largest individual pore sizes, but a lower overall percent porosity value compared to samples containing higher rutile levels. EBSD examination of the anodized layer cross-sections provided valuable new spatial information on the distribution of anatase and rutile phases within the anodized layers. Highly porous oxide layers showed significantly higher corrosion rates compared to non-anodized titanium, but no significant differences were shown in the icorr values between samples containing primarily anatase phase, samples containing primarily rutile phase, and samples containing an approximate 50:50 mixture of the two phases. Minimum A minimum R samples showed substantially less porosity compared to the other anodization groups, a significantly lower oxide thickness, and comparable corrosion rates to non-anodized titanium. All samples within the study showed apatite production in simulated body fluid within the seven day test period indicating enhanced bioactivity.

  17. Structural features and activity of Brazzein and its mutants upon substitution of a surfaced exposed alanine.

    PubMed

    Ghanavatian, Parisa; Khalifeh, Khosrow; Jafarian, Vahab

    2016-12-01

    Brazzein (Brz) is a member of sweet-tasting protein containing four disulfide bonds. It was reported as a compact and heat-resistant protein. Here, we have used site-directed mutagenesis and replaced a surface-exposed alanine with aspartic acid (A19D mutant), lysine (A19K mutant) and glycine (A19G mutant). Activity comparisons of wild-type (WT) and mutants using taste panel test procedure showed that A19G variant has the same activity as WT protein. However, introduction of a positive charge in A19K mutant led to significant increase in Brz's sweetness, while A19D has reduced sweetness compared to WT protein. Docking studies showed that mutation at position 19 results in slight chain mobility of protein at the binding surface and changing the patterns of interactions toward more effective binding of E9K variant in the concave surface of sweet taste receptor. Far-UV CD data spectra have a characteristic shape of beta structure for all variants, however different magnitudes of spectra suggest that beta-sheet structure in WT and A19G is more stable than that of A19D and A19K. Equilibrium unfolding studies with fluorescence spectroscopy and using urea and dithiothritol (DTT) as chemical denaturants indicates that A19G mutant gains more stability against urea denaturation; while conformational stability of A19D and A19K decreases when compared with WT and A19G variants. We concluded that the positive charge at the surface of protein is important factor responsible for the interaction of protein with the human sweet receptor and Ala(19) can be considered as a key region for investigating the mechanism of the interaction of Brz with corresponding receptor.

  18. 1DTempPro V2: new features for inferring groundwater/surface-water exchange

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koch, Franklin W.; Voytek, Emily B.; Day-Lewis, Frederick D.; Healy, Richard W.; Briggs, Martin; Lane, Jr., John W.; Werkema, Dale

    2016-01-01

    A new version of the computer program 1DTempPro extends the original code to include new capabilities for (1) automated parameter estimation, (2) layer heterogeneity, and (3) time-varying specific discharge. The code serves as an interface to the U.S. Geological Survey model VS2DH and supports analysis of vertical one-dimensional temperature profiles under saturated flow conditions to assess groundwater/surface-water exchange and estimate hydraulic conductivity for cases where hydraulic head is known.

  19. Plume and surface feature structure and compositional effects on Europa's global exosphere: Preliminary Europa mission predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teolis, B. D.; Wyrick, D. Y.; Bouquet, A.; Magee, B. A.; Waite, J. H.

    2017-03-01

    A Europa plume source, if present, may produce a global exosphere with complex spatial structure and temporal variability in its density and composition. To investigate this interaction we have integrated a water plume source containing multiple organic and nitrile species into a Europan Monte Carlo exosphere model, considering the effect of Europa's gravity in returning plume ejecta to the surface, and the subsequent spreading of adsorbed and exospheric material by thermal desorption and re-sputtering across the entire body. We consider sputtered, radiolytic and potential plume sources, together with surface adsorption, regolith diffusion, polar cold trapping, and re-sputtering of adsorbed materials, and examine the spatial distribution and temporal evolution of the exospheric density and composition. These models provide a predictive basis for telescopic observations (e.g. HST, JWST) and planned missions to the Jovian system by NASA and ESA. We apply spacecraft trajectories to our model to explore possible exospheric compositions which may be encountered along proposed flybys of Europa to inform the spatial and temporal relationship of spacecraft measurements to surface and plume source compositions. For the present preliminary study, we have considered four cases: Case A: an equatorial flyby through a sputtered only exosphere (no plumes), Case B: a flyby over a localized sputtered 'macula' terrain enriched in non-ice species, Case C: a south polar plume with an Enceladus-like composition, equatorial flyby, and Case D: a south polar plume, flyby directly through the plume.

  20. Delineation of a collapse feature in a noisy environment using a multichannel surface wave technique

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Xia, J.; Chen, C.; Li, P.H.; Lewis, M.J.

    2004-01-01

    A collapse developed at Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Maryland, in early 2001. The location of the collapse was over a groundwater drainage system pipe buried at an elevation of +0??9 m (reference is to Chesapeake Bay level). The cause of the collapse was a subsurface drain pipe that collapsed because of saltwater corrosion of the corrugated metal pipe. The inflow/outflow of sea water and groundwater flow caused soil to be removed from the area where the pipe collapsed. To prevent damage to nearby structures, the collapse was quickly filled with uncompacted sand and gravel (???36000 kg). However, the plant had an immediate need to determine whether more underground voids existed. A high-frequency multichannel surface-wave survey technique was conducted to define the zone affected by the collapse. Although the surface-wave survey at Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant was conducted at a noise level 50-100 times higher than the normal environment for a shallow seismic survey, the shear (S)-wave velocity field calculated from surface-wave data delineated a possible zone affected by the collapse. The S-wave velocity field showed chimney-shaped low-velocity anomalies that were directly related to the collapse. Based on S-wave velocity field maps, a potential zone affected by the collapse was tentatively defined.

  1. Submicron feature surface mapping interferometer for hard-to-access locations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramovich, Gil; Harding, Kevin

    2011-08-01

    This paper describes a compact, imaging Twyman-Green interferometer to measure small features such as corrosion pits, scratches and digs on hard to access objects such as assembled parts. The shoebox size interferometer was designed to guarantee proper orientation and working distance relative to the inspected section. The system also provides an extended acceptance angle to permit the collection at selected view points on a subject. We will describe the various image shifting techniques investigated as part of the prototype. All the components with the exception of power supplies were integrated into an enclosure. The interferometer has been demonstrated to provide sub-micron depth resolution and diffraction limited spatial resolution (a few microns). This paper will present the final performance achieved with the system and provide examples of applications.

  2. Surface velocities at Engabreen produced from time-lapse feature tracking.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messerli, Alexandra; Grinsted, Aslak; Jackson, Miriam; Karlsson, Nanna; Lefeuvre, Pierre-Marie

    2014-05-01

    A six month long time series of images was collected from an automated camera located on the valley sides at Engabreen, northern Norway. The viewshed of the camera overlooks the dominant icefall of Engabreen. This viewshed was chosen for a number of reasons, namely that the icefall is punctuated by deep crevasses and easily tracked features. It is also difficult to instrument the icefall and so alternative methods were needed to obtain velocity measurements, and finally there was already an existing solid mast for mounting in place. Here we present velocity fields over the icefall from 2013 and compare these to SAR produced velocity fields. The velocity fields are produced for periods where interesting subglacial and hydrological events have been identified. We detect the events from various discharge records at the glacier and pressure cells at the base of the glacier, located in the Svartisen Subglacial Laboratory (SSL).

  3. The effects of the impact velocity of water droplets on the surface features in a rain field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ren; Liu, Xinan; Duncan, James

    2012-11-01

    The characteristics of the shape of a water surface in response to the impact of simulated raindrops are studied experimentally. The experiment is carried out in a 1.22-m by 1.22-m water pool with a water depth of 0.3 m. Simulated raindrops are generated by an array of 22-gauge needles that are attached to a flat plate and connected to a water reservoir with soft hoses. A random translational motion is added to the plate to produce a randomness of the drop impact locations for each needle. The height of the flat plate relative to the water surface of the pool is varied from 1 m to 3 m to vary the impact velocities of the water drops. The surface features due to the impact of the drops, including the crown, stalk and ring waves are measured with a cinematic laser-induced- fluorescence (LIF) technique. It is found that the size of the crown, the height of the stalks and the wavelength of the waves vary with the impact velocity of drops. A comparison of these features with those found in a single drop impact is highlighted. This work is supported by the National Science Foundation, Division of Ocean Sciences under grant OCE962107.

  4. Searching palaeoearthquakes in fault bedrock scarps based on reflectivity, erosion features and surface ruptures with terrestrial laser scanning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiatr, Thomas; Reicherter, Klaus; Papanikolaou, Ioannis; Fernandez-Steeger, Tomas

    2010-05-01

    The terrestrial laser scanner (TLS) has been used for the investigation of escarpments (bedrock fault scarps) at different sites in Greece in order to identify the palaeo-slip events and rates. Our approach is based on differential weathering, karstification and bioerosion of the subsequentially exposed limestone free face from repeated earthquake surface faulting events. Data acquisition with the TLS method and the high-resolution spatial surface analysis can help to improve data quality and to provide a more accurate prediction for a plane analysis of the fault bedrock scarps. Scientific objectives are the analysis of rock surface roughness in different scales, orientations and methods, which may help us to determine the relative age of slip. Furthermore, the intensity of the backscattered reflection of the scarp surface can offer us the possibility to identify different weathering stages semi-automatically. The degradation and erosion features of the fault plane can help to reconstruct the plane geomorphology. We applied the LiDAR at limestone fault scarps with clear free faces that have experienced large surface faulting events in the past, such as the Kaparelli Fault or the Sparta Fault in mainland Greece. Some of these scarps have been dated with cosmogenic isotopes. The results of the cosmogenic nuclide dating on scarps give an absolute age of the individual palaeoseismological slip events. This ensures the cross validation of the TLS data. Additionally, geodetic measurements with compass and GPS were carried out to cross-validate the quality of the TLS point cloud data and to georeference.

  5. Near-surface gas mapping studies of salt geologic features at Weeks Island and other sites

    SciTech Connect

    Molecke, M.A.; Carney, K.R.; Autin, W.J.; Overton, E.B.

    1996-10-01

    Field sampling and rapid gas analysis techniques were used to survey near-surface soil gases for geotechnical diagnostic purposes at the Weeks Island Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) site and other salt dome locations in southern Louisiana. This report presents the complete data, results and interpretations obtained during 1995. Weeks Island 1994 gas survey results are also briefly summarized; this earlier study did not find a definitive correlation between sinkhole No. 1 and soil gases. During 1995, several hundred soil gas samples were obtained and analyzed in the field by gas chromatography, for profiling low concentrations and gas anomalies at ppm to percent levels. The target gases included hydrogen, methane, ethane and ethylene. To supplement the field data, additional gas samples were collected at various site locations for laboratory analysis of target gases at ppb levels. Gases in the near-surface soil originate predominantly from the oil, from petrogenic sources within the salt, or from surface microbial activity. Surveys were conducted across two Weeks Island sinkholes, several mapped anomalous zones in the salt, and over the SPR repository site and its perimeter. Samples were also taken at other south Louisiana salt dome locations for comparative purposes. Notable results from these studies are that elevated levels of hydrogen and methane (1) were positively associated with anomalous gassy or shear zones in the salt dome(s) and (2) are also associated with suspected salt fracture (dilatant) zones over the edges of the SPR repository. Significantly elevated areas of hydrogen, methane, plus some ethane, were found over anomalous shear zones in the salt, particularly in a location over high pressure gas pockets in the salt, identified in the mine prior to SPR operations. Limited stable isotope ratio analyses, SIRA, were also conducted and determined that methane samples were of petrogenic origin, not biogenic.

  6. Correlation of AVHRR Imagery with Sub-Surface Features in California Current

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-06-01

    correlation coefficient between AVHRR SST and in-situ temperature at depth for all three phases of the cruise which is attributed to the temporal offset between the satellite image and the data collection. The results of the 1988 cruise show maximum correlations at the surface with significant correlations at the 95% level of confidence to about 130-150 m depth, with positive correlations to 310-350 m depth. Comparing the results of the 1987 and 1988 cruises shows that the offshore filament was much stronger both horizontally and vertically for the latter cruise. Keywords:

  7. Percentage Contributions from Atmospheric and Surface Features to Computed Brightness Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Gail Skofronick

    2006-01-01

    Over the past few years, there has become an increasing interest in the use of millimeter-wave (mm-wave) and sub-millimeter-wave (submm-wave) radiometer observations to investigate the properties of ice particles in clouds. Passive radiometric channels respond to both the integrated particle mass throughout the volume and field of view, and to the amount, location, and size distribution of the frozen (and liquid) particles with the sensitivity varying for different frequencies and hydrometeor types. One methodology used since the 1960's to discern the relationship between the physical state observed and the brightness temperature (TB) is through the temperature weighting function profile. In this research, the temperature weighting function concept is exploited to analyze the sensitivity of various characteristics of the cloud profile, such as relative humidity, ice water path, liquid water path, and surface emissivity. In our numerical analysis, we compute the contribution (in Kelvin) from each of these cloud and surface characteristics, so that the sum of these various parts equals the computed TB. Furthermore, the percentage contribution from each of these characteristics is assessed. There is some intermingling/contamination of the contributions from various components due to the integrated nature of passive observations and the absorption and scattering between the vertical layers, but all in all the knowledge gained is useful. This investigation probes the sensitivity over several cloud classifications, such as cirrus, blizzards, light snow, anvil clouds, and heavy rain. The focus is on mm-wave and submm-wave frequencies, however discussions of the effects of cloud variations to frequencies as low as 10 GHz and up to 874 GHz will also be presented. The results show that nearly 60% of the TB value at 89 GHz comes from the earth's surface for even the heaviest blizzard snow rates. On the other hand, a significant percentage of the TB value comes from the snow

  8. Surface-water and ground-water features, Clay County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bentley, C.B.

    1977-01-01

    Clay County is a rapidly growing area in northeastern Florida. Surface water largely is undeveloped except for recreational use. Black Creek is the largest fresh-water stream in the country and has an average discharge of about 515 cubic feet per second. However, excessive color, iron concentration, hardness, and pH often make the water objectionable for many asses. Water from the lakes and streams in the Etonia Creek basin in southwestern Clay County generally is of good chemical quality. Ground water occurs in the county in a water-table aquifer, secondary artesian aquifers, and the Floridan aquifer. Large withdrawals of water from the Floridan aquifer since the 1940's, especially in nearby metropolitan Jacksonville, have caused a decline of the potentiometric surface of up to 30 feet in the northeast corner of Clay County to less than 5 feet in the western part. The rate of decline in recent years at Orange Park has been about 0.7 of a foot per year. Ground water in the county generally is of good chemical quality and is suitable for most uses. (Woodard-USGS)

  9. Facile Electrochemical Method to Improve Surface Features of Pure Copper in Dilute Basic Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fattah-alhosseini, Arash; Imantalab, Omid; Attarzadeh, Farid Reza; Attarzadeh, Navid

    2017-03-01

    Electrochemical properties of coarse and nano-grained pure copper can be modified and improved effectively through applying cyclic potentiodynamic passivation (CPP) treatment. It is found that the success of this method depends up to a large extent on grain size. Eight passes of accumulative roll bonding processing are successfully used at room temperature to produce nano-grained pure copper. Transmission electron microscopy image and selected area diffraction pattern both attest to the occurrence of intense grain refinement under the influence of aforementioned process, in which an average grain size <100 nm is attainable. Using several electrochemical characterization methods reveals that CPP treatment fully exploits potentials of nano-grained samples to form a dense and thick protective passive film. It is speculated that high-quality passive layers relate to the presence of high-density structural defects on the surface of nano-grained samples.

  10. Coastal zone color scanner pigment concentrations in the southern ocean and relationships to geophysical surface features

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comiso, J. C.; Mcclain, C. R.; Sullivan, C. W.; Ryan, J. P.; Leonard, C. L.

    1993-01-01

    Climatological data on the distribution of surface pigment fields in the entire southern ocean over a seasonal cycle are examined. The occurrence of intense phytoplankton blooms during austral summer months and during other seasons in different regions is identified and analyzed. The highest pigment concentrations are observed at high latitudes and over regions with water depths usually less than 600 m. Basin-scale pigment distribution shows a slightly asymmetric pattern of enhanced pigment concentrations about Antarctica, with enhanced concentrations extending to lower latitudes in the Atlantic and Indian sectors than in the Pacific sector. A general increase in pigment concentrations is evident from the low latitudes toward the Antarctic circumpolar region. Spatial relationships between pigment and archived geophysical data reveal significant correlation between pigment distributions and both bathymetry and wind stress, while general hemispheric scale patterns of pigment distributions are most coherent with the geostrophic flow of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current.

  11. Sensitivity of Venus surface emissivity retrieval to model variations of CO2 opacity, cloud features, and deep atmosphere temperature field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kappel, David; Arnold, Gabriele; Haus, Rainer

    2012-07-01

    The Visible and Infrared Thermal Imaging Spectrometer (VIRTIS) aboard ESA's Venus Express space probe has acquired a wealth of nightside emission spectra from Venus and provides the first global database for systematic atmospheric and surface studies in the IR. The infrared mapping channel (VIRTIS-M-IR) sounds the atmosphere and surface at high spatial and temporal resolution and coverage. Quantitative analyses of data call for a sophisticated radiative transfer simulation model of Venus' atmosphere to be used in atmospheric and surface parameter retrieval procedures that fit simulated spectra to the measured data. The surface emissivity can be retrieved from VIRTIS-M-IR measurements in the transparency windows around 1 μm, but it is not easy to derive, since atmospheric influences strongly interfere with surface information. There are mainly three atmospheric model parameters that may affect quantitative results of surface emissivity retrievals: CO_2 opacity, cloud features, and deep atmosphere temperature field. The CO_2 opacity with respect to allowed transitions is usually computed by utilizing a suitable line data base and certain line shape models that consider collisional line mixing. Both line data bases and shape models are not well established from measurements under the environmental conditions in the deep atmosphere of Venus. Pressure-induced additional continuum absorption introduces further opacity uncertainties. The clouds of Venus are usually modeled by a four-modal distribution of spherical droplets of about 75% sulfuric acid, where each mode is characterized by a different mean and standard deviation of droplet size distribution and a different initial altitude abundance profile. The influence of possible cloud mode variations on surface emissivity retrieval results is investigated in the paper. Future retrieval procedures will aim at a separation of cloud mode and surface emissivity variations using different atmospheric windows sounded by

  12. Coastal zone color scanner pigment concentrations in the southern ocean and relationships to geophysical surface features

    SciTech Connect

    Comiso, J.C.; McClain, C.R. ); Sullivan, C.W. ); Ryan, J.P. ); Leonard, C.L. )

    1993-02-15

    The spatial and seasonal distributions of phytoplankton pigment concentration over the entire southern ocean have been studied for the first time using the coastal zone color scanner historical data set (from October 1978 through June 1986). Enhanced pigment concentrations are observed between 35[degrees]S and 55[degrees]S throughout the year, with such enhanced regions being more confined to the south in the austral summer and extending further north in the winter. North and south of the polar front, phytoplankton blooms (>1 mg/m[sup 3]) are not uniformly distributed around the circumpolar region. Instead, blooms appear to be located in regions of ice retreat (or high melt areas) such as the Scotia Sea and the Ross Sea, in relatively shallow areas (e.g., the Patagonian and the New Zealand shelves), in some regions of Ekman upwelling like the Tasman Sea, and near areas of high eddy kinetic such as the Agulhas retroflection. Among all features examined by regression analysis, bathymetry appears to be the one most consistently correlated with pigments (correlation coefficient being about [minus]0.3 for the entire region). The cause of negative correlation with bathymetry is unknown but is consistent with the observed abundance of iron in shallow areas in the Antarctic region. It is also consistent with resuspension of phytoplankton cells by wind-induced mixing, especially in shallow waters. Nutrients (phosphate, nitrate, and silicate) are found to correlate significantly with pigments when the entire southern ocean is considered, but south of 55[degrees]S the correlation is poor, probably because the Antarctic waters are not nutrient limited. Large interannual variability (>30%) in average pigment concentration over the entire region during different seasons indicates possible influence of time dependent parameters. 66 refs., 13 figs., 6 tabs.

  13. Modification of the large-scale features of high Reynolds number wall turbulence by passive surface obtrusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monty, J. P.; Allen, J. J.; Lien, K.; Chong, M. S.

    2011-12-01

    A high Reynolds number boundary-layer wind-tunnel facility at New Mexico State University was fitted with a regularly distributed braille surface. The surface was such that braille dots were closely packed in the streamwise direction and sparsely spaced in the spanwise direction. This novel surface had an unexpected influence on the flow: the energy of the very large-scale features of wall turbulence (approximately six-times the boundary-layer thickness in length) became significantly attenuated, even into the logarithmic region. To the author's knowledge, this is the first experimental study to report a modification of `superstructures' in a rough-wall turbulent boundary layer. The result gives rise to the possibility that flow control through very small, passive surface roughness may be possible at high Reynolds numbers, without the prohibitive drag penalty anticipated heretofore. Evidence was also found for the uninhibited existence of the near-wall cycle, well known to smooth-wall-turbulence researchers, in the spanwise space between roughness elements.

  14. Response to Memorandum by Rowley and Dixon Regarding U.S. Geological Survey Report Titled "Characterization of Surface-Water Resources in the Great Basin National Park Area and Their Susceptibility to Ground-Water Withdrawals in Adjacent Valleys, White Pine County, Nevada"

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    mountains to evaluate effects caused by ground- water pumping in adjacent valleys. 7 Rowley and Dixon failed to recognize when they stated “Seepage tests...measurements: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 92–144, 21 p. Sophocleous, Marious, 2000, From safe yield to sustainable development of water ...surface- water and ground- water quality , southern San Mateo and northern Santa Clara counties, California, 1996–97: U.S. Geological Survey Water -Resources

  15. HotPatch: A Statistical Approach to Finding Biologically Relevant Features on Protein Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Pettit, Frank K.; Bare, Emiko; Tsai, Albert; Bowie, James U.

    2007-01-01

    We describe a fully automated algorithm for finding functional sites on protein structures. Our method finds surface patches of unusual physicochemical properties on protein structures, and estimates the patches’ probability of overlapping functional sites. Other methods for predicting the locations of specific types of functional sites exist, but in previous analyses, it has been difficult to compare methods when they are applied to different types of sites. Thus, we introduce a new statistical framework that enables rigorous comparisons of the usefulness of different physicochemical properties for predicting virtually any kind of functional site. The program’s statistical models were trained for 11 individual properties (electrostatics, concavity, hydrophobicity, etc.) and for 15 neural network combination properties, all optimized and tested on 15 diverse protein functions. To simulate what to expect if the program were run on proteins of unknown function, as might arise from structural genomics, we tested it on 618 proteins of diverse mixed functions. In the higher-scoring top half of all predictions, a functional residue could typically be found within the first 1.7 residues chosen at random. The program may or may not use partial information about the protein’s function type as an input, depending on which statistical model the user chooses to employ. If function type is used as an additional constraint, prediction accuracy usually increases, and is particularly good for enzymes, DNA-interacting sites, and oligomeric interfaces. The program can be accessed online at http://hotpatch.mbi.ucla.edu. PMID:17451744

  16. Characteristics, seasonal distribution and surface degradation features of microplastic pellets along the Goa coast, India.

    PubMed

    Veerasingam, S; Saha, Mahua; Suneel, V; Vethamony, P; Rodrigues, Andrea Carmelita; Bhattacharyya, Sourav; Naik, B G

    2016-09-01

    Microplastic pellets (MPPs) are ubiquitous contaminants, recognised as a serious threat to the biota in coastal, estuarine and marine environment. The distribution, abundance, weathering and chemical characteristics of MPPs on the beaches of Goa, and their transport to the coast during the southwest (SW) monsoon are discussed in this paper. MPP samples collected from six sandy beaches were categorised based on colour and polymer types using Stereoscope microscope and FTIR-ATR spectroscopy, respectively. White colour MPPs were the most abundant, and Polyethylene (PE) and Polypropylene (PP) were the dominant polymer types of MPPs deposited on all the beaches. Carbonyl index values showed that MPPs collected in June 2015 (representing SW monsoon) were 'new', whereas the MPPs collected in January 2015 were 'aged', showing that MPPs are arriving at Goa coast only during SW monsoon due to conducive hydrodynamic conditions. Characteristics of MPPs suggest that they could be originated primarily from ocean-based sources. The winds and surface currents during SW monsoon are the driving forces for the transportation and deposition of MPPs on the Goa beaches. The results of this study will be useful to the National 'Clean India' program for effective plastic debris removal management.

  17. Revisiting the quantitative features of surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ching-Yi; Lee, Kai-Chieh; Kuo, Yen-Ling; Chen, Yu-Chie

    2016-10-28

    Surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization (SALDI) coupled with mass spectrometry (MS) is frequently used to analyse small organics owing to its clean background. Inorganic materials can be used as energy absorbers and the transfer medium to facilitate the desorption/ionization of analytes; thus, they are used as SALDI-assisting materials. Many studies have demonstrated the usefulness of SALDI-MS in quantitative analysis of small organics. However, some characteristics occurring in SALDI-MS require certain attention to ensure the reliability of the quantitative analysis results. The appearance of a coffee-ring effect in SALDI sample preparation is the primary factor that can affect quantitative SALDI-MS analysis results. However, to the best of our knowledge, there are no reports relating to quantitative SALDI-MS analysis that discuss or consider this effect. In this study, the coffee-ring effect is discussed using nanoparticles and nanostructured substrates as SALDI-assisting materials to show how this effect influences SALDI-MS analysis results. Potential solutions for overcoming the existing problems are also suggested.This article is part of the themed issue 'Quantitative mass spectrometry'.

  18. Percentage Contributions from Atmospheric and Surface Features to Computed Brightness Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    SkofronickJackson, Gail; Kim, Min-Jeong; Johnson, Benjamin

    2006-01-01

    Over the past few years, a few solid precipitation detection and retrieval algorithms have been developed and shown to be applicable for snowing clouds and blizzards. Current precipitating snow retrieval algorithms require the use of millimeter-wave radiometer observations. The millimeter-wave frequencies are especially sensitive to the scattering and emission properties of frozen particles due to the ice particle refractive index. These channels can also be used to discern information about the frozen particles above the melting layer. Passive radiometric channels respond to both the integrated particle mass throughout the volume and field of view, and to the amount, location, and size distribution of the frozen (and liquid) particles with the sensitivity varying for different frequencies and hydrometeor types. This work will show the percentage of the brightness temperature resulting from the liquid hydrometeor, frozen hydrometeor, relative humidity, and surface contributions. The focus will be on precipitating snow events and millimeter-wave frequencies however, other events and frequencies will be included in the analysis.

  19. Examining the Impact of Question Surface Features on Students’ Answers to Constructed-Response Questions on Photosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Weston, Michele; Haudek, Kevin C.; Prevost, Luanna; Urban-Lurain, Mark; Merrill, John

    2015-01-01

    One challenge in science education assessment is that students often focus on surface features of questions rather than the underlying scientific principles. We investigated how student written responses to constructed-response questions about photosynthesis vary based on two surface features of the question: the species of plant and the order of two question prompts. We asked four versions of the question with different combinations of the two plant species and order of prompts in an introductory cell biology course. We found that there was not a significant difference in the content of student responses to versions of the question stem with different species or order of prompts, using both computerized lexical analysis and expert scoring. We conducted 20 face-to-face interviews with students to further probe the effects of question wording on student responses. During the interviews, we found that students thought that the plant species was neither relevant nor confusing when answering the question. Students identified the prompts as both relevant and confusing. However, this confusion was not specific to a single version. PMID:25999312

  20. Effect of the measurement size on the robustness of the assessment of the features specific for cylinder liner surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimkovski, Z.; Ohlsson, R.; Rosén, B.-G.

    2014-01-01

    The quality of the cylinder liner surface is of great importance due to its impact on the fuel/oil consumption and emissions of the internal combustion engine. A good liner function depends on the size and distribution of the deep honing grooves and the amount of the cold work material (Blechmantel) left inside the grooves after finishing. A fast evaluation of these features requires optical three-dimensional measurements with a large area and good resolution, but many interferometers used today have limited resolution when measuring larger areas. To find out how the measurement size and resolution would affect the quantification and the variation of the parameters, two objectives, 2.5 × and 10 × , were used for measuring a cylinder liner from a truck engine. The Blechmantel was of special interest as it first comes into contact with piston/rings, detaches as particles and wears the running surfaces. The 2.5 × objective showed more robust assessment than the 10 × one, manifested by a lower coefficient of variation for the parameters describing the features: Blechmantel, groove width and height, groove balance and number of grooves. This means that fewer measurements are required if a 2.5 × objective is used in production and hence the time and cost of the liner would be decreased.

  1. Surface phase separation, dewetting feature size, and crystal morphology in thin films of polystyrene/poly(ε-caprolactone) blend.

    PubMed

    Ma, Meng; He, Zhoukun; Li, Yuhan; Chen, Feng; Wang, Ke; Zhang, Qing; Deng, Hua; Fu, Qiang

    2012-12-01

    Thin films of polystyrene (PS)/poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) blends were prepared by spin-coating and characterized by tapping mode force microscopy (AFM). Effects of the relative concentration of PS in polymer solution on the surface phase separation and dewetting feature size of the blend films were systematically studied. Due to the coupling of phase separation, dewetting, and crystallization of the blend films with the evaporation of solvent during spin-coating, different size of PS islands decorated with various PCL crystal structures including spherulite-like, flat-on individual lamellae, and flat-on dendritic crystal were obtained in the blend films by changing the film composition. The average distance of PS islands was shown to increase with the relative concentration of PS in casting solution. For a given ratio of PS/PCL, the feature size of PS appeared to increase linearly with the square of PS concentration while the PCL concentration only determined the crystal morphology of the blend films with no influence on the upper PS domain features. This is explained in terms of vertical phase separation and spinodal dewetting of the PS rich layer from the underlying PCL rich layer, leading to the upper PS dewetting process and the underlying PCL crystalline process to be mutually independent.

  2. Distribution and lability of land-derived organic matter in the surface sediments of the Rhône prodelta and the adjacent shelf (Mediterranean sea, France): a multi proxy study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourgeois, S.; Pruski, A. M.; Sun, M.-Y.; Buscail, R.; Lantoine, F.; Vétion, G.; Rivière, B.; Charles, F.

    2011-03-01

    The Gulf of Lions is a river-dominated ocean margin (RiOMar) that receives high loads of nutrients, sediments and particulate matter from the Rhône river. Most of the particulate materials from the Rhône settle rapidly on the seafloor, this raises the question of the fate of these large quantities of organic carbon delivered to the benthic boundary layer. Surface sediments (0-0.5 cm) were collected in the Rhône prodelta and its adjacent shelf during a period of low river discharge (April 2007, 16 stations). The sources, distribution and lability of sedimentary organic matter was examined using bulk (organic carbon, total nitrogen, grain size) and molecular-level (pigments, amino acids, fatty acids, δ13C of individual fatty acids) analyses. Our results confirmed previous observations of a southwestward Rhodanian imprint in the nearshore sediments. Fatty acid biomarkers and compound-specific δ13C signatures of most fatty acids clearly indicate that the Rhône inputs consist in a mixture of organic matter (OM) from different sources with a strong contribution from terrestrial plants, and a smaller input from freshwater microalgae, mostly diatoms. The influence of the Rhône River was prominent within the first ten kilometers, but may still be observed in the outer shelf (~21 km) as indicated by the occurrence of long chain fatty acids derived from vascular plants and their δ13C signatures. In the proximal prodelta, bacteria-specific fatty acids were abundant (1.65 mg g-1OC at the mouth site) and were relatively depleted in δ13C confirming that bacteria preferentially utilize terrestrial OM in this area. In the shelf area, the inputs of marine OM and its preferential utilization by the bacteria was confirmed, but the coupling between the pelagic and the benthic compartments appeared limited at this period of the year. Overall, degradation indexes based on amino acids (Dauwe's degradation index) and pigments (ratio of intact chlorophyll-a to the sum of

  3. Stereo Topography of Surface Features on Europa and Comparisons with Formation Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, C. B.; El Henson, E.; Nimmo, F.

    2013-12-01

    to over 100 meters. As we continue to compare our results for other features on Europa with previous work, we will also evaluate geophysical models for which topographic profiles can serve as an important initial constraint, such as crater relaxation [3] and flexure due to tectonic ridge emplacement [5]. Ridge flank profiles can also be studied to provide information on slope angles as compared with the angle of repose, with important implications for ridge material consolidation [6]. We are also evaluating models for the formation of chaotic terrain [7, 8] in view of these new topographic profiles. 1. Kirk R.L., et al., LPSC XL,#1414, 2009. 2. Moratto, Z. M. et al. LPSC XLI, #2364, 2010. 3. Phillips, C. B., et al. LPSC XLIV, abstract 2766, 2013. 4. Schenk, P. and E. Turtle, Europa's Impact Craters, in Europa, ed. R. T. Pappalardo, W. B. McKinnon, and K. Khurana, Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 2009. 5. Hammond, N. P., et al. Icarus, v. 223 p. 418-422, 2013. 6. Kadel, S. D. et al. LPSC XXIX, abstract 1078, 1998. 7. Nimmo, F. and B. Giese, 2005. Icarus 177, 327-340. 8. Schmidt, B. E., et al. Nature 479, 502-505, 2011.

  4. Color heterogeneity of the surface of Phobos: Relationships to geologic features and comparison to meteorite analogs

    SciTech Connect

    Murchie, S.L.; Britt, D.T.; Head, J.W.; Pratt, S.F.; Fisher, P.C. ); Zhukov, B.S.; Kuzmin, A.A.; Ksanfomality, L.V.; Zharkov, A.V.; Nikitin, G.E. ); Fanale, F.P.; Blaney, D.L.; Bell, J.F.; Robinson, M.S. )

    1991-04-10

    Multispectral observations of Phobos by the VSK (Videospectrometric) TV cameras and KRFM (Combined Radiometer and Photometer for Mars) UV-visible spectrometer on Phobos 2 have provided new determinations of the satellite's spectral reflectance properties, at greater spatial and spectral resolutions and over a greater geographic range than have previously been available. Images of the ratio of visible and NIR reflectances covering the longitude range 30-250{degrees}W were constructed from 0.40-0.56 {mu}m and 0.78-1.1 {mu}m VSK images. The average color ratio of Phobos was found to be {approximately}0.97{plus minus}0.14, consistent with previously obtained measurements. However, the surface is heterogeneous, with at least four recognizable spectral units whose absolute color ratios were determined to within {approximately}10%: a red unit with a color ratio of 0.7-0.8, a reddish gray unit with a color ratio of 0.8-1.0, a bluish gray unit with a color ratio of 1.0-1.1, and a blue unit with a color ratio of 1.1-1.4. The redder and bluer color units are interpreted to have been excavated by impacts, from an optically and/or compositionally heterogeneous interior overlain by a reddish gray surficial layer. The location of the blue lobe emanating from Stickney correlates with the location of one of the morphologic classes of grooves, as predicted by ejecta reimpact models of groove origin. The large color ratio of blue material is comparable to that of an assemblage of mafic minerals like that forming black chondrites. Qualitative and quantitative comparison of the color ratio and UV-visible spectral properties of bluish gray material with those of meteorites indicates that black chondrites are this material's closest spectral analog. The UV-visible spectra of reddish gray and red materials most resemble spectra of black chondrites but are also comparable to spectra of some carbonaceous chondrites.

  5. Assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon input to urban wetlands in relation to adjacent land use.

    PubMed

    Kimbrough, K L; Dickhut, R M

    2006-11-01

    The relationship between polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in wetland surface sediments and adjacent land use was assessed in the Elizabeth River, VA, an urbanized sub-estuary of the Chesapeake Bay. Significant differences (p<0.05) in surface sediment PAH concentration between sites indicated adjacent land use had a substantial influence on PAH concentration in wetland sediments. Wetlands adjacent to parking lots and petroleum industrial sites exhibited the highest PAH concentrations of all wetlands examined. Overall, commercial land uses had the highest PAH concentrations and automotive sources dominated (52-69%) PAH input to wetland surface sediments irrespective of adjacent land use.

  6. 46 CFR 148.445 - Adjacent spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Adjacent spaces. 148.445 Section 148.445 Shipping COAST... THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Additional Special Requirements § 148.445 Adjacent spaces. When... following requirements must be met: (a) Each space adjacent to a cargo hold must be ventilated by...

  7. 46 CFR 148.445 - Adjacent spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Adjacent spaces. 148.445 Section 148.445 Shipping COAST... THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Additional Special Requirements § 148.445 Adjacent spaces. When... following requirements must be met: (a) Each space adjacent to a cargo hold must be ventilated by...

  8. 46 CFR 148.445 - Adjacent spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Adjacent spaces. 148.445 Section 148.445 Shipping COAST... THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Additional Special Requirements § 148.445 Adjacent spaces. When... following requirements must be met: (a) Each space adjacent to a cargo hold must be ventilated by...

  9. 46 CFR 148.445 - Adjacent spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Adjacent spaces. 148.445 Section 148.445 Shipping COAST... THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Additional Special Requirements § 148.445 Adjacent spaces. When... following requirements must be met: (a) Each space adjacent to a cargo hold must be ventilated by...

  10. Observation of UV-induced Auger features in catechol adsorbed on anatase TiO2 (101) single crystal surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Andrew G.; Syres, Karen L.

    2012-04-01

    We have investigated the electronic structure of catechol adsorbed on the anatase TiO2 (101) surface under illumination with ultraviolet (UV) light (4.75 eV) using resonant photoemission spectroscopy. UV illumination results in the appearance of a strong Ti MVV (M refers to photoionization of 3p level and VV the Auger decay process via the valence levels) feature at a kinetic energy of 26.2 eV. This is attributed to the creation of localised states following catechol to Ti-3d excitation by the UV source. A sharp resonance attributed to excitation from Ti 3p states into these localised states is observed in constant final state spectra.

  11. Learning to detect vocal hyperfunction from ambulatory neck-surface acceleration features: Initial results for vocal fold nodules

    PubMed Central

    Ghassemi, Marzyeh; Van Stan, Jarrad H.; Mehta, Daryush D.; Zañartu, Matías; Cheyne, Harold A.; Hillman, Robert E.; Guttag, John V.

    2014-01-01

    Voice disorders are medical conditions that often result from vocal abuse/misuse which is referred to generically as vocal hyperfunction. Standard voice assessment approaches cannot accurately determine the actual nature, prevalence, and pathological impact of hyperfunctional vocal behaviors because such behaviors can vary greatly across the course of an individual’s typical day and may not be clearly demonstrated during a brief clinical encounter. Thus, it would be clinically valuable to develop non-invasive ambulatory measures that can reliably differentiate vocal hyperfunction from normal patterns of vocal behavior. As an initial step towards this goal we used an accelerometer taped to the neck surface to provide a continuous, non-invasive acceleration signal designed to capture some aspects of vocal behavior related to a common manifestation of vocal hyperfunction; vocal cord nodules. We gathered data from 12 female adult patients diagnosed with vocal fold nodules and 12 control speakers matched for age and occupation. We derived features from weeklong neck-surface acceleration recordings by using distributions of sound pressure level and fundamental frequency over five-minute windows of the acceleration signal and normalized these features so that inter-subject comparisons were meaningful. We then used supervised machine learning to show that the two groups exhibit distinct vocal behaviors that can be detected using the acceleration signal. We were able to correctly classify 22 of the 24 subjects, suggesting that in the future measures of the acceleration signal could be used to detect patients with the types of aberrant vocal behaviors that are associated with hyperfunctional voice disorders. PMID:24845276

  12. Three-dimensional measurement of small inner surface profiles using feature-based 3-D panoramic registration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Yuanzheng; Seibel, Eric J.

    2017-01-01

    Rapid development in the performance of sophisticated optical components, digital image sensors, and computer abilities along with decreasing costs has enabled three-dimensional (3-D) optical measurement to replace more traditional methods in manufacturing and quality control. The advantages of 3-D optical measurement, such as noncontact, high accuracy, rapid operation, and the ability for automation, are extremely valuable for inline manufacturing. However, most of the current optical approaches are eligible for exterior instead of internal surfaces of machined parts. A 3-D optical measurement approach is proposed based on machine vision for the 3-D profile measurement of tiny complex internal surfaces, such as internally threaded holes. To capture the full topographic extent (peak to valley) of threads, a side-view commercial rigid scope is used to collect images at known camera positions and orientations. A 3-D point cloud is generated with multiview stereo vision using linear motion of the test piece, which is repeated by a rotation to form additional point clouds. Registration of these point clouds into a complete reconstruction uses a proposed automated feature-based 3-D registration algorithm. The resulting 3-D reconstruction is compared with x-ray computed tomography to validate the feasibility of our proposed method for future robotically driven industrial 3-D inspection.

  13. Three-dimensional measurement of small inner surface profiles using feature-based 3-D panoramic registration

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Yuanzheng; Seibel, Eric J.

    2017-01-01

    Rapid development in the performance of sophisticated optical components, digital image sensors, and computer abilities along with decreasing costs has enabled three-dimensional (3-D) optical measurement to replace more traditional methods in manufacturing and quality control. The advantages of 3-D optical measurement, such as noncontact, high accuracy, rapid operation, and the ability for automation, are extremely valuable for inline manufacturing. However, most of the current optical approaches are eligible for exterior instead of internal surfaces of machined parts. A 3-D optical measurement approach is proposed based on machine vision for the 3-D profile measurement of tiny complex internal surfaces, such as internally threaded holes. To capture the full topographic extent (peak to valley) of threads, a side-view commercial rigid scope is used to collect images at known camera positions and orientations. A 3-D point cloud is generated with multiview stereo vision using linear motion of the test piece, which is repeated by a rotation to form additional point clouds. Registration of these point clouds into a complete reconstruction uses a proposed automated feature-based 3-D registration algorithm. The resulting 3-D reconstruction is compared with x-ray computed tomography to validate the feasibility of our proposed method for future robotically driven industrial 3-D inspection. PMID:28286351

  14. Zinc (hydr)oxide/graphite oxide/AuNPs composites: role of surface features in H₂S reactive adsorption.

    PubMed

    Giannakoudakis, Dimitrios A; Bandosz, Teresa J

    2014-12-15

    Zinc hydroxide/graphite oxide/AuNPs composites with various levels of complexity were synthesized using an in situ precipitation method. Then they were used as H2S adsorbents in visible light. The materials' surfaces were characterized before and after H2S adsorption by various physical and chemical methods (XRD, FTIR, thermal analysis, potentiometric titration, adsorption of nitrogen and SEM/EDX). Significant differences in surface features and synergistic effects were found depending on the materials' composition. Addition of graphite oxide and the deposition of gold nanoparticles resulted in a marked increase in the adsorption capacity in comparison with that on the zinc hydroxide and zinc hydroxide/AuNP. Addition of AuNPs to zinc hydroxide led to a crystalline ZnO/AuNP composite while the zinc hydroxide/graphite oxide/AuNP composite was amorphous. The ZnOH/GO/AuNPs composite exhibited the greatest H2S adsorption capacity due to the increased number of OH terminal groups and the conductive properties of GO that facilitated the electron transfer and consequently the formation of superoxide ions promoting oxidation of hydrogen sulfide. AuNPs present in the composite increased the conductivity, helped with electron transfer to oxygen, and prevented the fast recombination of the electrons and holes.

  15. Feature Article: Fast scanning tunnelling microscopy as a tool to understand changes on metal surfaces: from nanostructures to single atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgenstern, Karina

    2005-03-01

    The Feature Article [1] describes how structural changes in metallic nanostructures can be followed with fast scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). The title page shows the same spot of a Ag(111) surface at room temperature, imaged with STM approximately one hour apart. Intrinsic changes to prepared nano-structures are marked as Brownian motion of vacancy islands (rectangle), coalescence of two vacancy islands (hexagon), and decay of an adatom island (circle).Karina Morgenstern is now professor at the University of Hannover. Her research is placed within the field of nanoscience and is in particular devoted to thermally activated processes of metallic nanostructures, electronically activated reactions of molecules on metallic surfaces, and water-metal interactions.The present issue of physica status solidi (b) also contains the article Apperance of copper d9 defect centres in wide-gap CdSe nanoparticles: A high-fequency EPR study by N. R. J. Poolton et al. as Editor's Choice [2] as well as several papers on electrical and nonlinear optical properties from the European Conference on Organised Films (ECOF 2004) chaired by José Antonio de Saja, Valladolid.

  16. Determining surface magnetic susceptibility of loess-paleosol sections based on spectral features: Application to a UHD 185 hyperspectral image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Jing; Zhang, Shimin; Zhang, Jingfa; Liu, Xudong; Ding, Rui; Liu, Hanyong

    2016-08-01

    Magnetic susceptibility (MS) records of loess-paleosol sequences have been considered a measure of the degree of pedogenic activity and are considered to be excellent proxies for terrestrial climatic fluctuations. However, the MS of single (vertical) path variations occasionally represents site-specific influences rather than monsoonal changes (depending on the position of the path). Few studies have used remote sensing techniques to map the surface MS information of loess-paleosol sections. Hyperspectral techniques provide an efficient, economical and quantitative alternative. In this study, stepwise regression was used to build MS estimation models based on spectral features. Six MS models based on spectral features were established. Test datasets indicated that our models are very successful, all resulting in R2 > 0.92 and RMSEs ranging from 4.5736 to 6.80475. The slope change between 810 nm and 880 nm (b880/b810) observed in all models played an important role in MS estimation. Models 5 and 6 have higher RMSEs and relatively lower SAM values, although the R2 values are both above 0.95. The RMSEs of the first four models are similar. Therefore, the first four models were thought to be more stable and useful. UHD 185, a new generation of commercial hyperspectral imaging sensor, was used for surface MS mapping of a loess-paleosol section by model 1 and model 2. The MS map corresponded well to the loess sequences. The MS values obtained from the UHD 185 data are convincing and consistent with the measured data (R2 > 0.85). The trend in changing MS values is clear, suggesting that model 1 and model 2 could produce reasonable loess-paleosol section surface maps from the UHD 185 image, although there is a linear offset between the estimated MS and the measured MS. The methodology proposed here can be used to map MS on a much larger scale. Because of the limit of the spectral range, the performances of model 3 and model 4 with the image were not discussed. However

  17. Front variability and surface ocean features of the presumed southern bluefin tuna spawning grounds in the tropical southeast Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieblas, Anne-Elise; Demarcq, Hervé; Drushka, Kyla; Sloyan, Bernadette; Bonhommeau, Sylvain

    2014-09-01

    The southern bluefin tuna (SBT, Thunnus maccoyii) is an ecologically and economically valuable fish. However, surprisingly little is known about its critical early life history, a period when mortality is several orders of magnitude higher than at any other life stage, and when larvae are highly sensitive to environmental conditions. Ocean fronts can be important in creating favourable spawning conditions, as they are a convergence of water masses with different properties that can concentrate planktonic particles and lead to enhanced productivity. In this study, we examine the front activity within the only region where SBT have been observed to spawn: the tropical southeast Indian Ocean between Indonesia and Australia (10°S-20°S, 105°E-125°E). We investigate front activity and its relationship to ocean dynamics and surface features of the region. Results are also presented for the entire Indian Ocean (30°N-45°S, 20°E-140°E) to provide a background context. We use an extension of the Cayula and Cornillon algorithm to detect ocean fronts from satellite images of sea surface temperature (SST) and chlorophyll-a concentration (chl-a). Front occurrence represents the probability of occurrence of a front at each pixel of an image. Front intensity represents the magnitude of the difference between the two water masses that make up a front. Relative to the rest of the Indian Ocean, both SST and chl-a fronts in the offshore spawning region are persistent in occurrence and weak in intensity. Front occurrence and intensity along the Australian coast are high, with persistent and intense fronts found along the northwest and west coasts. Fronts in the tropical southeast Indian Ocean are shown to have strong annual variability and some moderate interannual variability. SST front occurrence is found to lead the Southern Oscillation Index by one year, potentially linked to warming and wind anomalies in the Indian Ocean. The surface ocean characteristics of the offshore

  18. Estimation of glacier surface motion by robust phase correlation and point like features of SAR intensity images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Li; Xu, Yusheng; Yao, Wei; Stilla, Uwe

    2016-11-01

    For monitoring of glacier surface motion in pole and alpine areas, radar remote sensing is becoming a popular technology accounting for its specific advantages of being independent of weather conditions and sunlight. In this paper we propose a method for glacier surface motion monitoring using phase correlation (PC) based on point-like features (PLF). We carry out experiments using repeat-pass TerraSAR X-band (TSX) and Sentinel-1 C-band (S1C) intensity images of the Taku glacier in Juneau icefield located in southeast Alaska. The intensity imagery is first filtered by an improved adaptive refined Lee filter while the effect of topographic reliefs is removed via SRTM-X DEM. Then, a robust phase correlation algorithm based on singular value decomposition (SVD) and an improved random sample consensus (RANSAC) algorithm is applied to sequential PLF pairs generated by correlation using a 2D sinc function template. The approaches for glacier monitoring are validated by both simulated SAR data and real SAR data from two satellites. The results obtained from these three test datasets confirm the superiority of the proposed approach compared to standard correlation-like methods. By the use of the proposed adaptive refined Lee filter, we achieve a good balance between the suppression of noise and the preservation of local image textures. The presented phase correlation algorithm shows the accuracy of better than 0.25 pixels, when conducting matching tests using simulated SAR intensity images with strong noise. Quantitative 3D motions and velocities of the investigated Taku glacier during a repeat-pass period are obtained, which allows a comprehensive and reliable analysis for the investigation of large-scale glacier surface dynamics.

  19. Changes in Climate over the South China Sea and Adjacent Regions: Response to and Feedback on Global Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Song

    2016-04-01

    El Niño-Southern Oscillation and the Asian monsoon have experienced significant long-term changes in the past decades. These changes, together with other factors, have in turn led to large climate change signals over the South China Sea and adjacent regions including Southeast Asia, the western Pacific, and the tropical Indian Ocean. An attribution analysis of the feedback processes of these signals indicate the predominant importance of water vapor and cloud radiative feedbacks. Experiments with multiple earth system models also show that these regional climate change signals exert significant influences on global climate. The increases in atmospheric heating over Southeast Asia and sea surface temperature in the adjacent oceans in the past decades have weakened the Indian and African monsoons, led to a drying effect over East Asia, and generated wave-train patterns in both the northern and southern hemispheres, explaining several prominent climate features in and outside Southeast Asia.

  20. Features, events, processes, and safety factor analysis applied to a near-surface low-level radioactive waste disposal facility

    SciTech Connect

    Stephens, M.E.; Dolinar, G.M.; Lange, B.A.

    1995-12-31

    An analysis of features, events, processes (FEPs) and other safety factors was applied to AECL`s proposed IRUS (Intrusion Resistant Underground Structure) near-surface LLRW disposal facility. The FEP analysis process which had been developed for and applied to high-level and transuranic disposal concepts was adapted for application to a low-level facility for which significant efforts in developing a safety case had already been made. The starting point for this process was a series of meetings of the project team to identify and briefly describe FEPs or safety factors which they thought should be considered. At this early stage participants were specifically asked not to screen ideas. This initial list was supplemented by selecting FEPs documented in other programs and comments received from an initial regulatory review. The entire list was then sorted by topic and common issues were grouped, and issues were classified in three priority categories and assigned to individuals for resolution. In this paper, the issue identification and resolution process will be described, from the initial description of an issue to its resolution and inclusion in the various levels of the safety case documentation.

  1. An overview of the Gulf of Batabanó (Cuba): Environmental features as revealed by surface sediment characterisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonso-Hernández, Carlos M.; Conte, Fabio; Misic, Cristina; Barsanti, Mattia; Gómez-Batista, Miguel; Díaz-Asencio, Misael; Covazzi-Harriague, Anabella; Pannacciulli, Federica G.

    2011-05-01

    The main environmental features of the Gulf of Batabanó, Cuba, Caribbean, were investigated through the analyses of surface sediments collected at 23 sites. In order to highlight the potential threats affecting the sedimentary compartment of this area, samples were analysed for: granulometry, mineralogy, heavy metals concentration (As, Cd, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn), organic carbon, total nitrogen and radionuclides. Findings were compared with published data and "grey" literature. Results showed: granulometric homogeneity and a widespread carbonatic condition all over the gulf, probably due to stable bathymetry and lack of terrigenous input (except for the La Coloma basin); a rather pristine environment for what concerns heavy metals pollution, except for La Coloma where a large arsenic input was recorded; very low levels of natural and artificial radioactivity; a relevant quantity of sedimentary organic matter, providing biota with useful substrate for feeding and enhancing the food-web development while indirectly supplying lobster fisheries. Combined data highlighted the impact of the Dique Sur in reducing terrigenous input in the coastal area. Future studies should focus on dating of sediment cores for identifying and quantifying the changes acting in the gulf and on investigating the origins of the large arsenic input to La Coloma.

  2. [Research on the spectral feature and identification of the surface vegetation stressed by stored CO2 underground leakage].

    PubMed

    Chen, Yun-Hao; Jiang, Jin-Bao; Steven, Michael D; Gong, A-Du; Li, Yi-Fan

    2012-07-01

    With the global climate warming, reducing greenhouse gas emissions becomes a focused problem for the world. The carbon capture and storage (CCS) techniques could mitigate CO2 into atmosphere, but there is a risk in case that the CO2 leaks from underground. The objective of this paper is to study the chlorophyll contents (SPAD value), relative water contents (RWC) and leaf spectra changing features of beetroot under CO2 leakage stress through field experiment. The result shows that the chlorophyll contents and RWC of beetroot under CO2 leakage stress become lower than the control beetroot', and the leaf reflectance increases in the 550 nm region and decreases in the 680nm region. A new vegetation index (R550/R680) was designed for identifying beetroot under CO2 leakage stress, and the result indicates that the vegetation index R550/R680 could identify the beetroots after CO2 leakage for 7 days. The index has strong sensitivity, stability and identification for monitoring the beetroots under CO2 stress. The result of this paper has very important meaning and application values for selecting spots of CCS project, monitoring and evaluating land-surface ecology under CO2 stress and monitoring the leakage spots by using remote sensing.

  3. Richtmyer-Meshkov instability of a three-dimensional SF_{6}-air interface with a minimum-surface feature.

    PubMed

    Luo, Xisheng; Guan, Ben; Si, Ting; Zhai, Zhigang; Wang, Xiansheng

    2016-01-01

    The Richmyer-Meshkov instability of a three-dimensional (3D) SF_{6}-air single-mode interface with a minimum-surface feature is investigated experimentally. The interface produced by the soap film technique is subjected to a planar shock and the evolution of the shocked interface is captured by time-resolved schlieren photography. Different from the light-heavy single-mode case, a phase inversion occurs in the shock-interface interaction and a bubblelike structure is observed behind the shocked interface, which may be ascribed to the difference in pressure perturbation at different planes. The superimposition of spikelike forward-moving jets forms a complex structure, indicating a distinctly 3D effect. Quantitatively, it is also found that the instability at the symmetry plane grows much slower than the prediction of two-dimensional linear model, but matches the extended 3D linear and nonlinear models accounting for the curvature effects. Therefore, the opposite curvatures of the 3D interface are beneficial for suppressing the growth of the instability.

  4. Richtmyer-Meshkov instability of a three-dimensional SF6-air interface with a minimum-surface feature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Xisheng; Guan, Ben; Si, Ting; Zhai, Zhigang; Wang, Xiansheng

    2016-01-01

    The Richmyer-Meshkov instability of a three-dimensional (3D) SF6-air single-mode interface with a minimum-surface feature is investigated experimentally. The interface produced by the soap film technique is subjected to a planar shock and the evolution of the shocked interface is captured by time-resolved schlieren photography. Different from the light-heavy single-mode case, a phase inversion occurs in the shock-interface interaction and a bubblelike structure is observed behind the shocked interface, which may be ascribed to the difference in pressure perturbation at different planes. The superimposition of spikelike forward-moving jets forms a complex structure, indicating a distinctly 3D effect. Quantitatively, it is also found that the instability at the symmetry plane grows much slower than the prediction of two-dimensional linear model, but matches the extended 3D linear and nonlinear models accounting for the curvature effects. Therefore, the opposite curvatures of the 3D interface are beneficial for suppressing the growth of the instability.

  5. The research of air pollution based on spectral features in leaf surface of Ficus microcarpa in Guangzhou, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jie; Xu, Ruisong; Ma, Yueliang; Miao, Li; Cai, Rui; Chen, Yu

    2008-07-01

    Nowadays development of industry and traffic are the main contributor to city air pollution in the city of GuangZhou, China. Conventional methods for investigating atmosphere potentially harmful element pollution based on sampling and chemical analysis are time and labor consuming and relatively expensive. Reflectance spectroscopy within the visible-near-infrared region of vegetation in city has been widely used to predict atmosphere constituents due to its rapidity, convenience and accuracy. The objective of this study was to examine the possibility of using leaves reflectance spectra of vegetation as a rapid method to simultaneously assess pollutant (S, Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb, XCl, XF) in the atmosphere of the Guangzhou area. This article has studied the spectral features of polluted leaf surface of Ficus microcarpa in 1985 and 1998. According to the analysis, comprehensive assessment for the change of atmospheric condition and degrees of pollution were given. This conclusion was confirmed by the monitored data got from chemical analysis. Future study with real remote sensing data and field measurements were strongly recommended.

  6. Surface Features Analysis in Salt-Affected Area Using Hyperspectral Data: A Case Study in the Zone of Chotts, Tunisia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouaziz, Moncef; Liesenberg, Veraldo; Bouaziz, Samir; Gloaguen, Richard

    2010-12-01

    Arid and semi-arid regions are most affected by Salinity. Chotts regions in southern Tunisia are such an area, where the excessive content of salt in the soil is a hard faced problem. Soil salinity in this area enforces several environmental problems such as limiting plant growth, reducing crop productivity, degrading soil quality and leads to accelerated rates rill and gully erosion . Remote sensing analysis by the mean of spectral analysis, geomorphologic aspect from digital elevation models and distribution of rainfall intensity from satellite data are used in this study to discern features and patterns of areas affected by salt. Correlation between these remote sensing indicators is made in order to assess the contribution of each indicator to identify the salt-affected area. The approach followed in this study was applied on Hyperspectral data from EO-1 Mission. Hyperion data are promoted due to their very high spectral resolution and wide enhanced spatial information. The present study highlighted the high correlation between the flat surfaces and the high content of salt in the soil (from soil salinity indices) on one hand and a low correlation between the high intensity of rainfall distribution and indicators of low salt content in the soil on the other hand.

  7. How subaerial salt extrusions influence water quality in adjacent aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehdizadeh, Razieh; Zarei, Mehdi; Raeisi, Ezzat

    2015-12-01

    Brines supplied from salt extrusions cause significant groundwater salinization in arid and semi-arid regions where salt rock is exposed to dissolution by episodic rainfalls. Here we focus on 62 of the 122 diapirs of Hormuz salt emergent in the southern Iran. To consider managing the degradation effect that salt extrusions have on the quality of adjoining aquifers, it is first necessary to understand how they influence adjacent water resources. We evaluate here the impacts that these diapirs have on adjacent aquifers based on investigating their geomorphologies, geologies, hydrologies and hydrogeologies. The results indicate that 28/62 (45%) of our sample of salt diapirs have no significant impact on the quality of groundwater in adjoining aquifers (namely Type N), while the remaining 34/62 (55%) degrade nearby groundwater quality. We offer simple conceptual models that account for how brines flowing from each of these types of salt extrusions contaminate adjacent aquifers. We identify three main mechanisms that lead to contamination: surface impact (Type A), subsurface intrusion (Type B) and indirect infiltration (Type C). A combination of all these mechanisms degrades the water quality in nearby aquifers in 19/62 (31%) of the salt diapirs studied. Having characterized the mechanism(s) by which each diapir affects the adjacent aquifer, we suggest a few possible remediation strategies to be considered. For instance, engineering the surface runoff of diapirs Types A and C into nearby evaporation basins would improve groundwater quality.

  8. Comparison of Surface Flow Features from Lidar-Derived Digital Elevation Models with Historical Elevation and Hydrography Data for Minnehaha County, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Poppenga, Sandra K.; Worstell, Bruce B.; Stoker, Jason M.; Greenlee, Susan K.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has taken the lead in the creation of a valuable remote sensing product by incorporating digital elevation models (DEMs) derived from Light Detection and Ranging (lidar) into the National Elevation Dataset (NED), the elevation layer of 'The National Map'. High-resolution lidar-derived DEMs provide the accuracy needed to systematically quantify and fully integrate surface flow including flow direction, flow accumulation, sinks, slope, and a dense drainage network. In 2008, 1-meter resolution lidar data were acquired in Minnehaha County, South Dakota. The acquisition was a collaborative effort between Minnehaha County, the city of Sioux Falls, and the USGS Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center. With the newly acquired lidar data, USGS scientists generated high-resolution DEMs and surface flow features. This report compares lidar-derived surface flow features in Minnehaha County to 30- and 10-meter elevation data previously incorporated in the NED and ancillary hydrography datasets. Surface flow features generated from lidar-derived DEMs are consistently integrated with elevation and are important in understanding surface-water movement to better detect surface-water runoff, flood inundation, and erosion. Many topographic and hydrologic applications will benefit from the increased availability of accurate, high-quality, and high-resolution surface-water data. The remotely sensed data provide topographic information and data integration capabilities needed for meeting current and future human and environmental needs.

  9. 43 CFR 420.3 - Adjacent lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Adjacent lands. 420.3 Section 420.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFF-ROAD VEHICLE USE § 420.3 Adjacent lands. When administratively feasible, the regulation of...

  10. 43 CFR 420.3 - Adjacent lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Adjacent lands. 420.3 Section 420.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFF-ROAD VEHICLE USE § 420.3 Adjacent lands. When administratively feasible, the regulation of...

  11. 43 CFR 420.3 - Adjacent lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Adjacent lands. 420.3 Section 420.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFF-ROAD VEHICLE USE § 420.3 Adjacent lands. When administratively feasible, the regulation of...

  12. 43 CFR 420.3 - Adjacent lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Adjacent lands. 420.3 Section 420.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFF-ROAD VEHICLE USE § 420.3 Adjacent lands. When administratively feasible, the regulation of...

  13. 43 CFR 420.3 - Adjacent lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Adjacent lands. 420.3 Section 420.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFF-ROAD VEHICLE USE § 420.3 Adjacent lands. When administratively feasible, the regulation of...

  14. Distilling the essential features of a protein surface for improving protein-ligand docking, scoring, and virtual screening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zavodszky, Maria I.; Sanschagrin, Paul C.; Kuhn, Leslie A.; Korde, Rajesh S.

    2002-12-01

    For the successful identification and docking of new ligands to a protein target by virtual screening, the essential features of the protein and ligand surfaces must be captured and distilled in an efficient representation. Since the running time for docking increases exponentially with the number of points representing the protein and each ligand candidate, it is important to place these points where the best interactions can be made between the protein and the ligand. This definition of favorable points of interaction can also guide protein structure-based ligand design, which typically focuses on which chemical groups provide the most energetically favorable contacts. In this paper, we present an alternative method of protein template and ligand interaction point design that identifies the most favorable points for making hydrophobic and hydrogen-bond interactions by using a knowledge base. The knowledge-based protein and ligand representations have been incorporated in version 2.0 of SLIDE and resulted in dockings closer to the crystal structure orientations when screening a set of 57 known thrombin and glutathione S-transferase (GST) ligands against the apo structures of these proteins. There was also improved scoring enrichment of the dockings, meaning better differentiation between the chemically diverse known ligands and a ˜15,000-molecule dataset of randomly-chosen small organic molecules. This approach for identifying the most important points of interaction between proteins and their ligands can equally well be used in other docking and design techniques. While much recent effort has focused on improving scoring functions for protein-ligand docking, our results indicate that improving the representation of the chemistry of proteins and their ligands is another avenue that can lead to significant improvements in the identification, docking, and scoring of ligands.

  15. A flexible image fiber probe based speckle imaging for extraction of surface features with possible application in intra-cavity inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guru, P. A. S.; Matham, Murukeshan V.; Chan, Kelvin H. K.

    2015-07-01

    Non-destructive inspection and non-invasive interrogation of surface features has always been a subject of discussion owing to the rapid advances in engineering and medical fields. Measurement of surface features which are miniature in size, inaccessible and of complex shape, has always posed challenges to conventional types of imaging and metrological systems. This paper, presents a methodology and a miniature image fiber probe configuration based on speckle technology for imaging such surface features, with possible application in intra cavity inspection. In the present work, a metal pipe is used as a test sample representing an engineering cavity. The acquired images of the intra cavity were subjected to image processing for contouring and size estimation. An analysis on the variation in the average speckle intensity, when the speckle image passes through an image fiber, is also carried out in this work. The obtained results indicate that the proposed probe configuration and related methodology can be used for inspection of cavity features and profiles of diffusive surfaces.

  16. Visual constraints for the perception of quantitative depth from temporal interocular unmatched features.

    PubMed

    Ni, Rui; Chen, Lin; Andersen, George J

    2010-07-21

    Previous research (Brooks & Gillam, 2006) has found that temporal interocular unmatched (IOUM) features generate a perception of subjective contours and can result in a perception of quantitative depth. In the present study we examine in detail the factors important for quantitative depth perception from IOUM features. In Experiments 1 and 2 observers were shown temporal IOUM features based on three dots that disappeared behind an implicit surface. Subjects reported a perception of a subjective surface and were able to perceive qualitative depth. In Experiments 3 and 4 metrical depth was perceived when binocular disparity features were added to the display. These results suggest that quantitative depth from IOUM information is perceived when binocular matched information is present in regions adjacent to the surface. In addition, the perceived depth of the subjective surface decreased with an increase in the width of the subjective surface suggesting a limitation in the propagation of quantitative depth to surface regions where qualitative depth information is available.

  17. 137Cs, 239+240Pu and 240Pu/239Pu atom ratios in the surface waters of the western North Pacific Ocean, eastern Indian Ocean and their adjacent seas.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Masatoshi; Zheng, Jian; Wang, Zhong-Liang

    2006-07-31

    Surface seawater samples were collected along the track of the R/V Hakuho-Maru cruise (KH-96-5) from Tokyo to the Southern Ocean. The (137)Cs activities were determined for the surface waters in the western North Pacific Ocean, the Sulu and Indonesian Seas, the eastern Indian Ocean, the Bay of Bengal, the Andaman Sea, and the South China Sea. The (137)Cs activities showed a wide variation with values ranging from 1.1 Bq m(-3) in the Antarctic Circumpolar Region of the Southern Ocean to 3 Bq m(-3) in the western North Pacific Ocean and the South China Sea. The latitudinal distributions of (137)Cs activity were not reflective of that of the integrated deposition density of atmospheric global fallout. The removal rates of (137)Cs from the surface waters were roughly estimated from the two data sets of Miyake et al. [Miyake Y, Saruhashi K, Sugimura Y, Kanazawa T, Hirose K. Contents of (137)Cs, plutonium and americium isotopes in the Southern Ocean waters. Pap Meteorol Geophys 1988;39:95-113] and this study to be 0.016 yr(-1) in the Sulu and Indonesian Seas, 0.033 yr(-1) in the Bay of Bengal and Andaman Sea, and 0.029 yr(-1) in the South China Sea. These values were much lower than that in the coastal surface water of the western Northwest Pacific Ocean. This was likely due to less horizontal and vertical mixing of water masses and less scavenging. (239+240)Pu activities and (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratios were also determined for the surface waters in the western North Pacific Ocean, the Sulu and Indonesian Seas and the South China Sea. The (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratios ranged from 0.199+/-0.026 to 0.248+/-0.027 on average, and were significantly higher than the global stratospheric fallout ratio of 0.18. The contributions of the North Pacific Proving Grounds close-in fallout Pu were estimated to be 20% for the western North Pacific Ocean, 39% for the Sulu and Indonesian Seas and 42% for the South China Sea by using the two end-member mixing model. The higher (240)Pu/(239)Pu

  18. The features of steel surface hardening with high energy heating by high frequency currents and shower cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivancivsky, V. V.; Skeeba, V. Yu; Bataev, I. A.; Lobanov, D. V.; Martyushev, N. V.; Sakha, O. V.; Khlebova, I. V.

    2016-11-01

    The paper examines the process of surface hardening of steel 45 with the help of high energy heating by high frequency currents with simultaneous shower water cooling. We theoretically justified and experimentally proved a possibility of liquid phase forming in the course of heating not on the surface, but in the depth of the surface layer.

  19. Helium-3 in nickel-base amorphous metals: Surface features, subsurface microstructure, migration, and release upon annealing

    SciTech Connect

    Uenleu, K.

    1989-01-01

    The amorphous alloys Ni{sub 75.1}Cr{sub 14}P{sub 10.1}C{sub 0.08}, Ni{sub 63.5}Zr{sub 36.5}, and Ni{sub 87.7}P{sub 12.3} have been implanted with 150 keV helium-3 ions with doses 1 {times} 10{sup 16} He{sup 3}/cm{sup 2} and 5 {times} 10{sup 16} He{sup 3}/cm{sup 2}. The samples were isochronally annealed at several consecutive stages up t their crystallization temperatures. The surface features were examined by scanning electron microscope, subsurface microstructural changes were investigated by electron diffraction using a scanning transmission electron microscope, and helium-3 depth profiles were measured by a thermal neutron induced nuclear reaction technique called neutron depth profiling (NDP). It was confirmed that for amorphous metals: (a) the helium-3 release is concentration dependent; (b) the migration and the release of helium-3 is controlled by detrapping mechanism; and (c) the crystallization temperatures obtained in this study are in agreement with the reported values. The penetration depth or the projected depth of helium-3 ions with an initial energy of 150 keV is measured here for the first time after obtaining the depth profiles by using the NDP technique. The most probable range values are: 320 nm for Ni{sub 75.1}Cr{sub 14}P{sub 10.1}C{sub 0.08}, 378 nm for Ni{sub 63.5}Zr{sub 36.5} and 375 nm for Ni{sub 87.7}P{sub 12.3}. No blisters, bubbles or pitting were observed on the samples when they were annealed up to their crystallization temperature. Some of the helium-3 trapped in amorphous metals seems not to be as strongly bound as in single crystal nickel. More helium-3 release was observed for the metal-metal amorphous metal samples than the metal-metalloid amorphous metal. For metal-metal amorphous alloy the helium-3 release behavior can be correlated with the partial or full crystallization. For metal-metalloid amorphous alloys this correlation may depend on the chemical composition.

  20. Effect of sward surface height and level of herbage depletion on bite features of cattle grazing Sorghum bicolor swards.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, L; Carvalho, P C F; Mezzalira, J C; Bremm, C; Galli, J R; Gregorini, P

    2013-09-01

    To maximize herbage DMI, pregrazing sward surface height (SSH) and level of herbage depletion (HD) must be such that variables determining short-term herbage intake such as bite mass (BM) and bite rate (BR) are optimized. The objective of this study was to determine a SSH target and the level of HD as a proportion of the SSH that optimizes BM and BR of beef heifers grazing Sorghum bicolor swards. Two experiments were conducted using 2 S. bicolor swards and 4 beef heifers (25 mo old; 322 kg BW). Experiment 1 compared the effect of 6 pregrazing SSH, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, and 80 cm, on BM, BR, and jaw movements. Experiment 2 assessed the effect of HD level as a proportion of SSH (0.17, 0.34, 0.50, 0.67 and 0.84) on BM, BR, and jaw movements using the optimal pregrazing SSH defined in Exp. 1. Short-term herbage DMI was estimated using a double-weighing technique and corrected for insensible BW loss. Herbage DMI was subsequently used to calculate the BM. Net eating time and jaw movements for apprehension and manipulation + mastication during grazing as well as total jaw movements were determined using the IGER (Institute of Grassland and Environmental Research) behavior recorders. Bite rate and the number of total jaw movements per gram herbage DMI were derived from jaw movement count and measurements of herbage DMI. The results of Exp. 1 showed low and high SSH constraint the ease of herbage harvesting. Greater BM are maintained until a SSH of 50 cm is reached (P < 0.05) and then decline at greater SSH due to herbage dispersion. The nonbiting jaw movement rate increased at greater SSH whereas BR decreased (P < 0.05). For both variables, the turning point was close to a SSH of 50 cm. Experiment 2 showed that such an optimization of BM and BR was maintained until an HD level of 0.34 was reached (P < 0.05). There was a linear increase in both the total jaw movements per unit herbage DMI and the nonbiting jaw movements rate (manipulation + mastication) subsequent to levels

  1. A smart dynamic self-induced orientable multiple size nano-roughness with amphiphilic feature as a stain-repellent hydrophilic surface.

    PubMed

    Dastjerdi, Roya; Montazer, Majid; Stegmaier, Thomas; Moghadam, M B

    2012-03-01

    Recently developing bioinspired super-hydrophobic surfaces to achieve self-cleaning properties has been driving numerous researches. However, hydrophilicity is one of the most important features of garment comfort. Therefore, accomplishing self-cleaning and stain repellency on hydrophilic surfaces would be a high topic of interest. This research is concerned with wettability mechanism; static and dynamic study of contact angle through water droplet absorption on the multiple scale nano-roughness covered by different weight ratio of oppositely charged inorganic nanoparticles and amino-functionalized polysiloxane. The results revealed that the second layer of the resin formed on the surface can show an amphiphilic hybrid block copolymer-like feature whose dual action can be intensified during water droplet absorption by the created multiple size nano-roughness. This unique structure can create a stain repellent but hydrophilic surface with exceptional advantages. The mechanism has been deeply discussed according to the evidence on droplet edge interfacial energy changes as a driving force to overcome meta-stable Cassie state on the multiple size nano-roughness with amphiphilic feature. A lotus-like nano-roughness has been also observed on the SEM micrographs. Based on a statistically approached experimental design, the effect of variant factors on droplet absorption time, static, advancing, receding contact angles and self-cleaning properties has been mathematically modeled according to the response surface methodology (RSM).

  2. Distribution of small volcanic cones on the surface of Venus by size and elevation: Implications for differential deposition of volcanic features

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lockwood, J. F.; Ellison, Mike; Johnson, J.; Kamatsu, G.

    1993-01-01

    It appears that volcanic features are not evenly distributed on the surface of Venus. Head et. al. theorizes that the sparcity of volcanic features in the lowlands may be due to an altitude dependent inhibition of volatile exsolution and the resulting products of neutral buoyancy zones sufficient to form magma reservoirs and favoring flood lavas at lower elevation. The astronomy research classes of Evergreen and Sahuaro High Schools surveyed a cross-section of different elevation topography to investigate size and distribution of small volcanic cones by elevation. The results from this survey are presented.

  3. Crystal structure and nanotopographical features on the surface of heat-treated and anodized porous titanium biomaterials produced using selective laser melting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amin Yavari, S.; Wauthle, R.; Böttger, A. J.; Schrooten, J.; Weinans, H.; Zadpoor, A. A.

    2014-01-01

    Porous titanium biomaterials manufactured using additive manufacturing techniques such as selective laser melting are considered promising materials for orthopedic applications where the biomaterial needs to mimic the properties of bone. Despite their appropriate mechanical properties and the ample pore space they provide for bone ingrowth and osseointegration, porous titanium structures have an intrinsically bioinert surface and need to be subjected to surface bio-functionalizing procedures to enhance their in vivo performance. In this study, we used a specific anodizing process to build a hierarchical oxide layer on the surface of porous titanium structures made by selective laser melting of Ti6Al4V ELI powder. The hierarchical structure included both nanotopographical features (nanotubes) and micro-features (micropits). After anodizing, the biomaterial was heat treated in Argon at different temperatures ranging between 400 and 600 °C for either 1 or 2 h to improve its bioactivity. The effects of applied heat treatment on the crystal structure of TiO2 nanotubes and the nanotopographical features of the surface were studied using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. It was shown that the transition from the initial crystal structure, i.e. anatase, to rutile occurs between 500 and 600 °C and that after 2 h of heat treatment at 600 °C the crystal structure is predominantly rutile. The nanotopographical features of the surface were found to be largely unchanged for heat treatments carried out at 500 °C or below, whereas they were partially or largely disrupted after heat treatment at 600 °C. The possible implications of these findings for the bioactivity of porous titanium structures are discussed.

  4. Using BRDFs for accurate albedo calculations and adjacency effect corrections

    SciTech Connect

    Borel, C.C.; Gerstl, S.A.W.

    1996-09-01

    In this paper the authors discuss two uses of BRDFs in remote sensing: (1) in determining the clear sky top of the atmosphere (TOA) albedo, (2) in quantifying the effect of the BRDF on the adjacency point-spread function and on atmospheric corrections. The TOA spectral albedo is an important parameter retrieved by the Multi-angle Imaging Spectro-Radiometer (MISR). Its accuracy depends mainly on how well one can model the surface BRDF for many different situations. The authors present results from an algorithm which matches several semi-empirical functions to the nine MISR measured BRFs that are then numerically integrated to yield the clear sky TOA spectral albedo in four spectral channels. They show that absolute accuracies in the albedo of better than 1% are possible for the visible and better than 2% in the near infrared channels. Using a simplified extensive radiosity model, the authors show that the shape of the adjacency point-spread function (PSF) depends on the underlying surface BRDFs. The adjacency point-spread function at a given offset (x,y) from the center pixel is given by the integral of transmission-weighted products of BRDF and scattering phase function along the line of sight.

  5. Effects of remote hydrogen plasma on chemical bonding features and electronic states of 4H-SiC(0001) surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Truyen, Nguyen Xuan; Ohta, Akio; Makihara, Katsunori; Ikeda, Mitsuhisa; Miyazaki, Seiichi

    2017-01-01

    We have demonstrated a novel dry cleaning process for the 4H-SiC surface using remote hydrogen plasma (H2-RP). The effects of H2-RP exposure on the chemical structures and electronic states of the wet-cleaned 4H-SiC surface have been evaluated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and total photoelectron yield spectroscopy (PYS). XPS shows that H2-RP exposure is effective in removing contaminants from the 4H-SiC surface. PYS indicates that the defect states at the surface are generated after the H2-RP exposure and such generated defect states are drastically decreased by annealing at 850 °C. The combination of H2-RP exposure with the subsequent annealing is found to be effective in 4H-SiC surface cleaning.

  6. On the time-course of adjacent and non-adjacent transposed-letter priming

    PubMed Central

    Ktori, Maria; Kingma, Brechtsje; Hannagan, Thomas; Holcomb, Phillip J.; Grainger, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    We compared effects of adjacent (e.g., atricle-ARTICLE) and non-adjacent (e.g., actirle-ARTICLE) transposed-letter (TL) primes in an ERP study using the sandwich priming technique. TL priming was measured relative to the standard double-substitution condition. We found significantly stronger priming effects for adjacent transpositions than non-adjacent transpositions (with 2 intervening letters) in behavioral responses (lexical decision latencies), and the adjacent priming effects emerged earlier in the ERP signal, at around 200 ms post-target onset. Non-adjacent priming effects emerged about 50 ms later and were short-lived, being significant only in the 250-300 ms time-window. Adjacent transpositions on the other hand continued to produce priming in the N400 time-window (300-500 ms post-target onset). This qualitatively different pattern of priming effects for adjacent and non-adjacent transpositions is discussed in the light of different accounts of letter transposition effects, and the utility of drawing a distinction between positional flexibility and positional noise. PMID:25364497

  7. Comparison Of Solar Surface Features In HMI Images And Mount Wilson Images Found By The Automatic Bayesian Classification System AutoClass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, D. G.; Ulrich, R. K.; Beck, J.

    2012-12-01

    The Bayesian automatic classification system AutoClass has been applied to daily solar magnetogram and intensity images taken at the 150 Foot Solar Tower at Mount Wilson to find and identify classes of solar surface features which are associated with variations in total solar irradiance (TSI) and, using those identifications, to improve modeling of TSI variations over time. (Ulrich, et al, 2010) AutoClass does this by a two step process in which it: (1) finds, without human supervision, a set of class definitions based on specified attributes of a sample of the image data pixels, such as magnetic field and intensity in the case of MWO images, and (2) applies the class definitions thus found to new data sets to identify automatically in them the classes found in the sample set. HMI high resolution images embody four observables-magnetic field, continuum intensity, line depth and line width-in contrast to MWO's two-magnetic field and intensity. In this study, we apply AutoClass to the HMI image observables to derive solar surface feature classes and compare the characteristic statistics of those classes to the MWO classes. The ability to categorize automatically surface features in the HMI images holds out the promise of consistent, relatively quick and manageable analysis of the large quantity of data available in these images. Given that the classes found in MWO images using AutoClass have been found to improve modeling of TSI, application of AutoClass to the more complex HMI images should enhance understanding of the physical processes at work in solar surface features and their implications for the solar-terrestrial environment. Ulrich, R.K., Parker, D, Bertello, L. and Boyden, J. 2010, Solar Phys. , 261 , 11.

  8. Nonlinear reflection from the surface of neutron stars and features of radio emission from the pulsar in the Crab nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kontorovich, V. M.

    2016-08-01

    There are no explanations for the high-frequency component of the emission from the pulsar in the Crab nebula, but it may be a manifestation of instability in nonlinear reflection from the star's surface. Radiation from relativistic positrons flying from the magnetosphere to the star and accelerated by the electric field of the polar gap is reflected. The instability involves stimulated scattering on surface waves.

  9. Contribution of energetically reactive surface features to the dissolution of CeO2 and ThO2 analogues for spent nuclear fuel microstructures.

    PubMed

    Corkhill, Claire L; Myllykylä, Emmi; Bailey, Daniel J; Thornber, Stephanie M; Qi, Jiahui; Maldonado, Pablo; Stennett, Martin C; Hamilton, Andrea; Hyatt, Neil C

    2014-08-13

    In the safety case for the geological disposal of nuclear waste, the release of radioactivity from the repository is controlled by the dissolution of the spent fuel in groundwater. There remain several uncertainties associated with understanding spent fuel dissolution, including the contribution of energetically reactive surface sites to the dissolution rate. In this study, we investigate how surface features influence the dissolution rate of synthetic CeO2 and ThO2, spent nuclear fuel analogues that approximate as closely as possible the microstructure characteristics of fuel-grade UO2 but are not sensitive to changes in oxidation state of the cation. The morphology of grain boundaries (natural features) and surface facets (specimen preparation-induced features) was investigated during dissolution. The effects of surface polishing on dissolution rate were also investigated. We show that preferential dissolution occurs at grain boundaries, resulting in grain boundary decohesion and enhanced dissolution rates. A strong crystallographic control was exerted, with high misorientation angle grain boundaries retreating more rapidly than those with low misorientation angles, which may be due to the accommodation of defects in the grain boundary structure. The data from these simplified analogue systems support the hypothesis that grain boundaries play a role in the so-called "instant release fraction" of spent fuel, and should be carefully considered, in conjunction with other chemical effects, in safety performance assessements for the geological disposal of spent fuel. Surface facets formed during the sample annealing process also exhibited a strong crystallographic control and were found to dissolve rapidly on initial contact with dissolution medium. Defects and strain induced during sample polishing caused an overestimation of the dissolution rate, by up to 3 orders of magnitude.

  10. Gridded Surface Subsurface Hydrologic Analysis Modeling for Analysis of Flood Design Features at the Picayune Strand Restoration Project

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-08-01

    increases freshwater discharges to downstream estuaries, promotes invasive upland vegetation, interrupts ecological connectivity, degrades habitat...restore its predrainage hydrology and ecological function for beneficial effects on flora and fauna in the project area and surrounding public lands. The...hydraulic design of the project features. The PSRP-recommended plan was selected by the Project Delivery Team as having the greatest ecological benefit at

  11. Special Features of Electron-Beam Alloying of Replaceable Polyhedral Hard-Alloy Plates Under a Complex Surface Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedorov, S. V.; Oganyan, G. V.

    2016-01-01

    Thermochemical treatment of a hard alloy is implemented by alloying its surface with the help of a low-energy strong-current electron beam prior to depositing a wear-resistant coating. The method increases substantially the service life of the tool. The laws of formation of refractory compounds in the surface layer due to initiation of a reaction of self-propagating high-temperature synthesis in the mode of thermal explosion are determined. The change in the wear behavior of the modified tools is studied.

  12. [Age-related characteristics of the surface bioelectrical potential of human, canine and rat teeth and features of its distribution over the surface of the crown].

    PubMed

    Donskiĭ, G I; Pavliuchenko, O N; Palamarchuk, Iu N; Makarova, N Ia

    1989-01-01

    Using a digital electron voltmeter, bioelectrical potentials (BEPs) of dental crowns have been recorded in 180 patients, 36 dogs, and 93 white non-inbred rats. It has been established that the surface BEP is a marker of dental enamel maturation and does not depend on the species of mammals. On the other hand maturation processes differ in their rate on the cutting edge, equator, and neck: with advancing age algebraic difference between the magnitudes of surface BEPs decreases in humans and increases in dogs and rats.

  13. Fouling assemblages on offshore wind power plants and adjacent substrata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilhelmsson, Dan; Malm, Torleif

    2008-09-01

    A significant expansion of offshore wind power is expected in the near future, with thousands of turbines in coastal waters, and various aspects of how this may influence the coastal ecology including disturbance effects from noise, shadows, electromagnetic fields, and changed hydrological conditions are accordingly of concern. Further, wind power plants constitute habitats for a number of organisms, and may locally alter assemblage composition and biomass of invertebrates, algae and fish. In this study, fouling assemblages on offshore wind turbines were compared to adjacent hard substrate. Influences of the structures on the seabed were also investigated. The turbines differed significantly from adjacent boulders in terms of assemblage composition of epibiota and motile invertebrates. Species number and Shannon-Wiener diversity were, also, significantly lower on the wind power plants. It was also indicated that the turbines might have affected assemblages of invertebrates and algae on adjacent boulders. Off shore wind power plant offer atypical substrates for fouling assemblages in terms of orientation, depth range, structure, and surface texture. Some potential ecological implications of the addition of these non-natural habitats for coastal ecology are discussed.

  14. Response to memorandum by Rowley and Dixon regarding U.S. Geological Survey report titled "Characterization of Surface-Water Resources in the Great Basin National Park Area and Their Susceptibility to Ground-Water Withdrawals in Adjacent Valleys, White Pine County, Nevada"

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prudic, David E.

    2006-01-01

    Applications pending for permanent permits to pump large quantities of ground water in Spring and Snake Valleys adjacent to Great Basin National Park (the Park) prompted the National Park Service to request a study by the U.S. Geological Survey to evaluate the susceptibility of the Park's surface-water resources to pumping. The result of this study was published as U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2006-5099 'Characterization of Surface-Water Resources in the Great Basin National Park Area and Their Susceptibility to Ground-Water Withdrawals in Adjacent Valleys, White Pine County, Nevada,' by P.E. Elliott, D.A. Beck, and D.E. Prudic. That report identified areas within the Park where surface-water resources are susceptible to ground-water pumping; results from the study showed that three streams and several springs near the eastern edge of the Park were susceptible. However, most of the Park's surface-water resources likely would not be affected by pumping because of either low-permeability rocks or because ground water is sufficiently deep as to not be directly in contact with the streambeds. A memorandum sent by Peter D. Rowley and Gary L. Dixon, Consulting Geologists, to the Southern Nevada Water Authority (SNWA) on June 29, 2006 was critical of the report. The memorandum by Rowley and Dixon was made available to the National Park Service, the U.S. Geological Survey, and the public during the Nevada State Engineer's 'Evidentiary Exchange' process for the recent hearing on applications for ground-water permits by SNWA in Spring Valley adjacent to Great Basin National Park. The U.S. Geological Survey was asked by the National Park Service to assess the validity of the concerns and comments contained in the Rowley and Dixon memorandum. An Administrative Letter Report responding to Rowley and Dixon's concerns and comments was released to the National Park Service on October 30, 2006. The National Park Service subsequently requested that the

  15. Significant Enhancement of the Chiral Correlation Length in Nematic Liquid Crystals by Gold Nanoparticle Surfaces Featuring Axially Chiral Binaphthyl Ligands.

    PubMed

    Mori, Taizo; Sharma, Anshul; Hegmann, Torsten

    2016-01-26

    Chirality is a fundamental scientific concept best described by the absence of mirror symmetry and the inability to superimpose an object onto its mirror image by translation and rotation. Chirality is expressed at almost all molecular levels, from single molecules to supramolecular systems, and present virtually everywhere in nature. Here, to explore how chirality propagates from a chiral nanoscale surface, we study gold nanoparticles functionalized with axially chiral binaphthyl molecules. In particular, we synthesized three enantiomeric pairs of chiral ligand-capped gold nanoparticles differing in size, curvature, and ligand density to tune the chirality transfer from nanoscale solid surfaces to a bulk anisotropic liquid crystal medium. Ultimately, we are examining how far the chirality from a nanoparticle surface reaches into a bulk material. Circular dichroism spectra of the gold nanoparticles decorated with binaphthyl thiols confirmed that the binaphthyl moieties form a cisoid conformation in isotropic organic solvents. In the chiral nematic liquid crystal phase, induced by dispersing the gold nanoparticles into an achiral anisotropic nematic liquid crystal solvent, the binaphthyl moieties on the nanoparticle surface form a transoid conformation as determined by imaging the helical twist direction of the induced cholesteric phase. This suggests that the ligand density on the nanoscale metal surfaces provides a dynamic space to alter and adjust the helicity of binaphthyl derivatives in response to the ordering of the surrounding medium. The helical pitch values of the induced chiral nematic phase were determined, and the helical twisting power (HTP) of the chiral gold nanoparticles calculated to elucidate the chirality transfer efficiency of the binaphthyl ligand capped gold nanoparticles. Remarkably, the HTP increases with increasing diameter of the particles, that is, the efficiency of the chirality transfer of the binaphthyl units bound to the nanoparticle

  16. Radar remote sensing of glacial features, Malaspina Glacier, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Molnia, B.F.; Jones, J.E. )

    1990-05-01

    Two types of radar investigations were conducted at Malaspina glacier, the largest piedmont glacier lobe in North America. Digital x-band side-looking airborne radar (SLAR) data were collected to image surface features; ice-surface, ice-penetrating radar was employed to measure ice thickness and to identify the configuration of subglacial bed rock SLAR revealed a complex pattern of surface backscatter responses related to three types of channellike features on the glacier surface, which mimic the configuration of its underlying bed rock. The features resemble (1) glacially eroded valleys with cirque-like indentations, (2) dendritic stream valleys, and (3) a greater than 40-km-long, arcuate, east-west lineament that corresponds to the Fairweather fault. Field examinations of the three types of features were made to determine relief, slope, and other conditions. The channel-like features had elevations as much as 40 m lower than adjacent high areas and were characterized by fewer crevasses, minimal surface relief, a sediment veneer, and standing and running water. Hundred-m-spaced ice-penetrating radar soundings showed that the ice thickness over these low areas is much greater than over adjacent highs. About 50 ice-thickness measurements were made elsewhere on the glacier. The maximum ice thickness measured exceeded 850 m, whereas the minimum thickness was less than 150 m. Comparison of ice-thickness measurements and ice-surface elevations at each site suggests that the Malaspina Glacier occupies a deep basin or series of basins extending well below sea level.

  17. Controllable feature sizes of highly conductive poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) nanofilms patterned on SiO2 surface.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sungsoo; Kwon, Taewook; Sohn, Honglae; Kim, Jin-Yeol; Shin, Hyunjung; Kim, Chul; Lee, Jaegab

    2008-10-01

    In this paper, we report a novel patterning method for a poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) nanofilm deposited on an OTS monolayer-coated silicon wafer substrate by the vapor phase polymerization method. To scrutinize the adhesion improvement, electrical conductivity and feature controllability, patterned PEDOT nanofilms were investigated with a Scotch tape peel test, I-V curve measurement, and optical and atomic force microscopes. The scrutinization strongly indicates that the adhesion improvement is most likely due to direct chemical bonds formed between ethylenedioxythiophene (EDOT) molecules and photo-oxidized OTS monolayer during a vapor phase polymerization reaction. The investigation also discovered that the feature size of the film can be chemically controlled by the reaction between OTS and reactive atomic oxygen gases, and the patterned films generally show a noticeably good electrical conductivity (approximately 500 S/cm at merely approximately 100 nm thick film). These results successfully demonstrate that the patterned PEDOT nanofilms are qualified enough to be employed as an electrode component of an OTFT device since the electrode materials must show an electrical conductivity of at least 50 S/cm or higher.

  18. Interaction of Cracks Between Two Adjacent Indents in Glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, S. R.; Salem, J. A.

    1993-01-01

    Experimental observations of the interaction behavior of cracks between two adjacent indents were made using an indentation technique in soda-lime glass. It was specifically demonstrated how one indent crack initiates and propagates in the vicinity of another indent crack. Several types of crack interactions were examined by changing the orientation and distance of one indent relative to the other. It was found that the residual stress field produced by elastic/plastic indentation has a significant influence on controlling the mode of crack interaction. The interaction of an indent crack with a free surface was also investigated for glass and ceramic specimens.

  19. Astronaut Charles Duke stands at rock adjacent to 'House Rock'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Astronaut Charles M. Duke Jr., Apollo 16 lunar module pilot, stands at a rock adjacent (south) to the huge 'House Rock' (barely out of view at right edge). Note shadow at extreme right center where the two moon-exploring crewmen of the mission sampled what they referred to as the 'eastwest split of House Rock' or the open space between this rock and 'House Rock'. Duke has a sample bag in his hand, and a lunar surface rake leans against the large boulder.

  20. A Novel Micro-Scale Plastic Deformation Feature on a Bulk Metallic Glass Surface under Laser Shock Peening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Yan-Peng; Wei, Bing-Chen; Wang, Xi; Xu, Guang-Yue; Li, Lei; Wu, Xian-Qian; Song, Hong-Wei; Huang, Chen-Guang

    2013-03-01

    Laser shocking peening is a widely applied surface treatment technique that can effectively improve the fatigue properties of metal parts. We observe many micro-scale arc plastic steps on the surface of Zr47.9Ti0.3Ni3.1Cu39.3Al9.4 metallic glass subjected to the ultra-high pressure and strain rate induced by laser shock peening. The scanning electronic microscopy and atomic force microscopy show that the arc plastic step (APS) has an arc boundary, 50-300 nm step height, 5-50 μm radius and no preferable direction. These APSs have the ability to accommodate plastic deformation in the same way as shear band. This may indicate a new mechanism to accommodate the plastic deformation in amorphous metallic glass under high pressure, ultra-high strain rates, and short duration.

  1. Relationship Between Sea Surface Salinity from L-Band Radiometer and Optical Features in the East China Sea

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    recently been put into orbit to monitor sea surface salmity ( SSS ). Previous studies have used the mixing of fluvial colored dissolved organic matter...CDOM) near coasts, where the mixing is approximately conservati\\e over short time scales, to estimate SSS . In this study, the usual relationship...between CDOM and salinity in the ECS has been used in reverse to estimate CDOM from remotely sensed SSS in the ECS and compare that CDOM with MODIS data

  2. Lipoprotein hydrophobic core lipids are partially extruded to surface in smaller HDL: "Herniated" HDL, a common feature in diabetes.

    PubMed

    Amigó, Núria; Mallol, Roger; Heras, Mercedes; Martínez-Hervás, Sergio; Blanco Vaca, Francisco; Escolà-Gil, Joan Carles; Plana, Núria; Yanes, Óscar; Masana, Lluís; Correig, Xavier

    2016-01-18

    Recent studies have shown that pharmacological increases in HDL cholesterol concentrations do not necessarily translate into clinical benefits for patients, raising concerns about its predictive value for cardiovascular events. Here we hypothesize that the size-modulated lipid distribution within HDL particles is compromised in metabolic disorders that have abnormal HDL particle sizes, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2). By using NMR spectroscopy combined with a biochemical volumetric model we determined the size and spatial lipid distribution of HDL subclasses in a cohort of 26 controls and 29 DM2 patients before and after two drug treatments, one with niacin plus laropiprant and another with fenofibrate as an add-on to simvastatin. We further characterized the HDL surface properties using atomic force microscopy and fluorescent probes to show an abnormal lipid distribution within smaller HDL particles, a subclass particularly enriched in the DM2 patients. The reduction in the size, force cholesterol esters and triglycerides to emerge from the HDL core to the surface, making the outer surface of HDL more hydrophobic. Interestingly, pharmacological interventions had no effect on this undesired configuration, which may explain the lack of clinical benefits in DM2 subjects.

  3. Structural features and seismotectonic implications of coseismic surface ruptures produced by the 2016 M w 7.1 Kumamoto earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Aiming

    2017-03-01

    Field investigations and analyses of satellite images and aerial photographs reveal that the 2016 M w 7.1 (Mj 7.3) Kumamoto earthquake produced a ˜40-km surface rupture zone striking NE-SW on central Kyushu Island, Japan. Coseismic surface ruptures were characterized by shear faults, extensional cracks, and mole tracks, which mostly occurred along the pre-existing NE-SW-striking Hinagu-Futagawa fault zone in the southwest and central segments, and newly identified faults in the northeast segment. This study shows that (i) the Hinagu-Futagawa fault zone triggered the 2016 Kumamoto earthquake and controlled the spatial distribution of coseismic surface ruptures; (ii) the southwest and central segments were dominated by right-lateral strike-slip movement with a maximum in-site measured displacement of up to 2.5 m, accompanied by a minor vertical component. In contrast, the northeast segment was dominated by normal faulting with a maximum vertical offset of up to 1.75 m with a minor horizontal component that formed graben structures inside Aso caldera; (iii) coseismic rupturing initiated at the jog area between the Hinagu and Futagawa faults, then propagated northeastward into Aso caldera, where it terminated. The 2016 M w 7.1 Kumamoto earthquake therefore offers a rare opportunity to study the relationships between coseismic rupture processes and pre-existing active faults, as well as the seismotectonics of Aso volcano.

  4. Hyperspatial Thermal Imaging of Surface Hydrothermal Features at Pilgrim Hot Springs, Alaska using a small Unmanned Aerial System (sUAS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haselwimmer, C. E.; Wilson, R.; Upton, C.; Prakash, A.; Holdmann, G.; Walker, G.

    2013-12-01

    Thermal remote sensing provides a valuable tool for mapping and monitoring surface hydrothermal features associated with geothermal activity. The increasing availability of low-cost, small Unmanned Aerial Systems (sUAS) with integrated thermal imaging sensors offers a means to undertake very high spatial resolution (hyperspatial), quantitative thermal remote sensing of surface geothermal features in support of exploration and long-term monitoring efforts. Results from the deployment of a quadcopter sUAS equipped with a thermal camera over Pilgrim Hot Springs, Alaska for detailed mapping and heat flux estimation for hot springs, seeps, and thermal pools are presented. Hyperspatial thermal infrared imagery (4 cm pixels) was acquired over Pilgrim Hot Springs in July 2013 using a FLIR TAU 640 camera operating from an Aeryon Scout sUAS flying at an altitude of 40m. The registered and mosaicked thermal imagery is calibrated to surface temperature values using in-situ measurements of uniform blackbody tarps and the temperatures of geothermal and other surface pools acquired with a series of water temperature loggers. Interpretation of the pre-processed thermal imagery enables the delineation of hot springs, the extents of thermal pools, and the flow and mixing of individual geothermal outflow plumes with an unprecedented level of detail. Using the surface temperatures of thermal waters derived from the FLIR data and measured in-situ meteorological parameters the hot spring heat flux and outflow rate is calculated using a heat budget model for a subset of the thermal drainage. The heat flux/outflow rate estimates derived from the FLIR data are compared against in-situ measurements of the hot spring outflow rate recorded at the time of the thermal survey.

  5. The characteristics of Ishikawa endometrial cancer cells are modified by substrate topography with cell-like features and the polymer surface

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Li Hui; Sykes, Peter H; Alkaisi, Maan M; Evans, John J

    2015-01-01

    Conventional in vitro culture studies on flat surfaces do not reproduce tissue environments, which have inherent topographical mechanical signals. To understand the impact of these mechanical signals better, we use a cell imprinting technique to replicate cell features onto hard polymer culture surfaces as an alternative platform for investigating biomechanical effects on cells; the high-resolution replication of cells offers the micro- and nanotopography experienced in typical cell–cell interactions. We call this platform a Bioimprint. Cells of an endometrial adenocarcinoma cell line, Ishikawa, were cultured on a bioimprinted substrate, in which Ishikawa cells were replicated on polymethacrylate (pMA) and polystyrene (pST), and compared to cells cultured on flat surfaces. Characteristics of cells, incorporating morphology and cell responses, including expression of adhesion-associated molecules and cell proliferation, were studied. In this project, we fabricated two different topographies for the cells to grow on: a negative imprint that creates cell-shaped hollows and a positive imprint that recreates the raised surface topography of a cell layer. We used two different substrate materials, pMA and pST. We observed that cells on imprinted substrates of both polymers, compared to cells on flat surfaces, exhibited higher expression of β1-integrin, focal adhesion kinase, and cytokeratin-18. Compared to cells on flat surfaces, cells were larger on imprinted pMA and more in number, whereas on pST-imprinted surfaces, cells were smaller and fewer than those on a flat pST surface. This method, which provided substrates in vitro with cell-like features, enabled the study of effects of topographies that are similar to those experienced by cells in vivo. The observations establish that such a physical environment has an effect on cancer cell behavior independent of the characteristics of the substrate. The results support the concept that the physical topography of a

  6. The characteristics of Ishikawa endometrial cancer cells are modified by substrate topography with cell-like features and the polymer surface.

    PubMed

    Tan, Li Hui; Sykes, Peter H; Alkaisi, Maan M; Evans, John J

    2015-01-01

    Conventional in vitro culture studies on flat surfaces do not reproduce tissue environments, which have inherent topographical mechanical signals. To understand the impact of these mechanical signals better, we use a cell imprinting technique to replicate cell features onto hard polymer culture surfaces as an alternative platform for investigating biomechanical effects on cells; the high-resolution replication of cells offers the micro- and nanotopography experienced in typical cell-cell interactions. We call this platform a Bioimprint. Cells of an endometrial adenocarcinoma cell line, Ishikawa, were cultured on a bioimprinted substrate, in which Ishikawa cells were replicated on polymethacrylate (pMA) and polystyrene (pST), and compared to cells cultured on flat surfaces. Characteristics of cells, incorporating morphology and cell responses, including expression of adhesion-associated molecules and cell proliferation, were studied. In this project, we fabricated two different topographies for the cells to grow on: a negative imprint that creates cell-shaped hollows and a positive imprint that recreates the raised surface topography of a cell layer. We used two different substrate materials, pMA and pST. We observed that cells on imprinted substrates of both polymers, compared to cells on flat surfaces, exhibited higher expression of β1-integrin, focal adhesion kinase, and cytokeratin-18. Compared to cells on flat surfaces, cells were larger on imprinted pMA and more in number, whereas on pST-imprinted surfaces, cells were smaller and fewer than those on a flat pST surface. This method, which provided substrates in vitro with cell-like features, enabled the study of effects of topographies that are similar to those experienced by cells in vivo. The observations establish that such a physical environment has an effect on cancer cell behavior independent of the characteristics of the substrate. The results support the concept that the physical topography of a cell

  7. De novo synthesis of a metal-organic framework material featuring ultrahigh surface area and gas storage capacities.

    PubMed

    Farha, Omar K; Yazaydın, A Özgür; Eryazici, Ibrahim; Malliakas, Christos D; Hauser, Brad G; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G; Nguyen, SonBinh T; Snurr, Randall Q; Hupp, Joseph T

    2010-11-01

    Metal-organic frameworks--a class of porous hybrid materials built from metal ions and organic bridges--have recently shown great promise for a wide variety of applications. The large choice of building blocks means that the structures and pore characteristics of the metal-organic frameworks can be tuned relatively easily. However, despite much research, it remains challenging to prepare frameworks specifically tailored for particular applications. Here, we have used computational modelling to design and predictively characterize a metal-organic framework (NU-100) with a particularly high surface area. Subsequent experimental synthesis yielded a material, matching the calculated structure, with a high BET surface area (6,143 m(2) g(-1)). Furthermore, sorption measurements revealed that the material had high storage capacities for hydrogen (164 mg g(-1)) and carbon dioxide (2,315 mg g(-1))--gases of high importance in the contexts of clean energy and climate alteration, respectively--in excellent agreement with predictions from modelling.

  8. Adjacent Segment Pathology after Anterior Cervical Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Jae Yoon; Park, Jong-Beom; Seo, Hyoung-Yeon

    2016-01-01

    Anterior cervical fusion has become a standard of care for numerous pathologic conditions of the cervical spine. However, subsequent development of clinically significant disc disease at levels adjacent to fused discs is a serious long-term complication of this procedure. As more patients live longer after surgery, it is foreseeable that adjacent segment pathology (ASP) will develop in increasing numbers of patients. Also, ASP has been studied more intensively with the recent popularity of motion preservation technologies like total disc arthroplasty. The true nature and scope of ASP remains poorly understood. The etiology of ASP is most likely multifactorial. Various factors including altered biomechanical stresses, surgical disruption of soft tissue and the natural history of cervical disc disease contribute to the development of ASP. General factors associated with disc degeneration including gender, age, smoking and sports may play a role in the development of ASP. Postoperative sagittal alignment and type of surgery are also considered potential causes of ASP. Therefore, a spine surgeon must be particularly careful to avoid unnecessary disruption of the musculoligamentous structures, reduced risk of direct injury to the disc during dissection and maintain a safe margin between the plate edge and adjacent vertebrae during anterior cervical fusion. PMID:27340541

  9. Interactions of near-coastal and basin-wide features of the Mediterranean Sea in the surface colour and temperature historical record

    SciTech Connect

    Barale, V.; Filippi, P.

    1997-08-01

    Sea surface colour and temperature images, derived from time series of CZCS (1978-1986) and AVHRR (1982-1990) data, have been used to assess the interactions of near-coastal and basin-wide features in the Mediterranean basin. Individual images were processed to apply sensor(s) calibration, to correct for atmospheric contamination, and to estimate chlorophyll-like pigment concentration and surface temperature. Long-term composites show marked differences between western and eastern sub-basins, inshore and offshore domains, northern and southern near-coastal areas. Continental runoff and wind-driven mixing, as well as geomorphology and meteorology of the (northern) basin margins, appear to influence both water dynamics and bio-geo-chemistry. The major sub-basins present a distinct seasonality, superimposed to that of the basin.

  10. 30 CFR 816.57 - Hydrologic balance: Activities in or adjacent to perennial or intermittent streams.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hydrologic balance: Activities in or adjacent to perennial or intermittent streams. 816.57 Section 816.57 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE... PERMANENT PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.57 Hydrologic balance: Activities...

  11. 30 CFR 816.57 - Hydrologic balance: Activities in or adjacent to perennial or intermittent streams.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hydrologic balance: Activities in or adjacent to perennial or intermittent streams. 816.57 Section 816.57 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE... PERMANENT PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.57 Hydrologic balance: Activities...

  12. LDRD final report : on the development of hybrid level-set/particle methods for modeling surface evolution during feature-scale etching and deposition processes.

    SciTech Connect

    McBride, Cory L.; Schmidt, Rodney Cannon; Musson, Lawrence Cale

    2005-01-01

    Two methods for creating a hybrid level-set (LS)/particle method for modeling surface evolution during feature-scale etching and deposition processes are developed and tested. The first method supplements the LS method by introducing Lagrangian marker points in regions of high curvature. Once both the particle set and the LS function are advanced in time, minimization of certain objective functions adjusts the LS function so that its zero contour is in closer alignment with the particle locations. It was found that the objective-minimization problem was unexpectedly difficult to solve, and even when a solution could be found, the acquisition of it proved more costly than simply expanding the basis set of the LS function. The second method explored is a novel explicit marker-particle method that we have named the grid point particle (GPP) approach. Although not a LS method, the GPP approach has strong procedural similarities to certain aspects of the LS approach. A key aspect of the method is a surface rediscretization procedure--applied at each time step and based on a global background mesh--that maintains a representation of the surface while naturally adding and subtracting surface discretization points as the surface evolves in time. This method was coded in 2-D, and tested on a variety of surface evolution problems by using it in the ChISELS computer code. Results shown for 2-D problems illustrate the effectiveness of the method and highlight some notable advantages in accuracy over the LS method. Generalizing the method to 3D is discussed but not implemented.

  13. Binding domains of Bacillus anthracis phage endolysins recognize cell culture age-related features on the bacterial surface.

    PubMed

    Paskaleva, Elena E; Mundra, Ruchir V; Mehta, Krunal K; Pangule, Ravindra C; Wu, Xia; Glatfelter, Willing S; Chen, Zijing; Dordick, Jonathan S; Kane, Ravi S

    2015-01-01

    Bacteriolytic enzymes often possess a C-terminal binding domain that recognizes specific motifs on the bacterial surface and a catalytic domain that cleaves covalent linkages within the cell wall peptidoglycan. PlyPH, one such lytic enzyme of bacteriophage origin, has been reported to be highly effective against Bacillus anthracis, and can kill up to 99.99% of the viable bacteria. The bactericidal activity of this enzyme, however, appears to be strongly dependent on the age of the bacterial culture. Although highly bactericidal against cells in the early exponential phase, the enzyme is substantially less effective against stationary phase cells, thus limiting its application in real-world settings. We hypothesized that the binding domain of PlyPH may differ in affinity to cells in different Bacillus growth stages and may be primarily responsible for the age-restricted activity. We therefore employed an in silico approach to identify phage lysins differing in their specificity for the bacterial cell wall. Specifically we focused our attention on Plyβ, an enzyme with improved cell wall-binding ability and age-independent bactericidal activity. Although PlyPH and Plyβ have dissimilar binding domains, their catalytic domains are highly homologous. We characterized the biocatalytic mechanism of Plyβ by identifying the specific bonds cleaved within the cell wall peptidoglycan. Our results provide an example of the diversity of phage endolysins and the opportunity for these biocatalysts to be used for broad-based protection from bacterial pathogens.

  14. Long-term TIR imagery processing for spatiotemporal monitoring of surface thermal features in volcanic environment: A case study in the Campi Flegrei (Southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilardo, G.; Sansivero, F.; Chiodini, G.

    2015-02-01

    Different procedures were used to analyze a comprehensive time series of nighttime thermal infrared images acquired from October 2006 to June 2013 by a permanent station at Pisciarelli (Campi Flegrei, Italy). The methodologies were aimed at the detection and quantification of possible spatiotemporal changes in the ground-surface thermal features of an area affected by diffuse degassing. Long-term infrared time series images were processed without taking into account atmospheric conditions and emissivity estimations. The data obtained were compared with the trends of independent geophysical and geochemical parameters, which suggested that long-term temporal variations of the surface maximum temperatures were governed by the dynamics of the deeper hydrothermal system. Analogously, the dynamics of the shallow hydrothermal system are likely to control the short-period thermal oscillations that overlie the long-term thermal signals. The map of the yearly rates of temperature change shows temperature increases clustered in the thermal anomalous area of the infrared images, without evidence of modifications to the extension of the anomaly or of growth of new areas with significant thermal emission. This suggests that in the present state, the heat transfer is mainly due to hot gas emission through preexisting fractures and vents. Our data indicate that the comprehensive picture of the spatiotemporal evolution of the thermal features of the hydrothermal sites obtained by long-term infrared monitoring can provide useful information toward refining physical and conceptual models, as well as improving surveillance of active volcanoes.

  15. A Homology Model Reveals Novel Structural Features and an Immunodominant Surface Loop/Opsonic Target in the Treponema pallidum BamA Ortholog TP_0326

    PubMed Central

    Luthra, Amit; Anand, Arvind; Hawley, Kelly L.; LeDoyt, Morgan; La Vake, Carson J.; Caimano, Melissa J.; Cruz, Adriana R.; Salazar, Juan C.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT We recently demonstrated that TP_0326 is a bona fide rare outer membrane protein (OMP) in Treponema pallidum and that it possesses characteristic BamA bipartite topology. Herein, we used immunofluorescence analysis (IFA) to show that only the β-barrel domain of TP_0326 contains surface-exposed epitopes in intact T. pallidum. Using the solved structure of Neisseria gonorrhoeae BamA, we generated a homology model of full-length TP_0326. Although the model predicts a typical BamA fold, the β-barrel harbors features not described in other BamAs. Structural modeling predicted that a dome comprised of three large extracellular loops, loop 4 (L4), L6, and L7, covers the barrel's extracellular opening. L4, the dome's major surface-accessible loop, contains mainly charged residues, while L7 is largely neutral and contains a polyserine tract in a two-tiered conformation. L6 projects into the β-barrel but lacks the VRGF/Y motif that anchors L6 within other BamAs. IFA and opsonophagocytosis assay revealed that L4 is surface exposed and an opsonic target. Consistent with B cell epitope predictions, immunoblotting and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) confirmed that L4 is an immunodominant loop in T. pallidum-infected rabbits and humans with secondary syphilis. Antibody capture experiments using Escherichia coli expressing OM-localized TP_0326 as a T. pallidum surrogate further established the surface accessibility of L4. Lastly, we found that a naturally occurring substitution (Leu593 → Gln593) in the L4 sequences of T. pallidum strains affects antibody binding in sera from syphilitic patients. Ours is the first study to employ a “structure-to-pathogenesis” approach to map the surface topology of a T. pallidum OMP within the context of syphilitic infection. IMPORTANCE Previously, we reported that TP_0326 is a bona fide rare outer membrane protein (OMP) in Treponema pallidum and that it possesses the bipartite topology characteristic of a BamA ortholog

  16. Effects of charge design features on parameters of acoustic and seismic waves and cratering, for SMR chemical surface explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gitterman, Y.

    2012-04-01

    A series of experimental on-surface shots was designed and conducted by the Geophysical Institute of Israel at Sayarim Military Range (SMR) in Negev desert, including two large calibration explosions: about 82 tons of strong IMI explosives in August 2009, and about 100 tons of ANFO explosives in January 2011. It was a collaborative effort between Israel, CTBTO, USA and several European countries, with the main goal to provide fully controlled ground truth (GT0) infrasound sources in different weather/wind conditions, for calibration of IMS infrasound stations in Europe, Middle East and Asia. Strong boosters and the upward charge detonation scheme were applied to provide a reduced energy release to the ground and an enlarged energy radiation to the atmosphere, producing enhanced infrasound signals, for better observation at far-regional stations. The following observations and results indicate on the required explosives energy partition for this charge design: 1) crater size and local seismic (duration) magnitudes were found smaller than expected for these large surface explosions; 2) small test shots of the same charge (1 ton) conducted at SMR with different detonation directions showed clearly lower seismic amplitudes/energy and smaller crater size for the upward detonation; 3) many infrasound stations at local and regional distances showed higher than expected peak amplitudes, even after application of a wind-correction procedure. For the large-scale explosions, high-pressure gauges were deployed at 100-600 m to record air-blast properties, evaluate the efficiency of the charge design and energy generation, and provide a reliable estimation of the charge yield. Empirical relations for air-blast parameters - peak pressure, impulse and the Secondary Shock (SS) time delay - depending on distance, were developed and analyzed. The parameters, scaled by the cubic root of estimated TNT equivalent charges, were found consistent for all analyzed explosions, except of SS

  17. Surface and sub-surface anatomy of the landscape: integrating Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Structure from Motion (UAV-SfM) and Ground Penetrating Radar (GRP) to investigate sedimentary features in the field. - an example from NW Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callow, Nik; Leopold, Matthias; May, Simon Matthias

    2015-04-01

    Geomorphology is confronted by the challenge of reconstructing landscape features at appropriate scales, resolution and accuracy, that allows meaningful analysis of environmental processes and their implications. Field geomorphology offers a discrete snapshot (i.e. one or two field campaigns) to reconstruct how features have changed, evolved or responded over time. We explore the application of an emerging photogrammetry technique called Structure-from-Motion (SfM), which uses multiple photographs of the same feature (but taken at different locations) to create high-accuracy three-dimensional models of surface of sedimentary fans formed by extreme wave events. This approach is complimented by investigation of the sub-surface morphology using Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR). Using an UAV "octocopter", we captured 1208 photos with a DSLR camera (Canon EoS-M) at the height of 50m with a ground pixel resolution of 9mm, above a cyclone wash-over fan in the Exmouth Gulf (Western Australia) that measured about 500m inland by 300m wide. Based on 38 ground control point targets (with between 4 and 45 individual photographs per target) the SfM surface had an absolute total (XYZ) accuracy of 51mm (39mm X, 29mm Y and 14mm Y), based on RTK-DGPS surveying from a local ground reference station (with an absolute AUSPOS accuracy of 57mm X, 6mm Y, 50mm Z to AHD) and an overall relative point accuracy of 7mm. A sparse point cloud of over 5.5 million data points was generated using only points with a reconstruction accuracy of <50mm, before spectral unsupervised classification (RGB colour of each XYZ pixel) using K-Means clustering within Python. The output was then manually classified into ground and non-ground points, and the geostatistical analyst functionality of ArcGIS used to produce a final bare-earth DEM. This approach has allowed the study team to economically collect an unprecedented high-resolution and accuracy topographic model of this feature to compliment on

  18. Adjacent-level arthroplasty following cervical fusion.

    PubMed

    Rajakumar, Deshpande V; Hari, Akshay; Krishna, Murali; Konar, Subhas; Sharma, Ankit

    2017-02-01

    OBJECTIVE Adjacent-level disc degeneration following cervical fusion has been well reported. This condition poses a major treatment dilemma when it becomes symptomatic. The potential application of cervical arthroplasty to preserve motion in the affected segment is not well documented, with few studies in the literature. The authors present their initial experience of analyzing clinical and radiological results in such patients who were treated with arthroplasty for new or persistent arm and/or neck symptoms related to neural compression due to adjacent-segment disease after anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF). METHODS During a 5-year period, 11 patients who had undergone ACDF anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) and subsequently developed recurrent neck or arm pain related to adjacent-level cervical disc disease were treated with cervical arthroplasty at the authors' institution. A total of 15 devices were implanted (range of treated levels per patient: 1-3). Clinical evaluation was performed both before and after surgery, using a visual analog scale (VAS) for pain and the Neck Disability Index (NDI). Radiological outcomes were analyzed using pre- and postoperative flexion/extension lateral radiographs measuring Cobb angle (overall C2-7 sagittal alignment), functional spinal unit (FSU) angle, and range of motion (ROM). RESULTS There were no major perioperative complications or device-related failures. Statistically significant results, obtained in all cases, were reflected by an improvement in VAS scores for neck/arm pain and NDI scores for neck pain. Radiologically, statistically significant increases in the overall lordosis (as measured by Cobb angle) and ROM at the treated disc level were observed. Three patients were lost to follow-up within the first year after arthroplasty. In the remaining 8 cases, the duration of follow-up ranged from 1 to 3 years. None of these 8 patients required surgery for the same vertebral level during the follow

  19. Special features of oxygen distribution in the surface region of steel IOKhN2 under the effect of gas-discharge plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nosenko, V. Yu.; Pivovarov, A. L.; Chenakin, S. P.; Cherepin, V. T.

    1996-04-01

    In recent years technological processes and methods of treatment that include the use of low-temperature gas-discharge plasma have become very popular. Ion-plasma technologies are used successfully for cleaning the surface of materials or creating thin-film structures and coatings and for chemicothermal treatment (nitriding, siliconizing, boronizing, carburizing, etc.) of various metals and alloys. The effect of the plasma of a gas glow discharge on a solid body can be manifested in a change in the chemical composition of its surface region. This is caused by the introduction of elements from the gas atmosphere into the specimen and by the redistribution of the matrix components in this region. The nature of such a redistribution of the components under the action of a gas-discharge plasma is not completely clear, which, among other reasons, is associated with the insufficiency of experimental and theoretical data on the problem. The present work concerns the causes and possible mechanism of the appearance of an oxygen-rich layer in the near-surface region of steel 10KhN2 after the action of a glow-discharge plasma in He, N2 + 25% H2, and Ar atmospheres. A correct explanation of this phenomenon can have a decisive role in understanding the special features of the diffusion processes occurring in a solid body under the effect of a gas-discharge plasma.

  20. Non-target adjacent stimuli classification improves performance of classical ERP-based brain computer interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceballos, G. A.; Hernández, L. F.

    2015-04-01

    Objective. The classical ERP-based speller, or P300 Speller, is one of the most commonly used paradigms in the field of Brain Computer Interfaces (BCI). Several alterations to the visual stimuli presentation system have been developed to avoid unfavorable effects elicited by adjacent stimuli. However, there has been little, if any, regard to useful information contained in responses to adjacent stimuli about spatial location of target symbols. This paper aims to demonstrate that combining the classification of non-target adjacent stimuli with standard classification (target versus non-target) significantly improves classical ERP-based speller efficiency. Approach. Four SWLDA classifiers were trained and combined with the standard classifier: the lower row, upper row, right column and left column classifiers. This new feature extraction procedure and the classification method were carried out on three open databases: the UAM P300 database (Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Mexico), BCI competition II (dataset IIb) and BCI competition III (dataset II). Main results. The inclusion of the classification of non-target adjacent stimuli improves target classification in the classical row/column paradigm. A gain in mean single trial classification of 9.6% and an overall improvement of 25% in simulated spelling speed was achieved. Significance. We have provided further evidence that the ERPs produced by adjacent stimuli present discriminable features, which could provide additional information about the spatial location of intended symbols. This work promotes the searching of information on the peripheral stimulation responses to improve the performance of emerging visual ERP-based spellers.

  1. Conserved surface features form the double-stranded RNA binding site of non-structural protein 1 (NS1) from influenza A and B viruses.

    PubMed

    Yin, Cuifeng; Khan, Javed A; Swapna, G V T; Ertekin, Asli; Krug, Robert M; Tong, Liang; Montelione, Gaetano T

    2007-07-13

    Influenza A viruses cause a highly contagious respiratory disease in humans and are responsible for periodic widespread epidemics with high mortality rates. The influenza A virus NS1 protein (NS1A) plays a key role in countering host antiviral defense and in virulence. The 73-residue N-terminal domain of NS1A (NS1A-(1-73)) forms a symmetric homodimer with a unique six-helical chain fold. It binds canonical A-form double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). Mutational inactivation of this dsRNA binding activity of NS1A highly attenuates virus replication. Here, we have characterized the unique structural features of the dsRNA binding surface of NS1A-(1-73) using NMR methods and describe the 2.1-A x-ray crystal structure of the corresponding dsRNA binding domain from human influenza B virus NS1B-(15-93). These results identify conserved dsRNA binding surfaces on both NS1A-(1-73) and NS1B-(15-93) that are very different from those indicated in earlier "working models" of the complex between dsRNA and NS1A-(1-73). The combined NMR and crystallographic data reveal highly conserved surface tracks of basic and hydrophilic residues that interact with dsRNA. These tracks are structurally complementary to the polyphosphate backbone conformation of A-form dsRNA and run at an approximately 45 degrees angle relative to the axes of helices alpha2/alpha2'. At the center of this dsRNA binding epitope, and common to NS1 proteins from influenza A and B viruses, is a deep pocket that includes both hydrophilic and hydrophobic amino acids. This pocket provides a target on the surface of the NS1 protein that is potentially suitable for the development of antiviral drugs targeting both influenza A and B viruses.

  2. Conserved Surface Features Form the Double-stranded RNA Binding Site of Non-structural Protein 1 (NS1) from Influenza A and B Viruses

    SciTech Connect

    Yin,C.; Khan, J.; Swapna, G.; Ertekin, A.; Krug, R.; Tong, L.; Montelione, G.

    2007-01-01

    Influenza A viruses cause a highly contagious respiratory disease in humans and are responsible for periodic widespread epidemics with high mortality rates. The influenza A virus NS1 protein (NS1A) plays a key role in countering host antiviral defense and in virulence. The 73-residue N-terminal domain of NS1A (NS1A-(1-73)) forms a symmetric homodimer with a unique six-helical chain fold. It binds canonical A-form double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). Mutational inactivation of this dsRNA binding activity of NS1A highly attenuates virus replication. Here, we have characterized the unique structural features of the dsRNA binding surface of NS1A-(1-73) using NMR methods and describe the 2.1-{angstrom} x-ray crystal structure of the corresponding dsRNA binding domain from human influenza B virus NS1B-(15-93). These results identify conserved dsRNA binding surfaces on both NS1A-(1-73) and NS1B-(15-93) that are very different from those indicated in earlier 'working models' of the complex between dsRNA and NS1A-(1-73). The combined NMR and crystallographic data reveal highly conserved surface tracks of basic and hydrophilic residues that interact with dsRNA. These tracks are structurally complementary to the polyphosphate backbone conformation of A-form dsRNA and run at an {approx}45{sup o} angle relative to the axes of helices {alpha}2/{alpha}2'. At the center of this dsRNA binding epitope, and common to NS1 proteins from influenza A and B viruses, is a deep pocket that includes both hydrophilic and hydrophobic amino acids. This pocket provides a target on the surface of the NS1 protein that is potentially suitable for the development of antiviral drugs targeting both influenza A and B viruses.

  3. Observation of UV-induced Auger features in catechol adsorbed on anatase TiO{sub 2} (101) single crystal surface

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Andrew G.; Syres, Karen L.

    2012-04-23

    We have investigated the electronic structure of catechol adsorbed on the anatase TiO{sub 2} (101) surface under illumination with ultraviolet (UV) light (4.75 eV) using resonant photoemission spectroscopy. UV illumination results in the appearance of a strong Ti MVV (M refers to photoionization of 3p level and VV the Auger decay process via the valence levels) feature at a kinetic energy of 26.2 eV. This is attributed to the creation of localised states following catechol to Ti-3d excitation by the UV source. A sharp resonance attributed to excitation from Ti 3p states into these localised states is observed in constant final state spectra.

  4. Surface currents and their relations with the satellite-derived temperature for the Black Sea large- and meso-scale circulation features

    SciTech Connect

    Ilyin, Y.P.; Lemeshko, E.M.; Sur, H.I.

    1997-06-01

    In spring-time of 1993,94 both CTD, ADCP and satellite infrared measurements were carried out in the framework of CoMSBlack international program. The ADCP current vectors and thermal structures at the sea surface displayed very good agreement. The velocity maxima coincide with the temperature gradient locations of the Black Sea Rim Current and the vector directions correspond to satellite derived flow configuration. Satellite data assist essentially in the interpretation of ADCP currents data and explain the several peculiarities in vectors distribution as the manifestations of meso-scale dynamic features. The reformation of temperature field took place and it was seen from the satellite observations. These changes are also reflected in current fields peculiarities in spring and summer seasons. The results reflect the effect of the Black Sea flow field transformation from winter type to summer one.

  5. Hepatitis B virus-associated diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: unique clinical features, poor outcome, and hepatitis B surface antigen-driven origin.

    PubMed

    Deng, Lijuan; Song, Yuqin; Young, Ken H; Hu, Shimin; Ding, Ning; Song, Weiwei; Li, Xianghong; Shi, Yunfei; Huang, Huiying; Liu, Weiping; Zheng, Wen; Wang, Xiaopei; Xie, Yan; Lin, Ningjing; Tu, Meifeng; Ping, Lingyan; Ying, Zhitao; Zhang, Chen; Sun, Yingli; Zhu, Jun

    2015-09-22

    While the epidemiologic association between hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is established, little is known more than this epidemiologic evidence. We studied a cohort of 587 patients with DLBCL for HBV infection status, clinicopathologic features, and the immunoglobulin variable region in HBV surface antigen (HBsAg)-positive patients. Eighty-one (81/587, 13.8%) patients were HBsAg-positive. Compared with HBsAg-negative DLBCL, HBsAg-positive DLBCL displayed a younger median onset age (45 vs. 55 years), more frequent involvement of spleen or retroperitoneal lymph node (40.7% vs. 16.0% and 61.7% vs. 31.0% respectively, both p < 0.001), more advanced disease (stage III/IV: 76.5% vs 59.5%, p = 0.003), and significantly worse outcome (2-year overall survival: 47% versus 70%, p < 0.001). In HBsAg-positive DLBCL patients, almost all (45/47, 96%) amino acid sequences of heavy and light chain complementarity determining region 3 exhibited a high homology to antibodies specific for HBsAg, and the majority (45/50, 90%) of IgHV and IgLV genes were mutated. We conclude that 13.8% of DLBCL cases are HBV-associated in HBV-endemic China and show unique clinical features and poor outcomes. Furthermore, our study strongly suggests that HBV-associated DLBCL might arise from HBV antigen-selected B cells.

  6. 30 CFR 56.9103 - Clearance on adjacent tracks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Clearance on adjacent tracks. 56.9103 Section..., Hauling, and Dumping Traffic Safety § 56.9103 Clearance on adjacent tracks. Railcars shall not be left on side tracks unless clearance is provided for traffic on adjacent tracks....

  7. 30 CFR 57.9103 - Clearance on adjacent tracks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Clearance on adjacent tracks. 57.9103 Section..., Hauling, and Dumping Traffic Safety § 57.9103 Clearance on adjacent tracks. Railcars shall not be left on side tracks unless clearance is provided for traffic on adjacent tracks....

  8. 49 CFR 236.404 - Signals at adjacent control points.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Traffic Control Systems Standards § 236.404 Signals at adjacent control points. Signals at adjacent controlled... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Signals at adjacent control points....

  9. 49 CFR 236.404 - Signals at adjacent control points.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Traffic Control Systems Standards § 236.404 Signals at adjacent control points. Signals at adjacent controlled... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Signals at adjacent control points....

  10. 33 CFR 80.1395 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Thirteenth District § 80.1395 Puget Sound and adjacent waters. The 72 COLREGS shall apply on all waters of Puget Sound and adjacent waters, including Lake...

  11. 33 CFR 80.1395 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Thirteenth District § 80.1395 Puget Sound and adjacent waters. The 72 COLREGS shall apply on all waters of Puget Sound and adjacent waters, including Lake...

  12. 33 CFR 80.1395 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Thirteenth District § 80.1395 Puget Sound and adjacent waters. The 72 COLREGS shall apply on all waters of Puget Sound and adjacent waters, including Lake...

  13. 33 CFR 80.1395 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Thirteenth District § 80.1395 Puget Sound and adjacent waters. The 72 COLREGS shall apply on all waters of Puget Sound and adjacent waters, including Lake...

  14. 33 CFR 80.1395 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Thirteenth District § 80.1395 Puget Sound and adjacent waters. The 72 COLREGS shall apply on all waters of Puget Sound and adjacent waters, including Lake...

  15. Seismicity in Azerbaijan and Adjacent Caspian Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Panahi, Behrouz M.

    2006-03-23

    So far no general view on the geodynamic evolution of the Black Sea to the Caspian Sea region is elaborated. This is associated with the geological and structural complexities of the region revealed by geophysical, geochemical, petrologic, structural, and other studies. A clash of opinions on geodynamic conditions of the Caucasus region, sometimes mutually exclusive, can be explained by a simplified interpretation of the seismic data. In this paper I analyze available data on earthquake occurrences in Azerbaijan and the adjacent Caspian Sea region. The results of the analysis of macroseismic and instrumental data, seismic regime, and earthquake reoccurrence indicate that a level of seismicity in the region is moderate, and seismic event are concentrated in the shallow part of the lithosphere. Seismicity is mostly intra-plate, and spatial distribution of earthquake epicenters does not correlate with the plate boundaries.

  16. Lung Injury Induced by TiO2 Nanoparticles Depends on Their Structural Features: Size, Shape, Crystal Phases, and Surface Coating

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jiangxue; Fan, Yubo

    2014-01-01

    With the rapid development of nanotechnology, a variety of engineered nanoparticles (NPs) are being produced. Nanotoxicology has become a hot topic in many fields, as researchers attempt to elucidate the potential adverse health effects of NPs. The biological activity of NPs strongly depends on physicochemical parameters but these are not routinely considered in toxicity screening, such as dose metrics. In this work, nanoscale titanium dioxide (TiO2), one of the most commonly produced and widely used NPs, is put forth as a representative. The correlation between the lung toxicity and pulmonary cell impairment related to TiO2 NPs and its unusual structural features, including size, shape, crystal phases, and surface coating, is reviewed in detail. The reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in pulmonary inflammation in response to the properties of TiO2 NPs is also briefly described. To fully understand the potential biological effects of NPs in toxicity screening, we highly recommend that the size, crystal phase, dispersion and agglomeration status, surface coating, and chemical composition should be most appropriately characterized. PMID:25479073

  17. Surface Textures and Features Indicative of Endogenous Growth at the McCartys Flow Field, NM, as an Analog to Martian Volcanic Plains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bleacher, Jacob E.; Crumpler, L. S.; Garry, W. B.; Zimbelman, J. R.; Self, S.; Aubele, J. C.

    2012-01-01

    Basaltic lavas typically form channels or tubes, which are recognized on the Earth and Mars. Although largely unrecognized in the planetary community, terrestrial inflated sheet flows also display morphologies that share many commonalities with lava plains on Mars. The McCartys lava flow field is among the youngest (approx.3000 yrs) basaltic flows in the continental United States. The southwest sections of the flow displays smooth, flat-topped plateaus with irregularly shaped pits and hummocky inter-plateau units that form a polygonal surface. Plateaus are typically elongate in map view, up to 20 m high and display lineations within the glassy crust. Lineated surfaces occasionally display small < 1m diameter lava coils. Lineations are generally straight and parallel each other, sometimes for over 100 meters. The boundaries between plateaus and depressions are also lineated and tilted to angles sometimes approaching vertical. Plateau-parallel cracks, sometimes containing squeeze-ups, mark the boundary between tilted crust and plateau. Some plateau depressions display level floors with hummocky surfaces, while some are bowl shaped with floors covered in broken lava slabs. The lower walls of pits sometimes display lateral, sagged lava wedges. Infrequently, pit floors display the upper portion of a tumulus from an older flow. In some places the surface crust has been disrupted forming a slabby texture. Slabs are typically on the scale of a meter or less across and no less than 7-10 cm thick. The slabs preserve the lineated textures of the undisturbed plateau crust. It appears that this style of terrain represents the emplacement of an extensive sheet that experiences inflation episodes within preferred regions where lateral spreading of the sheet is inhibited, thereby forming plateaus. Rough surfaces represent inflation-related disruption of pahoehoe lava and not a a lava. Depressions are often the result of non-inflation and can be clearly identified by lateral

  18. Possible Factors affecting the Thermal Contrast between Middle-Latitude Asian Continent and Adjacent Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Huaqiong; Wu, Tongwen; Dong, Wenjie

    2015-04-01

    A middle-latitude Land-Sea thermal contrast Index was used in this study which has close connection to the East Asian summer precipitation. The index has two parts which are land thermal index defined as JJA 500-hPa geopotential height anomalies at a land area (75°-90° E, 40° -55°N ) and ocean thermal index defined as that at an oceanic area (140° -150°E, 35° -42.5°N). The impact of the surface heat flux and atmospheric diabatic heating over the land and the ocean on the index was studied. The results show that the surface heat flux over Eurasian inner land has little influence to the land thermal index, while the variation of the surface latent heat flux and long-wave radiation over the Pacific adjacent to Japan has highly correlation with the ocean thermal index. The changes with height of the atmospheric diabatic heating rates over the Eurasian inner land and the Pacific adjacent to Japan have different features. The variations of the middle troposphere atmospheric long-wave and short-wave radiation heating have significantly influences on land thermal index, and that of the low troposphere atmospheric long-wave radiation, short-wave radiation and deep convective heating also have impact on the yearly variation of the land thermal index. For the ocean thermal index, the variations of the surface layer atmospheric vertical diffuse heating, large-scale latent heating and long-wave radiation heating are more important, low and middle troposphere atmospheric large-scale latent heating and shallow convective heating also have impact on the yearly variation of the ocean thermal index. And then the ocean thermal index has closely connection with the low troposphere atmospheric temperature, while the land thermal index has closely connection with the middle troposphere atmospheric temperature. The Effect of the preceding global SST anomalies on the index also was analyzed. The relations of land thermal index and ocean thermal index and the global SST anomalies

  19. Reduction of Ferricytochrome c by Dithionite Ion: Electron Transfer by Parallel Adjacent and Remote Pathways*

    PubMed Central

    Creutz, Carol; Sutin, Norman

    1973-01-01

    The kinetics of the reduction of horseheart ferricytochrome c by sodium dithionite (phosphate buffer-sodium chloride; pH 6.5, μ = 1.0, 25°) features two reaction pathways; one with the rate constant k3 = 1.17 × 104 M-1 sec-1, the other with the rate constant k1k2/k-1 = 6.0 × 104 M-1 sec-1. These pathways are interpreted in terms of remote attack (possibly by way of the exposed edge of the porphyrin system) and adjacent attack (requiring the opening of the heme crevice). The limiting rate for the adjacent pathway (k1 = 30 sec-1) is in good agreement with the rate of heme-crevice opening of ferricytochrome c determined in other studies. The implication of the adjacent attack pathway to the function of cytochrome c in vivo is discussed. PMID:4352650

  20. Seep and stream nitrogen dynamics in two adjacent mixed land use watersheds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In many headwater catchments, stream flow originates from surface seeps and springs. The objective of this study was to determine the influence of seeps on nitrogen (N) dynamics within the stream and at the outlet of two adjacent mixed land use watersheds. Nitrogen concentrations in stream water wer...

  1. Seep and stream nitrogen dynamics in two adjacent mixed land use watersheds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In many headwater catchments, streamflow originates from surface seeps and springs. The objective of this study was to determine the influence of seeps on nitrogen (N) dynamics within the stream and at the outlet of two adjacent mixed land use watersheds. Nitrogen concentrations in stream water were...

  2. Adjacency-blurring-effect of scenes modeled by the radiosity method

    SciTech Connect

    Borel, C.C.; Gerstl, S.A.W.

    1992-05-01

    In this paper we describe a method to simulate images through a scattering atmosphere. We compute the scattering of light from adjacent surfaces into the field-of-view (FOV) with the extended radiosity method. Our simulation takes aerosol scattering phase functions and ground bidirectional reflectance distributions (BRDF) into account. 10 refs.

  3. Eigenspace-based tracking for feature points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Chen; Chen, Qian; Qian, Wei-xian

    2014-05-01

    Feature point tracking deals with image streams that change over time. Most existing feature point tracking algorithms only consider two adjacent frames at a time, and forget the feature information of previous frames. In this paper, we present a new eigenspace-based tracking method that learns an eigenspace representation of training features online, and finds the target feature point with Gauss-Newton style search method. A coarse-to-fine processing strategy is introduced to handle large affine transformations. Several simulations and experiments on real images indicate the effectiveness of the proposed feature tracking algorithm under the conditions of large pose changes and temporary occlusions.

  4. A technique to determine a capability to detect adjacent defects during an automatic inspection of reticle patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avakaw, Syarhei; Korneliuk, Aliaksandr; Tsitko, Alena

    2006-05-01

    The paper analyses the factors which influence minimal features of detected adjacent defects during the use of traditional die-to-database method of inspection of reticles and also during the use of new Parametric Models of Pattern Features Comparison method (PMoPFC method). The analysis of influence of a set of factors, describing an instrumental error of the automatic reticle inspection system, and of a set of factors, describing a reticle patterning process, on various types of adjacent defects is made. Some relations are given, describing interrelation of the size of the minimal adjacent defect and the pixel size of the automatic reticle inspection system. A concept of the optimum and preset sizes of the minimal detected defect is introduced. The analysis of dependence of the number of false defects on the size of the preset minimal detected adjacent defect is made, as well as a criterion to choose an optimum capability of detection of adjacent defects is given. In conclusion, parameters of automatic reticle inspection systems developed at "KBTEM-OMO" of Planar Concern are given, specifying the adjacent defects detection capability. Also the parameters of the systems designed for 0.35 μm, 0.18 μm and 65 nm processes are described.

  5. Characterization of distinctive features of oceanic light fields associated with inelastic radiative processes in the near-surface, euphotic, and mesopelagic layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Linhai

    A thorough understanding of the oceanic light fields is required to support studies of various biological, chemical, and physical processes and phenomena in the ocean. The interaction of light with seawater and its constituents involves absorption (change of radiant energy into another form of energy), elastic scattering (change in light propagation direction but not wavelength), and inelastic radiative processes (change in light wavelength and propagation direction). The absorption and elastic scattering have been the primary research focus for decades. The inelastic processes have been less investigated and often ignored in oceanographic studies or applications. The inelastic processes, including Raman scattering and fluorescence, have been demonstrated to significantly affect the oceanic light fields. However, a systematic examination of these influences within different ocean layers is lacking. I studied the effects of inelastic processes on oceanic light fields in the near-surface (0-10 m), euphotic (0-200 m), and mesopelagic (200-1000 m) layers. I modeled the upwelling radiance within the top 10 m of the ocean surface layer. The inelastic processes dramatically affect the upwelling radiance and its attenuation coefficient in the red and near-infrared spectral regions, indicating that common approaches for estimating water-leaving radiance from extrapolating measurements of upwelling radiance are inadequate. A new strategy is proposed for more accurate in-situ determinations of water-leaving radiance, which is critical for ocean color applications. Using both a unique field dataset and radiative transfer modeling I examined the effects of inelastic processes in the euphotic layer. I demonstrate distinctive features caused by inelastic processes in the irradiance and radiance fields as well as apparent optical properties for realistic scenarios of optically non-uniform water column. I also demonstrate the role of inelastic processes in photosynthetically

  6. Surface Mesohighs and Mesolows.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Richard H.

    2001-01-01

    Through detailed and remarkably insightful analyses of surface data, Tetsuya Theodore Fujita pioneered modern mesoanalysis, unraveling many of the mysteries of severe storms. In this paper Fujita's contributions to the analysis and description of surface pressure features accompanying tornadic storms and squall lines are reviewed.On the scale of individual thunderstorm cells Fujita identified pressure couplets: a mesolow associated with the tornado cyclone and a mesohigh in the adjacent heavy precipitation area to the north. On larger scales, he found that squall lines contain mesohighs associated with the convective line and wake depressions (now generally called wake lows) to the rear of storms. Fujita documented the structure and life cycles of these phenomena using time-to-space conversion of barograph data.Subsequent investigations have borne out many of Fujita's findings of nearly 50 years ago. His analyses of the surface pressure field accompanying tornadic supercells have been validated by later studies, in part because of the advent of mobile mesonetworks. The analyses of squall-line mesohighs and wake lows have been confirmed and extended, particularly by advances in radar observations. These surface pressure features appear to be linked to processes both in the convective line and attendant stratiform precipitation regions, as well as to rear-inflow jets, gravity currents, and gravity waves, but specific roles of each of these phenomena in the formation of mesohighs and wake lows have yet to be fully resolved.

  7. Learning Non-Adjacent Regularities at Age 0 ; 7

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gervain, Judit; Werker, Janet F.

    2013-01-01

    One important mechanism suggested to underlie the acquisition of grammar is rule learning. Indeed, infants aged 0 ; 7 are able to learn rules based on simple identity relations (adjacent repetitions, ABB: "wo fe fe" and non-adjacent repetitions, ABA: "wo fe wo", respectively; Marcus et al., 1999). One unexplored issue is…

  8. View of north side from exterior stairs of adjacent building, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of north side from exterior stairs of adjacent building, bottom cut off by fringed buildings, view facing south-southwest - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Industrial X-Ray Building, Off Sixth Street, adjacent to and south of Facility No. 11, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  9. A Study of the Pronunciation of Words Containing Adjacent Vowels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greif, Ivo P.

    To determine the usefulness of the commonly taught phonics rule, "only pronounce the first vowel in words that contain adjacent vowels" (the VV rule, with the first "v" pronounced with the long vowel sound), two new studies applied it to words with adjacent vowels in several lists and dictionaries. The first study analyzed words containing…

  10. 47 CFR 90.221 - Adjacent channel power limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Adjacent channel power limits. 90.221 Section 90.221 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES General Technical Standards § 90.221 Adjacent channel...

  11. 47 CFR 90.221 - Adjacent channel power limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Adjacent channel power limits. 90.221 Section 90.221 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES General Technical Standards § 90.221 Adjacent channel...

  12. 30 CFR 57.14109 - Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways... conveyors with adjacent travelways. Unguarded conveyors next to travelways shall be equipped with— (a) Emergency stop devices which are located so that a person falling on or against the conveyor can...

  13. 30 CFR 56.14109 - Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways... MINES Machinery and Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14109 Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways. Unguarded conveyors next to the travelways shall be equipped with—...

  14. 30 CFR 56.14109 - Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways... MINES Machinery and Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14109 Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways. Unguarded conveyors next to the travelways shall be equipped with—...

  15. 30 CFR 57.14109 - Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways... conveyors with adjacent travelways. Unguarded conveyors next to travelways shall be equipped with— (a) Emergency stop devices which are located so that a person falling on or against the conveyor can...

  16. 30 CFR 56.14109 - Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways... MINES Machinery and Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14109 Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways. Unguarded conveyors next to the travelways shall be equipped with—...

  17. 30 CFR 57.14109 - Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways... conveyors with adjacent travelways. Unguarded conveyors next to travelways shall be equipped with— (a) Emergency stop devices which are located so that a person falling on or against the conveyor can...

  18. 30 CFR 56.14109 - Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways... MINES Machinery and Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14109 Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways. Unguarded conveyors next to the travelways shall be equipped with—...

  19. 30 CFR 56.14109 - Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways... MINES Machinery and Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14109 Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways. Unguarded conveyors next to the travelways shall be equipped with—...

  20. 30 CFR 57.14109 - Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways... conveyors with adjacent travelways. Unguarded conveyors next to travelways shall be equipped with— (a) Emergency stop devices which are located so that a person falling on or against the conveyor can...

  1. 30 CFR 57.14109 - Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways... conveyors with adjacent travelways. Unguarded conveyors next to travelways shall be equipped with— (a) Emergency stop devices which are located so that a person falling on or against the conveyor can...

  2. Immunohistochemical analysis of ras oncogene p21 product in human gastric carcinomas and their adjacent mucosas.

    PubMed

    Carneiro, F; David, L; Sunkel, C; Lopes, C; Sobrinho-Simões, M

    1992-04-01

    In an attempt to clarify the relationship between ras oncogene expression and the clinico-pathological features of malignant and pre-malignant lesions of the stomach we undertook the immunohistochemical study of the expression of ras gene p21 product in a series of eighty gastric carcinomas and their respective adjacent mucosas. In two cases the mRNA of Ha-ras was also studied by in situ hybridization. The majority of gastric carcinomas as well as their adjacent non-neoplastic mucosas expressed ras gene product. There was a significant relationship between the expression of ras gene p21 product and the morphologic pattern of the tumours. An enhanced ras expression was found in several conditions regarded as precursor lesions of intestinal and/or diffuse types of gastric carcinoma (dysplasia, foveolar hyperplasia and even the neck zone of normal-appearing gastric glands, namely in the mucosa adjacent to diffuse carcinomas). Ras expression was actually more prominent in most of these conditions than in their respective adjacent carcinomas. No significant relationship was found between ras expression and invasiveness of the wall, nodal metastases and venous invasion.

  3. Geomorphology and structural geology of Saturnalia Fossae and adjacent structures in the northern hemisphere of Vesta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scully, Jennifer E. C.; Yin, A.; Russell, C. T.; Buczkowski, D. L.; Williams, D. A.; Blewett, D. T.; Ruesch, O.; Hiesinger, H.; Le Corre, L.; Mercer, C.; Yingst, R. A.; Garry, W. B.; Jaumann, R.; Roatsch, T.; Preusker, F.; Gaskell, R. W.; Schröder, S. E.; Ammannito, E.; Pieters, C. M.; Raymond, C. A.

    2014-12-01

    Vesta is a unique, intermediate class of rocky body in the Solar System, between terrestrial planets and small asteroids, because of its size (average radius of ∼263 km) and differentiation, with a crust, mantle and core. Vesta's low surface gravity (0.25 m/s2) has led to the continual absence of a protective atmosphere and consequently impact cratering and impact-related processes are prevalent. Previous work has shown that the formation of the Rheasilvia impact basin induced the equatorial Divalia Fossae, whereas the formation of the Veneneia impact basin induced the northern Saturnalia Fossae. Expanding upon this earlier work, we conducted photogeologic mapping of the Saturnalia Fossae, adjacent structures and geomorphic units in two of Vesta's northern quadrangles: Caparronia and Domitia. Our work indicates that impact processes created and/or modified all mapped structures and geomorphic units. The mapped units, ordered from oldest to youngest age based mainly on cross-cutting relationships, are: (1) Vestalia Terra unit, (2) cratered highlands unit, (3) Saturnalia Fossae trough unit, (4) Saturnalia Fossae cratered unit, (5) undifferentiated ejecta unit, (6) dark lobate unit, (7) dark crater ray unit and (8) lobate crater unit. The Saturnalia Fossae consist of five separate structures: Saturnalia Fossa A is the largest (maximum width of ∼43 km) and is interpreted as a graben, whereas Saturnalia Fossa B-E are smaller (maximum width of ∼15 km) and are interpreted as half grabens formed by synthetic faults. Smaller, second-order structures (maximum width of <1 km) are distinguished from the Saturnalia Fossae, a first-order structure, by the use of the general descriptive term 'adjacent structures', which encompasses minor ridges, grooves and crater chains. For classification purposes, the general descriptive term 'minor ridges' characterizes ridges that are not part of the Saturnalia Fossae and are an order of magnitude smaller (maximum width of <1 km vs

  4. Matrix intensification alters avian functional group composition in adjacent rainforest fragments.

    PubMed

    Deikumah, Justus P; McAlpine, Clive A; Maron, Martine

    2013-01-01

    Conversion of farmland land-use matrices to surface mining is an increasing threat to the habitat quality of forest remnants and their constituent biota, with consequences for ecosystem functionality. We evaluated the effects of matrix type on bird community composition and the abundance and evenness within avian functional groups in south-west Ghana. We hypothesized that surface mining near remnants may result in a shift in functional composition of avifaunal communities, potentially disrupting ecological processes within tropical forest ecosystems. Matrix intensification and proximity to the remnant edge strongly influenced the abundance of members of several functional guilds. Obligate frugivores, strict terrestrial insectivores, lower and upper strata birds, and insect gleaners were most negatively affected by adjacent mining matrices, suggesting certain ecosystem processes such as seed dispersal may be disrupted by landscape change in this region. Evenness of these functional guilds was also lower in remnants adjacent to surface mining, regardless of the distance from remnant edge, with the exception of strict terrestrial insectivores. These shifts suggest matrix intensification can influence avian functional group composition and related ecosystem-level processes in adjacent forest remnants. The management of matrix habitat quality near and within mine concessions is important for improving efforts to preserveavian biodiversity in landscapes undergoing intensification such as through increased surface mining.

  5. Surface- and Ground-Water Monitoring and Mapping of Selected Features at the Blue Ridge Parkway Mt. Pisgah Campground, Haywood County, North Carolina, 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Douglas G.

    2004-01-01

    During 2002, a baseline study of hydrologic conditions was conducted, and selected features were mapped within the Mt. Pisgah campground on the Blue Ridge Parkway in Haywood County, North Carolina. Field surveys were performed by using global positioning system equipment one time (January 2002) during the study to locate hydrologic and other types of features in the study area. Water-level and streamflow data and seasonal water-quality samples were collected from a stream that receives all surface-water drainage from the campground area. During 2002, water levels (stage) in the stream ranged from 1.09 to 1.89 feet above gage datum (4,838.06 to 4,838.86 feet above mean sea level). Flow in the stream ranged from 0.05 to 9.7 cubic feet per second. Annual daily mean flow for calendar year 2002 was approximately 0.35 cubic foot per second (about 226,000 gallons per day). Samples collected from the stream had low concentrations of all constituents measured. Four compounds associated with human activity (camphor, N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide (the insect repellent DEET), tributylphosphate, and methylsalicylate) were detected in the stream samples; however, concentrations were less than detection levels. Stream samples collected in April and September and analyzed for fecal coliform bacteria had densities of 76 and 110 colonies per 100 milliliters of water, respectively. No violations of water-quality standards were noted for any constituent measured in the stream samples. Seven shallow ground-water wells were installed near a natural area in the center of the campground. Ground-water levels measured periodically in these wells and in two existing shallow piezometers generally were highest in the spring and lowest in the fall. Water temperature, pH, and specific conductance were measured in samples collected from the shallow wells in April and September 2002. Measured pH values were consistently lowest in samples from two wells on the west side of the natural area and highest

  6. Hydrogeologic characteristics of the alluvial aquifer and adjacent deposits of the Fountain Creek valley, El Paso County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Radell, Mary Jo; Lewis, Michael E.; Watts, Kenneth R.

    1994-01-01

    The alluvial aquifer in Fountain Creek Valley between Colorado Springs and Widefield is the source for several public-supply systems. Because of the importance of this aquifer, defining aquifer boundaries, areas where underflow occurs, and where Fountain Creek is hydraulically connected to the aquifer will greatly add to the understanding of the alluvial aquifer and management of the public- supply systems. Bedrock altitude, water-table altitude for October 1991, saturated thickness for October 1991, selected hydrogeologic sections in the alluvial aquifer and adjacent deposits of the Fountain Creek Valley, and estimated underflow rates are mapped or tabulated for the area between Colorado Springs and Widefield, Colorado. Results from test drilling indicate that the bedrock surface is highly irregular and that several ridges and buried channels exist in the study area. These features affect the direction of ground-water flow on a local scale. In places, a shale ridge prevents exchange of water between Fountain Creek and the aquifer. Generally, ground water flowed toward Fountain Creek during the study (June 1991 to September 1992) in response to relatively high hydraulic heads in the aquifer and the steep gradients on the boundaries of the study area. Water levels, which were measured monthly, varied little during the study, except in areas near pumping wells or adjacent to Fountain Creek. Hydraulic-conductivity values, estimated from 30 bail tests in wells completed in the alluvial aquifer, were used to determine underflow across the saturated boundaries of the alluvial aquifer. Estimated hydraulic-conductivity values range from 1 to about 1,300 feet per day; the larger values occur in the buried channel of the alluvial aquifer and the smaller values occur near the boundaries of the saturated alluvium. Estimated underflow into the study area exceeded underflow out of the study area by about 10 times. Gain-loss investigations along Fountain Creek indicated that the

  7. Enhanced MC3T3-E1 preosteoblast response and bone formation on the addition of nano-needle and nano-porous features to microtopographical titanium surfaces.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, X-M; Zhou, B; Ouyang, J-L; Sun, H-P; Wu, Y-L; Liu, Q; Deng, F-L

    2014-08-01

    Micro/nanotopographical modifications on titanium surfaces constitute a new process to increase osteoblast response to enhance bone formation. In this study, we utilized alkali heat treatment at high (SB-AH1) and low temperatures (SB-AH2) to nano-modify sandblasted titanium with microtopographical surfaces. Then, we evaluated the surface properties, biocompatibility and osteogenic capability of SB-AH1 and SB-AH2 in vitro and in vivo, and compared these with conventional sandblast-acid etching (SLA) and Ti control surfaces. SB-AH1 and SB-AH2 surfaces exhibited micro/nanotopographical modifications of nano-needle structures and nano-porous network layers, respectively, compared with the sole microtopographical surface of macro and micro pits on the SLA surface and the relatively smooth surface on the Ti control. SB-AH1 and SB-AH2 showed different roughness and elemental components, but similar wettability. MC3T3-E1 preosteoblasts anchored closely on the nanostructures of SB-AH1 and SB-AH2 surfaces, and these two surfaces more significantly enhanced cell proliferation and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity than others, while the SB-AH2 surface exhibited better cell proliferation and higher ALP activity than SB-AH1. All four groups of titanium domes with self-tapping screws were implanted in rabbit calvarial bone models, and these indicated that SB-AH1 and SB-AH2 surfaces achieved better peri-implant bone formation and implant stability, while the SB-AH2 surface achieved the best percentage of bone-implant contact (BIC%). Our study demonstrated that the micro/nanotopographical surface generated by sandblasting and alkali heat treatment significantly enhanced preosteoblast proliferation, ALP activity and bone formation in vitro and in vivo, and nano-porous network topography may further induce better preosteoblast proliferation, ALP activity and BIC%.

  8. PIXE analysis of elements in gastric cancer and adjacent mucosa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Qixin; Zhong, Ming; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Yan, Lingnuo; Xu, Yongling; Ye, Simao

    1990-04-01

    The elemental regional distributions in 20 resected human stomach tissues were obtained using PIXE analysis. The samples were pathologically divided into four types: normal, adjacent mucosa A, adjacent mucosa B and cancer. The targets for PIXE analysis were prepared by wet digestion with a pressure bomb system. P, K, Fe, Cu, Zn and Se were measured and statistically analysed. We found significantly higher concentrations of P, K, Cu, Zn and a higher ratio of Cu compared to Zn in cancer tissue as compared with normal tissue, but statistically no significant difference between adjacent mucosa and cancer tissue was found.

  9. Thermoelastic response of thin metal films and their adjacent materials

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, S.; Yoon, Y.; Kim, J.; Kim, W.

    2013-01-14

    A pulsed laser beam applied to a thin metal film is capable of launching an acoustic wave due to thermal expansion. Heat transfer from the thin metal film to adjacent materials can also induce thermal expansion; thus, the properties of these adjacent materials (as well as the thin metal film) should be considered for a complete description of the thermoelastic response. Here, we show that adjacent materials with a small specific heat and large thermal expansion coefficient can generate an enhanced acoustic wave and we demonstrate a three-fold increase in the peak pressure of the generated acoustic wave on substitution of parylene for polydimethylsiloxane.

  10. Survival of Escherichia coli 0157:H7 in topographical features on stainless steel surfaces from gas and liquid phase chemical treatments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To identify microenvironments that harbor and potentially protect pathogens from intervention strategies and in turn become a source of microbial recontamination. Examining factors such as fluid dynamics and topographical features which form microenvironments and promote pathogen survival will all...

  11. Chill-Bar Assembly For Cooling Areas Adjacent To Welds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, David S.; Mcferrin, David C.; Coby, J. Ben, Jr.; Gangl, Kenneth J.; Dawson, Sidney G.

    1996-01-01

    Assembly of custom-shaped water-cooled chill bars developed for use during repair process in which cracks and pinholes in rocket-engine combustion chamber welded closed. Held in required relative geometric relationships by rigid framework, chill bars pressed against surface of chamber to conduct heat away from areas surrounding welds, preventing damage caused by overheating of areas not meant to be welded. Design features beneficial in other welding applications; for example, manufacture and repair of pressure vessels, chemical-processing vessels, and complexly shaped laboratory vacuum vessels.

  12. The dynamics of innovation through the expansion in the adjacent possible

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tria, F.

    2016-03-01

    The experience of something new is part of our daily life. At different scales, innovation is also a crucial feature of many biological, technological and social systems. Recently, large databases witnessing human activities allowed the observation that novelties -such as the individual process of listening a song for the first time- and innovation processes -such as the fixation of new genes in a population of bacteria- share striking statistical regularities. We here indicate the expansion into the adjacent possible as a very general and powerful mechanism able to explain such regularities. Further, we will identify statistical signatures of the presence of the expansion into the adjacent possible in the analyzed datasets, and we will show that our modeling scheme is able to predict remarkably well these observations.

  13. A Voronoi interior adjacency-based approach for generating a contour tree

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jun; Qiao, Chaofei; Zhao, Renliang

    2004-05-01

    A contour tree is a good graphical tool for representing the spatial relations of contour lines and has found many applications in map generalization, map annotation, terrain analysis, etc. A new approach for generating contour trees by introducing a Voronoi-based interior adjacency set concept is proposed in this paper. The immediate interior adjacency set is employed to identify all of the children contours of each contour without contour elevations. It has advantages over existing methods such as the point-in-polygon method and the region growing-based method. This new approach can be used for spatial data mining and knowledge discovering, such as the automatic extraction of terrain features and construction of multi-resolution digital elevation model.

  14. Overall view of tower and adjacent aircraft shelters on flight ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Overall view of tower and adjacent aircraft shelters on flight line. View to east. - Plattsburgh Air Force Base, Security Guard Tower, Florida Street at Aircraft Shelters Area, Plattsburgh, Clinton County, NY

  15. Interior building details of Building A, dungeon cell adjacent to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior building details of Building A, dungeon cell adjacent to northwest cell: granite and brick threshold, poured concrete floors, plastered finished walls, vaulted veiling; northwesterly view - San Quentin State Prison, Building 22, Point San Quentin, San Quentin, Marin County, CA

  16. 10. View north from the adjacent B & O railroad ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. View north from the adjacent B & O railroad bridge of portion of the Main truss span over the reservoir of the Augustine Paper Mills, National Register Site. - Augustine Bridge, Brandywine River,Augustine Cutoff, Wilmington, New Castle County, DE

  17. Lock 4 View east of lock wall and adjacent ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Lock 4 - View east of lock wall and adjacent roadway built atop tow path. The gate pocket can be seen at center. - Savannah & Ogeechee Barge Canal, Between Ogeechee & Savannah Rivers, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  18. 1. A BRICK AND CONCRETE FAN HOUSING ADJACENT TO ONE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. A BRICK AND CONCRETE FAN HOUSING ADJACENT TO ONE OF THE ADIT OPENINGS (VIEW TO THE NORTH). - Foster Gulch Mine, Fan Housing, Bear Creek 1 mile Southwest of Town of Bear Creek, Red Lodge, Carbon County, MT

  19. 1. VIEW FROM ROOFTOP OF BUILDING (MOTEL) ADJACENT TO TECHWOOD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW FROM ROOFTOP OF BUILDING (MOTEL) ADJACENT TO TECHWOOD HOMES, LOOKING SOUTH. GARAGE TO EXTREME LEFT, BUILDING 1 TO EXTREME RIGHT. - Techwood Homes (Public Housing), Bounded by North Avenue, Parker Street, William Street & Lovejoy Street, Atlanta, Fulton County, GA

  20. VIEW FROM ROOFTOP OF BUILDING (MOTEL) ADJACENT TO TECHWOOD HOMES, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW FROM ROOFTOP OF BUILDING (MOTEL) ADJACENT TO TECHWOOD HOMES, LOOKING SOUTH. GARAGE TO EXTREME LEFT, BUILDING 1 TO EXTREME RIGHT. - Techwood Homes, Building No. 16, 488-514 Techwood Drive, Atlanta, Fulton County, GA

  1. View from water showing south facade and adjacent boat slips ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View from water showing south facade and adjacent boat slips (Facility Nos. S375 & S376) - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Boat House, Hornet Avenue at Independence Street, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  2. Cement Leakage into Adjacent Vertebral Body Following Percutaneous Vertebroplasty.

    PubMed

    Park, Jae Hoo; Kim, Hyeun Sung; Kim, Seok Won

    2016-06-01

    Percutaneous vertebroplasty (PV) is a minimally invasive procedure for osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures that fail to respond to conventional conservative treatment. It significantly improves intolerable back pain within hours, and has a low complication rate. Although rare, PV is not free of complications, most of which are directly related to cement leakage. Because of its association with new adjacent fracture, the importance of cement leakage into the adjacent disc space is paramount. Here, we report an interesting case of cement leakage into the adjacent upper vertebral body as well as disc space following PV. To the best of our knowledge, there has been no report of cement leakage into the adjacent vertebral body following PV. This rare case is presented along with a review of the literature.

  3. 15. View north from the adjacent B & O railroad ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. View north from the adjacent B & O railroad bridge of Pier No. 5 and portion of the deck and super-structure. - Augustine Bridge, Brandywine River,Augustine Cutoff, Wilmington, New Castle County, DE

  4. 7. View north from the adjacent B & O railroad ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. View north from the adjacent B & O railroad bridge of Pier No. 1 and portions of the deck and super-structure. - Augustine Bridge, Brandywine River,Augustine Cutoff, Wilmington, New Castle County, DE

  5. 8. View north from the adjacent B & O railroad ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. View north from the adjacent B & O railroad bridge of Pier No. 2 and portions of the deck and super-structure. - Augustine Bridge, Brandywine River,Augustine Cutoff, Wilmington, New Castle County, DE

  6. VIEW OF NORTHERN AND EASTERN SIDES FROM PARKING LOT ADJACENT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF NORTHERN AND EASTERN SIDES FROM PARKING LOT ADJACENT TO BUILDING 199 (POLICE STATION) - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Post Office, Avenue A near Eleventh Avenue, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  7. Basement, room 23, looking southwest into two adjacent offices with ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Basement, room 23, looking southwest into two adjacent offices with soundproof walls and pedestal flooring - March Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command, Combat Operations Center, 5220 Riverside Drive, Moreno Valley, Riverside County, CA

  8. 3. View of north side of house facing from adjacent ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. View of north side of house facing from adjacent vacant property. Original wood lap siding and trim is covered by aluminum siding. Recessed side porch is in middle. - 645 South Eighteenth Street (House), Louisville, Jefferson County, KY

  9. View of viaduct, looking SE from roof of adjacent parking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of viaduct, looking SE from roof of adjacent parking garage. - Mulberry Street Viaduct, Spanning Paxton Creek & Cameron Street (State Route 230) at Mulberry Street (State Route 3012), Harrisburg, Dauphin County, PA

  10. 1. Ninth Street (west) facade. Adjacent on the north is ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Ninth Street (west) facade. Adjacent on the north is the 9th Street facade of 816 E Street. Both buildings were originally one property. - Riley Building, Rendezvous Adult Magazines & Films, 437 Ninth Street, Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  11. 6. Detail, vertical guides adjacent to east portal of Tunnel ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Detail, vertical guides adjacent to east portal of Tunnel 28, view to southwest, 135mm lens with electronic flash fill. - Central Pacific Transcontinental Railroad, Tunnel No. 28, Milepost 134.75, Applegate, Placer County, CA

  12. VIEW OF LAMP FIXTURE (EXTERIOR) ADJACENT TO ENTRANCE AT SOUTHWEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF LAMP FIXTURE (EXTERIOR) ADJACENT TO ENTRANCE AT SOUTHWEST CORNER OF BUILDING 23, FACING NORTH - Roosevelt Base, Auditorium-Gymnasium, West Virginia Street between Richardson & Reeves Avenues, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  13. 73. PASSAGE ADJACENT TO ROOM 232, EAST WING, SECOND FLOOR, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    73. PASSAGE ADJACENT TO ROOM 232, EAST WING, SECOND FLOOR, LOOKING WEST BY NORTHWEST, SHOWING EASTERNMOST ARCH OF FORMER GREAT HALL NORTH ARCADE - Smithsonian Institution Building, 1000 Jefferson Drive, between Ninth & Twelfth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  14. Detail exterior view looking north showing piping system adjacent to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail exterior view looking north showing piping system adjacent to engine house. Gas cooling system is on far right. - Burnsville Natural Gas Pumping Station, Saratoga Avenue between Little Kanawha River & C&O Railroad line, Burnsville, Braxton County, WV

  15. 52. EASTSIDE PLANT: GENERAL VIEW OF GOVERNOR ADJACENT TO GENERATOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    52. EASTSIDE PLANT: GENERAL VIEW OF GOVERNOR ADJACENT TO GENERATOR - American Falls Water, Power & Light Company, Island Power Plant, Snake River, below American Falls Dam, American Falls, Power County, ID

  16. OBLIQUE OF SOUTHWEST END AND SOUTHEAST SIDE, WITH ADJACENT FACILITY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE OF SOUTHWEST END AND SOUTHEAST SIDE, WITH ADJACENT FACILITY 391 IN THE FOREGROUND. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Joint Intelligence Center, Makalapa Drive in Makalapa Administration Area, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  17. Brick incinerator structure located adjacent to "motor courts." This example ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Brick incinerator structure located adjacent to "motor courts." This example is located between Buildings 26 and 27. Facing northeast - Harbor Hills Housing Project, 26607 Western Avenue, Lomita, Los Angeles County, CA

  18. 7. August, 1970 9 ORANGE STREET, ADJACENT TO UNITARIAN CHURCH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. August, 1970 9 ORANGE STREET, ADJACENT TO UNITARIAN CHURCH (NOT IN STUDY AREA) - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  19. VIEW FROM ROOFTOP OF BUILDING (MOTEL) ADJACENT TO TECHWOOD HOME, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW FROM ROOFTOP OF BUILDING (MOTEL) ADJACENT TO TECHWOOD HOME, LOOKING WEST. GEORGIA TECH DORMITORY BUILDING, 581-587 TECHWOOD DRIVE, IN FOREGROUND. - Techwood Homes, Building No. 16, 488-514 Techwood Drive, Atlanta, Fulton County, GA

  20. 72. View of reservoir adjacent to south wall of blowing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    72. View of reservoir adjacent to south wall of blowing engine house where water from furnaces was allowed to cool. - Sloss-Sheffield Steel & Iron, First Avenue North Viaduct at Thirty-second Street, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  1. Metal content of biopsies adjacent to dental cast alloys.

    PubMed

    Garhammer, Pauline; Schmalz, G; Hiller, K-A; Reitinger, T

    2003-06-01

    Single case reports indicate that components of dental alloys accumulate in the adjacent soft tissue of the oral cavity. However, data on a wider range of dental alloys and patient groups are scarce. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to examine the metal content of oral tissues adjacent to dental alloys showing persisting signs of inflammation or other discoloration (affected sites) and of healthy control sites with no adjacent metal restoration in 28 patients. The composition of the adjacent alloys was analyzed and compared to the alloy components in the affected sites. Tissue analysis was performed using atomic absorption spectroscopy. Alloy analysis was performed with energy-dispersive X-ray analysis. In the affected sites, the metals Ag, Au, Cu, and Pd prevailed compared to control sites, reflecting the frequency distribution of single metals in the adjacent alloys. In most cases (84%), at least one of the analyzed metals was a component of the alloy and also detected in the tissue. Metal components from almost all dental cast alloys can be detected in adjacent tissue.

  2. Seismotectonics of Northeastern United States and adjacent Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, J.; Aggarwal, Y.P.

    1981-06-10

    Data for local earthquakes recorded by a network of stations in northeastern United States and adjacent Canada were analyzed to study the seismicity, the relationship between earthquakes and known faults, the state of stress, and crustal and upper mantle velocity structure. In addition, portable seismographs were deployed in the field to study aftershocks. As a result, accurate locations for about 364 local earthquakes (2< or =m/sub b/< or =5) and 22 focal mechanism solutions were determined. A comparison of the spatial distribution of these events (1970--1979) with historical earthquakes (1534--1959) reveals that seismic activity in the northeast is relatively stationary in space: those areas that have had little or no seismicity historically are relatively aseismic today, whereas the historically active areas are also active today. The instrumental locations, historical seismicity, and focal mechanism solutions show an internal consistency that help us distinguish two distinct seismogenic provinces. (1) The Adirondack-western Quebec province is a northwesterly trending zone of seismic activity, about 200 km wide and at least 500 km long, extending from the SE Adirondacks into western Quebec, Canada. Thrust faulting on planes striking NNW to NW appears to predominate, and the inferred axis of maximum horizontal compression is largely uniform and trends WSW, nearly parallel to the calculated absolute plate motion of North America. Little or no seismicity is found where anorthosite outcrops at the surface. Correlations between gravity anomalies and earthquake locations suggest that seismic activity in this zone is localized to regions of steep NE or SW gradient in Bouguer anomalies. This zone does not appear to extend southeastward to Boston, as proposed by some workers. (2) The Appalachian province is a northeasterly trending zone of seismic activity extending from northern Virginia to New Brunswick, Canada.

  3. Development and functional evaluation of biomimetic silicone surfaces with hierarchical micro/nano-topographical features demonstrates favourable in vitro foreign body response of breast-derived fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Kyle, Daniel J T; Oikonomou, Antonios; Hill, Ernie; Bayat, Ardeshir

    2015-06-01

    Reproducing extracellular matrix topographical cues, such as those present within acellular dermal matrix (ADM), in synthetic implant surfaces, may augment cellular responses, independent of surface chemistry. This could lead to enhanced implant integration and performance while reducing complications. In this work, the hierarchical micro and nanoscale features of ADM were accurately and reproducibly replicated in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), using an innovative maskless 3D grayscale fabrication process not previously reported. Human breast derived fibroblasts (n=5) were cultured on PDMS surfaces and compared to commercially available smooth and textured silicone implant surfaces, for up to one week. Cell attachment, proliferation and cytotoxicity, in addition to immunofluorescence staining, SEM imaging, qRT-PCR and cytokine array were performed. ADM PDMS surfaces promoted cell adhesion, proliferation and survival (p=<0.05), in addition to increased focal contact formation and spread fibroblast morphology when compared to commercially available implant surfaces. PCNA, vinculin and collagen 1 were up-regulated in fibroblasts on biomimetic surfaces while IL8, TNFα, TGFβ1 and HSP60 were down-regulated (p=<0.05). A reduced inflammatory cytokine response was also observed (p=<0.05). This study represents a novel approach to the development of functionalised biomimetic prosthetic implant surfaces which were demonstrated to significantly attenuate the acute in vitro foreign body reaction to silicone.

  4. A field study of the effects of inhomogeneities of surface sensible and latent heat fluxes

    SciTech Connect

    Doran, J.C.; Barnes, F.J.; Coulter, R.L.; Crawford, T.L.

    1992-01-01

    In recent years, the problem of characterizing turbulent fluxes of heat, momentum, and moisture over inhomogeneous surfaces has received increasing attention. This issue is relevant to the performance of general circulation models (GCMs), in which a single grid element can encompass a variety of surface and topographical features. Although considerable progress has been made in describing the energy balance at a surface partially covered by vegetation, less is known about how to treat adjacent regions of sharply contrasting surface characteristics. One difficulty is the scarcity of suitable data sets with which to study the problem, particularly on scales of tens to hundreds of kilometers.

  5. Hydrologic Connection Between Geysers and Adjacent Thermal Pools, Two Examples: El Tatio, Chile and Yellowstone, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munoz Saez, C.; Fauria, K.; Manga, M.; Hurwitz, S.; Namiki, A.

    2014-12-01

    Geyser eruption cycles can be influenced by adjacent and distant thermals sources, suggesting a hydraulic connection through permeable pathways. Diffusion of fluid pressure can be responsible for the communication between geysers. In this study we examine the processes linking two different geysers with adjacent thermal pools. The first was Vega Rinconada, located at El Tatio geyser field, Chile, where we measured temperature inside the conduit between the ground surface and a depth of seven meters, at one-meter intervals. The second was Lone Star Geyser in Yellowstone National Park, where we measured temperature of the overflow water at the base of the cone. Concurrently, we measured temperature and the water level in pools adjacent to both geysers. We found common elements in both geyser - pool systems: First, water temperature in both adjacent pools was below the boiling point and cooler than water in the geysers. Second, changes in pool water levels were correlated with eruptions of the geysers. During the quiescent period of the geysers, the water level increased in adjacent pools, while water level in the pools deceased during eruptions. Additionally, measurements inside of the conduit in Vega Rinconada Geyser showed that water temperature increased in the deepest part of the conduit during eruptions, while water temperature decreased in the shallow part of the geyser conduit (~1 to 2 m). These drops in temperature in the shallow conduit were coincident with the drop in water level in the adjacent pool. This suggests that after the initiation of an eruption, water may drain from the pool to the geyser. Furthermore, we observed a temperature drop of 3oC in the shallow conduit immediately preceding the end of an eruption. This suggests that flow from the pool to geyser contributes to eruption shut off. Our observations of geyser-pool systems indicate a hydrologic connection between the geysers and their adjacent pools. In the case of Vega Rinconada, cold water

  6. Towards a better understanding of Martian surface processes: zooming in for a quantitative assessment of key geomorphological features from super-resolution HiRISE images in comparison to overlapping rover Navcam image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Y.; Muller, J.-P.

    2015-10-01

    We have performed a quantitative study on automatically detected geomorphological features from MRO HiRISE orthorectified image st 25cm, a 5cm super-resolution resolved HiRISE image and MER-A Navcam orthorectified image to demonstrate one of the advantages of using our novel Gotcha- PDE-TV (GPT) super-resolution restoration (SRR) technique to better understand Martian surface processes.

  7. Influence of grain orientation on evolution of surface features in fatigued polycrystalline copper: A comparison of thermal and uniaxial mechanical fatigue results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aicheler, Markus

    2010-07-01

    Surface state plays a major role in the crack nucleation process of pure metals in the High-Cycle-Fatigue (HCF) as well as in the Ultra-High-Cycle-Fatigue (UHCF) regime. Therefore, in studies dealing with HCF or UHCF, special attention is paid to the evolution of surface degradation during fatigue life. The accelerating structures of the future Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) under study at CERN will be submitted to a high number of thermal-mechanical fatigue cycles, arising from Radio Frequency (RF) induced eddy currents, causing local superficial cyclic heating. The number of cycles during the foreseen lifetime of CLIC reaches 2×1011. Fatigue may limit the lifetime of CLIC structures. In order to assess the effects of superficial fatigue, specific tests are defined and performed on polycrystalline Oxygen Free Electronic (OFE) grade Copper, a candidate material for the structures. Surface degradation depends on the orientation of near-surface grains. Copper samples thermally fatigued in two different fatigue experiments, pulsed laser and pulsed RF-heating, underwent postmortem Electron Backscattered Diffraction measurements. Samples fatigued by pulsed laser show the same trend in the orientation-fatigue damage behavior as samples fatigued by pulsed RF-heating. It is clearly observed that surface grains, oriented [1 1 1] with respect to the surface, show significantly more damage than surface grains oriented [1 0 0]. Results arising from a third fatigue experiment, the ultrasound (US) swinger, are compared to the results of the mentioned experiments. The US swinger is an uniaxial mechanical fatigue test enabling to apply within several days a total number of cycles representative of the life of the CLIC structures, thanks to a high repetition rate of 24 kHz. For comparison, laser fatigue experiments have much lower repetition rates. The dependence of surface degradation on grain orientation of samples tested by the US swinger was monitored during the fatigue life

  8. Testing wetland axioms at a watershed scale: Case studies of the aggregate hydrologic effects of non-adjacent wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evenson, G.; Golden, H. E.; Lane, C.; D'Amico, E.

    2015-12-01

    Wetlands not adjacent to streams (i.e. "non-adjacent wetlands") are hypothesized to affect downgradient hydrology in a number of ways. Non-adjacent wetlands may, for example, attenuate peak flows, serve as focal points for groundwater recharge, and decrease streamflow variability. The lack of spatially and temporally continuous data elucidating these relationships makes hydrological models an important medium for testing these hypotheses at broad spatial scales (e.g., mesoscale watersheds). We present results from two case studies that apply a hydrological model modified to represent non-adjacent wetland hydrological processes and thereby evaluate their watershed-scale aggregate hydrological effects. We focus on non-adjacent wetlands in two North American landscapes: (1) a ~202 km2 watershed in the Coastal Plain with an extensive distribution of Carolina Bay wetlands and (2) a ~1672 km2 watershed in the Great Plains, which is characterized by a dense distribution of landscape depressions (i.e., prairie potholes). Preliminary results suggest that non-adjacent wetlands significantly affect downgradient hydrology in both landscapes - specifically the baseflow and quickflow components of the hydrograph. However, the emergent watershed-scale hydrological effects of non-adjacent wetlands in the two diverse landscapes differ widely, primarily in response to the varying importance of wetland (e.g., discharge, recharge, flow-through) and wetland to stream transport (e.g., surface, shallow subsurface, deep groundwater flows) functions in these systems. We highlight the watershed-scale hydrological effects of non-adjacent wetlands in these two physiographic settings and describe the need for additional analyses of wetlands in disparate landscapes, using alternative conceptual and simulation models.

  9. Biomechanical effects of pedicle screw fixation on adjacent segments.

    PubMed

    Kyaw, Thein Aung; Wang, Zhuo; Sakakibara, Toshihiko; Yoshikawa, Takamasa; Inaba, Tadashi; Kasai, Yuichi

    2014-07-01

    Various biomechanical investigations have attempted to clarify the aetiology of adjacent segment disease (ASD). However, no biomechanical study has examined in detail the deformation behaviour of the adjacent segments when both pure torque and an angular displacement load are applied to the vertebrae along multiple segments. The purpose of this study is to investigate the biomechanical effects of pedicle screw fixation on adjacent segments. Ten cadaveric lumbar spines (L2-L5) of boars were used. Control and fusion models were prepared by disc damage and pedicle screw fixation of each specimen, and then, bending and rotation tests were performed using a six-axis material tester. In the biomechanical tests regulated by an angular displacement load, the range of motion (ROM) of the cranial and caudal adjacent segments in antero-posterior flexion and lateral bending was increased by about 20 % (p < 0.05), and the maximal torque in the fusion model was about threefold (p < 0.05) that in the control model. And in axial rotation, the ROM of cranial and caudal adjacent segments was increased by about 100 % (p < 0.001), and the maximal torque was about sixfold (p < 0.01) that in the control model. The ROM of adjacent segments was significantly increased after pedicle screw fixation as assessed by biomechanical tests regulated by an angular displacement load, but not in those regulated by torque. We present the results of biomechanical tests regulated by torque and angular displacement and show that the maximum torque of the fusion model was larger than that of the control model in the biomechanical test regulated by an angular displacement load, suggesting that mechanical stress on the segments adjacent to the fused segment is large. We think that ASD arises after spinal fusion surgery as a mechanism to compensate for the ROM lost due to excessive fusion by pedicle screw fixation, so that a large torque may be applied to adjacent segments within a physiologically

  10. Bridging arsenate surface complexes on the hematite (012) surface.

    SciTech Connect

    Catalano, J. G.; Zhang, Z.; Park, C.; Fenter, P.; Bedzyk, M. J.; Chemistry; Northwestern Univ.

    2007-04-15

    The fate of the oxoanion arsenate in diverse systems is strongly affected by its adsorption on the surfaces of iron (oxyhydr)oxide minerals. Predicting this behavior in the environment requires an understanding of the mechanisms of arsenate adsorption. In this study, the binding site and adsorption geometry of arsenate on the hematite (012) surface is investigated. The structure and termination of the hematite (012)-water interface were determined by high resolution X-ray reflectivity, revealing that two distinct terminations exist in a roughly 3:1 proportion. The occurrence of multiple terminations appears to be a result of sample preparation, and is not intrinsic to the hematite (012) surface. X-ray standing wave (XSW) measurements were used to determine the registry of adsorbed arsenate to the hematite structure, and thus the binding site and geometry of the resulting surface complex. Arsenate forms a bridging bidentate complex on two adjacent singly coordinated oxygen groups on each of the two distinct terminations present at the hematite surface. Although this geometry is consistent with that seen in past studies, the derived As-Fe distances are longer, the result of the topology of the FeO6 octahedra on the (012) surface. As EXAFS-derived As-Fe distances are often used to determine the adsorption mechanism in environmental samples (e.g., mine tailings, contaminated sediments), this demonstrates the importance of considering the possible sorbent surface structures and arrangements of adsorbates when interpreting such data. As multiple functional groups are present and multiple binding geometries are possible on the hematite (012) surface, the XSW data suggest that formation of bridging bidentate surface complexes on singly coordinated oxygen sites is the preferred adsorption mechanism on this and most other hematite surfaces (provided those surfaces contain adjacent singly coordinated oxygen groups). These measurements also constrain the likely reaction

  11. Classification of simulated and actual NOAA-6 AVHRR data for hydrologic land-surface feature definition. [Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ormsby, J. P.

    1982-01-01

    An examination of the possibilities of using Landsat data to simulate NOAA-6 Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) data on two channels, as well as using actual NOAA-6 imagery, for large-scale hydrological studies is presented. A running average was obtained of 18 consecutive pixels of 1 km resolution taken by the Landsat scanners were scaled up to 8-bit data and investigated for different gray levels. AVHRR data comprising five channels of 10-bit, band-interleaved information covering 10 deg latitude were analyzed and a suitable pixel grid was chosen for comparison with the Landsat data in a supervised classification format, an unsupervised mode, and with ground truth. Landcover delineation was explored by removing snow, water, and cloud features from the cluster analysis, and resulted in less than 10% difference. Low resolution large-scale data was determined useful for characterizing some landcover features if weekly and/or monthly updates are maintained.

  12. Faithful contrastive features in learning.

    PubMed

    Tesar, Bruce

    2006-09-10

    This article pursues the idea of inferring aspects of phonological underlying forms directly from surface contrasts by looking at optimality theoretic linguistic systems (Prince & Smolensky, 1993/2004). The main result proves that linguistic systems satisfying certain conditions have the faithful contrastive feature property: Whenever 2 distinct morphemes contrast on the surface in a particular environment, at least 1 of the underlying features on which the 2 differ must be realized faithfully on the surface. A learning procedure exploiting the faithful contrastive feature property, contrast analysis, can set the underlying values of some features, even where featural minimal pairs do not exist, but is nevertheless fundamentally limited in what it can set. This work suggests that observation of surface contrasts between pairs of words can contribute to the learning of underlying forms, while still supporting the view that interaction with the phonological mapping will be necessary to fully determine underlying forms.

  13. Fusion angle affects intervertebral adjacent spinal segment joint forces-Model-based analysis of patient specific alignment.

    PubMed

    Senteler, Marco; Weisse, Bernhard; Rothenfluh, Dominique A; Farshad, Mazda T; Snedeker, Jess G

    2017-01-01

    This study addresses the hypothesis that adjacent segment intervertebral joint loads are sensitive to the degree of lordosis that is surgically imposed during vertebral fusion. Adjacent segment degeneration is often observed after lumbar fusion, but a causative mechanism is not yet clearly evident. Altered kinematics of the adjacent segments and potentially nonphysiological mechanical joint loads have been implicated in this process. However, little is known of how altered alignment and kinematics influence loading of the adjacent intervertebral joints under consideration of active muscle forces. This study investigated these effects by simulating L4/5 fusions using kinematics-driven musculoskeletal models of one generic and eight sagittal alignment-specific models. Models featured different spinopelvic configurations but were normalized by body height, masses, and muscle properties. Fusion of the L4/5 segment was implemented in an in situ (22°), hyperlordotic (32°), and hypolordotic (8°) fashion and kinematic input parameters were changed accordingly based on findings of an in vitro investigation. Bending motion from upright standing to 45° forward flexion and back was simulated for all models in intact and fused conditions. Joint loads at adjacent levels and moment arms of spinal muscles experienced changes after all types of fusion. Hypolordotic configuration led to an increase of adjacent segment (L3/4) shear forces of 29% on average, whereas hyperlordotic fusion reduced shear by 39%. Overall, L4/5 in situ fusion resulted in intervertebral joint forces closest to intact loading conditions. An artificial decrease in lumbar lordosis (minus 14° on average) caused by an L4/5 fusion lead to adverse loading conditions, particularly at the cranial adjacent levels, and altered muscle moment arms, in particular for muscles in the vicinity of the fusion. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 35:131-139, 2017.

  14. Laplacian versus adjacency matrix in quantum walk search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Thomas G.; Tarrataca, Luís; Nahimov, Nikolay

    2016-10-01

    A quantum particle evolving by Schrödinger's equation contains, from the kinetic energy of the particle, a term in its Hamiltonian proportional to Laplace's operator. In discrete space, this is replaced by the discrete or graph Laplacian, which gives rise to a continuous-time quantum walk. Besides this natural definition, some quantum walk algorithms instead use the adjacency matrix to effect the walk. While this is equivalent to the Laplacian for regular graphs, it is different for non-regular graphs and is thus an inequivalent quantum walk. We algorithmically explore this distinction by analyzing search on the complete bipartite graph with multiple marked vertices, using both the Laplacian and adjacency matrix. The two walks differ qualitatively and quantitatively in their required jumping rate, runtime, sampling of marked vertices, and in what constitutes a natural initial state. Thus the choice of the Laplacian or adjacency matrix to effect the walk has important algorithmic consequences.

  15. Groundwater recharge to the Gulf Coast aquifer system in Montgomery and Adjacent Counties, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oden, Timothy D.; Delin, Geoffrey N.

    2013-01-01

    Simply stated, groundwater recharge is the addition of water to the groundwater system. Most of the water that is potentially available for recharging the groundwater system in Montgomery and adjacent counties in southeast Texas moves relatively rapidly from land surface to surface-water bodies and sustains streamflow, lake levels, and wetlands. Recharge in southeast Texas is generally balanced by evapotranspiration, discharge to surface waters, and the downward movement of water into deeper parts of the groundwater system; however, this balance can be altered locally by groundwater withdrawals, impervious surfaces, land use, precipitation variability, or climate, resulting in increased or decreased rates of recharge. Recharge rates were compared to the 1971–2000 normal annual precipitation measured Cooperative Weather Station 411956, Conroe, Tex.

  16. Gene promoter methylation in colorectal cancer and healthy adjacent mucosa specimens

    PubMed Central

    Coppedè, Fabio; Migheli, Francesca; Lopomo, Angela; Failli, Alessandra; Legitimo, Annalisa; Consolini, Rita; Fontanini, Gabriella; Sensi, Elisa; Servadio, Adele; Seccia, Massimo; Zocco, Giuseppe; Chiarugi, Massimo; Spisni, Roberto; Migliore, Lucia

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the promoter methylation levels of the APC, MGMT, hMLH1, RASSF1A and CDKN2A genes in 107 colorectal cancer (CRC) samples and 80 healthy adjacent tissues. We searched for correlation with both physical and pathological features, polymorphisms of folate metabolism pathway genes (MTHFR, MTRR, MTR, RFC1, TYMS, and DNMT3B), and data on circulating folate, vitamin B12 and homocysteine, which were available in a subgroup of the CRC patients. An increased number of methylated samples were found in CRC respect to adjacent healthy tissues, with the exception of APC, which was also frequently methylated in healthy colonic mucosa. Statistically significant associations were found between RASSF1A promoter methylation and tumor stage, and between hMLH1 promoter methylation and tumor location. Increasing age positively correlated with both hMLH1 and MGMT methylation levels in CRC tissues, and with APC methylation levels in the adjacent healthy mucosa. Concerning gender, females showed higher hMLH1 promoter methylation levels with respect to males. In CRC samples, the MTR 2756AG genotype correlated with higher methylation levels of RASSF1A, and the TYMS 1494 6bp ins/del polymorphism correlated with the methylation levels of both APC and hMLH1. In adjacent healthy tissues, MTR 2756AG and TYMS 1494 6bp del/del genotypes correlated with APC and MGMT promoter methylation, respectively. Low folate levels were associated with hMLH1 hypermethylation. Present results support the hypothesis that DNA methylation in CRC depends from both physiological and environmental factors, with one-carbon metabolism largely involved in this process. PMID:24500500

  17. A level set methodology for predicting the effect of mask wear on surface evolution of features in abrasive jet micro-machining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burzynski, T.; Papini, M.

    2012-07-01

    A previous implementation of narrow-band level set methodology developed by the authors was extended to allow for the modelling of mask erosive wear in abrasive jet micro-machining (AJM). The model permits the prediction of the surface evolution of both the mask and the target simultaneously, by representing them as a hybrid and continuous mask-target surface. The model also accounts for the change in abrasive mass flux incident to both the target surface and, for the first time, the eroding mask edge, that is brought about by the presence of the mask edge itself. The predictions of the channel surface and eroded mask profiles were compared with measurements on channels machined in both glass and poly-methyl-methacrylate (PMMA) targets at both normal and oblique incidence, using tempered steel and elastomeric masks. A much better agreement between the predicted and measured profiles was found when mask wear was taken into account. Mask wear generally resulted in wider and deeper glass target profiles and wider PMMA target profiles, respectively, when compared to cases where no mask wear was present. This work has important implications for the AJM of complex MEMS and microfluidic devices that require longer machining times.

  18. Modeling fires in adjacent ship compartments with computational fluid dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Wix, S.D.; Cole, J.K.; Koski, J.A.

    1998-05-10

    This paper presents an analysis of the thermal effects on radioactive (RAM) transportation packages with a fire in an adjacent compartment. An assumption for this analysis is that the adjacent hold fire is some sort of engine room fire. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis tools were used to perform the analysis in order to include convective heat transfer effects. The analysis results were compared to experimental data gathered in a series of tests on tile US Coast Guard ship Mayo Lykes located at Mobile, Alabama.

  19. Management of adjacent segment disease after cervical spinal fusion.

    PubMed

    Kepler, Christopher K; Hilibrand, Alan S

    2012-01-01

    Adjacent segment disease (ASD) was described after long-term follow-up of patients treated with cervical fusion. The term describes new-onset radiculopathy or myelopathy referable to a motion segment adjacent to previous arthrodesis and often attributed to alterations in the biomechanical environment after fusion. Evidence suggests that ASD affects between 2% and 3% of patients per year. Although prevention of ASD was one major impetus behind the development of motion-sparing surgery, the literature does not yet clearly distinguish a difference in the rate of ASD between fusion and disk replacement. Surgical techniques during index surgery may reduce the rate of ASD.

  20. Microhardness of enamel adjacent to orthodontic brackets after CO2 laser irradiation and fluoride application.

    PubMed

    Stangler, Leonardo Pucci; Romano, Fábio Lourenço; Shirozaki, Mariana Umekita; Galo, Rodrigo; Afonso, Alessandra Marques Correa; Borsatto, Maria Cristina; Matsumoto, Mírian Aiko Nakane

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of carbon dioxide (CO2) laser combined or not with fluoride application on the surface microhardness of enamel adjacent to orthodontic brackets. Fifteen human molars were selected from which 30 enamel fragments measuring 4 mm2 were obtained. The fragments were embedded in PCV tubes with acrylic resin and prepared using water abrasive paper, felt disks and alumina. Orthodontic brackets cut in half were bonded to enamel and 3 microhardness readings were performed on the adjacent surface, as follows: initial, after cariogenic challenge and final. The specimens were divided into the following 3 groups (n=10): Group C: control, Group L: irradiated with CO2 laser, and Group FL: topical fluoride application and CO2 laser irradiation. After initial reading, the specimens were placed in a demineralizing solution for 32 h and the second reading was to verify if demineralization was uniform in all groups. After the treatments, the specimens were submitted to DES-RE cycling for 8 days followed by final surface microhardness reading. The data were analyzed statistically using ANOVA and Duncan test (α=0.05). At the final measurement Group FL obtained higher microhardness value than Groups C and L (p<0.05). Groups L and FL were statistically superior to Group C (p<0.05). Irradiation with CO2 laser around orthodontic brackets combined or not with topical fluoride application was effective to increase the surface microhardness of enamel.

  1. General features

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, R.E.

    1990-01-01

    The San Andreas fault system, a complex of faults that display predominantly large-scale strike slip, is part of an even more complex system of faults, isolated segments of the East Pacific Rise, and scraps of plates lying east of the East Pacific Rise that collectively separate the North American plate from the Pacific plate. This chapter briefly describes the San Andreas fault system, its setting along the Pacific Ocean margin of North America, its extent, and the patterns of faulting. Only selected characteristics are described, and many features are left for depictions on maps and figures.

  2. Method for photolithographic definition of recessed features on a semiconductor wafer utilizing auto-focusing alignment

    DOEpatents

    Farino, Anthony J.; Montague, Stephen; Sniegowski, Jeffry J.; Smith, James H.; McWhorter, Paul J.

    1998-01-01

    A method is disclosed for photolithographically defining device features up to the resolution limit of an auto-focusing projection stepper when the device features are to be formed in a wafer cavity at a depth exceeding the depth of focus of the stepper. The method uses a focusing cavity located in a die field at the position of a focusing light beam from the auto-focusing projection stepper, with the focusing cavity being of the same depth as one or more adjacent cavities wherein a semiconductor device is to be formed. The focusing cavity provides a bottom surface for referencing the focusing light beam and focusing the stepper at a predetermined depth below the surface of the wafer, whereat the device features are to be defined. As material layers are deposited in each device cavity to build up a semiconductor structure such as a microelectromechanical system (MEMS) device, the same material layers are deposited in the focusing cavity, raising the bottom surface and re-focusing the stepper for accurately defining additional device features in each succeeding material layer. The method is especially applicable for forming MEMS devices within a cavity or trench and integrating the MEMS devices with electronic circuitry fabricated on the wafer surface.

  3. Method for photolithographic definition of recessed features on a semiconductor wafer utilizing auto-focusing alignment

    DOEpatents

    Farino, A.J.; Montague, S.; Sniegowski, J.J.; Smith, J.H.; McWhorter, P.J.

    1998-07-21

    A method is disclosed for photolithographically defining device features up to the resolution limit of an auto-focusing projection stepper when the device features are to be formed in a wafer cavity at a depth exceeding the depth of focus of the stepper. The method uses a focusing cavity located in a die field at the position of a focusing light beam from the auto-focusing projection stepper, with the focusing cavity being of the same depth as one or more adjacent cavities wherein a semiconductor device is to be formed. The focusing cavity provides a bottom surface for referencing the focusing light beam and focusing the stepper at a predetermined depth below the surface of the wafer, whereat the device features are to be defined. As material layers are deposited in each device cavity to build up a semiconductor structure such as a microelectromechanical system (MEMS) device, the same material layers are deposited in the focusing cavity, raising the bottom surface and re-focusing the stepper for accurately defining additional device features in each succeeding material layer. The method is especially applicable for forming MEMS devices within a cavity or trench and integrating the MEMS devices with electronic circuitry fabricated on the wafer surface. 15 figs.

  4. Form drag in rivers due to small-scale natural topographic features: 2. Irregular sequences

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kean, J.W.; Smith, J.D.

    2006-01-01

    The size, shape, and spacing of small-scale topographic features found on the boundaries of natural streams, rivers, and floodplains can be quite variable. Consequently, a procedure for determining the form drag on irregular sequences of different-sized topographic features is essential for calculating near-boundary flows and sediment transport. A method for carrying out such calculations is developed in this paper. This method builds on the work of Kean and Smith (2006), which describes the flow field for the simpler case of a regular sequence of identical topographic features. Both approaches model topographic features as two-dimensional elements with Gaussian-shaped cross sections defined in terms of three parameters. Field measurements of bank topography are used to show that (1) the magnitude of these shape parameters can vary greatly between adjacent topographic features and (2) the variability of these shape parameters follows a lognormal distribution. Simulations using an irregular set of topographic roughness elements show that the drag on an individual element is primarily controlled by the size and shape of the feature immediately upstream and that the spatial average of the boundary shear stress over a large set of randomly ordered elements is relatively insensitive to the sequence of the elements. In addition, a method to transform the topography of irregular surfaces into an equivalently rough surface of regularly spaced, identical topographic elements also is given. The methods described in this paper can be used to improve predictions of flow resistance in rivers as well as quantify bank roughness.

  5. Seismotectonics of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jih-Ping; Aggarwal, Yash Pal

    1981-06-01

    Data for local earthquakes recorded by a network of stations in northeastern United States and adjacent Canada were analyzed to study the seismicity, the relationship between earthquakes and known faults, the state of stress, and crustal and upper mantle velocity structure. In addition, portable seismographs were deployed in the field to study aftershocks. As a result, accurate locations for about 364 local earthquakes (2 ≤ mb ≤ 5) and 22 focal mechanism solutions were determined. A comparison of the spatial distribution of these events (1970-1979) with historical earthquakes (1534-1959) reveals that seismic activity in the northeast is relatively stationary in space: those areas that have had little or no seismicity historically are relatively aseismic today, whereas the historically active areas are also active today. The instrumental locations, historical seismicity, and focal mechanism solutions show an internal consistency that help us distinguish two distinct seismogenic provinces. (1) The Adirondack-western Quebec province is a northwesterly trending zone of seismic activity, about 200 km wide and at least 500 km long, extending from the SE Adirondacks into western Quebec, Canada. Thrust faulting on planes striking NNW to NW appears to predominate, and the inferred axis of maximum horizontal compression is largely uniform and trends WSW, nearly parallel to the calculated absolute plate motion of North America. Little or no seismicity is found where anorthosite outcrops at the surface. Correlations between gravity anomalies and earthquake locations suggest that seismic activity in this zone is localized to regions of steep NE or SW gradient in Bouguer anomalies. This zone does not appear to extend southeastward to Boston, as proposed by some workers. (2) The Appalachian province is a northeasterly trending zone of seismic activity extending from northern Virginia to New Brunswick, Canada. Highangle reverse or thrust faulting on N to NE trending planes

  6. Structural features and surface morphology of AlxGayIn1-x-yAszP1-z/GaAs(1 0 0) heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seredin, P. V.; Glotov, A. V.; Domashevskaya, E. P.; Arsentyev, I. N.; Vinokurov, D. A.; Tarasov, I. S.

    2013-02-01

    Epitaxial metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) heterostructures on the basis of the five-component AlxGayIn1-x-yAszP1-z alloys (solid solutions) were grown in the range of compositions isoperiodic to GaAs. Using X-ray diffraction technique and atomic force microscopy it was shown that on the surface of heterostructures nanosize objects were present with islets-like shape which can be aligned on the surface of solid solution in the linear direction. On the basis of calculations of the crystal lattice parameters taking into account internal stresses it is possible to assume that the new compound is a phase on the basis of AlxGayIn1-x-yAszP1-z alloy.

  7. Geomorphic features of active faults around the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal, and no evidence of surface rupture associated with the 2015 Gorkha earthquake along the faults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumahara, Yasuhiro; Chamlagain, Deepak; Upreti, Bishal Nath

    2016-04-01

    The M7.8 April 25, 2015, Gorkha earthquake in Nepal was produced by a slip on the low-angle Main Himalayan Thrust, a décollement below the Himalaya that emerges at the surface in the south as the Himalayan Frontal Thrust (HFT). The analysis of the SAR interferograms led to the interpretations that the event was a blind thrust and did not produce surface ruptures associated with the seismogenic fault. We conducted a quick field survey along four active faults near the epicentral area around the Kathmandu Valley (the Jhiku Khola fault, Chitlang fault, Kulekhani fault, Malagiri fault and Kolphu Khola fault) from July 18-22, 2015. Those faults are located in the Lesser Himalaya on the hanging side of the HFT. Based on our field survey carried out in the area where most typical tectonic landforms are developed, we confirmed with local inhabitants the lack of any new surface ruptures along these faults. Our observations along the Jhiku Khola fault showed that the fault had some definite activities during the Holocene times. Though in the past it was recognized as a low-activity thrust fault, our present survey has revealed that it has been active with a predominantly right-lateral strike-slip with thrust component. A stream dissecting a talus surface shows approximately 7-m right-lateral offset, and a charcoal sample collected from the upper part of the talus deposit yielded an age of 870 ± 30 y.B.P, implying that the talus surface formed close to 870 y.B.P. Accordingly, a single or multiple events of the fault must have occurred during the last 900 years, and the slip rate we estimate roughly is around 8 mm/year. The fault may play a role to recent right-lateral strike-slip tectonic zone across the Himalayan range. Since none of the above faults showed any relationship corresponding to the April 25 Gorkha earthquake, it is possibility that a potential risk of occurrence of large earthquakes does exist close to the Kathmandu Valley due to movements of these active

  8. Geomorphic features of surface ruptures associated with the 2016 Kumamoto earthquake in and around the downtown of Kumamoto City, and implications on triggered slip along active faults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goto, Hideaki; Tsutsumi, Hiroyuki; Toda, Shinji; Kumahara, Yasuhiro

    2017-02-01

    The 30-km-long surface ruptures associated with the M w 7.0 ( M j 7.3) earthquake at 01:25 JST on April 16 in Kumamoto Prefecture appeared along the previously mapped 100-km-long active fault called the Futagawa-Hinagu fault zone (FHFZ). The surface ruptures appeared to have extended further west out of the main FHFZ into the Kumamoto Plain. Although InSAR analysis by Geospatial Information Authority of Japan (GSI) indicated coseismic surface deformation in and around the downtown of Kumamoto City, the surface ruptures have not been clearly mapped in the central part of the Kumamoto Plain, and whether there are other active faults other than the Futagawa fault in the Kumamoto Plain remained unclear. We produced topographical stereo images (anaglyph) from 5-m-mesh digital elevation model of GSI, which was generated from light detection and ranging data. We interpreted them and identified that several SW-sloping river terraces formed after the deposition of the pyroclastic flow deposits related to the latest large eruption of the Aso caldera (86.8-87.3 ka) are cut and deformed by several NW-trending flexure scarps down to the southwest. These 5.4-km-long scarps that cut across downtown Kumamoto were identified for the first time, and we name them as the Suizenji fault zone. Surface deformation such as continuous cracks, tilts, and monoclinal folding associated with the main shock of the 2016 Kumamoto earthquake was observed in the field along the fault zone. The amount of vertical deformation ( 0.1 m) along this fault associated with the 2016 Kumamoto earthquake was quite small compared to the empirically calculated coseismic slip (0.5 m) based on the fault length. We thus suggest that the slip on this fault zone was triggered by the Kumamoto earthquake, but the fault zone has potential to generate an earthquake with larger slip that poses a high seismic risk in downtown Kumamoto area.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  9. Growth and decline of shoreline industry in Sydney estuary (Australia) and influence on adjacent estuarine sediments.

    PubMed

    Birch, G F; Lean, J; Gunns, T

    2015-06-01

    Sydney estuary (Australia), like many urbanised waterways, is degraded due to an extended history of anthropogenic activity. Two major sources of contamination to this estuary are discharge by former shoreline industries and historic and contemporary catchment stormwater. The objectives of the present study were to document changes in shoreline land use from European settlement to the present day and determine the influence of this trend on the metal content of adjacent estuarine sediments. Temporal analysis of land use for seven time horizons between 1788 and 2010 showed rapid expansion of industry along much of the Sydney estuary foreshore soon after European settlement due to the benefits of easy and inexpensive access and readily available water for cooling and power. Shoreline industry attained maximum development in 1978 (32-km length) and declined rapidly to the present-day (9-km length) through redevelopment of industrial sites into medium- to high-density, high-value residential housing. Cores taken adjacent to 11 long-term industrial sites showed that past industrial practices contributed significantly to contamination of estuarine sediment. Subsurface metal concentrations were up to 35 times that of present-day surface sediment and over 100 times greater than natural background concentrations. Sedimentation rates for areas adjacent to shoreline industry were between 0.6 and 2.5 cm/year, and relaxation times were estimated at 50 to 100 years. Natural relaxation and non-disturbance of sediments may be the best management practice in most locations.

  10. LEHR NO. 2 AND LEHR NO. 3 ADJACENT TO FURNACE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    LEHR NO. 2 AND LEHR NO. 3 ADJACENT TO FURNACE ROOM; THE PIPES AT THE BOTTOM ARE PART OF THE RADIANT HEATING SYSTEM USED FOR HEATING THE FACTORY DURING COLD WEATHER. - Westmoreland Glass Company, Seventh & Kier Streets, Grapeville, Westmoreland County, PA

  11. Biogeochemistry of hydrothermally and adjacent non-altered soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As a field/lab project, students in the Soil Biogeochemistry class of the University of Nevada, Reno described and characterized seven pedons, developed in hydrothermally and adjacent non-hydrothermally altered andesitic parent material near Reno, NV. Hydrothermally altered soils had considerably lo...

  12. 12. LOG FOUNDATION ELEMENTS OF THE SAWMILL ADJACENT TO THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. LOG FOUNDATION ELEMENTS OF THE SAWMILL ADJACENT TO THE CANAL, LOOKING EAST. BARREN AREA IN FOREGROUND IS DECOMPOSING SAWDUST. DIRT PILE IN BACKGROUND IS THE EDGE OF THE SUMMIT COUNTY LANDFILL. - Snake River Ditch, Headgate on north bank of Snake River, Dillon, Summit County, CO

  13. Measurement Methods to Determine Air Leakage Between Adjacent Zones

    SciTech Connect

    Hult, Erin L.; Dickerhoff, Darryl J.; Price, Phillip N.

    2012-09-01

    Air leakage between adjacent zones of a building can lead to indoor air quality and energy efficiency concerns, however there is no existing standard for measuring inter-zonal leakage. In this study, synthesized data and field measurements are analyzed in order to explore the uncertainty associated with different methods for collecting and analyzing fan pressurization measurements to calculate interzone leakage.

  14. 1. OVERVIEW SHOWING FIRING CONTROL BLOCKHOUSE 0502 AND ADJACENT OBSERVATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. OVERVIEW SHOWING FIRING CONTROL BLOCKHOUSE 0502 AND ADJACENT OBSERVATION TOWER. WATER BRAKE TROUGH SEGMENT AT LOWER RIGHT. Looking north northeast. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Firing & Control Blockhouse for 10,000-foot Track, South of Sled Track at midpoint of 20,000-foot track, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

  15. 45. 1915 CLOTH ROOM ADJACENT TO PICKER ROOM, SECOND FLOOR, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. 1915 CLOTH ROOM ADJACENT TO PICKER ROOM, SECOND FLOOR, NORTH END OF MILL NO. 2, WALL ON LEFT DIVIDING CLOTH ROOM ADDED LATER (PROBABLY C. 1970s). - Prattville Manufacturing Company, Number One, 242 South Court Street, Prattville, Autauga County, AL

  16. 11. View north from the adjacent B & O railroad ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. View north from the adjacent B & O railroad bridge of portion of the Main truss span over the reservoir of the Augustine Paper Mills, National Register Site, including Pier No. 4. - Augustine Bridge, Brandywine River,Augustine Cutoff, Wilmington, New Castle County, DE

  17. 12. View north from the adjacent B & O railroad ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. View north from the adjacent B & O railroad bridge of portion of the Main truss span over the reservoir of the Augustine Paper Mills, National Register Site, including Pier No. 4. - Augustine Bridge, Brandywine River,Augustine Cutoff, Wilmington, New Castle County, DE

  18. 10. Detail and contextual view of bridge and adjacent farmstead ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Detail and contextual view of bridge and adjacent farmstead setting. Note laced vertical compression members, latticed portal strut, decorative strut bracing, and lightness of diagonal and lateral tension members. View to southeast through southeast portal from truss mid-span. - Red Bank Creek Bridge, Spanning Red Bank Creek at Rawson Road, Red Bluff, Tehama County, CA

  19. 47 CFR 73.810 - Third adjacent channel interference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Low Power FM Broadcast Stations (LPFM) § 73.810 Third adjacent channel... power FM, FM translator or FM booster station to such affected station and to the Commission. (ii) A full power FM, FM translator or FM booster station shall review all complaints it receives,...

  20. 47 CFR 73.810 - Third adjacent channel interference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Low Power FM Broadcast Stations (LPFM) § 73.810 Third adjacent channel... power FM, FM translator or FM booster station to such affected station and to the Commission. (ii) A full power FM, FM translator or FM booster station shall review all complaints it receives,...

  1. 8. Exterior view, showing tank and associated piping adjacent to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Exterior view, showing tank and associated piping adjacent to Test Cell 6, Systems Integration Laboratory Building (T-28), looking south. - Air Force Plant PJKS, Systems Integration Laboratory, Systems Integration Laboratory Building, Waterton Canyon Road & Colorado Highway 121, Lakewood, Jefferson County, CO

  2. VIEW FROM ATOP ADJACENT RESIDENTIAL TOWER, SHOWING RECREATION AREA ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW FROM ATOP ADJACENT RESIDENTIAL TOWER, SHOWING RECREATION AREA ON RIGHT, AND HOUSING AREA ON LEFT. VIEW FACING EAST/NORTHEAST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Intersection of Acacia Road and Brich Circle, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  3. VIEW FROM ATOP ADJACENT RESIDENTIAL TOWER, SHOWING RECREATION AREA AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW FROM ATOP ADJACENT RESIDENTIAL TOWER, SHOWING RECREATION AREA AND ENTRY TO NEIGHBORHOOD. VIEW FACING SOUTHEAST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Intersection of Acacia Road and Brich Circle, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  4. VIEW FROM ATOP ADJACENT RESIDENTIAL TOWER, SHOWING WESTERN SIDE OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW FROM ATOP ADJACENT RESIDENTIAL TOWER, SHOWING WESTERN SIDE OF NEIGHBORHOOD. VIEW FACING NORTHWEST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Intersection of Acacia Road and Brich Circle, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  5. VIEW FROM ATOP ADJACENT RESIDENTIAL TOWER, SHOWING INTERSECTION OF ACACIA ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW FROM ATOP ADJACENT RESIDENTIAL TOWER, SHOWING INTERSECTION OF ACACIA ROAD WITH BIRCH CIRCLE. VIEW FACING NORTHEAST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Intersection of Acacia Road and Brich Circle, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  6. 3. View of side of house facing north from adjacent ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. View of side of house facing north from adjacent property. Original wood siding and trim is visible. Note: later addition to rear of house is shown in right side of photograph. - 322 South Fifteenth Street (House), Louisville, Jefferson County, KY

  7. 22. Float located adjacent to entry stair in filtration bed. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. Float located adjacent to entry stair in filtration bed. The float actuates a valve that maintains water level over the bed. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Filtration Plant, South side of Armory Street between Edgehill Road & Whitney Avenue, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

  8. MTR COOLING TOWER. BASIN IS ADJACENT TO PUMP HOUSE. CAMERA ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR COOLING TOWER. BASIN IS ADJACENT TO PUMP HOUSE. CAMERA FACES SOUTHEAST TOWARD NORTH SIDE OF PUMP HOUSE. INL NEGATIVE NO. 2690. Unknown Photographer, 6/1951. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  9. 1. VIEW FROM SOUTHWEST SHOWING SOUTH (FRONT) ELEVATION, ADJACENT LOUGHRAN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW FROM SOUTHWEST SHOWING SOUTH (FRONT) ELEVATION, ADJACENT LOUGHRAN BUILDING (BASSIN'S RESTAURANT) (HABS No. DC-357), 501-511 14TH STREET (THE LOCKER ROOM) HABS No. DC-356) ON CORNER, AND MUNSEY BUILDING (HABS No. DC-358) - William J. Stone Building, 1345 E Street Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  10. 2. VIEW FROM ROOFTOP OF BUILDING (MOTEL) ADJACENT TO TECHWOOD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW FROM ROOFTOP OF BUILDING (MOTEL) ADJACENT TO TECHWOOD HOMES, LOOKING WEST. GEORGIA TECH DORMITORY BUILDING, 581-587 TECHWOOD DRIVE, IN FOREGROUND. - Techwood Homes (Public Housing), Bounded by North Avenue, Parker Street, William Street & Lovejoy Street, Atlanta, Fulton County, GA

  11. 7. VIEW OF WATER TREATMENT PLANT, ADJACENT TO THE COAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW OF WATER TREATMENT PLANT, ADJACENT TO THE COAL CONVEYOR; IN THE DISTANCE IS THE FREQUENCY CHANGER HOUSE, WHICH IS ATTACHED TO SWITCH HOUSE NO. 1; LOOKING WEST. - Commonwealth Electric Company, Fisk Street Electrical Generating Station, 1111 West Cermak Avenue, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  12. Structural model of the lithosphere-asthenosphere system beneath the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and its adjacent areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xuemei; Teng, Jiwen; Sun, Ruomei; Romanelli, Fabio; Zhang, Zhongjie; Panza, Giuliano F.

    2014-11-01

    The deep structure of the lithosphere-asthenosphere system, as imaged from geophysical data, of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, the highest on the Earth, provides important clues in understanding its orogenic processes. Here we reconstruct the main features of the structure of the crust and upper mantle from surface wave tomography in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and its adjacent areas, in order to understand the modality of the convergence and collision process between the Indian and Eurasian plates. Based on Rayleigh waves dispersion theory, we collected long period and broad-band seismic data from the global and regional seismic networks surrounding the study area (20°N-50°N, 70°E-110°E). After applying instrument response calibration and filtering, group velocities of the fundamental mode of Rayleigh waves are measured using the frequency-time analysis (FTAN). Combining the published dispersion data, a 2-D surface-wave tomography method is applied to calculate the lateral variations of group velocity distribution at different periods, in the range from 8 s to 150 s. The Hedgehog non-linear inversion method is performed to obtain shear wave velocity (Vs) versus depth models of the crust and upper mantle for 181 cells, with size 2° × 2°. In order to identify the cellular representative models, we applied the local smoothness optimization method (LSO). Fairly detailed structural models of the lithosphere-asthenosphere system have been defined. The Vs models demonstrate the lateral variation of the thickness of the metasomatic lid between the south and north of the Bangong-Nujiang Suture (BNS) and the west and east of Tibet. The variation in thickness of the metasomatic lid may suggest that the leading edge of the subducting Indian slab reaches up to BNS.

  13. The immediate effects of local and adjacent acupuncture on the tibialis anterior muscle: a human study

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Larissa Araujo; de Araujo, João Eduardo

    2008-01-01

    Background This study compares the immediate effects of local and adjacent acupuncture on the tibialis anterior muscle and the amount of force generated or strength in Kilogram Force (KGF) evaluated by a surface electromyography. Methods The study consisted of a single blinded trial of 30 subjects assigned to two groups: local acupoint (ST36) and adjacent acupoint (SP9). Bipolar surface electrodes were placed on the tibialis anterior muscle, while a force transducer was attached to the foot of the subject and to the floor. An electromyograph (EMG) connected to a computer registered the KGF and root mean square (RMS) before and after acupuncture at maximum isometric contraction. The RMS values and surface electrodes were analyzed with Student's t-test. Results Thirty subjects were selected from a total of 56 volunteers according to specific inclusion and exclusion criteria and were assigned to one of the two groups for acupuncture. A significant decrease in the RMS values was observed in both ST36 (t = -3.80, P = 0,001) and SP9 (t = 6.24, P = 0.001) groups after acupuncture. There was a decrease in force in the ST36 group after acupuncture (t = -2.98, P = 0.006). The RMS values did not have a significant difference (t = 0.36, P = 0.71); however, there was a significant decrease in strength after acupuncture in the ST36 group compared to the SP9 group (t = 2.51, P = 0.01). No adverse events were found. Conclusion Acupuncture at the local acupoint ST36 or adjacent acupoints SP9 reduced the tibialis anterior electromyography muscle activity. However, acupuncture at SP9 did not decrease muscle strength while acupuncture at ST36 did. PMID:19094211

  14. Common features in the functional surface of scorpion beta-toxins and elements that confer specificity for insect and mammalian voltage-gated sodium channels.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Lior; Karbat, Izhar; Gilles, Nicolas; Ilan, Nitza; Benveniste, Morris; Gordon, Dalia; Gurevitz, Michael

    2005-02-11

    Scorpion beta-toxins that affect the activation of mammalian voltage-gated sodium channels (Navs) have been studied extensively, but little is known about their functional surface and mode of interaction with the channel receptor. To enable a molecular approach to this question, we have established a successful expression system for the anti-mammalian scorpion beta-toxin, Css4, whose effects on rat brain Navs have been well characterized. A recombinant toxin, His-Css4, was obtained when fused to a His tag and a thrombin cleavage site and had similar binding affinity for and effect on Na currents of rat brain sodium channels as those of the native toxin isolated from the scorpion venom. Molecular dissection of His-Css4 elucidated a functional surface of 1245 A2 composed of the following: 1) a cluster of residues associated with the alpha-helix, which includes a putative "hot spot" (this cluster is conserved among scorpion beta-toxins and contains their "pharmacophore"); 2) a hydrophobic cluster associated mainly with the beta2 and beta3 strands, which is likely to confer the specificity for mammalian Navs; 3) a single bioactive residue (Trp-58) in the C-tail; and 4) a negatively charged residue (Glu-15) involved in voltage sensor trapping as inferred from our ability to uncouple toxin binding from activity upon its substitution. This study expands our understanding about the mode of action of scorpion beta-toxins and illuminates differences in the functional surfaces that may dictate their specificities for mammalian versus insect sodium channels.

  15. Maximizing power to track Alzheimer’s disease and MCI progression by LDA-based weighting of longitudinal ventricular surface features

    PubMed Central

    Gutman, Boris A.; Hua, Xue; Rajagopalan, Priya; Chou, Yi-Yu; Wang, Yalin; Yanovsky, Igor; Toga, Arthur W.; Jack, Clifford R.; Weiner, Michael W.; Thompson, Paul M.

    2013-01-01

    We propose a new method to maximize biomarker efficiency for detecting anatomical change over time in serial MRI. Drug trials using neuroimaging become prohibitively costly if vast numbers of subjects must be assessed, so it is vital to develop efficient measures of brain change. A popular measure of efficiency is the minimal sample size (n80) needed to detect 25% change in a biomarker, with 95% confidence and 80% power. For multivariate measures of brain change, we can directly optimize n80 based on a Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA). Here we use a supervised learning framework to optimize n80, offering two alternative solutions. With a new medial surface modeling method, we track 3D dynamic changes in the lateral ventricles in 2065 ADNI scans. We apply our LDA-based weighting to the results. Our best average n80—in two-fold nested cross-validation—is 104 MCI subjects (95% CI: [94,139]) for a 1-year drug trial, and 75 AD subjects [64,102]. This compares favorably with other MRI analysis methods. The standard “statistical ROI” approach applied to the same ventricular surfaces requires 165 MCI or 94 AD subjects. At 2 years, the best LDA measure needs only 67 MCI and 52 AD subjects, versus 119 MCI and 80 AD subjects for the stat-ROI method. Our surface-based measures are unbiased: they give no artifactual additive atrophy over three time points. Our results suggest that statistical weighting may boost efficiency of drug trials that use brain maps. PMID:23296188

  16. Detection of anomalous features in an earthen dam using inversion of P-wave first-arrival times and surface-wave dispersion curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, K. Y.; Jeon, K. M.; Hong, M. H.; Park, Young-gyu

    2011-02-01

    To locate anomalous features including seepage pathways through the Daeryong earth-fill dam, P and Rayleigh waves were recorded along a 250-m profile on the crest of the dam. Seismic energy was generated using a 5-kg sledgehammer and detected by 24 4.5-Hz vertical-axis geophones installed at 3-m intervals. P-wave and apparent S-wave velocities of the reservoir dam and underlying bedrock were then inverted from first-arrival traveltimes and dispersion curves of Rayleigh waves, respectively. Apparent dynamic Poisson's ratios as high as 0.46 were obtained at the base of the dam near its north-east end, where an outlet conduit occurs, and in the clay core body near the south-west end of the profile where the dam was repeatedly grouted to abate seepage before our survey. These anomalies of higher Poisson's ratios in the upper part of clay core were also associated with effusion of grout on the downstream slope of the dam during post-survey grouting to abate leakage. Combining P-wave traveltime tomography and inversion of Rayleigh wave velocities was very effective in detecting potential pathways for seepage and previous grouted zones in this earthen dam.

  17. Dynamics of Back Electron Transfer in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Featuring 4-tert-Butyl-Pyridine and Atomic-Layer-Deposited Alumina as Surface Modifiers.

    PubMed

    Katz, Michael J; Vermeer, Michael J DeVries; Farha, Omar K; Pellin, Michael J; Hupp, Joseph T

    2015-06-18

    A series of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) was constructed with TiO2 nanoparticles and N719 dye. The standard I3(-)/I(-) redox shuttle and the Co(1,10-phenanthroline)3(3+/2+) shuttle were employed. DSCs were modified with atomic-layered-deposited (ALD) coatings of Al2O3 and/or with the surface-adsorbing additive 4-tert-butyl-pyridine. Current-voltage data were collected to ascertain the influence of each modification upon the back electron transfer (ET) dynamics of the DSCs. The primary effect of the additives alone or in tandem is to increase the open-circuit voltage. A second is to alter the short-circuit current density, JSC. With dependence on the specifics of the system examined, any of a myriad of dynamics-related effects were observed to come into play, in both favorable (efficiency boosting) and unfavorable (efficiency damaging) ways. These effects include modulation of (a) charge-injection yields, (b) rates of interception of injected electrons by redox shuttles, and (c) rates of recombination of injected electrons with holes on surface-bound dyes. In turn, these influence charge-collection lengths, charge-collection yields, and onset potentials for undesired dark current. The microscopic origins of the effects appear to be related mainly to changes in driving force and/or electronic coupling for underlying component redox reactions. Perhaps surprisingly, only a minor role for modifier-induced shifts in conduction-band-edge energy was found. The combination of DSC-efficiency-relevant effects engendered by the modifiers was found to vary substantially as a function of the chemical identity of the redox shuttle employed. While types of modifiers are effective, a challenge going forward will be to construct systems in ways in which the benefits of organic and inorganic modifiers can be exploited in fully additive, or even synergistic, fashion.

  18. Surgical treatment of complex axis fractures with adjacent segment instability.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Xia, Tian; Dong, Shuanghai; Zhao, Qinghua; Tian, Jiwei

    2012-03-01

    This study investigates the clinical and radiographic characteristics of complex axis fractures with adjacent segment instability and describes the outcome of surgical treatment. Twenty-one patients (14 male, seven female; mean age=34 years) with complex axis fractures and adjacent segment instability who were treated between August 2003 and June 2009 were retrospectively reviewed. Treatment selection was based on fracture type and stability of the upper cervical segments. All patients were immobilized with a hard collar for three months after surgery. The mean follow-up period was 12 months (range=6-36 months). No intraoperative surgery-related complications were observed and fusion was achieved in all patients. The outcome was excellent for 17 patients, good for two patients, fair for one patient, and poor for one patient. The upper cervical segments that can become unstable due to complex axis fractures include the atlantoaxial and C2-3 joints. Recommended surgical treatments produce good results.

  19. On the Circulation Manifold for Two Adjacent Lifting Sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zannetti, Luca; Iollo, Angelo

    1998-01-01

    The circulation functional relative to two adjacent lifting sections is studied for two cases. In the first case we consider two adjacent circles. The circulation is computed as a function of the displacement of the secondary circle along the axis joining the two centers and of the angle of attack of the secondary circle, The gradient of such functional is computed by deriving a set of elliptic functions with respect both to their argument and to their Period. In the second case studied, we considered a wing-flap configuration. The circulation is computed by some implicit mappings, whose differentials with respect to the variation of the geometrical configuration in the physical space are found by divided differences. Configurations giving rise to local maxima and minima in the circulation manifold are presented.

  20. Soft Hydrogels Featuring In-Depth Surface Density Gradients for the Simple Establishment of 3D Tissue Models for Screening Applications.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ning; Milleret, Vincent; Thompson-Steckel, Greta; Huang, Ning-Ping; Vörös, János; Simona, Benjamin R; Ehrbar, Martin

    2017-03-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) cell culture models are gaining increasing interest for use in drug development pipelines due to their closer resemblance to human tissues. Hydrogels are the first-choice class of materials to recreate in vitro the 3D extra-cellular matrix (ECM) environment, important in studying cell-ECM interactions and 3D cellular organization and leading to physiologically relevant in vitro tissue models. Here we propose a novel hydrogel platform consisting of a 96-well plate containing pre-cast synthetic PEG-based hydrogels for the simple establishment of 3D (co-)culture systems without the need for the standard encapsulation method. The in-depth density gradient at the surface of the hydrogel promotes the infiltration of cells deposited on top of it. The ability to decouple hydrogel production and cell seeding is intended to simplify the use of hydrogel-based platforms and thus increase their accessibility. Using this platform, we established 3D cultures relevant for studying stem cell differentiation, angiogenesis, and neural and cancer models.