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Sample records for adjacent thyroid tissue

  1. Evaluation of thyroid tissue by Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teixeira, C. S. B.; Bitar, R. A.; Santos, A. B. O.; Kulcsar, M. A. V.; Friguglietti, C. U. M.; Martinho, H. S.; da Costa, R. B.; Martin, A. A.

    2010-02-01

    Thyroid gland is a small gland in the neck consisting of two lobes connected by an isthmus. Thyroid's main function is to produce the hormones thyroxine (T4), triiodothyronine (T3) and calcitonin. Thyroid disorders can disturb the production of these hormones, which will affect numerous processes within the body such as: regulating metabolism and increasing utilization of cholesterol, fats, proteins, and carbohydrates. The gland itself can also be injured; for example, neoplasias, which have been considered the most important, causing damage of to the gland and are difficult to diagnose. There are several types of thyroid cancer: Papillary, Follicular, Medullary, and Anaplastic. The occurrence rate, in general is between 4 and 7%; which is on the increase (30%), probably due to new technology that is able to find small thyroid cancers that may not have been found previously. The most common method used for thyroid diagnoses are: anamnesis, ultrasonography, and laboratory exams (Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy- FNAB). However, the sensitivity of those test are rather poor, with a high rate of false-negative results, therefore there is an urgent need to develop new diagnostic techniques. Raman spectroscopy has been presented as a valuable tool for cancer diagnosis in many different tissues. In this work, 27 fragments of the thyroid were collected from 18 patients, comprising the following histologic groups: goitre adjacent tissue, goitre nodular tissue, follicular adenoma, follicular carcinoma, and papillary carcinoma. Spectral collection was done with a commercial FTRaman Spectrometer (Bruker RFS100/S) using a 1064 nm laser excitation and Ge detector. Principal Component Analysis, Cluster Analysis, and Linear Discriminant Analysis with cross-validation were applied as spectral classification algorithm. Comparing the goitre adjacent tissue with the goitre nodular region, an index of 58.3% of correct classification was obtained. Between goitre (nodular region and

  2. Coexisiting adenoma and granuloma involving the right inferior parathyroid gland with adjacent ectopic thymic tissue

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Mayank; Kandasamy, Subramaniam

    2014-01-01

    Inflammatory lesions, particularly granulomas, involving adenoma of the parathyroid gland are rare. Ectopic thymic tissue is commonly associated with the thyroid and/or parathyroid gland due to their close embryonic relationship. We report a rare case of coexisting adenoma and granuloma of the parathyroid gland with adjacent ectopic thymic tissue. PMID:24957592

  3. Adipose tissues and thyroid hormones

    PubMed Central

    Obregon, Maria-Jesus

    2014-01-01

    The maintenance of energy balance is regulated by complex homeostatic mechanisms, including those emanating from adipose tissue. The main function of the adipose tissue is to store the excess of metabolic energy in the form of fat. The energy stored as fat can be mobilized during periods of energy deprivation (hunger, fasting, diseases). The adipose tissue has also a homeostatic role regulating energy balance and functioning as endocrine organ that secretes substances that control body homeostasis. Two adipose tissues have been identified: white and brown adipose tissues (WAT and BAT) with different phenotype, function and regulation. WAT stores energy, while BAT dissipates energy as heat. Brown and white adipocytes have different ontogenetic origin and lineage and specific markers of WAT and BAT have been identified. “Brite” or beige adipose tissue has been identified in WAT with some properties of BAT. Thyroid hormones exert pleiotropic actions, regulating the differentiation process in many tissues including the adipose tissue. Adipogenesis gives raise to mature adipocytes and is regulated by several transcription factors (c/EBPs, PPARs) that coordinately activate specific genes, resulting in the adipocyte phenotype. T3 regulates several genes involved in lipid mobilization and storage and in thermogenesis. Both WAT and BAT are targets of thyroid hormones, which regulate genes crucial for their proper function: lipogenesis, lipolysis, thermogenesis, mitochondrial function, transcription factors, the availability of nutrients. T3 acts directly through specific TREs in the gene promoters, regulating transcription factors. The deiodinases D3, D2, and D1 regulate the availability of T3. D3 is activated during proliferation, while D2 is linked to the adipocyte differentiation program, providing T3 needed for lipogenesis and thermogenesis. We examine the differences between BAT, WAT and brite/beige adipocytes and the process that lead to activation of UCP1 in WAT

  4. Metabolism of thyroid hormones by rat thyroid tissue in vitro.

    PubMed

    Green, W L

    1978-09-01

    Rat thyroid lobes or hemilobes have been incubated in Krebs-Ringer phosphate buffer containing labeled T4 and/or T3, and the products were separated by paper chromatography. Labeled T4 was actively degraded; about half of the T4 metabolized was recovered as T3. Labeled T3 was also metabolized, but less rapidly than T4. Other than T3 produced from T4, the major products from both hormones were inorganic iodide and iodoprotein; the latter was presumably a secondary product of iodide organification because its formation was inhibited by hypoxia and methimazole. Feeding the animals a low iodine diet increased their hormone-metabolizing activity. Incubation under nitrogen did not affect the rate of T4 degradation, but partially inhibited T3 degradation. Degradation of both hormones was unchanged in the presence of methimazole and ascorbate, was markedly inhibited by 1 mM propylthiouracil (PTU), and was partially inhibited by azide and cyanide. Thyroid tissues concentrated both hormones, tissue to medium gradients averaging 5.4 for T4 and 20.7 for T3; none of the conditions affecting hormone degradation (incubation under nitrogen or with azide, cyanide, or PTU) significantly altered these gradients. It is concluded that the thyroid can metabolize both of its major hormones by a system distinct from thyroidal peroxidase. Hormone metabolism, therefore, is a potentially important factor in net hormone secretion. In its resistance to hypoxia, methimazole, and ascorbate and its sensitivity to PTU, the thyroid's system for generating T3 from T4 resembles T3-forming systems of liver and kidney. The thyroid, because T3 formation is its dominant pathway for T4 metabolism, may provide a useful model for study of this reaction. PMID:744119

  5. Tissue thyroid hormones and thyronamines.

    PubMed

    Accorroni, Alice; Saponaro, Federica; Zucchi, Riccardo

    2016-07-01

    It has been known for a long time that changes in cardiac function are a major component of the clinical presentation of thyroid disease. Increased heart rate and hyperdynamic circulation are hallmarks of hyperthyroidism, while bradycardia and decreased contractility characterize hypothyroidism. Recent findings have provided novel insights in the physiology and pathophysiology of heart regulation by thyroid hormones. In this review, we summarize the present knowledge on thyroxine (T4) transport and metabolism and on the biochemical pathways leading to genomic and non-genomic effects produced by 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3) and by its active metabolites, particularly 3,5-diiodothyronine (T2) and 3-iodothyronamine (T1AM). On this basis, specific issues of special interest for cardiology are discussed, namely (1) relevance of the regulation of proteins involved in the control of calcium homeostasis and in pacemaker cell activity, due to non-genomic as well as to classical genomic effects; (2) stimulation of fatty acid oxidation by T2 and T1AM, the latter also causing a negative inotropic and chronotropic action at micromolar concentrations; (3) induction of D3 deiodinase in heart failure, potentially causing selective cardiac hypothyroidism, whose clinical implications are still controversial; and (4) cardioprotective effect of T1AM, possibly occurring at physiological concentrations, and relevance of T3 and of thyroid hormone receptor α1 in post-infarction repair. PMID:27115768

  6. Infrared spectra of thyroid tumor tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolstorozhev, G. B.; Skornyakov, I. V.; Butra, V. A.

    2010-07-01

    We used infrared spectroscopy methods to study thyroid tumor tissues removed during surgery. The IR spectra of the surgical material are compared with data from histological examination. We show that in malignant neoplasms, the spectra of proteins in the region of C=O vibrations are different from the spectra of these substances in benign tumors and in tissues outside the pathological focus at a distance >1 cm from the margin of the tumor. The differences in the spectra are due to changes in the supermolecular structure of the proteins, resulting from rearrangement of the system of hydrogen bonds. We identify the spectral signs of malignant pathologies.

  7. Photoacoustic spectroscopic differences between normal and malignant thyroid tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Li; Xie, Wengming; Li, Hui

    2012-12-01

    The thyroid is one of the main endocrine glands of human body, which plays a crucial role in the body's metabolism. Thyroid cancer mortality ranks only second to ovarian cancer in endocrine cancer. Routine diagnostic methods of thyroid diseases in present clinic exist misdiagnosis and missed diagnosis to varying degrees. Those lead to miss the best period of cancer treatment--early. Photoacoustic spectroscopy technology is a new tool, which provides an effective and noninvasive way for biomedical materials research, being highly sensitive and without sample pretreatment. In this paper, we use photoacoustic spectroscopy technology (PAST) to detect the absorption spectrum between normal and malignant thyroid tissues. The result shows that the photoacoustic spectroscopy technology (PAST) could differentiate malignant thyroid tissue from normal thyroid tissue very well. This technique combined with routine diagnostic methods has the potential to increase the diagnostic accuracy in clinical thyroid cancer diagnosis.

  8. Soft tissue invasion of papillary thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jen-Der; Hsueh, Chuen; Chao, Tzu-Chieh

    2016-08-01

    Extrathyroidal extension (ETE) of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is common and clinical presentation can vary from minimal to extensive locoregional involvement. Although PTC is generally considered the most benign among all thyroid carcinomas, it may present with local invasion with poor prognosis. Our retrospective study involved 3267 PTC patients undergoing regular follow-up at Chang Gung Medical Center in Linkou, Taiwan. Among them, 269 were PTC cases with ETE, having tumors greater than 1 cm in size and treated with total or complete thyroidectomy with or without lymph node dissection for which the follow-up period was over 10 years. The mean age of 269 cases was 46.8 ± 15.1 (range 11-83 years) years. The number of females was 204 (75.8 %). Patients were categorized into minimal ETE (175 cases) and extensive ETE (94 cases) groups according to surgical findings and pathological reports. Mean follow-up period was 13.3 ± 5.5 (range 0.2-29.3) years, during which 28 (10.4 %) patients died of thyroid cancer; and 63 (23.4 %) of all-cause mortality. Multivariate analysis showed that age, gender, extensive ETE, and lymph node metastasis had a statistically significant effect on thyroid cancer mortality. Survival rates were significantly different between minimal ETE and extensive ETE groups (p < 0.0001). In conclusion, perithyroidal soft tissue involvement by PTC is an important factor that determines patient prognosis and a closer follow-up and more aggressive treatment is necessary for patients who are old, male, extensive ETE, and with lymph node involvement. PMID:27154220

  9. Laser ablation of human atherosclerotic plaque without adjacent tissue injury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grundfest, W. S.; Litvack, F.; Forrester, J. S.; Goldenberg, T.; Swan, H. J. C.

    1985-01-01

    Seventy samples of human cadaver atherosclerotic aorta were irradiated in vitro using a 308 nm xenon chloride excimer laser. Energy per pulse, pulse duration and frequency were varied. For comparison, 60 segments were also irradiated with an argon ion and an Nd:YAG laser operated in the continuous mode. Tissue was fixed in formalin, sectioned and examined microscopically. The Nd:YAG and argon ion-irradiated tissue exhibited a central crater with irregular edges and concentric zones of thermal and blast injury. In contrast, the excimer laser-irradiated tissue had narrow deep incisions with minimal or no thermal injury. These preliminary experiments indicate that the excimer laser vaporizes tissue in a manner different from that of the continuous wave Nd:YAG or argon ion laser. The sharp incision margins and minimal damage to adjacent normal tissue suggest that the excimer laser is more desirable for general surgical and intravascular uses than are the conventionally used medical lasers.

  10. Tissue specific regulation of lipogenesis by thyroid hormone

    SciTech Connect

    Blennemann, B.; Freake, H. )

    1990-02-26

    Thyroid hormone stimulates long chain fatty acid synthesis in rat liver by increasing the amounts of key lipogenic enzymes. Sparse and conflicting data exist concerning its action on this pathway in other tissues. The authors recently showed that, in contrast to liver, hypothyroidism stimulates lipogenesis in brown adipose tissue and have now systematically examined the effects of thyroid state on fatty acid synthesis in other rat tissues. Lipogenesis was assessed by tritiated water incorporation. Euthyroid hepatic fatty acid synthesis (16.6um H/g/h) was reduced to 30% in hypothyroid rats and increased 3 fold in hyperthyroidism. Lipogenesis was detected in euthyroid kidney and heart and these levels were also stimulated by thyroid hormone treatment. Brown adipose tissue was unique in showing increased lipogenesis in the hypothyroid state. Hyperthyroid levels were not different from euthyroid. Effects in white adipose tissue were small and inconsistent. Brain, skin and lung were all lipogenically active, but did not respond to changes in thyroid state. Low but detectable levels of fatty acid synthesis were measured in muscle, which also were non-responsive. A wide spectrum of responses to thyroid hormone are seen in different rat tissues and thus the pathway of long chain fatty acid synthesis would appear to be an excellent model for examining the tissue specific regulation of gene expression by thyroid hormone.

  11. Localized Ablation of Thyroid Tissue by High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound: an Alternative to Surgery?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esnault, Olivier; Franc, Brigitte; Chapelon, Jean-Yves; Lacoste, Francois

    2006-05-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of using a High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) device to obtain a localised destruction of the thyroid with no damage to adjacent tissues. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The ewe model was used because its thyroid gland is easily accessible with ultrasound. The animals were anaesthetised with 10 mg / kg IV injection of Penthothal. The HIFU pulses were generated by a 3-MHz spherical transducer under ultrasound guidance. Macroscopic and microscopic tissue lesions were identified after formalin fixation of the anterior part of the ewe's neck. RESULTS: After determining the optimal instrument settings to obtain localized thyroid ablation, the repeatability of the method was evaluated using a HIFU prototype designed specifically for human use: in 13 ewes (26 treated lobes), an average of 20 (range: 14-27) ultrasound pulses (pulse duration: 3 s) per lobe covering a mean volume of 0.5 cm3 (range: 0.3-0.7 cm3) were delivered. The ewes were sacrificed 2-5 weeks after treatment delivery. No damage to the nerves, trachea, esophagus or muscle was observed. Only 3 ewes suffered superficial skin burns. The desired thyroid lesions were obtained in 25/26 treated lobes, as demonstrated by fibrotic tissues, which replaced necrotic areas. CONCLUSION: These results obtained in the ewe model show that thyroid lesions of defined volume can be induced safely and suggest that the HIFU device is now ready for human trials.

  12. Ectopic thyroid tissue in the adrenal gland: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Casadei, Gian Piero; Bertarelli, Claudia; Giorgini, Eleonora; Cremonini, Nadia; de Biase, Dario; Tallini, Giovanni

    2015-04-01

    Foci of ectopic thyroid tissue are uncommon. Most sites of thyroid ectopia are confined to the neck region. The presence of ectopic thyroid tissue outside the migration pathway of the primitive thyroid in other locations is exceptional. Given that any disease of the thyroid gland may also affect ectopic thyroid tissue, pathologists has to recognize benign or malignant conditions that may develop in the ectopic focus. We present the case of a 32-year-old woman with ectopic thyroid parenchyma in the adrenal gland. Clinically, postoperative thyroid ultrasound echography and computed tomography scans did not reveal any thyroid tumor. The ectopic tissue was a cyst bordered by mature follicular thyroid structures and was histologically benign, without the molecular alterations associated with malignant tumors of follicular cell derivation (BRAFV600E, N-RAS, H-RAS, K-RAS). Review of the literature reveals that adrenal ectopic thyroid tissue is nearly always cystic and has distinctive pathologic features. PMID:24997195

  13. [Comparative proteomic analysis of cancerous and adjacent normal lung tissues].

    PubMed

    Lee, Ki Beom; Pi, Kyung Bae

    2010-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality in industrialized countries. Unfortunately, most lung cancers are found too late for a cure, therefore early detection and treatment is very important. We have applied proteomic analysis by using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and peptide mass fingerprinting techniques for examination of cancerous and adjacent non-cancerous lung tissues from the same patient. The aim of the study was to find proteins, which could be used as biomarkers for diagnosis and monitoring of this disease. Indeed, we found differences in expression of several proteins, related to various cellular activities, such as, chaperoning (e.g., GRP96, GRP78, HSP27), metabolism and oxidation stress (e.g., L-fucose, GST), cytoskeleton (e.g., tubulin beta 2/3, beta actin), cell adhesion (e.g., annexin A5/3), binding proteins (e.g., 14-3-3 theta) and signal transduction. These changes may be important for progression of carcinogenesis; they may be used as the molecular-support for future diagnostic markers. PMID:21395069

  14. NM23 protein in neoplastic and nonneoplastic thyroid tissues.

    PubMed Central

    Bertheau, P.; De La Rosa, A.; Steeg, P. S.; Merino, M. J.

    1994-01-01

    The expression of nm23 gene products has been associated with a lower metastatic potential and better outcome in malignant tumors. We have used immunohistochemistry to study the expression of nm23 protein in thyroid tissues from 101 patients consisting of 78 malignant neoplasms, 13 adenomas, and 10 other benign conditions. Cytoplasmic staining for nm23 protein was identified in normal tissues and in most benign and malignant lesions and did not correlate with either histological type of clinical outcome. Nuclear staining was seen in 93% of normal tissues and in 29% of primary carcinomas of the thyroid and was associated with a longer disease-free survival (P = 0.03). Membranous staining was present in some tumors but absent in normal thyroid. In conclusion, nm23 protein has a combined pattern of distribution among subcellular compartments in thyroid tissues. Although there was no significant association between cytoplasmic or membranous expression and histological type of tumor or survival nm23 nuclear expression may be a useful marker in assessing the evolution of thyroid tumors. Images Figure 1 PMID:8030752

  15. 9 CFR 310.15 - Disposition of thyroid glands and laryngeal muscle tissue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... laryngeal muscle tissue. 310.15 Section 310.15 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION... of thyroid glands and laryngeal muscle tissue. (a) Livestock thyroid glands and laryngeal muscle tissue shall not be used for human food. (b) Livestock thyroid glands and laryngeal muscle tissue may...

  16. 9 CFR 310.15 - Disposition of thyroid glands and laryngeal muscle tissue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... laryngeal muscle tissue. 310.15 Section 310.15 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION... of thyroid glands and laryngeal muscle tissue. (a) Livestock thyroid glands and laryngeal muscle tissue shall not be used for human food. (b) Livestock thyroid glands and laryngeal muscle tissue may...

  17. 9 CFR 310.15 - Disposition of thyroid glands and laryngeal muscle tissue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... laryngeal muscle tissue. 310.15 Section 310.15 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION... of thyroid glands and laryngeal muscle tissue. (a) Livestock thyroid glands and laryngeal muscle tissue shall not be used for human food. (b) Livestock thyroid glands and laryngeal muscle tissue may...

  18. 9 CFR 310.15 - Disposition of thyroid glands and laryngeal muscle tissue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... laryngeal muscle tissue. 310.15 Section 310.15 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION... of thyroid glands and laryngeal muscle tissue. (a) Livestock thyroid glands and laryngeal muscle tissue shall not be used for human food. (b) Livestock thyroid glands and laryngeal muscle tissue may...

  19. 9 CFR 310.15 - Disposition of thyroid glands and laryngeal muscle tissue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... laryngeal muscle tissue. 310.15 Section 310.15 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION... of thyroid glands and laryngeal muscle tissue. (a) Livestock thyroid glands and laryngeal muscle tissue shall not be used for human food. (b) Livestock thyroid glands and laryngeal muscle tissue may...

  20. Fluorescence lifetime of normal, benign, and malignant thyroid tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandao, Mariana; Iwakura, Ricardo; Basilio, Fagne; Haleplian, Kaique; Ito, Amando; de Freitas, Luiz Carlos Conti; Bachmann, Luciano

    2015-06-01

    Fine-needle aspiration cytology is the standard technique to diagnose thyroid pathologies. However, this method results in a high percentage of inconclusive and false negatives. The use of time-resolved fluorescence techniques to detect biochemical composition and tissue structure alterations could help to develop a portable, minimally invasive, and nondestructive method to assist during surgical procedures. This study aimed to use fluorescence lifetimes to differentiate healthy and benign tissues from malignant thyroid tissue. The thyroid tissue was excited at 298-300 nm and the fluorescence decay registered at 340 and 450 nm. We observed fluorescence lifetimes at 340 nm emission of 0.80±0.26 and 3.94±0.47 ns for healthy tissue; 0.90±0.24 and 4.05±0.46 ns for benign lesions; and 1.21±0.14 and 4.63±0.25 ns for malignant lesions. For 450 nm emissions, we obtain lifetimes of 0.25±0.18 and 3.99±0.39 ns for healthy tissue, 0.24±0.17 and 4.20±0.48 ns for benign lesions, 0.33±0.32 and 4.55±0.55 ns for malignant lesions. Employing analysis of variance, we differentiate malignant lesions from benign and healthy tissues. In addition, we use quadratic discriminant analysis to distinguish malignant from benign and healthy tissues with an accuracy of 76.1%, sensitivity of 74.7%, and specificity of 83.3%. These results indicate that time-resolved fluorescence can assist medical evaluation of thyroid pathologies during surgeries.

  1. Association of RET codon 691 polymorphism in radiation-induced human thyroid tumours with C-cell hyperplasia in peritumoural tissue

    PubMed Central

    Bounacer, A; Du Villard, J A; Wicker, R; Caillou, B; Schlumberger, M; Sarasin, A; Suárez, H G

    2002-01-01

    The RET proto-oncogene encodes a protein structurally related to transmembrane receptors with an intracellular tyrosine kinase domain. In human thyroid gland, the RET proto-oncogene is normally expressed in parafollicular C-cells. Thyroid C-cell hyperplasia is associated with inherited medullary thyroid carcinomas and is considered as a pre-neoplastic stage of C-cells disease. It has also been observed in thyroid tissues adjacent to follicular and papillary carcinomas. In order to study the relationship between a misfunctioning of the RET proto-oncogene and the presence of C-cell hyperplasia, we compared a series of thyroid glands presenting sporadic or radiation-associated tumours, as well as samples of unrelated normal thyroid tissues, for alteration in exons 10 and 11 of the gene and for the presence or absence of C-cell hyperplasia. Here we report a significantly higher frequency of C-cell hyperplasia present in peritumoural thyroid tissues of radiation-induced epithelial thyroid tumours, than in peritumoural of sporadic thyroid tumours or in control normal thyroid tissues (P=0.001). A G691S RET polymorphism was present with a higher frequency in radiation-induced epithelial thyroid tumours (55%) than in sporadic tumours (20%) and in control normal thyroid tissues (15%). Interestingly, this polymorphism was associated in the majority (88%) of radiation-induced tumours with a C-cell hyperplasia in the peritumoural tissues. Several explanations for this association are discussed. British Journal of Cancer (2002) 86, 1929–1936. doi:10.1038/sj.bjc.6600371 www.bjcancer.com © 2002 Cancer Research UK PMID:12085189

  2. Divergent viral presentation among human tumors and adjacent normal tissues.

    PubMed

    Cao, Song; Wendl, Michael C; Wyczalkowski, Matthew A; Wylie, Kristine; Ye, Kai; Jayasinghe, Reyka; Xie, Mingchao; Wu, Song; Niu, Beifang; Grubb, Robert; Johnson, Kimberly J; Gay, Hiram; Chen, Ken; Rader, Janet S; Dipersio, John F; Chen, Feng; Ding, Li

    2016-01-01

    We applied a newly developed bioinformatics system called VirusScan to investigate the viral basis of 6,813 human tumors and 559 adjacent normal samples across 23 cancer types and identified 505 virus positive samples with distinctive, organ system- and cancer type-specific distributions. We found that herpes viruses (e.g., subtypes HHV4, HHV5, and HHV6) that are highly prevalent across cancers of the digestive tract showed significantly higher abundances in tumor versus adjacent normal samples, supporting their association with these cancers. We also found three HPV16-positive samples in brain lower grade glioma (LGG). Further, recurrent HBV integration at the KMT2B locus is present in three liver tumors, but absent in their matched adjacent normal samples, indicating that viral integration induced host driver genetic alterations are required on top of viral oncogene expression for initiation and progression of liver hepatocellular carcinoma. Notably, viral integrations were found in many genes, including novel recurrent HPV integrations at PTPN13 in cervical cancer. Finally, we observed a set of HHV4 and HBV variants strongly associated with ethnic groups, likely due to viral sequence evolution under environmental influences. These findings provide important new insights into viral roles of tumor initiation and progression and potential new therapeutic targets. PMID:27339696

  3. Divergent viral presentation among human tumors and adjacent normal tissues

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Song; Wendl, Michael C.; Wyczalkowski, Matthew A.; Wylie, Kristine; Ye, Kai; Jayasinghe, Reyka; Xie, Mingchao; Wu, Song; Niu, Beifang; Grubb, Robert; Johnson, Kimberly J.; Gay, Hiram; Chen, Ken; Rader, Janet S.; Dipersio, John F.; Chen, Feng; Ding, Li

    2016-01-01

    We applied a newly developed bioinformatics system called VirusScan to investigate the viral basis of 6,813 human tumors and 559 adjacent normal samples across 23 cancer types and identified 505 virus positive samples with distinctive, organ system- and cancer type-specific distributions. We found that herpes viruses (e.g., subtypes HHV4, HHV5, and HHV6) that are highly prevalent across cancers of the digestive tract showed significantly higher abundances in tumor versus adjacent normal samples, supporting their association with these cancers. We also found three HPV16-positive samples in brain lower grade glioma (LGG). Further, recurrent HBV integration at the KMT2B locus is present in three liver tumors, but absent in their matched adjacent normal samples, indicating that viral integration induced host driver genetic alterations are required on top of viral oncogene expression for initiation and progression of liver hepatocellular carcinoma. Notably, viral integrations were found in many genes, including novel recurrent HPV integrations at PTPN13 in cervical cancer. Finally, we observed a set of HHV4 and HBV variants strongly associated with ethnic groups, likely due to viral sequence evolution under environmental influences. These findings provide important new insights into viral roles of tumor initiation and progression and potential new therapeutic targets. PMID:27339696

  4. Spectral analysis of induced fluorescence in thyroid tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giubileo, Gianfranco; Colao, Francesco; Rocchini, Paolo; Panzironi, Giuseppe

    2001-05-01

    In this paper thyroid samples have been analyzed by fluorescent technique and characterization of the spectral response has been performed by studying both emission and excitation fluorescence spectra. The measurements have been performed by using a double monochromator spectrofluorometer. The nature of the medium containing the tissue sample has resulted to be of great importance in eliminating spurious effects not related to the sample itself. Observations fulfilled on a number of samples will be reported and comparison between healthy tissue and tumor tissue will be discussed.

  5. Low-Dose Radioactive Iodine Destroys Thyroid Tissue Left after Surgery

    Cancer.gov

    A low dose of radioactive iodine given after surgery for thyroid cancer destroyed (ablated) residual thyroid tissue as effectively as a higher dose, with fewer side effects and less exposure to radiation, according to two randomized controlled trials.

  6. Low-Dose Radioactive Iodine Destroys Thyroid Tissue Left After Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Endocrine & Neuroendocrine Neoplasias Research Low-Dose Radioactive Iodine Destroys Thyroid Tissue Left after Surgery Adapted from ... NCI Cancer Bulletin . A low dose of radioactive iodine given after surgery for thyroid cancer destroyed (ablated) ...

  7. Tissue landscape alters adjacent cell fates during Drosophila egg development

    PubMed Central

    Manning, Lathiena; Weideman, Ann Marie; Peercy, Bradford; Starz-Gaiano, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Extracellular signaling molecules control many biological processes, but the influence of tissue architecture on the local concentrations of these factors is unclear. Here we examine this issue in the Drosophila egg chamber, where two anterior cells secrete Unpaired (Upd) to activate Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription (STAT) signaling in the epithelium. High STAT signaling promotes cell motility. Genetic analysis shows that all cells near the Upd source can respond. However, using upright imaging, we show surprising asymmetries in STAT activation patterns, suggesting that some cells experience different Upd levels than predicted by their location. We develop a three-dimensional mathematical model to characterize the spatio-temporal distribution of the activator. Simulations show that irregular tissue domains can produce asymmetric distributions of Upd, consistent with results in vivo. Mutant analysis substantiates this idea. We conclude that cellular landscape can heavily influence the effect of diffusible activators and should be more widely considered. PMID:26082073

  8. Effects of radiotherapy on uveal melanomas and adjacent tissues.

    PubMed

    Groenewald, C; Konstantinidis, L; Damato, B

    2013-02-01

    Most uveal melanomas are treated with radiotherapy. An adequate understanding of the effects of radiation on the tumour and the healthy ocular tissues is necessary. Ionizing radiation damages cell membranes, organelles, and DNA. Irradiated cells are lysed or undergo apoptosis, necrosis, and senescence. These effects occur in tumour cells and vascular endothelial cells, resulting in tumour shrinkage, ischaemia, infarction, exudation, and fibrosis, which can cause exudative maculopathy, serous retinal detachment, rubeosis, and neovascular glaucoma (ie, 'toxic tumour syndrome'). Such abnormalities must be distinguished from collateral damage to healthy ocular tissues that receive high doses of radiation, and these include radiation-induced retinopathy, optic neuropathy, choroidopathy, cataract, and scleral necrosis. Radiation retinopathy can be treated effectively with photodynamic therapy, anti-angiogenic agents, and intravitreal steroid injections. In some patients, optic neuropathy may improve with intravitreal steroids or anti-angiogenic agents. Neovascular glaucoma resolves with intra-cameral bevacizumab. Exudative retinal detachment can regress with intra-vitreal steroid injections. Cataract is treated in the usual manner. Scleral necrosis, if severe, may require grafting, possibly using a lamellar flap from the same eye. Depending on the bulk of the residual toxic tumour, treatment can consist of intra-vitreal steroids and/or anti-angiogenic agents, transpupillary thermotherapy or photodynamic therapy to the tumour, or surgical removal of the tumour by endo- or exo-resection. Measures aimed at preventing collateral damage include eccentric placement of ruthenium plaques or iodine seeds and delivery of a notched proton beam. The decision to treat a uveal melanoma with radiotherapy requires the ability to manage iatrogenic side effects and complications. PMID:23196647

  9. Effects of radiotherapy on uveal melanomas and adjacent tissues

    PubMed Central

    Groenewald, C; Konstantinidis, L; Damato, B

    2013-01-01

    Most uveal melanomas are treated with radiotherapy. An adequate understanding of the effects of radiation on the tumour and the healthy ocular tissues is necessary. Ionizing radiation damages cell membranes, organelles, and DNA. Irradiated cells are lysed or undergo apoptosis, necrosis, and senescence. These effects occur in tumour cells and vascular endothelial cells, resulting in tumour shrinkage, ischaemia, infarction, exudation, and fibrosis, which can cause exudative maculopathy, serous retinal detachment, rubeosis, and neovascular glaucoma (ie, ‘toxic tumour syndrome'). Such abnormalities must be distinguished from collateral damage to healthy ocular tissues that receive high doses of radiation, and these include radiation-induced retinopathy, optic neuropathy, choroidopathy, cataract, and scleral necrosis. Radiation retinopathy can be treated effectively with photodynamic therapy, anti-angiogenic agents, and intravitreal steroid injections. In some patients, optic neuropathy may improve with intravitreal steroids or anti-angiogenic agents. Neovascular glaucoma resolves with intra-cameral bevacizumab. Exudative retinal detachment can regress with intra-vitreal steroid injections. Cataract is treated in the usual manner. Scleral necrosis, if severe, may require grafting, possibly using a lamellar flap from the same eye. Depending on the bulk of the residual toxic tumour, treatment can consist of intra-vitreal steroids and/or anti-angiogenic agents, transpupillary thermotherapy or photodynamic therapy to the tumour, or surgical removal of the tumour by endo- or exo-resection. Measures aimed at preventing collateral damage include eccentric placement of ruthenium plaques or iodine seeds and delivery of a notched proton beam. The decision to treat a uveal melanoma with radiotherapy requires the ability to manage iatrogenic side effects and complications. PMID:23196647

  10. Matrix metalloproteinase-1 expression in breast cancer and cancer-adjacent tissues by immunohistochemical staining

    PubMed Central

    XUAN, JIAJIA; ZHANG, YUNFENG; ZHANG, XIUJUN; HU, FEN

    2015-01-01

    Although matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) has been considered a factor of crucial importance for breast cancer cells invasion and metastasis, the expression of MMP-1 in different breast cancer and cancer-adjacent tissues have not been fully examined. In the present study, immunohistochemical staining was used to detect the MMP-1 expression in non-specific invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast, cancer-adjacent normal breast tissue, lymph node metastatic non-specific invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast and normal lymph node tissue. The results showed that MMP-1 expression is different in the above tissues. MMP-1 had a positive expression in normal lymph node tissue and lymph node metastatic non-specific invasive ductal carcinoma. The MMP-1 negative expression rate was only 6.1% in non-specific invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast and 2.9% in cancer-adjacent normal breast tissue respectively. MMP-1 expression is higher in non-specific invasive ductal carcinoma and lymph node metastatic non-specific invasive ductal carcinoma compared to cancer-adjacent normal breast tissue and normal lymph node tissue. In conclusion, higher expression of MMP-1 in breast cancer may play a crucial role in promoting breast cancer metastasis. PMID:26137243

  11. Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma with large cell transformation on the background of Hashimoto's thyroiditis: a case report and review literature.

    PubMed

    Hengjeerajarus, Natavuth; Klaisuwan, Teerada; Norasetthada, Lalita; Kosachunhanun, Natapong

    2015-05-01

    Primary thyroid lymphoma (PTL) is a rare cause of malignancy that occurs in 0.5% of cases with Hashimoto's thyroiditis. The most common subtype is diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), followed by mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. We described the case of a 70-year-old man who was diagnosed with MALT lymphoma in the background of autoimmune thyroiditis with focal area of DLBCL transformation. The patient was a 70-year-old man with rapidly growing mass of the thyroid gland with compressive symptom over two months. The laboratory data revealed primary hypothyroidism with positively anti-thyroid antibodies. The computerized tomography scan showed right thyroid mass extended to anterior mediastinum and compressed adjacent airway with multiple cervical and mediastinal lymphadenopathies. The pathology from incisional biopsy showed extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of MALT lymphoma with large cell transformation. The patient received four courses of systemic chemotherapy combined with involved field radiation therapy. The mass was dramatically decreased in size after treatment, leading to a complete resolution of compressive symptoms. Thyroid lymphoma is quite rare; however the incidence may be higher in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis. A rapidly growing thyroid gland should be considered as PTL. Chemotherapy and radiation are the mainstays of treatment. PMID:26058282

  12. Telomere length in hepatocellular carcinoma and paired adjacent non-tumor tissues by quantitative PCR.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yujing; Shen, Jing; Ming-Whei; Lee, Yu Po-Huang; Santella, Regina M

    2007-12-01

    Telomere shortening limits the proliferative capacity of human cells, restrains the regenerative capacity of organ systems during chronic diseases and aging and also induces chromosomal instability as well as initiation of cancer. Previous studies demonstrated that telomeres are often significantly shorter in tumor tissue, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), compared to the surrounding tissue, but telomere length in HCC tissues was not correlated with several clinical parameters, such as age, sex, HBV or HCV infections and tumor size. In the present study, the telomere length ratio of 36 paired HCC, and their adjacent non-tumor tissues was measured by quantitative PCR (Q-PCR). The mean telomere lengths (SD) for HCC and adjacent non-tumor tissues were 0.26 (0.10) and 0.47 (0.20) respectively (t = 6.22, P < 0.0001). There was a large difference in the distribution of subjects based on telomere length in tumor and adjacent non-tumor tissues. The number of tumors with telomere length shorter than 0.50 was much higher than that of adjacent non-tumor tissues; more than 90% of the tissues with telomere length > or = 0.50 were adjacent non-tumor tissues. The correlations between telomere length and aflatoxin B1- and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-DNA adducts level, p53 mutations and p16 hypermethylation status were also tested, but no significant associations were found. The relationship between telomere length shortening, chemical carcinogen exposure, and genetic and epigenetic changes in hepatocarcinogenesis needs further investigation. PMID:18058461

  13. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for differentiation between benign and malignant thyroid tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zuanfang; Li, Chao; Lin, Duo; Huang, Zufang; Pan, Jianji; Chen, Guannan; Lin, Juqiang; Liu, Nenrong; Yu, Yun; Feng, Shangyuan; Chen, Rong

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of applying silver nano-particle based surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) to discriminate different types of human thyroid tissues. SERS measurements were performed on three groups of tissue samples including thyroid cancers (n = 32), nodular goiters (n = 20) and normal thyroid tissues (n = 25). Tentative assignments of the measured tissue SERS spectra suggest interesting cancer specific biomolecular differences. The principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminate analysis (LDA) together with the leave-one-out, cross-validated technique yielded diagnostic sensitivities of 92%, 75% and 87.5%; and specificities of 82.6%, 89.4% and 84.4%, respectively, for differentiation among normal, nodular and malignant thyroid tissue samples. This work demonstrates that tissue SERS spectroscopy associated with multivariate analysis diagnostic algorithms has great potential for detection of thyroid cancer at the molecular level.

  14. Characterization of Thyroid Hormone Transporter Protein Expression during Tissue-specific Metamorphic Events in Xenopus tropicalis

    EPA Science Inventory

    Thyroid hormone (TH) induces the dramatic morphological and physiological changes that together comprise amphibian metamorphosis. TH-responsive tissues vary widely with developmental timing of TH-induced changes. How larval tadpole tissues are able to employ distinct metamorphi...

  15. Distinguishing epigenetic features of preneoplastic testis tissues adjacent to seminomas and nonseminomas

    PubMed Central

    Skvortsova, Yulia V.; Zinovyeva, Marina V.; Stukacheva, Elena A.; Klimov, Alexey; Tryakin, Alexey A.; Azhikina, Tatyana L.

    2016-01-01

    PIWI pathway proteins are expressed during spermatogenesis where they play a key role in germ cell development. Epigenetic loss of PIWI proteins expression was previously demonstrated in testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs), implying their involvement in TGCT development. In this work, apart from studying only normal testis and TGCT samples, we also analyzed an intermediate stage, i.e. preneoplastic testis tissues adjacent to TGCTs. Importantly, in this study, we minimized the contribution of patient-to-patient heterogeneity by using matched preneoplastic/TGCT samples. Surprisingly, expression of germ cell marker DDX4 suggests that spermatogenesis is retained in premalignant testis tissues adjacent to nonseminoma, but not those adjacent to seminoma. Moreover, this pattern is followed by expression of PIWI pathway genes, which impacts one of their functions: DNA methylation level over LINE-1 promoters is higher in preneoplastic testis tissues adjacent to nonseminomas than those adjacent to seminomas. This finding might imply distinct routes for development of the two types of TGCTs and could be used as a novel diagnostic marker, possibly, noninvasively. Finally, we studied the role of CpG island methylation in expression of PIWI genes in patient samples and using in vitro experiments in cell line models: a more complex interrelation between DNA methylation and expression of the corresponding genes was revealed. PMID:26843623

  16. Distinguishing epigenetic features of preneoplastic testis tissues adjacent to seminomas and nonseminomas.

    PubMed

    Gainetdinov, Ildar V; Kondratieva, Sofia A; Skvortsova, Yulia V; Zinovyeva, Marina V; Stukacheva, Elena A; Klimov, Alexey; Tryakin, Alexey A; Azhikina, Tatyana L

    2016-04-19

    PIWI pathway proteins are expressed during spermatogenesis where they play a key role in germ cell development. Epigenetic loss of PIWI proteins expression was previously demonstrated in testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs), implying their involvement in TGCT development. In this work, apart from studying only normal testis and TGCT samples, we also analyzed an intermediate stage, i.e. preneoplastic testis tissues adjacent to TGCTs. Importantly, in this study, we minimized the contribution of patient-to-patient heterogeneity by using matched preneoplastic/TGCT samples. Surprisingly, expression of germ cell marker DDX4 suggests that spermatogenesis is retained in premalignant testis tissues adjacent to nonseminoma, but not those adjacent to seminoma. Moreover, this pattern is followed by expression of PIWI pathway genes, which impacts one of their functions: DNA methylation level over LINE-1 promoters is higher in preneoplastic testis tissues adjacent to nonseminomas than those adjacent to seminomas. This finding might imply distinct routes for development of the two types of TGCTs and could be used as a novel diagnostic marker, possibly, noninvasively. Finally, we studied the role of CpG island methylation in expression of PIWI genes in patient samples and using in vitro experiments in cell line models: a more complex interrelation between DNA methylation and expression of the corresponding genes was revealed. PMID:26843623

  17. Thyroid

    MedlinePlus

    Thyroid is used to treat the symptoms of hypothyroidism (a condition where the thyroid gland does not produce enough thyroid hormone). Symptoms of hypothyroidism include lack of energy, depression, constipation, weight gain, ...

  18. Thyroiditis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hashimoto’s thyroiditis is the most common cause of hypothyroidism in the United States. Postpartum thyroiditis, which causes ... hormone levels in the blood) followed by temporary hypothyroidism, is a common cause of thyroid problems after ...

  19. Coexistence of papillary thyroid microcarcinoma and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma in a context of Hashimoto's thyroiditis.

    PubMed

    Levy-Blitchtein, Saul; Plasencia-Rebata, Stefany; Morales Luna, Domingo; Del Valle Mendoza, Juana

    2016-08-01

    Papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) represents 80-85% of thyroid cancer and its prevalence has been rising in the last decades. Primary thyroid lymphoma (PTL) accounts for 3% of extranodal lymphomas and about 5% of thyroid malignancies, having a prevalence of one or two cases per million people. Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue lymphoma represents approximately 30% of PTL. Both entities have an indolent course and a very good prognosis. Diagnosis is made by ultrasound and fine needle aspiration (FNA) or surgery specimen pathology. They have also been associated with HT, but pathogenesis and its links remains to be known. Treatment remains controversial and surgery is generally accepted in cases of disease limited to thyroid, as the present. Patients with thyroid nodules should be observed and followed. If there is an enlargement by ultrasound or clinical symptoms, FNA should be performed promptly. Patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) deserve additional surveillance, since this condition is associated with both PTC and PTL. In this case, the management with surgery and radioactive iodine ablation therapy was effective for both entities. Patients with thyroid nodules should be properly evaluated with ultrasound and thyroid function tests. If there is an enlargement of the neck, reported by symptoms or ultrasound, it requires further investigation. HT is associated to both PTC and PTL so if the enlargement of the nodules is on this context additional tests such as FNA should be performed. In this case, the patient was managed with surgery and radioactive iodine ablation therapy and it was effective for both entities. PMID:27569894

  20. Differentially Expressed miRNAs in Tumor, Adjacent, and Normal Tissues of Lung Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Fei; Li, Rui; Chen, Zhenzhu; Shen, Yanting; Lu, Jiafeng; Xie, Xueying; Ge, Qinyu

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths. Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the major type of lung cancer. The aim of this study was to characterize the expression profiles of miRNAs in adenocarcinoma (AC), one major subtype of NSCLC. In this study, the miRNAs were detected in normal, adjacent, and tumor tissues by next-generation sequencing. Then the expression levels of differential miRNAs were quantified by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). In the results, 259, 401, and 389 miRNAs were detected in tumor, adjacent, and normal tissues of pooled AC samples, respectively. In addition, for the first time we have found that miR-21-5p and miR-196a-5p were gradually upregulated from normal to adjacent to tumor tissues; miR-218-5p was gradually downregulated with 2-fold or greater change in AC tissues. These 3 miRNAs were validated by qRT-PCR. Lastly, we predicted target genes of these 3 miRNAs and enriched the potential functions and regulatory pathways. The aberrant miR-21-5p, miR-196a-5p, and miR-218-5p may become biomarkers for diagnosis and prognosis of lung adenocarcinoma. This research may be useful for lung adenocarcinoma diagnosis and the study of pathology in lung cancer. PMID:27247934

  1. Different expression of protein kinase A (PKA) regulatory subunits in normal and neoplastic thyroid tissues.

    PubMed

    Ferrero, Stefano; Vaira, Valentina; Del Gobbo, Alessandro; Vicentini, Leonardo; Bosari, Silvano; Beck-Peccoz, Paolo; Mantovani, Giovanna; Spada, Anna; Lania, Andrea G

    2015-04-01

    The four regulatory subunits (R1A, R1B, R2A, R2B) of protein kinase A (PKA) are differentially expressed in several cancer cell lines and exert distinct roles in both cell growth and cell differentiation control. Mutations of the PRKAR1A gene have been found in patients with Carney complex and in a minority of sporadic anaplastic thyroid carcinomas. The aim of the study was to retrospectively evaluate the expression of different PKA regulatory subunits in benign and non benign human thyroid tumours and to correlate their expression with clinical phenotype. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated a significant increase in PRKAR2B expression in both differentiated and undifferentiated (anaplastic) thyroid tumors in comparison with normal thyroid tissues. Conversely, a significant increase in PRKAR1A expression was only demonstrated in undifferentiated thyroid carcinomas in comparison with normal thyroid tissue and differentiated thyroid tumors. In thyroid cancers without lymph nodal metastases PRKAR1A expression was higher in tumours of more than 2 cm in size (T2 and T3) compared to smaller ones (T1). In conclusion, our data shows that an increased PRKAR1A expression is associated with aggressive and undifferentiated thyroid tumors. PMID:25393625

  2. Spatiotemporal morphometry of adjacent tissue layers with application to the study of sulcal formation.

    PubMed

    Rajagopalan, Vidya; Scott, Julia; Habas, Piotr A; Kim, Kio; Rousseau, François; Glenn, Orit A; Barkovich, A James; Studholme, Colin

    2011-01-01

    The process of brain growth involves the expansion of tissue at different rates at different points within the brain. As the layers within the developing brain evolve they can thicken or increase in area as the brain surface begins to fold. In this work we propose a new spatiotemporal formulation of tensor based volume morphometry that is derived in relation to tissue boundaries. This allows the study of the directional properties of tissue growth by separately characterizing the changes in area and thickness of the adjacent layers. The approach uses temporally weighted, local regression across a population of anatomies with different ages to model changes in components of the growth radial and tangential to the boundary between tissue layers. The formulation is applied to the study of sulcal formation from in-utero MR imaging of human fetal brain anatomy. Results show that the method detects differential growth of tissue layers adjacent to the cortical surface, particularly at sulcal locations, as early as 22 gestational weeks. PMID:21995063

  3. Coordinated tissue-specific regulation of adjacent alternative 3′ splice sites in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Ragle, James Matthew; Katzman, Sol; Akers, Taylor F.; Barberan-Soler, Sergio; Zahler, Alan M.

    2015-01-01

    Adjacent alternative 3′ splice sites, those separated by ≤18 nucleotides, provide a unique problem in the study of alternative splicing regulation; there is overlap of the cis-elements that define the adjacent sites. Identification of the intron's 3′ end depends upon sequence elements that define the branchpoint, polypyrimidine tract, and terminal AG dinucleotide. Starting with RNA-seq data from germline-enriched and somatic cell-enriched Caenorhabditis elegans samples, we identify hundreds of introns with adjacent alternative 3′ splice sites. We identify 203 events that undergo tissue-specific alternative splicing. For these, the regulation is monodirectional, with somatic cells preferring to splice at the distal 3′ splice site (furthest from the 5′ end of the intron) and germline cells showing a distinct shift toward usage of the adjacent proximal 3′ splice site (closer to the 5′ end of the intron). Splicing patterns in somatic cells follow C. elegans consensus rules of 3′ splice site definition; a short stretch of pyrimidines preceding an AG dinucleotide. Splicing in germline cells occurs at proximal 3′ splice sites that lack a preceding polypyrimidine tract, and in three instances the germline-specific site lacks the AG dinucleotide. We provide evidence that use of germline-specific proximal 3′ splice sites is conserved across Caenorhabditis species. We propose that there are differences between germline and somatic cells in the way that the basal splicing machinery functions to determine the intron terminus. PMID:25922281

  4. CRLX101 nanoparticles localize in human tumors and not in adjacent, nonneoplastic tissue after intravenous dosing

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Andrew J.; Wiley, Devin T.; Zuckerman, Jonathan E.; Webster, Paul; Chao, Joseph; Lin, James; Yen, Yun; Davis, Mark E.

    2016-01-01

    Nanoparticle-based therapeutics are being used to treat patients with solid tumors. Whereas nanoparticles have been shown to preferentially accumulate in solid tumors of animal models, there is little evidence to prove that intact nanoparticles localize to solid tumors of humans when systemically administered. Here, tumor and adjacent, nonneoplastic tissue biopsies are obtained through endoscopic capture from patients with gastric, gastroesophageal, or esophageal cancer who are administered the nanoparticle CRLX101. Both the pre- and postdosing tissue samples adjacent to tumors show no definitive evidence of either the nanoparticle or its drug payload (camptothecin, CPT) contained within the nanoparticle. Similar results are obtained from the predosing tumor samples. However, in nine of nine patients that were evaluated, CPT is detected in the tumor tissue collected 24–48 h after CRLX101 administration. For five of these patients, evidence of the intact deposition of CRLX101 nanoparticles in the tumor tissue is obtained. Indications of CPT pharmacodynamics from tumor biomarkers such as carbonic anhydrase IX and topoisomerase I by immunohistochemistry show clear evidence of biological activity from the delivered CPT in the posttreatment tumors. PMID:27001839

  5. Adipose-Derived Stromal Vascular Fraction Differentially Expands Breast Progenitors in Tissue Adjacent to Tumors Compared to Healthy Breast Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Sumanta; Laliberte, Mike; Blelloch, Sarah; Ratanshi, Imran; Safneck, Janice; Buchel, Ed

    2015-01-01

    Background: Autologous fat grafts supplemented with adipose-derived stromal vascular fraction are used in reconstructive and cosmetic breast procedures. Stromal vascular fraction contains adipose-derived stem cells that are thought to encourage wound healing, tissue regeneration, and graft retention. Although use of stromal vascular fraction has provided exciting perspectives for aesthetic procedures, no studies have yet been conducted to determine whether its cells contribute to breast tissue regeneration. The authors examined the effect of these cells on the expansion of human breast epithelial progenitors. Methods: From patients undergoing reconstructive breast surgery following mastectomies, abdominal fat, matching tissue adjacent to breast tumors, and the contralateral non–tumor-containing breast tissue were obtained. Ex vivo co-cultures using breast epithelial cells and the stromal vascular fraction cells were used to study the expansion potential of breast progenitors. Breast reduction samples were collected as a source of healthy breast cells. Results: The authors observed that progenitors present in healthy breast tissue or contralateral non–tumor-containing breast tissue showed significant and robust expansion in the presence of stromal vascular fraction (5.2- and 4.8-fold, respectively). Whereas the healthy progenitors expanded up to 3-fold without the stromal vascular fraction cells, the expansion of tissue adjacent to breast tumor progenitors required the presence of stromal vascular fraction cells, leading to a 7-fold expansion, which was significantly higher than the expansion of healthy progenitors with stromal vascular fraction. Conclusions: The use of stromal vascular fraction might be more beneficial to reconstructive operations following mastectomies compared with cosmetic corrections of the healthy breast. Future studies are required to examine the potential risk factors associated with its use. CLINICAL QUESTION/LEVEL OF EVIDENCE

  6. Diffuse Optical Characterization of the Healthy Human Thyroid Tissue and Two Pathological Case Studies

    PubMed Central

    Lindner, Claus; Johansson, Johannes; Weigel, Udo M.; Halperin, Irene; Hanzu, Felicia A.; Durduran, Turgut

    2016-01-01

    The in vivo optical and hemodynamic properties of the healthy (n = 22) and pathological (n = 2) human thyroid tissue were measured non-invasively using a custom time-resolved spectroscopy (TRS) and diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) system. Medical ultrasound was used to guide the placement of the hand-held hybrid optical probe. TRS measured the absorption and reduced scattering coefficients (μa, μs′) at three wavelengths (690, 785 and 830 nm) to derive total hemoglobin concentration (THC) and oxygen saturation (StO2). DCS measured the microvascular blood flow index (BFI). Their dependencies on physiological and clinical parameters and positions along the thyroid were investigated and compared to the surrounding sternocleidomastoid muscle. The THC in the thyroid ranged from 131.9 μM to 144.8 μM, showing a 25–44% increase compared to the surrounding sternocleidomastoid muscle tissue. The blood flow was significantly higher in the thyroid (BFIthyroid = 16.0 × 10-9 cm2/s) compared to the muscle (BFImuscle = 7.8 × 10-9 cm2/s), while StO2 showed a small (StO2, muscle = 63.8% to StO2, thyroid = 68.4%), yet significant difference. Two case studies with thyroid nodules underwent the same measurement protocol prior to thyroidectomy. Their THC and BFI reached values around 226.5 μM and 62.8 × 10-9 cm2/s respectively showing a clear contrast to the nodule-free thyroid tissue as well as the general population. The initial characterization of the healthy and pathologic human thyroid tissue lays the ground work for the future investigation on the use of diffuse optics in thyroid cancer screening. PMID:26815533

  7. Diffuse Optical Characterization of the Healthy Human Thyroid Tissue and Two Pathological Case Studies.

    PubMed

    Lindner, Claus; Mora, Mireia; Farzam, Parisa; Squarcia, Mattia; Johansson, Johannes; Weigel, Udo M; Halperin, Irene; Hanzu, Felicia A; Durduran, Turgut

    2016-01-01

    The in vivo optical and hemodynamic properties of the healthy (n = 22) and pathological (n = 2) human thyroid tissue were measured non-invasively using a custom time-resolved spectroscopy (TRS) and diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) system. Medical ultrasound was used to guide the placement of the hand-held hybrid optical probe. TRS measured the absorption and reduced scattering coefficients (μa, μs') at three wavelengths (690, 785 and 830 nm) to derive total hemoglobin concentration (THC) and oxygen saturation (StO2). DCS measured the microvascular blood flow index (BFI). Their dependencies on physiological and clinical parameters and positions along the thyroid were investigated and compared to the surrounding sternocleidomastoid muscle. The THC in the thyroid ranged from 131.9 μM to 144.8 μM, showing a 25-44% increase compared to the surrounding sternocleidomastoid muscle tissue. The blood flow was significantly higher in the thyroid (BFIthyroid = 16.0 × 10-9 cm2/s) compared to the muscle (BFImuscle = 7.8 × 10-9 cm2/s), while StO2 showed a small (StO2, muscle = 63.8% to StO2, thyroid = 68.4%), yet significant difference. Two case studies with thyroid nodules underwent the same measurement protocol prior to thyroidectomy. Their THC and BFI reached values around 226.5 μM and 62.8 × 10-9 cm2/s respectively showing a clear contrast to the nodule-free thyroid tissue as well as the general population. The initial characterization of the healthy and pathologic human thyroid tissue lays the ground work for the future investigation on the use of diffuse optics in thyroid cancer screening. PMID:26815533

  8. Histopathological effects of intraoperative radiotherapy on pancreas and adjacent tissues: a postmortem analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Hoekstra, H.J.; Restrepo, C.; Kinsella, T.J.; Sindelar, W.F.

    1988-02-01

    Intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) has been utilized in the treatment of resectable and unresectable pancreatic carcinoma at the National Cancer Institute. Detailed autopsy analyses of the radiation effects on the pancreas and adjacent tissues were performed on 13 patients dying at various times following therapy. IORT can induce a progressive retroperitoneal fibrosis and fibrosis of the porta hepatis in patients with resectable pancreatic carcinoma. In unresectable pancreatic carcinoma, the major expression of intraoperative irradiation with external beam irradiation is a progressive fibrosis of the pancreas with vascular sclerosis, nerve degeneration, atrophy of acinar cells, and atypical changes in the ducts of the pancreas, as well as degenerative changes of the pancreatic tumor.

  9. Characterization of a thyroid hormone receptor expressed in human kidney and other tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Nakai, A.; Seino, S.; Sakurai, A.; Szilak, I.; Bell, G.I.; DeGroot, L.J.

    1988-04-01

    A cDNA encoding a specific form of thyroid hormone receptor expressed in human liver, kidney, placenta, and brain was isolated from a human kidney library. Identical clones were found in human placenta and HepG2 cDNA libraries. The cDNA encodes a 490-amino acid protein. When expressed and translated in vitro, the protein products binds triiodothyronine with K/sub a/ of 2.3 /times/ 10/sup 9/ M/sup /minus/1/. This protein, designated human thyroid hormone receptor type ..cap alpha..2 (hTR..cap alpha..2), has the same domain structure as other members of the v-erbA-related superfamily of receptor genes. It is similar to thyroid hormone receptor type ..cap alpha.. described in chicken and rat and less similar to human thyroid hormone receptor type ..beta.. (formerly referred to as c-erbA..beta..) from placenta. However, it is distinguished from these receptors by an extension of the C-terminal hormone binding domain making it 80 amino acids longer than rat thyroid hormone receptor type ..cap alpha..1. Different sizes of mRNA found in liver and kidney suggest that there may be tissue-specific processing of the primary transcript of this gene. Identification of human thyroid hormone receptor type ..cap alpha..2 indicates that two or more forms of thyroid hormone receptor exist in human tissues and may explain the normal variation in thyroid hormone responsiveness of various organs and the selective tissue abnormalities found in the thyroid hormone resistance syndromes.

  10. Early Growth Response1and Fatty Acid Synthase Expression is Altered in Tumor Adjacent Prostate Tissue and Indicates Field Cancerization

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Anna C.; Trujillo, Kristina A.; Phillips, Genevieve K.; Fleet, Trisha M.; Murton, Jaclyn K.; Severns, Virginia; Shah, Satyan K.; Davis, Michael S.; Smith, Anthony Y.; Griffith, Jeffrey K.; Fischer, Edgar G.; Bisoffi, Marco

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND Field cancerization denotes the occurrence of molecular alterations in histologically normal tissues adjacent to tumors. In prostate cancer, identification of field cancerization has several potential clinical applications. However, prostate field cancerization remains ill defined. Our previous work has shown up-regulated mRNA of the transcription factor early growth response 1 (EGR-1) and the lipogenic enzyme fatty acid synthase (FAS) in tissues adjacent to prostate cancer. METHODS Immunofluorescence data were analyzed quantitatively by spectral imaging and linear unmixing to determine the protein expression levels of EGR-1 and FAS in human cancerous, histologically normal adjacent, and disease-free prostate tissues. RESULTS EGR-1 expression was elevated in both structurally intact tumor adjacent (1.6× on average) and in tumor (3.0× on average) tissues compared to disease-free tissues. In addition, the ratio of cytoplasmic versus nuclear EGR-1 expression was elevated in both tumor adjacent and tumor tissues. Similarly, FAS expression was elevated in both tumor adjacent (2.7× on average) and in tumor (2.5× on average) compared to disease-free tissues. CONCLUSIONS EGR-1 and FAS expression is similarly deregulated in tumor and structurally intact adjacent prostate tissues and defines field cancerization. In cases with high suspicion of prostate cancer but negative biopsy, identification of field cancerization could help clinicians target areas for repeat biopsy. Field cancerization at surgical margins on prostatectomy specimen should also be looked at as a predictor of cancer recurrence. EGR-1 and FAS could also serve as molecular targets for chemoprevention. PMID:22127986

  11. Ultrastructural features of collagen in thyroid carcinoma tissue observed by polarization second harmonic generation microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Tokarz, Danielle; Cisek, Richard; Golaraei, Ahmad; Asa, Sylvia L.; Barzda, Virginijus; Wilson, Brian C.

    2015-01-01

    Changes in collagen ultrastructure between malignant and normal human thyroid tissue were investigated ex vivo using polarization second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy. The second-order nonlinear optical susceptibility tensor component ratio and the degree of linear polarization (DOLP) of the SHG signal were measured. The ratio values are related to the collagen ultrastructure, while DOLP indicates the relative amount of coherent signal and incoherent scattering of SHG. Increase in ratio values and decrease in DOLP were observed for tumor tissue compared to normal thyroid, indicating higher ultrastructural disorder in tumor collagen. PMID:26417516

  12. Effect of Hypothyroidism and Hyperthyroidism on Tissue Thyroid Hormone Concentrations in Rat

    PubMed Central

    Donzelli, Riccardo; Colligiani, Daria; Kusmic, Claudia; Sabatini, Martina; Lorenzini, Leonardo; Accorroni, Alice; Nannipieri, Monica; Saba, Alessandro; Iervasi, Giorgio; Zucchi, Riccardo

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective The present study was aimed at determining the effects of experimental hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism on tissue thyroid hormones by a mass spectrometry-based technique. Methods Rats were subjected to propylthiouracil treatment or administration of exogenous triiodothyronine (T3) or thyroxine (T4). Tissue T3 and T4 were measured by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry in the heart, liver, kidney, visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue, and brain. Results Baseline tissue T3 and T4 concentrations ranged from 0.2 to 20 pmol ∙ g-1 and from 3 to 125 pmol ∙ g-1, respectively, with the highest values in the liver and kidney, and the lowest values in the adipose tissue. The T3/T4 ratio (expressed as a percentage) was in the 7-20% range in all tissues except the brain, where it averaged 75%. In hypothyroidism, tissue T3 was more severely reduced than serum free T3, averaging 1-6% of the baseline versus 30% of the baseline. The extent of tissue T3 reduction, expressed as percentage of the baseline, was not homogeneous (p < 0.001), with liver = kidney > brain > heart > adipose tissue. The tissue T3/T4 ratio significantly increased in all organs except the kidney, averaging 330% in the brain and 50-90% in the other tissues. By contrast, exogenous T3 and T4 administration produced similar increases in serum free T3 and in tissue T3, and the relative changes were not significantly different between different tissues. Conclusions While the response to increased thyroid hormones availability was similar in all tissues, decreased thyroid hormone availability induced compensatory responses, leading to a significant mismatch between changes in serum and in specific tissues. PMID:27099836

  13. Effects of substitution and high-dose thyroid hormone therapy on deiodination, sulfoconjugation, and tissue thyroid hormone levels in prolonged critically ill rabbits.

    PubMed

    Debaveye, Yves; Ellger, Björn; Mebis, Liese; Visser, Theo J; Darras, Veerle M; Van den Berghe, Greet

    2008-08-01

    To delineate the metabolic fate of thyroid hormone in prolonged critically ill rabbits, we investigated the impact of two dose regimes of thyroid hormone on plasma 3,3'-diiodothyronine (T(2)) and T(4)S, deiodinase type 1 (D1) and D3 activity, and tissue iodothyronine levels in liver and kidney, as compared with saline and TRH. D2-expressing tissues were ignored. The regimens comprised either substitution dose or a 3- to 5- fold higher dose of T(4) and T(3), either alone or combined, targeted to achieve plasma thyroid hormone levels obtained by TRH. Compared with healthy animals, saline-treated ill rabbits revealed lower plasma T(3) (P=0.006), hepatic T(3) (P=0.02), and hepatic D1 activity (P=0.01). Substitution-dosed thyroid hormone therapy did not affect these changes except a further decline in plasma (P=0.0006) and tissue T(4) (P=0.04). High-dosed thyroid hormone therapy elevated plasma and tissue iodothyronine levels and hepatic D1 activity, as did TRH. Changes in iodothyronine tissue levels mimicked changes in plasma. Tissue T(3) and tissue T(3)/reverse T(3) ratio correlated with deiodinase activities. Neither substitution- nor high-dose treatment altered plasma T(2). Plasma T(4)S was increased only by T(4) in high dose. We conclude that in prolonged critically ill rabbits, low plasma T(3) levels were associated with low liver and kidney T(3) levels. Restoration of plasma and liver and kidney tissue iodothyronine levels was not achieved by thyroid hormone in substitution dose but instead required severalfold this dose. This indicates thyroid hormone hypermetabolism, which in this model of critical illness is not entirely explained by deiodination or by sulfoconjugation. PMID:18450965

  14. Distinctive Glycerophospholipid Profiles of Human Seminoma and Adjacent Normal Tissues by Desorption Electrospray Ionization Imaging Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masterson, Timothy A.; Dill, Allison L.; Eberlin, Livia S.; Mattarozzi, Monica; Cheng, Liang; Beck, Stephen D. W.; Bianchi, Federica; Cooks, R. Graham

    2011-08-01

    Desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (DESI-MS) has been successfully used to discriminate between normal and cancerous human tissue from different anatomical sites. On the basis of this, DESI-MS imaging was used to characterize human seminoma and adjacent normal tissue. Seminoma and adjacent normal paired human tissue sections (40 tissues) from 15 patients undergoing radical orchiectomy were flash frozen in liquid nitrogen and sectioned to 15 μm thickness and thaw mounted to glass slides. The entire sample was two-dimensionally analyzed by the charged solvent spray to form a molecular image of the biological tissue. DESI-MS images were compared with formalin-fixed, hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stained slides of the same material. Increased signal intensity was detected for two seminolipids [seminolipid (16:0/16:0) and seminolipid (30:0)] in the normal tubule testis tissue; these compounds were undetectable in seminoma tissue, as well as from the surrounding fat, muscle, and blood vessels. A glycerophosphoinositol [PI(18:0/20:4)] was also found at increased intensity in the normal testes tubule tissue when compared with seminoma tissue. Ascorbic acid (i.e., vitamin C) was found at increased amounts in seminoma tissue when compared with normal tissue. DESI-MS analysis was successfully used to visualize the location of several types of molecules across human seminoma and normal tissues. Discrimination between seminoma and adjacent normal testes tubules was achieved on the basis of the spatial distributions and varying intensities of particular lipid species as well as ascorbic acid. The increased presence of ascorbic acid within seminoma compared with normal seminiferous tubules was previously unknown.

  15. Biochemical and molecular characterization of thyroid tissue by micro-Raman spectroscopy and gene expression analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neto, Lázaro P. M.; Martin, Aírton A.; Soto, Claudio A. T.; Santos, André B. O.; Mello, Evandro S.; Pereira, Marina A.; Cernea, Cláudio R.; Brandão, Lenine G.; Canevari, Renata A.

    2016-02-01

    Thyroid carcinomas represent the main endocrine malignancy and their diagnosis may produce inconclusive results. Raman spectroscopy and gene expression analysis have shown excellent results on the differentiation of carcinomas. This study aimed to improve the discrimination between different thyroid pathologies combining of both analyses. A total of 35 thyroid tissues samples including normal tissue (n=10), goiter (n=10), papillary (n=10) and follicular carcinomas (n=5) were analyzed. Confocal Raman spectra was obtain by using a Rivers Diagnostic System, 785 nm laser excitation and CCD detector. The data was processed by the software Labspec5 and Origin 8.5 and analyzed by Minitab® program. The gene expression analysis was performed by qRT-PCR technique for TG, TPO, PDGFB, SERPINA1, LGALS3 and TFF3 genes and statistically analyzed by Mann-Whitney test. The confocal Raman spectroscopy allowed a maximum discrimination of 91.1% between normal and tumor tissues, 84.8% between benign and malignant pathologies and 84.6% among carcinomas analyzed. Significant differences was observed for TG, LGALS3, SERPINA1 and TFF3 genes between benign lesions and carcinomas, and SERPINA1 and TFF3 genes between papillary and follicular carcinomas. Principal component analysis was performed using PC1 and PC2 in the papillary carcinoma samples that showed over gene expression when compared with normal sample, where 90% of discrimination was observed at the Amide 1 (1655 cm-1), and at the tyrosine spectra region (856 cm-1). The discrimination of tissues thyroid carried out by confocal Raman spectroscopy and gene expression analysis indicate that these techniques are promising tools to be used in the diagnosis of thyroid lesions.

  16. A Rodent Model to Evaluate the Tissue Response to a Biological Scaffold When Adjacent to a Synthetic Material.

    PubMed

    Dearth, Christopher L; Keane, Timothy J; Scott, Jeffrey R; Daly, Kerry A; Badylak, Stephen F

    2015-10-01

    The use of biologic scaffold materials adjacent to synthetic meshes is commonplace. A prevalent clinical example is two-staged breast reconstruction, where biologic scaffolds are used to provide support and coverage for the inferior aspect of the synthetic expander. However, limited data exist regarding either the kinetics of biologic scaffold integration or the host tissue response to the biologic scaffold materials used for this application or other applications in which such scaffold materials are used. The present study evaluated the temporal host response to a biological scaffold when placed adjacent to a synthetic material. Evaluation criteria included quantification of material contracture and characterization of the host cell response and tissue remodeling events. Results show a decreased thickness of the collagenous tissue layer at biologic scaffold/silicone interface compared to the abdominal wall/silicone interface during the 12-week experimental time course. All test materials were readily incorporated into surrounding host tissue. PMID:26176992

  17. The role of thyroid hormone and brown adipose tissue in energy homoeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Bianco, Antonio C; McAninch, Elizabeth A

    2016-01-01

    The presence of brown adipose tissue (BAT) in adults has become increasingly well defined as a result of functional imaging studies of thermogenically active BAT. Findings from these studies have created a surge of scientific interest in BAT, because it represents a potential therapeutic target for obesity—a condition with profound health consequences and few successful therapies. BAT contributes to overall energy expenditure in small mammals and neonates through adaptive thermogenesis. Thyroid-hormone signalling, particularly through induction of type II deiodinase, has a central role in brown adipogenesis in vitro and BAT development in mouse embryos. Additionally, because of high intracellular expression of type II deiodinase, adult BAT has enhanced thyroid-hormone signalling with several thyroid-hormone-dependent thermogenic pathways, including expression of the genes Ppargc1a and Ucp1. BAT thermogenesis explains the essential part played by thyroid hormone in energy homoeostasis and adaptation to cold. Stimulation of BAT in adults, specifically through thyroid-hormone-mediated pathways, is a promising therapeutic target for obesity. PMID:24622373

  18. Tookad-mediated photodynamic effects on the prostate and its adjacent tissues: in vivo study in canine models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zheng; Chen, Qun; Luck, David; Beckers, Jill; Blanc, Dominique; Hetzel, Fred W.

    2005-04-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) mediated with a vascular acting photosensitizer Tookad (pd-bacteriopheophorbide), was investigated as an alternative treatment modality for prostate cancer. Tookad photodynamic effects on the prostate and its adjacent tissues were evaluated in canine models. Interstitial prostate PDT was performed by irradiating individual lobes with a diode laser (763 nm) and 1-cm cylindrical diffuser fibers at various light doses to activate the IV administered photosensitizer Tookad (1 - 2 mg/kg). The sensitivity of the adjacent tissues to Tookad-PDT was determined by superficially irradiating the surfaces of the bladder, colon, abdominal muscle and pelvic plexus with a microlens fiber at various drug/light doses. PDT effect on the prostatic urethra was evaluated by transurethral irradiation. The prostate and adjacent tissues were harvested one-week after the treatment and subjected to histopathologic examination. At one-week post interstitial prostate PDT, the animals recovered well with little or no urethral complications. PDT induced prostate lesions were characterized by marked hemorrhagic necrosis. The bladder, colon, abdominal muscle and pelvic plexus, appeared to also be sensitive to Tookad-PDT at light dose levels greater than 40 Jcm2. Urethral mucosa appeared less sensitive to Tookad-PDT. In conclusion, Tookad-mediated PDT demonstrates very strong vascular effects and can provide an effective alternative for the treatment of localized prostate cancer. Protection of the adjacent tissues should be taken into consideration in the total prostate ablation process due to their sensitivity to the Tookad-mediated PDT.

  19. A Firmer Understanding of the Effect of Hypergravity on Thyroid Tissue: Cholesterol and Thyrotropin Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Albi, Elisabetta; Curcio, Francesco; Lazzarini, Andrea; Floridi, Alessandro; Cataldi, Samuela; Lazzarini, Remo; Loreti, Elisabetta; Ferri, Ivana; Ambesi-Impiombato, Francesco Saverio

    2014-01-01

    Maintaining a good health requires the maintenance of a body homeostasis which largely depends on correct functioning of thyroid gland. The cells of the thyroid tissue are strongly sensitive to hypogravity, as already proven in mice after returning to the earth from long-term space missions. Here we studied whether hypergravity may be used to counteract the physiological deconditioning of long-duration spaceflight. We investigated the influence of hypergravity on key lipids and proteins involved in thyroid tissue function. We quantified cholesterol (CHO) and different species of sphingomyelin (SM) and ceramide, analysed thyrotropin (TSH) related molecules such as thyrotropin-receptor (TSHR), cAMP, Caveolin-1 and molecule signalling such as Signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3). The hypergravity treatment resulted in the upregulation of the TSHR and Caveolin-1 and downregulation of STAT3 without changes of cAMP. TSHR lost its specific localization and spread throughout the cell membrane; TSH treatment facilitated the shedding of α subunit of TSHR and its releasing into the extracellular space. No specific variations were observed for each species of SM and ceramide. Importantly, the level of CHO was strongly reduced. In conclusion, hypergravity conditions induce change in CHO and TSHR of thyroid gland. The possibility that lipid rafts are strongly perturbed by hypergravity-induced CHO depletion by influencing TSH-TSHR interaction was discussed. PMID:24866829

  20. Optical characterization of normal, benign, and malignant thyroid tissue: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Brandao, M P; Iwakura, R; Basilio, F S; Haleplian, K; Ito, A S; de Freitas, L C Conti; Bachmann, L

    2015-03-01

    Fine-needle aspiration cytology is the standard technique to diagnose thyroid pathologies. However, this method has a high percentage of inconclusive and false-negative results for benign and malignant lesions. Hence, it is important to search for a new method to assist medical evaluation during these surgical procedures. The use of time-resolved fluorescence techniques to detect biochemical composition and tissue structure alterations could help to develop a portable, minimally invasive, and non-destructive method to assist medical evaluation. In this study, we investigated 17 human thyroid samples by absorbance, fluorescence, excitation, and time-resolved fluorescence measurements. This initial investigation has demonstrated that thyroid fluorescence originates from many endogenous fluorophores and culminates in several bands. The fluorescence lifetimes of benign and malignant lesions were significantly different, as attested by analysis of variance using Tukey test with individual confidence level of 98.06%. Our results suggest that fluorescence lifetimes of benign and malignant lesions can potentially assist diagnosis. After further investigations, fluorescence methods could become a tool for the surgeon to identify differences between normal and pathological thyroid tissues. PMID:25731814

  1. Cytoskeletal and functional changes in bioreactor assembled thyroid tissue organoids exposed to gamma radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Lora M.; Patel, Zarana; Murray, Deborah K.; Rightnar, Steven; Burell, Cheryl G.; Gridley, Daila S.; Nelson, Gregory A.

    2002-01-01

    Fischer rat thyroid cells were grown under low-shear stress in a bioreactor to a stage of organization composed of integrated follicles resembling small thyroid glands prior to exposure to 3 Gray-gamma radiation. Bioreactor tissues and controls (both irradiated and non-irradiated) were harvested at 24, 48, 96 and 144 hours post-exposure. Tissue samples were fixed and fluorescently labeled for actin and microtubules. Tissues were assessed for changes in cytoskeletal components induced by radiation and quantified by laser scanning cytometry. ELISA's were used to quantify transforming growth factor-beta and thyroxin released from cells to the culture supernatant. Tissue architecture was disrupted by exposure to radiation with the structural organization of actin and loss of follicular content the most obviously affected. With time post-irradiation the actin appeared disordered and the levels of fluorescence associated with filamentous-actin and microtubules cycled in the tissue analogs, but not in the flask-grown cultures. Active transforming growth factor-beta was higher in supernatants from the irradiated bioreactor tissue. Thyroxin release paralleled cell survival in the bioreactors and control cultures. Thus, the engineered tissue responses to radiation differed from those of conventional tissue culture making it a potentially better mimic of the in vivo situation.

  2. Diagnosis and prognosis of tissue pathologies by Raman microspectroscopy: an application to human thyroid tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manfait, Michel; Lamaze, Philippe; Lamfarraj, Hasnae; Pluot, Michel; Sockalingum, Ganesh D.

    2000-05-01

    This study shows a first application of Raman microspectroscopy to the study of thyroid tissue samples classified as carcinomas, adenomas and nodules. Treatment of the Raman data using statistical methods show that it is possible to classify most of the samples in accord with the pathological examinations. Furthermore, Raman spectral image based on specific bands or frequencies defined as 'functional descriptors' allow to construct maps of micro- zones of such tissues. Such maps can be useful as complementary tools for tissue diagnosis and prognosis, since they carry molecular information important to such ends.

  3. Identification of Coordinately Regulated Functional Modules in Thyroid Tissues from Rats Exposed to a Tumorigenic and a Non-Tumorigenic Conazole Fungicide Using Oncomine®

    EPA Science Inventory

    Conazoles are triazole- or imidazole-containing fungicides used in agriculture and medicine. Using transcriptomic analysis of rat thyroid tissues exposed to either tumorigenic or non-tumorigenic structurally related conazoles, we identified new findings on thyroid gene expressio...

  4. Germline HABP2 Mutation Causing Familial Nonmedullary Thyroid Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Gara, Sudheer Kumar; Jia, Li; Merino, Maria J.; Agarwal, Sunita K.; Zhang, Lisa; Cam, Maggie; Patel, Dhaval; Kebebew, Electron

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Familial nonmedullary thyroid cancer accounts for 3 to 9% of all cases of thyroid cancer, but the susceptibility genes are not known. Here, we report a germline variant of HABP2 in seven affected members of a kindred with familial nonmedullary thyroid cancer and in 4.7% of 423 patients with thyroid cancer. This variant was associated with increased HABP2 protein expression in tumor samples from affected family members, as compared with normal adjacent thyroid tissue and samples from sporadic cancers. Functional studies showed that HABP2 has a tumor-suppressive effect, whereas the G534E variant results in loss of function. PMID:26222560

  5. Tissue-Specific Suppression of Thyroid Hormone Signaling in Various Mouse Models of Aging.

    PubMed

    Visser, W Edward; Bombardieri, Cíntia R; Zevenbergen, Chantal; Barnhoorn, Sander; Ottaviani, Alexandre; van der Pluijm, Ingrid; Brandt, Renata; Kaptein, Ellen; van Heerebeek, Ramona; van Toor, Hans; Garinis, George A; Peeters, Robin P; Medici, Marco; van Ham, Willy; Vermeij, Wilbert P; de Waard, Monique C; de Krijger, Ronald R; Boelen, Anita; Kwakkel, Joan; Kopchick, John J; List, Edward O; Melis, Joost P M; Darras, Veerle M; Dollé, Martijn E T; van der Horst, Gijsbertus T J; Hoeijmakers, Jan H J; Visser, Theo J

    2016-01-01

    DNA damage contributes to the process of aging, as underscored by premature aging syndromes caused by defective DNA repair. Thyroid state changes during aging, but underlying mechanisms remain elusive. Since thyroid hormone (TH) is a key regulator of metabolism, changes in TH signaling have widespread effects. Here, we reveal a significant common transcriptomic signature in livers from hypothyroid mice, DNA repair-deficient mice with severe (Csbm/m/Xpa-/-) or intermediate (Ercc1-/Δ-7) progeria and naturally aged mice. A strong induction of TH-inactivating deiodinase D3 and decrease of TH-activating D1 activities are observed in Csbm/m/Xpa-/- livers. Similar findings are noticed in Ercc1-/Δ-7, in naturally aged animals and in wild-type mice exposed to a chronic subtoxic dose of DNA-damaging agents. In contrast, TH signaling in muscle, heart and brain appears unaltered. These data show a strong suppression of TH signaling in specific peripheral organs in premature and normal aging, probably lowering metabolism, while other tissues appear to preserve metabolism. D3-mediated TH inactivation is unexpected, given its expression mainly in fetal tissues. Our studies highlight the importance of DNA damage as the underlying mechanism of changes in thyroid state. Tissue-specific regulation of deiodinase activities, ensuring diminished TH signaling, may contribute importantly to the protective metabolic response in aging. PMID:26953569

  6. Tissue-Specific Suppression of Thyroid Hormone Signaling in Various Mouse Models of Aging

    PubMed Central

    Visser, W. Edward; Barnhoorn, Sander; Ottaviani, Alexandre; van der Pluijm, Ingrid; Brandt, Renata; Kaptein, Ellen; van Heerebeek, Ramona; van Toor, Hans; Garinis, George A.; Peeters, Robin P.; Medici, Marco; van Ham, Willy; Vermeij, Wilbert P.; de Waard, Monique C.; de Krijger, Ronald R.; Boelen, Anita; Kwakkel, Joan; Kopchick, John J.; List, Edward O.; Melis, Joost P. M.; Darras, Veerle M.; Dollé, Martijn E. T.; van der Horst, Gijsbertus T. J.; Hoeijmakers, Jan H. J.; Visser, Theo J.

    2016-01-01

    DNA damage contributes to the process of aging, as underscored by premature aging syndromes caused by defective DNA repair. Thyroid state changes during aging, but underlying mechanisms remain elusive. Since thyroid hormone (TH) is a key regulator of metabolism, changes in TH signaling have widespread effects. Here, we reveal a significant common transcriptomic signature in livers from hypothyroid mice, DNA repair-deficient mice with severe (Csbm/m/Xpa-/-) or intermediate (Ercc1-/Δ-7) progeria and naturally aged mice. A strong induction of TH-inactivating deiodinase D3 and decrease of TH-activating D1 activities are observed in Csbm/m/Xpa-/- livers. Similar findings are noticed in Ercc1-/Δ-7, in naturally aged animals and in wild-type mice exposed to a chronic subtoxic dose of DNA-damaging agents. In contrast, TH signaling in muscle, heart and brain appears unaltered. These data show a strong suppression of TH signaling in specific peripheral organs in premature and normal aging, probably lowering metabolism, while other tissues appear to preserve metabolism. D3-mediated TH inactivation is unexpected, given its expression mainly in fetal tissues. Our studies highlight the importance of DNA damage as the underlying mechanism of changes in thyroid state. Tissue-specific regulation of deiodinase activities, ensuring diminished TH signaling, may contribute importantly to the protective metabolic response in aging. PMID:26953569

  7. Low Dose Gamma Irradiation Potentiates Secondary Exposure to Gamma Rays or Protons in Thyroid Tissue Analogs

    SciTech Connect

    Green, Lora M

    2006-05-25

    We have utilized our unique bioreactor model to produce three-dimensional thyroid tissue analogs that we believe better represent the effects of radiation in vivo than two-dimensional cultures. Our thyroid model has been characterized at multiple levels, including: cell-cell exchanges (bystander), signal transduction, functional changes and modulation of gene expression. We have significant preliminary data on structural, functional, signal transduction and gene expression responses from acute exposures at high doses (50-1000 rads) of gamma, protons and iron (Green et al., 2001a; 2001b; 2002a; 2002b; 2005). More recently, we used our DOE funding (ending Feb 06) to characterize the pattern of radiation modulated gene expression in rat thyroid tissue analogs using low-dose/low-dose rate radiation, plus/minus acute challenge exposures. Findings from these studies show that the low-dose/low-dose rate “priming” exposures to radiation invoked changes in gene expression profiles that varied with dose and time. The thyrocytes transitioned to a “primed” state, so that when the tissue analogs were challenged with an acute exposure to radiation they had a muted response (or an increased resistance) to cytopathological changes relative to “un-primed” cells. We measured dramatic differences in the primed tissue analogs, showing that our original hypothesis was correct: that low dose gamma irradiation will potentiate the repair/adaptation response to a secondary exposure. Implications from these findings are that risk assessments based on classical in vitro tissue culture assays will overestimate risk, and that low dose rate priming results in a reduced response in gene expression to a secondary challenge exposure, which implies that a priming dose provides enhanced protection to thyroid cells grown as tissue analogs. If we can determine that the effects of radiation on our tissue analogs more closely resemble the effects of radiation in vivo, then we can better

  8. Differential diagnosis of thyroid nodules with virtual touch tissue imaging of ARFI elastography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Tao; Zhou, Pei; Ding, Mingyue; Mi, Yongwei; Li, Yiyong; Zhang, Ji

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of virtual touch tissue imaging (VTI) based on ARFI elastography technique for differentiating malignant from benign thyroid nodules. One hundred pathologically proven thyroid nodules (80 benign, 20 malignant) in 76 participants were recruited in this study. The likelihood of malignancy in the light of VTI features was scored into 6 levels by one experienced sonogist who was blinded to pathological results. In addition, the mean gray value within the thyroid nodule (mGVTN) derived from VTI image was calculated for quantitative analysis. Receiver-operating characteristic curve (ROC) analyses were performed to assess the diagnostic performance of VTI score and mGVTN. The frequency of malignant nodules (11/20) classified between VTI levels 4 to 6 was more than that of benign nodules (6/80) (p <0.001). The mGVTN of malignant nodules (45+/-23) was significantly lower than that of benign nodules (115+/-58) (p <0.001), where the range of mGVTN was from 0 to 255. The sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of VTI score were 55.0%, 92.5%, 85.0%, 64.7% and 89.2%, respectively. For mGVTN, those values were 70.0%, 90.0%, 86.0%, 63.6% and 92.3%, respectively. In conclusion, the VTI image seemed to be an effective tool in the differential diagnosis of thyroid nodules. The diagnosis performance of mGVTN was almost consistent with that of VTI score, which indicated that the mGVTN as a quantitative parameter might facilitate doctors diagnosing malignant thyroid nodules by VTI.

  9. Thyroid Hormone Activates Brown Adipose Tissue and Increases Non-Shivering Thermogenesis - A Cohort Study in a Group of Thyroid Carcinoma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Broeders, Evie P. M.; Vijgen, Guy H. E. J.; Havekes, Bas; Bouvy, Nicole D.; Mottaghy, Felix M.; Kars, Marleen; Schaper, Nicolaas C.; Schrauwen, Patrick; Brans, Boudewijn; van Marken Lichtenbelt, Wouter D.

    2016-01-01

    Background/Objectives Thyroid hormone receptors are present on brown adipose tissue (BAT), indicating a role for thyroid hormone in the regulation of BAT activation. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of thyroid hormone withdrawal followed by thyroid hormone in TSH-suppressive dosages, on energy expenditure and brown adipose tissue activity. Subjects/Methods This study was a longitudinal study in an academic center, with a follow-up period of 6 months. Ten patients with well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma eligible for surgical treatment and subsequent radioactive iodine ablation therapy were studied in a hypothyroid state after thyroidectomy and in a subclinical hyperthyroid state (TSH-suppression according to treatment protocol). Paired two-tailed t-tests and linear regression analyses were used. Results Basal metabolic rate (BMR) was significantly higher after treatment with synthetic thyroid hormone (levothyroxine) than in the hypothyroid state (BMR 3.8 ± 0.5 kJ/min versus 4.4 ± 0.6 kJ/min, P = 0.012), and non-shivering thermogenesis (NST) significantly increased from 15 ± 10% to 25 ± 6% (P = 0.009). Mean BAT activity was significantly higher in the subclinical hyperthyroid state than in the hypothyroid state (BAT standard uptake value (SUVMean) 4.0 ± 2.9 versus 2.4 ± 1.8, P = 0.039). Conclusions Our study shows that higher levels of thyroid hormone are associated with a higher level of cold-activated BAT. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02499471 PMID:26784028

  10. A thermal monitoring sheet with low influence from adjacent waterbolus for tissue surface thermometry during clinical hyperthermia.

    PubMed

    Arunachalam, Kavitha; Maccarini, Paolo F; Stauffer, Paul R

    2008-10-01

    This paper presents a complete thermal analysis of a novel conformal surface thermometer design with directional sensitivity for real-time temperature monitoring during hyperthermia treatments of large superficial cancer. The thermal monitoring sheet (TMS) discussed in this paper consists of a 2-D array of fiberoptic sensors embedded between two layers of flexible, low-loss, and thermally conductive printed circuit board (PCB) film. Heat transfer across all interfaces from the tissue surface through multiple layers of insulating dielectrics surrounding the small buried temperature sensor and into an adjacent temperature-regulated water coupling bolus was studied using 3-D thermal simulation software. Theoretical analyses were carried out to identify the most effective differential TMS probe configuration possible with commercially available flexible PCB materials and to compare their thermal responses with omnidirectional probes commonly used in clinical hyperthermia. A TMS sensor design that employs 0.0508-mm Kapton MTB and 0.2032-mm Kapton HN flexible polyimide films is proposed for tissue surface thermometry with low influence from the adjacent waterbolus. Comparison of the thermal simulations with clinical probes indicates the new differential TMS probe design to outperform in terms of both transient response and steady-state accuracy in selectively reading the tissue surface temperature, while decreasing the overall thermal barrier of the probe between the coupling waterbolus and tissue surface. PMID:18838365

  11. A Thermal Monitoring Sheet with Low Influence from Adjacent Waterbolus for Tissue Surface Thermometry during Clinical Hyperthermia

    PubMed Central

    Arunachalam, K.; Maccarini, P.F.; Stauffer, P. R.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a complete thermal analysis of a novel conformal surface thermometer design with directional sensitivity for real time temperature monitoring during hyperthermia treatments of large superficial cancer. The thermal monitoring sheet (TMS) discussed in this paper consists of a two-dimensional array of fiberoptic sensors embedded between two layers of flexible, low loss and thermally conductive printed circuit board (PCB) film. Heat transfer across all interfaces from the tissue surface through multiple layers of insulating dielectrics surrounding the small buried temperature sensor and into an adjacent temperature regulated water coupling bolus was studied using 3D thermal simulation software. Theoretical analyses were carried out to identify the most effective differential TMS probe configuration possible with commercially available flexible PCB materials, and to compare their thermal responses with omni-directional probes commonly used in clinical hyperthermia. A TMS sensor design that employs 0.0508m Kapton MTB® and 0.2032 mm Kapton HN® flexible polyimide films is proposed for tissue surface thermometry with low influence from the adjacent waterbolus. Comparison of the thermal simulations with clinical probes indicate the new differential TMS probe design to outperform in terms of both transient response and steady state accuracy in selectively reading the tissue surface temperature, while decreasing the overall thermal barrier of the probe between the coupling waterbolus and tissue surface. PMID:18838365

  12. Impact of Fibrotic Tissue on Shear Wave Velocity in Thyroid: An Ex Vivo Study with Fresh Thyroid Specimens

    PubMed Central

    Fukuhara, Takahiro; Matsuda, Eriko; Endo, Yukari; Donishi, Ryohei; Izawa, Shoichiro; Fujiwara, Kazunori; Kitano, Hiroya; Takeuchi, Hiromi

    2015-01-01

    We sought to elucidate the correlation between shear wave velocity (SWV) and fibrosis in thyroid by precisely assessing pathological structures inside 5 × 5 mm2 regions of interest (ROIs) of resected specimens, under conditions that excluded physical artifacts. The materials were unselected thyroid and lymph node specimens resected during thyroid surgery. Immediately after surgery, fresh unfixed thyroid and metastatic lymph node specimens were suspended in gel phantoms, and SWV was measured. Upon pathological examination of each specimen, the extent of fibrosis was graded as none, moderate, or severe. A total of 109 specimens were evaluated: 15 normal thyroid, 16 autoimmune thyroiditis, 40 malignant nodules, 19 benign thyroid nodules, and 19 metastatic lymph nodes. When all specimens were classified according to the degree of fibrosis determined by pathological imaging, the mean SWV was 1.49 ± 0.39 m/s for no fibrosis, 2.13 ± 0.66 m/s for moderate fibrosis, and 2.68 ± 0.82 m/s for severe fibrosis. The SWVs of samples with moderate and severe fibrosis were significantly higher than those of samples without fibrosis. The results of this study demonstrate that fibrosis plays an important role in determining stiffness, as measured by SWV in thyroid. PMID:26881199

  13. Stages of Thyroid Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... glands make hormones. The thyroid uses iodine , a mineral found in some foods and in iodized salt, ... Fine-needle aspiration biopsy of the thyroid : The removal of thyroid tissue using a thin needle. The ...

  14. Thyroid Imaging in Infants.

    PubMed

    Goldis, Marina; Waldman, Lindsey; Marginean, Otilia; Rosenberg, Henrietta Kotlus; Rapaport, Robert

    2016-06-01

    Congenital hypothyroidism is the most common preventable cause of mental retardation. It is important to know the cause of each patient's thyroid dysfunction to foresee the course of therapy and outcomes. Imaging methods, such as ultrasound and thyroid scan, help determine the anatomy and function of the thyroid gland. Although thyroid scan is considered superior in detecting ectopic thyroid tissue, ultrasound is able to detect the presence of thyroid tissue not otherwise visualized in 15% of patients. PMID:27241963

  15. Serum thyroid hormones and tissue 5'-monodeiodinase activity in acutely thyroidectomized newborn lambs

    SciTech Connect

    Polk, D.H.; Wu, S.Y.; Fisher, D.A.

    1986-08-01

    After either total thyroidectomy or sham operation in full-term fetal sheep, fetuses were delivered and serial blood samples were obtained for measurements of thyroxine (T4), triiodothyronine (T3), and catecholamines. Despite comparable serum T4 values, serum T3 values were lower in the thyroidectomized animals. Four hours after birth, the animals were killed with an intravenous overdose of barbiturate. Brain, thyroid, liver, kidney, and brown adipose tissues were dissected and analyzed for thyroxine 5'-monodeiodinase (5'-MDI) activity in vitro. 5'-MDI activity was comparable in all tissues from sham-operated and thyroidectomized lambs. Plasma epinephrine and norepinehprine concentrations, mean arterial pressure, mean pulse, rectal temperature, and arterial blood gas values were similar in the two groups of animals. These data support the hypothesis that the thyroid gland is the major source of T3 for the T3 surge in the immediate newborn period. They also indicate that the neonatal T3 surge has limited immediate metabolic significance in euthyroid newborns.

  16. Clinical evaluation of expanded mesh connective tissue graft in the treatment for multiple adjacent gingival recessions in the esthetic zone

    PubMed Central

    Shanmugam, M.; Shivakumar, B.; Meenapriya, B.; Anitha, V.; Ashwath, B.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Multiple approaches have been used to replace lost, damaged or diseased gingival tissues. The connective tissue graft (CTG) procedure is the golden standard method for root coverage. Although multiple sites often need grafting, the palatal mucosa supplies only a limited area of grafting material. To overcome this limitation, expanded mesh graft provides a method whereby a graft can be stretched to cover a large area. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and the predictability of expanded mesh CTG (e-MCTG) in the treatment of adjacent multiple gingival recessions. Materials and Methods: Sixteen patients aged 20–50 years contributed to 55 sites, each site falling into at least three adjacent Miller's Class 1 or Class 2 gingival recession. The CTG obtained from the palatal mucosa was expanded to cover the recipient bed, which was 1.5 times larger than the graft. Clinical measurements were recorded at baseline and 3 months, 12 months postoperatively. Results: A mean coverage of 1.96 mm ± 0.66 mm and 2.22 mm ± 0.68 mm was obtained at the end of 3rd and 12th month, respectively. Twelve months after surgery a statistically significant increase in CAL (2.2 mm ± 0.68 mm, P < 0.001) and increasing WKT (1.75 ± 0.78, P < 0.001) were obtained. In 80% of the treated sites, 100% root coverage was achieved (mean 93.5%). Conclusions: The results of this study demonstrated that multiple adjacent recessions were treated by using e-MCTG technique can be applied and highly predictable root coverage can be achieved. PMID:26321829

  17. Embryonic expression of endogenous retroviral RNAs in somatic tissues adjacent to the Oikopleura germline

    PubMed Central

    Henriet, Simon; Sumic, Sara; Doufoundou-Guilengui, Carlette; Jensen, Marit Flo; Grandmougin, Camille; Fal, Kateryna; Thompson, Eric; Volff, Jean-Nicolas; Chourrout, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Selective pressure to maintain small genome size implies control of transposable elements, and most old classes of retrotransposons are indeed absent from the very compact genome of the tunicate Oikopleura dioica. Nonetheless, two families of retrotransposons are present, including the Tor elements. The gene organization within Tor elements is similar to that of LTR retrotransposons and retroviruses. In addition to gag and pol, many Tor elements carry a third gene encoding viral envelope-like proteins (Env) that may mediate infection. We show that the Tor family contains distinct classes of elements. In some classes, env mRNA is transcribed from the 5′LTR as in retroviruses. In others, env is transcribed from an additional promoter located downstream of the 5′LTR. Tor Env proteins are membrane-associated glycoproteins which exhibit some features of viral membrane fusion proteins. Whereas some elements are expressed in the adult testis, many others are specifically expressed in embryonic somatic cells adjacent to primordial germ cells. Such embryonic expression depends on determinants present in the Tor elements and not on their surrounding genomic environment. Our study shows that unusual modes of transcription and expression close to the germline may contribute to the proliferation of Tor elements. PMID:25779047

  18. Liver X receptor β controls thyroid hormone feedback in the brain and regulates browning of subcutaneous white adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Miao, Yifei; Wu, Wanfu; Dai, Yubing; Maneix, Laure; Huang, Bo; Warner, Margaret; Gustafsson, Jan-Åke

    2015-11-10

    The recent discovery of browning of white adipose tissue (WAT) has raised great research interest because of its significant potential in counteracting obesity and type 2 diabetes. Browning is the result of the induction in WAT of a newly discovered type of adipocyte, the beige cell. When mice are exposed to cold or several kinds of hormones or treatments with chemicals, specific depots of WAT undergo a browning process, characterized by highly activated mitochondria and increased heat production and energy expenditure. However, the mechanisms underlying browning are still poorly understood. Liver X receptors (LXRs) are one class of nuclear receptors, which play a vital role in regulating cholesterol, triglyceride, and glucose metabolism. Following our previous finding that LXRs serve as repressors of uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1) in classic brown adipose tissue in female mice, we found that LXRs, especially LXRβ, also repress the browning process of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) in male rodents fed a normal diet. Depletion of LXRs activated thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)-releasing hormone (TRH)-positive neurons in the paraventricular nucleus area of the hypothalamus and thus stimulated secretion of TSH from the pituitary. Consequently, production of thyroid hormones in the thyroid gland and circulating thyroid hormone level were increased. Moreover, the activity of thyroid signaling in SAT was markedly increased. Together, our findings have uncovered the basis of increased energy expenditure in male LXR knockout mice and provided support for targeting LXRs in treatment of obesity. PMID:26504234

  19. Liver X receptor β controls thyroid hormone feedback in the brain and regulates browning of subcutaneous white adipose tissue

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Yifei; Wu, Wanfu; Dai, Yubing; Maneix, Laure; Huang, Bo; Warner, Margaret; Gustafsson, Jan-Åke

    2015-01-01

    The recent discovery of browning of white adipose tissue (WAT) has raised great research interest because of its significant potential in counteracting obesity and type 2 diabetes. Browning is the result of the induction in WAT of a newly discovered type of adipocyte, the beige cell. When mice are exposed to cold or several kinds of hormones or treatments with chemicals, specific depots of WAT undergo a browning process, characterized by highly activated mitochondria and increased heat production and energy expenditure. However, the mechanisms underlying browning are still poorly understood. Liver X receptors (LXRs) are one class of nuclear receptors, which play a vital role in regulating cholesterol, triglyceride, and glucose metabolism. Following our previous finding that LXRs serve as repressors of uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1) in classic brown adipose tissue in female mice, we found that LXRs, especially LXRβ, also repress the browning process of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) in male rodents fed a normal diet. Depletion of LXRs activated thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)-releasing hormone (TRH)-positive neurons in the paraventricular nucleus area of the hypothalamus and thus stimulated secretion of TSH from the pituitary. Consequently, production of thyroid hormones in the thyroid gland and circulating thyroid hormone level were increased. Moreover, the activity of thyroid signaling in SAT was markedly increased. Together, our findings have uncovered the basis of increased energy expenditure in male LXR knockout mice and provided support for targeting LXRs in treatment of obesity. PMID:26504234

  20. Failure of low doses of /sup 131/I to ablate residual thyroid tissue following surgery for thyroid cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Kuni, C.C.; Klingensmith, W.C. III

    1980-12-01

    Thirteen patients received an initial dose of 25-29.9 mCi (925-1106 MBq) of /sup 131/I following partial thyroidectomy for papillary, follicular, or mixed carcinoma. Administration of thyroxine (T/sub 4/) or triiodothyronine (T/sub 3/) was stopped 3-12 weeks and 1-6 weeks, respectively, before therapy or imaging. Patients remained on normal diets and did not receive thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) or diuretics. Follow-up 3 months to 2 years after therapy demonstrated that ablation of thyroid bed activity was successful in only one patient, who still had metastases. This suggests that administration of 25-29.9 mCi of /sup 131/I following surgery is unreliable for ablation of residual thyroid bed activity.

  1. A Simple Protocol for High Efficiency Protein Isolation After RNA Isolation from Mouse Thyroid and Other Very Small Tissue Samples.

    PubMed

    Ziros, Panos G; Chartoumpekis, Dionysios V; Sykiotis, Gerasimos P

    2016-01-01

    As a dedicated hormone-secreting organ, the thyroid gland possesses a complement of proteostatic systems, including antioxidant, unfolded protein, and autophagic responses. The vast majority of animal investigations of thyroid physiology and, more recently, proteostasis, have utilized as model the rat, rather than the mouse. This is due to the very small size of the thyroid gland in the latter, with a total weight of ~2 mg (~1 mg per thyroid lobe). However, this strategy has limited the utilization of genetic approaches, such as taking advantage of the various transgenic and knockout mouse models. Here, we describe a simple and highly efficient protocol for the simultaneous isolation of mRNA, micro-RNA and 150-200 μg of protein from as little as 1 mg of mouse thyroid tissue, the average weight of one of the two thyroid lobes, thus preserving the other lobe for immunohistochemical or other analyses. While our workflow is similar to other protocols published in the literature and/or proposed by commercial reagent providers, we have introduced a key modification that addresses efficiently the most challenging step of the protein isolation process: the solubilization of the protein pellet after RNA extraction and protein precipitation. We demonstrate the feasibility of our approach and its utility for downstream analyses (including Western blotting) that facilitate the comparative study of proteostatic pathways in the mouse thyroid. We have also successfully applied this protocol on samples from mouse liver, brown and white adipose tissue, as well as from rodent cell lines. PMID:27613051

  2. Lead in tissues of woodchucks fed crown vetch growing adjacent to a highway

    SciTech Connect

    Young, R.W.; Ridgely, S.L.; Blue, J.T.; Bache, C.A.; Lisk, D.J.

    1986-01-01

    Woodchucks (Marmota monax) were fed crown vetch (Coronilla varia) growing along a major highway that was harvested in 1979, before unleaded gas was widely used, and again in 1985. Crown vetch, harvested 300 m from the nearest road, was fed as the control. The crops were fed as 50% dry weight of the diet for 58 d. The concentrations of lead in the control, 1979 crop, and 1985 crop were, respectively, 0.74, 50.65, and 6.78 ppm dry weight. The average +/- SE) concentrations (ppm, dry weight) of lead found in the tissues of the control, 1979, and 1985 dietary-treatment animals were, respectively, kidney, 0.36 +/- 0.05, 5.78 +/- 0.72, and 0.79 +/- 0.09; liver, 0.09 +/- 0.01, 4.71 +/- 0.17, and 0.46 +/- 0.06; muscle, 0.07 +/- 0.01, 0.14 +/- 0.02, and 0.07 +/- 0.00; blood, 0.09 +/- 0.02, 2.17 +/- 0.13, and 0.31 +/- 0.05; and bone, 1.27 +/- 0.25, 47.52 +/- 7.05, and 3.71 +/- 0.65. No significant differences (p greater than 0.05) between dietary treatments were found in the general hematological analyses of the woodchucks. The ecological significance of these findings is discussed.

  3. Lingual thyroid

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, L. K. Surej; Kurien, Nikhil Mathew; Jacob, M. M.; Menon, P. Varun; Khalam, Sherin A.

    2015-01-01

    Lingual thyroid is an abnormal mass of ectopic thyroid tissue seen in base of tongue caused due to embryological aberrancy in development of thyroid gland. Most of the ectopic tissue is seen in the tongue. Their identification and proper management is essential since they may be the only functioning thyroid tissue occurring in the body. We report a case of lingual thyroid in a 40 year old female patient who was hypothyroid with posterior swelling of tongue. Tc-99 scintigraphy confirmed the clinical diagnosis and surgical excision of entire tissue was done by midline mandibular split osteotomy and patient was placed under lifelong thyroxine replacement. Follow up showed excellent results with minimum patient discomfort. PMID:26389046

  4. Integrative metabonomics as potential method for diagnosis of thyroid malignancy

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Yuan; Nie, Xiu; Xu, Shan; Li, Yan; Huang, Tao; Tang, Huiru; Wang, Yulan

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid nodules can be classified into benign and malignant tumors. However, distinguishing between these two types of tumors can be challenging in clinics. Since malignant nodules require surgical intervention whereas asymptomatic benign tumors do not, there is an urgent need for new techniques that enable accurate diagnosis of malignant thyroid nodules. Here, we used 1H NMR spectroscopy coupled with pattern recognition techniques to analyze the metabonomes of thyroid tissues and their extracts from thyroid lesion patients (n = 53) and their adjacent healthy thyroid tissues (n = 46). We also measured fatty acid compositions using GC−FID/MS techniques as complementary information. We demonstrate that thyroid lesion tissues can be clearly distinguishable from healthy tissues, and malignant tumors can also be distinguished from the benign tumors based on the metabolic profiles, both with high sensitivity and specificity. In addition, we show that thyroid lesions are accompanied with disturbances of multiple metabolic pathways, including alterations in energy metabolism (glycolysis, lipid and TCA cycle), promotions in protein turnover, nucleotide biosynthesis as well as phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis. These findings provide essential information on the metabolic features of thyroid lesions and demonstrate that metabonomics technology can be potentially useful in the rapid and accurate preoperative diagnosis of malignant thyroid nodules. PMID:26486570

  5. Gut microbiome compositional and functional differences between tumor and non-tumor adjacent tissues from cohorts from the US and Spain

    PubMed Central

    Allali, Imane; Delgado, Susana; Marron, Pablo Isidro; Astudillo, Aurora; Yeh, Jen Jen; Ghazal, Hassan; Amzazi, Saaïd; Keku, Temitope; Azcarate-Peril, M Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer in the world and the second leading cause of cancer deaths in the US and Spain. The molecular mechanisms involved in the etiology of CRC are not yet elucidated due in part to the complexity of the human gut microbiota. In this study, we compared the microbiome composition of 90 tumor and matching adjacent tissue (adjacent) from cohorts from the US and Spain by 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing in order to determine the impact of the geographic origin on the CRC microbiome. Data showed a significantly (P < 0.05) higher Phylogenetic Diversity (PD) for the US (PD Adjacent = 26.3 ± 5.3, PD Tumor = 23.3 ± 6.2) compared to the Spanish cohort (PD Adjacent = 18.9 ± 5.9, PD Tumor = 18.7 ± 6.6) while no significant differences in bacterial diversity were observed between tumor and adjacent tissues for individuals from the same country. Adjacent tissues from the Spanish cohort were enriched in Firmicutes (SP = 43.9% and US = 22.2%, P = 0.0001) and Actinobacteria (SP = 1.6% and US = 0.5%, P = 0.0018) compared to US adjacent tissues, while adjacent tissues from the US had significantly higher abundances of Fusobacteria (US = 8.1% and SP = 1.5%, P = 0.0023) and Sinergistetes (US = 0.3% and SP = 0.1%, P = 0.0097). Comparisons between tumor and adjacent tissues in each cohort identified the genus Eikenella significantly over represented in US tumors (T = 0.024% and A = 0%, P = 0.03), and the genera Fusobacterium (T = 10.4% and A = 1.5%, P = <0.0001), Bulleida (T = 0.36% and A = 0.09%, P = 0.02), Gemella (T = 1.46% and A = 0.19%, P = 0.03), Parvimonas (T = 3.14% and A = 0.86%, P = 0.03), Campylobacter (T = 0.15% and A = 0.008%, P = 0.047), and Streptococcus (T = 2.84% and A = 2.19%, P = 0.05) significantly over represented in Spanish tumors. Predicted metagenome functional content from 16S rRNA surveys showed that bacterial motility proteins and proteins involved in flagellar assembly were over represented in adjacent tissues

  6. Can Breast Tumors Affect the Oxidative Status of the Surrounding Environment? A Comparative Analysis among Cancerous Breast, Mammary Adjacent Tissue, and Plasma

    PubMed Central

    Panis, C.; Victorino, V. J.; Herrera, A. C. S. A.; Cecchini, A. L.; Simão, A. N. C.; Tomita, L. Y.; Cecchini, R.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we investigated the oxidative profile of breast tumors in comparison with their normal adjacent breast tissue. Our study indicates that breast tumors present enhanced oxidative/nitrosative stress, with concomitant augmented antioxidant capacity when compared to the adjacent normal breast. These data indicate that breast cancers may be responsible for the induction of a prooxidant environment in the mammary gland, in association with enhanced TNF-α and nitric oxide. PMID:26697139

  7. A potential diagnostic application of magnetization transfer contrast: an in vitro NMR study of excised human thyroid tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callicott, C.; Goode, A. W.

    1998-03-01

    A series of freshly excised thyroid tissues was analysed using a nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer and then subjected to routine histo-pathology examination. Whilst simple values for normal tissue and goitre are not significantly different, the degree of intra-subject and variability is shown to be an indicator of benign thyroid disease. Using data collected from an inversion-recovery sequence performed with and without magnetization transfer, a magnetization transfer rate constant was calculated for each tissue sample. These data suggest that this parameter may provide in vivo discrimination between follicular cancer and follicular adenoma.

  8. Discovery and verification of protein differences between Er positive/Her2/neu negative breast tumor tissue and matched adjacent normal breast tissue.

    PubMed

    Weitzel, Lindsay-Rae B; Byers, Tim; Allen, Jenna; Finlayson, Christina; Helmke, Steve M; Hokanson, John E; Hunsucker, Stephen W; Murphy, James R; Newell, Keri; Queensland, Kelly M; Singh, Meenakshi; Wischmeyer, Paul E; Duncan, Mark W; Elias, Anthony

    2010-11-01

    This study was designed to quantify and identify differences in protein levels between tumor and adjacent normal breast tissue from the same breast in 18 women with stage I/II ER positive/Her2/neu negative invasive breast cancer. Eighteen separate difference gel electrophoresis (DIGE) gels were run (1 gel per patient). Relative quantification was based on DIGE analysis. After excision and tryptic digestion, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry and peptide mass mapping were used to identify protein spots. Two hundred and forty-three spots were differentially abundant between normal and cancer tissues. Fifty spots were identified: 41 were over abundant and nine were less abundant in cancers than in normal breast tissue. Western blotting provided independent confirmation for three of the most biologically and statistically interesting proteins. All 18 gels were replicated by another technician and 32% of the differentially abundant proteins were verified by the duplicate analysis. Follow-up studies are now examining these proteins as biomarkers in blood. PMID:20087651

  9. Higher FOXP3-TSDR demethylation rates in adjacent normal tissues in patients with colon cancer were associated with worse survival

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The influence of natural regulatory T cells (nTregs) on the patients with colon cancer is unclear. Demethylated status of the Treg-specific demethylated region (TSDR) of the FOXP3 gene was reported to be a potential biomarker for the identification of nTregs. Methods The demethylation rate of the TSDR (TSDR-DMR) was calculated by using methylation-specific quantitative polymerase chain reaction (MS-qPCR) assay. The expression of TSDR-DMR and FOXP3 mRNA was investigated in various colorectal cancer cell lines. A total of 130 colon carcinoma samples were utilized to study the DMR at tumor sites (DMRT) and adjacent normal tissue (DMRN). The correlations between DMRs and clinicopathological variables of patients with colon cancer were studied. Results The TSDR-DMRs varied dramatically among nTregs (97.920 ± 0.466%) and iTregs (3.917 ± 0.750%). Significantly, DMRT (3.296 ± 0.213%) was higher than DMRN (1.605 ± 0.146%) (n = 130, p = 0.000). Higher DMRN levels were found in female patients (p = 0.001) and those with distant metastases (p = 0.017), and were also associated with worse recurrence-free survival in non-stage IV patients (low vs. high, p = 0.022). However, further Cox multivariate analysis revealed that the FOXP3-TSDR status does not have prognostic value. Conclusion MS-qPCR assays of FOXP3-TSDR can efficiently distinguish nTregs from non-nTregs. Abnormal recruitment of nTregs occurs in the local tumor microenvironment. Infiltration of tissue-resident nTregs may have a negative role in anti-tumor effects in patients with colon cancer; however, this role is limited and complicated. PMID:24938080

  10. The effect of Tookad-mediated photodynamic ablation of the prostate gland on adjacent tissues - in vivo study in a canine model

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Zheng; Chen, Qun; Dole, Kenneth C.; Barqawi, Al B.; Chen, Yang K.; Blanc, Dominique; Wilson, Brian C.; Hetzel, Fred W.

    2008-01-01

    Summary Photodynamic therapy (PDT) mediated with vascular acting photosensitizer Tookad (pd-bacteriopheophorbide) was investigated as an alternative modality for treating prostate cancer. Photodynamic effects on the prostate gland and its adjacent tissues were evaluated in a canine model. Interstitial prostate PDT was performed by irradiating individual lobes with a cylindrical diffuser fiber at various drug/light doses. The sensitivity of the adjacent tissues to Tookad PDT was determined by directly irradiating the surface of the bladder, colon, abdominal muscle and pelvic plexus with a microlens fiber at various drug/light doses. The prostate and adjacent tissues were harvested one-week after the treatment and subjected to histopathological examination. PDT-induced prostate lesions were characterized by marked hemorrhagic necrosis. The bladder, colon, abdominal muscle and pelvic plexus appeared to be sensitive to PDT although the Tookad PDT-induced responses in these tissues were minimal compared to that of the prostate gland at the same dose levels. Nevertheless, the protection of the adjacent tissues should be taken into consideration during the total prostate ablation process due to their sensitivity to PDT. The sensitivity of the prostatic urethra is worth further investigation. Direct intraurethral irradiation might provide an ideal means to determine the sensitivity of the prostatic urethra and might lead to transurethral PDT protocols for the management of benign prostatic hyperplasia. PMID:18046488

  11. Treatment Option Overview (Thyroid Cancer)

    MedlinePlus

    ... glands make hormones. The thyroid uses iodine , a mineral found in some foods and in iodized salt, ... Fine-needle aspiration biopsy of the thyroid : The removal of thyroid tissue using a thin needle. The ...

  12. HPLC-ICP/MS Analysis of Thyroid Hormone and Related Iodinated Compounds in Tissues and Media

    EPA Science Inventory

    Quantifying thyroid hormone (TH) and the synthetic precursors and metabolic products of TH is important for developing models of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis as well as for understanding the effects of xenobiotics on HPT axis function. In this study, the developm...

  13. Binding of bovine thyrotropin to specific sites in thyroid tissue from control and hemithyroidectomized rats

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, O.H.; Lambert, W.R.; Amir, S.M.; Ingbar, S.H.

    1985-12-01

    The binding of 125I-bovine thyrotropin to thyroid particulate fractions from sham-operated (control) and hemithyroidectomized rats was compared to determine if a change in either the number of bovine thyroid-stimulating hormone (bTSH) binding sites or their affinity for bTSH occurs in physiological situations that evoke changes in the intensity of thyroid stimulation. Following hemithyroidectomy serum TSH levels increase and the remnant thyroid lobe enlarges. Because of compensatory thyroid hypertrophy the concentration of TSH binding sites in the thyroid glands from hemithyroidectomized and control rats was related to particulate protein concentration, to the degree of thyroid cellularity as indicated by DNA concentration, and to the concentration of the plasma membrane markers, 5'-nucleotidase and magnesium-dependent ATPase. In each of four experiments, saturation studies revealed that the maximum specific binding of TSH per unit particulate protein and per thyroid lobe was greater in particulates from remnant than from control thyroid lobes. When related to DNA concentration, the concentration of TSH binding sites in remnant lobes was approximately twice that in control lobes. Because of an increase in plasma membrane markers per lobe after hemithyroidectomy, however, there was no difference in the number of TSH binding sites when related to the concentrations of the membrane marker enzymes in the particulate fractions. As judged from Scatchard analysis, the affinity of TSH binding was lower in remnant than in control lobes. This was partially but not completely due to the increased concentration of particulate protein in the remnant thyroid. These experiments demonstrate that the increase in serum TSH levels after hemithyroidectomy in the rat is associated with alterations in TSH receptor capacity and affinity.

  14. Thyroid abnormality trend over time in northeastern regions of Kazakstan, adjacent to the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site: a case review of pathological findings for 7271 patients.

    PubMed

    Zhumadilov, Z; Gusev, B I; Takada, J; Hoshi, M; Kimura, A; Hayakawa, N; Takeichi, N

    2000-03-01

    From 1949 through 1989 nuclear weapons testing carried out by the former Soviet Union at the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site (SNTS) resulted in local fallout affecting the residents of Semipalatinsk, Ust-Kamenogorsk and Pavlodar regions of Kazakstan. To investigate the possible relationship between radiation exposure and thyroid gland abnormalities, we conducted a case review of pathological findings of 7271 urban and rural patients who underwent surgery from 1966-96. Of the 7271 patients, 761 (10.5%) were men, and 6510 (89.5%) were women. The age of the patients varied from 15 to 90 years. Overall, a diagnosis of adenomatous goiter (most frequently multinodular) was found in 1683 patients (63.4%) of Semipalatinsk region, in 2032 patients (68.6%) of Ust-Kamenogorsk region and in 1142 patients (69.0%) of Pavlodar region. In the period 1982-96, as compared before, there was a noticeable increase in the number of cases of Hashimoto's thyroiditis and thyroid cancer. Among histological forms of thyroid cancer, papillary (48.1%) and follicular (33.1%) predominated in the Semipalatinsk region. In later periods (1987-96), an increased frequency of abnormal cases occurred among patients less than 40 years of age, with the highest proportion among patients below 20 in Semipalatinsk and Ust-Kamenogorsk regions of Kazakstan. Given the positive findings of a significant cancer-period interaction, and a significant trend for the proportion of cancer to increase over time, we recommend more detailed and etiologic studies of thyroid disease among populations exposed to radiation fallout from the SNTS in comparison to non-exposed population. PMID:10838808

  15. Iodine-131 Dose Dependent Gene Expression in Thyroid Cancers and Corresponding Normal Tissues Following the Chernobyl Accident

    PubMed Central

    Abend, Michael; Pfeiffer, Ruth M.; Ruf, Christian; Hatch, Maureen; Bogdanova, Tetiana I.; Tronko, Mykola D.; Riecke, Armin; Hartmann, Julia; Meineke, Viktor; Boukheris, Houda; Sigurdson, Alice J.; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko; Brenner, Alina V.

    2012-01-01

    The strong and consistent relationship between irradiation at a young age and subsequent thyroid cancer provides an excellent model for studying radiation carcinogenesis in humans. We thus evaluated differential gene expression in thyroid tissue in relation to iodine-131 (I-131) doses received from the Chernobyl accident. Sixty three of 104 papillary thyroid cancers diagnosed between 1998 and 2008 in the Ukrainian-American cohort with individual I-131 thyroid dose estimates had paired RNA specimens from fresh frozen tumor (T) and normal (N) tissue provided by the Chernobyl Tissue Bank and satisfied quality control criteria. We first hybridized 32 randomly allocated RNA specimen pairs (T/N) on 64 whole genome microarrays (Agilent, 4×44 K). Associations of differential gene expression (log2(T/N)) with dose were assessed using Kruskall-Wallis and trend tests in linear mixed regression models. While none of the genes withstood correction for the false discovery rate, we selected 75 genes with a priori evidence or P kruskall/P trend <0.0005 for validation by qRT-PCR on the remaining 31 RNA specimen pairs (T/N). The qRT-PCR data were analyzed using linear mixed regression models that included radiation dose as a categorical or ordinal variable. Eleven of 75 qRT-PCR assayed genes (ACVR2A, AJAP1, CA12, CDK12, FAM38A, GALNT7, LMO3, MTA1, SLC19A1, SLC43A3, ZNF493) were confirmed to have a statistically significant differential dose-expression relationship. Our study is among the first to provide direct human data on long term differential gene expression in relation to individual I-131 doses and to identify a set of genes potentially important in radiation carcinogenesis. PMID:22848350

  16. Prostate Field Cancerization: Deregulated Expression of Macrophage Inhibitory Cytokine 1 (MIC-1) and Platelet Derived Growth Factor A (PDGF-A) in Tumor Adjacent Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Anna C.; Shoshan, Dor S.; Fischer, Edgar G.; Trujillo, Kristina A.; Bisoffi, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Prostate field cancerization denotes molecular alterations in histologically normal tissues adjacent to tumors. Such alterations include deregulated protein expression, as we have previously shown for the key transcription factor early growth response 1 (EGR-1) and the lipogenic enzyme fatty acid synthase (FAS). Here we add the two secreted factors macrophage inhibitory cytokine 1 (MIC-1) and platelet derived growth factor A (PDGF-A) to the growing list of protein markers of prostate field cancerization. Expression of MIC-1 and PDGF-A was measured quantitatively by immunofluorescence and comprehensively analyzed using two methods of signal capture and several groupings of data generated in human cancerous (n = 25), histologically normal adjacent (n = 22), and disease-free (n = 6) prostate tissues. A total of 208 digitized images were analyzed. MIC-1 and PDGF-A expression in tumor tissues were elevated 7.1x to 23.4x and 1.7x to 3.7x compared to disease-free tissues, respectively (p<0.0001 to p = 0.08 and p<0.01 to p = 0.23, respectively). In support of field cancerization, MIC-1 and PDGF-A expression in adjacent tissues were elevated 7.4x to 38.4x and 1.4x to 2.7x, respectively (p<0.0001 to p<0.05 and p<0.05 to p = 0.51, respectively). Also, MIC-1 and PDGF-A expression were similar in tumor and adjacent tissues (0.3x to 1.0x; p<0.001 to p = 0.98 for MIC-1; 0.9x to 2.6x; p<0.01 to p = 1.00 for PDGF-A). All analyses indicated a high level of inter- and intra-tissue heterogeneity across all types of tissues (mean coefficient of variation of 86.0%). Our data shows that MIC-1 and PDGF-A expression is elevated in both prostate tumors and structurally intact adjacent tissues when compared to disease-free specimens, defining field cancerization. These secreted factors could promote tumorigenesis in histologically normal tissues and lead to tumor multifocality. Among several clinical applications, they could also be exploited as indicators of disease in false negative

  17. Identification of reliable reference genes for quantitative gene expression studies in oral squamous cell carcinomas compared to adjacent normal tissues in the F344 rat model.

    PubMed

    Peng, Xinjian; McCormick, David L

    2016-08-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs) induced in F344 rats by 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4-NQO) demonstrate considerable phenotypic similarity to human oral cancers and the model has been widely used for carcinogenesis and chemoprevention studies. Molecular characterization of this model needs reliable reference genes (RGs) to avoid false- positive and -negative results for proper interpretation of gene expression data between tumor and adjacent normal tissues. Microarray analysis of 11 pairs of OSCC and site-matched phenotypically normal oral tissues from 4-NQO-treated rats identified 10 stably expressed genes in OSCC compared to adjacent normal tissues (p>0.5, CV<15%) that could serve as potential RGs in this model. The commonly used 27 RGs in the rat were also analyzed based on microarray data and most of them were found unsuitable for RGs in this model. Traditional RGs such as ACTB and GAPDH were significantly altered in OSCC compared to adjacent normal tissues (p<0.01, n=11); however, the Hsp90ab1 was ranked as the best RG candidate and the combination of Hsp90ab1 and HPRT1 was identified by NormFinder to be a superior reference for gene normalization among the commonly used RGs. This result was also validated by RT-PCR based on the selected top RG candidate pool. These data suggest that there are no common RGs suitable for different models and RG(s) should be identified before gene expression analysis. We successfully identified Hsp90ab1 as a stable RG in 4-NQO-induced OSCC compared to adjacent normal tissues in F344 rats. The combination of two stably expressed genes may be a better option for gene normalization in tissue samples. PMID:27375172

  18. Ectopic goitrous submandibular thyroid with goitrous orthotopic thyroid gland.

    PubMed

    Bhardwaj, Avinash Kumar; Mani, Vinayaga; Dixit, Rashmi; Garg, Anju

    2016-01-01

    Ectopic thyroid is a rare developmental anomaly with lingual thyroid accounting for majority of the cases. The presence of ectopic thyroid tissue lateral to the midline is very rare, and very few cases located in the submandibular region have been reported. The simultaneous finding of submandibular ectopic thyroid tissue and a functional orthotopic thyroid gland is even rarer. In the differential diagnosis of an ectopic submandibular thyroid, it is fundamental to exclude a metastasis from well-differentiated thyroid cancer, even when primary thyroid carcinoma is not demonstrable. PMID:27413274

  19. Ectopic goitrous submandibular thyroid with goitrous orthotopic thyroid gland

    PubMed Central

    Bhardwaj, Avinash Kumar; Mani, Vinayaga; Dixit, Rashmi; Garg, Anju

    2016-01-01

    Ectopic thyroid is a rare developmental anomaly with lingual thyroid accounting for majority of the cases. The presence of ectopic thyroid tissue lateral to the midline is very rare, and very few cases located in the submandibular region have been reported. The simultaneous finding of submandibular ectopic thyroid tissue and a functional orthotopic thyroid gland is even rarer. In the differential diagnosis of an ectopic submandibular thyroid, it is fundamental to exclude a metastasis from well-differentiated thyroid cancer, even when primary thyroid carcinoma is not demonstrable. PMID:27413274

  20. [BRAF V600E mutation in thyroid nodules in Argentina].

    PubMed

    Ilera, Verónica; Dourisboure, Ricardo; Colobraro, Antonio; Silva Croome, María Del Carmen; Olstein, Gustavo; Gauna, Alicia

    2016-01-01

    This prospective study analyzed the frequency of V600E mutation of oncogene BRAF in patients operated for benign thyroid nodules and for papillary thyroid cancer in an Argentine population. In patients with papillary thyroid cancer we compared clinicopathological characteristics between those harboring BRAF mutation and those without it. Twenty five consecutive patients operated for benign nodules and for papillary carcinoma were prospectively included. Fresh tissue samples of thyroid nodules and of adjacent thyroid parenchyma were obtained. DNA was extracted and amplified by amplification refractory mutation system polymerase chain reaction (ARMS PCR). Direct sequencing was performed in four samples. Of those patients operated for papillary thyroid cancer, 77% harbored BRAF mutation. All samples from adjacent thyroid parenchyma and from patients operated for benign nodules tested negative for the mutation. Direct sequencing confirmed the results obtained by ARMS PCR. Patients with BRAF mutation were significantly older at the time of diagnosis (BRAF+ 47.7 ± 12.7 years vs. BRAF- 24.7 ± 8.1 years, p < 0.01). Nine out of ten papillary carcinomas with BRAF mutation corresponded to the classic histological subtype, which was not observed in BRAF negative tumors (p < 0.02). In conclusion, we found a high frequency of BRAF V600E mutation in this population of patients operated for papillary thyroid carcinoma in Argentina. These results are consistent with those reported in the literature. PMID:27576281

  1. A review on ultrasound-based thyroid cancer tissue characterization and automated classification.

    PubMed

    Acharya, U R; Swapna, G; Sree, S V; Molinari, F; Gupta, S; Bardales, R H; Witkowska, A; Suri, J S

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, we review the different studies that developed Computer Aided Diagnostic (CAD) for automated classification of thyroid cancer into benign and malignant types. Specifically, we discuss the different types of features that are used to study and analyze the differences between benign and malignant thyroid nodules. These features can be broadly categorized into (a) the sonographic features from the ultrasound images, and (b) the non-clinical features extracted from the ultrasound images using statistical and data mining techniques. We also present a brief description of the commonly used classifiers in ultrasound based CAD systems. We then review the studies that used features based on the ultrasound images for thyroid nodule classification and highlight the limitations of such studies. We also discuss and review the techniques used in studies that used the non-clinical features for thyroid nodule classification and report the classification accuracies obtained in these studies. PMID:24206204

  2. Nuclear localisation of endogenous SUMO-1-modified PDGF-C in human thyroid tissue and cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Reigstad, Laila J.; Martinez, Aurora; Varhaug, Jan Erik; Lillehaug, Johan R. . E-mail: johan.lillehaug@mbi.uib.no

    2006-04-01

    We investigated post-translational modification and subcellular localisation of endogenous platelet-derived growth factor-C (PDGF-C) in human thyroid papillary carcinomas (PTC), non-neoplastic thyroid tissues, and a selection of cultured cell lines. PDGF-C expressed nuclear localisation in 95% of all tested cell types in culture and in 10% of the thyrocytes from both PTC and non-neoplastic tissue. The cell lines expressed two forms of full-length PDGF-C, {approx}39 and {approx}55 kDa, in cell membrane and cytosol, while the {approx}55 kDa form dominated in the nucleus where it was partly chromatin-associated. The {approx}55 kDa form was post-translationally modified by SUMO-1. The putative PDGF-C SUMOylation site is the surface exposed {sup 314}lysine part of a positively charged loop ({sup 312}RPKTGVRGLHK{sup 322}) with characteristics of a nuclear localisation signal. The tissue thyrocytes expressed a non-SUMOylated {approx}43 kDa and the 55 kDa PDGF-C. The SUMO-1 modified {approx}55 kDa PDGF-C expression was low in PTC where the {approx}43 kDa PDGF-C dominated. This is in contrast to non-neoplastic tissue and cultured cells where the SUMOylated {approx}55 kDa PDGF-C was strongly expressed. Our data provide novel evidence for nuclear localisation of PDGF-C, post-translational modification by SUMOylation and the expression of a novel form of PDGF-C in human papillary thyroid carcinomas.

  3. Immunohistochemical quantification of the cobalamin transport protein, cell surface receptor and Ki-67 in naturally occurring canine and feline malignant tumors and in adjacent normal tissues

    PubMed Central

    Sysel, Annette M.; Valli, Victor E.; Bauer, Joseph A.

    2015-01-01

    Cancer cells have an obligate need for cobalamin (vitamin B12) to enable DNA synthesis necessary for cellular replication. This study quantified the immunohistochemical expression of the cobalamin transport protein (transcobalamin II; TCII), cell surface receptor (transcobalamin II-R; TCII-R) and proliferation protein (Ki-67) in naturally occurring canine and feline malignant tumors, and compared these results to expression in corresponding adjacent normal tissues. All malignant tumor tissues stained positively for TCII, TCII-R and Ki-67 proteins; expression varied both within and between tumor types. Expression of TCII, TCII-R and Ki-67 was significantly higher in malignant tumor tissues than in corresponding adjacent normal tissues in both species. There was a strong correlation between TCII and TCII-R expression, and a modest correlation between TCII-R and Ki-67 expression in both species; a modest association between TCII and Ki-67 expression was present in canine tissues only. These results demonstrate a quantifiable, synchronous up-regulation of TCII and TCII-R expression by proliferating canine and feline malignant tumors. The potential to utilize these proteins as biomarkers to identify neoplastic tissues, streamline therapeutic options, evaluate response to anti-tumor therapy and monitor for recurrent disease has important implications in the advancement of cancer management for both human and companion animal patients. PMID:25633912

  4. Transcriptional responses in thyroid tissues from rats treated with a tumorigenic and a non-tumorigenic triazole conazole fungicide

    SciTech Connect

    Hester, Susan D. Nesnow, Stephen

    2008-03-15

    Conazoles are azole-containing fungicides that are used in agriculture and medicine. Conazoles can induce follicular cell adenomas of the thyroid in rats after chronic bioassay. The goal of this study was to identify pathways and networks of genes that were associated with thyroid tumorigenesis through transcriptional analyses. To this end, we compared transcriptional profiles from tissues of rats treated with a tumorigenic and a non-tumorigenic conazole. Triadimefon, a rat thyroid tumorigen, and myclobutanil, which was not tumorigenic in rats after a 2-year bioassay, were administered in the feed to male Wistar/Han rats for 30 or 90 days similar to the treatment conditions previously used in their chronic bioassays. Thyroid gene expression was determined using high density Affymetrix GeneChips (Rat 230{sub 2}). Gene expression was analyzed by the Gene Set Expression Analyses method which clearly separated the tumorigenic treatments (tumorigenic response group (TRG)) from the non-tumorigenic treatments (non-tumorigenic response group (NRG)). Core genes from these gene sets were mapped to canonical, metabolic, and GeneGo processes and these processes compared across group and treatment time. Extensive analyses were performed on the 30-day gene sets as they represented the major perturbations. Gene sets in the 30-day TRG group had over representation of fatty acid metabolism, oxidation, and degradation processes (including PPAR{gamma} and CYP involvement), and of cell proliferation responses. Core genes from these gene sets were combined into networks and found to possess signaling interactions. In addition, the core genes in each gene set were compared with genes known to be associated with human thyroid cancer. Among the genes that appeared in both rat and human data sets were: Acaca, Asns, Cebpg, Crem, Ddit3, Gja1, Grn, Jun, Junb, and Vegf. These genes were major contributors in the previously developed network from triadimefon-treated rat thyroids. It is

  5. Biochemical characterization of a Ca2+/NAD(P)H-dependent H2O2 generator in human thyroid tissue.

    PubMed

    Leseney, A M; Dème, D; Legué, O; Ohayon, R; Chanson, P; Sales, J P; Carvalho, D P; Dupuy, C; Virion, A

    1999-04-01

    An NAD(P)H-dependent H2O2 forming activity has been evidenced in thyroid tissue from patients with Grave's disease. Its biochemical properties were compared to those of the NADPH oxidase previously described in pig thyroid gland. Both were Ca2+-dependent and activated by inorganic phosphate anions in the same range of concentrations. Both are flavoproteins using FAD as cofactor, but the human enzyme was also able to utilize FMN. The apparent Km for NADPH of the human enzyme (100 microM) was 5-10 times higher than that of porcine enzyme. Vm was 3 to 10 times higher in pig (150 nmol x h(-1) x mg(-1)) than in man (14 to 45). Total content in human tissue was 7 to 9% of that in porcine tissue. An unidentified inhibitor has been detected in the 3000 g particulate fraction from most patients, which could account for this apparently low enzyme content. An NADH-dependent H2O2 production has also been observed in porcine and human thyroid tissues. This activity was only partly Ca2+-dependent (man, 50-70%; pig, 80-90%) and presented similar apparent Km values for NADH (man, 100 microM; pig, 200 microM). In pig thyrocytes, the expression of the Ca2+-dependent part of the NADH-oxidase activity was induced by TSH and down-regulated by TGFbeta, as was the NADPH oxidase activity. Furthermore, NADPH and NADH-dependent activities were not additive. We conclude that a single, inducible, NAD(P)H-oxidase can use NADPH or NADH as substrate to catalyse H2O2 formation, and that human and porcine NAD(P)H-oxidases are highly similar. Differences observed could be attributed to minor differences in enzyme structure and/or in membrane microenvironment. The NADH-dependent Ca2+-independent activity observed in human and porcine thyroid fractions could be attributed to a distinct and constitutive enzyme. PMID:10401672

  6. Matrix metalloproteinases, tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases and angiogenic cytokines in peripheral blood of patients with thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Komorowski, Jan; Pasieka, Z; Jankiewicz-Wika, J; Stepień, H

    2002-08-01

    Stimulation of growth of endothelial cells from preexisting blood vessels, i.e., angiogenesis, is one of the essential elements necessary to create a permissive environment in which a tumor can grow. During angiogenesis, the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) family of tissue enzymes contributes to normal (embriogenesis or wound repair) and pathologic tissue remodeling (chronic inflammation and tumor genesis). The proposed pathogenic roles of MMPs in cancer are tissue breakdown and remodeling during invasive tumor growth and tumor angiogenesis. Tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) form a complex with MMPs, which in turn inhibits active MMPs. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) are unique among mediators of angiogenesis with synergistic effect, and both can also be secreted by thyroid cancer cells. The goal of the study was to evaluate the plasma blood concentration of VEGF, bFGF, MMP-1, MMP-2, MMP-3, MMP-8, MMP-9, TIMP-1, and TIMP-2 in patients with cancer and in normal subjects. Twenty-two patients with thyroid cancers (papillary cancer, 11; partly papillary and partly follicular cancer, 3; anaplastic cancer, 5; medullary cancer, 3) and 16 healthy subjects (controls) were included in the study. VEGF, bFGF MMPs, and TIMPs were evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In patients with thyroid cancer, normal VEGF concentrations (74.29 +/- 13.38 vs. 84.85 +/- 21.71 pg/mL; p > 0.05) and increased bFGF (29.52 +/- 4.99 vs. 6.05 +/- 1.43 pg/mL; p < 0.001), MMP-2 (605.95 +/- 81.83 vs. 148.75 +/- 43.53 ng/mL; p < 0.001), TIMP-2 (114.19 +/- 6.62 vs. 60.75 +/- 9.18 ng/mL; p < 0.001), as well as lower MMP-1 (0.70 +/- 0.42 vs. 3.87 +/- 0.53; p < 0.001) levels have been noted. Increased plasma levels of MMP-3 and MMP-9 were also found in patients with medullary carcinoma. In conclusion, predominance of MMP-2 over TIMP-2 and TIMP-1 over MMP-1 as well as increased concentration of bFGF in peripheral blood are

  7. Administration of 3,5-diiodothyronine (3,5-T2) causes central hypothyroidism and stimulates thyroid-sensitive tissues

    PubMed Central

    Padron, Alvaro Souto; Neto, Ruy Andrade Louzada; Pantaleão, Thiago Urgal; de Souza dos Santos, Maria Carolina; Araujo, Renata Lopes; de Andrade, Bruno Moulin; da Silva Leandro, Monique; de Castro, João Pedro Saar Werneck; Ferreira, Andrea Claudia Freitas; de Carvalho, Denise Pires

    2014-01-01

    In general, 3,5-diiodothyronine (3,5-T2) increases the resting metabolic rate and oxygen consumption, exerting short-term beneficial metabolic effects on rats subjected to a high-fat diet. Our aim was to evaluate the effects of chronic 3,5-T2 administration on the hypothalamus–pituitary–thyroid axis, body mass gain, adipose tissue mass, and body oxygen consumption in Wistar rats from 3 to 6 months of age. The rats were treated daily with 3,5-T2 (25, 50, or 75 μg/100 g body weight, s.c.) for 90 days between the ages of 3 and 6 months. The administration of 3,5-T2 suppressed thyroid function, reducing not only thyroid iodide uptake but also thyroperoxidase, NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4), and thyroid type 1 iodothyronine deiodinase (D1 (DIO1)) activities and expression levels, whereas the expression of the TSH receptor and dual oxidase (DUOX) were increased. Serum TSH, 3,3′,5-triiodothyronine, and thyroxine were reduced in a 3,5-T2 dose-dependent manner, whereas oxygen consumption increased in these animals, indicating the direct action of 3,5-T2 on this physiological variable. Type 2 deiodinase activity increased in both the hypothalamus and the pituitary, and D1 activities in the liver and kidney were also increased in groups treated with 3,5-T2. Moreover, after 3 months of 3,5-T2 administration, body mass and retroperitoneal fat pad mass were significantly reduced, whereas the heart rate and mass were unchanged. Thus, 3,5-T2 acts as a direct stimulator of energy expenditure and reduces body mass gain; however, TSH suppression may develop secondary to 3,5-T2 administration. PMID:24692290

  8. Expression of Benign and Malignant Thyroid Tissue in Ovarian Teratomas and the Importance of Multimodal Management as Illustrated by a BRAF-Positive Follicular Variant of Papillary Thyroid Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wolff, Erin F.; Hughes, Marybeth; Merino, Maria J.; Reynolds, James C.; Davis, Jeremy L.; Cochran, Craig S.

    2010-01-01

    Background The most common type of ovarian germ cell tumor is the teratoma. Thyroid tissue, both benign and malignant, may be a component of an ovarian teratoma. Here we review this topic and illustrate major features by presenting multimodal management of a patient with BRAF-positive disseminated follicular thyroid cancer arising in an ovarian teratoma. Summary Malignant thyroid tissue is often difficult to distinguish from benign thyroid tissue arising in ovarian teratomas. Preoperatively, an elevated thyroglobulin (Tg) level, laboratory or clinical evidence of hyperthyroidism, or ultrasonography appearance of “struma pearl” should prompt referral to oncologist for surgical management of a possibly malignant ovarian teratoma. Postoperatively, tumor tissue should be referred to pathologists experienced with differentiating benign from malignant struma ovarii. Once diagnosed, treatment of this rare condition should be handled by a team of specialists with combined treatment modalities. We cared for woman with disseminated thyroid cancer arising in an ovarian teratoma whose history illustrates the complexity of managing ovarian teratomas with malignant thyroid tissue. At age 33 she had an intraoperative rupture of an ovarian cyst, thought to be struma ovarii. During her next pregnancy, pelvic masses were noted; biopsies revealed well-differentiated papillary thyroid carcinoma, follicular variant. She was euthyroid, but had elevated serum Tg levels. Surgical staging demonstrated widely metastatic intraabdominal dissemination. A thyroidectomy revealed no malignancy. A post-131I treatment scan revealed diffuse uptake throughout the abdomen. She then developed abdominal pain and, on computed tomography, was found to have multiple intraabdominal foci of disease. Serum Tg was 264 ng/mL while on L-thyroxine for hypothyroidism and to obtain thyrotropin suppression. A 18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography scan showed no pathological uptake. The tumor was

  9. Transforming acidic coiled-coil 3 and Aurora-A interact in human thyrocytes and their expression is deregulated in thyroid cancer tissues

    PubMed Central

    Ulisse, Salvatore; Baldini, Enke; Toller, Matteo; Delcros, Jean-Guy; Guého, Aurélie; Curcio, Francesco; De Antoni, Enrico; Giacomelli, Laura; Ambesi-Impiombato, Francesco S; Bocchini, Sarah; D'Armiento, Massimino; Arlot-Bonnemains, Yannick

    2007-01-01

    Aurora-A kinase has recently been shown to be deregulated in thyroid cancer cells and tissues. Among the Aurora-A substrates identified, transforming acidic coiled-coil (TACC3), a member of the TACC family, plays an important role in cell cycle progression and alterations of its expression occur in different cancer tissues. In this study, we demonstrated the expression of the TACC3 gene in normal human thyroid cells (HTU5), and its modulation at both mRNA and protein levels during cell cycle. Its expression was found, with respect to HTU5 cells, unchanged in cells derived from a benign thyroid follicular tumor (HTU42), and significantly reduced in cell lines derived from follicular (FTC-133), papillary (B-CPAP), and anaplastic thyroid carcinomas (CAL-62 and 8305C). Moreover, in 16 differentiated thyroid cancer tissues, TACC3 mRNA levels were found, with respect to normal matched tissues, reduced by twofold in 56% of cases and increased by twofold in 44% of cases. In the same tissues, a correlation between the expression of the TACC3 and Aurora-A mRNAs was observed. TACC3 and Aurora-A interact in vivo in thyroid cells and both proteins localized onto the mitotic structure of thyroid cells. Finally, TACC3 localization on spindle microtubule was no more observed following the inhibition of Aurora kinase activity by VX-680. We propose that Aurora-A and TACC3 interaction is important to control the mitotic spindle organization required for proper chromosome segregation. PMID:17914111

  10. Lipid Profiles of Canine Invasive Transitional Cell Carcinoma of the Urinary Bladder and Adjacent Normal Tissue by Desorption Electrospray Ionization Imaging Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Dill, Allison L.; Ifa, Demian R.; Manicke, Nicholas E.; Costa, Anthony B.; Ramos-Vara, José A.; Knapp, Deborah W.; Cooks, R. Graham

    2009-01-01

    Desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) mass spectrometry (MS) was used in an imaging mode to interrogate the lipid profiles of thin tissue sections of canine spontaneous invasive transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the urinary bladder (a model of human invasive bladder cancer) as well as adjacent normal tissue from four different dogs. The glycerophospholipids and sphingolipids that appear as intense signals in both the negative ion and positive ion modes were identified by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) product ion scans using collision-induced dissociation. Differences in the relative distributions of the lipid species were present between the tumor and adjacent normal tissue in both the negative and positive ion modes. DESI-MS images showing the spatial distributions of particular glycerophospholipids, sphinoglipids and free fatty acids in both the negative and positive ion modes were compared to serial tissue sections that were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E). Increased absolute and relative intensities for at least five different glycerophospholipids and three free fatty acids in the negative ion mode and at least four different lipid species in the positive ion mode were seen in the tumor region of the samples in all four dogs. In addition, one sphingolipid species exhibited increased signal intensity in the positive ion mode in normal tissue relative to the diseased tissue. Principal component analysis (PCA) was also used to generate unsupervised statistical images from the negative ion mode data and these images are in excellent agreement with the DESI images obtained from the selected ions and also the H&E stained tissue PMID:19810710

  11. On commonness and rarity of thyroid hormone resistance: a discussion based on mechanisms of reduced sensitivity in peripheral tissues.

    PubMed

    Tjørve, E; Tjørve, K M C; Olsen, J O; Senum, R; Oftebro, H

    2007-01-01

    Reduced sensitivity to thyroid hormone (TH) in peripheral tissues can occur as defects in TH transport into the cell, intracellular TH metabolism, cytosolic mechanisms, TH entry into the nucleus, thyroxin receptors (TRs) and receptor binding, transcription and post-transcriptional mechanisms. Current literature reveals an extensive list of mutations, drugs, toxins, metabolites and autoimmune antibodies that may impair TH action in the cell, but such impairment may not be picked up by assays of TH and TSH in blood plasma. Substances may induce tissue specific resistance to thyroid hormone (RTH), e.g. by affecting numbers of different TR isoforms. Recent literature also indicates mechanisms by which different conditions, for example, chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), chronic renal failure (CRF) and nonthyroidal illness, can be accompanied by acquired RTH caused by inhibition of TH metabolism, cell uptake, TR binding and transcription. This prompts us to reassess commonness and rarity of congenital vs. acquired RTH. We hypothesise that observed clinical symptoms of hypothyroidism in chemically euthyroid patients are typically caused by changes in hormonal systems, autoimmune antibodies, metabolites or other substances in the body, leading to reduced sensitivity to TH in peripheral tissues. These changes may be a by-product of other processes and a reversible biological response in the body, and may also result in chronic acquired RTH. Antibodies may prove to be the most common cause of chronic reduction in TH sensitivity. It is argued that the acquired form of RTH, caused by endogenous and exogenous sources, may indeed be more common than the congenital, as in insulin resistance. If acquired RTH exists, then it may not be picked up by blood assays of TH and TSH. An appropriate test to assess TH action in peripheral tissues is therefore greatly desired. PMID:17383828

  12. Treatment Options by Stage (Thyroid Cancer)

    MedlinePlus

    ... glands make hormones. The thyroid uses iodine , a mineral found in some foods and in iodized salt, ... Fine-needle aspiration biopsy of the thyroid : The removal of thyroid tissue using a thin needle. The ...

  13. Differential and tissue-specific regulation of the multiple rat c-erbA messenger RNA species by thyroid hormone.

    PubMed

    Hodin, R A; Lazar, M A; Chin, W W

    1990-01-01

    Thyroid hormone (T3) has been shown to regulate the level of its receptor in a number of tissues and cell lines. Recently, proteins encoded by the protooncogene c-erbA have been identified as T3 receptors. In the rat, four c-erbA gene products have been isolated, three of which, r-erbA alpha-1, r-erbA beta-1, and r-erbA beta-2, encode biologically active T3 receptors; the fourth, r-erbA alpha-2, may play an inhibitory role in T3 action. The present work examines the molecular nature of T3 receptor autoregulation using probes specific for each c-erbA mRNA. Rats were rendered hypothyroid with propylthiouracil and then treated with either saline or T3. Northern blot analyses reveal marked tissue-specific and differential regulation of the multiple c-erbA mRNAs by T3. In the pituitary the levels of r-erbA beta-1 mRNA increase, whereas the levels of the pituitary-specific r-erbA beta-2 mRNA decrease with T3 treatment. In heart, kidney, liver, and brain the levels of r-erbA beta-1 are unaffected by thyroidal status. The levels of both r-erbA alpha mRNAs decrease with T3 treatment in all tissues examined except for the brain, where there is no change. In addition, we find that changes in the mRNAs encoding specific subpopulations of T3 receptors do not always parallel changes in total nuclear T3 binding. Differential regulation of the specific c-erbA mRNA species could have important consequences for T3 action. PMID:2153150

  14. Thyroid cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... cancer is a cancer that starts in the thyroid gland. The thyroid gland is located inside the front of your lower ... thyroid cells that are normally present in the thyroid gland. This form of thyroid cancer tends to occur ...

  15. Thyroid nodule

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2016:chap 14. Read More Chronic thyroiditis (Hashimoto disease) Laryngeal nerve damage Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) II Thyroid cancer Thyroid cancer - medullary carcinoma Thyroid gland removal Patient Instructions Thyroid gland ...

  16. Metal debris concentrations in soft tissues adjacent to loosened femoral stems is higher in uncemented than cemented implants

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There are still many questions related to aseptic femoral stem loosening. Systemic and local immune responses to the implanted “foreign body” is one of the reasons for loosening. The purpose of the study was to measure metal ion concentration (Ti, Co, Cr, Mo, Ni, Al) around loosened femoral stems and compare their levels around uncemented and cemented implants. Methods This paper reports 50 hips operated for isolated stem loosening, in 50 patients at the mean age of 57 years (from 21 to 87). There were 25 cemented (Co,Cr29,Mo,Ni) and 25 uncemented (Ti, Al) stems. The mean follow-up from primary hip replacement to revision was 10.1 years (from 0.5 to 17). During the procedure, scar tissue around the stem was taken for analysis of metal ions. Results The concentrations of titanium and aluminium in soft tissues around uncemented loosened stems were higher than cemented ones (p < 0.001, p < 0.001 respectively). However, no statistically significant differences were observed between both types of stems in terms of ions of the metal of which cemented implants had been made of (Co, Cr, Mo, Ni). Conclusions In soft tissue around a loosened stem, the concentrations of metal ions from implants are much higher in case of uncemented stems than of cemented ones. Metal ions from vitalium femoral heads were found around uncemented stems in similar values to cemented streams. PMID:25098913

  17. Recessive resistance to thyroid hormone in mice lacking thyroid hormone receptor beta: evidence for tissue-specific modulation of receptor function.

    PubMed Central

    Forrest, D; Hanebuth, E; Smeyne, R J; Everds, N; Stewart, C L; Wehner, J M; Curran, T

    1996-01-01

    The diverse functions of thyroid hormone (T3) are presumed to be mediated by two genes encoding the related receptors, TRalpha and TRbeta. However, the in vivo functions of TRalpha and TRbeta are undefined. Here, we report that targeted inactivation of the mouse TRbeta gene results in goitre and elevated levels of thyroid hormone. Also, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), which is released by pituitary thyrotropes and which is normally suppressed by increased levels of thyroid hormone, was present at elevated levels in homozygous mutant (Thrb-/-) mice. These findings suggest a unique role for TRbeta that cannot be substituted by TRalpha in the T3-dependent feedback regulation of TSH transcription. Thrb-/- mice provide a recessive model for the human syndrome of resistance to thyroid hormone (RTH) that exhibits a similar endocrine disorder but which is typically caused by dominant TRbeta mutants that are transcriptional inhibitors. It is unknown whether TRalpha, TRbeta or other receptors are targets for inhibition in dominant RTH; however, the analysis of Thrb-/- mice suggests that antagonism of TRbeta-mediated pathways underlies the disorder of the pituitary-thyroid axis. Interestingly, in the brain, the absence of TRbeta may not mimic the defects often associated with dominant RTH, since no overt behavioural or neuroanatomical abnormalities were detected in Thrb-/- mice. These data define in vivo functions for TRbeta and indicate that specificity in T3 signalling is conferred by distinct receptor genes. Images PMID:8670802

  18. Quantitative analysis of the reconstruction errors of the currently popular algorithm of magnetic resonance electrical property tomography at the interfaces of adjacent tissues.

    PubMed

    Duan, Song; Xu, Chao; Deng, Guanhua; Wang, Jiajia; Liu, Feng; Xin, Sherman Xuegang

    2016-06-01

    This work quantitatively analyzed the reconstruction errors (REs) of electrical property (EP) images using a currently popular algorithm of magnetic resonance electrical property tomography (MREPT), which occurred along the tissue interfaces. Transmitted magnetic fields B1+ were acquired at 3 T using a birdcage coil loaded with a phantom consisting of various adjacent tissues. Homogeneous Helmholtz was employed to calculate the EP maps by Laplacian computation of central differences. The maps of absolute REs (aREs) and relative REs (rREs) were calculated. The maximum and mean rREs, in addition to rRE distributions at the interfaces, were presented. Reconstructed EP maps showed various REs along different interface boundaries. Among all the investigated tissue interfaces, the kidney-fat interface presented the maximum mean rREs for both conductivity and relative permittivity. The minimum mean rRE of conductivity was observed at the spleen-muscle interface, and the minimum mean rRE of relative permittivity was detected along the lung-heart interface. The mean rREs ranged from 0.3986 to 36.11 for conductivity and 0.2218 to 11.96 for relative permittivity. Overall, this research indicates that different REs occur at various tissue boundaries, as shown by the currently popular algorithm of MREPT. Thus, REs should be considered when applying MREPT to reconstruct the EP distributions inside the human body. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27037715

  19. [Effect of radio therapy on the magnitude of iodine radioisotope half-life in the thyroid tissue remnants in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer].

    PubMed

    Kozak, O V; Trembach, O M; Romanenko, L V; Butrym, O I

    2008-01-01

    The use of external irradiation in the treatment of patients with differentiated thyroid cancer is still under consideration. The aim of the study was to compare Tef in the thyroid remnants in patients with and without external irradiation prior to radioiodine treatment. 70 patients with thyroid remnants after resection of thyroid and dissection of pathological lymph nodes were treated by I-131. Patients were divided into two groups: Group 1--with external irradiation (25-60 Gy)-21 patient, and Group 2--patients who did not received external irradiation prior to radioiodine treatment (49 patients). Activities administered ranged from 1000 to 4500 MBq. I-131 kinetics was followed daily during first 4 days after activity administration on the basis of mathematical analysis of scintigraphy. T(ef) was calculated under the assumption of exponential excretion of 131-I from remnants. It was shown that in Group 1 T(eff) = 3.87 +/- 2.5 days, in Group 2 T(eff) amounted to 2.9 +/- 2.2 days. Thus, external irradiation resulted in slowing down of 131-I excretion in thyroid remnants. The probability of the full remnants ablation after the first course of 131-I treatment (p) has been calculated. It was shown that p is higher in the Group 2 in every activity interval. Teff in sequential courses of 131-I treatment has been measured at the same patients. Thus, external irradiation influences in different way at the previously irradiated and not irradiated cells. PMID:19253734

  20. Thyroid storm

    MedlinePlus

    Thyrotoxic storm; Hyperthyroid storm; Accelerated hyperthyroidism; Thyroid crisis; Thyrotoxicosis - thyroid storm ... thyroid storm can be caused by treatment of hyperthyroidism with radioiodine therapy.

  1. Comparison of heavy metal concentrations in tissues of red foxes from adjacent urban, suburban, and rural areas.

    PubMed

    Dip, R; Stieger, C; Deplazes, P; Hegglin, D; Müller, U; Dafflon, O; Koch, H; Naegeli, H

    2001-05-01

    The red fox (Vulpes vulpes) is a representative of the canid family with wide distribution in the Northern Hemisphere and Australia. The increasing utilization of urbanized habitats by red foxes prompted us to test whether this species may be used to monitor the presence of anthropogenic pollutants in cities or suburbs. For that purpose, we compared the concentrations of heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn) in foxes from urban, suburban, and rural areas within the municipality of Zürich (Switzerland). The kidney and liver of suburban and rural foxes contained the highest Cd concentrations, whereas urban foxes contained the highest Pb levels. In the kidney of suburban foxes, Cd concentrations increased from a median value of 0.73 mg/kg in juvenile animals to 1.82 mg/kg in adults. Similarly, the liver of suburban foxes contained increasing Cd levels from a median of 0.21 mg/kg in juvenile animals to 0.94 mg/kg in adults. An age-dependent storage of Cd was also found in foxes from the rural surroundings, but no such accumulation occurred in urban foxes from the city center, where even adult animals contained very low Cd levels. Conversely, foxes from the urban center were characterized by elevated Pb concentrations during the first 2 years of life, but this transient Pb accumulation was absent in suburban or rural animals. The liver of juvenile foxes contained a median Pb concentration of 0.99 mg/kg in the city compared to only 0.47 and 0.37 mg/kg in the suburban and rural area, respectively. Thus, we found that animals from separate environmental compartments contain different patterns of tissue residues, implying that red foxes may serve as a bioindicator species to detect certain toxic hazards in urbanized habitats. PMID:11525499

  2. Human lung and bladder carcinoma tumors as compared to their adjacent normal tissue have elevated AP-1 activity associated with the retinoblastoma gene promoter.

    PubMed

    Linardopoulos, S; Papadakis, E; Delakas, D; Theodosiou, V; Cranidis, A; Spandidos, D A

    1993-01-01

    Examination of the nucleotide sequence of the retinoblastoma (Rb) promoter revealed the presence of a DNA region highly homologous to the recognition site for the cellular transcription factor AP-1. A pair of complementary oligonucleotides containing the AP-1 site was synthesized and used in gel retardation assays to determine the role of the AP-1 protein in the regulation of the Rb gene expression. Using nuclear extracts from Hela cells as well as from lung and bladder tumors, we found specific binding of the AP-1 protein to this oligonucleotide. This binding is elevated in Hela cells, in 10/13 lung and 3/8 bladder tumors as compared to adjacent normal tissue. These results suggest that AP-1 could be implicated in Rb gene transcriptional regulation through its interaction with the AP-1 binding site of the Rb gene promoter. PMID:8476221

  3. Microrna-199a-5p Functions as a Tumor Suppressor via Suppressing Connective Tissue Growth Factor (CTGF) in Follicular Thyroid Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Dawei; Han, Shen; Liu, Chao; Zhou, Rui; Sun, Weihai; Zhang, Zhijun; Qu, Jianjun

    2016-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to explore the role of miR-199a-5p in the development of thyroid cancer, including its anti-proliferation effect and downstream signaling pathway. Material/Methods We conducted qRT-PCR analysis to detect the expressions of several microRNAs in 42 follicular thyroid carcinoma patients and 42 controls. We identified CTGF as target of miR-491, and viability and cell cycle status were determined in FTC-133 cells transfected with CTGF siRNA, miR-199a mimics, or inhibitors. Results We identified an underexpression of miR-199a-5p in follicular thyroid carcinoma tissue samples compared with controls. Then we confirmed CTGF as a target of miR-199a-5p thyroid cells by using informatics analysis and luciferase reporter assay. Additionally, we found that mRNA and protein expression levels of CTGF were both clearly higher in malignant tissues than in benign tissues. miR-199a-5p mimics and CTGF siRNA similarly downregulated the expression of CTGF, and reduced the viability of FTC-133 cells by arresting the cell cycle in G0 phase. Transfection of miR-199a-5p inhibitors increased the expression of CTGF and promoted the viability of the cells by increasing the fraction of cells in G2/M and S phases. Conclusions Our study proves that the CTGF gene is a target of miR-199a-5p, demonstrating the negatively related association between CTGF and miR-199a. These findings suggest that miR-199a-5p might be a novel therapeutic target in the treatment of follicular thyroid carcinoma. PMID:27062921

  4. Microrna-199a-5p Functions as a Tumor Suppressor via Suppressing Connective Tissue Growth Factor (CTGF) in Follicular Thyroid Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Sun, Dawei; Han, Shen; Liu, Chao; Zhou, Rui; Sun, Weihai; Zhang, Zhijun; Qu, Jianjun

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND The objective of this study was to explore the role of miR-199a-5p in the development of thyroid cancer, including its anti-proliferation effect and downstream signaling pathway. MATERIAL AND METHODS We conducted qRT-PCR analysis to detect the expressions of several microRNAs in 42 follicular thyroid carcinoma patients and 42 controls. We identified CTGF as target of miR-491, and viability and cell cycle status were determined in FTC-133 cells transfected with CTGF siRNA, miR-199a mimics, or inhibitors. RESULTS We identified an underexpression of miR-199a-5p in follicular thyroid carcinoma tissue samples compared with controls. Then we confirmed CTGF as a target of miR-199a-5p thyroid cells by using informatics analysis and luciferase reporter assay. Additionally, we found that mRNA and protein expression levels of CTGF were both clearly higher in malignant tissues than in benign tissues. miR-199a-5p mimics and CTGF siRNA similarly downregulated the expression of CTGF, and reduced the viability of FTC-133 cells by arresting the cell cycle in G0 phase. Transfection of miR-199a-5p inhibitors increased the expression of CTGF and promoted the viability of the cells by increasing the fraction of cells in G2/M and S phases. CONCLUSIONS Our study proves that the CTGF gene is a target of miR-199a-5p, demonstrating the negatively related association between CTGF and miR-199a. These findings suggest that miR-199a-5p might be a novel therapeutic target in the treatment of follicular thyroid carcinoma. PMID:27062921

  5. Dual thyroid ectopia-role of thyroid scintigraphy and neck ultrasonography

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Tarun Kumar; Meena, Ram Singh; Bhatia, Anmol; Sood, Ashwani; Bhattacharya, Anish; Mittal, Bhagwant Rai

    2015-01-01

    Ectopic thyroid tissue (ETT) is a rare developmental anomaly of the thyroid tissue where the thyroid gland is not located in its usual position. Dual thyroid ectopia is far rarer. This case of a 5-year-old euthyroid girl with thyroglossal cyst was planned for surgery. Presurgical ultrasonography (USG) of the neck followed by thyroid scintigraphy was performed. There was absent normal thyroid gland with single ETT in neck swelling on USG. However, thyroid scintigraphy revealed two ectopic foci of thyroid tissue; one was corresponding to neck swelling, and other was superior to it at the base of the tongue along with absent eutopic thyroid gland. The repeat neck USG could demonstrate the same. The present case emphasizes that, if the thyroid gland is not visible by USG; ETT should be evaluated with thyroid scintigraphy in case of thyroid dysgenesis. PMID:26430320

  6. The cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter sequence alters the level and patterns of activity of adjacent tissue- and organ-specific gene promoters.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xuelian; Deng, Wei; Luo, Keming; Duan, Hui; Chen, Yongqin; McAvoy, Richard; Song, Shuiqing; Pei, Yan; Li, Yi

    2007-08-01

    Here we report the effect of the 35S promoter sequence on activities of the tissue- and organ-specific gene promoters in tobacco plants. In the absence of the 35S promoter sequence the AAP2 promoter is active only in vascular tissues as indicated by expression of the AAP2:GUS gene. With the 35S promoter sequence in the same T-plasmid, transgenic plants exhibit twofold to fivefold increase in AAP2 promoter activity and the promoter becomes active in all tissue types. Transgenic plants hosting the ovary-specific AGL5:iaaM gene (iaaM coding an auxin biosynthetic gene) showed a wild-type phenotype except production of seedless fruits, whereas plants hosting the AGL5:iaaM gene along with the 35S promoter sequence showed drastic morphological alterations. RT-PCR analysis confirms that the phenotype was caused by activation of the AGL5:iaaM gene in non-ovary organs including roots, stems and flowers. When the pollen-, ovule- and early embryo-specific PAB5:barnase gene (barnase coding a RNase gene) was transformed, the presence of 35S promoter sequence drastically reduced transformation efficiencies. However, the transformation efficiencies were restored in the absence of 35S promoter, indicating that the 35S promoter might activate the expression of PAB5:barnase in non-reproductive organs such as calli and shoot primordia. Furthermore, if the 35S promoter sequence was replaced with the NOS promoter sequence, no alteration in AAP2, AGL5 or PAB5 promoter activities was observed. Our results demonstrate that the 35S promoter sequence can convert an adjacent tissue- and organ-specific gene promoter into a globally active promoter. PMID:17340093

  7. Thyroid scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... Read More Anaplastic thyroid cancer Cancer Goiter - simple Hyperthyroidism Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) II PET scan Skin ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Hyperthyroidism Hypothyroidism Nuclear Scans Thyroid Cancer Thyroid Diseases Thyroid ...

  8. Thyroid scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... is done to: Check for thyroid cancer Evaluate thyroid nodules or goiter Find the cause of an overactive ... the thyroid appears lighter, it could be a thyroid problem. Nodules that are darker can be overactive and may ...

  9. Postpartum Thyroiditis

    MedlinePlus

    ... high thyroid hormone levels in the blood) and hypothyroidism (low thyroid hormone levels in the blood). In postpartum thyroiditis, thyrotoxicosis occurs first followed by hypothyroidism. What causes postpartum thyroiditis? The exact cause is ...

  10. Thyroid Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... calories and how fast your heart beats. Thyroid tests check how well your thyroid is working. They ... thyroid diseases such as hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism. Thyroid tests include blood tests and imaging tests. Blood tests ...

  11. Thyroid nodule

    MedlinePlus

    ... other thyroid blood tests Thyroid ultrasound Thyroid scan (nuclear medicine) Fine needle aspiration biopsy of the nodule or ... Guidelines for Clinical Practice for the Diagnosis and Management of Thyroid Nodules. Endocr Pract. 2010;16(suppl ...

  12. Unveiling a novel biomarker panel for diagnosis and classification of well-differentiated thyroid carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Paricharttanakul, N Monique; Saharat, Kittirat; Chokchaichamnankit, Daranee; Punyarit, Phaibul; Srisomsap, Chantragan; Svasti, Jisnuson

    2016-04-01

    Thyroid cancer is the most common human endocrine malignancy with increasing global incidence. Papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTC) and follicular thyroid carcinomas (FTC) are well-differentiated thyroid cancers (WDTC) accounting for 95% of all thyroid cancer cases, with survival rates of almost 100% when diagnosed early. Since PTC and FTC have different modes of metastasis, they require different treatment strategies. Standard diagnosis by fine needle aspiration with cytopathological examination can be inaccurate in approximately 10-30% of all cases and difficult to definitively classify as WDTC. Currently, there is no single or panel of biomarkers available for thyroid cancer diagnosis and classification. This study identified novel biomarkers for thyroid cancer diagnosis and classification using proteomics, which may be translated into a biomarker panel for clinical application. Two-dimensional SDS-PAGE and mass spectrometry were used to identify potential biomarkers in papillary and follicular thyroid carcinoma cell lines, and the biomarkers were validated in five PTC and five FTC tissues, with their adjacent normal tissues from Thai patients. Eight biomarkers could distinguish PTC from normal tissues, namely enolase 1, triose phosphate isomerase, cathepsin D, annexin A2, cofilin 1, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), copine 1 and heat shock protein 27 kDa (HSP27). These biomarkers can also discriminate FTC from normal tissues, except for annexin A2. On the contrary, annexin A2, cofilin 1, PCNA and HSP27 can be used to classify the types of WDTC. These findings have potential for use as a novel multi-marker panel for more accurate diagnosis and classification to better guide physicians on thyroid cancer treatment. Moreover, our results suggest the involvement of proteins in cell growth and proliferation, and the p53 pathway in the carcinogenesis of WDTC, which may lead to targeted therapy for thyroid cancer. PMID:26782318

  13. Elevated expression levels of androgen receptors and matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9 in 30 cases of hepatocellular carcinoma compared with adjacent tissues as predictors of cancer invasion and staging

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, YAN; SHEN, YUCHENG; CAO, BIN; YAN, AITING; JI, HAOMING

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential roles of the androgen receptor (AR) and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tissues and whether their expression could be used as a predictor of the invasion and stage of cancer. The expression levels of AR, MMP-2 and MMP-9 in HCC tissues and tissues adjacent to the tumor were measured by immunohistochemical staining assay. The expression rates of AR, MMP-2 and MMP-9 in the HCC tissue were 76.67, 73.33 and 76.67%, respectively, all of which were significantly higher than those in the tissues adjacent to the tumor. The expression of these proteins represents the local invasion and stage. AR, MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression levels in HCC tissues have the potential to be employed as predictors of the progression of local cancer invasion and the tumor stage. PMID:25667651

  14. Neither bST nor Growth Hormone Releasing Factor Alter Expression of Thyroid Hormone Receptors in Liver and Mammary Tissues

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Physiological effects of thyroid hormones are mediated primarily by binding of triiodothyronine, to specific nuclear receptors. It has been hypothesized that organ-specific changes in production of triiodothyronine from its prohormone, thyroxine, target the action of thyroid hormones to the mammary...

  15. TRANSCRIPTIONAL RESPONSES IN THYROID TISSUES FROM RATS TREATED WITH A TUMORIGENIC AND A NON-TUMORIGENIC TRIAZOLE CONAZOLE FUNGICIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Conazoles are fungicides that are used in agriculture and medicine. Conazoles can induce follicular cell adenomas of the thyroid in rats after chronic bioassay and are considered to pose a hazard to humans. Pathways and networks of genes that were associated with thyroid cancer w...

  16. DIAGNOSTIC CRITERIA FOR PROLIFERATIVE THYROID LESIONS IN BONY FISHES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Criteria for distinguishing hyperplastic thyroid lesions from thyroid neoplasia in bony fishes have long been debated by scientists. Confusion exists because the thyroid tissue in most teleosts is unencapsulated, is occasionally found in ectopic sites, and is frequently predispos...

  17. Primary Thyroid Sarcoma: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Surov, Alexey; Gottschling, Sebastian; Wienke, Andreas; Meyer, Hans Jonas; Spielmann, Rolf Peter; Dralle, Henning

    2015-10-01

    Different types of malignant tumors can occur within the thyroid. Primary cancer is the most common type of thyroid malignancy. Non-epithelial malignancies can also arise within the thyroid. The aim of the present study was to analyze clinical and radiological characteristics of reported primary thyroid sarcomas (PTS), based on a large sample of cases. The PubMed database was screened for articles from between 1990 and 2014. Overall, 86 articles with 142 patients were identified. Ultrasound evaluation was reported for 36 patients. Data regarding computed tomography of the neck were available for 29 cases. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed for eight patients. The following data were retrieved for the identified sarcomas: localization, size, homogeneity, internal texture, and margin characteristics. In most cases, PTS occurred in patients over 40 years of age, with a peak incidence for the group aged 60-79 years. Angiosarcoma was diagnosed in 29 cases (20.4%), followed by malignant hemangioendothelioma (n=23, 16.3%), malignant fibrous histiocytoma (n=20, 14.1%), leiomyosarcoma (n=16, 11.3%), and fibrosarcoma (n=13, 9.2%). In most patients (n=113, 79.6%), PTS manifested clinically as a painless goiter. On ultrasound, PTS were predominantly mixed hypo-to-hyperechoic in comparison to the normal thyroid tissue. On non-contrast computed tomography, most sarcomas were inhomogeneous hypo-to-hyperdense. On post-contrast magnetic resonance images, most sarcomas showed marked non-homogenous enhancement. In 26.8%, infiltration of the adjacent organs was seen. The trachea or esophagus was affected more frequently in patients with malignant histiocytoma and liposarcoma. Different strategies were used in the treatment of PTS. Our analysis provides clinical and radiological characteristics of PTS. The described features should be taken into consideration in the differential diagnosis of thyroid tumors. PMID:26408676

  18. Transoral robotic thyroid surgery

    PubMed Central

    Clark, James H.; Kim, Hoon Yub

    2015-01-01

    There is currently significant demand for minimally invasive thyroid surgery; however the majority of proposed surgical approaches necessitate a compromise between minimal tissue dissection with a visible cervical scar or extensive tissue dissection with a remote, hidden scar. The development of transoral endoscopic thyroid surgery however provides an approach which is truly minimally invasive, as it conceals the incision within the oral cavity without significantly increasing the amount of required dissection. The transoral endoscopic approach however presents multiple technical challenges, which could be overcome with the incorporation of a robotic operating system. This manuscript summarizes the literature on the feasibility and current clinical experience with transoral robotic thyroid surgery. PMID:26425456

  19. Zinc finger E-box-binding homeobox 1: its clinical significance and functional role in human thyroid cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yan; Liu, Gang; Wu, Shihe; Jiang, Futing; Xie, Jiangping; Wang, Yuhong

    2016-01-01

    Objective Transcription factor zinc finger E-box-binding homeobox 1 (ZEB1), as one of the key inducers of epithelial-mesenchymal transition, has been reported to be regulated by microRNA-144 and Bcl-2-associated athanogene 3, which both promote thyroid cancer cell invasion. However, the involvement of ZEB1 in thyroid cancer has not been fully elucidated. In this study, we aimed to investigate the role and clinical implication of ZEB1 in this disease. Methods Immunohistochemistry was performed to examine the subcellular localization and the expression level of ZEB1 protein in 82 self-pairs of formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded cancerous and adjacent noncancerous tissues obtained from patients with thyroid cancer. The roles of ZEB1 in thyroid cancer cell migration, invasion, and proliferation were also detected by transwell and MTT analyses, respectively. Results Immunohistochemistry showed that ZEB1 was predominantly localized in the nucleus of thyroid cancer cells. Its immunoreactive score in thyroid cancer tissues was significantly higher than that in adjacent noncancerous tissues (P=0.01). In addition, ZEB1 overexpression was significantly associated with the advanced tumor node metastasis staging (P=0.008), the positive lymph node metastasis (P=0.01) and distant metastasis (P=0.02). Furthermore, ZEB1 knockdown by siRNA could efficiently inhibit the migration, invasion, and proliferation abilities of thyroid cancer cells in vitro. Conclusion These findings indicated that ZEB1 might function as an oncogene, the overexpression of which was associated with the aggressive tumor progression of human thyroid cancer. Interestingly, ZEB1 also could promote thyroid cancer cell migration, invasion, and proliferation, suggesting that the inhibition of this protein might be a therapeutic strategy for the treatment of this malignancy. PMID:27099512

  20. microRNA-141 inhibits thyroid cancer cell growth and metastasis by targeting insulin receptor substrate 2

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Su; Meng, Xianying; Xue, Shuai; Yan, Zewen; Ren, Peiyou; Liu, Jia

    2016-01-01

    microRNA-141 (miR-141), a member of the miR-200 family, and has been reported to involve in tumor initiation and development in many types of cancers. However, the function and underlying molecular mechanism of miR-141 in thyroid cancer remains unclear. Therefore, the aim of this study is to identify its expression, function, and molecular mechanism in thyroid cancer. In this study, we found that miR-141 expression levels were downregulated in human thyroid cancer specimens compared to the adjacent normal tissues, and its expression were strongly correlated with clinical stages and lymph node metastases. Function assays showed that overexpression of miR-141 inhibited cell proliferation, induced cell apoptosis, and decreased migration, invasion in thyroid cancer cells, as well as tumor growth in nude mice. Moreover, insulin receptor substrate 2 (IRS2), a known oncogene, was confirmed as a direct target of miR-141, and IRS2 expression levels were upregulated in thyroid cancer, and its expression were inversely correlated with miR-141 expression levels in human thyroid cancer specimens. Forced expression of IRS2 reversed the inhibition effect induced by miR-141 overexpression in thyroid cancer cells. Taken together, our study provides the first evidence that miR-141 suppressed thyroid cancer cell growth and metastasis through inhibition of IRS2. Thus, miR-141 might serve as a promising therapeutic strategy for thyroid cancer treatment. PMID:27186273

  1. Thyroid Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... Organizations (PDF, 269 KB). Alternate Language URL Thyroid Tests Page Content On this page: What is the ... Top ] Why do health care providers perform thyroid tests? Health care providers perform thyroid tests to assess ...

  2. Thyroid Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... thyroid surgery, requiring treatment with thyroid hormone (see Hypothyroidism brochure ). This is especially true if you had ... Nodules Goiter Graves’ Disease Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis Hyperthyroidism (Overactive) Hypothyroidism (Underactive) Iodine Deficiency Low Iodine Diet Radioactive Iodine ...

  3. Silent thyroiditis

    MedlinePlus

    ... gland. The disorder can cause hyperthyroidism, followed by hypothyroidism. The thyroid gland is located in the neck, ... Later symptoms may be of an underactive thyroid ( hypothyroidism ), including fatigue and cold intolerance, until the thyroid ...

  4. Thyroid and parathyroid imaging.

    PubMed

    Freitas, J E; Freitas, A E

    1994-07-01

    With the advent of better thyroid function tests, a tumor marker, and fine-needle aspiration, the role of thyroid imaging studies in the evaluation of the patients with thyroid disease has diminished. Although multimodality thyroid imaging had improved our understanding of thyroid disease, current indications for thyroid imaging are the solitary or dominant thyroid nodule, an upper mediastinal mass, differentiation of hyperthyroidism, detection and staging of postoperative thyroid cancer, neonatal hypothyroidism, thyroid developmental anomalies, and the thyroid mass post-thyroidectomy for benign disease. To provide optimal, cost-effective, care for the thyroid patient, the physician must understand the advantages and disadvantages of each imaging modality--scintigraphy, real-time sonography (RTS), computed tomography, and magnetic resonance--in specific clinical settings. Similarly, preoperative noninvasive localization of hyperfunctioning parathyroid tissue in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism undergoing their initial neck exploration usually is not warranted. In this situation, the best localization procedure is to enlist the services of an experienced parathyroid surgeon. However, if this is not feasible because of local constraints, both sestamibi methoxy isobutyl isonitrile (MIBI) scintigraphy and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provide excellent localization (< 90%) of juxta-thyroidal and ectopic parathyroid adenomas. Hyperplastic glands are more difficult to detect because of their smaller size, and tandem studies (MIBI and MRI) should provide higher sensitivity before initial exploration, especially in patients with ectopic glands. In patients with persistent or recurrent disease, multimodality imaging with MIBI, MR, computed tomography and RTS in a sequential fashion is warranted to optimize two-test, site-specific localization. PMID:7973759

  5. Decreased expression of thyroid receptor-associated protein 220 in temporal lobe tissue of patients with refractory epilepsy

    SciTech Connect

    Li Jinmei . E-mail: jinmeimery@Yahoo.com.cn; Wang Xuefeng . E-mail: rengang68@vip.sina.com; Xi Zhiqin; Gong Yun; Liu Fengying; Sun Jijun; Wu Yuan; Luan Guoming; Wang Yuping; Li Yunlin; Zhang Jianguo; Lu Yong; Li Hongwei

    2006-10-06

    Purpose: TRAP220 (thyroid hormone receptor-associated protein) functions as a coactivator for nuclear receptors and stimulates transcription by recruiting the TRAP mediator complex to hormone responsive promoter regions. Thus, TRAP220 enhances the function of thyroid/steroid hormone receptors such as thyroid hormone and oestrogen receptors. This study investigated the expression of TRAP220 mRNA and protein level in epileptic brains comparing with human control. Methods: We examined the expression of TRAP220 mRNA and protein levels in temporal lobes from patients with chronic pharmacoresistant epilepsy who have undergone surgery. Results: Expression of TRAP220 mRNA and protein was shown to be decreased significantly in the temporal cortex of the patients with epilepsy. Conclusions: Our work showed that a decrease in TRAP220 mRNA and protein levels may be involved in the pathophysiology of epilepsy and may be associated with impairment of the brain caused by frequent seizures.

  6. Thyroid Diseases Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... of thyroiditis and identify autoimmune thyroid conditions Thyroid peroxidase (TPO) antibody—a marker for autoimmune thyroid disease; ... for thyroid gland abnormalities and to evaluate thyroid function (for iodine) in different areas of the thyroid ...

  7. [Osteoporosis in thyroid diseases].

    PubMed

    Kosińska, Agnieszka; Syrenicz, Anhelli; Kosiński, Bogusław; Garanty-Bogacka, Barbara; Syrenicz, Małgorzata; Gromniak, Elwira

    2005-01-01

    Thyroid hormones play the essential role in the regulation of metabolism and bone remodeling in physiological conditions and in the course of thyroid dysfunction. Introduction of densitometry to the diagnostics of osteoporosis has made possible the evaluation of influence of both hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism and their treatment on bone mineral density. Moreover it became possible to estimate the influence of treatment with exogenous thyroid hormones on the skeletal system. Authors presented mechanisms of the thyroid hormones action on bone tissue and analysed current state of knowledge concerning the influence of the thyroxine treatment with replacement and suppressive doses on the bone mineral density. The influence of thyroid hormones on the skeletal system with respect to premenopausal and postmenopausal period was also discussed. Great discrepancies in literature data and its reasons were underlined. PMID:16335687

  8. TRANSCRIPTIONAL RESPONSES IN THYROID TISSUES FROM RATS TREATED WITH A TUMORIGENIC AND A NON-TUMORIGENIC TRIAZOLE CONAZOLE FUNGICIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    What is the study?
    Conazoles are triazole- or imidazole-containing fungicides that are used in agriculture and medicine. Conazoles can induce follicular cell adenomas of the thyroid in rats after chronic bioassay. The goal of this study was to identify pathways and network...

  9. 351 Prevalence of Thyroid Peroxidase Autoantibodies (ANTI-TPO) in Women with Autoimmune Connective Tissue Diseases (ACTD)

    PubMed Central

    Papadopoulos, Georgios; Vakaloudi, Anastasia; Koutsika, Eirene; Anastasiou, Ekarerini; Koteli, Asimoula

    2012-01-01

    Background Chronic autoimmune thyroiditis, manifested by positive test for antithyroid antibodies, is common in the general population, occurring in 10 to 20 percent of women. The aim of the study was to determine whether Anti-TPO is more prevalent in women with ACTD, compared to the general population. Methods Anti-TPO was determined in 290 women diagnosed with ACTD based on ACR (American College of Rheumatology) criteria and in 50 healthy women (control group). Among ACTD patients, 121 were diagnosed with Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA), 44 Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE), 43 Sjοgren's Syndrome (SS), 42 Systemic Scleroderma (SScl) and 40 Psoriatic Arthritis (PsA). Anti-TPO was measured by Chemiluminescent Microparticle Immunoassay (CMIA) on Architect i2000SR (ABBOT Laboratories). Results The prevalence of Anti-TPO in separate groups of patients had as follow: RA 28.93%, SLE 29.55%, SS 27.91%, SScl 23.81%, PsA 30% and control group 12%. Conclusions ACTD and thyroid autoimmune diseases often overlap with each other. Increased Anti-TPO may be most common among women patients with ACTD. On the other hand, these systemic diseases are often present in Hasimoto's thyroiditis subjects. Therefore it is clinically important to screen women patients with ACTD for the co-existence of thyroid disorders.

  10. Thyroid Function and Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Laurberg, Peter; Knudsen, Nils; Andersen, Stig; Carlé, Allan; Pedersen, Inge Bülow; Karmisholt, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    Important interaction exists between thyroid function, weight control, and obesity. Several mechanisms seem to be involved, and in studies of groups of people the pattern of thyroid function tests depends on the balance of obesity and underlying thyroid disease in the cohort studied. Obese people with a normal thyroid gland tend to have activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis with higher serum TSH and thyroid hormones in serum. On the other hand, small differences in thyroid function are associated with up to 5 kg difference in body weight. The weight loss after therapy of overt hypothyroidism is caused by excretion of water bound in tissues (myxoedema). Many patients treated for hyperthyroidism experience a gain of more weight than they lost during the active phase of the disease. The mechanism for this excessive weight gain has not been fully elucidated. New studies on the relation between L-T3 therapy and weight control are discussed. The interaction between weight control and therapy of thyroid disease is important to many patients and it should be studied in more detail. PMID:24783015

  11. Thyroid function and obesity.

    PubMed

    Laurberg, Peter; Knudsen, Nils; Andersen, Stig; Carlé, Allan; Pedersen, Inge Bülow; Karmisholt, Jesper

    2012-10-01

    Important interaction exists between thyroid function, weight control, and obesity. Several mechanisms seem to be involved, and in studies of groups of people the pattern of thyroid function tests depends on the balance of obesity and underlying thyroid disease in the cohort studied. Obese people with a normal thyroid gland tend to have activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis with higher serum TSH and thyroid hormones in serum. On the other hand, small differences in thyroid function are associated with up to 5 kg difference in body weight. The weight loss after therapy of overt hypothyroidism is caused by excretion of water bound in tissues (myxoedema). Many patients treated for hyperthyroidism experience a gain of more weight than they lost during the active phase of the disease. The mechanism for this excessive weight gain has not been fully elucidated. New studies on the relation between L-T3 therapy and weight control are discussed. The interaction between weight control and therapy of thyroid disease is important to many patients and it should be studied in more detail. PMID:24783015

  12. Thyroid Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... are here Home > Types of Cancer > Thyroid Cancer Thyroid Cancer This is Cancer.Net’s Guide to Thyroid Cancer. Use the menu below to choose the ... social workers, and patient advocates. Cancer.Net Guide Thyroid Cancer Overview Statistics Medical Illustrations Risk Factors Symptoms ...

  13. Benzylic rearrangement stable isotope labeling for quantitation of guanidino and ureido compounds in thyroid tissues by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Fan, Ruo-Jing; Guan, Qing; Zhang, Fang; Leng, Jia-Peng; Sun, Tuan-Qi; Guo, Yin-Long

    2016-02-18

    Benzylic rearrangement stable isotope labeling (BRSIL) was explored to quantify the guanidino and ureido compounds (GCs and UCs). This method employed a common reagent, benzil, to label the guanidino and ureido groups through nucleophilic attacking then benzylic migrating. The use of BRSIL was investigated in the analysis of five GCs (creatine, l-arginine, homoarginine, 4-guanidinobutyric acid, and methylguanidine) and two UCs (urea and citrulline). The labeling was found simple and specific. The introduction of bi-phenyl group and the generation of nitrogen heterocyclic ring in the benzil-d0/d5 labeled GCs and UCs improved the retention behaviors in liquid chromatography (LC) and increased the sensitivity of electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI MS) detection. The fragment ion pairs of m/z 182/187 and m/z 210/215 from the benzil-d0/d5 tags facilitated the discovery of potential GCs and UCs candidates residing in biological matrices. The use of BRSIL combined with LC-ESI MS was applied for simultaneously quantitation of GCs and UCs in thyroid tissues. It was demonstrated that nine GCs and UCs were detected, six of which were further quantified based on corresponding standards. It was concluded that five GCs and UCs (l-arginine, homoarginine, 4-guanidinobutyric acid, methylguanidine, and citrulline) were statistically significantly different (p < 0.05) between the para-carcinoma and carcinoma thyroid tissue samples. PMID:26826695

  14. RAI Thyroid Bed Uptake After Total Thyroidectomy: A Novel SPECT-CT Anatomic Classification System

    PubMed Central

    Zeuren, Rebecca; Biagini, Agnese; Grewal, Ravinder K.; Randolph, Gregory W.; Kamani, Dipti; Sabra, Mona M.; Shaha, Ashok R.; Tuttle, R. Michael

    2016-01-01

    Objective Recent, more selective use of radioactive iodine (RAI) has led to reevaluation of the clinical importance of achieving complete total thyroidectomy with minimal residual normal thyroid tissue. We utilize the improved localization by post-RAI remnant ablation, single photon emission computerized tomography-computed tomography (SPECT-CT) to define specific anatomic sites of residual RAI-uptake foci after total thyroidectomy for differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) and to provide a novel classification system relating uptake to thyroid anatomy and preservation of adjacent neural structures. Study Design Retrospective. Method Radioactive iodine-uptake foci in thyroid bed were localized by SPECT/CT imaging at the time of RAI remnant ablation in 141 DTC patients undergoing total thyroidectomy. Results Minimal residual RAI uptake (median 0.32% at 24 hours) in the thyroid bed was detected by diagnostic planar whole body scans in 93% and by posttherapy SPECT/CT imaging in 99% of subjects. Discrete RAI uptake foci were identified on the SPECT/CT imaging at Berry’s ligament (87%), at superior thyroid poles (79%), in paratracheal-lobar regions (67%), in isthmus-region (54%), and in pyramidal lobe (46%). Despite the residual foci, the nonstimulated thyroglobulin (Tg) prior to remnant ablation (with a median thyroid-stimulating hormone of 0.36 m IU/L) was <0.6 ng/mL in 53% and <1 ng/mL in 73% of cases. Conclusion After extracapsular total thyroidectomy, highly sensitive detection tools identify microscopic residual RAI avid foci in thyroid bed in the majority of patients. These foci can be classified as 1) neural-related and 2) capsule-related. These common residual foci have no relationship to postoperative Tg, suggesting that attempts at radical removal of thyroid tissue in these locations may not be warranted. PMID:25891354

  15. The Effects of Thyroid Hormones on Gene Expression of Acyl-Coenzyme A Thioesterases in Adipose Tissue and Liver of Mice

    PubMed Central

    Krause, Kerstin; Weiner, Juliane; Hönes, Sebastian; Klöting, Nora; Rijntjes, Eddy; Heiker, John T.; Gebhardt, Claudia; Köhrle, Josef; Führer, Dagmar; Steinhoff, Karen; Hesse, Swen; Moeller, Lars C.; Tönjes, Anke

    2015-01-01

    Background Thyroid hormones (TH) exert pleiotropic effects on glucose and lipid homeostasis. However, it is as yet unclear how TH regulate lipid storage and utilization in order to adapt to metabolic needs. Acyl-CoA thioesterases (ACOTs) have been proposed to play a regulatory role in the metabolism of fatty acids. Objectives We investigated the interaction between thyroid dysfunction and Acot expression in adipose tissues and livers of thyrotoxic and hypothyroid mice. Methods Ten-week-old female C57BL/6NTac mice (n = 10/group) were made hyperthyroid by the application of L-thyroxine (2 µg/ml in drinking water) for 4 weeks. Hypothyroidism was induced in 10-week-old mice by feeding an iodine-free chow supplemented with 0.15% PTU for 4 weeks. We measured mRNA expression levels of Acot8, 11 and 13 in the liver and epididymal and inguinal white and brown adipose tissues (BAT). Furthermore, we investigated hepatic Acot gene expression in TRα- and TRβ-deficient mice. Results We showed that the expression of Acot8, 11 and 13 is predominantly stimulated by a thyrotoxic state in the epididymal white adipose tissue. In contrast, hypothyroidism predominantly induces the expression of Acot8 in BAT in comparison with BAT of thyrotoxic and euthyroid mice (p < 0.01). However, no significant changes in Acot expression were observed in inguinal white adipose tissue. In liver, Acot gene expression is collectively elicited by a thyrotoxic state. Conclusions These data suggest that ACOTs are targets of TH and are likely to influence 3,5,3′-triiodo-L-thyronine-orchestrated mechanisms of lipid uptake, storage and utilization to adapt the regulation of metabolic demands. PMID:26601074

  16. miR-195 is a key regulator of Raf1 in thyroid cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fangzheng; Jiang, Chuner; Sun, Quanquan; Yan, Fenqin; Wang, Lei; Fu, Zhenfu; Liu, Tongxin; Hu, Fujun

    2015-01-01

    Proto-oncogene Raf1 serves as a part of the mitogen-activated protein kinases/extracellular signal-regulated kinase signal transduction pathway and regulates cell migration, apoptosis, and differentiation. Although a large number of studies have shown that Raf1 is overexpressed in various kinds of cancer, little is known about the association between Raf1 and miRNAs in thyroid carcinoma. This study proves that Raf1 is overexpressed in thyroid cancer, which has been confirmed by many other studies. Besides, we identify that Raf1 is a direct target of miR-15a/b, miR-16, and miR-195 by dual luciferase reporter assay. We also find that the expression of miR-195 is downregulated in 50 pairs of thyroid tumor tissues compared to the adjacent nontumor tissues, while there is no difference in the expression of miR-15a/b and miR-16 between the groups. Furthermore, exogenous overexpression of miR-195 significantly inhibits the protein expression of Raf1 and blocks the thyroid cancer cell proliferation. Our findings delineate a novel mechanism for the regulation of Raf1 in thyroid cancer, which may help to provide a new direction for the treatment of thyroid cancer. PMID:26527888

  17. Amiodarone-induced thyroid dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Danzi, Sara; Klein, Irwin

    2015-05-01

    Amiodarone is an effective medication for the treatment of cardiac arrhythmias. Originally developed for the treatment of angina, it is now the most frequently prescribed antiarrhythmia drug despite the fact that its use is limited because of potential serious side effects including adverse effects on the thyroid gland and thyroid hormones. Although the mechanisms of action of amiodarone on the thyroid gland and thyroid hormone metabolism are poorly understood, the structural similarity of amiodarone to thyroid hormones, including the presence of iodine moieties on the inner benzene ring, may play a role in causing thyroid dysfunction. Amiodarone-induced thyroid dysfunction includes amiodarone-induced thyrotoxicosis (AIT) and amiodarone-induced hypothyroidism (AIH). The AIT develops more commonly in iodine-deficient areas and AIH in iodine-sufficient areas. The AIT type 1 usually occurs in patients with known or previously undiagnosed thyroid dysfunction or goiter. The AIT type 2 usually occurs in normal thyroid glands and results in destruction of thyroid tissue caused by thyroiditis. This is the result of an intrinsic drug effect from the amiodarone itself. Mixed types are not uncommon. Patients with cardiac disease receiving amiodarone treatment should be monitored for signs of thyroid dysfunction, which often manifest as a reappearance of the underlying cardiac disease state. When monitoring patients, initial tests should include the full battery of thyroid function tests, thyroid-stimulating hormone, thyroxine, triiodothyronine, and antithyroid antibodies. Mixed types of AIT can be challenging both to diagnose and treat and therapy differs depending on the type of AIT. Treatment can include thionamides and/or glucocorticoids. The AIH responds favorably to thyroid hormone replacement therapy. Amiodarone is lipophilic and has a long half-life in the body. Therefore, stopping the amiodarone therapy usually has little short-term benefit. PMID:24067547

  18. microRNA-7 regulates cell growth, migration and invasion via direct targeting of PAK1 in thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Yue, Kai; Wang, Xudong; Wu, Yansheng; Zhou, Xuan; He, Qinghua; Duan, Yuansheng

    2016-09-01

    The expression and function of microRNA-7 (miR-7) has been studied in a variety of different cancer types. However, to date, no studies have investigated the expression of miR‑7 in human thyroid cancer. In the present study, the expression levels and biological function of miR‑7 were investigated in human thyroid cancer, with the aim of evaluating whether it may serve as a therapeutic biomarker. The expression levels of miR‑7 in human thyroid cancer tissues, matched, adjacent normal tissues, normal thyroid tissues and human thyroid cancer cell lines were determined using RT‑qPCR and western blot analysis. To explore the functional role of miR‑7 in human thyroid cancer cell lines, MTT assays, cell migration and invasion assays were employed. TargetScan software identified p21 activated kinase‑1 (PAK1) as a putative interacting partner of miR‑7. Therefore, functional assays were performed to explore the effects of endogenous PAK1 in thyroid cancer. In the present study, miR‑7 was significantly downregulated in thyroid cancer tissues and cells compared with normal thyroid tissue samples. A correlation between miR‑7 expression and thyroid tumor stage was also observed. Ectopic expression of miR‑7 was found to suppress the proliferation, migra-tion and invasion of thyroid cancer cells in vitro. Dual-luciferase reporter assays demonstrated that PAK1 was a direct target of miR-7 in vitro. RT-qPCR and western blot analysis demonstrated that miR‑7 negatively regulates PAK1 protein expression but has no effect on PAK1 mRNA expression. Knockdown of PAK1 expression markedly suppressed thyroid cancer cell proliferation, migration and invasion. These results suggest that miR‑7 functions as a tumor suppressor by targeting PAK1 directly and may therefore present a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of thyroid cancer. PMID:27430434

  19. Expression of protein kinase A regulatory subunits in benign and malignant human thyroid tissues: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Del Gobbo, Alessandro; Peverelli, Erika; Treppiedi, Donatella; Lania, Andrea; Mantovani, Giovanna; Ferrero, Stefano

    2016-08-01

    In this review, we discuss the molecular mechanisms and prognostic implications of the protein kinase A (PKA) signaling pathway in human tumors, with special emphasis on the malignant thyroid. The PKA signaling pathway is differentially activated by the expression of regulatory subunits 1 (R1) and 2 (R2), whose levels change during development, differentiation, and neoplastic transformation. Following the identification of gene mutations within the PKA regulatory subunit R1A (PRKAR1A) that cause Carney complex-associated neoplasms, several investigators have studied PRKAR1A expression in sporadic thyroid tumors. The PKA regulatory subunit R2B (PRKAR2B) is highly expressed in benign, as well as in malignant differentiated and undifferentiated lesions. PRKAR1A is highly expressed in follicular adenomas and malignant lesions with a statistically significant gradient between benign and malignant tumors; however, it is not expressed in hyperplastic nodules. Although the importance of PKA in human malignancy outcomes is not completely understood, PRKAR1A expression correlates with tumor dimension in malignant lesions. Additional studies are needed to determine whether a relationship exists between PKA subunit expression and clinical outcomes, particularly in undifferentiated tumors. In conclusion, the R1A subunit might be a good molecular candidate for the targeted treatment of malignant thyroid tumors. PMID:27321957

  20. Molecular differential diagnosis of follicular thyroid carcinoma and adenoma based on gene expression profiling by using formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Differential diagnosis between malignant follicular thyroid cancer (FTC) and benign follicular thyroid adenoma (FTA) is a great challenge for even an experienced pathologist and requires special effort. Molecular markers may potentially support a differential diagnosis between FTC and FTA in postoperative specimens. The purpose of this study was to derive molecular support for differential post-operative diagnosis, in the form of a simple multigene mRNA-based classifier that would differentiate between FTC and FTA tissue samples. Methods A molecular classifier was created based on a combined analysis of two microarray datasets (using 66 thyroid samples). The performance of the classifier was assessed using an independent dataset comprising 71 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) samples (31 FTC and 40 FTA), which were analysed by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). In addition, three other microarray datasets (62 samples) were used to confirm the utility of the classifier. Results Five of 8 genes selected from training datasets (ELMO1, EMCN, ITIH5, KCNAB1, SLCO2A1) were amplified by qPCR in FFPE material from an independent sample set. Three other genes did not amplify in FFPE material, probably due to low abundance. All 5 analysed genes were downregulated in FTC compared to FTA. The sensitivity and specificity of the 5-gene classifier tested on the FFPE dataset were 71% and 72%, respectively. Conclusions The proposed approach could support histopathological examination: 5-gene classifier may aid in molecular discrimination between FTC and FTA in FFPE material. PMID:24099521

  1. Cancer Stem Cells in the Thyroid

    PubMed Central

    Nagayama, Yuji; Shimamura, Mika; Mitsutake, Norisato

    2016-01-01

    The cancer stem cell (CSC) model posits that CSCs are a small, biologically distinct subpopulation of cancer cells in each tumor that have self-renewal and multi-lineage potential, and are critical for cancer initiation, metastasis, recurrence, and therapy-resistance. Numerous studies have linked CSCs to thyroid biology, but the candidate markers and signal transduction pathways that drive thyroid CSC growth are controversial, the origin(s) of thyroid CSCs remain elusive, and it is unclear whether thyroid CSC biology is consistent with the original hierarchical CSC model or the more recent dynamic CSC model. Here, we critically review the thyroid CSC literature with an emphasis on research that confirmed the presence of thyroid CSCs by in vitro sphere formation or in vivo tumor formation assays with dispersed cells from thyroid cancer tissues or bona fide thyroid cancer cell lines. Future perspectives of thyroid CSC research are also discussed. PMID:26973599

  2. Cancer Stem Cells in the Thyroid.

    PubMed

    Nagayama, Yuji; Shimamura, Mika; Mitsutake, Norisato

    2016-01-01

    The cancer stem cell (CSC) model posits that CSCs are a small, biologically distinct subpopulation of cancer cells in each tumor that have self-renewal and multi-lineage potential, and are critical for cancer initiation, metastasis, recurrence, and therapy-resistance. Numerous studies have linked CSCs to thyroid biology, but the candidate markers and signal transduction pathways that drive thyroid CSC growth are controversial, the origin(s) of thyroid CSCs remain elusive, and it is unclear whether thyroid CSC biology is consistent with the original hierarchical CSC model or the more recent dynamic CSC model. Here, we critically review the thyroid CSC literature with an emphasis on research that confirmed the presence of thyroid CSCs by in vitro sphere formation or in vivo tumor formation assays with dispersed cells from thyroid cancer tissues or bona fide thyroid cancer cell lines. Future perspectives of thyroid CSC research are also discussed. PMID:26973599

  3. Thyroid Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... base of your neck, just below your Adam's apple. This gland makes thyroid hormone that travels in ... base of your neck, just below your Adam's apple. This gland makes thyroid hormone that travels in ...

  4. Thyroid Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... body work normally. There are several types of cancer of the thyroid gland. You are at greater ... imaging tests, and a biopsy to diagnose thyroid cancer. Treatment depends on the type of cancer you ...

  5. Thyroid cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... known prevention. Awareness of risk (such as previous radiation therapy to the neck) can allow earlier diagnosis and treatment. Sometimes, people with family histories and genetic mutations related to thyroid cancer will have their thyroid ...

  6. Thyroid ultrasound

    MedlinePlus

    ... to: Cysts Enlargement of the thyroid gland ( goiter ) Thyroid nodules Your doctor can use these results and the results of other tests to direct your care. Additional conditions ... Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) II Papillary carcinoma of ...

  7. Thyroid Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... treated differently. Common thyroid disorders and problems include: Hypothyroidism Hypothyroidism is a disorder in which your thyroid doesn’ ... normal after you get better. If you have hypothyroidism, however, the levels of T4 in your blood ...

  8. Thyroid Antibodies

    MedlinePlus

    ... blocking production of thyroid hormones and resulting in hypothyroidism . TBII is not routinely tested, but TSI is ... autoimmune disease . A low level of thyroid hormones ( hypothyroidism ) can cause symptoms, such as: Weight gain Fatigue ...

  9. Silent thyroiditis

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the thyroid gland. The disorder can cause hyperthyroidism , followed by hypothyroidism . ... earliest symptoms result from an overactive thyroid gland (hyperthyroidism). These symptoms may last for up to 3 ...

  10. Thyroid storm

    MedlinePlus

    Thyrotoxic storm; Hyperthyroid storm; Accelerated hyperthyroidism ... Thyroid storm occurs in people with untreated hyperthyroidism. It is usually brought on by a major stress such as trauma, heart attack, or infection. Thyroid storm is very rare.

  11. Thyroid disease

    SciTech Connect

    Falk, S.

    1990-01-01

    Presenting a multidisciplinary approach to the diagnosis and treatment of thyroid disease, this volume provides a comprehensive picture of current thyroid medicine and surgery. The book integrates the perspectives of the many disciplines that deal with the clinical manifestations of thyroid disorders. Adding to the clinical usefulness of the book is the state-of-the-art coverage of many recent developments in thyroidology, including the use of highly sensitive two-site TSH immunoradionetric measurements to diagnose thyroid activity; thyroglobulin assays in thyroid cancer and other diseases; new diagnostic applications of MRI and CT; treatment with radionuclides and chemotherapy; new developments in thyroid immunology, pathology, and management of hyperthyroidism; suppressive treatment with thyroid hormone; and management of Graves' ophthalmopathy. The book also covers all aspects of thyroid surgery, including surgical treatment of hyperthyroidism; papillary, follicular, and other carcinomas; thyroidectomy; and prevention and management of complications.

  12. Thyroid Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... the pituitary decreases TSH production. [ Top ] Why do health care providers perform thyroid tests? Health care providers perform ... Hyperthyroidism and Hypothyroidism . [ Top ] What blood tests do health care providers use to check a person’s thyroid function? ...

  13. Radionuclide Imaging of Dual Ectopic Thyroid in a Preadolescent Girl

    PubMed Central

    Yıldırım, Şule; Atılgan, Hasan İkbal; Korkmaz, Meliha; Demirel, Koray; Koca, Gökhan

    2014-01-01

    Ectopic thyroid is a congenital defect in which the thyroid gland is located away from the usual pretracheal location. Dual ectopic thyroid, which consists of two foci of thyroid tissue, is very rare. In this case dual ectopic thyroid with subclinical hypothyroidism in a 10-year-old-girl was reported. The absence of the thyroid gland in the pretracheal location was revealed by ultrasonography (USG). Two foci of ectopic thyroid tissue located at the base of the tongue and infrahyoid region were determined by Technetium-99m pertechnetate thyroid scintigraphy. It can be concluded that if the thyroid gland is not visible by USG, ectopic thyroid tissue should be evaluated with scintigraphy. PMID:25541934

  14. Determination of mercaptobenzimidazol and other thyreostat residues in thyroid tissue and meat using high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    De Wasch, K; Be Brabander, H F; Impens, S; Vandewiele, M; Courtheyn, D

    2001-04-01

    This paper describes a method for extraction of tapazol, thiouracil, methylthiouracil, propylthiouracil and mercaptobenzimidazol (MBI) from thyroid tissue. The solid-phase extraction procedure is optimized to obtain the maximum results for the main thyreostats including MBI. Different combinations of sample application, column conditioning and wash steps were tested. The analytes were extracted from the matrix with methanol. After solid-phase extraction they were derivatised with 7-chloro-4-nitrobenzo-2-furazan. Determination is carried out using liquid chromatography-electrospray mass spectrometry. The identification of the analytes was performed according to the final revision of the EU criteria (93/256/EC decision). The detection capability was 20 microg kg(-1) for all mentioned thyreostats. PMID:11330800

  15. Thyroid Hormone and Cardioprotection.

    PubMed

    Gerdes, Anthony Martin; Ojamaa, Kaie

    2016-01-01

    The heart is a major target of thyroid hormones, with maintenance of euthyroid hormone balance critical for proper function. In particular, chronic low thyroid function can eventually lead to dilated heart failure with impaired coronary blood flow. New evidence also suggests that heart diseases trigger a reduction in cardiac tissue thyroid hormone levels, a condition that may not be detectible using serum hormone assays. Many animal and clinical studies have demonstrated a high prevalence of low thyroid function in heart diseases with worse outcomes from this condition. Animal and human studies have also demonstrated many benefits from thyroid hormone treatment of heart diseases, particularly heart failure. Nonetheless, this potential treatment has not yet translated to patients due to a number of important concerns. The most serious concern involves the potential of accidental overdose leading to increased arrhythmias and sudden death. Several important clinical studies, which actually used excessive doses of thyroid hormone analogs, have played a major role in convincing the medical community that thyroid hormones are simply too dangerous to be considered for treatment in cardiac patients. Nonetheless, this issue has not gone away due primarily to overwhelmingly positive evidence for treatment benefits and a new understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying those benefits. This review will first discuss the clinical evidence for the use of thyroid hormones as a cardioprotective agent and then provide an overview of the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying beneficial changes from thyroid hormone treatment of heart diseases. © 2016 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 6:1199-1219, 2016. PMID:27347890

  16. Thyroid Emergencies.

    PubMed

    Leung, Angela M

    2016-01-01

    Myxedema coma and thyroid storm are thyroid emergencies associated with increased mortality. Prompt recognition of these states-which represent the severe, life-threatening conditions of extremely reduced or elevated circulating thyroid hormone concentrations, respectively-is necessary to initiate treatment. Management of myxedema coma and thyroid storm requires both medical and supportive therapies and should be treated in an intensive care unit setting. PMID:27598067

  17. Thyroid hormones and deiodinase activity in plasma and tissues in relation to high levels of organohalogen contaminants in East Greenland polar bears (Ursus maritimus).

    PubMed

    Gabrielsen, Kristin Møller; Krokstad, Julie Stene; Villanger, Gro Dehli; Blair, David A D; Obregon, Maria-Jesus; Sonne, Christian; Dietz, Rune; Letcher, Robert J; Jenssen, Bjørn Munro

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have shown relationships between organohalogen contaminants (OHCs) and circulating levels of thyroid hormones (THs) in arctic wildlife. However, there is a lack of knowledge concerning the possible functional effects of OHCs on TH status in target tissues for TH-dependent activity. The relationships between circulating (plasma) levels of OHCs and various TH variables in plasma as well as in liver, muscle and kidney tissues from East Greenland sub-adult polar bears (Ursus maritimus) sampled in 2011 (n=7) were therefore investigated. The TH variables included 3.3',5.5'-tetraiodothyronine or thyroxine (T4), 3.3',5-triiodothyronine (T3) and type 1 (D1) and type 2 (D2) deiodinase activities. Principal component analysis (PCA) combined with correlation analyses demonstrated negative relationships between individual polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and their hydroxylated (OH-) metabolites and T4 in both plasma and muscle. There were both positive and negative relationships between individual OHCs and D1 and D2 activities in muscle, liver and kidney tissues. In general, PCBs, OH-PCBs and polybrominated dipehenyl ethers (PBDEs) were positively correlated to D1 and D2 activities, whereas organochlorine pesticides and byproducts (OCPs) were negatively associated with D1 and D2 activities. These results support the hypothesis that OHCs can affect TH status and action in the target tissues of polar bears. TH levels and deiodinase activities in target tissues can be sensitive endpoints for exposure of TH-disrupting compounds in arctic wildlife, and thus, tissue-specific responses in target organs should be further considered when assessing TH disruption in wildlife studies. PMID:25460663

  18. Kinase Expression and Chromosomal Rearrangements in Papillary Thyroid Cancer Tissues: Investigations at the Molecular and Microscopic Levels

    SciTech Connect

    Weier, Heinz-Ulrich; Kwan, Johnson; Lu, Chun-Mei; Ito, Yuko; Wang, Mei; Baumgartner, Adolf; Hayward, Simon W.; Weier, Jingly F.; Zitzelsberger, Horst F.

    2009-07-07

    Structural chromosome aberrations are known hallmarks of many solid tumors. In the papillary form of thyroid cancer (PTC), for example, activation of the receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) genes, ret or the neurotrophic tyrosine kinase receptor type I (NTRK1) by intra- or interchromosomal rearrangements have been suggested as a cause of the disease. The 1986 accident at the nuclear power plant in Chernobyl, USSR, led to the uncontrolled release of high levels of radioisotopes. Ten years later, the incidence of childhood papillary thyroid cancer (chPTC) near Chernobyl had risen by two orders of magnitude. Tumors removed from some of these patients showed aberrant expression of the ret RTK gene due to a ret/PTC1 or ret/PTC3 rearrangement involving chromosome 10. However, many cultured chPTC cells show a normal G-banded karyotype and no ret rearrangement. We hypothesize that the 'ret-negative' tumors inappropriately express a different oncogene or have lost function of a tumor suppressor as a result of chromosomal rearrangements, and decided to apply molecular and cytogenetic methods to search for potentially oncogenic chromosomal rearrangements in Chernobyl chPTC cases. Knowledge of the kind of genetic alterations may facilitate the early detection and staging of chPTC as well as provide guidance for therapeutic intervention.

  19. Chemical contamination and the thyroid.

    PubMed

    Duntas, Leonidas H

    2015-02-01

    Industrial chemical contaminants have a variable impact on the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis, this depending both on their class and on confounding factors. Today, mounting evidence is pointing to the role of environmental factors, and specifically EDCs, in the current distressing upsurge in the incidence of thyroid disease. The unease is warranted. These substances, which are nowadays rife in our environments (including in foodstuffs), have been shown to interfere with thyroid hormone action, biosynthesis, and metabolism, resulting in disruption of tissue homeostasis and/or thyroid function. Importantly, based on the concept of the "nonmonotonic dose-response curve", the relationship between dose and effect has often been found to be nonlinear. Thus, small doses can induce unpredictable, adverse effects, one case being polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), of which congener(s) may centrally inhibit the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis, or dissociate thyroid receptor and selectively affect thyroid hormone signaling and action. This means that PCBs can act as agonists or antagonists at the receptor level, underlining the complexity of the interaction. This review highlights the multifold activity of chemicals demonstrated to cause thyroid disruption. It also represents a call to action among clinicians to undertake systematic monitoring of thyroid function and registering of the classes of EDs and additionally urges broader scientific collaborations to clarify these chemicals' molecular mechanisms of action, substances whose prevalence in our environments is disrupting not only the thyroid but all life on earth. PMID:25294013

  20. [Thyroid cancer].

    PubMed

    Nagayama, Yuji

    2012-03-01

    The thyroid glands are a vulnerable organ to ionizing radiation. Indeed the epidemiological studies have revealed an increase in the incidences of thyroid cancer among atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki and radiation casualties in Chernobyl. The carcinogenic risk for the thyroids is dependent on radiation dose, and higher in younger people. Recent advances in molecular biology contribute to clarify the mechanisms for thyroid carcinogenesis at genetic and molecular levels. Here radiation-induced thyroid carcinogenesis is reviewed from epidemiological data to basic research. PMID:22514922

  1. Spectral CT imaging of intranodular hemorrhage in cases with challenging benign thyroid nodules.

    PubMed

    Li, Ming; Zheng, Xiangpeng; Gao, Feng; Xiao, Li; Hua, Yanqing

    2016-04-01

    While conventional ultrasound and laboratory testing can differentiate most thyroid conditions and malignancies, spectral dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) provides molecular data potentially useful in differential diagnosis of small, complex, and partially obscured hemorrhaged nodules with recent bleeding. To demonstrate that Gemstone Spectral Imaging (GSI) analysis of DECT data differentiates challenging benign thyroid nodule conditions in patients with intranodular hemorrhages. A retrospective study was conducted of 30 intranodular hemorrhage patients from 2010 to 2013, including 18 that underwent surgery and provided thyroid tissues for prospective histological analysis. Iodine and water content were determined in patient CT scans and ex vivo tissue specimen scans by reconstruction of raw CT data at 65 keV (optimal contrast). Slope of spectral curve (λ HU), effective atomic number (Z eff), and final pathological diagnosis were recorded. Iodine content, water content, Z eff, and λ HU significantly varied by region (intranodular hemorrhage, solid thyroid nodule, and adjacent margins) in patients and tissue specimens (P < 0.05). Intranodular hemorrhage exhibited elevated water concentrations (~1100 mg/mL), suggesting a practical threshold of 1075 mg/mL for differentiating intra-plaque hemorrhage and solid nodular regions. Spectral CT provided diagnostic information in 14 thyroid adenomas and four goiters (histologically confirmed in donor specimens), and eight thyroid adenomas and four nodular goiters based on clinical diagnosis. Diagnostically useful regional characteristic of intranodular hemorrhage in the thyroid was visualized via spectral CT employing material decomposition, potentially yielding additional molecular data about complex lesion characteristics no apparent in conventional imaging or laboratory methods. PMID:26612322

  2. Epithelial-connective tissue interactions induced by thyroid hormone receptor are essential for adult stem cell development in the Xenopus laevis intestine

    PubMed Central

    Hasebe, Takashi; Buchholz, Daniel R.; Shi, Yun-Bo; Ishizuya-Oka, Atsuko

    2012-01-01

    In the amphibian intestine during metamorphosis, stem cells appear and generate the adult absorptive epithelium, analogous to the mammalian one, under the control of thyroid hormone (TH). We have previously shown that the adult stem cells originate from differentiated larval epithelial cells in the Xenopus laevis intestine. To clarify whether TH signaling in the epithelium alone is sufficient for inducing the stem cells, we have now performed tissue recombinant culture experiments, using transgenic X. laevis tadpoles that express a dominant positive TH receptor (dpTR) under a control of heat shock promoter. Wild-type (Wt) or dpTR transgenic (Tg) larval epithelium (Ep) was isolated from the tadpole intestine, recombined with homologous or heterologous non-epithelial tissues (non-Ep), and then cultivated in the absence of TH with daily heat shocks to induce transgenic dpTR expression. Adult epithelial progenitor cells expressing sonic hedgehog became detectable on day 5 in both the recombinant intestine of Tg Ep and Tg non-Ep (Tg/Tg) and that of Tg Ep and Wt non-Ep (Tg/Wt). However, in Tg/Wt intestine, they did not express other stem cell markers such as Musashi-1 and never generated the adult epithelium expressing a marker for absorptive epithelial cells. Our results indicate that, while it is unclear why some larval epithelial cells dedifferentiate into adult progenitor/stem cells, TR-mediated gene expression in the surrounding tissues other than the epithelium is required for them to develop into adult stem cells, suggesting the importance of TH-inducible epithelial-connective tissue interactions in establishment of the stem cell niche in the amphibian intestine. PMID:21280164

  3. Thyroid cancer - medullary carcinoma

    MedlinePlus

    Thyroid - medullary carcinoma; Cancer - thyroid (medullary carcinoma); MTC; Thyroid nodule - medullary ... The cause of medullary carcinoma of the thyroid (MTC) is unknown. ... and adults. Unlike other types of thyroid cancer, MTC is less ...

  4. Tissue-specific response of the human platelet-activating factor receptor gene to retinoic acid and thyroid hormone by alternative promoter usage.

    PubMed Central

    Mutoh, H; Fukuda, T; Kitamaoto, T; Masushige, S; Sasaki, H; Shimizu, T; Kato, S

    1996-01-01

    We have studied the effects of retinoic acid (RA) and thyroid hormone (3,3',5-triiodothyronine; T3) on platelet-activating factor receptor (PAFR) gene expression in intact rats and the ability of two human PAFR gene promoters (PAFR promoters 1 and 2) to generate two transcripts (PAFR transcripts 1 and 2). Northern blotting showed that RA and T3 regulated PAFR gene expression only in rat tissues that express PAFR transcript 2. Functional analysis of the human PAFR promoter 2 revealed that responsiveness to RA and T3 was conferred through a 24-bp element [PAFR-hormone response element (HRE) located from -67 to -44 bp of the transcription start site, whereas PAFR promoter 1 did not respond to these hormones. The PAFR-HRE is composed of three direct repeated TGACCT-like hexamer motifs with 2-and 4-bp spaces, and the two upstream and two downstream motifs were identified as response elements for RA and T3. Thus, the PAF-PAFR pathway is regulated by the PAFR level altered by a tissue-specific response to RA and T3 through the PAFR-HRE of the PAFR promoter 2. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:8570633

  5. Viruses and thyroiditis: an update

    PubMed Central

    Desailloud, Rachel; Hober, Didier

    2009-01-01

    Viral infections are frequently cited as a major environmental factor involved in subacute thyroiditis and autoimmune thyroid diseases This review examines the data related to the role of viruses in the development of thyroiditis. Our research has been focused on human data. We have reviewed virological data for each type of thyroiditis at different levels of evidence; epidemiological data, serological data or research on circulating viruses, direct evidence of thyroid tissue infection. Interpretation of epidemiological and serological data must be cautious as they don't prove that this pathogen is responsible for the disease. However, direct evidence of the presence of viruses or their components in the organ are available for retroviruses (HFV) and mumps in subacute thyroiditis, for retroviruses (HTLV-1, HFV, HIV and SV40) in Graves's disease and for HTLV-1, enterovirus, rubella, mumps virus, HSV, EBV and parvovirus in Hashimoto's thyroiditis. However, it remains to determine whether they are responsible for thyroid diseases or whether they are just innocent bystanders. Further studies are needed to clarify the relationship between viruses and thyroid diseases, in order to develop new strategies for prevention and/or treatment. PMID:19138419

  6. Expression of p53, p21(CIP1/WAF1) and eIF4E in the adjacent tissues of oral squamous cell carcinoma: establishing the molecular boundary and a cancer progression model.

    PubMed

    Li, Yi; Li, Bo; Xu, Bo; Han, Bo; Xia, Hui; Chen, Qian-Ming; Li, Long-Jiang

    2015-09-01

    The present study evaluated the expression of key molecules and the status of DNA in both oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and adjacent tissues to establish a molecular surgical boundary and provide a cancer progression model. Biopsy samples from 50 OSCC patients were divided into T (cancer), P1 (0-0.5 cm), P2 (0.5-1 cm), P3 (1-1.5 cm) and P4 (1.5-2 cm) groups based on the distances from the visible boundary of the primary focus. Twenty samples of normal mucosa were used as controls. We used immunohistochemical staining and flow cytometry to evaluate p53, p21(CIP1/WAF1), eIF4E and Ki-67 expression and to determine DNA status, respectively. Sub-mucosal invasion was present in the P1 and P2 groups as determined by haematoxylin and eosin staining. Mutant p53 expression decreased gradually from cancerous to normal mucosae, whereas p21(CIP1/WAF1) expression displayed an opposite trend. eIF4E expression decreased from cancerous to normal mucosae. Ki-67 expression, the heteroploidy ratio, S-phase fraction and proliferative index decreased gradually with the distance from the tumour centre. Based on these results, we suggest that the resection boundary in OSCC surgery should be beyond 2 cm from the tumour. Additionally, the adjacent tissues of the primary focus could be used as a model for assessing cancer progression. PMID:25835715

  7. Epigenetic clustering of lung adenocarcinomas based on DNA methylation profiles in adjacent lung tissue: Its correlation with smoking history and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Sato, Takashi; Arai, Eri; Kohno, Takashi; Takahashi, Yoriko; Miyata, Sayaka; Tsuta, Koji; Watanabe, Shun-ichi; Soejima, Kenzo; Betsuyaku, Tomoko; Kanai, Yae

    2014-07-15

    The aim of this study was to clarify the significance of DNA methylation alterations during lung carcinogenesis. Infinium assay was performed using 139 paired samples of non-cancerous lung tissue (N) and tumorous tissue (T) from a learning cohort of patients with lung adenocarcinomas (LADCs). Fifty paired N and T samples from a validation cohort were also analyzed. DNA methylation alterations on 1,928 probes occurred in N samples relative to normal lung tissue from patients without primary lung tumors, and were inherited by, or strengthened in, T samples. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering using DNA methylation levels in N samples on all 26,447 probes subclustered patients into Cluster I (n = 32), Cluster II (n = 35) and Cluster III (n = 72). LADCs in Cluster I developed from the inflammatory background in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in heavy smokers and were locally invasive. Most patients in Cluster II were non-smokers and had a favorable outcome. LADCs in Cluster III developed in light smokers were most aggressive (frequently showing lymphatic and blood vessel invasion, lymph node metastasis and an advanced pathological stage), and had a poor outcome. DNA methylation levels of hallmark genes for each cluster, such as IRX2, HOXD8, SPARCL1, RGS5 and EI24, were again correlated with clinicopathological characteristics in the validation cohort. DNA methylation profiles reflecting carcinogenetic factors such as smoking and COPD appear to be established in non-cancerous lung tissue from patients with LADCs and may determine the aggressiveness of tumors developing in individual patients, and thus patient outcome. PMID:24921089

  8. Epigenetic clustering of lung adenocarcinomas based on DNA methylation profiles in adjacent lung tissue: Its correlation with smoking history and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Takashi; Arai, Eri; Kohno, Takashi; Takahashi, Yoriko; Miyata, Sayaka; Tsuta, Koji; Watanabe, Shun-ichi; Soejima, Kenzo; Betsuyaku, Tomoko; Kanai, Yae

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the significance of DNA methylation alterations during lung carcinogenesis. Infinium assay was performed using 139 paired samples of non-cancerous lung tissue (N) and tumorous tissue (T) from a learning cohort of patients with lung adenocarcinomas (LADCs). Fifty paired N and T samples from a validation cohort were also analyzed. DNA methylation alterations on 1,928 probes occurred in N samples relative to normal lung tissue from patients without primary lung tumors, and were inherited by, or strengthened in, T samples. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering using DNA methylation levels in N samples on all 26,447 probes subclustered patients into Cluster I (n = 32), Cluster II (n = 35) and Cluster III (n = 72). LADCs in Cluster I developed from the inflammatory background in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in heavy smokers and were locally invasive. Most patients in Cluster II were non-smokers and had a favorable outcome. LADCs in Cluster III developed in light smokers were most aggressive (frequently showing lymphatic and blood vessel invasion, lymph node metastasis and an advanced pathological stage), and had a poor outcome. DNA methylation levels of hallmark genes for each cluster, such as IRX2, HOXD8, SPARCL1, RGS5 and EI24, were again correlated with clinicopathological characteristics in the validation cohort. DNA methylation profiles reflecting carcinogenetic factors such as smoking and COPD appear to be established in non-cancerous lung tissue from patients with LADCs and may determine the aggressiveness of tumors developing in individual patients, and thus patient outcome. PMID:24921089

  9. Ectopic papillary thyroid carcinoma in the mediastinum without any tumoral involvement in the thyroid gland. A Case report

    PubMed Central

    Shafiee, Susan; Sadrizade, Ali; Jafarian, Amirhosein; Zakavi, Seyed Rasoul; Ayati, Narjess

    2013-01-01

    Ectopic thyroid tissue results from abnormal embryologic development and migration of the thyroid gland. True malignant transformation in ectopic thyroid tissue is extremely rare and is always diagnosed after surgical excision of the lesion by pathology examinations. There are well-documented cases of ectopic thyroid cancer while primary tumoral lesion occurs in the orthotopic thyroid, but only rare cases of ectopic PTC without any evidence of occult thyroid cancer in the orthotopic thyroid or cervical lymph nodes have been reported. We report on a 39 year old woman who was operated for a mediastinal mass. The initial diagnosis was a malignant thymic lesion, which was later confirmed to be a papillary thyroid carcinoma. Consequently, total thyroidectomy was performed and pathology report showed normal thyroid tissue with no evidence of any neoplastic involvement. Until now, only one similar case has been reported.

  10. An analytical method to screen for six thyreostatic drug residues in the thyroid gland and muscle tissues of food producing animals by liquid chromatography with ultraviolet absorption detection and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Asea, Philip E; MacNeil, James D; Boison, Joe O

    2006-01-01

    A method was developed and validated to screen for residues of the thyreostatic drugs, tapazole (TAP), mercaptobenzimidazole (MBI), thiouracil (TU), methylthiouracil (MTU), propylthiouracil (PrTU), and phenylthiouracil (PhTU) in bovine, equine, ovine, and porcine thyroid and muscle tissues at concentrations > or = 5 ng/g using 2-methoxy-mercaptobenzimidazole (MeMBI) and dimethylthiouracil (DMTU) as internal standards. In this method, the drugs were solvent extracted from thyroid and muscle tissue and cleaned up on an amino-propyl solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridge. The unretained fraction containing TAP and MBI and the internal standard, MeMBI, was collected as Fraction 1. The retained fraction containing TU, MTU, PrTU, PhTU, and the internal standard, DMTU, was eluted with 3% acetic acid-isopropanol as Fraction 2. Fraction 1 was further cleaned up on an alumina B SPE cartridge and analyzed by gradient elution on a C18 high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) column with ultraviolet detection at wavelengths of 255 and 300 nm. Fraction 2 was taken to dryness, derivatized with 4-chloro-7-nitrobenzo-2-furazan at pH 8, and analyzed by gradient elution on a C18 LC column with mass spectrometry (MS) detection. Any "presumptive positive" test results were submitted for further analysis by LC/MS/MS. The validated method was applied to the analysis of over 300 thyroid tissue samples. PMID:16640308

  11. Thyroid Hormone, Cancer, and Apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hung-Yun; Chin, Yu-Tan; Yang, Yu-Chen S H; Lai, Husan-Yu; Wang-Peng, Jacqueline; Liu, Leory F; Tang, Heng-Yuan; Davis, Paul J

    2016-01-01

    Thyroid hormones play important roles in regulating normal metabolism, development, and growth. They also stimulate cancer cell proliferation. Their metabolic and developmental effects and growth effects in normal tissues are mediated primarily by nuclear hormone receptors. A cell surface receptor for the hormone on integrin [alpha]vβ3 is the initiation site for effects on tumor cells. Clinical hypothyroidism may retard cancer growth, and hyperthyroidism was recently linked to the prevalence of certain cancers. Local levels of thyroid hormones are controlled through activation and deactivation of iodothyronine deiodinases in different organs. The relative activities of different deiodinases that exist in tissues or organs also affect the progression and development of specific types of cancers. In this review, the effects of thyroid hormone on signaling pathways in breast, brain, liver, thyroid, and colon cancers are discussed. The importance of nuclear thyroid hormone receptor isoforms and of the hormone receptor on the extracellular domain of integrin [alpha]vβ3 as potential cancer risk factors and therapeutic targets are addressed. We analyze the intracellular signaling pathways activated by thyroid hormones in cancer progression in hyperthyroidism or at physiological concentrations in the euthyroid state. Determining how to utilize the deaminated thyroid hormone analog (tetrac), and its nanoparticulate derivative to reduce risks of cancer progression, enhance therapeutic outcomes, and prevent cancer recurrence is also deliberated. © 2016 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 6:1221-1237, 2016. PMID:27347891

  12. Characterization of thyroidal glutathione reductase

    SciTech Connect

    Raasch, R.J.

    1989-01-01

    Glutathione levels were determined in bovine and rat thyroid tissue by enzymatic conjugation with 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene using glutathione S-transferase. Bovine thyroid tissue contained 1.31 {+-} 0.04 mM reduced glutathione (GSH) and 0.14 {+-} 0.02 mM oxidized glutathione (GSSG). In the rat, the concentration of GSH was 2.50 {+-} 0.05 mM while GSSG was 0.21 {+-} 0.03 mM. Glutathione reductase (GR) was purified from bovine thyroid to electrophoretic homogeneity by ion exchange, affinity and molecular exclusion chromatography. A molecular weight range of 102-109 kDa and subunit size of 55 kDa were determined for GR. Thyroidal GR was shown to be a favoprotein with one FAD per subunit. The Michaelis constants of bovine thyroidal GR were determined to be 21.8 {mu}M for NADPH and 58.8 {mu}M for GSSG. The effect of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and thyroxine (T{sub 4}) on in vivo levels of GR and glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase were determined in rat thyroid homogenates. Both enzymes were stimulated by TSH treatment and markedly reduced following T{sub 4} treatment. Lysosomal hydrolysis of ({sup 125}I)-labeled and unlabeled thyroglobulin was examined using size exclusion HPLC.

  13. Deiodination as an index of chemical disruption of thyroid hormone homeostasis and thyroidal status in fish

    SciTech Connect

    Eales, J.G.; Brown, S.B.; Cyr, D.G.; Adams, B.A.; Finnson, K.R.

    1999-07-01

    Commonly used indices of fish thyroidal status are based on thyroxine (T4) secretion by thyroid tissue under control of the central brain-pituitary-thyroid axis. However, much of the control of the fish thyroid system also occurs in peripheral tissues, such as liver, by regulating T4 prohormone conversion to biologically active 3,5,3{prime}-triiodothyronine (T3) or to biologically inactive 3,3{prime},5{prime}-triiodothyronine and by regulating T3 conversion to inactive 3,3{prime}-diiodothyronine. These extrathyroidal conversions depend on a family of independently-regulated selenocysteine-containing microsomal deiodinases. The authors describe deiodination assays and evaluate their potential as biomarkers for exposure to chemicals that directly or indirectly disrupt thyroid hormone homeostasis or thyroidal status. The authors conclude that deiodination be included in a minimum suite of assays to detect xenobiotic effects on the fish thyroid system.

  14. TE = 32 ms vs TE = 100 ms echo‐time 1H‐magnetic resonance spectroscopy in prostate cancer: Tumor metabolite depiction and absolute concentrations in tumors and adjacent tissues

    PubMed Central

    Basharat, Meer; Morgan, Veronica A.; Parker, Chris; Dearnaley, David; deSouza, Nandita M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To compare the depiction of metabolite signals in short and long echo time (TE) prostate cancer spectra at 3T, and to quantify their concentrations in tumors of different stage and grade, and tissues adjacent to tumor. Materials and Methods First, single‐voxel magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) spectra were acquired from voxels consisting entirely of tumor, as defined on T 2‐weighted and diffusion‐weighted (DW)‐MRI and from a biopsy‐positive octant, at TEs of 32 msec and 100 msec in 26 prostate cancer patients. Then, in a separate cohort of 26 patients, single‐voxel TE = 32 msec MR spectroscopy (MRS) was performed over a partial‐tumor region and a matching, contralateral normal‐appearing region, defined similarly. Metabolite depiction was compared between TEs using Cramér‐Rao lower bounds (CRLB), and absolute metabolite concentrations were calculated from TE = 32 msec spectra referenced to unsuppressed water spectra. Results Citrate and spermine resonances in tumor were better depicted (had significantly lower CRLB) at TE = 32 msec, while the choline resonance was better depicted at TE = 100 msec. Citrate and spermine concentrations were significantly lower in patients of more advanced stage, significantly lower in Gleason grade 3+4 than 3+3 tumors, and significantly lower than expected from the tumor fraction in partial‐tumor voxels (by 14 mM and 4 mM, respectively, P < 0.05). Conclusion Citrate and spermine resonances are better depicted at short TE than long TE in tumors. Reduction in these concentrations is related to increasing tumor stage and grade in vivo, while reductions in the normal‐appearing tissues immediately adjacent to tumor likely reflect tumor field effects. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2015;42:1086–1093. PMID:26258905

  15. Metastatic malignant struma ovarii with coexistence of Hashimoto’s thyroiditis

    PubMed Central

    Russo, Marco; Marturano, Ilenia; Masucci, Romilda; Caruso, Melania; Fornito, Maria Concetta; Tumino, Dario; Tavarelli, Martina; Squatrito, Sebastiano

    2016-01-01

    Summary Struma ovarii is a rare ovarian teratoma characterized by the presence of thyroid tissue as the major component. Malignant transformation of the thyroidal component (malignant struma ovarii) has been reported in approximately 5% of struma ovarii. The management and follow-up of this unusual disease remain controversial. We report the case of a woman with a history of autoimmune thyroiditis and a previous resection of a benign struma ovarii that underwent hystero-annexiectomy for malignant struma ovarii with multiple papillary thyroid cancer foci and peritoneal involvement. Total thyroidectomy and subsequent radioiodine treatment lead to complete disease remission after 104 months of follow-up. The diagnosis and natural progression of malignant struma ovarii are difficult to discern, and relapses can occur several years after diagnosis. A multidisciplinary approach is mandatory; after surgical excision of malignant struma, thyroidectomy in combination with 131I therapy should be considered after risk stratification in accordance with a standard approach in differentiated thyroid cancer patients. Learning points Malignant struma ovarii is a rare disease; diagnosis is difficult and management is not well defined. Predominant sites of metastasis are adjacent pelvic structures. Thyroidectomy and 131I therapy should be considered after risk stratification in accordance with standard approaches in DTC patients. PMID:27224256

  16. Thyroid nodules.

    PubMed

    Niedziela, Marek

    2014-03-01

    According to the literature, thyroid nodules (TNs) are quite rare in the first two decades of life and are predominantly non-cancerous, although cancerous TNs are more common in the first two decades of life than in adults. Therefore, it is important for clinicians to distinguish benign from malignant lesions preoperatively because the latter require a total thyroidectomy with or without neck lymph node dissection. A careful work-up and a fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) are mandatory to improve the preoperative diagnosis. High-resolution thyroid ultrasound and real-time elastosonography are adjuvant presurgical tools in selecting patients for surgery, particularly those with indeterminate or non-diagnostic cytology. Elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) level in a patient with a thyroid nodule is a new laboratory predictor of thyroid cancer risk. The majority of thyroid carcinomas derive from the follicular cell, whereas medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) derives from calcitonin-producing cells. Patients with MTC are screened for germ-line RET mutations to detect carriers and identify family members for prophylactic or therapeutic thyroidectomy. PMID:24629865

  17. Adjacent segment disease.

    PubMed

    Virk, Sohrab S; Niedermeier, Steven; Yu, Elizabeth; Khan, Safdar N

    2014-08-01

    EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES As a result of reading this article, physicians should be able to: 1. Understand the forces that predispose adjacent cervical segments to degeneration. 2. Understand the challenges of radiographic evaluation in the diagnosis of cervical and lumbar adjacent segment disease. 3. Describe the changes in biomechanical forces applied to adjacent segments of lumbar vertebrae with fusion. 4. Know the risk factors for adjacent segment disease in spinal fusion. Adjacent segment disease (ASD) is a broad term encompassing many complications of spinal fusion, including listhesis, instability, herniated nucleus pulposus, stenosis, hypertrophic facet arthritis, scoliosis, and vertebral compression fracture. The area of the cervical spine where most fusions occur (C3-C7) is adjacent to a highly mobile upper cervical region, and this contributes to the biomechanical stress put on the adjacent cervical segments postfusion. Studies have shown that after fusion surgery, there is increased load on adjacent segments. Definitive treatment of ASD is a topic of continuing research, but in general, treatment choices are dictated by patient age and degree of debilitation. Investigators have also studied the risk factors associated with spinal fusion that may predispose certain patients to ASD postfusion, and these data are invaluable for properly counseling patients considering spinal fusion surgery. Biomechanical studies have confirmed the added stress on adjacent segments in the cervical and lumbar spine. The diagnosis of cervical ASD is complicated given the imprecise correlation of radiographic and clinical findings. Although radiological and clinical diagnoses do not always correlate, radiographs and clinical examination dictate how a patient with prolonged pain is treated. Options for both cervical and lumbar spine ASD include fusion and/or decompression. Current studies are encouraging regarding the adoption of arthroplasty in spinal surgery, but more long

  18. Medullary carcinoma of thyroid

    MedlinePlus

    Thyroid - medullary carcinoma; Cancer - thyroid (medullary carcinoma); MTC ... The cause of medullary carcinoma of the thyroid (MTC) is unknown. Unlike other types of thyroid cancer, MTC is less likely to be caused by radiation therapy to the neck given ...

  19. Thyroid function tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... free T4 (the main thyroid hormone in your blood) TSH (the hormone from the pituitary gland that stimulates the thyroid to produce T4) T3 (also included sometimes) Other thyroid tests include: T3 resin uptake Thyroid scan

  20. Thyroid development in zebrafish lacking Taz.

    PubMed

    Pappalardo, Andrea; Porreca, Immacolata; Caputi, Luigi; De Felice, Elena; Schulte-Merker, Stephan; Zannini, Mariastella; Sordino, Paolo

    2015-11-01

    Taz is a signal-responsive transcriptional coregulator implicated in several biological functions, from chondrogenesis to regulation of organ size. Less well studied, however, is its role in thyroid formation. Here, we explored the in vivo effects on thyroid development of morpholino (MO)-mediated knockdown of wwtr1, the gene encoding zebrafish Taz. The wwtr1 gene is expressed in the thyroid primordium and pharyngeal tissue of developing zebrafish. Compared to mammalian cells, in which Taz promotes expression of thyroid transcription factors and thyroid differentiation genes, wwtr1 MO injection in zebrafish had little or no effect on the expression of thyroid transcription factors, and differentially altered the expression of thyroid differentiation genes. Analysis of wwtr1 morphants at later stages of development revealed that the number and the lumen of thyroid follicles, and the number of thyroid follicle cells, were significantly smaller. In addition, Taz-depleted larvae displayed patterning defects in ventral cranial vessels that correlate with lateral displacement of thyroid follicles. These findings indicate that the zebrafish Taz protein is needed for the normal differentiation of the thyroid and are the first to suggest that Taz confers growth advantage to the endocrine gland. PMID:26478012

  1. Thyroid hormone-regulated gene expression in juvenile mouse liver: identification of thyroid response elements using microarray profiling and in silico analyses

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Disruption of thyroid hormone signalling can alter growth, development and energy metabolism. Thyroid hormones exert their effects through interactions with thyroid receptors that directly bind thyroid response elements and can alter transcriptional activity of target genes. The effects of short-term thyroid hormone perturbation on hepatic mRNA transcription in juvenile mice were evaluated, with the goal of identifying genes containing active thyroid response elements. Thyroid hormone disruption was induced from postnatal day 12 to 15 by adding goitrogens to dams' drinking water (hypothyroid). A subgroup of thyroid hormone-disrupted pups received intraperitoneal injections of replacement thyroid hormones four hours prior to sacrifice (replacement). An additional group received only thyroid hormones four hours prior to sacrifice (hyperthyroid). Hepatic mRNA was extracted and hybridized to Agilent mouse microarrays. Results Transcriptional profiling enabled the identification of 28 genes that appeared to be under direct thyroid hormone-regulation. The regulatory regions of the genome adjacent to these genes were examined for half-site sequences that resemble known thyroid response elements. A bioinformatics search identified 33 thyroid response elements in the promoter regions of 13 different genes thought to be directly regulated by thyroid hormones. Thyroid response elements found in the promoter regions of Tor1a, 2310003H01Rik, Hect3d and Slc25a45 were further validated by confirming that the thyroid receptor is associated with these sequences in vivo and that it can bind directly to these sequences in vitro. Three different arrangements of thyroid response elements were identified. Some of these thyroid response elements were located far up-stream (> 7 kb) of the transcription start site of the regulated gene. Conclusions Transcriptional profiling of thyroid hormone disrupted animals coupled with a novel bioinformatics search revealed new thyroid

  2. Urticarial vasculitis reveals unsuspected thyroiditis.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Olga; Mota, Alberto; Baudrier, Teresa; Azevedo, Filomena

    2012-01-01

    A 38-year-old woman presented with erythematous, violaceous plaques with a serpiginous and unusual appearance located on the left shoulder, left thigh, and right buttock, evolving for 5 days, which eventually became generalized. A skin biopsy revealed leukocytoclastic vasculitis and a diagnosis of urticarial vasculitis was made. The complete blood count, biochemistry, complement levels, and other immunological test results were unremarkable. However, antithyroid antibody titers were increased. Despite having normal thyroid function tests and an absence of specific symptoms, the patient underwent a thyroid ultrasound, which revealed features of thyroiditis, and was subsequently referred to an endocrinologist. Several diseases can be associated with urticarial vasculitis, namely infections and autoimmune connective-tissue disorders such as systemic lupus erythematosus and Sjögren syndrome. Thyroiditis is an uncommon association. PMID:23000939

  3. Cervical distribution of iodine 131 following total thyroidectomy for thyroid cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Fratkin, M.J.; Newsome, H.H. Jr.; Sharpe, A.R. Jr.; Tatum, J.L.

    1983-07-01

    The use of postoperative radioiodine thyroid scanning has questioned whether total thyroidectomy is surgically possible. Similar to earlier studies, we have found functioning iodine 131 (/sup 131/I)-avid thyroid tissue in our patients following total thyroidectomy for thyroid cancer. Preoperative and postoperative thyroid scans were compared in 24 patients to study the cervical location of postthyroidectomy residual thyroid tissue. Thyroid scanning detected 44 distinct sites of uptake. Thirty-eight of these foci were located either at the extremes of the upper poles of the thyroid gland (24) or along the embryonic thyroid descent tract (14). We conclude that these foci of /sup 131/I uptake represent incomplete resection of normal thyroid tissue, and that surgical attention to these areas should result more frequently in extirpation of the entire thyroid gland.

  4. IR Spectroscopic signs of malignant neoplasms in the thyroid gland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolstorozhev, G. B.; Skornyakov, I. V.; Butra, V. A.

    2012-03-01

    We use Fourier transform IR spectroscopy to study thyroid tumor tissues which were removed during surgery. The IR spectra of the tissues with pathological foci are compared with data from histologic examination. In the region of N-H, C-H, and C = O stretching vibrations, the IR spectra of the tissues for thyroid cancer are different from the IR spectra of tissues without malignant formations. We identify the spectral signs of thyroid cancer. We show that IR analysis is promising for identification of thyroid pathology at the molecular level.

  5. Thyroid hormone resistance and its management

    PubMed Central

    Lado-Abeal, Joaquin

    2016-01-01

    The syndrome of impaired sensitivity to thyroid hormone, also known as syndrome of thyroid hormone resistance, is an inherited condition that occurs in 1 of 40,000 live births characterized by a reduced responsiveness of target tissues to thyroid hormone due to mutations on the thyroid hormone receptor. Patients can present with symptoms of hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism. They usually have elevated thyroid hormones and a normal or elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone level. Due to their nonspecific symptomatic presentation, these patients can be misdiagnosed if the primary care physician is not familiar with the condition. This can result in frustration for the patient and sometimes unnecessary invasive treatment such as radioactive iodine ablation, as in the case presented herein. PMID:27034574

  6. Rare Undifferentiated Tumour of Thyroid: Primary Thyroid Fibrosarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Girgin, Sadullah; Göya, Cemil; Büyükbayram, Hüseyin; Urakçi, Zuhat

    2016-01-01

    Primary thyroid fibrosarcoma cases are very rare. Although it is a known fact that soft tissue sarcomas show slow growth, there have been some cases in literature similar to our case in which there was a fast-growing tumour tissue causing breathing and swallowing difficulties due to painless pressure. For diagnosis, there is no specific clinical or radiological finding. We report a 67-year-old male with a mobile fast-growing mass covering almost all over the neck that appeared 2 months prior to the admission. Laboratory findings showed that the patient was euthyroid. Fine needle aspiration biopsy results are consistent with suspicion of a mesenchymal, histiocytic, epithelial or lymphoid tissue origined malignancy. Patient was taken into surgical operation. The thyroid tissue invaded the main vascular structure, trachea and esophagus. Due to this situation R1 resection was applied. Immunohistopathological examination showed a conventional type of fibrosarcoma. After the surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy had been planned and applied. Patients died before the radiotherapy sessions ended. It should be kept in mind that a rapid growth in thyroid tissue can be thyroid fibrosarcoma, there could be a rapid clinical course and poor prognosis after operation.

  7. Effects of tamoxifen and somatostatin analogue on growth of human medullary, follicular, and papillary thyroid carcinoma cell lines: tissue culture and nude mouse xenograft studies.

    PubMed

    Weber, C J; Marvin, M; Krekun, S; Koschitzky, T; Karp, F; Benson, M; Feind, C R

    1990-12-01

    The knowledge that (1) the normal thyroid contains somatostatin, (2) polypeptide growth factors influence thyroid cell function, and (3) thyroid cells contain steroid hormone receptors prompted us to add somatostatin analogue No. 201-995 (SMS) (5 ng/ml) and/or tamoxifen citrate (TAM) (5 mumol/L) to 7-day monolayer cultures (50,000 cells/well) of three separate human thyroid carcinoma cell lines: DR081 (medullary), WR082 (follicular), and NPA'87 (papillary). Results, tabulated as cell numbers/well (X10(5) on day 7, revealed that TAM inhibited growth of medullary and follicular cells and that TAM plus SMS inhibited growth of papillary cells. In vivo studies of subcutaneous tumor cell xenografts in nude mice have documented that TAM (5 mg subcutaneous pellet) significantly inhibits the growth of medullary implants. Flow cytometric DNA studies of medullary cell cultures demonstrated a reduced G2 + M phase with TAM treatment. For papillary cell implants, TAM plus SMS (5 micrograms subcutaneously, twice daily) did not suppress tumor growth. All three cell lines were negative for estrogen receptor; addition of estradiol (5 ng/ml) to medullary cell cultures neither stimulated replication nor reversed the inhibitory effects of TAM in vitro. We conclude that (1) TAM slowed the growth of a cell line of human medullary carcinoma, both in vitro and in vivo; (2) this effect was not reversed by estradiol; (3) TAM plus SMS inhibited replication of a papillary carcinoma cell line in vitro, but not in vivo; and (4) TAM alone and TAM plus SMS inhibited replication of cultures of a human follicular thyroid carcinoma cell line. TAM and SMS may be useful in treatment of some human thyroid carcinomas. PMID:1978945

  8. [Autoimmune thyroiditis and thyroid cancer].

    PubMed

    Krátký, Jan; Jiskra, Jan

    2015-10-01

    Association between autoimmune thyroiditis (CLT) and thyroid cancer remains not clear. Although both diseases often occur simultaneously in histological samples, it is not yet clear whether CLT can be regarded as a risk factor for thyroid malignancy. This review focus on the known epidemiological and molecular genetics links between both diseases. Most studies have shown a significant association between thyroid cancer and positive antibodies to thyroglobulin and histological evidence of CLT, as well. Both disorders share some risk factors (greater incidence in women, in areas with adequate supply of iodine and in patients after radiotherapy of the neck) and molecular genetics linkage. For example: RET/PTC rearrangements could be more often found in carcinomas associated with CLT, but this mutation could be found in benign lesions such as CLT, as well. CLT seems to be a positive prognostic factor in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer. It is associated with less invasive forms of tumor, lower occurrence of infiltrated lymphatic nodes and a lower risk of recurrence. PMID:26486481

  9. A musculoskeletal model of low grade connective tissue inflammation in patients with thyroid associated ophthalmopathy (TAO): the WOMED concept of lateral tension and its general implications in disease

    PubMed Central

    Moncayo, Roy; Moncayo, Helga

    2007-01-01

    Background Low level connective tissue inflammation has been proposed to play a role in thyroid associated ophthalmopathy (TAO). The aim of this study was to investigate this postulate by a musculoskeletal approach together with biochemical parameters. Methods 13 patients with TAO and 16 controls were examined. Erythrocyte levels of Zn, Cu, Ca2+, Mg, and Fe were determined. The musculoskeletal evaluation included observational data on body posture with emphasis on the orbit-head region. The angular foot position in the frontal plane was quantified following gait observation. The axial orientation of the legs and feet was evaluated in an unloaded supine position. Functional propioceptive tests based on stretch stimuli were done by using foot inversion and foot rotation. Results Alterations in the control group included neck tilt in 3 cases, asymmetrical foot angle during gait in 2, and a reaction to foot inversion in 5 cases. TAO patients presented facial asymmetry with displaced eye fissure inclination (mean 9.1°) as well as tilted head-on-neck position (mean 5.7°). A further asymmetry feature was external rotation of the legs and feet (mean 27°). Both foot inversion as well as foot rotation induced a condition of neuromuscular deficit. This condition could be regulated by gentle acupressure either on the lateral abdomen or the lateral ankle at the acupuncture points gall bladder 26 or bladder 62, respectively. In 5 patients, foot rotation produced a phenomenon of moving toes in the contra lateral foot. In addition foot rotation was accompanied by an audible tendon snapping. Lower erythrocyte Zn levels and altered correlations between Ca2+, Mg, and Fe were found in TAO. Conclusion This whole body observational study has revealed axial deviations and body asymmetry as well as the phenomenon of moving toes in TAO. The most common finding was an arch-like displacement of the body, i.e. eccentric position, with foot inversion and head tilt to the contra lateral side

  10. Thyroid function in pregnancy☆

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Angela M.

    2014-01-01

    Iodine is required for the production of thyroid hormones. Normal thyroid function during pregnancy is important for both the mother and developing fetus. This review discusses the changes in thyroid physiology that occur during pregnancy, the significance of thyroid function tests and thyroid antibody titers assessed during pregnancy, and the potential obstetric complications associated with maternal hypothyroidism. PMID:22658718

  11. SOT 2008- TRANSCRIPTIONAL RESPONSES IN THYROID TISSUES FROM RATS TREATED WITH A TUMORIGENIC AND A NON-TUMORIGENIC TRIAZOLE CONAZOLE FUNGICIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Conazoles are triazole- or imidazole-containing fungicides that are used in agriculture and medicine. Conazoles can induce follicular cell adenomas of the thyroid in rats after chronic bioassay. The goal of this study was to identify pathways and networks of genes that were assoc...

  12. Accumulation of iodine-131 and technetium-99m pertechnetate in thyroid carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Katagiri, M.; Suzuki, S.; Sadahiro, S.; Kubouchi, K.; Ohmura, T.; Tsumura, O.; Akatsuka, S.

    1988-04-01

    Carcinoma of the thyroid is usually delineated as a cold defect on images with radioiodine and Tc-99m pertechnetate. However, several cases that showed an accumulation of Tc-99m pertechnetate in thyroid carcinoma or in their metastases, but did not show any accumulation of radioiodine, have been reported. This paper presents a rare case of an advanced follicular adenocarcinoma of the thyroid that accumulated both Tc-99m pertechnetate and I-131. In this 41-year-old male patient, there were two primary foci in the thyroid; one occupied the whole left lobe with extension to the mediastinum and the other located in the lower part of the right lobe. In addition, there was a lymph node metastasis in the upper mediastinum adjacent to the left lobe. On images with both I-131 and Tc-99m pertechnetate, the tumor in the left lobe and the metastatic lymph node were delineated, but the tumor in the right lobe was not. Accumulation of Tc-99m pertechnetate in the lower part of the tumor of the left lobe was more distinct than that of I-131. Therefore, it is considered that despite similar histologic findings the trapping ability of the cancerous tissue differed from area to area.

  13. Medicinal values of fruit peels from Citrus sinensis, Punica granatum, and Musa paradisiaca with respect to alterations in tissue lipid peroxidation and serum concentration of glucose, insulin, and thyroid hormones.

    PubMed

    Parmar, Hamendra Singh; Kar, Anand

    2008-06-01

    Peel extracts from Citrus sinensis, Punica granatum, and Musa paradisiaca were investigated for their effects on tissue lipid peroxidation (LPO) and on the concentration of thyroid hormones, insulin, and glucose in male rats. In vitro inhibition of H(2)O(2)-induced LPO in red blood cells of rats by 0.25, 0.50, 1.0, and 2.0 microg/mL C. sinensis, P. granatum, and M. paradisiaca peel extracts was observed in a dose-specific manner. Maximum inhibition was observed at 0.50 microg/mL C. sinensis, 2.0 microg/mL P. granatum, and 1.0 microg/mL M. paradisiaca. In the in vivo investigation, out of four different concentrations of each peel extract, 25, 200, and 100 mg/kg C. sinensis, P. granatum, and M. paradisiaca, respectively, were found to maximally inhibit hepatic LPO. The most effective doses were further evaluated for effects on serum triiodothyronine (T(3)), thyroxine (T(4)), insulin, and glucose concentrations. C. sinensis exhibited antithyroidal, hypoglycemic, and insulin stimulatory activities, in addition to inhibition of LPO, as it significantly decreased the serum T(4) (P < .05) and glucose (P < .001) concentrations with a concomitant increase in insulin levels (P < .05). P. granatum decreased LPO in hepatic, cardiac, and renal tissues (P < .01, P < .001, and P < .05, respectively) and serum glucose concentration (P < .01). M. paradisiaca strongly inhibited the serum level of thyroid hormones (P < .01 for both T(3) and T(4)) but increased the level of glucose (P < .05). These findings reveal the hitherto unknown potential of the tested peel extracts in the regulation of thyroid function and glucose metabolism. Besides antiperoxidative activity, C. sinensis extract has antithyroidal, hypoglycemic, and insulin stimulatory properties, which suggest its potential to ameliorate both hyperthyroidism and diabetes mellitus. PMID:18598183

  14. Transcriptional Response in Mouse Thyroid Tissue after 211At Administration: Effects of Absorbed Dose, Initial Dose-Rate and Time after Administration

    PubMed Central

    Rudqvist, Nils; Spetz, Johan; Schüler, Emil; Parris, Toshima Z.; Langen, Britta; Helou, Khalil; Forssell-Aronsson, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Background 211At-labeled radiopharmaceuticals are potentially useful for tumor therapy. However, a limitation has been the preferential accumulation of released 211At in the thyroid gland, which is a critical organ for such therapy. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of absorbed dose, dose-rate, and time after 211At exposure on genome-wide transcriptional expression in mouse thyroid gland. Methods BALB/c mice were i.v. injected with 1.7, 7.5 or 100 kBq 211At. Animals injected with 1.7 kBq were killed after 1, 6, or 168 h with mean thyroid absorbed doses of 0.023, 0.32, and 1.8 Gy, respectively. Animals injected with 7.5 and 100 kBq were killed after 6 and 1 h, respectively; mean thyroid absorbed dose was 1.4 Gy. Total RNA was extracted from pooled thyroids and the Illumina RNA microarray platform was used to determine mRNA levels. Differentially expressed transcripts and enriched GO terms were determined with adjusted p-value <0.01 and fold change >1.5, and p-value <0.05, respectively. Results In total, 1232 differentially expressed transcripts were detected after 211At administration, demonstrating a profound effect on gene regulation. The number of regulated transcripts increased with higher initial dose-rate/absorbed dose at 1 or 6 h. However, the number of regulated transcripts decreased with mean absorbed dose/time after 1.7 kBq 211At administration. Furthermore, similar regulation profiles were seen for groups administered 1.7 kBq. Interestingly, few previously proposed radiation responsive genes were detected in the present study. Regulation of immunological processes were prevalent at 1, 6, and 168 h after 1.7 kBq administration (0.023, 0.32, 1.8 Gy). PMID:26177204

  15. BRAIN, LIVER AND THYROID BIOMARKERS REFLECT ENHANCED SENSITIVITY OF THE DEVELOPING RAT TO THYROID HORMONE DEPLETION.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many developmental events are regulated at least in part by thyroid hormones. It was hypothesized that tissue biomarkers of thyroid status would be more accurate predictors of neurotoxicity than serum biomarkers in rats treated with the goitrogen propylthiouracil (PTU). Over seve...

  16. Thyroid pathologies accompanying primary hyperparathyroidism: a high rate of papillary thyroid microcarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kutlutürk, Koray; Otan, Emrah; Yağcı, Mehmet Ali; Usta, Sertaç; Aydın, Cemalettin; Ünal, Bülent

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Thyroid pathologies and non-medullary thyroid cancer often accompany primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT). The purpose of this study was to examine the association between thyroid diseases, especially micropapillary thyroid cancer, with PHPT. Material and Methods: Data regarding 46 patients who were operated on with a diagnosis of PHPT at Inonu University Faculty of Medicine, General Surgery Clinic between June 2009 and March 2013 were retrospectively analyzed. Age, gender, levels of preoperative calcium, parathyroid hormone and phosphorus, and the histopathological results of the removed parathyroid and thyroid tissues were evaluated. All of the patients had a preoperative diagnosis of PHPT and there was no history of radiation to the head and neck region in any of the patients. Results: Out of the 46 patients who were operated on for PHPT, 39 were female and 7 were male. The mean age was 52.8 years (25–76). Simultaneous thyroidectomy was performed in 35 patients (76.1%) due to an accompanying thyroid disorder. Papillary microcarcinoma was detected in 5 of these 35 (10.9%) patients who underwent thyroidectomy, two of which (40%) were multifocal tumors. The benign thyroid pathologies detected in the remaining 30 (65.2%) cases included lymphocytic thyroiditis in 3, Hashimoto thyroiditis in 1, follicular adenoma in 3 (two of which was Hurtle cell), and nodular colloidal goiter in 23 patients. The preoperative serum phosphate level was significantly higher in the group with papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (p=0.013). Conclusion: In regions where goiter is endemic, thyroid diseases and thyroid papillary microcarcinoma occur in association with PHPT at a higher rate compared to the normal population. Therefore, we believe that patients who are planned for surgery due to PHPT should be thoroughly investigated for the presence of any concomitant malignant thyroid pathologies in the preoperative period. It should also be kept in mind that patients with high

  17. Increased thyroid cancer incidence in a basaltic volcanic area is associated with non-anthropogenic pollution and biocontamination.

    PubMed

    Malandrino, Pasqualino; Russo, Marco; Ronchi, Anna; Minoia, Claudio; Cataldo, Daniela; Regalbuto, Concetto; Giordano, Carla; Attard, Marco; Squatrito, Sebastiano; Trimarchi, Francesco; Vigneri, Riccardo

    2016-08-01

    The increased thyroid cancer incidence in volcanic areas suggests an environmental effect of volcanic-originated carcinogens. To address this problem, we evaluated environmental pollution and biocontamination in a volcanic area of Sicily with increased thyroid cancer incidence. Thyroid cancer epidemiology was obtained from the Sicilian Regional Registry for Thyroid Cancer. Twenty-seven trace elements were measured by quadrupole mass spectrometry in the drinking water and lichens (to characterize environmental pollution) and in the urine of residents (to identify biocontamination) in the Mt. Etna volcanic area and in adjacent control areas. Thyroid cancer incidence was 18.5 and 9.6/10(5) inhabitants in the volcanic and the control areas, respectively. The increase was exclusively due to the papillary histotype. Compared with control areas, in the volcanic area many trace elements were increased in both drinking water and lichens, indicating both water and atmospheric pollution. Differences were greater for water. Additionally, in the urine of the residents of the volcanic area, the average levels of many trace elements were significantly increased, with values higher two-fold or more than in residents of the control area: cadmium (×2.1), mercury (×2.6), manganese (×3.0), palladium (×9.0), thallium (×2.0), uranium (×2.0), vanadium (×8.0), and tungsten (×2.4). Urine concentrations were significantly correlated with values in water but not in lichens. Our findings reveal a complex non-anthropogenic biocontamination with many trace elements in residents of an active volcanic area where thyroid cancer incidence is increased. The possible carcinogenic effect of these chemicals on the thyroid and other tissues cannot be excluded and should be investigated. PMID:26438396

  18. Nucleophosmin is overexpressed in thyroid tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Pianta, Annalisa; Puppin, Cinzia; Franzoni, Alessandra; Fabbro, Dora; Di Loreto, Carla; Bulotta, Stefania; Deganuto, Marta; Paron, Igor; Tell, Gianluca; Puxeddu, Efisio; Filetti, Sebastiano; Russo, Diego; Damante, Giuseppe

    2010-07-02

    Nucleophosmin (NPM) is a protein that contributes to several cell functions. Depending on the context, it can act as an oncogene or tumor suppressor. No data are available on NPM expression in thyroid cells. In this work, we analyzed both NPM mRNA and protein levels in a series of human thyroid tumor tissues and cell lines. By using immunohistochemistry, NPM overexpression was detected in papillary, follicular, undifferentiated thyroid cancer, and also in follicular benign adenomas, indicating it as an early event during thyroid tumorigenesis. In contrast, various levels of NPM mRNA levels as detected by quantitative RT-PCR were observed in tumor tissues, suggesting a dissociation between protein and transcript expression. The same behavior was observed in the normal thyroid FRTL5 cell lines. In these cells, a positive correlation between NPM protein levels, but not mRNA, and proliferation state was detected. By using thyroid tumor cell lines, we demonstrated that such a post-mRNA regulation may depend on NPM binding to p-Akt, whose levels were found to be increased in the tumor cells, in parallel with reduction of PTEN. In conclusion, our present data demonstrate for the first time that nucleophosmin is overexpressed in thyroid tumors, as an early event of thyroid tumorigenesis. It seems as a result of a dysregulation occurring at protein and not transcriptional level related to an increase of p-Akt levels of transformed thyrocytes.

  19. What Is Thyroid Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Having too much thyroid hormone (a condition called hyperthyroidism ) can cause a rapid or irregular heartbeat, trouble ... nodules make too much thyroid hormone and cause hyperthyroidism. Nodules that produce increased thyroid hormone are almost ...

  20. Retrosternal thyroid surgery

    MedlinePlus

    The thyroid gland is normally located at the front of the neck. A retrosternal thyroid refers to the abnormal location of all or part of the thyroid gland below the breastbone (sternum). This article discusses ...

  1. Chronic thyroiditis (Hashimoto disease)

    MedlinePlus

    ... determine thyroid function include: Free T4 test Serum TSH T3 Thyroid autoantibodies Imaging studies are generally not ... signs of mild thyroid failure (such as elevated TSH). This condition is also known as subclinical hypothyroidism. ...

  2. Chronic thyroiditis (Hashimoto disease)

    MedlinePlus

    ... gland that often results in reduced thyroid function ( hypothyroidism ). Causes Chronic thyroiditis or Hashimoto disease is a ... TSH). This condition is also known as subclinical hypothyroidism. If there is no evidence of thyroid hormone ...

  3. Thyroid gland biopsy (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... a sample of cells is needed from the thyroid gland a fine needle biopsy can be performed. During ... procedure, a skinny needle is inserted into the thyroid gland, and a sample of thyroid cells and fluid ...

  4. Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma: Imaging.

    PubMed

    Delorme, Stefan; Raue, Friedhelm

    2015-01-01

    Imaging plays an important role in early detection and staging of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) as well as in follow-up to localize early recurrence. MTC is a rare, calcitonin-secreting thyroid malignancy often diagnosed by ultrasound and calcitonin screening as part of the routine workup for any thyroid nodule. If calcitonin is elevated, imaging studies are needed for preoperative staging, which dictates surgical management. This can be done by ultrasound of the neck and abdomen. Computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies for more distant disease are done preoperatively if calcitonin levels are higher than 500 pg/ml. Neither FDG-PET/CT nor F-DOPA-PET/CT are used routinely for preoperative staging but may contribute in doubtful individual cases. Postoperative elevated calcitonin is related to persistence or recurrence of MTC. Imaging studies to localize tumor tissue during postoperative follow-up include ultrasound, CT, MRI as well as PET studies. They should be used wisely, however, since treatment consequences are often limited, and even patients with persistent disease may survive long enough to accumulate significant radiation doses. Imaging studies are also useful for diagnosis of associated components of the hereditary MTC such as pheochromocytoma and primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT). PMID:26494385

  5. Coexistence of resistance to thyroid hormone and papillary thyroid carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Igata, Motoyuki; Tsuruzoe, Kaku; Kawashima, Junji; Kukidome, Daisuke; Kondo, Tatsuya; Motoshima, Hiroyuki; Shimoda, Seiya; Furukawa, Noboru; Nishikawa, Takeshi; Miyamura, Nobuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Summary Resistance to thyroid hormone (RTH) is a syndrome of reduced tissue responsiveness to thyroid hormones. RTH is majorly caused by mutations in the thyroid hormone receptor beta (THRB) gene. Recent studies indicated a close association of THRB mutations with human cancers, but the role of THRB mutation in carcinogenesis is still unclear. Here, we report a rare case of RTH with a papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). A 26-year-old woman was referred to our hospital due to a thyroid tumor and hormonal abnormality. She had elevated serum thyroid hormones and non-suppressed TSH levels. Genetic analysis of THRB identified a missense mutation, P452L, leading to a diagnosis of RTH. Ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy of the tumor and lymph nodes enabled the cytological diagnosis of PTC with lymph node metastases. Total thyroidectomy and neck lymph nodes dissection were performed. Following surgery, thyroxine replacement (≥500 μg) was necessary to avoid the symptoms of hypothyroidism and to maintain her TSH levels within the same range as before the operation. During the follow-up, basal thyroglobulin (Tg) levels were around 6 ng/ml and TSH-stimulated Tg levels were between 12 and 20 ng/ml. Up to present, the patient has had no recurrence of PTC. This indicates that these Tg values are consistent with a biochemical incomplete response or an indeterminate response. There is no consensus regarding the management of thyroid carcinoma in patients with RTH, but aggressive treatments such as total thyroidectomy followed by radioiodine (RAI) and TSH suppression therapy are recommended. Learning points There are only a few cases reporting the coexistence of RTH and thyroid carcinoma. Moreover, our case would be the first case presenting one with lymph node metastases. Recent studies indicated a close association of THRB mutations with human cancers, but the role of THRB mutation in carcinogenesis is still unclear. When total thyroidectomy is performed in

  6. Airway obstruction secondary to large thyroid adenolipoma

    PubMed Central

    Fitzpatrick, Nicholas; Malik, Paras; Hinton-Bayre, Anton; Lewis, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Adenolipoma of the thyroid gland is a rare benign neoplasm composed of normal thyroid and mature adipose tissue. Ordinarily, only a small amount of fat exists in a normal thyroid gland. CT and MRI may differentiate between benign and malignant lesions, and fine-needle aspirate often assists diagnosis. Surgical excision for adenolipoma is considered curative. We report the case of a 67-year-old man presenting with a large neck lump and evidence of airway obstruction. Imaging revealed a 97×70 mm left thyroid mass with retropharyngeal extension and laryngotracheal compression. Hemithyroidectomy was performed with subsequent histology confirming a large thyroid adenolipoma. The patient's symptoms resolved and he remains asymptomatic with no sign of recurrence 2 years postsurgery. PMID:25199190

  7. [Leptin and hypothalamus-hypophysis-thyroid axis].

    PubMed

    Riccioni, G; Menna, V; Lambo, M S; Della Vecchia, R; Di Ilio, C; De Lorenzo, A; D'Orazio, N

    2004-01-01

    The leptin system is a major regulator of food intake and metabolic rate. The leptin, an adipose tissue hormone whose plasma levels reflect energy stores, plays an important rule in the pathogenesis of such eating disorders like bulimia and anorexia. Thyroid hormones are major regulators of energy homeostasis. It is possible that leptin and thyroid hormone exert their actions on thermogenesis and energy metabolism via the same common effector patways. Leptin influences feedback regulation of the hypotalamic TRH-secreting neurons by thyroid hormone. Low serum levels of thyroid hormones reflect a dysfunction of the hypotalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) and hypotalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in patients with nervosa anorexia. Neuroendocrine effects of leptin include effects on the HPT and HPA axis. The aim of this work is to evaluated the interactions between leptina and HPT axis on the basis of recent published works and reviews in literature. PMID:15147079

  8. Thrombospondin-1 Silencing Down-Regulates Integrin Expression Levels in Human Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer Cells with BRAFV600E: New Insights in the Host Tissue Adaptation and Homeostasis of Tumor Microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Duquette, Mark; Sadow, Peter M.; Lawler, Jack; Nucera, Carmelo

    2013-01-01

    Background and Rationale: Anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) is characterized by pleomorphic cells, has a poor prognosis, is highly devastating disease, and is not curable. No reliable biomarkers of metastatic potential, helpful for early diagnosis of ATC and therapeutic response have been found yet. Thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) plays a fundamental role in cancer progression by regulating cell stromal cross-talk in the tumor microenvironment. Goals: Our goal was to understand whether TSP-1 could affect protein levels of its integrin receptors (e.g., ITGα3, α6, and β1) and cell morphology in BRAFV600E-ATC cells in vitro and in vivo. Experimental Design: Anaplastic thyroid cancer-derived cell cultures and western blotting were used to assess integrin protein expression upon TSP-1 silencing. Immunohistochemistry was performed on orthotopic primary human ATC and metastatic ATC in lung tissue to compare TSP-1 and integrin protein expression levels. Results: TSP-1 knock-down down-regulates ITGα3, α6, and β1 in BRAFV600E-human ATC cells. BRAFV600E-ATC cells with TSP-1 knock-down were rounded compared to control cells, which displayed a spread morphology. TSP-1 knock-down also reduced TSP-1, ITGα3, α6, and β1 protein expression levels in vivo in the ATC microenvironment, which is enriched in stromal and inflammatory cells. Conclusion: TSP-1 silencing causes changes in ITG levels and ATC cell morphology. The assessment of TSP-1 and ITG levels might contribute to earlier metastatic potential of BRAFV600E-positive aggressive thyroid cancers, and allow improved patient selection for clinical trials. PMID:24348463

  9. Thyroid and parathyroid imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Sandler, M.P.; Patton, J.A.; Partain, C.L.

    1986-01-01

    This book describes the numerous modalities currently used in the diagnosis and treatment of both thyroid and parathyroid disorders. Each modality is fully explained and then evaluated in terms of benefits and limitations in the clinical context. Contents: Production and Quality Control of Radiopharmaceutics Used for Diagnosis and Therapy in Thyroid and Parathyroid Disorders. Basic Physics. Nuclear Instrumentation. Radioimmunoassay: Thyroid Function Tests. Quality Control. Embryology, Anatomy, Physiology, and Thyroid Function Studies. Scintigraphic Thyroid Imaging. Neonatal and Pediatric Thyroid Imaging. Radioiodine Thyroid Uptake Measurement. Radioiodine Treatment of Thyroid Disorders. Radiation Dosimetry of Diagnostic Procedures. Radiation Safety Procedures for High-Level I-131 Therapies. X-Ray Fluorescent Scanning. Thyroid Sonography. Computed Tomography in Thyroid Disease. Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Thyroid Disease. Parathyroid Imaging.

  10. Lingual thyroid. Diagnosis and treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Kansal, P.; Sakati, N.; Rifai, A.; Woodhouse, N.

    1987-11-01

    We describe four patients who presented with a lingual thyroid condition (three females and one male, aged between 7 and 22 years). Only the male patient was symptomatic with mild dysphagia and hemoptysis. The diagnosis was suspected in three patients, and was confirmed by iodine 123 or 131 scanning in all patients and by a computed tomographic scan in the one patient studied. The patient with dysphagia received a 10-mCl therapeutic dose of iodine 131 before thyroxine replacement was started. The diagnosis and management of lingual thyroid is discussed. All patients need lifelong thyroxine suppression. Unenhanced computed tomographic scans have a diagnostic appearance due to the iodine content of the ectopic thyroid tissue.

  11. Snail Family Transcription Factors Are Implicated in Thyroid Carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Hardy, Robert G.; Vicente-Dueñas, Carolina; González-Herrero, Ines; Anderson, Catriona; Flores, Teresa; Hughes, Sharon; Tselepis, Chris; Ross, James A.; Sánchez-García, Isidro

    2007-01-01

    E-Cadherin (CDH1) expression is reduced in thyroid carcinomas by primarily unknown mechanisms. In several tissues, SNAIL (SNAI1) and SLUG (SNAI2) induce epithelial-mesenchymal transition by altering target gene transcription, including CDH1 repression, but these transcription factors have not been studied in thyroid carcinoma. Recently, our group has provided direct evidence that ectopic SNAI1 expression induces epithelial and mesenchymal mouse tumors. SNAI1, SNAI2, and CDH1 expression were analyzed in thyroid-derived cell lines and samples of human follicular and papillary thyroid carcinoma by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting, and immunohistochemistry. The effect of SNAI1 expression on CDH1 transcription was analyzed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting in ori-3 cells. Thyroid carcinoma development was analyzed in CombitTA-Snail mice, in which SNAI1 levels are up-regulated. SNAI1 and SNAI2 were not expressed in cells derived from normal thyroid tissue, or in normal human thyroid samples, but were highly expressed in cell lines derived from thyroid carcinomas, in human thyroid carcinoma samples, and their metastases. SNAI1 expression in ori-3 cells repressed CDH1 transcription. Combi-TA mice developed papillary thyroid carcinomas, the incidence of which was increased by concomitant radiotherapy. In conclusion, SNAI1 and SNAI2 are ectopically expressed in thyroid carcinomas, and aberrant expression in mice is associated with papillary carcinoma development. PMID:17724139

  12. Coexistence of Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma With Thyroid MALT Lymphoma in a Patient With Hashimoto's Thyroiditis: A Clinical Case Report.

    PubMed

    Shen, Guohua; Ji, Ting; Hu, Shuang; Liu, Bin; Kuang, Anren

    2015-12-01

    Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is the most common type of thyroid neoplasias; however, primary thyroid gland lymphoma (PTL) is uncommon and their simultaneous occurrence is very rare.Herein, we reported a 25-year-old female patient with Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT), who developed a small goiter with a palpable 1.2-cm nodule in the right lobe. A fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy revealed atypical follicular epithelial cells and lymphoid cells in a background of lymphocytic thyroiditis. A total thyroidectomy was performed. The pathology showed multicentric papillary thyroid carcinoma, concomitant thyroid mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma, and Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Postoperatively, he received chemotherapy and radioactive iodine ablation treatment. Nowadays the thyroglobulin of the patient is undetectable, without recurrences at 2 years of follow-up.It is concluded that the PTC and MALT lymphoma can exist concomitantly, especially in patients with HT. For the diagnostic workup and optional management of this rare coexistence, a multidisciplinary approach and close surveillance are needed. PMID:26717396

  13. Dendritic cells in autoimmune thyroid disease.

    PubMed

    Kabel, P J; Voorbij, H A; van der Gaag, R D; Wiersinga, W M; de Haan, M; Drexhage, H A

    1987-01-01

    Dendritic cells form a morphologically distinct class of cells characterized by shape, reniform nucleus, absent to weak acid-phosphatase activity and strong Class II MHC determinant positivity. Functionally they are the most efficient cells in antigen presentation to T-lymphocytes which indicates their role in the initiation of an immune response. Using immunehistochemical techniques we studied the presence of dendritic cells in normal Wistar rat and human thyroids, in thyroids of BBW rats developing thyroid autoimmunity and in Graves' goitres. Dendritic cells could be identified in all thyroids studied and were positioned underneath the thyrocytes in between the follicles. Skin dendritic cells travel via lymphatics to draining lymph nodes, thus forming an antigen presenting cell system. It is likely that a similar cell system exists on the level of the thyroid for dendritic cells have also been detected in thyroid draining lymph nodes. In normal thyroid tissue of both human and rat dendritic cells were relatively scarce. During the initial phases of the thyroid autoimmune response in the BBW rat (before the appearance of Tg-antibodies in the circulation) numbers of thyroid dendritic cells increased. Intrathyroidal T-helper cells, B-cells or plasma cells could not be found. The thyroid draining lymph node contained large numbers of plasma cells. During the later stages of the thyroid autoimmune response in the BB/W rat (after the appearance of Tg-antibodies in the circulation) and in Graves' goitres dendritic cells were not only present in high number, but 20-30% were seen in contact with now-present intrathyroidal T-helper lymphocytes.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3475920

  14. Anaplastic thyroid cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... or MRI of the neck may show a tumor growing from the thyroid gland. A thyroid biopsy makes the diagnosis. An examination ... the thyroid Images ... Saunders; 2016:chap 226. Lai SY, Mandel SJ, Weber RS. Management of thyroid neoplasms. In: Flint PW, Haughey BH, Lund LJ, et ...

  15. Proteomic Profiling of Thyroid Papillary Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Ban, Yoshiyuki; Yamamoto, Gou; Takada, Michiya; Hayashi, Shigeo; Ban, Yoshio; Shimizu, Kazuo; Akasu, Haruki; Igarashi, Takehito; Bando, Yasuhiko; Tachikawa, Tetsuhiko; Hirano, Tsutomu

    2012-01-01

    Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is the most common endocrine malignancy. We performed shotgun liquid chromatography (LC)/tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) analysis on pooled protein extracts from patients with PTC and compared the results with those from normal thyroid tissue validated by real-time (RT) PCR and immunohistochemistry (IHC). We detected 524 types of protein in PTC and 432 in normal thyroid gland. Among these proteins, 145 were specific to PTC and 53 were specific to normal thyroid gland. We have also identified two important new markers, nephronectin (NPNT) and malectin (MLEC). Reproducibility was confirmed with several known markers, but the one of two new candidate markers such as MLEC did not show large variations in expression levels. Furthermore, IHC confirmed the overexpression of both those markers in PTCs compared with normal surrounding tissues. Our protein data suggest that NPNT and MLEC could be a characteristic marker for PTC. PMID:22518348

  16. Management of thyroid disorders

    PubMed Central

    Premawardhana, L D K E; Lazarus, J H

    2006-01-01

    Autoimmune thyroid disease is the predominant form of thyroid dysfunction in the developed world. Although its precise cause is currently unclear, principles of management have been established. There is a vigorous debate about the management of the increasingly commonly recognised subclinical forms of thyroid dysfunction despite recent recommendations. Nodular thyroid disease and thyroid carcinoma have received wide attention. The effects of drugs and pregnancy on thyroid function have also been investigated widely. This short review attempts to give an overview and clarify the current management of common thyroid disorders. PMID:16954449

  17. Thyroid carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, M.; Skolnik, E.M.; Baim, H.M.; Becker, S.P.; Katz, A.H.; Mantravadi, R.V.

    1980-12-01

    Differentiated thyroid carcinoma was studied with regard to mode of presentation, initial findings, treatment and survival. The classic signs, symptoms, physical and scan findings were found to be present in approximately 70% of the patients. Prognosis was found to be dependent on age of presentation more than any other factor. Patients with prior exposure to radiation were found to have more extensive disease and require more extensive surgery but ultimately had the same prognosis for 15-year cure. Treatment for distant metastatic disease by surgery, radioactive iodine and external radiation all resulted in long-term survival in certain cases.

  18. Thyrotropin receptor gene alterations in thyroid hyperfunctioning adenomas

    SciTech Connect

    Russo, D.; Arturi, F.; Filetti, S.

    1996-04-01

    Forty-four thyroid autonomously hyperfunctioning adenomas were analyzed to assess the frequency of mutations occurring in the TSH receptor (TSHR). PCR-amplified fragments encompassing the entire exon 10 of the TSHR gene were obtained from the genomic DNA extracted from the tumors and their adjacent normal tissues and were examined by direct nucleotide sequencing. Point mutations were found in 9 of 44 adenomas examined (20%). One mutation occurred in codon 619 (Asp to Gly), four in codon 623 (three were Ala to Ser, one Ala to substitution), two in codon 632 (both Thr to Ile), and two in codon 633 (Asp to Tyr or His). All the alterations were located in a part of the gene coding for an area including the third intracellular loop and the sixth transmembrane domain of the TSH receptor. All mutations were somatic and heterozygotic, and none was simultaneous with alterations of ras or gsp oncogenes. Thus, our data show that in our series of 44 hyperfunctioning thyroid adenomas, a somatic mutation of the TSHR, responsible for the constitutive activation of the cAMP pathway, occurs in 20% of the tumors. 28 refs., 2 tabs.

  19. Thyroid Hemiagenesis Associated with Hyperthyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Gurleyik, Gunay; Gurleyik, Emin

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid hemiagenesis (TH), very rare congenital anomaly, is generally asymptomatic. We report two cases of TH with hyperthyroidism. Case One. The patient presented with signs and symptoms of thyrotoxicosis. Physical examination revealed asymmetric nodular goitre at right lobe. Biochemical analysis revealed the diagnosis of hyperthyroidism. Ultrasound showed multinodular hypertrophy in the right lobe and absence of the left lobe. Nuclear scan, confirming absence of the left lobe, showed hot nodules in the right one. The diagnosis was toxic multinodular goitre. Case Two. The thyroid was not palpable in this patient presented with signs and symptoms of thyrotoxicosis. Biochemical analysis revealed the diagnosis of autoimmune thyrotoxicosis. Ultrasound showed mild diffuse hyperplasia of the right lobe and agenesis of the left lobe. Nuclear scan, confirming absence of the left lobe, showed increasing diffuse uptake of radiotracer in the right one. The diagnosis was Graves' disease in this patient. After antithyroid medication, the patients were surgically treated with total excision of the thyroid tissue. TH is sometimes associated with disorders of the thyroid. Hyperthyroidism makes TH cases symptomatic. During evaluation of patients, ultrasound and nuclear scan usually report agenesis of one lobe and establish the diagnosis of TH. The surgical treatment is total removal of hyperactive tissue and total excision of the remaining lobe. PMID:26185699

  20. Thyroiditis: an integrated approach.

    PubMed

    Sweeney, Lori B; Stewart, Christopher; Gaitonde, David Y

    2014-09-15

    Thyroiditis is a general term that encompasses several clinical disorders characterized by inflammation of the thyroid gland. The most common is Hashimoto thyroiditis; patients typically present with a nontender goiter, hypothyroidism, and an elevated thyroid peroxidase antibody level. Treatment with levothyroxine ameliorates the hypothyroidism and may reduce goiter size. Postpartum thyroiditis is transient or persistent thyroid dysfunction that occurs within one year of childbirth, miscarriage, or medical abortion. Release of preformed thyroid hormone into the bloodstream may result in hyperthyroidism. This may be followed by transient or permanent hypothyroidism as a result of depletion of thyroid hormone stores and destruction of thyroid hormone-producing cells. Patients should be monitored for changes in thyroid function. Beta blockers can treat symptoms in the initial hyperthyroid phase; in the subsequent hypothyroid phase, levothyroxine should be considered in women with a serum thyroid-stimulating hormone level greater than 10 mIU per L, or in women with a thyroid-stimulating hormone level of 4 to 10 mIU per L who are symptomatic or desire fertility. Subacute thyroiditis is a transient thyrotoxic state characterized by anterior neck pain, suppressed thyroid-stimulating hormone, and low radioactive iodine uptake on thyroid scanning. Many cases of subacute thyroiditis follow an upper respiratory viral illness, which is thought to trigger an inflammatory destruction of thyroid follicles. In most cases, the thyroid gland spontaneously resumes normal thyroid hormone production after several months. Treatment with high-dose acetylsalicylic acid or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs is directed toward relief of thyroid pain. PMID:25251231

  1. [Surgical therapy of benign thyroid gland diseases].

    PubMed

    Mann, B; Buhr, H J

    1998-01-01

    Operations due to benign thyroid diseases are one of the most common elective surgical procedures performed in Germany. In the majority of cases, the preoperative determination of the serum thyrotropin concentration and an ultrasound of the thyroid region are sufficient preoperative investigations. In cases of thyroid functional disorders a scintigram should be additionally performed. Indications for operation in nodular goiter are local, mechanical compression, suspicion of malignancy and focal or disseminated autonomy. In Graves' disease the indication for operation is usually recurrent hyperthyroidism after medical treatment. In endemic nodular goiter the morphology of the nodular thyroid tissue is the guideline for resection; i.e. all nodules have to be removed. In Graves' disease the function of the remaining thyroid tissue is essential. The standardized subtotal resection with remaining tissue around the hilus, which frequently barries nodules, should be avoided. Instead a selective resection which takes the individual morphology and function of the diseased thyroid tissue into account should be favorized. With this operative technique the surgeon will have frequently direct contact with the recurrent nerve and the parathyroids. It is documented, that intraoperative visualisation of the recurrent nerve decreases not only the rate of permanent nerve damages but increases as well the completeness of resection. Additionally, ligation of the inferior thyroid artery decreases the incidence of residual or recurrent disease without enlarging the risk of postoperative parathyroiprive hypocalcemia. An individual follow-up with iodine and/or thyroxine replacement therapy is an indispensable component of the surgical therapeutic approach. The target of thyroxine substitution in patients after resection due to benign thyroid diseases is a physiologic serum thyrotropin concentration (0.3 to 4.0 mU/l). PMID:9542021

  2. Histologic changes in previously irradiated thyroid glands

    SciTech Connect

    Valdiserri, R.O.; Borochovitz, D.

    1980-03-01

    Thyroid tissue from 90 patients with a history of therapeutic irradiation to the head and neck in childhood and adolescence was examined microscopically. In addition to the well-known observation that these individuals have an increased incidence of primary thyroid carcinoma, it was also demonstrated that they have an increased incidence of benign histologic changes. These changes represent a spectrum from nonspecific hyperplastic lesions to benign neoplasis and thyroidltis.

  3. Semiquantitative immunohistochemical marker staining and localization in canine thyroid carcinoma and normal thyroid gland.

    PubMed

    Pessina, P; Castillo, V; Sartore, I; Borrego, J; Meikle, A

    2016-09-01

    Immunoreactive proteins in follicular cells, fibroblasts and endothelial cells were assessed in canine thyroid carcinomas and healthy thyroid glands. No differences were detected in thyrotropin receptor and thyroglobulin staining between cancer and normal tissues, but expression was higher in follicular cells than in fibroblasts. Fibroblast growth factor-2 staining was more intense in healthy follicular cells than in those of carcinomas. Follicular cells in carcinomas presented two- to three-fold greater staining intensity of thyroid transcription factor-1 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen, respectively, than healthy cells, and a similar trend was found for the latter antigen in fibroblasts. Vascular endothelial growth factor staining was more intense in the endothelial cells of tumours than in those of normal tissues. In conclusion, greater expression of factors related to proliferation and angiogenesis was demonstrated in several cell types within thyroid carcinomas compared to healthy tissues, which may represent mechanisms of tumour progression in this disease. PMID:25082554

  4. Recent Insights into the Cell Biology of Thyroid Angiofollicular Units

    PubMed Central

    Denef, Jean-François; Lengelé, Benoit; Many, Marie-Christine; Gérard, Anne-Catherine

    2013-01-01

    In thyrocytes, cell polarity is of crucial importance for proper thyroid function. Many intrinsic mechanisms of self-regulation control how the key players involved in thyroid hormone (TH) biosynthesis interact in apical microvilli, so that hazardous biochemical processes may occur without detriment to the cell. In some pathological conditions, this enzymatic complex is disrupted, with some components abnormally activated into the cytoplasm, which can lead to further morphological and functional breakdown. When iodine intake is altered, autoregulatory mechanisms outside the thyrocytes are activated. They involve adjacent capillaries that, together with thyrocytes, form the angiofollicular units (AFUs) that can be considered as the functional and morphological units of the thyroid. In response to iodine shortage, a rapid expansion of the microvasculature occurs, which, in addition to nutrients and oxygen, optimizes iodide supply. These changes are triggered by angiogenic signals released from thyrocytes via a reactive oxygen species/hypoxia-inducible factor/vascular endothelial growth factor pathway. When intra- and extrathyrocyte autoregulation fails, other forms of adaptation arise, such as euthyroid goiters. From onset, goiters are morphologically and functionally heterogeneous due to the polyclonal nature of the cells, with nodules distributed around areas of quiescent AFUs containing globules of compact thyroglobulin (Tg) and surrounded by a hypotrophic microvasculature. Upon TSH stimulation, quiescent AFUs are activated with Tg globules undergoing fragmentation into soluble Tg, proteins involved in TH biosynthesis being expressed and the local microvascular network extending. Over time and depending on physiological needs, AFUs may undergo repetitive phases of high, moderate, or low cell and tissue activity, which may ultimately culminate in multinodular goiters. PMID:23349248

  5. Radionuclide thyroid imaging in the newborn with suspected hypothyroidism

    SciTech Connect

    Yoosufani, Z.; Karimeddini, M.K.; Spencer, R.P.; Ratzan, S.K.

    1985-05-01

    The authors reviewed their experience with thyroid imaging in newborns with suspected congenital hypothyroidism. The infants were selected through a hypothyroidism screening program. There were 19 infants (14 females, 5 males) from 2 to 8 weeks of age with a blood T4 <6 ..mu..g/dl. Thyroid imaging was performed with either IV or IM injection of 0.5 to 1 mCi of Tc 99m pertechnetate using a gamma camera with a pinhole collimator. Salivary glands and stomach were also imaged for assessing the presence of the transport system. In 6 infants (32%) no thyroid tissue was visualized (thyroid hypoplasia). Four infants (21%) showed ectopic thyroid tissue in the lingual or sublingual area. Two infants (10%) had evidence of goiter. The remaining 7 infants (37%) had normal appearing glands in size and position. TSH values were markedly elevated (> 100 ..mu mu../ml) in all 10 patients with hypoplastic or ectopic thyroid. Two patients were subsequently found to have normal thyroid function (one with TBG deficiency and one with transient hypothyroidism). Thyroidal as well as salivary gland trapping of the radiotracer in these two infants was clearly less than that of adults suggesting immaturity of the transport/trapping mechanism. All 4 patients with ectopic thyroid had markedly increased uptake of the radiotracer. All other patients with elevated TSH levels had increased uptake of the radiotracer as compared to the normals. They conclude that thyroid scanning is an important tool in delineating the etiology of congenital hypothyroidism.

  6. Key Statistics for Thyroid Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... cancer? Next Topic Thyroid cancer risk factors Key statistics for thyroid cancer How common is thyroid cancer? ... remains very low compared with most other cancers. Statistics on survival rates for thyroid cancer are discussed ...

  7. Neurotoxicity of Thyroid Disrupting Contaminants

    EPA Science Inventory

    Thyroid hormones playa critical role in the normal development ofthe mammalian brain. Thyroid disrupting chemicals (TDCs) are environmental contaminants that alter the structure or function ofthe thyroid gland, alter regulatory enzymes associated with thyroid hormone (TH) homeost...

  8. Intrathoracic toxic thyroid nodule causing hyperthyroidism with a multinodular normal functional cervical thyroid gland.

    PubMed

    Serim, Burcu Dirlik; Korkmaz, Ulku; Can, Unal; Altun, Gulay Durmus

    2016-01-01

    Radionuclide scintigraphy with I-131 and Tc-99m pertechnetate ((99)mTc04) has been widely used in detecting toxic nodules. Intrathoracic goiter usually presents as an anterior mediastinal mass. Mostly the connection between intrathoracic mass and the cervical thyroid gland is clearly and easily identified occurring as a result of inferior extension of thyroid tissue in the neck, which is called as secondary intrathoracic goiter. Completely separated, aberrant or in other words primary intrathoracic goiters arise as a result of abnormal embryologic migration of ectopic thyroid closely associated with aortic sac and descend into the mediastinum. Intrathoracic goiters are generally nontoxic nodules existing with mass effect without causing hyperthyroidism. However, mostly reported cases had enlarged thyroid glands in the neck. This report demonstrates the usefulness of I-131 and (99)mTc04 scintigraphy for detecting intrathoracic goiter causing hyperthyroidism with a normal functioned cervical thyroid gland. PMID:27385899

  9. Intrathoracic toxic thyroid nodule causing hyperthyroidism with a multinodular normal functional cervical thyroid gland

    PubMed Central

    Serim, Burcu Dirlik; Korkmaz, Ulku; Can, Unal; Altun, Gulay Durmus

    2016-01-01

    Radionuclide scintigraphy with I-131 and Tc-99m pertechnetate (99mTc04) has been widely used in detecting toxic nodules. Intrathoracic goiter usually presents as an anterior mediastinal mass. Mostly the connection between intrathoracic mass and the cervical thyroid gland is clearly and easily identified occurring as a result of inferior extension of thyroid tissue in the neck, which is called as secondary intrathoracic goiter. Completely separated, aberrant or in other words primary intrathoracic goiters arise as a result of abnormal embryologic migration of ectopic thyroid closely associated with aortic sac and descend into the mediastinum. Intrathoracic goiters are generally nontoxic nodules existing with mass effect without causing hyperthyroidism. However, mostly reported cases had enlarged thyroid glands in the neck. This report demonstrates the usefulness of I-131 and 99mTc04 scintigraphy for detecting intrathoracic goiter causing hyperthyroidism with a normal functioned cervical thyroid gland. PMID:27385899

  10. Mitochondrial Metabolism as a Treatment Target in Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Jennifer M; Lai, Stephen Y; Cotzia, Paolo; Cognetti, David; Luginbuhl, Adam; Pribitkin, Edmund A; Zhan, Tingting; Mollaee, Mehri; Domingo-Vidal, Marina; Chen, Yunyun; Campling, Barbara; Bar-Ad, Voichita; Birbe, Ruth; Tuluc, Madalina; Martinez Outschoorn, Ubaldo; Curry, Joseph

    2015-12-01

    Anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) is one of the most aggressive human cancers. Key signal transduction pathways that regulate mitochondrial metabolism are frequently altered in ATC. Our goal was to determine the mitochondrial metabolic phenotype of ATC by studying markers of mitochondrial metabolism, specifically monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1) and translocase of the outer mitochondrial membrane member 20 (TOMM20). Staining patterns of MCT1 and TOMM20 in 35 human thyroid samples (15 ATC, 12 papillary thyroid cancer [PTC], and eight non-cancerous thyroid) and nine ATC mouse orthotopic xenografts were assessed by visual and Aperio digital scoring. Staining patterns of areas involved with cancer versus areas with no evidence of cancer were evaluated independently where available. MCT1 is highly expressed in human anaplastic thyroid cancer when compared to both non-cancerous thyroid tissues and papillary thyroid cancers (P<.001 for both). TOMM20 is also highly expressed in both ATC and PTC compared to non-cancerous thyroid tissue (P<.01 for both). High MCT1 and TOMM20 expression is also found in ATC mouse xenograft tumors compared to non-cancerous thyroid tissue (P<.001). These xenograft tumors have high (13)C- pyruvate uptake. ATC has metabolic features that distinguish it from PTC and non-cancerous thyroid tissue, including high expression of MCT1 and TOMM20. PTC has low expression of MCT1 and non-cancerous thyroid tissue has low expression of both MCT1 and TOMM20. This work suggests that MCT1 blockade may specifically target ATC cells presenting an opportunity for a new drug target. PMID:26615136

  11. Thyroid organotypic rat and human cultures used to investigate drug effects on thyroid function, hormone synthesis and release pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Vickers, Alison E.M.; Heale, Jason; Sinclair, John R.; Morris, Stephen; Rowe, Josh M.; Fisher, Robyn L.

    2012-04-01

    Drug induced thyroid effects were evaluated in organotypic models utilizing either a rat thyroid lobe or human thyroid slices to compare rodent and human response. An inhibition of thyroid peroxidase (TPO) function led to a perturbation in the expression of key genes in thyroid hormone synthesis and release pathways. The clinically used thiourea drugs, methimazole (MMI) and 6-n-propyl-2-thioruacil (PTU), were used to evaluate thyroid drug response in these models. Inhibition of TPO occurred early as shown in rat thyroid lobes (2 h) and was sustained in both rat (24–48 h) and human (24 h) with ≥ 10 μM MMI. Thyroid from rats treated with single doses of MMI (30–1000 mg/kg) exhibited sustained TPO inhibition at 48 h. The MMI in vivo thyroid concentrations were comparable to the culture concentrations (∼ 15–84 μM), thus demonstrating a close correlation between in vivo and ex vivo thyroid effects. A compensatory response to TPO inhibition was demonstrated in the rat thyroid lobe with significant up-regulation of genes involved in the pathway of thyroid hormone synthesis (Tpo, Dio1, Slc5a5, Tg, Tshr) and the megalin release pathway (Lrp2) by 24 h with MMI (≥ 10 μM) and PTU (100 μM). Similarly, thyroid from the rat in vivo study exhibited an up-regulation of Dio1, Slc5a5, Lrp2, and Tshr. In human thyroid slices, there were few gene expression changes (Slc5a5, ∼ 2-fold) and only at higher MMI concentrations (≥ 1500 μM, 24 h). Extended exposure (48 h) resulted in up-regulation of Tpo, Dio1 and Lrp2, along with Slc5a5 and Tshr. In summary, TPO was inhibited by similar MMI concentrations in rat and human tissue, however an increased sensitivity to drug treatment in rat is indicated by the up-regulation of thyroid hormone synthesis and release gene pathways at concentrations found not to affect human tissue. -- Highlights: ► Novel model of rat thyroid or human thyroid slices to evaluate pathways of injury. ► TPO inhibition by MMI or PTU altered

  12. miR-101 inhibits cell proliferation by targeting Rac1 in papillary thyroid carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    LIN, XIAOJIE; GUAN, HONGYU; LI, HAI; LIU, LIEHUA; LIU, JUAN; WEI, GUOHONG; HUANG, ZHIMIN; LIAO, ZHIHONG; LI, YANBING

    2014-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that some microRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) progression. However, it remains necessary to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms involved. In the present study, we investigated the role of microRNA-101 (miR-101) in PTC via targeting of Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (Rac1). The results showed that miR-101 was significantly downregulated in PTC tissues compared with adjacent normal tissues. Restoration of miR-101 expression significantly inhibited cell proliferation in the K1 PTC cell line. Moreover, algorithm-based and experimental strategies verified Rac1 as a direct target of miR-101 in the K1 cell line. Taken together, these findings suggest that miR-101 inhibited PTC growth via the downregulation of Rac1 expression, providing a better understanding of miRNA-modulated signaling networks for future cancer therapeutics. PMID:24649082

  13. Thyroid Hemiagenesis Associated with Hashimoto's Thyroiditis

    PubMed Central

    Nsame, D.; Chadli, A.; Hallab, L.; El Aziz, S.; El Ghomari, H.; Farouqi, A.

    2013-01-01

    Thyroid hemiagenesis is a rare congenital anomaly resulting from failure of one thyroid lobe development. We report a 23-year-old female presented with Hashimoto's thyroiditis in left lobe, associated with hemiagenesis of right lobe and isthmus which was previously diagnosed as Graves' hyperthyroidism, but developed further into Hashimoto's thyroiditis after being treated with antithyroid drugs. The symptoms of hyperthyroidism in the current case led to the diagnostic confirmation by scintiscanning of an absent lobe. The antithyroid pharmacotherapy by thiamazole was used. However, due to symptoms of hypothyroidism, it was discontinued two months later, so thyroid hormone substitution was reintroduced. Antithyroid antibody studies and ultrasonography documented the presence of Hashimoto's thyroiditis. PMID:24198979

  14. DUSP4/MKP2 overexpression is associated with BRAFV600E mutation and aggressive behavior of papillary thyroid cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Ben; Shi, Rongliang; Yang, Shuwen; Zhou, Li; Qu, Ning; Liao, Tian; Wang, Yu; Wang, Yulong; Ji, Qinghai

    2016-01-01

    The study was performed to retrospectively analyze the correlation of dual specificity phosphatase 4 (DUSP4) expression with clinicopathological variables and BRAFV600E mutation to better characterize the potential role of DUSP4 as a biomarker in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). Patients (n=120) who underwent surgery for PTC at Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center (FUSCC) were enrolled in this study, and a validation cohort from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database was identified to confirm the preliminary findings in our study. We investigated DUSP4 expression at the mRNA level in PTC tissues and adjacent normal tissues using real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). BRAFV600E mutation analysis was also performed in PTC tissues using Sanger sequencing. Initially, we compared PTC tissues with paired normal tissues in DUSP4 expression using Student’s t-test, and then analyzed the correlation of DUSP4 with clinicopathological variables and BRAFV600E mutation in PTC using Mann–Whitney U, Kruskal–Wallis, χ2, and Fisher’s exact tests. Human-derived thyroid cell lines were also used to verify our findings. DUSP4 was significantly overexpressed in PTC tissues compared with the adjacent normal tissues (P<0.001). High DUSP4 expression showed a significant association with lymph node metastasis and extrathyroidal extension in both FUSCC and TCGA cohorts, and DUSP4 overexpression was an independent risk factor for lymph node metastasis in multivariate analysis. Additionally, DUSP4 expression was associated with BRAFV600E mutation in both the cohorts (FUSCC: P=0.002, TCGA: P<0.001) and PTC cell lines (P=0.023). In conclusion, DUSP4 was identified as a potential biomarker for aggressive behavior in PTC, and its overexpression was BRAFV600E mutation-related. PMID:27143921

  15. Regulation of Mammary Gland Sensitivity to Thyroid Hormones during the Transition from Pregnancy to Lactation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thyroid hormones are galactopoietic and appear to assist in establishing the mammary gland’s metabolic priority during lactation. Expression patterns for genes that can alter tissue sensitivity to thyroid hormones and thyroid hormone activity were evaluated in the mammary gland and liver of Holstei...

  16. Thyroid Autoantibodies Are Rare in Nonhuman Great Apes and Hypothyroidism Cannot Be Attributed to Thyroid Autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Aliesky, Holly; Courtney, Cynthia L.; Rapoport, Basil

    2013-01-01

    The great apes include, in addition to Homo, the genera Pongo (orangutans), Gorilla (gorillas), and Pan, the latter comprising two species, P. troglodytes (chimpanzees) and P. paniscus (bonobos). Adult-onset hypothyroidism was previously reported in 4 individual nonhuman great apes. However, there is scarce information on normal serum thyroid hormone levels and virtually no data for thyroid autoantibodies in these animals. Therefore, we examined thyroid hormone levels and TSH in all nonhuman great ape genera including adults, adolescents, and infants. Because hypothyroidism in humans is commonly the end result of thyroid autoimmunity, we also tested healthy and hypothyroid nonhuman great apes for antibodies to thyroglobulin (Tg), thyroid peroxidase (TPO), and the TSH receptor (TSHR). We established a thyroid hormone and TSH database in orangutans, gorillas, chimpanzees, and bonobos (447 individuals). The most striking differences are the greatly reduced free-T4 and free-T3 levels in orangutans and gorillas vs chimpanzees and bonobos, and conversely, elevated TSH levels in gorillas vs Pan species. Antibodies to Tg and TPO were detected in only 2.6% of adult animals vs approximately 10% in humans. No animals with Tg, TPO, or TSHR antibodies exhibited thyroid dysfunction. Conversely, hypothyroid nonhuman great apes lacked thyroid autoantibodies. Moreover, thyroid histology in necropsy tissues was similar in euthyroid and hypothyroid individuals, and lymphocytic infiltration was absent in 2 hypothyroid animals. In conclusion, free T4 and free T3 are lower in orangutans and gorillas vs chimpanzees and bonobos, the closest living human relatives. Moreover, thyroid autoantibodies are rare and hypothyroidism is unrelated to thyroid autoimmunity in nonhuman great apes. PMID:24092641

  17. Thyroid dysfunction and subfertility

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The thyroid hormones act on nearly every cell in the body. Moreover, the thyroid gland continuously interacts with the ovaries, and the thyroid hormones are involved in almost all phases of reproduction. Thyroid dysfunctions are relatively common among women of reproductive age, and can affect fertility in various ways, resulting in anovulatory cycles, high prolactin levels, and sex hormone imbalances. Undiagnosed and untreated thyroid disease can be a cause of subfertility. Subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH), also known as mild thyroid failure, is diagnosed when peripheral thyroid hormone levels are within the normal reference laboratory range, but serum thyroid-stimulating hormone levels are mildly elevated. Thyroid autoimmunity (TAI) is characterized by the presence of anti-thyroid antibodies, which include anti-thyroperoxidase and anti-thyroglobulin antibodies. SCH and TAI may remain latent, asymptomatic, or even undiagnosed for an extended period. It has also been demonstrated that controlled ovarian hyperstimulation has a significant impact on thyroid function, particularly in women with TAI. In the current review, we describe the interactions between thyroid dysfunctions and subfertility, as well as the proper work-up and management of thyroid dysfunctions in subfertile women. PMID:26816871

  18. 21 CFR 866.5870 - Thyroid autoantibody immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Thyroid autoantibody immunological test system. 866.5870 Section 866.5870 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... the thyroid autoantibodies (antibodies produced against the body's own tissues). Measurement...

  19. 21 CFR 866.5870 - Thyroid autoantibody immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Thyroid autoantibody immunological test system. 866.5870 Section 866.5870 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... the thyroid autoantibodies (antibodies produced against the body's own tissues). Measurement...

  20. 21 CFR 866.5870 - Thyroid autoantibody immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Thyroid autoantibody immunological test system. 866.5870 Section 866.5870 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... the thyroid autoantibodies (antibodies produced against the body's own tissues). Measurement...

  1. 21 CFR 866.5870 - Thyroid autoantibody immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Thyroid autoantibody immunological test system. 866.5870 Section 866.5870 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... the thyroid autoantibodies (antibodies produced against the body's own tissues). Measurement...

  2. Blue-dye sentinel node mapping in thyroid carcinoma: debatable results of feasibility.

    PubMed

    Peparini, N; Maturo, A; Di Matteo, F M; Tartaglia, F; Marchesi, M; Campana, E P

    2006-01-01

    The present study aims to investigate the feasibility and influence of the lymphatic mapping and sentinel node biopsy on determination of the nodal status in thyroid carcinoma using blue-dye method. Nine consecutive patients with cytological diagnosis of papillary carcinoma were included in this study. To detect the sentinel lymphnode, intra- or perinodular injection of an average quantity of 0.5 ml (range : 0.1-1.2) of Ble Patenté V was performed intraoperatively in 8 cases only, as in one case a solitary cystic nodule occupied the entire lobe and thus any injection was impossible. After an average time of 16 minutes (range : 5-25) before dissection of the thyroid , no lymphnodes and no lymphatic afferent thereto visibly coloured were evidenced, except for spread of the vital dye into adjacent tissue and disrupted blood and lymphatic vessels at the injection site. Our results evidence that : intranodular injection, does not allow proper diffusion of the dye in the adjacent parenchyma, and in nodules smaller than 1 cm it may be difficult ; and that it is hazardous in cystic nodule because of the rupture risk; perinodular injection, at the four cardinal points, is impossible when the nodule occupies the entire lobe or the isthmus; multinodular goiter complicates the identification by palpation of the neoplastic nodule in which the dye should be injected or, if perinodular injection is given, to detect the parenchyma surrounding the nodule. PMID:17168262

  3. Fetal microchimeric cells in autoimmune thyroid diseases

    PubMed Central

    Lepez, Trees; Vandewoestyne, Mado; Deforce, Dieter

    2013-01-01

    Autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD) show a female predominance, with an increased incidence in the years following parturition. Fetal microchimerism has been suggested to play a role in the pathogenesis of AITD. However, only the presence of fetal microchimeric cells in blood and in the thyroid gland of these patients has been proven, but not an actual active role in AITD. Is fetal microchimerism harmful for the thyroid gland by initiating a Graft versus Host reaction (GvHR) or being the target of a Host versus Graft reaction (HvGR)? Is fetal microchimerism beneficial for the thyroid gland by being a part of tissue repair or are fetal cells just innocent bystanders in the process of autoimmunity? This review explores every hypothesis concerning the role of fetal microchimerism in AITD. PMID:23723083

  4. Child thyroid anatomy (image)

    MedlinePlus

    The thyroid is a gland located in the neck. It is a part of the endocrine (hormone) system, and ... a major role in regulating the body's metabolism. Thyroid disorders are more common in older children and ...

  5. Retrosternal thyroid surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007558.htm Retrosternal thyroid surgery To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The thyroid gland is normally located at the front of ...

  6. Thyroid gland removal

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002933.htm Thyroid gland removal To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Thyroid gland removal is surgery to remove all or ...

  7. Chemotherapy for Thyroid Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... cancer Next Topic Targeted therapy for thyroid cancer Chemotherapy for thyroid cancer Chemotherapy (chemo) uses anti-cancer drugs that are injected ... vein or muscle, or are taken by mouth. Chemotherapy is systemic therapy, which means that the drug ...

  8. Thyroid Disorders (For Kids)

    MedlinePlus

    ... of thyroid disorder or thyroid disease. Hyperthyroidism (say: hi-per-THYE-roy-diz-em) happens when the ... Kids with the opposite problem have hypothyroidism (say: hi-po-THYE-roy-diz-em). In this case, ...

  9. Thyroid gland removal - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... surgery to remove part or all of your thyroid gland. This operation is called thyroidectomy . You probably ... in just a few weeks. If you had thyroid cancer, you may need to have radioactive iodine ...

  10. Thyroid preparation overdose

    MedlinePlus

    Thyroid preparations are medicines used to treat thyroid gland disorders. Overdose occurs when someone takes more than the normal or recommended amount of this medicine. This can be by accident or ...

  11. Pregnancy and Thyroid Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Disease Organizations (PDF, 269 KB). Alternate Language URL Pregnancy and Thyroid Disease Page Content On this page: ... responds by decreasing TSH production. [ Top ] How does pregnancy normally affect thyroid function? Two pregnancy-related hormones— ...

  12. Thyroid Hormone Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... is to closely replicate normal thyroid functioning. Pure, synthetic thyroxine (T4) works in the same way as ... needing thyroid hormone replacement (see Hypothyroidism brochure ). Pure synthetic thyroxine (T4), taken once daily by mouth, successfully ...

  13. Thyroid Function Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... problem that is directly affecting the thyroid (primary hypothyroidism). The opposite situation, in which the TSH level ... making enough TSH to stimulate the thyroid (secondary hypothyroidism). In most healthy individuals, a normal TSH value ...

  14. Thyroid Disorders Overview

    MedlinePlus

    ... the amount of hormones produced by the thyroid. Hypothyroidism Hypothyroidism is a thyroid disorder that occurs when the ... irregularities Depression Dry skin and hair Sluggishness Constipation Hypothyroidism is often caused by Hashimoto's disease, an autoimmune ...

  15. Thyroid preparation overdose

    MedlinePlus

    ... a person takes too much of the medicine: Levothyroxine Liothyronine Liotrix Other thyroid medicine Other thyroid preparations ... found in these medicines with these brand names: Levothyroxine ... Liothyronine (Cytomel) Liotrix (Thyrolar, Euthyroid) Other ...

  16. Virus-like particles in the follicular epithelium of the thyroid from a patient with subacute thyroiditis (De Quervain).

    PubMed

    Sato, M

    1975-07-01

    The author experienced a case of subacute thyroiditis (de Quervain) in a 36-year-old female. Electron microscopic examination of the thyroid tissue of the patient revealed virus-like particles (VLP) in the degenerated follicular epithelium Judging from the size, the VLP corresponded to the influenza or mumps virus. PMID:1180050

  17. Thyroid cancer in childhood

    SciTech Connect

    Gorlin, J.B.; Sallan, S.E. )

    1990-09-01

    The incidence, clinical presentation, and types of thyroid cancers presenting in childhood are reviewed. The role of antecedent radiation in papillary and follicular thyroid cancers and genetics of medullary thyroid carcinoma are discussed. Unique aspects of therapy and prognosis for the pediatric patient with thyroid carcinoma are addressed as well as a diagnostic approach to the child who presents with a neck mass.59 references.

  18. Resistance to thyroid hormone due to defective thyroid receptor alpha

    PubMed Central

    Moran, Carla; Chatterjee, Krishna

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid hormones act via nuclear receptors (TRα1, TRβ1, TRβ2) with differing tissue distribution; the role of α2 protein, derived from the same gene locus as TRα1, is unclear. Resistance to thyroid hormone alpha (RTHα) is characterised by tissue-specific hypothyroidism associated with near-normal thyroid function tests. Clinical features include dysmorphic facies, skeletal dysplasia (macrocephaly, epiphyseal dysgenesis), growth retardation, constipation, dyspraxia and intellectual deficit. Biochemical abnormalities include low/low-normal T4 and high/high-normal T3 concentrations, a subnormal T4/T3 ratio, variably reduced reverse T3, raised muscle creatine kinase and mild anaemia. The disorder is mediated by heterozygous, loss-of-function, mutations involving either TRα1 alone or both TRα1 and α2, with no discernible phenotype attributable to defective α2. Whole exome sequencing and diagnostic biomarkers may enable greater ascertainment of RTHα, which is important as thyroxine therapy reverses some metabolic abnormalities and improves growth, constipation, dyspraxia and wellbeing. The genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity of RTHα and its optimal management remain to be elucidated. PMID:26303090

  19. Resistance to thyroid hormone due to defective thyroid receptor alpha.

    PubMed

    Moran, Carla; Chatterjee, Krishna

    2015-08-01

    Thyroid hormones act via nuclear receptors (TRα1, TRβ1, TRβ2) with differing tissue distribution; the role of α2 protein, derived from the same gene locus as TRα1, is unclear. Resistance to thyroid hormone alpha (RTHα) is characterised by tissue-specific hypothyroidism associated with near-normal thyroid function tests. Clinical features include dysmorphic facies, skeletal dysplasia (macrocephaly, epiphyseal dysgenesis), growth retardation, constipation, dyspraxia and intellectual deficit. Biochemical abnormalities include low/low-normal T4 and high/high-normal T3 concentrations, a subnormal T4/T3 ratio, variably reduced reverse T3, raised muscle creatine kinase and mild anaemia. The disorder is mediated by heterozygous, loss-of-function, mutations involving either TRα1 alone or both TRα1 and α2, with no discernible phenotype attributable to defective α2. Whole exome sequencing and diagnostic biomarkers may enable greater ascertainment of RTHα, which is important as thyroxine therapy reverses some metabolic abnormalities and improves growth, constipation, dyspraxia and wellbeing. The genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity of RTHα and its optimal management remain to be elucidated. PMID:26303090

  20. Thyroid Disease Definitions

    MedlinePlus

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Thyroid Disease Definitions KidsHealth > For Teens > Thyroid Disease Definitions Print A A A Text Size ... sweat, mucous, and tears. goiter: This is a thyroid gland that is enlarged to the point that ...

  1. Thyroid and menopause.

    PubMed

    del Ghianda, S; Tonacchera, M; Vitti, P

    2014-06-01

    Thyroid dysfunction is common in the general population especially in women. All thyroid diseases are in fact more common in women than in men and may interfere with the reproductive system. Thyroid function and the gonadal axes are related throughout the woman's fertile period. The relationship between the two glands is mutual. In particular, thyroid hormones affect the reproductive function both directly and indirectly through several actions. Studies on the relationship between menopause and thyroid function are few and do not allow to clarify whether menopause has an effect on the thyroid regardless of aging. With aging, the main changes regarding thyroid physiology and function are: a reduction of thyroid iodine uptake, free thyroxine and free triiodothyronine synthesis and catabolism of free thyroxine while reverse triiodothyronine increases; the level of thyroid stimulating hormone remains normal with sometimes a tendency to higher limits. These changes are present in both sexes without distinction between males and females. The complexity of the relationships can be summarized in three aspects: thyroid status does not influence significantly the climacteric syndrome; menopause may modify the clinical expression of some thyroid diseases, particularly the autoimmune ones; thyroid function is not directly involved in the pathogenesis of the complications of menopause. However, coronary atherosclerosis and osteoporosis may be aggravated in the presence of hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism. The effects of postmenopausal estrogen replacement on thyroxine requirements in women with hypothyroidism should be considered. PMID:23998691

  2. Ultrasonographic and Scintigraphic Findings of Thyroid Hemiagenesis in a Child: Report of a Rare Male Case

    PubMed Central

    Ayaz, Ümit Yaşar; Ayaz, Sevin; Döğen, Mehmet Ercüment; Api, Arman

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid hemiagenesis is a rare congenital anomaly in which one lobe of thyroid gland fails to develop. It is much rarer in males. There is a higher incidence of associated thyroid disorders in patients with thyroid hemiagenesis; therefore early and prompt diagnosis is important for children. We present the ultrasonographic and scintigraphic findings of thyroid hemiagenesis in an eight-year-old-boy. On ultrasonography (US), left lobe of the thyroid gland could not be demonstrated and the right lobe showed minimal hyperplasia. Its echogenicity was normal and no nodule was seen. On thyroid scintigraphy, left lobe of thyroid gland or any ectopic thyroid tissue could not be demonstrated, while the right lobe showed minimal hyperplasia. Without performing any invasive procedure, we enrolled the child in a follow-up program with the guidance of US and scintigraphy, which were effective both in making the final diagnosis of thyroid hemiagenesis and in evaluating the current status of the present thyroid tissue. In conclusion, if only one thyroid lobe is detected in a pediatric case initially with US or scintigraphy, the diagnosis of thyroid hemiagenesis should be suggested and, before any unnecessary or invasive attempt, the other complementary method (scintigraphy/US) should be performed. PMID:25785218

  3. Ultrasonographic and scintigraphic findings of thyroid hemiagenesis in a child: report of a rare male case.

    PubMed

    Ayaz, Ümit Yaşar; Ayaz, Sevin; Döğen, Mehmet Ercüment; Api, Arman

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid hemiagenesis is a rare congenital anomaly in which one lobe of thyroid gland fails to develop. It is much rarer in males. There is a higher incidence of associated thyroid disorders in patients with thyroid hemiagenesis; therefore early and prompt diagnosis is important for children. We present the ultrasonographic and scintigraphic findings of thyroid hemiagenesis in an eight-year-old-boy. On ultrasonography (US), left lobe of the thyroid gland could not be demonstrated and the right lobe showed minimal hyperplasia. Its echogenicity was normal and no nodule was seen. On thyroid scintigraphy, left lobe of thyroid gland or any ectopic thyroid tissue could not be demonstrated, while the right lobe showed minimal hyperplasia. Without performing any invasive procedure, we enrolled the child in a follow-up program with the guidance of US and scintigraphy, which were effective both in making the final diagnosis of thyroid hemiagenesis and in evaluating the current status of the present thyroid tissue. In conclusion, if only one thyroid lobe is detected in a pediatric case initially with US or scintigraphy, the diagnosis of thyroid hemiagenesis should be suggested and, before any unnecessary or invasive attempt, the other complementary method (scintigraphy/US) should be performed. PMID:25785218

  4. NADPH Oxidase Inhibitor Apocynin Attenuates PCB153-Induced Thyroid Injury in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Abliz, Ablikim; Chen, Chen; Deng, Wenhong; Sun, Rongze

    2016-01-01

    PCBs, widespread endocrine disruptors, cause the disturbance of thyroid hormone (TH) homeostasis in humans and animals. However, the exact mechanism of thyroid dysfunction caused by PCBs is still unknown. In order to clarify the hypotheses that NADPH oxidase (NOX) and subsequent NF-κB pathway may play roles in thyroid dysfunction, sixty Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups: control group, PCB153 treated (PCB) group, received apocynin with PCB153 treatment (APO + PCB) group, and drug control (APO) group. Serum thyroid hormone levels were evaluated. The morphological change of thyroid tissue was analyzed under the light and transmission electron microscopy. NOX2, 8-OHdG, and NF-κB expression in the thyroid tissue was evaluated by immune-histochemical staining. Oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokines were detected. The following results were reduced after apocynin treatment: (1) serum thyroid hormone, (2) thyroid pathological injuries, (3) thyroid MDA, (4) thyroid ultrastructural change, (5) serum inflammatory cytokines, and (6) thyroid expression of NOX2, 8-OHdG, and NF-κB. These results suggested that NOX inhibition attenuates thyroid dysfunction induced by PCB in rats, presumably because of its role in preventing ROS generation and inhibiting the activation of NF-κB pathway. Our findings may provide new therapeutic targets for PCBs induced thyroid dysfunction. PMID:27047545

  5. Thyroid-specific ablation of the Carney complex gene, PRKAR1A, results in hyperthyroidism and follicular thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Pringle, Daphne R; Yin, Zhirong; Lee, Audrey A; Manchanda, Parmeet K; Yu, Lianbo; Parlow, Alfred F; Jarjoura, David; La Perle, Krista M D; Kirschner, Lawrence S

    2012-06-01

    Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine malignancy in the population, and the incidence of this cancer is increasing at a rapid rate. Although genetic analysis of papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) has identified mutations in a large percentage of patients, the genetic basis of follicular thyroid cancer (FTC) is less certain. Thyroid cancer, including both PTC and FTC, has been observed in patients with the inherited tumor predisposition Carney complex, caused by mutations in PRKAR1A. In order to investigate the role of loss of PRKAR1A in thyroid cancer, we generated a tissue-specific knockout of Prkar1a in the thyroid. We report that the resulting mice are hyperthyroid and developed follicular thyroid neoplasms by 1 year of age, including FTC in over 40% of animals. These thyroid tumors showed a signature of pathway activation different from that observed in other models of thyroid cancer. In vitro cultures of the tumor cells indicated that Prkar1a-null thyrocytes exhibited growth factor independence and suggested possible new therapeutic targets. Overall, this work represents the first report of a genetic mutation known to cause human FTC that exhibits a similar phenotype when modeled in the mouse. In addition to our knowledge of the mechanisms of human follicular thyroid tumorigenesis, this model is highly reproducible and may provide a viable mechanism for the further clinical development of therapies aimed at FTC. PMID:22514108

  6. Flavonoid Rutin Increases Thyroid Iodide Uptake in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Lima Gonçalves, Carlos Frederico; de Souza dos Santos, Maria Carolina; Ginabreda, Maria Gloria; Soares Fortunato, Rodrigo; Pires de Carvalho, Denise; Freitas Ferreira, Andrea Claudia

    2013-01-01

    Thyroid iodide uptake through the sodium-iodide symporter (NIS) is not only an essential step for thyroid hormones biosynthesis, but also fundamental for the diagnosis and treatment of different thyroid diseases. However, part of patients with thyroid cancer is refractory to radioiodine therapy, due to reduced ability to uptake iodide, which greatly reduces the chances of survival. Therefore, compounds able to increase thyroid iodide uptake are of great interest. It has been shown that some flavonoids are able to increase iodide uptake and NIS expression in vitro, however, data in vivo are lacking. Flavonoids are polyhydroxyphenolic compounds, found in vegetables present in human diet, and have been shown not only to modulate NIS, but also thyroperoxidase (TPO), the key enzyme in thyroid hormones biosynthesis, besides having antiproliferative effect in thyroid cancer cell lines. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the effect of some flavonoids on thyroid iodide uptake in Wistar rats in vivo. Among the flavonoids tested, rutin was the only one able to increase thyroid iodide uptake, so we decided to evaluate the effect of this flavonoid on some aspects of thyroid hormones synthesis and metabolism. Rutin led to a slight reduction of serum T4 and T3 without changes in serum thyrotropin (TSH), and significantly increased hypothalamic, pituitary and brown adipose tissue type 2 deiodinase and decreased liver type 1 deiodinase activities. Moreover, rutin treatment increased thyroid iodide uptake probably due to the increment of NIS expression, which might be secondary to increased response to TSH, since TSH receptor expression was increased. Thus, rutin might be useful as an adjuvant in radioiodine therapy, since this flavonoid increased thyroid iodide uptake without greatly affecting thyroid function. PMID:24023911

  7. Thyroglossal Duct Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma and Synchronous Lingual Thyroid Atypia

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Timothy; Kim, Yohanan; Simental, Alfred; Inman, Jared C.

    2016-01-01

    Thyroglossal duct and lingual thyroid ectopic lesions are exceedingly rare synchronous findings. Papillary thyroid carcinoma of these ectopic thyroid sites is well understood but still a rare finding. This case points to some management nuances in regard to ectopic thyroid screening with imaging and also shows the effectiveness of minimally invasive transoral robotic surgery for lingual thyroid. PMID:27119036

  8. Expression of FOXP1 in mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma suggests a large tumor cell transformation and predicts a poorer prognosis in the positive thyroid patients.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wei; Li, Lei; Tang, Yuan; Zhang, Wen-yan; Liu, Wei-ping; Li, Gan-di

    2012-12-01

    The forkhead box protein P1 (FOXP1) expression resulted from chromosome translocation was found in MALT lymphoma, and its nuclear expression in diffuse large B cell lymphoma has been believed to be a poor prognostic factor. In our study, FOXP1 expression was investigated in its relationship to the occurrence of large tumor cells, clinical features, and prognosis in a series of 115 MALT lymphomas divided into two groups with or without the large tumor cells. All cases were morphologically reviewed, and FOXP1 expression was detected both in mRNA and protein levels by real-time PCR, immunochemical staining, and Western blot hybridization. All available clinical data were collected. In the MALT lymphoma with large cells, FOXP1 expression was higher at both mRNA (P = 0.008) and protein (P = 0.000) levels than that in group without large cells, and most large tumor cells showed FOXP1 positivity. It was also found that cases beyond Ann Arbor stage I have a higher FOXP1 expression rate than cases in stage I (P = 0.01), moreover, FOXP1-positive group has more plasmacytic differentiation (P = 0.025), deeper filtrating depth in digestive tract (P = 0.039), and a higher Ki67 proliferation index (P = 0.022). However, no statistical significance was identified in the involved anatomic sites and prognosis. Our data demonstrated the close relationship between FOXP1 nuclear expression and the occurrence of large tumor cells in MALT lymphoma, which suggested the possibility of large cell transformation of FOXP1-positive cases. And FOXP1 positivity was associated with enhanced invasion and proliferation ability of tumor cells. In the thyroid cases, the FOXP1 positivity showed a poorer prognosis (P = 0.043), but the significance was not found in the overall survival analysis (P = 0.1123). PMID:22736042

  9. Expression of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 and its phosphorylated form is significantly upregulated in patients with papillary thyroid cancer

    PubMed Central

    YAN, LI; LI, LI; LI, QINGHUAI; DI, WANG; SHEN, WEI; ZHANG, LINLEI; GUO, HAO

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the expression of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and phosphorylated STAT3 (pSTAT3) in tissues of papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) in comparison with the expression in adjacent normal tissues. The expression of STAT3, pSTAT3, fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) and vascular endothelial growth factor-C (VEGF-C) was examined in tissues of 42 cases of PTC and the adjacent normal tissues of 20 of the 42 PTC cases using immunohistochemistry and western blotting. The association between the expression levels and the clinicopathological features was analyzed. The expression of STAT3, pSTAT3, FGF2 and VEGF-C in the PTC tissues (76.2, 42.9, 81.0 and 73.8%, respectively) was significantly higher than that in the normal tissues (P<0.05). In the PTC tissues, the expression of STAT3 was linearly correlated with the levels of pSTAT3 and VEGF-C (P<0.05). In conclusion, STAT3 and pSTAT3 are significantly upregulated in PTC tissues, and may potentially be used as markers to screen for PTC with lymph node metastasis. PMID:26136959

  10. Thyroid lesions in children and adolescents after the Chernobyl disaster: Implications for the study of radiation tumorigenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Nikiforov, Y.; Fagin, J.A.; Gnepp, D.R.

    1996-01-01

    Eight years after the Chernobyl nuclear accident, the most obvious effect is manifested by an increase in the prevalence of thyroid gland diseases in the exposed children and adolescents. In this study, we describe a comparative analysis of epidemiological, clinical, and morphological features of 92 malignant and 59 benign thyroid lesions from patients 5-18 yr of age exposed to radiation in Belarus as a result of the Chernobyl disaster. All of them were operated at the same institution during the period from September 1991 through December 1992. The highest number of patients that subsequently developed thyroid carcinomas was in the group that was less that 1 yr of age at the time of Chernobyl, and this number decreased progressively through age 12 yr. Conversely, none of the patients with benign lesions only was less than 2 yr old at the time of the accident, and an exposure age of 5-6 yr was a threshold separating significant prevalence of malignant tumors in younger children from the more frequently benign lesions in older patients (P {le} 0.001). Fifty-two percent of the children with carcinomas and only 24% with benign lesions (P {le} 0.005) were residents of the Gomel region, which is the most contaminated in Belarus. The morphology of thyroid tissue adjacent to carcinomas showed a high prevalence of multinodular and diffuse changes, but not of adenomas or solitary adenomatoid nodules. There was a high prevalence of focal micropapillary hyperplasia with graded degrees of severity, which we hypothesize may correspond to precursors for papillary thyroid carcinoma in post-Chernobyl radiation-associated tumors. 36 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. Transport of thyroid hormones via the choroid plexus into the brain: the roles of transthyretin and thyroid hormone transmembrane transporters

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Samantha J.; Wijayagunaratne, Roshen C.; D'Souza, Damian G.; Darras, Veerle M.; Van Herck, Stijn L. J.

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid hormones are key players in regulating brain development. Thus, transfer of appropriate quantities of thyroid hormones from the blood into the brain at specific stages of development is critical. The choroid plexus forms the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier. In reptiles, birds and mammals, the main protein synthesized and secreted by the choroid plexus is a thyroid hormone distributor protein: transthyretin. This transthyretin is secreted into the cerebrospinal fluid and moves thyroid hormones from the blood into the cerebrospinal fluid. Maximal transthyretin synthesis in the choroid plexus occurs just prior to the period of rapid brain growth, suggesting that choroid plexus-derived transthyretin moves thyroid hormones from blood into cerebrospinal fluid just prior to when thyroid hormones are required for rapid brain growth. The structure of transthyretin has been highly conserved, implying strong selection pressure and an important function. In mammals, transthyretin binds T4 (precursor form of thyroid hormone) with higher affinity than T3 (active form of thyroid hormone). In all other vertebrates, transthyretin binds T3 with higher affinity than T4. As mammals are the exception, we should not base our thinking about the role of transthyretin in the choroid plexus solely on mammalian data. Thyroid hormone transmembrane transporters are involved in moving thyroid hormones into and out of cells and have been identified in many tissues, including the choroid plexus. Thyroid hormones enter the choroid plexus via thyroid hormone transmembrane transporters and leave the choroid plexus to enter the cerebrospinal fluid via either thyroid hormone transmembrane transporters or via choroid plexus-derived transthyretin secreted into the cerebrospinal fluid. The quantitative contribution of each route during development remains to be elucidated. This is part of a review series on ontogeny and phylogeny of brain barrier mechanisms. PMID:25784853

  12. Thyroid Hormone Regulation of Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Mullur, Rashmi; Liu, Yan-Yun

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid hormone (TH) is required for normal development as well as regulating metabolism in the adult. The thyroid hormone receptor (TR) isoforms, α and β, are differentially expressed in tissues and have distinct roles in TH signaling. Local activation of thyroxine (T4), to the active form, triiodothyronine (T3), by 5′-deiodinase type 2 (D2) is a key mechanism of TH regulation of metabolism. D2 is expressed in the hypothalamus, white fat, brown adipose tissue (BAT), and skeletal muscle and is required for adaptive thermogenesis. The thyroid gland is regulated by thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). In addition to TRH/TSH regulation by TH feedback, there is central modulation by nutritional signals, such as leptin, as well as peptides regulating appetite. The nutrient status of the cell provides feedback on TH signaling pathways through epigentic modification of histones. Integration of TH signaling with the adrenergic nervous system occurs peripherally, in liver, white fat, and BAT, but also centrally, in the hypothalamus. TR regulates cholesterol and carbohydrate metabolism through direct actions on gene expression as well as cross-talk with other nuclear receptors, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR), liver X receptor (LXR), and bile acid signaling pathways. TH modulates hepatic insulin sensitivity, especially important for the suppression of hepatic gluconeogenesis. The role of TH in regulating metabolic pathways has led to several new therapeutic targets for metabolic disorders. Understanding the mechanisms and interactions of the various TH signaling pathways in metabolism will improve our likelihood of identifying effective and selective targets. PMID:24692351

  13. NADPH oxidases: new actors in thyroid cancer?

    PubMed

    Ameziane-El-Hassani, Rabii; Schlumberger, Martin; Dupuy, Corinne

    2016-08-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a crucial substrate for thyroid peroxidase, a key enzyme involved in thyroid hormone synthesis. However, as a potent oxidant, H2O2 might also be responsible for the high level of oxidative DNA damage observed in thyroid tissues, such as DNA base lesions and strand breakages, which promote chromosomal instability and contribute to the development of tumours. Although the role of H2O2 in thyroid hormone synthesis is well established, its precise mechanisms of action in pathological processes are still under investigation. The NADPH oxidase/dual oxidase family are the only oxidoreductases whose primary function is to produce reactive oxygen species. As such, the function and expression of these enzymes are tightly regulated. Thyrocytes express dual oxidase 2, which produces most of the H2O2 for thyroid hormone synthesis. Thyrocytes also express dual oxidase 1 and NADPH oxidase 4, but the roles of these enzymes are still unknown. Here, we review the structure, expression, localization and function of these enzymes. We focus on their potential role in thyroid cancer, which is characterized by increased expression of these enzymes. PMID:27174022

  14. Adjacent Segment Pathology after Anterior Cervical Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Jae Yoon; Park, Jong-Beom; Seo, Hyoung-Yeon

    2016-01-01

    Anterior cervical fusion has become a standard of care for numerous pathologic conditions of the cervical spine. However, subsequent development of clinically significant disc disease at levels adjacent to fused discs is a serious long-term complication of this procedure. As more patients live longer after surgery, it is foreseeable that adjacent segment pathology (ASP) will develop in increasing numbers of patients. Also, ASP has been studied more intensively with the recent popularity of motion preservation technologies like total disc arthroplasty. The true nature and scope of ASP remains poorly understood. The etiology of ASP is most likely multifactorial. Various factors including altered biomechanical stresses, surgical disruption of soft tissue and the natural history of cervical disc disease contribute to the development of ASP. General factors associated with disc degeneration including gender, age, smoking and sports may play a role in the development of ASP. Postoperative sagittal alignment and type of surgery are also considered potential causes of ASP. Therefore, a spine surgeon must be particularly careful to avoid unnecessary disruption of the musculoligamentous structures, reduced risk of direct injury to the disc during dissection and maintain a safe margin between the plate edge and adjacent vertebrae during anterior cervical fusion. PMID:27340541

  15. Adjacent Segment Pathology after Anterior Cervical Fusion.

    PubMed

    Chung, Jae Yoon; Park, Jong-Beom; Seo, Hyoung-Yeon; Kim, Sung Kyu

    2016-06-01

    Anterior cervical fusion has become a standard of care for numerous pathologic conditions of the cervical spine. However, subsequent development of clinically significant disc disease at levels adjacent to fused discs is a serious long-term complication of this procedure. As more patients live longer after surgery, it is foreseeable that adjacent segment pathology (ASP) will develop in increasing numbers of patients. Also, ASP has been studied more intensively with the recent popularity of motion preservation technologies like total disc arthroplasty. The true nature and scope of ASP remains poorly understood. The etiology of ASP is most likely multifactorial. Various factors including altered biomechanical stresses, surgical disruption of soft tissue and the natural history of cervical disc disease contribute to the development of ASP. General factors associated with disc degeneration including gender, age, smoking and sports may play a role in the development of ASP. Postoperative sagittal alignment and type of surgery are also considered potential causes of ASP. Therefore, a spine surgeon must be particularly careful to avoid unnecessary disruption of the musculoligamentous structures, reduced risk of direct injury to the disc during dissection and maintain a safe margin between the plate edge and adjacent vertebrae during anterior cervical fusion. PMID:27340541

  16. Fine needle aspiration of the thyroid

    MedlinePlus

    Thyroid nodule fine needle aspirate biopsy; Biopsy - thyroid - skinny-needle; Skinny-needle thyroid biopsy ... cleaned. A thin needle is inserted into the thyroid, and a sample of thyroid cells and fluid ...

  17. Orbital metastasis as initial manifestation of a widespread papillary thyroid microcarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Pagsisihan, Daveric Ablis; Aguilar, Anthony Harvey Isabelo; Maningat, Ma Patricia Deanna Delfin

    2015-01-01

    Papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTCs), particularly microcarcinomas, rarely metastasise to the orbit. We report a case of a 49-year-old woman with a right supraorbital mass and unremarkable physical examination of the thyroid gland region. Orbital CT scan showed an expansile lytic lesion in the orbital plate of the frontal bone with a soft tissue component. An incision biopsy revealed metastatic well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma. Thyroid ultrasound was normal except for a subcentimetre nodule in the right lobe. The patient underwent total thyroidectomy where histopathology showed a subcentimetre follicular variant PTC. She subsequently received radioactive iodine therapy. Post-therapy whole body scan revealed metastatic thyroid tissues in the right orbital and posterior parietal, and left shoulder and hip areas. Although infrequent, metastatic thyroid carcinoma should be considered in patients with orbital metastasis even when neck examination is normal. In rare cases, this may be the initial manifestation of a widely metastatic papillary thyroid microcarcinoma. PMID:25819821

  18. HLA-D subregion expression by thyroid epithelium in autoimmune thyroid diseases and induced in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Todd, I; Pujol-Borrell, R; Abdul-Karim, B A; Hammond, L J; Feldmann, M; Bottazzo, G F

    1987-01-01

    Human thyroid epithelial cells (thyrocytes) express HLA Class II molecules in autoimmune thyroid diseases (ATD). Normal thyrocytes do not express Class II, but can be induced to do so by culture with interferon-gamma (gamma-IFN). We have examined HLA-D subregion expression in sections and monolayers of thyroid by indirect immunofluorescence using appropriate monoclonal antibodies. The results indicate that, in ATD, the incidence and intensity of Class II subregion expression by thyrocytes varies between patients, and follows the pattern DR greater than DP greater than DQ. The same hierarchy is observed in cultured normal thyrocytes treated with gamma-IFN: strong induction of Class II, and of DP and DQ in particular, requires relatively high concentrations of gamma-IFN or additional factors such as thyroid stimulating hormone. These findings suggest that HLA-D subregion expression by thyrocytes in on-going ATD is determined by the levels of disease related factors in the affected tissue. PMID:3117460

  19. The transcriptional repressor DREAM is involved in thyroid gene expression

    SciTech Connect

    D'Andrea, Barbara; Di Palma, Tina; Mascia, Anna; Motti, Maria Letizia; Viglietto, Giuseppe; Nitsch, Lucio; Zannini, Mariastella . E-mail: stella@szn.it

    2005-04-15

    Downstream regulatory element antagonistic modulator (DREAM) was originally identified in neuroendocrine cells as a calcium-binding protein that specifically binds to downstream regulatory elements (DRE) on DNA, and represses transcription of its target genes. To explore the possibility that DREAM may regulate the endocrine activity of the thyroid gland, we analyzed its mRNA expression in undifferentiated and differentiated thyroid cells. We demonstrated that DREAM is expressed in the normal thyroid tissue as well as in differentiated thyroid cells in culture while it is absent in FRT poorly differentiated cells. In the present work, we also show that DREAM specifically binds to DRE sites identified in the 5' untranslated region (UTR) of the thyroid-specific transcription factors Pax8 and TTF-2/FoxE1 in a calcium-dependent manner. By gel retardation assays we demonstrated that thapsigargin treatment increases the binding of DREAM to the DRE sequences present in Pax8 and TTF-2/Foxe1 5' UTRs, and this correlates with a significant reduction of the expression of these genes. Interestingly, in poorly differentiated thyroid cells overexpression of exogenous DREAM strongly inhibits Pax8 expression. Moreover, we provide evidence that a mutated form of DREAM unable to bind Ca{sup 2+} interferes with thyroid cell proliferation. Therefore, we propose that in thyroid cells DREAM is a mediator of the calcium-signaling pathway and it is involved in the regulation of thyroid cell function.

  20. Assessment of Diffuse Thyroid Disease by Strain Ratio in Ultrasound Elastography.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhi; Zhang, Haixian; Wang, Kun; Cui, Guanghe; Fu, Fengkui

    2015-11-01

    The goal of this study was to explore the value of strain ratio from real-time elastography in the semi-quantitative assessment of diffuse thyroid disease. Fifty-one patients with primary hyperthyroidism, 70 with Hashimoto's thyroiditis, 8 with subacute thyroiditis and 43 with normal healthy thyroids were recruited to measure the strain ratio (SR) of thyroid tissue and sternocleidomastoid muscle (on the same side of the thyroid). SR values of all groups were subjected to statistical analysis. The SRs (mean ± standard deviation) of patients with hyperthyroidism, Hashimoto's thyroiditis and subacute thyroiditis were 2.30 ± 1.08, 7.04 ± 7.74 and 24.09 ± 13.56, respectively. The SR of the control group was 1.76 ± 0.54. SR values ranked in ascending order were control group < hyperthyroidism group < Hashimoto's thyroiditis group < subacute thyroiditis group. There were statistically significant (p < 0.05) differences in thyroid hardness between groups with different diffuse thyroid diseases. SR values of the hyperthyroidism and control groups did not statistically differ (p > 0.05). It is feasible to assess diffuse thyroid disease with strain ratios obtained with ultrasound elastography. PMID:26306430

  1. Fish-eye sign in scintigraphy of benign thyroid nodule

    SciTech Connect

    Vaqueiro, M.; Gharib, H.; Wahner, H.W.

    1985-11-01

    An unusual scintigraphic appearance of a benign adenomatous nodule in the thyroid is described which showed a central core of functional tissue surrounded by a rim of nonfunctioning tissue and degenerative changes. The descriptive term fish-eye sign is proposed. The characterization of tissue by scintigraphy prior to fine needle aspiration may be helpful in its interpretation.

  2. Evaluation of the VE1 Antibody in Thyroid Cytology Using Ex Vivo Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma Specimens

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yon Hee; Yim, Hyunee; Lee, Yong-Hee; Han, Jae Ho; Lee, Kyi Beom; Lee, Jeonghun; Soh, Euy Young; Jeong, Seon-Yong; Kim, Jang-Hee

    2016-01-01

    Background: Recently, VE1, a monoclonal antibody against the BRAFV600E mutant protein, has been investigated in terms of its detection of the BRAFV600E mutation. Although VE1 immunostaining and molecular methods used to assess papillary thyroid carcinoma in surgical specimens are in good agreement, evaluation of VE1 in thyroid cytology samples is rarely performed, and its diagnostic value in cytology has not been well established. In present study, we explored VE1 immunoexpression in cytology samples from ex vivo papillary thyroid carcinoma specimens in order to minimize limitations of low cellularity and sampling/targeting errors originated from thyroid fineneedle aspiration and compared our results with those obtained using the corresponding papillary thyroid carcinoma tissues. Methods: The VE1 antibody was evaluated in 21 cases of thyroid cytology obtained directly from ex vivo thyroid specimens. VE1 immunostaining was performed using liquid-based cytology, and the results were compared with those obtained using the corresponding tissues. Results: Of 21 cases, 19 classic papillary thyroid carcinomas had BRAFV600E mutations, whereas two follicular variants expressed wild-type BRAF. VE1 immunoexpression varied according to specimen type. In detection of the BRAFV600E mutation, VE1 immunostaining of the surgical specimen exhibited 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity, whereas VE1 immunostaining of the cytology specimen exhibited only 94.7% sensitivity and 0% specificity. Conclusions: Our data suggest that VE1 immunostaining of a cytology specimen is less specific than that of a surgical specimen for detection of the BRAFV600E mutation, and that VE1 immunostaining of a cytology specimen should be further evaluated and optimized for clinical use. PMID:26657312

  3. Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis of the Thyroid with Multiple Cervical Lymph Node Involvement Accompanying Metastatic Thyroid Papillary Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Ceyran, A. Bahar; Şenol, Serkan; Bayraktar, Barış; Özkanlı, Şeyma; Cinel, Z. Leyla; Aydın, Abdullah

    2014-01-01

    A 37-year-old male case was admitted with goiter. Ultrasonography of thyroid showed a 5 cm cystic nodule in the left lobe with a 1.5 cm solid component. Fine needle aspiration biopsy revealed atypia of undetermined significance or follicular lesion. The patient was operated on. The pathological diagnosis was reported as papillary thyroid carcinoma. The immunohistochemical examination showed multiple foci of Langerhans cell histiocytosis involving both lobes. The patient died due to cardiac arrest with respiratory causes in the early postoperative period. Langerhans cell histiocytosis is a rare primary condition which involves abnormal clonal proliferation of Langerhans cells in various tissues and organs. Thyroid involvement is infrequently seen. Although the etiology is unknown, genetic components may be linked to the disease. It is also associated with a family history of thyroid disease. Papillary thyroid carcinoma is the most common malignant epithelial tumor of the thyroid gland. Langerhans cell histiocytosis presenting with papillary thyroid carcinoma is rare. The privilege of our case is langerhans cell histiocytosis of the thyroid with multiple cervical lymph node involvement accompanying cervical lymph node metastatic thyroid papillary carcinoma. PMID:25349760

  4. Langerhans cell histiocytosis of the thyroid with multiple cervical lymph node involvement accompanying metastatic thyroid papillary carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ceyran, A Bahar; Senol, Serkan; Bayraktar, Barış; Ozkanlı, Seyma; Cinel, Z Leyla; Aydın, Abdullah

    2014-01-01

    A 37-year-old male case was admitted with goiter. Ultrasonography of thyroid showed a 5 cm cystic nodule in the left lobe with a 1.5 cm solid component. Fine needle aspiration biopsy revealed atypia of undetermined significance or follicular lesion. The patient was operated on. The pathological diagnosis was reported as papillary thyroid carcinoma. The immunohistochemical examination showed multiple foci of Langerhans cell histiocytosis involving both lobes. The patient died due to cardiac arrest with respiratory causes in the early postoperative period. Langerhans cell histiocytosis is a rare primary condition which involves abnormal clonal proliferation of Langerhans cells in various tissues and organs. Thyroid involvement is infrequently seen. Although the etiology is unknown, genetic components may be linked to the disease. It is also associated with a family history of thyroid disease. Papillary thyroid carcinoma is the most common malignant epithelial tumor of the thyroid gland. Langerhans cell histiocytosis presenting with papillary thyroid carcinoma is rare. The privilege of our case is langerhans cell histiocytosis of the thyroid with multiple cervical lymph node involvement accompanying cervical lymph node metastatic thyroid papillary carcinoma. PMID:25349760

  5. Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma: A Malignant Tumor with Increased Antioxidant Defense Capacity.

    PubMed

    Rovcanin, Branislav R; Gopcevic, Kristina R; Kekic, Dusan Lj; Zivaljevic, Vladan R; Diklic, Aleksandar Dj; Paunovic, Ivan R

    2016-01-01

    Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is the commonest thyroid malignancy worldwide for which the radiation exposure is the most influential risk factor. The levels of oxidative stress in PTC are not well characterized on the tissue level. The objective of this study was to evaluate total oxidant status (TOS) and total antioxidant status (TAS) in PTC and benign goiter (BG) tissues and to examine their association with clinicopathological characteristics. Tumor and normal thyroid tissue samples were collected from 59 PTC patients, and goiter tissues were collected from 50 BG patients. TOS and TAS were quantified in the tissue homogenates by spectrophotometric assays. TOS values in tumor tissues did not differ significantly from normal and goiter tissues; however, PTC tissues have significantly higher TAS values than normal and goiter tissues. TOS values correlated with retrosternal growth in BG patients. The significant correlations were found between TOS and TAS values and thyroid function parameters. In 17 PTC patients with multiple tumor foci (multicentric phenotype), TAS values were significantly lower, compared to 42 patients with unicentric PTC. TAS and TOS are the most useful predictors of thyroid capsular invasion by PTC. The age, sex, body mass index, smoking, familial history of thyroid disease and nodule size did not influence TOS and TAS in PTC or BG patients. In conclusion, we show the profiles of TOS and TAS in PTC and BG tissues. Importantly, PTC tissues possess increased antioxidant capacity. The redox status influences the parameters of the thyroid function and tumor's biological behavior. PMID:27615359

  6. Thyroid Cancer Metabolism: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Kurren S; Tassone, Patrick; Hamilton, James; Hjelm, Nikolaus; Luginbuhl, Adam; Cognetti, David; Tuluc, Madalina; Martinez-Outschoorn, Ubaldo; Johnson, Jennifer M; Curry, Joseph M

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic dysregulation within the tumor microenvironment (TME) is critical to the process of tumorigenesis in various cancer types. Thyrocyte metabolism in papillary and anaplastic thyroid cancer, however, remains poorly characterized, and studies analyzing the role of multicompartment metabolism in thyrocyte oncogenesis are sparse. We present a review of the current knowledge on cellular metabolism in non-cancerous and cancerous thyroid tissues, focusing on the monocarboxylate transporters MCT1 and MCT4, and on a transporter of the outer mitochondrial membrane TOMM20. Understanding the metabolic phenotype of tumor cells and associated stromal cells in thyroid cancer can have profound implications on the use of biomarker staining in detecting subclinical cancer, imaging as it relates to expression of various transport proteins, and therapeutic interventions that manipulate this dysregulated tumor metabolism to halt tumorigenesis and eradicate the cancer. Future studies are required to confirm the prognostic significance of these biomarkers and their correlation with existing staging schemas such as the AGES, AMES, ATA and MACIS scoring systems. PMID:27213120

  7. Thyroid calcifications: a pictorial essay.

    PubMed

    Lacout, Alexis; Chevenet, Carole; Thariat, Juliette; Marcy, Pierre Yves

    2016-05-01

    Incidental diagnosis of thyroid nodules is very common on adult neck ultrasonography examination. Thyroid calcifications are encountered in benign thyroid nodules and goiters as well as in thyroid malignancy. Depiction and characterization of such calcifications within a thyroid nodule may be a key element in the thyroid nodule diagnosis algorithm. The goal of this paper is to display typical radio-pathological correlations of various thyroid pathologies of benign and malignant conditions in which the calcification type diagnosis can play a key role in the final diagnosis of the thyroid nodule. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Ultrasound 44:245-251, 2016. PMID:26891122

  8. Autoimmune Thyroid Diseases in Children

    PubMed Central

    Cappa, Marco; Bizzarri, Carla; Crea, Francesca

    2011-01-01

    The two major autoimmune thyroid diseases (ATDs) include Graves' disease (GD) and autoimmune thyroiditis (AT); both of which are characterized by infiltration of the thyroid by T and B cells reactive to thyroid antigens, by the production of thyroid autoantibodies and by abnormal thyroid function (hyperthyroidism in GD and hypothyroidism in AT). While the exact etiology of thyroid autoimmunity is not known, it is believed to develop when a combination of genetic susceptibility and environmental encounters leads to breakdown of tolerance. It is important to recognize thyroid dysfunction at an early stage by maintaining an appropriate index of suspicion. PMID:21209713

  9. Thyroid hormone replacement therapy.

    PubMed

    Wiersinga, W M

    2001-01-01

    Thyroid hormone replacement has been used for more than 100 years in the treatment of hypothyroidism, and there is no doubt about its overall efficacy. Desiccated thyroid contains both thyroxine (T(4)) and triiodothyronine (T(3)); serum T(3) frequently rises to supranormal values in the absorption phase, associated with palpitations. Liothyronine (T(3)) has the same drawback and requires twice-daily administration in view of its short half-life. Synthetic levothyroxine (L-T(4)) has many advantages: in view of its long half-life, once-daily administration suffices, the occasional missing of a tablet causes no harm, and the extrathyroidal conversion of T(4) into T(3) (normally providing 80% of the daily T(3) production rate) remains fully operative, which may have some protective value during illness. Consequently, L-T(4) is nowadays preferred, and its long-term use is not associated with excess mortality. The mean T(4) dose required to normalize serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) is 1.6 microg/kg per day, giving rise to serum free T(4) (fT(4)) concentrations that are slightly elevated or in the upper half of the normal reference range. The higher fT(4) values are probably due to the need to generate from T(4) the 20% of the daily T(3) production rate that otherwise is derived from the thyroid gland itself. The daily maintenance dose of T(4) varies widely between 75 and 250 microg. Assessment of the appropriate T(4) dose is by assay of TSH and fT(4), preferably in a blood sample taken before ingestion of the subsequent T(4) tablet. Dose adjustments can be necessary in pregnancy and when medications are used that are known to interfere with the absorption or metabolism of T(4). A new equilibrium is reached after approximately 6 weeks, implying that laboratory tests should not be done earlier. With a stable maintenance dose, an annual check-up usually suffices. Accumulated experience with L-T(4) replacement has identified some areas of concern. First, the

  10. Thyroid cancer around Chernobyl

    SciTech Connect

    Beral, V.

    1997-03-01

    The author`s presentation on thyroid cancer around Chernobyl will focus on four different things. First will be the time trends, or the pattern of thyroid cancer occurrence before and after the accident. It is now very well known that the increase in thyroid cancer in children in several areas has been unprecedented. Second, the author discusses thyroid cancer in general and patterns of thyroid cancer around the world before the Chernobyl accident, including differences by age and pathology. Third, the author presents relatively crude analyses of risk according to dose to the thyroid gland. And last, the author attempts to contrast the findings for thyroid cancer in relation to the internal radioiodine dose in Chernobyl studies with analyses of the effects of external dose on thyroid cancer incidence. The bottom line to be developed is similar to that presented by Elaine Ron with regard to effects of external dose on thyroid cancer. The similarities between the childhood finding from Chernobyl studies and external radiation studies appear more remarkable than the differences.

  11. Thyroid cancer in children.

    PubMed

    Rivera, Gabriel; Lugo-Vicente, Humberto

    2014-01-01

    Cancer of the thyroid gland in pediatric patients is rare and if left untreated spreads and become lethal. Thyroid nodules in pediatric patients are four times more likely being malignant than adult nodules. The incidence of thyroid cancer in children increases with age, sex, race and nodule size. Exposures to low level of head and neck irradiation at young age, cancer survivors, family history of thyroid cancer and iodine deficiency are specific risk factors to develop thyroid cancer. Thyroid cancer is subdivided into papillary, follicular and medullary thyroid cancer varying in histological characteristics. Children who present with thyroid nodules should undergo ultrasound and fine needle aspiration biopsy to evaluate malignant potential. If biopsy results are positive for malignancy best option is complete surgical resection of the thyroid gland with central lymph node dissection followed by radioactive iodine treatment. Surgeons need to take certain precaution to avoid postoperative complications like hypoparathyroidism or recurrent laryngeal nerve damage. Follow-up is essential in order to evaluate remission or recurrence. An excellent prognosis in pediatric patients is the result of such an aggressive approach that can be supported by the low complications rate and low recurrence rate following surgery. PMID:25470911

  12. Thyroid cancer in children.

    PubMed

    Rivera, Gabriel; Lugo-Vicente, Humberto

    2014-01-01

    Cancer of the thyroid gland in pediatric patients is rare and if left untreated spreads and become lethal. Thyroid nodules in pediatric patients are four times more likely being malignant than adult nodules. The incidence of thyroid cancer in children increases with age, sex, race and nodule size. Exposures to low level of head and neck irradiation at young age, cancer survivors, family history of thyroid cancer and iodine deficiency are specific risk factors to develop thyroid cancer. Thyroid cancer is subdivided into papillary, follicular and medullary thyroid cancer varying in histological characteristics. Children who present with thyroid nodules should undergo ultrasound and fine needle aspiration biopsy to evaluate malignant potential. If biopsy results are positive for malignancy best option is complete surgical resection of the thyroid gland with central lymph node dissection followed by radioactive iodine treatment. Surgeons need to take certain precaution to avoid postoperative complications like hypoparathyroidism or recurrent laryngeal nerve damage. Follow-up is essential in order to evaluate remission or recurrence. An excellent prognosis in pediatric patients is the result of such an aggressive approach that can be supported by the low complications rate and low recurrence rate following surgery. PMID:25508538

  13. Childhood Soft Tissue Sarcoma: Treatment Information

    MedlinePlus

    ... Germ Cell Tumors Kidney/Wilms Tumor Liver Cancer Neuroblastoma Osteosarcoma Rhabdomyosarcoma Skin Cancer Soft Tissue Sarcoma Thyroid ... Tumor Liver Cancer Lymphoma (Non-Hodgkin) Lymphoma (Hodgkin) Neuroblastoma Osteosarcoma Retinoblastoma Rhabdomyosarcoma Skin Cancer Soft Tissue Sarcoma ...

  14. Imaging of the thyroid in benign and malignant disease.

    PubMed

    Intenzo, Charles M; Dam, Hung Q; Manzone, Timothy A; Kim, Sung M

    2012-01-01

    The thyroid gland was one of the first organs imaged in nuclear medicine, beginning in the 1940s. Thyroid scintigraphy is based on a specific phase or prelude to thyroid hormone synthesis, namely trapping of iodide or iodide analogues (ie, Tc99m pertechnetate), and in the case of radioactive iodine, eventual incorporation into thyroid hormone synthesis within the thyroid follicle. Moreover, thyroid scintigraphy is a reflection of the functional state of the gland, as well as the physiological state of any structure (ie, nodule) within the gland. Scintigraphy, therefore, provides information that anatomical imaging (ie, ultrasound, computed tomography [CT], magnetic resonance imaging) lacks. Thyroid scintigraphy plays an essential role in the management of patients with benign or malignant thyroid disease. In the former, the structure or architecture of the gland is best demonstrated by anatomical or cross-sectional imaging, such as ultrasound, CT, or even magnetic resonance imaging. The role of scintigraphy, however, is to display the functional state of the thyroid gland or that of a clinically palpable nodule within the gland. Such information is most useful in (1) patients with thyrotoxicosis, and (2) those patients whose thyroid nodules would not require tissue sampling if their nodules are hyperfunctioning. In neoplastic thyroid disease, thyroid scintigraphy is often standard of care for postthyroidectomy remnant evaluation and in subsequent thyroid cancer surveillance. Planar radioiodine imaging, in the form of the whole-body scan (WBS) and posttherapy scan (PTS), is a fundamental tool in differentiated thyroid cancer management. Continued controversy remains over the utility of WBS in a variety of patient risk groups and clinical scenarios. Proponents on both sides of the arguments compare WBS with PTS, thyroglobulin, and other imaging modalities with differing results. The paucity of large, randomized, prospective studies results in dependence on consensus

  15. Primary thyroid leiomyosarcoma: A case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    ZOU, ZHEN-YU; NING, NING; LI, SONG-YAN; LI, JIE; DU, XIAO-HUI; LI, RONG

    2016-01-01

    Primary thyroid leiomyosarcoma (LMS) is an extremely rare soft tissue cancer; only 22 cases have been reported in the literature to date. In the current study, the case of an 83-year-old male patient who presented with a neck mass that had grown rapidly over the previous 3 months is reported. The patient underwent thyroid lobectomy twice and two cycles of immunotherapy for the treatment of primary thyroid LMS; however, he succumbed to the disease 5 months after the second surgery. An accurate diagnosis of primary thyroid LMS is difficult, as the disease is often misdiagnosed as anaplastic carcinoma, and requires the combined assessment of clinical, imaging and pathological data. Diagnosis of the current patient with primary thyroid LMS and a comprehensive review of the relevant literature are presented herein. PMID:27313727

  16. Thyroid Growth and Cancer.

    PubMed

    Williams, Dillwyn

    2015-09-01

    It is proposed that most papillary thyroid cancers originate in infancy and childhood, based on the early rise in sporadic thyroid carcinoma incidence, the pattern of radiation-induced risk (highest in those exposed as infants), and the high prevalence of sporadic papillary thyroid cancers in children and adolescents (ultrasound screening after the Fukushima accident). The early origin can be linked to the growth pattern of follicular cells, with a high mitotic rate in infancy falling to very low replacement levels in adult life. The cell of origin of thyroid cancers, the differentiated follicular cell, has a limited growth potential. Unlike cancers originating in stem cells, loss of the usually tight link between differentiation and replicative senescence is required for immortalisation. It is suggested that this loss distinguishes larger clinically significant papillary thyroid cancers from micro-papillary thyroid cancers of little clinical significance. Papillary carcinogenesis can then be divided into 3 stages: (1) initiation, the first mutation in the carcinogenic cascade, for radiation-induced papillary thyroid cancers usually a RET rearrangement, (2) progression, acquisition of the additional mutations needed for low-grade malignancy, and (3) escape, further mutations giving immortality and a higher net growth rate. Most papillary thyroid cancers will not have achieved full immortality by adulthood, and remain as so-called micro-carcinomas with a very low growth rate. The use of the term 'cancer' to describe micro-papillary thyroid cancers in older patients encourages overtreatment and alarms patients. Invasive papillary thyroid tumours show a spectrum of malignancy, which at its lowest poses no threat to life. The treatment protocols and nomenclature for small papillary carcinomas need to be reconsidered in the light of the new evidence available, the continuing discovery of smaller lesions, and the model of thyroid carcinogenesis proposed. PMID:26558233

  17. Thyroid Growth and Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Dillwyn

    2015-01-01

    It is proposed that most papillary thyroid cancers originate in infancy and childhood, based on the early rise in sporadic thyroid carcinoma incidence, the pattern of radiation-induced risk (highest in those exposed as infants), and the high prevalence of sporadic papillary thyroid cancers in children and adolescents (ultrasound screening after the Fukushima accident). The early origin can be linked to the growth pattern of follicular cells, with a high mitotic rate in infancy falling to very low replacement levels in adult life. The cell of origin of thyroid cancers, the differentiated follicular cell, has a limited growth potential. Unlike cancers originating in stem cells, loss of the usually tight link between differentiation and replicative senescence is required for immortalisation. It is suggested that this loss distinguishes larger clinically significant papillary thyroid cancers from micro-papillary thyroid cancers of little clinical significance. Papillary carcinogenesis can then be divided into 3 stages: (1) initiation, the first mutation in the carcinogenic cascade, for radiation-induced papillary thyroid cancers usually a RET rearrangement, (2) progression, acquisition of the additional mutations needed for low-grade malignancy, and (3) escape, further mutations giving immortality and a higher net growth rate. Most papillary thyroid cancers will not have achieved full immortality by adulthood, and remain as so-called micro-carcinomas with a very low growth rate. The use of the term ‘cancer’ to describe micro-papillary thyroid cancers in older patients encourages overtreatment and alarms patients. Invasive papillary thyroid tumours show a spectrum of malignancy, which at its lowest poses no threat to life. The treatment protocols and nomenclature for small papillary carcinomas need to be reconsidered in the light of the new evidence available, the continuing discovery of smaller lesions, and the model of thyroid carcinogenesis proposed. PMID

  18. Cadmium effects on the thyroid gland.

    PubMed

    Jancic, Snezana A; Stosic, Bojan Z

    2014-01-01

    Cadmium has been listed as one of the 126 priority pollutants and a category I carcinogen. Carcinogenic effects of cadmium on the lungs, testicles, and prostate are widely recognized, but there has been insufficient research on the effect of cadmium on the thyroid gland. Cadmium has the affinity to accumulate not only in the liver, kidneys, and pancreas but also in the thyroid gland. It has been established that cadmium blood concentration correlates positively with its accumulation in the thyroid gland. Women of fertile age have higher cadmium blood and urine concentrations than men. In spite of its redox inertia, cadmium brings about oxidative stress and damage to the tissue by indirect mechanisms. Mitochondria are considered to be the main intracellular targets for cadmium. Colloid cystic goiter, adenomatoid follicular hyperplasia with low-grade dysplasia and thyroglobulin hypo- and asecretion, and parafollicular cell diffuse and nodular hyperplasia and hypertrophy are often found in chronic cadmium toxicity. PMID:24388198

  19. Levels of histone acetylation in thyroid tumors.

    PubMed

    Puppin, Cinzia; Passon, Nadia; Lavarone, Elisa; Di Loreto, Carla; Frasca, Francesco; Vella, Veronica; Vigneri, Riccardo; Damante, Giuseppe

    2011-08-12

    Histone acetylation is a major mechanism to regulate gene transcription. This post-translational modification is modified in cancer cells. In various tumor types the levels of acetylation at several histone residues are associated to clinical aggressiveness. By using immunohistochemistry we show that acetylated levels of lysines at positions 9-14 of H3 histone (H3K9-K14ac) are significantly higher in follicular adenomas (FA), papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTC), follicular thyroid carcinomas (FTC) and undifferentiated carcinomas (UC) than in normal tissues (NT). Similar data have been obtained when acetylated levels of lysine 18 of H3 histone (H3K18ac) were evaluated. In this case, however, no difference was observed between NT and UC. When acetylated levels of lysine 12 of H4 histone (H4K12ac) were evaluated, only FA showed significantly higher levels in comparison with NT. These data indicate that modification histone acetylation is an early event along thyroid tumor progression and that H3K18 acetylation is switched off in the transition between differentiated and undifferentiated thyroid tumors. By using rat thyroid cell lines that are stably transfected with doxycyclin-inducible oncogenes, we show that the oncoproteins RET-PTC, RAS and BRAF increase levels of H3K9-K14ac and H3K18ac. In the non-tumorigenic rat thyroid cell line FRTL-5, TSH increases levels of H3K18ac. However, this hormone decreases levels of H3K9-K14ac and H4K12ac. In conclusion, our data indicate that neoplastic transformation and hormonal stimulation can modify levels of histone acetylation in thyroid cells. PMID:21763277

  20. Decitabine in Treating Patients With Metastatic Papillary Thyroid Cancer or Follicular Thyroid Cancer Unresponsive to Iodine I 131

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-08-20

    Recurrent Thyroid Cancer; Stage IVA Follicular Thyroid Cancer; Stage IVA Papillary Thyroid Cancer; Stage IVB Follicular Thyroid Cancer; Stage IVB Papillary Thyroid Cancer; Stage IVC Follicular Thyroid Cancer; Stage IVC Papillary Thyroid Cancer

  1. h-prune affects anaplastic thyroid cancer invasion and metastasis.

    PubMed

    Nambu, Junko; Kobayashi, Tsuyoshi; Hashimoto, Masakazu; Tashiro, Hirotaka; Sugino, Keizo; Shimamoto, Fumio; Kikuchi, Akira; Ohdan, Hideki

    2016-06-01

    Anaplastic thyroid cancer is one of the most aggressive human malignancies and is resistant to multimodal treatments. The expression of h-prune, the human homologue of Drosophila prune, has been reported to be correlated with progression and aggressiveness in various cancers including breast, colorectal and pancreatic cancers. We examined the role of h-prune in anaplastic thyroid cancer cell migration, invasion and metastasis. Immunohistochemical analysis of h-prune was performed with 15 surgically resected specimens of anaplastic thyroid cancers. To investigate cell motility, Boyden chamber, wound healing and matrigel invasion assays were performed using cells from anaplastic thyroid cancer cell lines. A murine orthotopic thyroid cancer model was used to investigate metastatic ability. In the immunohistochemical analysis, only weak focal or no staining of h-prune was observed in non-tumor tissue. In contrast, diffuse staining of h-prune was observed in anaplastic thyroid cancer and lymph node metastasis samples. Both inhibition of h-prune phosphodiesterase activity with dipyridamole and small interfering RNA for h-prune suppressed 8505C and KTC-3 cell motility. In addition, treatment with dipyridamole and decreased expression of h-prune suppressed tumor invasion and pulmonary metastasis in a NOD/Shi-scid, IL-2Rγnull (NOG) mouse orthotopic thyroid cancer model. In conclusion, h-prune is frequently expressed in anaplastic thyroid cancer cells and lymph nodes metastasis, and promotes migration and invasion of anaplastic thyroid cancer cells and metastasis in an anaplastic thyroid cancer model. Thus, h-prune shows promise as a targeting candidate against anaplastic thyroid cancer. PMID:27109060

  2. [Ultrasound of the Thyroid].

    PubMed

    Dietrich, C F; Bojunga, J

    2016-02-01

    Thyroid nodules and thyroid abnormalities are common findings in the general population. Ultrasonography is the most important imaging tool for diagnosing thyroid disease. In the majority of cases a correct diagnosis can already be made in synopsis of the sonographic together with clinical findings and basal thyroid hormone parameters and an appropriate therapy can be initiated thereafter. A differentiation of hormonally active vs. inactive nodes, and in particular benign vs. malignant nodules is sonographically, however, not reliably possible. In this context, radioscanning has its clinical significance predominantly in diagnosing hormonal activity of thyroid nodules. Efforts of the past years aimed to improve sonographic risk stratification to predict malignancy of thyroid nodules through standardized diagnostic assessment of evaluated risk factors in order to select patients, who need further diagnostic work up. According to the "Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System" (BI-RADS), "Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data Systems" (TI-RADS) giving standardized categories with rates of malignancy were evaluated as a basis for further clinical management. Recent technological developments, such as elastography, also showpromising data and could gain entrance into clinical practice. The ultrasound-guided fineneedle aspiration is the key element in the diagnosis of sonographically suspicious thyroid nodules and significantly contributes to the diagnosis of malignancy versus benignity. PMID:26859730

  3. Thyroid imaging studies

    SciTech Connect

    Drew, H.H.; LaFrance, N.D.; Chen, J.J.S.

    1987-06-01

    This is the second in a series of Continuing Education articles related to functional/quantitative imaging techniques. After reading this article, the reader should be able to: 1) discuss the clinical applications of thyroid imaging; 2) understand the relationship of related thyroid tests; and 3) recognize the pitfalls and problems associated with this procedure.

  4. Thyroid ultrasound (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... is a sound wave picture of the thyroid gland taken by a hand-held instrument and translated to a 2-dimensional picture on a monitor. It is used in diagnosis of tumors, cysts or goiters of the thyroid, and is a painless, no-risk procedure.

  5. Secretome-based identification and characterization of potential biomarkers in thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Kashat, Lawrence; So, Anthony K-C; Masui, Olena; Wang, X Simon; Cao, Jun; Meng, Xianwang; Macmillan, Christina; Ailles, Laurie E; Siu, K W Michael; Ralhan, Ranju; Walfish, Paul G

    2010-11-01

    In search of thyroid cancer biomarkers, proteins secreted by thyroid cancer cell lines, papillary-derived TPC-1 and anaplastic-derived CAL62, were analyzed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Of 46 high-confidence identifications, 6 proteins were considered for verification in thyroid cancer patients' tissue and blood. The localization of two proteins, nucleolin and prothymosin-α (PTMA), was confirmed in TPC-1 and CAL62 cells by confocal microscopy and immunohistochemically in xenografts of TPC-1 cells in NOD/SCID/γ mice and human thyroid cancers (48 tissues). Increased nuclear and cytoplasmic expression of PTMA was observed in anaplastic compared to papillary and poorly differentiated carcinomas. Nuclear expression of nucleolin was observed in all subtypes of thyroid carcinomas, along with faint cytoplasmic expression in anaplastic cancers. Importantly, PTMA, nucleolin, clusterin, cysteine-rich angiogenic inducer 61, enolase 1, and biotinidase were detected in thyroid cancer patients' sera, warranting future analysis to confirm their potential as blood-based thyroid cancer markers. In conclusion, we demonstrated the potential of secretome analysis of thyroid cancer cell lines to identify novel proteins that can be independently verified in cell lines, xenografts, tumor tissues, and blood samples of thyroid cancer patients. These observations support their potential utility as minimally invasive biomarkers for thyroid carcinomas and their application in management of these diseases upon future validation. PMID:20873772

  6. Role of Nuclear Medicine in the Diagnosis of Benign Thyroid Diseases.

    PubMed

    Garberoglio, Sara; Testori, Ornella

    2016-01-01

    A deep understanding of thyroid pathophysiology is the basis for diagnosing and treating benign thyroid diseases with radioactive materials, known as radiopharmaceuticals, which are introduced into the body by injection or orally. After the radiotracer administration, the patient becomes the emitting source, and several devices have been studied to detect and capture these emissions (gamma or beta-negative) and transform them into photons, parametric images, numbers and molecular information. Thyroid scintigraphy is the only technique that allows the assessment of thyroid regional function and, therefore, the detection of areas of autonomously functioning thyroid nodules. Scintigraphy visualizes the distribution of active thyroid tissue and displays the differential accumulation of radionuclides in the investigated cells, thus providing a functional map. Moreover, this technique is a fundamental tool in the clinical and surgical management of thyroid diseases, including: single thyroid nodules with a suppressed thyroid-stimulating hormone level, for which fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) is used to identify hot nodules; multinodular goiters, especially larger ones, to identify cold or indeterminate areas requiring FNAB and hot areas that do not need cytologic evaluation, and to evaluate mediastinal extension; the diagnosis of ectopic thyroid tissue; subclinical hyperthyroidism to identify occult hyperfunctioning tissue; follicular lesions to identify a functioning cellular adenoma that could be benign, although such nodules are mostly cold on scintigraphy; to distinguish low-uptake from high-uptake thyrotoxicosis, and to determine eligibility for radioiodine therapy. PMID:27003181

  7. Tissue-Specific Inactivation of Type 2 Deiodinase Reveals Multilevel Control of Fatty Acid Oxidation by Thyroid Hormone in the Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Fonseca, Tatiana L.; Werneck-De-Castro, Joao Pedro; Castillo, Melany; Bocco, Barbara M.L.C.; Fernandes, Gustavo W.; McAninch, Elizabeth A.; Ignacio, Daniele L.; Moises, Caio C.S.; Ferreira, Alexandre; Gereben, Balázs

    2014-01-01

    Type 2 deiodinase (D2) converts the prohormone thyroxine (T4) to the metabolically active molecule 3,5,3′-triiodothyronine (T3), but its global inactivation unexpectedly lowers the respiratory exchange rate (respiratory quotient [RQ]) and decreases food intake. Here we used FloxD2 mice to generate systemically euthyroid fat-specific (FAT), astrocyte-specific (ASTRO), or skeletal-muscle-specific (SKM) D2 knockout (D2KO) mice that were monitored continuously. The ASTRO-D2KO mice also exhibited lower diurnal RQ and greater contribution of fatty acid oxidation to energy expenditure, but no differences in food intake were observed. In contrast, the FAT-D2KO mouse exhibited sustained (24 h) increase in RQ values, increased food intake, tolerance to glucose, and sensitivity to insulin, all supporting greater contribution of carbohydrate oxidation to energy expenditure. Furthermore, FAT-D2KO animals that were kept on a high-fat diet for 8 weeks gained more body weight and fat, indicating impaired brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis and/or inability to oxidize the fat excess. Acclimatization of FAT-D2KO mice at thermoneutrality dissipated both features of this phenotype. Muscle D2 does not seem to play a significant metabolic role given that SKM-D2KO animals exhibited no phenotype. The present findings are unique in that they were obtained in systemically euthyroid animals, revealing that brain D2 plays a dominant albeit indirect role in fatty acid oxidation via its sympathetic control of BAT activity. D2-generated T3 in BAT accelerates fatty acid oxidation and protects against diet-induced obesity. PMID:24487027

  8. [Pregnancy and thyroid disorders].

    PubMed

    Bricaire, L; Groussin, L

    2015-03-01

    Thyroid disorders are frequent among women, with a few specificities during pregnancy. Recent guidelines from the Endocrine Society concerning the management of thyroid disorders during pregnancy have been published, one year after the guidelines published by the American Thyroid Association. Iodine deficiency in France can increase the development of thyroid disorders during pregnancy. Hypothyroidism during pregnancy must be correctly substituted to avoid fetal complications. Maternal hyperthyroidism should be explored and monitored following a specific defined modality to discuss the necessity of a treatment and to prevent maternal and fetal complications. In case of thyroid nodes or cancer, the follow-up will not differ from non-pregnant women. However in most of cases, involvement of a multidisciplinay team might be necessary. PMID:25194220

  9. Autoimmunity against thyroid hormones.

    PubMed

    Sakata, S

    1994-01-01

    The presence of thyroid hormone autoantibodies (THAA) is a common phenomenon. More than 270 cases have been reported by the end of 1993 involving not only thyroidal but also nonthyroidal disorders. Clinically, THAA in a patient's serum produces variation in thyroid hormone metabolism and, in particular, may interfere with the radioimmunoassay (RIA) results of total or free thyroid hormone measurements, which can cause unusually high or low values of the hormones depending on the B/F separation method used. This in vitro interference can give clinicians confusing information about the patient's thyroid state. As a result, the patient may receive inappropriate treatment from physicians who are unaware of this disorder. The presence of THAA has been reported not only in humans but also in dogs, chickens, and rats. In this review article, clinical features of THAA and the mechanism of autoantibody production are discussed. PMID:7535535

  10. Spectrometric measurements of radioisotope activity in the thyroid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osko, Jakub; Golnik, Natalia

    2008-01-01

    The results of measurements of iodine 131I and technetium 99mTc uptake in human thyroid, performed with scintillation or semiconductor detectors can exhibit a considerable uncertainty due to the differences in the thyroid position in the patient's neck. Basic physical laws of radiation attenuation and scattering show that the final shape of the registered spectrum should depends on the thyroid position in the neck and on the thickness of the tissue between the thyroid and the detector. The use of the spectrometric measuring method is proposed in this work for determination of the iodine gathering effective depth. The performed studies showed that the measurements results can be used for improving the accuracy of the iodine 131I activity in thyroid measurements and for selection of the group of patients for whom the anatomical position of the thyroid or the spatial distribution of the iodine gathering is much different than the standard one, assumed during the calibration of the counters. The results of the measurements were in agreement with Monte-Carlo calculations of the detector response. The method was used in routine monitoring of occupationally exposed persons, using the thyroid counter. A group of six persons with measurable internal contamination was selected and the measurements were performed on consecutive days, so the results could be registered at decreasing iodine activities in the thyroid. Larger series of measurements were performed at Brodno Regional Hospital in Warsaw, for a group of 95 patients after diagnostic administration of iodine 131I.

  11. The Role of Thyroid Hormone in Testicular Development and Function

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Márcia Santos; Wajner, Simone Magagnin; Maia, Ana Luiza

    2009-01-01

    Thyroid hormone is a critical regulator of growth, development and metabolism in virtually all tissues, and altered thyroid status affects many organs and systems. Although for many years testis has been regarded as a thyroid hormone unresponsive organ, it is now evident that thyroid hormone plays an important role in testicular development and function. A considerable amount of data shows that thyroid hormone influences steroidogenesis as well as spermatogenesis. The involvement of triiodothyronine (T3) in the control of Sertoli cell proliferation and functional maturation is widely accepted, as well as its role in postnatal Leydig cell differentiation and steroidogenesis. The presence of thyroid hormone receptors in testicular cells throughout development and in adulthood implies that T3 may act directly on these cells to bring about its effects. Several recent studies have employed different methodologies and techniques in an attempt to understand the mechanisms underlying thyroid hormone effects on testicular cells. The current review aims at presenting an updated picture of the recent advances made regarding the role of thyroid hormones in male gonadal function. PMID:18728126

  12. Differentiation between Graves' disease and painless thyroiditis by diffusion-weighted imaging, thyroid iodine uptake, thyroid scintigraphy and serum parameters

    PubMed Central

    MENG, ZHAOWEI; ZHANG, GUIZHI; SUN, HAORAN; TAN, JIAN; YU, CHUNSHUN; TIAN, WEIJUN; LI, WEIDONG; YANG, ZHIQIANG; ZHU, MEI; HE, QING; ZHANG, YUJIE; HAN, SHUGAO

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) in diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), thyroid radioactive iodine uptake (RAIU), thyroid scintigraphy and thyrotropin receptor antibody (TRAb) levels in the differential diagnosis between Graves' disease (GD) and painless thyroiditis (PT). A total of 102 patients with GD and 37 patients with PT were enrolled in the study. DWI was obtained with a 3.0-T magnetic resonance scanner, and ADC values were calculated. RAIU and thyroid scintigraphy were performed. Tissue samples were obtained from patients with GD (6 cases) following thyroidectomy, and from patients with PT (2 cases) following biopsy. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were drawn, optimal cut-off values were selected, and the sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) were assessed. It was found that the ADC, TRAb and RAIU were significantly higher in GD than in PT (P<0.05). ROC curves showed areas under the curves for RAIU, ADC and TRAb that were >0.900. RAIU was the reference method. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, PPV and NPV were 96.078, 91.892, 95.000, 97.059 and 89.474% for ADC, and 88.235, 75.676, 84.892, 90.909 and 70.000% for TRAb, after the optimal thresholds of 1.837×10−3 mm2/sec and 1.350 IU/ml were determined respectively. Histopathology showed that tissue cellularity in PT was much higher than in GD due to massive lymphocytic infiltration. The results of the present study indicate that RAIU, ADC and TRAb are of diagnostic value for differentiating between GD and PT. DWI has great potential for thyroid pathophysiological imaging because it reflects differences in tissue cellularity between GD and PT. PMID:26136954

  13. In vivo thyroid vibro-acoustography: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utility of a noninvasive ultrasound-based method, vibro-acoustography (VA), for thyroid imaging and determine the feasibility and challenges of VA in detecting nodules in thyroid. Methods Our study included two parts. First, in an in vitro study, experiments were conducted on a number of excised thyroid specimens randomly taken from autopsy. Three types of images were acquired from most of the specimens: X-ray, B-mode ultrasound, and vibro-acoustography. The second and main part of the study includes results from performing VA and B-mode ultrasound imaging on 24 human subjects with thyroid nodules. The results were evaluated and compared qualitatively. Results In vitro vibro-acoustography images displayed soft tissue structures, microcalcifications, cysts and nodules with high contrast and no speckle. In this group, all of US proven nodules and all of X-ray proven calcifications of thyroid tissues were detected by VA. In vivo results showed 100% of US proven calcifications and 91% of the US detected nodules were identified by VA, however, some artifacts were present in some cases. Conclusions In vitro and in vivo VA images show promising results for delineating the detailed structure of the thyroid, finding nodules and in particular calcifications with greater clarity compare to US. Our findings suggest that, with further development, VA may be a suitable imaging modality for clinical thyroid imaging. PMID:23530993

  14. Tumour suppressive function of HUWE1 in thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Ma, Weiyuan; Zhao, Pengxin; Zang, Leilei; Zhang, Kaili; Liao, Haiying; Hu, Zhigang

    2016-09-01

    HUWE1 (the HECT, UBA, and WWE domain-containing protein 1) is an ubiquitin E3 ligase which plays an important role in coordinating diverse cellular processes. It has been found to be dysregulated in various cancer type and its functions in tumorigenesis remain controversial. The potential tumour suppressive role of HUWE1 in thyroid cancer development was investigated by knocking down HUWE1 in three authentic thyroid cancer cell lines, WRO, FTC133 and BCPAP, followed by various functional assays, including cell proliferation, scratch wound healing and invasion assays. Xenograft experiment was performed to examine in vivo tumour suppressive properties of HUWE1. Small-interfering RNA mediated knockdown of HUWE1 promoted cell proliferation, cell migration and invasion in thyroid cancer cells. Overexpression of HUWE1 conferred partial sensitivity to chemo drugs interfering with DNA replication in these cells. Moreover, HUWE1 was found to be down-regulated in human thyroid cancer tissues compared with matched normal thyroid tissues. In addition, overexpression of HUWE1 significantly inhibited tumour growth in vivo using xenograft mouse models. Mechanistic investigation revealed that HUWE1 can regulate p53 protein level through its stabilization. HUWE1 functions as a tumour suppressor in thyroid cancer progression, which may represent a novel therapeutic target for prevention or intervention of thyroid cancer. PMID:27581931

  15. Correlation of normal thyroid ultrasonography with thyroid tests

    PubMed Central

    Kaya, Cafer; Üçler, Rıfkı; Dirikoç, Ahmet; Ersoy, Reyhan; Çakır, Bekir

    2015-01-01

    Background Thyroid disorders are frequently seen in the community. Thyroid ultrasonography (US) is commonly used in the diagnosis of thyroid diseases. The relationship between heterogeneous echogenicity of thyroid gland and thyroid tests are well known. Methods The aim of this study is to evaluate the correlation of normal US with the thyroid tests. A total of 681 individuals were enrolled in the study. Individuals were separated into two groups as normal (group 1) and hypoechoic (group 2) according to the echogenicity in US. Subjects with nodular thyroid lesions were excluded from the study. Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free T4 (fT4), thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb) and anti-thyroglobulin antibody (TgAb) values were recorded in both groups and thyroid stimulating hormone receptor antibody (TRAb) was recorded in individuals with low TSH. Results 86.1% of individuals in group 1 had normal TSH, 93.7% had normal thyroid antibodies and in 77.6% of individuals, all thyroid tests performed were normal. In the 6.9% of the group 2, all reviewed thyroid tests were normal (P<0.001). Conclusions Our study shows that US is correlated with normal thyroid function tests and is a valuable tool in the prediction of normal thyroid function. PMID:26435920

  16. Role of the Thyroid System in Myelination and Neural Connectivity.

    PubMed

    Calzà, Laura; Fernández, Mercedes; Giardino, Luciana

    2015-07-01

    The role of thyroid hormone on brain development is dramatically illustrated by "cretinism," a severe mental retardation due to iodine deficiency and maternal hypothyroidism during gestation. In the last decades, the molecular bases of the cellular action of thyroid hormone in the nervous tissue have been at least partially elucidated, and the emerged picture is much more complex than expected. In this article, the main mechanisms determining thyroid hormone availability, nuclear and membrane receptor occupancy and downstream action, gene expression, and nongenomic mechanism are reviewed, focusing on myelination and myelin turnover. PMID:26140723

  17. Thyroid diseases in elderly.

    PubMed

    Faggiano, A; Del Prete, M; Marciello, F; Marotta, V; Ramundo, V; Colao, A

    2011-09-01

    Thyroid diseases are the commonest endocrine disorders in the general population. In most of the cases, they are consistent with benign conditions which may be asymptomatic or affect people at a variable extent. Since they often represent chronic conditions their prevalence increases by age and reaches in elderly the highest rates. Thyroid nodules are a common clinical finding. Most subjects with thyroid nodules have few or no symptoms. Thyroid nodules are more commonly non-functioning. However, in elderly, toxic multinodular goiter is the most frequent cause of spontaneous hyperthyroidism and often, it emerges insidiously from nontoxic multinodular goiter. Although autoimmune thyroiditis is the most common cause of hypothyroidism in elderly subjects, other causes, such as drugs, neck radiotherapy, thyroidectomy or radioiodine therapy, are frequently observed among these subjects. A small subset of medications including dopamine agonists, glucocorticoids and somatostatin analogs affect thyroid function through suppression of TSH. Other medications that may affect TSH levels are metformin, antiepileptic medications, lithium carbonate and iodine-containing medications. Other drugs can alter T4 absorption, T4 and T3 transport in serum and metabolism of T4 and T3, such as proton-pump inhibitors and antacids, estrogens, mitotane and fluorouracil, phenobarbital and rifampin. Amiodarone administration is associated with thyrotoxicosis or hypothyroidism. Thyroid cancer has similar characteristics in elderly as in general population, however the rate of aggressive forms such as the anaplastic histotype, is higher in older than younger subjects. Diagnosis of thyroid diseases includes a comprehensive medical history and physical examination and appropriate laboratory tests. A correct diagnosis of thyroid diseases in the elderly is crucial for proper treatment, which consists in the removal of medications that may alter thyroid function, in the use of levo-thyroxine in case of

  18. A Case Report of Thyroid Carcinoma Confined to Ovary and Concurrently Occult in the Thyroid: Is Conservative Treatment Always Advised?

    PubMed Central

    Brusca, Nunzia; Del Duca, Susanna Carlotta; Salvatori, Rita; D’Agostini, Antonio; Cannas, Pina; Santaguida, Maria Giulia; Virili, Camilla; Bianchi, Loredana; Gargano, Lucilla; Centanni, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Struma ovarii is an ovarian teratoma, represented in more than 50% by thyroid tissue. Five percent of struma ovarii cases have been proven to be malignant and, as in the thyroid gland, papillary thyroid carcinoma is the most common histotype arising in struma ovarii. Because of the unusual occurrence of this tumor, its management and follow-up after pelvic surgery is still controversial. Usually, total thyroidectomy followed by radioiodine treatment is the choice treatment in metastatic malignant struma ovarii, while these procedures are still controversial in non-metastatic thyroid cancer arising in struma ovarii. Case Presentation: We report a female with follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma arising in struma ovarii. After pelvic surgery, thyroid morphofunctional examinations were performed and a single nodular lesion in the left lobe was discovered. The patient underwent total thyroidectomy and histological examination showed a papillary carcinoma. Radioiodine-ablation of residual thyroid tissue was performed and levothyroxine mildly-suppressive treatment was started. Conclusions: A more aggressive treatment should not be denied for malignant struma ovarii without any evidence, even when apparently confined into the ovary. However, in selected cases, aggressive treatment may be advisable to decrease the risk of recurrence and to allow an accurate follow-up. PMID:25745492

  19. Increased Pleiotrophin Concentrations in Papillary Thyroid Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Jee, Youn Hee; Sadowski, Samira M.; Celi, Francesco S.; Xi, Liqiang; Raffeld, Mark; Sacks, David B.; Remaley, Alan T.; Wellstein, Anton; Kebebew, Electron; Baron, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    Background Thyroid nodules are common, and approximately 5% of these nodules are malignant. Pleiotrophin (PTN) is a heparin-binding growth factor which is overexpressed in many cancers. The expression of PTN in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) is unknown. Method and Findings 74 subjects (age 47 ± 12 y, 15 males) who had thyroidectomy with a histological diagnosis: 79 benign nodules and 23 PTCs (10 classic, 6 tall cell, 6 follicular variant and 1 undetermined). Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) samples were obtained ex vivo from surgically excised tissue and assayed for PTN and thyroglobulin (Tg). Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was performed on tissue sections. In FNA samples, PTN concentration normalized to Tg was significantly higher in PTC than in benign nodules (16 ± 6 vs 0.3 ± 0.1 ng/mg, p < 0.001). In follicular variant of PTC (n = 6), the PTN/Tg ratio was also higher than in benign nodules (1.3 ± 0.6 vs 0.3 ± 0.1 ng/mg, P < 0.001, respectively). IHC showed cytoplasmic localization of PTN in PTC cells. Conclusion In ex vivo FNA samples, the PTN to thyroglobulin ratio was higher in PTCs, including follicular variant PTC, than in benign thyroid nodules. The findings raise the possibility that measurement of the PTN to Tg ratio may provide useful diagnostic and/or prognostic information in the evaluation of thyroid nodules. PMID:26914549

  20. Pazopanib Hydrochloride in Treating Patients With Advanced Thyroid Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-08-31

    Recurrent Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Stage III Differentiated Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Stage III Thyroid Gland Medullary Carcinoma; Stage IVA Differentiated Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVA Thyroid Gland Medullary Carcinoma; Stage IVA Thyroid Gland Undifferentiated (Anaplastic) Carcinoma; Stage IVB Differentiated Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVB Thyroid Gland Medullary Carcinoma; Stage IVB Thyroid Gland Undifferentiated (Anaplastic) Carcinoma; Stage IVC Differentiated Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVC Thyroid Gland Medullary Carcinoma; Stage IVC Thyroid Gland Undifferentiated (Anaplastic) Carcinoma; Thyroid Gland Undifferentiated (Anaplastic) Carcinoma

  1. Dynamical model for thyroid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rokni Lamooki, Gholam Reza; Shirazi, Amir H.; Mani, Ali R.

    2015-05-01

    Thyroid's main chemical reactions are employed to develop a mathematical model. The presented model is based on differential equations where their dynamics reflects many aspects of thyroid's behavior. Our main focus here is the well known, but not well understood, phenomenon so called as Wolff-Chaikoff effect. It is shown that the inhibitory effect of intake iodide on the rate of one single enzyme causes a similar effect as Wolff-Chaikoff. Besides this issue, the presented model is capable of revealing other complex phenomena of thyroid hormones homeostasis.

  2. Thyroid function and obesity.

    PubMed

    Longhi, Silvia; Radetti, Giorgio

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays, childhood obesity is one of the biggest health emergencies in the developed countries. Obesity leads to multiple metabolic alterations which increase the risk of developing diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Thyroid function has been often described as altered in obese children, however, it is not clear whether the altered thyroid function is the cause or the consequence of fat excess. On the other hand, thyroid structure seems also to be affected. Nevertheless, both functional and structural alterations seem to improve after weight loss and therefore no treatment is needed. PMID:23149391

  3. Unusual diagnosis of a solitary thyroid nodule in the paediatric population: cervical thymic cyst.

    PubMed

    Sadacharan, Dhalapathy; Sathya, Anjali; Ravikumar, Divya; Nallapa, Deepakala

    2015-01-01

    We present a case of an 8-year-old girl with a painless swelling in her neck. An ultrasonogram revealed a cystic nodule with internal echoes, lying posterior to right lobe of thyroid, and MRI confirmed it. Thyroid scintigraphy did not show any uptake in the swelling. Intraoperatively, the lesion was densely adherent to the thyroid gland, hence a hemithyroidectomy was performed. Histopathology showed it to be an ectopic cervical thymic cyst with parathyroid tissue. PMID:26420701

  4. An Ex vivo Culture System to Study Thyroid Development

    PubMed Central

    Delmarcelle, Anne-Sophie; Villacorte, Mylah

    2014-01-01

    The thyroid is a bilobated endocrine gland localized at the base of the neck, producing the thyroid hormones T3, T4, and calcitonin. T3 and T4 are produced by differentiated thyrocytes, organized in closed spheres called follicles, while calcitonin is synthesized by C-cells, interspersed in between the follicles and a dense network of blood capillaries. Although adult thyroid architecture and functions have been extensively described and studied, the formation of the “angio-follicular” units, the distribution of C-cells in the parenchyma and the paracrine communications between epithelial and endothelial cells is far from being understood. This method describes the sequential steps of mouse embryonic thyroid anlagen dissection and its culture on semiporous filters or on microscopy plastic slides. Within a period of four days, this culture system faithfully recapitulates in vivo thyroid development. Indeed, (i) bilobation of the organ occurs (for e12.5 explants), (ii) thyrocytes precursors organize into follicles and polarize, (iii) thyrocytes and C-cells differentiate, and (iv) endothelial cells present in the microdissected tissue proliferate, migrate into the thyroid lobes, and closely associate with the epithelial cells, as they do in vivo. Thyroid tissues can be obtained from wild type, knockout or fluorescent transgenic embryos. Moreover, explants culture can be manipulated by addition of inhibitors, blocking antibodies, growth factors, or even cells or conditioned medium. Ex vivo development can be analyzed in real-time, or at any time of the culture by immunostaining and RT-qPCR. In conclusion, thyroid explant culture combined with downstream whole-mount or on sections imaging and gene expression profiling provides a powerful system for manipulating and studying morphogenetic and differentiation events of thyroid organogenesis. PMID:24961920

  5. TSH (Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone) Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... symptoms of a thyroid disorder , including hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism . TSH is produced by the pituitary gland , a ... thyroid Monitor thyroid replacement therapy in people with hypothyroidism Monitor anti-thyroid treatment in people with hyperthyroidism ...

  6. Evaluation of Serum Vascular Adhesion Protein-1 as a Potential Biomarker in Thyroid Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Pengxin; Zhang, Kaili

    2016-01-01

    Vascular adhesion protein-1 (VAP-1) is a glycoprotein that mediates tissue-selective lymphocyte adhesion. The prognostic value of VAP-1 has been determined in gastric cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes and the predictive value of serum VAP-1 in patients with thyroid cancer. A total of 126 patients with thyroid nodules and 53 healthy controls participated in this study. The patients were further divided into subgroup 1 (69 cases with benign thyroid nodules) and subgroup 2 (57 cases with thyroid cancer). Serum VAP-1 was measured by time-resolved immunofluorometric assay. Diagnostic value of presurgical VAP-1 for thyroid cancer was conducted by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Serum levels of VAP-1 were significantly lower in thyroid cancer group than in healthy control and benign thyroid nodule groups. VAP-1 concentrations negatively correlated with serum thyroglobulin (Tg) levels in thyroid cancer patients (r = −0.81; p < 0.001). The optimum cut-off value of VAP-1 was 456.6 ng/mL with a 77.4% specificity and 66.7% sensitivity for thyroid cancer diagnosis. Serum VAP-1 decreased in thyroid cancer patients and VAP-1 could be a potential useful adjunct biomarker in the diagnosis of thyroid cancer. PMID:27446209

  7. [Postpartum thyroiditis. A review].

    PubMed

    Hurtado-Hernández, Z; Segura-Domínguez, A

    2013-01-01

    Postpartum thyroiditis (PPT) is a transient thyroid dysfunction of autoimmune origin that can occur in the first year postpartum in women who have not been previously diagnosed with thyroid disease. It may start with clinical thyrotoxicosis followed by hypothyroidism and the subsequent recovery of thyroid function, or may just appear as isolated thyrotoxicosis or hypothyroidism. PPT recurs in high percentage of patients after subsequent pregnancies. Many women develop permanent hypothyroidism sometime during the 3 to 10 year period after an episode of PPT. It is important for family physicians to be familiar with this disease, due to its high prevalence in order to make a correct diagnosis and therapeutic intervention. Family doctors also play a crucial role in the monitoring of these patients, given the negative implications of established hypothyroidism on reproduction in the female population during their reproductive years. This article reviews the principle characteristics of PPT along with its diagnosis and treatment. PMID:23834978

  8. Thyroid Disease (for Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... change over just a few months. previous continue Hypothyroidism A person with mild hypothyroidism may feel just fine — in fact, the condition ... all. However, symptoms can become more obvious if hypothyroidism progresses. People with underactive thyroids might feel depressed ...

  9. Thyroid Disease and Teens

    MedlinePlus

    ... change over just a few months. previous continue Hypothyroidism A person with mild hypothyroidism may feel just fine — in fact, the condition ... all. However, symptoms can become more obvious if hypothyroidism progresses. People with underactive thyroids might feel depressed ...

  10. Thyroid cancer - papillary carcinoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... some noncancerous childhood conditions Radiation exposure from nuclear plant disasters Radiation given through a vein (through an IV) during medical tests and treatments does not increase the risk of developing thyroid cancer.

  11. Idiopathic thyroid abscess

    PubMed Central

    Cawich, Shamir O.; Hassranah, Dale; Naraynsingh, Vijay

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Thyroid abscesses are uncommon because the gland is relatively resistant to developing infection due to its rich blood supply, well-developed capsule and high iodine content. However, clinicians must be aware of this differential to make an early diagnosis. PRESENTATION OF CASE We present the case of a patient who required urgent operative resection as definitive treatment for a thyroid abscess secondary to infection with Staphylococcus aureus. DISCUSSION Although this is rare, a thyroid abscess left untreated can lead to serious morbidity. Therefore, clinicians must be aware of the presenting features and therapeutic options. CONCLUSION Thyroid abscess is an uncommon diagnosis but can lead to significant morbidity. Therefore clinicians must be aware of the diagnosis in order to institute early aggressive management. PMID:24981167

  12. American Thyroid Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... learn more Meetings ATA meeting dates, information, and education. learn more Publications Thyroid, Clinical Thyroidology and VideoEndocrinology. ... learn more DEDICATED TO SCIENTIFIC INQUIRY, CLINICAL EXCELLENCE, EDUCATION AND COLLABORATION August 23, 2016 10 Clinical Thyroidology ...

  13. Pediatric Thyroid Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... isthmus). The thyroid secretes three main hormones: 1) Thyroxine, that contains iodine, needed for growth and metabolism; ... also contains iodine and similar in function to Thyroxine; and 3) Calcitonin, which decreases the concentration of ...

  14. Thyroid cancer - papillary carcinoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... non-cancerous childhood conditions Radiation exposure from nuclear plant disasters Radiation given through a vein (through an IV) during medical tests and treatments does not increase the risk of developing thyroid cancer.

  15. Revisiting the transcriptional analysis of primary tumours and associated nodal metastases with enhanced biological and statistical controls: application to thyroid cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tarabichi, M; Saiselet, M; Trésallet, C; Hoang, C; Larsimont, D; Andry, G; Maenhaut, C; Detours, V

    2015-01-01

    Background: Transcriptome profiling has helped characterise nodal spread. The interpretation of these data, however, is not without ambiguities. Methods: We profiled the transcriptomes of papillary thyroid cancer nodal metastases, associated primary tumours and primary tumours from N0 patients. We also included patient-matched non-cancerous thyroid and lymph node samples as controls to address some limits of previous studies. Results: The transcriptomes of patient-matched primary tumours and metastases were more similar than those of unrelated metastases/primary pairs, as previously reported in other organ systems. This similarity partly reflected patient background. Lymphoid tissues in the metastases confounded the comparison of patient-matched primary tumours and metastases. We circumvented this with an original data adjustment, revealing a differential expression of stroma-related gene signatures also regulated in other organs. The comparison of N0 vs N+ primary tumours uncovered a signal irreproducible across independent data sets. This signal was also detectable when comparing the non-cancerous thyroid tissues adjacent to N0 and N+ tumours, suggesting a cohort-specific bias also likely present in previous similarly sized studies. Classification of N0 vs N+ yielded an accuracy of 63%, but additional statistical controls absent in previous studies revealed that this is explainable by chance alone. We used large data sets from The Cancer Genome Atlas: N0 vs N+ classification was not better than random for most cancers. Yet, it was significant, but of limited accuracy (<70%) for thyroid, breast and head and neck cancers. Conclusions: The clinical potential of gene expression to predict nodal metastases seems limited for most cancers. PMID:25965298

  16. Hashimoto's thyroiditis following Graves' disease.

    PubMed

    Umar, Husaini; Muallima, Nur; Adam, John M F; Sanusi, Harsinen

    2010-01-01

    Both Graves' disease and chronic thyroiditis (Hashimoto's thyroiditis) are autoimmune diseases of thyroid gland. Graves' disease is caused by stimulation of TSH receptor located on the thyroid gland by an antibody, which is known as TSH receptor antibody (TRAb). Furthermore, this may lead to hyperplasia and hyperfunction of the thyroid gland. On the contrary, the cause of Hashimoto's thyroiditis is thought due to a TSH stimulation-blocking antibody (TSBAb) which blocks the action of TSH hormone and subsequently brings damage and atrophy to thyroid gland. Approximately 15-20% of patients with Graves' disease had been reported to have spontaneous hypothyroidism resulting from the chronic thyroiditis (Hashimoto's disease). Pathogenesis for chronic thyroiditis following anti-thyroid drug treatment in patients with Graves' disease remains unclear. It has been estimated that chronic thyroiditis or Hashimoto's disease, which occurs following the Graves' disease episode is due to extended immune response in Graves' disease. It includes the immune response to endogenous thyroid antigens, i.e. thyroid peroxidase and thyroglobulin, which may enhance lymphocyte infiltration and finally causes Hashimoto's thyroiditis. We report four cases of chronic thyroiditis (Hashimoto's disease) in patients who have been previously diagnosed with Graves' hyperthyroidism. In three cases, Hashimoto's thyroiditis occurs in 7 to 25 years after the treatment of Grave's disease; while the other case has it only after few months of Grave's disease treatment. The diagnosis of Hashimoto's disease (chronic thyroiditis) was based on clinical manifestation, high TSHs level, positive thyroid peroxidase antibody and thyroglobulin antibody, and supported by positive results of fine needle aspiration biopsy. Moreover, the result of histopathological test has also confirmed the diagnosis in two cases. All cases have been successfully treated by levothyroxine treatment. PMID:20305330

  17. Thyroid function and postmenopause.

    PubMed

    Schindler, A E

    2003-02-01

    There is an increasing prevalence of high levels of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) with age - particularly in postmenopausal women - which are higher than in men. The incidence of thyroid disease in a population of postmenopausal women is as follows: clinical thyroid disease, about 2.4%; subclinical thyroid disease, about 23.2%. Among the group with subclinical thyroid disease, 73.8% are hypothyroid and 26.2% are hyperthyroid. The rate of thyroid cancer increases with age. The symptoms of thyroid disease can be similar to postmenopausal complaints and are clinically difficult to differentiate. There can also be an absence of clinical symptoms. It is of importance that even mild thyroid failure can have a number of clinical effects such as depression, memory loss, cognitive impairment and a variety of neuromuscular complaints. Myocardial function has been found to be subtly impaired. There is also an increased cardiovascular risk, caused by increased serum total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol as well as reduced levels of high-density lipoprotein. These adverse effects can be improved or corrected by L-thyroxine replacement therapy. Such treatment has been found to be cost-effective. With time, overt hypothyroidism can develop. Therefore, routine screening of thyroid function in the climacteric period to determine subclinical thyroid disease is recommended. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) in women with hypothyroidism treated with thyroxine causes changes in free thyroxine and TSH. Increased binding of thyroxine to elevated thyroxine-binding globulin causes an elevation of TSH by feedback. Since adaptation is insufficient, there is an increased need for thyroxine in these women taking HRT. TSH levels should be controlled at 12 weeks after the beginning of therapy. At higher age the need for iodine and thyroxine is decreased. Therefore, therapy has to be controlled. For bone metabolism thyroid hormones play a dominant role. While there are

  18. Thyroid transplantation developing autoimmune thyroiditis following thymectomy and irradiation.

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, S A; Penhale, W J

    1981-01-01

    Post-irradiation transplantation of normal thyroids under the renal capsule of syngenetic thymectomized and irradiated (Tx-X) rats leads to the development of thyroiditis in the ectopic grafted thyroids. A close correlation was observed between the extent of the lesions in the grafted and recipient's own thyroid. The histopathology of both grafted and recipient thyroid was similar and was characterized by infiltration with mononuclear cells together with some plasma cells. Conversely, grafting of affected thyroids from Tx-X rats to normal animals resulted in the regression of the lesion in the graft and no evidence thyroiditis was observed in either the graft or the recipient's thyroid when these were examined 60 days post-grafting. Thyroids derived from normal animals grafted to syngenetic normal rats were found to remain healthy and intact over a 60-day period. In contrast to normal animals, Tx-X rats were unable to reject totally in transplanted allogeneic thyroids by 28 days post-grafting, suggesting that some impairment of cell-mediated immunity follows this treatment. These findings indicate that the pathological change occurring in the thyroid gland of Tx-X rats is not attributable to the local effect of irradiation of the thyroids and adds further support to the concept that the process is immunologically mediated by thyroid-specific circulating components in the absence of normal immune regulatory function. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:6896018

  19. Effects of thyroid hormone and thyroid dysfunction on the cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Kienle, R D; Bruyette, D; Pion, P D

    1994-05-01

    Thyroid disease is common in veterinary practice. The heart, especially the myocardium, is sensitive to thyroid hormone, and deficiencies or excesses can alter cardiovascular function. Observed changes result from direct effects upon the myocardium and indirect effects that result from effects upon the vasculature and peripheral tissues. Clinically significant cardiovascular abnormalities related to hypothyroidism are rare. If present, they are primarily manifest as reduced left ventricular pump function, as apparent echocardiographically, or arrhythmias. Hyperthyroidism is common in the cat and infrequently encountered in dogs. Clinically significant cardiovascular manifestations are common and often dramatic. Hyperdynamic systolic function and mild myocardial hypertrophy are common manifestations which may lead to overt congestive and high output heart failure. If signs of congestive heart failure or significant arrhythmias are not evident, specific therapy need only be directed toward restoration of the euthyroid state. In most cases the cardiovascular changes associated with thyroid dysfunction are completely reversible. PMID:8053109

  20. In vivo activated cytotoxic T cells in the thyroid infiltrate of patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis.

    PubMed Central

    Del Prete, G F; Vercelli, D; Tiri, A; Maggi, E; Mariotti, S; Pinchera, A; Ricci, M; Romagnani, S

    1986-01-01

    High proportions of T8+ cells with inverted T4/T8 ratio were found in freshly isolated thyroid lymphocytes from patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis. In addition, about one third of thyroid infiltrating cells expressed the TAC antigen, whereas in patient peripheral blood (PB) or normal lymphocytes from PB or lymphoid organs the percentage of TAC-positive cells was consistently lower than 10%. Following negative selection with OKT4 or OKT8 monoclonal antibodies and complement, TAC+ T cells were enriched in the T8+ cell population. Thyroid infiltrating T cells from two patients underwent two different cloning procedures. In the first, single T cells were initially activated with phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) and interleukin 2 (IL-2), in the other with recombinant IL-2 (rIL-2) alone. The majority of T cell clones obtained by initial PHA-stimulation (55-65%) had the T8+ phenotype, but the frequency of T8+ clones obtained by stimulating T cells with rIL-2 alone was even higher (78 & 71%, respectively). The majority of T8+ clones elicited by PHA (35/37 & 36/38) and all the T8+ clones (36/36 & 22/22) obtained from thyroid infiltrates with initial stimulation by rIL-2 displayed cytolytic activity. Most of cytolytic T8+ clones obtained from thyroid infiltrates with both cloning procedures, displayed NK activity against human K562 and MOLT-4 target cells, but not against a NK-resistant target, such as Raji cells. These data suggest that in Hashimoto's disease a considerable proportion of thyroid infiltrating T cells are in vivo activated T8+ cytolytic T cells with NK activity, which may be of importance in determining or maintaining the tissue damage of the target gland. PMID:3024884

  1. Clinical and laboratory assessment of thyroid abnormalities

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, M.M.

    1985-09-01

    Clinical assessment of the patient with suspected thyroid disease remains an important part of the workup. Available laboratory tests of thyroid function include measurements of serum thyroid hormones and thyroid-stimulating hormone, titers of autoantibodies involved with Graves' disease and thyroiditis, and thyroid imaging and uptake techniques. The usefulness and limitations of each of these tests are reviewed.

  2. [Thyroid Adenomas in Children].

    PubMed

    Morozov, D A; Pimenova, E S; Mirokova, E D

    2015-01-01

    According to the papers thyroid nodules are quite rare in the first two decades of life. However, there are some exceptions, relating to areas with an iodine deficiency or affected by radioactive fallout, where the risk of nodules and carcinomas is increased. Therefore, it is a great challenge for the physician to distinguish between benign and malignant lesions preoperatively, and not only in these areas of greater risk. The authors analyzed current works, which are devoted to diagnostics and treatment of adenomas of thyroid gland in children. This literature review is based on works dedicated to epidemiology, histotypes study, and methods of diagnostics, surgical treatment, prognosis and complications of this pathology. The current tendencies in surgical approaches, intraoperative monitoring of recurrent laryngeal nerve are also discussed. The actuality of this problem is connected with last decade increase of adenomas in structure of thyroid gland nodules, increase of number of patients with multiple adenomas and with polypathias: adenomas with nodular goiter, autoimmune thyroiditis and cancer in children. The difficulties of diagnostic of adenomas are related to the similar clinical symptoms, cytogenetic characteristics of growth of benign and malignant lesions of thyroid gland. Additionally there is no systematic review about thyroid adenomas in children recent years. PMID:26846075

  3. Postpartum thyroiditis: an autoimmune thyroid disorder which predicts future thyroid health

    PubMed Central

    Keely, Erin Joanne

    2011-01-01

    Postpartum thyroiditis is a potentially destructive lymphocytic thyroiditis occurring in approximately 8% of the pregnant population, making it the most common endocrine disorder associated with pregnancy. This autoimmune thyroid disorder is precipitated by the postpartum immunological rebound that follows the partial immunosuppression of pregnancy, in individuals already at risk of autoimmune thyroid disease. The manifestations of postpartum thyroiditis are usually not present at the six-week postpartum visit and thus it is important that all physicians be aware of the risks, presentation and intervention required for this common disorder. Postpartum thyroiditis is a strong predictor of future thyroid health and it is essential that women with a history of postpartum thyroiditis be screened regularly, especially prior to a future pregnancy. Selenium supplementation has recently been identified as a potential means to prevent postpartum thyroiditis in women at risk but further studies are required before recommendations for its use can be made.

  4. Polybrominated Diphenyl Ether (DE-71)Interferes with Thyroid Hormone Action Independent Of Effects On Circulating Levels of Thyroid Hormone in Male Rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are routinely found in human tissues including cord blood and breast milk. PBDEs may interfere with thyroid hormone (TH) during development, which could produce neurobehavioral deficits. An assumption in experimental and epidemiological stud...

  5. 46 CFR 148.445 - Adjacent spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Adjacent spaces. 148.445 Section 148.445 Shipping COAST... THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Additional Special Requirements § 148.445 Adjacent spaces. When... following requirements must be met: (a) Each space adjacent to a cargo hold must be ventilated by...

  6. 46 CFR 148.445 - Adjacent spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Adjacent spaces. 148.445 Section 148.445 Shipping COAST... THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Additional Special Requirements § 148.445 Adjacent spaces. When... following requirements must be met: (a) Each space adjacent to a cargo hold must be ventilated by...

  7. 46 CFR 148.445 - Adjacent spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Adjacent spaces. 148.445 Section 148.445 Shipping COAST... THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Additional Special Requirements § 148.445 Adjacent spaces. When... following requirements must be met: (a) Each space adjacent to a cargo hold must be ventilated by...

  8. 46 CFR 148.445 - Adjacent spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Adjacent spaces. 148.445 Section 148.445 Shipping COAST... THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Additional Special Requirements § 148.445 Adjacent spaces. When... following requirements must be met: (a) Each space adjacent to a cargo hold must be ventilated by...

  9. Postotic and preotic cranial neural crest cells differently contribute to thyroid development.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Kazuhiro; Asai, Rieko; Maruyama, Kazuaki; Kurihara, Yukiko; Nakanishi, Toshio; Kurihara, Hiroki; Miyagawa-Tomita, Sachiko

    2016-01-01

    Thyroid development and formation vary among species, but in most species the thyroid morphogenesis consists of five stages: specification, budding, descent, bilobation and folliculogenesis. The detailed mechanisms of these stages have not been fully clarified. During early development, the cranial neural crest (CNC) contributes to the thyroid gland. The removal of the postotic CNC (corresponding to rhombomeres 6, 7 and 8, also known as the cardiac neural crest) results in abnormalities of the cardiovascular system, thymus, parathyroid glands, and thyroid gland. To investigate the influence of the CNC on thyroid bilobation process, we divided the CNC into two regions, the postotic CNC and the preotic CNC (from the mesencephalon to rhombomere 5) regions and examined. We found that preotic CNC-ablated embryos had a unilateral thyroid lobe, and confirmed the presence of a single lobe or the absence of lobes in postotic CNC-ablated chick embryos. The thyroid anlage in each region-ablated embryos was of a normal size at the descent stage, but at a later stage, the thyroid in preotic CNC-ablated embryos was of a normal size, conflicting with a previous report in which the thyroid was reduced in size in the postotic CNC-ablated embryos. The postotic CNC cells differentiated into connective tissues of the thyroid in quail-to-chick chimeras. In contrast, the preotic CNC cells did not differentiate into connective tissues of the thyroid. We found that preotic CNC cells encompassed the thyroid anlage from the specification stage to the descent stage. Finally, we found that endothelin-1 and endothelin type A receptor-knockout mice and bosentan (endothelin receptor antagonist)-treated chick embryos showed bilobation anomalies that included single-lobe formation. Therefore, not only the postotic CNC, but also the preotic CNC plays an important role in thyroid morphogenesis. PMID:26506449

  10. Maternal-fetal thyroid hormone relationships and the fetal brain.

    PubMed

    Morreale de Escobar, G; Obregon, M J; Escobar del Rey, F

    1988-01-01

    Thyroid hormones are transferred from the mother to the fetus. Thus, despite the deiodinating enzymes of the placenta (26), some T4 and T3 is transferred, both before and after onset of fetal thyroid function, at least in those cases where fetal thyroid function is impaired. It is also possible that transfer occurs under normal conditions. Maternal to fetal transfer of T3 and T4 is partially limited. But it might be enough to mitigate severe fetal T4 and T3 deficiencies. However, the mitigating effects of both hormones are not equivalent for all fetal tissues. 1) Maternal T4 mitigates T4 and T3 deficiency of most fetal tissues, the brain included. 2) Maternal T3 mitigates T3 deficiency only in some fetal tissues, the brain being excluded. It does not mitigate cerebral T3 deficiency even at doses which are toxic for the mother, and it does not depress fetal plasma TSH. 3) Normal maternal thyroid function is important for fetal development. Maternal hypothyroxinemia is damaging to the developing fetal brain early in gestation. It might also later have adverse effects in gestation, if the fetal thyroid is impaired. Normal maternal T3 levels might avoid overt hypothyroidism of some fetal tissues, but is of no benefit to the brain. PMID:3176827

  11. Multiscale imaging of human thyroid pathologies using integrated optical coherence tomography (OCT) and optical coherence microscopy (OCM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Chao; Wang, Yihong; Aguirre, Aaron D.; Tsai, Tsung-Han; Cohen, David W.; Connolly, James L.; Fujimoto, James G.

    2010-02-01

    We evaluate the feasibility of optical coherence tomography (OCT) and optical coherence microscopy (OCM) for imaging of benign and malignant thyroid lesions ex vivo using intrinsic optical contrast. Thirty four thyroid gland specimens were imaged from 17 patients, covering a spectrum of pathology, ranging from normal thyroid to neoplasia and benign disease. The integrated OCT and OCM imaging system allows seamlessly switching between low and high magnifications, in a way similar to traditional microscopy. Good correspondence was observed between optical images and histological sections. The results provide a basis for interpretation of future OCT and OCM images of the thyroid tissues and suggest the possibility of future in vivo evaluation of thyroid pathology.

  12. Multielemental analysis of human thyroid glands using particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeda, K.; Yokode, Y.; Sasa, Y.; Kusuyama, H.; Uda, M.

    1987-03-01

    PIXE spectroscopy has been applied to the analysis of human thyroid glands. Nontumor thyroid tissues taken from different patients showed almost the same composition which fell into the range of the data for normal thyroids given in the literature. On the other hand, a deficiency of iodine and iron was observed in all of the malignant and benign tumor tissues examined here. In some injured tissues considerable deviations of K and Ca from normal concentration levels were also recognized. This work demonstrates an important advantage of PIXE to analyze fugacious elements together with other elements simultaneously.

  13. Molecular disorganization of axons adjacent to human lacunar infarcts

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Monica D.; Tung, Spencer; Vinters, Harry V.; Carmichael, S. Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Cerebral microvascular disease predominantly affects brain white matter and deep grey matter, resulting in ischaemic damage that ranges from lacunar infarcts to white matter hyperintensities seen on magnetic resonance imaging. These lesions are common and result in both clinical stroke syndromes and accumulate over time, resulting in cognitive deficits and dementia. Magnetic resonance imaging studies suggest that these lesions progress over time, accumulate adjacent to prior lesions and have a penumbral region susceptible to further injury. The pathological correlates of this adjacent injury in surviving myelinated axons have not been previously defined. In this study, we sought to determine the molecular organization of axons in tissue adjacent to lacunar infarcts and in the regions surrounding microinfarcts, by determining critical elements in axonal function: the morphology and length of node of Ranvier segments and adjacent paranodal segments. We examined post-mortem brain tissue from six patients with lacunar infarcts and tissue from two patients with autosomal dominant retinal vasculopathy and cerebral leukoencephalopathy (previously known as hereditary endotheliopathy with retinopathy, nephropathy and stroke) who accumulate progressive white matter ischaemic lesions in the form of lacunar and microinfarcts. In axons adjacent to lacunar infarcts yet extending up to 150% of the infarct diameter away, both nodal and paranodal length increase by ∼20% and 80%, respectively, reflecting a loss of normal cell-cell adhesion and signalling between axons and oligodendrocytes. Using premorbid magnetic resonance images, brain regions from patients with retinal vasculopathy and cerebral leukoencephalopathy that harboured periventricular white matter hyperintensities were selected and the molecular organization of axons was determined within these regions. As in regions adjacent to lacunar infarcts, nodal and paranodal length in white matter of these patients is

  14. DEVELOPMENT OF AN AMPHIBIAN METAMORPHOSIS MODEL FOR DETECTING THYROID AXIS DISRUPTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Metamorphosis in Xenopus laevis represents an elaborate process of post-embryonic development which is thyroid hormone (TH) dependent. The development of a functional thyroid axis and the responses of tissues to different TH concentrations are well defined in this species, provid...

  15. Radioisotope imaging for the evaluation of thyroid neoplasia and hypothyroidism in a dog

    SciTech Connect

    Branam, J.E.; Leighton, R.L.; Hornof, W.J.

    1982-05-01

    An 11-year-old dog was diagnosed as having concurrent unilateral follicular thyroid carcinoma and hypothyroidism. Radioisotope imaging with /SUP 99m/Tc as sodium pertechnatate identified the extent of thyroid tissue involvement. A combination of surgical resection and hormonal supplementation resulted in a favorable clinical response.

  16. False-positive uptake on radioiodine whole-body scintigraphy: physiologic and pathologic variants unrelated to thyroid cancer

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Jong-Ryool; Ahn, Byeong-Cheol

    2012-01-01

    Radioiodine whole-body scintigraphy (WBS), which takes advantage of the high avidity of radioiodine in the functioning thyroid tissues, has been used for detection of differentiated thyroid cancer. Radioiodine is a sensitive marker for detection of thyroid cancer; however, radioiodine uptake is not specific for thyroid tissue. It can also be seen in healthy tissue, including thymus, breast, liver, and gastrointestinal tract, or in benign diseases, such as cysts and inflammation, or in a variety of benign and malignant non-thyroidal tumors, which could be mistaken for thyroid cancer. In order to accurately interpret radioiodine scintigraphy results, one must be familiar with the normal physiologic distribution of the tracer and frequently encountered physiologic and pathologic variants of radioiodine uptake. This article will provide a systematic overview of potential false-positive uptake of radioiodine in the whole body and illustrate how such unexpected findings can be appropriately evaluated. PMID:23133823

  17. Differentiated thyroid carcinomas in children and adolescents

    SciTech Connect

    Samuel, A.M.; Sharma, S.M. )

    1991-04-15

    An analysis of differentiated thyroid carcinomas in children and adolescents revealed that the incidence was 3.05% of total number of patients with differentiated thyroid cancers in all age groups. There was a female preponderance. The incidence of papillary, follicular and papillary with follicular elements was equal. There were no papillary carcinomas observed in children younger than 10 years. The predominant mode of presentation was a solitary nodule of thyroid and some of them had associated cervical adenopathy. A considerable number presented with only cervical adenopathy. The incidence of nodal metastases was 50% at time of presentation and lung involvement was present in 15% of children at the time of diagnosis. Radioiodine treatment was given in 70% of children. Ablation was achieved in 86% of patients given two doses of radioiodine (200 millicuries). The more resistant cases were those with lung and nodal metastases. There was complete ablation in 100% with only residual thyroid tissue, 83% in those with associated nodal metastases, and 57% in those with lung involvement. Average duration of follow-up was 10.3 years (range, 2 to 19 years). Recurrence rate or relapse was observed in 8.5% and was in the regional nodes. There was no recorded mortality due to the disease.

  18. The thyroid and environmental stress in mammals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galton, V. A.

    1977-01-01

    The effects of hyperoxia at ambient pressure on thyroid function and thyroid hormone metabolism have been assessed. Thyroidal activity was depressed in mice and rats by exposure to hyperoxia, due at least in part to a decrease in the rate of secretion of pituitary thyrotropin. The effects of hyperoxia on the peripheral deiodination of thyroxine were dependent on the concentration of oxygen employed and/or the duration of exposure. When significant changes were observed a reduction in the rate of deiodination and in the deiodinative clearance of T sub 4 occurred. Hyperoxia also resulted in a marked fall in circulating T sub 4 concentration and a decrease in T sub 4-binding activity in serum. Many of these effects of hyperoxia were prevented by the concomitant administration of large amounts of Vitamin E. These decreases in thyroid function and T sub 4 metabolism were associated with a decrease in the rate of whole body oxygen consumption. It was concluded that the deleterious effects of oxygen in the rat were not due to an oxygen induced hyperthyroid state in the peripheral tissues. Thyroxine was shown to be essential for survival during acute cold stress.

  19. Normal vs cancer thyroid stem cells: the road to transformation.

    PubMed

    Zane, M; Scavo, E; Catalano, V; Bonanno, M; Todaro, M; De Maria, R; Stassi, G

    2016-02-18

    Recent investigations in thyroid carcinogenesis have led to the isolation and characterisation of a subpopulation of stem-like cells, responsible for tumour initiation, progression and metastasis. Nevertheless, the cellular origin of thyroid cancer stem cells (SCs) remains unknown and it is still necessary to define the process and the target population that sustain malignant transformation of tissue-resident SCs or the reprogramming of a more differentiated cell. Here, we will critically discuss new insights into thyroid SCs as a potential source of cancer formation in light of the available information on the oncogenic role of genetic modifications that occur during thyroid cancer development. Understanding the fine mechanisms that regulate tumour transformation may provide new ground for clinical intervention in terms of prevention, diagnosis and therapy. PMID:25961919

  20. Thyroid CT number and its relationship to iodine concentration

    SciTech Connect

    Iida, Y.; Konishi, J.; Harioka, T.; Misaki, T.; Endo, K.; Torizuka, K.

    1983-06-01

    Sixty-seven patients with thyroid disease and 24 normal controls were examined with computed tomography (CT). The mean CT number (Hounsfield units +/- SD) in the normal controls (118.1 +/- 12.2) was significantly higher (p < 0.001) than the mean CT number in patients with diseased thyroids, except for 2 cases of simple goiter (CT numbers 113, 132). The Graves disease (69.5 +/- 17.6) amd Hishimoto thyroiditis (61.4 +/- 9.1) were significaantly higher than those in patients with adenoma (41.7 +/- 10.6, p < 0.001), cyst (33.1 +/- 14.8, p < 0.001), or cancer (48.7 +/- 13, p < 0.01). In 14 patients studied, a significant correlation was observed between thyroid CT numbers and the iodine concentration of the tissue (r = 0.889; p < 0.001).

  1. Comb-push Ultrasound Shear Elastography (CUSE) for Evaluation of Thyroid Nodules: Preliminary In vivo Results

    PubMed Central

    Mehrmohammadi, Mohammad; Song, Pengfei; Meixner, Duane D.; Fazzio, Robert T.; Chen, Shigao; Greenleaf, James F.; Fatemi, Mostafa; Alizad, Azra

    2014-01-01

    In clinical practice, an overwhelming majority of biopsied thyroid nodules are benign. Therefore, there is a need for a complementary and noninvasive imaging tool to provide clinically relevant diagnostic information about thyroid nodules to reduce the rate of unnecessary biopsies. The goal of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of utilizing Comb-push Ultrasound Shear Elastography (CUSE) to measure the mechanical properties (i.e., stiffness) of thyroid nodules and use this information to help classify nodules as benign or malignant. CUSE is a fast and robust 2D shear elastography technique in which multiple laterally distributed acoustic radiation force beams are utilized simultaneously to produce shear waves. Unlike other shear elasticity imaging modalities, CUSE does not suffer from limited field of view (FOV) due to shear wave attenuation and can provide a large FOV at high frame rates. To evaluate the utility of CUSE in thyroid imaging, a preliminary study was performed on a group of 5 healthy volunteers and 10 patients with ultrasound (US)-detected thyroid nodules prior to fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB). The measured shear wave speeds in normal thyroid tissue and thyroid nodules were converted to Young's modulus (E), indicating a measure of tissue stiffness. Our results indicate an increase in E for thyroid nodules compared to normal thyroid tissue. This increase was significantly higher in malignant nodules compared to benign. The Young's modulus in normal thyroid tissue, benign and malignant nodules were found to be 23.2±8.29 kPa, 91.2±34.8 kPa, and 173.0±17.1 kPa, respectively. Results of this study suggest the utility of CUSE in differentiating between benign and malignant thyroid nodules. PMID:25122532

  2. Occupation and Thyroid Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Aschebrook-Kilfoy, Briseis; Ward, Mary H.; Valle, Curt T. Della; Friesen, Melissa C.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Numerous occupational and environmental exposures have been shown to disrupt thyroid hormones, but much less is known about their relationships with thyroid cancer. Here we review the epidemiology studies of occupations and occupational exposures and thyroid cancer incidence to provide insight into preventable risk factors for thyroid cancer. Methods The published literature was searched using the Web of Knowledge database for all articles through August 2013 that had in their text “occupation” “job” ”employment” or “work” and “thyroid cancer”. After excluding 10 mortality studies and 4 studies with less than 5 exposed incident cases, we summarized the findings of 30 articles that examined thyroid cancer incidence in relation to occupations or occupational exposure. The studies were grouped by exposure/occupation category, study design, and exposure assessment approach. Where available, gender stratified results are reported. Results The most studied (19 of 30 studies) and the most consistent associations were observed for radiation-exposed workers and health care occupations. Suggestive, but inconsistent, associations were observed in studies of pesticide-exposed workers and agricultural occupations. Findings for other exposures and occupation groups were largely null. The majority of studies had few exposed cases and assessed exposure based on occupation or industry category, self-report, or generic (population-based) job exposure matrices. Conclusion The suggestive, but inconsistent findings for many of the occupational exposures reviewed here indicate that more studies with larger numbers of cases and better exposure assessment are necessary, particularly for exposures known to disrupt thyroid homeostasis. PMID:24604144

  3. Why can insulin resistance be a natural consequence of thyroid dysfunction?

    PubMed

    Brenta, Gabriela

    2011-01-01

    Evidence for a relationship between T4 and T3 and glucose metabolism appeared over 100 years ago when the influence of thyroid hormone excess in the deterioration of glucose metabolism was first noticed. Since then, it has been known that hyperthyroidism is associated with insulin resistance. More recently, hypothyroidism has also been linked to decreased insulin sensitivity. The explanation to this apparent paradox may lie in the differential effects of thyroid hormones at the liver and peripheral tissues level. The purpose of this paper is to explore the effects of thyroid hormones in glucose metabolism and analyze the mechanisms whereby alterations of thyroid hormones lead to insulin resistance. PMID:21941681

  4. Why Can Insulin Resistance Be a Natural Consequence of Thyroid Dysfunction?

    PubMed Central

    Brenta, Gabriela

    2011-01-01

    Evidence for a relationship between T4 and T3 and glucose metabolism appeared over 100 years ago when the influence of thyroid hormone excess in the deterioration of glucose metabolism was first noticed. Since then, it has been known that hyperthyroidism is associated with insulin resistance. More recently, hypothyroidism has also been linked to decreased insulin sensitivity. The explanation to this apparent paradox may lie in the differential effects of thyroid hormones at the liver and peripheral tissues level. The purpose of this paper is to explore the effects of thyroid hormones in glucose metabolism and analyze the mechanisms whereby alterations of thyroid hormones lead to insulin resistance. PMID:21941681

  5. Drugs Approved for Thyroid Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ask about Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Thyroid Cancer This page lists cancer drugs approved by ... that are not listed here. Drugs Approved for Thyroid Cancer Cabozantinib-S-Malate Caprelsa (Vandetanib) Cometriq (Cabozantinib-S-Malate) ...

  6. General Information about Thyroid Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Research Thyroid Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Thyroid Cancer Go to Health Professional Version ... the PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board . Clinical Trial Information A clinical trial is a study to answer ...

  7. Genetics Home Reference: Hashimoto thyroiditis

    MedlinePlus

    ... is the most common cause of thyroid underactivity (hypothyroidism) in the United States. Related Information What information ... However, some people with thyroid antibodies never develop hypothyroidism or experience any related signs or symptoms. People ...

  8. Thyroid Hormone and Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    Safer, Joshua D.

    2013-01-01

    Although thyroid hormone is one of the most potent stimulators of growth and metabolic rate, the potential to use thyroid hormone to treat cutaneous pathology has never been subject to rigorous investigation. A number of investigators have demonstrated intriguing therapeutic potential for topical thyroid hormone. Topical T3 has accelerated wound healing and hair growth in rodents. Topical T4 has been used to treat xerosis in humans. It is clear that the use of thyroid hormone to treat cutaneous pathology may be of large consequence and merits further study. This is a review of the literature regarding thyroid hormone action on skin along with skin manifestations of thyroid disease. The paper is intended to provide a context for recent findings of direct thyroid hormone action on cutaneous cells in vitro and in vivo which may portend the use of thyroid hormone to promote wound healing. PMID:23577275

  9. Thyroid dysfunction: an autoimmune aspect.

    PubMed

    Khan, Farah Aziz; Al-Jameil, Noura; Khan, Mohammad Fareed; Al-Rashid, May; Tabassum, Hajera

    2015-01-01

    Auto immune thyroid disease (AITD) is the common organ specific autoimmune disorder, Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT) and Grave's disease (GD) are its well-known sequelae. It occurs due to loss of tolerance to autoantigens thyroid peroxidase (TPO), thyroglobulin (Tg), thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (TSH-R) which leads to the infiltration of the gland. T cells in chronic autoimmune thyroiditis (cAIT) induce apoptosis in thyroid follicular cells and cause destruction of the gland. Presences of TPO antibodies are common in HT and GD, while Tg has been reported as an independent predictor of thyroid malignancy. Cytokines are small proteins play an important role in autoimmunity, by stimulating B and T cells. Various cytokines IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, IL-13, IL-14, TNF-α and IFN-γ are found in thyroid follicular cells which enhance inflammatory response with nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandins. PMID:26221205

  10. Estimated dose rates to members of the public from external exposure to patients with 131I thyroid treatment

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Dewji, S.; Bellamy, M.; Hertel, N.; Leggett, R.; Sherbini, S.; Saba, M.; Eckerman, K.

    2015-03-25

    specific activities of 131I in the thyroid, bladder, and combined remaining tissues were calculated as a function of time after administration. Exposures to members of the public were considered for 131I patients with normal thyroid uptake (peak thyroid uptake of ~27% of administered 131I), differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC, 5% uptake), and hyperthyroidism (80% uptake). Results: The scenario with the patient seated behind the member of the public yielded the highest dose rate estimate of seated public transportation exposure cases. The dose rate to the adjacent room guest was highest for the exposure scenario in which the hotel guest and patient are seated by a factor of ~4 for the normal and differentiated thyroid cancer uptake cases and by a factor of ~3 for the hyperthyroid case. Conclusions: It was determined that for all modeled cases, the DTC case yielded the lowest external dose rates, whereas the hyperthyroid case yielded the highest dose rates. In estimating external dose to members of the public from patients with 131I therapy, consideration must be given to (patient- and case-specific) administered 131I activities and duration of exposure for a more complete estimate. The method implemented here included a detailed calculation model, which provides a means to determine dose rate estimates for a range of scenarios. Finally, the method was demonstrated for variations of three scenarios, showing how dose rates are expected to vary with uptake, voiding pattern, and patient location.« less

  11. Estimated dose rates to members of the public from external exposure to patients with {sup 131}I thyroid treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Dewji, S. Bellamy, M.; Leggett, R.; Eckerman, K.; Hertel, N.; Sherbini, S.; Saba, M.

    2015-04-15

    specific activities of {sup 131}I in the thyroid, bladder, and combined remaining tissues were calculated as a function of time after administration. Exposures to members of the public were considered for {sup 131}I patients with normal thyroid uptake (peak thyroid uptake of ∼27% of administered {sup 131}I), differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC, 5% uptake), and hyperthyroidism (80% uptake). Results: The scenario with the patient seated behind the member of the public yielded the highest dose rate estimate of seated public transportation exposure cases. The dose rate to the adjacent room guest was highest for the exposure scenario in which the hotel guest and patient are seated by a factor of ∼4 for the normal and differentiated thyroid cancer uptake cases and by a factor of ∼3 for the hyperthyroid case. Conclusions: It was determined that for all modeled cases, the DTC case yielded the lowest external dose rates, whereas the hyperthyroid case yielded the highest dose rates. In estimating external dose to members of the public from patients with {sup 131}I therapy, consideration must be given to (patient- and case-specific) administered {sup 131}I activities and duration of exposure for a more complete estimate. The method implemented here included a detailed calculation model, which provides a means to determine dose rate estimates for a range of scenarios. The method was demonstrated for variations of three scenarios, showing how dose rates are expected to vary with uptake, voiding pattern, and patient location.

  12. Promoter methylation of p16 and RASSF1A genes may contribute to the risk of papillary thyroid cancer: A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    JIANG, JIA-LI; TIAN, GUI-LAN; CHEN, SHU-JIAO; XU, LI; WANG, HUI-QIN

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present meta-analysis was to investigate the correlation of promoter methylation of the p16 and Ras association domain family 1 isoform A (RASSF1A) genes with the risk of the development of papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). A number of electronic databases were searched without language restrictions as follows: Medline (1966–2013), the Cochrane Library database (Issue 12, 2013), Embase (1980–2013), CINAHL (1982–2013), Web of Science (1945–2013) and the Chinese Biomedical Database (CBM; 1982–2013). A meta-analysis was performed with the use of Stata statistical software. The odds ratios (ORs), ratio differences (RDs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated. In the present meta-analysis, eleven clinical cohort studies with a total of 734 patients with PTC were included. The results of the current meta-analysis indicated that the frequency of promoter methylation of p16 in cancer tissues was significantly higher compared with that in normal, adjacent and benign tissues (cancer tissues vs. normal tissues: OR=7.14; 95% CI, 3.30–15.47; P<0.001; cancer tissues vs. adjacent tissues: OR=11.90; 95% CI, 5.55–25.52; P<0.001; cancer tissues vs. benign tissues: OR=2.25; 95% CI, 1.67–3.03; P<0.001, respectively). The results also suggest that RASSF1A promoter methylation may be implicated in the pathogenesis of PTC (cancer tissues vs. normal tissues: RD=0.53; 95% CI, 0.42–0.64; P<0.001; cancer tissues vs. adjacent tissues: RD=0.39; 95% CI, 0.31–0.48; P<0.001; cancer tissues vs. benign tissues: RD=0.39; 95% CI, 0.31–0.47; P<0.001; respectively). Thus, the present meta-analysis indicates that aberrant promoter methylation of p16 and RASSF1A genes may play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of PTC. PMID:26622524

  13. Cardiovascular effects of thyroid disease.

    PubMed

    Sangster, Jodi K; Panciera, David L; Abbott, Jonathan A

    2013-07-01

    Thyroid hormones have many effects on cardiovascular function, and deficiency or excess of thyroid hormones can result in cardiac dysfunction. Abnormalities of the cardiovascular system are often identified during examination of hyperthyroid and hypothyroid patients. This article addresses the effects of thyroid hormones on the cardiovascular system and the clinical relevance of the cardiovascular response to thyroid dysfunction. In addition, treatment recommendations are presented. PMID:23677842

  14. The effect of low level laser on anaplastic thyroid cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhee, Yun-Hee; Moon, Jeon-Hwan; Ahn, Jin-Chul; Chung, Phil-Sang

    2015-02-01

    Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) is a non-thermal phototherapy used in several medical applications, including wound healing, reduction of pain and amelioration of oral mucositis. Nevertheless, the effects of LLLT upon cancer or dysplastic cells have been so far poorly studied. Here we report that the effects of laser irradiation on anaplastic thyroid cancer cells leads to hyperplasia. 650nm of laser diode was performed with a different time interval (0, 15, 30, 60J/cm2 , 25mW) on anaplastic thyroid cancer cell line FRO in vivo. FRO was orthotopically injected into the thyroid gland of nude mice and the irradiation was performed with the same method described previously. After irradiation, the xenograft evaluation was followed for one month. The thyroid tissues from sacrificed mice were undergone to H&E staining and immunohistochemical staining with HIF-1α, Akt, TGF-β1. We found the aggressive proliferation of FRO on thyroid gland with dose dependent. In case of 60 J/ cm2 of energy density, the necrotic bodies were found in a center of the thyroid. The phosphorylation of HIF-1α and Akt was detected in the thyroid gland, which explained the survival signaling of anaplastic cancer cell was turned on the thyroid gland. Furthermore, TGF-β1 expression was decreased after irradiation. In this study, we demonstrated that insufficient energy density irradiation occurred the decreasing of TGF-β1 which corresponding to the phosphorylation of Akt/ HIF-1α. This aggressive proliferation resulted to the hypoxic condition of tissue for angiogenesis. We suggest that LLLT may influence to cancer aggressiveness associated with a decrease in TGF-β1 and increase in Akt/HIF-1α.

  15. Evaluation of the thyroid nodule

    SciTech Connect

    Cannon, C.R.

    1986-05-01

    Evaluation of thyroid nodules challenges the most astute clinician. The history and the physical examination often identify those patients who require immediate surgical management. In other patients, time-honored thyroid function studies and thyroid scanning are helpful. Fine needle aspiration and computed tomography are also valuable in the diagnostic work-up.

  16. Thyroid Function in Down Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pueschel, Siegfried M.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    This study investigated the thyroid function of 181 patients (mean age 14 years) with Down's syndrome and found more thyroid dysfunctions than in the general population. Periodic thyroid hormone function tests are recommended for Down's syndrome individuals, especially as they get older. (Author/DB)

  17. Corticosteroid therapy in Riedel's thyroiditis.

    PubMed

    Vaidya, B; Harris, P E; Barrett, P; Kendall-Taylor, P

    1997-12-01

    We report a case of Riedel's thyroiditis presenting with a systemic illness, life-threatening stridor and a stony hard goitre. Diagnosis was confirmed by open thyroid biopsy. Treatment with corticosteroid resulted in a dramatic improvement. A possible autoimmune mechanism in the pathogenesis of Riedel's thyroiditis is discussed. PMID:9497955

  18. [Thyroid dysfunction during pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Díez, Juan J; Iglesias, Pedro; Donnay, Sergio

    2015-10-21

    Recent clinical practice guidelines on thyroid dysfunction and pregnancy have changed health care provided to pregnant women, although their recommendations are under constant revision. Trimester- and area-specific reference ranges for serum thyroid-stimulating hormone are required for proper diagnosis of hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism. There is no doubt on the need of therapy for overt hypothyroidism, while therapy for subclinical hypothyroidism is controversial. Further research is needed to settle adverse effects of isolated hypothyroxinemia and thyroid autoimmunity. Differentiation between hyperthyroidism due to Graves' disease and the usually self-limited gestational transient thyrotoxicosis is critical. It is also important to recognize risk factors for postpartum thyroiditis. Supplementation with iodine is recommended to maintain adequate iodine nutrition during pregnancy and avoid serious consequences in offspring. Controversy remains about universal screening for thyroid disease during pregnancy or case-finding in high-risk women. Opinions of some scientific societies and recent cost-benefit studies favour universal screening. Randomized controlled studies currently under development should reduce the uncertainties that still remain in this area. PMID:25433782

  19. Thyroid hormone resistance.

    PubMed

    Olateju, Tolulope O; Vanderpump, Mark P J

    2006-11-01

    Resistance to thyroid hormone (RTH) is a rare autosomal dominant inherited syndrome of reduced end-organ responsiveness to thyroid hormone. Patients with RTH have elevated serum free thyroxine (FT4) and free triiodothyronine (FT3) concentrations and normal or slightly elevated serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) level. Despite a variable clinical presentation, the common characteristic clinical features are goitre but an absence of the usual symptoms and metabolic consequences of thyroid hormone excess. Patients with RTH can be classified on clinical grounds alone into either generalized resistance (GRTH), pituitary resistance (PRTH) or combined. Mutations in the thyroid hormone receptor (TR) beta gene are responsible for RTH and 122 different mutations have now been identified belonging to 300 families. With the exception of one family found to have complete deletion of the TRbeta gene, all others have been demonstrated to have minor alterations at the DNA level. The differential diagnosis includes a TSH-secreting pituitary adenoma and the presence of endogenous antibodies directed against thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). Failure to differentiate RTH from primary thyrotoxicosis has resulted in the inappropriate treatment of nearly one-third of patients. Although occasionally desirable, no specific treatment is available for RTH; however, the diagnosis allows appropriate genetic counselling. PMID:17132274

  20. The effects of radiation on the thyroid gland: a quantitative analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Rall, J.E.

    1981-01-01

    Radiation can cause cancer of the thyroid, and the thyroid is one of the most radiosensitive tissues. Children are much more sensitive to thyroid irradiation than are adults. The effectiveness of thyroid iodination from radioisotopes of iodine is largely a function of the half-life of the isotope. Short-lived isotopes (/sup 132/I), which give a high dose rate, are essentially equivalent, rad for rad, to x-irradiation. Long-lived isotopes (/sup 131/I) are one-fifth or less as effective as x-ray. Stimulation of the thyroid by TSH markedly increases the carcinogenic potential of thyroid irradiation, and inhibition of TSH stimulation probably decreases the carcinogenic effects of radiation.

  1. Thyroid gland morphology in young adults: normal subjects versus those with prior low-dose neck irradiation in childhood

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, G.A.; Komorowski, R.A.; Cerletty, J.M.; Wilson, S.D.

    1983-12-01

    Thyroid glands obtained at autopsy from young adults were studied to establish more accurately the ''normal'' morphology in the groups 20 to 40 years of age. A total of 56 autopsy specimens (many obtained from trauma victims) were examined in detail by totally embedding and sectioning the thyroid glands. The morphology of these thyroid glands also was compared to that of surgically removed thyroid glands from 47 young adult patients with prior low-dose neck irradiation. The ''normal'' thyroid specimens frequently showed morphologic features, such as thyroid tissue outside the recognizable capsule of the gland (40 of 56 patients) and in the strap muscles of the neck (six of 56 patients), which are conditions commonly considered as evidence for invasive thyroid carcinoma. The thyroid glands from the ''normal'' young adult population were significantly different from those thyroid glands surgically removed from patients who had received irradiation. The irradiated thyroid glands invariably showed multiple nodules of a wide variety of histologic types, extensive lymphocytic infiltrates, and distorting fibrosis as well as a high incidence of malignancy (27 of 47 patients). A single 0.1 cm focus of papillary carcinoma was found in one specimen in the nonirradiated thyroid group. This study suggests that ''occult'' thyroid carcinomas in the group 20 to 40 years of age are rare and are significantly fewer in number than in the older population (P less than 0.02).

  2. Vitamin D receptor expression is linked to potential markers of human thyroid papillary carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Izkhakov, Elena; Somjen, Dalia; Sharon, Orli; Knoll, Esther; Aizic, Asaf; Fliss, Dan M; Limor, Rona; Stern, Naftali

    2016-05-01

    Genes regulated cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesion and degradation of the extracellular matrix (ECM) have been screened as potential markers of malignant thyroid nodules. The mRNA expression levels of two of them, the ECM protein-1 (ECM1) and the type II transmembrane serine protease-4 (TMPRSS4), were shown to be an independent predictor of an existing thyroid carcinoma. The vitamin D receptor (VDR) is expressed in epithelial cells of the normal thyroid gland, as well as in malignant dividing cells, which respond to the active metabolite of vitamin D by decreased proliferative activity in vitro. We evaluated the relationship between mRNA gene expressions of TMPRSS4, ECM1 and VDR in 21 papillary thyroid carcinoma samples and compared it to 21 normal thyroid tissues from the same patients. Gene expression was considered as up- or down-regulated if it varied by more or less than 2-fold in the cancer tissue relative to the normal thyroid tissue (Ca/N) from the same patient. We found an overall significant adjusted correlation between the mRNA expression ratio (ExR) of VDR and that of ECM1 in Ca/N thyroid tissue (R=0.648, P<0.001). There was a high ExR of VDR between Ca/N thyroid tissue from the same patient (3.06±2.9), which also exhibited a high Ca/N ExR of ECM1 and/or of TMPRSS4 (>2, P=0.05).The finding that increased VDR expression in human thyroid cancer cells is often linked to increased ECM1 and/or TPMRSS4 expression warrants further investigation into the potential role of vitamin D analogs in thyroid carcinoma. PMID:26907966

  3. Solitary thyroid nodule. 1. Clinical characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Mazzaferri, E.L.

    1981-07-01

    The approach to management of an isolated thyroid nodule requires some understanding of the natural history of thyroid cancer and other forms of nodular thyroid disease. The histologic classification of thyroid cancer is an important determinant of survival, as are the size of the primary tumor, presence of thyroid capsule invasion, and presence of distant metastases. Therapeutic radiation and radioactive fallout increase the risk that a thyroid nodule is malignant. Autonomously functioning thyroid nodules are usually benign follicular adenomas and may cause thyrotoxicosis.

  4. Sunitinib Malate in Treating Patients With Iodine-Refractory Recurrent or Metastatic Thyroid Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-09-28

    Recurrent Thyroid Cancer; Stage IVA Follicular Thyroid Cancer; Stage IVA Papillary Thyroid Cancer; Stage IVB Follicular Thyroid Cancer; Stage IVB Papillary Thyroid Cancer; Stage IVC Follicular Thyroid Cancer; Stage IVC Papillary Thyroid Cancer; Thyroid Gland Medullary Carcinoma

  5. [Thyroid gland and fertility].

    PubMed

    Andreeva, P

    2014-01-01

    It is well-known that the thyroid hormones are associated with a number of aspects of the human reproduction. Both states, hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism, have significant effect on the estrogen and androgen metabolism, the menstrual function and on fertility. The role of thyroid hormones (TH) during infertility has been little exploited. Interesting facts are that TH deficiency is more common in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and in certain cases with unexplained infertility. There are very few studies on the effect and paracrine regulation of TH and its receptors in the female reproductive tract. This report provides an overview of the most common thyroid disorders and their impact on ovarian function and reproductive performance in women as well as in cases with infertility and the implementation of assisted reproductive technologies (ART). PMID:25675618

  6. [Therapy of thyroid nodules].

    PubMed

    Schott, Matthias

    2015-04-01

    Thyroid nodules are frequent in Germany. In about every fourth person thyroid nodules can be detected. Most of them are benign. Signs for malignancy are hypoechogenicity, microcalcifications, an unregular margin and increased blood perfusion. There is no strict indication for the treatment of benign nodules. In most cases iodine supplementation is sufficient. A combination therapy with levothyroxine and iodine is more efficient for the treatment of larger nodules. Subclinical hyperthyroidism caused by an adenoma does not necessarily need to be treated, whereas manifest hyperthyroidism needs to treated in most cases with antithyroid drug therapy. Radioiodine therapy is the classical indication for the treatment of unifocal autonomous adenomas. A largely increased thyroid gland with and without uni- / multifocal adenomas are often operated. PMID:25831118

  7. [Radiotherapy for Thyroid Cancer].

    PubMed

    Jingu, Keiichi; Maruoka, Shin; Umezawa, Rei; Takahashi, Noriyoshi

    2015-06-01

    Radioactive 131I therapy for differentiated thyroid cancer has been used since the 1940s and is an established and effective treatment. In contrast, external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) was considered to be effective for achieving local control but not for prolonging survival. Although clinicians were hesitant to administer EBRT owing to the potential radiation-induced adverse effects of 2 dimensional (2D)-radiotherapy until 2000, it is expected that adverse effects will be reduced and treatment efficacy improved through the introduction of more advanced techniques for delivering radiation (eg, 3D-radiotherapy and intensity modulated radiotherapy [IMRT]). The prognosis of undifferentiated thyroid cancer is known to be extremely bad, although in very rare cases, multimodality therapy (total or subtotal resection, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy) has allowed long-term survival. Here, we report the preliminary results of using hypofractionated radiotherapy for undifferentiated thyroid cancer in our institution. PMID:26199238

  8. The Role of Epithelial Mesenchymal Transition Markers in Thyroid Carcinoma Progression

    PubMed Central

    Montemayor-Garcia, Celina; Hardin, Heather; Guo, Zhenying; Larrain, Carolina; Buehler, Darya; Asioli, Sofia; Chen, Herbert; Lloyd, Ricardo V.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in thyroid cancer progression may provide targets for more effective treatment of aggressive thyroid cancers. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a major pathologic mechanism in tumor progression and is linked to the acquisition of stem-like properties of cancer cells. We examined expression of ZEB1 which activates EMT by binding to the E-box elements in the E-cadherin promoter, and expression of E-cadherin in normal and neoplastic thyroid tissues in a tissue microarray (TMA) which included 127 neoplasms and 10 normal thyroid specimens. Thyroid follicular adenomas (FA, n=32), follicular thyroid carcinomas (FTC, n=28), and papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTC, n=57) all expressed E-cadherin and were mostly negative for ZEB1 while most anaplastic thyroid carcinomas (ATC, n=10) were negative for E-cadherin, but positive for ZEB1. A validation set of 10 whole sections of ATCs showed 90% of cases positive for ZEB1 and all cases were negative for E-cadherin. Analysis of three cell lines (normal thyroid, NTHY-OR13-1; PTC, TPC-1 and ATC, THJ-21T) showed that the ATC cell line expressed the highest levels of ZEB1 while the normal thyroid cell line expressed the highest levels of E-Cadherin. Quantitative RT-PCR analyses showed that Smad7 mRNA was significantly higher in ATC than in any other group (p<0.05). These results indicate that ATCs show evidence of EMT including decreased expression of E-cadherin and increased expression of ZEB1 compared to well differentiated thyroid carcinomas and that increased expression of Smad7 may be associated with thyroid tumor progression. PMID:24126800

  9. Thyroid Disease and the Heart.

    PubMed

    Klein, Irwin; Danzi, Sara

    2016-02-01

    Thyroid hormones have an intimate relationship with cardiac function. Some of the most significant clinical signs and symptoms of thyroid disease are the cardiac manifestations. In both hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism, the characteristic physiological effects of thyroid hormone can be understood from the actions at the molecular and cellular level. Here we explore topics from the metabolism and cellular effects of thyroid hormone to special considerations related to statin and amiodarone therapy for the alterations in thyroid hormone metabolism that accompany heart disease. PMID:26792255

  10. An engineered dimeric protein pore that spans adjacent lipid bilayers

    PubMed Central

    Mantri, Shiksha; Sapra, K. Tanuj; Cheley, Stephen; Sharp, Thomas H.; Bayley, Hagan

    2013-01-01

    The bottom-up construction of artificial tissues is an underexplored area of synthetic biology. An important challenge is communication between constituent compartments of the engineered tissue and between the engineered tissue and additional compartments, including extracellular fluids, further engineered tissue and living cells. Here we present a dimeric transmembrane pore that can span two adjacent lipid bilayers and thereby allow aqueous compartments to communicate. Two heptameric staphylococcal α-hemolysin (αHL) pores were covalently linked in an aligned cap-to-cap orientation. The structure of the dimer, (α7)2, was confirmed by biochemical analysis, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and single-channel electrical recording. We show that one of two β barrels of (α7)2 can insert into the lipid bilayer of a small unilamellar vesicle, while the other spans a planar lipid bilayer. (α7)2 pores spanning two bilayers were also observed by TEM. PMID:23591892

  11. Expression of epithelial-mesenchymal transition regulators SNAI2 and TWIST1 in thyroid carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Buehler, Darya; Hardin, Heather; Shan, Weihua; Montemayor-Garcia, Celina; Rush, Patrick S; Asioli, Sofia; Chen, Herbert; Lloyd, Ricardo V

    2013-01-01

    Epithelial–mesenchymal transition is an important mechanism of epithelial tumor progression, local invasion and metastasis. The E-cadherin (CDH1) repressor SLUG (SNAI2) and the basic helix–loop–helix transcription factor TWIST1 inhibit CDH1 expression in poorly differentiated malignancies as inducers of epithelial– mesenchymal transition. Epithelial–mesenchymal transition has been implicated in progression from well to poorly differentiated/anaplastic thyroid carcinoma but the expression of SNAI2 and TWIST1 proteins and their phenotypic association in human thyroid cancers has not been extensively studied. We examined the expression of SNAI2, TWIST1 and CDH1 by immunohistochemistry in a panel of well-differentiated and anaplastic thyroid cancers and by qRT-PCR in thyroid cell lines. Ten normal thyroids, 33 follicular adenomas, 56 papillary thyroid carcinomas including 28 follicular variants, 27 follicular carcinomas and 10 anaplastic thyroid carcinomas were assembled on a tissue microarray and immunostained for SNAI2, TWIST1 and CDH1. Most (8/10) anaplastic thyroid carcinomas demonstrated strong nuclear immunoreactivity for SNAI2 with associated absence of CDH1 in 6/8 cases (75%). TWIST1 was expressed in 5/10 anaplastic thyroid carcinomas with absence of CDH1 in 3/5 (60%) cases. These findings were confirmed in whole sections of all anaplastic thyroid carcinomas and in a separate validation set of 10 additional anaplastic thyroid carcinomas. All normal thyroids, follicular adenomas, papillary and follicular thyroid carcinomas were negative for SNAI2 and TWIST1 (P<0.0001) and all showed strong diffuse immunoreactivity for CDH1 (P=0.026). Expression of SNAI2, TWIST1 and CDH1 mRNA varied in a normal thyroid, papillary carcinoma and two anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cell lines tested, but the highest levels of CDH1 mRNA were detected in the normal thyroid cell line while the anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cell line demonstrated the highest levels of SNAI2 and

  12. Thyroid cell lines in research on goitrogenesis.

    PubMed

    Gerber, H; Peter, H J; Asmis, L; Studer, H

    1991-12-01

    Thyroid cell lines have contributed a lot to the understanding of goitrogenesis. The cell lines mostly used in thyroid research are briefly discussed, namely the rat thyroid cell lines FRTL and FRTL-5, the porcine thyroid cell lines PORTHOS and ARTHOS, The sheep thyroid cell lines OVNIS 5H and 6H, the cat thyroid cell lines PETCAT 1 to 4 and ROMCAT, and the human thyroid cell lines FTC-133 and HTh 74. Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells and COS-7 cells, stably transfected with TSH receptor cDNA and expressing a functional TSH receptor, are discussed as examples for non-thyroidal cells, transfected with thyroid genes. PMID:1726925

  13. Expression and function of CXCL12/CXCR4/CXCR7 in thyroid cancer

    PubMed Central

    ZHU, XIAOLI; BAI, QIANMING; LU, YONGMING; LU, YIQIONG; ZHU, LINLIN; ZHOU, XIAOYAN; WU, LIJING

    2016-01-01

    The contribution of CXCL12/CXCR4/CXCR7 axis to cancer progression has been increasingly recognized. However, its role in thyroid cancer development remains unclear. The present study aimed to examine the expression and function of CXCL12 and its receptors in thyroid cancer. The expression of CXCL12/CXCR4/CXCR7 in human tissue specimens of papillary, follicular, medullary, and anaplastic thyroid carcinoma, follicular adenoma, Hashimoto's thyroiditis and nodular goiter were examined by immunohistochemistry using a tissue microarray. CXCR4 and CXCR7 were over-expressed in human thyroid cancer cells K1 by transduction of recombinant lentivirus. The effect of overexpression of CXCR4 and CXCR7 on K1 cell proliferation and invasion and the molecular mechanism underlying the effect were investigated. CXCL12 was exclusively expressed in papillary thyroid carcinoma tissue but absent in other types of thyroid malignancies and benign lesions. CXCR7 was widely expressed in the endothelial cells of all types of malignancy but only occasionally detected in benign lesions. CXCR4 was expressed in 62.5% of papillary thyroid carcinoma tissue specimens and in 30–40% of other types of malignancy, and it was either absent or weakly expressed in benign lesions. CXCL12 stimulated the invasion and migration of K1 cells overexpressing CXCR4, but did not affect K1 cells overexpressing CXCR7. K1 cell proliferation was not affected by overexpression of CXCR4 or CXCR7. Overexpression of CXCR4 in K1 cells significantly increased AKT and ERK phosphorylation and markedly induced the expression and activity of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2). Thus, CXCL12 may be an effective diagnostic marker for papillary thyroid carcinoma, and CXCL12/CXCR4/CXCR7 axis may contribute to thyroid cancer development by regulating cancer cell migration and invasion via AKT and ERK signaling and MMP-2 activation. PMID:27082011

  14. Expression and function of CXCL12/CXCR4/CXCR7 in thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiaoli; Bai, Qianming; Lu, Yongming; Lu, Yiqiong; Zhu, Linlin; Zhou, Xiaoyan; Wu, Lijing

    2016-06-01

    The contribution of CXCL12/CXCR4/CXCR7 axis to cancer progression has been increasingly recognized. However, its role in thyroid cancer development remains unclear. The present study aimed to examine the expression and function of CXCL12 and its receptors in thyroid cancer. The expression of CXCL12/CXCR4/CXCR7 in human tissue specimens of papillary, follicular, medullary, and anaplastic thyroid carcinoma, follicular adenoma, Hashimoto's thyroiditis and nodular goiter were examined by immunohistochemistry using a tissue microarray. CXCR4 and CXCR7 were over-expressed in human thyroid cancer cells K1 by transduction of recombinant lentivirus. The effect of overexpression of CXCR4 and CXCR7 on K1 cell proliferation and invasion and the molecular mechanism underlying the effect were investigated. CXCL12 was exclusively expressed in papillary thyroid carcinoma tissue but absent in other types of thyroid malignancies and benign lesions. CXCR7 was widely expressed in the endothelial cells of all types of malignancy but only occasionally detected in benign lesions. CXCR4 was expressed in 62.5% of papillary thyroid carcinoma tissue specimens and in 30-40% of other types of malignancy, and it was either absent or weakly expressed in benign lesions. CXCL12 stimulated the invasion and migration of K1 cells overexpressing CXCR4, but did not affect K1 cells overexpressing CXCR7. K1 cell proliferation was not affected by overexpression of CXCR4 or CXCR7. Overexpression of CXCR4 in K1 cells significantly increased AKT and ERK phosphorylation and markedly induced the expression and activity of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP‑2). Thus, CXCL12 may be an effective diagnostic marker for papillary thyroid carcinoma, and CXCL12/CXCR4/CXCR7 axis may contribute to thyroid cancer development by regulating cancer cell migration and invasion via AKT and ERK signaling and MMP-2 activation. PMID:27082011

  15. Thyroid-pituitary interaction: Feedback regulation of thyrotropin secretion by thyroid hormones

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, P.R.; Bleich, H.L.; Moore, M.J.

    1982-01-07

    Thyroid-hormone regulation of TSH production involves a response to plasma concentrations of T4 and T3. A substantial fraction of intracellular T3 in the pituitary derives from the conversion of T4 to T3, and recent studies indicate that this process is physiologically regulated. Changes in pituitary conversion of T4 to T3 are often the opposite of those that occur in the liver and kidney under similar circumstances. The presence of this pathway for T3 production indicates that the pituitary can respond independently to changes in plasma levels of T4 and T3; in contrast, many tissues appear to be sensitive mainly to the plasma T3 concentration. Recent studies suggest that conversion of T4 to T3 in the cerebral cortex and cerebellum is also important in providing intracellular T3 to these particular tissues. Given these results, it is not suprising that a complete definition of thyroid status requires more than the measurement of the serum concentrations of thyroid hormones. For some tissues, among them the brain and pituitary, the intracellular T3 concentrations may only partly reflect those in the serum. Recognition that the intracellular T3 concentration in each tissue may be subject to local regulation and an understanding of the importance of this process to the regulation of TSH production shoul permit a better appreciation of the limitations of radioimmunoassay serum thyroid hormone and TSH levels. These concepts also provide a physiologic rationale for the use of thyroxine for replacement in hypothyroid patients or for TSH suppression.

  16. Clinical implications of altered thyroid status in male testicular function.

    PubMed

    Wajner, Simone Magagnin; Wagner, Márcia Santos; Maia, Ana Luiza

    2009-11-01

    Thyroid hormones are involved in the development and maintenance of virtually all tissues. Although for many years the testis was thought to be a thyroid-hormone unresponsive organ, studies of the last decades have demonstrated that thyroid dysfunction is associated not only with abnormalities in morphology and function of testes, but also with decreased fertility and alterations of sexual activity in men. Nowadays, the participation of triiodothyronine (T3) in the control of Sertoli and Leydig cell proliferation, testicular maturation, and steroidogenesis is widely accepted, as well as the presence of thyroid hormone transporters and receptors in testicular cells throughout the development process and in adulthood. But even with data suggesting that T3 may act directly on these cells to bring about its effects, there is still controversy regarding the impact of thyroid diseases on human spermatogenesis and fertility, which can be in part due to the lack of well-controlled clinical studies. The current review aims at presenting an updated picture of recent clinical data about the role of thyroid hormones in male gonadal function. PMID:20126850

  17. What Causes Thyroid Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... not yet known. Certain changes in a person’s DNA can cause thyroid cells to become cancerous. DNA is the chemical in each of our cells ... parents because they are the source of our DNA. But DNA affects more than just how we ...

  18. Cancer of the Thyroid

    MedlinePlus

    ... at a Glance Show More At a Glance Estimated New Cases in 2016 64,300 % of All New Cancer Cases 3.8% Estimated Deaths in 2016 1,980 % of All Cancer ... of This Cancer : In 2013, there were an estimated 637,115 people living with thyroid cancer in ...

  19. Thyroid Cancer Risk Factors

    MedlinePlus

    ... and radiation fallout from power plant accidents or nuclear weapons. Having had head or neck radiation treatments in childhood is a risk factor for ... should be done using the lowest dose of radiation that still provides a clear ... from nuclear weapons or power plant accidents. For instance, thyroid ...

  20. Remote access thyroid surgery

    PubMed Central

    Bhatia, Parisha; Mohamed, Hossam Eldin; Kadi, Abida; Walvekar, Rohan R.

    2015-01-01

    Robot assisted thyroid surgery has been the latest advance in the evolution of thyroid surgery after endoscopy assisted procedures. The advantage of a superior field vision and technical advancements of robotic technology have permitted novel remote access (trans-axillary and retro-auricular) surgical approaches. Interestingly, several remote access surgical ports using robot surgical system and endoscopic technique have been customized to avoid the social stigma of a visible scar. Current literature has displayed their various advantages in terms of post-operative outcomes; however, the associated financial burden and also additional training and expertise necessary hinder its widespread adoption into endocrine surgery practices. These approaches offer excellent cosmesis, with a shorter learning curve and reduce discomfort to surgeons operating ergonomically through a robotic console. This review aims to provide details of various remote access techniques that are being offered for thyroid resection. Though these have been reported to be safe and feasible approaches for thyroid surgery, further evaluation for their efficacy still remains. PMID:26425450

  1. Pregnancy and Thyroid Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... to make thyroid hormone, iodine is an important mineral for a mother during pregnancy. During pregnancy, the baby gets iodine from the mother’s diet. Women need more iodine when they are pregnant—about 250 micrograms a day. In the United States, about 7 percent of pregnant women may not ...

  2. Overview of the 2015 American Thyroid Association guidelines for managing thyroid nodules and differentiated thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Matti, Bashar; Cohen-Hallaleh, Ruben

    2016-01-01

    The last few years have witnessed numerous publications addressing the management of thyroid nodules and differentiated thyroid cancers. The purpose of this review is to provide a simplified summary of the newly released guidelines by the American Thyroid Association. A systematic approach has been recommended to evaluate a thyroid nodule through clinical assessment, measurement of serum Thyroid Stimulating Hormone, neck ultrasonography and Fine Needle Aspiration where appropriate. This is followed by cytology analysis using the Bethesda scoring system to detect malignancy. Once diagnosed, thyroid cancers need to be staged and risk stratification needs to be applied to develop further treatment plans. Lastly, several recommendations have been presented to assure proper follow-up and support for thyroid cancer patients regardless of the treatment received. PMID:27607088

  3. Thyroid Hormone-disrupting Effects and the Amphibian Metamorphosis Assay

    PubMed Central

    Miyata, Kaori; Ose, Keiko

    2012-01-01

    There are continued concerns about endocrine-disrupting chemical effects, and appropriate vertebrate models for assessment of risk are a high priority. Frog tadpoles are very sensitive to environmental substances because of their habitat and the complex processes of metamorphosis regulated by the endocrine system, mainly thyroid hormones. During metamorphosis, marked alteration in hormonal factors occurs, as well as dramatic structural and functional changes in larval tissues. There are a variety of mechanisms determining thyroid hormone balance or disruption directly or indirectly. Direct-acting agents can cause changes in thyroxine synthesis and/or secretion in thyroid through effects on peroxidases, thyroidal iodide uptake, deiodinase, and proteolysis. At the same time, indirect action may result from biochemical processes such as sulfation, deiodination and glucuronidation. Because their potential to disrupt thyroid hormones has been identified as an important consideration for the regulation of chemicals, the OECD and the EPA have each established guidelines that make use of larval African clawed frogs (Xenopus laevis) and frog metamorphosis for screening and testing of potential endocrine disrupters. The guidelines are based on evaluation of alteration in the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis. One of the primary endpoints is thyroid gland histopathology. Others are mortality, developmental stage, hind limb length, snout-vent length and wet body weight. Regarding histopathological features, the guidelines include core criteria and additional qualitative parameters along with grading. Taking into account the difficulties in evaluating amphibian thyroid glands, which change continuously throughout metamorphosis, histopathological examination has been shown to be a very sensitive approach. PMID:22481853

  4. Celiac disease in children and adolescents with Hashimoto Thyroiditis

    PubMed Central

    Tuhan, Hale; Işık, Sakine; Abacı, Ayhan; Şimşek, Erdem; Anık, Ahmet; Anal, Özden; Böber, Ece

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate clinical and laboratory findings and determine the prevalence of celiac disease (CD) in children with Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT). Material and Methods: The data of a total of 80 patients with positive anti-thyroid antibodies who were aged between 6 and 17.9 years were retrospectively studied. Age, gender, complaints at the time of presentation, family history of thyroid disorders, clinical and laboratory findings were recorded. The levels of thyrotropin, free thyroxin, thyroid autoantibodies (thyroid peroxidase and thyroglobulin antibodies), immunoglobulin A (IgA), anti-tissue transglutaminase antibodies (IgA-tTG), and thyroid ultrasonography findings were enrolled. Results: Eighty patients (65 females (81.2%) and 15 males (18,8%)) were included in the study. Family history of thyroid disease was present in 38 (47.5%) patients. The most common complaints at the time of presentation were goiter (%30) and weight gain (%25). Forty three (53.8%), 23 (28.7%), and 14 (17.5%) patients presented with euthyroidism, subclinical hypothyroidism and obvious hypothyroidism. Thirty seven (46.2%) patients had goiter. IgA-tTG was found to be positive after a diagnosis of HT was made in only one patient (1.25%) and the diagnosis of CD was confirmed when intestinal biopsy of this patient revealed villus atrophy, crypt hyperplasia and increase in the intraepithelial lymphocyte count. Conclusions: In our study, it was found that the most common complaints at presentation in patients with a diagnosis of hashimoto thyroiditis included goiter, weakness and weight gain and the prevalence of celiac diseases was found to be 1.25% (1/80). This study shows that the prevalence of CD in patients with a diagnosis of HT is higher compared to the prevalence in the healthy pediatric population. PMID:27489467

  5. Defective thyroid ontogenesis in fetal hypothyroid (hyt/hyt) mice

    SciTech Connect

    Beamer, W.G.; Cresswell, L.A.

    1982-03-01

    Thyroid glands of fetal hypothyroid (hyt/hyt) mice were studied to determine the effects of the mutant gene during embryogenesis. Comparisons of mutant and normal thyroids were made with respect to morphology, iodine-concentrating ability, and glandular thyroxine (T4) content at day 18 of gestation. Fetal hyt/hyt thyroid tissue was properly located, but incompletely differentiated. The mutant thyroid was characterized microscopically by small, poorly developed follicles with colloid diminished in PAS-staining properties. The mutant glands' ability to concentrate iodine was found to be only 5--16% of that exhibited by normal glands. When litters contained both mutant and normal off-spring, the differential iodine-concentrating ability allowed fetuses to be separated into two distinct, nonoverlapping populations. The distribution of fetal mice into high or low iodine-concentrating groups agreed closely with predicted frequencies for normal and mutant phenotypes. Thyroid content of T4 in mutant mice was found to be approximately equal to that found in age-matched normal controls. The poorly developed morphology and deficient iodine-concentrating ability of fetal thyroids from day 18 hyt/hyt mice indicated that the mutant gene acts during the ontogeny of this gland. Although such data are not available on human fetuses affected by thyroid dysgenesis, postnatal hyt/hyt mice display characteristics similar to those of infants born with this form of congenital primary hypothyroidism. Thus, elucidation of the site of mutant gene action in the mouse should contribute to our knowledge of disturbed fetal thyroid development and its implications in the adult mammal.

  6. 43 CFR 420.3 - Adjacent lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Adjacent lands. 420.3 Section 420.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...-managing agencies on adjacent lands (both public and private)....

  7. 43 CFR 420.3 - Adjacent lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Adjacent lands. 420.3 Section 420.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...-managing agencies on adjacent lands (both public and private)....

  8. 43 CFR 420.3 - Adjacent lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Adjacent lands. 420.3 Section 420.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFF-ROAD VEHICLE USE § 420.3 Adjacent lands. When administratively feasible, the regulation of off-road vehicle use on Reclamation lands will...

  9. 43 CFR 420.3 - Adjacent lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Adjacent lands. 420.3 Section 420.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...-managing agencies on adjacent lands (both public and private)....

  10. 43 CFR 420.3 - Adjacent lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Adjacent lands. 420.3 Section 420.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFF-ROAD VEHICLE USE § 420.3 Adjacent lands. When administratively feasible, the regulation of...

  11. [Medullary thyroid carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Niccoli-Sire, P; Conte-Devolx, B

    2007-10-01

    Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is developed from thyroid C cells that secrete calcitonin (CT). MTC represents 5-10% of thyroid cancers with a 1-2% incidence in nodular thyroid diseases. Diagnosis is usually made by a solitary nodule often associated to nodal metastasis and confirmed by a high basal CT level which represents its biological marker. MTC may present as a sporadic form and in about 30% of case as a familial form as a part of multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome, an hereditary dominant inherited disease related to germline mutation of the proto-oncogene RET. Both biological (CT) and genetic (RET) markers allows the optimal diagnosis and treatment of MTC; the former allows screening and early diagnosis of MTC by routinely CT measurements in nodular thyroid diseases that make the adequate and complete surgery required to be performed. The former leads to diagnose familial MTC and to identify at risk subjects in whom early or prophylactic surgery may be performed. Treatment of MTC is based on the complete surgical resection: total thyroidectomy associated to central and laterocervical nodal dissection. For locally advanced or metastatic MTC, complete cervical surgery is required and needs to be associated to other systemic treatments: as chemotherapy is not very efficient, radioimmunotherapy and RET target gene therapy (mainly tyrosine kinase inhibitors) appears as possible valuable therapeutic options for the future. Prognosis of MTC is mainly related to both the stage of the disease and the extend of the initial surgery. Ten-year survival is about 80% when the patients are not surgically cured and reaches 95% when the biological marker CT is normalized after surgery. PMID:17572372

  12. Expression of PAX8 Target Genes in Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Rosignolo, Francesca; Sponziello, Marialuisa; Durante, Cosimo; Puppin, Cinzia; Mio, Catia; Baldan, Federica; Di Loreto, Carla; Russo, Diego; Filetti, Sebastiano; Damante, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    PAX8 is a thyroid-specific transcription factor whose expression is dysregulated in thyroid cancer. A recent study using a conditional knock-out mouse model identified 58 putative PAX8 target genes. In the present study, we evaluated the expression of 11 of these genes in normal and tumoral thyroid tissues from patients with papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). ATP1B1, GPC3, KCNIP3, and PRLR transcript levels in tumor tissues were significantly lower in PTCs than in NT, whereas LCN2, LGALS1 and SCD1 expression was upregulated in PTC compared with NT. Principal component analysis of the expression of the most markedly dysregulated PAX8 target genes was able to discriminate between PTC and NT. Immunohistochemistry was used to assess levels of proteins encoded by the two most dyregulated PAX8 target genes, LCN2 and GPC3. Interestingly, GPC3 was detectable in all of the NT samples but none of the PTC samples. Collectively, these findings point to significant PTC-associated dysregulation of several PAX8 target genes, supporting the notion that PAX8-regulated molecular cascades play important roles during thyroid tumorigenesis. PMID:27249794

  13. Expression of PAX8 Target Genes in Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Rosignolo, Francesca; Sponziello, Marialuisa; Durante, Cosimo; Puppin, Cinzia; Mio, Catia; Baldan, Federica; Di Loreto, Carla; Russo, Diego; Filetti, Sebastiano; Damante, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    PAX8 is a thyroid-specific transcription factor whose expression is dysregulated in thyroid cancer. A recent study using a conditional knock-out mouse model identified 58 putative PAX8 target genes. In the present study, we evaluated the expression of 11 of these genes in normal and tumoral thyroid tissues from patients with papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). ATP1B1, GPC3, KCNIP3, and PRLR transcript levels in tumor tissues were significantly lower in PTCs than in NT, whereas LCN2, LGALS1 and SCD1 expression was upregulated in PTC compared with NT. Principal component analysis of the expression of the most markedly dysregulated PAX8 target genes was able to discriminate between PTC and NT. Immunohistochemistry was used to assess levels of proteins encoded by the two most dyregulated PAX8 target genes, LCN2 and GPC3. Interestingly, GPC3 was detectable in all of the NT samples but none of the PTC samples. Collectively, these findings point to significant PTC-associated dysregulation of several PAX8 target genes, supporting the notion that PAX8-regulated molecular cascades play important roles during thyroid tumorigenesis. PMID:27249794

  14. Thyroid, spermatogenesis, and male infertility.

    PubMed

    Rajender, Singh; Monica, Marie Gray; Walter, Lee; Agarwal, Ashok

    2011-01-01

    Since the identification of thyroid hormone receptors on the testes, thyroid has been suggested to have a significant impact on the male reproductive tract, spermatogenesis, and male fertility. Several research articles on the role of thyroid in spermatogenesis or male infertility have been published in the last three decades. We conducted an exhaustive literature search was conducted in order to create an up-to-date review of literature. This review aims to discuss the impact of thyroid on testicular development, spermatogenesis, hypo- or hyper- thyroidism and male infertility, and the management of thyroid related abnormal semen profile. The literature revealed that thyroid significantly impacts testicular development and that abnormal thyroid profile affects semen quality and male fertility by compromising testicular size, sperm motility and ejaculate volume. A clear link exists between thyroid hormones, testicular development and spermatogenesis. Thyroid disease negatively affects spermatogenesis and consequently may cause male infertility. In such cases, infertility is reversible, but more studies need to be conducted, especially in post-pubertal males to cement the current findings. PMID:21622096

  15. FAP Associated Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma: A Peculiar Subtype of Familial Nonmedullary Thyroid Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cetta, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Familial Nonmedullary Thyroid Carcinoma (FNMTC) makes up to 5–10% of all thyroid cancers, also including those FNMTC occurring as a minor component of familial cancer syndromes, such as Familial Adenomatous Polyposis (FAP). We give evidence that this extracolonic manifestation of FAP is determined by the same germline mutation of the APC gene responsible for colonic polyps and cancer but also shows some unusual features (F : M ratio = 80 : 1, absence of LOH for APC in the thyroid tumoral tissue, and indolent biological behaviour, despite frequent multicentricity and lymph nodal involvement), suggesting that the APC gene confers only a generic susceptibility to thyroid cancer, but perhaps other factors, namely, modifier genes, sex-related factors, or environmental factors, are also required for its phenotypic expression. This great variability is against the possibility of classifying all FNMTC as a single entity, not only with a unique or prevalent causative genetic factor, but also with a unique or common biological behavior and a commonly dismal prognosis. A new paradigm is also suggested that could be useful (1) for a proper classification of FAP associated PTC within the larger group of FNMTC and (2) for making inferences to sporadic carcinogenesis, based on the lesson from FAP. PMID:26697262

  16. Thyroid dysfunction and pregnancy outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Nazarpour, Sima; Ramezani Tehrani, Fahimeh; Simbar, Masoumeh; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2015-01-01

    Background: Pregnancy has a huge impact on the thyroid function in both healthy women and those that have thyroid dysfunction. The prevalence of thyroid dysfunction in pregnant women is relatively high. Objective: The objective of this review was to increase awareness and to provide a review on adverse effect of thyroid dysfunction including hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism and thyroid autoimmune positivity on pregnancy outcomes. Materials and Methods: In this review, Medline, Embase and the Cochrane Library were searched with appropriate keywords for relevant English manuscript. We used a variety of studies, including randomized clinical trials, cohort (prospective and retrospective), case-control and case reports. Those studies on thyroid disorders among non-pregnant women and articles without adequate quality were excluded. Results: Overt hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism has several adverse effects on pregnancy outcomes. Overt hyperthyroidism was associated with miscarriage, stillbirth, preterm delivery, intrauterine growth retardation, low birth weight, preeclampsia and fetal thyroid dysfunction. Overt hypothyroidism was associated with abortion, anemia, pregnancy-induced hypertension, preeclampsia, placental abruption, postpartum hemorrhage, premature birth, low birth weight, intrauterine fetal death, increased neonatal respiratory distress and infant neuro developmental dysfunction. However the adverse effect of subclinical hypothyroidism, and thyroid antibody positivity on pregnancy outcomes was not clear. While some studies demonstrated higher chance of placental abruption, preterm birth, miscarriage, gestational hypertension, fetal distress, severe preeclampsia and neonatal distress and diabetes in pregnant women with subclinical hypothyroidism or thyroid autoimmunity; the other ones have not reported these adverse effects. Conclusion: While the impacts of overt thyroid dysfunction on feto-maternal morbidities have been clearly identified and its long

  17. Thyroid diseases and female reproduction.

    PubMed

    Mintziori, G; Anagnostis, P; Toulis, K A; Goulis, D G

    2012-02-01

    Thyroid diseases are very common in women of reproductive age. The aim of this study was to review the current evidence on physiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis and management of women with thyroid disorders that are currently seeking fertility, undergoing assisted reproduction technologies (ART) or being pregnant. Normal thyroid function is essential for normal function of the gonadal axis, thus important in maintaining normal reproductive capacity. On the contrary, any type of thyroid dysfunction may reduce the likelihood of pregnancy; the latter can be restored to normal after appropriate treatment. Over eight million children have been born as a result of assisted reproduction techniques (ART) since 1978. As these procedures are becoming more common in clinical practice, the exact impact of thyroid status on reproductive outcomes as well as that of drugs used in ART on thyroid function has to be fully elucidated. Maternal thyroid function is crucial, especially during the first weeks of gestation, for offspring's wellness and brain development. On the other hand, normal physiological mechanisms during gestation can have a major impact on maternal thyroid function. As human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) has a thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)-like effect, high hCG concentrations are associated with thyroid stimulation, both functionally (lower serum TSH concentrations) and anatomically (increased thyroid volume). Although the association between maternal hypothyroidism and increased perinatal morbidity has been described for over a century, more recently, even the presence of anti-thyroid antibodies has been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes, such as recurrent abortions and placental abruption. This is of major clinical significance, as anti-thyroid antibodies are surprisingly prevalent in pregnancy, especially during the first two trimesters. PMID:22278068

  18. Osteochondroma of the hip with adjacent bursal chondromatosis.

    PubMed

    Gould, Elaine S; Baker, Kevin S; Huang, Mingqian; Khan, Fazel; Hoda, Syed

    2014-12-01

    It is well established that irregular bursae can form adjacent to an osteochondroma (bursa exostotica) as a result of mechanical irritation and that these bursae can be complicated by inflammation, hemorrhage, or infection. Bursal chondromatosis is a rare complication, with only seven published cases in the literature according to our searches. We present the case of a 53-year-old female who presented with slowly progressive left hip/thigh pain and was found to have an osteochondroma arising from the lesser trochanter with numerous ossified bodies in the adjacent soft tissues. MRI demonstrated osteochondral bodies in a fluid-filled bursa adjacent to the osteochondroma, with several of the bodies noted to be fairly displaced from the osteochondroma cartilaginous cap. At surgery, the osteochondroma was removed and numerous bodies of varying sizes were excised, some of which were noted to be adherent to the bursal lining and others that were separated/distant from the cartilage cap. The question arises as to whether this process represents bursal chondromatosis resulting from benign neoplasia of cells lining the abnormal bursa, "cartilage shedding" from the osteochondromatous cap, or both. The purpose in presenting this case is to introduce a rare complication of an osteochondroma, demonstrate that soft tissue calcification and osteochondral densities displaced from an underlying osteochondroma are not always the result of sarcomatous degeneration, and provide support for the theory that cells lining a bursa in a nonphysiologic location can undergo benign neoplasia with subsequent formation of osteochondral bodies. PMID:25001874

  19. Thyroid disrupting chemicals in plastic additives and thyroid health.

    PubMed

    Andra, Syam S; Makris, Konstantinos C

    2012-01-01

    The globally escalating thyroid nodule incidence rates may be only partially ascribed to better diagnostics, allowing for the assessment of environmental risk factors on thyroid disease. Endocrine disruptors or thyroid-disrupting chemicals (TDC) like bisphenol A, phthalates, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers are widely used as plastic additives in consumer products. This comprehensive review studied the magnitude and uncertainty of TDC exposures and their effects on thyroid hormones for sensitive subpopulation groups like pregnant women, infants, and children. Our findings qualitatively suggest the mixed, significant (α = 0.05) TDC associations with natural thyroid hormones (positive or negative sign). Future studies should undertake systematic meta-analyses to elucidate pooled TDC effect estimates on thyroid health indicators and outcomes. PMID:22690712

  20. Activation of the RhoB Signaling Pathway by Thyroid Hormone Receptor β in Thyroid Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ichijo, Sayaka; Furuya, Fumihiko; Shimura, Hiroki; Hayashi, Yoshitaka; Takahashi, Kazuya; Ohta, Kazuyasu; Kobayashi, Tetsuro; Kitamura, Kenichiro

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid hormone receptor (TR) mediates the crucial effects of the thyroid hormone (T3) on cellular growth, development, and differentiation. Decreased expression or inactivating somatic mutations of TRs have been found in human cancers of the liver, breast, lung, and thyroid. The mechanisms of TR-associated carcinogenesis are still not clear. To establish the function of TRβ in thyroid cancer cell proliferation, we constructed a recombinant adenovirus vector, AdTRβ, which expresses human TRβ1 cDNA. Thyroid cancer cell lines in which TRβ protein levels were significantly decreased as compared to intact thyroid tissues were infected with AdTRβ and the function of TRβ on cell proliferation and migration was analyzed. Ligand-bound TRβ induced HDAC1 and HDAC3 dissociation from, and histone acetylation associated with the RhoB promoter and enhanced the expression of RhoB mRNA and protein. In AdTRβ-infected cells, T3 and farnesyl transferase inhibitor (FTI)-treatment induced the distribution of RhoB on the cell membrane and enhanced the abundance of active GTP-bound RhoB. This RhoB protein led to p21-associated cell-cycle arrest in the G0/G1 phase, following inhibition of cell proliferation and invasion. Conversely, lowering cellular RhoB by small interfering RNA knockdown in AdTRβ-infected cells led to downregulation of p21 and inhibited cell-cycle arrest. The growth of BHP18-21v tumor xenografts in vivo was significantly inhibited by AdTRβ injection with FTIs-treatment, as compared to control virus-injected tumors. This novel signaling pathway triggered by ligand-bound TRβ provides insight into possible mechanisms of proliferation and invasion of thyroid cancer and may provide new therapeutic targets for thyroid cancers. PMID:25548921

  1. Normative Data of Thyroid Volume-Ultrasonographic Evaluation of 422 Subjects Aged 0-55 Years

    PubMed Central

    Aydıner, Ömer; Karakoç Aydıner, Elif; Akpınar, İhsan; Turan, Serap; Bereket, Abdullah

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To establish local normative data of thyroid volume assessed by ultrasonography in subjects aged 0-55 years living in İstanbul, Turkey. Methods: Subjects without any known history of thyroid disease, of major surgery and/or chronic disease were enrolled in the study and evaluated by physical examination and thyroid ultrasonography. Thyroid gland and isthmus at usual location, each lateral lobe volume with three dimensions, ectopic thyroid tissue and echogenicity of the gland were assessed. Results: Initially, 494 subjects were enrolled in the study. Subjects showing heterogeneous thyroid parenchyma (n=21) and/or nodule (n=51) in ultrasonography were excluded. Final analysis covered 422 subjects (216 males, 206 females). Thyroid volume was found to significantly correlate with height, weight, age and body surface area (r=0.661, r=0.712, r=0.772 and r=0.779, respectively; p<0.0001 for all). These correlations were even stronger in subjects younger than 18 years (r=0.758, r=0.800, r=0.815 and r=0.802, respectively; p<0.0001 for all). Conclusion: The study provides updated reference norms for thyroid volume in Turkish subjects which can be used in the diagnosis and follow-up of patients with thyroid diseases. PMID:26316430

  2. The role of thyroid dysfunction in the critically ill: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Bello, G; Ceaichisciuc, I; Silva, S; Antonelli, M

    2010-11-01

    During critical illness, patients with no known history of thyroid disorders may experience multiple alterations in their serum thyroid hormone levels. Such alterations have been termed sick euthyroid syndrome or, more recently, non-thyroidal illness syndrome (NTIS). The laboratory parameters of NTIS usually include low serum levels of triiodothyronine (T3), normal or low serum levels of thyroxine (T4) and normal or low serum levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). The magnitude of the alteration in thyroid function correlates with the severity of the illness and its outcomes in critically ill patients with NTIS. The pathogenetic mechanisms involved in NTIS include a decreased conversion of T4 to T3 in extrathyroidal tissues and alterations in thyroid hormones' binding to serum proteins. In cases of protracted critical illness, a decrease in the pulsatile frequency of TSH secretion, resulting from reduced thyrotropin-re leasing hormone (TRH) release by the hypothalamus, may also occur. Several medications or clinical conditions that are commonly present in critically ill patients may be responsible for lowering serum concentrations of thyroid hormone. Among those who study the condition, the question of whether NTIS is a protective adaptation of the organism to illness or a maladaptive response to a stressful insult remains unanswered. In either case, thyroid hormone abnormalities are likely to play a role in the critically ill patient.However, there is currently no convincing evidence to suggest that restoring physiological thyroid hormone concentrations in unselected patients with NTIS would be beneficial. PMID:20935602

  3. Metastatic papillary carcinoma of the thyroid in a patient previously treated for Graves' disease.

    PubMed

    Yunusa, Garba H; Kotze, Tessa; Brink, Anita

    2014-01-01

    Incidental papillary carcinoma of the thyroid in patients treated surgically for benign thyroid diseases including Graves' disease is a known phenomenon. However, the management of these patients remains an issue of concern and controversy for those who care for them. We report a case of metastatic papillary carcinoma of the thyroid in a patient previously treated for Graves' disease. The subject of this presentation is a 50-year-old lady who was diagnosed with Graves' disease at the age of 29, for which she had a subtotal thyroidectomy following failure of medical and radioactive iodine treatment. Three years later, the patient was referred to our nuclear medicine department with a clinical diagnosis of suspected metastatic lymph nodes presumably from a thyroid malignancy.She had an 123I diagnostic whole body scan that showed 123I avid areas in the thyroid bed as well as left cervical lymph nodes, which later turned out to be metastatic papillary carcinoma of the thyroid on histology. She was treated with therapeutic doses of 131I. Follow-up radioactive iodine scans and serum thyroglobulin assays showed no evidence of malignant thyroid tissue. The occurrence of papillary carcinoma of the thyroid after a subtotal thyroidectomy for Graves' disease is hereby reported. The need for vigilance and regular follow-up in patients who receive all forms of treatment for benign thyroid diseases is emphasized. PMID:24705115

  4. Biochemical and ultrasonographic parameters influencing thyroid nodules elasticity.

    PubMed

    Szczepanek-Parulska, Ewelina; Woliński, Kosma; Stangierski, Adam; Gurgul, Edyta; Ruchała, Marek

    2014-11-01

    Elastography is a method of tissue stiffness assessment. It has already been demonstrated that thyroid cancers are less elastic than benign lesions. However, little is known about other factors, which might influence the stiffness of thyroid nodules and disrupt the prediction of malignancy using this technique. The aim of this study was to conduct the first systematic assessment of factors potentially affecting the elasticity of thyroid lesions. One hundred and twenty-two patients with thyroid nodular disease admitted for thyroidectomy underwent preoperative ultrasonography and sonoelastography. The definite diagnosis of thyroid lesions was based on histological examination. What was evaluated in the study was the influence of composition, size, localization, nodularity, and selected laboratory parameters on thyroid nodule elasticity. Firstly, association between the above-mentioned factors and elasticity was assessed in benign lesions. Secondly, all nodules (benign and malignant) were divided into subgroups according to the presence or absence of particular features, which turned out to be an important disturbing factor increasing the stiffness of the lesion in the first step of analysis. There were 22 malignant and 371 benign lesions. The analysis of benign lesions revealed that the presence calcifications (p < 0.0001) significantly increased nodule stiffness. Partially, cystic nodules were significantly less elastic than solid ones (p = 0.03). There was also positive correlation between nodule size and stiffness (p < 0.0001). Lesions localized in the isthmus were significantly less elastic than nodules in other localizations. (p = 0.0001). Solitary nodules were less elastic than lesions in multinodular goiter (p = 0.006). Correlation between Tg concentration and stiffness was significant (p < 0.0001, r = 0.24). The concentration of anti-thyroid autoantibodies was associated with stiffness at the border of significance. However, there was no significant

  5. Thyroid Hormone Receptor-β (TRβ) Mediates Runt-Related Transcription Factor 2 (Runx2) Expression in Thyroid Cancer Cells: A Novel Signaling Pathway in Thyroid Cancer.

    PubMed

    Carr, Frances E; Tai, Phillip W L; Barnum, Michael S; Gillis, Noelle E; Evans, Katherine G; Taber, Thomas H; White, Jeffrey H; Tomczak, Jennifer A; Jaworski, Diane M; Zaidi, Sayyed K; Lian, Jane B; Stein, Janet L; Stein, Gary S

    2016-08-01

    Dysregulation of the thyroid hormone receptor (TR)β is common in human cancers. Restoration of functional TRβ delays tumor progression in models of thyroid and breast cancers implicating TRβ as a tumor suppressor. Conversely, aberrant expression of the runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2) is established in the progression and metastasis of thyroid, breast, and other cancers. Silencing of Runx2 diminishes tumor invasive characteristics. With TRβ as a tumor suppressor and Runx2 as a tumor promoter, a compelling question is whether there is a functional relationship between these regulatory factors in thyroid tumorigenesis. Here, we demonstrated that these proteins are reciprocally expressed in normal and malignant thyroid cells; TRβ is high in normal cells, and Runx2 is high in malignant cells. T3 induced a time- and concentration-dependent decrease in Runx2 expression. Silencing of TRβ by small interfering RNA knockdown resulted in a corresponding increase in Runx2 and Runx2-regulated genes, indicating that TRβ levels directly impact Runx2 expression and associated epithelial to mesenchymal transition molecules. TRβ specifically bound to 3 putative thyroid hormone-response element motifs within the Runx2-P1 promoter ((-)105/(+)133) as detected by EMSA and chromatin immunoprecipitation. TRβ suppressed Runx2 transcriptional activities, thus confirming TRβ regulation of Runx2 at functional thyroid hormone-response elements. Significantly, these findings indicate that a ratio of the tumor-suppressor TRβ and tumor-promoting Runx2 may reflect tumor aggression and serve as biomarkers in biopsy tissues. The discovery of this TRβ-Runx2 signaling supports the emerging role of TRβ as a tumor suppressor and reveals a novel pathway for intervention. PMID:27253998

  6. Upregulation of long noncoding RNA LOC100507661 promotes tumor aggressiveness in thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Daham; Lee, Woo Kyung; Jeong, Seonhyang; Seol, Mi-Youn; Kim, Hyunji; Kim, Kyung-Sup; Lee, Eun Jig; Lee, Jandee; Jo, Young Suk

    2016-08-15

    Recent advances in next-generation sequencing have revealed a variety of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs). However, studies of lncRNAs are at a very early stage, our knowledge of the biological functions and clinical implications remains limited. To investigate the roles of lncRNAs in thyroid cancers, we verified 56 lncRNAs identified as potential cancer-promoting genes in a previous study that analyzed 2394 tumor SNP arrays from 12 types of cancer. Based on verified sequence information in NCBI and Ensembl, we ultimately selected three candidate lncRNAs for detailed analysis. One of the candidates, LOC100507661, was strongly upregulated in thyroid cancer tissues relative to paired contralateral normal tissue. LOC100507661 was easily detectable in papillary and anaplastic thyroid cancer cell lines such as TPC1, BCPAP, C643, and 8505C, but not in the follicular thyroid cancer cell line FTC133. Stable overexpression of LOC100507661 promoted cell proliferation, migration, and invasion of thyroid cancer cells. Lymph node metastasis and BRAF V600E mutations were more frequent in papillary thyroid cancers with high LOC100507661 expression. Our data demonstrate that LOC100507661 expression is elevated in human thyroid cancer and may play a critical role in thyroid carcinogenesis. PMID:27151833

  7. UbcH10 overexpression may represent a marker of anaplastic thyroid carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Pallante, P; Berlingieri, M T; Troncone, G; Kruhoffer, M; Orntoft, T F; Viglietto, G; Caleo, A; Migliaccio, I; Decaussin-Petrucci, M; Santoro, M; Palombini, L; Fusco, A

    2005-01-01

    The hybridisation of an Affymetrix HG_U95Av2 oligonucleotide array with RNAs extracted from six human thyroid carcinoma cell lines and a normal human thyroid primary cell culture led us to the identification of the UbcH10 gene that was upregulated by 150-fold in all of the carcinoma cell lines in comparison to the primary culture cells of human normal thyroid origin. Immunohistochemical studies performed on paraffin-embedded tissue sections showed abundant UbcH10 levels in thyroid anaplastic carcinoma samples, whereas no detectable UbcH10 expression was observed in normal thyroid tissues, in adenomas and goiters. Papillary and follicular carcinomas were only weakly positive. These results were further confirmed by RT–PCR and Western blot analyses. The block of UbcH10 protein synthesis induced by RNA interference significantly reduced the growth rate of thyroid carcinoma cell lines. Taken together, these results would indicate that UbcH10 overexpression is involved in thyroid cell proliferation, and may represent a marker of thyroid anaplastic carcinomas. PMID:16106252

  8. Thyroid disrupting chemicals: Mechanisms and mixtures

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental contaminants are known to act as thyroid disrupting chemicals (TDCs). Broadly defined, TDCs are xenobiotics that alter the structure or function of the thyroid gland, alter regulatory enzymes associated with thyroid hormone (TH) homeostasis, or change circulating o...

  9. Fine needle aspiration of the thyroid

    MedlinePlus

    Thyroid nodule fine needle aspirate biopsy; Biopsy - thyroid - skinny-needle; Skinny-needle thyroid biopsy ... under your shoulders and your neck extended. The biopsy site is cleaned. A thin needle is inserted ...

  10. Extracervical approaches to endoscopic thyroid surgery.

    PubMed

    Papaspyrou, Giorgos; Ferlito, Alfio; Silver, Carl E; Werner, Jochen A; Genden, Eric; Sesterhenn, Andreas M

    2011-04-01

    There is increasing demand for surgical procedures which avoid visible scars while maintaining optimal functional and ideal cosmetic results, without compromising the safety or effectiveness of the procedure. Endoscopic techniques have been adapted to abdominal and pelvic surgery and increasingly employed over the past three decades. Although hampered by the absence of a natural cavity, endoscopic techniques have been adapted to surgery in the neck for the past 15 years, particularly for the thyroid gland. While earlier attempts at endoscopic thyroid surgery were performed through incisions in or near the midline of the neck, recent techniques have been developed to place the incisions and endoscopic ports extracervically, or at least away from the midline region of the neck, rendering the cosmetic result more acceptable. Most of these approaches are through the axilla, breast, chest wall or a combination of approaches. Visualization of the thyroid and rate of complications with these approaches are equal to those attained with older endoscopic approaches. Careful patient selection is important for endoscopic surgery. Complications unique to the endoscopic approach are mostly related to insufflation of cervical tissues with pressurized CO(2). PMID:20844894

  11. AZD6244 in Treating Patients With Papillary Thyroid Cancer That Did Not Respond to Radioactive Iodine

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-09-02

    Recurrent Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Stage I Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage II Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage III Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IV Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma

  12. Reproductive manifestations of thyroid disease.

    PubMed

    Johnson, C A

    1994-05-01

    Thyroid function and reproductive function have many interactions, the scope and mechanism of which are not fully understood. These functions are of greatest clinical importance for veterinarians working with breeders of purebred dogs. Thyroid dysfunction does not always result in clinical signs of reproductive disorders or in subfertility. It seems that animals with overt thyroid dysfunction are those most likely to manifest reproduction problems. PMID:8053110

  13. Thyroid lipomatosis in a 36-year-old patient with rheumatoid arthritis and a kidney transplant

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Soledad; del Valle Jaen, Ana; Russo Picasso, María Fabiana

    2016-01-01

    Summary Thyroid lipomatosis is a rare disease, as a total of 20 cases have been described in the literature. It is characterized by diffuse infiltration of the stroma by mature adipose tissue and by progressive growth that produces different degrees of compressive symptoms. Our aim is to present the case of a 36-year-old woman who consulted because of dyspnea caused by a multinodular goiter. She underwent surgery with the presumptive diagnosis of a malignant neoplasia, but the pathological examination of the surgical specimen established the diagnosis of thyroid lipomatosis. Learning points Thyroid lipomatosis is a rare, benign disease characterized by diffuse infiltration of the stroma by mature adipose tissue.The pathophysiology of diffuse proliferation of adipose tissue in the thyroid gland is unclear.Thyroid lipomatosis is clinically manifested by a progressive enlargement of the thyroid that can involve the airway and/or upper gastrointestinal tract, producing dyspnea, dysphagia, and changes in the voice.Given the rapid growth of the lesion, the two main differential diagnoses are anaplastic carcinoma and thyroid lymphoma.Imaging studies may suggest a differential diagnosis, but a definitive diagnosis generally requires histopathological confirmation after a thyroidectomy. PMID:27252862

  14. Thyroid scintigraphy in veterinary medicine.

    PubMed

    Daniel, Gregory B; Neelis, Dana A

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid scintigraphy is performed in cats and dogs and has been used to a limited degree in other species such as the horse. Thyroid scintigraphy is most commonly used to aid in the diagnosis and treatment management of feline hyperthyroidism but is also used in the evaluation of canine hypothyroidism and canine thyroid carcinoma. This article reviews the normal scintigraphic appearance of the thyroid in the cat, the dog, and the horse and the principles of interpretation of abnormal scan results in the cat and the dog. Radioiodine is the treatment of choice for feline hyperthyroidism, and the principles of its use in the cat are reviewed. PMID:24314043

  15. Robotic transaxillary thyroid surgery.

    PubMed

    Rabinovics, Naomi; Aidan, Patrick

    2015-10-01

    Recent technological advances have led to a rapid progress in endocrine surgery. With the advent of minimally invasive techniques in thyroid surgery, robot-assisted transaxillary thyroid surgery (RATS) has emerged as one of the most promising approaches. Its main advantages are improved cosmetic outcome, avoiding cervical incisions, increased patient satisfaction, improved visualization, arms articulations, eliminating surgeon's natural tremor, thereby increasing precision. The main disadvantages are longer operative time, and increased cost compared to conventional thyroidectomy, as well as potential injuries to the brachial plexus, skin flap, esophagus, and trachea. Large-scale studies, mainly from South-Korea, have proved that in skilled hands, RATS is a safe alternative to conservative thyroidectomy and should be presented to patients with aesthetic concerns. As with any new emerging technique, careful patient selection is crucial, and further evidence must be sought to confirm its indications. PMID:26425452

  16. Robotic facelift thyroid surgery

    PubMed Central

    Bomeli, Steven R.; Duke, William S.

    2015-01-01

    Techniques for thyroid surgery have advanced dramatically over the past two decades, driven by a better understanding of thyroid physiology, anatomy, and perioperative management strategies. Improvements in surgical technology have permitted surgeons to perform minimally invasive surgery associated with less dissection, decreased pain, smaller anterior cervical incisions, and most importantly a faster recovery. The advent of robotic surgical technology has allowed the development of remote access thyroidectomy for select patients who wish to avoid a visible cervical incision completely. The robotic facelift thyroidectomy (RFT) approach also offers the advantage of outpatient surgery without the need for postoperative drainage. A growing body of evidence supports the safety and efficacy of the approach, and as a result the technique is now being performed at several centers around the world. PMID:26425453

  17. Thyroid Cancer in Pediatrics.

    PubMed

    Machac, Josef

    2016-06-01

    Well differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) in children is characterized by a high rate of response to treatment and low disease-specific mortality. Treatment of children with DTC has evolved toward a greater reliance on evaluation and monitoring with serial serum thyroglobulin measurements and ultrasound examinations. Radioiodine therapy is recommended for thyroid remnant ablation in high-risk patients, treatment of demonstrated radioiodine-avid local-regional disease not amenable to surgical resection, or distant radioiodine-avid metastatic disease. Sufficient time should be given for benefits of radioiodine therapy to be realized, with follow-up monitoring. Re-treatment with radioiodine can be deferred until progression of significant disease manifests. PMID:27241970

  18. Incidental thyroid nodules and thyroid cancer: considerations before determining management.

    PubMed

    Tufano, Ralph P; Noureldine, Salem I; Angelos, Peter

    2015-06-01

    The worldwide incidence of thyroid cancer is increasing substantially, almost exclusively attributable to small papillary thyroid cancers. Increased use of diagnostic imaging is considered the most likely explanation for this reported rise, but other factors may also be contributing. The increase in health care expenditures related to managing these presumably low-risk cancers, without a clear patient benefit, has resulted in a backlash against the early detection of thyroid cancer. Currently, there is no way to confidently predict which incidentally detected thyroid nodule may be the precursor to a more aggressive process. Predictions such as these would require more accurate characterization of the biology of individual thyroid cancers than is currently possible. With time, we might prove our ability to confidently differentiate low-risk from high-risk thyroid cancers, but until that happens, routine screening for thyroid cancer by imaging billed as a "health checkup" should not be performed. However, incidentally detected thyroid nodules should be reported, and a clear medical team management plan should be developed. Our ethical responsibility is to provide patients with objective, evidence-based information about their disease status, not to assume that we know what is best for them by selectively withholding information. In addition, providing patients with psychosocial assistance will help them process the information necessary to make informed decisions that will provide them with the most value when a small thyroid nodule or cancer is incidentally identified. Herein, we summarize the epidemiological data for disease incidence, discuss some controversies in disease management, and outline the key elements and ethical considerations of informed decision making as they apply to managing incidentally detected thyroid nodules and thyroid cancer. PMID:25928353

  19. Radiofrequency ablation for postsurgical thyroid removal of differentiated thyroid carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Dong; Wang, Lipin; Long, Bin; Ye, Xuemei; Ge, Minghua; Wang, Kejing; Guo, Liang; Li, Linfa

    2016-01-01

    Differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) is the most common endocrine malignancy. Surgical removal with radioactive iodine therapy is recommended for recurrent thyroid carcinoma, and the postsurgical thyroid removal is critical. This study evaluated the clinical values of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) in the postsurgical thyroid removal for DTC. 35 DTC patients who had been treated by subtotal thyroidectomy received RFA for postsurgical thyroid removal. Before and two weeks after RFA, the thyroid was examined by ultrasonography and 99mTcO4 - thyroid imaging, and the serum levels of free triiodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxin (FT4), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and thyroglobulin (Tg) were detected. The efficacy and complications of RFA were evaluated. Results showed that, the postsurgical thyroid removal by RFA was successfully performed in 35 patients, with no significant complication. After RFA, the average largest diameter and volume were significantly decreased in 35 patients (P > 0.05), and no obvious contrast media was observed in ablation area in the majority of patients. After RFA, the serum FT3, FT4 and Tg levels were markedly decreased (P < 0.05), and TSH level was significantly increased (P < 0.05). After RFA, radioiodine concentration in the ablation area was significantly reduced in the majority of patients. The reduction rate of thyroid update was 0.69±0.20%. DTC staging and interval between surgery and RFA had negative correlation (Pearson coefficient = -0.543; P = 0.001), with no obvious correlation among others influential factors. RFA is an effective and safe method for postsurgical thyroid removal of DTC. PMID:27186311

  20. Radiofrequency ablation for postsurgical thyroid removal of differentiated thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Xu, Dong; Wang, Lipin; Long, Bin; Ye, Xuemei; Ge, Minghua; Wang, Kejing; Guo, Liang; Li, Linfa

    2016-01-01

    Differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) is the most common endocrine malignancy. Surgical removal with radioactive iodine therapy is recommended for recurrent thyroid carcinoma, and the postsurgical thyroid removal is critical. This study evaluated the clinical values of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) in the postsurgical thyroid removal for DTC. 35 DTC patients who had been treated by subtotal thyroidectomy received RFA for postsurgical thyroid removal. Before and two weeks after RFA, the thyroid was examined by ultrasonography and (99m)TcO4 (-) thyroid imaging, and the serum levels of free triiodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxin (FT4), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and thyroglobulin (Tg) were detected. The efficacy and complications of RFA were evaluated. Results showed that, the postsurgical thyroid removal by RFA was successfully performed in 35 patients, with no significant complication. After RFA, the average largest diameter and volume were significantly decreased in 35 patients (P > 0.05), and no obvious contrast media was observed in ablation area in the majority of patients. After RFA, the serum FT3, FT4 and Tg levels were markedly decreased (P < 0.05), and TSH level was significantly increased (P < 0.05). After RFA, radioiodine concentration in the ablation area was significantly reduced in the majority of patients. The reduction rate of thyroid update was 0.69±0.20%. DTC staging and interval between surgery and RFA had negative correlation (Pearson coefficient = -0.543; P = 0.001), with no obvious correlation among others influential factors. RFA is an effective and safe method for postsurgical thyroid removal of DTC. PMID:27186311

  1. Development of a Novel Thyroid Function Fluctuated Animal Model for Thyroid-Associated Ophthalmopathy

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Yunhai; Wang, Yilong; Ding, Luna; Zhang, Jiao; Wu, Wencan

    2016-01-01

    Background The establishment of a suitable and stable animal model is critical for research on thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO). In clinical practice, we found that patients treated with I-131 often exhibit TAO; therefore, we aimed to establish a novel thyroid function fluctuated animal model of TAO by simulating the clinical treatment process. Methods We treated SD rats with I-131 to damage the thyroid and then used sodium levothyroxine (L-T4) to supplement the thyroid hormone (TH) levels every seven days, leading to a fluctuating level of thyroid hormones that simulated the status of clinical TAO patients. Rats administered normal saline were considered as a control. The weight, intraocular pressure, and serum T3, T4, TSH and TRAb levels of the rats were measured, and the pathological changes were analyzed by H&E staining and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Results The experimental rats (TAO group) exhibited significantly reduced weight and elevated intraocular pressure compared with the control rats. Meanwhile, the serum levels of T3 and T4 were up-regulated in the TAO group, but the TSH level decreased during the 10-week study. Moreover, increased numbers of blood vessels and inflammatory cell infiltrations were observed in the orbital tissues of the TAO rats, while no abnormal changes occurred in the control rats. The orbital myofibrils in the TAO rats appeared fractured and dissolved, with twisted structures. Mitochondrial swelling and vacuoles within the endoplasmic reticulum, swelling nerve fibers, shedding nerve myelin, and macrophages were found in the TAO group. Conclusion Rats treated with I-131 and sodium levothyroxine exhibited characteristics similar to those of TAO patients in the clinic, providing an effective and simple method for the establishment of a stable animal model for research on the pathogenesis and treatment of TAO. PMID:26872324

  2. Tubercular thyroid abscess.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Awanish; Pahwa, Harvinder Singh; Srivastava, Rohit; Khan, Khursheed Alam

    2013-01-01

    We encountered a patient who presented with neck swelling, difficulty in swallowing, voice change along with systemic features such as evening rise of temperature, chronic cough and weight loss. Ultrasonography of the thyroid gland revealed two cystic swellings. An ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration cytology was suggestive of tubercular abscess. The patient responded well to antigravity aspiration of the swellings and antitubercular treatment. PMID:23814203

  3. Thyroid associated orbitopathy.

    PubMed

    Maheshwari, Rajat; Weis, Ezekiel

    2012-01-01

    Thyroid associated orbitopathy, also known as Graves' orbitopathy, is typically a self-limiting autoimmune process associated with dysthyroid states. The clinical presentation may vary from very mild disease to severe irreversible sight-threatening complications. Despite ongoing basic science and clinical research, the pathogenesis and highly effective therapeutic strategies remain elusive. The present article reviews the pathophysiology, clinical presentation, and management of this common, yet poorly understood disease, which remains a challenge to the ophthalmologist. PMID:22446901

  4. Chronic autoimmune thyroid disease.

    PubMed

    Litta Modignani, R; Barantani, E; Mazzolari, M; Pincetti Nervi, M; Macchi, R

    1991-01-01

    A total of 67 patients with chronic autoimmune thyroid disease were followed, mainly as outpatients, for a period of a few months to over 15 years. The diagnosis was euthyroidism (n = 16, 23.8%), subclinical hypothyroidism (n = 20, 29.8%), primary hypothyroidism (n = 28, 41.7%) or hashitoxicosis (n = 3, 4.47%). Patients with goiters fit Hashimoto's original description of "struma lymphomatosa". The diagnosis was made on clinical grounds and the usual laboratory hormonal tests. Histological examination was carried out at surgery or by fine needle aspiration in 35 patients (52.2%), and a clinical diagnosis was made in 32 (47.7%). Three patients had juvenile Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Most patients were in the fourth, fifth or sixth decade (64.8%), and of these 12 (18%) had subclinical hypothyroidism, which should be suspected when thyrotropin (TSH) is twice the upper normal limit. In these cases thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) testing and evaluation of anti-thyroglobulin antibodies (TgAb) and anti-microsomal antigen antibodies (MsAb) are mandatory. Hypothyroidism with few symptoms develops insidiously in young or elderly patients; the most sensitive test is TSH assay in conjunction with tests for TgAb and MsAb. L-thyroxine administration may be harmful in older patients with late diagnosed primary hypothyroidism. Thyroid supplementation is suggested for patients with subclinical hypothyroidism if TSH values are above 10 mU/L; otherwise they should be followed up annually, as should patients with positive thyroid autoantibodies who are still euthyroid. PMID:1804288

  5. Pediatric Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Starenki, Dmytro; Park, Jong-In

    2016-01-01

    Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC), which originates from thyroid parafollicular C cells, accounts for 3 to 5% of thyroid malignancies. MTC occurs either sporadically or in an inherited autosomal dominant manner. Hereditary MTC occurs as a familial MTC or as a part of multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) type 2A and B syndromes. A strong genotype-phenotype correlation has been observed between hereditary MTC and germ-line “gain of function” mutations of the RET proto-oncogene. Most cases of pediatric MTC are hereditary whereas sporadic MTC is rare in children and is usually diagnosed in adults. Therefore, MTC in children is most often diagnosed in the course of a familial genetic investigation. The standard treatment of MTC mainly requires surgery involving total thyroidectomy and central neck node dissection before extrathyroidal extension occurs. To prevent MTC development in hereditary syndromes, prophylactic thyroidectomy is performed in presymptomatic patients. An appropriate age at which the surgery should take place is determined based upon the data from genotyping, serum calcitonin measurements, and ultrasonography. For the treatment of advanced MTC cases, the broad spectrum receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors vandetanib and cabozantinib, which also inhibit RET, are used although they are not always effective. PMID:27014708

  6. Quantitative image analysis in sonograms of the thyroid gland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catherine, Skouroliakou; Maria, Lyra; Aristides, Antoniou; Lambros, Vlahos

    2006-12-01

    High-resolution, real-time ultrasound is a routine examination for assessing the disorders of the thyroid gland. However, the current diagnosis practice is based mainly on qualitative evaluation of the resulting sonograms, therefore depending on the physician's experience. Computerized texture analysis is widely employed in sonographic images of various organs (liver, breast), and it has been proven to increase the sensitivity of diagnosis by providing a better tissue characterization. The present study attempts to characterize thyroid tissue by automatic texture analysis. The texture features that are calculated are based on co-occurrence matrices as they have been proposed by Haralick. The sample consists of 40 patients. For each patient two sonographic images (one for each lobe) are recorded in DICOM format. The lobe is manually delineated in each sonogram, and the co-occurrence matrices for 52 separation vectors are calculated. The texture features extracted from each one of these matrices are: contrast, correlation, energy and homogeneity. Primary component analysis is used to select the optimal set of features. The statistical analysis resulted in the extraction of 21 optimal descriptors. The optimal descriptors are all co-occurrence parameters as the first-order statistics did not prove to be representative of the images characteristics. The bigger number of components depends mainly on correlation for very close or very far distances. The results indicate that quantitative analysis of thyroid sonograms can provide an objective characterization of thyroid tissue.

  7. Cytokines, Graves' Disease, and Thyroid-Associated Ophthalmopathy

    PubMed Central

    Khadavi, Nicole; Smith, Terry J.

    2008-01-01

    Graves' disease, an autoimmune process associated with thyroid dysfunction, can also manifest as remodeling of orbital connective tissue. Affected tissues exhibit immune responses that appear to be orchestrated by resident cells and those recruited from the bone marrow through their expression and release of cytokines and surface display of cytokine receptors. Cytokines are small molecules produced by many types of cells, including those of the “professional” immune system. Aberrant cytokine expression appears to play an important role in the pathogenesis of many human diseases, including thyroid autoimmunity. The skewed pattern of cytokine expression in the thyroid, including the T helper cell bias, may condition the response to apoptotic signals and determine the characteristics of an autoimmune reaction. Furthermore, chemoattractant cytokines, including IL16, RANTES, and CXCL10, elaborated by resident cells in the thyroid and orbit may provoke mononuclear cell infiltration. Other cytokines may drive cell activation and tissue remodeling. Thus cytokines and the signaling pathways they activate represent attractive therapeutic targets. Interruption of these might alter the natural course of Graves' disease and its orbital manifestations. PMID:18713026

  8. Cytokines, Graves' disease, and thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy.

    PubMed

    Gianoukakis, Andrew G; Khadavi, Nicole; Smith, Terry J

    2008-09-01

    Graves' disease, an autoimmune process associated with thyroid dysfunction, can also manifest as remodeling of orbital connective tissue. Affected tissues exhibit immune responses that appear to be orchestrated by resident cells and those recruited from the bone marrow through their expression and release of cytokines and surface display of cytokine receptors. Cytokines are small molecules produced by many types of cells, including those of the "professional" immune system. Aberrant cytokine expression appears to play an important role in the pathogenesis of many human diseases, including thyroid autoimmunity. The skewed pattern of cytokine expression in the thyroid, including the T helper cell bias, may condition the response to apoptotic signals and determine the characteristics of an autoimmune reaction. Furthermore, chemoattractant cytokines, including IL16, RANTES, and CXCL10, elaborated by resident cells in the thyroid and orbit may provoke mononuclear cell infiltration. Other cytokines may drive cell activation and tissue remodeling. Thus cytokines and the signaling pathways they activate represent attractive therapeutic targets. Interruption of these might alter the natural course of Graves' disease and its orbital manifestations. PMID:18713026

  9. Targeting the thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor with small molecule ligands and antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Terry F; Latif, Rauf

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR) is the essential molecule for thyroid growth and thyroid hormone production. Since it is also a key autoantigen in Graves’ disease and is involved in thyroid cancer pathophysiology, the targeting of the TSHR offers a logical model for disease control. Areas covered We review the structure and function of the TSHR and the progress in both small molecule ligands and TSHR antibodies for their therapeutic potential. Expert opinion Stabilization of a preferential conformation for the TSHR by allosteric ligands and TSHR antibodies with selective modulation of the signaling pathways is now possible. These tools may be the next generation of therapeutics for controlling the pathophysiological consequences mediated by the effects of the TSHR in the thyroid and other extrathyroidal tissues. PMID:25768836

  10. Estimated dose rates to members of the public from external exposure to patients with 131I thyroid treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Dewji, S.; Bellamy, M.; Hertel, N.; Leggett, R.; Sherbini, S.; Saba, M.; Eckerman, K.

    2015-03-25

    after administration for the hotel room cases. Organ specific activities of 131I in the thyroid, bladder, and combined remaining tissues were calculated as a function of time after administration. Exposures to members of the public were considered for 131I patients with normal thyroid uptake (peak thyroid uptake of ~27% of administered 131I), differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC, 5% uptake), and hyperthyroidism (80% uptake). Results: The scenario with the patient seated behind the member of the public yielded the highest dose rate estimate of seated public transportation exposure cases. The dose rate to the adjacent room guest was highest for the exposure scenario in which the hotel guest and patient are seated by a factor of ~4 for the normal and differentiated thyroid cancer uptake cases and by a factor of ~3 for the hyperthyroid case. Conclusions: It was determined that for all modeled cases, the DTC case yielded the lowest external dose rates, whereas the hyperthyroid case yielded the highest dose rates. In estimating external dose to members of the public from patients with 131I therapy, consideration must be given to (patient- and case-specific) administered 131I activities and duration of exposure for a more complete estimate. The method implemented here included a detailed calculation model, which provides a means to determine dose rate estimates for a range of scenarios. Finally, the method was demonstrated for variations of three scenarios, showing how dose rates are expected to vary with uptake, voiding pattern, and patient location.

  11. Anatabine ameliorates experimental autoimmune thyroiditis.

    PubMed

    Caturegli, Patrizio; De Remigis, Alessandra; Ferlito, Marcella; Landek-Salgado, Melissa A; Iwama, Shintaro; Tzou, Shey-Cherng; Ladenson, Paul W

    2012-09-01

    Tobacco smoking favorably influences the course of Hashimoto thyroiditis, possibly through the antiinflammatory proprieties of nicotine. In this study we tested anatabine, another tobacco alkaloid, in a model of experimental autoimmune thyroiditis. Experimental autoimmune thyroiditis was induced by different doses of thyroglobulin, to produce a disease of low, moderate, or high severity, in 88 CBA/J female mice: 43 drank anatabine supplemented water and 45 regular water. Mice were bled after immunization and killed to assess thyroid histopathology, thyroglobulin antibodies, T(4), and thyroid RNA expression of 84 inflammatory genes. We also stimulated in vitro a macrophage cell line with interferon-γ or lipopolysaccharide plus or minus anatabine to quantitate inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase 2 protein expression. Anatabine reduced the incidence and severity of thyroiditis in the moderate disease category: only 13 of 21 mice (62%) developed thyroid infiltrates when drinking anatabine as compared with 22 of 23 (96%) controls (relative risk 0.59, P = 0.0174). The median thyroiditis severity was 0.5 and 2.0 in anatabine and controls, respectively (P = 0.0007 by Wilcoxon rank sum test). Anatabine also reduced the antibody response to thyroglobulin on d 14 (P = 0.029) and d 21 (P = 0.045) after immunization and improved the recovery of thyroid function on d 21 (P = 0.049). In the thyroid transcriptome, anatabine restored expression of IL-18 and IL-1 receptor type 2 to preimmunization levels. Finally, anatabine suppressed in a dose-dependent manner macrophage production of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase 2. Anatabine ameliorates disease in a model of autoimmune thyroiditis, making the delineation of its mechanisms of action and potential clinical utility worthwhile. PMID:22807490

  12. Selenium supplementation in thyroid associated ophthalmopathy: an update

    PubMed Central

    Dharmasena, Aruna

    2014-01-01

    The therapeutic effect of selenium (Se) has already been proven in thyroid disease and thyroid associated ophthalmopathy (TAO). In spite of clear scientific proof of its benefits in TAO, there appears to be no clear agreement among the clinicians regarding its optimum dose, duration of the treatment, efficacy and safety to date. In this review, the author summarises the findings of 135 English language articles published on this subject over the past four decades from 1973 to 2013. The regulation and metabolism of thyroid hormones require a steady supply of Se and recent studies have revealed several possible mechanisms by which Se improves the severity of thyroid disease and TAO. These mechanisms include 1) inhibitory effect of HLA-DR molecule expression on thyrocytes; 2) profound reductions of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) receptor antibodies (TSHR-Ab) and TPO antibodies (TPO-Ab); 3) prevention of dysregulation of cell-mediated immunity and B cell function; 4) neutralising reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inhibition of redox control processes required for the activation, differentiation and action of lymphocytes, macrophages, neutrophils, natural killer cells involved in both acute and chronic orbital inflammation in TAO; 5) inhibition of expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and 6) inhibition of prostaglandin and leukotriene synthesis. An increased oxidative stress has been observed in both acute and chronic phases of thyroid disease with raised tissue concentrations of ROS. The benefits of Se supplementation in individuals with TAO appear to be proportionate to the degree of systemic activity of the thyroid disease. The maximal benefit of Se supplementation is therefore seen in the subjects who are hyperthyroid. Restoration of euthyroidism is one of the main goals in the management of TAO and when anti-thyroid drugs are combined with Se, the patients with Graves' disease (GD) and autoimmune thyroiditis (AIT) achieved euthyroidism faster than those

  13. Dual ectopic thyroid in the presence of atrophic orthotopic thyroid gland in a patient with acquired hypothyroidism: Evaluation with hybrid Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography/Computed Tomography.

    PubMed

    Harisankar, Chidambaram Natrajan Balasubramanian

    2013-01-01

    Ectopic thyroid tissue (ETT) refers to all cases in which the thyroid gland is present at a location other than its usual site. The prevalence of ETT is approximately one per 100,000 to 300,000 persons and is reported to occur in one in 4,000 to 8,000 patients with thyroid disease. Multiple ectopia of thyroid is extremely rare. Multiple ectopia in the presence of orthotopic thyroid gland is extremely rare. We report a 13-year-old boy with stunted growth and developmental delay caused due to acquired hypothyroidism. Technetium scan performed as per management protocol identified dual ectopia of thyroid. The role of hybrid Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography/Computed Tomography (SPECT/CT) in the localization of the sites of ETT is also highlighted. PMID:24019671

  14. Thyroid gland function during the systemic graft versus host reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Kozlova, T.D.; Fedorov, G.N.; Molotkov, O.V.

    1986-04-01

    The aims of the present investigation were as follows: to determine the level of thyroid hormones and thyrotrophin (TSH) at various times after induction of graft versus host reaction (GVHR); to study the degree of /sup 125/ I uptake by thyroid gland tissue at the same times of the GVHR, and to determine correlation between the hormone levels and weight of the gland in the animals and also the body weight of the recipients. Serum levels of tri-iodothyronine (T/sub 3/), thyroxine (T/sub 4/), and TSH were determined by radioimmunoassay. /sup 125/ /SUB I/ was injected intraperitoneally in a dose of 3-4 microCi/100 g body weight. During the development of a systemic GVHR marked inhibition of thyroid function was discovered.

  15. A large lingual thyroid extending to the epiglottis.

    PubMed

    Eryilmaz, Aylin; Basal, Yesim

    2015-01-01

    A 22-year-old man presented to our department with a mass on the base of his tongue. He had a cavernous voice causing a moderate speech disorder, and he had some difficulty in swallowing. He had severe problems with sleep, associated with apnoea. In a fibreoptic laryngoscopic examination, a large 4×5 cm vascular mass was detected extending from the base of the patient's tongue to his epiglottis. It covered the epiglottis. Thyroid scintigraphy showed only thyroid tissue on the base of the tongue. Surgery was initiated transorally under the guidance of a rigid endoscope, but as the mass continued extended to the epiglottis, a transhyoid approach was taken. At a 3-month follow-up, the patient was symptom free. Electrocautery-assisted resection under the guidance of a rigid endoscope can reliably be used in surgery of a lingual thyroid. However, a transhyoid approach provides a better view and also helps in achieving haemostasis. PMID:26563340

  16. Discrete papular dermal mucinosis with Hashimoto thyroiditis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Ertam, Ilgen; Karaca, Nezih; Ceylan, Can; Kazandi, Alican; Alper, Sibel

    2011-03-01

    The cutaneous focal mucinoses are a group of connective tissue disorders characterized by deposition of mucin found either focally or diffusely in the dermis. A 47-year-old woman presented with asymptomatic flesh-colored papules on the neck, inguinal area, intergluteal area, vulvar area, and extremities of 5 months' duration. There was no history of preceding trauma or insect bites. The patient had undergone a subtotal thyroidectomy 21 years prior but had not used any thyroid medication before she was referred to our clinic. Thyroid ultrasonography was consistent with Hashimoto thyroiditis. During dermatologic examination, flesh-colored, well-defined, smooth papules that measured approximately 1.5 x 1 cm in size on the genital region, fingers, face, and scalp were seen. Histopathologic examination of a lesional biopsy revealed no abnormalities in the epidermis. Alcian blue staining showed that abundant deposits of dermal mucin had replaced collagen in the dermis. PMID:21488572

  17. Bilobar thyroid agenesis with primary hyperparathyroidism: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Şimşek, Turgay; Cantürk, Nuh Zafer; Cantürk, Zeynep; Gürbüz, Yeşim

    2015-06-01

    Congenital thyroid abnormalities are rarely seen. They mostly include hemiagenesis with or without involving the isthmus. In this report, we present a case of bilateral lobe agenesis with hypertrophied isthmus and high calcium and elevated PTH levels which were detected during routine examinations of a 49-year-old female patient. Some findings consistent with parathyroid pathology on the right side were determined in parathyroid scintigraphy. At thyroid scan and neck ultrasonography there was no sign of bilateral thyroid tissue except a mass localized isthmus. The right lower parathyroidectomy and thyroidectomy for isthmus were performed; the pathology report was shown as parathyroid adenoma and nodular colloidal goiter. This case of bilobar agenesis with incidental primary hyperparathyroidism due to single parathyroid adenoma is the first case reported in literature. PMID:25091455

  18. Apoptosis in autoimmune and non-autoimmune thyroid disease.

    PubMed

    Ludgate, M; Jasani, B

    1997-06-01

    The elimination of autoreactive T cells in the thymus involves the process of programmed cell death. Animal model studies, using the lpr and gld strains of mice, have identified FAS receptor (FAS) and FAS ligand (FAS-L) as important components of this mechanism. Whether FAS and FAS-L are also implicated in the autoimmune destruction of a target organ, such as the thyroid, remain hypothetical. An accompanying paper in this issue has addressed the question by FACS and immunocytochemical analysis of FAS expression and apoptosis in thyrocytes grown in culture and in intact thyroid tissues obtained from Hashimoto's thyroiditis, multinodular goitre and Graves' disease. The overall results suggest that the degree of FAS expression on target cells may determine their sensitivity to T-cell mediated cytotoxicity in the absence of perforin or granzyme directed apoptosis mechanisms. PMID:9274519

  19. A Case of Painful Hashimoto Thyroiditis that Mimicked Subacute Thyroiditis.

    PubMed

    Seo, Hye Mi; Kim, Miyeon; Bae, Jaeseok; Kim, Jo-Heon; Lee, Jeong Won; Lee, Sang Ah; Koh, Gwanpyo; Lee, Dae Ho

    2012-04-01

    Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT) is an autoimmune thyroid disorder that usually presents as a diffuse, nontender goiter, whereas subacute thyroiditis (SAT) is an uncommon disease that is characterized by tender thyroid enlargement, transient thyrotoxicosis, and an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR). Very rarely, patients with HT can present with painful, tender goiter or fever, a mimic of SAT. We report a case of painful HT in a 68-year-old woman who presented with pain and tenderness in a chronic goiter. Her ESR was definitely elevated and her thyroid laboratory tests suggested subclinical hypothyroidism of autoimmune origin. (99m)Tc pertechnetate uptake was markedly decreased. Fine needle aspiration biopsy revealed reactive and polymorphous lymphoid cells and occasional epithelial cells with Hürthle cell changes. Her clinical symptoms showed a dramatic response to glucocorticoid treatment. She became hypothyroid finally and is now on levothyroxine therapy. PMID:22570820

  20. Management and follow-up results of an incidental thyroid carcinoma in a young woman with ovarian teratoma.

    PubMed

    Uzum, Ayse Kubat; Iyibozkurt, Cem; Canbaz, Bulent; Ciftci, Sema Dogansen; Aksakal, Nihat; Kapran, Yersu; Aral, Ferihan; Ozbey, Nese Colak

    2013-07-01

    Thyroid cancer in ovarian teratoma is reported to be rare and experiences are limited. A 26-year-old woman had undergone bilateral cystectomy and omentectomy for bilateral cystic adnexial masses. Pathological examination showed 1.5 cm follicular variant papillary thyroid carcinoma on the basis of unilateral mature cystic teratoma. Increased CA-125 and CA19-9 levels decreased to normal reference ranges after surgery, but postoperative magnetic resonance imaging indicated multiple abdominal cystic loci. After total thyroidectomy, high dose I-131 was administered to ablate thyroid tissue. Thereafter, levothyroxine was started to achieve subclinical hyperthyroidism. No iodine uptake was detected in post-therapeutic whole body scan (WBS) other than thyroid bed. This finding supported that tumor did not show dissemination to abdomen. No uptake on the first-year evaluation with low-dose I-131 WBS suggested the complete ablation of the thyroid gland. It is recommended that thyroid carcinoma arising from ectopic thyroid tissue in a teratoma should be managed as thyroid carcinoma in thyroid. However, direct dissemination to contiguous regions in abdomen and hematogenous dissemination to distant organs should be in mind. Radical surgery including total abdominal hysterectomy, bilateral salphingo-oopherectomy, pelvic and paraaortic lymph node excision and thyroidectomy is recommended. Fertility preserving surgery may be the surgical procedure as in the present case. PMID:23772787

  1. Breaking Tolerance to Thyroid Antigens: Changing Concepts in Thyroid Autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Rapoport, Basil

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid autoimmunity involves loss of tolerance to thyroid proteins in genetically susceptible individuals in association with environmental factors. In central tolerance, intrathymic autoantigen presentation deletes immature T cells with high affinity for autoantigen-derived peptides. Regulatory T cells provide an alternative mechanism to silence autoimmune T cells in the periphery. The TSH receptor (TSHR), thyroid peroxidase (TPO), and thyroglobulin (Tg) have unusual properties (“immunogenicity”) that contribute to breaking tolerance, including size, abundance, membrane association, glycosylation, and polymorphisms. Insight into loss of tolerance to thyroid proteins comes from spontaneous and induced animal models: 1) intrathymic expression controls self-tolerance to the TSHR, not TPO or Tg; 2) regulatory T cells are not involved in TSHR self-tolerance and instead control the balance between Graves' disease and thyroiditis; 3) breaking TSHR tolerance involves contributions from major histocompatibility complex molecules (humans and induced mouse models), TSHR polymorphism(s) (humans), and alternative splicing (mice); 4) loss of tolerance to Tg before TPO indicates that greater Tg immunogenicity vs TPO dominates central tolerance expectations; 5) tolerance is induced by thyroid autoantigen administration before autoimmunity is established; 6) interferon-α therapy for hepatitis C infection enhances thyroid autoimmunity in patients with intact immunity; Graves' disease developing after T-cell depletion reflects reconstitution autoimmunity; and 7) most environmental factors (including excess iodine) “reveal,” but do not induce, thyroid autoimmunity. Micro-organisms likely exert their effects via bystander stimulation. Finally, no single mechanism explains the loss of tolerance to thyroid proteins. The goal of inducing self-tolerance to prevent autoimmune thyroid disease will require accurate prediction of at-risk individuals together with an antigen

  2. Iodide transport and its regulation in the thyroid gland

    SciTech Connect

    Price, D.J.

    1987-01-01

    This study was undertaken to examine the autoregulatory mechanism of iodide induced suppression of subsequently determined iodide transport activity in the thyroid gland. Two model systems were developed to identify the putative, transport-related, iodine-containing, inhibitory factor responsible for autoregulation. The first system was a maternal and fetal rabbit thyroid tissue slice preparation in which iodide pretreatment inhibited the maternal /sup 125/I-T/M ratio by 30% and had no significant effect on fetal iodide transport. In the second system, the role of protein synthesis in the autoregulatory phenomenon was studied. Cat thyroid slices pretreated with0.1 mM cycloheximide for 60 min prior to preexposure to excess iodide demonstrated a significant reduction in the degree of iodide included autoregulation. In both of these systems iodide induced suppression of cAMP accumulation remained intact. These findings suggest (1) fetal rabbit thyroid lacks the autoregulatory mechanism of iodide transport and (2) protein synthesis is involved in the mechanism of thyroid autoregulation of iodide transport.

  3. Iodine and thyroid hormones during pregnancy and postpartum.

    PubMed

    Pérez-López, Faustino R

    2007-07-01

    Iodine is a trace element essential for synthesis of the thyroid hormones, triiodothyronine and thyroxine. These hormones play a vital role in the early growth and development stages of most organs, especially the brain. The World Health Organization (WHO) has declared that, after famine, iodine deficiency is the most avoidable cause of cerebral lesions including different degrees of mental retardation and cerebral paralysis. The main function of iodine in vertebrates is to interact with the thyroid hormones. During pregnancy sufficient quantities of iodine are required to prevent the appearance of hypothyroidism, trophoblastic and embryonic or fetal disorders, neonatal and maternal hypothyroidism, and permanent sequelae in infants. Thyroid hormone receptors and iodothyronine deiodinases are present in placenta and central nervous tissue of the fetus. A number of environmental factors influence the epidemiology of thyroid disorders, and even relatively small abnormalities and differences in the level of iodine intake in a population have profound effects on the occurrence of thyroid abnormalities. The prevalence of disorders related to iodine deficit during pregnancy and postpartum has increased. Iodine supplementation is an effective measure in the case of pregnant and lactating women. However, it is not implemented and the problem is still present even in societies with theoretically advanced health systems. During pregnancy and postpartum, the WHO recommends iodine intake be increased to at least 200 microg/day. Side-effects provoked by iodine supplementation are rare during pregnancy at the recommended doses. PMID:17701774

  4. Thyroid hormone transporters--functions and clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Bernal, Juan; Guadaño-Ferraz, Ana; Morte, Beatriz

    2015-07-01

    The cellular influx and efflux of thyroid hormones are facilitated by transmembrane protein transporters. Of these transporters, monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8) is the only one specific for the transport of thyroid hormones and some of their derivatives. Mutations in SLC16A2, the gene that encodes MCT8, lead to an X-linked syndrome with severe neurological impairment and altered concentrations of thyroid hormones. Histopathological analysis of brain tissue from patients who have impaired MCT8 function indicates that brain lesions start prenatally, and are most probably the result of cerebral hypothyroidism. A Slc16a2 knockout mouse model has revealed that Mct8 is an important mediator of thyroid hormone transport, especially T3, through the blood-brain barrier. However, unlike humans with an MCT8 deficiency, these mice do not have neurological impairment. One explanation for this discrepancy could be differences in expression of the T4 transporter OATP1C1 in the blood-brain barrier; OATP1C1 is more abundant in rodents than in primates and permits the passage of T4 in the absence of T3 transport, thus preventing full cerebral hypothyroidism. In this Review, we discuss the relevance of thyroid hormone transporters in health and disease, with a particular focus on the pathophysiology of MCT8 mutations. PMID:25942657

  5. Role of Thyroid Hormones in Skeletal Development and Bone Maintenance

    PubMed Central

    Bassett, J. H. Duncan

    2016-01-01

    The skeleton is an exquisitely sensitive and archetypal T3-target tissue that demonstrates the critical role for thyroid hormones during development, linear growth, and adult bone turnover and maintenance. Thyrotoxicosis is an established cause of secondary osteoporosis, and abnormal thyroid hormone signaling has recently been identified as a novel risk factor for osteoarthritis. Skeletal phenotypes in genetically modified mice have faithfully reproduced genetic disorders in humans, revealing the complex physiological relationship between centrally regulated thyroid status and the peripheral actions of thyroid hormones. Studies in mutant mice also established the paradigm that T3 exerts anabolic actions during growth and catabolic effects on adult bone. Thus, the skeleton represents an ideal physiological system in which to characterize thyroid hormone transport, metabolism, and action during development and adulthood and in response to injury. Future analysis of T3 action in individual skeletal cell lineages will provide new insights into cell-specific molecular mechanisms and may ultimately identify novel therapeutic targets for chronic degenerative diseases such as osteoporosis and osteoarthritis. This review provides a comprehensive analysis of the current state of the art. PMID:26862888

  6. Exposure to perfluorinated compounds: in vitro study on thyroid cells.

    PubMed

    Coperchini, Francesca; Pignatti, Patrizia; Lacerenza, Serena; Negri, Sara; Sideri, Riccardo; Testoni, Claudia; de Martinis, Luca; Cottica, Danilo; Magri, Flavia; Imbriani, Marcello; Rotondi, Mario; Chiovato, Luca

    2015-02-01

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) are widely used perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs). Previous studies detected PFOA and PFOS in human tissues including the thyroid gland. There are no studies on the in vitro effects of PFOA and PFOS on thyroid cells. Our study was aimed at evaluating the effect of the in vitro exposure to PFOA and PFOS on thyroid cell proliferation and viability. These objectives were investigated using Fisher rat thyroid line-5 (FRTL-5) cells. FRTL-5 cells cultured in the presence of PFOA and PFOS at concentrations up to 10(4) nM do not display changes in their viability and proliferation rate, while at a concentration of 10(5) nM of either PFCs, a significant inhibition of cell proliferation, mainly due to increased cell death, was found. PFOA and PFOS were detected in FRTL-5 cell pellets after 72 h of incubation with PFCs but not in control cultures. When FRTL-5 were incubated with PFCs then washed in PBS and re-cultured for 72 h without PFCs in the medium, no detectable concentrations of PFOA and PFOS were measured in the cell pellet. This indicates that PFOA and PFOS enter thyroid cells by a gradient-based passive diffusion mechanism. Future studies are required to evaluate the potential toxic effect resulting from prolonged in vivo exposure to even lower concentrations of PFCs. PMID:25182428

  7. Role of Thyroid Hormones in Skeletal Development and Bone Maintenance.

    PubMed

    Bassett, J H Duncan; Williams, Graham R

    2016-04-01

    The skeleton is an exquisitely sensitive and archetypal T3-target tissue that demonstrates the critical role for thyroid hormones during development, linear growth, and adult bone turnover and maintenance. Thyrotoxicosis is an established cause of secondary osteoporosis, and abnormal thyroid hormone signaling has recently been identified as a novel risk factor for osteoarthritis. Skeletal phenotypes in genetically modified mice have faithfully reproduced genetic disorders in humans, revealing the complex physiological relationship between centrally regulated thyroid status and the peripheral actions of thyroid hormones. Studies in mutant mice also established the paradigm that T3 exerts anabolic actions during growth and catabolic effects on adult bone. Thus, the skeleton represents an ideal physiological system in which to characterize thyroid hormone transport, metabolism, and action during development and adulthood and in response to injury. Future analysis of T3 action in individual skeletal cell lineages will provide new insights into cell-specific molecular mechanisms and may ultimately identify novel therapeutic targets for chronic degenerative diseases such as osteoporosis and osteoarthritis. This review provides a comprehensive analysis of the current state of the art. PMID:26862888

  8. Attenuation Coefficient Estimation of the Healthy Human Thyroid In Vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rouyer, J.; Cueva, T.; Portal, A.; Yamamoto, T.; Lavarello, R.

    Previous studies have demonstrated that attenuation coefficients can be useful towards characterizing thyroid tissues. In this work, ultrasonic attenuation coefficients were estimated from healthy human thyroids in vivo using a clinical scanner. The selected subjects were five young, healthy volunteers (age: 26 ± 6 years old, gender: three females, two males) with no reported history of thyroid diseases, no palpable thyroid nodules, no smoking habits, and body mass index less than 30 kg/m2. Echographic examinations were conducted by a trained sonographer using a SonixTouch system (Ultrasonix Medical Corporation, Richmond, BC) equipped with an L14-5 linear transducer array (nominal center frequency of 10 MHz, transducer footprint of 3.8 cm). Radiofrequency data corresponding to the collected echographic images in both transverse and longitudinal views were digitized at a sampling rate of 40 MHz and processed with Matlab codes (MathWorks, Natick, MA) to estimate attenuation coefficients using the spectral log difference method. The estimation was performed using an analysis bandwidth spanning from 4.0 to 9.0 MHz. The average value of the estimated ultrasonic attenuation coefficients was equal to 1.34 ± 0.15 dB/(cm.MHz). The standard deviation of the estimated average attenuation coefficient across different volunteers suggests a non-negligible inter-subject variability in the ultrasonic attenuation coefficient of the human thyroid.

  9. Endocrinopathies. Thyroid and adrenal disorders.

    PubMed

    Merchant, S R; Taboada, J

    1997-11-01

    This article focuses on common adrenal and thyroid diseases in the geriatric patient consisting of hypothyroidism in the dog, hyperthyroidism in the cat, and hyperadrenocorticism in the dog to include clinical signs, diagnosis, and management. A brief section on hyperadrenocorticism in the cat, thyroid tumors in the dog, and pheochromocytoma in the dog and cat are also included. PMID:9348631

  10. SUPPORT FOR NCRP THYROID STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) conducted an assessment of risks from radiation exposure of the thyroid. NCRP published the report “Risk to the Thyroid from Ionizing Radiation”, 159, in 2008. It is anticipated that results from this report ...

  11. Can Thyroid Cancer Be Prevented?

    MedlinePlus

    ... look for the gene mutations found in familial medullary thyroid cancer (MTC). Because of this, most of the familial cases of MTC can be prevented or treated early by removing the thyroid gland. Once the disease is discovered in a family, the rest of ...

  12. Differential Expression of Aquaporins and Its Diagnostic Utility in Thyroid Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Dongfeng; Kondo, Tetsuo; Nakazawa, Tadao; Kawasaki, Tomonori; Yamane, Tetsu; Mochizuki, Kunio; Kato, Yohichiro; Matsuzaki, Toshiyuki; Takata, Kuniaki; Katoh, Ryohei

    2012-01-01

    Background Aquaporin3 (AQP3) and Aquaporin4 (AQP4) play a major role in transcellular and transepithelial water movement as water channel membrane proteins. Little is known of their expression and significance in human thyroid tissues. Thus, we examined the expression of AQP3 and AQP4 in normal, hyperplastic and neoplastic thyroid tissues in conjunction with human thyroid cancer cell lines. Methods and Results Immunohistochemical analyses demonstrated AQP3 in the cytoplasmic membrane of normal C cells, but not in follicular cells. In contrast, AQP4 was not found in C cells but was identified in normal follicular cells. AQP4 was positive in 92% of Graves’ disease thyroids and 97% of multinodular goiters, and we failed to demonstrate AQP3 in these hyperplastic tissues. In neoplastic thyroid lesions, we observed AQP3 in 91% of medullary thyroid carcinomas but in no other follicular cell tumors. AQP4 was demonstrated in 100% of follicular adenomas, 90% of follicular carcinomas, and 85% of papillary carcinomas, while it was negative in all medullary carcinomas and undifferentiated carcinomas. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analyses revealed AQP3 mRNA expression only in medullary carcinomas and AQP4 mRNA expression in follicular cell-derived tumors except for undifferentiated carcinomas. In thyroid cancer cell lines, using RT-PCR and western blotting, AQP3 mRNA and protein were only identified in the TT cell line (human medullary carcinoma cell line) and AQP4 in the other cell lines. In addition, AQP3 mRNA expression was up-regulated by FBS and calcium administration in both a dose and time dependent manner in TT cells. Conclusion The differential expressions of AQP3 and AQP4 may reflect the biological nature and/or function of normal, hyperplastic, and neoplastic thyroid cells and additionally may have value in determining differential diagnoses of thyroid tumors. PMID:22808259

  13. Proteomics of thyroid tumours provides new insights into their molecular composition and changes associated with malignancy

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Aguilar, Juan; Clifton-Bligh, Roderick; Molloy, Mark P.

    2016-01-01

    Around 5% of the general population have palpable thyroid nodules. Although most thyroid tumours are benign, thyroid cancer represents the most common malignancy of the endocrine system, comprising mainly follicular and papillary thyroid carcinomas. Previous studies have shed some light on the molecular pathogenesis of thyroid cancer but there have not been any comprehensive mass spectrometry-based proteomic studies of large scale to reveal protein expression differences between thyroid tumours and the molecular alterations associated with tumour malignancy. We applied data-independent acquisition mass spectrometry which enabled quantitative expression analysis of over 1,600 proteins from 32 specimens to compare normal thyroid tissue with the three most common tumours of the thyroid gland: follicular adenoma, follicular carcinoma and papillary carcinoma. In follicular tumours, we found marked reduction of the tumour suppressor and therapeutic target extracellular protein decorin. We made the novel observation that TGFβ-induced protein ig-h3 (TGFBI) was found frequently overexpressed in follicular carcinoma compared with follicular adenoma. Proteomic pathway analysis showed changes in papillary carcinoma were associated with disruption of cell contacts (loss of E-cadherin), actin cytoskeleton dynamics and loss of differentiation markers, all hallmarks of an invasive phenotype. PMID:27025787

  14. A case report of hyperfunctioning metastatic thyroid cancer and rare I-131 avid liver metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Kunawudhi, Anchisa; Promteangtrong, Chetsadaporn; Chotipanich, Chanisa

    2016-01-01

    Thyroid cancer is usually, relatively hypofunctional; most patients with thyroid cancer are clinically euthyroid. The combination of thyroid cancer and thyrotoxicosis is not common. We herein, report a case of follicular thyroid cancer with hyperfunctioning metastasis in a 43-year-old woman who presented with thyrotoxicosis, a cold right thyroid nodule, and low I-131 uptake at the thyroid bed. An additional total body scan with I-131 revealed a large radioiodine avid osteolytic bone metastasis with soft tissue masses and liver metastasis. The patient received treatment with total thyroidectomy, methimazole, and I-131 at a cumulative dose of 600 mCi along with recombinant human thyroid-stimulating hormone before the first I-131 treatment and palliative radiation. The patient had normal liver function test and experienced a mild degree of bone marrow suppression after I-131. At the 2-year follow-up, the patient was still alive with the progression of bone metastases but was doing well with less severe thyrotoxicosis, good ambulation, and an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 2. Clinicians should be aware of the unusual concurrent presentation of thyrotoxicosis and thyroid cancer, a differential diagnosis in patients with thyrotoxicosis and low or normal radioiodine uptake over the neck and also potential pitfalls during radionuclide treatment. PMID:27385894

  15. Proteomics of thyroid tumours provides new insights into their molecular composition and changes associated with malignancy.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Aguilar, Juan; Clifton-Bligh, Roderick; Molloy, Mark P

    2016-01-01

    Around 5% of the general population have palpable thyroid nodules. Although most thyroid tumours are benign, thyroid cancer represents the most common malignancy of the endocrine system, comprising mainly follicular and papillary thyroid carcinomas. Previous studies have shed some light on the molecular pathogenesis of thyroid cancer but there have not been any comprehensive mass spectrometry-based proteomic studies of large scale to reveal protein expression differences between thyroid tumours and the molecular alterations associated with tumour malignancy. We applied data-independent acquisition mass spectrometry which enabled quantitative expression analysis of over 1,600 proteins from 32 specimens to compare normal thyroid tissue with the three most common tumours of the thyroid gland: follicular adenoma, follicular carcinoma and papillary carcinoma. In follicular tumours, we found marked reduction of the tumour suppressor and therapeutic target extracellular protein decorin. We made the novel observation that TGFβ-induced protein ig-h3 (TGFBI) was found frequently overexpressed in follicular carcinoma compared with follicular adenoma. Proteomic pathway analysis showed changes in papillary carcinoma were associated with disruption of cell contacts (loss of E-cadherin), actin cytoskeleton dynamics and loss of differentiation markers, all hallmarks of an invasive phenotype. PMID:27025787

  16. New Model Systems to Illuminate Thyroid Organogenesis. Part I: An Update on the Zebrafish Toolbox

    PubMed Central

    Opitz, Robert; Antonica, Francesco; Costagliola, Sabine

    2013-01-01

    Thyroid dysgenesis (TD) resulting from defects during embryonic thyroid development represents a major cause of congenital hypothyroidism. The pathogenetic mechanisms of TD in human newborns, however, are still poorly understood and disease-causing genetic variants have been identified in only a small percentage of TD cases. This limited understanding of the pathogenesis of TD is partly due to a lack of knowledge on how intrinsic factors and extrinsic signalling cues orchestrate the differentiation of thyroid follicular cells and the morphogenesis of thyroid tissue. Recently, embryonic stem cells and zebrafish embryos emerged as novel model systems that allow for innovative experimental approaches in order to decipher cellular and molecular mechanisms of thyroid development and to unravel pathogenic mechanisms of TD. Zebrafish embryos offer several salient properties for studies on thyroid organogenesis including rapid and external development, optical transparency, ease of breeding, relative short generation time and amenability for genome editing. In this review, we will highlight recent advances in the zebrafish toolkit to visualize cellular dynamics of organ development and discuss specific prospects of the zebrafish model for studies on vertebrate thyroid development and human congenital thyroid diseases. PMID:24783054

  17. A loss-of-function genetic screening identifies novel mediators of thyroid cancer cell viability.

    PubMed

    Cantisani, Maria Carmela; Parascandolo, Alessia; Perälä, Merja; Allocca, Chiara; Fey, Vidal; Sahlberg, Niko; Merolla, Francesco; Basolo, Fulvio; Laukkanen, Mikko O; Kallioniemi, Olli Pekka; Santoro, Massimo; Castellone, Maria Domenica

    2016-05-10

    RET, BRAF and other protein kinases have been identified as major molecular players in thyroid cancer. To identify novel kinases required for the viability of thyroid carcinoma cells, we performed a RNA interference screening in the RET/PTC1(CCDC6-RET)-positive papillary thyroid cancer cell line TPC1 using a library of synthetic small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) targeting the human kinome and related proteins. We identified 14 hits whose silencing was able to significantly reduce the viability and the proliferation of TPC1 cells; most of them were active also in BRAF-mutant BCPAP (papillary thyroid cancer) and 8505C (anaplastic thyroid cancer) and in RAS-mutant CAL62 (anaplastic thyroid cancer) cells. These included members of EPH receptor tyrosine kinase family as well as SRC and MAPK (mitogen activated protein kinases) families. Importantly, silencing of the identified hits did not affect significantly the viability of Nthy-ori 3-1 (hereafter referred to as NTHY) cells derived from normal thyroid tissue, suggesting cancer cell specificity. The identified proteins are worth exploring as potential novel druggable thyroid cancer targets. PMID:27058903

  18. A case report of hyperfunctioning metastatic thyroid cancer and rare I-131 avid liver metastasis.

    PubMed

    Kunawudhi, Anchisa; Promteangtrong, Chetsadaporn; Chotipanich, Chanisa

    2016-01-01

    Thyroid cancer is usually, relatively hypofunctional; most patients with thyroid cancer are clinically euthyroid. The combination of thyroid cancer and thyrotoxicosis is not common. We herein, report a case of follicular thyroid cancer with hyperfunctioning metastasis in a 43-year-old woman who presented with thyrotoxicosis, a cold right thyroid nodule, and low I-131 uptake at the thyroid bed. An additional total body scan with I-131 revealed a large radioiodine avid osteolytic bone metastasis with soft tissue masses and liver metastasis. The patient received treatment with total thyroidectomy, methimazole, and I-131 at a cumulative dose of 600 mCi along with recombinant human thyroid-stimulating hormone before the first I-131 treatment and palliative radiation. The patient had normal liver function test and experienced a mild degree of bone marrow suppression after I-131. At the 2-year follow-up, the patient was still alive with the progression of bone metastases but was doing well with less severe thyrotoxicosis, good ambulation, and an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 2. Clinicians should be aware of the unusual concurrent presentation of thyrotoxicosis and thyroid cancer, a differential diagnosis in patients with thyrotoxicosis and low or normal radioiodine uptake over the neck and also potential pitfalls during radionuclide treatment. PMID:27385894

  19. Iodine Excess as an Environmental Risk Factor for Autoimmune Thyroid Disease

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Yuqian; Kawashima, Akira; Ishido, Yuko; Yoshihara, Aya; Oda, Kenzaburo; Hiroi, Naoki; Ito, Tetsuhide; Ishii, Norihisa; Suzuki, Koichi

    2014-01-01

    The global effort to prevent iodine deficiency disorders through iodine supplementation, such as universal salt iodization, has achieved impressive progress during the last few decades. However, iodine excess, due to extensive environmental iodine exposure in addition to poor monitoring, is currently a more frequent occurrence than iodine deficiency. Iodine excess is a precipitating environmental factor in the development of autoimmune thyroid disease. Excessive amounts of iodide have been linked to the development of autoimmune thyroiditis in humans and animals, while intrathyroidal depletion of iodine prevents disease in animal strains susceptible to severe thyroiditis. Although the mechanisms by which iodide induces thyroiditis are still unclear, several mechanisms have been proposed: (1) excess iodine induces the production of cytokines and chemokines that can recruit immunocompetent cells to the thyroid; (2) processing excess iodine in thyroid epithelial cells may result in elevated levels of oxidative stress, leading to harmful lipid oxidation and thyroid tissue injuries; and (3) iodine incorporation in the protein chain of thyroglobulin may augment the antigenicity of this molecule. This review will summarize the current knowledge regarding excess iodide as an environmental toxicant and relate it to the development of autoimmune thyroid disease. PMID:25050783

  20. Thyroid Follicular Carcinoma in a Fourteen-year-old Girl with Graves’ Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kojima-Ishii, Kanako; Ihara, Kenji; Ohkubo, Kazuhiro; Matsuo, Terumichi; Toda, Naoko; Yamashita, Hiroyuki; Kono, Shinji; Hara, Toshiro

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Here we present the case of a 14-yr-old girl who developed thyroid follicular carcinoma accompanied by Graves’ disease. She was diagnosed with Graves’ disease at 10 yr of age and soon achieved a euthyroid state after starting treatment. When she was 13 yr of age, her hyperthyroidism and goiter worsened despite medical therapy. Multiple nodules were found in her enlarged thyroid gland by ultrasonography. Her serum Tg level seemed within the normal range. She underwent near-total thyroidectomy for control of thyroid function. Histopathological study demonstrated that multiple oxyphilic follicular neoplasms were surrounded by the thyroid tissue compatible with Graves’ disease. Capsular invasion was identified in one of the nodules, and thus the histological diagnosis was minimally invasive follicular carcinoma. She did not have signs suggesting metastasis, and has had no relapse for 18 mo after the operation. Although some previous studies showed a high prevalence of thyroid cancer with an aggressive nature in adult patients with Graves’ disease, few reports about thyroid cancer accompanied by Graves’ disease are available in children. The present case, however, suggests that careful investigation is needed when we detect thyroid nodules or progressive thyroid enlargement, especially in children with Graves’ disease. PMID:24790388