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Sample records for adjacent thyroid tissue

  1. Differential expression of the Na+/I− symporter protein in thyroid cancer and adjacent normal and nodular goiter tissues

    PubMed Central

    WANG, SHASHA; LIANG, JUN; LIN, YANSONG; YAO, RUYONG

    2013-01-01

    The ability of differentiated thyroid cancer and adjacent thyroid cells to concentrate iodine is dependent on their expression of a functional NA+/I− symporter (NIS). Thyroid cancer is insensitive to 131I treatment if the thyroid cells lack the ability to concentrate iodide. Thus, in this study, we aimed to determine whether the NIS protein was differentially expressed in thyroid cancer and various surrounding tissues. We recruited 114 cases of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) and divided them into two groups: 60 patients of 9 males and 51 females with a mean age of 49.55 years who had PTC with surrounding nodular goiter tissue (simplified as GNG), and 54 patients of 8 males and 46 females with a mean age of 45.78 years who had PTC with surrounding normal tissue (Gnormal) after total or near total thyroidectomy. Formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue sections were prepared for immunohistochemical staining of the NIS protein and semi-quantitative analysis. The NIS protein was expressed in the basolateral membrane of the normal epithelium, while PTC and nodular goiter cells expressed NIS in the cytoplasm and basolateral membrane. The expression levels of the NIS protein were higher in the adjacent normal tissues compared with those of the surrounding nodular goiter tissues (P=0.002) and expression levels of the NIS protein were higher in PTC tissues compared with the surrounding nodular goiter tissues (P=0.008). The data from this study indicate that cancer-surrounding tissues may play a significant role in mediating the sensitivity of PTC patients to radioactive iodine treatment. PMID:23255951

  2. Evaluation of thyroid tissue by Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teixeira, C. S. B.; Bitar, R. A.; Santos, A. B. O.; Kulcsar, M. A. V.; Friguglietti, C. U. M.; Martinho, H. S.; da Costa, R. B.; Martin, A. A.

    2010-02-01

    Thyroid gland is a small gland in the neck consisting of two lobes connected by an isthmus. Thyroid's main function is to produce the hormones thyroxine (T4), triiodothyronine (T3) and calcitonin. Thyroid disorders can disturb the production of these hormones, which will affect numerous processes within the body such as: regulating metabolism and increasing utilization of cholesterol, fats, proteins, and carbohydrates. The gland itself can also be injured; for example, neoplasias, which have been considered the most important, causing damage of to the gland and are difficult to diagnose. There are several types of thyroid cancer: Papillary, Follicular, Medullary, and Anaplastic. The occurrence rate, in general is between 4 and 7%; which is on the increase (30%), probably due to new technology that is able to find small thyroid cancers that may not have been found previously. The most common method used for thyroid diagnoses are: anamnesis, ultrasonography, and laboratory exams (Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy- FNAB). However, the sensitivity of those test are rather poor, with a high rate of false-negative results, therefore there is an urgent need to develop new diagnostic techniques. Raman spectroscopy has been presented as a valuable tool for cancer diagnosis in many different tissues. In this work, 27 fragments of the thyroid were collected from 18 patients, comprising the following histologic groups: goitre adjacent tissue, goitre nodular tissue, follicular adenoma, follicular carcinoma, and papillary carcinoma. Spectral collection was done with a commercial FTRaman Spectrometer (Bruker RFS100/S) using a 1064 nm laser excitation and Ge detector. Principal Component Analysis, Cluster Analysis, and Linear Discriminant Analysis with cross-validation were applied as spectral classification algorithm. Comparing the goitre adjacent tissue with the goitre nodular region, an index of 58.3% of correct classification was obtained. Between goitre (nodular region and

  3. Adipose tissues and thyroid hormones

    PubMed Central

    Obregon, Maria-Jesus

    2014-01-01

    The maintenance of energy balance is regulated by complex homeostatic mechanisms, including those emanating from adipose tissue. The main function of the adipose tissue is to store the excess of metabolic energy in the form of fat. The energy stored as fat can be mobilized during periods of energy deprivation (hunger, fasting, diseases). The adipose tissue has also a homeostatic role regulating energy balance and functioning as endocrine organ that secretes substances that control body homeostasis. Two adipose tissues have been identified: white and brown adipose tissues (WAT and BAT) with different phenotype, function and regulation. WAT stores energy, while BAT dissipates energy as heat. Brown and white adipocytes have different ontogenetic origin and lineage and specific markers of WAT and BAT have been identified. “Brite” or beige adipose tissue has been identified in WAT with some properties of BAT. Thyroid hormones exert pleiotropic actions, regulating the differentiation process in many tissues including the adipose tissue. Adipogenesis gives raise to mature adipocytes and is regulated by several transcription factors (c/EBPs, PPARs) that coordinately activate specific genes, resulting in the adipocyte phenotype. T3 regulates several genes involved in lipid mobilization and storage and in thermogenesis. Both WAT and BAT are targets of thyroid hormones, which regulate genes crucial for their proper function: lipogenesis, lipolysis, thermogenesis, mitochondrial function, transcription factors, the availability of nutrients. T3 acts directly through specific TREs in the gene promoters, regulating transcription factors. The deiodinases D3, D2, and D1 regulate the availability of T3. D3 is activated during proliferation, while D2 is linked to the adipocyte differentiation program, providing T3 needed for lipogenesis and thermogenesis. We examine the differences between BAT, WAT and brite/beige adipocytes and the process that lead to activation of UCP1 in WAT

  4. Ectopic thyroid tissue in the parotid salivary gland.

    PubMed

    Mysorekar, V V; Dandekar, C P; Sreevathsa, M R

    2004-09-01

    Benign ectopic thyroid tissue within the parotid salivary gland is very rare. A 32-year-old woman presented with a slowly-growing, painless mass in the parotid region. The mass, which was clinically diagnosed as a parotid tumour, was found at surgery to be cystic in nature. Histological examination showed thyroid tissue with secondary changes in the cyst wall and colloid in the lumen. On iodine isotope scan, the thyroid gland was found in its normal location. The possible origin of the ectopic thyroid tissue in the parotid salivary gland could be due to a common evolution of the thyroid and parotid glands, a heteroplasia or a metaplasia.

  5. Infrared spectra of thyroid tumor tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolstorozhev, G. B.; Skornyakov, I. V.; Butra, V. A.

    2010-07-01

    We used infrared spectroscopy methods to study thyroid tumor tissues removed during surgery. The IR spectra of the surgical material are compared with data from histological examination. We show that in malignant neoplasms, the spectra of proteins in the region of C=O vibrations are different from the spectra of these substances in benign tumors and in tissues outside the pathological focus at a distance >1 cm from the margin of the tumor. The differences in the spectra are due to changes in the supermolecular structure of the proteins, resulting from rearrangement of the system of hydrogen bonds. We identify the spectral signs of malignant pathologies.

  6. Photoacoustic spectroscopic differences between normal and malignant thyroid tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Li; Xie, Wengming; Li, Hui

    2012-12-01

    The thyroid is one of the main endocrine glands of human body, which plays a crucial role in the body's metabolism. Thyroid cancer mortality ranks only second to ovarian cancer in endocrine cancer. Routine diagnostic methods of thyroid diseases in present clinic exist misdiagnosis and missed diagnosis to varying degrees. Those lead to miss the best period of cancer treatment--early. Photoacoustic spectroscopy technology is a new tool, which provides an effective and noninvasive way for biomedical materials research, being highly sensitive and without sample pretreatment. In this paper, we use photoacoustic spectroscopy technology (PAST) to detect the absorption spectrum between normal and malignant thyroid tissues. The result shows that the photoacoustic spectroscopy technology (PAST) could differentiate malignant thyroid tissue from normal thyroid tissue very well. This technique combined with routine diagnostic methods has the potential to increase the diagnostic accuracy in clinical thyroid cancer diagnosis.

  7. Gene expression profiling of normal thyroid tissue from patients with thyroid carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Melaccio, Assunta; Di Meo, Giovanna; Trino, Stefania; Mazzoccoli, Carmela; Saltarella, Ilaria; Lamanuzzi, Aurelia; Morano, Annalisa; Gurrado, Angela; Pasculli, Alessandro; Lastilla, Gaetano; Musto, Pellegrino; Reale, Antonia; Dammacco, Franco; Vacca, Angelo; Testini, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Gene expression profiling (GEP) of normal thyroid tissue from 43 patients with thyroid carcinoma, 6 with thyroid adenoma, 42 with multinodular goiter, and 6 with Graves-Basedow disease was carried out with the aim of achieving a better understanding of the genetic mechanisms underlying the role of normal cells surrounding the tumor in the thyroid cancer progression. Unsupervised and supervised analyses were performed to compare samples from neoplastic and non-neoplastic diseases. GEP and subsequent RT-PCR analysis identified 28 differentially expressed genes. Functional assessment revealed that they are involved in tumorigenesis and cancer progression. The distinct GEP is likely to reflect the onset and/or progression of thyroid cancer, its molecular classification, and the identification of new potential prognostic factors, thus allowing to pinpoint selective gene targets with the aim of realizing more precise preoperative diagnostic procedures and novel therapeutic approaches. STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE This study is focused on the gene expression profiling analysis followed by RT-PCR of normal thyroid tissues from patients with neoplastic and non-neoplastic thyroid diseases. Twenty-eight genes were found to be differentially expressed in normal cells surrounding the tumor in the thyroid cancer. The genes dysregulated in normal tissue samples from patients with thyroid tumors may represent new molecular markers, useful for their diagnostic, prognostic and possibly therapeutic implications. PMID:27105534

  8. Gene expression profiling of normal thyroid tissue from patients with thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ria, Roberto; Simeon, Vittorio; Melaccio, Assunta; Di Meo, Giovanna; Trino, Stefania; Mazzoccoli, Carmela; Saltarella, Ilaria; Lamanuzzi, Aurelia; Morano, Annalisa; Gurrado, Angela; Pasculli, Alessandro; Lastilla, Gaetano; Musto, Pellegrino; Reale, Antonia; Dammacco, Franco; Vacca, Angelo; Testini, Mario

    2016-05-17

    Gene expression profiling (GEP) of normal thyroid tissue from 43 patients with thyroid carcinoma, 6 with thyroid adenoma, 42 with multinodular goiter, and 6 with Graves-Basedow disease was carried out with the aim of achieving a better understanding of the genetic mechanisms underlying the role of normal cells surrounding the tumor in the thyroid cancer progression. Unsupervised and supervised analyses were performed to compare samples from neoplastic and non-neoplastic diseases. GEP and subsequent RT-PCR analysis identified 28 differentially expressed genes. Functional assessment revealed that they are involved in tumorigenesis and cancer progression. The distinct GEP is likely to reflect the onset and/or progression of thyroid cancer, its molecular classification, and the identification of new potential prognostic factors, thus allowing to pinpoint selective gene targets with the aim of realizing more precise preoperative diagnostic procedures and novel therapeutic approaches.This study is focused on the gene expression profiling analysis followed by RT-PCR of normal thyroid tissues from patients with neoplastic and non-neoplastic thyroid diseases. Twenty-eight genes were found to be differentially expressed in normal cells surrounding the tumor in the thyroid cancer. The genes dysregulated in normal tissue samples from patients with thyroid tumors may represent new molecular markers, useful for their diagnostic, prognostic and possibly therapeutic implications.

  9. Gene expression profiling of normal thyroid tissue from patients with thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ria, Roberto; Simeon, Vittorio; Melaccio, Assunta; Di Meo, Giovanna; Trino, Stefania; Mazzoccoli, Carmela; Saltarella, Ilaria; Lamanuzzi, Aurelia; Morano, Annalisa; Gurrado, Angela; Pasculli, Alessandro; Lastilla, Gaetano; Musto, Pellegrino; Reale, Antonia; Dammacco, Franco; Vacca, Angelo; Testini, Mario

    2016-05-17

    Gene expression profiling (GEP) of normal thyroid tissue from 43 patients with thyroid carcinoma, 6 with thyroid adenoma, 42 with multinodular goiter, and 6 with Graves-Basedow disease was carried out with the aim of achieving a better understanding of the genetic mechanisms underlying the role of normal cells surrounding the tumor in the thyroid cancer progression. Unsupervised and supervised analyses were performed to compare samples from neoplastic and non-neoplastic diseases. GEP and subsequent RT-PCR analysis identified 28 differentially expressed genes. Functional assessment revealed that they are involved in tumorigenesis and cancer progression. The distinct GEP is likely to reflect the onset and/or progression of thyroid cancer, its molecular classification, and the identification of new potential prognostic factors, thus allowing to pinpoint selective gene targets with the aim of realizing more precise preoperative diagnostic procedures and novel therapeutic approaches.This study is focused on the gene expression profiling analysis followed by RT-PCR of normal thyroid tissues from patients with neoplastic and non-neoplastic thyroid diseases. Twenty-eight genes were found to be differentially expressed in normal cells surrounding the tumor in the thyroid cancer. The genes dysregulated in normal tissue samples from patients with thyroid tumors may represent new molecular markers, useful for their diagnostic, prognostic and possibly therapeutic implications. PMID:27105534

  10. Laser ablation of human atherosclerotic plaque without adjacent tissue injury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grundfest, W. S.; Litvack, F.; Forrester, J. S.; Goldenberg, T.; Swan, H. J. C.

    1985-01-01

    Seventy samples of human cadaver atherosclerotic aorta were irradiated in vitro using a 308 nm xenon chloride excimer laser. Energy per pulse, pulse duration and frequency were varied. For comparison, 60 segments were also irradiated with an argon ion and an Nd:YAG laser operated in the continuous mode. Tissue was fixed in formalin, sectioned and examined microscopically. The Nd:YAG and argon ion-irradiated tissue exhibited a central crater with irregular edges and concentric zones of thermal and blast injury. In contrast, the excimer laser-irradiated tissue had narrow deep incisions with minimal or no thermal injury. These preliminary experiments indicate that the excimer laser vaporizes tissue in a manner different from that of the continuous wave Nd:YAG or argon ion laser. The sharp incision margins and minimal damage to adjacent normal tissue suggest that the excimer laser is more desirable for general surgical and intravascular uses than are the conventionally used medical lasers.

  11. Tissue specific regulation of lipogenesis by thyroid hormone

    SciTech Connect

    Blennemann, B.; Freake, H. )

    1990-02-26

    Thyroid hormone stimulates long chain fatty acid synthesis in rat liver by increasing the amounts of key lipogenic enzymes. Sparse and conflicting data exist concerning its action on this pathway in other tissues. The authors recently showed that, in contrast to liver, hypothyroidism stimulates lipogenesis in brown adipose tissue and have now systematically examined the effects of thyroid state on fatty acid synthesis in other rat tissues. Lipogenesis was assessed by tritiated water incorporation. Euthyroid hepatic fatty acid synthesis (16.6um H/g/h) was reduced to 30% in hypothyroid rats and increased 3 fold in hyperthyroidism. Lipogenesis was detected in euthyroid kidney and heart and these levels were also stimulated by thyroid hormone treatment. Brown adipose tissue was unique in showing increased lipogenesis in the hypothyroid state. Hyperthyroid levels were not different from euthyroid. Effects in white adipose tissue were small and inconsistent. Brain, skin and lung were all lipogenically active, but did not respond to changes in thyroid state. Low but detectable levels of fatty acid synthesis were measured in muscle, which also were non-responsive. A wide spectrum of responses to thyroid hormone are seen in different rat tissues and thus the pathway of long chain fatty acid synthesis would appear to be an excellent model for examining the tissue specific regulation of gene expression by thyroid hormone.

  12. Localized Ablation of Thyroid Tissue by High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound: an Alternative to Surgery?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esnault, Olivier; Franc, Brigitte; Chapelon, Jean-Yves; Lacoste, Francois

    2006-05-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of using a High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) device to obtain a localised destruction of the thyroid with no damage to adjacent tissues. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The ewe model was used because its thyroid gland is easily accessible with ultrasound. The animals were anaesthetised with 10 mg / kg IV injection of Penthothal. The HIFU pulses were generated by a 3-MHz spherical transducer under ultrasound guidance. Macroscopic and microscopic tissue lesions were identified after formalin fixation of the anterior part of the ewe's neck. RESULTS: After determining the optimal instrument settings to obtain localized thyroid ablation, the repeatability of the method was evaluated using a HIFU prototype designed specifically for human use: in 13 ewes (26 treated lobes), an average of 20 (range: 14-27) ultrasound pulses (pulse duration: 3 s) per lobe covering a mean volume of 0.5 cm3 (range: 0.3-0.7 cm3) were delivered. The ewes were sacrificed 2-5 weeks after treatment delivery. No damage to the nerves, trachea, esophagus or muscle was observed. Only 3 ewes suffered superficial skin burns. The desired thyroid lesions were obtained in 25/26 treated lobes, as demonstrated by fibrotic tissues, which replaced necrotic areas. CONCLUSION: These results obtained in the ewe model show that thyroid lesions of defined volume can be induced safely and suggest that the HIFU device is now ready for human trials.

  13. Ectopic thyroid tissue within the gall bladder: case report and brief review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Cassol, Clarissa A; Noria, Dhun; Asa, Sylvia L

    2010-12-01

    In this brief report, we describe a case of ectopic thyroid tissue in the gallbladder wall. We review the literature on ectopia of the thyroid and its rare occurrence outside the usual path of the migration of the thyroid anlage from the foramen caecum to the mediastinum. The importance of distinguishing ectopic thyroid from metastatic thyroid carcinoma is emphasized. PMID:20714829

  14. [Relation between autoimmune thyroid diseases and connective tissue diseases].

    PubMed

    Barragán-Garfias, Jorge Alberto; Zárate, Arturo

    2013-01-01

    The main physiological function of the immune system consists in the defense against infectious micro-organisms. Sometimes there is a loss of immunological tolerance with the consequence of ignorance of self-antibodies. Some thyroid diseases are related to autoimmune diseases associated with the most common exocrine glands between them. There are also the autoimmune thyroid organ specific diseases, such as Graves-Basedow and the Hashimoto thyroiditis. It has been shown that there is a higher prevalence of autoimmune thyroid diseases in patients with connective tissue diseases (systemic autoimmune) such as Sjögren syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erithmatosis and systemic myopathic diseases. In the same way a higher prevalence of antinuclear antibodies against antigens extracted from the nucleus in patients with a thyroid autoimmune disease has been identified. There is a high percentage of patients with subclinical thyroid diseases, and it is recommended for patients with connective tissue diseases with hypo- or hyperthyroidism to have thyroid globulin and peroxide antibodies measured.

  15. 9 CFR 310.15 - Disposition of thyroid glands and laryngeal muscle tissue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... laryngeal muscle tissue. 310.15 Section 310.15 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION... of thyroid glands and laryngeal muscle tissue. (a) Livestock thyroid glands and laryngeal muscle tissue shall not be used for human food. (b) Livestock thyroid glands and laryngeal muscle tissue may...

  16. 9 CFR 310.15 - Disposition of thyroid glands and laryngeal muscle tissue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... laryngeal muscle tissue. 310.15 Section 310.15 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION... of thyroid glands and laryngeal muscle tissue. (a) Livestock thyroid glands and laryngeal muscle tissue shall not be used for human food. (b) Livestock thyroid glands and laryngeal muscle tissue may...

  17. 9 CFR 310.15 - Disposition of thyroid glands and laryngeal muscle tissue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... laryngeal muscle tissue. 310.15 Section 310.15 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION... of thyroid glands and laryngeal muscle tissue. (a) Livestock thyroid glands and laryngeal muscle tissue shall not be used for human food. (b) Livestock thyroid glands and laryngeal muscle tissue may...

  18. 9 CFR 310.15 - Disposition of thyroid glands and laryngeal muscle tissue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... laryngeal muscle tissue. 310.15 Section 310.15 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION... of thyroid glands and laryngeal muscle tissue. (a) Livestock thyroid glands and laryngeal muscle tissue shall not be used for human food. (b) Livestock thyroid glands and laryngeal muscle tissue may...

  19. 9 CFR 310.15 - Disposition of thyroid glands and laryngeal muscle tissue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... laryngeal muscle tissue. 310.15 Section 310.15 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION... of thyroid glands and laryngeal muscle tissue. (a) Livestock thyroid glands and laryngeal muscle tissue shall not be used for human food. (b) Livestock thyroid glands and laryngeal muscle tissue may...

  20. Illness-induced changes in thyroid hormone metabolism: focus on the tissue level.

    PubMed

    Kwakkel, J; Fliers, E; Boelen, A

    2011-05-01

    During illness changes in thyroid hormone metabolism occur, collectively known as the non-thyroidal illness syndrome (NTIS). NTIS is characterised by low serum thyroid hormone levels without the expected rise in serum thyroid-stimulating hormone, indicating a major change in thyroid hormone feedback regulation. Recent studies have made clear that during NTIS differential changes in thyroid hormone metabolism occur in various tissues, the net effect of which may be either activation or inhibition of thyroid hormone action. In this review we discuss systemic and local changes in thyroid hormone metabolism during illness, highlighting their physiological implications in terms of disease course.

  1. Fluorescence lifetime of normal, benign, and malignant thyroid tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandao, Mariana; Iwakura, Ricardo; Basilio, Fagne; Haleplian, Kaique; Ito, Amando; de Freitas, Luiz Carlos Conti; Bachmann, Luciano

    2015-06-01

    Fine-needle aspiration cytology is the standard technique to diagnose thyroid pathologies. However, this method results in a high percentage of inconclusive and false negatives. The use of time-resolved fluorescence techniques to detect biochemical composition and tissue structure alterations could help to develop a portable, minimally invasive, and nondestructive method to assist during surgical procedures. This study aimed to use fluorescence lifetimes to differentiate healthy and benign tissues from malignant thyroid tissue. The thyroid tissue was excited at 298-300 nm and the fluorescence decay registered at 340 and 450 nm. We observed fluorescence lifetimes at 340 nm emission of 0.80±0.26 and 3.94±0.47 ns for healthy tissue; 0.90±0.24 and 4.05±0.46 ns for benign lesions; and 1.21±0.14 and 4.63±0.25 ns for malignant lesions. For 450 nm emissions, we obtain lifetimes of 0.25±0.18 and 3.99±0.39 ns for healthy tissue, 0.24±0.17 and 4.20±0.48 ns for benign lesions, 0.33±0.32 and 4.55±0.55 ns for malignant lesions. Employing analysis of variance, we differentiate malignant lesions from benign and healthy tissues. In addition, we use quadratic discriminant analysis to distinguish malignant from benign and healthy tissues with an accuracy of 76.1%, sensitivity of 74.7%, and specificity of 83.3%. These results indicate that time-resolved fluorescence can assist medical evaluation of thyroid pathologies during surgeries.

  2. Low-Dose Radioactive Iodine Destroys Thyroid Tissue Left after Surgery

    Cancer.gov

    A low dose of radioactive iodine given after surgery for thyroid cancer destroyed (ablated) residual thyroid tissue as effectively as a higher dose, with fewer side effects and less exposure to radiation, according to two randomized controlled trials.

  3. An immunohistochemical study of Na+/I- symporter in human thyroid tissues and salivary gland tissues.

    PubMed

    Jhiang, S M; Cho, J Y; Ryu, K Y; DeYoung, B R; Smanik, P A; McGaughy, V R; Fischer, A H; Mazzaferri, E L

    1998-10-01

    The human Na+/I- symporter (hNIS) is the plasma membrane protein that mediates active iodide uptake into several tissues, such as the thyroid and salivary glands. To study the distribution and cellular localization of the hNIS protein, we have generated a polyclonal antibody that could detect the hNIS protein by immunohistochemical staining on tissue sections. In normal thyroids, hNIS expression is heterogeneous, and it is only detected in sporadic thyrocytes of a given follicle. The hNIS protein was not detected in thyroid carcinomas, yet it was detected in the majority of thyrocytes in Graves' thyroids. In salivary glands, hNIS protein was not detected in acinar cells, but it was detected in ductal cells. The hNIS proteins are clustered in the basal and lateral membranes in cells stained positive for hNIS.

  4. Divergent viral presentation among human tumors and adjacent normal tissues

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Song; Wendl, Michael C.; Wyczalkowski, Matthew A.; Wylie, Kristine; Ye, Kai; Jayasinghe, Reyka; Xie, Mingchao; Wu, Song; Niu, Beifang; Grubb, Robert; Johnson, Kimberly J.; Gay, Hiram; Chen, Ken; Rader, Janet S.; Dipersio, John F.; Chen, Feng; Ding, Li

    2016-01-01

    We applied a newly developed bioinformatics system called VirusScan to investigate the viral basis of 6,813 human tumors and 559 adjacent normal samples across 23 cancer types and identified 505 virus positive samples with distinctive, organ system- and cancer type-specific distributions. We found that herpes viruses (e.g., subtypes HHV4, HHV5, and HHV6) that are highly prevalent across cancers of the digestive tract showed significantly higher abundances in tumor versus adjacent normal samples, supporting their association with these cancers. We also found three HPV16-positive samples in brain lower grade glioma (LGG). Further, recurrent HBV integration at the KMT2B locus is present in three liver tumors, but absent in their matched adjacent normal samples, indicating that viral integration induced host driver genetic alterations are required on top of viral oncogene expression for initiation and progression of liver hepatocellular carcinoma. Notably, viral integrations were found in many genes, including novel recurrent HPV integrations at PTPN13 in cervical cancer. Finally, we observed a set of HHV4 and HBV variants strongly associated with ethnic groups, likely due to viral sequence evolution under environmental influences. These findings provide important new insights into viral roles of tumor initiation and progression and potential new therapeutic targets. PMID:27339696

  5. Serum levels of sex hormones and expression of their receptors in thyroid tissue in female patients with various types of thyroid neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jia; Chen, Guang; Meng, Xian-Ying; Liu, Zhong-Hui; Dong, Su

    2014-12-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated the expression of estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) in thyroid cancer; however, little is known regarding the levels of estrogen, progesterone, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and luteinizing hormone (LH) in serum and the expression of ER, PR, FSH receptor (FSHR), and LH receptor (LHR) in thyroid tissues of patients with different types of thyroid neoplasms. Serum levels of estrogen, progesterone, FSH, and LH were measured by chemiluminescence, and expression of ER, PR, FSHR, and LHR in thyroid tissue was detected by immunohistochemistry in female patients with thyroid adenoma (n = 70), nodular goiter (n = 73), thyroid papillary cancer (n = 149), poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma (n = 12), or undifferentiated thyroid carcinoma (n = 8) and in normal controls (n = 60). The positive rates of serum estrogen level and ERα expression were significantly greater in patients with various types of thyroid neoplasms than in normal controls. The positive rates of ERβ expression were significantly less in various types of thyroid neoplasms than in normal thyroid tissues, especially in poorly differentiated carcinoma and undifferentiated carcinoma. The negative rates of serum progesterone level and positive rates of PR expression in thyroid tissue were significantly greater in patients with thyroid adenoma, nodular goiter, or thyroid papillary cancer than in normal controls. The positive rates of serum FSH and LH levels and FSHR and LHR expression were significantly greater in the thyroid adenoma group than in other groups. Our findings suggest that thyroid neoplasms might be sex hormone-dependent. The positive expression of ERα and PR often indicates thyroid papillary carcinoma, and the ERβ expression status is important for the diagnosis of poorly differentiated carcinoma and undifferentiated carcinoma. In addition, thyroid adenoma is often accompanied by an increase in serum FSH and LH levels, as well as

  6. [Thyroiditis].

    PubMed

    Buffet, Camille; Groussin, Lionel

    2013-02-01

    The diagnosis of thyroiditis encompasses a broad spectrum of thyroid disorders. Analysis of signs and symptoms, biochemical changes, neck ultrasound characteristics and radioactive iodine uptake values allows an accurate diagnosis. Recent studies of the whole genome have helped to identify many susceptibility genes for autoimmune thyroiditis. However, none of these genes contribute to a significant increase in risk of developing this thyroiditis. Clinical awareness of the characteristic presentations of exceptional thyroiditis (acute suppurative thyroiditis, Riedel's thyroiditis) is an important issue. Selenium administration seems to be beneficial for reducing the incidence of thyroiditis. Finally, certain drug-induced thyroiditis remains a therapeutic challenge for the physician.

  7. Missed retrosternal ectopic thyroid tissue in a patient operated for multinodular goiter.

    PubMed

    Kesici, Uğur; Koral, Özgür; Karyağar, Savaş; Kesici, Sevgi; Yılbaş, Aysun; Karyağar, Sevda; Mataracı, Emine; Mataracı, İlker

    2016-01-01

    Ectopic thyroid tissue has been found from the tongue to the diaphragm. The most common ectopic thyroid tissue has been found in the tongue, submandibular region, cervical lymph nodes, larynx, trachea, oesophagus, mediastinum, diaphragm and heart respectively. "Forgotten goiter" is an extremely rare disease which is defined as a mediastinal thyroid mass found after total thyroidectomy. In this case report, we discussed a 49 year-old female patient whose retrosternal ectopic thyroid tissue was detected by thyroid scintigraphy taken in postoperative period after total thyroidectomy performed with diagnosis of multinodular goiter. Papillary carcinoma was determined by the histopathological examination. Ectopic thyroid tissue was removed by performing sternotomy. We did not observe any postoperative surgical complications. 100 mCi dose of radioactive iodine was administered to the patient. Retrosternal ectopic thyroid tissue detected after total thyroidectomy is a rarely encountered condition. Therefore, retrosternal ectopic thyroid tissue existence should be definitely kept in mind in patients with no increase in thyroid stimulating hormone level after total thyroidectomy. PMID:26985161

  8. Thyroid

    MedlinePlus

    Thyroid is used to treat the symptoms of hypothyroidism (a condition where the thyroid gland does not produce enough thyroid hormone). Symptoms of hypothyroidism include lack of energy, depression, constipation, weight gain, ...

  9. Thyroiditis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hashimoto’s thyroiditis is the most common cause of hypothyroidism in the United States. Postpartum thyroiditis, which causes ... hormone levels in the blood) followed by temporary hypothyroidism, is a common cause of thyroid problems after ...

  10. Characterization of Thyroid Hormone Transporter Protein Expression during Tissue-specific Metamorphic Events in Xenopus tropicalis

    EPA Science Inventory

    Thyroid hormone (TH) induces the dramatic morphological and physiological changes that together comprise amphibian metamorphosis. TH-responsive tissues vary widely with developmental timing of TH-induced changes. How larval tadpole tissues are able to employ distinct metamorphi...

  11. Matrix metalloproteinase-1 expression in breast cancer and cancer-adjacent tissues by immunohistochemical staining

    PubMed Central

    XUAN, JIAJIA; ZHANG, YUNFENG; ZHANG, XIUJUN; HU, FEN

    2015-01-01

    Although matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) has been considered a factor of crucial importance for breast cancer cells invasion and metastasis, the expression of MMP-1 in different breast cancer and cancer-adjacent tissues have not been fully examined. In the present study, immunohistochemical staining was used to detect the MMP-1 expression in non-specific invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast, cancer-adjacent normal breast tissue, lymph node metastatic non-specific invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast and normal lymph node tissue. The results showed that MMP-1 expression is different in the above tissues. MMP-1 had a positive expression in normal lymph node tissue and lymph node metastatic non-specific invasive ductal carcinoma. The MMP-1 negative expression rate was only 6.1% in non-specific invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast and 2.9% in cancer-adjacent normal breast tissue respectively. MMP-1 expression is higher in non-specific invasive ductal carcinoma and lymph node metastatic non-specific invasive ductal carcinoma compared to cancer-adjacent normal breast tissue and normal lymph node tissue. In conclusion, higher expression of MMP-1 in breast cancer may play a crucial role in promoting breast cancer metastasis. PMID:26137243

  12. Functional analysis of T and B cells from blood and thyroid tissue in Hashimoto's disease.

    PubMed Central

    McLachlan, S M; Proud, G; Pegg, C A; Clark, F; Rees Smith, B

    1985-01-01

    B lymphocytes from Hashimoto blood and thyroid tissue have been cultured with autologous T cells from thyroid/blood to assess their ability to synthesise IgG and thyroid autoantibody. Thyroid B cells were able to synthesize microsomal antibody spontaneously in the absence of T cells or pokeweed mitogen (PWM) and this synthesis was increased in the presence of thyroid T cells without PWM or with blood T cells with PWM. In contrast, blood B cells did not secrete thyroid autoantibody spontaneously but could be induced to do so by thyroid T cells spontaneously or by blood T cells with PWM. Despite these differences, lymphocytes from blood and thyroid tissue secreted microsomal or thyroglobulin antibodies in culture which were similar in terms of the IgG subclass distribution. It would appear, therefore, that although the state of activation of B and T cells is different in blood and thyroid tissue, the precursors of thyroid autoantibody secreting cells are the same. PMID:3872751

  13. Coexistence of papillary thyroid microcarcinoma and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma in a context of Hashimoto's thyroiditis.

    PubMed

    Levy-Blitchtein, Saul; Plasencia-Rebata, Stefany; Morales Luna, Domingo; Del Valle Mendoza, Juana

    2016-08-01

    Papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) represents 80-85% of thyroid cancer and its prevalence has been rising in the last decades. Primary thyroid lymphoma (PTL) accounts for 3% of extranodal lymphomas and about 5% of thyroid malignancies, having a prevalence of one or two cases per million people. Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue lymphoma represents approximately 30% of PTL. Both entities have an indolent course and a very good prognosis. Diagnosis is made by ultrasound and fine needle aspiration (FNA) or surgery specimen pathology. They have also been associated with HT, but pathogenesis and its links remains to be known. Treatment remains controversial and surgery is generally accepted in cases of disease limited to thyroid, as the present. Patients with thyroid nodules should be observed and followed. If there is an enlargement by ultrasound or clinical symptoms, FNA should be performed promptly. Patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) deserve additional surveillance, since this condition is associated with both PTC and PTL. In this case, the management with surgery and radioactive iodine ablation therapy was effective for both entities. Patients with thyroid nodules should be properly evaluated with ultrasound and thyroid function tests. If there is an enlargement of the neck, reported by symptoms or ultrasound, it requires further investigation. HT is associated to both PTC and PTL so if the enlargement of the nodules is on this context additional tests such as FNA should be performed. In this case, the patient was managed with surgery and radioactive iodine ablation therapy and it was effective for both entities. PMID:27569894

  14. [Method of detection of residual tissues in recurrent operations on the thyroid gland].

    PubMed

    Gostimskiĭ, A V; Romanchishen, A F; Zaĭtseva, I V; Kuznetsova, Iu V

    2014-01-01

    A search of residual tissues is complicated in recurrent operations on the thyroid gland. The Saint-Petersburg Centre of Surgery of the Endocrine System and Oncology developed the method of detection of residual tissues of the thyroid gland with the aim of preoperative chromothyroidolymphography under control of ultrasound. The method consisted of US performance during 15-20 minutes before the operation and an introduction of 1% sterile water solution of methylene blue in revealed residual tissues of the thyroid gland. The volume of injected coloring agent was 0.5-2 ml in the residual tissue volume smaller than 9 cm3 and 2-3 ml injected in case of more than 9 cm3. The residual tissues of the thyroid gland accurately visualized during the following operation. Described method gives the possibility to detect all regions of residual tissues which should be removed and at the same time it shortens a revision and surgery trauma.

  15. Distinguishing epigenetic features of preneoplastic testis tissues adjacent to seminomas and nonseminomas

    PubMed Central

    Skvortsova, Yulia V.; Zinovyeva, Marina V.; Stukacheva, Elena A.; Klimov, Alexey; Tryakin, Alexey A.; Azhikina, Tatyana L.

    2016-01-01

    PIWI pathway proteins are expressed during spermatogenesis where they play a key role in germ cell development. Epigenetic loss of PIWI proteins expression was previously demonstrated in testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs), implying their involvement in TGCT development. In this work, apart from studying only normal testis and TGCT samples, we also analyzed an intermediate stage, i.e. preneoplastic testis tissues adjacent to TGCTs. Importantly, in this study, we minimized the contribution of patient-to-patient heterogeneity by using matched preneoplastic/TGCT samples. Surprisingly, expression of germ cell marker DDX4 suggests that spermatogenesis is retained in premalignant testis tissues adjacent to nonseminoma, but not those adjacent to seminoma. Moreover, this pattern is followed by expression of PIWI pathway genes, which impacts one of their functions: DNA methylation level over LINE-1 promoters is higher in preneoplastic testis tissues adjacent to nonseminomas than those adjacent to seminomas. This finding might imply distinct routes for development of the two types of TGCTs and could be used as a novel diagnostic marker, possibly, noninvasively. Finally, we studied the role of CpG island methylation in expression of PIWI genes in patient samples and using in vitro experiments in cell line models: a more complex interrelation between DNA methylation and expression of the corresponding genes was revealed. PMID:26843623

  16. Different expression of protein kinase A (PKA) regulatory subunits in normal and neoplastic thyroid tissues.

    PubMed

    Ferrero, Stefano; Vaira, Valentina; Del Gobbo, Alessandro; Vicentini, Leonardo; Bosari, Silvano; Beck-Peccoz, Paolo; Mantovani, Giovanna; Spada, Anna; Lania, Andrea G

    2015-04-01

    The four regulatory subunits (R1A, R1B, R2A, R2B) of protein kinase A (PKA) are differentially expressed in several cancer cell lines and exert distinct roles in both cell growth and cell differentiation control. Mutations of the PRKAR1A gene have been found in patients with Carney complex and in a minority of sporadic anaplastic thyroid carcinomas. The aim of the study was to retrospectively evaluate the expression of different PKA regulatory subunits in benign and non benign human thyroid tumours and to correlate their expression with clinical phenotype. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated a significant increase in PRKAR2B expression in both differentiated and undifferentiated (anaplastic) thyroid tumors in comparison with normal thyroid tissues. Conversely, a significant increase in PRKAR1A expression was only demonstrated in undifferentiated thyroid carcinomas in comparison with normal thyroid tissue and differentiated thyroid tumors. In thyroid cancers without lymph nodal metastases PRKAR1A expression was higher in tumours of more than 2 cm in size (T2 and T3) compared to smaller ones (T1). In conclusion, our data shows that an increased PRKAR1A expression is associated with aggressive and undifferentiated thyroid tumors. PMID:25393625

  17. Differentially Expressed miRNAs in Tumor, Adjacent, and Normal Tissues of Lung Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Fei; Li, Rui; Chen, Zhenzhu; Shen, Yanting; Lu, Jiafeng; Xie, Xueying; Ge, Qinyu

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths. Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the major type of lung cancer. The aim of this study was to characterize the expression profiles of miRNAs in adenocarcinoma (AC), one major subtype of NSCLC. In this study, the miRNAs were detected in normal, adjacent, and tumor tissues by next-generation sequencing. Then the expression levels of differential miRNAs were quantified by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). In the results, 259, 401, and 389 miRNAs were detected in tumor, adjacent, and normal tissues of pooled AC samples, respectively. In addition, for the first time we have found that miR-21-5p and miR-196a-5p were gradually upregulated from normal to adjacent to tumor tissues; miR-218-5p was gradually downregulated with 2-fold or greater change in AC tissues. These 3 miRNAs were validated by qRT-PCR. Lastly, we predicted target genes of these 3 miRNAs and enriched the potential functions and regulatory pathways. The aberrant miR-21-5p, miR-196a-5p, and miR-218-5p may become biomarkers for diagnosis and prognosis of lung adenocarcinoma. This research may be useful for lung adenocarcinoma diagnosis and the study of pathology in lung cancer. PMID:27247934

  18. Effects of fission neutrons on human thyroid tissues maintained in SCID mice.

    PubMed

    Adachi, Shigeki; Ryo, Haruko; Hongyo, Tadashi; Nakajima, Hiroo; Tsuboi-Kikuya, Rie; Tokita, Yoriko; Matsuzuka, Fumio; Hiramatsu, Keizo; Fujikawa, Kazuo; Itoh, Tetsuo; Nomura, Taisei

    2010-02-01

    Morphology and function (secretion of thyroid hormone) of human thyroid tissues from Graves' disease patients are well maintained in C57BL/6J-scid mice. Serum level of thyroid hormone was reduced by fission neutrons from the nuclear reactor UTR-KINKI, and changes in thyroid hormone by fission neutrons were bigger than those by low LET radiations, X-rays and (137)Cs gamma-rays, suggesting high relative biological effectiveness (RBE; 6.5) of fission neutrons. Microarray analyses revealed that about 3% of genes showed more than 4-fold change in gene expression in the unexposed thyroid tissues against surgically resected thyroid tissues from the same patient, probably due to the difficult oxygen and nutrient supply shortly after transplantation. Dose-dependent changes in gene expression against unexposed concurrent controls were observed with increasing doses of fission neutrons (0.2-0.6Gy) and (137)Cs gamma-rays (1.0-3.0Gy) and showed high RBE (4.2). Furthermore, there were some specific genes which showed more than 4-fold change in gene expression in all the thyroid tissues exposed to higher doses of radiation, especially neutrons (0.4 and 0.6Gy), but none at lower doses (0.2Gy of neutrons and 1.0 and 2.0Gy of gamma-rays). These genes related to degeneration, regeneration, apoptosis, and transcription, respond specifically and very sensitively to neutron injury in human thyroid tissues. This is the first experimental report that fission neutrons can induce some morphological and functional disorders in human tissues, showing high RBE against gamma-ray exposure. These results are useful to evaluate the risks of fission neutrons and cosmic rays to humans.

  19. Diffuse Optical Characterization of the Healthy Human Thyroid Tissue and Two Pathological Case Studies

    PubMed Central

    Lindner, Claus; Johansson, Johannes; Weigel, Udo M.; Halperin, Irene; Hanzu, Felicia A.; Durduran, Turgut

    2016-01-01

    The in vivo optical and hemodynamic properties of the healthy (n = 22) and pathological (n = 2) human thyroid tissue were measured non-invasively using a custom time-resolved spectroscopy (TRS) and diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) system. Medical ultrasound was used to guide the placement of the hand-held hybrid optical probe. TRS measured the absorption and reduced scattering coefficients (μa, μs′) at three wavelengths (690, 785 and 830 nm) to derive total hemoglobin concentration (THC) and oxygen saturation (StO2). DCS measured the microvascular blood flow index (BFI). Their dependencies on physiological and clinical parameters and positions along the thyroid were investigated and compared to the surrounding sternocleidomastoid muscle. The THC in the thyroid ranged from 131.9 μM to 144.8 μM, showing a 25–44% increase compared to the surrounding sternocleidomastoid muscle tissue. The blood flow was significantly higher in the thyroid (BFIthyroid = 16.0 × 10-9 cm2/s) compared to the muscle (BFImuscle = 7.8 × 10-9 cm2/s), while StO2 showed a small (StO2, muscle = 63.8% to StO2, thyroid = 68.4%), yet significant difference. Two case studies with thyroid nodules underwent the same measurement protocol prior to thyroidectomy. Their THC and BFI reached values around 226.5 μM and 62.8 × 10-9 cm2/s respectively showing a clear contrast to the nodule-free thyroid tissue as well as the general population. The initial characterization of the healthy and pathologic human thyroid tissue lays the ground work for the future investigation on the use of diffuse optics in thyroid cancer screening. PMID:26815533

  20. Solitary fibrous tumor of the perithyroid soft tissue. Report of a case simulating a thyroid nodule.

    PubMed

    Villaschi, S; Macciomei, M C

    1996-01-01

    A case of solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) of the perithyroidal soft tissue is reported. Due to its proximity to the upper aspect of the right thyroid lobe, its slow growth and its ultrasound features, the tumor was confused with a thyroid nodule. Two fine needle aspirations (FNA) gave only scant non diagnostic material. For these and cosmetic reasons together with the fact that ultrasound exam detected two solid nodules in the left lobe, a thyroidectomy was decided. Examination of the surgical specimen showed a nodule that was well demarcated and, although entirely extrathyroidal, bulged from the thyroid profile in a niche of the upper medial aspect of the right lobe. On histologic, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural examination the tumor fulfilled the criteria for a diagnosis of solitary fibrous tumor. Thus, SFT must be considered in the differential diagnosis of suspected thyroid nodules mainly when FNA gives only scanty non diagnostic material which is unusual in thyroid hyperplastic nodules.

  1. Spatiotemporal morphometry of adjacent tissue layers with application to the study of sulcal formation.

    PubMed

    Rajagopalan, Vidya; Scott, Julia; Habas, Piotr A; Kim, Kio; Rousseau, François; Glenn, Orit A; Barkovich, A James; Studholme, Colin

    2011-01-01

    The process of brain growth involves the expansion of tissue at different rates at different points within the brain. As the layers within the developing brain evolve they can thicken or increase in area as the brain surface begins to fold. In this work we propose a new spatiotemporal formulation of tensor based volume morphometry that is derived in relation to tissue boundaries. This allows the study of the directional properties of tissue growth by separately characterizing the changes in area and thickness of the adjacent layers. The approach uses temporally weighted, local regression across a population of anatomies with different ages to model changes in components of the growth radial and tangential to the boundary between tissue layers. The formulation is applied to the study of sulcal formation from in-utero MR imaging of human fetal brain anatomy. Results show that the method detects differential growth of tissue layers adjacent to the cortical surface, particularly at sulcal locations, as early as 22 gestational weeks. PMID:21995063

  2. Characterization of a thyroid hormone receptor expressed in human kidney and other tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Nakai, A.; Seino, S.; Sakurai, A.; Szilak, I.; Bell, G.I.; DeGroot, L.J.

    1988-04-01

    A cDNA encoding a specific form of thyroid hormone receptor expressed in human liver, kidney, placenta, and brain was isolated from a human kidney library. Identical clones were found in human placenta and HepG2 cDNA libraries. The cDNA encodes a 490-amino acid protein. When expressed and translated in vitro, the protein products binds triiodothyronine with K/sub a/ of 2.3 /times/ 10/sup 9/ M/sup /minus/1/. This protein, designated human thyroid hormone receptor type ..cap alpha..2 (hTR..cap alpha..2), has the same domain structure as other members of the v-erbA-related superfamily of receptor genes. It is similar to thyroid hormone receptor type ..cap alpha.. described in chicken and rat and less similar to human thyroid hormone receptor type ..beta.. (formerly referred to as c-erbA..beta..) from placenta. However, it is distinguished from these receptors by an extension of the C-terminal hormone binding domain making it 80 amino acids longer than rat thyroid hormone receptor type ..cap alpha..1. Different sizes of mRNA found in liver and kidney suggest that there may be tissue-specific processing of the primary transcript of this gene. Identification of human thyroid hormone receptor type ..cap alpha..2 indicates that two or more forms of thyroid hormone receptor exist in human tissues and may explain the normal variation in thyroid hormone responsiveness of various organs and the selective tissue abnormalities found in the thyroid hormone resistance syndromes.

  3. CRLX101 nanoparticles localize in human tumors and not in adjacent, nonneoplastic tissue after intravenous dosing

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Andrew J.; Wiley, Devin T.; Zuckerman, Jonathan E.; Webster, Paul; Chao, Joseph; Lin, James; Yen, Yun; Davis, Mark E.

    2016-01-01

    Nanoparticle-based therapeutics are being used to treat patients with solid tumors. Whereas nanoparticles have been shown to preferentially accumulate in solid tumors of animal models, there is little evidence to prove that intact nanoparticles localize to solid tumors of humans when systemically administered. Here, tumor and adjacent, nonneoplastic tissue biopsies are obtained through endoscopic capture from patients with gastric, gastroesophageal, or esophageal cancer who are administered the nanoparticle CRLX101. Both the pre- and postdosing tissue samples adjacent to tumors show no definitive evidence of either the nanoparticle or its drug payload (camptothecin, CPT) contained within the nanoparticle. Similar results are obtained from the predosing tumor samples. However, in nine of nine patients that were evaluated, CPT is detected in the tumor tissue collected 24–48 h after CRLX101 administration. For five of these patients, evidence of the intact deposition of CRLX101 nanoparticles in the tumor tissue is obtained. Indications of CPT pharmacodynamics from tumor biomarkers such as carbonic anhydrase IX and topoisomerase I by immunohistochemistry show clear evidence of biological activity from the delivered CPT in the posttreatment tumors. PMID:27001839

  4. Purification and crystallisation of the autoantigen thyroid peroxidase from human Graves' thyroid tissue.

    PubMed

    Gardas, A; Sohi, M K; Sutton, B J; McGregor, A M; Banga, J P

    1997-05-19

    Milligram quantities of the human membrane autoantigen thyroid peroxidase (TPO) have been purified to a high degree of homogeneity by a combination of detergent solubilisation, monoclonal antibody affinity, and ion exchange chromatography, from pooled Graves' disease thyroid glands. The purified TPO of greater than 90% purity was enzymatically active as judged by its ability to oxidise guaiacol. Crystals of TPO have been grown from solutions of the protein solubilised in sodium deoxycholate, in the presence of ammonium sulphate. The crystals exhibited birefringence under polarised light, indicative of molecular order. Crystallisation of this large, membrane autoantigen represents the first step in delineating the complete three-dimensional structure of a human autoantigen involved in destructive thyroiditis.

  5. Ultrastructural features of collagen in thyroid carcinoma tissue observed by polarization second harmonic generation microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Tokarz, Danielle; Cisek, Richard; Golaraei, Ahmad; Asa, Sylvia L.; Barzda, Virginijus; Wilson, Brian C.

    2015-01-01

    Changes in collagen ultrastructure between malignant and normal human thyroid tissue were investigated ex vivo using polarization second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy. The second-order nonlinear optical susceptibility tensor component ratio and the degree of linear polarization (DOLP) of the SHG signal were measured. The ratio values are related to the collagen ultrastructure, while DOLP indicates the relative amount of coherent signal and incoherent scattering of SHG. Increase in ratio values and decrease in DOLP were observed for tumor tissue compared to normal thyroid, indicating higher ultrastructural disorder in tumor collagen. PMID:26417516

  6. Effects of thyroid hormones on cardiac structure: a tissue characterization study in patients with thyroid disorders before and after treatment.

    PubMed

    Ciulla, M M; Paliotti, R; Cortelazzi, D; Tortora, G; Barelli, M V; Buonamici, V; Magrini, F; Beck-Peccoz, P

    2001-07-01

    Experimental evidence suggests an involvement of thyroid hormones in myocardial nonmyocyte component growth. We evaluated the possible role of thyroid hormones in myocardial remodeling by ultrasonic tissue characterization (videodensitometry) in 8 hyperthyroid patients, in 10 hypothyroid patients, and in 2 patients with thyroid hormone resistance syndrome (RTH), before, 60, and 120 days after treatment (T0, T60, T120), and in 10 age-matched euthyroids. According to a previously described procedure, the derived collagen volume fraction (dCVF%, an echocardiographic index estimating the collagen content) was predicted from the pixel-level frequency distribution width (broadband, Bb) of the selected echocardiographic images. Thyrotropin (TSH), free thyroxine (FT4), and free triiodothyronine (FT3) were assessed by immunometric method. QT interval dispersion (QTd) on basal electrocardiogram was measured as a marker of dyshomogeneous ventricular repolarization. At T0, Bb and dCVF% were normal in hyperthyroid and euthyroid patients, and slightly increased in RTH patients, whereas significantly higher values were found in hypothyroids. At T60, a significant reduction in Bb was observed in hypothyroids, with nearly normal dCVF% values. This trend was confirmed at T120 with complete normalization of echoreflectivity. No echoreflectivity changes were observed in hyperthyroid and RTH patients during treatment. QTd was significantly increased in hypothyroids at T0, while no significant differences were found among groups at T60 and T120. Because the different videodeonsitometric myocardial properties observed in hypothyroid versus hyperthyroid patients correspond to an increase of dCVF%, this study suggests that thyroid hormones exert an inhibitory effect on myocardial collagen synthesis in humans.

  7. Tissue binding pattern of plant lectins in benign and malignant lesions of thyroid.

    PubMed

    Vijayakumar, T; Augustine, J; Mathew, L; Aleykutty, M A; Nair, M B; Remani, P; Nair, M K

    1992-01-01

    N-acetyl D-galactosamine specific lectins were isolated from the seeds of Jack Fruit (Artocarpus integrifolia) and Winged bean (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus) and D-galactose specific lectin was isolated from peanut (Arachis hypogaea). These lectins were conjugated to Horse Radish Peroxidase (HRP) and were used to study the lectin binding properties of benign and malignant lesions of the thyroid. For comparison of the results 10 normal fresh autopsy specimens were included in the study. The Peanut lectin (PNL) and Jack fruit lectin (JFL) conjugates showed positive binding with the cells in different lesions, while Winged Bean Lectin (WBL), despite its having a common inhibitory sugar, showed no binding even after neuraminidase treatment. These lectins revealed difference in the composition of glycoconjugates of benign and malignant thyroid cells. The HRP conjugated JFL and PNL may be of use in distinguishing carcinomatous tissues from benign tissues which makes them potential tools in the differential diagnosis of thyroid lesions.

  8. Primary Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma of Thyroid with the Serial Ultrasound Findings

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Eon Ju; Shon, Ho Sang; Jung, Eui Dal

    2016-01-01

    Extranodal marginal zone lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) of the thyroid gland is uncommon. Even though its natural history is not well defined, it is known to be indolent course. We present a case of primary MALT thyroid lymphoma with the serial sonographic findings in the patient presenting as the focal nodule. A 45-year-old woman visited our hospital for neck examination. Initially, fine-needle aspiration cytology in the focal hypoechoic lesion in the left thyroid lobe on ultrasound sonography was performed and consistent with Hashimoto's thyroiditis. However, the results of serial ultrasounds and core-needle biopsy revealed an extranodal marginal zone lymphoma of MALT on 4-year follow-up. Patients with a focal hypoechoic nodule with linear echogenic strands and segmental pattern in the background of Hashimoto's thyroiditis on ultrasonography should undergo careful surveillance for malignancy. Serial sonographic features in this case are meaningful in the understanding of the natural history of the extranodal marginal zone lymphoma of MALT of the thyroid. PMID:27099797

  9. Effect of Hypothyroidism and Hyperthyroidism on Tissue Thyroid Hormone Concentrations in Rat

    PubMed Central

    Donzelli, Riccardo; Colligiani, Daria; Kusmic, Claudia; Sabatini, Martina; Lorenzini, Leonardo; Accorroni, Alice; Nannipieri, Monica; Saba, Alessandro; Iervasi, Giorgio; Zucchi, Riccardo

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective The present study was aimed at determining the effects of experimental hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism on tissue thyroid hormones by a mass spectrometry-based technique. Methods Rats were subjected to propylthiouracil treatment or administration of exogenous triiodothyronine (T3) or thyroxine (T4). Tissue T3 and T4 were measured by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry in the heart, liver, kidney, visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue, and brain. Results Baseline tissue T3 and T4 concentrations ranged from 0.2 to 20 pmol ∙ g-1 and from 3 to 125 pmol ∙ g-1, respectively, with the highest values in the liver and kidney, and the lowest values in the adipose tissue. The T3/T4 ratio (expressed as a percentage) was in the 7-20% range in all tissues except the brain, where it averaged 75%. In hypothyroidism, tissue T3 was more severely reduced than serum free T3, averaging 1-6% of the baseline versus 30% of the baseline. The extent of tissue T3 reduction, expressed as percentage of the baseline, was not homogeneous (p < 0.001), with liver = kidney > brain > heart > adipose tissue. The tissue T3/T4 ratio significantly increased in all organs except the kidney, averaging 330% in the brain and 50-90% in the other tissues. By contrast, exogenous T3 and T4 administration produced similar increases in serum free T3 and in tissue T3, and the relative changes were not significantly different between different tissues. Conclusions While the response to increased thyroid hormones availability was similar in all tissues, decreased thyroid hormone availability induced compensatory responses, leading to a significant mismatch between changes in serum and in specific tissues. PMID:27099836

  10. Effects of substitution and high-dose thyroid hormone therapy on deiodination, sulfoconjugation, and tissue thyroid hormone levels in prolonged critically ill rabbits.

    PubMed

    Debaveye, Yves; Ellger, Björn; Mebis, Liese; Visser, Theo J; Darras, Veerle M; Van den Berghe, Greet

    2008-08-01

    To delineate the metabolic fate of thyroid hormone in prolonged critically ill rabbits, we investigated the impact of two dose regimes of thyroid hormone on plasma 3,3'-diiodothyronine (T(2)) and T(4)S, deiodinase type 1 (D1) and D3 activity, and tissue iodothyronine levels in liver and kidney, as compared with saline and TRH. D2-expressing tissues were ignored. The regimens comprised either substitution dose or a 3- to 5- fold higher dose of T(4) and T(3), either alone or combined, targeted to achieve plasma thyroid hormone levels obtained by TRH. Compared with healthy animals, saline-treated ill rabbits revealed lower plasma T(3) (P=0.006), hepatic T(3) (P=0.02), and hepatic D1 activity (P=0.01). Substitution-dosed thyroid hormone therapy did not affect these changes except a further decline in plasma (P=0.0006) and tissue T(4) (P=0.04). High-dosed thyroid hormone therapy elevated plasma and tissue iodothyronine levels and hepatic D1 activity, as did TRH. Changes in iodothyronine tissue levels mimicked changes in plasma. Tissue T(3) and tissue T(3)/reverse T(3) ratio correlated with deiodinase activities. Neither substitution- nor high-dose treatment altered plasma T(2). Plasma T(4)S was increased only by T(4) in high dose. We conclude that in prolonged critically ill rabbits, low plasma T(3) levels were associated with low liver and kidney T(3) levels. Restoration of plasma and liver and kidney tissue iodothyronine levels was not achieved by thyroid hormone in substitution dose but instead required severalfold this dose. This indicates thyroid hormone hypermetabolism, which in this model of critical illness is not entirely explained by deiodination or by sulfoconjugation. PMID:18450965

  11. Neither bovine somatotropin nor growth hormone-releasing factor alters expression of thyroid hormone receptors in liver and mammary tissues.

    PubMed

    Capuco, A V; Binelli, M; Tucker, H A

    2011-10-01

    Physiological effects of thyroid hormones are mediated primarily by binding of triiodothyronine to specific nuclear receptors. Organ-specific changes in production of triiodothyronine from its prohormone, thyroxine, have been hypothesized to target the action of thyroid hormones on the mammary gland and play a role in mediating or augmenting a galactopoietic response to bovine somatotropin (bST). Additionally, tissue responsiveness to thyroid hormones may be altered by changes in the number or affinity of nuclear receptors for thyroid hormones. In the present study, effects of bST and bovine growth hormone-releasing factor (bGRF) on thyroid hormone receptors in liver and mammary gland were studied. Lactating Holstein cows received continuous infusions of bST or bGRF for 63 d or served as uninfused controls. Nuclei were isolated from harvested mammary and liver tissues and incubated with [(125)I]-triiodothyronine. Treatments did not alter the capacity or affinity of specific binding sites for triiodothyronine in liver or mammary nuclei. Evaluation of transcript abundance for thyroid hormone receptors showed that isoforms of thyroid hormone receptor or retinoid receptor (which may influence thyroid receptor action) expressed in the mammary gland were not altered by bST or bGRF treatment. Data do not support the hypothesis that administration of bST or bGRF alters sensitivity of mammary tissue by changing expression of thyroid hormone receptors.

  12. Biochemical and molecular characterization of thyroid tissue by micro-Raman spectroscopy and gene expression analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neto, Lázaro P. M.; Martin, Aírton A.; Soto, Claudio A. T.; Santos, André B. O.; Mello, Evandro S.; Pereira, Marina A.; Cernea, Cláudio R.; Brandão, Lenine G.; Canevari, Renata A.

    2016-02-01

    Thyroid carcinomas represent the main endocrine malignancy and their diagnosis may produce inconclusive results. Raman spectroscopy and gene expression analysis have shown excellent results on the differentiation of carcinomas. This study aimed to improve the discrimination between different thyroid pathologies combining of both analyses. A total of 35 thyroid tissues samples including normal tissue (n=10), goiter (n=10), papillary (n=10) and follicular carcinomas (n=5) were analyzed. Confocal Raman spectra was obtain by using a Rivers Diagnostic System, 785 nm laser excitation and CCD detector. The data was processed by the software Labspec5 and Origin 8.5 and analyzed by Minitab® program. The gene expression analysis was performed by qRT-PCR technique for TG, TPO, PDGFB, SERPINA1, LGALS3 and TFF3 genes and statistically analyzed by Mann-Whitney test. The confocal Raman spectroscopy allowed a maximum discrimination of 91.1% between normal and tumor tissues, 84.8% between benign and malignant pathologies and 84.6% among carcinomas analyzed. Significant differences was observed for TG, LGALS3, SERPINA1 and TFF3 genes between benign lesions and carcinomas, and SERPINA1 and TFF3 genes between papillary and follicular carcinomas. Principal component analysis was performed using PC1 and PC2 in the papillary carcinoma samples that showed over gene expression when compared with normal sample, where 90% of discrimination was observed at the Amide 1 (1655 cm-1), and at the tyrosine spectra region (856 cm-1). The discrimination of tissues thyroid carried out by confocal Raman spectroscopy and gene expression analysis indicate that these techniques are promising tools to be used in the diagnosis of thyroid lesions.

  13. Thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor in brown adipose tissue is involved in the regulation of thermogenesis.

    PubMed

    Endo, Toyoshi; Kobayashi, Tetsuro

    2008-08-01

    C.RF- Tshr(hyt/hyt) mice have a mutated thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR), and, without thyroid hormone supplementation, these mice develop severe hypothyroidism. When hypothyroid Tshr(hyt/hyt) mice were exposed to cold (4 degrees C), rectal temperature rapidly dropped to 23.9 +/- 0.40 degrees C at 90 min, whereas the wild-type mice temperatures were 37.0 +/- 0.15 degrees C. When we carried out functional rat TSHR gene transfer in the brown adipose tissues by plasmid injection combined with electroporation, there was no effect on the serum levels of thyroxine, although rectal temperature of the mice transfected with pcDNA3.1/Zeo-rat TSHR 90 min after cold exposure remained at 34.6 +/- 0.34 degrees C, which was significantly higher than that of Tshr(hyt/hyt) mice. Transfection of TSHR cDNA increased mRNA and protein levels of uncoupling protein-1 (UCP-1) in brown adipose tissues, and the weight ratio of brown adipose tissue to overall body weight also increased. Exogenous thyroid hormone supplementation to Tshr(hyt/hyt) mice restored rectal temperature 90 min after exposure to cold (36.8 +/- 0.10 degrees C). These results indicate that not only thyroid hormone but also thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)/TSHR are involved in the expression mechanism of UCP-1 in mouse brown adipose tissue. TSH stimulates thermogenesis and functions to protect a further decrease in body temperature in the hypothyroid state. PMID:18559984

  14. The role of thyroid hormone and brown adipose tissue in energy homoeostasis.

    PubMed

    Bianco, Antonio C; McAninch, Elizabeth A

    2013-11-01

    The presence of brown adipose tissue (BAT) in adults has become increasingly well defined as a result of functional imaging studies of thermogenically active BAT. Findings from these studies have created a surge of scientific interest in BAT, because it represents a potential therapeutic target for obesity--a condition with profound health consequences and few successful therapies. BAT contributes to overall energy expenditure in small mammals and neonates through adaptive thermogenesis. Thyroid-hormone signalling, particularly through induction of type II deiodinase, has a central role in brown adipogenesis in vitro and BAT development in mouse embryos. Additionally, because of high intracellular expression of type II deiodinase, adult BAT has enhanced thyroid-hormone signalling with several thyroid-hormone-dependent thermogenic pathways, including expression of the genes Ppargc1a and Ucp1. BAT thermogenesis explains the essential part played by thyroid hormone in energy homoeostasis and adaptation to cold. Stimulation of BAT in adults, specifically through thyroid-hormone-mediated pathways, is a promising therapeutic target for obesity.

  15. Cytoskeletal and functional changes in bioreactor assembled thyroid tissue organoids exposed to gamma radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Lora M.; Patel, Zarana; Murray, Deborah K.; Rightnar, Steven; Burell, Cheryl G.; Gridley, Daila S.; Nelson, Gregory A.

    2002-01-01

    Fischer rat thyroid cells were grown under low-shear stress in a bioreactor to a stage of organization composed of integrated follicles resembling small thyroid glands prior to exposure to 3 Gray-gamma radiation. Bioreactor tissues and controls (both irradiated and non-irradiated) were harvested at 24, 48, 96 and 144 hours post-exposure. Tissue samples were fixed and fluorescently labeled for actin and microtubules. Tissues were assessed for changes in cytoskeletal components induced by radiation and quantified by laser scanning cytometry. ELISA's were used to quantify transforming growth factor-beta and thyroxin released from cells to the culture supernatant. Tissue architecture was disrupted by exposure to radiation with the structural organization of actin and loss of follicular content the most obviously affected. With time post-irradiation the actin appeared disordered and the levels of fluorescence associated with filamentous-actin and microtubules cycled in the tissue analogs, but not in the flask-grown cultures. Active transforming growth factor-beta was higher in supernatants from the irradiated bioreactor tissue. Thyroxin release paralleled cell survival in the bioreactors and control cultures. Thus, the engineered tissue responses to radiation differed from those of conventional tissue culture making it a potentially better mimic of the in vivo situation.

  16. Identification of Coordinately Regulated Functional Modules in Thyroid Tissues from Rats Exposed to a Tumorigenic and a Non-Tumorigenic Conazole Fungicide Using Oncomine®

    EPA Science Inventory

    Conazoles are triazole- or imidazole-containing fungicides used in agriculture and medicine. Using transcriptomic analysis of rat thyroid tissues exposed to either tumorigenic or non-tumorigenic structurally related conazoles, we identified new findings on thyroid gene expressio...

  17. Integrating research on thyroid cancer after Chernobyl--the Chernobyl Tissue Bank.

    PubMed

    Thomas, G A; Bethel, J A; Galpine, A; Mathieson, W; Krznaric, M; Unger, K

    2011-05-01

    The only unequivocal radiological effect of the Chernobyl accident on human health is the increase in thyroid cancer in those exposed in childhood or early adolescence. In response to the scientific interest in studying the molecular biology of thyroid cancer after Chernobyl, the Chernobyl Tissue Bank was established. The project is supported by the governments of Ukraine and Russia, and financially supported (in total around US$3 million) by the European Commission, the National Cancer Institute of the USA and the Sasakawa Memorial Health Foundation of Japan. The project began collecting a variety of biological samples from patients on 1 October 1988, and has supplied material to 21 research projects in Japan, the USA and Europe. The establishment of the Chernobyl Tissue Bank has facilitated co-operation between these research projects and the combination of clinical and research data provides a paradigm for cancer research in the molecular biological age.

  18. Distinctive Glycerophospholipid Profiles of Human Seminoma and Adjacent Normal Tissues by Desorption Electrospray Ionization Imaging Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masterson, Timothy A.; Dill, Allison L.; Eberlin, Livia S.; Mattarozzi, Monica; Cheng, Liang; Beck, Stephen D. W.; Bianchi, Federica; Cooks, R. Graham

    2011-08-01

    Desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (DESI-MS) has been successfully used to discriminate between normal and cancerous human tissue from different anatomical sites. On the basis of this, DESI-MS imaging was used to characterize human seminoma and adjacent normal tissue. Seminoma and adjacent normal paired human tissue sections (40 tissues) from 15 patients undergoing radical orchiectomy were flash frozen in liquid nitrogen and sectioned to 15 μm thickness and thaw mounted to glass slides. The entire sample was two-dimensionally analyzed by the charged solvent spray to form a molecular image of the biological tissue. DESI-MS images were compared with formalin-fixed, hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stained slides of the same material. Increased signal intensity was detected for two seminolipids [seminolipid (16:0/16:0) and seminolipid (30:0)] in the normal tubule testis tissue; these compounds were undetectable in seminoma tissue, as well as from the surrounding fat, muscle, and blood vessels. A glycerophosphoinositol [PI(18:0/20:4)] was also found at increased intensity in the normal testes tubule tissue when compared with seminoma tissue. Ascorbic acid (i.e., vitamin C) was found at increased amounts in seminoma tissue when compared with normal tissue. DESI-MS analysis was successfully used to visualize the location of several types of molecules across human seminoma and normal tissues. Discrimination between seminoma and adjacent normal testes tubules was achieved on the basis of the spatial distributions and varying intensities of particular lipid species as well as ascorbic acid. The increased presence of ascorbic acid within seminoma compared with normal seminiferous tubules was previously unknown.

  19. Tissue-Specific Suppression of Thyroid Hormone Signaling in Various Mouse Models of Aging.

    PubMed

    Visser, W Edward; Bombardieri, Cíntia R; Zevenbergen, Chantal; Barnhoorn, Sander; Ottaviani, Alexandre; van der Pluijm, Ingrid; Brandt, Renata; Kaptein, Ellen; van Heerebeek, Ramona; van Toor, Hans; Garinis, George A; Peeters, Robin P; Medici, Marco; van Ham, Willy; Vermeij, Wilbert P; de Waard, Monique C; de Krijger, Ronald R; Boelen, Anita; Kwakkel, Joan; Kopchick, John J; List, Edward O; Melis, Joost P M; Darras, Veerle M; Dollé, Martijn E T; van der Horst, Gijsbertus T J; Hoeijmakers, Jan H J; Visser, Theo J

    2016-01-01

    DNA damage contributes to the process of aging, as underscored by premature aging syndromes caused by defective DNA repair. Thyroid state changes during aging, but underlying mechanisms remain elusive. Since thyroid hormone (TH) is a key regulator of metabolism, changes in TH signaling have widespread effects. Here, we reveal a significant common transcriptomic signature in livers from hypothyroid mice, DNA repair-deficient mice with severe (Csbm/m/Xpa-/-) or intermediate (Ercc1-/Δ-7) progeria and naturally aged mice. A strong induction of TH-inactivating deiodinase D3 and decrease of TH-activating D1 activities are observed in Csbm/m/Xpa-/- livers. Similar findings are noticed in Ercc1-/Δ-7, in naturally aged animals and in wild-type mice exposed to a chronic subtoxic dose of DNA-damaging agents. In contrast, TH signaling in muscle, heart and brain appears unaltered. These data show a strong suppression of TH signaling in specific peripheral organs in premature and normal aging, probably lowering metabolism, while other tissues appear to preserve metabolism. D3-mediated TH inactivation is unexpected, given its expression mainly in fetal tissues. Our studies highlight the importance of DNA damage as the underlying mechanism of changes in thyroid state. Tissue-specific regulation of deiodinase activities, ensuring diminished TH signaling, may contribute importantly to the protective metabolic response in aging. PMID:26953569

  20. Tissue-Specific Suppression of Thyroid Hormone Signaling in Various Mouse Models of Aging.

    PubMed

    Visser, W Edward; Bombardieri, Cíntia R; Zevenbergen, Chantal; Barnhoorn, Sander; Ottaviani, Alexandre; van der Pluijm, Ingrid; Brandt, Renata; Kaptein, Ellen; van Heerebeek, Ramona; van Toor, Hans; Garinis, George A; Peeters, Robin P; Medici, Marco; van Ham, Willy; Vermeij, Wilbert P; de Waard, Monique C; de Krijger, Ronald R; Boelen, Anita; Kwakkel, Joan; Kopchick, John J; List, Edward O; Melis, Joost P M; Darras, Veerle M; Dollé, Martijn E T; van der Horst, Gijsbertus T J; Hoeijmakers, Jan H J; Visser, Theo J

    2016-01-01

    DNA damage contributes to the process of aging, as underscored by premature aging syndromes caused by defective DNA repair. Thyroid state changes during aging, but underlying mechanisms remain elusive. Since thyroid hormone (TH) is a key regulator of metabolism, changes in TH signaling have widespread effects. Here, we reveal a significant common transcriptomic signature in livers from hypothyroid mice, DNA repair-deficient mice with severe (Csbm/m/Xpa-/-) or intermediate (Ercc1-/Δ-7) progeria and naturally aged mice. A strong induction of TH-inactivating deiodinase D3 and decrease of TH-activating D1 activities are observed in Csbm/m/Xpa-/- livers. Similar findings are noticed in Ercc1-/Δ-7, in naturally aged animals and in wild-type mice exposed to a chronic subtoxic dose of DNA-damaging agents. In contrast, TH signaling in muscle, heart and brain appears unaltered. These data show a strong suppression of TH signaling in specific peripheral organs in premature and normal aging, probably lowering metabolism, while other tissues appear to preserve metabolism. D3-mediated TH inactivation is unexpected, given its expression mainly in fetal tissues. Our studies highlight the importance of DNA damage as the underlying mechanism of changes in thyroid state. Tissue-specific regulation of deiodinase activities, ensuring diminished TH signaling, may contribute importantly to the protective metabolic response in aging.

  1. Tissue-Specific Suppression of Thyroid Hormone Signaling in Various Mouse Models of Aging

    PubMed Central

    Visser, W. Edward; Barnhoorn, Sander; Ottaviani, Alexandre; van der Pluijm, Ingrid; Brandt, Renata; Kaptein, Ellen; van Heerebeek, Ramona; van Toor, Hans; Garinis, George A.; Peeters, Robin P.; Medici, Marco; van Ham, Willy; Vermeij, Wilbert P.; de Waard, Monique C.; de Krijger, Ronald R.; Boelen, Anita; Kwakkel, Joan; Kopchick, John J.; List, Edward O.; Melis, Joost P. M.; Darras, Veerle M.; Dollé, Martijn E. T.; van der Horst, Gijsbertus T. J.; Hoeijmakers, Jan H. J.; Visser, Theo J.

    2016-01-01

    DNA damage contributes to the process of aging, as underscored by premature aging syndromes caused by defective DNA repair. Thyroid state changes during aging, but underlying mechanisms remain elusive. Since thyroid hormone (TH) is a key regulator of metabolism, changes in TH signaling have widespread effects. Here, we reveal a significant common transcriptomic signature in livers from hypothyroid mice, DNA repair-deficient mice with severe (Csbm/m/Xpa-/-) or intermediate (Ercc1-/Δ-7) progeria and naturally aged mice. A strong induction of TH-inactivating deiodinase D3 and decrease of TH-activating D1 activities are observed in Csbm/m/Xpa-/- livers. Similar findings are noticed in Ercc1-/Δ-7, in naturally aged animals and in wild-type mice exposed to a chronic subtoxic dose of DNA-damaging agents. In contrast, TH signaling in muscle, heart and brain appears unaltered. These data show a strong suppression of TH signaling in specific peripheral organs in premature and normal aging, probably lowering metabolism, while other tissues appear to preserve metabolism. D3-mediated TH inactivation is unexpected, given its expression mainly in fetal tissues. Our studies highlight the importance of DNA damage as the underlying mechanism of changes in thyroid state. Tissue-specific regulation of deiodinase activities, ensuring diminished TH signaling, may contribute importantly to the protective metabolic response in aging. PMID:26953569

  2. A Rodent Model to Evaluate the Tissue Response to a Biological Scaffold When Adjacent to a Synthetic Material.

    PubMed

    Dearth, Christopher L; Keane, Timothy J; Scott, Jeffrey R; Daly, Kerry A; Badylak, Stephen F

    2015-10-01

    The use of biologic scaffold materials adjacent to synthetic meshes is commonplace. A prevalent clinical example is two-staged breast reconstruction, where biologic scaffolds are used to provide support and coverage for the inferior aspect of the synthetic expander. However, limited data exist regarding either the kinetics of biologic scaffold integration or the host tissue response to the biologic scaffold materials used for this application or other applications in which such scaffold materials are used. The present study evaluated the temporal host response to a biological scaffold when placed adjacent to a synthetic material. Evaluation criteria included quantification of material contracture and characterization of the host cell response and tissue remodeling events. Results show a decreased thickness of the collagenous tissue layer at biologic scaffold/silicone interface compared to the abdominal wall/silicone interface during the 12-week experimental time course. All test materials were readily incorporated into surrounding host tissue. PMID:26176992

  3. Low Dose Gamma Irradiation Potentiates Secondary Exposure to Gamma Rays or Protons in Thyroid Tissue Analogs

    SciTech Connect

    Green, Lora M

    2006-05-25

    We have utilized our unique bioreactor model to produce three-dimensional thyroid tissue analogs that we believe better represent the effects of radiation in vivo than two-dimensional cultures. Our thyroid model has been characterized at multiple levels, including: cell-cell exchanges (bystander), signal transduction, functional changes and modulation of gene expression. We have significant preliminary data on structural, functional, signal transduction and gene expression responses from acute exposures at high doses (50-1000 rads) of gamma, protons and iron (Green et al., 2001a; 2001b; 2002a; 2002b; 2005). More recently, we used our DOE funding (ending Feb 06) to characterize the pattern of radiation modulated gene expression in rat thyroid tissue analogs using low-dose/low-dose rate radiation, plus/minus acute challenge exposures. Findings from these studies show that the low-dose/low-dose rate “priming” exposures to radiation invoked changes in gene expression profiles that varied with dose and time. The thyrocytes transitioned to a “primed” state, so that when the tissue analogs were challenged with an acute exposure to radiation they had a muted response (or an increased resistance) to cytopathological changes relative to “un-primed” cells. We measured dramatic differences in the primed tissue analogs, showing that our original hypothesis was correct: that low dose gamma irradiation will potentiate the repair/adaptation response to a secondary exposure. Implications from these findings are that risk assessments based on classical in vitro tissue culture assays will overestimate risk, and that low dose rate priming results in a reduced response in gene expression to a secondary challenge exposure, which implies that a priming dose provides enhanced protection to thyroid cells grown as tissue analogs. If we can determine that the effects of radiation on our tissue analogs more closely resemble the effects of radiation in vivo, then we can better

  4. Thyroid Hormone Activates Brown Adipose Tissue and Increases Non-Shivering Thermogenesis - A Cohort Study in a Group of Thyroid Carcinoma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Broeders, Evie P. M.; Vijgen, Guy H. E. J.; Havekes, Bas; Bouvy, Nicole D.; Mottaghy, Felix M.; Kars, Marleen; Schaper, Nicolaas C.; Schrauwen, Patrick; Brans, Boudewijn; van Marken Lichtenbelt, Wouter D.

    2016-01-01

    Background/Objectives Thyroid hormone receptors are present on brown adipose tissue (BAT), indicating a role for thyroid hormone in the regulation of BAT activation. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of thyroid hormone withdrawal followed by thyroid hormone in TSH-suppressive dosages, on energy expenditure and brown adipose tissue activity. Subjects/Methods This study was a longitudinal study in an academic center, with a follow-up period of 6 months. Ten patients with well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma eligible for surgical treatment and subsequent radioactive iodine ablation therapy were studied in a hypothyroid state after thyroidectomy and in a subclinical hyperthyroid state (TSH-suppression according to treatment protocol). Paired two-tailed t-tests and linear regression analyses were used. Results Basal metabolic rate (BMR) was significantly higher after treatment with synthetic thyroid hormone (levothyroxine) than in the hypothyroid state (BMR 3.8 ± 0.5 kJ/min versus 4.4 ± 0.6 kJ/min, P = 0.012), and non-shivering thermogenesis (NST) significantly increased from 15 ± 10% to 25 ± 6% (P = 0.009). Mean BAT activity was significantly higher in the subclinical hyperthyroid state than in the hypothyroid state (BAT standard uptake value (SUVMean) 4.0 ± 2.9 versus 2.4 ± 1.8, P = 0.039). Conclusions Our study shows that higher levels of thyroid hormone are associated with a higher level of cold-activated BAT. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02499471 PMID:26784028

  5. Differential diagnosis of thyroid nodules with virtual touch tissue imaging of ARFI elastography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Tao; Zhou, Pei; Ding, Mingyue; Mi, Yongwei; Li, Yiyong; Zhang, Ji

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of virtual touch tissue imaging (VTI) based on ARFI elastography technique for differentiating malignant from benign thyroid nodules. One hundred pathologically proven thyroid nodules (80 benign, 20 malignant) in 76 participants were recruited in this study. The likelihood of malignancy in the light of VTI features was scored into 6 levels by one experienced sonogist who was blinded to pathological results. In addition, the mean gray value within the thyroid nodule (mGVTN) derived from VTI image was calculated for quantitative analysis. Receiver-operating characteristic curve (ROC) analyses were performed to assess the diagnostic performance of VTI score and mGVTN. The frequency of malignant nodules (11/20) classified between VTI levels 4 to 6 was more than that of benign nodules (6/80) (p <0.001). The mGVTN of malignant nodules (45+/-23) was significantly lower than that of benign nodules (115+/-58) (p <0.001), where the range of mGVTN was from 0 to 255. The sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of VTI score were 55.0%, 92.5%, 85.0%, 64.7% and 89.2%, respectively. For mGVTN, those values were 70.0%, 90.0%, 86.0%, 63.6% and 92.3%, respectively. In conclusion, the VTI image seemed to be an effective tool in the differential diagnosis of thyroid nodules. The diagnosis performance of mGVTN was almost consistent with that of VTI score, which indicated that the mGVTN as a quantitative parameter might facilitate doctors diagnosing malignant thyroid nodules by VTI.

  6. Impact of Fibrotic Tissue on Shear Wave Velocity in Thyroid: An Ex Vivo Study with Fresh Thyroid Specimens.

    PubMed

    Fukuhara, Takahiro; Matsuda, Eriko; Endo, Yukari; Donishi, Ryohei; Izawa, Shoichiro; Fujiwara, Kazunori; Kitano, Hiroya; Takeuchi, Hiromi

    2015-01-01

    We sought to elucidate the correlation between shear wave velocity (SWV) and fibrosis in thyroid by precisely assessing pathological structures inside 5 × 5 mm(2) regions of interest (ROIs) of resected specimens, under conditions that excluded physical artifacts. The materials were unselected thyroid and lymph node specimens resected during thyroid surgery. Immediately after surgery, fresh unfixed thyroid and metastatic lymph node specimens were suspended in gel phantoms, and SWV was measured. Upon pathological examination of each specimen, the extent of fibrosis was graded as none, moderate, or severe. A total of 109 specimens were evaluated: 15 normal thyroid, 16 autoimmune thyroiditis, 40 malignant nodules, 19 benign thyroid nodules, and 19 metastatic lymph nodes. When all specimens were classified according to the degree of fibrosis determined by pathological imaging, the mean SWV was 1.49 ± 0.39 m/s for no fibrosis, 2.13 ± 0.66 m/s for moderate fibrosis, and 2.68 ± 0.82 m/s for severe fibrosis. The SWVs of samples with moderate and severe fibrosis were significantly higher than those of samples without fibrosis. The results of this study demonstrate that fibrosis plays an important role in determining stiffness, as measured by SWV in thyroid. PMID:26881199

  7. Stages of Thyroid Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... glands make hormones. The thyroid uses iodine , a mineral found in some foods and in iodized salt, ... Fine-needle aspiration biopsy of the thyroid : The removal of thyroid tissue using a thin needle. The ...

  8. Characterization of thyroid hormone transporter expression during tissue-specific metamorphic events in Xenopus tropicalis.

    PubMed

    Connors, Kristin A; Korte, Joseph J; Anderson, Grant W; Degitz, Sigmund J

    2010-08-01

    Thyroid hormone (TH) induces the dramatic morphological and physiological changes that together comprise amphibian metamorphosis. TH-responsive tissues vary widely with developmental timing of TH-induced changes. How larval tadpole tissues are able to employ distinct metamorphic programs in a developmental stage- and TH-dependent manner is still unknown. Recently, several proteins capable of transporting TH have been identified. TH action and metabolism occurs primarily intracellularly, highlighting the importance of TH transporters. We examined the hypothesis that TH transporter expression and tissue distribution play an important role in mediating TH-induced metamorphic events. Xenopus tropicalis homologs for known TH transporting OATP, MCT and LAT family proteins were identified and gene specific qRT-PCR primers were developed. Total RNA was extracted from tissues representing three unique developmental fates including: growth/differentiation (hind limb), death/resorption (gill, tail) and remodeling (brain, liver, kidney). For growing and resorbing tissues, results showed the general trend of low initial expression levels of MCT8 and MCT10 transporters, followed by a several-fold increase of expression as the tissue undergoes TH-dependent metamorphic changes. The expression pattern in remodeling tissues was less uniform: a general decrease in transporter expression was observed in the liver, while the kidney and brain exhibited a range of expression patterns for several TH transporters. Collectively, these developmental expression patterns are consistent with TH transporting proteins playing a role in the effects of TH in peripheral tissues.

  9. Characteristics of mouse adipose tissue-derived stem cells and therapeutic comparisons between syngeneic and allogeneic adipose tissue-derived stem cell transplantation in experimental autoimmune thyroiditis.

    PubMed

    Choi, Eun Wha; Shin, Il Seob; Park, So Young; Yoon, Eun Ji; Kang, Sung Keun; Ra, Jeong Chan; Hong, Sung Hwa

    2014-01-01

    Previously, we found that the intravenous administration of human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells was a promising therapeutic option for autoimmune thyroiditis even when the cells were transplanted into a xenogeneic model without an immunosuppressant. Therefore, we explored the comparison between the therapeutic effects of syngeneic and allogeneic adipose tissue-derived stem cells on an experimental autoimmune thyroiditis mouse model. Experimental autoimmune thyroiditis was induced in C57BL/6 mice by immunization with porcine thyroglobulin. Adipose tissue-derived stem cells derived from C57BL/6 mice (syngeneic) or BALB/c mice (allogeneic) or saline as a vehicle control were administered intravenously four times weekly. Blood and tissue samples were collected 1 week after the last transplantation. Adipose tissue-derived stem cells from mice were able to differentiate into multiple lineages in vitro; however, mouse adipose tissue-derived stem cells did not have immunophenotypes identical to those from humans. Syngeneic and allogeneic administrations of adipose tissue-derived stem cells reduced thyroglobulin autoantibodies and the inflammatory immune response, protected against lymphocyte infiltration into the thyroid, and restored the Th1/Th2 balance without any adverse effects. However, different humoral immune responses were observed for infused cells from different stem cell sources. The strongest humoral immune response was induced by xenogeneic transplantation, followed by allogeneic and syngeneic administration, in that order. The stem cells were mostly found in the spleen, not the thyroid. This migration might be because the stem cells primarily function in systemic immune modulation, due to being given prior to disease induction. In this study, we confirmed that there were equal effects of adipose tissue-derived stem cells in treating autoimmune thyroiditis between syngeneic and allogeneic transplantations.

  10. Histochemical localization of Statin--a non-proliferation-specific nuclear protein--in nuclei of normal and abnormal human thyroid tissue.

    PubMed

    Mitmaker, B; Kyzer, S; Gordon, P H; Wang, E

    1992-01-01

    Surgical specimens of 29 human thyroid masses, both benign and malignant, were examined by means of a novel monoclonal antibody immunoreactive to statin, which is expressed only in quiescent G0 cells. The nuclei of normal thyroid follicle tissue together with nodular goitres and follicular adenomata had similar labelling indices of 96 +/- 2.67, 95 +/- 2.43 and 94 +/- 1.98 respectively. By contrast the labelling indices of papillary and undifferentiated thyroid malignancies were 82 +/- 3.05 and 15.2, respectively. These results indicate that normal thyroid tissues as well as benign thyroid tumors have similar non-proliferative activities. The differentiated papillary cancers have a smaller non-cycling compartment, the smallest being present in the most biologically aggressive undifferentiated thyroid cancer. The immunohistological evaluation of statin in the nuclei of human thyroid malignancies correlates with their biological behaviour in an inverse relationship. PMID:1380846

  11. The Chernobyl Tissue Bank: integrating research on radiation-induced thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Thomas, G A

    2012-03-01

    The only unequivocal radiological effect of the Chernobyl accident on human health is the increase in thyroid cancer in those exposed in childhood or early adolescence. Cancer is a complicated disease and it is unclear whether the mechanism by which radiation gives rise to cancer differs from that involved in the generation of cancers of the same type by other environmental stimuli. The Chernobyl Tissue Bank was established in response to the scientific interest in studying the molecular biology of thyroid cancer after Chernobyl to address this question. The project is supported by the governments of Ukraine and Russia, and financially supported (in total around US$3 million) by the European Commission, the National Cancer Institute of the USA and the Sasakawa Memorial Health Foundation of Japan. The project began collecting a variety of biological samples from patients on 1 October 1988, and has supplied material to 23 research projects in Japan, the USA and Europe. The establishment of the Chernobyl Tissue Bank has facilitated co-operation between these research projects and the combination of clinical and research data provides a paradigm for cancer research in the molecular biological age.

  12. A thermal monitoring sheet with low influence from adjacent waterbolus for tissue surface thermometry during clinical hyperthermia.

    PubMed

    Arunachalam, Kavitha; Maccarini, Paolo F; Stauffer, Paul R

    2008-10-01

    This paper presents a complete thermal analysis of a novel conformal surface thermometer design with directional sensitivity for real-time temperature monitoring during hyperthermia treatments of large superficial cancer. The thermal monitoring sheet (TMS) discussed in this paper consists of a 2-D array of fiberoptic sensors embedded between two layers of flexible, low-loss, and thermally conductive printed circuit board (PCB) film. Heat transfer across all interfaces from the tissue surface through multiple layers of insulating dielectrics surrounding the small buried temperature sensor and into an adjacent temperature-regulated water coupling bolus was studied using 3-D thermal simulation software. Theoretical analyses were carried out to identify the most effective differential TMS probe configuration possible with commercially available flexible PCB materials and to compare their thermal responses with omnidirectional probes commonly used in clinical hyperthermia. A TMS sensor design that employs 0.0508-mm Kapton MTB and 0.2032-mm Kapton HN flexible polyimide films is proposed for tissue surface thermometry with low influence from the adjacent waterbolus. Comparison of the thermal simulations with clinical probes indicates the new differential TMS probe design to outperform in terms of both transient response and steady-state accuracy in selectively reading the tissue surface temperature, while decreasing the overall thermal barrier of the probe between the coupling waterbolus and tissue surface.

  13. A Thermal Monitoring Sheet with Low Influence from Adjacent Waterbolus for Tissue Surface Thermometry during Clinical Hyperthermia

    PubMed Central

    Arunachalam, K.; Maccarini, P.F.; Stauffer, P. R.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a complete thermal analysis of a novel conformal surface thermometer design with directional sensitivity for real time temperature monitoring during hyperthermia treatments of large superficial cancer. The thermal monitoring sheet (TMS) discussed in this paper consists of a two-dimensional array of fiberoptic sensors embedded between two layers of flexible, low loss and thermally conductive printed circuit board (PCB) film. Heat transfer across all interfaces from the tissue surface through multiple layers of insulating dielectrics surrounding the small buried temperature sensor and into an adjacent temperature regulated water coupling bolus was studied using 3D thermal simulation software. Theoretical analyses were carried out to identify the most effective differential TMS probe configuration possible with commercially available flexible PCB materials, and to compare their thermal responses with omni-directional probes commonly used in clinical hyperthermia. A TMS sensor design that employs 0.0508m Kapton MTB® and 0.2032 mm Kapton HN® flexible polyimide films is proposed for tissue surface thermometry with low influence from the adjacent waterbolus. Comparison of the thermal simulations with clinical probes indicate the new differential TMS probe design to outperform in terms of both transient response and steady state accuracy in selectively reading the tissue surface temperature, while decreasing the overall thermal barrier of the probe between the coupling waterbolus and tissue surface. PMID:18838365

  14. Liver X receptor β controls thyroid hormone feedback in the brain and regulates browning of subcutaneous white adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Miao, Yifei; Wu, Wanfu; Dai, Yubing; Maneix, Laure; Huang, Bo; Warner, Margaret; Gustafsson, Jan-Åke

    2015-11-10

    The recent discovery of browning of white adipose tissue (WAT) has raised great research interest because of its significant potential in counteracting obesity and type 2 diabetes. Browning is the result of the induction in WAT of a newly discovered type of adipocyte, the beige cell. When mice are exposed to cold or several kinds of hormones or treatments with chemicals, specific depots of WAT undergo a browning process, characterized by highly activated mitochondria and increased heat production and energy expenditure. However, the mechanisms underlying browning are still poorly understood. Liver X receptors (LXRs) are one class of nuclear receptors, which play a vital role in regulating cholesterol, triglyceride, and glucose metabolism. Following our previous finding that LXRs serve as repressors of uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1) in classic brown adipose tissue in female mice, we found that LXRs, especially LXRβ, also repress the browning process of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) in male rodents fed a normal diet. Depletion of LXRs activated thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)-releasing hormone (TRH)-positive neurons in the paraventricular nucleus area of the hypothalamus and thus stimulated secretion of TSH from the pituitary. Consequently, production of thyroid hormones in the thyroid gland and circulating thyroid hormone level were increased. Moreover, the activity of thyroid signaling in SAT was markedly increased. Together, our findings have uncovered the basis of increased energy expenditure in male LXR knockout mice and provided support for targeting LXRs in treatment of obesity.

  15. Liver X receptor β controls thyroid hormone feedback in the brain and regulates browning of subcutaneous white adipose tissue

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Yifei; Wu, Wanfu; Dai, Yubing; Maneix, Laure; Huang, Bo; Warner, Margaret; Gustafsson, Jan-Åke

    2015-01-01

    The recent discovery of browning of white adipose tissue (WAT) has raised great research interest because of its significant potential in counteracting obesity and type 2 diabetes. Browning is the result of the induction in WAT of a newly discovered type of adipocyte, the beige cell. When mice are exposed to cold or several kinds of hormones or treatments with chemicals, specific depots of WAT undergo a browning process, characterized by highly activated mitochondria and increased heat production and energy expenditure. However, the mechanisms underlying browning are still poorly understood. Liver X receptors (LXRs) are one class of nuclear receptors, which play a vital role in regulating cholesterol, triglyceride, and glucose metabolism. Following our previous finding that LXRs serve as repressors of uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1) in classic brown adipose tissue in female mice, we found that LXRs, especially LXRβ, also repress the browning process of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) in male rodents fed a normal diet. Depletion of LXRs activated thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)-releasing hormone (TRH)-positive neurons in the paraventricular nucleus area of the hypothalamus and thus stimulated secretion of TSH from the pituitary. Consequently, production of thyroid hormones in the thyroid gland and circulating thyroid hormone level were increased. Moreover, the activity of thyroid signaling in SAT was markedly increased. Together, our findings have uncovered the basis of increased energy expenditure in male LXR knockout mice and provided support for targeting LXRs in treatment of obesity. PMID:26504234

  16. Metabolomics of papillary thyroid carcinoma tissues: potential biomarkers for diagnosis and promising targets for therapy.

    PubMed

    Shang, Xingchen; Zhong, Xia; Tian, Xingsong

    2016-08-01

    Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is the most common pathological type of thyroid cancer. Our study was to construct a tissue-targeted metabolomics analysis method based on untargeted and targeted metabolic multi-platforms to identify a comprehensive PTC metabolic network in clinical samples. We applied untargeted gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF-MS) for preliminary screening of potential biomarkers. With diagnostic models constructed using principal component analysis (PCA), partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA), 45 differentially abundant metabolites with a variable importance in the projection (VIP) value greater than 1 and a P value less than 0.05 were identified, and we show that our approach was able to discriminate PTC tissues from healthy tissues. We then performed validation experiments based on targeted GC-TOF-MS combined with ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QqQ-MS) through constructing linear standard curves of analytes. Ultimately, galactinol, melibiose, and melatonin were validated as significantly altered metabolites (p < 0.05). These three metabolites were defined as a combinatorial biomarker to assist needle biopsy for PTC diagnosis as demonstrated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, which revealed an area under the ROC curve (AUC) value of 0.96. Based on the metabolite enrichment analysis results, the galactose metabolism pathway was regarded as an important factor influencing PTC development by affecting energy metabolism. Alpha-galactosidase (GLA) was considered to be a potential target for PTC therapy. PMID:26935059

  17. A Simple Protocol for High Efficiency Protein Isolation After RNA Isolation from Mouse Thyroid and Other Very Small Tissue Samples.

    PubMed

    Ziros, Panos G; Chartoumpekis, Dionysios V; Sykiotis, Gerasimos P

    2016-01-01

    As a dedicated hormone-secreting organ, the thyroid gland possesses a complement of proteostatic systems, including antioxidant, unfolded protein, and autophagic responses. The vast majority of animal investigations of thyroid physiology and, more recently, proteostasis, have utilized as model the rat, rather than the mouse. This is due to the very small size of the thyroid gland in the latter, with a total weight of ~2 mg (~1 mg per thyroid lobe). However, this strategy has limited the utilization of genetic approaches, such as taking advantage of the various transgenic and knockout mouse models. Here, we describe a simple and highly efficient protocol for the simultaneous isolation of mRNA, micro-RNA and 150-200 μg of protein from as little as 1 mg of mouse thyroid tissue, the average weight of one of the two thyroid lobes, thus preserving the other lobe for immunohistochemical or other analyses. While our workflow is similar to other protocols published in the literature and/or proposed by commercial reagent providers, we have introduced a key modification that addresses efficiently the most challenging step of the protein isolation process: the solubilization of the protein pellet after RNA extraction and protein precipitation. We demonstrate the feasibility of our approach and its utility for downstream analyses (including Western blotting) that facilitate the comparative study of proteostatic pathways in the mouse thyroid. We have also successfully applied this protocol on samples from mouse liver, brown and white adipose tissue, as well as from rodent cell lines. PMID:27613051

  18. Role for Tissue-Dependent Methylation Differences in the Expression of FOXE1 in Nontumoral Thyroid Glands

    PubMed Central

    Abu-Khudir, Rasha; Magne, Fabien; Chanoine, Jean-Pierre; Deal, Cheri; Van Vliet, Guy; Deladoëy, Johnny

    2016-01-01

    Background Discordance of monozygotic twins for thyroid dysgenesis suggests that epigenetic mechanisms may underlie defects in thyroid gland development. This prompted us to evaluate whether differentially methylated regions (DMRs) can be found between human thyroids (either eutopic or ectopic) and matched leukocytes. Methods To compare the genome-wide methylation profile of thyroids and leukocytes, immunoprecipitated methylated DNA was interrogated on human promoter plus CpG island tiling arrays. In addition, the methylation profile of the human FOXE1, PAX8, and NKX2.1 promoter was examined using bisulfite sequencing. Finally, the functional impact of CpG methylation of the promoter on FOXE1 expression was assessed with luciferase assays. Results Genome-wide methylation profiling and bisulfite sequencing of CpG islands of PAX8 and NKX2.1 promoters revealed no DMR between thyroid and leukocytes. However, bisulfite sequencing revealed that the methylation level of two consecutive CpG dinucleotides (CpG14 and CpG15, which were not covered by the genome-wide array) in one CpG island of the FOXE1 promoter (−1600 to −1140 from the transcription start site) is significantly higher in leukocytes than in eutopic or ectopic thyroid tissues, suggesting that methylation of this region may decrease FOXE1 gene expression. Indeed, luciferase activities were decreased when FOXE1 promoter constructs were methylated in vitro. Moreover, derepression of luciferase activity was observed when the methylation of CpG14 and CpG15 was prevented by mutations. Conclusion We report a tissue-dependent DMR in the FOXE1 promoter. This DMR contains two consecutive CpG dinucleotides, which are epigenetic modifiers of FOXE1 expression in nontumoral tissues. PMID:24646064

  19. Clinical evaluation of expanded mesh connective tissue graft in the treatment for multiple adjacent gingival recessions in the esthetic zone

    PubMed Central

    Shanmugam, M.; Shivakumar, B.; Meenapriya, B.; Anitha, V.; Ashwath, B.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Multiple approaches have been used to replace lost, damaged or diseased gingival tissues. The connective tissue graft (CTG) procedure is the golden standard method for root coverage. Although multiple sites often need grafting, the palatal mucosa supplies only a limited area of grafting material. To overcome this limitation, expanded mesh graft provides a method whereby a graft can be stretched to cover a large area. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and the predictability of expanded mesh CTG (e-MCTG) in the treatment of adjacent multiple gingival recessions. Materials and Methods: Sixteen patients aged 20–50 years contributed to 55 sites, each site falling into at least three adjacent Miller's Class 1 or Class 2 gingival recession. The CTG obtained from the palatal mucosa was expanded to cover the recipient bed, which was 1.5 times larger than the graft. Clinical measurements were recorded at baseline and 3 months, 12 months postoperatively. Results: A mean coverage of 1.96 mm ± 0.66 mm and 2.22 mm ± 0.68 mm was obtained at the end of 3rd and 12th month, respectively. Twelve months after surgery a statistically significant increase in CAL (2.2 mm ± 0.68 mm, P < 0.001) and increasing WKT (1.75 ± 0.78, P < 0.001) were obtained. In 80% of the treated sites, 100% root coverage was achieved (mean 93.5%). Conclusions: The results of this study demonstrated that multiple adjacent recessions were treated by using e-MCTG technique can be applied and highly predictable root coverage can be achieved. PMID:26321829

  20. Embryonic expression of endogenous retroviral RNAs in somatic tissues adjacent to the Oikopleura germline

    PubMed Central

    Henriet, Simon; Sumic, Sara; Doufoundou-Guilengui, Carlette; Jensen, Marit Flo; Grandmougin, Camille; Fal, Kateryna; Thompson, Eric; Volff, Jean-Nicolas; Chourrout, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Selective pressure to maintain small genome size implies control of transposable elements, and most old classes of retrotransposons are indeed absent from the very compact genome of the tunicate Oikopleura dioica. Nonetheless, two families of retrotransposons are present, including the Tor elements. The gene organization within Tor elements is similar to that of LTR retrotransposons and retroviruses. In addition to gag and pol, many Tor elements carry a third gene encoding viral envelope-like proteins (Env) that may mediate infection. We show that the Tor family contains distinct classes of elements. In some classes, env mRNA is transcribed from the 5′LTR as in retroviruses. In others, env is transcribed from an additional promoter located downstream of the 5′LTR. Tor Env proteins are membrane-associated glycoproteins which exhibit some features of viral membrane fusion proteins. Whereas some elements are expressed in the adult testis, many others are specifically expressed in embryonic somatic cells adjacent to primordial germ cells. Such embryonic expression depends on determinants present in the Tor elements and not on their surrounding genomic environment. Our study shows that unusual modes of transcription and expression close to the germline may contribute to the proliferation of Tor elements. PMID:25779047

  1. Lead in tissues of woodchucks fed crown vetch growing adjacent to a highway

    SciTech Connect

    Young, R.W.; Ridgely, S.L.; Blue, J.T.; Bache, C.A.; Lisk, D.J.

    1986-01-01

    Woodchucks (Marmota monax) were fed crown vetch (Coronilla varia) growing along a major highway that was harvested in 1979, before unleaded gas was widely used, and again in 1985. Crown vetch, harvested 300 m from the nearest road, was fed as the control. The crops were fed as 50% dry weight of the diet for 58 d. The concentrations of lead in the control, 1979 crop, and 1985 crop were, respectively, 0.74, 50.65, and 6.78 ppm dry weight. The average +/- SE) concentrations (ppm, dry weight) of lead found in the tissues of the control, 1979, and 1985 dietary-treatment animals were, respectively, kidney, 0.36 +/- 0.05, 5.78 +/- 0.72, and 0.79 +/- 0.09; liver, 0.09 +/- 0.01, 4.71 +/- 0.17, and 0.46 +/- 0.06; muscle, 0.07 +/- 0.01, 0.14 +/- 0.02, and 0.07 +/- 0.00; blood, 0.09 +/- 0.02, 2.17 +/- 0.13, and 0.31 +/- 0.05; and bone, 1.27 +/- 0.25, 47.52 +/- 7.05, and 3.71 +/- 0.65. No significant differences (p greater than 0.05) between dietary treatments were found in the general hematological analyses of the woodchucks. The ecological significance of these findings is discussed.

  2. Study of the response of osteogenic sarcoma and adjacent normal tissues to radiation. [/sup 60/Co

    SciTech Connect

    Gaitan-Yanguas, M.

    1981-05-01

    An analysis is made of the surgical specimens of 18 patients with hystologically-proven osteosarcoma who were treated with radiation as the first treatment, and submitted 6 months later to amputation (2 patients had only a second biopsy). Plotting of dose and treatment time against persistence or sterilization of the tumor shows that there is an intermediate zone that extends from 3200 to 5000 rad in 10 days to 8000 to 10,000 rad in 60 to 70 days, inside which the tumor may or may not be destroyed. All cases located above this zone were sterilized; and all those under it showed persistence of viable tumor cells. A similar correlation is made in 47 irradiated patients of the secondary reactions of normal skin and soft tissues surrounding the tumor. An intermediate zone also exists above which all reactions were severe, in some cases reaching necrosis; below this zone, all reactions were mild. When treatment time was longer than 45 days, reactions were only moderate.

  3. Treatment Option Overview (Thyroid Cancer)

    MedlinePlus

    ... glands make hormones. The thyroid uses iodine , a mineral found in some foods and in iodized salt, ... Fine-needle aspiration biopsy of the thyroid : The removal of thyroid tissue using a thin needle. The ...

  4. Submandibular ectopic thyroid with normally located thyroid gland.

    PubMed

    Yılmaz, Mahmut Sinan; Aytürk, Semra; Güven, Mehmet; Dilek, Fatma Hüsniye

    2014-01-01

    Ectopic thyroid is a rare developmental anomaly of the thyroid gland which is defined as the presence of thyroid tissue at a site other than the pretracheal area. Nearly 1 to 3% of all ectopic thyroids are located in the lateral neck. Simultaneous submandibular ectopic thyroid tissue presenting with a functional orthotopic thyroid gland is extremely rare. In this article, we report a 37-year-old female case admitted to our clinic with a complaint of swollen neck in whom ultrasonography revealed submandibular ectopic thyroid tissue presenting with an orthotopic thyroid gland.

  5. Gut microbiome compositional and functional differences between tumor and non-tumor adjacent tissues from cohorts from the US and Spain

    PubMed Central

    Allali, Imane; Delgado, Susana; Marron, Pablo Isidro; Astudillo, Aurora; Yeh, Jen Jen; Ghazal, Hassan; Amzazi, Saaïd; Keku, Temitope; Azcarate-Peril, M Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer in the world and the second leading cause of cancer deaths in the US and Spain. The molecular mechanisms involved in the etiology of CRC are not yet elucidated due in part to the complexity of the human gut microbiota. In this study, we compared the microbiome composition of 90 tumor and matching adjacent tissue (adjacent) from cohorts from the US and Spain by 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing in order to determine the impact of the geographic origin on the CRC microbiome. Data showed a significantly (P < 0.05) higher Phylogenetic Diversity (PD) for the US (PD Adjacent = 26.3 ± 5.3, PD Tumor = 23.3 ± 6.2) compared to the Spanish cohort (PD Adjacent = 18.9 ± 5.9, PD Tumor = 18.7 ± 6.6) while no significant differences in bacterial diversity were observed between tumor and adjacent tissues for individuals from the same country. Adjacent tissues from the Spanish cohort were enriched in Firmicutes (SP = 43.9% and US = 22.2%, P = 0.0001) and Actinobacteria (SP = 1.6% and US = 0.5%, P = 0.0018) compared to US adjacent tissues, while adjacent tissues from the US had significantly higher abundances of Fusobacteria (US = 8.1% and SP = 1.5%, P = 0.0023) and Sinergistetes (US = 0.3% and SP = 0.1%, P = 0.0097). Comparisons between tumor and adjacent tissues in each cohort identified the genus Eikenella significantly over represented in US tumors (T = 0.024% and A = 0%, P = 0.03), and the genera Fusobacterium (T = 10.4% and A = 1.5%, P = <0.0001), Bulleida (T = 0.36% and A = 0.09%, P = 0.02), Gemella (T = 1.46% and A = 0.19%, P = 0.03), Parvimonas (T = 3.14% and A = 0.86%, P = 0.03), Campylobacter (T = 0.15% and A = 0.008%, P = 0.047), and Streptococcus (T = 2.84% and A = 2.19%, P = 0.05) significantly over represented in Spanish tumors. Predicted metagenome functional content from 16S rRNA surveys showed that bacterial motility proteins and proteins involved in flagellar assembly were over represented in adjacent tissues

  6. NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF DIRECT MEASUREMENT TO DETERMINE THYROID 131I CONTENT OF TWO TEPCO WORKERS CONSIDERING INDIVIDUAL TISSUE THICKNESS.

    PubMed

    Tani, Kotaro; Kurihara, Osamu; Kim, Eunjoo; Sakai, Kazuo; Akashi, Makoto

    2016-09-01

    After the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accident, the National Institute of Radiological Sciences examined seven heavily exposed emergency workers and performed internal dose estimations. The largest dose contributor was found to be (131)I, which was detected by thyroid monitor with an HPGe detector. Different energy peaks from (131)I were simultaneously identified in the pulse-height spectra of the two subjects with the highest doses regardless of late measurements. A closer look at the spectra indicated that the count ratio of the two peak areas at 80.2 and 365 keV differed somewhat between the individual workers, suggesting a difference in attenuation in the overlaying soft tissue and in the thyroid itself. In this study, the relationship between the count ratio (80.2/365 keV) and the thickness of soft tissue overlying the thyroid was investigated by means of numerical simulations performed using the Japanese Male (JM) phantom varying the thickness of the overlaying tissue. From the measured count ratios, it was possible to estimate that the overlaying tissue was thinner for Worker 1 (difference from the JM phantom: -0.34±1.29 cm) and thicker for Worker 2 (diff.: 2.5±1.2 cm). The thyroid (131)I contents evaluated taking into account the individual thicknesses were 4.3 kBq for Worker 1 and 8.4 kBq for Worker 2, resulting in a significant increase for Worker 2 compared with the content based on the default counting efficiency at 365 keV of the original JM phantom. However, the results have large uncertainty factors of 1.4 for Worker 1 and 1.3 for Worker 2 and should be carefully considered together with other factors influencing the attenuation. PMID:26868011

  7. NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF DIRECT MEASUREMENT TO DETERMINE THYROID 131I CONTENT OF TWO TEPCO WORKERS CONSIDERING INDIVIDUAL TISSUE THICKNESS.

    PubMed

    Tani, Kotaro; Kurihara, Osamu; Kim, Eunjoo; Sakai, Kazuo; Akashi, Makoto

    2016-09-01

    After the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accident, the National Institute of Radiological Sciences examined seven heavily exposed emergency workers and performed internal dose estimations. The largest dose contributor was found to be (131)I, which was detected by thyroid monitor with an HPGe detector. Different energy peaks from (131)I were simultaneously identified in the pulse-height spectra of the two subjects with the highest doses regardless of late measurements. A closer look at the spectra indicated that the count ratio of the two peak areas at 80.2 and 365 keV differed somewhat between the individual workers, suggesting a difference in attenuation in the overlaying soft tissue and in the thyroid itself. In this study, the relationship between the count ratio (80.2/365 keV) and the thickness of soft tissue overlying the thyroid was investigated by means of numerical simulations performed using the Japanese Male (JM) phantom varying the thickness of the overlaying tissue. From the measured count ratios, it was possible to estimate that the overlaying tissue was thinner for Worker 1 (difference from the JM phantom: -0.34±1.29 cm) and thicker for Worker 2 (diff.: 2.5±1.2 cm). The thyroid (131)I contents evaluated taking into account the individual thicknesses were 4.3 kBq for Worker 1 and 8.4 kBq for Worker 2, resulting in a significant increase for Worker 2 compared with the content based on the default counting efficiency at 365 keV of the original JM phantom. However, the results have large uncertainty factors of 1.4 for Worker 1 and 1.3 for Worker 2 and should be carefully considered together with other factors influencing the attenuation.

  8. Can Breast Tumors Affect the Oxidative Status of the Surrounding Environment? A Comparative Analysis among Cancerous Breast, Mammary Adjacent Tissue, and Plasma.

    PubMed

    Panis, C; Victorino, V J; Herrera, A C S A; Cecchini, A L; Simão, A N C; Tomita, L Y; Cecchini, R

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we investigated the oxidative profile of breast tumors in comparison with their normal adjacent breast tissue. Our study indicates that breast tumors present enhanced oxidative/nitrosative stress, with concomitant augmented antioxidant capacity when compared to the adjacent normal breast. These data indicate that breast cancers may be responsible for the induction of a prooxidant environment in the mammary gland, in association with enhanced TNF-α and nitric oxide. PMID:26697139

  9. Can Breast Tumors Affect the Oxidative Status of the Surrounding Environment? A Comparative Analysis among Cancerous Breast, Mammary Adjacent Tissue, and Plasma.

    PubMed

    Panis, C; Victorino, V J; Herrera, A C S A; Cecchini, A L; Simão, A N C; Tomita, L Y; Cecchini, R

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we investigated the oxidative profile of breast tumors in comparison with their normal adjacent breast tissue. Our study indicates that breast tumors present enhanced oxidative/nitrosative stress, with concomitant augmented antioxidant capacity when compared to the adjacent normal breast. These data indicate that breast cancers may be responsible for the induction of a prooxidant environment in the mammary gland, in association with enhanced TNF-α and nitric oxide.

  10. HPLC-ICP/MS Analysis of Thyroid Hormone and Related Iodinated Compounds in Tissues and Media

    EPA Science Inventory

    Quantifying thyroid hormone (TH) and the synthetic precursors and metabolic products of TH is important for developing models of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis as well as for understanding the effects of xenobiotics on HPT axis function. In this study, the developm...

  11. Diagnosis of thyroid nodules using virtual touch tissue quantification value and anteroposterior/transverse diameter ratio.

    PubMed

    Li, Tao; Zhou, Pei; Zhang, Xuming; Ding, Mingyue; Yuchi, Ming; Li, Yiyong

    2015-02-01

    This paper proposes an effective approach to differential diagnosis of thyroid nodules using a hierarchical classification model based on the Virtual Touch tissue quantification (VTQ) value and anteroposterior/transverse diameter (A/T) ratio. One hundred twenty nodules (92 benign, 28 malignant) were analyzed using this approach by combining the quantitative elastic characteristic with the conventional sonographic feature. First, nodules were classified as benign (VTQ values <2.27 m/s), malignant (VTQ values >2.73 m/s) and indeterminate (2.27 m/s ≤ VTQ values ≤2.73 m/s) using two cutoff points selected on the basis of receiver operating characteristic analysis. Second, the indeterminate nodules were separated into malignant and benign nodules using an A/T ratio ≥1. The advantage of this approach was that it could alleviate the limitation of an overlap in VTQ values between benign and malignant nodules. According to the pathologic results, the accuracy of this approach was 95%. The proposed approach may potentially improve diagnostic accuracy.

  12. Thoracic intrathymic thyroid.

    PubMed Central

    Spinner, R J; Moore, K L; Gottfried, M R; Lowe, J E; Sabiston, D C

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The authors introduce thoracic intrathymic thyroid as a clinical entity. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Although accessory aberrant thyroid has not been found in other tissues in the mediastinum, a thoracic intrathymic location has not been described previously. It is believed that mediastinal thyroid tissue represents accessory ectopic tissue from the median thyroid anlage. Moreover, the close association of the thymus and thyroid supports the theory that mediastinal ectopic thyroid tissue develops from abnormal descent of these structures during embryogenesis. METHODS: Benign thoracic intrathymic thyroid lesions are described in patients with mediastinal masses. CONCLUSION: Thoracic intrathymic thyroid is a distinct entity. Its occurrence is supported both clinically and embryologically. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. Figure 6. Figure 7. PMID:8024364

  13. Ectopic goitrous submandibular thyroid with goitrous orthotopic thyroid gland.

    PubMed

    Bhardwaj, Avinash Kumar; Mani, Vinayaga; Dixit, Rashmi; Garg, Anju

    2016-01-01

    Ectopic thyroid is a rare developmental anomaly with lingual thyroid accounting for majority of the cases. The presence of ectopic thyroid tissue lateral to the midline is very rare, and very few cases located in the submandibular region have been reported. The simultaneous finding of submandibular ectopic thyroid tissue and a functional orthotopic thyroid gland is even rarer. In the differential diagnosis of an ectopic submandibular thyroid, it is fundamental to exclude a metastasis from well-differentiated thyroid cancer, even when primary thyroid carcinoma is not demonstrable.

  14. Ectopic goitrous submandibular thyroid with goitrous orthotopic thyroid gland.

    PubMed

    Bhardwaj, Avinash Kumar; Mani, Vinayaga; Dixit, Rashmi; Garg, Anju

    2016-01-01

    Ectopic thyroid is a rare developmental anomaly with lingual thyroid accounting for majority of the cases. The presence of ectopic thyroid tissue lateral to the midline is very rare, and very few cases located in the submandibular region have been reported. The simultaneous finding of submandibular ectopic thyroid tissue and a functional orthotopic thyroid gland is even rarer. In the differential diagnosis of an ectopic submandibular thyroid, it is fundamental to exclude a metastasis from well-differentiated thyroid cancer, even when primary thyroid carcinoma is not demonstrable. PMID:27413274

  15. Ectopic goitrous submandibular thyroid with goitrous orthotopic thyroid gland

    PubMed Central

    Bhardwaj, Avinash Kumar; Mani, Vinayaga; Dixit, Rashmi; Garg, Anju

    2016-01-01

    Ectopic thyroid is a rare developmental anomaly with lingual thyroid accounting for majority of the cases. The presence of ectopic thyroid tissue lateral to the midline is very rare, and very few cases located in the submandibular region have been reported. The simultaneous finding of submandibular ectopic thyroid tissue and a functional orthotopic thyroid gland is even rarer. In the differential diagnosis of an ectopic submandibular thyroid, it is fundamental to exclude a metastasis from well-differentiated thyroid cancer, even when primary thyroid carcinoma is not demonstrable. PMID:27413274

  16. [BRAF V600E mutation in thyroid nodules in Argentina].

    PubMed

    Ilera, Verónica; Dourisboure, Ricardo; Colobraro, Antonio; Silva Croome, María Del Carmen; Olstein, Gustavo; Gauna, Alicia

    2016-01-01

    This prospective study analyzed the frequency of V600E mutation of oncogene BRAF in patients operated for benign thyroid nodules and for papillary thyroid cancer in an Argentine population. In patients with papillary thyroid cancer we compared clinicopathological characteristics between those harboring BRAF mutation and those without it. Twenty five consecutive patients operated for benign nodules and for papillary carcinoma were prospectively included. Fresh tissue samples of thyroid nodules and of adjacent thyroid parenchyma were obtained. DNA was extracted and amplified by amplification refractory mutation system polymerase chain reaction (ARMS PCR). Direct sequencing was performed in four samples. Of those patients operated for papillary thyroid cancer, 77% harbored BRAF mutation. All samples from adjacent thyroid parenchyma and from patients operated for benign nodules tested negative for the mutation. Direct sequencing confirmed the results obtained by ARMS PCR. Patients with BRAF mutation were significantly older at the time of diagnosis (BRAF+ 47.7 ± 12.7 years vs. BRAF- 24.7 ± 8.1 years, p < 0.01). Nine out of ten papillary carcinomas with BRAF mutation corresponded to the classic histological subtype, which was not observed in BRAF negative tumors (p < 0.02). In conclusion, we found a high frequency of BRAF V600E mutation in this population of patients operated for papillary thyroid carcinoma in Argentina. These results are consistent with those reported in the literature. PMID:27576281

  17. Thyroid Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the thyroid gland Hyperthyroidism - when your thyroid gland makes more thyroid hormones than your body needs Hypothyroidism - when your thyroid gland does not make enough thyroid hormones Thyroid cancer ...

  18. Glutamic acid decarboxylase (anti-GAD) & tissue transglutaminase (anti-TTG) antibodies in patients with thyroid autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Marwaha, R.K.; Garg, M.K.; Tandon, N.; Kanwar, Ratnesh; Narang, A.; Sastry, A.; Saberwal, A.; Bhadra, Kuntal

    2013-01-01

    Background & objectives: Several autoimmune disorders have been reported to be associated with autoimmune thyroiditis and may coexist with other organ-specific autoantibodies. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the presence of tissue transglutaminase (anti-TTG) and glutamic acid decarboxylase (anti-GAD) antibodies in patients suffering from autoimmune thyroiditis as diagnosed by anti-thyroid peroxidase (anti-TPO) antibodies, which may indicate high risk for developing celiac disease or type 1 diabetes mellitus. Methods: Five thousand children and 2800 adults were screening as part of a general health examination done on a voluntary basis in four different parts of Delhi. A total of 577 subjects positive for anti-TPO antibody constituted the cases. Equal number of age and sex matched anti-TPO antibody negative controls were randomly selected from the same cohort to form paired case control study. The cases and controls were further divided into two groups as follows: group-1 (children and adolescent <18 yr), group-2 (adults >18 yr). Serum samples of cases and controls were analysed for thyroid function test (FT3, FT4, and TSH), anti-TTG and anti-GAD antibodies. Results: A total of 1154 subjects (577 cases and 577 controls) were included in this study. Hypothyroidism was present in 40.2 per cent (232) cases compared to only 4.7 per cent (27) in controls (P<0.001). Anti-TTG and anti-GAD antibodies were present in 6.9 and 12.5 per cent subjects among cases compared to 3.5 per cent (P=0.015) and 4.3 per cent (P=0.001) in controls, respectively. Only anti-GAD antibody were significantly positive in cases among children and adolescents (P =0.0044) and adult (P=0.001) compared to controls. Levels of anti-TTG and anti-GAD antibodies increased with increasing titre of anti-TPO antibody. Interpretation & conclusions: Our findings showed high positivity of anti-GAD and anti-TTG antibodies among subjects with thyroid autoimmunity. It is, therefore, important to have

  19. Transcriptional responses in thyroid tissues from rats treated with a tumorigenic and a non-tumorigenic triazole conazole fungicide

    SciTech Connect

    Hester, Susan D. Nesnow, Stephen

    2008-03-15

    Conazoles are azole-containing fungicides that are used in agriculture and medicine. Conazoles can induce follicular cell adenomas of the thyroid in rats after chronic bioassay. The goal of this study was to identify pathways and networks of genes that were associated with thyroid tumorigenesis through transcriptional analyses. To this end, we compared transcriptional profiles from tissues of rats treated with a tumorigenic and a non-tumorigenic conazole. Triadimefon, a rat thyroid tumorigen, and myclobutanil, which was not tumorigenic in rats after a 2-year bioassay, were administered in the feed to male Wistar/Han rats for 30 or 90 days similar to the treatment conditions previously used in their chronic bioassays. Thyroid gene expression was determined using high density Affymetrix GeneChips (Rat 230{sub 2}). Gene expression was analyzed by the Gene Set Expression Analyses method which clearly separated the tumorigenic treatments (tumorigenic response group (TRG)) from the non-tumorigenic treatments (non-tumorigenic response group (NRG)). Core genes from these gene sets were mapped to canonical, metabolic, and GeneGo processes and these processes compared across group and treatment time. Extensive analyses were performed on the 30-day gene sets as they represented the major perturbations. Gene sets in the 30-day TRG group had over representation of fatty acid metabolism, oxidation, and degradation processes (including PPAR{gamma} and CYP involvement), and of cell proliferation responses. Core genes from these gene sets were combined into networks and found to possess signaling interactions. In addition, the core genes in each gene set were compared with genes known to be associated with human thyroid cancer. Among the genes that appeared in both rat and human data sets were: Acaca, Asns, Cebpg, Crem, Ddit3, Gja1, Grn, Jun, Junb, and Vegf. These genes were major contributors in the previously developed network from triadimefon-treated rat thyroids. It is

  20. Administration of 3,5-diiodothyronine (3,5-T2) causes central hypothyroidism and stimulates thyroid-sensitive tissues.

    PubMed

    Padron, Alvaro Souto; Neto, Ruy Andrade Louzada; Pantaleão, Thiago Urgal; de Souza dos Santos, Maria Carolina; Araujo, Renata Lopes; de Andrade, Bruno Moulin; da Silva Leandro, Monique; de Castro, João Pedro Saar Werneck; Ferreira, Andrea Claudia Freitas; de Carvalho, Denise Pires

    2014-06-01

    In general, 3,5-diiodothyronine (3,5-T2) increases the resting metabolic rate and oxygen consumption, exerting short-term beneficial metabolic effects on rats subjected to a high-fat diet. Our aim was to evaluate the effects of chronic 3,5-T2 administration on the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis, body mass gain, adipose tissue mass, and body oxygen consumption in Wistar rats from 3 to 6 months of age. The rats were treated daily with 3,5-T2 (25, 50, or 75 μg/100 g body weight, s.c.) for 90 days between the ages of 3 and 6 months. The administration of 3,5-T2 suppressed thyroid function, reducing not only thyroid iodide uptake but also thyroperoxidase, NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4), and thyroid type 1 iodothyronine deiodinase (D1 (DIO1)) activities and expression levels, whereas the expression of the TSH receptor and dual oxidase (DUOX) were increased. Serum TSH, 3,3',5-triiodothyronine, and thyroxine were reduced in a 3,5-T2 dose-dependent manner, whereas oxygen consumption increased in these animals, indicating the direct action of 3,5-T2 on this physiological variable. Type 2 deiodinase activity increased in both the hypothalamus and the pituitary, and D1 activities in the liver and kidney were also increased in groups treated with 3,5-T2. Moreover, after 3 months of 3,5-T2 administration, body mass and retroperitoneal fat pad mass were significantly reduced, whereas the heart rate and mass were unchanged. Thus, 3,5-T2 acts as a direct stimulator of energy expenditure and reduces body mass gain; however, TSH suppression may develop secondary to 3,5-T2 administration.

  1. EXPERIMENTAL THYROIDISM

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, R. H.

    1898-01-01

    From the results of the various experiments already detailed I feel justified in drawing the following conclusions: (1) Absolutely fresh thyroid gland is not poisonous, in the usual sense of the term, when absorbed through the alimentary canal. (2) The symptoms of induced thyroidism are manifestations of an intoxication resulting from the ingestion of decomposed thyroid material, a conclusion that agrees in part with the previously related observations of Lanz. (3) The so-called experimental thyroidism is not specific for the thyroid only, for the ingestion of many substances derived from animal tissues other than the thyroid gland may produce an intoxication strikingly similar in every respect to that of experimental thyroidism. (4) Most, if not all, animal tissues yield substances which, if injected in large quantities directly into the circulation or beneath the skin, will produce an intoxication often very similar to that produced by injections of various substances derived from the fresh thyroid tissue. (5) The effects resulting from the intravascular or subcutaneous injections of aqueous extracts, decoctions and the concentrated extractives of the thyroid tissue, of the thymus, of muscle, etc., are by no means necessarily indicative of the function and the action of the hypothetical internal secretions of the same tissues during life. (6) The utilization of the fact that ingestion of decomposed thyroid material produces on certain occasions an intoxication with certain symptoms similar to some of those of G-raves' disease is not justifiable for the furtherance of the theory that the symptoms of exophthalmic goitre result from an over-production of the thyroid secretion. (7) Our results lead us to conclude with Drechsel that the fresh thyroid tissue yields at least probably two substances that are capable of palliating the symptoms of the acute cachexia in totally thyroidless dogs. (8) The thymus tissue also yields one and probably two substances that are as

  2. Matrix metalloproteinases, tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases and angiogenic cytokines in peripheral blood of patients with thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Komorowski, Jan; Pasieka, Z; Jankiewicz-Wika, J; Stepień, H

    2002-08-01

    Stimulation of growth of endothelial cells from preexisting blood vessels, i.e., angiogenesis, is one of the essential elements necessary to create a permissive environment in which a tumor can grow. During angiogenesis, the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) family of tissue enzymes contributes to normal (embriogenesis or wound repair) and pathologic tissue remodeling (chronic inflammation and tumor genesis). The proposed pathogenic roles of MMPs in cancer are tissue breakdown and remodeling during invasive tumor growth and tumor angiogenesis. Tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) form a complex with MMPs, which in turn inhibits active MMPs. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) are unique among mediators of angiogenesis with synergistic effect, and both can also be secreted by thyroid cancer cells. The goal of the study was to evaluate the plasma blood concentration of VEGF, bFGF, MMP-1, MMP-2, MMP-3, MMP-8, MMP-9, TIMP-1, and TIMP-2 in patients with cancer and in normal subjects. Twenty-two patients with thyroid cancers (papillary cancer, 11; partly papillary and partly follicular cancer, 3; anaplastic cancer, 5; medullary cancer, 3) and 16 healthy subjects (controls) were included in the study. VEGF, bFGF MMPs, and TIMPs were evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In patients with thyroid cancer, normal VEGF concentrations (74.29 +/- 13.38 vs. 84.85 +/- 21.71 pg/mL; p > 0.05) and increased bFGF (29.52 +/- 4.99 vs. 6.05 +/- 1.43 pg/mL; p < 0.001), MMP-2 (605.95 +/- 81.83 vs. 148.75 +/- 43.53 ng/mL; p < 0.001), TIMP-2 (114.19 +/- 6.62 vs. 60.75 +/- 9.18 ng/mL; p < 0.001), as well as lower MMP-1 (0.70 +/- 0.42 vs. 3.87 +/- 0.53; p < 0.001) levels have been noted. Increased plasma levels of MMP-3 and MMP-9 were also found in patients with medullary carcinoma. In conclusion, predominance of MMP-2 over TIMP-2 and TIMP-1 over MMP-1 as well as increased concentration of bFGF in peripheral blood are

  3. Significance of Interleukin-6 in Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kobawala, Toral P.; Trivedi, Trupti I.; Gajjar, Kinjal K.; Patel, Darshita H.; Patel, Girish H.

    2016-01-01

    This study sought to reveal the significance of IL-6 in papillary thyroid carcinoma by determining its circulating levels, tumoral protein, and mRNA expressions. As compared to the healthy individuals, serum IL-6 was significantly higher in patients with benign thyroid diseases and PTC. Further, its level was significantly higher in PTC patients as compared to patients with benign thyroid diseases. ROC curves also confirmed a good discriminatory efficacy of serum IL-6 between healthy individuals and patients with benign thyroid diseases and PTC. The circulating IL-6 was significantly associated with poor overall survival in PTC patients. IL-6 immunoreactivity was significantly high in PTC patients as compared to the benign thyroid disease patients. Significantly higher IL-6 mRNA expression was also observed in the primary tumour tissues of PTC patients than the adjacent normal tissues. The protein expression of IL-6 at both the circulating and tissue level correlated with disease aggressiveness in PTC patients. Moreover, a significant positive correlation was observed between the IL-6 protein and mRNA expression in the primary tumours of PTC patients. Finally in conclusion, IL-6 has an important role in thyroid cancer progression. Thus targeting IL-6 signalling can help in clinical management of thyroid carcinoma patients. PMID:27034885

  4. Transgenic zebrafish illuminate the dynamics of thyroid morphogenesis and its relationship to cardiovascular development.

    PubMed

    Opitz, Robert; Maquet, Emilie; Huisken, Jan; Antonica, Francesco; Trubiroha, Achim; Pottier, Gaëlle; Janssens, Véronique; Costagliola, Sabine

    2012-12-15

    Among the various organs derived from foregut endoderm, the thyroid gland is unique in that major morphogenic events such as budding from foregut endoderm, descent into subpharyngeal mesenchyme and growth expansion occur in close proximity to cardiovascular tissues. To date, research on thyroid organogenesis was missing one vital tool-a transgenic model that allows to track the dynamic changes in thyroid size, shape and location relative to adjacent cardiovascular tissues in live embryos. In this study, we generated a novel transgenic zebrafish line, tg(tg:mCherry), in which robust and thyroid-specific expression of a membrane version of mCherry enables live imaging of thyroid development in embryos from budding stage throughout formation of functional thyroid follicles. By using various double transgenic models in which EGFP expression additionally labels cardiovascular structures, a high coordination was revealed between thyroid organogenesis and cardiovascular development. Early thyroid development was found to proceed in intimate contact with the distal ventricular myocardium and live imaging confirmed that thyroid budding from the pharyngeal floor is tightly coordinated with the descent of the heart. Four-dimensional imaging of live embryos by selective plane illumination microscopy and 3D-reconstruction of confocal images of stained embryos yielded novel insights into the role of specific pharyngeal vessels, such as the hypobranchial artery (HA), in guiding late thyroid expansion along the pharyngeal midline. An important role of the HA was corroborated by the detailed examination of thyroid development in various zebrafish models showing defective cardiovascular development. In combination, our results from live imaging as well es from 3D-reconstruction of thyroid development in tg(tg:mCherry) embryos provided a first dynamic view of late thyroid organogenesis in zebrafish-a critical resource for the design of future studies addressing the molecular

  5. Treatment Options by Stage (Thyroid Cancer)

    MedlinePlus

    ... glands make hormones. The thyroid uses iodine , a mineral found in some foods and in iodized salt, ... Fine-needle aspiration biopsy of the thyroid : The removal of thyroid tissue using a thin needle. The ...

  6. Differentiated thyroid cancer in patients with resistance to thyroid hormone syndrome. A novel case and a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Vinagre, João; Borges, Fátima; Costa, António; Alvelos, Maria Inês; Mazeto, Glaúcia; Sobrinho-Simões, Manuel; Soares, Paula

    2014-01-01

    Resistance to thyroid hormone (RTH) represents a syndrome in which patients present elevated circulating thyroid hormones in the presence of non-suppressed TSH. We report a novel case where a patient with RTH presented a differentiated thyroid cancer. A19 year-old female had been referred due to thyroid disease that disclosed features characteristic of a RTH. During the follow up it was detected a follicular tumor that led to the recommendation for thyroid surgical ablation, where an incidental papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (mPTC) was found. The increase of thyroglobulin (TG) levels following thyroid removal referred the patient for radioiodine treatment. Post-treatment, it was detected jugular adenopathies and the patient was subjected to cervical lymph node drainage where metastases of the mPTC were found. RTH syndrome was confirmed by the detection of a THRB germline mutation. A BRAF mutation was also found in the mPTC but not detected in the follicular adenoma or normal adjacent tissue. The young age of the patient, the rarity of BRAF mutations in childhood and the high dissemination of the malignancy, lead us to the speculation that increased TSH stimulation in a RTH background and oncogenic activation of BRAF could have served as (co) drivers and might have triggered an advanced stage of the neoplastic disease. These findings together with a review of published cases add novel information to the management of RTH patients with differentiated thyroid cancer. PMID:25988151

  7. Differentiated thyroid cancer in patients with resistance to thyroid hormone syndrome. A novel case and a review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Vinagre, João; Borges, Fátima; Costa, António; Alvelos, Maria Inês; Mazeto, Glaúcia; Sobrinho-Simões, Manuel; Soares, Paula

    2014-01-01

    Resistance to thyroid hormone (RTH) represents a syndrome in which patients present elevated circulating thyroid hormones in the presence of non-suppressed TSH. We report a novel case where a patient with RTH presented a differentiated thyroid cancer. A19 year-old female had been referred due to thyroid disease that disclosed features characteristic of a RTH. During the follow up it was detected a follicular tumor that led to the recommendation for thyroid surgical ablation, where an incidental papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (mPTC) was found. The increase of thyroglobulin (TG) levels following thyroid removal referred the patient for radioiodine treatment. Post-treatment, it was detected jugular adenopathies and the patient was subjected to cervical lymph node drainage where metastases of the mPTC were found. RTH syndrome was confirmed by the detection of a THRB germline mutation. A BRAF mutation was also found in the mPTC but not detected in the follicular adenoma or normal adjacent tissue. The young age of the patient, the rarity of BRAF mutations in childhood and the high dissemination of the malignancy, lead us to the speculation that increased TSH stimulation in a RTH background and oncogenic activation of BRAF could have served as (co) drivers and might have triggered an advanced stage of the neoplastic disease. These findings together with a review of published cases add novel information to the management of RTH patients with differentiated thyroid cancer. PMID:25988151

  8. Lipid Profiles of Canine Invasive Transitional Cell Carcinoma of the Urinary Bladder and Adjacent Normal Tissue by Desorption Electrospray Ionization Imaging Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Dill, Allison L.; Ifa, Demian R.; Manicke, Nicholas E.; Costa, Anthony B.; Ramos-Vara, José A.; Knapp, Deborah W.; Cooks, R. Graham

    2009-01-01

    Desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) mass spectrometry (MS) was used in an imaging mode to interrogate the lipid profiles of thin tissue sections of canine spontaneous invasive transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the urinary bladder (a model of human invasive bladder cancer) as well as adjacent normal tissue from four different dogs. The glycerophospholipids and sphingolipids that appear as intense signals in both the negative ion and positive ion modes were identified by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) product ion scans using collision-induced dissociation. Differences in the relative distributions of the lipid species were present between the tumor and adjacent normal tissue in both the negative and positive ion modes. DESI-MS images showing the spatial distributions of particular glycerophospholipids, sphinoglipids and free fatty acids in both the negative and positive ion modes were compared to serial tissue sections that were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E). Increased absolute and relative intensities for at least five different glycerophospholipids and three free fatty acids in the negative ion mode and at least four different lipid species in the positive ion mode were seen in the tumor region of the samples in all four dogs. In addition, one sphingolipid species exhibited increased signal intensity in the positive ion mode in normal tissue relative to the diseased tissue. Principal component analysis (PCA) was also used to generate unsupervised statistical images from the negative ion mode data and these images are in excellent agreement with the DESI images obtained from the selected ions and also the H&E stained tissue PMID:19810710

  9. Thyroid hormone effects on whole-body energy homeostasis and tissue-specific fatty acid uptake in vivo.

    PubMed

    Klieverik, Lars P; Coomans, Claudia P; Endert, Erik; Sauerwein, Hans P; Havekes, Louis M; Voshol, Peter J; Rensen, Patrick C N; Romijn, Johannes A; Kalsbeek, Andries; Fliers, Eric

    2009-12-01

    The effects of thyroid hormone (TH) status on energy metabolism and tissue-specific substrate supply in vivo are incompletely understood. To study the effects of TH status on energy metabolism and tissue-specific fatty acid (FA) fluxes, we used metabolic cages as well as (14)C-labeled FA and (3)H-labeled triglyceride (TG) infusion in rats treated with methimazole and either 0 (hypothyroidism), 1.5 (euthyroidism), or 16.0 (thyrotoxicosis) microg per 100 g/d T(4) for 11 d. Thyrotoxicosis increased total energy expenditure by 38% (P = 0.02), resting energy expenditure by 61% (P = 0.002), and food intake by 18% (P = 0.004). Hypothyroidism tended to decrease total energy expenditure (10%; P = 0.064) and resting energy expenditure (12%; P = 0.025) but did not affect food intake. TH status did not affect spontaneous physical activity. Thyrotoxicosis increased fat oxidation (P = 0.006), whereas hypothyroidism decreased glucose oxidation (P = 0.035). Plasma FA concentration was increased in thyrotoxic but not hypothyroid rats. Thyrotoxicosis increased albumin-bound FA uptake in muscle and white adipose tissue (WAT), whereas hypothyroidism had no effect in any tissue studied, suggesting mass-driven albumin-bound FA uptake. During thyrotoxicosis, TG-derived FA uptake was increased in muscle and heart, unaffected in WAT, and decreased in brown adipose tissue. Conversely, during hypothyroidism TG-derived FA uptake was increased in WAT in association with increased lipoprotein lipase activity but unaffected in oxidative tissues and decreased in liver. In conclusion, TH status determines energy expenditure independently of spontaneous physical activity. The changes in whole-body lipid metabolism are accompanied by tissue-specific changes in TG-derived FA uptake in accordance with hyper- and hypometabolic states induced by thyrotoxicosis and hypothyroidism, respectively.

  10. Relationships between thyroid status, tissue oxidative metabolism, and muscle differentiation in bovine fetuses.

    PubMed

    Cassar-Malek, I; Picard, B; Kahl, S; Hocquette, J F

    2007-07-01

    The temporal relationships between thyroid status and differentiation of liver, heart and different skeletal muscles were examined in 42 bovine fetuses from day 110 to day 260 of development using principal component analysis of the data. Plasma concentrations of reverse-triiodothyronine (rT(3)) and thyroxine (T(4)) increased during development from day 110 to day 210 or 260, respectively, whereas concentration of triiodothyronine (T(3)) and hepatic type-1 5'-deiodinase activity (5'D1) increased from day 180 onwards. On day 260, high T(4) and rT(3) and low T(3) concentrations were observed together with a mature 5'D1 activity. Cytochrome-c oxidase (COX) activity expressed per mg protein increased at day 180 in masseter and near birth in masseter, rectus abdominis and cutaneus trunci muscles (P<0.05). Significant changes in citrate synthase (CS) activity per mg protein were observed between day 110 and day 180 in the liver and between day 210 and day 260 in the liver, the heart and the longissimus thoracis muscle (P<0.05). Muscle contractile differentiation was shown by the disappearance of the fetal myosin heavy chain from day 180 onwards. A positive correlation (r>0.47, P<0.01) was shown between thyroid status parameters (5'D1, concentrations of T(4) and T(3)) and COX activity in muscles known to be oxidative after birth (masseter, rectus abdominis) but not in liver and heart, nor in muscles known to be glycolytic after birth (cutaneus trunci, longissimus thoracis). A similar correlation was found between thyroid parameters and CS activity in liver and masseter. Results indicate that elevation of plasma T(3) concentrations in the last gestational trimester could be involved in the differentiation of oxidative skeletal muscles.

  11. Recessive resistance to thyroid hormone in mice lacking thyroid hormone receptor beta: evidence for tissue-specific modulation of receptor function.

    PubMed Central

    Forrest, D; Hanebuth, E; Smeyne, R J; Everds, N; Stewart, C L; Wehner, J M; Curran, T

    1996-01-01

    The diverse functions of thyroid hormone (T3) are presumed to be mediated by two genes encoding the related receptors, TRalpha and TRbeta. However, the in vivo functions of TRalpha and TRbeta are undefined. Here, we report that targeted inactivation of the mouse TRbeta gene results in goitre and elevated levels of thyroid hormone. Also, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), which is released by pituitary thyrotropes and which is normally suppressed by increased levels of thyroid hormone, was present at elevated levels in homozygous mutant (Thrb-/-) mice. These findings suggest a unique role for TRbeta that cannot be substituted by TRalpha in the T3-dependent feedback regulation of TSH transcription. Thrb-/- mice provide a recessive model for the human syndrome of resistance to thyroid hormone (RTH) that exhibits a similar endocrine disorder but which is typically caused by dominant TRbeta mutants that are transcriptional inhibitors. It is unknown whether TRalpha, TRbeta or other receptors are targets for inhibition in dominant RTH; however, the analysis of Thrb-/- mice suggests that antagonism of TRbeta-mediated pathways underlies the disorder of the pituitary-thyroid axis. Interestingly, in the brain, the absence of TRbeta may not mimic the defects often associated with dominant RTH, since no overt behavioural or neuroanatomical abnormalities were detected in Thrb-/- mice. These data define in vivo functions for TRbeta and indicate that specificity in T3 signalling is conferred by distinct receptor genes. Images PMID:8670802

  12. Non-targeted transcriptomic effects upon thyroid irradiation: similarity between in-field and out-of-field responses varies with tissue type

    PubMed Central

    Langen, Britta; Rudqvist, Nils; Spetz, Johan; Swanpalmer, John; Helou, Khalil; Forssell-Aronsson, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Non-targeted effects can induce responses in tissues that have not been exposed to ionizing radiation. Despite their relevance for risk assessment, few studies have investigated these effects in vivo. In particular, these effects have not been studied in context with thyroid exposure, which can occur e.g. during irradiation of head and neck tumors. To determine the similarity between in-field and out-of-field responses in normal tissue, we used a partial body irradiation setup with female mice where the thyroid region, the thorax and abdomen, or all three regions were irradiated. After 24 h, transcriptional regulation in the kidney cortex, kidney medulla, liver, lungs, spleen, and thyroid was analyzed using microarray technology. Thyroid irradiation resulted in transcriptional regulation in the kidney medulla and liver that resembled regulation upon direct exposure of these tissues regarding both strength of response and associated biological function. The kidney cortex showed fewer similarities between the setups, while the lungs and spleen showed little similarity between in-field and out-of-field responses. Interestingly, effects were generally not found to be additive. Future studies are needed to identify the molecular mechanisms that mediate these systemic effects, so that they may be used as targets to minimize detrimental side effects in radiotherapy. PMID:27779251

  13. Pesticide residues in adipose tissue from hippopotami (Hippopotamus amphibius L) living in and adjacent to the Luangwa River in Zambia.

    PubMed

    Flåøyen, A; Polder, A; Mwase, M; Almli, B; Musonda, M M

    2005-06-01

    The concentration of organochlorines (OCs) such as organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls were measured in adipose tissue collected from 14 male hippopotami at Mfuwe in the southern part of the Luangwa National Park, Zambia. The samples contained low levels of OCs, and the concentrations of OCs were comparable to or lower than reported for wild herbivores studied in other parts of the world.

  14. High-throughput sequencing approach uncovers the miRNome of peritoneal endometriotic lesions and adjacent healthy tissues.

    PubMed

    Saare, Merli; Rekker, Kadri; Laisk-Podar, Triin; Sõritsa, Deniss; Roost, Anne Mari; Simm, Jaak; Velthut-Meikas, Agne; Samuel, Külli; Metsalu, Tauno; Karro, Helle; Sõritsa, Andrei; Salumets, Andres; Peters, Maire

    2014-01-01

    Accumulating data have shown the involvement of microRNAs (miRNAs) in endometriosis pathogenesis. In this study, we used a novel approach to determine the endometriotic lesion-specific miRNAs by high-throughput small RNA sequencing of paired samples of peritoneal endometriotic lesions and matched healthy surrounding tissues together with eutopic endometria of the same patients. We found five miRNAs specific to epithelial cells--miR-34c, miR-449a, miR-200a, miR-200b and miR-141 showing significantly higher expression in peritoneal endometriotic lesions compared to healthy peritoneal tissues. We also determined the expression levels of miR-200 family target genes E-cadherin, ZEB1 and ZEB2 and found that the expression level of E-cadherin was significantly higher in endometriotic lesions compared to healthy tissues. Further evaluation verified that studied miRNAs could be used as diagnostic markers for confirming the presence of endometrial cells in endometriotic lesion biopsy samples. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the miRNA profile of peritoneal endometriotic lesion biopsies is largely masked by the surrounding peritoneal tissue, challenging the discovery of an accurate lesion-specific miRNA profile. Taken together, our findings indicate that only particular miRNAs with a significantly higher expression in endometriotic cells can be detected from lesion biopsies, and can serve as diagnostic markers for endometriosis.

  15. Postpartum Thyroiditis

    MedlinePlus

    ... high thyroid hormone levels in the blood) and hypothyroidism (low thyroid hormone levels in the blood). In postpartum thyroiditis, thyrotoxicosis occurs first followed by hypothyroidism. What causes postpartum thyroiditis? The exact cause is ...

  16. Thyroid Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... calories and how fast your heart beats. Thyroid tests check how well your thyroid is working. They ... thyroid diseases such as hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism. Thyroid tests include blood tests and imaging tests. Blood tests ...

  17. Thyroid storm

    MedlinePlus

    Thyrotoxic storm; Hyperthyroid storm; Accelerated hyperthyroidism; Thyroid crisis; Thyrotoxicosis - thyroid storm ... Thyroid storm occurs due to a major stress such as trauma, heart attack , or infection. In rare cases, thyroid ...

  18. Low dose of continuous – wave microwave irradiation did not cause temperature increase in muscles tissue adjacent to titanium alloy implants – an animal study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Research studies on the influence of radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation on implants in vitro have failed to investigate temperature changes in the tissues adjacent to the implants under microwave therapy. We therefore, used a rabbit model in an effort to determine the impact of microwave therapy on temperature changes in tissues adjacent to the titanium alloy implants and the safety profile thereof. Methods Titanium alloy internal fixation plates were implanted in New Zealand rabbits in the middle of femur. Microwave therapy was performed by a 2450 MHz microwave generator 3 days after the surgery. Temperature changes of muscles adjacent to the implants were recorded under exposure to dose-gradient microwave radiation from 20w to 60w. Results Significant difference between control and microwave treatment group at peak temperatures (Tpeak) and temperature gap (Tgap= Tpeak-Tvally) were observed in deep muscles (Tpeak, 41.63 ± 0.21°C vs. 44.40 ± 0.17°C, P < 0.01; Tgap, 5.33 ± 0.21°C vs. 8.10 ± 0.36°C, P < 0.01) and superficial muscles (Tpeak, 41.53 ± 0.15°C vs. 42.03 ± 0.23°C, P = 0.04; Tgap, 5.23 ± 0.21°C vs. 5.80 ± 0.17°C, P = 0.013) under 60 w, and deep muscles (Tpeak, 40.93 ± 0.25°C vs. 41.87 ± 0.23°C, P = 0.01; Tgap, 4.73 ± 0.20°C vs. 5.63 ± 0.35°C, P = 0.037) under 50w, but not under 20, 30 and 40w. Conclusion Our results suggest that low-dose (20w-40w) continuous-wave microwave irradiation delivered by a 2450 MHz microwave generator might be a promising treatment for patients with titanium alloy internal fixation, as it did not raise temperature in muscle tissues adjacent to the titanium alloy implant. PMID:24365389

  19. Gene expression in normal-appearing tissue adjacent to prostate cancers are predictive of clinical outcome: evidence for a biologically meaningful field effect

    PubMed Central

    Magi-Galluzzi, Cristina; Maddala, Tara; Falzarano, Sara Moscovita; Cherbavaz, Diana B.; Zhang, Nan; Knezevic, Dejan; Febbo, Phillip G.; Lee, Mark; Lawrence, Hugh Jeffrey; Klein, Eric A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We evaluated gene expression in histologically normal-appearing tissue (NT) adjacent to prostate tumor in radical prostatectomy specimens, assessing for biological significance based on prediction of clinical recurrence (cR - metastatic disease or local recurrence). Results A total of 410 evaluable patients had paired tumor and NT. Fortysix genes, representing diverse biological pathways (androgen signaling, stromal response, stress response, cellular organization, proliferation, cell adhesion, and chromatin remodeling) were associated with cR in NT (FDR < 20%), of which 39 concordantly predicted cR in tumor (FDR < 20%). Overall GPS and its stromal response and androgen-signaling gene group components also significantly predicted time to cR in NT (RM-corrected HR/20 units = 1.25; 95% CI: 1.01-1.56; P = 0.024). Experimental Design Expression of 732 genes was measured by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) separately in tumor and adjacent NT specimens from 127 patients with and 374 without cR following radical prostatectomy for T1/T2 prostate cancer. A 17-gene expression signature (Genomic Prostate Score [GPS]), previously validated to predict aggressive prostate cancer when measured in tumor tissue, was also assessed using pre-specified genes and algorithms. Analysis used Cox proportional hazards models, Storey's false discovery rate (FDR) control, and regression to the mean (RM) correction. Conclusions Gene expression profiles, including GPS, from NT adjacent to tumor can predict prostate cancer outcome. These findings suggest that there is a biologically significant field effect in primary prostate cancer that is a marker for aggressive disease. PMID:27121323

  20. Uptake and localization of /sup 131/I-labeled anti-calcitonin immunoglobulins in rat medullary thyroid carcinoma tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Gautvik, K.M.; Svindahl, K.; Skretting, A.; Stenberg, B.; Myhre, L.; Ekeland, A.; Johannesen, J.V.

    1982-09-15

    A medullary carcinoma of the thyroid gland (MCT) which has been transplanted repeatedly under the kidney capsule of Wag/Rij rats secretes calcitonin (CT) spontaneously. From 10--20 weeks after transplantation, immunoreactive serum calcitonin (iCT) is abnormally elevated and continues to rise parallel to tumor growth. The immunoglobulin fraction of the rabbit anti-CT antiserum raised against intact synthetic hormone, was purified and iodinated electrolytically. Specific activities of /sup 131/I-labeled immunoglobulin of 0.008--0.014 mCi/microgram protein were obtained with 80% preservation of CT binding activity. Wag/Rig rats with MCT tumor and increased serum iCT concentrations received intravenous injections of /sup 131/I-labeled immunoglobulins (0.054--0.811 mCi). The distribution of radioactivity in the rats was followed for 14 days using external scintigraphy in combination with radioactivity measurements of blood and different organs at the end of the observation period. The distribution of /sup 113/mIn was used as a marker for blood distribution. When the radioactivity ratios (/sup 131/I//sup 113/mIn) in tumor and different organs were related to that of blood which was set equal to unity, tumor tissue contained 3--6 times higher activity. Nonhyperimmune rabbit immunoglobulins or rabbit antirat prolactin immunoglobulins were not concentrated in MCT tissue, nor did anti-CT immunoglobulins localize in rat prolactin adenomas.

  1. Microrna-199a-5p Functions as a Tumor Suppressor via Suppressing Connective Tissue Growth Factor (CTGF) in Follicular Thyroid Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Dawei; Han, Shen; Liu, Chao; Zhou, Rui; Sun, Weihai; Zhang, Zhijun; Qu, Jianjun

    2016-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to explore the role of miR-199a-5p in the development of thyroid cancer, including its anti-proliferation effect and downstream signaling pathway. Material/Methods We conducted qRT-PCR analysis to detect the expressions of several microRNAs in 42 follicular thyroid carcinoma patients and 42 controls. We identified CTGF as target of miR-491, and viability and cell cycle status were determined in FTC-133 cells transfected with CTGF siRNA, miR-199a mimics, or inhibitors. Results We identified an underexpression of miR-199a-5p in follicular thyroid carcinoma tissue samples compared with controls. Then we confirmed CTGF as a target of miR-199a-5p thyroid cells by using informatics analysis and luciferase reporter assay. Additionally, we found that mRNA and protein expression levels of CTGF were both clearly higher in malignant tissues than in benign tissues. miR-199a-5p mimics and CTGF siRNA similarly downregulated the expression of CTGF, and reduced the viability of FTC-133 cells by arresting the cell cycle in G0 phase. Transfection of miR-199a-5p inhibitors increased the expression of CTGF and promoted the viability of the cells by increasing the fraction of cells in G2/M and S phases. Conclusions Our study proves that the CTGF gene is a target of miR-199a-5p, demonstrating the negatively related association between CTGF and miR-199a. These findings suggest that miR-199a-5p might be a novel therapeutic target in the treatment of follicular thyroid carcinoma. PMID:27062921

  2. Pesticide residues in adipose tissue from hippopotami (Hippopotamus amphibius L) living in and adjacent to the Luangwa River in Zambia.

    PubMed

    Flåøyen, A; Polder, A; Mwase, M; Almli, B; Musonda, M M

    2005-06-01

    The concentration of organochlorines (OCs) such as organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls were measured in adipose tissue collected from 14 male hippopotami at Mfuwe in the southern part of the Luangwa National Park, Zambia. The samples contained low levels of OCs, and the concentrations of OCs were comparable to or lower than reported for wild herbivores studied in other parts of the world. PMID:16137136

  3. Metal debris concentrations in soft tissues adjacent to loosened femoral stems is higher in uncemented than cemented implants

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There are still many questions related to aseptic femoral stem loosening. Systemic and local immune responses to the implanted “foreign body” is one of the reasons for loosening. The purpose of the study was to measure metal ion concentration (Ti, Co, Cr, Mo, Ni, Al) around loosened femoral stems and compare their levels around uncemented and cemented implants. Methods This paper reports 50 hips operated for isolated stem loosening, in 50 patients at the mean age of 57 years (from 21 to 87). There were 25 cemented (Co,Cr29,Mo,Ni) and 25 uncemented (Ti, Al) stems. The mean follow-up from primary hip replacement to revision was 10.1 years (from 0.5 to 17). During the procedure, scar tissue around the stem was taken for analysis of metal ions. Results The concentrations of titanium and aluminium in soft tissues around uncemented loosened stems were higher than cemented ones (p < 0.001, p < 0.001 respectively). However, no statistically significant differences were observed between both types of stems in terms of ions of the metal of which cemented implants had been made of (Co, Cr, Mo, Ni). Conclusions In soft tissue around a loosened stem, the concentrations of metal ions from implants are much higher in case of uncemented stems than of cemented ones. Metal ions from vitalium femoral heads were found around uncemented stems in similar values to cemented streams. PMID:25098913

  4. Effects of caloric deprivation on thyroid hormone tissue uptake and generation of low-T3 syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    van der Heyden, J.T.M.; Docter, R.; van Toor, H.; Wilson, J.H.P.; Hennemann, G.; Krenning, E.P.

    1986-08-01

    Changes in thyroid hormone metabolism in the low-3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3) syndrome cannot be fully explained in all conditions by a decrease in 5'-deiodinase activity. Recent observations showed that in rat hepatocytes iodothyronines are taken up by an active transport mechanism. To investigate whether regulation, i.e., inhibition of active transmembraneous transport for iodothyronines in humans may contribute to the generation of the low-T3 syndrome, tracer thyroxine (T4) and T3 kinetic studies were performed in 10 obese subjects before and after 7 days on a 240 kcal diet. Kinetics analyses were performed according to a three-pool model of distribution and metabolism for both T4 and T3. For T4 kinetics, during caloric deprivation serum total T4 and plasma pool did not change and production rate and metabolic clearance rate (MCR) were significantly lower. Despite a significantly higher serum free T4, the mass transfer rate to the rapidly equilibrating pool (REP) and the slowly equilibrating pool (SEP) diminished significantly, leading to smaller tissue pools. For T3 kinetics, both serum total T3, free T3, plasma pool, and production rate diminished significantly, while MCR remained unchanged. These changes cannot be fully explained by a similar decrease of serum free T3 (only 25%), indicating a diminished transport efficiency for T3. In conclusion, during caloric restriction, transport of T4 and T3 into tissues is diminished, and this phenomenon is much more pronounced for T4 transport per se may contribute to low-T3 production and low-T3 serum levels due to less substrate (i.e., T4) availability in tissues.

  5. Virtual touch tissue imaging on acoustic radiation force impulse elastography: a new technique for differential diagnosis between benign and malignant thyroid nodules.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi-Feng; He, Yong; Xu, Hui-Xiong; Xu, Xiao-Hong; Liu, Chang; Guo, Le-Hang; Liu, Lin-Na; Xu, Jun-Mei

    2014-04-01

    Objectives- Acoustic radiation force impulse elastography is a newly developed ultrasound elasticity imaging technique that included both Virtual Touch tissue quantification and Virtual Touch tissue imaging (VTI; Siemens Medical Solutions, Mountain View, CA). This study aimed to evaluate the usefulness of VTI in differentiating malignant from benign thyroid nodules. Methods- This study included 192 consecutive patients with thyroid nodules (n = 219) who underwent surgery for compressive symptoms or suspicion of malignancy. Tissue stiffness on VTI elastography was scored from 1 (soft) to 6 (hard). The VTI scores between malignant and benign thyroid nodules were compared. The intraobserver and interobserver agreement for VTI elastography was also assessed. Results- On VTI elastography: score 1 was found in 84 nodules (all benign); score 2 in 37 nodules (3 papillary carcinomas and 34 benign nodules); score 3 in 25 nodules (1 medullary carcinoma, 6 papillary carcinomas, and 18 benign nodules); score 4 in 53 nodules (50 papillary carcinomas and 3 benign nodules); score 5 in 17 nodules (14 papillary carcinomas and 3 benign nodules); and score 6 in 3 nodules (all papillary carcinomas). A VTI elasticity score of 4 or greater was highly predictive of malignancy (P< .01), and the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy were 87.0% (67 of 77), 95.8% (136 of 142), 91.8% (67 of 73), 93.1% (136 of 146), and 92.7% (203 of 219), respectively. The κ values were 0.69 for intraobserver agreement and 0.85 for interobserver agreement. Conclusions- Virtual Touch tissue elasticity imaging has great potential as an adjunctive tool combined with conventional sonography for differential diagnosis between benign and malignant thyroid nodules.

  6. Determination of thyroid hormones in mouse tissues by isotope-dilution microflow liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method.

    PubMed

    De Angelis, Meri; Giesert, Florian; Finan, Brian; Clemmensen, Christoffer; Müller, Timo D; Vogt-Weisenhorn, Daniela; Tschöp, Matthias H; Schramm, Karl-Werner

    2016-10-15

    Thyroid hormones (THs) play a critical role in the regulation of many biological processes such as growth, metabolism and development both in humans and wildlife. In general, TH levels are measured by immunoassay (IA) methods but the specificity of the antibodies used in these assays limits selectivity. In the last decade, several analytical methods using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) have been developed to measure THs. These new techniques proved to be more accurate than the IA analysis and they were widely used for the determination of TH level in different human and animal tissues. A large part of LC-MS/MS methods described in literature employed between 200 and 500mg of sample, however this quantity can be considered too high especially when preclinical studies are conducted using mice as test subjects. Thus an analytical method that reduces the amount of tissue is essential. In this study, we developed a procedure for the analysis of six THs; L-thyroxine (T4), 3,3',5-triiodo-l-thyronine (T3), 3,3',5'-triiodo-l-thyronine (rT3), 3,5-diiodo-l-thyronine (rT2), 3,3'-diiodo-l-thyronine (T2), 3-iodo-l-thyronine (T1) using isotope ((13)C6-T4, (13)C6-T3, (13)C6-rT3, (13)C6-T2) dilution liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The major difference with previously described methods lies in the utilization of a nano-UPLC (Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography) system in micro configuration. This approach leads to a reduction compared to the published methods, of column internal diameter, flow rate, and injected volume. The result of all these improvements is a decrease in the amount of sample necessary for the analysis. The method was tested on six different mouse tissues: liver, heart, kidney, muscle, lung and brown adipose tissue (BAT). The nano-UPLC system was interfaced with a quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer (Q-TOF2-MS) using the positive ion mode electrospray ionization. In our analytical method

  7. TRANSCRIPTIONAL RESPONSES IN THYROID TISSUES FROM RATS TREATED WITH A TUMORIGENIC AND A NON-TUMORIGENIC TRIAZOLE CONAZOLE FUNGICIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Conazoles are fungicides that are used in agriculture and medicine. Conazoles can induce follicular cell adenomas of the thyroid in rats after chronic bioassay and are considered to pose a hazard to humans. Pathways and networks of genes that were associated with thyroid cancer w...

  8. Neither bST nor Growth Hormone Releasing Factor Alter Expression of Thyroid Hormone Receptors in Liver and Mammary Tissues

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Physiological effects of thyroid hormones are mediated primarily by binding of triiodothyronine, to specific nuclear receptors. It has been hypothesized that organ-specific changes in production of triiodothyronine from its prohormone, thyroxine, target the action of thyroid hormones to the mammary...

  9. Tissue and serum samples of patients with papillary thyroid cancer with and without benign background demonstrate different altered expression of proteins

    PubMed Central

    Abdullah, Mardiaty Iryani; Lee, Ching Chin; Mat Junit, Sarni; Ng, Khoon Leong

    2016-01-01

    Background Papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) is mainly diagnosed using fine-needle aspiration biopsy. This most common form of well-differentiated thyroid cancer occurs with or without a background of benign thyroid goiter (BTG). Methods In the present study, a gel-based proteomics analysis was performed to analyse the expression of proteins in tissue and serum samples of PTC patients with (PTCb; n = 6) and without a history of BTG (PTCa; n = 8) relative to patients with BTG (n = 20). This was followed by confirmation of the levels of proteins which showed significant altered abundances of more than two-fold difference (p < 0.01) in the tissue and serum samples of the same subjects using ELISA. Results The data of our study showed that PTCa and PTCb distinguish themselves from BTG in the types of tissue and serum proteins of altered abundance. While higher levels of alpha-1 antitrypsin (A1AT) and heat shock 70 kDa protein were associated with PTCa, lower levels of A1AT, protein disulfide isomerase and ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2 N seemed apparent in the PTCb. In case of the serum proteins, higher abundances of A1AT and alpha 1-beta glycoprotein were detected in PTCa, while PTCb was associated with enhanced apolipoprotein A-IV and alpha 2-HS glycoprotein (AHSG). The different altered expression of tissue and serum A1AT as well as serum AHSG between PTCa and PTCb patients were also validated by ELISA. Discussion The distinctive altered abundances of the tissue and serum proteins form preliminary indications that PTCa and PTCb are two distinct cancers of the thyroid that are etiologically and mechanistically different although it is currently not possible to rule out that they may also be due other reasons such as the different stages of the malignant disease. These proteins stand to have a potential use as tissue or serum biomarkers to discriminate the three different thyroid neoplasms although this requires further validation in clinically representative

  10. Tissue and serum samples of patients with papillary thyroid cancer with and without benign background demonstrate different altered expression of proteins

    PubMed Central

    Abdullah, Mardiaty Iryani; Lee, Ching Chin; Mat Junit, Sarni; Ng, Khoon Leong

    2016-01-01

    Background Papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) is mainly diagnosed using fine-needle aspiration biopsy. This most common form of well-differentiated thyroid cancer occurs with or without a background of benign thyroid goiter (BTG). Methods In the present study, a gel-based proteomics analysis was performed to analyse the expression of proteins in tissue and serum samples of PTC patients with (PTCb; n = 6) and without a history of BTG (PTCa; n = 8) relative to patients with BTG (n = 20). This was followed by confirmation of the levels of proteins which showed significant altered abundances of more than two-fold difference (p < 0.01) in the tissue and serum samples of the same subjects using ELISA. Results The data of our study showed that PTCa and PTCb distinguish themselves from BTG in the types of tissue and serum proteins of altered abundance. While higher levels of alpha-1 antitrypsin (A1AT) and heat shock 70 kDa protein were associated with PTCa, lower levels of A1AT, protein disulfide isomerase and ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2 N seemed apparent in the PTCb. In case of the serum proteins, higher abundances of A1AT and alpha 1-beta glycoprotein were detected in PTCa, while PTCb was associated with enhanced apolipoprotein A-IV and alpha 2-HS glycoprotein (AHSG). The different altered expression of tissue and serum A1AT as well as serum AHSG between PTCa and PTCb patients were also validated by ELISA. Discussion The distinctive altered abundances of the tissue and serum proteins form preliminary indications that PTCa and PTCb are two distinct cancers of the thyroid that are etiologically and mechanistically different although it is currently not possible to rule out that they may also be due other reasons such as the different stages of the malignant disease. These proteins stand to have a potential use as tissue or serum biomarkers to discriminate the three different thyroid neoplasms although this requires further validation in clinically representative

  11. Comparison of heavy metal concentrations in tissues of red foxes from adjacent urban, suburban, and rural areas.

    PubMed

    Dip, R; Stieger, C; Deplazes, P; Hegglin, D; Müller, U; Dafflon, O; Koch, H; Naegeli, H

    2001-05-01

    The red fox (Vulpes vulpes) is a representative of the canid family with wide distribution in the Northern Hemisphere and Australia. The increasing utilization of urbanized habitats by red foxes prompted us to test whether this species may be used to monitor the presence of anthropogenic pollutants in cities or suburbs. For that purpose, we compared the concentrations of heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn) in foxes from urban, suburban, and rural areas within the municipality of Zürich (Switzerland). The kidney and liver of suburban and rural foxes contained the highest Cd concentrations, whereas urban foxes contained the highest Pb levels. In the kidney of suburban foxes, Cd concentrations increased from a median value of 0.73 mg/kg in juvenile animals to 1.82 mg/kg in adults. Similarly, the liver of suburban foxes contained increasing Cd levels from a median of 0.21 mg/kg in juvenile animals to 0.94 mg/kg in adults. An age-dependent storage of Cd was also found in foxes from the rural surroundings, but no such accumulation occurred in urban foxes from the city center, where even adult animals contained very low Cd levels. Conversely, foxes from the urban center were characterized by elevated Pb concentrations during the first 2 years of life, but this transient Pb accumulation was absent in suburban or rural animals. The liver of juvenile foxes contained a median Pb concentration of 0.99 mg/kg in the city compared to only 0.47 and 0.37 mg/kg in the suburban and rural area, respectively. Thus, we found that animals from separate environmental compartments contain different patterns of tissue residues, implying that red foxes may serve as a bioindicator species to detect certain toxic hazards in urbanized habitats. PMID:11525499

  12. DIAGNOSTIC CRITERIA FOR PROLIFERATIVE THYROID LESIONS IN BONY FISHES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Criteria for distinguishing hyperplastic thyroid lesions from thyroid neoplasia in bony fishes have long been debated by scientists. Confusion exists because the thyroid tissue in most teleosts is unencapsulated, is occasionally found in ectopic sites, and is frequently predispos...

  13. Primary Thyroid Sarcoma: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Surov, Alexey; Gottschling, Sebastian; Wienke, Andreas; Meyer, Hans Jonas; Spielmann, Rolf Peter; Dralle, Henning

    2015-10-01

    Different types of malignant tumors can occur within the thyroid. Primary cancer is the most common type of thyroid malignancy. Non-epithelial malignancies can also arise within the thyroid. The aim of the present study was to analyze clinical and radiological characteristics of reported primary thyroid sarcomas (PTS), based on a large sample of cases. The PubMed database was screened for articles from between 1990 and 2014. Overall, 86 articles with 142 patients were identified. Ultrasound evaluation was reported for 36 patients. Data regarding computed tomography of the neck were available for 29 cases. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed for eight patients. The following data were retrieved for the identified sarcomas: localization, size, homogeneity, internal texture, and margin characteristics. In most cases, PTS occurred in patients over 40 years of age, with a peak incidence for the group aged 60-79 years. Angiosarcoma was diagnosed in 29 cases (20.4%), followed by malignant hemangioendothelioma (n=23, 16.3%), malignant fibrous histiocytoma (n=20, 14.1%), leiomyosarcoma (n=16, 11.3%), and fibrosarcoma (n=13, 9.2%). In most patients (n=113, 79.6%), PTS manifested clinically as a painless goiter. On ultrasound, PTS were predominantly mixed hypo-to-hyperechoic in comparison to the normal thyroid tissue. On non-contrast computed tomography, most sarcomas were inhomogeneous hypo-to-hyperdense. On post-contrast magnetic resonance images, most sarcomas showed marked non-homogenous enhancement. In 26.8%, infiltration of the adjacent organs was seen. The trachea or esophagus was affected more frequently in patients with malignant histiocytoma and liposarcoma. Different strategies were used in the treatment of PTS. Our analysis provides clinical and radiological characteristics of PTS. The described features should be taken into consideration in the differential diagnosis of thyroid tumors. PMID:26408676

  14. Second cancer following cutaneous melanoma and cancers of the brain, thyroid, connective tissue, bone, and eye in Connecticut, 1935-82.

    PubMed

    Tucker, M A; Boice, J D; Hoffman, D A

    1985-12-01

    The risk of second primary cancers developing was evaluated in individuals with 6 rare tumors in Connecticut between 1935 and 1982. Small but significant excesses of all second cancers occurred in patients with cutaneous melanoma (42%), and cancers of the brain (59%), thyroid (49%), connective tissue (23%), bone (66%), and eye (40%). In individuals with cutaneous melanoma, the highest risks were for subsequent cutaneous melanomas [relative risk (RR) = 8.5] that persisted throughout all intervals of observation. The risk for second melanomas was higher in persons under age 40, consistent with a heritable component. Connective tissue tumors and breast cancers also occurred in excess. Among patients with brain cancer, an increase of melanoma was observed that may represent an underlying neural crest abnormality, although no excess of brain cancer was seen after melanoma. Reciprocal increases of bone cancer after connective tissue cancer and connective tissue cancer after bone cancer point to shared risk factors, such as high dose radiotherapy or genetic susceptibility states. An anticipated high risk of osteogenic sarcoma following Ewing's sarcoma was not seen. An excess of breast cancer (RR = 1.9) after thyroid cancer indicates common etiologic factors. Expected excesses of bilateral retinoblastoma and bone cancer after retinoblastoma were seen. Tumors commonly treated with alkylating agents or nitrosoureas (melanoma, brain, connective tissue) showed slightly elevated risks of acute nonlymphocytic leukemia. Prostate cancer was frequently found to be in excess, but this is likely an artifact due to ascertainment bias.

  15. Triple ectopic thyroid: A rare entity.

    PubMed

    Nilegaonkar, Sujit; Naik, Chetna; Sonar, Sameer; Hirawe, Deepti

    2011-10-01

    Ectopic thyroid tissue is an uncommon congenital aberration. It is extremely rare to have three ectopic foci at three different sites. The thyroid scan has been used successfully to diagnose ectopic thyroid tissue. We report a case of ectopic thyroid tissue at base of tongue, another at the level of hyoid and third one as aberrant tissue at suprahyoid location in a 16 year old female who presented with swelling in front of neck. This patient was clinically diagnosed as thyroglossal cyst and was being planned for surgery. Preoperative thyroid scan helped in establishing diagnosis of ectopic thyroid which was the only functioning thyroid tissue. Thus, it prevented unnecessary surgery. Therefore it is suggested that thyroid scan and USG/CT scan must be done as routine work up in neck swellings pre operatively to avoid unnecessary surgeries.

  16. microRNA-141 inhibits thyroid cancer cell growth and metastasis by targeting insulin receptor substrate 2.

    PubMed

    Dong, Su; Meng, Xianying; Xue, Shuai; Yan, Zewen; Ren, Peiyou; Liu, Jia

    2016-01-01

    microRNA-141 (miR-141), a member of the miR-200 family, and has been reported to involve in tumor initiation and development in many types of cancers. However, the function and underlying molecular mechanism of miR-141 in thyroid cancer remains unclear. Therefore, the aim of this study is to identify its expression, function, and molecular mechanism in thyroid cancer. In this study, we found that miR-141 expression levels were downregulated in human thyroid cancer specimens compared to the adjacent normal tissues, and its expression were strongly correlated with clinical stages and lymph node metastases. Function assays showed that overexpression of miR-141 inhibited cell proliferation, induced cell apoptosis, and decreased migration, invasion in thyroid cancer cells, as well as tumor growth in nude mice. Moreover, insulin receptor substrate 2 (IRS2), a known oncogene, was confirmed as a direct target of miR-141, and IRS2 expression levels were upregulated in thyroid cancer, and its expression were inversely correlated with miR-141 expression levels in human thyroid cancer specimens. Forced expression of IRS2 reversed the inhibition effect induced by miR-141 overexpression in thyroid cancer cells. Taken together, our study provides the first evidence that miR-141 suppressed thyroid cancer cell growth and metastasis through inhibition of IRS2. Thus, miR-141 might serve as a promising therapeutic strategy for thyroid cancer treatment.

  17. Thyroid Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... Organizations (PDF, 269 KB). Alternate Language URL Thyroid Tests Page Content On this page: What is the ... Top ] Why do health care providers perform thyroid tests? Health care providers perform thyroid tests to assess ...

  18. Subacute thyroiditis

    MedlinePlus

    Laboratory tests that may be done include: Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) level T4 (thyroid hormone, thyroxine) and T3 level Radioactive iodine uptake Thyroglobulin level Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) In some cases, a thyroid ...

  19. Silent thyroiditis

    MedlinePlus

    ... gland. The disorder can cause hyperthyroidism, followed by hypothyroidism. The thyroid gland is located in the neck, ... Later symptoms may be of an underactive thyroid ( hypothyroidism ), including fatigue and cold intolerance, until the thyroid ...

  20. Thyroid Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... thyroid surgery, requiring treatment with thyroid hormone (see Hypothyroidism brochure ). This is especially true if you had ... Nodules Goiter Graves’ Disease Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis Hyperthyroidism (Overactive) Hypothyroidism (Underactive) Iodine Deficiency Low Iodine Diet Radioactive Iodine ...

  1. Thyroid scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... thyroid; Radioactive iodine uptake and scan test - thyroid; Nuclear scan - thyroid ... the test. Ask your provider or the radiology/nuclear medicine team performing the scan about taking precautions.

  2. Effect of thyroid status on beta-adrenoceptors and calcium channels in rat cardiac and vascular tissue.

    PubMed

    Hawthorn, M H; Gengo, P; Wei, X Y; Rutledge, A; Moran, J F; Gallant, S; Triggle, D J

    1988-05-01

    To determine the influence of thyroid hormone on beta-adrenoceptors and Ca2+ channels, rats were treated with thyroxine (75 micrograms/100 g sc daily for 5 days) or propylthiouracil (0.05% in drinking water for 30 days). beta-Adrenoceptor density in ventricular tissue, measured by [125I]iodocyanopindolol binding, was significantly increased and decreased respectively, following thyroxine or propylthiouracil treatment to 124.7 +/- 7.11 fmol/mg protein and 71.98 +/- 5.37 fmol/mg protein from euthyroid (control) levels of 93.7 +/- 4.58 fmol/mg protein. Ca2+ channel density, measured by [3H]nitrendipine binding, was altered in the opposite direction; it was significantly decreased and increased to 324 +/- 24 fmol/mg protein and 691 +/- 31 fmol/mg protein from 562 +/- 35 fmol/mg protein after thyroxine or propylthiouracil treatment, respectively. No changes in affinity of either ligand were observed. Responses of isolated papillary muscles from propylthiouracil-treated animals accorded with changes seen in the binding studies. The geometric mean EC50 of isoproterenol increased from 9.5 x 10(-9) mol/l to 5.5 x 10(-8) mol/l, and the EC50 for calcium decreased from 3.16 x 10(-3) mol/l to 1.36 x 10(-3) mol/l; moreover, the responsiveness to the Ca2+ channel activator Bay K 8644 was increased. The corresponding responses in thyroxine-treated animals could not be examined because of prominent arrhythmic activity. As with papillary muscles the sensitivity of left atria to isoproterenol was decreased after treatment with propylthiouracil, with geometric mean EC50 values increasing from 3.21 x 10(-9) mol/l to 89.4 x 10(-9) mol/l.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Fine needle aspiration cytology of a myoepithelioma presenting as a thyroid nodule.

    PubMed

    Narick, Christina; Velosa, Claudia; Pollice, Philip; Silverman, Jan

    2015-02-01

    Myoepitheliomas are rare neoplasms that are typically found in the major and minor salivary glands and represent approximately 1.5% of all salivary gland neoplasms. We present a patient with an exophytic anterior midline neck mass, which was initially believed to be a thyroid isthmus nodule that underwent fine needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy. FNA cytologic evaluation reveals numerous plump spindle cells and a myxoid background, thus raising the possibility of rare benign mixed tumor of the thyroid. However, the resected specimen consists of predominately spindle cells with a minor component of chondromyxoid matrix, and no ductal epithelial cells, favoring a diagnosis of myoepithelioma. Although this lesion clinically and radiologically appeared to arise from the thyroid gland, at the time of resection, it was found to be adjacent to the thyroid isthmus and was ultimately diagnosed as a soft tissue myoepithelioma of the midneck.

  4. Differential effects of human interferon alpha and interferon gamma on xenografted human thyroid tissue in severe combined immunodeficient mice and nude mice.

    PubMed

    Kawai, K; Enomoto, T; Fornasier, V; Resetkova, E; Volpé, R

    1997-03-01

    We have studied the in vivo effects of human interferon alpha (IFN-alpha) and interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) administration on human thyroid tissue xenografted into two mouse strains: severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice and nude mice. Human lymphocytes survive in SCID mice but are lysed in nude mice. Thyroid tissues from Graves' disease or Hashimoto's thyroiditis, or paranodular [normal, (N)] tissue was xenografted into SCID mice (0.8 g/mouse) pretreated with anti-asialo GM-1 antiserum and radiation and also into nude mice. One week after xenografting, SCID and nude mice were divided into three groups. Group A was treated with IFN-alpha intraperitoneally (2,000 units/mouse) three times weekly; group B was treated with IFN-gamma similarly; group C was treated with phosphate buffered saline (PBS) only (control). Autologous human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were added to mice receiving N xenografts. Blood was taken every 2 weeks for levels of IgG and thyroid antibodies (TAb). After 6 weeks of treatment, mice were sacrificed, and xenograft thyrocyte histocompatibility leukocyte antigen (HLA-DR) and intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM-1) expression were measured. In addition, thyrocyte cultures were stimulated in vitro with 200 units/ml of either IFN-alpha or IFN-gamma or PBS (control). SCID mice xenografted with autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD) in group A showed a significantly higher TAb production than group C, whereas in group B, TAb production was not statistically increased compared to control (group C). SCID mice xenografted with N did not produce TAb in any group, nor did nude mice xenografted with AITD. Thyrocyte HLA-DR expression was markedly increased in group A and B in SCID mice xenografted with Graves' disease, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, and N tissue compared to group C. In contrast, only group B (IFN-gamma) showed an increase in thyrocyte HLA-DR in nude mice. In the in vitro studies, only IFN-gamma (not IFN-alpha) stimulated

  5. Thyroid Diseases Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... of thyroiditis and identify autoimmune thyroid conditions Thyroid peroxidase (TPO) antibody—a marker for autoimmune thyroid disease; ... for thyroid gland abnormalities and to evaluate thyroid function (for iodine) in different areas of the thyroid ...

  6. Detection of human parvovirus B19 in papillary thyroid carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wang, J H; Zhang, W P; Liu, H X; Wang, D; Li, Y F; Wang, W Q; Wang, L; He, F R; Wang, Z; Yan, Q G; Chen, L W; Huang, G S

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate whether parvovirus B19, a common human pathogen, was also involved in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), 112 paraffin-embedded thyroid specimens of benign nodules, papillary, medullary and follicular carcinomas, and normal controls were examined for B19 DNA and capsid protein by nested PCR, in situ hybridisation (ISH) and immunohistochemistry (IHC). The expression of the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) was investigated by IHC. The results showed B19 DNA commonly exists in human thyroid tissues; however, there were significant differences between PTC group and normal controls, and between PTC and nonneoplastic adjacent tissues (P<0.001). The presence of viral DNA in PTC neoplastic epithelium was confirmed by laser-capture microdissection and sequencing of nested PCR products. B19 capsid protein in PTC group was significantly higher than that of all the control groups and nonneoplastic adjacent tissues (P⩽0.001). Compared with control groups, the activation of NF-κB in PTC group was significantly increased (P⩽0.02), except for medullary carcinomas, and the activation of NF-κB was correlated with the viral protein presence (P=0.002). Moreover, NF-κB was colocalised with B19 DNA in the neoplastic epithelium of PTC by double staining of IHC and ISH. These results indicate for the first time a possible role of B19 in pathogenesis of PTC. PMID:18212749

  7. Decreased expression of thyroid receptor-associated protein 220 in temporal lobe tissue of patients with refractory epilepsy

    SciTech Connect

    Li Jinmei . E-mail: jinmeimery@Yahoo.com.cn; Wang Xuefeng . E-mail: rengang68@vip.sina.com; Xi Zhiqin; Gong Yun; Liu Fengying; Sun Jijun; Wu Yuan; Luan Guoming; Wang Yuping; Li Yunlin; Zhang Jianguo; Lu Yong; Li Hongwei

    2006-10-06

    Purpose: TRAP220 (thyroid hormone receptor-associated protein) functions as a coactivator for nuclear receptors and stimulates transcription by recruiting the TRAP mediator complex to hormone responsive promoter regions. Thus, TRAP220 enhances the function of thyroid/steroid hormone receptors such as thyroid hormone and oestrogen receptors. This study investigated the expression of TRAP220 mRNA and protein level in epileptic brains comparing with human control. Methods: We examined the expression of TRAP220 mRNA and protein levels in temporal lobes from patients with chronic pharmacoresistant epilepsy who have undergone surgery. Results: Expression of TRAP220 mRNA and protein was shown to be decreased significantly in the temporal cortex of the patients with epilepsy. Conclusions: Our work showed that a decrease in TRAP220 mRNA and protein levels may be involved in the pathophysiology of epilepsy and may be associated with impairment of the brain caused by frequent seizures.

  8. Thyroid Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... are here Home > Types of Cancer > Thyroid Cancer Thyroid Cancer This is Cancer.Net’s Guide to Thyroid Cancer. Use the menu below to choose the ... social workers, and patient advocates. Cancer.Net Guide Thyroid Cancer Overview Statistics Medical Illustrations Risk Factors Symptoms ...

  9. Thyroid function and obesity.

    PubMed

    Laurberg, Peter; Knudsen, Nils; Andersen, Stig; Carlé, Allan; Pedersen, Inge Bülow; Karmisholt, Jesper

    2012-10-01

    Important interaction exists between thyroid function, weight control, and obesity. Several mechanisms seem to be involved, and in studies of groups of people the pattern of thyroid function tests depends on the balance of obesity and underlying thyroid disease in the cohort studied. Obese people with a normal thyroid gland tend to have activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis with higher serum TSH and thyroid hormones in serum. On the other hand, small differences in thyroid function are associated with up to 5 kg difference in body weight. The weight loss after therapy of overt hypothyroidism is caused by excretion of water bound in tissues (myxoedema). Many patients treated for hyperthyroidism experience a gain of more weight than they lost during the active phase of the disease. The mechanism for this excessive weight gain has not been fully elucidated. New studies on the relation between L-T3 therapy and weight control are discussed. The interaction between weight control and therapy of thyroid disease is important to many patients and it should be studied in more detail. PMID:24783015

  10. Thyroid ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhary, Vikas; Bano, Shahina

    2013-01-01

    Thyroid ultrasonography has established itself as a popular and useful tool in the evaluation and management of thyroid disorders. Advanced ultrasound techniques in thyroid imaging have not only fascinated the radiologists but also attracted the surgeons and endocrinologists who are using these techniques in their daily clinical and operative practice. This review provides an overview of indications for ultrasound in various thyroid diseases, describes characteristic ultrasound findings in these diseases, and illustrates major diagnostic pitfalls of thyroid ultrasound. PMID:23776892

  11. Dual ectopic thyroid gland: sonography and scintigraphy of lingual and sublingual thyroid.

    PubMed

    Marković, Vinko; Glavina, Gordana; Eterović, Davor; Punda, Ante; Brdar, Dubravka

    2014-06-01

    Dual ectopic lingual and sublingual thyroid gland is an extraordinarily rare condition. We present 1 patient with subclinical hypothyroidism. The clinical examination revealed that the thyroid gland was not palpable in its usual cervical location, whereas ultrasonography confirmed an empty thyroid bed without any ectopic thyroid tissue in the rest of the neck. The final diagnosis of dual ectopic lingual and sublingual thyroid was established by ultrasound examination through the mouth floor and confirmed by scintigraphy and CT thereafter.

  12. TRANSCRIPTIONAL RESPONSES IN THYROID TISSUES FROM RATS TREATED WITH A TUMORIGENIC AND A NON-TUMORIGENIC TRIAZOLE CONAZOLE FUNGICIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    What is the study?
    Conazoles are triazole- or imidazole-containing fungicides that are used in agriculture and medicine. Conazoles can induce follicular cell adenomas of the thyroid in rats after chronic bioassay. The goal of this study was to identify pathways and network...

  13. Influence of Nitrate and Nitrite on Thyroid Hormone Responsive and Stress-Associated Gene Expression in Cultured Rana catesbeiana Tadpole Tail Fin Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Hinther, Ashley; Edwards, Thea M.; Guillette, Louis J.; Helbing, Caren C.

    2012-01-01

    Nitrate and nitrite are common aqueous pollutants that are known to disrupt the thyroid axis. In amphibians, thyroid hormone (TH)-dependent metamorphosis is affected, although whether the effect is acceleration or deceleration of this developmental process varies from study to study. One mechanism of action of these nitrogenous compounds is through alteration of TH synthesis. However, direct target tissue effects on TH signaling are hypothesized. The present study uses the recently developed cultured tail fin biopsy (C-fin) assay to study possible direct tissue effects of nitrate and nitrite. Tail biopsies obtained from premetamorphic Rana catesbeiana tadpoles were exposed to 5 and 50 mg/L nitrate (NO3–N) and 0.5 and 5 mg/L nitrite (NO2–N) in the absence and presence of 10 nM T3. Thyroid hormone receptor β (TRβ) and Rana larval keratin type I (RLKI), both of which are TH-responsive gene transcripts, were measured using quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction. To assess cellular stress which could affect TH signaling and metamorphosis, heat shock protein 30, and catalase (CAT) transcript levels were also measured. We found that nitrate and nitrite did not significantly change the level of any of the four transcripts tested. However, nitrate exposure significantly increased the heteroscedasticity in response of TRβ and RLKI transcripts to T3. Alteration in population variation in such a way could contribute to the previously observed alterations of metamorphosis in frog tadpoles, but may not represent a major mechanism of action. PMID:22493607

  14. Autoimmune thyroid disorders.

    PubMed

    Antonelli, Alessandro; Ferrari, Silvia Martina; Corrado, Alda; Di Domenicantonio, Andrea; Fallahi, Poupak

    2015-02-01

    Autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD) result from a dysregulation of the immune system leading to an immune attack on the thyroid. AITD are T cell-mediated organ-specific autoimmune disorders. The prevalence of AITD is estimated to be 5%; however, the prevalence of antithyroid antibodies may be even higher. The AITD comprise two main clinical presentations: Graves' disease (GD) and Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT), both characterized by lymphocytic infiltration of the thyroid parenchyma. The clinical hallmarks of GD and HT are thyrotoxicosis and hypothyroidism, respectively. The mechanisms that trigger the autoimmune attack to the thyroid are still under investigation. Epidemiological data suggest an interaction among genetic susceptibility and environmental triggers as the key factor leading to the breakdown of tolerance and the development of disease. Recent studies have shown the importance of cytokines and chemokines in the pathogenesis of AT and GD. In thyroid tissue, recruited T helper 1 (Th1) lymphocytes may be responsible for enhanced IFN-γ and TNF-α production, which in turn stimulates CXCL10 (the prototype of the IFN-γ-inducible Th1 chemokines) secretion from the thyroid cells, therefore creating an amplification feedback loop, initiating and perpetuating the autoimmune process. Associations exist between AITD and other organ specific (polyglandular autoimmune syndromes), or systemic autoimmune disorders (Sjögren's syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, systemic sclerosis, cryoglobulinemia, sarcoidosis, psoriatic arthritis). Moreover, several studies have shown an association of AITD and papillary thyroid cancer. These data suggest that AITD patients should be accurately monitored for thyroid dysfunctions, the appearance of thyroid nodules, and other autoimmune disorders. PMID:25461470

  15. Thyroid metabolism in the recessive sex-linked dwarf female chicken. 4. The influence of exogenous thyroid hormones on amino acid uptake by plasma and tissues.

    PubMed

    Grandhi, R R; Brown, R G; Reinhart, B S; Summers, J D

    1975-03-01

    The influence of exogenous triiodothyronine (T3) or tetraiodothyronine (T4) on the incorporation of 3H-labelled methionine, alanine and lysine into plasma, liver and kidney was studied in 4 wk. old dwarf and non-dwarf female, White Leghorn chickens. The response to exogenous T3 or T4 of the birds was directly dependent on the dwarf status as well as the tissue and/or amino acid studied. In general, there was a decreased amino acid uptake by dwarfs and T3 and/or T4 depressed amino acid uptake in all combinations studied except for the uptake of lysine by the kidney of the dwarf. In that tissue, T4 administration caused a significant increase in lysine incorporation. The results found probably were due to different tissue amino compositions or rates of synthesis of proteins by dwarf birds when compared to normals and a differential sensitivity of dwarf birds to changed T3/T4 ratios.

  16. Cancer Stem Cells in the Thyroid

    PubMed Central

    Nagayama, Yuji; Shimamura, Mika; Mitsutake, Norisato

    2016-01-01

    The cancer stem cell (CSC) model posits that CSCs are a small, biologically distinct subpopulation of cancer cells in each tumor that have self-renewal and multi-lineage potential, and are critical for cancer initiation, metastasis, recurrence, and therapy-resistance. Numerous studies have linked CSCs to thyroid biology, but the candidate markers and signal transduction pathways that drive thyroid CSC growth are controversial, the origin(s) of thyroid CSCs remain elusive, and it is unclear whether thyroid CSC biology is consistent with the original hierarchical CSC model or the more recent dynamic CSC model. Here, we critically review the thyroid CSC literature with an emphasis on research that confirmed the presence of thyroid CSCs by in vitro sphere formation or in vivo tumor formation assays with dispersed cells from thyroid cancer tissues or bona fide thyroid cancer cell lines. Future perspectives of thyroid CSC research are also discussed. PMID:26973599

  17. Cancer Stem Cells in the Thyroid.

    PubMed

    Nagayama, Yuji; Shimamura, Mika; Mitsutake, Norisato

    2016-01-01

    The cancer stem cell (CSC) model posits that CSCs are a small, biologically distinct subpopulation of cancer cells in each tumor that have self-renewal and multi-lineage potential, and are critical for cancer initiation, metastasis, recurrence, and therapy-resistance. Numerous studies have linked CSCs to thyroid biology, but the candidate markers and signal transduction pathways that drive thyroid CSC growth are controversial, the origin(s) of thyroid CSCs remain elusive, and it is unclear whether thyroid CSC biology is consistent with the original hierarchical CSC model or the more recent dynamic CSC model. Here, we critically review the thyroid CSC literature with an emphasis on research that confirmed the presence of thyroid CSCs by in vitro sphere formation or in vivo tumor formation assays with dispersed cells from thyroid cancer tissues or bona fide thyroid cancer cell lines. Future perspectives of thyroid CSC research are also discussed. PMID:26973599

  18. Histopathological characteristics of human non-tumor thyroid tissues in a long-term model of adenomatous goiter xenografts in the NOD/Shi-scid, IL-2Rγ(null) mouse.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Etsuko; Kato, Atsuhiko; Chen, Yu Jau; Matsubara, Koichi; Ohnishi, Yasuyuki; Suzuki, Masami

    2014-07-01

    There is a growing need for modeling the human thyroid to link data obtained from animals to humans because of its sensitivity to radiation exposure and endocrine disruption chemicals. In a scid mouse model produced by transplanting human thyroid tissues, leakiness and thymic lymphoma that occurs spontaneously in the scid mouse can complicate the interpretation of experimental results. Considering that the NOD.Cg-Prkdc(scid)Il2rg(tm1Sug)/Jic mouse (NOD/Shi-scid, IL-2Rγ(null) or NOG mouse) may be a better host because this strain has low incidence of leakiness and thymic lymphoma, we have evaluated the potential of a model that allows long-term observation of non-tumor human thyroid tissues in this mouse. We transplanted tissues of human adenomatous goiter into NOG mice and examined the tissues histopathologically. The morphology of human adenomatous goiter tissues was maintained from 24 to 44 weeks after transplantation in NOG mice with no noted differences between donor-matched tissues or the weeks after transplantation. The tissues expressed thyroglobulin protein and mRNA as well as thyroperoxidase. Endothelial cells originating from human were found in the transplanted tissues and were thought to be a characteristic of this model. The intactness of the tissues before transplantation was found to affect the rate of tissue engraftment. From the present results we have concluded that transplanted thyroid tissues in NOG mice maintain the histopathological characteristics of their origin for long terms. Therefore this model was thought feasible for toxicity evaluation.

  19. Stromal tissue as an adjunct tool in the diagnosis of follicular thyroid lesions by fine-needle aspiration biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Mai, Kien T.; Hogan, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Background: The stroma in fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) of thyroid lesions has not been well investigated. Design: We studied 256 consecutive cases of thyroid FNAB prepared with traditional smear technique. The stroma was categorized: Type 1a consisted of long (more than 3 mm), broad bands composed of mesh containing collagen fibrils thickened by entrapped blood components and follicular cells. Type 1b consisted of dense strands/bands. Type 2 was similar to Type 1a but with shorter (<2 mm) and looser stromal strands. Results: Types 1a and b showed straight/curved/circular branching patterns suggestive of incomplete frameworks of nodular/papillary architectures or fragments of capsule. Type 1b stroma likely represented thick/collagenized fibrous septae. Incomplete or complete rings of small encapsulated tumor were occasionally identified. These frameworks of stroma were frequently associated with multinodular goiters (MNGs) which are often hypocellular and follicular neoplasms/papillary thyroid carcinoma with increased cellularity. Type 2 was associated with microfollicles in encapsulated neoplasms or with macrofollicles in MNG. Follicular lesions of unknown significance (n = 41) either negative (n = 26) or positive (n = 15) for carcinoma in subsequent follow-up were frequently associated with stroma characteristic of MNG and carcinoma, respectively. Conclusion: The preservation of the in vivo architecture of Type 1 is likely due to its elasticity. Recognition of the stromal architecture will likely facilitate the diagnosis. PMID:27651822

  20. Expression of protein kinase A regulatory subunits in benign and malignant human thyroid tissues: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Del Gobbo, Alessandro; Peverelli, Erika; Treppiedi, Donatella; Lania, Andrea; Mantovani, Giovanna; Ferrero, Stefano

    2016-08-01

    In this review, we discuss the molecular mechanisms and prognostic implications of the protein kinase A (PKA) signaling pathway in human tumors, with special emphasis on the malignant thyroid. The PKA signaling pathway is differentially activated by the expression of regulatory subunits 1 (R1) and 2 (R2), whose levels change during development, differentiation, and neoplastic transformation. Following the identification of gene mutations within the PKA regulatory subunit R1A (PRKAR1A) that cause Carney complex-associated neoplasms, several investigators have studied PRKAR1A expression in sporadic thyroid tumors. The PKA regulatory subunit R2B (PRKAR2B) is highly expressed in benign, as well as in malignant differentiated and undifferentiated lesions. PRKAR1A is highly expressed in follicular adenomas and malignant lesions with a statistically significant gradient between benign and malignant tumors; however, it is not expressed in hyperplastic nodules. Although the importance of PKA in human malignancy outcomes is not completely understood, PRKAR1A expression correlates with tumor dimension in malignant lesions. Additional studies are needed to determine whether a relationship exists between PKA subunit expression and clinical outcomes, particularly in undifferentiated tumors. In conclusion, the R1A subunit might be a good molecular candidate for the targeted treatment of malignant thyroid tumors. PMID:27321957

  1. Stromal tissue as an adjunct tool in the diagnosis of follicular thyroid lesions by fine-needle aspiration biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Mai, Kien T.; Hogan, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Background: The stroma in fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) of thyroid lesions has not been well investigated. Design: We studied 256 consecutive cases of thyroid FNAB prepared with traditional smear technique. The stroma was categorized: Type 1a consisted of long (more than 3 mm), broad bands composed of mesh containing collagen fibrils thickened by entrapped blood components and follicular cells. Type 1b consisted of dense strands/bands. Type 2 was similar to Type 1a but with shorter (<2 mm) and looser stromal strands. Results: Types 1a and b showed straight/curved/circular branching patterns suggestive of incomplete frameworks of nodular/papillary architectures or fragments of capsule. Type 1b stroma likely represented thick/collagenized fibrous septae. Incomplete or complete rings of small encapsulated tumor were occasionally identified. These frameworks of stroma were frequently associated with multinodular goiters (MNGs) which are often hypocellular and follicular neoplasms/papillary thyroid carcinoma with increased cellularity. Type 2 was associated with microfollicles in encapsulated neoplasms or with macrofollicles in MNG. Follicular lesions of unknown significance (n = 41) either negative (n = 26) or positive (n = 15) for carcinoma in subsequent follow-up were frequently associated with stroma characteristic of MNG and carcinoma, respectively. Conclusion: The preservation of the in vivo architecture of Type 1 is likely due to its elasticity. Recognition of the stromal architecture will likely facilitate the diagnosis.

  2. Thyroid disease

    SciTech Connect

    Falk, S.

    1990-01-01

    Presenting a multidisciplinary approach to the diagnosis and treatment of thyroid disease, this volume provides a comprehensive picture of current thyroid medicine and surgery. The book integrates the perspectives of the many disciplines that deal with the clinical manifestations of thyroid disorders. Adding to the clinical usefulness of the book is the state-of-the-art coverage of many recent developments in thyroidology, including the use of highly sensitive two-site TSH immunoradionetric measurements to diagnose thyroid activity; thyroglobulin assays in thyroid cancer and other diseases; new diagnostic applications of MRI and CT; treatment with radionuclides and chemotherapy; new developments in thyroid immunology, pathology, and management of hyperthyroidism; suppressive treatment with thyroid hormone; and management of Graves' ophthalmopathy. The book also covers all aspects of thyroid surgery, including surgical treatment of hyperthyroidism; papillary, follicular, and other carcinomas; thyroidectomy; and prevention and management of complications.

  3. Thyroid Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... treated differently. Common thyroid disorders and problems include: Hypothyroidism Hypothyroidism is a disorder in which your thyroid doesn’ ... normal after you get better. If you have hypothyroidism, however, the levels of T4 in your blood ...

  4. Thyroid Antibodies

    MedlinePlus

    ... blocking production of thyroid hormones and resulting in hypothyroidism . TBII is not routinely tested, but TSI is ... autoimmune disease . A low level of thyroid hormones ( hypothyroidism ) can cause symptoms, such as: Weight gain Fatigue ...

  5. Thyroid Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... base of your neck, just below your Adam's apple. This gland makes thyroid hormone that travels in ... base of your neck, just below your Adam's apple. This gland makes thyroid hormone that travels in ...

  6. Thyroid nodule

    MedlinePlus

    ... food Nodules that produce thyroid hormones will likely cause symptoms of overactive thyroid gland , including: Warm, sweaty skin Fast pulse Increased appetite Nervousness Restlessness Skin blushing or flushing Weight loss Irregular menstrual periods Older ...

  7. Thyroid Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... body work normally. There are several types of cancer of the thyroid gland. You are at greater ... imaging tests, and a biopsy to diagnose thyroid cancer. Treatment depends on the type of cancer you ...

  8. Thyroid Emergencies.

    PubMed

    Leung, Angela M

    2016-01-01

    Myxedema coma and thyroid storm are thyroid emergencies associated with increased mortality. Prompt recognition of these states-which represent the severe, life-threatening conditions of extremely reduced or elevated circulating thyroid hormone concentrations, respectively-is necessary to initiate treatment. Management of myxedema coma and thyroid storm requires both medical and supportive therapies and should be treated in an intensive care unit setting. PMID:27598067

  9. Radionuclide Imaging of Dual Ectopic Thyroid in a Preadolescent Girl

    PubMed Central

    Yıldırım, Şule; Atılgan, Hasan İkbal; Korkmaz, Meliha; Demirel, Koray; Koca, Gökhan

    2014-01-01

    Ectopic thyroid is a congenital defect in which the thyroid gland is located away from the usual pretracheal location. Dual ectopic thyroid, which consists of two foci of thyroid tissue, is very rare. In this case dual ectopic thyroid with subclinical hypothyroidism in a 10-year-old-girl was reported. The absence of the thyroid gland in the pretracheal location was revealed by ultrasonography (USG). Two foci of ectopic thyroid tissue located at the base of the tongue and infrahyoid region were determined by Technetium-99m pertechnetate thyroid scintigraphy. It can be concluded that if the thyroid gland is not visible by USG, ectopic thyroid tissue should be evaluated with scintigraphy. PMID:25541934

  10. Chemical contamination and the thyroid.

    PubMed

    Duntas, Leonidas H

    2015-02-01

    Industrial chemical contaminants have a variable impact on the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis, this depending both on their class and on confounding factors. Today, mounting evidence is pointing to the role of environmental factors, and specifically EDCs, in the current distressing upsurge in the incidence of thyroid disease. The unease is warranted. These substances, which are nowadays rife in our environments (including in foodstuffs), have been shown to interfere with thyroid hormone action, biosynthesis, and metabolism, resulting in disruption of tissue homeostasis and/or thyroid function. Importantly, based on the concept of the "nonmonotonic dose-response curve", the relationship between dose and effect has often been found to be nonlinear. Thus, small doses can induce unpredictable, adverse effects, one case being polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), of which congener(s) may centrally inhibit the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis, or dissociate thyroid receptor and selectively affect thyroid hormone signaling and action. This means that PCBs can act as agonists or antagonists at the receptor level, underlining the complexity of the interaction. This review highlights the multifold activity of chemicals demonstrated to cause thyroid disruption. It also represents a call to action among clinicians to undertake systematic monitoring of thyroid function and registering of the classes of EDs and additionally urges broader scientific collaborations to clarify these chemicals' molecular mechanisms of action, substances whose prevalence in our environments is disrupting not only the thyroid but all life on earth. PMID:25294013

  11. Etiopathogenesis of Differentiated Thyroid Carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Makazlieva, Tanja; Vaskova, Olivija; Majstorov, Venjamin

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Thyroid malignomas are a heterogeneous group of neoplasm consisting of most frequent differentiated encountered carcinomas, papillary and follicular thyroid carcinoma, then medullary thyroid carcinoma originating from neuroendocrine calcitonin-producing C-cells and rare forms of thyroid lymphomas arising from intrathyroidal lymphatic tissue, thyroid sarcomas and poorly differentiated anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. There are increasing numbers of epidemiological studies and publications that have suggested increased incidence rate of thyroid carcinomas. We have read, analysed and compare available reviews and original articles investigating different etiological factors in the development of thyroid carcinomas through Google Scholar and PubMed Database. DISCUSSION: Aetiology involved in the development of thyroid carcinomas is multifactorial and includes external influences, as well as constitutional predispositions and genetic etiological factors. The actual effect of environmental and constitutional factors is on promoting genetic and epigenetic alterations which result in cell proliferation and oncogenesis. Until now are identified numerous genetic alterations, assumed to have an important role in oncogenesis, with MAPK and PI3K-AKT as crucial signalling networks regulating growth, proliferation, differentiation and cell survival/apoptosis. CONCLUSION: This new molecular insight could have a crucial impact on diagnosis and also on improving and selecting an appropriate treatment to the patients with thyroid malignancies. PMID:27703585

  12. Evaluation of a thyroid nodule

    PubMed Central

    Bomeli, Steven R.; LeBeau, Shane O.; Ferris, Robert L

    2010-01-01

    The thyroid specialist frequently evaluates thyroid nodules because they may represent malignancy. Nodules are typically found on physical exam or incidentally when other imaging studies are performed. Malignant or symptomatic nodules that compress nearby structures warrant surgical excision. Yet, the majority of thyroid nodules are asymptomatic and benign, so the thyroid surgeon must rely on diagnostic studies to determine when surgery is indicated. Ultrasound is the preferred imaging modality for thyroid nodules, and the ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) is the preferred method of tissue sampling. Nodules one centimeter or larger, or nodules with suspicious sonographic appearance warrant cytologic analysis to better quantify the risk of malignancy. Molecular biomarkers are a powerful adjunct to cytology, as detecting malignancy pre-operatively allows total thyroidectomy in a single operation without the need for frozen section or a second operation for completion thyroidectomy if malignancy is found during the initial thyroid lobectomy. PMID:20510711

  13. [Thyroid cancer].

    PubMed

    Nagayama, Yuji

    2012-03-01

    The thyroid glands are a vulnerable organ to ionizing radiation. Indeed the epidemiological studies have revealed an increase in the incidences of thyroid cancer among atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki and radiation casualties in Chernobyl. The carcinogenic risk for the thyroids is dependent on radiation dose, and higher in younger people. Recent advances in molecular biology contribute to clarify the mechanisms for thyroid carcinogenesis at genetic and molecular levels. Here radiation-induced thyroid carcinogenesis is reviewed from epidemiological data to basic research.

  14. [Thyroid cancer].

    PubMed

    Nagayama, Yuji

    2012-03-01

    The thyroid glands are a vulnerable organ to ionizing radiation. Indeed the epidemiological studies have revealed an increase in the incidences of thyroid cancer among atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki and radiation casualties in Chernobyl. The carcinogenic risk for the thyroids is dependent on radiation dose, and higher in younger people. Recent advances in molecular biology contribute to clarify the mechanisms for thyroid carcinogenesis at genetic and molecular levels. Here radiation-induced thyroid carcinogenesis is reviewed from epidemiological data to basic research. PMID:22514922

  15. Responsiveness to Thyroid Hormone and to Ambient Temperature Underlies Differences Between Brown Adipose Tissue and Skeletal Muscle Thermogenesis in a Mouse Model of Diet-Induced Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Ueta, Cintia B.; Olivares, Emerson L.

    2011-01-01

    Thyroid hormone accelerates energy expenditure (EE) and is critical for cold-induced thermogenesis. To define the metabolic role played by thyroid hormone in the dissipation of calories from diet, hypothyroid mice were studied for 60 d in a comprehensive lab animal monitoring system. Hypothyroidism decreased caloric intake and body fat while down-regulating genes in the skeletal muscle but not brown adipose tissue thermogenic programs, without affecting daily EE. Only at thermoneutrality (30 C) did hypothyroid mice exhibit slower rate of EE, indicating a metabolic response to hypothyroidism that depends on ambient temperature. A byproduct of this mechanism is that at room temperature (22 C), hypothyroid mice are protected against diet-induced obesity, i.e. only at thermoneutrality did hypothyroid mice become obese when placed on a high-fat diet (HFD). This is in contrast to euthyroid controls, which on a HFD gained more body weight and fat at any temperature while activating the brown adipose tissue and accelerating daily EE but not the skeletal muscle thermogenic program. In the liver of euthyroid controls, HFD caused an approximately 5-fold increase in triglyceride content and expression of key metabolic genes, whereas acclimatization to 30 C cut triglyceride content by half and normalized gene expression. However, in hypothyroid mice, HFD-induced changes in liver persisted at 30 C, resulting in marked liver steatosis. Acclimatization to thermoneutrality dramatically improves glucose homeostasis, but this was not affected by hypothyroidism. In conclusion, hypothyroid mice are metabolically sensitive to environmental temperature, constituting a mechanism that defines resistance to diet-induced obesity and hepatic lipid metabolism. PMID:21771890

  16. Kinase Expression and Chromosomal Rearrangements in Papillary Thyroid Cancer Tissues: Investigations at the Molecular and Microscopic Levels

    SciTech Connect

    Weier, Heinz-Ulrich; Kwan, Johnson; Lu, Chun-Mei; Ito, Yuko; Wang, Mei; Baumgartner, Adolf; Hayward, Simon W.; Weier, Jingly F.; Zitzelsberger, Horst F.

    2009-07-07

    Structural chromosome aberrations are known hallmarks of many solid tumors. In the papillary form of thyroid cancer (PTC), for example, activation of the receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) genes, ret or the neurotrophic tyrosine kinase receptor type I (NTRK1) by intra- or interchromosomal rearrangements have been suggested as a cause of the disease. The 1986 accident at the nuclear power plant in Chernobyl, USSR, led to the uncontrolled release of high levels of radioisotopes. Ten years later, the incidence of childhood papillary thyroid cancer (chPTC) near Chernobyl had risen by two orders of magnitude. Tumors removed from some of these patients showed aberrant expression of the ret RTK gene due to a ret/PTC1 or ret/PTC3 rearrangement involving chromosome 10. However, many cultured chPTC cells show a normal G-banded karyotype and no ret rearrangement. We hypothesize that the 'ret-negative' tumors inappropriately express a different oncogene or have lost function of a tumor suppressor as a result of chromosomal rearrangements, and decided to apply molecular and cytogenetic methods to search for potentially oncogenic chromosomal rearrangements in Chernobyl chPTC cases. Knowledge of the kind of genetic alterations may facilitate the early detection and staging of chPTC as well as provide guidance for therapeutic intervention.

  17. Thyroid hormones and deiodinase activity in plasma and tissues in relation to high levels of organohalogen contaminants in East Greenland polar bears (Ursus maritimus).

    PubMed

    Gabrielsen, Kristin Møller; Krokstad, Julie Stene; Villanger, Gro Dehli; Blair, David A D; Obregon, Maria-Jesus; Sonne, Christian; Dietz, Rune; Letcher, Robert J; Jenssen, Bjørn Munro

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have shown relationships between organohalogen contaminants (OHCs) and circulating levels of thyroid hormones (THs) in arctic wildlife. However, there is a lack of knowledge concerning the possible functional effects of OHCs on TH status in target tissues for TH-dependent activity. The relationships between circulating (plasma) levels of OHCs and various TH variables in plasma as well as in liver, muscle and kidney tissues from East Greenland sub-adult polar bears (Ursus maritimus) sampled in 2011 (n=7) were therefore investigated. The TH variables included 3.3',5.5'-tetraiodothyronine or thyroxine (T4), 3.3',5-triiodothyronine (T3) and type 1 (D1) and type 2 (D2) deiodinase activities. Principal component analysis (PCA) combined with correlation analyses demonstrated negative relationships between individual polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and their hydroxylated (OH-) metabolites and T4 in both plasma and muscle. There were both positive and negative relationships between individual OHCs and D1 and D2 activities in muscle, liver and kidney tissues. In general, PCBs, OH-PCBs and polybrominated dipehenyl ethers (PBDEs) were positively correlated to D1 and D2 activities, whereas organochlorine pesticides and byproducts (OCPs) were negatively associated with D1 and D2 activities. These results support the hypothesis that OHCs can affect TH status and action in the target tissues of polar bears. TH levels and deiodinase activities in target tissues can be sensitive endpoints for exposure of TH-disrupting compounds in arctic wildlife, and thus, tissue-specific responses in target organs should be further considered when assessing TH disruption in wildlife studies. PMID:25460663

  18. Thyroid hormones and deiodinase activity in plasma and tissues in relation to high levels of organohalogen contaminants in East Greenland polar bears (Ursus maritimus).

    PubMed

    Gabrielsen, Kristin Møller; Krokstad, Julie Stene; Villanger, Gro Dehli; Blair, David A D; Obregon, Maria-Jesus; Sonne, Christian; Dietz, Rune; Letcher, Robert J; Jenssen, Bjørn Munro

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have shown relationships between organohalogen contaminants (OHCs) and circulating levels of thyroid hormones (THs) in arctic wildlife. However, there is a lack of knowledge concerning the possible functional effects of OHCs on TH status in target tissues for TH-dependent activity. The relationships between circulating (plasma) levels of OHCs and various TH variables in plasma as well as in liver, muscle and kidney tissues from East Greenland sub-adult polar bears (Ursus maritimus) sampled in 2011 (n=7) were therefore investigated. The TH variables included 3.3',5.5'-tetraiodothyronine or thyroxine (T4), 3.3',5-triiodothyronine (T3) and type 1 (D1) and type 2 (D2) deiodinase activities. Principal component analysis (PCA) combined with correlation analyses demonstrated negative relationships between individual polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and their hydroxylated (OH-) metabolites and T4 in both plasma and muscle. There were both positive and negative relationships between individual OHCs and D1 and D2 activities in muscle, liver and kidney tissues. In general, PCBs, OH-PCBs and polybrominated dipehenyl ethers (PBDEs) were positively correlated to D1 and D2 activities, whereas organochlorine pesticides and byproducts (OCPs) were negatively associated with D1 and D2 activities. These results support the hypothesis that OHCs can affect TH status and action in the target tissues of polar bears. TH levels and deiodinase activities in target tissues can be sensitive endpoints for exposure of TH-disrupting compounds in arctic wildlife, and thus, tissue-specific responses in target organs should be further considered when assessing TH disruption in wildlife studies.

  19. Spectral CT imaging of intranodular hemorrhage in cases with challenging benign thyroid nodules.

    PubMed

    Li, Ming; Zheng, Xiangpeng; Gao, Feng; Xiao, Li; Hua, Yanqing

    2016-04-01

    While conventional ultrasound and laboratory testing can differentiate most thyroid conditions and malignancies, spectral dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) provides molecular data potentially useful in differential diagnosis of small, complex, and partially obscured hemorrhaged nodules with recent bleeding. To demonstrate that Gemstone Spectral Imaging (GSI) analysis of DECT data differentiates challenging benign thyroid nodule conditions in patients with intranodular hemorrhages. A retrospective study was conducted of 30 intranodular hemorrhage patients from 2010 to 2013, including 18 that underwent surgery and provided thyroid tissues for prospective histological analysis. Iodine and water content were determined in patient CT scans and ex vivo tissue specimen scans by reconstruction of raw CT data at 65 keV (optimal contrast). Slope of spectral curve (λ HU), effective atomic number (Z eff), and final pathological diagnosis were recorded. Iodine content, water content, Z eff, and λ HU significantly varied by region (intranodular hemorrhage, solid thyroid nodule, and adjacent margins) in patients and tissue specimens (P < 0.05). Intranodular hemorrhage exhibited elevated water concentrations (~1100 mg/mL), suggesting a practical threshold of 1075 mg/mL for differentiating intra-plaque hemorrhage and solid nodular regions. Spectral CT provided diagnostic information in 14 thyroid adenomas and four goiters (histologically confirmed in donor specimens), and eight thyroid adenomas and four nodular goiters based on clinical diagnosis. Diagnostically useful regional characteristic of intranodular hemorrhage in the thyroid was visualized via spectral CT employing material decomposition, potentially yielding additional molecular data about complex lesion characteristics no apparent in conventional imaging or laboratory methods. PMID:26612322

  20. Spectral CT imaging of intranodular hemorrhage in cases with challenging benign thyroid nodules.

    PubMed

    Li, Ming; Zheng, Xiangpeng; Gao, Feng; Xiao, Li; Hua, Yanqing

    2016-04-01

    While conventional ultrasound and laboratory testing can differentiate most thyroid conditions and malignancies, spectral dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) provides molecular data potentially useful in differential diagnosis of small, complex, and partially obscured hemorrhaged nodules with recent bleeding. To demonstrate that Gemstone Spectral Imaging (GSI) analysis of DECT data differentiates challenging benign thyroid nodule conditions in patients with intranodular hemorrhages. A retrospective study was conducted of 30 intranodular hemorrhage patients from 2010 to 2013, including 18 that underwent surgery and provided thyroid tissues for prospective histological analysis. Iodine and water content were determined in patient CT scans and ex vivo tissue specimen scans by reconstruction of raw CT data at 65 keV (optimal contrast). Slope of spectral curve (λ HU), effective atomic number (Z eff), and final pathological diagnosis were recorded. Iodine content, water content, Z eff, and λ HU significantly varied by region (intranodular hemorrhage, solid thyroid nodule, and adjacent margins) in patients and tissue specimens (P < 0.05). Intranodular hemorrhage exhibited elevated water concentrations (~1100 mg/mL), suggesting a practical threshold of 1075 mg/mL for differentiating intra-plaque hemorrhage and solid nodular regions. Spectral CT provided diagnostic information in 14 thyroid adenomas and four goiters (histologically confirmed in donor specimens), and eight thyroid adenomas and four nodular goiters based on clinical diagnosis. Diagnostically useful regional characteristic of intranodular hemorrhage in the thyroid was visualized via spectral CT employing material decomposition, potentially yielding additional molecular data about complex lesion characteristics no apparent in conventional imaging or laboratory methods.

  1. Tissue imaging and serum lipidomic profiling for screening potential biomarkers of thyroid tumors by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Guo, Shuai; Qiu, Ling; Wang, Yanming; Qin, Xuzhen; Liu, Hui; He, Manwen; Zhang, Yaping; Li, Zhili; Chen, Xiaohong

    2014-07-01

    Changes in serum lipidome and in tissue lipidome are associated with cancer. In this study, tissue mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) and serum lipid profiling by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (MALDI-FTICR MS) were performed to investigate significantly changed lipids in both tumor (malignant thyroid cancer (MTC) and benign thyroid tumor (BTT)) tissues and sera. Y-scatterplots of variable importance in the projection (VIP) values vs. fold change values indicate that change trends in the levels of ten lipids (i.e., phosphatidylcholine (PC)(34:1), PC(36:1), PC(38:6), phosphatidic acid (PA) (36:2), PA(36:3), PA(38:3), PA(38:4), PA(38:5), PA(40:5), and sphingomyelin (SM)(34:1)) in both tissues and sera from MTC patients, BTT patients, and normal individuals are significantly associated with these three types of pathophysiological status. In order to examine their diagnostic ability, 289 serum samples from 124 MTC patients, 43 BTT patients, and 122 normal controls were randomly divided into the training set and validation set. A biomarker of PC(34:1) exhibited excellent diagnostic ability to differentiate both MTC and BTT patients from normal individuals, with an area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve value of 0.984, a sensitivity of 96.4 %, and a specificity of 92.7 %. A panel which included PA(36:3) and SM(34:1) could distinguish between MTC and BTT, with an area under receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.961, a sensitivity of 87.8 %, and a specificity of 92.9 %. It is worth noting that a panel consisting of PC(34:1), PA(36:3), and SM(34:1) could differentiate MTC patients from both BTT patients and normal individuals, with an AUC of 0.841, a sensitivity of 86.6 %, and a specificity of 75.5 %.

  2. [Characterization of thyroglobulin in a patient with functioning and non-functioning benign thyroid tumors].

    PubMed

    Ishikita, T; Iino, Y; Ishida, T; Takei, H; Morishita, Y; Tarutani, O

    1992-08-20

    The chemical and immunological properties of thyroglobulin (Tg) in tissue obtained from a patient co-existed with two types of thyroid tumors, i.e., functioning and non-functioning, and were compared with the properties of Tg that was isolated from adjacent peripheral tissue. In the present observations, the Tg content was markedly increased in the non-functioning thyroid tumor. On the other hand, the Tg content in the functioning tumor was at the normal level. The iodine content of Tg was significantly lower in the non-functioning tumor than in peripheral tissues. Affinity with Lectins differed among Tg preparations, suggesting that the carbohydrate chain in the Tg was different in each nodule in a single individual.

  3. Viruses and thyroiditis: an update

    PubMed Central

    Desailloud, Rachel; Hober, Didier

    2009-01-01

    Viral infections are frequently cited as a major environmental factor involved in subacute thyroiditis and autoimmune thyroid diseases This review examines the data related to the role of viruses in the development of thyroiditis. Our research has been focused on human data. We have reviewed virological data for each type of thyroiditis at different levels of evidence; epidemiological data, serological data or research on circulating viruses, direct evidence of thyroid tissue infection. Interpretation of epidemiological and serological data must be cautious as they don't prove that this pathogen is responsible for the disease. However, direct evidence of the presence of viruses or their components in the organ are available for retroviruses (HFV) and mumps in subacute thyroiditis, for retroviruses (HTLV-1, HFV, HIV and SV40) in Graves's disease and for HTLV-1, enterovirus, rubella, mumps virus, HSV, EBV and parvovirus in Hashimoto's thyroiditis. However, it remains to determine whether they are responsible for thyroid diseases or whether they are just innocent bystanders. Further studies are needed to clarify the relationship between viruses and thyroid diseases, in order to develop new strategies for prevention and/or treatment. PMID:19138419

  4. Metastatic Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma with Multifocal Synchronous Transformation to Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Jose

    2016-01-01

    Papillary thyroid carcinoma is a common malignancy to affect the thyroid and is typified by a nonaggressive nature and low rates of mortality. In contrast, anaplastic thyroid carcinoma is the most aggressive thyroid malignancy with a mortality rate of nearly 90% and survival typically of only six months after the diagnosis is made. The transformation of papillary thyroid carcinoma to anaplastic thyroid carcinoma is well documented in the literature but is uncommon and in most instances is reported as a case report or small series only. Transformation of papillary thyroid carcinoma to anaplastic thyroid carcinoma usually takes place in the thyroid itself or in the adjacent lymph nodes. Only on rare occasions does a transformation occur in a papillary thyroid carcinoma metastasis outside of these locations. In the present case report and subsequent discussion we highlight an unusual case of PTC with transformation to anaplastic thyroid carcinoma, which is shown to involve numerous locations to include near total lung parenchyma obliteration. We also discuss the differential diagnostic challenges when faced with a thyroid malignancy that is negative for thyroglobulin. PMID:27774331

  5. Epithelial-connective tissue interactions induced by thyroid hormone receptor are essential for adult stem cell development in the Xenopus laevis intestine.

    PubMed

    Hasebe, Takashi; Buchholz, Daniel R; Shi, Yun-Bo; Ishizuya-Oka, Atsuko

    2011-01-01

    In the amphibian intestine during metamorphosis, stem cells appear and generate the adult absorptive epithelium, analogous to the mammalian one, under the control of thyroid hormone (TH). We have previously shown that the adult stem cells originate from differentiated larval epithelial cells in the Xenopus laevis intestine. To clarify whether TH signaling in the epithelium alone is sufficient for inducing the stem cells, we have now performed tissue recombinant culture experiments using transgenic X. laevis tadpoles that express a dominant-positive TH receptor (dpTR) under a control of heat shock promoter. Wild-type (Wt) or dpTR transgenic (Tg) larval epithelium (Ep) was isolated from the tadpole intestine, recombined with homologous or heterologous nonepithelial tissues (non-Ep), and then cultivated in the absence of TH with daily heat shocks to induce transgenic dpTR expression. Adult epithelial progenitor cells expressing sonic hedgehog became detectable on day 5 in both the recombinant intestine of Tg Ep and Tg non-Ep (Tg/Tg) and that of Tg Ep and Wt non-Ep (Tg/Wt). However, in Tg/Wt intestine, they did not express other stem cell markers such as Musashi-1 and never generated the adult epithelium expressing a marker for absorptive epithelial cells. Our results indicate that, while it is unclear why some larval epithelial cells dedifferentiate into adult progenitor/stem cells, TR-mediated gene expression in the surrounding tissues other than the epithelium is required for them to develop into adult stem cells, suggesting the importance of TH-inducible epithelial-connective tissue interactions in establishment of the stem cell niche in the amphibian intestine.

  6. Role of serum carrier proteins in the peripheral metabolism and tissue distribution of thyroid hormones in familial dysalbuminemic hyperthyroxinemia and congenital elevation of thyroxine-binding globulin.

    PubMed Central

    Bianchi, R; Iervasi, G; Pilo, A; Vitek, F; Ferdeghini, M; Cazzuola, F; Giraudi, G

    1987-01-01

    To investigate the role of thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG) and albumin in the availability of thyroid hormones to peripheral tissues, comprehensive kinetic studies of thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) were carried out in eight subjects with familial dysalbuminemic hyperthyroxinemia (FDH), in four subjects with inherited TBG excess, and in 15 normals. In high-TBG subjects, the reduction of T4 and T3 plasma clearance rates (by 51% and 54%, respectively) was associated with normal daily productions; T4 and T3 distribution volumes were significantly reduced. In FDH subjects T4 clearance was less reduced (by 31%) than in high TBG; consequently T4 production rate was significantly increased (by 42%); T4 and T3 distribution volumes and T3 clearance rate were unchanged. Increased T3 peripheral production in FDH (by 24%) indicates that T4 bound to abnormal albumin is more available to tissues than T4 carried by TBG, thus suggesting an important role of albumin in T4 availability to the periphery. PMID:3112186

  7. Thyroid peroxidase and the induction of autoimmune thyroid disease.

    PubMed Central

    McLachlan, S M; Atherton, M C; Nakajima, Y; Napier, J; Jordan, R K; Clark, F; Rees Smith, B

    1990-01-01

    Animal models of autoimmune thyroid disease are associated with thyroglobulin (Tg) as autoantigen whereas in man the autoimmune response to microsomal antigen/thyroid peroxidase (TPO) appears to play a major role in thyroiditis. Consequently, we have compared the ability of TPO and Tg to induce thyroid autoantibodies and thyroid damage in mice known to be susceptible (CBA/J) or resistant (BALB/c) to thyroiditis induced using murine Tg. Groups of three to five mice were immunized twice using Freund's complete adjuvant with 80-100 micrograms highly purified porcine (p) TPO, pTg, rat (r) Tg, human Tg, bovine serum albumin (BSA) or BSA + 0.2 micrograms pTg (the level of Tg contamination of TPO). Four weeks after immunization with TPO, plasma from CBA/J (but not BALB/c) mice contained IgG class antibodies which bound to TPO-coated tubes in the presence or absence of excess Tg (and could therefore be clearly distinguished from Tg antibodies) but there was no evidence of thyroiditis in either strain of mice. In contrast, in CBA/J mice immunized with rTg and, to a lesser extent in mice that had received pTg, thyroid tissue was infiltrated with lymphoid cells and/or neutrophils and antibodies to pTg (but not pTPO) were present. Our observations demonstrate that induction of TPO antibody alone is insufficient to lead to thyroiditis in CBA/J mice. Further, these studies emphasize the complex interactions between MHC and different thyroid antigens in the processes leading to thyroid destruction. PMID:2311297

  8. Thyroid Hormone, Cancer, and Apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hung-Yun; Chin, Yu-Tan; Yang, Yu-Chen S H; Lai, Husan-Yu; Wang-Peng, Jacqueline; Liu, Leory F; Tang, Heng-Yuan; Davis, Paul J

    2016-01-01

    Thyroid hormones play important roles in regulating normal metabolism, development, and growth. They also stimulate cancer cell proliferation. Their metabolic and developmental effects and growth effects in normal tissues are mediated primarily by nuclear hormone receptors. A cell surface receptor for the hormone on integrin [alpha]vβ3 is the initiation site for effects on tumor cells. Clinical hypothyroidism may retard cancer growth, and hyperthyroidism was recently linked to the prevalence of certain cancers. Local levels of thyroid hormones are controlled through activation and deactivation of iodothyronine deiodinases in different organs. The relative activities of different deiodinases that exist in tissues or organs also affect the progression and development of specific types of cancers. In this review, the effects of thyroid hormone on signaling pathways in breast, brain, liver, thyroid, and colon cancers are discussed. The importance of nuclear thyroid hormone receptor isoforms and of the hormone receptor on the extracellular domain of integrin [alpha]vβ3 as potential cancer risk factors and therapeutic targets are addressed. We analyze the intracellular signaling pathways activated by thyroid hormones in cancer progression in hyperthyroidism or at physiological concentrations in the euthyroid state. Determining how to utilize the deaminated thyroid hormone analog (tetrac), and its nanoparticulate derivative to reduce risks of cancer progression, enhance therapeutic outcomes, and prevent cancer recurrence is also deliberated. © 2016 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 6:1221-1237, 2016. PMID:27347891

  9. Thyroid hormone, brain development, and the environment.

    PubMed Central

    Zoeller, Thomas R; Dowling, Amy L S; Herzig, Carolyn T A; Iannacone, Eric A; Gauger, Kelly J; Bansal, Ruby

    2002-01-01

    Thyroid hormone is essential for normal brain development. Therefore, it is a genuine concern that thyroid function can be altered by a very large number of chemicals routinely found in the environment and in samples of human and wildlife tissues. These chemicals range from natural to manufactured compounds. They can produce thyroid dysfunction when they are absent from the diet, as in the case of iodine, or when they are present in the diet, as in the case of thionamides. Recent clinical evidence strongly suggests that brain development is much more sensitive to thyroid hormone excess or deficit than previously believed. In addition, recent experimental research provides new insight into the developmental processes affected by thyroid hormone. Based on the authors' research focusing on the ability of polychlorinated biphenyls to alter the expression of thyroid hormone-responsive genes in the developing brain, this review provides background information supporting a new way of approaching risk analysis of thyroid disruptors. PMID:12060829

  10. [Evaluation of thyroid diseases in nuclear medicine].

    PubMed

    Alimanović-Alagić, Rubina; Brković, Amera; Kucukalić-Selimović, Elma

    2008-01-01

    The thyroid is one of the larger endocrine glands in the body. The thyroid size is 15-20 gr. The gland produces hormones that regulate all metabolic processes in large number of tissues in the body, and produces hormones that affect the growth and rate of function of many other systems in the body. Studies of the endocrine system are among the original procedures in nuclear medicine. Thyroid scintigraphy and radio-tracer uptake studies remain an important part of the practice of nuclear medicine. Scintigraphy reveals functional and anatomic status of thyroid gland. A systematic and complete interpretation of the thyroid scintigrams requires assessments of thyroid size and configuration and identification and description of focal abnormalities, including hot and cold nodules and extrathyroidal activity in the neck or mediastinum. Early diagnosis and treatment of thyroid disease have made possible the reduction of morbidity and mortality associated with these disorders. PMID:19469277

  11. Deiodination as an index of chemical disruption of thyroid hormone homeostasis and thyroidal status in fish

    SciTech Connect

    Eales, J.G.; Brown, S.B.; Cyr, D.G.; Adams, B.A.; Finnson, K.R.

    1999-07-01

    Commonly used indices of fish thyroidal status are based on thyroxine (T4) secretion by thyroid tissue under control of the central brain-pituitary-thyroid axis. However, much of the control of the fish thyroid system also occurs in peripheral tissues, such as liver, by regulating T4 prohormone conversion to biologically active 3,5,3{prime}-triiodothyronine (T3) or to biologically inactive 3,3{prime},5{prime}-triiodothyronine and by regulating T3 conversion to inactive 3,3{prime}-diiodothyronine. These extrathyroidal conversions depend on a family of independently-regulated selenocysteine-containing microsomal deiodinases. The authors describe deiodination assays and evaluate their potential as biomarkers for exposure to chemicals that directly or indirectly disrupt thyroid hormone homeostasis or thyroidal status. The authors conclude that deiodination be included in a minimum suite of assays to detect xenobiotic effects on the fish thyroid system.

  12. Metastatic malignant struma ovarii with coexistence of Hashimoto’s thyroiditis

    PubMed Central

    Russo, Marco; Marturano, Ilenia; Masucci, Romilda; Caruso, Melania; Fornito, Maria Concetta; Tumino, Dario; Tavarelli, Martina; Squatrito, Sebastiano

    2016-01-01

    Summary Struma ovarii is a rare ovarian teratoma characterized by the presence of thyroid tissue as the major component. Malignant transformation of the thyroidal component (malignant struma ovarii) has been reported in approximately 5% of struma ovarii. The management and follow-up of this unusual disease remain controversial. We report the case of a woman with a history of autoimmune thyroiditis and a previous resection of a benign struma ovarii that underwent hystero-annexiectomy for malignant struma ovarii with multiple papillary thyroid cancer foci and peritoneal involvement. Total thyroidectomy and subsequent radioiodine treatment lead to complete disease remission after 104 months of follow-up. The diagnosis and natural progression of malignant struma ovarii are difficult to discern, and relapses can occur several years after diagnosis. A multidisciplinary approach is mandatory; after surgical excision of malignant struma, thyroidectomy in combination with 131I therapy should be considered after risk stratification in accordance with a standard approach in differentiated thyroid cancer patients. Learning points Malignant struma ovarii is a rare disease; diagnosis is difficult and management is not well defined. Predominant sites of metastasis are adjacent pelvic structures. Thyroidectomy and 131I therapy should be considered after risk stratification in accordance with standard approaches in DTC patients. PMID:27224256

  13. Epigenetic clustering of lung adenocarcinomas based on DNA methylation profiles in adjacent lung tissue: Its correlation with smoking history and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Sato, Takashi; Arai, Eri; Kohno, Takashi; Takahashi, Yoriko; Miyata, Sayaka; Tsuta, Koji; Watanabe, Shun-ichi; Soejima, Kenzo; Betsuyaku, Tomoko; Kanai, Yae

    2014-07-15

    The aim of this study was to clarify the significance of DNA methylation alterations during lung carcinogenesis. Infinium assay was performed using 139 paired samples of non-cancerous lung tissue (N) and tumorous tissue (T) from a learning cohort of patients with lung adenocarcinomas (LADCs). Fifty paired N and T samples from a validation cohort were also analyzed. DNA methylation alterations on 1,928 probes occurred in N samples relative to normal lung tissue from patients without primary lung tumors, and were inherited by, or strengthened in, T samples. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering using DNA methylation levels in N samples on all 26,447 probes subclustered patients into Cluster I (n = 32), Cluster II (n = 35) and Cluster III (n = 72). LADCs in Cluster I developed from the inflammatory background in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in heavy smokers and were locally invasive. Most patients in Cluster II were non-smokers and had a favorable outcome. LADCs in Cluster III developed in light smokers were most aggressive (frequently showing lymphatic and blood vessel invasion, lymph node metastasis and an advanced pathological stage), and had a poor outcome. DNA methylation levels of hallmark genes for each cluster, such as IRX2, HOXD8, SPARCL1, RGS5 and EI24, were again correlated with clinicopathological characteristics in the validation cohort. DNA methylation profiles reflecting carcinogenetic factors such as smoking and COPD appear to be established in non-cancerous lung tissue from patients with LADCs and may determine the aggressiveness of tumors developing in individual patients, and thus patient outcome.

  14. Thyroid cancer - medullary carcinoma

    MedlinePlus

    Thyroid - medullary carcinoma; Cancer - thyroid (medullary carcinoma); MTC; Thyroid nodule - medullary ... The cause of medullary carcinoma of the thyroid (MTC) is unknown. MTC is very rare. It can occur in children and adults. Unlike other types ...

  15. Thyroid development in zebrafish lacking Taz.

    PubMed

    Pappalardo, Andrea; Porreca, Immacolata; Caputi, Luigi; De Felice, Elena; Schulte-Merker, Stephan; Zannini, Mariastella; Sordino, Paolo

    2015-11-01

    Taz is a signal-responsive transcriptional coregulator implicated in several biological functions, from chondrogenesis to regulation of organ size. Less well studied, however, is its role in thyroid formation. Here, we explored the in vivo effects on thyroid development of morpholino (MO)-mediated knockdown of wwtr1, the gene encoding zebrafish Taz. The wwtr1 gene is expressed in the thyroid primordium and pharyngeal tissue of developing zebrafish. Compared to mammalian cells, in which Taz promotes expression of thyroid transcription factors and thyroid differentiation genes, wwtr1 MO injection in zebrafish had little or no effect on the expression of thyroid transcription factors, and differentially altered the expression of thyroid differentiation genes. Analysis of wwtr1 morphants at later stages of development revealed that the number and the lumen of thyroid follicles, and the number of thyroid follicle cells, were significantly smaller. In addition, Taz-depleted larvae displayed patterning defects in ventral cranial vessels that correlate with lateral displacement of thyroid follicles. These findings indicate that the zebrafish Taz protein is needed for the normal differentiation of the thyroid and are the first to suggest that Taz confers growth advantage to the endocrine gland.

  16. Thyroid gland removal

    MedlinePlus

    Total thyroidectomy; Partial thyroidectomy; Thyroidectomy; Subtotal thyroidectomy; Thyroid cancer - thyroidectomy; Papillary cancer - thyroidectomy; Goiter - thyroidectomy; Thyroid nodules - thyroidectomy

  17. Thyroid inferno.

    PubMed

    Bhargava, Amit; Kaur, Manmeet

    2014-01-01

    The key to uncovering the etiology of hyperthyroidism lies in a careful history and physical examination. Autoimmune markers provide additive information, but should not solely be used to make a diagnosis. Concern has been raised that the overzealous use of thyroid ultrasound, following abnormal thyroid function tests, diverts attention from the workup of the biochemical abnormality to the workup of an incidentally found thyroid nodule. If further imaging is needed, the use ofathyroidscanhas been suggestedbythe Endocrine Society and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists. However, in certain scenarios, this may be contraindicated. We present the case of a 28-year-old female with hyperthyroidism, as aplatform to discuss an important clinical sign present on Doppler ultrasound of the thyroid. By recognizing the clinical information gained from a Doppler ultrasound, physicians can avoid additional invasive workup and apply the use of ultrasound where most appropriate.

  18. Thyroid cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... cancer Laryngoscopy (looking inside the throat using a mirror or flexible tube called a laryngoscope placed through ... It may be performed by: Aiming external beam (x-ray) radiation at the thyroid Taking radioactive iodine by ...

  19. [Immunohistochemical profile of angiogenesis in the thyroid gland in various thyroid diseases].

    PubMed

    Rurua, N Z; Gogiashvili, L E; Tsagareli, Z G

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of the study - to determine the feature of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) expression in the thyroid gland (TG) in various thyroid diseases. Material - thyroid tissue (operative material) with histologically confirmed diagnosis: 10 - follicular adenoma, 17 - multinodular goiter, 8 - thyroiditis Hashimoto, 8 - papillary carcinoma, 10 - intact (normal) thyroid samples (forensic autopsy). The immunohistochemical study of the material showed the following results: the increase of the Hürtle cells population 40 % or more indicates a hyperthyroidism tendency despite TSH+ receptor status. Under the thyroid pathology TSH and VEGF expression appears in thyrocytes and also in microvascular endothelial cells. VEGF expression is below the norm in the Hashimoto thyroiditis. VEGF is involved not only in angiogenesis, but in pathophysiological shifts in thyroid tissue. Microvessel density (MVD) and TSH positive receptor status under the thyroid pathology testify the absence of the endothelial cells transformation, however, this index can not serve as a biopothential prognostic marker of thyroid disease.

  20. Thyroid hormone-regulated gene expression in juvenile mouse liver: identification of thyroid response elements using microarray profiling and in silico analyses

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Disruption of thyroid hormone signalling can alter growth, development and energy metabolism. Thyroid hormones exert their effects through interactions with thyroid receptors that directly bind thyroid response elements and can alter transcriptional activity of target genes. The effects of short-term thyroid hormone perturbation on hepatic mRNA transcription in juvenile mice were evaluated, with the goal of identifying genes containing active thyroid response elements. Thyroid hormone disruption was induced from postnatal day 12 to 15 by adding goitrogens to dams' drinking water (hypothyroid). A subgroup of thyroid hormone-disrupted pups received intraperitoneal injections of replacement thyroid hormones four hours prior to sacrifice (replacement). An additional group received only thyroid hormones four hours prior to sacrifice (hyperthyroid). Hepatic mRNA was extracted and hybridized to Agilent mouse microarrays. Results Transcriptional profiling enabled the identification of 28 genes that appeared to be under direct thyroid hormone-regulation. The regulatory regions of the genome adjacent to these genes were examined for half-site sequences that resemble known thyroid response elements. A bioinformatics search identified 33 thyroid response elements in the promoter regions of 13 different genes thought to be directly regulated by thyroid hormones. Thyroid response elements found in the promoter regions of Tor1a, 2310003H01Rik, Hect3d and Slc25a45 were further validated by confirming that the thyroid receptor is associated with these sequences in vivo and that it can bind directly to these sequences in vitro. Three different arrangements of thyroid response elements were identified. Some of these thyroid response elements were located far up-stream (> 7 kb) of the transcription start site of the regulated gene. Conclusions Transcriptional profiling of thyroid hormone disrupted animals coupled with a novel bioinformatics search revealed new thyroid

  1. Hybrid SPECT/CT evaluation of dual ectopia of thyroid in the absence of orthotopic thyroid gland.

    PubMed

    Harisankar, Chidambaram Natrajan Balasubramanian; Preethi, Govindababu Rajalakshmi; George, Mv

    2012-06-01

    Ectopic thyroid tissue (ETT) refers to all cases in which the thyroid gland is present at a location other than its usual site. The prevalence of ETT is approximately 1 per 100,000 to 300,000 persons and is reported to occur in 1 of 4000 to 8000 patients with thyroid disease. Multiple ectopia of the thyroid is extremely rare, with fewer than 35 cases published in literature to date. We report a 4-year-old girl with euthyroid and dual ectopia of thyroid without orthotopic thyroid gland. The role of hybrid SPECT/CT in the localization of the sites of ETT is also highlighted. PMID:22614198

  2. Solitary fibrous tumor of the thyroid gland.

    PubMed

    Papi, Giampaolo; Corrado, Stefania; Uberti, Ettore Degli; Roti, Elio

    2007-02-01

    Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is a rare spindle-cell neoplasm more commonly involving the pleura, but recognized also in other tissues. Nineteen patients with SFT arising from the thyroid gland have been reported in the literature. The present report reviews these cases and discusses epidemiology, etio-pathogenesis, clinical-pathologic characteristics, differential diagnosis, therapy, and prognosis of thyroid SFT.

  3. Cervical distribution of iodine 131 following total thyroidectomy for thyroid cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Fratkin, M.J.; Newsome, H.H. Jr.; Sharpe, A.R. Jr.; Tatum, J.L.

    1983-07-01

    The use of postoperative radioiodine thyroid scanning has questioned whether total thyroidectomy is surgically possible. Similar to earlier studies, we have found functioning iodine 131 (/sup 131/I)-avid thyroid tissue in our patients following total thyroidectomy for thyroid cancer. Preoperative and postoperative thyroid scans were compared in 24 patients to study the cervical location of postthyroidectomy residual thyroid tissue. Thyroid scanning detected 44 distinct sites of uptake. Thirty-eight of these foci were located either at the extremes of the upper poles of the thyroid gland (24) or along the embryonic thyroid descent tract (14). We conclude that these foci of /sup 131/I uptake represent incomplete resection of normal thyroid tissue, and that surgical attention to these areas should result more frequently in extirpation of the entire thyroid gland.

  4. Relative concentration of astatine-211 and iodine-125 by human fetal thyroid and carcinoma of the thyroid in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Cobb, L M; Harrison, A; Dudley, N E; Carr, T E; Humphreys, J A

    1988-11-01

    The concentrations of 211At and 125I were measured in various tissues in nude mice bearing xenografts of human thyroid tissue (fetal and malignant). The relative concentration of the two halogens was obtained at 4 and 24 h after injection. Samples were taken of the host blood, muscle and thyroid gland and the grafted tissues. The mouse thyroid concentrated 125I more efficiently than 211At but the human grafts concentrated both halogens about equally.

  5. IR Spectroscopic signs of malignant neoplasms in the thyroid gland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolstorozhev, G. B.; Skornyakov, I. V.; Butra, V. A.

    2012-03-01

    We use Fourier transform IR spectroscopy to study thyroid tumor tissues which were removed during surgery. The IR spectra of the tissues with pathological foci are compared with data from histologic examination. In the region of N-H, C-H, and C = O stretching vibrations, the IR spectra of the tissues for thyroid cancer are different from the IR spectra of tissues without malignant formations. We identify the spectral signs of thyroid cancer. We show that IR analysis is promising for identification of thyroid pathology at the molecular level.

  6. Thyroid hormone resistance and its management

    PubMed Central

    Lado-Abeal, Joaquin

    2016-01-01

    The syndrome of impaired sensitivity to thyroid hormone, also known as syndrome of thyroid hormone resistance, is an inherited condition that occurs in 1 of 40,000 live births characterized by a reduced responsiveness of target tissues to thyroid hormone due to mutations on the thyroid hormone receptor. Patients can present with symptoms of hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism. They usually have elevated thyroid hormones and a normal or elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone level. Due to their nonspecific symptomatic presentation, these patients can be misdiagnosed if the primary care physician is not familiar with the condition. This can result in frustration for the patient and sometimes unnecessary invasive treatment such as radioactive iodine ablation, as in the case presented herein. PMID:27034574

  7. Studies on thyroid cell surface antigens using cultured human thyroid cells.

    PubMed Central

    Fenzi, G F; Bartalena, L; Chiovato, L; Marcocci, C; Rotella, C M; Zonefrati, R; Toccafondi, R; Pinchera, A

    1982-01-01

    Human thyroid cells in primary culture were used for studies of thyroid cell surface antibodies in patients with thyroid autoimmune disorders. Radioiodinated IgG preparations containing thyroid microsomal antibody (TMAb), thyroid stimulating antibody (TSAb) and/or thyroglobulin antibody (TgAb) were tested for binding to thyroid cells. Binding was observed with radioiodinated IgG from patients with Graves' disease, Hashimoto's thyroiditis and idiopathic myxoedema containing TMAb, irrespective of the presence of TSAb and TgAb, while negative results were obtained with normal IgG. A dose-dependent inhibition of binding to thyroid cells was produced by the addition of the corresponding unlabelled IgG preparations. Evidence for tissue specificity was provided by the absence of binding to human skin fibroblasts used as controls. Preabsorption with human thyroid microsomes completely abolished the binding to thyroid cells of a radioiodinated TMAb positive IgG preparation, while only incomplete removal of the reactivity to thyroid microsomes was produced by preabsorption with thyroid cells. These data suggest that some but not all microsomal antigenic determinants are expressed on the thyroid cell surface. Binding to thyroid cells was also observed with purified TgAb, indicating that thyroglobulin antigenic determinants are present on the surface of thyroid cells. No evidence of binding was obtained with a TSAb positive Graves' IgG preparation with undetectable TMAb and TgAb. Unlabelled IgG preparations containing TMAb from patients with either Hashimoto's thyroiditis or idiopathic myxoedema were shown to inhibit the binding to thyroid cells of radioiodinated TMAb positive Graves' IgG and vice versa. These data indicate that antibodies present in these thyroid autoimmune disorders share common thyroid cell surface antigens. However, the binding of radioiodinated IgG from a patient with idiopathic myxoedema was only partially inhibited by Graves' or Hashimoto's Ig

  8. Postpartum thyroiditis.

    PubMed

    Argatska, Antoaneta B; Nonchev, Boyan I

    2014-01-01

    Postpartum thyroiditis (PPT) is a syndrome of transient or permanent thyroid dysfunction occurring in the first year after delivery or abortion. It is the most common thyroid disease in the postpartum period with incidence between 5 and 9%. In essence, it is an autoimmune inflammation of the thyroid, caused by changes in humoral and cell-mediated immune response. It has a characteristic biphasic course with an episode of transient thyrotoxicosis followed by transient or permanent hypothyroidism. Of all predisposing factors positive titers of thyroid peroxidase antibodies have the greatest importance. In some of the affected patients the disease course is marked by expressed hormonal disorders causing significant subjective symptoms. This underlines the need for early identification of risk groups aimed at prophylaxis and adequate treatment of thyroid dysfunction in the postpartum period. The frequency of PPT varies between analyses and studies on risk factors do not establish reliable predictive models for progression of the disease. This is due to the different methodology of research and the involvement of a number of genetic and non-genetic factors in different geographic regions. That is why implementation of mass screening programs is now controversial. The discrepancy in the opinions of researchers makes it necessary to have studies of the problem in performed in every clinical center in which the possible risk specific to the region and the population covered might be defined prognostically. The results of these studies can be used to introduce targeted and cost-effective screening for early detection of risk patients and prevention of morbidity and complications of PPT. PMID:25434070

  9. Postpartum thyroiditis.

    PubMed

    Argatska, Antoaneta B; Nonchev, Boyan I

    2014-01-01

    Postpartum thyroiditis (PPT) is a syndrome of transient or permanent thyroid dysfunction occurring in the first year after delivery or abortion. It is the most common thyroid disease in the postpartum period with incidence between 5 and 9%. In essence, it is an autoimmune inflammation of the thyroid, caused by changes in humoral and cell-mediated immune response. It has a characteristic biphasic course with an episode of transient thyrotoxicosis followed by transient or permanent hypothyroidism. Of all predisposing factors positive titers of thyroid peroxidase antibodies have the greatest importance. In some of the affected patients the disease course is marked by expressed hormonal disorders causing significant subjective symptoms. This underlines the need for early identification of risk groups aimed at prophylaxis and adequate treatment of thyroid dysfunction in the postpartum period. The frequency of PPT varies between analyses and studies on risk factors do not establish reliable predictive models for progression of the disease. This is due to the different methodology of research and the involvement of a number of genetic and non-genetic factors in different geographic regions. That is why implementation of mass screening programs is now controversial. The discrepancy in the opinions of researchers makes it necessary to have studies of the problem in performed in every clinical center in which the possible risk specific to the region and the population covered might be defined prognostically. The results of these studies can be used to introduce targeted and cost-effective screening for early detection of risk patients and prevention of morbidity and complications of PPT. PMID:25507668

  10. Adjacent segment disease.

    PubMed

    Virk, Sohrab S; Niedermeier, Steven; Yu, Elizabeth; Khan, Safdar N

    2014-08-01

    EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES As a result of reading this article, physicians should be able to: 1. Understand the forces that predispose adjacent cervical segments to degeneration. 2. Understand the challenges of radiographic evaluation in the diagnosis of cervical and lumbar adjacent segment disease. 3. Describe the changes in biomechanical forces applied to adjacent segments of lumbar vertebrae with fusion. 4. Know the risk factors for adjacent segment disease in spinal fusion. Adjacent segment disease (ASD) is a broad term encompassing many complications of spinal fusion, including listhesis, instability, herniated nucleus pulposus, stenosis, hypertrophic facet arthritis, scoliosis, and vertebral compression fracture. The area of the cervical spine where most fusions occur (C3-C7) is adjacent to a highly mobile upper cervical region, and this contributes to the biomechanical stress put on the adjacent cervical segments postfusion. Studies have shown that after fusion surgery, there is increased load on adjacent segments. Definitive treatment of ASD is a topic of continuing research, but in general, treatment choices are dictated by patient age and degree of debilitation. Investigators have also studied the risk factors associated with spinal fusion that may predispose certain patients to ASD postfusion, and these data are invaluable for properly counseling patients considering spinal fusion surgery. Biomechanical studies have confirmed the added stress on adjacent segments in the cervical and lumbar spine. The diagnosis of cervical ASD is complicated given the imprecise correlation of radiographic and clinical findings. Although radiological and clinical diagnoses do not always correlate, radiographs and clinical examination dictate how a patient with prolonged pain is treated. Options for both cervical and lumbar spine ASD include fusion and/or decompression. Current studies are encouraging regarding the adoption of arthroplasty in spinal surgery, but more long

  11. Expression of YY1 in Differentiated Thyroid Cancer.

    PubMed

    Arribas, Jéssica; Castellví, Josep; Marcos, Ricard; Zafón, Carles; Velázquez, Antonia

    2015-05-01

    The transcription factor Yin Yang 1 (YY1) has an important regulatory role in tumorigenesis, but its implication in thyroid cancer has not been yet investigated. In the present study, we have analyzed the expression of YY1 in differentiated thyroid cancer and assessed the association of YY1 expression with clinical features. Expression of YY1 was evaluated in human thyroid cancer cell lines, a series of matched normal/tumor thyroid tissues and in a thyroid cancer tissue microarray, using real-time PCR, Western blot, and/or immunohistochemistry. YY1 was overexpressed in thyroid cancer cells, at transcription and protein levels. A significant increase of YY1 mRNA was also observed in tumor thyroid tissues. Moreover, immunohistochemical analysis of the thyroid cancer tissue microarray revealed that both papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) and follicular thyroid cancer (FTC) present increased YY1 protein levels (48 and 19%, respectively). After stratification by the level of YY1 protein, positive YY1 expression identifies 88% of patients with PTC. The association of YY1 expression with clinicopathological features in PTC and FTC showed that YY1 expression was related with age at diagnosis. Our data indicates for the first time overexpression of YY1 in differentiated thyroid cancer, with YY1 being more frequently overexpressed in the PTC subtype.

  12. C-cell hyperplasia accompanying thyroid diseases other than medullary carcinoma: an immunocytochemical study by means of antibodies to calcitonin and somatostatin.

    PubMed

    Scopsi, L; Di Palma, S; Ferrari, C; Holst, J J; Rehfeld, J F; Rilke, F

    1991-05-01

    Eighteen normal thyroid glands and unaffected thyroid tissue adjacent to 37 follicular cell-derived benign and malignant tumors and to ten thyroid metastases were studied immunocytochemically with calcitonin (CT) and prosomatostatin/somatostatin (SMS) antibodies. CT- and SMS-immunoreactive cells were found in 100% of cases, though with ample variations in number. Most but not all SMS-immunoreactive cells also contained CT. Diffuse and/or nodular C-cell hyperplasia was seen in 30% of pathological thyroid glands; in concomitance with follicular adenomas, the mean C-cell number more than doubled that found in normal glands. Furthermore the proportion of SMS-immunoreactive C-cells increased from about 1% of CT-immunoreactive cells in normal adult thyroid glands to 2.5% in follicular adenomas, 3% in follicular carcinomas, 4.6% in papillary carcinomas, and 5.7% in metastases. The findings suggest that C-cell hyperplasia may be causally related to pathologic disorders affecting follicular cells. Furthermore, the demonstration that the intrathyroidal SMS cell mass is readily affected by alterations of the follicular structure of the gland suggests a possible regulatory role of SMS in the thyroidal microenvironment.

  13. Thyroid emergencies.

    PubMed

    Klubo-Gwiezdzinska, Joanna; Wartofsky, Leonard

    2012-03-01

    This review presents current knowledge about the thyroid emergencies known as myxedema coma and thyrotoxic storm. Understanding the pathogenesis of these conditions, appropriate recognition of the clinical signs and symptoms, and their prompt and accurate diagnosis and treatment are crucial in optimizing survival.

  14. Branchial-like cysts of the thyroid associated with solid cell nests.

    PubMed

    Michal, Michal; Mukensnabl, Petr; Kazakov, Dmitry V

    2006-03-01

    Presented herein is the case of a 65-year-old man with a 20 year history of thyroid hypofunction. On sonography a cystic lesion 4 x 4 x 5 cm in largest diameter was found, replacing most of the right lobe of the thyroid gland. Microscopically, the lesion was composed of labyrinth-like cystic structures (LCS) lined by a few layers of benign-appearing squamous cells and filled by mucinous material. Adjacent to the cyst walls were discontinuous patches of a lymphoid tissue, composed of haloed centrocyte-like cells or germinal centers mostly depleted of germinal cells. Additionally, there were numerous squamous cell nests equivalent to solid cell nests (SCN), all of which were surrounded by a similar-looking lymphoid tissue. Rare SCN were thus cystically changed and contained a small amount of mucus. The SCN communicated with the LCS: the former represented the most distal outpouchings of the latter. The epithelial structures were surrounded by a loose collagenous adipocytic stroma with plump fibroblasts, which resembled the stroma often seen in lateral neck cysts associated with structures such as cartilage, accessory salivary gland tissues, cysts and accessory thyroid and thymus. Immunohistochemically, all lesional elements were negative for calcitonin and thyroglobulin. The results of the paper suggest that branchial cleft-like cyst have an origin in the ultimobranchial body.

  15. [Thyroid disease].

    PubMed

    Ashitaka, Y

    1990-08-01

    The incidence of pregnant women with thyroid dysfunction has been reported to be around 0.1-0.4%. Graves' disease accounts for more than half of these disorders. The main cause of thyroid disease in pregnancy and puerperium is autoimmune dysfunction. Whether there may be goitre or exophthalmus present, clinical signs as inappropriate weight gain, high systolic pressure, palpitation (greater than or equal to 110/min), emotional lability, fatigue, acceleration of suppression of the Achilles' tendon reflex should induce changes in the biochemical thyroid function tests. Parameters for the diagnosis and management for hyperthyroidism are serum levels of free T4 and TSH, while those of T3, reverse T3, and TSH are for hypothyroidism. Serum anti-microsomal antibodies and anti-thyroglobulin antibodies which have no effect on the fetus are also good markers for severity. The transplacental transfer of maternal TSH receptor antibodies consisting of stimulatory and inhibitory immunoglobulins and maternal thyroid-binding inhibiting immunoglobulins play roles in the development of transient neonatal hyper- or hypothyroidism. Fetal control is achieved by optimal maternal management. Untreated hyperthyroidism may be associated with fetal malformations. This risk may be reduced by antithyroid drug treatment of up to 150 mg/day of propylthiouracil which has less chance of placental passage and less secretion into the mother's milk than methyl-mercapto-imidazol. Maternal thyroid function should be kept in the upper limit of normal range, taking into consideration the fetal dysfunction induced by over-administration of the drug which passes through placenta. Children of hypothyroid women taking inadequate replacement therapy manifested lower IQ values compared to the progeny of euthyroid or hypothyroid women taking adequate therapy.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Thyroid hormone signaling in energy homeostasis and energy metabolism

    PubMed Central

    McAninch, Elizabeth A.; Bianco, Antonio C.

    2014-01-01

    The thyroid hormone plays a significant role in diverse processes related to growth, development, differentiation, and metabolism. Thyroid hormone signaling modulates energy expenditure through both central and peripheral pathways. At the cellular level, the thyroid hormone exerts its effects after concerted mechanisms facilitate binding to the thyroid hormone receptor. In the hypothalamus, signals from a range of metabolic pathways, including appetite, temperature, afferent stimuli via the autonomic nervous system, availability of energy substrates, hormones, and other biologically active molecules, converge to maintain plasma thyroid hormone at the appropriate level to preserve energy homeostasis. At the tissue level, thyroid hormone actions on metabolism are controlled by transmembrane transporters, deiodinases, and thyroid hormone receptors. In the modern environment, humans are susceptible to an energy surplus, which has resulted in an obesity epidemic and thus understanding the contribution of the thyroid hormone to cellular and organism metabolism is increasingly relevant. PMID:24697152

  17. Thyroid hormones and growth in health and disease.

    PubMed

    Tarım, Ömer

    2011-01-01

    Thyroid hormones regulate growth by several mechanisms. In addition to their negative feedback effect on the stimulatory hormones thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) and thyrotropin (TSH), thyroid hormones also regulate their receptors in various physiological and pathological conditions. Up-regulation and down-regulation of the thyroid receptors fine-tune the biological effects exerted by the thyroid hormones. Interestingly, the deiodinase enzyme system is another intrinsic regulator of thyroid physiology that adjusts the availability of thyroid hormones to the tissues, which is essential for normal growth and development. Almost all chronic diseases of childhood impair growth and development. Every disease may have a unique mechanism to halt linear growth, but reduced serum concentration or diminished local availability of thyroid hormones seems to be a common pathway. Therefore, the effects of systemic diseases on thyroid physiology must be taken into consideration in the evaluation of growth retardation in affected children.

  18. A musculoskeletal model of low grade connective tissue inflammation in patients with thyroid associated ophthalmopathy (TAO): the WOMED concept of lateral tension and its general implications in disease

    PubMed Central

    Moncayo, Roy; Moncayo, Helga

    2007-01-01

    Background Low level connective tissue inflammation has been proposed to play a role in thyroid associated ophthalmopathy (TAO). The aim of this study was to investigate this postulate by a musculoskeletal approach together with biochemical parameters. Methods 13 patients with TAO and 16 controls were examined. Erythrocyte levels of Zn, Cu, Ca2+, Mg, and Fe were determined. The musculoskeletal evaluation included observational data on body posture with emphasis on the orbit-head region. The angular foot position in the frontal plane was quantified following gait observation. The axial orientation of the legs and feet was evaluated in an unloaded supine position. Functional propioceptive tests based on stretch stimuli were done by using foot inversion and foot rotation. Results Alterations in the control group included neck tilt in 3 cases, asymmetrical foot angle during gait in 2, and a reaction to foot inversion in 5 cases. TAO patients presented facial asymmetry with displaced eye fissure inclination (mean 9.1°) as well as tilted head-on-neck position (mean 5.7°). A further asymmetry feature was external rotation of the legs and feet (mean 27°). Both foot inversion as well as foot rotation induced a condition of neuromuscular deficit. This condition could be regulated by gentle acupressure either on the lateral abdomen or the lateral ankle at the acupuncture points gall bladder 26 or bladder 62, respectively. In 5 patients, foot rotation produced a phenomenon of moving toes in the contra lateral foot. In addition foot rotation was accompanied by an audible tendon snapping. Lower erythrocyte Zn levels and altered correlations between Ca2+, Mg, and Fe were found in TAO. Conclusion This whole body observational study has revealed axial deviations and body asymmetry as well as the phenomenon of moving toes in TAO. The most common finding was an arch-like displacement of the body, i.e. eccentric position, with foot inversion and head tilt to the contra lateral side

  19. BRAIN, LIVER AND THYROID BIOMARKERS REFLECT ENHANCED SENSITIVITY OF THE DEVELOPING RAT TO THYROID HORMONE DEPLETION.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many developmental events are regulated at least in part by thyroid hormones. It was hypothesized that tissue biomarkers of thyroid status would be more accurate predictors of neurotoxicity than serum biomarkers in rats treated with the goitrogen propylthiouracil (PTU). Over seve...

  20. Anaplastic thyroid cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... may show a tumor growing from the thyroid gland. A thyroid biopsy makes the diagnosis. An examination of the ... be cured by surgery. Complete removal of the thyroid gland does not prolong the lives of people who ...

  1. What Is Thyroid Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Having too much thyroid hormone (a condition called hyperthyroidism ) can cause a rapid or irregular heartbeat, trouble ... nodules make too much thyroid hormone and cause hyperthyroidism. Nodules that produce increased thyroid hormone are almost ...

  2. Chronic thyroiditis (Hashimoto disease)

    MedlinePlus

    Laboratory tests to determine thyroid function include: Free T4 test Serum TSH T3 Thyroid autoantibodies Imaging studies and fine needle biopsy are generally not needed to diagnose Hashimoto thyroiditis. This disease may ...

  3. Nucleophosmin is overexpressed in thyroid tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Pianta, Annalisa; Puppin, Cinzia; Franzoni, Alessandra; Fabbro, Dora; Di Loreto, Carla; Bulotta, Stefania; Deganuto, Marta; Paron, Igor; Tell, Gianluca; Puxeddu, Efisio; Filetti, Sebastiano; Russo, Diego; Damante, Giuseppe

    2010-07-02

    Nucleophosmin (NPM) is a protein that contributes to several cell functions. Depending on the context, it can act as an oncogene or tumor suppressor. No data are available on NPM expression in thyroid cells. In this work, we analyzed both NPM mRNA and protein levels in a series of human thyroid tumor tissues and cell lines. By using immunohistochemistry, NPM overexpression was detected in papillary, follicular, undifferentiated thyroid cancer, and also in follicular benign adenomas, indicating it as an early event during thyroid tumorigenesis. In contrast, various levels of NPM mRNA levels as detected by quantitative RT-PCR were observed in tumor tissues, suggesting a dissociation between protein and transcript expression. The same behavior was observed in the normal thyroid FRTL5 cell lines. In these cells, a positive correlation between NPM protein levels, but not mRNA, and proliferation state was detected. By using thyroid tumor cell lines, we demonstrated that such a post-mRNA regulation may depend on NPM binding to p-Akt, whose levels were found to be increased in the tumor cells, in parallel with reduction of PTEN. In conclusion, our present data demonstrate for the first time that nucleophosmin is overexpressed in thyroid tumors, as an early event of thyroid tumorigenesis. It seems as a result of a dysregulation occurring at protein and not transcriptional level related to an increase of p-Akt levels of transformed thyrocytes.

  4. Elastographic techniques of thyroid gland: current status.

    PubMed

    Andrioli, Massimiliano; Persani, Luca

    2014-08-01

    Thyroid nodules are very common with malignancies accounting for about 5 %. Fine-needle biopsy is the most accurate test for thyroid cancer diagnosis. Elastography, a new technology directly evaluating the elastic property of the tissue, has been recently added to the diagnostic armamentarium of the endocrinologists as noninvasive predictor of thyroid malignancy. In this paper, we critically reviewed characteristics and applications of elastographic methods in thyroid gland. Elastographic techniques can be classified on the basis of the following: source-of-tissue compression (free-hand, carotid vibration, ultrasound pulses), processing time (real-time, off-line), stiffness expression (qualitative, semi-quantitative, or quantitative). Acoustic radiation force impulse and aixplorer shear wave are the newest and most promising quantitative elastographic methods. Primary application of elastography is the detection of nodular lesions suspicious for malignancy. Published data show a high sensitivity and negative predictive value of the technique. Insufficient data are available on the possible application of elastography in the differential diagnosis of indeterminate lesions and in thyroiditis. Elastography represents a noninvasive tool able to increase the performance of ultrasound in the selection of thyroid nodules at higher risk of malignancy. Some technical improvements and definition of more robust quantitative diagnostic criteria are required for assigning a definite role in the management of thyroid nodules and thyroiditis to elastography.

  5. Increased thyroid cancer incidence in a basaltic volcanic area is associated with non-anthropogenic pollution and biocontamination.

    PubMed

    Malandrino, Pasqualino; Russo, Marco; Ronchi, Anna; Minoia, Claudio; Cataldo, Daniela; Regalbuto, Concetto; Giordano, Carla; Attard, Marco; Squatrito, Sebastiano; Trimarchi, Francesco; Vigneri, Riccardo

    2016-08-01

    The increased thyroid cancer incidence in volcanic areas suggests an environmental effect of volcanic-originated carcinogens. To address this problem, we evaluated environmental pollution and biocontamination in a volcanic area of Sicily with increased thyroid cancer incidence. Thyroid cancer epidemiology was obtained from the Sicilian Regional Registry for Thyroid Cancer. Twenty-seven trace elements were measured by quadrupole mass spectrometry in the drinking water and lichens (to characterize environmental pollution) and in the urine of residents (to identify biocontamination) in the Mt. Etna volcanic area and in adjacent control areas. Thyroid cancer incidence was 18.5 and 9.6/10(5) inhabitants in the volcanic and the control areas, respectively. The increase was exclusively due to the papillary histotype. Compared with control areas, in the volcanic area many trace elements were increased in both drinking water and lichens, indicating both water and atmospheric pollution. Differences were greater for water. Additionally, in the urine of the residents of the volcanic area, the average levels of many trace elements were significantly increased, with values higher two-fold or more than in residents of the control area: cadmium (×2.1), mercury (×2.6), manganese (×3.0), palladium (×9.0), thallium (×2.0), uranium (×2.0), vanadium (×8.0), and tungsten (×2.4). Urine concentrations were significantly correlated with values in water but not in lichens. Our findings reveal a complex non-anthropogenic biocontamination with many trace elements in residents of an active volcanic area where thyroid cancer incidence is increased. The possible carcinogenic effect of these chemicals on the thyroid and other tissues cannot be excluded and should be investigated. PMID:26438396

  6. Increased thyroid cancer incidence in a basaltic volcanic area is associated with non-anthropogenic pollution and biocontamination.

    PubMed

    Malandrino, Pasqualino; Russo, Marco; Ronchi, Anna; Minoia, Claudio; Cataldo, Daniela; Regalbuto, Concetto; Giordano, Carla; Attard, Marco; Squatrito, Sebastiano; Trimarchi, Francesco; Vigneri, Riccardo

    2016-08-01

    The increased thyroid cancer incidence in volcanic areas suggests an environmental effect of volcanic-originated carcinogens. To address this problem, we evaluated environmental pollution and biocontamination in a volcanic area of Sicily with increased thyroid cancer incidence. Thyroid cancer epidemiology was obtained from the Sicilian Regional Registry for Thyroid Cancer. Twenty-seven trace elements were measured by quadrupole mass spectrometry in the drinking water and lichens (to characterize environmental pollution) and in the urine of residents (to identify biocontamination) in the Mt. Etna volcanic area and in adjacent control areas. Thyroid cancer incidence was 18.5 and 9.6/10(5) inhabitants in the volcanic and the control areas, respectively. The increase was exclusively due to the papillary histotype. Compared with control areas, in the volcanic area many trace elements were increased in both drinking water and lichens, indicating both water and atmospheric pollution. Differences were greater for water. Additionally, in the urine of the residents of the volcanic area, the average levels of many trace elements were significantly increased, with values higher two-fold or more than in residents of the control area: cadmium (×2.1), mercury (×2.6), manganese (×3.0), palladium (×9.0), thallium (×2.0), uranium (×2.0), vanadium (×8.0), and tungsten (×2.4). Urine concentrations were significantly correlated with values in water but not in lichens. Our findings reveal a complex non-anthropogenic biocontamination with many trace elements in residents of an active volcanic area where thyroid cancer incidence is increased. The possible carcinogenic effect of these chemicals on the thyroid and other tissues cannot be excluded and should be investigated.

  7. SOT 2008- TRANSCRIPTIONAL RESPONSES IN THYROID TISSUES FROM RATS TREATED WITH A TUMORIGENIC AND A NON-TUMORIGENIC TRIAZOLE CONAZOLE FUNGICIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Conazoles are triazole- or imidazole-containing fungicides that are used in agriculture and medicine. Conazoles can induce follicular cell adenomas of the thyroid in rats after chronic bioassay. The goal of this study was to identify pathways and networks of genes that were assoc...

  8. Medicinal values of fruit peels from Citrus sinensis, Punica granatum, and Musa paradisiaca with respect to alterations in tissue lipid peroxidation and serum concentration of glucose, insulin, and thyroid hormones.

    PubMed

    Parmar, Hamendra Singh; Kar, Anand

    2008-06-01

    Peel extracts from Citrus sinensis, Punica granatum, and Musa paradisiaca were investigated for their effects on tissue lipid peroxidation (LPO) and on the concentration of thyroid hormones, insulin, and glucose in male rats. In vitro inhibition of H(2)O(2)-induced LPO in red blood cells of rats by 0.25, 0.50, 1.0, and 2.0 microg/mL C. sinensis, P. granatum, and M. paradisiaca peel extracts was observed in a dose-specific manner. Maximum inhibition was observed at 0.50 microg/mL C. sinensis, 2.0 microg/mL P. granatum, and 1.0 microg/mL M. paradisiaca. In the in vivo investigation, out of four different concentrations of each peel extract, 25, 200, and 100 mg/kg C. sinensis, P. granatum, and M. paradisiaca, respectively, were found to maximally inhibit hepatic LPO. The most effective doses were further evaluated for effects on serum triiodothyronine (T(3)), thyroxine (T(4)), insulin, and glucose concentrations. C. sinensis exhibited antithyroidal, hypoglycemic, and insulin stimulatory activities, in addition to inhibition of LPO, as it significantly decreased the serum T(4) (P < .05) and glucose (P < .001) concentrations with a concomitant increase in insulin levels (P < .05). P. granatum decreased LPO in hepatic, cardiac, and renal tissues (P < .01, P < .001, and P < .05, respectively) and serum glucose concentration (P < .01). M. paradisiaca strongly inhibited the serum level of thyroid hormones (P < .01 for both T(3) and T(4)) but increased the level of glucose (P < .05). These findings reveal the hitherto unknown potential of the tested peel extracts in the regulation of thyroid function and glucose metabolism. Besides antiperoxidative activity, C. sinensis extract has antithyroidal, hypoglycemic, and insulin stimulatory properties, which suggest its potential to ameliorate both hyperthyroidism and diabetes mellitus. PMID:18598183

  9. Parapharyngeal ectopic thyroid: the possible persistence of the lateral thyroid anlage. Clinical case report.

    PubMed

    Soscia, A; Guerra, G; Cinelli, M-P; Testa, D; Galli, V; Macchi, V; De Caro, R

    2004-08-01

    The accessory midline thyroids are ascribed to an arrest of migration of the median thyroid anlage, while the lateral ectopic thyroids have induced a hypothesis of the presence of lateral thyroid anlage. We report the case of a 67-year-old man who presented with dyspnea and dysphagia of 1 year's duration. The clinical examination and radiological investigations (CT and MRI) showed a solid heterogeneous mass in the right parapharyngeal space. The fine needle aspiration biopsy was inconsistent. The mass (3x2.5x3.5 cm) was excised via a transoral approach. It was capsulated with an elastic consistency and showed a nodular appearance on the cut surface. Histological examination revealed thyroid tissue with the characteristics of colloid goiter. The postoperative (99m)Tc-pertechnetate scan showed the normal thyroid gland located in the usual pretracheal site. The absence of malignancy, at histology and immunohistochemistry, allows a metastatic nature of the mass to be ruled out, and accounts for a supernumerary thyroid. The occurrence of a parapharyngeal thyroid, although extremely rare, is worth bearing in mind as a possible ectopic location. This case also supports the hypothesized role of the lateral thyroid anlage in man deriving from the ultimo-branchial body in the morphogenesis of the lateral lobe of the thyroid gland.

  10. Transcriptional Response in Mouse Thyroid Tissue after 211At Administration: Effects of Absorbed Dose, Initial Dose-Rate and Time after Administration

    PubMed Central

    Rudqvist, Nils; Spetz, Johan; Schüler, Emil; Parris, Toshima Z.; Langen, Britta; Helou, Khalil; Forssell-Aronsson, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Background 211At-labeled radiopharmaceuticals are potentially useful for tumor therapy. However, a limitation has been the preferential accumulation of released 211At in the thyroid gland, which is a critical organ for such therapy. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of absorbed dose, dose-rate, and time after 211At exposure on genome-wide transcriptional expression in mouse thyroid gland. Methods BALB/c mice were i.v. injected with 1.7, 7.5 or 100 kBq 211At. Animals injected with 1.7 kBq were killed after 1, 6, or 168 h with mean thyroid absorbed doses of 0.023, 0.32, and 1.8 Gy, respectively. Animals injected with 7.5 and 100 kBq were killed after 6 and 1 h, respectively; mean thyroid absorbed dose was 1.4 Gy. Total RNA was extracted from pooled thyroids and the Illumina RNA microarray platform was used to determine mRNA levels. Differentially expressed transcripts and enriched GO terms were determined with adjusted p-value <0.01 and fold change >1.5, and p-value <0.05, respectively. Results In total, 1232 differentially expressed transcripts were detected after 211At administration, demonstrating a profound effect on gene regulation. The number of regulated transcripts increased with higher initial dose-rate/absorbed dose at 1 or 6 h. However, the number of regulated transcripts decreased with mean absorbed dose/time after 1.7 kBq 211At administration. Furthermore, similar regulation profiles were seen for groups administered 1.7 kBq. Interestingly, few previously proposed radiation responsive genes were detected in the present study. Regulation of immunological processes were prevalent at 1, 6, and 168 h after 1.7 kBq administration (0.023, 0.32, 1.8 Gy). PMID:26177204

  11. Coexistence of resistance to thyroid hormone and papillary thyroid carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Igata, Motoyuki; Tsuruzoe, Kaku; Kawashima, Junji; Kukidome, Daisuke; Kondo, Tatsuya; Motoshima, Hiroyuki; Shimoda, Seiya; Furukawa, Noboru; Nishikawa, Takeshi; Miyamura, Nobuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Summary Resistance to thyroid hormone (RTH) is a syndrome of reduced tissue responsiveness to thyroid hormones. RTH is majorly caused by mutations in the thyroid hormone receptor beta (THRB) gene. Recent studies indicated a close association of THRB mutations with human cancers, but the role of THRB mutation in carcinogenesis is still unclear. Here, we report a rare case of RTH with a papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). A 26-year-old woman was referred to our hospital due to a thyroid tumor and hormonal abnormality. She had elevated serum thyroid hormones and non-suppressed TSH levels. Genetic analysis of THRB identified a missense mutation, P452L, leading to a diagnosis of RTH. Ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy of the tumor and lymph nodes enabled the cytological diagnosis of PTC with lymph node metastases. Total thyroidectomy and neck lymph nodes dissection were performed. Following surgery, thyroxine replacement (≥500 μg) was necessary to avoid the symptoms of hypothyroidism and to maintain her TSH levels within the same range as before the operation. During the follow-up, basal thyroglobulin (Tg) levels were around 6 ng/ml and TSH-stimulated Tg levels were between 12 and 20 ng/ml. Up to present, the patient has had no recurrence of PTC. This indicates that these Tg values are consistent with a biochemical incomplete response or an indeterminate response. There is no consensus regarding the management of thyroid carcinoma in patients with RTH, but aggressive treatments such as total thyroidectomy followed by radioiodine (RAI) and TSH suppression therapy are recommended. Learning points There are only a few cases reporting the coexistence of RTH and thyroid carcinoma. Moreover, our case would be the first case presenting one with lymph node metastases. Recent studies indicated a close association of THRB mutations with human cancers, but the role of THRB mutation in carcinogenesis is still unclear. When total thyroidectomy is performed in

  12. Morphological, diagnostic and surgical features of ectopic thyroid gland: a review of literature.

    PubMed

    Guerra, Germano; Cinelli, Mariapia; Mesolella, Massimo; Tafuri, Domenico; Rocca, Aldo; Amato, Bruno; Rengo, Sandro; Testa, Domenico

    2014-01-01

    Ectopic thyroid tissue remains a rare developmental abnormality involving defective or aberrant embryogenesis of the thyroid gland during its passage from the floor of the primitive foregut to its usual final position in pre-tracheal region of the neck. Its specific prevalence accounts about 1 case per 100.000-300.000 persons and one in 4.000-8.000 patients with thyroid disease show this condition. The cause of this defect is not fully known. Despite genetic factors have been associated with thyroid gland morphogenesis and differentiation, just recently some mutation has been associated with human thyroid ectopy. Lingual region in the most common site of thyroid ectopy but ectopic thyroid tissue were found in other head and neck locations. Nevertheless, aberrant ectopic thyroid tissue has been found in other places distant from the neck region. Ectopic tissue is affected by different pathological changes that occur in the normal eutopic thyroid. Patients may present insidiously or as an emergency. Diagnostic management of thyroid ectopy is performed by radionuclide thyroid imaging, ultrasonography, CT scan, MRI, biopsy and thyroid function tests. Asymptomatic euthyroid patients with ectopic thyroid do not usually require therapy but are kept under observation. For those with symptoms, treatment depends on size of the gland, nature of symptoms, thyroid function status and histological findings. Surgical excision is often required as treatment for this condition.

  13. Airway obstruction secondary to large thyroid adenolipoma

    PubMed Central

    Fitzpatrick, Nicholas; Malik, Paras; Hinton-Bayre, Anton; Lewis, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Adenolipoma of the thyroid gland is a rare benign neoplasm composed of normal thyroid and mature adipose tissue. Ordinarily, only a small amount of fat exists in a normal thyroid gland. CT and MRI may differentiate between benign and malignant lesions, and fine-needle aspirate often assists diagnosis. Surgical excision for adenolipoma is considered curative. We report the case of a 67-year-old man presenting with a large neck lump and evidence of airway obstruction. Imaging revealed a 97×70 mm left thyroid mass with retropharyngeal extension and laryngotracheal compression. Hemithyroidectomy was performed with subsequent histology confirming a large thyroid adenolipoma. The patient's symptoms resolved and he remains asymptomatic with no sign of recurrence 2 years postsurgery. PMID:25199190

  14. Targeting the thyroid gland with thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)-nanoliposomes.

    PubMed

    Paolino, Donatella; Cosco, Donato; Gaspari, Marco; Celano, Marilena; Wolfram, Joy; Voce, Pasquale; Puxeddu, Efisio; Filetti, Sebastiano; Celia, Christian; Ferrari, Mauro; Russo, Diego; Fresta, Massimo

    2014-08-01

    Various tissue-specific antibodies have been attached to nanoparticles to obtain targeted delivery. In particular, nanodelivery systems with selectivity for breast, prostate and cancer tissue have been developed. Here, we have developed a nanodelivery system that targets the thyroid gland. Nanoliposomes have been conjugated to the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), which binds to the TSH receptor (TSHr) on the surface of thyrocytes. The results indicate that the intracellular uptake of TSH-nanoliposomes is increased in cells expressing the TSHr. The accumulation of targeted nanoliposomes in the thyroid gland following intravenous injection was 3.5-fold higher in comparison to untargeted nanoliposomes. Furthermore, TSH-nanoliposomes encapsulated with gemcitabine showed improved anticancer efficacy in vitro and in a tumor model of follicular thyroid carcinoma. This drug delivery system could be used for the treatment of a broad spectrum of thyroid diseases to reduce side effects and improve therapeutic efficacy.

  15. Lingual thyroid. Diagnosis and treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Kansal, P.; Sakati, N.; Rifai, A.; Woodhouse, N.

    1987-11-01

    We describe four patients who presented with a lingual thyroid condition (three females and one male, aged between 7 and 22 years). Only the male patient was symptomatic with mild dysphagia and hemoptysis. The diagnosis was suspected in three patients, and was confirmed by iodine 123 or 131 scanning in all patients and by a computed tomographic scan in the one patient studied. The patient with dysphagia received a 10-mCl therapeutic dose of iodine 131 before thyroxine replacement was started. The diagnosis and management of lingual thyroid is discussed. All patients need lifelong thyroxine suppression. Unenhanced computed tomographic scans have a diagnostic appearance due to the iodine content of the ectopic thyroid tissue.

  16. Snail Family Transcription Factors Are Implicated in Thyroid Carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Hardy, Robert G.; Vicente-Dueñas, Carolina; González-Herrero, Ines; Anderson, Catriona; Flores, Teresa; Hughes, Sharon; Tselepis, Chris; Ross, James A.; Sánchez-García, Isidro

    2007-01-01

    E-Cadherin (CDH1) expression is reduced in thyroid carcinomas by primarily unknown mechanisms. In several tissues, SNAIL (SNAI1) and SLUG (SNAI2) induce epithelial-mesenchymal transition by altering target gene transcription, including CDH1 repression, but these transcription factors have not been studied in thyroid carcinoma. Recently, our group has provided direct evidence that ectopic SNAI1 expression induces epithelial and mesenchymal mouse tumors. SNAI1, SNAI2, and CDH1 expression were analyzed in thyroid-derived cell lines and samples of human follicular and papillary thyroid carcinoma by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting, and immunohistochemistry. The effect of SNAI1 expression on CDH1 transcription was analyzed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting in ori-3 cells. Thyroid carcinoma development was analyzed in CombitTA-Snail mice, in which SNAI1 levels are up-regulated. SNAI1 and SNAI2 were not expressed in cells derived from normal thyroid tissue, or in normal human thyroid samples, but were highly expressed in cell lines derived from thyroid carcinomas, in human thyroid carcinoma samples, and their metastases. SNAI1 expression in ori-3 cells repressed CDH1 transcription. Combi-TA mice developed papillary thyroid carcinomas, the incidence of which was increased by concomitant radiotherapy. In conclusion, SNAI1 and SNAI2 are ectopically expressed in thyroid carcinomas, and aberrant expression in mice is associated with papillary carcinoma development. PMID:17724139

  17. Coexistence of Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma With Thyroid MALT Lymphoma in a Patient With Hashimoto's Thyroiditis: A Clinical Case Report.

    PubMed

    Shen, Guohua; Ji, Ting; Hu, Shuang; Liu, Bin; Kuang, Anren

    2015-12-01

    Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is the most common type of thyroid neoplasias; however, primary thyroid gland lymphoma (PTL) is uncommon and their simultaneous occurrence is very rare.Herein, we reported a 25-year-old female patient with Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT), who developed a small goiter with a palpable 1.2-cm nodule in the right lobe. A fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy revealed atypical follicular epithelial cells and lymphoid cells in a background of lymphocytic thyroiditis. A total thyroidectomy was performed. The pathology showed multicentric papillary thyroid carcinoma, concomitant thyroid mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma, and Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Postoperatively, he received chemotherapy and radioactive iodine ablation treatment. Nowadays the thyroglobulin of the patient is undetectable, without recurrences at 2 years of follow-up.It is concluded that the PTC and MALT lymphoma can exist concomitantly, especially in patients with HT. For the diagnostic workup and optional management of this rare coexistence, a multidisciplinary approach and close surveillance are needed.

  18. Dendritic cells in autoimmune thyroid disease.

    PubMed

    Kabel, P J; Voorbij, H A; van der Gaag, R D; Wiersinga, W M; de Haan, M; Drexhage, H A

    1987-01-01

    Dendritic cells form a morphologically distinct class of cells characterized by shape, reniform nucleus, absent to weak acid-phosphatase activity and strong Class II MHC determinant positivity. Functionally they are the most efficient cells in antigen presentation to T-lymphocytes which indicates their role in the initiation of an immune response. Using immunehistochemical techniques we studied the presence of dendritic cells in normal Wistar rat and human thyroids, in thyroids of BBW rats developing thyroid autoimmunity and in Graves' goitres. Dendritic cells could be identified in all thyroids studied and were positioned underneath the thyrocytes in between the follicles. Skin dendritic cells travel via lymphatics to draining lymph nodes, thus forming an antigen presenting cell system. It is likely that a similar cell system exists on the level of the thyroid for dendritic cells have also been detected in thyroid draining lymph nodes. In normal thyroid tissue of both human and rat dendritic cells were relatively scarce. During the initial phases of the thyroid autoimmune response in the BBW rat (before the appearance of Tg-antibodies in the circulation) numbers of thyroid dendritic cells increased. Intrathyroidal T-helper cells, B-cells or plasma cells could not be found. The thyroid draining lymph node contained large numbers of plasma cells. During the later stages of the thyroid autoimmune response in the BB/W rat (after the appearance of Tg-antibodies in the circulation) and in Graves' goitres dendritic cells were not only present in high number, but 20-30% were seen in contact with now-present intrathyroidal T-helper lymphocytes.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3475920

  19. Dendritic cells in autoimmune thyroid disease.

    PubMed

    Kabel, P J; Voorbij, H A; van der Gaag, R D; Wiersinga, W M; de Haan, M; Drexhage, H A

    1987-01-01

    Dendritic cells form a morphologically distinct class of cells characterized by shape, reniform nucleus, absent to weak acid-phosphatase activity and strong Class II MHC determinant positivity. Functionally they are the most efficient cells in antigen presentation to T-lymphocytes which indicates their role in the initiation of an immune response. Using immunehistochemical techniques we studied the presence of dendritic cells in normal Wistar rat and human thyroids, in thyroids of BBW rats developing thyroid autoimmunity and in Graves' goitres. Dendritic cells could be identified in all thyroids studied and were positioned underneath the thyrocytes in between the follicles. Skin dendritic cells travel via lymphatics to draining lymph nodes, thus forming an antigen presenting cell system. It is likely that a similar cell system exists on the level of the thyroid for dendritic cells have also been detected in thyroid draining lymph nodes. In normal thyroid tissue of both human and rat dendritic cells were relatively scarce. During the initial phases of the thyroid autoimmune response in the BBW rat (before the appearance of Tg-antibodies in the circulation) numbers of thyroid dendritic cells increased. Intrathyroidal T-helper cells, B-cells or plasma cells could not be found. The thyroid draining lymph node contained large numbers of plasma cells. During the later stages of the thyroid autoimmune response in the BB/W rat (after the appearance of Tg-antibodies in the circulation) and in Graves' goitres dendritic cells were not only present in high number, but 20-30% were seen in contact with now-present intrathyroidal T-helper lymphocytes.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Thyroid carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, M.; Skolnik, E.M.; Baim, H.M.; Becker, S.P.; Katz, A.H.; Mantravadi, R.V.

    1980-12-01

    Differentiated thyroid carcinoma was studied with regard to mode of presentation, initial findings, treatment and survival. The classic signs, symptoms, physical and scan findings were found to be present in approximately 70% of the patients. Prognosis was found to be dependent on age of presentation more than any other factor. Patients with prior exposure to radiation were found to have more extensive disease and require more extensive surgery but ultimately had the same prognosis for 15-year cure. Treatment for distant metastatic disease by surgery, radioactive iodine and external radiation all resulted in long-term survival in certain cases.

  1. [Clinical importance of thyroid gland cytology].

    PubMed

    Ting, S; Synoracki, S; Bockisch, A; Führer, D; Schmid, K W

    2015-11-01

    The cytological evaluation of fine needle biopsies (FNB) of the thyroid gland crucially depends on a close cooperation between clinicians and cytopathologists. Scintigraphy, sonography as well as clinical data and patient history are necessary for a correct interpretation of the indications for FNB; moreover, these data are of outstanding importance for cytopathologists for the correct interpretation of the cytomorphological findings. This overview describes the present standards in the acquisition, technical workup and cytopathological interpretation of thyroid gland tissue obtained by FNB, particularly focusing on the rapidly growing relevance of additional molecular pathological investigations to increase the diagnostic accuracy of thyroid FNB.

  2. Elastography Evaluation of Benign Thyroid Nodules in Patients Affected by Hashimoto's Thyroiditis

    PubMed Central

    Cappelli, Carlo; Pirola, Ilenia; Gandossi, Elena; Formenti, Annamaria; Agosti, Barbara; Castellano, Maurizio

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present prospective study was to evaluate the predictive value of elastography in benign thyroid nodules of patients affected by Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT). From January 2011 to January 2012, 242 nodules in patients affected by HT were submitted to fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). All of the patients underwent sonography and elastography performed before FNAC. 230 (95%) nodules were benign, 8 papillary cancers, and 4 follicular lesions. Score 1 was found in 79.1% of benign lesions (sensitivity 79.1%; specificity 66.7%; PPV 97.8%; NPV 14.3%; accuracy 78.5%; p < 0.05). In order to evaluate the outcome of thyroid ultrasound echogenicity in relation to elastography features of nodule(s), all the patients with benign nodules were stratified according to their hypoechoic pattern of thyroid (mild-moderate and severe). Following stratification score 1 was found in 84.2% of benign nodules (sensitivity 75.0%; specificity 88.9%; PPV 27.3%; NPV 98.4%; accuracy 88.2%; p < 0.0001) of patients with a mild-moderate ultrasound thyroid hypoechogenicity, whereas it was found in 60% of benign nodules (p = 0.715) of patients with a marked thyroid hypoechogenicity. Elastography appears to have limited value in detecting thyroid cancer in patients affected by Hashimoto's thyroiditis with severe hypoechoic thyroid tissue. PMID:26273296

  3. [Surgical therapy of benign thyroid gland diseases].

    PubMed

    Mann, B; Buhr, H J

    1998-01-01

    Operations due to benign thyroid diseases are one of the most common elective surgical procedures performed in Germany. In the majority of cases, the preoperative determination of the serum thyrotropin concentration and an ultrasound of the thyroid region are sufficient preoperative investigations. In cases of thyroid functional disorders a scintigram should be additionally performed. Indications for operation in nodular goiter are local, mechanical compression, suspicion of malignancy and focal or disseminated autonomy. In Graves' disease the indication for operation is usually recurrent hyperthyroidism after medical treatment. In endemic nodular goiter the morphology of the nodular thyroid tissue is the guideline for resection; i.e. all nodules have to be removed. In Graves' disease the function of the remaining thyroid tissue is essential. The standardized subtotal resection with remaining tissue around the hilus, which frequently barries nodules, should be avoided. Instead a selective resection which takes the individual morphology and function of the diseased thyroid tissue into account should be favorized. With this operative technique the surgeon will have frequently direct contact with the recurrent nerve and the parathyroids. It is documented, that intraoperative visualisation of the recurrent nerve decreases not only the rate of permanent nerve damages but increases as well the completeness of resection. Additionally, ligation of the inferior thyroid artery decreases the incidence of residual or recurrent disease without enlarging the risk of postoperative parathyroiprive hypocalcemia. An individual follow-up with iodine and/or thyroxine replacement therapy is an indispensable component of the surgical therapeutic approach. The target of thyroxine substitution in patients after resection due to benign thyroid diseases is a physiologic serum thyrotropin concentration (0.3 to 4.0 mU/l). PMID:9542021

  4. Histologic changes in previously irradiated thyroid glands

    SciTech Connect

    Valdiserri, R.O.; Borochovitz, D.

    1980-03-01

    Thyroid tissue from 90 patients with a history of therapeutic irradiation to the head and neck in childhood and adolescence was examined microscopically. In addition to the well-known observation that these individuals have an increased incidence of primary thyroid carcinoma, it was also demonstrated that they have an increased incidence of benign histologic changes. These changes represent a spectrum from nonspecific hyperplastic lesions to benign neoplasis and thyroidltis.

  5. Semiquantitative immunohistochemical marker staining and localization in canine thyroid carcinoma and normal thyroid gland.

    PubMed

    Pessina, P; Castillo, V; Sartore, I; Borrego, J; Meikle, A

    2016-09-01

    Immunoreactive proteins in follicular cells, fibroblasts and endothelial cells were assessed in canine thyroid carcinomas and healthy thyroid glands. No differences were detected in thyrotropin receptor and thyroglobulin staining between cancer and normal tissues, but expression was higher in follicular cells than in fibroblasts. Fibroblast growth factor-2 staining was more intense in healthy follicular cells than in those of carcinomas. Follicular cells in carcinomas presented two- to three-fold greater staining intensity of thyroid transcription factor-1 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen, respectively, than healthy cells, and a similar trend was found for the latter antigen in fibroblasts. Vascular endothelial growth factor staining was more intense in the endothelial cells of tumours than in those of normal tissues. In conclusion, greater expression of factors related to proliferation and angiogenesis was demonstrated in several cell types within thyroid carcinomas compared to healthy tissues, which may represent mechanisms of tumour progression in this disease.

  6. Neurotoxicity of Thyroid Disrupting Contaminants

    EPA Science Inventory

    Thyroid hormones playa critical role in the normal development ofthe mammalian brain. Thyroid disrupting chemicals (TDCs) are environmental contaminants that alter the structure or function ofthe thyroid gland, alter regulatory enzymes associated with thyroid hormone (TH) homeost...

  7. Radionuclide thyroid imaging in the newborn with suspected hypothyroidism

    SciTech Connect

    Yoosufani, Z.; Karimeddini, M.K.; Spencer, R.P.; Ratzan, S.K.

    1985-05-01

    The authors reviewed their experience with thyroid imaging in newborns with suspected congenital hypothyroidism. The infants were selected through a hypothyroidism screening program. There were 19 infants (14 females, 5 males) from 2 to 8 weeks of age with a blood T4 <6 ..mu..g/dl. Thyroid imaging was performed with either IV or IM injection of 0.5 to 1 mCi of Tc 99m pertechnetate using a gamma camera with a pinhole collimator. Salivary glands and stomach were also imaged for assessing the presence of the transport system. In 6 infants (32%) no thyroid tissue was visualized (thyroid hypoplasia). Four infants (21%) showed ectopic thyroid tissue in the lingual or sublingual area. Two infants (10%) had evidence of goiter. The remaining 7 infants (37%) had normal appearing glands in size and position. TSH values were markedly elevated (> 100 ..mu mu../ml) in all 10 patients with hypoplastic or ectopic thyroid. Two patients were subsequently found to have normal thyroid function (one with TBG deficiency and one with transient hypothyroidism). Thyroidal as well as salivary gland trapping of the radiotracer in these two infants was clearly less than that of adults suggesting immaturity of the transport/trapping mechanism. All 4 patients with ectopic thyroid had markedly increased uptake of the radiotracer. All other patients with elevated TSH levels had increased uptake of the radiotracer as compared to the normals. They conclude that thyroid scanning is an important tool in delineating the etiology of congenital hypothyroidism.

  8. H9c2 cardiomyoblasts produce thyroid hormone.

    PubMed

    Meischl, Christof; Buermans, Henk P; Hazes, Thierry; Zuidwijk, Marian J; Musters, René J P; Boer, Christa; van Lingen, Arthur; Simonides, Warner S; Blankenstein, Marinus A; Dupuy, Corrine; Paulus, Walter J; Hack, C Erik; Ris-Stalpers, Carrie; Roos, Dirk; Niessen, Hans W M

    2008-05-01

    Thyroid hormone acts on a wide range of tissues. In the cardiovascular system, thyroid hormone is an important regulator of cardiac function and cardiovascular hemodynamics. Although some early reports in the literature suggested an unknown extrathyroidal source of thyroid hormone, it is currently thought to be produced exclusively in the thyroid gland, a highly specialized organ with the sole function of generating, storing, and secreting thyroid hormone. Whereas most of the proteins necessary for thyroid hormone synthesis are thought to be expressed exclusively in the thyroid gland, we now have found evidence that all of these proteins, i.e., thyroglobulin, DUOX1, DUOX2, the sodium-iodide symporter, pendrin, thyroid peroxidase, and thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor, are also expressed in cardiomyocytes. Furthermore, we found thyroglobulin to be transiently upregulated in an in vitro model of ischemia. When performing these experiments in the presence of 125 I, we found that 125 I was integrated into thyroglobulin and that under ischemia-like conditions the radioactive signal in thyroglobulin was reduced. Concomitantly we observed an increase of intracellularly produced, 125 I-labeled thyroid hormone. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate for the first time that cardiomyocytes produce thyroid hormone in a manner adapted to the cell's environment.

  9. The thyroid and autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Lichiardopol, Corina; Moţa, Maria

    2009-01-01

    Autoimmune thyroid diseases (Hashimoto thyroiditis, Graves' disease, postpartum thyroiditis, atrophic thyroiditis and drug induced thyroiditis) are prevalent disorders worldwide, especially in women (related to the millieu of sex steroids and X chromosome effects on the thyroid and the immune system). Disruption of thyroid self tolerance, usually induced by an infection, generates abnormal thyroid--immune interactions, implicating an array of cytokines and their receptors. Thyrocytes achieve antigen presenting cell properties which stimulate effector immune cells (Th1, Th2, Th17), in the context of defective immunomodulatory T regulatory cells, resulting in thyroid lymphocytic infiltration and activation of B cells, with production of antibodies against thyroid antigens, thyroid destruction or stimulation, depending on the Th1-Th2 balance. During pregnancy there is a Th2 predominance sustained by the increased glucocorticoid, estrogen and progesteron levels, which allows tolerance versus the histoincompatible fetoplacental unit. In the postpartum period, the return shift Th2 to Th1 favors the occurrence of postpartum thyroiditis. Altered thyroid hormone levels can influence the immune system, and, on the other side, some immune cells secrete TSH, which exerts endocrine and paracrine, cytokine-like effects. Understanding the complex pathogenesis of autoimmune thyroid disorders is crucial for prevention and management.

  10. Recent Insights into the Cell Biology of Thyroid Angiofollicular Units

    PubMed Central

    Denef, Jean-François; Lengelé, Benoit; Many, Marie-Christine; Gérard, Anne-Catherine

    2013-01-01

    In thyrocytes, cell polarity is of crucial importance for proper thyroid function. Many intrinsic mechanisms of self-regulation control how the key players involved in thyroid hormone (TH) biosynthesis interact in apical microvilli, so that hazardous biochemical processes may occur without detriment to the cell. In some pathological conditions, this enzymatic complex is disrupted, with some components abnormally activated into the cytoplasm, which can lead to further morphological and functional breakdown. When iodine intake is altered, autoregulatory mechanisms outside the thyrocytes are activated. They involve adjacent capillaries that, together with thyrocytes, form the angiofollicular units (AFUs) that can be considered as the functional and morphological units of the thyroid. In response to iodine shortage, a rapid expansion of the microvasculature occurs, which, in addition to nutrients and oxygen, optimizes iodide supply. These changes are triggered by angiogenic signals released from thyrocytes via a reactive oxygen species/hypoxia-inducible factor/vascular endothelial growth factor pathway. When intra- and extrathyrocyte autoregulation fails, other forms of adaptation arise, such as euthyroid goiters. From onset, goiters are morphologically and functionally heterogeneous due to the polyclonal nature of the cells, with nodules distributed around areas of quiescent AFUs containing globules of compact thyroglobulin (Tg) and surrounded by a hypotrophic microvasculature. Upon TSH stimulation, quiescent AFUs are activated with Tg globules undergoing fragmentation into soluble Tg, proteins involved in TH biosynthesis being expressed and the local microvascular network extending. Over time and depending on physiological needs, AFUs may undergo repetitive phases of high, moderate, or low cell and tissue activity, which may ultimately culminate in multinodular goiters. PMID:23349248

  11. Intrathoracic toxic thyroid nodule causing hyperthyroidism with a multinodular normal functional cervical thyroid gland.

    PubMed

    Serim, Burcu Dirlik; Korkmaz, Ulku; Can, Unal; Altun, Gulay Durmus

    2016-01-01

    Radionuclide scintigraphy with I-131 and Tc-99m pertechnetate ((99)mTc04) has been widely used in detecting toxic nodules. Intrathoracic goiter usually presents as an anterior mediastinal mass. Mostly the connection between intrathoracic mass and the cervical thyroid gland is clearly and easily identified occurring as a result of inferior extension of thyroid tissue in the neck, which is called as secondary intrathoracic goiter. Completely separated, aberrant or in other words primary intrathoracic goiters arise as a result of abnormal embryologic migration of ectopic thyroid closely associated with aortic sac and descend into the mediastinum. Intrathoracic goiters are generally nontoxic nodules existing with mass effect without causing hyperthyroidism. However, mostly reported cases had enlarged thyroid glands in the neck. This report demonstrates the usefulness of I-131 and (99)mTc04 scintigraphy for detecting intrathoracic goiter causing hyperthyroidism with a normal functioned cervical thyroid gland.

  12. Intrathoracic toxic thyroid nodule causing hyperthyroidism with a multinodular normal functional cervical thyroid gland

    PubMed Central

    Serim, Burcu Dirlik; Korkmaz, Ulku; Can, Unal; Altun, Gulay Durmus

    2016-01-01

    Radionuclide scintigraphy with I-131 and Tc-99m pertechnetate (99mTc04) has been widely used in detecting toxic nodules. Intrathoracic goiter usually presents as an anterior mediastinal mass. Mostly the connection between intrathoracic mass and the cervical thyroid gland is clearly and easily identified occurring as a result of inferior extension of thyroid tissue in the neck, which is called as secondary intrathoracic goiter. Completely separated, aberrant or in other words primary intrathoracic goiters arise as a result of abnormal embryologic migration of ectopic thyroid closely associated with aortic sac and descend into the mediastinum. Intrathoracic goiters are generally nontoxic nodules existing with mass effect without causing hyperthyroidism. However, mostly reported cases had enlarged thyroid glands in the neck. This report demonstrates the usefulness of I-131 and 99mTc04 scintigraphy for detecting intrathoracic goiter causing hyperthyroidism with a normal functioned cervical thyroid gland. PMID:27385899

  13. Intrathoracic toxic thyroid nodule causing hyperthyroidism with a multinodular normal functional cervical thyroid gland.

    PubMed

    Serim, Burcu Dirlik; Korkmaz, Ulku; Can, Unal; Altun, Gulay Durmus

    2016-01-01

    Radionuclide scintigraphy with I-131 and Tc-99m pertechnetate ((99)mTc04) has been widely used in detecting toxic nodules. Intrathoracic goiter usually presents as an anterior mediastinal mass. Mostly the connection between intrathoracic mass and the cervical thyroid gland is clearly and easily identified occurring as a result of inferior extension of thyroid tissue in the neck, which is called as secondary intrathoracic goiter. Completely separated, aberrant or in other words primary intrathoracic goiters arise as a result of abnormal embryologic migration of ectopic thyroid closely associated with aortic sac and descend into the mediastinum. Intrathoracic goiters are generally nontoxic nodules existing with mass effect without causing hyperthyroidism. However, mostly reported cases had enlarged thyroid glands in the neck. This report demonstrates the usefulness of I-131 and (99)mTc04 scintigraphy for detecting intrathoracic goiter causing hyperthyroidism with a normal functioned cervical thyroid gland. PMID:27385899

  14. Thyroid organotypic rat and human cultures used to investigate drug effects on thyroid function, hormone synthesis and release pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Vickers, Alison E.M.; Heale, Jason; Sinclair, John R.; Morris, Stephen; Rowe, Josh M.; Fisher, Robyn L.

    2012-04-01

    Drug induced thyroid effects were evaluated in organotypic models utilizing either a rat thyroid lobe or human thyroid slices to compare rodent and human response. An inhibition of thyroid peroxidase (TPO) function led to a perturbation in the expression of key genes in thyroid hormone synthesis and release pathways. The clinically used thiourea drugs, methimazole (MMI) and 6-n-propyl-2-thioruacil (PTU), were used to evaluate thyroid drug response in these models. Inhibition of TPO occurred early as shown in rat thyroid lobes (2 h) and was sustained in both rat (24–48 h) and human (24 h) with ≥ 10 μM MMI. Thyroid from rats treated with single doses of MMI (30–1000 mg/kg) exhibited sustained TPO inhibition at 48 h. The MMI in vivo thyroid concentrations were comparable to the culture concentrations (∼ 15–84 μM), thus demonstrating a close correlation between in vivo and ex vivo thyroid effects. A compensatory response to TPO inhibition was demonstrated in the rat thyroid lobe with significant up-regulation of genes involved in the pathway of thyroid hormone synthesis (Tpo, Dio1, Slc5a5, Tg, Tshr) and the megalin release pathway (Lrp2) by 24 h with MMI (≥ 10 μM) and PTU (100 μM). Similarly, thyroid from the rat in vivo study exhibited an up-regulation of Dio1, Slc5a5, Lrp2, and Tshr. In human thyroid slices, there were few gene expression changes (Slc5a5, ∼ 2-fold) and only at higher MMI concentrations (≥ 1500 μM, 24 h). Extended exposure (48 h) resulted in up-regulation of Tpo, Dio1 and Lrp2, along with Slc5a5 and Tshr. In summary, TPO was inhibited by similar MMI concentrations in rat and human tissue, however an increased sensitivity to drug treatment in rat is indicated by the up-regulation of thyroid hormone synthesis and release gene pathways at concentrations found not to affect human tissue. -- Highlights: ► Novel model of rat thyroid or human thyroid slices to evaluate pathways of injury. ► TPO inhibition by MMI or PTU altered

  15. An additional case of breast tumor resembling the tall cell variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Colella, Renato; Guerriero, Angela; Giansanti, Michele; Sidoni, Angelo; Bellezza, Guido

    2015-05-01

    A type of breast tumor histopathologically similar to the papillary thyroid carcinoma has been described and named "Breast tumor resembling the tall cell variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma." Because breast is not an uncommon site for metastasis and about 5% of all such cases are of the thyroid origin, it is important to be aware of the existence of mammary tumors that can closely mimic a thyroid tumor representing a dangerous diagnostic pitfall that can also lead to unnecessary clinical investigations. Here, we describe a singular case of "Breast tumor resembling the tall cell variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma" showing an amazing macroscopic and microscopic resemblance with thyroid tissue harboring a papillary carcinoma.

  16. Thyroid autoantibodies are rare in nonhuman great apes and hypothyroidism cannot be attributed to thyroid autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Aliesky, Holly; Courtney, Cynthia L; Rapoport, Basil; McLachlan, Sandra M

    2013-12-01

    The great apes include, in addition to Homo, the genera Pongo (orangutans), Gorilla (gorillas), and Pan, the latter comprising two species, P. troglodytes (chimpanzees) and P. paniscus (bonobos). Adult-onset hypothyroidism was previously reported in 4 individual nonhuman great apes. However, there is scarce information on normal serum thyroid hormone levels and virtually no data for thyroid autoantibodies in these animals. Therefore, we examined thyroid hormone levels and TSH in all nonhuman great ape genera including adults, adolescents, and infants. Because hypothyroidism in humans is commonly the end result of thyroid autoimmunity, we also tested healthy and hypothyroid nonhuman great apes for antibodies to thyroglobulin (Tg), thyroid peroxidase (TPO), and the TSH receptor (TSHR). We established a thyroid hormone and TSH database in orangutans, gorillas, chimpanzees, and bonobos (447 individuals). The most striking differences are the greatly reduced free-T4 and free-T3 levels in orangutans and gorillas vs chimpanzees and bonobos, and conversely, elevated TSH levels in gorillas vs Pan species. Antibodies to Tg and TPO were detected in only 2.6% of adult animals vs approximately 10% in humans. No animals with Tg, TPO, or TSHR antibodies exhibited thyroid dysfunction. Conversely, hypothyroid nonhuman great apes lacked thyroid autoantibodies. Moreover, thyroid histology in necropsy tissues was similar in euthyroid and hypothyroid individuals, and lymphocytic infiltration was absent in 2 hypothyroid animals. In conclusion, free T4 and free T3 are lower in orangutans and gorillas vs chimpanzees and bonobos, the closest living human relatives. Moreover, thyroid autoantibodies are rare and hypothyroidism is unrelated to thyroid autoimmunity in nonhuman great apes.

  17. Thyroid Autoantibodies Are Rare in Nonhuman Great Apes and Hypothyroidism Cannot Be Attributed to Thyroid Autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Aliesky, Holly; Courtney, Cynthia L.; Rapoport, Basil

    2013-01-01

    The great apes include, in addition to Homo, the genera Pongo (orangutans), Gorilla (gorillas), and Pan, the latter comprising two species, P. troglodytes (chimpanzees) and P. paniscus (bonobos). Adult-onset hypothyroidism was previously reported in 4 individual nonhuman great apes. However, there is scarce information on normal serum thyroid hormone levels and virtually no data for thyroid autoantibodies in these animals. Therefore, we examined thyroid hormone levels and TSH in all nonhuman great ape genera including adults, adolescents, and infants. Because hypothyroidism in humans is commonly the end result of thyroid autoimmunity, we also tested healthy and hypothyroid nonhuman great apes for antibodies to thyroglobulin (Tg), thyroid peroxidase (TPO), and the TSH receptor (TSHR). We established a thyroid hormone and TSH database in orangutans, gorillas, chimpanzees, and bonobos (447 individuals). The most striking differences are the greatly reduced free-T4 and free-T3 levels in orangutans and gorillas vs chimpanzees and bonobos, and conversely, elevated TSH levels in gorillas vs Pan species. Antibodies to Tg and TPO were detected in only 2.6% of adult animals vs approximately 10% in humans. No animals with Tg, TPO, or TSHR antibodies exhibited thyroid dysfunction. Conversely, hypothyroid nonhuman great apes lacked thyroid autoantibodies. Moreover, thyroid histology in necropsy tissues was similar in euthyroid and hypothyroid individuals, and lymphocytic infiltration was absent in 2 hypothyroid animals. In conclusion, free T4 and free T3 are lower in orangutans and gorillas vs chimpanzees and bonobos, the closest living human relatives. Moreover, thyroid autoantibodies are rare and hypothyroidism is unrelated to thyroid autoimmunity in nonhuman great apes. PMID:24092641

  18. Thyroid dysfunction and subfertility.

    PubMed

    Cho, Moon Kyoung

    2015-12-01

    The thyroid hormones act on nearly every cell in the body. Moreover, the thyroid gland continuously interacts with the ovaries, and the thyroid hormones are involved in almost all phases of reproduction. Thyroid dysfunctions are relatively common among women of reproductive age, and can affect fertility in various ways, resulting in anovulatory cycles, high prolactin levels, and sex hormone imbalances. Undiagnosed and untreated thyroid disease can be a cause of subfertility. Subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH), also known as mild thyroid failure, is diagnosed when peripheral thyroid hormone levels are within the normal reference laboratory range, but serum thyroid-stimulating hormone levels are mildly elevated. Thyroid autoimmunity (TAI) is characterized by the presence of anti-thyroid antibodies, which include anti-thyroperoxidase and anti-thyroglobulin antibodies. SCH and TAI may remain latent, asymptomatic, or even undiagnosed for an extended period. It has also been demonstrated that controlled ovarian hyperstimulation has a significant impact on thyroid function, particularly in women with TAI. In the current review, we describe the interactions between thyroid dysfunctions and subfertility, as well as the proper work-up and management of thyroid dysfunctions in subfertile women. PMID:26816871

  19. Thyroid dysfunction and subfertility

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The thyroid hormones act on nearly every cell in the body. Moreover, the thyroid gland continuously interacts with the ovaries, and the thyroid hormones are involved in almost all phases of reproduction. Thyroid dysfunctions are relatively common among women of reproductive age, and can affect fertility in various ways, resulting in anovulatory cycles, high prolactin levels, and sex hormone imbalances. Undiagnosed and untreated thyroid disease can be a cause of subfertility. Subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH), also known as mild thyroid failure, is diagnosed when peripheral thyroid hormone levels are within the normal reference laboratory range, but serum thyroid-stimulating hormone levels are mildly elevated. Thyroid autoimmunity (TAI) is characterized by the presence of anti-thyroid antibodies, which include anti-thyroperoxidase and anti-thyroglobulin antibodies. SCH and TAI may remain latent, asymptomatic, or even undiagnosed for an extended period. It has also been demonstrated that controlled ovarian hyperstimulation has a significant impact on thyroid function, particularly in women with TAI. In the current review, we describe the interactions between thyroid dysfunctions and subfertility, as well as the proper work-up and management of thyroid dysfunctions in subfertile women. PMID:26816871

  20. Retrosternal thyroid surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007558.htm Retrosternal thyroid surgery To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The thyroid gland is normally located at the front of ...

  1. Thyroid Function Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... problem that is directly affecting the thyroid (primary hypothyroidism). The opposite situation, in which the TSH level ... making enough TSH to stimulate the thyroid (secondary hypothyroidism). In most healthy individuals, a normal TSH value ...

  2. Thyroid Disorders Overview

    MedlinePlus

    ... the amount of hormones produced by the thyroid. Hypothyroidism Hypothyroidism is a thyroid disorder that occurs when the ... irregularities Depression Dry skin and hair Sluggishness Constipation Hypothyroidism is often caused by Hashimoto's disease, an autoimmune ...

  3. Thyroid Disorders (For Kids)

    MedlinePlus

    ... of thyroid disorder or thyroid disease. Hyperthyroidism (say: hi-per-THYE-roy-diz-em) happens when the ... Kids with the opposite problem have hypothyroidism (say: hi-po-THYE-roy-diz-em). In this case, ...

  4. Thyroid Hormone Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... is to closely replicate normal thyroid functioning. Pure, synthetic thyroxine (T4) works in the same way as ... needing thyroid hormone replacement (see Hypothyroidism brochure ). Pure synthetic thyroxine (T4), taken once daily by mouth, successfully ...

  5. Thyroid preparation overdose

    MedlinePlus

    ... a person takes too much of the medicine: Levothyroxine Liothyronine Liotrix Other thyroid medicine Other thyroid preparations ... found in these medicines with these brand names: Levothyroxine ... Liothyronine (Cytomel) Liotrix (Thyrolar, Euthyroid) Other ...

  6. Child thyroid anatomy (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... neck. It is a part of the endocrine (hormone) system, and plays a major role in regulating the body's metabolism. Thyroid disorders are more common in older children and adolescents (especially in girls) than in infants. Most thyroid ...

  7. Screening methods for thyroid hormone disruptors.

    PubMed Central

    DeVito, M; Biegel, L; Brouwer, A; Brown, S; Brucker-Davis, F; Cheek, A O; Christensen, R; Colborn, T; Cooke, P; Crissman, J; Crofton, K; Doerge, D; Gray, E; Hauser, P; Hurley, P; Kohn, M; Lazar, J; McMaster, S; McClain, M; McConnell, E; Meier, C; Miller, R; Tietge, J; Tyl, R

    1999-01-01

    The U.S. Congress has passed legislation requiring the EPA to implement screening tests for identifying endocrine-disrupting chemicals. A series of workshops was sponsored by the EPA, the Chemical Manufacturers Association, and the World Wildlife Fund; one workshop focused on screens for chemicals that alter thyroid hormone function and homeostasis. Participants at this meeting identified and examined methods to detect alterations in thyroid hormone synthesis, transport, and catabolism. In addition, some methods to detect chemicals that bind to the thyroid hormone receptors acting as either agonists or antagonists were also identified. Screening methods used in mammals as well as other vertebrate classes were examined. There was a general consensus that all known chemicals which interfere with thyroid hormone function and homeostasis act by either inhibiting synthesis, altering serum transport proteins, or by increasing catabolism of thyroid hormones. There are no direct data to support the assertion that certain environmental chemicals bind and activate the thyroid hormone receptors; further research is indicated. In light of this, screening methods should reflect known mechanisms of action. Most methods examined, albeit useful for mechanistic studies, were thought to be too specific and therefore would not be applicable for broad-based screening. Determination of serum thyroid hormone concentrations following chemical exposure in rodents was thought to be a reasonable initial screen. Concurrent histologic evaluation of the thyroid would strengthen this screen. Similar methods in teleosts may be useful as screens, but would require indicators of tissue production of thyroid hormones. The use of tadpole metamorphosis as a screen may also be useful; however, this method requires validation and standardization prior to use as a broad-based screen. PMID:10210697

  8. Blue-dye sentinel node mapping in thyroid carcinoma: debatable results of feasibility.

    PubMed

    Peparini, N; Maturo, A; Di Matteo, F M; Tartaglia, F; Marchesi, M; Campana, E P

    2006-01-01

    The present study aims to investigate the feasibility and influence of the lymphatic mapping and sentinel node biopsy on determination of the nodal status in thyroid carcinoma using blue-dye method. Nine consecutive patients with cytological diagnosis of papillary carcinoma were included in this study. To detect the sentinel lymphnode, intra- or perinodular injection of an average quantity of 0.5 ml (range : 0.1-1.2) of Ble Patenté V was performed intraoperatively in 8 cases only, as in one case a solitary cystic nodule occupied the entire lobe and thus any injection was impossible. After an average time of 16 minutes (range : 5-25) before dissection of the thyroid , no lymphnodes and no lymphatic afferent thereto visibly coloured were evidenced, except for spread of the vital dye into adjacent tissue and disrupted blood and lymphatic vessels at the injection site. Our results evidence that : intranodular injection, does not allow proper diffusion of the dye in the adjacent parenchyma, and in nodules smaller than 1 cm it may be difficult ; and that it is hazardous in cystic nodule because of the rupture risk; perinodular injection, at the four cardinal points, is impossible when the nodule occupies the entire lobe or the isthmus; multinodular goiter complicates the identification by palpation of the neoplastic nodule in which the dye should be injected or, if perinodular injection is given, to detect the parenchyma surrounding the nodule. PMID:17168262

  9. Blue-dye sentinel node mapping in thyroid carcinoma: debatable results of feasibility.

    PubMed

    Peparini, N; Maturo, A; Di Matteo, F M; Tartaglia, F; Marchesi, M; Campana, E P

    2006-01-01

    The present study aims to investigate the feasibility and influence of the lymphatic mapping and sentinel node biopsy on determination of the nodal status in thyroid carcinoma using blue-dye method. Nine consecutive patients with cytological diagnosis of papillary carcinoma were included in this study. To detect the sentinel lymphnode, intra- or perinodular injection of an average quantity of 0.5 ml (range : 0.1-1.2) of Ble Patenté V was performed intraoperatively in 8 cases only, as in one case a solitary cystic nodule occupied the entire lobe and thus any injection was impossible. After an average time of 16 minutes (range : 5-25) before dissection of the thyroid , no lymphnodes and no lymphatic afferent thereto visibly coloured were evidenced, except for spread of the vital dye into adjacent tissue and disrupted blood and lymphatic vessels at the injection site. Our results evidence that : intranodular injection, does not allow proper diffusion of the dye in the adjacent parenchyma, and in nodules smaller than 1 cm it may be difficult ; and that it is hazardous in cystic nodule because of the rupture risk; perinodular injection, at the four cardinal points, is impossible when the nodule occupies the entire lobe or the isthmus; multinodular goiter complicates the identification by palpation of the neoplastic nodule in which the dye should be injected or, if perinodular injection is given, to detect the parenchyma surrounding the nodule.

  10. Thyroid Disease Definitions

    MedlinePlus

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Thyroid Disease Definitions KidsHealth > For Teens > Thyroid Disease Definitions Print A A A Text Size ... sweat, mucous, and tears. goiter: This is a thyroid gland that is enlarged to the point that ...

  11. Development of Primary Thyroid Lymphoma during an Ultrasonographic Follow-up of Hashimoto's Thyroiditis: A Report of 9 Cases.

    PubMed

    Mizokami, Tetsuya; Hamada, Katsuhiko; Maruta, Tetsushi; Higashi, Kiichiro; Yamashita, Hiroto; Noguchi, Yasushi; Noguchi, Hitoshi; Tajiri, Junichi

    2016-01-01

    We herein experienced 9 patients with primary thyroid lymphoma that developed during 3-18 years of ultrasonographic follow-up of Hashimoto's thyroiditis. All nine patients had localized mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. Two patients had diffuse type, one had mixed type, and six had nodular type according to the ultrasonographic classification. A clearly enlarging goiter was observed before the diagnosis of lymphoma in 3 patients. An enlarging goiter was not apparent in the remaining 6 patients with nodular type lymphoma, however, the emergence or enlargement of a hypoechoic nodular lesion was observed. Thyroid MALT lymphoma may be diagnosed early by an ultrasonographic follow-up of Hashimoto's thyroiditis.

  12. Generation of functional thyroid from embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Antonica, Francesco; Kasprzyk, Dominika Figini; Opitz, Robert; Iacovino, Michelina; Liao, Xiao-Hui; Dumitrescu, Alexandra Mihaela; Refetoff, Samuel; Peremans, Kathelijne; Manto, Mario; Kyba, Michael; Costagliola, Sabine

    2012-11-01

    The primary function of the thyroid gland is to metabolize iodide by synthesizing thyroid hormones, which are critical regulators of growth, development and metabolism in almost all tissues. So far, research on thyroid morphogenesis has been missing an efficient stem-cell model system that allows for the in vitro recapitulation of the molecular and morphogenic events regulating thyroid follicular-cell differentiation and subsequent assembly into functional thyroid follicles. Here we report that a transient overexpression of the transcription factors NKX2-1 and PAX8 is sufficient to direct mouse embryonic stem-cell differentiation into thyroid follicular cells that organize into three-dimensional follicular structures when treated with thyrotropin. These in vitro-derived follicles showed appreciable iodide organification activity. Importantly, when grafted in vivo into athyroid mice, these follicles rescued thyroid hormone plasma levels and promoted subsequent symptomatic recovery. Thus, mouse embryonic stem cells can be induced to differentiate into thyroid follicular cells in vitro and generate functional thyroid tissue.

  13. NADPH Oxidase Inhibitor Apocynin Attenuates PCB153-Induced Thyroid Injury in Rats.

    PubMed

    Abliz, Ablikim; Chen, Chen; Deng, Wenhong; Wang, Weixing; Sun, Rongze

    2016-01-01

    PCBs, widespread endocrine disruptors, cause the disturbance of thyroid hormone (TH) homeostasis in humans and animals. However, the exact mechanism of thyroid dysfunction caused by PCBs is still unknown. In order to clarify the hypotheses that NADPH oxidase (NOX) and subsequent NF-κB pathway may play roles in thyroid dysfunction, sixty Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups: control group, PCB153 treated (PCB) group, received apocynin with PCB153 treatment (APO + PCB) group, and drug control (APO) group. Serum thyroid hormone levels were evaluated. The morphological change of thyroid tissue was analyzed under the light and transmission electron microscopy. NOX2, 8-OHdG, and NF-κB expression in the thyroid tissue was evaluated by immune-histochemical staining. Oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokines were detected. The following results were reduced after apocynin treatment: (1) serum thyroid hormone, (2) thyroid pathological injuries, (3) thyroid MDA, (4) thyroid ultrastructural change, (5) serum inflammatory cytokines, and (6) thyroid expression of NOX2, 8-OHdG, and NF-κB. These results suggested that NOX inhibition attenuates thyroid dysfunction induced by PCB in rats, presumably because of its role in preventing ROS generation and inhibiting the activation of NF-κB pathway. Our findings may provide new therapeutic targets for PCBs induced thyroid dysfunction. PMID:27047545

  14. NADPH Oxidase Inhibitor Apocynin Attenuates PCB153-Induced Thyroid Injury in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Abliz, Ablikim; Chen, Chen; Deng, Wenhong; Sun, Rongze

    2016-01-01

    PCBs, widespread endocrine disruptors, cause the disturbance of thyroid hormone (TH) homeostasis in humans and animals. However, the exact mechanism of thyroid dysfunction caused by PCBs is still unknown. In order to clarify the hypotheses that NADPH oxidase (NOX) and subsequent NF-κB pathway may play roles in thyroid dysfunction, sixty Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups: control group, PCB153 treated (PCB) group, received apocynin with PCB153 treatment (APO + PCB) group, and drug control (APO) group. Serum thyroid hormone levels were evaluated. The morphological change of thyroid tissue was analyzed under the light and transmission electron microscopy. NOX2, 8-OHdG, and NF-κB expression in the thyroid tissue was evaluated by immune-histochemical staining. Oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokines were detected. The following results were reduced after apocynin treatment: (1) serum thyroid hormone, (2) thyroid pathological injuries, (3) thyroid MDA, (4) thyroid ultrastructural change, (5) serum inflammatory cytokines, and (6) thyroid expression of NOX2, 8-OHdG, and NF-κB. These results suggested that NOX inhibition attenuates thyroid dysfunction induced by PCB in rats, presumably because of its role in preventing ROS generation and inhibiting the activation of NF-κB pathway. Our findings may provide new therapeutic targets for PCBs induced thyroid dysfunction. PMID:27047545

  15. Thyroid-specific ablation of the Carney complex gene, PRKAR1A, results in hyperthyroidism and follicular thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Pringle, Daphne R; Yin, Zhirong; Lee, Audrey A; Manchanda, Parmeet K; Yu, Lianbo; Parlow, Alfred F; Jarjoura, David; La Perle, Krista M D; Kirschner, Lawrence S

    2012-06-01

    Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine malignancy in the population, and the incidence of this cancer is increasing at a rapid rate. Although genetic analysis of papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) has identified mutations in a large percentage of patients, the genetic basis of follicular thyroid cancer (FTC) is less certain. Thyroid cancer, including both PTC and FTC, has been observed in patients with the inherited tumor predisposition Carney complex, caused by mutations in PRKAR1A. In order to investigate the role of loss of PRKAR1A in thyroid cancer, we generated a tissue-specific knockout of Prkar1a in the thyroid. We report that the resulting mice are hyperthyroid and developed follicular thyroid neoplasms by 1 year of age, including FTC in over 40% of animals. These thyroid tumors showed a signature of pathway activation different from that observed in other models of thyroid cancer. In vitro cultures of the tumor cells indicated that Prkar1a-null thyrocytes exhibited growth factor independence and suggested possible new therapeutic targets. Overall, this work represents the first report of a genetic mutation known to cause human FTC that exhibits a similar phenotype when modeled in the mouse. In addition to our knowledge of the mechanisms of human follicular thyroid tumorigenesis, this model is highly reproducible and may provide a viable mechanism for the further clinical development of therapies aimed at FTC. PMID:22514108

  16. Carcinoma showing thymus-like elements of the thyroid gland: report of three cases including one case with breast cancer history.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guanjun; Liu, Xi; Huang, Wei; Li, Xiaofeng; Johnstone, Marianne; Deng, Yuan; Ke, Yongqiang; Nunes, Quentin M; Wang, Hongyan; Wang, Yili; Zhang, Xuebin

    2015-01-01

    Carcinoma showing thymus-like elements (CASTLE) is a rare malignant tumor of the thyroid or adjacent neck soft tissues, whose histogenesis is still debated. It may resemble other primary or metastatic poorly differentiated tumors histologically and the differential diagnosis is crucial for CASTLE has a better prognosis. However, CASTLE as a second primary tumor has not been reported in the literature. We report three cases of thyroid CASTLE, including a unique tumor following breast-conserving surgery for early-stage breast invasive carcinoma. There were two female and one male. All three tumors were located in the right lobe of the thyroid, and one tumor showed extension into the surrounding soft tissue. Histologically, all tumors showed expansive growth and consisted of cords, nests or sheets of epithelial cells divided into irregularly shaped lobules by fibrous connective tissue with lymphoplasmacytic infiltration. Focal squamous differentiation resembling Hassall's corpuscles were observed. All cases stained positively for CD5, CD117, high molecular weight cytokeratin, cytokeratin, P63, carcinoembryonic antigen and epithelial membrane antigen. Positive staining for Bcl-2 in two cases and chromogranin A in one case was noted. Ki-67 expression ranged from 15 to 25%. Thyroid transcription factor and CD3 were negative. There was no evidence of recurrent or metastatic disease at following surgery. These features demonstrated CASTLE may arise from branchial pouch remnants, the thyroid solid cell nests. CASTLE is a rare entity, awareness of its occurrence as a second primary tumor is important to avoid overtreatment because it is associated with a favorable prognosis.

  17. Hexachlorobenzene triggers apoptosis in rat thyroid follicular cells.

    PubMed

    Chiappini, Florencia; Alvarez, Laura; Lux-Lantos, Victoria; Randi, Andrea S; Kleiman de Pisarev, Diana L

    2009-04-01

    Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) is a widespread environmental pollutant. Chronic exposure of humans to HCB produces a number of effects, such as triggering of porphyria, increased synthesis of liver microsomal enzymes, neurological symptoms, immunological disorders and thyroid dysfunctions. In rats, HCB induced hepatic porphyria, neurotoxic effects, and toxic effects on the reproductive system, thyroid function, and immune system. HCB is also known to cause tumors of the liver, thyroid and mammary gland in laboratory animals. The aim of this study was to investigate parameters of thyroid growth regulation, mainly cell proliferation and apoptosis in thyroid tissue from HCB (0.1, 1, 10, 100, and 500 mg/kg body weight)-treated female Wistar rats. The current study demonstrates that only the exposure to the highest HCB dose for 30 days, has adverse effects on thyroid endpoints examined related to thyroid gland morphology, and 3,3'5,5'-tetraiodothyronine (T(4), thyroxine) serum levels, without changes in thyroid-stimulating hormone concentrations or in thyroid gland weight. Morphological changes, included flattened epithelium and increased colloid size compared with control tissue. Transforming growth factor (TGF-beta1) mRNA levels, evaluated by RT-PCR, revealed a significant upregulation after exposure to HCB (1, 10, 100 mg/kg body weight). Cell proliferation evaluated by 5'-Br deoxiuridine incorporation into DNA, was not altered at any dose. HCB (1, 10, 100 mg/kg body weight) induces apoptosis, evaluated by in situ end labeling of fragmented DNA, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxy uridine triphosphate nick-end labeling, in rat thyroid glands. This process is associated with dose-dependent increases in cytochrome c release from the mitochondria and procaspase-9 processing to its active product. Caspase-8 was not activated. These studies indicate that doses of HCB that do not disrupt thyroid economy induce TGF-beta1 expression and apoptosis in the thyroid

  18. Thyroid Storm and Incidental Anterior Mediastinal Teratoma: Coincidence or Correlation?

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Cheng-An; Chen, Wei-Ta; Cheng, Ho-Shun; Chung, Cheng-Chih; Chen, Yu-Ju; Hsieh, Ming-Hsiung

    2013-01-01

    Teratoma is a rare cause of thyrotoxicosis. Among the different types of teratoma, struma ovarii is the main type which contains thyroid tissue. There is no evidence in the literature that would indicate mediasternal teratoma would also lead to thyrotoxicosis or thyroid storm. Herein we report a 37-year-old woman who suffered from palpitation. Her chest X-ray showed a mass lesion at the left hilum, and chest computed tomography scan yielded a suspicion of pericardial cyst. Thereafter, video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery was performed, and thymic cyst was diagnosed during the operation. However, subsequent pathological studies confirmed a diagnosis of mature cystic teratoma. A thyroid function test demonstrating hyperthyroidism was completed prior to the patient’s operation, and thyroid storm was diagnosed by clinical presentation. The patient’s symptoms did not improve after the operation until we added beta blocker and anti-thyroid agents. Therefore, was the presence of thyroid storm and anterior mediastinal teratoma coincident or correlative in this case? The special stain of teratoma tissues did not reveal any thyroid tissues. In conclusion, thyroid storm and anterior mediastinal teratoma in our case occurred coincidentally. However, a survey of possible hyperthyroidism in patients with anterior mediastinal tumor before operation is critical to avoid perioperative complications. PMID:27122746

  19. Thyroglossal Duct Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma and Synchronous Lingual Thyroid Atypia

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Timothy; Kim, Yohanan; Simental, Alfred; Inman, Jared C.

    2016-01-01

    Thyroglossal duct and lingual thyroid ectopic lesions are exceedingly rare synchronous findings. Papillary thyroid carcinoma of these ectopic thyroid sites is well understood but still a rare finding. This case points to some management nuances in regard to ectopic thyroid screening with imaging and also shows the effectiveness of minimally invasive transoral robotic surgery for lingual thyroid. PMID:27119036

  20. A Comprehensive Characterization of Mitochondrial Genome in Papillary Thyroid Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Su, Xingyun; Wang, Weibin; Ruan, Guodong; Liang, Min; Zheng, Jing; Chen, Ye; Wu, Huiling; Fahey, Thomas J.; Guan, Minxin; Teng, Lisong

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear genetic alterations have been widely investigated in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC), however, the characteristics of the mitochondrial genome remain uncertain. We sequenced the entire mitochondrial genome of 66 PTCs, 16 normal thyroid tissues and 376 blood samples of healthy individuals. There were 2508 variations (543 sites) detected in PTCs, among which 33 variations were novel. Nearly half of the PTCs (31/66) had heteroplasmic variations. Among the 31 PTCs, 28 specimens harbored a total of 52 somatic mutations distributed in 44 sites. Thirty-three variations including seven nonsense, 11 frameshift and 15 non-synonymous variations selected by bioinformatic software were regarded as pathogenic. These 33 pathogenic mutations were associated with older age (p = 0.0176) and advanced tumor stage (p = 0.0218). In addition, they tended to be novel (p = 0.0003), heteroplasmic (p = 0.0343) and somatic (p = 0.0018). The mtDNA copy number increased in more than two-third (46/66) of PTCs, and the average content in tumors was nearly four times higher than that in adjacent normal tissues (p < 0.0001). Three sub-haplogroups of N (A4, B4a and B4g) and eight single-nucleotide polymorphisms (mtSNPs) (A16164G, C16266T, G5460A, T6680C, G9123A, A14587G, T16362C, and G709A) were associated with the occurrence of PTC. Here we report a comprehensive characterization of the mitochondrial genome and demonstrate its significance in pathogenesis and progression of PTC. This can help to clarify the molecular mechanisms underlying PTC and offer potential biomarkers or therapeutic targets for future clinical practice. PMID:27735863

  1. Transport of thyroid hormones via the choroid plexus into the brain: the roles of transthyretin and thyroid hormone transmembrane transporters.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Samantha J; Wijayagunaratne, Roshen C; D'Souza, Damian G; Darras, Veerle M; Van Herck, Stijn L J

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid hormones are key players in regulating brain development. Thus, transfer of appropriate quantities of thyroid hormones from the blood into the brain at specific stages of development is critical. The choroid plexus forms the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier. In reptiles, birds and mammals, the main protein synthesized and secreted by the choroid plexus is a thyroid hormone distributor protein: transthyretin. This transthyretin is secreted into the cerebrospinal fluid and moves thyroid hormones from the blood into the cerebrospinal fluid. Maximal transthyretin synthesis in the choroid plexus occurs just prior to the period of rapid brain growth, suggesting that choroid plexus-derived transthyretin moves thyroid hormones from blood into cerebrospinal fluid just prior to when thyroid hormones are required for rapid brain growth. The structure of transthyretin has been highly conserved, implying strong selection pressure and an important function. In mammals, transthyretin binds T4 (precursor form of thyroid hormone) with higher affinity than T3 (active form of thyroid hormone). In all other vertebrates, transthyretin binds T3 with higher affinity than T4. As mammals are the exception, we should not base our thinking about the role of transthyretin in the choroid plexus solely on mammalian data. Thyroid hormone transmembrane transporters are involved in moving thyroid hormones into and out of cells and have been identified in many tissues, including the choroid plexus. Thyroid hormones enter the choroid plexus via thyroid hormone transmembrane transporters and leave the choroid plexus to enter the cerebrospinal fluid via either thyroid hormone transmembrane transporters or via choroid plexus-derived transthyretin secreted into the cerebrospinal fluid. The quantitative contribution of each route during development remains to be elucidated. This is part of a review series on ontogeny and phylogeny of brain barrier mechanisms.

  2. Thyroid hormone regulation of metabolism.

    PubMed

    Mullur, Rashmi; Liu, Yan-Yun; Brent, Gregory A

    2014-04-01

    Thyroid hormone (TH) is required for normal development as well as regulating metabolism in the adult. The thyroid hormone receptor (TR) isoforms, α and β, are differentially expressed in tissues and have distinct roles in TH signaling. Local activation of thyroxine (T4), to the active form, triiodothyronine (T3), by 5'-deiodinase type 2 (D2) is a key mechanism of TH regulation of metabolism. D2 is expressed in the hypothalamus, white fat, brown adipose tissue (BAT), and skeletal muscle and is required for adaptive thermogenesis. The thyroid gland is regulated by thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). In addition to TRH/TSH regulation by TH feedback, there is central modulation by nutritional signals, such as leptin, as well as peptides regulating appetite. The nutrient status of the cell provides feedback on TH signaling pathways through epigentic modification of histones. Integration of TH signaling with the adrenergic nervous system occurs peripherally, in liver, white fat, and BAT, but also centrally, in the hypothalamus. TR regulates cholesterol and carbohydrate metabolism through direct actions on gene expression as well as cross-talk with other nuclear receptors, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR), liver X receptor (LXR), and bile acid signaling pathways. TH modulates hepatic insulin sensitivity, especially important for the suppression of hepatic gluconeogenesis. The role of TH in regulating metabolic pathways has led to several new therapeutic targets for metabolic disorders. Understanding the mechanisms and interactions of the various TH signaling pathways in metabolism will improve our likelihood of identifying effective and selective targets.

  3. NADPH oxidases: new actors in thyroid cancer?

    PubMed

    Ameziane-El-Hassani, Rabii; Schlumberger, Martin; Dupuy, Corinne

    2016-08-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a crucial substrate for thyroid peroxidase, a key enzyme involved in thyroid hormone synthesis. However, as a potent oxidant, H2O2 might also be responsible for the high level of oxidative DNA damage observed in thyroid tissues, such as DNA base lesions and strand breakages, which promote chromosomal instability and contribute to the development of tumours. Although the role of H2O2 in thyroid hormone synthesis is well established, its precise mechanisms of action in pathological processes are still under investigation. The NADPH oxidase/dual oxidase family are the only oxidoreductases whose primary function is to produce reactive oxygen species. As such, the function and expression of these enzymes are tightly regulated. Thyrocytes express dual oxidase 2, which produces most of the H2O2 for thyroid hormone synthesis. Thyrocytes also express dual oxidase 1 and NADPH oxidase 4, but the roles of these enzymes are still unknown. Here, we review the structure, expression, localization and function of these enzymes. We focus on their potential role in thyroid cancer, which is characterized by increased expression of these enzymes. PMID:27174022

  4. Thyroid lesions in children and adolescents after the Chernobyl disaster: Implications for the study of radiation tumorigenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Nikiforov, Y.; Fagin, J.A.; Gnepp, D.R.

    1996-01-01

    Eight years after the Chernobyl nuclear accident, the most obvious effect is manifested by an increase in the prevalence of thyroid gland diseases in the exposed children and adolescents. In this study, we describe a comparative analysis of epidemiological, clinical, and morphological features of 92 malignant and 59 benign thyroid lesions from patients 5-18 yr of age exposed to radiation in Belarus as a result of the Chernobyl disaster. All of them were operated at the same institution during the period from September 1991 through December 1992. The highest number of patients that subsequently developed thyroid carcinomas was in the group that was less that 1 yr of age at the time of Chernobyl, and this number decreased progressively through age 12 yr. Conversely, none of the patients with benign lesions only was less than 2 yr old at the time of the accident, and an exposure age of 5-6 yr was a threshold separating significant prevalence of malignant tumors in younger children from the more frequently benign lesions in older patients (P {le} 0.001). Fifty-two percent of the children with carcinomas and only 24% with benign lesions (P {le} 0.005) were residents of the Gomel region, which is the most contaminated in Belarus. The morphology of thyroid tissue adjacent to carcinomas showed a high prevalence of multinodular and diffuse changes, but not of adenomas or solitary adenomatoid nodules. There was a high prevalence of focal micropapillary hyperplasia with graded degrees of severity, which we hypothesize may correspond to precursors for papillary thyroid carcinoma in post-Chernobyl radiation-associated tumors. 36 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  5. Expression of nk2.1a during early development of the thyroid gland in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Rohr, K B; Concha, M L

    2000-07-01

    We show here that a zebrafish orthologue of the Thyroid Transcription Factor-1 (TTF-1), nk2.1a, is expressed in the developing thyroid gland. Using a fate mapping approach we found that an early nk2.1a expression domain in the endoderm adjacent to the heart follows morphogenetic movements of the lower jaw, ending up in the region in which the mature thyroid gland is located. We therefore suggest that nk2.1a labels the thyroid precursor cells from somitogenesis stages onwards.

  6. Fine needle aspiration of the thyroid

    MedlinePlus

    Thyroid nodule fine needle aspirate biopsy; Biopsy - thyroid - skinny-needle; Skinny-needle thyroid biopsy ... cleaned. A thin needle is inserted into the thyroid, and a sample of thyroid cells and fluid ...

  7. Diagnostic Utility of Galectin-3 in Thyroid Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Connie G.; Strugnell, Scott S.; Griffith, Obi L.; Jones, Steven J.M.; Gown, Allen M.; Walker, Blair; Nabi, Ivan R.; Wiseman, Sam M.

    2010-01-01

    Galectin-3 (Gal-3), which has received significant recent attention for its utility as a diagnostic marker for thyroid cancer, represents the most well-studied molecular candidate for thyroid cancer diagnosis. Gal-3 is a protein that binds to β-galactosidase residues on cell surface glycoproteins and has also been identified in the cytoplasmic and nuclear compartment. This marker has been implicated in regulation of normal cellular proliferation and apoptosis, as well as malignant transformation and the metastasis of cancer cells. We here present a mechanistic review of Gal-3 and its role in cancer development and progression. Gal-3 expression studies in thyroid tissue and cytologic tumor specimens and their methodological considerations are also discussed in this article. Despite great variance in their methodology, the majority of immunohistochemical studies found that Gal-3 was differentially expressed in thyroid carcinoma compared with benign and normal thyroid specimens, suggesting that Gal-3 is a good diagnostic marker for thyroid cancer. Recent studies have also demonstrated improved methodological reliability. On the other hand, Gal-3 genomic expression studies have shown inconsistent results for diagnostic utility and are not recommended. Overall, the development of Gal-3 as a diagnostic marker for thyroid cancer represents a promising avenue for future study, and its clinical application could significantly reduce the number of diagnostic thyroid operations performed for cases of indeterminant fine needle aspiration biopsy cytology, and thus positively impact the current management of thyroid nodular disease. PMID:20363921

  8. The transcriptional repressor DREAM is involved in thyroid gene expression

    SciTech Connect

    D'Andrea, Barbara; Di Palma, Tina; Mascia, Anna; Motti, Maria Letizia; Viglietto, Giuseppe; Nitsch, Lucio; Zannini, Mariastella . E-mail: stella@szn.it

    2005-04-15

    Downstream regulatory element antagonistic modulator (DREAM) was originally identified in neuroendocrine cells as a calcium-binding protein that specifically binds to downstream regulatory elements (DRE) on DNA, and represses transcription of its target genes. To explore the possibility that DREAM may regulate the endocrine activity of the thyroid gland, we analyzed its mRNA expression in undifferentiated and differentiated thyroid cells. We demonstrated that DREAM is expressed in the normal thyroid tissue as well as in differentiated thyroid cells in culture while it is absent in FRT poorly differentiated cells. In the present work, we also show that DREAM specifically binds to DRE sites identified in the 5' untranslated region (UTR) of the thyroid-specific transcription factors Pax8 and TTF-2/FoxE1 in a calcium-dependent manner. By gel retardation assays we demonstrated that thapsigargin treatment increases the binding of DREAM to the DRE sequences present in Pax8 and TTF-2/Foxe1 5' UTRs, and this correlates with a significant reduction of the expression of these genes. Interestingly, in poorly differentiated thyroid cells overexpression of exogenous DREAM strongly inhibits Pax8 expression. Moreover, we provide evidence that a mutated form of DREAM unable to bind Ca{sup 2+} interferes with thyroid cell proliferation. Therefore, we propose that in thyroid cells DREAM is a mediator of the calcium-signaling pathway and it is involved in the regulation of thyroid cell function.

  9. HLA-D subregion expression by thyroid epithelium in autoimmune thyroid diseases and induced in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Todd, I; Pujol-Borrell, R; Abdul-Karim, B A; Hammond, L J; Feldmann, M; Bottazzo, G F

    1987-01-01

    Human thyroid epithelial cells (thyrocytes) express HLA Class II molecules in autoimmune thyroid diseases (ATD). Normal thyrocytes do not express Class II, but can be induced to do so by culture with interferon-gamma (gamma-IFN). We have examined HLA-D subregion expression in sections and monolayers of thyroid by indirect immunofluorescence using appropriate monoclonal antibodies. The results indicate that, in ATD, the incidence and intensity of Class II subregion expression by thyrocytes varies between patients, and follows the pattern DR greater than DP greater than DQ. The same hierarchy is observed in cultured normal thyrocytes treated with gamma-IFN: strong induction of Class II, and of DP and DQ in particular, requires relatively high concentrations of gamma-IFN or additional factors such as thyroid stimulating hormone. These findings suggest that HLA-D subregion expression by thyrocytes in on-going ATD is determined by the levels of disease related factors in the affected tissue. PMID:3117460

  10. Fetal microchimeric cells in autoimmune thyroid diseases: harmful, beneficial or innocent for the thyroid gland?

    PubMed

    Lepez, Trees; Vandewoestyne, Mado; Deforce, Dieter

    2013-01-01

    Autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD) show a female predominance, with an increased incidence in the years following parturition. Fetal microchimerism has been suggested to play a role in the pathogenesis of AITD. However, only the presence of fetal microchimeric cells in blood and in the thyroid gland of these patients has been proven, but not an actual active role in AITD. Is fetal microchimerism harmful for the thyroid gland by initiating a Graft versus Host reaction (GvHR) or being the target of a Host versus Graft reaction (HvGR)? Is fetal microchimerism beneficial for the thyroid gland by being a part of tissue repair or are fetal cells just innocent bystanders in the process of autoimmunity? This review explores every hypothesis concerning the role of fetal microchimerism in AITD.

  11. ΤND: a thyroid nodule detection system for analysis of ultrasound images and videos.

    PubMed

    Keramidas, Eystratios G; Maroulis, Dimitris; Iakovidis, Dimitris K

    2012-06-01

    In this paper, we present a computer-aided-diagnosis (CAD) system prototype, named TND (Thyroid Nodule Detector), for the detection of nodular tissue in ultrasound (US) thyroid images and videos acquired during thyroid US examinations. The proposed system incorporates an original methodology that involves a novel algorithm for automatic definition of the boundaries of the thyroid gland, and a novel approach for the extraction of noise resilient image features effectively representing the textural and the echogenic properties of the thyroid tissue. Through extensive experimental evaluation on real thyroid US data, its accuracy in thyroid nodule detection has been estimated to exceed 95%. These results attest to the feasibility of the clinical application of TND, for the provision of a second more objective opinion to the radiologists by exploiting image evidences.

  12. Mitochondrial DNA common deletion is not associated with thyroid, breast and colorectal tumors in Turkish patients

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Recently, efforts have been focused on mitochondrial DNA changes and their relation to human cancers. Among them, a 4977 bp deletion of mitochondrial DNA, named “common deletion”, has been investigated in several types of tumors, with inconsistent results. In this study, we investigated the presence of the common deletion in tissues from 25 breast, 25 colorectal and 50 thyroid tumors and in the adjacent healthy tissues from Turkish patients. Samples from healthy volunteers were also evaluated for comparison. Two PCR-based methods were used for the detection of the common deletion. First, two pairs of primers were used to amplify wild-type and deleted mtDNA. Then, a highly sensitive nested-PCR was performed, to determine low amounts of deleted genomes. By the first method, wild-type mtDNAs were observed in all samples, but a deletion was observed in only six thyroid samples, by using the nested-PCR method. In conclusion, the mitochondrial common deletion was very rare in our study group and did not appear to be not related with cancer. PMID:21637595

  13. Thyroid and the Heart

    PubMed Central

    Grais, Ira Martin; Sowers, James R.

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid hormones modulate every component of the cardiovascular system necessary for normal cardiovascular development and function. When cardiovascular disease is present, thyroid function tests are characteristically indicated to determine if overt thyroid disorders or even subclinical dysfunction exists. As hypothyroidism, hypertension and cardiovascular disease all increase with advancing age monitoring of TSH, the most sensitive test for hypothyroidism, is important in this expanding segment of our population. A better understanding of the impact of thyroid hormonal status on cardiovascular physiology will enable health care providers to make decisions regarding thyroid hormone evaluation and therapy in concert with evaluating and treating hypertension and cardiovascular disease. The goal of this review is to access contemporary understanding of the effects of thyroid hormones on normal cardiovascular function and the potential role of overt and subclinical hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism in a variety of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:24662620

  14. Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis of the Thyroid with Multiple Cervical Lymph Node Involvement Accompanying Metastatic Thyroid Papillary Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Ceyran, A. Bahar; Şenol, Serkan; Bayraktar, Barış; Özkanlı, Şeyma; Cinel, Z. Leyla; Aydın, Abdullah

    2014-01-01

    A 37-year-old male case was admitted with goiter. Ultrasonography of thyroid showed a 5 cm cystic nodule in the left lobe with a 1.5 cm solid component. Fine needle aspiration biopsy revealed atypia of undetermined significance or follicular lesion. The patient was operated on. The pathological diagnosis was reported as papillary thyroid carcinoma. The immunohistochemical examination showed multiple foci of Langerhans cell histiocytosis involving both lobes. The patient died due to cardiac arrest with respiratory causes in the early postoperative period. Langerhans cell histiocytosis is a rare primary condition which involves abnormal clonal proliferation of Langerhans cells in various tissues and organs. Thyroid involvement is infrequently seen. Although the etiology is unknown, genetic components may be linked to the disease. It is also associated with a family history of thyroid disease. Papillary thyroid carcinoma is the most common malignant epithelial tumor of the thyroid gland. Langerhans cell histiocytosis presenting with papillary thyroid carcinoma is rare. The privilege of our case is langerhans cell histiocytosis of the thyroid with multiple cervical lymph node involvement accompanying cervical lymph node metastatic thyroid papillary carcinoma. PMID:25349760

  15. THYROID FUNCTION IN DEPRESSION

    PubMed Central

    Boral, G. C.; Ghosh, A. B.; Pal, S. K; Ghosh, K. K.; Nandi, D. N.

    1980-01-01

    SUMMARY Studies on thyroid functions were performed on patients suffering from depression and compared with normal control group. 31 different cases of depression were studied for their thyroid function andshowed a diminished level of T3 and T4 with a concomitant rise in TSH level. When the female population of these 31 cases was compared with their male counterparts the females showed a significantly lower thyroidal functional status than the males. PMID:22058497

  16. Thyroid calcifications: a pictorial essay.

    PubMed

    Lacout, Alexis; Chevenet, Carole; Thariat, Juliette; Marcy, Pierre Yves

    2016-05-01

    Incidental diagnosis of thyroid nodules is very common on adult neck ultrasonography examination. Thyroid calcifications are encountered in benign thyroid nodules and goiters as well as in thyroid malignancy. Depiction and characterization of such calcifications within a thyroid nodule may be a key element in the thyroid nodule diagnosis algorithm. The goal of this paper is to display typical radio-pathological correlations of various thyroid pathologies of benign and malignant conditions in which the calcification type diagnosis can play a key role in the final diagnosis of the thyroid nodule. PMID:26891122

  17. Role of color Doppler in differentiation of Graves' disease and thyroiditis in thyrotoxicosis

    PubMed Central

    Donkol, Ragab Hani; Nada, Aml Mohamed; Boughattas, Sami

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the role of thyroid blood flow assessment by color-flow Doppler ultrasonography in the differential diagnosis of thyrotoxicosis and compare it to technetium pertechnetate thyroid scanning. METHODS: Twenty-six patients with thyrotoxicosis were included in the study. Clinical history was taken and physical examination and thyroid function tests were performed for all patients. Thyroid autoantibodies were measured. The thyroid glands of all patients were evaluated by gray scale ultrasonography for size, shape and echotexture. Color-flow Doppler ultrasonography of the thyroid tissue was performed and spectral flow analysis of both inferior thyroid arteries was assessed. Technetium99 pertechnetate scanning of the thyroid gland was done for all patients. According to thyroid scintigraphy, the patients were divided into two groups: 18 cases with Graves’ disease and 8 cases with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis. All patients had suppressed thyrotropin. The diagnosis of Graves’ disease and Hashimoto’s thyroiditis was supported by the clinical picture and follow up of patients. RESULTS: Peak systolic velocities of the inferior thyroid arteries were significantly higher in patients with Graves’ disease than in patients with thyroiditis (P = 0.004 in the right inferior thyroid artery and P = 0.001 in left inferior thyroid artery). Color-flow Doppler ultrasonography parameters demonstrated a sensitivity of 88.9% and a specificity of 87.5% in the differential diagnosis of thyrotoxicosis. CONCLUSION: Color Doppler flow of the inferior thyroid artery can be used in the differential diagnosis of thyrotoxicosis, especially when there is a contraindication of thyroid scintigraphy by radioactive material in some patients. PMID:23671754

  18. Thyroid Cancer Metabolism: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Kurren S; Tassone, Patrick; Hamilton, James; Hjelm, Nikolaus; Luginbuhl, Adam; Cognetti, David; Tuluc, Madalina; Martinez-Outschoorn, Ubaldo; Johnson, Jennifer M; Curry, Joseph M

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic dysregulation within the tumor microenvironment (TME) is critical to the process of tumorigenesis in various cancer types. Thyrocyte metabolism in papillary and anaplastic thyroid cancer, however, remains poorly characterized, and studies analyzing the role of multicompartment metabolism in thyrocyte oncogenesis are sparse. We present a review of the current knowledge on cellular metabolism in non-cancerous and cancerous thyroid tissues, focusing on the monocarboxylate transporters MCT1 and MCT4, and on a transporter of the outer mitochondrial membrane TOMM20. Understanding the metabolic phenotype of tumor cells and associated stromal cells in thyroid cancer can have profound implications on the use of biomarker staining in detecting subclinical cancer, imaging as it relates to expression of various transport proteins, and therapeutic interventions that manipulate this dysregulated tumor metabolism to halt tumorigenesis and eradicate the cancer. Future studies are required to confirm the prognostic significance of these biomarkers and their correlation with existing staging schemas such as the AGES, AMES, ATA and MACIS scoring systems. PMID:27213120

  19. Ectopic Lingual Thyroid

    PubMed Central

    Khamassi, Khaled; Jaafoura, Habib; Masmoudi, Fahmi; Lahiani, Rim; Bougacha, Lobna; Ben Salah, Mamia

    2015-01-01

    Ectopy of the thyroid gland is an abnormal embryological development. Its occurrence in children is rare. In this study, we report the case of a 12-year-old girl that presented with dysphagia and nocturnal dyspnea. Magnetic resonance imaging confirmed the presence of a lingual thyroid. Thyroid scintigraphy showed intense and elective uptake of radiotracer at the base of the tongue. Hormonal tests revealed hypothyroidism. Treatment consisted of opotherapy based on levothyroxine. Evolution has been favourable and the patient showed significant improvement with reduction of the dyspnea and the dysphagia and normalization of thyroid hormone tests. PMID:25893126

  20. Thyroid cancer around Chernobyl

    SciTech Connect

    Beral, V.

    1997-03-01

    The author`s presentation on thyroid cancer around Chernobyl will focus on four different things. First will be the time trends, or the pattern of thyroid cancer occurrence before and after the accident. It is now very well known that the increase in thyroid cancer in children in several areas has been unprecedented. Second, the author discusses thyroid cancer in general and patterns of thyroid cancer around the world before the Chernobyl accident, including differences by age and pathology. Third, the author presents relatively crude analyses of risk according to dose to the thyroid gland. And last, the author attempts to contrast the findings for thyroid cancer in relation to the internal radioiodine dose in Chernobyl studies with analyses of the effects of external dose on thyroid cancer incidence. The bottom line to be developed is similar to that presented by Elaine Ron with regard to effects of external dose on thyroid cancer. The similarities between the childhood finding from Chernobyl studies and external radiation studies appear more remarkable than the differences.

  1. Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma: A Malignant Tumor with Increased Antioxidant Defense Capacity.

    PubMed

    Rovcanin, Branislav R; Gopcevic, Kristina R; Kekic, Dusan Lj; Zivaljevic, Vladan R; Diklic, Aleksandar Dj; Paunovic, Ivan R

    2016-01-01

    Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is the commonest thyroid malignancy worldwide for which the radiation exposure is the most influential risk factor. The levels of oxidative stress in PTC are not well characterized on the tissue level. The objective of this study was to evaluate total oxidant status (TOS) and total antioxidant status (TAS) in PTC and benign goiter (BG) tissues and to examine their association with clinicopathological characteristics. Tumor and normal thyroid tissue samples were collected from 59 PTC patients, and goiter tissues were collected from 50 BG patients. TOS and TAS were quantified in the tissue homogenates by spectrophotometric assays. TOS values in tumor tissues did not differ significantly from normal and goiter tissues; however, PTC tissues have significantly higher TAS values than normal and goiter tissues. TOS values correlated with retrosternal growth in BG patients. The significant correlations were found between TOS and TAS values and thyroid function parameters. In 17 PTC patients with multiple tumor foci (multicentric phenotype), TAS values were significantly lower, compared to 42 patients with unicentric PTC. TAS and TOS are the most useful predictors of thyroid capsular invasion by PTC. The age, sex, body mass index, smoking, familial history of thyroid disease and nodule size did not influence TOS and TAS in PTC or BG patients. In conclusion, we show the profiles of TOS and TAS in PTC and BG tissues. Importantly, PTC tissues possess increased antioxidant capacity. The redox status influences the parameters of the thyroid function and tumor's biological behavior. PMID:27615359

  2. Primary thyroid leiomyosarcoma: A case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    ZOU, ZHEN-YU; NING, NING; LI, SONG-YAN; LI, JIE; DU, XIAO-HUI; LI, RONG

    2016-01-01

    Primary thyroid leiomyosarcoma (LMS) is an extremely rare soft tissue cancer; only 22 cases have been reported in the literature to date. In the current study, the case of an 83-year-old male patient who presented with a neck mass that had grown rapidly over the previous 3 months is reported. The patient underwent thyroid lobectomy twice and two cycles of immunotherapy for the treatment of primary thyroid LMS; however, he succumbed to the disease 5 months after the second surgery. An accurate diagnosis of primary thyroid LMS is difficult, as the disease is often misdiagnosed as anaplastic carcinoma, and requires the combined assessment of clinical, imaging and pathological data. Diagnosis of the current patient with primary thyroid LMS and a comprehensive review of the relevant literature are presented herein. PMID:27313727

  3. Thyroid Growth and Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Dillwyn

    2015-01-01

    It is proposed that most papillary thyroid cancers originate in infancy and childhood, based on the early rise in sporadic thyroid carcinoma incidence, the pattern of radiation-induced risk (highest in those exposed as infants), and the high prevalence of sporadic papillary thyroid cancers in children and adolescents (ultrasound screening after the Fukushima accident). The early origin can be linked to the growth pattern of follicular cells, with a high mitotic rate in infancy falling to very low replacement levels in adult life. The cell of origin of thyroid cancers, the differentiated follicular cell, has a limited growth potential. Unlike cancers originating in stem cells, loss of the usually tight link between differentiation and replicative senescence is required for immortalisation. It is suggested that this loss distinguishes larger clinically significant papillary thyroid cancers from micro-papillary thyroid cancers of little clinical significance. Papillary carcinogenesis can then be divided into 3 stages: (1) initiation, the first mutation in the carcinogenic cascade, for radiation-induced papillary thyroid cancers usually a RET rearrangement, (2) progression, acquisition of the additional mutations needed for low-grade malignancy, and (3) escape, further mutations giving immortality and a higher net growth rate. Most papillary thyroid cancers will not have achieved full immortality by adulthood, and remain as so-called micro-carcinomas with a very low growth rate. The use of the term ‘cancer’ to describe micro-papillary thyroid cancers in older patients encourages overtreatment and alarms patients. Invasive papillary thyroid tumours show a spectrum of malignancy, which at its lowest poses no threat to life. The treatment protocols and nomenclature for small papillary carcinomas need to be reconsidered in the light of the new evidence available, the continuing discovery of smaller lesions, and the model of thyroid carcinogenesis proposed. PMID

  4. Decitabine in Treating Patients With Metastatic Papillary Thyroid Cancer or Follicular Thyroid Cancer Unresponsive to Iodine I 131

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-08-20

    Recurrent Thyroid Cancer; Stage IVA Follicular Thyroid Cancer; Stage IVA Papillary Thyroid Cancer; Stage IVB Follicular Thyroid Cancer; Stage IVB Papillary Thyroid Cancer; Stage IVC Follicular Thyroid Cancer; Stage IVC Papillary Thyroid Cancer

  5. Expression of PACAP and PAC1 Receptor in Normal Human Thyroid Gland and in Thyroid Papillary Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Bardosi, Sebastian; Bardosi, Attila; Nagy, Zsuzsanna; Reglodi, Dora

    2016-10-01

    Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) belongs to the vasoactive intestinal peptide-secretin-glucagon peptide family, isolated first from ovine hypothalamus. The diverse physiological effects of PACAP are known mainly from animal experiments, including several actions in endocrine glands. Alteration of PACAP expression has been shown in several tumors, but changes in expression of PACAP and its specific PAC1 receptor in human thyroid gland pathologies have not yet been investigated. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate expression of PACAP and its PAC1 receptor in human thyroid papillary carcinoma, the most common endocrine malignant tumor. PACAP and PAC1 receptor expressions were investigated from thyroid gland samples of patients with papillary carcinomas. The staining intensity of follicular epithelial cells and thyroid colloid of tumor tissue was compared to that of tumor-free tissue in the same thyroid glands in a semi-quantitative way. Our results reveal that both PACAP(-like) and PAC1 receptor(-like) immunoreactivities are altered in papillary carcinoma. Stronger PACAP immunoreactivity was observed in active follicles. Colloidal PACAP immunostaining was either lacking or very weak, and more tumorous cells displayed strong apical immunoreactivity. Regarding PAC1 receptor, cells of the normal thyroid tissue showed strong granular expression, which was lacking in the tumor cells. The cytoplasm of tumor cells displayed weak, minimal staining, while in a few tumor cells we observed strong PAC1 receptor expression. This pattern was similar to that observed in the PACAP expression, but fewer in number. In summary, we showed alteration of PACAP and PAC1 receptor expression in human thyroid papillary carcinoma, indicating that PACAP regulation is disturbed in tumorous tissue of the thyroid gland. The exact role of PACAP in thyroid tumor growth should be further explored.

  6. Expression of PACAP and PAC1 Receptor in Normal Human Thyroid Gland and in Thyroid Papillary Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Bardosi, Sebastian; Bardosi, Attila; Nagy, Zsuzsanna; Reglodi, Dora

    2016-10-01

    Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) belongs to the vasoactive intestinal peptide-secretin-glucagon peptide family, isolated first from ovine hypothalamus. The diverse physiological effects of PACAP are known mainly from animal experiments, including several actions in endocrine glands. Alteration of PACAP expression has been shown in several tumors, but changes in expression of PACAP and its specific PAC1 receptor in human thyroid gland pathologies have not yet been investigated. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate expression of PACAP and its PAC1 receptor in human thyroid papillary carcinoma, the most common endocrine malignant tumor. PACAP and PAC1 receptor expressions were investigated from thyroid gland samples of patients with papillary carcinomas. The staining intensity of follicular epithelial cells and thyroid colloid of tumor tissue was compared to that of tumor-free tissue in the same thyroid glands in a semi-quantitative way. Our results reveal that both PACAP(-like) and PAC1 receptor(-like) immunoreactivities are altered in papillary carcinoma. Stronger PACAP immunoreactivity was observed in active follicles. Colloidal PACAP immunostaining was either lacking or very weak, and more tumorous cells displayed strong apical immunoreactivity. Regarding PAC1 receptor, cells of the normal thyroid tissue showed strong granular expression, which was lacking in the tumor cells. The cytoplasm of tumor cells displayed weak, minimal staining, while in a few tumor cells we observed strong PAC1 receptor expression. This pattern was similar to that observed in the PACAP expression, but fewer in number. In summary, we showed alteration of PACAP and PAC1 receptor expression in human thyroid papillary carcinoma, indicating that PACAP regulation is disturbed in tumorous tissue of the thyroid gland. The exact role of PACAP in thyroid tumor growth should be further explored. PMID:27566169

  7. Levels of histone acetylation in thyroid tumors.

    PubMed

    Puppin, Cinzia; Passon, Nadia; Lavarone, Elisa; Di Loreto, Carla; Frasca, Francesco; Vella, Veronica; Vigneri, Riccardo; Damante, Giuseppe

    2011-08-12

    Histone acetylation is a major mechanism to regulate gene transcription. This post-translational modification is modified in cancer cells. In various tumor types the levels of acetylation at several histone residues are associated to clinical aggressiveness. By using immunohistochemistry we show that acetylated levels of lysines at positions 9-14 of H3 histone (H3K9-K14ac) are significantly higher in follicular adenomas (FA), papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTC), follicular thyroid carcinomas (FTC) and undifferentiated carcinomas (UC) than in normal tissues (NT). Similar data have been obtained when acetylated levels of lysine 18 of H3 histone (H3K18ac) were evaluated. In this case, however, no difference was observed between NT and UC. When acetylated levels of lysine 12 of H4 histone (H4K12ac) were evaluated, only FA showed significantly higher levels in comparison with NT. These data indicate that modification histone acetylation is an early event along thyroid tumor progression and that H3K18 acetylation is switched off in the transition between differentiated and undifferentiated thyroid tumors. By using rat thyroid cell lines that are stably transfected with doxycyclin-inducible oncogenes, we show that the oncoproteins RET-PTC, RAS and BRAF increase levels of H3K9-K14ac and H3K18ac. In the non-tumorigenic rat thyroid cell line FRTL-5, TSH increases levels of H3K18ac. However, this hormone decreases levels of H3K9-K14ac and H4K12ac. In conclusion, our data indicate that neoplastic transformation and hormonal stimulation can modify levels of histone acetylation in thyroid cells. PMID:21763277

  8. Cadmium effects on the thyroid gland.

    PubMed

    Jancic, Snezana A; Stosic, Bojan Z

    2014-01-01

    Cadmium has been listed as one of the 126 priority pollutants and a category I carcinogen. Carcinogenic effects of cadmium on the lungs, testicles, and prostate are widely recognized, but there has been insufficient research on the effect of cadmium on the thyroid gland. Cadmium has the affinity to accumulate not only in the liver, kidneys, and pancreas but also in the thyroid gland. It has been established that cadmium blood concentration correlates positively with its accumulation in the thyroid gland. Women of fertile age have higher cadmium blood and urine concentrations than men. In spite of its redox inertia, cadmium brings about oxidative stress and damage to the tissue by indirect mechanisms. Mitochondria are considered to be the main intracellular targets for cadmium. Colloid cystic goiter, adenomatoid follicular hyperplasia with low-grade dysplasia and thyroglobulin hypo- and asecretion, and parafollicular cell diffuse and nodular hyperplasia and hypertrophy are often found in chronic cadmium toxicity. PMID:24388198

  9. Cadmium effects on the thyroid gland.

    PubMed

    Jancic, Snezana A; Stosic, Bojan Z

    2014-01-01

    Cadmium has been listed as one of the 126 priority pollutants and a category I carcinogen. Carcinogenic effects of cadmium on the lungs, testicles, and prostate are widely recognized, but there has been insufficient research on the effect of cadmium on the thyroid gland. Cadmium has the affinity to accumulate not only in the liver, kidneys, and pancreas but also in the thyroid gland. It has been established that cadmium blood concentration correlates positively with its accumulation in the thyroid gland. Women of fertile age have higher cadmium blood and urine concentrations than men. In spite of its redox inertia, cadmium brings about oxidative stress and damage to the tissue by indirect mechanisms. Mitochondria are considered to be the main intracellular targets for cadmium. Colloid cystic goiter, adenomatoid follicular hyperplasia with low-grade dysplasia and thyroglobulin hypo- and asecretion, and parafollicular cell diffuse and nodular hyperplasia and hypertrophy are often found in chronic cadmium toxicity.

  10. Thyroid gland biopsy (image)

    MedlinePlus

    The thyroid is a gland located in the neck. It is a part of the endocrine (hormone) system, and plays a major role in regulating ... sample of cells is needed from the thyroid gland a fine needle biopsy can be performed. During ...

  11. Thyroid imaging studies

    SciTech Connect

    Drew, H.H.; LaFrance, N.D.; Chen, J.J.S.

    1987-06-01

    This is the second in a series of Continuing Education articles related to functional/quantitative imaging techniques. After reading this article, the reader should be able to: 1) discuss the clinical applications of thyroid imaging; 2) understand the relationship of related thyroid tests; and 3) recognize the pitfalls and problems associated with this procedure.

  12. Lingual Thyroid Excision with Transoral Robotic Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Ersoy Callıoglu, Elif; Bozdemir, Kazım; Ulusoy, Bulent; Oguzhan, Tolga; Korkmaz, M. Hakan

    2015-01-01

    Ectopic thyroid gland may be detected at any place between foramen caecaum and normal thyroid localization due to inadequacy of the embryological migration of the thyroid gland. It has a prevalence varying between 1/10.000 and 1/100000 in the community. Usually follow-up without treatment is preferred except for obstructive symptoms, bleeding, and suspicion of malignity. Main symptoms are dysphagia, dysphonia, bleeding, dyspnea, and obstructive sleep apnea. In symptomatic cases, the first described method in surgical treatment is open approach since it is a region difficult to have access to. However, this approach has an increased risk of morbidity and postoperative complications. Transoral robotic surgery, which is a minimally invasive surgical procedure, has advantages such as larger three-dimensional point of view and ease of manipulation due to robotic instruments. In this report, a case at the age of 49 who presented to our clinic with obstructive symptoms increasing within the last year and was found to have lingual thyroid and underwent excision of ectopic thyroid tissue by da Vinci surgical system is presented. PMID:26064746

  13. Sarcoidosis mimicking metastatic papillary thyroid cancer

    PubMed Central

    Salih, Abdulwahid M.; Fatih, Salah M.; Kakamad, F.H.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Sarcoidosis is a multisystemic, idiopathic disease. It has a highly variable clinical course. It has been reported to present in association with malignancy. Coexistence of sarcoidosis and thyroid cancer is rarely reported in the literature. Presentatioin of the case We present a case with neck swelling for 3 months, and symmetrical painless thyroid enlargement without fixation to deep tissues of the neck. Multiple nodules on the both thyroid lobes, hard irregular, grade two goiter with lymphadenopathy all over anterior neck compartments. Fine needle aspiration cytology was done under ultrasound guide from right thyroid nodule and showed papillary thyroid carcinoma. Excisional biopsy of the neck lymphnode showed picture typical for sarcoidosis. Discussion Most researchers believe that patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis are predisposed to develop malignancies, less than a dozen of cases are reported in the literature to be associated with PTC with a very wide range of presentations and clincal coarses. An interesting finding of our case is that in contrast to what is reported, both diseases were not known by the physician until the time of presentation. Conclusion Cervical lymphadenopathy in association with goiter could be metastasis, sarcoidosis or mixed, therefore should be seperately biopsied. PMID:26432997

  14. Adjacent Segment Pathology after Anterior Cervical Fusion.

    PubMed

    Chung, Jae Yoon; Park, Jong-Beom; Seo, Hyoung-Yeon; Kim, Sung Kyu

    2016-06-01

    Anterior cervical fusion has become a standard of care for numerous pathologic conditions of the cervical spine. However, subsequent development of clinically significant disc disease at levels adjacent to fused discs is a serious long-term complication of this procedure. As more patients live longer after surgery, it is foreseeable that adjacent segment pathology (ASP) will develop in increasing numbers of patients. Also, ASP has been studied more intensively with the recent popularity of motion preservation technologies like total disc arthroplasty. The true nature and scope of ASP remains poorly understood. The etiology of ASP is most likely multifactorial. Various factors including altered biomechanical stresses, surgical disruption of soft tissue and the natural history of cervical disc disease contribute to the development of ASP. General factors associated with disc degeneration including gender, age, smoking and sports may play a role in the development of ASP. Postoperative sagittal alignment and type of surgery are also considered potential causes of ASP. Therefore, a spine surgeon must be particularly careful to avoid unnecessary disruption of the musculoligamentous structures, reduced risk of direct injury to the disc during dissection and maintain a safe margin between the plate edge and adjacent vertebrae during anterior cervical fusion.

  15. Adjacent Segment Pathology after Anterior Cervical Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Jae Yoon; Park, Jong-Beom; Seo, Hyoung-Yeon

    2016-01-01

    Anterior cervical fusion has become a standard of care for numerous pathologic conditions of the cervical spine. However, subsequent development of clinically significant disc disease at levels adjacent to fused discs is a serious long-term complication of this procedure. As more patients live longer after surgery, it is foreseeable that adjacent segment pathology (ASP) will develop in increasing numbers of patients. Also, ASP has been studied more intensively with the recent popularity of motion preservation technologies like total disc arthroplasty. The true nature and scope of ASP remains poorly understood. The etiology of ASP is most likely multifactorial. Various factors including altered biomechanical stresses, surgical disruption of soft tissue and the natural history of cervical disc disease contribute to the development of ASP. General factors associated with disc degeneration including gender, age, smoking and sports may play a role in the development of ASP. Postoperative sagittal alignment and type of surgery are also considered potential causes of ASP. Therefore, a spine surgeon must be particularly careful to avoid unnecessary disruption of the musculoligamentous structures, reduced risk of direct injury to the disc during dissection and maintain a safe margin between the plate edge and adjacent vertebrae during anterior cervical fusion. PMID:27340541

  16. Wortmannin, PI3K/Akt signaling pathway inhibitor, attenuates thyroid injury associated with severe acute pancreatitis in rats.

    PubMed

    Abliz, Ablikim; Deng, Wenhong; Sun, Rongze; Guo, Wenyi; Zhao, Liang; Wang, Weixing

    2015-01-01

    Increasing evidences suggest that PI3K/AKT pathway plays an important role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases such as acute pancreatitis. However, the exact effect of PI3K/AKT on thyroid injury associated with acute pancreatitis has not been investigated. This study aimed to investigate the protective effects of wortmannin, PI3K/AKT inhibitor, on thyroid injury in a rat model of severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). Sixty male SD rats were randomly divided into four groups: sham operating group (SO), SAP group, wortmannin treatment (WOR) group and drug control (WOR-CON) group. Serum amylase (AMY), lipase (LIP) and thyroid hormone levels were evaluated. The morphological change of thyroid tissue was analyzed under the light and transmission electron microscopy. AKT, P38MAPK and NF-κB expression in the thyroid tissue was evaluated by immunohistochemical staining. Oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokines were detected. Results showed that wortmannin attenuated the following: (1) serum AMY, LIP and thyroid hormone (2) pancreatic and thyroid pathological injuries (3) thyroid MDA, (4) thyroid ultrastructural change, (5) serum TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β (6) AKT, MAPKP38 and NF-κB expression in thyroid tissues. These results suggested that wortmannin attenuates thyroid injury in SAP rats, presumably because of its role on prevent ROS generation and inhibits the activation of P38MAPK, NF-κB pathway. Our findings provide new therapeutic targets for thyroid injury associated with SAP. PMID:26823696

  17. Wortmannin, PI3K/Akt signaling pathway inhibitor, attenuates thyroid injury associated with severe acute pancreatitis in rats.

    PubMed

    Abliz, Ablikim; Deng, Wenhong; Sun, Rongze; Guo, Wenyi; Zhao, Liang; Wang, Weixing

    2015-01-01

    Increasing evidences suggest that PI3K/AKT pathway plays an important role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases such as acute pancreatitis. However, the exact effect of PI3K/AKT on thyroid injury associated with acute pancreatitis has not been investigated. This study aimed to investigate the protective effects of wortmannin, PI3K/AKT inhibitor, on thyroid injury in a rat model of severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). Sixty male SD rats were randomly divided into four groups: sham operating group (SO), SAP group, wortmannin treatment (WOR) group and drug control (WOR-CON) group. Serum amylase (AMY), lipase (LIP) and thyroid hormone levels were evaluated. The morphological change of thyroid tissue was analyzed under the light and transmission electron microscopy. AKT, P38MAPK and NF-κB expression in the thyroid tissue was evaluated by immunohistochemical staining. Oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokines were detected. Results showed that wortmannin attenuated the following: (1) serum AMY, LIP and thyroid hormone (2) pancreatic and thyroid pathological injuries (3) thyroid MDA, (4) thyroid ultrastructural change, (5) serum TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β (6) AKT, MAPKP38 and NF-κB expression in thyroid tissues. These results suggested that wortmannin attenuates thyroid injury in SAP rats, presumably because of its role on prevent ROS generation and inhibits the activation of P38MAPK, NF-κB pathway. Our findings provide new therapeutic targets for thyroid injury associated with SAP.

  18. Thyroid Disorders and Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Hage, Mirella; Zantout, Mira S.; Azar, Sami T.

    2011-01-01

    Studies have found that diabetes and thyroid disorders tend to coexist in patients. Both conditions involve a dysfunction of the endocrine system. Thyroid disorders can have a major impact on glucose control, and untreated thyroid disorders affect the management of diabetes in patients. Consequently, a systematic approach to thyroid testing in patients with diabetes is recommended. PMID:21785689

  19. Progesterone Upregulates Gene Expression in Normal Human Thyroid Follicular Cells.

    PubMed

    Bertoni, Ana Paula Santin; Brum, Ilma Simoni; Hillebrand, Ana Caroline; Furlanetto, Tania Weber

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid cancer and thyroid nodules are more prevalent in women than men, so female sex hormones may have an etiological role in these conditions. There are no data about direct effects of progesterone on thyroid cells, so the aim of the present study was to evaluate progesterone effects in the sodium-iodide symporter NIS, thyroglobulin TG, thyroperoxidase TPO, and KI-67 genes expression, in normal thyroid follicular cells, derived from human tissue. NIS, TG, TPO, and KI-67 mRNA expression increased significantly after TSH 20 μUI/mL, respectively: 2.08 times, P < 0.0001; 2.39 times, P = 0.01; 1.58 times, P = 0.0003; and 1.87 times, P < 0.0001. In thyroid cells treated with 20 μUI/mL TSH plus 10 nM progesterone, RNA expression of NIS, TG, and KI-67 genes increased, respectively: 1.78 times, P < 0.0001; 1.75 times, P = 0.037; and 1.95 times, P < 0.0001, and TPO mRNA expression also increased, though not significantly (1.77 times, P = 0.069). These effects were abolished by mifepristone, an antagonist of progesterone receptor, suggesting that genes involved in thyroid cell function and proliferation are upregulated by progesterone. This work provides evidence that progesterone has a direct effect on thyroid cells, upregulating genes involved in thyroid function and growth. PMID:26089899

  20. The role of thyroid hormone in testicular development and function.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Márcia Santos; Wajner, Simone Magagnin; Maia, Ana Luiza

    2008-12-01

    Thyroid hormone is a critical regulator of growth, development, and metabolism in virtually all tissues, and altered thyroid status affects many organs and systems. Although for many years testis has been regarded as a thyroid hormone unresponsive organ, it is now evident that thyroid hormone plays an important role in testicular development and function. A considerable amount of data show that thyroid hormone influences steroidogenesis as well as spermatogenesis. The involvement of tri-iodothyronine (T(3)) in the control of Sertoli cell proliferation and functional maturation is widely accepted, as well as its role in postnatal Leydig cell differentiation and steroidogenesis. The presence of thyroid hormone receptors in testicular cells throughout development and in adulthood implies that T(3) may act directly on these cells to bring about its effects. Several recent studies have employed different methodologies and techniques in an attempt to understand the mechanisms underlying thyroid hormone effects on testicular cells. The current review aims at presenting an updated picture of the recent advances made regarding the role of thyroid hormones in male gonadal function.

  1. Progesterone Upregulates Gene Expression in Normal Human Thyroid Follicular Cells

    PubMed Central

    Bertoni, Ana Paula Santin; Brum, Ilma Simoni; Hillebrand, Ana Caroline; Furlanetto, Tania Weber

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid cancer and thyroid nodules are more prevalent in women than men, so female sex hormones may have an etiological role in these conditions. There are no data about direct effects of progesterone on thyroid cells, so the aim of the present study was to evaluate progesterone effects in the sodium-iodide symporter NIS, thyroglobulin TG, thyroperoxidase TPO, and KI-67 genes expression, in normal thyroid follicular cells, derived from human tissue. NIS, TG, TPO, and KI-67 mRNA expression increased significantly after TSH 20 μUI/mL, respectively: 2.08 times, P < 0.0001; 2.39 times, P = 0.01; 1.58 times, P = 0.0003; and 1.87 times, P < 0.0001. In thyroid cells treated with 20 μUI/mL TSH plus 10 nM progesterone, RNA expression of NIS, TG, and KI-67 genes increased, respectively: 1.78 times, P < 0.0001; 1.75 times, P = 0.037; and 1.95 times, P < 0.0001, and TPO mRNA expression also increased, though not significantly (1.77 times, P = 0.069). These effects were abolished by mifepristone, an antagonist of progesterone receptor, suggesting that genes involved in thyroid cell function and proliferation are upregulated by progesterone. This work provides evidence that progesterone has a direct effect on thyroid cells, upregulating genes involved in thyroid function and growth. PMID:26089899

  2. An accessory thyroid gland that presented tumor-like images.

    PubMed

    Takemoto, Nobuyuki; Koyanagi, Ai; Koike, Junko; Yamamoto, Hiroshi

    2013-04-01

    A 26-year-old woman presented with right breast pain and itching. Incidentally, a firm, non-tender, movable mass (3 cm in diameter) located in the lower right part of the neck was identified by palpation. Ultrasonography revealed a clearly demarcated dumbbell-shaped mass with homogenous hypo- (cranial side) and hyper-echogenicity (caudal side) compared with the thyroid gland. Computed tomography scan and magnetic resonance imaging presented images that were different from thyroid gland substance. The right thyroid lobe was strongly compressed by the mass. Hyperparathyroidism was ruled out by laboratory testing. The patient solicited resection of the mass despite recommendations for core needle biopsy, and it was removed surgically. The mass was surrounded by a thin capsule and was not connected with the thyroid gland. Pathological examinations revealed normal thyroid gland tissue. The final diagnosis was an accessory thyroid gland. Accessory thyroid glands should be considered as a possible diagnosis when nodules around the main thyroid gland are encountered.

  3. In vivo thyroid vibro-acoustography: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utility of a noninvasive ultrasound-based method, vibro-acoustography (VA), for thyroid imaging and determine the feasibility and challenges of VA in detecting nodules in thyroid. Methods Our study included two parts. First, in an in vitro study, experiments were conducted on a number of excised thyroid specimens randomly taken from autopsy. Three types of images were acquired from most of the specimens: X-ray, B-mode ultrasound, and vibro-acoustography. The second and main part of the study includes results from performing VA and B-mode ultrasound imaging on 24 human subjects with thyroid nodules. The results were evaluated and compared qualitatively. Results In vitro vibro-acoustography images displayed soft tissue structures, microcalcifications, cysts and nodules with high contrast and no speckle. In this group, all of US proven nodules and all of X-ray proven calcifications of thyroid tissues were detected by VA. In vivo results showed 100% of US proven calcifications and 91% of the US detected nodules were identified by VA, however, some artifacts were present in some cases. Conclusions In vitro and in vivo VA images show promising results for delineating the detailed structure of the thyroid, finding nodules and in particular calcifications with greater clarity compare to US. Our findings suggest that, with further development, VA may be a suitable imaging modality for clinical thyroid imaging. PMID:23530993

  4. Tumour suppressive function of HUWE1 in thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Ma, Weiyuan; Zhao, Pengxin; Zang, Leilei; Zhang, Kaili; Liao, Haiying; Hu, Zhigang

    2016-09-01

    HUWE1 (the HECT, UBA, and WWE domain-containing protein 1) is an ubiquitin E3 ligase which plays an important role in coordinating diverse cellular processes. It has been found to be dysregulated in various cancer type and its functions in tumorigenesis remain controversial. The potential tumour suppressive role of HUWE1 in thyroid cancer development was investigated by knocking down HUWE1 in three authentic thyroid cancer cell lines, WRO, FTC133 and BCPAP, followed by various functional assays, including cell proliferation, scratch wound healing and invasion assays. Xenograft experiment was performed to examine in vivo tumour suppressive properties of HUWE1. Small-interfering RNA mediated knockdown of HUWE1 promoted cell proliferation, cell migration and invasion in thyroid cancer cells. Overexpression of HUWE1 conferred partial sensitivity to chemo drugs interfering with DNA replication in these cells. Moreover, HUWE1 was found to be down-regulated in human thyroid cancer tissues compared with matched normal thyroid tissues. In addition, overexpression of HUWE1 significantly inhibited tumour growth in vivo using xenograft mouse models. Mechanistic investigation revealed that HUWE1 can regulate p53 protein level through its stabilization. HUWE1 functions as a tumour suppressor in thyroid cancer progression, which may represent a novel therapeutic target for prevention or intervention of thyroid cancer. PMID:27581931

  5. MORPHOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF NATIVE MALE SUBJECTS' THYROID BODY IN THE REPUBLIC SAKHA (YAKUTIA) IN DIFFERENT SEASONS.

    PubMed

    Egorova, A; Garmayeva, D

    2015-01-01

    Morphological analysis of macro-, microstructures of native male subjects' thyroid gland in the Republic Sakha (Yakutia) in different seasons has been conducted. Macromorphometric indicators of native male subjects' thyroid gland (specific weight, total capacity, linear indicators were specified in summer and winter seasons. Micromorphometric characteristics of structural components of native male subjects' thyroid gland tissue was given in relation to different seasons. In this case native male subjects' thyroid gland was as curtained as normoplastic mixed type of structure, indicators of outer and inner thyroid gland follicles diameter in winter period were slightly bigger than in summer period. The same tendency was observed when thyroid gland follicular-colloidal index was calculated. On the data obtained the attempt to assess season temperature factor impact on the thyroid gland structural indicators were made. This assessment might be used as morphological equivalent of the body adaptation processes in northern regions.

  6. Analysis of origin and growth of the thyroid gland in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Alt, Burkhard; Reibe, Saskia; Feitosa, Natalia M; Elsalini, Osama A; Wendl, Thomas; Rohr, Klaus B

    2006-07-01

    The zebrafish thyroid gland shows a unique pattern of growth as a differentiated endocrine gland. Here, we analyze the onset of differentiation, the contribution of lineages, and the mode of growth of this gland. The expression of genes involved in hormone production and the establishment of epithelial polarity show that differentiation into a first thyroid follicle takes place early during embryonic development. Thyroid follicular tissue then grows along the pharyngeal midline, initially independently of thyroid stimulating hormone. Lineage analysis reveals that thyroid follicle cells are exclusively recruited from the pharyngeal endoderm. The ultimobranchial bodies that merge with the thyroid in mammals form separate glands in zebrafish as visualized by calcitonin precursor gene expression. Mosaic analysis suggests that the first thyroid follicle differentiating at 55 hours postfertilization corresponds later to the most anterior follicle and that new follicles are added caudally.

  7. Childhood Soft Tissue Sarcoma: Treatment Information

    MedlinePlus

    ... Germ Cell Tumors Kidney/Wilms Tumor Liver Cancer Neuroblastoma Osteosarcoma Rhabdomyosarcoma Skin Cancer Soft Tissue Sarcoma Thyroid ... Tumor Liver Cancer Lymphoma (Non-Hodgkin) Lymphoma (Hodgkin) Neuroblastoma Osteosarcoma Retinoblastoma Rhabdomyosarcoma Skin Cancer Soft Tissue Sarcoma ...

  8. Thyroid diseases in elderly.

    PubMed

    Faggiano, A; Del Prete, M; Marciello, F; Marotta, V; Ramundo, V; Colao, A

    2011-09-01

    Thyroid diseases are the commonest endocrine disorders in the general population. In most of the cases, they are consistent with benign conditions which may be asymptomatic or affect people at a variable extent. Since they often represent chronic conditions their prevalence increases by age and reaches in elderly the highest rates. Thyroid nodules are a common clinical finding. Most subjects with thyroid nodules have few or no symptoms. Thyroid nodules are more commonly non-functioning. However, in elderly, toxic multinodular goiter is the most frequent cause of spontaneous hyperthyroidism and often, it emerges insidiously from nontoxic multinodular goiter. Although autoimmune thyroiditis is the most common cause of hypothyroidism in elderly subjects, other causes, such as drugs, neck radiotherapy, thyroidectomy or radioiodine therapy, are frequently observed among these subjects. A small subset of medications including dopamine agonists, glucocorticoids and somatostatin analogs affect thyroid function through suppression of TSH. Other medications that may affect TSH levels are metformin, antiepileptic medications, lithium carbonate and iodine-containing medications. Other drugs can alter T4 absorption, T4 and T3 transport in serum and metabolism of T4 and T3, such as proton-pump inhibitors and antacids, estrogens, mitotane and fluorouracil, phenobarbital and rifampin. Amiodarone administration is associated with thyrotoxicosis or hypothyroidism. Thyroid cancer has similar characteristics in elderly as in general population, however the rate of aggressive forms such as the anaplastic histotype, is higher in older than younger subjects. Diagnosis of thyroid diseases includes a comprehensive medical history and physical examination and appropriate laboratory tests. A correct diagnosis of thyroid diseases in the elderly is crucial for proper treatment, which consists in the removal of medications that may alter thyroid function, in the use of levo-thyroxine in case of

  9. Thyroid adenocarcinoma in a bald eagle (Haliaeetus leukocephalus).

    PubMed

    Bates, G; Tucker, R L; Ford, S; Mattix, M E

    1999-09-01

    Thyroid adenocarcinoma was diagnosed in an adult bald eagle (Haliaeetus leukocephalus) with clinical signs of weakness manifested by inability to fly. Physical examination at the time of admission revealed dried blood in the pharynx and glottis and the presence of pharyngeal trichomonads. Radiographs revealed a large soft tissue mass in the area of the left coracoid and clavicular bones. One month following successful treatment for trichomoniasis, the bird suffered an acute episode of tracheal hemorrhage and died. Necropsy revealed a large mass within the interclavicular air sac. The histologic features were consistent with thyroid adenocarcinoma. This is the first report of thyroid neoplasia in a member of the order Falconiformes.

  10. [Adenoid cystic carcinoma of the larynx, trachea and thyroid].

    PubMed

    Gryczyński, M; Piotrowski, S

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this article was to describe rarely occurred carcinoma adenoides cysticum located in the larynx, trachea and thyroid. Epidemiology, clinical course and medical therapy was demonstrated. In reported case concerning 65-year old woman early bilateral paresis of vocal folds was observed as results of the perineural infiltration. That caused sudden laryngeal dyspnea. It is important to pay attention on local extensiveness of neoplasm. Besides changes in larynx, neoplastic infiltration was found in trachea, preesophageal tissues and right lobe of thyroid. For above reasons there is no possible to exclude thyroid as a primary tumor of carcinoma adenoides cysticum.

  11. Role of the Thyroid System in Myelination and Neural Connectivity.

    PubMed

    Calzà, Laura; Fernández, Mercedes; Giardino, Luciana

    2015-07-01

    The role of thyroid hormone on brain development is dramatically illustrated by "cretinism," a severe mental retardation due to iodine deficiency and maternal hypothyroidism during gestation. In the last decades, the molecular bases of the cellular action of thyroid hormone in the nervous tissue have been at least partially elucidated, and the emerged picture is much more complex than expected. In this article, the main mechanisms determining thyroid hormone availability, nuclear and membrane receptor occupancy and downstream action, gene expression, and nongenomic mechanism are reviewed, focusing on myelination and myelin turnover. PMID:26140723

  12. Increased Pleiotrophin Concentrations in Papillary Thyroid Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Jee, Youn Hee; Sadowski, Samira M.; Celi, Francesco S.; Xi, Liqiang; Raffeld, Mark; Sacks, David B.; Remaley, Alan T.; Wellstein, Anton; Kebebew, Electron; Baron, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    Background Thyroid nodules are common, and approximately 5% of these nodules are malignant. Pleiotrophin (PTN) is a heparin-binding growth factor which is overexpressed in many cancers. The expression of PTN in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) is unknown. Method and Findings 74 subjects (age 47 ± 12 y, 15 males) who had thyroidectomy with a histological diagnosis: 79 benign nodules and 23 PTCs (10 classic, 6 tall cell, 6 follicular variant and 1 undetermined). Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) samples were obtained ex vivo from surgically excised tissue and assayed for PTN and thyroglobulin (Tg). Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was performed on tissue sections. In FNA samples, PTN concentration normalized to Tg was significantly higher in PTC than in benign nodules (16 ± 6 vs 0.3 ± 0.1 ng/mg, p < 0.001). In follicular variant of PTC (n = 6), the PTN/Tg ratio was also higher than in benign nodules (1.3 ± 0.6 vs 0.3 ± 0.1 ng/mg, P < 0.001, respectively). IHC showed cytoplasmic localization of PTN in PTC cells. Conclusion In ex vivo FNA samples, the PTN to thyroglobulin ratio was higher in PTCs, including follicular variant PTC, than in benign thyroid nodules. The findings raise the possibility that measurement of the PTN to Tg ratio may provide useful diagnostic and/or prognostic information in the evaluation of thyroid nodules. PMID:26914549

  13. Pazopanib Hydrochloride in Treating Patients With Advanced Thyroid Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-08-31

    Recurrent Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Stage III Differentiated Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Stage III Thyroid Gland Medullary Carcinoma; Stage IVA Differentiated Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVA Thyroid Gland Medullary Carcinoma; Stage IVA Thyroid Gland Undifferentiated (Anaplastic) Carcinoma; Stage IVB Differentiated Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVB Thyroid Gland Medullary Carcinoma; Stage IVB Thyroid Gland Undifferentiated (Anaplastic) Carcinoma; Stage IVC Differentiated Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Stage IVC Thyroid Gland Medullary Carcinoma; Stage IVC Thyroid Gland Undifferentiated (Anaplastic) Carcinoma; Thyroid Gland Undifferentiated (Anaplastic) Carcinoma

  14. Treatment with thyroid hormone.

    PubMed

    Biondi, Bernadette; Wartofsky, Leonard

    2014-06-01

    Thyroid hormone deficiency can have important repercussions. Treatment with thyroid hormone in replacement doses is essential in patients with hypothyroidism. In this review, we critically discuss the thyroid hormone formulations that are available and approaches to correct replacement therapy with thyroid hormone in primary and central hypothyroidism in different periods of life such as pregnancy, birth, infancy, childhood, and adolescence as well as in adult patients, the elderly, and in patients with comorbidities. Despite the frequent and long term use of l-T4, several studies have documented frequent under- and overtreatment during replacement therapy in hypothyroid patients. We assess the factors determining l-T4 requirements (sex, age, gender, menstrual status, body weight, and lean body mass), the major causes of failure to achieve optimal serum TSH levels in undertreated patients (poor patient compliance, timing of l-T4 administration, interferences with absorption, gastrointestinal diseases, and drugs), and the adverse consequences of unintentional TSH suppression in overtreated patients. Opinions differ regarding the treatment of mild thyroid hormone deficiency, and we examine the recent evidence favoring treatment of this condition. New data suggesting that combined therapy with T3 and T4 could be indicated in some patients with hypothyroidism are assessed, and the indications for TSH suppression with l-T4 in patients with euthyroid multinodular goiter and in those with differentiated thyroid cancer are reviewed. Lastly, we address the potential use of thyroid hormones or their analogs in obese patients and in severe cardiac diseases, dyslipidemia, and nonthyroidal illnesses.

  15. INTERFERON INDUCED THYROIDITIS

    PubMed Central

    Tomer, Yaron

    2009-01-01

    Autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD) are complex diseases that develop as a result of interactions between genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors. Significant progress has been made in our understanding of the genetic and environmental triggers contributing to AITD. The major environmental triggers of AITD include iodine, smoking, medications, pregnancy, and possibly stress. In this review we will focus on two well-documented environmental triggers of AITD, hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and interferon alpha (IFNa) therapy. Chronic HCV infection has been shown to be associated with increased incidence of clinical and subclinical autoimmune thyroiditis (i.e. the presence of thyroid antibodies in euthyroid subjects). Moreover, IFNa therapy of chronic HCV infection is associated with subclinical or clinical thyroiditis in up to 40% of cases which can be autoimmune, or non-autoimmune thyroiditis. In some cases interferon induced thyroiditis (IIT) in chronic HCV patients may result in severe symptomatology necessitating discontinuation of therapy. While the epidemiology and clinical presentation of HCV and interferon induced thyroiditis have been well characterized, the mechanisms causing these conditions are still poorly understood. PMID:20022216

  16. Autoimmune Thyroid Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Iddah, M. A.; Macharia, B. N.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of Review. Studies have been published in the field of autoimmune thyroid diseases since January 2005. The review is organized into areas of etiology, autoimmune features, autoantibodies, mechanism of thyroid cell injury, B-cell responses, and T-cell responses. Also it reviews the diagnosis and the relationship between autoimmune thyroid disease, neoplasm, and kidney disorders. Recent Findings. Autoimmune thyroid diseases have been reported in people living in different parts of the world including North America, Europe, Baalkans, Asia, Middle East, South America, and Africa though the reported figures do not fully reflect the number of people infected per year. Cases are unrecognized due to inaccurate diagnosis and hence are treated as other diseases. However, the most recent studies have shown that the human autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITDs) affect up to 5% of the general population and are seen mostly in women between 30 and 50 years. Summary. Autoimmune thyroid disease is the result of a complex interaction between genetic and environmental factors. Overall, this review has expanded our understanding of the mechanism involved in pathogenesis of AITD and the relationship between autoimmune thyroid disease, neoplasm, and kidney disease. It has opened new lines of investigations that will ultimately result in a better clinical practice. PMID:23878745

  17. [Thyroid and the environment].

    PubMed

    Brucker-Davis, Françoise; Hiéronimus, Sylvie; Fénichel, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    It has long been known that the thyroid depends upon the environment for regular iodine supply, avoiding iodine deficiency or excess. Thyroid function may be altered by natural compounds present in water or foodstuff (such as iodine or phyto-goitrogens), or by synthetic compounds, either administered knowingly (in case of medicine), or as an untoward event in case of exposure to industrial products and pesticides, massively produced and polluting the environment. Compounds with an impact on thyroid homeostasis are called thyroid disruptors (TD). TD may disrupt the thyroid economy at any level of regulation: thyroid hormone synthesis, metabolism, or transport; cellular level including thyroid hormone signaling; tumorigenesis or more indirectly via the triggering of an autoimmune process. Compounds such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) may act at multiple levels. PT effects on human health depend on parameters linked to the individual person (age at exposure, iodine status, diet, professional exposure, place of living, family history of thyroid disease, detoxification enzyme genetic variants) and on parameters linked to the compounds themselves (chemical structure, lipo- or hydro-solubility, modes of exposure, metabolites activity, "cocktail effect"). The toxic effects of TD do not necessarily follow the rules of classical toxicology (low-dose effects, non-monotonic curves). The main clinical risks are the deleterious impact on neurocognition and behavior for the fetus and the young child, and possibly the elderly, while in adults the main concerns are tumori/goitrogenesis and autoimmune thyroid disease. The potential socioeconomic impact for society warrants an active and major involvement in research to find solutions in a multidisciplinary approach. PMID:26603908

  18. [Thyroid and the environment].

    PubMed

    Brucker-Davis, Françoise; Hiéronimus, Sylvie; Fénichel, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    It has long been known that the thyroid depends upon the environment for regular iodine supply, avoiding iodine deficiency or excess. Thyroid function may be altered by natural compounds present in water or foodstuff (such as iodine or phyto-goitrogens), or by synthetic compounds, either administered knowingly (in case of medicine), or as an untoward event in case of exposure to industrial products and pesticides, massively produced and polluting the environment. Compounds with an impact on thyroid homeostasis are called thyroid disruptors (TD). TD may disrupt the thyroid economy at any level of regulation: thyroid hormone synthesis, metabolism, or transport; cellular level including thyroid hormone signaling; tumorigenesis or more indirectly via the triggering of an autoimmune process. Compounds such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) may act at multiple levels. PT effects on human health depend on parameters linked to the individual person (age at exposure, iodine status, diet, professional exposure, place of living, family history of thyroid disease, detoxification enzyme genetic variants) and on parameters linked to the compounds themselves (chemical structure, lipo- or hydro-solubility, modes of exposure, metabolites activity, "cocktail effect"). The toxic effects of TD do not necessarily follow the rules of classical toxicology (low-dose effects, non-monotonic curves). The main clinical risks are the deleterious impact on neurocognition and behavior for the fetus and the young child, and possibly the elderly, while in adults the main concerns are tumori/goitrogenesis and autoimmune thyroid disease. The potential socioeconomic impact for society warrants an active and major involvement in research to find solutions in a multidisciplinary approach.

  19. Tumorigenesis of Papillary Thyroid Cancer Is Not BRAF-Dependent in Patients with Acromegaly

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hee Kyung; Lee, Ji Shin; Park, Min Ho; Cho, Jin Seong; Yoon, Jee Hee; Kim, Soo Jeong; Kang, Ho-Cheol

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Several studies have reported a high frequency of papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) in patients with acromegaly. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and predictors of thyroid cancer in patients with acromegaly and to investigate the frequency of the BRAFV600E mutation in PTC patients with and without acromegaly. Materials and Methods We conducted a retrospective study of 60 patients with acromegaly. Thyroid ultrasonography (US) and US-guided fine needle aspiration were performed on nodules with sonographic features of malignancy. We selected 16 patients with non-acromegalic PTC as a control group. The BRAFV600E mutation was analyzed in paraffin-embedded surgical specimens of PTC by real-time polymerase chain reaction, and tumor specimens from patients with PTC were stained immunohistochemically with an antibody against insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor β (IGF-1Rβ). Results Thyroid cancer was found in 15 (25.0%) patients. No differences in age, sex, initial growth hormone (GH) and IGF-1 percentage of the upper limit of normal values or treatment modalities were observed between patients with and without PTC. Acromegaly was active in 12 of 15 patients at the time of PTC diagnosis; uncontrolled acromegaly had a significantly higher frequency in the PTC group (60%) than in the non-PTC group (28.9%) (p = 0.030). The BRAFV600E mutation was present in only 9.1% (1/11) of PTC patients with acromegaly, although 62.5% (10/16) of control patients with PTC had the mutation (p = 0.007). IGF-1Rβ immunostaining showed moderate-to-strong staining in all malignant PTC cells in patients with and without acromegaly. Significantly less staining for IGF-1Rβ was observed in normal adjacent thyroid tissues of PTC patients with acromegaly compared with those without (p = 0.014). Conclusion The prevalence of PTC in acromegalic patients was high (25%). An uncontrolled hyperactive GH-IGF-1 axis may play a dominant role in the development of PTC

  20. Dynamical model for thyroid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rokni Lamooki, Gholam Reza; Shirazi, Amir H.; Mani, Ali R.

    2015-05-01

    Thyroid's main chemical reactions are employed to develop a mathematical model. The presented model is based on differential equations where their dynamics reflects many aspects of thyroid's behavior. Our main focus here is the well known, but not well understood, phenomenon so called as Wolff-Chaikoff effect. It is shown that the inhibitory effect of intake iodide on the rate of one single enzyme causes a similar effect as Wolff-Chaikoff. Besides this issue, the presented model is capable of revealing other complex phenomena of thyroid hormones homeostasis.

  1. Thyroid: biological actions of 'nonclassical' thyroid hormones.

    PubMed

    Senese, Rosalba; Cioffi, Federica; de Lange, Pieter; Goglia, Fernando; Lanni, Antonia

    2014-05-01

    Thyroid hormones (THs) are produced by the thyroid gland and converted in peripheral organs by deiodinases. THs regulate cell functions through two distinct mechanisms: genomic (nuclear) and nongenomic (non-nuclear). Many TH effects are mediated by the genomic pathway--a mechanism that requires TH activation of nuclear thyroid hormone receptors. The overall nongenomic processes, emerging as important accessory mechanisms in TH actions, have been observed at the plasma membrane, in the cytoplasm and cytoskeleton, and in organelles. Some products of peripheral TH metabolism (besides triiodo-L-thyronine), now termed 'nonclassical THs', were previously considered as inactive breakdown products. However, several reports have recently shown that they may have relevant biological effects. The recent accumulation of knowledge on how classical and nonclassical THs modulate the activity of membrane receptors, components of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, kinases and deacetylases, opened the door to the discovery of new pathways through which they act. We reviewed the current state-of-the-art on the actions of the nonclassical THs, discussing the role that these endogenous TH metabolites may have in the modulation of thyroid-related effects in organisms with differing complexity, ranging from nonmammals to humans.

  2. TSH (Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone) Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... symptoms of a thyroid disorder , including hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism . TSH is produced by the pituitary gland , a ... thyroid Monitor thyroid replacement therapy in people with hypothyroidism Monitor anti-thyroid treatment in people with hyperthyroidism ...

  3. An Ex vivo Culture System to Study Thyroid Development

    PubMed Central

    Delmarcelle, Anne-Sophie; Villacorte, Mylah

    2014-01-01

    The thyroid is a bilobated endocrine gland localized at the base of the neck, producing the thyroid hormones T3, T4, and calcitonin. T3 and T4 are produced by differentiated thyrocytes, organized in closed spheres called follicles, while calcitonin is synthesized by C-cells, interspersed in between the follicles and a dense network of blood capillaries. Although adult thyroid architecture and functions have been extensively described and studied, the formation of the “angio-follicular” units, the distribution of C-cells in the parenchyma and the paracrine communications between epithelial and endothelial cells is far from being understood. This method describes the sequential steps of mouse embryonic thyroid anlagen dissection and its culture on semiporous filters or on microscopy plastic slides. Within a period of four days, this culture system faithfully recapitulates in vivo thyroid development. Indeed, (i) bilobation of the organ occurs (for e12.5 explants), (ii) thyrocytes precursors organize into follicles and polarize, (iii) thyrocytes and C-cells differentiate, and (iv) endothelial cells present in the microdissected tissue proliferate, migrate into the thyroid lobes, and closely associate with the epithelial cells, as they do in vivo. Thyroid tissues can be obtained from wild type, knockout or fluorescent transgenic embryos. Moreover, explants culture can be manipulated by addition of inhibitors, blocking antibodies, growth factors, or even cells or conditioned medium. Ex vivo development can be analyzed in real-time, or at any time of the culture by immunostaining and RT-qPCR. In conclusion, thyroid explant culture combined with downstream whole-mount or on sections imaging and gene expression profiling provides a powerful system for manipulating and studying morphogenetic and differentiation events of thyroid organogenesis. PMID:24961920

  4. Evaluation of Serum Vascular Adhesion Protein-1 as a Potential Biomarker in Thyroid Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Pengxin; Zhang, Kaili

    2016-01-01

    Vascular adhesion protein-1 (VAP-1) is a glycoprotein that mediates tissue-selective lymphocyte adhesion. The prognostic value of VAP-1 has been determined in gastric cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes and the predictive value of serum VAP-1 in patients with thyroid cancer. A total of 126 patients with thyroid nodules and 53 healthy controls participated in this study. The patients were further divided into subgroup 1 (69 cases with benign thyroid nodules) and subgroup 2 (57 cases with thyroid cancer). Serum VAP-1 was measured by time-resolved immunofluorometric assay. Diagnostic value of presurgical VAP-1 for thyroid cancer was conducted by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Serum levels of VAP-1 were significantly lower in thyroid cancer group than in healthy control and benign thyroid nodule groups. VAP-1 concentrations negatively correlated with serum thyroglobulin (Tg) levels in thyroid cancer patients (r = −0.81; p < 0.001). The optimum cut-off value of VAP-1 was 456.6 ng/mL with a 77.4% specificity and 66.7% sensitivity for thyroid cancer diagnosis. Serum VAP-1 decreased in thyroid cancer patients and VAP-1 could be a potential useful adjunct biomarker in the diagnosis of thyroid cancer. PMID:27446209

  5. Foxp3 expression is associated with aggressiveness in differentiated thyroid carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Cunha, Lucas Leite; Morari, Elaine Cristina; Nonogaki, Suely; Soares, Fernando Augusto; Vassallo, José; Ward, Laura Sterian

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Forkhead box P3 (FoxP3) expression has been observed in human cancer cells but has not yet been reported in thyroid cells. We investigated the prognostic significance of both FoxP3 expression and intratumoral FoxP3+ lymphocyte infiltration in differentiated thyroid carcinoma cells. METHODS: We constructed a tissue microarray with 385 thyroid tissues, including 266 malignant tissues (from 253 papillary thyroid carcinomas and 13 follicular carcinomas), 114 benign lesions, and 5 normal thyroid tissues. RESULTS: We determined the expression of FoxP3 in both tumor cells and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes using immunohistochemical techniques. Cellular expression of FoxP3 was evident in 71% of benign and 91.9% of malignant tissues. The nuclear and cytoplasmic expression patterns were quantified separately. A multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that cytoplasmic FoxP3 expression is an independent risk factor for thyroid malignancy. Cytoplasmic FoxP3 staining was inversely correlated with patient age. Nuclear FoxP3 staining was more intense in younger patients and in tumors presenting with metastasis at diagnosis. FoxP3+ lymphocytes were more frequent in tumors smaller than 2 cm, those without extrathyroidal invasion, and in patients with concurrent chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated FoxP3 expression in differentiated thyroid carcinoma cells and found evidence that this expression may exert an important influence on several features of tumor aggressiveness. PMID:22666793

  6. Thyroid cancer - papillary carcinoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... some noncancerous childhood conditions Radiation exposure from nuclear plant disasters Radiation given through a vein (through an IV) during medical tests and treatments does not increase the risk of developing thyroid cancer.

  7. [Postpartum thyroiditis. A review].

    PubMed

    Hurtado-Hernández, Z; Segura-Domínguez, A

    2013-01-01

    Postpartum thyroiditis (PPT) is a transient thyroid dysfunction of autoimmune origin that can occur in the first year postpartum in women who have not been previously diagnosed with thyroid disease. It may start with clinical thyrotoxicosis followed by hypothyroidism and the subsequent recovery of thyroid function, or may just appear as isolated thyrotoxicosis or hypothyroidism. PPT recurs in high percentage of patients after subsequent pregnancies. Many women develop permanent hypothyroidism sometime during the 3 to 10 year period after an episode of PPT. It is important for family physicians to be familiar with this disease, due to its high prevalence in order to make a correct diagnosis and therapeutic intervention. Family doctors also play a crucial role in the monitoring of these patients, given the negative implications of established hypothyroidism on reproduction in the female population during their reproductive years. This article reviews the principle characteristics of PPT along with its diagnosis and treatment. PMID:23834978

  8. Thyroid Disease (for Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... change over just a few months. previous continue Hypothyroidism A person with mild hypothyroidism may feel just fine — in fact, the condition ... all. However, symptoms can become more obvious if hypothyroidism progresses. People with underactive thyroids might feel depressed ...

  9. Thyroid Disease and Teens

    MedlinePlus

    ... change over just a few months. previous continue Hypothyroidism A person with mild hypothyroidism may feel just fine — in fact, the condition ... all. However, symptoms can become more obvious if hypothyroidism progresses. People with underactive thyroids might feel depressed ...

  10. Thyroid and adrenal relationships

    PubMed Central

    Parsons, Victor; Ramsay, Ian

    1968-01-01

    A brief review of the actions of adrenal medullary and thyroid hormones is presented and the ways in which they interact are examined. It is concluded that thyroid hormone produces the necessary intracellular environment without which the steady state and emergency actions of cathecholamines would be vitiated. In hyperthyroidism the increased concentration of thyroid hormones results in a lowering of the threshold for catecholamine action. For this reason it is possible to alleviate many of the symptoms of thyrotoxicosis by means of drugs which block β-adrenergic receptors. Attention is also drawn to the simultaneous occurrence of thyroid and adrenal disease, in the hope that this will encourage the search for further links in this field of endocrinology. PMID:5655216

  11. Pediatric Thyroid Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... isthmus). The thyroid secretes three main hormones: 1) Thyroxine, that contains iodine, needed for growth and metabolism; ... also contains iodine and similar in function to Thyroxine; and 3) Calcitonin, which decreases the concentration of ...

  12. Thyroid autoimmunity as a window to autoimmunity: An explanation for sex differences in the prevalence of thyroid autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Merrill, Stephen J; Mu, Ying

    2015-06-21

    Autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITDs), predominately Graves׳ disease and Hashimoto׳s thyroiditis, comprise the most common autoimmune diseases in humans. Both have the production of anti-thyroid antibody as an important aspect and both are much more prevalent in females, being at least 10 times more common than in males. Using these two clues, a hypothesis for the initiation of thyroid autoimmunity is proposed that helps to make the case that the thyroid is one of the most sensitive sites for autoimmunity and helps account for the prevalence and the observed sex differences in AITDs and associated diseases, such as type 1 diabetes and Latent Autoimmune Diabetes in Adults (LADA). The primary mechanisms proposed involve the underlying state of inflammation as a result of the adipokines, especially leptin, TNF-α, and IL-6, and the receptors able to recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMP׳s) and damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMP׳s) through Toll-like receptors (TLR) and others receptors present on thyrocytes. The adipokines are produced by adipose tissue, but have hormone-like and immune modulating properties. As the levels of leptin are significantly higher in females, an explanation for the sex difference in thyroid autoimmunity emerges. The ability of the thyrocytes to participate in innate immunity through the TLR provides an adjuvant-like signal and allows for the action of other agents, such as environmental factors, viruses, bacteria, and even stress to provide the initiation step to break tolerance to thyroid self-antigens. Seeing the thyroid as one of the most sensitive sites for autoimmunity, means that for many autoimmune disorders, if autoimmunity is present, it is likely to also be present in the thyroid - and that that condition in the thyroid was probably earlier. The evidence is seen in multiple autoimmune syndrome. PMID:25576242

  13. Thyroid hormones in fetal growth and prepartum maturation.

    PubMed

    Forhead, A J; Fowden, A L

    2014-06-01

    The thyroid hormones, thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3), are essential for normal growth and development of the fetus. Their bioavailability in utero depends on development of the fetal hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid gland axis and the abundance of thyroid hormone transporters and deiodinases that influence tissue levels of bioactive hormone. Fetal T4 and T3 concentrations are also affected by gestational age, nutritional and endocrine conditions in utero, and placental permeability to maternal thyroid hormones, which varies among species with placental morphology. Thyroid hormones are required for the general accretion of fetal mass and to trigger discrete developmental events in the fetal brain and somatic tissues from early in gestation. They also promote terminal differentiation of fetal tissues closer to term and are important in mediating the prepartum maturational effects of the glucocorticoids that ensure neonatal viability. Thyroid hormones act directly through anabolic effects on fetal metabolism and the stimulation of fetal oxygen consumption. They also act indirectly by controlling the bioavailability and effectiveness of other hormones and growth factors that influence fetal development such as the catecholamines and insulin-like growth factors (IGFs). By regulating tissue accretion and differentiation near term, fetal thyroid hormones ensure activation of physiological processes essential for survival at birth such as pulmonary gas exchange, thermogenesis, hepatic glucogenesis, and cardiac adaptations. This review examines the developmental control of fetal T4 and T3 bioavailability and discusses the role of these hormones in fetal growth and development with particular emphasis on maturation of somatic tissues critical for survival immediately at birth.

  14. [Thyroid dysfunction in pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Führer, D; Mann, K; Feldkamp, J; Krude, H; Spitzweg, C; Kratzsch, J; Schott, M

    2014-10-01

    Thyroid dysfunction may impair fertility, course of pregnancy and fetal development. Physiological alterations of thyroid function parameters, that occur during pregnancy need to be distinguished from pathophysiological states of hypo- and hyperthyroidism. We performed a literature search (PubMed 1990-2013) and review relevant publications as well as consensus and practice guidelines of international thyroid/endocrine societies. Interpretation of thyroid function values in pregnancy must be based on trimester-specific TSH and T4 ranges. Alterations in thyroid function are present in up to 15% of pregnancies (0.4% overt hypothyroidism, 0.1-0.4% hyperthyroidism) and may lead to preventable complications in the pregnant woman and the fetus. Hypothyroidism is associated with an increased risk for abortion, premature delivery and stillbirth, besides impairment of neurocognitive development. The latter has also been shown in situations of grave iodine deficiency. In addition to new-born screening directed at early recognition of congenital hypothyroidism (incidence 0.03%), universal screening of all pregnant women should be implemented in health care guidelines. Newly diagnosed overt hypothyroidism in a pregnant woman requires immediate levothyroxine substitution at adequate doses. In subclinical hypothyroidism thyroid hormone replacement should be considered. Iodine supplementation is strongly recommended in all pregnant and breast-feeding women. Pregnancy causes a number of, that need to be of thyroid dysfunction. Both hypothyroidism and thyrotoxicosis may impair the course of pregnancy and may negatively affect the fetus. In particular, maternal hypothyroidism may lead to irreparable and detrimental deficits in the neurocognitive development of the fetus. Autoimmune thyroid disease is the most common cause of thyroid dysfunction in pregnancy. Hashimoto's thyroiditis is associated with impaired fertility and miscarriage, and may first manifest in pregnancy due to the

  15. Thyroid transplantation developing autoimmune thyroiditis following thymectomy and irradiation.

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, S A; Penhale, W J

    1981-01-01

    Post-irradiation transplantation of normal thyroids under the renal capsule of syngenetic thymectomized and irradiated (Tx-X) rats leads to the development of thyroiditis in the ectopic grafted thyroids. A close correlation was observed between the extent of the lesions in the grafted and recipient's own thyroid. The histopathology of both grafted and recipient thyroid was similar and was characterized by infiltration with mononuclear cells together with some plasma cells. Conversely, grafting of affected thyroids from Tx-X rats to normal animals resulted in the regression of the lesion in the graft and no evidence thyroiditis was observed in either the graft or the recipient's thyroid when these were examined 60 days post-grafting. Thyroids derived from normal animals grafted to syngenetic normal rats were found to remain healthy and intact over a 60-day period. In contrast to normal animals, Tx-X rats were unable to reject totally in transplanted allogeneic thyroids by 28 days post-grafting, suggesting that some impairment of cell-mediated immunity follows this treatment. These findings indicate that the pathological change occurring in the thyroid gland of Tx-X rats is not attributable to the local effect of irradiation of the thyroids and adds further support to the concept that the process is immunologically mediated by thyroid-specific circulating components in the absence of normal immune regulatory function. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:6896018

  16. Thyroid disorders in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Stagnaro-Green, Alex; Pearce, Elizabeth

    2012-11-01

    The thyroid gland is substantially challenged during pregnancy. Total T(3) and T(4) levels increase by 50% during pregnancy owing to a 50% increase in thyroxine-binding globulin levels. Serum TSH levels decrease in the first trimester and increase in the second and third trimesters; however, not to prepregnancy levels. Hypothyroidism is present in up to 3% of all pregnant women. Subclinical hypothyroidism during pregnancy is associated with an increased rate of miscarriage and preterm delivery, and a decrease in the IQ of the child. Overt hyperthyroidism is present in less than 1% of pregnant women but is linked to increased rates of miscarriage, preterm delivery and maternal congestive heart failure. In women who are euthyroid, thyroid autoantibodies are associated with an increased risk of spontaneous miscarriage and preterm delivery. Postpartum thyroiditis occurs in 5.4% of all women following pregnancy; moreover, 50% of women who are euthyroid in the first trimester of pregnancy but test positive for thyroid autoantibodies will develop postpartum thyroiditis. The need for the essential nutrient iodine increases during pregnancy and in women who are breastfeeding, and the effect of treatment of mild iodine deficiency on maternal and fetal outcomes is consequently being evaluated in a prospective study. The debate regarding the pros and cons of universal screening for thyroid disease during pregnancy is ongoing. PMID:23007317

  17. [Thyroid diseases in pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Medina, José Luís; Neves, Celestino; Magalhães, Angela; Pereira-Monteiro, Lídia; Marques, Luís

    2002-01-01

    The thyroid diseases are more frequent in women, which is probably related to the fact that many thyroid diseases are of the autoimmune type, secondary to the effects of sexual steroids in the immunological system; although it had never been completely cleared up, it seems that estrogens and progestogens may modulate the lymphocyte differentiation as well as the induction of the autoimmune response. After delivery, the thyroid dysfunction of autoimmune type often occurs, even in women without previous history of thyroid disease. Some authors assume that the cytokines, produced by the mother, fetus or placenta, inhibit the autoimmune reaction during pregnancy. The subsequent reduction in the inhibiting cytokines, after delivery, allows the aggravation or the beginning of the autoimmune disease. Although autoimmunity is traditionally considered as a major cause for thyroid disease during pregnancy, recent studies indicate that the most common aetiology of disturbance of thyroid tests during pregnancy is the hyperthyroidism due to the inadequate production of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). However, from the clinical point of view, the hyperthyroidism caused by Graves' disease is the most important cause for maternal and fetal morbidity.

  18. Multiscale imaging of human thyroid pathologies using integrated optical coherence tomography (OCT) and optical coherence microscopy (OCM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Chao; Wang, Yihong; Aguirre, Aaron D.; Tsai, Tsung-Han; Cohen, David W.; Connolly, James L.; Fujimoto, James G.

    2010-02-01

    We evaluate the feasibility of optical coherence tomography (OCT) and optical coherence microscopy (OCM) for imaging of benign and malignant thyroid lesions ex vivo using intrinsic optical contrast. Thirty four thyroid gland specimens were imaged from 17 patients, covering a spectrum of pathology, ranging from normal thyroid to neoplasia and benign disease. The integrated OCT and OCM imaging system allows seamlessly switching between low and high magnifications, in a way similar to traditional microscopy. Good correspondence was observed between optical images and histological sections. The results provide a basis for interpretation of future OCT and OCM images of the thyroid tissues and suggest the possibility of future in vivo evaluation of thyroid pathology.

  19. Polybrominated Diphenyl Ether (DE-71)Interferes with Thyroid Hormone Action Independent Of Effects On Circulating Levels of Thyroid Hormone in Male Rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are routinely found in human tissues including cord blood and breast milk. PBDEs may interfere with thyroid hormone (TH) during development, which could produce neurobehavioral deficits. An assumption in experimental and epidemiological stud...

  20. Analysis of thyroid hormones in serum of Baikal seals and humans by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and immunoassay methods: application of the LC-MS/MS method to wildlife tissues.

    PubMed

    Kunisue, Tatsuya; Eguchi, Akifumi; Iwata, Hisato; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2011-12-01

    Thyroid hormones (THs) are essential for the regulation of growth and development in both humans and wildlife. Until recently, TH concentrations in the tissues of animals have been examined by immunoassay (IA) methods. IA methods are sensitive, but for TH analysis, they are compromised by a lack of adequate specificity. In this study, we determined the concentrations of six THs, L-thyroxine (T(4)), 3,3',5-triiodo-L-thyronine (T(3)), 3,3',5'-triiodo-L-thyronine (rT(3)), 3,5-diiodo-L-thyronine (3,5-T(2)), 3,3'-diiodo-L-thyronine (3,3'-T(2)), and 3-iodo-L-thyronine (3-T(1)), in the serum of humans (n = 79) and wild Baikal seals (n = 37), by isotope ([(13)C(6)]-T(4))-dilution liquid chromatography (LC)-tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS), and compared the TH levels with those measured by an electrochemiluminescent immunoassay (ECLIA) method. T(3) and T(4) were detected in all serum samples of both humans and Baikal seals, whereas T(1), 3,3'-T(2), and 3,5-T(2) were below the limit of detection (LOD). rT(3) was detected in Baikal seal sera at concentrations higher than T(3) in 28 seal samples, indicating an anomaly in deiodinase activity in Baikal seals. In humans, regression analyses of TH concentrations, measured by ECLIA and LC-MS/MS methods, showed significant correlations for T(4) (r = 0.852) and T(3) (r = 0.676; after removal of a serum sample with abnormal T(3) levels). In Baikal seals, a low correlation coefficient (r = 0.466) for T(4) levels and no correlation for T(3) levels (p = 0.093) were found between ECLIA and LC-MS/MS methods. These results suggest that interference by a nonspecific reaction against anti-T(3) and anti-T(4) antibodies used in the ECLIA can contribute to inaccuracies in TH measurement in Baikal seals. When the relationship between concentrations of THs in sera and dioxin-like toxic equivalents in blubber samples of Baikal seals (n = 19) was examined, a significantly negative correlation was found for serum T(4) levels measured by the LC

  1. 21 CFR 866.5870 - Thyroid autoantibody immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... (chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis), nontoxic goiter (enlargement of thyroid gland), Grave's disease (enlargement of the thyroid gland with protrusion of the eyeballs), and cancer of the thyroid....

  2. 21 CFR 866.5870 - Thyroid autoantibody immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis), nontoxic goiter (enlargement of thyroid gland), Grave's disease (enlargement of the thyroid gland with protrusion of the eyeballs), and cancer of the thyroid....

  3. 21 CFR 866.5870 - Thyroid autoantibody immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... (chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis), nontoxic goiter (enlargement of thyroid gland), Grave's disease (enlargement of the thyroid gland with protrusion of the eyeballs), and cancer of the thyroid....

  4. Differentiated thyroid carcinomas in children and adolescents

    SciTech Connect

    Samuel, A.M.; Sharma, S.M. )

    1991-04-15

    An analysis of differentiated thyroid carcinomas in children and adolescents revealed that the incidence was 3.05% of total number of patients with differentiated thyroid cancers in all age groups. There was a female preponderance. The incidence of papillary, follicular and papillary with follicular elements was equal. There were no papillary carcinomas observed in children younger than 10 years. The predominant mode of presentation was a solitary nodule of thyroid and some of them had associated cervical adenopathy. A considerable number presented with only cervical adenopathy. The incidence of nodal metastases was 50% at time of presentation and lung involvement was present in 15% of children at the time of diagnosis. Radioiodine treatment was given in 70% of children. Ablation was achieved in 86% of patients given two doses of radioiodine (200 millicuries). The more resistant cases were those with lung and nodal metastases. There was complete ablation in 100% with only residual thyroid tissue, 83% in those with associated nodal metastases, and 57% in those with lung involvement. Average duration of follow-up was 10.3 years (range, 2 to 19 years). Recurrence rate or relapse was observed in 8.5% and was in the regional nodes. There was no recorded mortality due to the disease.

  5. The thyroid and environmental stress in mammals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galton, V. A.

    1977-01-01

    The effects of hyperoxia at ambient pressure on thyroid function and thyroid hormone metabolism have been assessed. Thyroidal activity was depressed in mice and rats by exposure to hyperoxia, due at least in part to a decrease in the rate of secretion of pituitary thyrotropin. The effects of hyperoxia on the peripheral deiodination of thyroxine were dependent on the concentration of oxygen employed and/or the duration of exposure. When significant changes were observed a reduction in the rate of deiodination and in the deiodinative clearance of T sub 4 occurred. Hyperoxia also resulted in a marked fall in circulating T sub 4 concentration and a decrease in T sub 4-binding activity in serum. Many of these effects of hyperoxia were prevented by the concomitant administration of large amounts of Vitamin E. These decreases in thyroid function and T sub 4 metabolism were associated with a decrease in the rate of whole body oxygen consumption. It was concluded that the deleterious effects of oxygen in the rat were not due to an oxygen induced hyperthyroid state in the peripheral tissues. Thyroxine was shown to be essential for survival during acute cold stress.

  6. Multielemental analysis of human thyroid glands using particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeda, K.; Yokode, Y.; Sasa, Y.; Kusuyama, H.; Uda, M.

    1987-03-01

    PIXE spectroscopy has been applied to the analysis of human thyroid glands. Nontumor thyroid tissues taken from different patients showed almost the same composition which fell into the range of the data for normal thyroids given in the literature. On the other hand, a deficiency of iodine and iron was observed in all of the malignant and benign tumor tissues examined here. In some injured tissues considerable deviations of K and Ca from normal concentration levels were also recognized. This work demonstrates an important advantage of PIXE to analyze fugacious elements together with other elements simultaneously.

  7. DEVELOPMENT OF AN AMPHIBIAN METAMORPHOSIS MODEL FOR DETECTING THYROID AXIS DISRUPTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Metamorphosis in Xenopus laevis represents an elaborate process of post-embryonic development which is thyroid hormone (TH) dependent. The development of a functional thyroid axis and the responses of tissues to different TH concentrations are well defined in this species, provid...

  8. Radioisotope imaging for the evaluation of thyroid neoplasia and hypothyroidism in a dog

    SciTech Connect

    Branam, J.E.; Leighton, R.L.; Hornof, W.J.

    1982-05-01

    An 11-year-old dog was diagnosed as having concurrent unilateral follicular thyroid carcinoma and hypothyroidism. Radioisotope imaging with /SUP 99m/Tc as sodium pertechnatate identified the extent of thyroid tissue involvement. A combination of surgical resection and hormonal supplementation resulted in a favorable clinical response.

  9. Drugs Approved for Thyroid Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ask about Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Thyroid Cancer This page lists cancer drugs approved by ... that are not listed here. Drugs Approved for Thyroid Cancer Cabozantinib-S-Malate Caprelsa (Vandetanib) Cometriq (Cabozantinib-S-Malate) ...

  10. General Information about Thyroid Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Research Thyroid Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Thyroid Cancer Go to Health Professional Version ... the PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board . Clinical Trial Information A clinical trial is a study to answer ...

  11. Genetics Home Reference: Hashimoto thyroiditis

    MedlinePlus

    ... is the most common cause of thyroid underactivity (hypothyroidism) in the United States. Related Information What information ... However, some people with thyroid antibodies never develop hypothyroidism or experience any related signs or symptoms. People ...

  12. Thyroid Hormone and Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    Safer, Joshua D.

    2013-01-01

    Although thyroid hormone is one of the most potent stimulators of growth and metabolic rate, the potential to use thyroid hormone to treat cutaneous pathology has never been subject to rigorous investigation. A number of investigators have demonstrated intriguing therapeutic potential for topical thyroid hormone. Topical T3 has accelerated wound healing and hair growth in rodents. Topical T4 has been used to treat xerosis in humans. It is clear that the use of thyroid hormone to treat cutaneous pathology may be of large consequence and merits further study. This is a review of the literature regarding thyroid hormone action on skin along with skin manifestations of thyroid disease. The paper is intended to provide a context for recent findings of direct thyroid hormone action on cutaneous cells in vitro and in vivo which may portend the use of thyroid hormone to promote wound healing. PMID:23577275

  13. Occupation and Thyroid Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Aschebrook-Kilfoy, Briseis; Ward, Mary H.; Valle, Curt T. Della; Friesen, Melissa C.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Numerous occupational and environmental exposures have been shown to disrupt thyroid hormones, but much less is known about their relationships with thyroid cancer. Here we review the epidemiology studies of occupations and occupational exposures and thyroid cancer incidence to provide insight into preventable risk factors for thyroid cancer. Methods The published literature was searched using the Web of Knowledge database for all articles through August 2013 that had in their text “occupation” “job” ”employment” or “work” and “thyroid cancer”. After excluding 10 mortality studies and 4 studies with less than 5 exposed incident cases, we summarized the findings of 30 articles that examined thyroid cancer incidence in relation to occupations or occupational exposure. The studies were grouped by exposure/occupation category, study design, and exposure assessment approach. Where available, gender stratified results are reported. Results The most studied (19 of 30 studies) and the most consistent associations were observed for radiation-exposed workers and health care occupations. Suggestive, but inconsistent, associations were observed in studies of pesticide-exposed workers and agricultural occupations. Findings for other exposures and occupation groups were largely null. The majority of studies had few exposed cases and assessed exposure based on occupation or industry category, self-report, or generic (population-based) job exposure matrices. Conclusion The suggestive, but inconsistent findings for many of the occupational exposures reviewed here indicate that more studies with larger numbers of cases and better exposure assessment are necessary, particularly for exposures known to disrupt thyroid homeostasis. PMID:24604144

  14. CYTOCHEMICAL LOCALIZATION OF ENDOGENOUS PEROXIDASE IN THYROID FOLLICULAR CELLS

    PubMed Central

    Strum, Judy M.; Karnovsky, Morris J.

    1970-01-01

    Endogenous peroxidase activity in rat thyroid follicular cells is demonstrated cytochemically. Following perfusion fixation of the thyroid gland, small blocks of tissue are incubated in a medium containing substrate for peroxidase, before being postfixed in osmium tetroxide, and processed for electron microscopy. Peroxidase activity is found in thyroid follicular cells in the following sites: (a) the perinuclear cisternae, (b) the cisternae of the endoplasmic reticulum, (c) the inner few lamellae of the Golgi complex, (d) within vesicles, particularly those found apically, and (e) associated with the external surfaces of the microvilli that project apically from the cell into the colloid. In keeping with the radioautographic evidence of others and the postulated role of thyroid peroxidase in iodination, it is suggested that the microvillous apical cell border is the major site where iodination occurs. However, that apical vesicles also play a role in iodination cannot be excluded. The in vitro effect of cyanide, aminotriazole, and thiourea is also discussed. PMID:4190069

  15. Why can insulin resistance be a natural consequence of thyroid dysfunction?

    PubMed

    Brenta, Gabriela

    2011-01-01

    Evidence for a relationship between T4 and T3 and glucose metabolism appeared over 100 years ago when the influence of thyroid hormone excess in the deterioration of glucose metabolism was first noticed. Since then, it has been known that hyperthyroidism is associated with insulin resistance. More recently, hypothyroidism has also been linked to decreased insulin sensitivity. The explanation to this apparent paradox may lie in the differential effects of thyroid hormones at the liver and peripheral tissues level. The purpose of this paper is to explore the effects of thyroid hormones in glucose metabolism and analyze the mechanisms whereby alterations of thyroid hormones lead to insulin resistance. PMID:21941681

  16. Why can insulin resistance be a natural consequence of thyroid dysfunction?

    PubMed

    Brenta, Gabriela

    2011-01-01

    Evidence for a relationship between T4 and T3 and glucose metabolism appeared over 100 years ago when the influence of thyroid hormone excess in the deterioration of glucose metabolism was first noticed. Since then, it has been known that hyperthyroidism is associated with insulin resistance. More recently, hypothyroidism has also been linked to decreased insulin sensitivity. The explanation to this apparent paradox may lie in the differential effects of thyroid hormones at the liver and peripheral tissues level. The purpose of this paper is to explore the effects of thyroid hormones in glucose metabolism and analyze the mechanisms whereby alterations of thyroid hormones lead to insulin resistance.

  17. Why Can Insulin Resistance Be a Natural Consequence of Thyroid Dysfunction?

    PubMed Central

    Brenta, Gabriela

    2011-01-01

    Evidence for a relationship between T4 and T3 and glucose metabolism appeared over 100 years ago when the influence of thyroid hormone excess in the deterioration of glucose metabolism was first noticed. Since then, it has been known that hyperthyroidism is associated with insulin resistance. More recently, hypothyroidism has also been linked to decreased insulin sensitivity. The explanation to this apparent paradox may lie in the differential effects of thyroid hormones at the liver and peripheral tissues level. The purpose of this paper is to explore the effects of thyroid hormones in glucose metabolism and analyze the mechanisms whereby alterations of thyroid hormones lead to insulin resistance. PMID:21941681

  18. Thyroid hormones and bone development.

    PubMed

    Combs, C E; Nicholls, J J; Duncan Bassett, J H; Williams, G R

    2011-03-01

    Thyroid hormones are critical determinants of postnatal skeletal development. Thyroid hormone deficiency or excess in children results in severe abnormalities of linear growth and bone maturation. These clinical observations have been recapitulated in mutant mice and these models have facilitated studies of the mechanisms of thyroid hormone action in the developing skeleton. In this review, we consider in detail the direct and indirect effects of thyroid hormone on bone and the molecular mechanisms involved.

  19. The effect of low level laser on anaplastic thyroid cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhee, Yun-Hee; Moon, Jeon-Hwan; Ahn, Jin-Chul; Chung, Phil-Sang

    2015-02-01

    Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) is a non-thermal phototherapy used in several medical applications, including wound healing, reduction of pain and amelioration of oral mucositis. Nevertheless, the effects of LLLT upon cancer or dysplastic cells have been so far poorly studied. Here we report that the effects of laser irradiation on anaplastic thyroid cancer cells leads to hyperplasia. 650nm of laser diode was performed with a different time interval (0, 15, 30, 60J/cm2 , 25mW) on anaplastic thyroid cancer cell line FRO in vivo. FRO was orthotopically injected into the thyroid gland of nude mice and the irradiation was performed with the same method described previously. After irradiation, the xenograft evaluation was followed for one month. The thyroid tissues from sacrificed mice were undergone to H&E staining and immunohistochemical staining with HIF-1α, Akt, TGF-β1. We found the aggressive proliferation of FRO on thyroid gland with dose dependent. In case of 60 J/ cm2 of energy density, the necrotic bodies were found in a center of the thyroid. The phosphorylation of HIF-1α and Akt was detected in the thyroid gland, which explained the survival signaling of anaplastic cancer cell was turned on the thyroid gland. Furthermore, TGF-β1 expression was decreased after irradiation. In this study, we demonstrated that insufficient energy density irradiation occurred the decreasing of TGF-β1 which corresponding to the phosphorylation of Akt/ HIF-1α. This aggressive proliferation resulted to the hypoxic condition of tissue for angiogenesis. We suggest that LLLT may influence to cancer aggressiveness associated with a decrease in TGF-β1 and increase in Akt/HIF-1α.

  20. Thyroid disease and pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Becks, G P; Burrow, G N

    1991-01-01

    Thyroid disease is common in younger women and may be a factor in reproductive dysfunction. This probably only applies to severe cases of hyper- or hypothyroidism. Once adequately treated, neither of these disorders significantly impacts on fertility. The key is to recognize and to treat thyroid disorders in the reproductive-age woman before conception. Thyroxine therapy and even antithyroid drug therapy should be continued during pregnancy as necessary. Pregnancy is a euthyroid state that is normally maintained by complex changes in thyroid physiology. The fetal and neonatal hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid system develops independently, but it may be influenced by thyroid disease in the mother. Early pregnancy is characterized by an increase in maternal T4 secretion stimulated by hCG and an increase in TBG, resulting in the elevated total serum T4 in pregnancy. The debate continues as to whether maternal T4 is important in early or late fetal brain development. If so, the physiologic changes in thyroid hormone secretion and transport in early pregnancy would help to ensure that a sufficient amount of thyroid hormone was available. There is new evidence in human subjects that substantial maternal T4 can cross the placenta during pregnancy, and this may be particularly important when fetal thyroid function is compromised as a result of congenital hypothyroidism. Maternal and fetal/neonatal outcomes in pregnancy are adversely affected if severe hypothyroidism is undiagnosed or inadequately treated. Thyroid function tests should be obtained during gestation in women taking T4 and appropriate dose adjustments should be made for TSH levels outside a normal range. The TSH-receptor blocking antibodies from the mother are a recognized cause of congenital hypothyroidism in the fetus and neonate that can be permanent or transient. If neonatal hypothyroidism is detected through neonatal screening programs, and prompt and adequate T4 replacement therapy is instituted as soon as

  1. Thyroid Function in Down Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pueschel, Siegfried M.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    This study investigated the thyroid function of 181 patients (mean age 14 years) with Down's syndrome and found more thyroid dysfunctions than in the general population. Periodic thyroid hormone function tests are recommended for Down's syndrome individuals, especially as they get older. (Author/DB)

  2. [Thyroid dysfunction during pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Díez, Juan J; Iglesias, Pedro; Donnay, Sergio

    2015-10-21

    Recent clinical practice guidelines on thyroid dysfunction and pregnancy have changed health care provided to pregnant women, although their recommendations are under constant revision. Trimester- and area-specific reference ranges for serum thyroid-stimulating hormone are required for proper diagnosis of hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism. There is no doubt on the need of therapy for overt hypothyroidism, while therapy for subclinical hypothyroidism is controversial. Further research is needed to settle adverse effects of isolated hypothyroxinemia and thyroid autoimmunity. Differentiation between hyperthyroidism due to Graves' disease and the usually self-limited gestational transient thyrotoxicosis is critical. It is also important to recognize risk factors for postpartum thyroiditis. Supplementation with iodine is recommended to maintain adequate iodine nutrition during pregnancy and avoid serious consequences in offspring. Controversy remains about universal screening for thyroid disease during pregnancy or case-finding in high-risk women. Opinions of some scientific societies and recent cost-benefit studies favour universal screening. Randomized controlled studies currently under development should reduce the uncertainties that still remain in this area. PMID:25433782

  3. Thyroid hormone resistance.

    PubMed

    Olateju, Tolulope O; Vanderpump, Mark P J

    2006-11-01

    Resistance to thyroid hormone (RTH) is a rare autosomal dominant inherited syndrome of reduced end-organ responsiveness to thyroid hormone. Patients with RTH have elevated serum free thyroxine (FT4) and free triiodothyronine (FT3) concentrations and normal or slightly elevated serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) level. Despite a variable clinical presentation, the common characteristic clinical features are goitre but an absence of the usual symptoms and metabolic consequences of thyroid hormone excess. Patients with RTH can be classified on clinical grounds alone into either generalized resistance (GRTH), pituitary resistance (PRTH) or combined. Mutations in the thyroid hormone receptor (TR) beta gene are responsible for RTH and 122 different mutations have now been identified belonging to 300 families. With the exception of one family found to have complete deletion of the TRbeta gene, all others have been demonstrated to have minor alterations at the DNA level. The differential diagnosis includes a TSH-secreting pituitary adenoma and the presence of endogenous antibodies directed against thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). Failure to differentiate RTH from primary thyrotoxicosis has resulted in the inappropriate treatment of nearly one-third of patients. Although occasionally desirable, no specific treatment is available for RTH; however, the diagnosis allows appropriate genetic counselling. PMID:17132274

  4. Estimated dose rates to members of the public from external exposure to patients with {sup 131}I thyroid treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Dewji, S. Bellamy, M.; Leggett, R.; Eckerman, K.; Hertel, N.; Sherbini, S.; Saba, M.

    2015-04-15

    specific activities of {sup 131}I in the thyroid, bladder, and combined remaining tissues were calculated as a function of time after administration. Exposures to members of the public were considered for {sup 131}I patients with normal thyroid uptake (peak thyroid uptake of ∼27% of administered {sup 131}I), differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC, 5% uptake), and hyperthyroidism (80% uptake). Results: The scenario with the patient seated behind the member of the public yielded the highest dose rate estimate of seated public transportation exposure cases. The dose rate to the adjacent room guest was highest for the exposure scenario in which the hotel guest and patient are seated by a factor of ∼4 for the normal and differentiated thyroid cancer uptake cases and by a factor of ∼3 for the hyperthyroid case. Conclusions: It was determined that for all modeled cases, the DTC case yielded the lowest external dose rates, whereas the hyperthyroid case yielded the highest dose rates. In estimating external dose to members of the public from patients with {sup 131}I therapy, consideration must be given to (patient- and case-specific) administered {sup 131}I activities and duration of exposure for a more complete estimate. The method implemented here included a detailed calculation model, which provides a means to determine dose rate estimates for a range of scenarios. The method was demonstrated for variations of three scenarios, showing how dose rates are expected to vary with uptake, voiding pattern, and patient location.

  5. Estimated dose rates to members of the public from external exposure to patients with 131I thyroid treatment

    DOE PAGES

    Dewji, S.; Bellamy, M.; Hertel, N.; Leggett, R.; Sherbini, S.; Saba, M.; Eckerman, K.

    2015-03-25

    specific activities of 131I in the thyroid, bladder, and combined remaining tissues were calculated as a function of time after administration. Exposures to members of the public were considered for 131I patients with normal thyroid uptake (peak thyroid uptake of ~27% of administered 131I), differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC, 5% uptake), and hyperthyroidism (80% uptake). Results: The scenario with the patient seated behind the member of the public yielded the highest dose rate estimate of seated public transportation exposure cases. The dose rate to the adjacent room guest was highest for the exposure scenario in which the hotel guest and patient are seated by a factor of ~4 for the normal and differentiated thyroid cancer uptake cases and by a factor of ~3 for the hyperthyroid case. Conclusions: It was determined that for all modeled cases, the DTC case yielded the lowest external dose rates, whereas the hyperthyroid case yielded the highest dose rates. In estimating external dose to members of the public from patients with 131I therapy, consideration must be given to (patient- and case-specific) administered 131I activities and duration of exposure for a more complete estimate. The method implemented here included a detailed calculation model, which provides a means to determine dose rate estimates for a range of scenarios. Finally, the method was demonstrated for variations of three scenarios, showing how dose rates are expected to vary with uptake, voiding pattern, and patient location.« less

  6. Thyroid gland morphology in young adults: normal subjects versus those with prior low-dose neck irradiation in childhood

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, G.A.; Komorowski, R.A.; Cerletty, J.M.; Wilson, S.D.

    1983-12-01

    Thyroid glands obtained at autopsy from young adults were studied to establish more accurately the ''normal'' morphology in the groups 20 to 40 years of age. A total of 56 autopsy specimens (many obtained from trauma victims) were examined in detail by totally embedding and sectioning the thyroid glands. The morphology of these thyroid glands also was compared to that of surgically removed thyroid glands from 47 young adult patients with prior low-dose neck irradiation. The ''normal'' thyroid specimens frequently showed morphologic features, such as thyroid tissue outside the recognizable capsule of the gland (40 of 56 patients) and in the strap muscles of the neck (six of 56 patients), which are conditions commonly considered as evidence for invasive thyroid carcinoma. The thyroid glands from the ''normal'' young adult population were significantly different from those thyroid glands surgically removed from patients who had received irradiation. The irradiated thyroid glands invariably showed multiple nodules of a wide variety of histologic types, extensive lymphocytic infiltrates, and distorting fibrosis as well as a high incidence of malignancy (27 of 47 patients). A single 0.1 cm focus of papillary carcinoma was found in one specimen in the nonirradiated thyroid group. This study suggests that ''occult'' thyroid carcinomas in the group 20 to 40 years of age are rare and are significantly fewer in number than in the older population (P less than 0.02).

  7. Solitary fibrous tumor of the thyroid: cytopathologic findings and differential diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Parwani, Anil V; Galindo, Rene; Steinberg, David M; Zeiger, Martha A; Westra, William H; Ali, Syed Z

    2003-04-01

    Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is an uncommon mesenchymal neoplasm that arises primarily from the pleura. Extrapleural occurrences are rare. To our knowledge, there is no published account of this entity in the thyroid in the cytopathology literature. We report the case of a 61-yr-old man who was evaluated at The Johns Hopkins Hospital for a slow-growing thyroid mass that was present for 2 yr despite thyroid hormone suppression. Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) was within normal limits. The patient underwent ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (FNA), which showed predominantly discohesive slender spindle-shaped cells and fragments of collagenized stromal tissue. After the FNA diagnosis of "thyroid neoplasm" was made, the patient underwent a near-total thyroidectomy, which revealed a SFT. Differential diagnosis of spindle cell lesions in thyroid is also presented.

  8. Sunitinib Malate in Treating Patients With Iodine-Refractory Recurrent or Metastatic Thyroid Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-09-28

    Recurrent Thyroid Cancer; Stage IVA Follicular Thyroid Cancer; Stage IVA Papillary Thyroid Cancer; Stage IVB Follicular Thyroid Cancer; Stage IVB Papillary Thyroid Cancer; Stage IVC Follicular Thyroid Cancer; Stage IVC Papillary Thyroid Cancer; Thyroid Gland Medullary Carcinoma

  9. Does normal thyroid gland by ultrasonography match with normal serum thyroid hormones and negative thyroid antibodies?

    PubMed

    Trimboli, P; Rossi, F; Condorelli, E; Laurenti, O; Ventura, C; Nigri, G; Romanelli, F; Guarino, M; Valabrega, S

    2010-10-01

    Few papers have shown that a hypoechoic appearance of the thyroid gland at ultrasonography (US) is related to a hypofunction and serum positivity of thyroid antibodies (T-Ab). However, it is not ascertained if normal thyroid appearance at US correspond to normal thyroid laboratory tests. The aim of this study was to assess the value of normal thyroid at US in predicting normal thyroid hormones and negative T-Ab in a cohort of 48 adult patients. All patients (37 females and 11 males) were referred to our hospital to undergo their first thyroid US examination, followed by a thyroid function evaluation. All subjects had normal thyroid gland at US. As a control group 65 patients with hypoechoic and inhomogeneous thyroid gland were enrolled. All 48 patients had normal free-T (3) and free-T (4) levels. While 41 patients (85.4%) showed normal TSH, in 7 subjects (14.6%) TSH was elevated and a significant (p < 0.001) difference was recorded between the two groups in mean TSH value. Positive T-Ab value was found in 5 patients (10.4%) and the remaining 43 patients (89.6%) had negative T-Ab. TSH was not significantly correlated with age, thyroid volume or BMI. The multivariate model showed that only BMI was significantly correlated to thyroid volume (p < 0.01, r(2)=0.31). These results showed that normal thyroid recorded by US matches with normal thyroid laboratory assessment to a large degree. These preliminary data need to be confirmed in a prospective study and in a larger series and should suggest the evaluation of thyrotropin and thyroid antibodies in subjects with normal thyroid gland as assessed by US.

  10. Vitamin D receptor expression is linked to potential markers of human thyroid papillary carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Izkhakov, Elena; Somjen, Dalia; Sharon, Orli; Knoll, Esther; Aizic, Asaf; Fliss, Dan M; Limor, Rona; Stern, Naftali

    2016-05-01

    Genes regulated cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesion and degradation of the extracellular matrix (ECM) have been screened as potential markers of malignant thyroid nodules. The mRNA expression levels of two of them, the ECM protein-1 (ECM1) and the type II transmembrane serine protease-4 (TMPRSS4), were shown to be an independent predictor of an existing thyroid carcinoma. The vitamin D receptor (VDR) is expressed in epithelial cells of the normal thyroid gland, as well as in malignant dividing cells, which respond to the active metabolite of vitamin D by decreased proliferative activity in vitro. We evaluated the relationship between mRNA gene expressions of TMPRSS4, ECM1 and VDR in 21 papillary thyroid carcinoma samples and compared it to 21 normal thyroid tissues from the same patients. Gene expression was considered as up- or down-regulated if it varied by more or less than 2-fold in the cancer tissue relative to the normal thyroid tissue (Ca/N) from the same patient. We found an overall significant adjusted correlation between the mRNA expression ratio (ExR) of VDR and that of ECM1 in Ca/N thyroid tissue (R=0.648, P<0.001). There was a high ExR of VDR between Ca/N thyroid tissue from the same patient (3.06±2.9), which also exhibited a high Ca/N ExR of ECM1 and/or of TMPRSS4 (>2, P=0.05).The finding that increased VDR expression in human thyroid cancer cells is often linked to increased ECM1 and/or TPMRSS4 expression warrants further investigation into the potential role of vitamin D analogs in thyroid carcinoma.

  11. [Radiotherapy for Thyroid Cancer].

    PubMed

    Jingu, Keiichi; Maruoka, Shin; Umezawa, Rei; Takahashi, Noriyoshi

    2015-06-01

    Radioactive 131I therapy for differentiated thyroid cancer has been used since the 1940s and is an established and effective treatment. In contrast, external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) was considered to be effective for achieving local control but not for prolonging survival. Although clinicians were hesitant to administer EBRT owing to the potential radiation-induced adverse effects of 2 dimensional (2D)-radiotherapy until 2000, it is expected that adverse effects will be reduced and treatment efficacy improved through the introduction of more advanced techniques for delivering radiation (eg, 3D-radiotherapy and intensity modulated radiotherapy [IMRT]). The prognosis of undifferentiated thyroid cancer is known to be extremely bad, although in very rare cases, multimodality therapy (total or subtotal resection, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy) has allowed long-term survival. Here, we report the preliminary results of using hypofractionated radiotherapy for undifferentiated thyroid cancer in our institution. PMID:26199238

  12. [Thyroid gland and fertility].

    PubMed

    Andreeva, P

    2014-01-01

    It is well-known that the thyroid hormones are associated with a number of aspects of the human reproduction. Both states, hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism, have significant effect on the estrogen and androgen metabolism, the menstrual function and on fertility. The role of thyroid hormones (TH) during infertility has been little exploited. Interesting facts are that TH deficiency is more common in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and in certain cases with unexplained infertility. There are very few studies on the effect and paracrine regulation of TH and its receptors in the female reproductive tract. This report provides an overview of the most common thyroid disorders and their impact on ovarian function and reproductive performance in women as well as in cases with infertility and the implementation of assisted reproductive technologies (ART). PMID:25675618

  13. [Therapy of thyroid nodules].

    PubMed

    Schott, Matthias

    2015-04-01

    Thyroid nodules are frequent in Germany. In about every fourth person thyroid nodules can be detected. Most of them are benign. Signs for malignancy are hypoechogenicity, microcalcifications, an unregular margin and increased blood perfusion. There is no strict indication for the treatment of benign nodules. In most cases iodine supplementation is sufficient. A combination therapy with levothyroxine and iodine is more efficient for the treatment of larger nodules. Subclinical hyperthyroidism caused by an adenoma does not necessarily need to be treated, whereas manifest hyperthyroidism needs to treated in most cases with antithyroid drug therapy. Radioiodine therapy is the classical indication for the treatment of unifocal autonomous adenomas. A largely increased thyroid gland with and without uni- / multifocal adenomas are often operated. PMID:25831118

  14. [Non thyroidal illnesses (NTIS)].

    PubMed

    Luca, F; Goichot, B; Brue, T

    2010-09-01

    Abnormalities in the circulating levels of thyroid hormones, without evidence of coexisting thyroid or pituitary gland disease can be observed in all general diseases. These nonthyroidal illnesses (NTIS) are the result of complex mechanisms that combine the effect of some drugs, cytokines, nutritional and endocrine factors at all levels of the thyrotropic axis, from the hypothalamus to the cellular transporters and nuclear receptors of thyroid hormones. The patterns of NTIS depend on the underlying disease and its severity. Thirtyfive years after the initial description, the pathophysiological significance of these anomalies remains controversial. One of the dilemma of NTIS is whether the hormone responses represent an adaptive and normal, physiologic response to conserve energy and protect against hypercatabolism in case of aggression, or whether it is a maladaptive response contributing to a worsening of the disease. This debate is not just a theoretical question, because in the first case the process must be respected, in the other case a vigorous treatment to restore circulating thyroid hormone levels is justified. There have been very few clinical studies designed to address whether the substitution with thyroid hormone is advantageous, and there is at current time no permissive evidence for the use of thyroid hormone replacement in patients with NTIS. But the clinical context, the choice of the molecule or of the dose and the way of administration were not necessarily the most relevant. Theoretically, stimulation of thyreotrope axis used a continuous infusion of TRH seems to provide clinical benefit. With the expectation that randomized clinical trials will provide demonstration of NTIS treatment efficiency, the question might remain unanswered for several more years.

  15. Thyroid Disease and the Heart.

    PubMed

    Klein, Irwin; Danzi, Sara

    2016-02-01

    Thyroid hormones have an intimate relationship with cardiac function. Some of the most significant clinical signs and symptoms of thyroid disease are the cardiac manifestations. In both hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism, the characteristic physiological effects of thyroid hormone can be understood from the actions at the molecular and cellular level. Here we explore topics from the metabolism and cellular effects of thyroid hormone to special considerations related to statin and amiodarone therapy for the alterations in thyroid hormone metabolism that accompany heart disease. PMID:26792255

  16. Postpartum thyroid dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Browne-Martin, K; Emerson, C H

    1997-03-01

    Four disorders of the postpartum period are associated with thyroid dysfunction. The most common is PPT. Although recovery from thyroid dysfunction often occurs in PPT, many patients eventually develop permanent hypothyroidism. Postpartum Graves' Disease is less common than PPT, but it is not unusual. Whereas antithyroid drugs are indicated for postpartum Graves' Disease, they are not useful in PPT. Although they are rare, lymphocytic hypophysitis and postpartum pituitary infarction are important entities because they cause deficiencies of many critical hormones. The autoimmune nature of PPT, postpartum Graves' disease, and lymphocytic hypophysitis highlights the unique effects of pregnancy on the immune system.

  17. Thyroid storm: an updated review.

    PubMed

    Chiha, Maguy; Samarasinghe, Shanika; Kabaker, Adam S

    2015-03-01

    Thyroid storm, an endocrine emergency first described in 1926, remains a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. No laboratory abnormalities are specific to thyroid storm, and the available scoring system is based on the clinical criteria. The exact mechanisms underlying the development of thyroid storm from uncomplicated hyperthyroidism are not well understood. A heightened response to thyroid hormone is often incriminated along with increased or abrupt availability of free hormones. Patients exhibit exaggerated signs and symptoms of hyperthyroidism and varying degrees of organ decompensation. Treatment should be initiated promptly targeting all steps of thyroid hormone formation, release, and action. Patients who fail medical therapy should be treated with therapeutic plasma exchange or thyroidectomy. The mortality of thyroid storm is currently reported at 10%. Patients who have survived thyroid storm should receive definite therapy for their underlying hyperthyroidism to avoid any recurrence of this potentially fatal condition.

  18. RAMAN spectroscopy imaging improves the diagnosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Rau, Julietta V.; Graziani, Valerio; Fosca, Marco; Taffon, Chiara; Rocchia, Massimiliano; Crucitti, Pierfilippo; Pozzilli, Paolo; Onetti Muda, Andrea; Caricato, Marco; Crescenzi, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Recent investigations strongly suggest that Raman spectroscopy (RS) can be used as a clinical tool in cancer diagnosis to improve diagnostic accuracy. In this study, we evaluated the efficiency of Raman imaging microscopy to discriminate between healthy and neoplastic thyroid tissue, by analyzing main variants of Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma (PTC), the most common type of thyroid cancer. We performed Raman imaging of large tissue areas (from 100 × 100 μm2 up to 1 × 1 mm2), collecting 38 maps containing about 9000 Raman spectra. Multivariate statistical methods, including Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA), were applied to translate Raman spectra differences between healthy and PTC tissues into diagnostically useful information for a reliable tissue classification. Our study is the first demonstration of specific biochemical features of the PTC profile, characterized by significant presence of carotenoids with respect to the healthy tissue. Moreover, this is the first evidence of Raman spectra differentiation between classical and follicular variant of PTC, discriminated by LDA with high efficiency. The combined histological and Raman microscopy analyses allow clear-cut integration of morphological and biochemical observations, with dramatic improvement of efficiency and reliability in the differential diagnosis of neoplastic thyroid nodules, paving the way to integrative findings for tumorigenesis and novel therapeutic strategies. PMID:27725756

  19. RAMAN spectroscopy imaging improves the diagnosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rau, Julietta V.; Graziani, Valerio; Fosca, Marco; Taffon, Chiara; Rocchia, Massimiliano; Crucitti, Pierfilippo; Pozzilli, Paolo; Onetti Muda, Andrea; Caricato, Marco; Crescenzi, Anna

    2016-10-01

    Recent investigations strongly suggest that Raman spectroscopy (RS) can be used as a clinical tool in cancer diagnosis to improve diagnostic accuracy. In this study, we evaluated the efficiency of Raman imaging microscopy to discriminate between healthy and neoplastic thyroid tissue, by analyzing main variants of Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma (PTC), the most common type of thyroid cancer. We performed Raman imaging of large tissue areas (from 100 × 100 μm2 up to 1 × 1 mm2), collecting 38 maps containing about 9000 Raman spectra. Multivariate statistical methods, including Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA), were applied to translate Raman spectra differences between healthy and PTC tissues into diagnostically useful information for a reliable tissue classification. Our study is the first demonstration of specific biochemical features of the PTC profile, characterized by significant presence of carotenoids with respect to the healthy tissue. Moreover, this is the first evidence of Raman spectra differentiation between classical and follicular variant of PTC, discriminated by LDA with high efficiency. The combined histological and Raman microscopy analyses allow clear-cut integration of morphological and biochemical observations, with dramatic improvement of efficiency and reliability in the differential diagnosis of neoplastic thyroid nodules, paving the way to integrative findings for tumorigenesis and novel therapeutic strategies.

  20. Expression of epithelial-mesenchymal transition regulators SNAI2 and TWIST1 in thyroid carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Buehler, Darya; Hardin, Heather; Shan, Weihua; Montemayor-Garcia, Celina; Rush, Patrick S; Asioli, Sofia; Chen, Herbert; Lloyd, Ricardo V

    2013-01-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition is an important mechanism of epithelial tumor progression, local invasion and metastasis. The E-cadherin (CDH1) repressor SLUG (SNAI2) and the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor TWIST1 inhibit CDH1 expression in poorly differentiated malignancies as inducers of epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition has been implicated in progression from well to poorly differentiated/anaplastic thyroid carcinoma but the expression of SNAI2 and TWIST1 proteins and their phenotypic association in human thyroid cancers has not been extensively studied. We examined the expression of SNAI2, TWIST1 and CDH1 by immunohistochemistry in a panel of well-differentiated and anaplastic thyroid cancers and by qRT-PCR in thyroid cell lines. Ten normal thyroids, 33 follicular adenomas, 56 papillary thyroid carcinomas including 28 follicular variants, 27 follicular carcinomas and 10 anaplastic thyroid carcinomas were assembled on a tissue microarray and immunostained for SNAI2, TWIST1 and CDH1. Most (8/10) anaplastic thyroid carcinomas demonstrated strong nuclear immunoreactivity for SNAI2 with associated absence of CDH1 in 6/8 cases (75%). TWIST1 was expressed in 5/10 anaplastic thyroid carcinomas with absence of CDH1 in 3/5 (60%) cases. These findings were confirmed in whole sections of all anaplastic thyroid carcinomas and in a separate validation set of 10 additional anaplastic thyroid carcinomas. All normal thyroids, follicular adenomas, papillary and follicular thyroid carcinomas were negative for SNAI2 and TWIST1 (P<0.0001) and all showed strong diffuse immunoreactivity for CDH1 (P=0.026). Expression of SNAI2, TWIST1 and CDH1 mRNA varied in a normal thyroid, papillary carcinoma and two anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cell lines tested, but the highest levels of CDH1 mRNA were detected in the normal thyroid cell line while the anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cell line demonstrated the highest levels of SNAI2 and TWIST1 m

  1. Thyroid cell lines in research on goitrogenesis.

    PubMed

    Gerber, H; Peter, H J; Asmis, L; Studer, H

    1991-12-01

    Thyroid cell lines have contributed a lot to the understanding of goitrogenesis. The cell lines mostly used in thyroid research are briefly discussed, namely the rat thyroid cell lines FRTL and FRTL-5, the porcine thyroid cell lines PORTHOS and ARTHOS, The sheep thyroid cell lines OVNIS 5H and 6H, the cat thyroid cell lines PETCAT 1 to 4 and ROMCAT, and the human thyroid cell lines FTC-133 and HTh 74. Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells and COS-7 cells, stably transfected with TSH receptor cDNA and expressing a functional TSH receptor, are discussed as examples for non-thyroidal cells, transfected with thyroid genes. PMID:1726925

  2. Cloning and characterization of cDNAs for hormones and/or receptors of growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor-I, thyroid hormone, and corticosteroid and the gender-, tissue-, and developmental-specific expression of their mRNA transcripts in fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas).

    PubMed

    Filby, Amy L; Tyler, Charles R

    2007-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), thyroid hormones, and corticosteroids play central roles in a wide range of body functions but, in fish, information on their interactions is limited. These axes of the endocrine system are also potential targets for disruption of signaling pathways by hormone-mimicking chemicals, but have received little study. Molecular approaches offer an effective way to help unravel these endocrine interactions but require the appropriate gene-specific assays to do so. In this study, the cDNAs for a suite of hormones and/or receptors involved in signaling for the effects of GH and IGF-I [GH, GH receptor (GHR), IGF-I, IGF-I receptor (IGF-IR)], thyroid hormones [thyroid hormone receptor alpha (TRalpha) and beta (TRbeta)], and corticosteroids [glucocorticoid receptor (GR)] were cloned from the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas; fhm), and the tissue-, developmental-, and gender-related expression of their mRNA transcripts established. By polymerase chain reaction (PCR) strategy, we obtained full-length 1123-bp GH, 817-bp IGF-I, 1584-bp TRbeta, and 2571-bp GR cDNAs, coding for 210 amino acid (aa) GH, 161 aa IGF-I, 378 aa TRbeta, and 745 aa GR putative proteins, and partial-length 158-bp GHR, 811-bp IGF-IR, and 446-bp TRalpha cDNAs. Real-time PCR analyses revealed broad tissue expression for the target mRNAs; all targets were expressed in brain, pituitary, gill, liver, gonad, intestine, and muscle, with the exception of GH that was expressed only in the pituitary and gonad. Expression patterns in both juvenile and adult fhm were complex, with both temporal-, tissue-, and sex-specific characteristics. For example, hepatic expressions of GHR, IGF-I, and IGF-IR were far higher in males than in females, possibly reflecting the sex-related dimorphism in growth that occurs in this species, and TRalpha and TRbeta showed divergent expression patterns during development (where TRbeta predominated) and in adult tissues implying some

  3. Clinical implications of altered thyroid status in male testicular function.

    PubMed

    Wajner, Simone Magagnin; Wagner, Márcia Santos; Maia, Ana Luiza

    2009-11-01

    Thyroid hormones are involved in the development and maintenance of virtually all tissues. Although for many years the testis was thought to be a thyroid-hormone unresponsive organ, studies of the last decades have demonstrated that thyroid dysfunction is associated not only with abnormalities in morphology and function of testes, but also with decreased fertility and alterations of sexual activity in men. Nowadays, the participation of triiodothyronine (T3) in the control of Sertoli and Leydig cell proliferation, testicular maturation, and steroidogenesis is widely accepted, as well as the presence of thyroid hormone transporters and receptors in testicular cells throughout the development process and in adulthood. But even with data suggesting that T3 may act directly on these cells to bring about its effects, there is still controversy regarding the impact of thyroid diseases on human spermatogenesis and fertility, which can be in part due to the lack of well-controlled clinical studies. The current review aims at presenting an updated picture of recent clinical data about the role of thyroid hormones in male gonadal function. PMID:20126850

  4. Follicular Thyroid Carcinoma Presenting as Bilateral Cheek Masses

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dong-Wook; Hah, J. Hun; An, Soo-Youn; Chang, Hak

    2013-01-01

    Mandibular metastasis of thyroid carcinoma is extremely rare. We present the case of a 46-year-old woman who had bilateral huge cheek masses that had grown rapidly over several years. Intra-oral mucosal tissue biopsy and imaging work-up including computed tomography scan and magnetic resonance imaging were performed and the initial diagnosis was presumed to be central giant cell granuloma. Incidentally detected thyroid lesions were studied with ultra-sonography guided fine needle aspiration and diagnosed as simple benign nodules. Due to continuous oral bleeding and the locally destructive feature of the lesions, we decided to excise the mass surgically. To avoid functional deficit, a stepwise approach was performed: Firstly, the larger left mass was excised and the mandible was reconstructed with a fibular free flap. The final pathologic diagnosis was follicular thyroid cancer. Postoperative I-131 thyroid scan and whole body positron-emissions-tomography were performed. Right side mass was revealed as a thyroid malignancy. Multiple bony metastases were detected. Since further radioactive iodine therapy was required, additional total thyroidectomy and right side mandibulectomy with fibular free flap reconstruction was performed. The patient also underwent high dose radioactive iodine therapy and palliative extra-beam radiotherapy for the metastatic lumbar lesion. Follicular thyroid carcinoma should be considered as a differential diagnosis for mandibular mass lesions. PMID:23526730

  5. Molecular disorganization of axons adjacent to human lacunar infarcts.

    PubMed

    Hinman, Jason D; Lee, Monica D; Tung, Spencer; Vinters, Harry V; Carmichael, S Thomas

    2015-03-01

    Cerebral microvascular disease predominantly affects brain white matter and deep grey matter, resulting in ischaemic damage that ranges from lacunar infarcts to white matter hyperintensities seen on magnetic resonance imaging. These lesions are common and result in both clinical stroke syndromes and accumulate over time, resulting in cognitive deficits and dementia. Magnetic resonance imaging studies suggest that these lesions progress over time, accumulate adjacent to prior lesions and have a penumbral region susceptible to further injury. The pathological correlates of this adjacent injury in surviving myelinated axons have not been previously defined. In this study, we sought to determine the molecular organization of axons in tissue adjacent to lacunar infarcts and in the regions surrounding microinfarcts, by determining critical elements in axonal function: the morphology and length of node of Ranvier segments and adjacent paranodal segments. We examined post-mortem brain tissue from six patients with lacunar infarcts and tissue from two patients with autosomal dominant retinal vasculopathy and cerebral leukoencephalopathy (previously known as hereditary endotheliopathy with retinopathy, nephropathy and stroke) who accumulate progressive white matter ischaemic lesions in the form of lacunar and microinfarcts. In axons adjacent to lacunar infarcts yet extending up to 150% of the infarct diameter away, both nodal and paranodal length increase by ∼20% and 80%, respectively, reflecting a loss of normal cell-cell adhesion and signalling between axons and oligodendrocytes. Using premorbid magnetic resonance images, brain regions from patients with retinal vasculopathy and cerebral leukoencephalopathy that harboured periventricular white matter hyperintensities were selected and the molecular organization of axons was determined within these regions. As in regions adjacent to lacunar infarcts, nodal and paranodal length in white matter of these patients is

  6. Molecular disorganization of axons adjacent to human lacunar infarcts

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Monica D.; Tung, Spencer; Vinters, Harry V.; Carmichael, S. Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Cerebral microvascular disease predominantly affects brain white matter and deep grey matter, resulting in ischaemic damage that ranges from lacunar infarcts to white matter hyperintensities seen on magnetic resonance imaging. These lesions are common and result in both clinical stroke syndromes and accumulate over time, resulting in cognitive deficits and dementia. Magnetic resonance imaging studies suggest that these lesions progress over time, accumulate adjacent to prior lesions and have a penumbral region susceptible to further injury. The pathological correlates of this adjacent injury in surviving myelinated axons have not been previously defined. In this study, we sought to determine the molecular organization of axons in tissue adjacent to lacunar infarcts and in the regions surrounding microinfarcts, by determining critical elements in axonal function: the morphology and length of node of Ranvier segments and adjacent paranodal segments. We examined post-mortem brain tissue from six patients with lacunar infarcts and tissue from two patients with autosomal dominant retinal vasculopathy and cerebral leukoencephalopathy (previously known as hereditary endotheliopathy with retinopathy, nephropathy and stroke) who accumulate progressive white matter ischaemic lesions in the form of lacunar and microinfarcts. In axons adjacent to lacunar infarcts yet extending up to 150% of the infarct diameter away, both nodal and paranodal length increase by ∼20% and 80%, respectively, reflecting a loss of normal cell-cell adhesion and signalling between axons and oligodendrocytes. Using premorbid magnetic resonance images, brain regions from patients with retinal vasculopathy and cerebral leukoencephalopathy that harboured periventricular white matter hyperintensities were selected and the molecular organization of axons was determined within these regions. As in regions adjacent to lacunar infarcts, nodal and paranodal length in white matter of these patients is

  7. Thyroid status affects number and localization of thyroid hormone receptor expressing mast cells in bone marrow.

    PubMed

    Siebler, T; Robson, H; Bromley, M; Stevens, D A; Shalet, S M; Williams, G R

    2002-01-01

    Thyroid hormone (T(3)) plays a key role in endochondral ossification. The process relies on the coordinated synthesis and degradation of cartilage matrix and is disrupted in juvenile hypothyroidism, leading to abnormal skeletal development. Mast cells synthesize and store matrix-degrading enzymes. We examined whether thyroid status influences skeletal mast cell distribution in growing rats to determine whether they might modulate the actions of T(3) in bone. Tibiae were collected for histological, histochemical, immunohistochemical, and immunofluorescence analysis. Mast cells were increased throughout the bone marrow in hypothyroid rats compared with euthyroid, thyrotoxic, and hypothyroid-thyroxine replaced animals. Large numbers were present in metaphyseal marrow adjacent to the growth plate in hypothyroid animals and cells were distributed evenly throughout the marrow. Very few mast cells were present in metaphyseal marrow in other groups, but their numbers increased with increasing distance from the growth plate. T(3) receptor alpha1 (TRalpha1) was expressed in the nucleus and cytoplasm of skeletal mast cells, whereas TRalpha2 and TRbeta1 were restricted to the cytoplasm. Localization of TRs was not affected by altered thyroid status. Thus, disrupted endochondral ossification in hypothyroidism may be mediated in part by skeletal mast cells, which express TR proteins and may function as T(3) target cells.

  8. Overview of the 2015 American Thyroid Association guidelines for managing thyroid nodules and differentiated thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Matti, Bashar; Cohen-Hallaleh, Ruben

    2016-01-01

    The last few years have witnessed numerous publications addressing the management of thyroid nodules and differentiated thyroid cancers. The purpose of this review is to provide a simplified summary of the newly released guidelines by the American Thyroid Association. A systematic approach has been recommended to evaluate a thyroid nodule through clinical assessment, measurement of serum Thyroid Stimulating Hormone, neck ultrasonography and Fine Needle Aspiration where appropriate. This is followed by cytology analysis using the Bethesda scoring system to detect malignancy. Once diagnosed, thyroid cancers need to be staged and risk stratification needs to be applied to develop further treatment plans. Lastly, several recommendations have been presented to assure proper follow-up and support for thyroid cancer patients regardless of the treatment received. PMID:27607088

  9. Cancer of the Thyroid

    MedlinePlus

    ... at a Glance Show More At a Glance Estimated New Cases in 2016 64,300 % of All New Cancer Cases 3.8% Estimated Deaths in 2016 1,980 % of All Cancer ... of This Cancer : In 2013, there were an estimated 637,115 people living with thyroid cancer in ...

  10. Pregnancy and Thyroid Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... to make thyroid hormone, iodine is an important mineral for a mother during pregnancy. During pregnancy, the baby gets iodine from the mother’s diet. Women need more iodine when they are pregnant—about 250 micrograms a day. In the United States, about 7 percent of pregnant women may not ...

  11. Thyroid Cancer Risk Factors

    MedlinePlus

    ... and radiation fallout from power plant accidents or nuclear weapons. Having had head or neck radiation treatments in childhood is a risk factor for ... should be done using the lowest dose of radiation that still provides a clear ... from nuclear weapons or power plant accidents. For instance, thyroid ...

  12. Tubercular thyroid abscess.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Awanish; Pahwa, Harvinder Singh; Srivastava, Rohit; Khan, Khursheed Alam

    2013-01-01

    We encountered a patient who presented with neck swelling, difficulty in swallowing, voice change along with systemic features such as evening rise of temperature, chronic cough and weight loss. Ultrasonography of the thyroid gland revealed two cystic swellings. An ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration cytology was suggestive of tubercular abscess. The patient responded well to antigravity aspiration of the swellings and antitubercular treatment.

  13. What Causes Thyroid Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... not yet known. Certain changes in a person’s DNA can cause thyroid cells to become cancerous. DNA is the chemical in each of our cells ... parents because they are the source of our DNA. But DNA affects more than just how we ...

  14. Remote access thyroid surgery

    PubMed Central

    Bhatia, Parisha; Mohamed, Hossam Eldin; Kadi, Abida; Walvekar, Rohan R.

    2015-01-01

    Robot assisted thyroid surgery has been the latest advance in the evolution of thyroid surgery after endoscopy assisted procedures. The advantage of a superior field vision and technical advancements of robotic technology have permitted novel remote access (trans-axillary and retro-auricular) surgical approaches. Interestingly, several remote access surgical ports using robot surgical system and endoscopic technique have been customized to avoid the social stigma of a visible scar. Current literature has displayed their various advantages in terms of post-operative outcomes; however, the associated financial burden and also additional training and expertise necessary hinder its widespread adoption into endocrine surgery practices. These approaches offer excellent cosmesis, with a shorter learning curve and reduce discomfort to surgeons operating ergonomically through a robotic console. This review aims to provide details of various remote access techniques that are being offered for thyroid resection. Though these have been reported to be safe and feasible approaches for thyroid surgery, further evaluation for their efficacy still remains. PMID:26425450

  15. [Differentiated thyroid cancer -- 2009].

    PubMed

    Konrády, András

    2011-01-30

    Three years ago continental guidelines were published referring management and follow-up of low risk thyroid cancer patients. The aim of this paper is to summarize the changes and new directions in this field. High risk patients require another protocol. Neck ultrasound plays important role in differential diagnosis and in detecting recurrences. Some new ultrasound techniques are discussed, too. FDG-PET can help to solve the problem of patients having negative scan and increased thyroglobulin level. In recent years there was an expansion of our knowledge about the pathomechanism of thyroid cancer. It appears that genetic alterations frequently play a key role in carcinogenesis. There are molecular methods that allow the detection of these genetic events in thyroid fine needle aspirations samples providing important information for diagnosis, management and prognosis. Instead of diagnostic whole body scanning the posttherapeutic scan became preferable but in high risk cases the diagnostic whole body scintigrams serve useful data. Primary therapy of thyroid cancer is an adequate surgery: total thyreoidectomy and, if necessary, lymph node dissection or limited surgery in selected cases. Nowadays radioguided surgery can help to improve the results. Radioiodine therapy (e.g. rest ablation) proved to be a safe and effective method to complete surgery. It can prevent relapses and results in longer survival. Thyroid hormone withdrawal or recombinant human thyrotropin stimulation can increase thyrotropin level before radioiodine treatment. These two methods have similar success rate of rest ablation but irradiation burden of blood is lower in the case of exogenous stimulation which avoids hypothyroid state and preserves quality of life. Since tumor cells fail to maintain the ability to perform physiological functions they undergo dedifferentiation. Therefore, an important aim is to reactivate some function of differentiated cells, e.g. iodine uptake, production of

  16. Celiac disease in children and adolescents with Hashimoto Thyroiditis

    PubMed Central

    Tuhan, Hale; Işık, Sakine; Abacı, Ayhan; Şimşek, Erdem; Anık, Ahmet; Anal, Özden; Böber, Ece

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate clinical and laboratory findings and determine the prevalence of celiac disease (CD) in children with Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT). Material and Methods: The data of a total of 80 patients with positive anti-thyroid antibodies who were aged between 6 and 17.9 years were retrospectively studied. Age, gender, complaints at the time of presentation, family history of thyroid disorders, clinical and laboratory findings were recorded. The levels of thyrotropin, free thyroxin, thyroid autoantibodies (thyroid peroxidase and thyroglobulin antibodies), immunoglobulin A (IgA), anti-tissue transglutaminase antibodies (IgA-tTG), and thyroid ultrasonography findings were enrolled. Results: Eighty patients (65 females (81.2%) and 15 males (18,8%)) were included in the study. Family history of thyroid disease was present in 38 (47.5%) patients. The most common complaints at the time of presentation were goiter (%30) and weight gain (%25). Forty three (53.8%), 23 (28.7%), and 14 (17.5%) patients presented with euthyroidism, subclinical hypothyroidism and obvious hypothyroidism. Thirty seven (46.2%) patients had goiter. IgA-tTG was found to be positive after a diagnosis of HT was made in only one patient (1.25%) and the diagnosis of CD was confirmed when intestinal biopsy of this patient revealed villus atrophy, crypt hyperplasia and increase in the intraepithelial lymphocyte count. Conclusions: In our study, it was found that the most common complaints at presentation in patients with a diagnosis of hashimoto thyroiditis included goiter, weakness and weight gain and the prevalence of celiac diseases was found to be 1.25% (1/80). This study shows that the prevalence of CD in patients with a diagnosis of HT is higher compared to the prevalence in the healthy pediatric population. PMID:27489467

  17. Thyroid Hormone-disrupting Effects and the Amphibian Metamorphosis Assay

    PubMed Central

    Miyata, Kaori; Ose, Keiko

    2012-01-01

    There are continued concerns about endocrine-disrupting chemical effects, and appropriate vertebrate models for assessment of risk are a high priority. Frog tadpoles are very sensitive to environmental substances because of their habitat and the complex processes of metamorphosis regulated by the endocrine system, mainly thyroid hormones. During metamorphosis, marked alteration in hormonal factors occurs, as well as dramatic structural and functional changes in larval tissues. There are a variety of mechanisms determining thyroid hormone balance or disruption directly or indirectly. Direct-acting agents can cause changes in thyroxine synthesis and/or secretion in thyroid through effects on peroxidases, thyroidal iodide uptake, deiodinase, and proteolysis. At the same time, indirect action may result from biochemical processes such as sulfation, deiodination and glucuronidation. Because their potential to disrupt thyroid hormones has been identified as an important consideration for the regulation of chemicals, the OECD and the EPA have each established guidelines that make use of larval African clawed frogs (Xenopus laevis) and frog metamorphosis for screening and testing of potential endocrine disrupters. The guidelines are based on evaluation of alteration in the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis. One of the primary endpoints is thyroid gland histopathology. Others are mortality, developmental stage, hind limb length, snout-vent length and wet body weight. Regarding histopathological features, the guidelines include core criteria and additional qualitative parameters along with grading. Taking into account the difficulties in evaluating amphibian thyroid glands, which change continuously throughout metamorphosis, histopathological examination has been shown to be a very sensitive approach. PMID:22481853

  18. Defective thyroid ontogenesis in fetal hypothyroid (hyt/hyt) mice

    SciTech Connect

    Beamer, W.G.; Cresswell, L.A.

    1982-03-01

    Thyroid glands of fetal hypothyroid (hyt/hyt) mice were studied to determine the effects of the mutant gene during embryogenesis. Comparisons of mutant and normal thyroids were made with respect to morphology, iodine-concentrating ability, and glandular thyroxine (T4) content at day 18 of gestation. Fetal hyt/hyt thyroid tissue was properly located, but incompletely differentiated. The mutant thyroid was characterized microscopically by small, poorly developed follicles with colloid diminished in PAS-staining properties. The mutant glands' ability to concentrate iodine was found to be only 5--16% of that exhibited by normal glands. When litters contained both mutant and normal off-spring, the differential iodine-concentrating ability allowed fetuses to be separated into two distinct, nonoverlapping populations. The distribution of fetal mice into high or low iodine-concentrating groups agreed closely with predicted frequencies for normal and mutant phenotypes. Thyroid content of T4 in mutant mice was found to be approximately equal to that found in age-matched normal controls. The poorly developed morphology and deficient iodine-concentrating ability of fetal thyroids from day 18 hyt/hyt mice indicated that the mutant gene acts during the ontogeny of this gland. Although such data are not available on human fetuses affected by thyroid dysgenesis, postnatal hyt/hyt mice display characteristics similar to those of infants born with this form of congenital primary hypothyroidism. Thus, elucidation of the site of mutant gene action in the mouse should contribute to our knowledge of disturbed fetal thyroid development and its implications in the adult mammal.

  19. ProNGF is a potential diagnostic biomarker for thyroid cancer

    PubMed Central

    Demont, Yohann; Pundavela, Jay; Choquet, Genevieve; Leissner, Philippe; Oldmeadow, Christopher; Attia, John; Walker, Marjorie M.; Hondermarck, Hubert

    2016-01-01

    The precursor for nerve growth factor (proNGF) is expressed in some cancers but its clinicopathological significance is unclear. The present study aimed to define the clinicopathological significance of proNGF in thyroid cancer. ProNGF expression was analysed by immunohistochemistry in two cohorts of cancer versus benign tumors (adenoma) and normal thyroid tissues. In the first cohort (40 thyroid cancers, 40 thyroid adenomas and 80 normal thyroid tissues), proNGF was found overexpressed in cancers compared to adenomas and normal samples (p<0.0001). The area under the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve was 0.84 (95% CI 0.75-0.93, p<0.0001) for cancers versus adenomas, and 0.99 (95% CI 0.98-1.00, p<0.0001) for cancers versus normal tissues. ProNGF overexpression was confirmed in a second cohort (127 cancers of various histological types and 55 normal thyroid tissues) and using a different antibody (p<0.0001). ProNGF staining intensity was highest in papillary carcinomas compared to other histological types (p<0.0001) and there was no significant association with age, gender, tumor size, stage and lymph node status. In conclusion, proNGF is increased in thyroid cancer and should be considered as a new potential diagnostic biomarker. PMID:27074571

  20. To Treat or Not to Treat: The Role of Adjuvant Radioiodine Therapy in Thyroid Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Carballo, Marilee; Quiros, Roderick M.

    2012-01-01

    Radioactive iodine (RAI) is used in treatment of patients with differentiated papillary and follicular thyroid cancer. It is typically used after thyroidectomy, both as a means of imaging to detect residual thyroid tissue or metastatic disease, as well as a means of treatment by ablation if such tissue is found. In this paper, we discuss the indications for and the mechanisms of RAI in the treatment of patients with thyroid cancer. We discuss the attendant risks and benefits that come with its use, as well as techniques used to optimize its effectiveness as an imaging tool and a therapeutic modality. PMID:23193402

  1. [Medullary thyroid carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Niccoli-Sire, P; Conte-Devolx, B

    2007-10-01

    Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is developed from thyroid C cells that secrete calcitonin (CT). MTC represents 5-10% of thyroid cancers with a 1-2% incidence in nodular thyroid diseases. Diagnosis is usually made by a solitary nodule often associated to nodal metastasis and confirmed by a high basal CT level which represents its biological marker. MTC may present as a sporadic form and in about 30% of case as a familial form as a part of multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome, an hereditary dominant inherited disease related to germline mutation of the proto-oncogene RET. Both biological (CT) and genetic (RET) markers allows the optimal diagnosis and treatment of MTC; the former allows screening and early diagnosis of MTC by routinely CT measurements in nodular thyroid diseases that make the adequate and complete surgery required to be performed. The former leads to diagnose familial MTC and to identify at risk subjects in whom early or prophylactic surgery may be performed. Treatment of MTC is based on the complete surgical resection: total thyroidectomy associated to central and laterocervical nodal dissection. For locally advanced or metastatic MTC, complete cervical surgery is required and needs to be associated to other systemic treatments: as chemotherapy is not very efficient, radioimmunotherapy and RET target gene therapy (mainly tyrosine kinase inhibitors) appears as possible valuable therapeutic options for the future. Prognosis of MTC is mainly related to both the stage of the disease and the extend of the initial surgery. Ten-year survival is about 80% when the patients are not surgically cured and reaches 95% when the biological marker CT is normalized after surgery. PMID:17572372

  2. Iodine deficiency and thyroid disorders.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Michael B; Boelaert, Kristien

    2015-04-01

    Iodine deficiency early in life impairs cognition and growth, but iodine status is also a key determinant of thyroid disorders in adults. Severe iodine deficiency causes goitre and hypothyroidism because, despite an increase in thyroid activity to maximise iodine uptake and recycling in this setting, iodine concentrations are still too low to enable production of thyroid hormone. In mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency, increased thyroid activity can compensate for low iodine intake and maintain euthyroidism in most individuals, but at a price: chronic thyroid stimulation results in an increase in the prevalence of toxic nodular goitre and hyperthyroidism in populations. This high prevalence of nodular autonomy usually results in a further increase in the prevalence of hyperthyroidism if iodine intake is subsequently increased by salt iodisation. However, this increase is transient because iodine sufficiency normalises thyroid activity which, in the long term, reduces nodular autonomy. Increased iodine intake in an iodine-deficient population is associated with a small increase in the prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism and thyroid autoimmunity; whether these increases are also transient is unclear. Variations in population iodine intake do not affect risk for Graves' disease or thyroid cancer, but correction of iodine deficiency might shift thyroid cancer subtypes toward less malignant forms. Thus, optimisation of population iodine intake is an important component of preventive health care to reduce the prevalence of thyroid disorders.

  3. Thyroid dysfunction and pregnancy outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Nazarpour, Sima; Ramezani Tehrani, Fahimeh; Simbar, Masoumeh; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2015-01-01

    Background: Pregnancy has a huge impact on the thyroid function in both healthy women and those that have thyroid dysfunction. The prevalence of thyroid dysfunction in pregnant women is relatively high. Objective: The objective of this review was to increase awareness and to provide a review on adverse effect of thyroid dysfunction including hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism and thyroid autoimmune positivity on pregnancy outcomes. Materials and Methods: In this review, Medline, Embase and the Cochrane Library were searched with appropriate keywords for relevant English manuscript. We used a variety of studies, including randomized clinical trials, cohort (prospective and retrospective), case-control and case reports. Those studies on thyroid disorders among non-pregnant women and articles without adequate quality were excluded. Results: Overt hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism has several adverse effects on pregnancy outcomes. Overt hyperthyroidism was associated with miscarriage, stillbirth, preterm delivery, intrauterine growth retardation, low birth weight, preeclampsia and fetal thyroid dysfunction. Overt hypothyroidism was associated with abortion, anemia, pregnancy-induced hypertension, preeclampsia, placental abruption, postpartum hemorrhage, premature birth, low birth weight, intrauterine fetal death, increased neonatal respiratory distress and infant neuro developmental dysfunction. However the adverse effect of subclinical hypothyroidism, and thyroid antibody positivity on pregnancy outcomes was not clear. While some studies demonstrated higher chance of placental abruption, preterm birth, miscarriage, gestational hypertension, fetal distress, severe preeclampsia and neonatal distress and diabetes in pregnant women with subclinical hypothyroidism or thyroid autoimmunity; the other ones have not reported these adverse effects. Conclusion: While the impacts of overt thyroid dysfunction on feto-maternal morbidities have been clearly identified and its long

  4. [Pregnancy and the thyroid gland].

    PubMed

    Schlienger, J L; Dreyfus, M

    1993-01-01

    During pregnancy the thyroid should adapt itself to the availability of the least quantities of iodides necessary to synthesis hormones and to several other possible modifications such as a rise in the thyroxine-binding globulin and the thyroid stimulating effect of beta-hCG. An increase in size of the thyroid gland is very common. The interpretation of the parameters used to diagnose abnormalities of thyroid function can be carried out. Although the development of the fetal thyroid can take place independently of the maternal thyroid behaviour, an abnormal thyroid function in the mother can not occur without affecting the pregnancy. Grave's disease can cause either fetal or neonatal hyperthyroidism due to a transplacental transfer of thyroid stimulating immunoglobulins or hypothyroidism secondary to the use of too large doses of synthetic antithyroid products. Pregnancy itself favours hyperthyroidism. Maternal hypothyroidism which has not been treated is rarer because of a lack of fertility. It can cause repercussions on the fetus that have probably been over estimated. When pregnancy occurs in a hypothyroid woman who is being treated the dosages of drugs that she is being given should be increased by 20-30%. Providing a good knowledge of the thyroid parameters and keeping the patient preferably euthyroid in cases where thyroid dysfunction can occur, the pregnancy can continue normally whatever the state of the mother thyroid function was. The risks to the fetus are minimal. In women who are at risk it is very important to keep controlling the thyroid state after delivery when there is an immunological rebound which may lead to a relapse in Grave's disease and to post-partum thyroiditis. PMID:7693795

  5. Thyroid disrupting chemicals in plastic additives and thyroid health.

    PubMed

    Andra, Syam S; Makris, Konstantinos C

    2012-01-01

    The globally escalating thyroid nodule incidence rates may be only partially ascribed to better diagnostics, allowing for the assessment of environmental risk factors on thyroid disease. Endocrine disruptors or thyroid-disrupting chemicals (TDC) like bisphenol A, phthalates, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers are widely used as plastic additives in consumer products. This comprehensive review studied the magnitude and uncertainty of TDC exposures and their effects on thyroid hormones for sensitive subpopulation groups like pregnant women, infants, and children. Our findings qualitatively suggest the mixed, significant (α = 0.05) TDC associations with natural thyroid hormones (positive or negative sign). Future studies should undertake systematic meta-analyses to elucidate pooled TDC effect estimates on thyroid health indicators and outcomes. PMID:22690712

  6. Expression of PAX8 Target Genes in Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Rosignolo, Francesca; Sponziello, Marialuisa; Durante, Cosimo; Puppin, Cinzia; Mio, Catia; Baldan, Federica; Di Loreto, Carla; Russo, Diego; Filetti, Sebastiano; Damante, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    PAX8 is a thyroid-specific transcription factor whose expression is dysregulated in thyroid cancer. A recent study using a conditional knock-out mouse model identified 58 putative PAX8 target genes. In the present study, we evaluated the expression of 11 of these genes in normal and tumoral thyroid tissues from patients with papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). ATP1B1, GPC3, KCNIP3, and PRLR transcript levels in tumor tissues were significantly lower in PTCs than in NT, whereas LCN2, LGALS1 and SCD1 expression was upregulated in PTC compared with NT. Principal component analysis of the expression of the most markedly dysregulated PAX8 target genes was able to discriminate between PTC and NT. Immunohistochemistry was used to assess levels of proteins encoded by the two most dyregulated PAX8 target genes, LCN2 and GPC3. Interestingly, GPC3 was detectable in all of the NT samples but none of the PTC samples. Collectively, these findings point to significant PTC-associated dysregulation of several PAX8 target genes, supporting the notion that PAX8-regulated molecular cascades play important roles during thyroid tumorigenesis. PMID:27249794

  7. Effects of the anti-thyroidal compound potassium-perchlorate on the thyroid system of the zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Florian; Schnurr, Sarah; Wolf, Raoul; Braunbeck, Thomas

    2012-03-01

    The increasing pollution of aquatic habitats with anthropogenic compounds has led to various test strategies to detect hazardous chemicals. However, information on effects of pollutants in the thyroid system in fish, which is essential for growth, development and parts of reproduction, is still scarce. Other vertebrate groups such as amphibians or mammals are well-studied; so the need for further knowledge especially in fish as a favored vertebrate model test organism is evident. Modified early life-stage tests were carried out with zebrafish exposed to the known thyroid inhibitor potassium perchlorate (0, 62.5, 125, 250, 500 and 5000 μg/L) to identify adverse effects on the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis. Especially higher perchlorate concentrations led to conspicuous alterations in thyroidal tissue architecture and to effects in the pituitary. In the thyroid, severe hyperplasia at concentrations ≥ 500 μg/L together with an increase in follicle number could be detected. The most sensitive endpoint was the colloid, which showed alterations at ≥ 250 μg/L. The tinctorial properties and the texture of the colloid changed dramatically. Interestingly, effects on epithelial cell height were minor. The pituitary revealed significant proliferations of TSH-producing cells resulting in alterations in the ratio of adeno- to neurohypophysis. The liver as the main site of T4 deiodination showed severe glycogen depletion at concentrations ≥ 250 μg/L. In summary, the thyroid system in zebrafish showed effects by perchlorate from concentrations ≥ 250 μg/L, thus documenting a high sensitivity of the zebrafish thyroid gland for goitrogens. In the future, such distinct alterations could lead to a better understanding and identification of potential thyroid-disrupting chemicals.

  8. Activation of the RhoB Signaling Pathway by Thyroid Hormone Receptor β in Thyroid Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ichijo, Sayaka; Furuya, Fumihiko; Shimura, Hiroki; Hayashi, Yoshitaka; Takahashi, Kazuya; Ohta, Kazuyasu; Kobayashi, Tetsuro; Kitamura, Kenichiro

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid hormone receptor (TR) mediates the crucial effects of the thyroid hormone (T3) on cellular growth, development, and differentiation. Decreased expression or inactivating somatic mutations of TRs have been found in human cancers of the liver, breast, lung, and thyroid. The mechanisms of TR-associated carcinogenesis are still not clear. To establish the function of TRβ in thyroid cancer cell proliferation, we constructed a recombinant adenovirus vector, AdTRβ, which expresses human TRβ1 cDNA. Thyroid cancer cell lines in which TRβ protein levels were significantly decreased as compared to intact thyroid tissues were infected with AdTRβ and the function of TRβ on cell proliferation and migration was analyzed. Ligand-bound TRβ induced HDAC1 and HDAC3 dissociation from, and histone acetylation associated with the RhoB promoter and enhanced the expression of RhoB mRNA and protein. In AdTRβ-infected cells, T3 and farnesyl transferase inhibitor (FTI)-treatment induced the distribution of RhoB on the cell membrane and enhanced the abundance of active GTP-bound RhoB. This RhoB protein led to p21-associated cell-cycle arrest in the G0/G1 phase, following inhibition of cell proliferation and invasion. Conversely, lowering cellular RhoB by small interfering RNA knockdown in AdTRβ-infected cells led to downregulation of p21 and inhibited cell-cycle arrest. The growth of BHP18-21v tumor xenografts in vivo was significantly inhibited by AdTRβ injection with FTIs-treatment, as compared to control virus-injected tumors. This novel signaling pathway triggered by ligand-bound TRβ provides insight into possible mechanisms of proliferation and invasion of thyroid cancer and may provide new therapeutic targets for thyroid cancers. PMID:25548921

  9. The role of thyroid dysfunction in the critically ill: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Bello, G; Ceaichisciuc, I; Silva, S; Antonelli, M

    2010-11-01

    During critical illness, patients with no known history of thyroid disorders may experience multiple alterations in their serum thyroid hormone levels. Such alterations have been termed sick euthyroid syndrome or, more recently, non-thyroidal illness syndrome (NTIS). The laboratory parameters of NTIS usually include low serum levels of triiodothyronine (T3), normal or low serum levels of thyroxine (T4) and normal or low serum levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). The magnitude of the alteration in thyroid function correlates with the severity of the illness and its outcomes in critically ill patients with NTIS. The pathogenetic mechanisms involved in NTIS include a decreased conversion of T4 to T3 in extrathyroidal tissues and alterations in thyroid hormones' binding to serum proteins. In cases of protracted critical illness, a decrease in the pulsatile frequency of TSH secretion, resulting from reduced thyrotropin-re leasing hormone (TRH) release by the hypothalamus, may also occur. Several medications or clinical conditions that are commonly present in critically ill patients may be responsible for lowering serum concentrations of thyroid hormone. Among those who study the condition, the question of whether NTIS is a protective adaptation of the organism to illness or a maladaptive response to a stressful insult remains unanswered. In either case, thyroid hormone abnormalities are likely to play a role in the critically ill patient.However, there is currently no convincing evidence to suggest that restoring physiological thyroid hormone concentrations in unselected patients with NTIS would be beneficial.

  10. Long-term follow-up of thyroid nodule growth.

    PubMed

    Quadbeck, B; Pruellage, J; Roggenbuck, U; Hirche, H; Janssen, O E; Mann, K; Hoermann, R

    2002-10-01

    Benign thyroid nodules are common in iodine deficient countries. Although many recent studies have addressed the molecular basis and short-term outcome of treatment in nodular thyroid disease, data on the long-term follow-up of thyroid nodule growth are widely lacking. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the long-term behaviour of benign thyroid nodules growth. We followed 109 consecutive patients seen at yearly intervals in our Outpatient Clinic for at least 3 years (range 3-12 years, mean 4.9 +/- 2.6 years) presenting with 139 benign nodules in uni- or multinodular goiters. The size of the nodules and thyroid glands was analysed retrospectively. The study included a spectrum of benign thyroid nodules, 86 functioning and 53 non-functioning. 27 patients were treated with levothyroxine, 8 with iodide and 16 with a combination of both. 58 patients were not treated mainly because of thyroid functional autonomy. Patients with overt hyperthyroidism or suspected malignancy by fine-needle aspiration were excluded from the study. The nodules and glands were assessed by ultrasonography at yearly intervals and documented by photoprints. Relevant growth was defined as an increase in nodule volume of at least 30%. For statistical analyses, Cox Proportional Hazard Model and life-table analyses according to Kaplan-Meier were performed. Most thyroid nodules grew slowly but continuously during follow-up. After about 3 years, half of the nodules had increased their volume by at least 30%. Growth of the nodules was significantly faster than of the corresponding thyroid glands (p < 0.0001). Age and sex of the patients and size or function of the nodules at initial presentation were not significantly related to their growth. Suppression of TSH did not affect growth of the nodules irrespective of the source of thyroid hormones, endogenous or by administration of levothyroxine. In conclusion, benign thyroid nodules have a slow intrinsic growth potential, which is apparently

  11. Thyroid disrupting chemicals: Mechanisms and mixtures

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental contaminants are known to act as thyroid disrupting chemicals (TDCs). Broadly defined, TDCs are xenobiotics that alter the structure or function of the thyroid gland, alter regulatory enzymes associated with thyroid hormone (TH) homeostasis, or change circulating o...

  12. UbcH10 overexpression may represent a marker of anaplastic thyroid carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Pallante, P; Berlingieri, M T; Troncone, G; Kruhoffer, M; Orntoft, T F; Viglietto, G; Caleo, A; Migliaccio, I; Decaussin-Petrucci, M; Santoro, M; Palombini, L; Fusco, A

    2005-01-01

    The hybridisation of an Affymetrix HG_U95Av2 oligonucleotide array with RNAs extracted from six human thyroid carcinoma cell lines and a normal human thyroid primary cell culture led us to the identification of the UbcH10 gene that was upregulated by 150-fold in all of the carcinoma cell lines in comparison to the primary culture cells of human normal thyroid origin. Immunohistochemical studies performed on paraffin-embedded tissue sections showed abundant UbcH10 levels in thyroid anaplastic carcinoma samples, whereas no detectable UbcH10 expression was observed in normal thyroid tissues, in adenomas and goiters. Papillary and follicular carcinomas were only weakly positive. These results were further confirmed by RT–PCR and Western blot analyses. The block of UbcH10 protein synthesis induced by RNA interference significantly reduced the growth rate of thyroid carcinoma cell lines. Taken together, these results would indicate that UbcH10 overexpression is involved in thyroid cell proliferation, and may represent a marker of thyroid anaplastic carcinomas. PMID:16106252

  13. Cancer stem cells as a potential therapeutic target in thyroid carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Vicari, Luisa; Colarossi, Cristina; Giuffrida, Dario; De Maria, Ruggero; Memeo, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    A number of studies have indicated that tumor growth and proliferation is dependent on a small subset of cells, defined as cancer stem cells (CSCs). CSCs have the capability to self-renew, and are involved with cancer propagation, relapse and metastatic dissemination. CSCs have been isolated from numerous tissues, including normal and cancerous thyroid tissue. A regulatory network of signaling pathways and microRNAs (miRNAs) control the properties of CSCs. Differentiated thyroid carcinoma is the most common type of endocrine cancer, with an increasing incidence. Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma is the most rare type of endocrine cancer; however, it also exhibits the highest mortality rate among thyroid malignancies, with an extremely short survival time. Thyroid CSCs are invasive and highly resistant to conventional therapies, including radiotherapy and chemotherapy, which results in disease relapse even when the primary lesion has been eradicated. Therefore, targeting thyroid CSCs may represent an effective treatment strategy against aggressive neoplasms, including recurrent and radioresistant tumors. The present review summarizes the current literature regarding thyroid CSCs and discusses therapeutic strategies that target these cells, with a focus on the function of self-renewal pathways and miRNAs. Elucidation of the mechanisms that regulate CSC growth and survival may improve novel therapeutic approaches for treatment-resistant thyroid cancers.

  14. Cancer stem cells as a potential therapeutic target in thyroid carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Vicari, Luisa; Colarossi, Cristina; Giuffrida, Dario; De Maria, Ruggero; Memeo, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    A number of studies have indicated that tumor growth and proliferation is dependent on a small subset of cells, defined as cancer stem cells (CSCs). CSCs have the capability to self-renew, and are involved with cancer propagation, relapse and metastatic dissemination. CSCs have been isolated from numerous tissues, including normal and cancerous thyroid tissue. A regulatory network of signaling pathways and microRNAs (miRNAs) control the properties of CSCs. Differentiated thyroid carcinoma is the most common type of endocrine cancer, with an increasing incidence. Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma is the most rare type of endocrine cancer; however, it also exhibits the highest mortality rate among thyroid malignancies, with an extremely short survival time. Thyroid CSCs are invasive and highly resistant to conventional therapies, including radiotherapy and chemotherapy, which results in disease relapse even when the primary lesion has been eradicated. Therefore, targeting thyroid CSCs may represent an effective treatment strategy against aggressive neoplasms, including recurrent and radioresistant tumors. The present review summarizes the current literature regarding thyroid CSCs and discusses therapeutic strategies that target these cells, with a focus on the function of self-renewal pathways and miRNAs. Elucidation of the mechanisms that regulate CSC growth and survival may improve novel therapeutic approaches for treatment-resistant thyroid cancers. PMID:27698787

  15. Thyroid hormone antibodies and Hashimoto's thyroiditis in mongrel dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Rajatanavin, R.; Fang, S.L.; Pino, S.; Laurberg, P.; Braverman, L.E.; Smith, M.; Bullock, L.P.

    1989-05-01

    Abnormally elevated serum T3 concentrations measured by RIA were observed in 19 clinically euthyroid or hypothyroid mongrel dogs. The serum T4 concentrations in these sera were low, normal, or high. Measurement of the intensity of thyroid hormone binding to serum proteins was determined by equilibrium dialysis. A marked decrease in the percent free T3 was observed in these abnormal sera. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, pH 7.4, of normal dog serum enriched with tracer /sup 125/I-labeled thyroid hormones demonstrated binding of (/sup 125/I)T4 to transthyretin, thyroid hormone-binding globulin, and albumin and of (/sup 125/I)T3 primarily to thyroid hormone-binding globulin. In all abnormal sera, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis demonstrated strikingly higher binding of T3 to immunoglobulin (Ig). Eleven of 16 abnormal sera had minimal to moderate binding of T4 to Ig. The percent free T4 was lower only in dogs whose sera demonstrated markedly increased binding of T4 to Ig. All abnormal sera tested had positive antithyroglobulin antibodies, consistent with the diagnosis of autoimmune lymphocytic thyroiditis. As in humans, antibodies to thyroid hormones in dogs are more common in the presence of Hashimoto's thyroiditis and should be considered when elevated serum thyroid hormone concentrations are observed in the absence of clinical thyrotoxicosis. When an antibody to only one thyroid hormone is present, a marked discrepancy in the serum concentrations of T3 and T4 will be observed.

  16. AZD6244 in Treating Patients With Papillary Thyroid Cancer That Did Not Respond to Radioactive Iodine

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-09-02

    Recurrent Thyroid Gland Carcinoma; Stage I Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage II Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage III Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma; Stage IV Thyroid Gland Papillary Carcinoma

  17. Extracervical approaches to endoscopic thyroid surgery.

    PubMed

    Papaspyrou, Giorgos; Ferlito, Alfio; Silver, Carl E; Werner, Jochen A; Genden, Eric; Sesterhenn, Andreas M

    2011-04-01

    There is increasing demand for surgical procedures which avoid visible scars while maintaining optimal functional and ideal cosmetic results, without compromising the safety or effectiveness of the procedure. Endoscopic techniques have been adapted to abdominal and pelvic surgery and increasingly employed over the past three decades. Although hampered by the absence of a natural cavity, endoscopic techniques have been adapted to surgery in the neck for the past 15 years, particularly for the thyroid gland. While earlier attempts at endoscopic thyroid surgery were performed through incisions in or near the midline of the neck, recent techniques have been developed to place the incisions and endoscopic ports extracervically, or at least away from the midline region of the neck, rendering the cosmetic result more acceptable. Most of these approaches are through the axilla, breast, chest wall or a combination of approaches. Visualization of the thyroid and rate of complications with these approaches are equal to those attained with older endoscopic approaches. Careful patient selection is important for endoscopic surgery. Complications unique to the endoscopic approach are mostly related to insufflation of cervical tissues with pressurized CO(2). PMID:20844894

  18. Retroperitoneal multilocular bronchogenic cyst adjacent to adrenal gland.

    PubMed

    Yang, S W; Linton, J A; Ryu, S J; Shin, D H; Park, C S

    1999-10-01

    Bronchogenic cysts are generally found in the mediastinum, particularly posterior to the carina, but they rarely occur in such unusual sites as the skin, subcutaneous tissue, pericardium, and even the retroperitoneum. A 30-year-old Korean man underwent surgery to remove a cystic adrenal mass incidentally discovered during routine physical checkup. At surgery, it proved to be a multilocular cyst located in the retroperitoneum adjacent to the left adrenal gland. Microscopically, the cyst was lined by respiratory epithelium over connective tissue with submucous glands, cartilage and smooth muscle, thereby histologically confirming bronchogenic cyst. This is the first reported case of retroperitoneal bronchogenic cyst in an adult without other congenital anomalies in Korea.

  19. Thyroid scintigraphy in veterinary medicine.

    PubMed

    Daniel, Gregory B; Neelis, Dana A

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid scintigraphy is performed in cats and dogs and has been used to a limited degree in other species such as the horse. Thyroid scintigraphy is most commonly used to aid in the diagnosis and treatment management of feline hyperthyroidism but is also used in the evaluation of canine hypothyroidism and canine thyroid carcinoma. This article reviews the normal scintigraphic appearance of the thyroid in the cat, the dog, and the horse and the principles of interpretation of abnormal scan results in the cat and the dog. Radioiodine is the treatment of choice for feline hyperthyroidism, and the principles of its use in the cat are reviewed.

  20. Radiofrequency ablation for postsurgical thyroid removal of differentiated thyroid carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Dong; Wang, Lipin; Long, Bin; Ye, Xuemei; Ge, Minghua; Wang, Kejing; Guo, Liang; Li, Linfa

    2016-01-01

    Differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) is the most common endocrine malignancy. Surgical removal with radioactive iodine therapy is recommended for recurrent thyroid carcinoma, and the postsurgical thyroid removal is critical. This study evaluated the clinical values of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) in the postsurgical thyroid removal for DTC. 35 DTC patients who had been treated by subtotal thyroidectomy received RFA for postsurgical thyroid removal. Before and two weeks after RFA, the thyroid was examined by ultrasonography and 99mTcO4 - thyroid imaging, and the serum levels of free triiodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxin (FT4), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and thyroglobulin (Tg) were detected. The efficacy and complications of RFA were evaluated. Results showed that, the postsurgical thyroid removal by RFA was successfully performed in 35 patients, with no significant complication. After RFA, the average largest diameter and volume were significantly decreased in 35 patients (P > 0.05), and no obvious contrast media was observed in ablation area in the majority of patients. After RFA, the serum FT3, FT4 and Tg levels were markedly decreased (P < 0.05), and TSH level was significantly increased (P < 0.05). After RFA, radioiodine concentration in the ablation area was significantly reduced in the majority of patients. The reduction rate of thyroid update was 0.69±0.20%. DTC staging and interval between surgery and RFA had negative correlation (Pearson coefficient = -0.543; P = 0.001), with no obvious correlation among others influential factors. RFA is an effective and safe method for postsurgical thyroid removal of DTC. PMID:27186311

  1. Thyroid lipomatosis in a 36-year-old patient with rheumatoid arthritis and a kidney transplant

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Soledad; del Valle Jaen, Ana; Russo Picasso, María Fabiana

    2016-01-01

    Summary Thyroid lipomatosis is a rare disease, as a total of 20 cases have been described in the literature. It is characterized by diffuse infiltration of the stroma by mature adipose tissue and by progressive growth that produces different degrees of compressive symptoms. Our aim is to present the case of a 36-year-old woman who consulted because of dyspnea caused by a multinodular goiter. She underwent surgery with the presumptive diagnosis of a malignant neoplasia, but the pathological examination of the surgical specimen established the diagnosis of thyroid lipomatosis. Learning points Thyroid lipomatosis is a rare, benign disease characterized by diffuse infiltration of the stroma by mature adipose tissue.The pathophysiology of diffuse proliferation of adipose tissue in the thyroid gland is unclear.Thyroid lipomatosis is clinically manifested by a progressive enlargement of the thyroid that can involve the airway and/or upper gastrointestinal tract, producing dyspnea, dysphagia, and changes in the voice.Given the rapid growth of the lesion, the two main differential diagnoses are anaplastic carcinoma and thyroid lymphoma.Imaging studies may suggest a differential diagnosis, but a definitive diagnosis generally requires histopathological confirmation after a thyroidectomy. PMID:27252862

  2. Radioactive iodine treatment of metastatic thyroid carcinoma with clinical thyrotoxicosis

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.; Blum, C.; Benua, R.S.; Fawwaz, R.A.

    1985-12-01

    We present a case of well-differentiated follicular carcinoma of the thyroid with hyperfunctioning metastases and clinical thyrotoxicosis. The recommended I-131 treatment dose for patients with widespread bone metastases from thyroid carcinoma is 200 mCi. However, in a patient with hyperfunctioning metastatic tumor and increased radioiodine uptake, the treatment dose should be modified. Radiation dosimetry measurements performed on the patient in this study demonstrated that 132 mCi would be a safe therapeutic I-131 dose which would avoid injury to normal radiosensitive tissues. Consequently, she was given a 130-mCi therapeutic dose.

  3. Pregnancy, postpartum autoimmune thyroiditis, and autoimmune hypophysitis: intimate relationships

    PubMed Central

    Landek-Salgado, Melissa A.; Gutenberg, Angelika; Lupi, Isabella; Kimura, Hiroaki; Mariotti, Stefano; Rose, Noel R.; Caturegli, Patrizio

    2009-01-01

    Autoimmune diseases comprise a group of about 85 heterogeneous conditions that can affect virtually any organ and tissue in the body. Many autoimmune diseases change significantly during pregnancy: some ameliorate, some worsen, and others are unaffected. Two autoimmune diseases present prominently in relation to pregnancy: postpartum autoimmune thyroiditis and autoimmune hypophysitis. This article will review the current state of knowledge of the immunological changes that occur during normal pregnancy, and will explore the striking temporal association with pregnancy observed in thyroiditis and hypophysitis. PMID:19539059

  4. Sorafenib Tosylate in Treating Patients With Locally Advanced, Metastatic, or Locally Recurrent Thyroid Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-01-15

    Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer; Insular Thyroid Cancer; Recurrent Thyroid Cancer; Stage III Follicular Thyroid Cancer; Stage III Papillary Thyroid Cancer; Stage IV Follicular Thyroid Cancer; Stage IV Papillary Thyroid Cancer

  5. Differential protein expression profiles of cyst fluid from papillary thyroid carcinoma and benign thyroid lesions.

    PubMed

    Dinets, Andrii; Pernemalm, Maria; Kjellin, Hanna; Sviatoha, Vitalijs; Sofiadis, Anastasios; Juhlin, C Christofer; Zedenius, Jan; Larsson, Catharina; Lehtiö, Janne; Höög, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Cystic papillary thyroid carcinoma (cPTC) is a subgroup of PTC presenting a diagnostic challenge at fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB). To further investigate this entity we aimed to characterize protein profiles of cyst fluids from cPTC and benign thyroid cystic lesions. In total, 20 cPTCs and 56 benign thyroid cystic lesions were studied. Profiling by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was performed on cyst fluids from a subset of cases after depletion, and selected proteins were further analyzed by Western blot (WB), immunohistochemistry (IHC) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). A total of 1,581 proteins were detected in cyst fluids, of which 841 were quantified in all samples using LC-MS/MS. Proteins with different expression levels between cPTCs and benign lesions were identified by univariate analysis (41 proteins) and multivariate analysis (59 proteins in an orthogonal partial least squares model). WB analyses of cyst fluid and IHC on corresponding tissue samples confirmed a significant up-regulation of cytokeratin 19 (CK-19/CYFRA 21-1) and S100A13 in cPTC vs. benign lesions. These findings were further confirmed by ELISA in an extended material of non-depleted cyst fluids from cPTCs (n = 17) and benign lesions (n = 55) (p<0.05). Applying a cut-off at >55 ng/ml for CK-19 resulted in 82% specificity and sensitivity. For S100A13 a cut-off at >230 pg/ml revealed a 94% sensitivity, but only 35% specificity. This is the first comprehensive catalogue of the protein content in fluid from thyroid cysts. The up-regulations of CK-19 and S100A13 suggest their possible use in FNAB based preoperative diagnostics of cystic thyroid lesions. PMID:25978681

  6. Development of a Novel Thyroid Function Fluctuated Animal Model for Thyroid-Associated Ophthalmopathy

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Yunhai; Wang, Yilong; Ding, Luna; Zhang, Jiao; Wu, Wencan

    2016-01-01

    Background The establishment of a suitable and stable animal model is critical for research on thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO). In clinical practice, we found that patients treated with I-131 often exhibit TAO; therefore, we aimed to establish a novel thyroid function fluctuated animal model of TAO by simulating the clinical treatment process. Methods We treated SD rats with I-131 to damage the thyroid and then used sodium levothyroxine (L-T4) to supplement the thyroid hormone (TH) levels every seven days, leading to a fluctuating level of thyroid hormones that simulated the status of clinical TAO patients. Rats administered normal saline were considered as a control. The weight, intraocular pressure, and serum T3, T4, TSH and TRAb levels of the rats were measured, and the pathological changes were analyzed by H&E staining and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Results The experimental rats (TAO group) exhibited significantly reduced weight and elevated intraocular pressure compared with the control rats. Meanwhile, the serum levels of T3 and T4 were up-regulated in the TAO group, but the TSH level decreased during the 10-week study. Moreover, increased numbers of blood vessels and inflammatory cell infiltrations were observed in the orbital tissues of the TAO rats, while no abnormal changes occurred in the control rats. The orbital myofibrils in the TAO rats appeared fractured and dissolved, with twisted structures. Mitochondrial swelling and vacuoles within the endoplasmic reticulum, swelling nerve fibers, shedding nerve myelin, and macrophages were found in the TAO group. Conclusion Rats treated with I-131 and sodium levothyroxine exhibited characteristics similar to those of TAO patients in the clinic, providing an effective and simple method for the establishment of a stable animal model for research on the pathogenesis and treatment of TAO. PMID:26872324

  7. An engineered dimeric protein pore that spans adjacent lipid bilayers

    PubMed Central

    Mantri, Shiksha; Sapra, K. Tanuj; Cheley, Stephen; Sharp, Thomas H.; Bayley, Hagan

    2013-01-01

    The bottom-up construction of artificial tissues is an underexplored area of synthetic biology. An important challenge is communication between constituent compartments of the engineered tissue and between the engineered tissue and additional compartments, including extracellular fluids, further engineered tissue and living cells. Here we present a dimeric transmembrane pore that can span two adjacent lipid bilayers and thereby allow aqueous compartments to communicate. Two heptameric staphylococcal α-hemolysin (αHL) pores were covalently linked in an aligned cap-to-cap orientation. The structure of the dimer, (α7)2, was confirmed by biochemical analysis, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and single-channel electrical recording. We show that one of two β barrels of (α7)2 can insert into the lipid bilayer of a small unilamellar vesicle, while the other spans a planar lipid bilayer. (α7)2 pores spanning two bilayers were also observed by TEM. PMID:23591892

  8. [Thyroid nodules and differentiated thyroid cancer: Brazilian consensus].

    PubMed

    Maia, Ana Luiza; Ward, Laura S; Carvalho, Gisah A; Graf, Hans; Maciel, Rui M B; Maciel, Léa M Zanini; Rosário, Pedro W; Vaisman, Mario

    2007-07-01

    Thyroid nodules are a common manifestation of thyroid diseases. It is estimated that approximately 10% of adults have palpable thyroid nodules with the frequency increasing throughout life. The major concern on nodule evaluation is the risk of malignancy (5-10%). Differentiated thyroid carcinoma accounts for 90% of all thyroid malignant neoplasias. Although most patients with cancer have a favorable outcome, some individuals present an aggressive form of the disease and poor prognostic despite recent advances in diagnosis and treatment. Here, a set of clinical guidelines for the evaluation and management of patients with thyroid nodules or differentiated thyroid cancer was developed through consensus by 8 member of the Department of Thyroid, Sociedade Brasileira de Endocrinologia e Metabologia. The participants are from different reference medical centers within Brazil, to reflect different practice patterns. Each committee participant was initially assigned to write a section of the document and to submit it to the chairperson, who revised and assembled the sections into a complete draft document, which was then circulated among all committee members for further revision. All committee members further revised and refined the document. The guidelines were developed based on the expert opinion of the committee participants, as well as on previously published information.

  9. Utility of Shear Wave Elastography for Diagnosing Chronic Autoimmune Thyroiditis.

    PubMed

    Fukuhara, Takahiro; Matsuda, Eriko; Izawa, Shoichiro; Fujiwara, Kazunori; Kitano, Hiroya

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the utility of shear wave elastography (SWE) using acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) for diagnosing chronic autoimmune thyroiditis (CAT) and to verify the effect of fibrotic thyroid tissue on shear wave velocity (SWV). The subjects were 229 patients with 253 normal thyroid lobes (controls) and 150 CAT lobes. The SWV for CAT (2.47 ± 0.57 m/s) was significantly higher than that for controls (1.59 ± 0.41 m/s) (P < 0.001). The area under the receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve for CAT was 0.899, and the SWV cut-off value was 1.96 m/s. The sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic accuracy were 87.4%, 78.7%, and 85.1%, respectively. Levels of anti-thyroperoxidase antibodies and thyroid isthmus thickness were correlated with tissue stiffness in CAT. However, there was no correlation between levels of anti-thyroglobulin antibodies and tissue stiffness. Quantitative SWE is useful for diagnosing CAT, and it is possible that SWE can be used to evaluate the degree of fibrosis in patients with CAT. PMID:26257979

  10. Quantitative image analysis in sonograms of the thyroid gland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catherine, Skouroliakou; Maria, Lyra; Aristides, Antoniou; Lambros, Vlahos

    2006-12-01

    High-resolution, real-time ultrasound is a routine examination for assessing the disorders of the thyroid gland. However, the current diagnosis practice is based mainly on qualitative evaluation of the resulting sonograms, therefore depending on the physician's experience. Computerized texture analysis is widely employed in sonographic images of various organs (liver, breast), and it has been proven to increase the sensitivity of diagnosis by providing a better tissue characterization. The present study attempts to characterize thyroid tissue by automatic texture analysis. The texture features that are calculated are based on co-occurrence matrices as they have been proposed by Haralick. The sample consists of 40 patients. For each patient two sonographic images (one for each lobe) are recorded in DICOM format. The lobe is manually delineated in each sonogram, and the co-occurrence matrices for 52 separation vectors are calculated. The texture features extracted from each one of these matrices are: contrast, correlation, energy and homogeneity. Primary component analysis is used to select the optimal set of features. The statistical analysis resulted in the extraction of 21 optimal descriptors. The optimal descriptors are all co-occurrence parameters as the first-order statistics did not prove to be representative of the images characteristics. The bigger number of components depends mainly on correlation for very close or very far distances. The results indicate that quantitative analysis of thyroid sonograms can provide an objective characterization of thyroid tissue.

  11. Cytokines, Graves' Disease, and Thyroid-Associated Ophthalmopathy

    PubMed Central

    Khadavi, Nicole; Smith, Terry J.

    2008-01-01

    Graves' disease, an autoimmune process associated with thyroid dysfunction, can also manifest as remodeling of orbital connective tissue. Affected tissues exhibit immune responses that appear to be orchestrated by resident cells and those recruited from the bone marrow through their expression and release of cytokines and surface display of cytokine receptors. Cytokines are small molecules produced by many types of cells, including those of the “professional” immune system. Aberrant cytokine expression appears to play an important role in the pathogenesis of many human diseases, including thyroid autoimmunity. The skewed pattern of cytokine expression in the thyroid, including the T helper cell bias, may condition the response to apoptotic signals and determine the characteristics of an autoimmune reaction. Furthermore, chemoattractant cytokines, including IL16, RANTES, and CXCL10, elaborated by resident cells in the thyroid and orbit may provoke mononuclear cell infiltration. Other cytokines may drive cell activation and tissue remodeling. Thus cytokines and the signaling pathways they activate represent attractive therapeutic targets. Interruption of these might alter the natural course of Graves' disease and its orbital manifestations. PMID:18713026

  12. Cytokines, Graves' disease, and thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy.

    PubMed

    Gianoukakis, Andrew G; Khadavi, Nicole; Smith, Terry J

    2008-09-01

    Graves' disease, an autoimmune process associated with thyroid dysfunction, can also manifest as remodeling of orbital connective tissue. Affected tissues exhibit immune responses that appear to be orchestrated by resident cells and those recruited from the bone marrow through their expression and release of cytokines and surface display of cytokine receptors. Cytokines are small molecules produced by many types of cells, including those of the "professional" immune system. Aberrant cytokine expression appears to play an important role in the pathogenesis of many human diseases, including thyroid autoimmunity. The skewed pattern of cytokine expression in the thyroid, including the T helper cell bias, may condition the response to apoptotic signals and determine the characteristics of an autoimmune reaction. Furthermore, chemoattractant cytokines, including IL16, RANTES, and CXCL10, elaborated by resident cells in the thyroid and orbit may provoke mononuclear cell infiltration. Other cytokines may drive cell activation and tissue remodeling. Thus cytokines and the signaling pathways they activate represent attractive therapeutic targets. Interruption of these might alter the natural course of Graves' disease and its orbital manifestations. PMID:18713026

  13. Sciatica as a presenting feature of thyroid follicular adenocarcinoma in a 79-year-old woman.

    PubMed

    Ogbodo, Elisha; Kaliaperumal, Chandrasekaran; Keohane, Catherine; Bermingham, Niamh; Kaar, George

    2011-12-01

    The authors describe an unusual case of metastatic thyroid follicular adenocarcinoma presenting with sciatica in a 79-year-old woman. The primary thyroid tumour was undiagnosed until this clinical presentation. The patient gave a short history of back pain and right-sided sciatica, which was progressive and nocturnal in nature. Neuroimaging revealed an enhancing intradural mass lesion, which was completely excised through a right L1-L3 hemilaminectomy. Histopathological examination of the excised tissue revealed a follicular thyroid carcinoma. Subsequent metastatic investigation revealed a heterogeneously attenuating mixed solid cystic mass in a retrosternal thyroid gland, with multiple solid pulmonary nodules suggestive of metastatic disease. She opted for palliative radiotherapy for the primary thyroid cancer and made remarkable postoperative improvement. The authors conclude that surgical treatment of solitary metastatic lesion may produce good symptomatic relief irrespective of patient's age and primary pathology, while emphasising the need for detailed clinical evaluation of patients with 'red flag' symptoms.

  14. Targeting the thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor with small molecule ligands and antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Terry F; Latif, Rauf

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR) is the essential molecule for thyroid growth and thyroid hormone production. Since it is also a key autoantigen in Graves’ disease and is involved in thyroid cancer pathophysiology, the targeting of the TSHR offers a logical model for disease control. Areas covered We review the structure and function of the TSHR and the progress in both small molecule ligands and TSHR antibodies for their therapeutic potential. Expert opinion Stabilization of a preferential conformation for the TSHR by allosteric ligands and TSHR antibodies with selective modulation of the signaling pathways is now possible. These tools may be the next generation of therapeutics for controlling the pathophysiological consequences mediated by the effects of the TSHR in the thyroid and other extrathyroidal tissues. PMID:25768836

  15. Postoperative recurrence of papillary thyroid carcinoma with lymph node metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Feng‐Hsuan; Kuo, Sheng‐Fong; Hsueh, Chuen; Chao, Tzu‐Chieh

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives : The purpose of this study was to retrospectively analyze the features of patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) presenting with neck lymph node (LN) metastasis. Methods : The study enrolled 909 patients with PTC who had undergone total thyroidectomy. After a median follow‐up of 14.6 years, 73 (8.0%) patients died of thyroid cancer. A total of 536 patients had the tumor confined to the thyroid (intra‐thyroid), 111 had lymph node (LN) metastasis, 225 showed soft tissue invasion, and 37 had distant metastasis. Results : Compared with the intra‐thyroid group, the group with LN metastases showed larger tumor size, higher postoperative thyroglobulin levels, advanced TNM stage, higher recurrence rates (5.2% vs. 31.5%), and higher disease‐specific mortality (1.3% vs. 12.6%). Of the 111 patients with PTC and LN metastases, 35 (31.5%) were diagnosed with recurrence during a mean follow‐up period of 16.9 ± 0.6 years. Among the 35 patients with recurrent PTC, 14 (40.0%) died of thyroid cancer. The mortality group was characterized by older, mostly male patients who presented with larger initial tumor size compared with survivors. Conclusions : In patients with PTC, the rates of recurrence and cancer mortality were higher in the group with LN metastasis than that in the intra‐thyroid tumor group. J. Surg. Oncol. 2015 111:149–154. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Surgical Oncology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26175314

  16. Raf-1 kinase inhibitory protein expression in thyroid carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun-Soo; Kim, Gou Young; Lim, Sung-Jig; Kim, Youn Wha

    2010-12-01

    Raf-1 kinase inhibitory protein (RKIP) has been implicated in several fundamental signal transduction pathways that control cellular growth, differentiation, apoptosis and migration. RKIP is reduced in a variety of human carcinomas, but RKIP expression in thyroid carcinomas has not been analyzed at the protein level. In this study, we examined the immunohistochemical expression of RKIP in various subtypes of thyroid carcinoma. Immunostaining for RKIP was performed on 104 cases of primary thyroid carcinoma (40 papillary, 29 follicular, 11 medullary, 11 poorly differentiated, and 13 anaplastic carcinomas) and 26 cases of nodal metastatic tumor (17 papillary, 4 medullary, and 5 anaplastic carcinomas). Normal thyroid tissue and all cases of follicular, papillary, and medullary carcinomas showed uniform, strong cytoplasmic immunoreactivity for RKIP. With the exception of one case, poorly differentiated carcinomas also revealed strong RKIP expression. In contrast, RKIP expression was completely absent in all anaplastic carcinomas. The transition zone from the differentiated carcinoma component (strong RKIP expression) to the anaplastic carcinoma component (no RKIP expression) demonstrated a completely opposite pattern of RKIP immunoreactivity. This reduction of RKIP expression in anaplastic carcinoma was statistically significant (P < 0.0001). Additionally, RKIP expression of nodal metastatic tumors corresponded with that of primary tumors: metastatic papillary and medullary carcinomas showed uniform, strong cytoplasmic RKIP immunoreactivity, in contrast, in metastatic anaplastic carcinomas, RKIP expression was completely absent. RKIP expression is significantly reduced in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma as compared to other subtypes of thyroid carcinoma. Further studies are necessary to elucidate the precise mechanism of RKIP action in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma.

  17. Anaplastic small cell neoplasms of the thyroid: an immunoperoxidase study.

    PubMed

    Mambo, N C; Irwin, S M

    1984-01-01

    The cell origins of ten anaplastic small cell neoplasms of the thyroid gland were investigated using the immunoperoxidase technique. Sections of the neoplasms were examined for immunostaining for the tissue markers of B lymphocytes, thyroid follicular cells, and C cells by incubation with antisera to the lambda and kappa light chains, human thyroxine and human calcitonin, respectively. Six neoplasms were identified as malignant lymphomas, and two were identified as anaplastic small cell follicular carcinomas. The cell origins of the remaining two neoplasms could not be determined. The prognosis for patients with malignant lymphoma was favorable compared with the prognoses for patients in the other two groups. The prognosis for patients with anaplastic small cell follicular carcinomas was better than for those with small cell malignancies of undetermined cell origins. These findings suggest an important role for the immunoperoxidase technique in the precise classification of anaplastic small cell neoplasms of the thyroid.

  18. Thyroid gland function during the systemic graft versus host reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Kozlova, T.D.; Fedorov, G.N.; Molotkov, O.V.

    1986-04-01

    The aims of the present investigation were as follows: to determine the level of thyroid hormones and thyrotrophin (TSH) at various times after induction of graft versus host reaction (GVHR); to study the degree of /sup 125/ I uptake by thyroid gland tissue at the same times of the GVHR, and to determine correlation between the hormone levels and weight of the gland in the animals and also the body weight of the recipients. Serum levels of tri-iodothyronine (T/sub 3/), thyroxine (T/sub 4/), and TSH were determined by radioimmunoassay. /sup 125/ /SUB I/ was injected intraperitoneally in a dose of 3-4 microCi/100 g body weight. During the development of a systemic GVHR marked inhibition of thyroid function was discovered.

  19. Breaking Tolerance to Thyroid Antigens: Changing Concepts in Thyroid Autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Rapoport, Basil

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid autoimmunity involves loss of tolerance to thyroid proteins in genetically susceptible individuals in association with environmental factors. In central tolerance, intrathymic autoantigen presentation deletes immature T cells with high affinity for autoantigen-derived peptides. Regulatory T cells provide an alternative mechanism to silence autoimmune T cells in the periphery. The TSH receptor (TSHR), thyroid peroxidase (TPO), and thyroglobulin (Tg) have unusual properties (“immunogenicity”) that contribute to breaking tolerance, including size, abundance, membrane association, glycosylation, and polymorphisms. Insight into loss of tolerance to thyroid proteins comes from spontaneous and induced animal models: 1) intrathymic expression controls self-tolerance to the TSHR, not TPO or Tg; 2) regulatory T cells are not involved in TSHR self-tolerance and instead control the balance between Graves' disease and thyroiditis; 3) breaking TSHR tolerance involves contributions from major histocompatibility complex molecules (humans and induced mouse models), TSHR polymorphism(s) (humans), and alternative splicing (mice); 4) loss of tolerance to Tg before TPO indicates that greater Tg immunogenicity vs TPO dominates central tolerance expectations; 5) tolerance is induced by thyroid autoantigen administration before autoimmunity is established; 6) interferon-α therapy for hepatitis C infection enhances thyroid autoimmunity in patients with intact immunity; Graves' disease developing after T-cell depletion reflects reconstitution autoimmunity; and 7) most environmental factors (including excess iodine) “reveal,” but do not induce, thyroid autoimmunity. Micro-organisms likely exert their effects via bystander stimulation. Finally, no single mechanism explains the loss of tolerance to thyroid proteins. The goal of inducing self-tolerance to prevent autoimmune thyroid disease will require accurate prediction of at-risk individuals together with an antigen

  20. Estimated dose rates to members of the public from external exposure to patients with 131I thyroid treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Dewji, S.; Bellamy, M.; Hertel, N.; Leggett, R.; Sherbini, S.; Saba, M.; Eckerman, K.

    2015-03-25

    after administration for the hotel room cases. Organ specific activities of 131I in the thyroid, bladder, and combined remaining tissues were calculated as a function of time after administration. Exposures to members of the public were considered for 131I patients with normal thyroid uptake (peak thyroid uptake of ~27% of administered 131I), differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC, 5% uptake), and hyperthyroidism (80% uptake). Results: The scenario with the patient seated behind the member of the public yielded the highest dose rate estimate of seated public transportation exposure cases. The dose rate to the adjacent room guest was highest for the exposure scenario in which the hotel guest and patient are seated by a factor of ~4 for the normal and differentiated thyroid cancer uptake cases and by a factor of ~3 for the hyperthyroid case. Conclusions: It was determined that for all modeled cases, the DTC case yielded the lowest external dose rates, whereas the hyperthyroid case yielded the highest dose rates. In estimating external dose to members of the public from patients with 131I therapy, consideration must be given to (patient- and case-specific) administered 131I activities and duration of exposure for a more complete estimate. The method implemented here included a detailed calculation model, which provides a means to determine dose rate estimates for a range of scenarios. Finally, the method was demonstrated for variations of three scenarios, showing how dose rates are expected to vary with uptake, voiding pattern, and patient location.

  1. Thyroid gland development and defects.

    PubMed

    Kratzsch, Juergen; Pulzer, Ferdinand

    2008-02-01

    During the functional ontogenesis of the thyroid gland an increasing number of transcription factors play fundamental roles in thyroid-cell differentiation, maintenance of the differentiated state, and thyroid-cell proliferation. The early growth and development of the fetal thyroid appears to be generally independent of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). TSH and thyroxine (T4) levels increase from the 12th week of gestation until delivery, whereas triiodothyronine (T3) levels remain relatively low. At birth, a cold-stimulated short-lived TSH surge is observed, followed by a TSH decrease until day 3 or 4 of life by T4 feedback inhibition. Disorders of thyroid gland development and/or function are relatively common, affecting approximately one newborn infant in 2000-4000. The most prevalent disease, congenital hypothyroidism, is frequently caused by genetic defects of transcription factors involved in the development of the thyroid or pituitary gland. A major cause of congenital hyperthyroidism is the transplacental passage of stimulating thyrotropin antibodies from the mother to the fetus. Hypothyroxinaemia or hypotriiodthyroninaemia is frequently observed in preterm infants with or without severe non-thyroidal illness. Whereas congenital hypo- and hyperthyroidism may be treated successfully with T4 or thyrostatic drugs, there is still insufficient evidence on whether the use of T4 for treatment of the latter condition results in changes in neonatal morbidity or reductions in neurodevelopmental impairment.

  2. Can Thyroid Cancer Be Prevented?

    MedlinePlus

    ... look for the gene mutations found in familial medullary thyroid cancer (MTC). Because of this, most of the familial cases of MTC can be prevented or treated early by removing the thyroid gland. Once the disease is discovered in a family, the rest of ...

  3. Thyroid dysfunction: an autoimmune aspect

    PubMed Central

    khan, Farah Aziz; Al-Jameil, Noura; Khan, Mohammad Fareed; Al-Rashid, May; Tabassum, Hajera

    2015-01-01

    Auto immune thyroid disease (AITD) is the common organ specific autoimmune disorder, Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT) and Grave’s disease (GD) are its well-known sequelae. It occurs due to loss of tolerance to autoantigens thyroid peroxidase (TPO), thyroglobulin (Tg), thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (TSH-R) which leads to the infiltration of the gland. T cells in chronic autoimmune thyroiditis (cAIT) induce apoptosis in thyroid follicular cells and cause destruction of the gland. Presences of TPO antibodies are common in HT and GD, while Tg has been reported as an independent predictor of thyroid malignancy. Cytokines are small proteins play an important role in autoimmunity, by stimulating B and T cells. Various cytokines IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, IL-13, IL-14, TNF-α and IFN-γ are found in thyroid follicular cells which enhance inflammatory response with nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandins. PMID:26221205

  4. The continuing importance of thyroid scintigraphy in the era of high-resolution ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Meller, J; Becker, W

    2002-08-01

    At the molecular level, the uptake of radioiodine and pertechnetate is proportional to the expression of the thyroidal sodium/iodine symporter (NIS). Qualitative and quantitative scintigraphic evaluation of the thyroid is performed with a gamma camera fitted with an on-line computer system and enables determination of the iodine uptake or the technetium uptake (TCTU) as an iodine clearance equivalent. Despite new molecular genetic insights into congenital hypothyroidism, the iodine-123 or pertechnetate scan remains the most accurate test for the detection of ectopic thyroid tissue. Following the identification of specific mutations of the genes coding for the NIS, thyroid peroxidase and pendrin, the discharge test has lost its role in establishing the diagnosis of inherited dyshormonogenesis, but it is still of value in the assessment of defect severity. In PDS mutations the test can be used to establish the diagnosis of syndromic disease. Quantitative pertechnetate scintigraphy is the most sensitive and specific technique for the diagnosis and quantification of thyroid autonomy. The method has proved to be valuable in risk stratification of spontaneous or iodine-induced hyperthyroidism, in the estimation of the target volume prior to radioiodine therapy and in the evaluation of therapeutic success after definitive treatment. In iodine deficiency areas the thyroid scan remains indispensable for the functional characterisation of a thyroid nodule and is still a first-line diagnostic procedure in cases of suspected thyroid malignancy. This is especially of importance in patients with Graves' disease, among whom a relatively high prevalence of cancer has been found in cold thyroid nodules. While determination of the TCTU is without any value in the differentiation between autoimmune thyroiditis and Graves' disease in most cases, it is of substantial importance in the differentiation between hyperthyroid autoimmune thyroiditis and Graves' disease.

  5. Exposure to perfluorinated compounds: in vitro study on thyroid cells.

    PubMed

    Coperchini, Francesca; Pignatti, Patrizia; Lacerenza, Serena; Negri, Sara; Sideri, Riccardo; Testoni, Claudia; de Martinis, Luca; Cottica, Danilo; Magri, Flavia; Imbriani, Marcello; Rotondi, Mario; Chiovato, Luca

    2015-02-01

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) are widely used perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs). Previous studies detected PFOA and PFOS in human tissues including the thyroid gland. There are no studies on the in vitro effects of PFOA and PFOS on thyroid cells. Our study was aimed at evaluating the effect of the in vitro exposure to PFOA and PFOS on thyroid cell proliferation and viability. These objectives were investigated using Fisher rat thyroid line-5 (FRTL-5) cells. FRTL-5 cells cultured in the presence of PFOA and PFOS at concentrations up to 10(4) nM do not display changes in their viability and proliferation rate, while at a concentration of 10(5) nM of either PFCs, a significant inhibition of cell proliferation, mainly due to increased cell death, was found. PFOA and PFOS were detected in FRTL-5 cell pellets after 72 h of incubation with PFCs but not in control cultures. When FRTL-5 were incubated with PFCs then washed in PBS and re-cultured for 72 h without PFCs in the medium, no detectable concentrations of PFOA and PFOS were measured in the cell pellet. This indicates that PFOA and PFOS enter thyroid cells by a gradient-based passive diffusion mechanism. Future studies are required to evaluate the potential toxic effect resulting from prolonged in vivo exposure to even lower concentrations of PFCs. PMID:25182428

  6. Role of Thyroid Hormones in Skeletal Development and Bone Maintenance

    PubMed Central

    Bassett, J. H. Duncan

    2016-01-01

    The skeleton is an exquisitely sensitive and archetypal T3-target tissue that demonstrates the critical role for thyroid hormones during development, linear growth, and adult bone turnover and maintenance. Thyrotoxicosis is an established cause of secondary osteoporosis, and abnormal thyroid hormone signaling has recently been identified as a novel risk factor for osteoarthritis. Skeletal phenotypes in genetically modified mice have faithfully reproduced genetic disorders in humans, revealing the complex physiological relationship between centrally regulated thyroid status and the peripheral actions of thyroid hormones. Studies in mutant mice also established the paradigm that T3 exerts anabolic actions during growth and catabolic effects on adult bone. Thus, the skeleton represents an ideal physiological system in which to characterize thyroid hormone transport, metabolism, and action during development and adulthood and in response to injury. Future analysis of T3 action in individual skeletal cell lineages will provide new insights into cell-specific molecular mechanisms and may ultimately identify novel therapeutic targets for chronic degenerative diseases such as osteoporosis and osteoarthritis. This review provides a comprehensive analysis of the current state of the art. PMID:26862888

  7. Attenuation Coefficient Estimation of the Healthy Human Thyroid In Vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rouyer, J.; Cueva, T.; Portal, A.; Yamamoto, T.; Lavarello, R.

    Previous studies have demonstrated that attenuation coefficients can be useful towards characterizing thyroid tissues. In this work, ultrasonic attenuation coefficients were estimated from healthy human thyroids in vivo using a clinical scanner. The selected subjects were five young, healthy volunteers (age: 26 ± 6 years old, gender: three females, two males) with no reported history of thyroid diseases, no palpable thyroid nodules, no smoking habits, and body mass index less than 30 kg/m2. Echographic examinations were conducted by a trained sonographer using a SonixTouch system (Ultrasonix Medical Corporation, Richmond, BC) equipped with an L14-5 linear transducer array (nominal center frequency of 10 MHz, transducer footprint of 3.8 cm). Radiofrequency data corresponding to the collected echographic images in both transverse and longitudinal views were digitized at a sampling rate of 40 MHz and processed with Matlab codes (MathWorks, Natick, MA) to estimate attenuation coefficients using the spectral log difference method. The estimation was performed using an analysis bandwidth spanning from 4.0 to 9.0 MHz. The average value of the estimated ultrasonic attenuation coefficients was equal to 1.34 ± 0.15 dB/(cm.MHz). The standard deviation of the estimated average attenuation coefficient across different volunteers suggests a non-negligible inter-subject variability in the ultrasonic attenuation coefficient of the human thyroid.

  8. Iodine and thyroid hormones during pregnancy and postpartum.

    PubMed

    Pérez-López, Faustino R

    2007-07-01

    Iodine is a trace element essential for synthesis of the thyroid hormones, triiodothyronine and thyroxine. These hormones play a vital role in the early growth and development stages of most organs, especially the brain. The World Health Organization (WHO) has declared that, after famine, iodine deficiency is the most avoidable cause of cerebral lesions including different degrees of mental retardation and cerebral paralysis. The main function of iodine in vertebrates is to interact with the thyroid hormones. During pregnancy sufficient quantities of iodine are required to prevent the appearance of hypothyroidism, trophoblastic and embryonic or fetal disorders, neonatal and maternal hypothyroidism, and permanent sequelae in infants. Thyroid hormone receptors and iodothyronine deiodinases are present in placenta and central nervous tissue of the fetus. A number of environmental factors influence the epidemiology of thyroid disorders, and even relatively small abnormalities and differences in the level of iodine intake in a population have profound effects on the occurrence of thyroid abnormalities. The prevalence of disorders related to iodine deficit during pregnancy and postpartum has increased. Iodine supplementation is an effective measure in the case of pregnant and lactating women. However, it is not implemented and the problem is still present even in societies with theoretically advanced health systems. During pregnancy and postpartum, the WHO recommends iodine intake be increased to at least 200 microg/day. Side-effects provoked by iodine supplementation are rare during pregnancy at the recommended doses. PMID:17701774

  9. Role of Thyroid Hormones in Skeletal Development and Bone Maintenance.

    PubMed

    Bassett, J H Duncan; Williams, Graham R

    2016-04-01

    The skeleton is an exquisitely sensitive and archetypal T3-target tissue that demonstrates the critical role for thyroid hormones during development, linear growth, and adult bone turnover and maintenance. Thyrotoxicosis is an established cause of secondary osteoporosis, and abnormal thyroid hormone signaling has recently been identified as a novel risk factor for osteoarthritis. Skeletal phenotypes in genetically modified mice have faithfully reproduced genetic disorders in humans, revealing the complex physiological relationship between centrally regulated thyroid status and the peripheral actions of thyroid hormones. Studies in mutant mice also established the paradigm that T3 exerts anabolic actions during growth and catabolic effects on adult bone. Thus, the skeleton represents an ideal physiological system in which to characterize thyroid hormone transport, metabolism, and action during development and adulthood and in response to injury. Future analysis of T3 action in individual skeletal cell lineages will provide new insights into cell-specific molecular mechanisms and may ultimately identify novel therapeutic targets for chronic degenerative diseases such as osteoporosis and osteoarthritis. This review provides a comprehensive analysis of the current state of the art.

  10. Iodide transport and its regulation in the thyroid gland

    SciTech Connect

    Price, D.J.

    1987-01-01

    This study was undertaken to examine the autoregulatory mechanism of iodide induced suppression of subsequently determined iodide transport activity in the thyroid gland. Two model systems were developed to identify the putative, transport-related, iodine-containing, inhibitory factor responsible for autoregulation. The first system was a maternal and fetal rabbit thyroid tissue slice preparation in which iodide pretreatment inhibited the maternal /sup 125/I-T/M ratio by 30% and had no significant effect on fetal iodide transport. In the second system, the role of protein synthesis in the autoregulatory phenomenon was studied. Cat thyroid slices pretreated with0.1 mM cycloheximide for 60 min prior to preexposure to excess iodide demonstrated a significant reduction in the degree of iodide included autoregulation. In both of these systems iodide induced suppression of cAMP accumulation remained intact. These findings suggest (1) fetal rabbit thyroid lacks the autoregulatory mechanism of iodide transport and (2) protein synthesis is involved in the mechanism of thyroid autoregulation of iodide transport.

  11. Thyroid gland in vitro activity and reactivity to TRH in newborn lambs.

    PubMed

    Wronska, D

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the thyroid gland tissue concentration and activity on T4 and T3 in vitro release to the medium without (control) or with TRH (10 μg/ml) for 90 min of incubation in lambs just after birth and after the first 6h of postnatal life. The results obtained show that T4 concentration in the blood plasma in newborn lambs as well after 6h of life is higher than in thyroid gland tissue. In the case of T3 the concentration in blood plasma of lambs just after birth is lower than after 6h of postnatal life. Inversely, the higher level of that hormone concentration in blood plasma just after birth is higher than in the thyroid gland tissue. The results clearly indicate the inhibitory TRH effect on in vitro T4 especially, and in lesser degree T3 release from the thyroid gland tissue of lambs just after birth. Stimulation of the TRH thyroid gland tissue from lambs after 6h of life caused an increase in T4 release, especially after 60 min of the experiment. Similarly, a significant increase of T3 release was found only after 60 min of incubation. The transient promoting TRH effect on the amount of iodothyronine release from the thyroid gland in older lambs is probably connected with this gland's function not occurring before the designated time of postnatal adaptation. The described in vitro experiment visibly shows that changing thyroid gland activity in newborn lambs is not only conditioned by the entire HPT activity, but by the immanent thyroid gland attributes as well.

  12. Thyroid-specific transcription factors control Hex promoter activity

    PubMed Central

    Puppin, Cinzia; D'Elia, Angela V.; Pellizzari, Lucia; Russo, Diego; Arturi, Franco; Presta, Ivan; Filetti, Sebastiano; Bogue, Clifford W.; Denson, Lee A.; Damante, Giuseppe

    2003-01-01

    The homeobox-containing gene Hex is expressed in several cell types, including thyroid follicular cells, in which it regulates the transcription of tissue- specific genes. In this study the regulation of Hex promoter activity was investigated. Using co- transfection experiments, we demonstrated that the transcriptional activity of the Hex gene promoter in rat thyroid FRTL-5 cells is ∼10-fold greater than that observed in HeLa and NIH 3T3 cell lines (which do not normally express the Hex gene). To identify the molecular mechanisms underlying these differences, we evaluated the effect of the thyroid- specific transcription factor TTF-1 on the Hex promoter activity. TTF-1 produced 3–4-fold increases in the Hex promoter activity. Gel- retardation assays and mutagenesis experiments revealed the presence of functionally relevant TTF-1 binding sites in the Hex promoter region. These in vitro data may also have functional relevance in vivo, since a positive correlation between TTF-1 and Hex mRNAs was demonstrated in human thyroid tissues by means of RT–PCR analysis. The TTF-1 effect, however, is not sufficient to explain the difference in Hex promoter activity between FRTL-5 and cells that do not express the Hex gene. For this reason, we tested whether Hex protein is able to activate the Hex promoter. Indeed, co-transfection experiments indicate that Hex protein is able to increase the activity of its own promoter in HeLa cells ∼4-fold. TTF-1 and Hex effects are additive: when transfected together in HeLa cells, the Hex promoter activity is increased 6–7-fold. Thus, the contemporary presence of both TTF-1 and Hex could be sufficient to explain the higher transcriptional activity of the Hex promoter in thyroid cells with respect to cell lines that do not express the Hex gene. These findings demonstrate the existence of direct cross-regulation between thyroid-specific transcription factors. PMID:12655000

  13. Perchlorate, iodine and the thyroid

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Angela M.; Pearce, Elizabeth N.; Braverman, Lewis E.

    2014-01-01

    In pharmacologic doses, perchlorate inhibits thyroidal iodine uptake and subsequently decreases thyroid hormone production. Although pharmacologic doses may be used in the treatment of hyperthyroidism, recent literature has focussed on the detection of low levels of perchlorate in the environment, groundwater and foodstuffs and their potential adverse effects on human thyroid function. This is of particular concern to the developing foetus and infant, whose normal neurodevelopment depends on adequate iodine intake for the production of thyroid hormones. Further research is needed to clarify the potential health effects of low-level chronic environmental perchlorate exposure. The health impact of environmental perchlorate may be dependent upon adequate iodine intake and should be interpreted in combination with other environmental exposures that are also potential thyroidal endocrine disruptors. PMID:20172477

  14. High Risk of Lateral Nodal Metastasis in Lateral Solitary Solid Papillary Thyroid Cancer.

    PubMed

    Lai, Xing-Jian; Zhang, Bo; Jiang, Yu-Xin; Li, Jian-Chu; Zhao, Rui-Na; Yang, Xiao; Zhang, Qing; Zhang, Xiao-Yan; Li, Wen-Bo; Zhu, Shen-Ling

    2016-01-01

    We explored the relationship between ultrasonic intra-thyroidal location and neck node metastasis pattern in solitary solid papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). Data on 186 patients were retrospectively reviewed. The association between several characteristics and neck node metastasis pattern were analyzed. Among the 186 thyroid nodules, age ≥45 y (p = 0.005), mass size ≥2 cm (p = 0.001), presence of calcifications (p < 0.001) and lateral nodal metastasis (p = 0.001) were significantly related to central nodal metastasis in multivariate analysis. Mass size ≥2 cm (p = 0.046) and central nodal metastasis (p = 0.002) were significantly related to lateral nodal metastasis in multivariate analysis. Location of an intra-thyroidal solitary solid PTC located non-adjacent to the trachea (lateral) was significantly related to lateral nodal metastasis (p = 0.043) compared with location of an intra-thyroidal solitary solid PTC adjacent to the trachea (medial or isthmus). Lateral lesions have a high risk of lateral nodal metastasis in solitary solid PTC.

  15. Expression of ARE-binding proteins AUF1 and HuR in follicular adenoma and carcinoma of thyroid gland.

    PubMed

    Trojanowicz, B; Sekulla, C; Dralle, H; Hoang-Vu, C

    2016-01-01

    Both adenylate-uridylate rich elements binding proteins AUF1 and HuR may participate in thyroid carcinoma progression. In this study we investigated the expression of both factors on a protein level with a special focus on follicular adenoma and follicular thyroid carcinoma. By employment of immunofluorescence and western blot on 68 thyroid tissues including 7 goiter, 16 follicular adenoma (4 adenomatous hyperplasia), 19 follicular thyroid carcinomas, 13 papillary thyroid carcinomas and 14 undifferentiated thyroid carcinomas we investigated protein expression of AUF1 and HuR. In addition to previous results we demonstrated that AUF1 and HuR are significantly up-regulated in carcinoma tissues as compared with follicular adenoma or goiter tissues. Furthermore, by evaluation of AUF1 or HuR expression, or combination of both proteins on total tissue lysates, we were able to demonstrate a significant difference between follicular adenoma and follicular thyroid carcinoma. Overexpression of AUF1 and HuR is a common finding observed in thyroid malignancy. Analysis of the tissues obtained by surgical resection as demonstrated in this study is comparable to a fine needle aspiration and in combination with AUF1/HuR immuno-analysis may support the conventional immunohistological investigations. The promising results of this study were performed on relatively small collective, but justify future development of a quick thyroid diagnostic test on larger cohort of the patients, especially for thyroid samples which are inadequate for histological examinations.

  16. Neonatal thyroid storm accompanied with severe anaemia.

    PubMed

    Cao, Lu-Ying; Wei, Hong; Wang, Zheng-Li

    2015-07-01

    Neonatal thyroid storm is rare; the diagnostic criteria and management of neonatal thyroid storm have not been well established. In this paper, we report a preterm infant diagnosed with neonatal hyperthyroidism secondary to maternal Graves' disease who was discharged after therapy. Unfortunately, he was rehospitalised for neonatal thyroid storm. We will discuss the diagnosis and general therapy of neonatal thyroid storm.

  17. A case report of hyperfunctioning metastatic thyroid cancer and rare I-131 avid liver metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Kunawudhi, Anchisa; Promteangtrong, Chetsadaporn; Chotipanich, Chanisa

    2016-01-01

    Thyroid cancer is usually, relatively hypofunctional; most patients with thyroid cancer are clinically euthyroid. The combination of thyroid cancer and thyrotoxicosis is not common. We herein, report a case of follicular thyroid cancer with hyperfunctioning metastasis in a 43-year-old woman who presented with thyrotoxicosis, a cold right thyroid nodule, and low I-131 uptake at the thyroid bed. An additional total body scan with I-131 revealed a large radioiodine avid osteolytic bone metastasis with soft tissue masses and liver metastasis. The patient received treatment with total thyroidectomy, methimazole, and I-131 at a cumulative dose of 600 mCi along with recombinant human thyroid-stimulating hormone before the first I-131 treatment and palliative radiation. The patient had normal liver function test and experienced a mild degree of bone marrow suppression after I-131. At the 2-year follow-up, the patient was still alive with the progression of bone metastases but was doing well with less severe thyrotoxicosis, good ambulation, and an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 2. Clinicians should be aware of the unusual concurrent presentation of thyrotoxicosis and thyroid cancer, a differential diagnosis in patients with thyrotoxicosis and low or normal radioiodine uptake over the neck and also potential pitfalls during radionuclide treatment. PMID:27385894

  18. A loss-of-function genetic screening identifies novel mediators of thyroid cancer cell viability.

    PubMed

    Cantisani, Maria Carmela; Parascandolo, Alessia; Perälä, Merja; Allocca, Chiara; Fey, Vidal; Sahlberg, Niko; Merolla, Francesco; Basolo, Fulvio; Laukkanen, Mikko O; Kallioniemi, Olli Pekka; Santoro, Massimo; Castellone, Maria Domenica

    2016-05-10

    RET, BRAF and other protein kinases have been identified as major molecular players in thyroid cancer. To identify novel kinases required for the viability of thyroid carcinoma cells, we performed a RNA interference screening in the RET/PTC1(CCDC6-RET)-positive papillary thyroid cancer cell line TPC1 using a library of synthetic small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) targeting the human kinome and related proteins. We identified 14 hits whose silencing was able to significantly reduce the viability and the proliferation of TPC1 cells; most of them were active also in BRAF-mutant BCPAP (papillary thyroid cancer) and 8505C (anaplastic thyroid cancer) and in RAS-mutant CAL62 (anaplastic thyroid cancer) cells. These included members of EPH receptor tyrosine kinase family as well as SRC and MAPK (mitogen activated protein kinases) families. Importantly, silencing of the identified hits did not affect significantly the viability of Nthy-ori 3-1 (hereafter referred to as NTHY) cells derived from normal thyroid tissue, suggesting cancer cell specificity. The identified proteins are worth exploring as potential novel druggable thyroid cancer targets. PMID:27058903

  19. A case report of hyperfunctioning metastatic thyroid cancer and rare I-131 avid liver metastasis.

    PubMed

    Kunawudhi, Anchisa; Promteangtrong, Chetsadaporn; Chotipanich, Chanisa

    2016-01-01

    Thyroid cancer is usually, relatively hypofunctional; most patients with thyroid cancer are clinically euthyroid. The combination of thyroid cancer and thyrotoxicosis is not common. We herein, report a case of follicular thyroid cancer with hyperfunctioning metastasis in a 43-year-old woman who presented with thyrotoxicosis, a cold right thyroid nodule, and low I-131 uptake at the thyroid bed. An additional total body scan with I-131 revealed a large radioiodine avid osteolytic bone metastasis with soft tissue masses and liver metastasis. The patient received treatment with total thyroidectomy, methimazole, and I-131 at a cumulative dose of 600 mCi along with recombinant human thyroid-stimulating hormone before the first I-131 treatment and palliative radiation. The patient had normal liver function test and experienced a mild degree of bone marrow suppression after I-131. At the 2-year follow-up, the patient was still alive with the progression of bone metastases but was doing well with less severe thyrotoxicosis, good ambulation, and an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 2. Clinicians should be aware of the unusual concurrent presentation of thyrotoxicosis and thyroid cancer, a differential diagnosis in patients with thyrotoxicosis and low or normal radioiodine uptake over the neck and also potential pitfalls during radionuclide treatment. PMID:27385894

  20. Identification of primary thyroid lymphoma with medical imaging: A case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jia-Huan; Chen, Liang; Ren, Ke

    2014-12-01

    Primary thyroid lymphoma (PTL) is a rare thyroid malignancy. Clinical diagnosis of PTL may not be easily established based on imaging studies, as the imaging features of PTL are similar to those of lymphocytic thyroiditis and primary thyroid cancer. The present study describes the case of a patient who was confirmed to have PTL by intra-operative pathological diagnosis. On color Doppler ultrasound, the PTL was shown as a significantly enlarged thyroid with reduced gland echoes. Color Doppler flow imaging showed increased blood flow. By computed tomography, the thyroid was revealed to be enlarged with reduced tissue density, particularly in the left lobe and the isthmus. In addition, calcified spots and swollen lymph nodes were evident. The clinical history of the patient was obtained and the imaging results were retrospectively analyzed. The imaging features of PTL were investigated through reviewing the literature. PTL exhibits specific features on medical imaging that aid in distinguishing it from other thyroid diseases. PTL exhibits specific features on medical imaging that aid in distinguishing PTL from other thyroid diseases, which may aid the support for clinical diagnosis and improve the clinical accuracy.

  1. Neuropilin-2 Is a Newly Identified Target of PAX8 in Thyroid Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lucci, Valeria; Di Palma, Tina; Zannini, Mariastella

    2015-01-01

    PAX8 is a transcription factor essential for thyroid gland development, as well as for the maintenance of the thyroid differentiated state in the adult. In particular, PAX8 has been comprehensively shown to regulate genes that are considered markers of thyroid differentiation. However, a better knowledge of genes transcriptionally regulated by PAX8 is desirable to clarify its role in endocrine syndromes and cancer susceptibility. In order to further investigate PAX8 downstream targets, we recently performed a genome-wide expression analysis following PAX8 knockdown in FRTL-5 thyroid cells and Neuropilin-2 was identified as a potential transcriptional target of PAX8. In this study, we determined the role of the transcription factor PAX8 in the regulation of Neuropilin-2 expression. Indeed, in thyroid cells PAX8 directly binds the Neuropilin-2 promoter leading to its transcriptional repression. Interestingly, we observed an inverse correlation between the expression of PAX8 and Neuropilin-2 in thyroid carcinoma tissues and cell lines compared to non-tumor counterparts, suggesting a critical role of PAX8 in regulating Neuropilin-2 expression in vivo. Notably, ectopic overexpression of PAX8 in FB-2 thyroid cancer cells promotes Neuropilin-2 downregulation producing a significant reduction in cell proliferation, migration ability, and invasion activity and reverting the cell phenotype from mesenchymal to a more epithelial one. These findings uncover the novel interplay between PAX8 and Neuropilin-2, which is likely to be important in the pathogenesis of thyroid diseases. PMID:26030152

  2. A loss-of-function genetic screening identifies novel mediators of thyroid cancer cell viability

    PubMed Central

    Cantisani, Maria Carmela; Parascandolo, Alessia; Perälä, Merja; Allocca, Chiara; Fey, Vidal; Sahlberg, Niko; Merolla, Francesco; Basolo, Fulvio; Laukkanen, Mikko O.; Kallioniemi, Olli Pekka; Santoro, Massimo; Castellone, Maria Domenica

    2016-01-01

    RET, BRAF and other protein kinases have been identified as major molecular players in thyroid cancer. To identify novel kinases required for the viability of thyroid carcinoma cells, we performed a RNA interference screening in the RET/PTC1(CCDC6-RET)-positive papillary thyroid cancer cell line TPC1 using a library of synthetic small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) targeting the human kinome and related proteins. We identified 14 hits whose silencing was able to significantly reduce the viability and the proliferation of TPC1 cells; most of them were active also in BRAF-mutant BCPAP (papillary thyroid cancer) and 8505C (anaplastic thyroid cancer) and in RAS-mutant CAL62 (anaplastic thyroid cancer) cells. These included members of EPH receptor tyrosine kinase family as well as SRC and MAPK (mitogen activated protein kinases) families. Importantly, silencing of the identified hits did not affect significantly the viability of Nthy-ori 3-1 (hereafter referred to as NTHY) cells derived from normal thyroid tissue, suggesting cancer cell specificity. The identified proteins are worth exploring as potential novel druggable thyroid cancer targets. PMID:27058903

  3. Proteomics of thyroid tumours provides new insights into their molecular composition and changes associated with malignancy

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Aguilar, Juan; Clifton-Bligh, Roderick; Molloy, Mark P.

    2016-01-01

    Around 5% of the general population have palpable thyroid nodules. Although most thyroid tumours are benign, thyroid cancer represents the most common malignancy of the endocrine system, comprising mainly follicular and papillary thyroid carcinomas. Previous studies have shed some light on the molecular pathogenesis of thyroid cancer but there have not been any comprehensive mass spectrometry-based proteomic studies of large scale to reveal protein expression differences between thyroid tumours and the molecular alterations associated with tumour malignancy. We applied data-independent acquisition mass spectrometry which enabled quantitative expression analysis of over 1,600 proteins from 32 specimens to compare normal thyroid tissue with the three most common tumours of the thyroid gland: follicular adenoma, follicular carcinoma and papillary carcinoma. In follicular tumours, we found marked reduction of the tumour suppressor and therapeutic target extracellular protein decorin. We made the novel observation that TGFβ-induced protein ig-h3 (TGFBI) was found frequently overexpressed in follicular carcinoma compared with follicular adenoma. Proteomic pathway analysis showed changes in papillary carcinoma were associated with disruption of cell contacts (loss of E-cadherin), actin cytoskeleton dynamics and loss of differentiation markers, all hallmarks of an invasive phenotype. PMID:27025787

  4. Iodine Excess as an Environmental Risk Factor for Autoimmune Thyroid Disease

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Yuqian; Kawashima, Akira; Ishido, Yuko; Yoshihara, Aya; Oda, Kenzaburo; Hiroi, Naoki; Ito, Tetsuhide; Ishii, Norihisa; Suzuki, Koichi

    2014-01-01

    The global effort to prevent iodine deficiency disorders through iodine supplementation, such as universal salt iodization, has achieved impressive progress during the last few decades. However, iodine excess, due to extensive environmental iodine exposure in addition to poor monitoring, is currently a more frequent occurrence than iodine deficiency. Iodine excess is a precipitating environmental factor in the development of autoimmune thyroid disease. Excessive amounts of iodide have been linked to the development of autoimmune thyroiditis in humans and animals, while intrathyroidal depletion of iodine prevents disease in animal strains susceptible to severe thyroiditis. Although the mechanisms by which iodide induces thyroiditis are still unclear, several mechanisms have been proposed: (1) excess iodine induces the production of cytokines and chemokines that can recruit immunocompetent cells to the thyroid; (2) processing excess iodine in thyroid epithelial cells may result in elevated levels of oxidative stress, leading to harmful lipid oxidation and thyroid tissue injuries; and (3) iodine incorporation in the protein chain of thyroglobulin may augment the antigenicity of this molecule. This review will summarize the current knowledge regarding excess iodide as an environmental toxicant and relate it to the development of autoimmune thyroid disease. PMID:25050783

  5. Thyroid Follicular Carcinoma in a Fourteen-year-old Girl with Graves’ Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kojima-Ishii, Kanako; Ihara, Kenji; Ohkubo, Kazuhiro; Matsuo, Terumichi; Toda, Naoko; Yamashita, Hiroyuki; Kono, Shinji; Hara, Toshiro

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Here we present the case of a 14-yr-old girl who developed thyroid follicular carcinoma accompanied by Graves’ disease. She was diagnosed with Graves’ disease at 10 yr of age and soon achieved a euthyroid state after starting treatment. When she was 13 yr of age, her hyperthyroidism and goiter worsened despite medical therapy. Multiple nodules were found in her enlarged thyroid gland by ultrasonography. Her serum Tg level seemed within the normal range. She underwent near-total thyroidectomy for control of thyroid function. Histopathological study demonstrated that multiple oxyphilic follicular neoplasms were surrounded by the thyroid tissue compatible with Graves’ disease. Capsular invasion was identified in one of the nodules, and thus the histological diagnosis was minimally invasive follicular carcinoma. She did not have signs suggesting metastasis, and has had no relapse for 18 mo after the operation. Although some previous studies showed a high prevalence of thyroid cancer with an aggressive nature in adult patients with Graves’ disease, few reports about thyroid cancer accompanied by Graves’ disease are available in children. The present case, however, suggests that careful investigation is needed when we detect thyroid nodules or progressive thyroid enlargement, especially in children with Graves’ disease. PMID:24790388

  6. Conserved Telomere Length in Human Ectopic Thyroids: An Argument Against Premature Differentiation Causing Arrested Migration

    PubMed Central

    Larrivée-Vanier, Stéphanie; Magne, Fabien; Patey, Natalie; Chanoine, Jean-Pierre; Vuissoz, Jean-Marc; Van Vliet, Guy; Deladoëy, Johnny

    2016-01-01

    Background In humans, the cause of arrested migration of the median thyroid anlage resulting in an ectopic sublingual gland is unknown. These ectopic glands have a normal follicular architecture but their thyrotropin-induced growth is insufficient, leading to congenital hypothyroidism in the vast majority of affected subjects. We hypothesized that arrested migration is due to premature differentiation [reflected by decreased telomere length (TL)], as observed in neural tube defects in mice. Methods Absolute TL and telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) expression was measured in four ectopic and six orthotopic thyroids. TL was measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction of genomic DNA, whereas hTERT expression was measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction of total RNA. Results The mean ± standard deviation TL (in kilobases per diploid genome) was 140.45 ± 40.07 in ectopic and 97.50 ± 30.48 in orthotopic thyroids (p = 0.12). Expression of hTERT was quiescent in both ectopic and orthotopic thyroids. Conclusions Compared with orthotopic thyroids, TL shortening is not observed in ectopic thyroid tissues and, consequently, no compensatory hTERT expression was measured. This makes premature differentiation an unlikely cause of arrested migration and it suggests, indirectly, that ectopic thyroids are not at higher risk of cancer than orthotopic thyroids. PMID:26131731

  7. Differential Expression of Aquaporins and Its Diagnostic Utility in Thyroid Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Dongfeng; Kondo, Tetsuo; Nakazawa, Tadao; Kawasaki, Tomonori; Yamane, Tetsu; Mochizuki, Kunio; Kato, Yohichiro; Matsuzaki, Toshiyuki; Takata, Kuniaki; Katoh, Ryohei

    2012-01-01

    Background Aquaporin3 (AQP3) and Aquaporin4 (AQP4) play a major role in transcellular and transepithelial water movement as water channel membrane proteins. Little is known of their expression and significance in human thyroid tissues. Thus, we examined the expression of AQP3 and AQP4 in normal, hyperplastic and neoplastic thyroid tissues in conjunction with human thyroid cancer cell lines. Methods and Results Immunohistochemical analyses demonstrated AQP3 in the cytoplasmic membrane of normal C cells, but not in follicular cells. In contrast, AQP4 was not found in C cells but was identified in normal follicular cells. AQP4 was positive in 92% of Graves’ disease thyroids and 97% of multinodular goiters, and we failed to demonstrate AQP3 in these hyperplastic tissues. In neoplastic thyroid lesions, we observed AQP3 in 91% of medullary thyroid carcinomas but in no other follicular cell tumors. AQP4 was demonstrated in 100% of follicular adenomas, 90% of follicular carcinomas, and 85% of papillary carcinomas, while it was negative in all medullary carcinomas and undifferentiated carcinomas. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analyses revealed AQP3 mRNA expression only in medullary carcinomas and AQP4 mRNA expression in follicular cell-derived tumors except for undifferentiated carcinomas. In thyroid cancer cell lines, using RT-PCR and western blotting, AQP3 mRNA and protein were only identified in the TT cell line (human medullary carcinoma cell line) and AQP4 in the other cell lines. In addition, AQP3 mRNA expression was up-regulated by FBS and calcium administration in both a dose and time dependent manner in TT cells. Conclusion The differential expressions of AQP3 and AQP4 may reflect the biological nature and/or function of normal, hyperplastic, and neoplastic thyroid cells and additionally may have value in determining differential diagnoses of thyroid tumors. PMID:22808259

  8. Expression of Antioxidant Molecules and Heat Shock Protein 27 in Thyroid Tumors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shanshan; Yang, Shucui; Vlantis, Alexander C; Liu, Shirley Y W; Ng, Enders K W; Chan, Amy B W; Wu, Juekun; Du, Jing; Wei, Wei; Liu, Xiaoling; Liu, Zhimin; Ng, Siu Kwan; van Hasselt, C Andrew; Tong, Michael C F; Chen, George G

    2016-11-01

    Oxidative stress-induced DNA damage is a known causing factor for many types of tumors, but information on the role of oxidants and antioxidants in thyroid tumors is limited. The aim of this study was to determine antioxidant levels in thyroid tumors. In this study, tumor and its matched non-tumor thyroid tissue samples were obtained from 53 patients with thyroid tumors. The levels of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), thioredoxin reductase 2 (TXNRD2), glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (Gpx), catalase (CAT), and 27 kd heat-shock protein (hsp27) were determined in both thyroid tissue samples and cultured thyroid cells by immunohistochemical staining and western blot. Hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) was used to generate oxidant stress in the cell culture experiments. We found that the levels of MnSOD, TXNRD2, GSH, Gpx, and Hsp27 were increased in both malignant and benign tumors, while the level of CAT was decreased. To verify the results of the tissue study, we treated cultured thyroid cells with H2 O2 and found the same pattern of antioxidant changes. Hsp27 was also increased after H2 O2 treatment. The expression of hsp27 was upregulated by 8.24-, 6.96-, and 3.09-fold in thyroid cancer, follicular adenoma, multinodular goiter, respectively. Collectively, our study demonstrated that the levels of hsp27 together with MnSOD, TXNRD2, GSH, and Gpx were significantly upregulated by H2 O2 in thyroid tumors. The increase of these antioxidants is observed in both malignant and benign tumors, particularly in the former. The upregulation of antioxidants is likely a protective mechanism of tumor cells to maintain their survival and growth. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 2473-2481, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26970173

  9. Nivolumab-induced thyroid dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Ryota; Fujisawa, Yasuhiro; Maruyama, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Yasuhiro; Yoshino, Koji; Ohtsuka, Mikio; Fujimoto, Manabu

    2016-06-01

    Nivolumab (ONO-4538) is an anti-programmed death-1 specific monoclonal antibody, which has become a standard treatment for metastatic malignant melanoma. Nivolumab induces autoimmune adverse events, defined as immune-related adverse events. Herein, we report a case of nivolumab-induced thyroid dysfunction in the clinical setting. Fourteen patients were treated with nivolumab at our institute, of which three developed thyroid dysfunction, an incidence higher than previously reported in the initial clinical trials. Interestingly, one patient achieved complete remission; suggesting that in some patients, the occurrence of immune-related adverse events, including thyroid dysfunction, might reflect the drug's antitumour efficacy. No patient died or discontinued nivolumab treatment owing to thyroid dysfunction. Although thyroid dysfunction first appeared to be asymptomatic, two of the three patients developed symptoms related to hypothyroidism soon after, requiring hormone replacement therapy. Another patient developed hyperthyroidism that was initially asymptomatic; the patient subsequently developed myalgia with fever >39.5°C after two additional courses of nivolumab. Treatment with nivolumab was therefore discontinued, and treatment with prednisolone was initiated. Symptoms resolved within a few days, and thyroid function normalized. Thyroid dysfunction is sometimes difficult to diagnose because its symptoms similar to those of many other diseases. In addition, thyroid-related immune-related adverse events may present with unique symptoms such as myalgia with high fever, abruptly worsening patients' quality of life. Consequently, thyroid dysfunction should be considered as a possible immune-related adverse event. Thus, it is important to test for thyroid dysfunction at baseline and before the administration of each nivolumab dose if possible. PMID:27012985

  10. Sonographic Elastography of the Thyroid Gland

    PubMed Central

    Menzilcioglu, Mehmet Sait; Duymus, Mahmut; Avcu, Serhat

    2016-01-01

    Summary Thyroid gland disorders include benign and malignant thyroid nodules and diffuse thyroid disorders. The incidence of malignant thyroid nodules is low and the prognosis is good. The diagnosis of thyroid cancer and diffuse parenchymal disorders is generally based on clinical manifestations and histopathological evaluation. Ultrasonography has its place in the diagnostics and follow-up of thyroid disorders. Ultrasonographic elastography is a new, developing method that shows increase in clinical practice. In this study, we aimed to review the data on thyroid ultrasound elastography. PMID:27103947

  11. Thyroid crisis in the maxillofacial trauma patient.

    PubMed

    Weinstock, Robert J; Lewis, Tashorn; Miller, Jared; Clarkson, Earl I

    2014-11-01

    Thyroid crisis, also known as thyroid storm, is a rare complication of thyrotoxicosis that results in a hypermetabolic and hyperadrenergic state. This condition requires prompt recognition and treatment because the mortality from thyroid crisis approaches 30%. Thyrotoxicosis alone will usually not progress to thyroid crisis. Thyroid crisis will typically be precipitated by some concomitant event such as infection, iodine-containing contrast agents, medications such as amiodarone, pregnancy, or surgery. Trauma is a rare precipitator of thyroid crisis. Several published studies have reported thyroid crisis resulting from blunt or penetrating neck trauma. Significant systemic trauma, such as motor vehicle accidents, has also been reported to precipitate thyroid crisis. It is very unusual for minor trauma to precipitate thyroid crisis. In the present study, we report the case of a patient who had incurred relatively minor maxillofacial trauma and developed thyroid crisis 2 weeks after the initial trauma. PMID:25085805

  12. Thyroid crisis in the maxillofacial trauma patient.

    PubMed

    Weinstock, Robert J; Lewis, Tashorn; Miller, Jared; Clarkson, Earl I

    2014-11-01

    Thyroid crisis, also known as thyroid storm, is a rare complication of thyrotoxicosis that results in a hypermetabolic and hyperadrenergic state. This condition requires prompt recognition and treatment because the mortality from thyroid crisis approaches 30%. Thyrotoxicosis alone will usually not progress to thyroid crisis. Thyroid crisis will typically be precipitated by some concomitant event such as infection, iodine-containing contrast agents, medications such as amiodarone, pregnancy, or surgery. Trauma is a rare precipitator of thyroid crisis. Several published studies have reported thyroid crisis resulting from blunt or penetrating neck trauma. Significant systemic trauma, such as motor vehicle accidents, has also been reported to precipitate thyroid crisis. It is very unusual for minor trauma to precipitate thyroid crisis. In the present study, we report the case of a patient who had incurred relatively minor maxillofacial trauma and developed thyroid crisis 2 weeks after the initial trauma.

  13. Liver X receptor β: new player in the regulatory network of thyroid hormone and 'browning' of white fat.

    PubMed

    Miao, Yifei; Warner, Margaret; Gustafsson, Jan-Ke

    2016-01-01

    The recent discovery of browning of white adipose tissue (WAT) has raised great research interest because of its significant potential in counteracting obesity and type II diabetes. However, the mechanisms underlying browning are still poorly understood. Liver X receptors (LXRs) are one class of nuclear receptors, which play a vital role in regulating cholesterol, triglyceride and glucose metabolism. Following our previous finding that LXRs serve as repressors of UCP1 in classic brown adipose tissue in female mice, we found that LXRs, especially LXRβ, also repress the browning process of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) in male rodents fed a normal diet. Depletion of LXRs activated thyrotropin releasing hormone positive neurons in the paraventricular area of the hypothalamus, and thus stimulated secretion of thyroid-stimulating hormone from the pituitary. Consequently production of thyroid hormones in the thyroid gland and circulating thyroid hormone level were increased. Moreover, the activity of thyroid signaling in SAT was markedly increased. One unexpected finding of our study is that LXRs are indispensable in the thyroid hormone negative feedback loop at the level of the hypothalamus. LXRs maintain expression of thyroid receptors in the brain and when they are inactivated there is no negative feedback of thyroid hormone in the hypothalamus. Together, our findings have uncovered the basis of increased energy expenditure in male LXR knock-out mice and provided support for targeting LXRs in treatment of obesity. PMID:27386163

  14. Thyroid Ultrasound Pitfalls: Esophageal Fibrovascular Polyp Mimicking Thyroid Nodule

    PubMed Central

    Brigante, G.; Madeo, B.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Ultrasound (US) is the most accurate tool in the diagnosis of thyroid nodules if performed by expert physician. Misdiagnosis due to extrathyroidal lesions mimicking thyroid nodules is reported in literature. We describe the first case of an esophageal fibrovascular polyp misdiagnosed as a thyroid nodule on US examination. Patient Findings. A 54-year-old woman presented to emergency department for headache and underwent carotid Doppler extended to neck ultrasound with incidental finding of a nodule in the posterior side of the left thyroid lobe. A following thyroid US performed by an endocrinologist allowed the characterization of the lesion as an esophageal pathology, considering the extrathyroidal position, the typical peripheral hyperechoic spots and hypoechoic rim, the connection to the esophagus, and the swallowing connected movement. The patient was addressed to further investigations and finally to anterior pharyngotomy with histological diagnosis of esophageal fibrovascular polyp. Summary. Differential diagnosis between thyroid nodules and other neck lesions is important to prevent an unnecessary fine needle aspiration biopsy and to treat the extrathyroidal pathology. In this case, an US performed by an expert endocrinologist allowed detecting an esophageal fibrovascular polyp requiring surgical removal. In conclusion, the possibility of an esophageal pathology, and even fibrovascular polyp, should be considered during US thyroid examination. PMID:27022492

  15. Etiopathogenetic factors, thyroid functions and thyroid autoimmunity in melasma patients

    PubMed Central

    Özcan, Nimet; Kılıç, Arzu; Koparal, Suha; Artüz, Ferda; Çakmak, Atıl; Köse, Kenan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Melasma is a common chronic, acquired pigmentation disorder with a significant impact on the quality of life of patients. Aim To investigate the etiopathogenetic factors, thyroid functions and thyroid autoimmunity in patients with melasma. Material and methods Forty-five women with melasma and 45 age-matched healthy women were included in the study group. A detailed history was taken from the patients including triggering factors of melasma. Serum free triiodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxine (FT4), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), anti-thyroglobulin (AbTG) and anti-thyroid peroxidase (Ab-TPO) were measured and thyroid ultrasonography was performed for each subject. Results In 26.7% of patients, pregnancy, in 17.8%, oral contraceptive use and in 13.3%, intense sunlight exposure were the triggering factors. 17.8% of patients had a family history of melasma. FT4, TSH and AbTG levels were significantly higher in the patient group. Conclusions The results suggest that a combination of factors including pregnancy, oral contraceptive use, sunlight and genetic factors often trigger melasma. Thyroid hormones and thyroid autoimmunity may also play a role in the pathogenesis which needs to be proven by further studies. PMID:26759539

  16. Fetal cell carcinogenesis of the thyroid: a modified theory based on recent evidence.

    PubMed

    Takano, Toru

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid cancer cells were believed to be generated by multi-step carcinogenesis, in which cancer cells are derived from thyrocytes, via multiple incidences of damage to their genome, especially in oncogenes or anti-oncogenes that accelerate proliferation or foster malignant phenotypes, such as the ability to invade the surrounding tissue or metastasize to distant organs, until a new hypothesis, fetal cell carcinogenesis, was presented. In fetal cell carcinogenesis, thyroid tumor cells are assumed to be derived from three types of fetal thyroid cell which only exist in fetuses or young children, namely, thyroid stem cells (TSCs), thyroblasts and prothyrocytes, by proliferation without differentiation. Genomic alternations, such as RET/PTC and PAX8-PPARγ1 rearrangements and a mutation in the BRAF gene, play an oncogenic role by preventing thyroid fetal cells from differentiating. Fetal cell carcinogenesis effectively explains recent molecular and clinical evidence regarding thyroid cancer, including thyroid cancer initiating cells (TCICs), and it underscores the importance of identifying a stem cells and clarifying the molecular mechanism of organ development in cancer research. It introduces three important concepts, the reverse approach, stem cell crisis and mature and immature cancers. Further, it implies that analysis of a small population of cells in a cancer tissue will be a key technique in establishing future laboratory tests. In the contrary, mass analysis such as gene expression profiling, whole genomic scan, and proteomics analysis may have definite limitations since they can only provide information based on many cells.

  17. The role of thyroid hormone signaling in the prevention of digestive system cancers.

    PubMed

    Brown, Adam R; Simmen, Rosalia C M; Simmen, Frank A

    2013-01-01

    Thyroid hormones play a critical role in the growth and development of the alimentary tract in vertebrates. Their effects are mediated by nuclear receptors as well as the cell surface receptor integrin αVβ3. Systemic thyroid hormone levels are controlled via activation and deactivation by iodothyronine deiodinases in the liver and other tissues. Given that thyroid hormone signaling has been characterized as a major effector of digestive system growth and homeostasis, numerous investigations have examined its role in the occurrence and progression of cancers in various tissues of this organ system. The present review summarizes current findings regarding the effects of thyroid hormone signaling on cancers of the esophagus, stomach, liver, pancreas, and colon. Particular attention is given to the roles of different thyroid hormone receptor isoforms, the novel integrin αVβ3 receptor, and thyroid hormone-related nutrients as possible protective agents and therapeutic targets. Future investigations geared towards a better understanding of thyroid hormone signaling in digestive system cancers may provide preventive or therapeutic strategies to diminish risk, improve outcome and avert recurrence in afflicted individuals.

  18. False positive diagnosis on (131)iodine whole-body scintigraphy of differentiated thyroid cancers.

    PubMed

    Triggiani, Vincenzo; Giagulli, Vito Angelo; Iovino, Michele; De Pergola, Giovanni; Licchelli, Brunella; Varraso, Antonio; Dicembrino, Franca; Valle, Guido; Guastamacchia, Edoardo

    2016-09-01

    (131)Iodine is used both to ablate any residual thyroid tissue or metastatic disease and to obtain whole-body diagnostic images after total thyroidectomy for differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). Even though whole-body scan is highly accurate in showing thyroid residues as well as metastases of DTC, false positive results can be found, possibly leading to diagnostic errors and unnecessary treatments. This paper reviews the physiological and pathological processes involved as well as the strategy to recognize and rule out false positive radioiodine images.

  19. I-131 accumulation in a benign cystic mesothelioma in a patient with follicular thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    de Keizer, Bart; Arsos, Georgios; Smit, Jan W; Lam, Marnix G; Rinkes, Inne H Borel; Goldschmeding, Roel; van Isselt, Johannes W

    2008-03-01

    Focal I-131 accumulation is generally a reliable indicator of functioning normal thyroid tissue or a differentiated thyroid cancer metastasis. However, physiologic accumulation of activity may also be observed in organs such as the intestinal tract, liver, and salivary glands. Extrathyroidal I-131 accumulation has been reported in various sites, such as ectopic gastric mucosa, gastrointestinal and urinary tract abnormalities, cysts (mammary, liver, kidney, and ovaries), and inflammation and infection foci. We report a case of focal I-131 accumulation in a benign cystic mesothelioma in a patient with follicular thyroid cancer.

  20. Risk assessment of thyroid follicular cell tumors.

    PubMed Central

    Hill, R N; Crisp, T M; Hurley, P M; Rosenthal, S L; Singh, D V

    1998-01-01

    Thyroid follicular cell tumors arise in rodents from mutations, perturbations of thyroid and pituitary hormone status with increased stimulation of thyroid cell growth by thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), or a combination of the two. The only known human thyroid carcinogen is ionizing radiation. It is not known for certain whether chemicals that affect thyroid cell growth lead to human thyroid cancer. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency applies the following science policy positions: 1) chemically induced rodent thyroid tumors are presumed to be relevant to humans; 2) when interspecies information is lacking, the default is to assume comparable carcinogenic sensitivity in rodents and humans; 3) adverse rodent noncancer thyroid effects due to chemically induced thyroid-pituitary disruption are presumed to be relevant to humans; 4) linear dose-response considerations are applied to thyroid cancer induced by chemical substances that either do not disrupt thyroid functioning or lack mode of action information; 5) nonlinear thyroid cancer dose-response considerations are applied to chemicals that reduce thyroid hormone levels, increase TSH and thyroid cell division, and are judged to lack mutagenic activity; and 6) nonlinear considerations may be applied in thyroid cancer dose-response assessments on a case-by-case basis for chemicals that disrupt thyroid-pituitary functioning and demonstrate some mutagenic activity. Required data for risk assessment purposes is mode of action information on mutagenicity, increases in follicular cell growth (cell size and number) and thyroid gland weight, thyroid-pituitary hormones, site of action, correlations between doses producing thyroid effects and cancer, and reversibility of effects when dosing ceases. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:9681971