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Sample records for adjacent tissue sections

  1. Laser ablation of human atherosclerotic plaque without adjacent tissue injury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grundfest, W. S.; Litvack, F.; Forrester, J. S.; Goldenberg, T.; Swan, H. J. C.

    1985-01-01

    Seventy samples of human cadaver atherosclerotic aorta were irradiated in vitro using a 308 nm xenon chloride excimer laser. Energy per pulse, pulse duration and frequency were varied. For comparison, 60 segments were also irradiated with an argon ion and an Nd:YAG laser operated in the continuous mode. Tissue was fixed in formalin, sectioned and examined microscopically. The Nd:YAG and argon ion-irradiated tissue exhibited a central crater with irregular edges and concentric zones of thermal and blast injury. In contrast, the excimer laser-irradiated tissue had narrow deep incisions with minimal or no thermal injury. These preliminary experiments indicate that the excimer laser vaporizes tissue in a manner different from that of the continuous wave Nd:YAG or argon ion laser. The sharp incision margins and minimal damage to adjacent normal tissue suggest that the excimer laser is more desirable for general surgical and intravascular uses than are the conventionally used medical lasers.

  2. On the Circulation Manifold for Two Adjacent Lifting Sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zannetti, Luca; Iollo, Angelo

    1998-01-01

    The circulation functional relative to two adjacent lifting sections is studied for two cases. In the first case we consider two adjacent circles. The circulation is computed as a function of the displacement of the secondary circle along the axis joining the two centers and of the angle of attack of the secondary circle, The gradient of such functional is computed by deriving a set of elliptic functions with respect both to their argument and to their Period. In the second case studied, we considered a wing-flap configuration. The circulation is computed by some implicit mappings, whose differentials with respect to the variation of the geometrical configuration in the physical space are found by divided differences. Configurations giving rise to local maxima and minima in the circulation manifold are presented.

  3. EXPRESSION MECHANISM AND CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF NOB1 IN GASTRIC CANCER TISSUE AND ADJACENT NORMAL TISSUE.

    PubMed

    Zhou, W-P; Liu, X; Yang, Y; Liu, Y-F

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies the effect and relationship of NOB1 in the development of gastric cancer, based on an analysis of NOB1expression in gastric cancer tissue and adjacent tissue. Thirty gastric cancer tissue samples taken during surgery with complete pathological data and their related adjacent normal tissue were examined in this study. NOB1 protein expression in gastric cancer tissue and adjacent normal tissue was detected by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Real-time PCR was used to detect NOB1 mRNA expression, which provided a basis on which to explore the clinical pathological characteristics for patients with gastric cancer. Results show that NOB1 protein in gastric cancer tissue and adjacent normal tissue were diffusely expressed both in the cytoplasm and nucleus. The positive expression rate in gastric cancer tissue was 73%, higher than that in adjacent normal tissue (47%). Both the reference NAPDH and NOB1 amplification are reflected in the amplification curve in standard S-shape and the unimodal solubility curve which was not altered by non-specific amplification and primer dimer. NOB1 mRNA relative expression in cancer tissue was 4.899∓1.412. NOB1 expression had no direct relationship with the patients’ age, gender, tumor differentiation or infiltration degree, lymphatic metastasis, distant metastasis nor pTNM periodization, but was directly related to the size of the tumor. All the findings in this paper suggest that NOB1 can be one of the focuses for diagnosing and treating gastric cancer and that its protein expression is likely to increase with the growth of tumor, thus playing a great role in the incidence and development of gastric cancer.

  4. Tissue microenvironments within functional cortical subdivisions adjacent to focal stroke.

    PubMed

    Katsman, Diana; Zheng, Jian; Spinelli, Kateri; Carmichael, S Thomas

    2003-09-01

    Stroke produces a region of complete cell death and areas of partial damage, injury, and gliosis. The spatial relationship of these regions of damage to the infarct core and within spared neuronal circuits has not been identified. A model of cortical stroke was developed within functional subsets of the somatosensory cortex. Infarct size, regions of apoptosis, oxidative DNA damage, heat shock protein induction, and subtypes of reactive gliosis were precisely mapped with the somatosensory body map, quantified, and interrelated. Three tissue microenvironments were recognized: zones of partial ischemic damage, heat shock protein induction, and distributed gliosis. These three zones involved progressively more distant cortical regions, each larger than the infarct core. The zone of partial ischemic damage represents an overlap region of apoptotic cell death, oxidative DNA damage, loss of synaptic connections, and local reactive gliosis. The zone of distributed gliosis occupies distinct functional areas of the somatosensory cortex. The tissue reorganization induced by stroke is much larger than the stroke site itself. Adjacent tissue microenvironments are sites of distinct reactive cellular signaling and may serve as a link between the processes of acute cell death and delayed neuronal plasticity after focal stroke.

  5. Divergent viral presentation among human tumors and adjacent normal tissues

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Song; Wendl, Michael C.; Wyczalkowski, Matthew A.; Wylie, Kristine; Ye, Kai; Jayasinghe, Reyka; Xie, Mingchao; Wu, Song; Niu, Beifang; Grubb, Robert; Johnson, Kimberly J.; Gay, Hiram; Chen, Ken; Rader, Janet S.; Dipersio, John F.; Chen, Feng; Ding, Li

    2016-01-01

    We applied a newly developed bioinformatics system called VirusScan to investigate the viral basis of 6,813 human tumors and 559 adjacent normal samples across 23 cancer types and identified 505 virus positive samples with distinctive, organ system- and cancer type-specific distributions. We found that herpes viruses (e.g., subtypes HHV4, HHV5, and HHV6) that are highly prevalent across cancers of the digestive tract showed significantly higher abundances in tumor versus adjacent normal samples, supporting their association with these cancers. We also found three HPV16-positive samples in brain lower grade glioma (LGG). Further, recurrent HBV integration at the KMT2B locus is present in three liver tumors, but absent in their matched adjacent normal samples, indicating that viral integration induced host driver genetic alterations are required on top of viral oncogene expression for initiation and progression of liver hepatocellular carcinoma. Notably, viral integrations were found in many genes, including novel recurrent HPV integrations at PTPN13 in cervical cancer. Finally, we observed a set of HHV4 and HBV variants strongly associated with ethnic groups, likely due to viral sequence evolution under environmental influences. These findings provide important new insights into viral roles of tumor initiation and progression and potential new therapeutic targets. PMID:27339696

  6. Effects of radiotherapy on uveal melanomas and adjacent tissues

    PubMed Central

    Groenewald, C; Konstantinidis, L; Damato, B

    2013-01-01

    Most uveal melanomas are treated with radiotherapy. An adequate understanding of the effects of radiation on the tumour and the healthy ocular tissues is necessary. Ionizing radiation damages cell membranes, organelles, and DNA. Irradiated cells are lysed or undergo apoptosis, necrosis, and senescence. These effects occur in tumour cells and vascular endothelial cells, resulting in tumour shrinkage, ischaemia, infarction, exudation, and fibrosis, which can cause exudative maculopathy, serous retinal detachment, rubeosis, and neovascular glaucoma (ie, ‘toxic tumour syndrome'). Such abnormalities must be distinguished from collateral damage to healthy ocular tissues that receive high doses of radiation, and these include radiation-induced retinopathy, optic neuropathy, choroidopathy, cataract, and scleral necrosis. Radiation retinopathy can be treated effectively with photodynamic therapy, anti-angiogenic agents, and intravitreal steroid injections. In some patients, optic neuropathy may improve with intravitreal steroids or anti-angiogenic agents. Neovascular glaucoma resolves with intra-cameral bevacizumab. Exudative retinal detachment can regress with intra-vitreal steroid injections. Cataract is treated in the usual manner. Scleral necrosis, if severe, may require grafting, possibly using a lamellar flap from the same eye. Depending on the bulk of the residual toxic tumour, treatment can consist of intra-vitreal steroids and/or anti-angiogenic agents, transpupillary thermotherapy or photodynamic therapy to the tumour, or surgical removal of the tumour by endo- or exo-resection. Measures aimed at preventing collateral damage include eccentric placement of ruthenium plaques or iodine seeds and delivery of a notched proton beam. The decision to treat a uveal melanoma with radiotherapy requires the ability to manage iatrogenic side effects and complications. PMID:23196647

  7. Coexisiting adenoma and granuloma involving the right inferior parathyroid gland with adjacent ectopic thymic tissue

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Mayank; Kandasamy, Subramaniam

    2014-01-01

    Inflammatory lesions, particularly granulomas, involving adenoma of the parathyroid gland are rare. Ectopic thymic tissue is commonly associated with the thyroid and/or parathyroid gland due to their close embryonic relationship. We report a rare case of coexisting adenoma and granuloma of the parathyroid gland with adjacent ectopic thymic tissue. PMID:24957592

  8. Matrix metalloproteinase-1 expression in breast cancer and cancer-adjacent tissues by immunohistochemical staining.

    PubMed

    Xuan, Jiajia; Zhang, Yunfeng; Zhang, Xiujun; Hu, Fen

    2015-05-01

    Although matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) has been considered a factor of crucial importance for breast cancer cells invasion and metastasis, the expression of MMP-1 in different breast cancer and cancer-adjacent tissues have not been fully examined. In the present study, immunohistochemical staining was used to detect the MMP-1 expression in non-specific invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast, cancer-adjacent normal breast tissue, lymph node metastatic non-specific invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast and normal lymph node tissue. The results showed that MMP-1 expression is different in the above tissues. MMP-1 had a positive expression in normal lymph node tissue and lymph node metastatic non-specific invasive ductal carcinoma. The MMP-1 negative expression rate was only 6.1% in non-specific invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast and 2.9% in cancer-adjacent normal breast tissue respectively. MMP-1 expression is higher in non-specific invasive ductal carcinoma and lymph node metastatic non-specific invasive ductal carcinoma compared to cancer-adjacent normal breast tissue and normal lymph node tissue. In conclusion, higher expression of MMP-1 in breast cancer may play a crucial role in promoting breast cancer metastasis.

  9. Matrix metalloproteinase-1 expression in breast cancer and cancer-adjacent tissues by immunohistochemical staining

    PubMed Central

    XUAN, JIAJIA; ZHANG, YUNFENG; ZHANG, XIUJUN; HU, FEN

    2015-01-01

    Although matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) has been considered a factor of crucial importance for breast cancer cells invasion and metastasis, the expression of MMP-1 in different breast cancer and cancer-adjacent tissues have not been fully examined. In the present study, immunohistochemical staining was used to detect the MMP-1 expression in non-specific invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast, cancer-adjacent normal breast tissue, lymph node metastatic non-specific invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast and normal lymph node tissue. The results showed that MMP-1 expression is different in the above tissues. MMP-1 had a positive expression in normal lymph node tissue and lymph node metastatic non-specific invasive ductal carcinoma. The MMP-1 negative expression rate was only 6.1% in non-specific invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast and 2.9% in cancer-adjacent normal breast tissue respectively. MMP-1 expression is higher in non-specific invasive ductal carcinoma and lymph node metastatic non-specific invasive ductal carcinoma compared to cancer-adjacent normal breast tissue and normal lymph node tissue. In conclusion, higher expression of MMP-1 in breast cancer may play a crucial role in promoting breast cancer metastasis. PMID:26137243

  10. Expression Quantitative Trait loci (QTL) in tumor adjacent normal breast tissue and breast tumor tissue.

    PubMed

    Quiroz-Zárate, Alejandro; Harshfield, Benjamin J; Hu, Rong; Knoblauch, Nick; Beck, Andrew H; Hankinson, Susan E; Carey, Vincent; Tamimi, Rulla M; Hunter, David J; Quackenbush, John; Hazra, Aditi

    2017-01-01

    We investigate 71 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified in meta-analytic studies of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of breast cancer, the majority of which are located in intergenic or intronic regions. To explore regulatory impacts of these variants we conducted expression quantitative loci (eQTL) analyses on tissue samples from 376 invasive postmenopausal breast cancer cases in the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) diagnosed from 1990-2004. Expression analysis was conducted on all formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue samples (and on 264 adjacent normal samples) using the Affymetrix Human Transcriptome Array. Significance and ranking of associations between tumor receptor status and expression variation was preserved between NHS FFPE and TCGA fresh-frozen sample sets (Spearman r = 0.85, p<10^-10 for 17 of the 21 Oncotype DX recurrence signature genes). At an FDR threshold of 10%, we identified 27 trans-eQTLs associated with expression variation in 217 distinct genes. SNP-gene associations can be explored using an open-source interactive browser distributed in a Bioconductor package. Using a new a procedure for testing hypotheses relating SNP content to expression patterns in gene sets, defined as molecular function pathways, we find that loci on 6q14 and 6q25 affect various gene sets and molecular pathways (FDR < 10%). Although the ultimate biological interpretation of the GWAS-identified variants remains to be uncovered, this study validates the utility of expression analysis of this FFPE expression set for more detailed integrative analyses.

  11. Expression Quantitative Trait loci (QTL) in tumor adjacent normal breast tissue and breast tumor tissue

    PubMed Central

    Quiroz-Zárate, Alejandro; Harshfield, Benjamin J.; Hu, Rong; Knoblauch, Nick; Beck, Andrew H.; Hankinson, Susan E.; Carey, Vincent; Tamimi, Rulla M.; Hunter, David J.; Quackenbush, John; Hazra, Aditi

    2017-01-01

    We investigate 71 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified in meta-analytic studies of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of breast cancer, the majority of which are located in intergenic or intronic regions. To explore regulatory impacts of these variants we conducted expression quantitative loci (eQTL) analyses on tissue samples from 376 invasive postmenopausal breast cancer cases in the Nurses’ Health Study (NHS) diagnosed from 1990–2004. Expression analysis was conducted on all formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue samples (and on 264 adjacent normal samples) using the Affymetrix Human Transcriptome Array. Significance and ranking of associations between tumor receptor status and expression variation was preserved between NHS FFPE and TCGA fresh-frozen sample sets (Spearman r = 0.85, p<10^-10 for 17 of the 21 Oncotype DX recurrence signature genes). At an FDR threshold of 10%, we identified 27 trans-eQTLs associated with expression variation in 217 distinct genes. SNP-gene associations can be explored using an open-source interactive browser distributed in a Bioconductor package. Using a new a procedure for testing hypotheses relating SNP content to expression patterns in gene sets, defined as molecular function pathways, we find that loci on 6q14 and 6q25 affect various gene sets and molecular pathways (FDR < 10%). Although the ultimate biological interpretation of the GWAS-identified variants remains to be uncovered, this study validates the utility of expression analysis of this FFPE expression set for more detailed integrative analyses. PMID:28152060

  12. Screening of the residual normal ovarian tissue adjacent to orthotopic epithelial ovarian carcinomas in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Zhu, G H; Wang, S T; Yao, M Z; Cai, J H; Chen, C Y; Yang, Z X; Hong, L; Yang, S Y

    2014-04-16

    The objective of this study was to explore the feasibility and methods of screening the residual normal ovarian tissue adjacent to orthotopic ovarian carcinomas in nude mice. Human epithelial ovarian cancer cells (OVCAR3) were subcutaneously implanted for a tumor source and ovarian orthotopic transplantation. The cancer tissue, proximal paraneoplastic tissue, middle paraneoplastic tissue, remote paraneoplastic tissue, and normal ovarian tissue were removed. CK-7, CA125, p53, survivin, MMP-2, and TIMP-2 expression was detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. We obtained 35 paraneoplastic residual ovarian tissues with normal biopsies from 40 cases of an orthotopic epithelial ovarian carcinoma model (87.5%). CK-7, CA125, p53, survivin, MMP-2, and TIMP-2 expression was lower in proximal paraneoplastic tissue than in cancer tissue (P < 0.05) and higher than in middle and remote paraneoplastic tissue (P < 0.01). There was no statistically significant difference between the expression of these genes in middle and proximal paraneoplastic tissue as well as among residual normal ovarian tissues with different severity (P > 0.05). In ovarian tissues of 20 normal nude mice, the expression of CK- 7, CA125, p53, survivin, MMP-2, and TIMP-2 was negative. Overall, the expression levels of CK-7, CA125, p53, survivin, MMP-2, TIMP-2, and other molecular markers showed a decreasing trend in the non-cancer tissue direction. The expression levels can be used as standards to screen residual normal ovarian tissue. We can obtain relatively safe normal ovarian tissues adjacent to epithelial ovarian cancer.

  13. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis on frozen tumour tissue sections.

    PubMed Central

    Boultwood, J.; Kaklamanis, L.; Gatter, K. C.; Wainscoat, J. S.

    1992-01-01

    The application of pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) to the molecular genetic analysis of solid tumours has been restricted by the requirement for whole single cells as a DNA source. A simple technique which allows for the direct analysis of histologically characterised solid tumour material by pulsed field gel electrophoresis was developed. Single frozen tissue sections obtained from colonic carcinoma specimens were embedded without further manipulation in molten, low melting temperature agarose. The tumour DNA contained within the agarose plug was subjected to restriction enzyme digestion and PFGE. Sufficient high molecular weight DNA is yielded by this method to obtain a hybridisation signal with a single copy probe. Histological examination of adjacent tissue sections may also be carried out, permitting correlation between molecular analysis and tumour histology. Images PMID:1401187

  14. Spatiotemporal morphometry of adjacent tissue layers with application to the study of sulcal formation

    PubMed Central

    Rajagopalan, Vidya; Scott, Julia; Habas, Piotr A.; Kim, Kio; Rousseau, Francois; Glenn, Orit A.; Barkovich, A. James; Studholme, Colin

    2012-01-01

    The process of brain growth involves the expansion of tissue at different rates at different points within the brain. As the layers within the developing brain evolve they can thicken or increase in area as the brain surface begins to fold. In this work we propose a new spatiotemporal formulation of tensor based volume morphometry that is derived in relation to tissue boundaries. This allows the study of the directional properties of tissue growth by separately characterizing the changes in area and thickness of the adjacent layers. The approach uses temporally weighted, local regression across a population of anatomies with different ages to model changes in components of the growth radial and tangential to the boundary between tissue layers. The formulation is applied to the study of sulcal formation from in-utero MR imaging of human fetal brain anatomy. Results show that the method detects differential growth of tissue layers adjacent to the cortical surface, particularly at sulcal locations, as early as 22 gestational weeks. PMID:21995063

  15. Expression of albumin, IGF-1, IGFBP-3 in tumor tissues and adjacent non-tumor tissues of hepatocellular carcinoma patients with cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Shi-Min; Tan, Wei-Min; Deng, Wei-Xiong; Zhuang, Si-Min; Luo, Jian-Wei

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To explore the expression of albumin (ALB), insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1, and insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP)-3 in tumor tissues and adjacent non-tumor tissues of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients with cirrhosis. METHODS: Twenty-four HCC patients with cirrhosis who underwent hepatectomy were studied. ALB mRNA, IGF-1 mRNA, and IGFBP-3 mRNA in liver tissues (including tumor tissues and adjacent non-tumor tissues) were detected by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Liver Ki67 immunohistochemistry staining was studied. At the same time, 12 patients with cholelithiasis or liver angioma who underwent operation were segregated as normal control. RESULTS: In HCC patients with cirrhosis, hepatic ALB mRNA, IGF-1 mRNA, and IGFBP-3 mRNA of tumor tissues or adjacent non-tumor tissues were lower than the normal liver tissues, while in tumor tissues, hepatic ALB mRNA and IGFBP-3 mRNA were lower, hepatic IGF-1 mRNA was higher than in adjacent non-tumor tissues. Liver Ki67 labeling index (Ki67 LI) in tumor tissues or adjacent non-tumor tissues were higher than that in the normal liver tissues, while in tumor tissues it was higher than that in adjacent non-tumor tissues. CONCLUSION: Imbalance of IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 may play a role in hepatocarcinogenesis and tumor development of liver cirrhosis patients. PMID:16015705

  16. CRLX101 nanoparticles localize in human tumors and not in adjacent, nonneoplastic tissue after intravenous dosing

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Andrew J.; Wiley, Devin T.; Zuckerman, Jonathan E.; Webster, Paul; Chao, Joseph; Lin, James; Yen, Yun; Davis, Mark E.

    2016-01-01

    Nanoparticle-based therapeutics are being used to treat patients with solid tumors. Whereas nanoparticles have been shown to preferentially accumulate in solid tumors of animal models, there is little evidence to prove that intact nanoparticles localize to solid tumors of humans when systemically administered. Here, tumor and adjacent, nonneoplastic tissue biopsies are obtained through endoscopic capture from patients with gastric, gastroesophageal, or esophageal cancer who are administered the nanoparticle CRLX101. Both the pre- and postdosing tissue samples adjacent to tumors show no definitive evidence of either the nanoparticle or its drug payload (camptothecin, CPT) contained within the nanoparticle. Similar results are obtained from the predosing tumor samples. However, in nine of nine patients that were evaluated, CPT is detected in the tumor tissue collected 24–48 h after CRLX101 administration. For five of these patients, evidence of the intact deposition of CRLX101 nanoparticles in the tumor tissue is obtained. Indications of CPT pharmacodynamics from tumor biomarkers such as carbonic anhydrase IX and topoisomerase I by immunohistochemistry show clear evidence of biological activity from the delivered CPT in the posttreatment tumors. PMID:27001839

  17. Histopathological effects of intraoperative radiotherapy on pancreas and adjacent tissues: a postmortem analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Hoekstra, H.J.; Restrepo, C.; Kinsella, T.J.; Sindelar, W.F.

    1988-02-01

    Intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) has been utilized in the treatment of resectable and unresectable pancreatic carcinoma at the National Cancer Institute. Detailed autopsy analyses of the radiation effects on the pancreas and adjacent tissues were performed on 13 patients dying at various times following therapy. IORT can induce a progressive retroperitoneal fibrosis and fibrosis of the porta hepatis in patients with resectable pancreatic carcinoma. In unresectable pancreatic carcinoma, the major expression of intraoperative irradiation with external beam irradiation is a progressive fibrosis of the pancreas with vascular sclerosis, nerve degeneration, atrophy of acinar cells, and atypical changes in the ducts of the pancreas, as well as degenerative changes of the pancreatic tumor.

  18. Direct imaging of elemental distributions in tissue sections by laser ablation mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Shariatgorji, Mohammadreza; Nilsson, Anna; Bonta, Maximilian; Gan, Jinrui; Marklund, Niklas; Clausen, Fredrik; Källback, Patrik; Loden, Henrik; Limbeck, Andreas; Andrén, Per E

    2016-07-15

    We present a strategy for imaging of elements in biological tissues using laser ablation (LA) mass spectrometry (MS), which was compared to laser ablation inductively coupled plasma (LA-ICP) MS. Both methods were adopted for quantitative imaging of elements in mouse kidney, as well as traumatic brain injury model tissue sections. MS imaging (MSI) employing LA provides quantitative data by comparing signal abundances of sodium from tissues to those obtained by imaging quantitation calibration standards of the target element applied to adjacent control tissue sections. LA-ICP MSI provided quantitative data for several essential elements in both brain and kidney tissue sections using a dried-droplet approach. Both methods were used to image a rat model of traumatic brain injury, revealing accumulations of sodium and calcium in the impact area and its peripheral regions. LA MSI is shown to be a viable option for quantitative imaging of specific elements in biological tissue sections.

  19. Early Growth Response1and Fatty Acid Synthase Expression is Altered in Tumor Adjacent Prostate Tissue and Indicates Field Cancerization

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Anna C.; Trujillo, Kristina A.; Phillips, Genevieve K.; Fleet, Trisha M.; Murton, Jaclyn K.; Severns, Virginia; Shah, Satyan K.; Davis, Michael S.; Smith, Anthony Y.; Griffith, Jeffrey K.; Fischer, Edgar G.; Bisoffi, Marco

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND Field cancerization denotes the occurrence of molecular alterations in histologically normal tissues adjacent to tumors. In prostate cancer, identification of field cancerization has several potential clinical applications. However, prostate field cancerization remains ill defined. Our previous work has shown up-regulated mRNA of the transcription factor early growth response 1 (EGR-1) and the lipogenic enzyme fatty acid synthase (FAS) in tissues adjacent to prostate cancer. METHODS Immunofluorescence data were analyzed quantitatively by spectral imaging and linear unmixing to determine the protein expression levels of EGR-1 and FAS in human cancerous, histologically normal adjacent, and disease-free prostate tissues. RESULTS EGR-1 expression was elevated in both structurally intact tumor adjacent (1.6× on average) and in tumor (3.0× on average) tissues compared to disease-free tissues. In addition, the ratio of cytoplasmic versus nuclear EGR-1 expression was elevated in both tumor adjacent and tumor tissues. Similarly, FAS expression was elevated in both tumor adjacent (2.7× on average) and in tumor (2.5× on average) compared to disease-free tissues. CONCLUSIONS EGR-1 and FAS expression is similarly deregulated in tumor and structurally intact adjacent prostate tissues and defines field cancerization. In cases with high suspicion of prostate cancer but negative biopsy, identification of field cancerization could help clinicians target areas for repeat biopsy. Field cancerization at surgical margins on prostatectomy specimen should also be looked at as a predictor of cancer recurrence. EGR-1 and FAS could also serve as molecular targets for chemoprevention. PMID:22127986

  20. Tookad-mediated photodynamic effects on the prostate and its adjacent tissues: in vivo study in canine models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zheng; Chen, Qun; Luck, David; Beckers, Jill; Blanc, Dominique; Hetzel, Fred W.

    2005-04-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) mediated with a vascular acting photosensitizer Tookad (pd-bacteriopheophorbide), was investigated as an alternative treatment modality for prostate cancer. Tookad photodynamic effects on the prostate and its adjacent tissues were evaluated in canine models. Interstitial prostate PDT was performed by irradiating individual lobes with a diode laser (763 nm) and 1-cm cylindrical diffuser fibers at various light doses to activate the IV administered photosensitizer Tookad (1 - 2 mg/kg). The sensitivity of the adjacent tissues to Tookad-PDT was determined by superficially irradiating the surfaces of the bladder, colon, abdominal muscle and pelvic plexus with a microlens fiber at various drug/light doses. PDT effect on the prostatic urethra was evaluated by transurethral irradiation. The prostate and adjacent tissues were harvested one-week after the treatment and subjected to histopathologic examination. At one-week post interstitial prostate PDT, the animals recovered well with little or no urethral complications. PDT induced prostate lesions were characterized by marked hemorrhagic necrosis. The bladder, colon, abdominal muscle and pelvic plexus, appeared to also be sensitive to Tookad-PDT at light dose levels greater than 40 Jcm2. Urethral mucosa appeared less sensitive to Tookad-PDT. In conclusion, Tookad-mediated PDT demonstrates very strong vascular effects and can provide an effective alternative for the treatment of localized prostate cancer. Protection of the adjacent tissues should be taken into consideration in the total prostate ablation process due to their sensitivity to the Tookad-mediated PDT.

  1. Remodelling of periodontal tissues adjacent to sites treated according to the principles of guided tissue regeneration (GTR).

    PubMed

    Brägger, U; Hämmerle, C H; Mombelli, A; Bürgin, W; Lang, N P

    1992-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the remodelling of alveolar bone adjacent to periodontal sites following therapy according to the principles of guided tissue regeneration (GTR) using computer-assisted densitometric image analysis (CADIA), and to compare the radiographic results to traditional clinical parameters. As required for digital subtraction analyses, periodically reproducible radiographs were obtained using a modification of the Rinn System and individual acrylic bite blocks for periodical identical radiographs. Ideally, a digital subtraction image from a site where absolutely no change in density had occurred would show a perfect cancellation of the structures. An average grey level value of 128 (the middle of the digitizer grey level range set by software) would show up at each pixel. Areas with grey levels < 128 in the subtraction image would indicate loss in density and grey levels > 128 would indicate increase in density. Within the subtraction images, areas were defined using the cursor to draw "regions of interest" (ROI) projected on the bony defect exposed to GTR covering the crestal bone as well as the region of potential "bonefill". The mean, median, the standard deviation and range of the grey levels of pixels within a particular ROI were calculated. Similarly sized ROI were drawn in bone areas not exposed to the GTR procedure serving as controls. The differences in the mean grey levels of all pixels within a particular ROI between the baseline, 3 and 12 months images were calculated for documentation of gain or loss in density. From 14 patients, standardized radiographs were available from baseline, 3 months and 12 months postsurgically, depicting one infraosseous defect before and after treatment according to the principles of GTR. The densitometric changes observed in these defects were compared to the clinically assessed changes measured at the site with the deepest baseline pocket depth. A mean clinical attachment gain of 2.36 mm

  2. A Thermal Monitoring Sheet with Low Influence from Adjacent Waterbolus for Tissue Surface Thermometry during Clinical Hyperthermia

    PubMed Central

    Arunachalam, K.; Maccarini, P.F.; Stauffer, P. R.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a complete thermal analysis of a novel conformal surface thermometer design with directional sensitivity for real time temperature monitoring during hyperthermia treatments of large superficial cancer. The thermal monitoring sheet (TMS) discussed in this paper consists of a two-dimensional array of fiberoptic sensors embedded between two layers of flexible, low loss and thermally conductive printed circuit board (PCB) film. Heat transfer across all interfaces from the tissue surface through multiple layers of insulating dielectrics surrounding the small buried temperature sensor and into an adjacent temperature regulated water coupling bolus was studied using 3D thermal simulation software. Theoretical analyses were carried out to identify the most effective differential TMS probe configuration possible with commercially available flexible PCB materials, and to compare their thermal responses with omni-directional probes commonly used in clinical hyperthermia. A TMS sensor design that employs 0.0508m Kapton MTB® and 0.2032 mm Kapton HN® flexible polyimide films is proposed for tissue surface thermometry with low influence from the adjacent waterbolus. Comparison of the thermal simulations with clinical probes indicate the new differential TMS probe design to outperform in terms of both transient response and steady state accuracy in selectively reading the tissue surface temperature, while decreasing the overall thermal barrier of the probe between the coupling waterbolus and tissue surface. PMID:18838365

  3. Near-infrared optical coefficients of tumors and adjacent normal tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laufer, Jan G.

    2001-06-01

    The absorption and reduced scattering coefficients of tumours of the human breast, liver and kidney and their normal surrounding tissue have been measured in vitro for the near-infrared wavelengths between 600 and 1000 nm as well as 1064 nm. The Monte Carlo inversion technique (Simpson et al) was used to determine the optical coefficients of tissue samples from measurements of the diffuse transmittance and reflectance. The measurements of the diffusely transmitted and reflected intensities were performed using a single integrating sphere 'comparison' method. Four post-mortem samples of both liver adenocarcinoma and normal liver tissue were obtained from one subject and four samples of both tumour and normal kidney tissue were obtained from another subject. Four samples of both breast tumour and normal tissue were obtained from two patients. The scattering coefficient of tumours was found in each case to be significantly higher than that of nondiseased tissue. The absorption coefficient of tumours was generally much smaller than those of normal tissue. The scattering coefficient of tumours was 20% to 200% higher depending on the type of cancer and the wavelength, while the absorption coefficient of tumours was as much as twenty times smaller compared to normal tissue.

  4. Automatic segmentation of histological structures in mammary gland tissue sections

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez-Gonzalez, Rodrigo; Deschamps, Thomas; Idica, Adam K.; Malladi, Ravikanth; Ortiz de Solorzano, Carlos

    2004-02-17

    Real-time three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of epithelial structures in human mammary gland tissue blocks mapped with selected markers would be an extremely helpful tool for breast cancer diagnosis and treatment planning. Besides its clear clinical application, this tool could also shed a great deal of light on the molecular basis of breast cancer initiation and progression. In this paper we present a framework for real-time segmentation of epithelial structures in two-dimensional (2D) images of sections of normal and neoplastic mammary gland tissue blocks. Complete 3D rendering of the tissue can then be done by surface rendering of the structures detected in consecutive sections of the blocks. Paraffin embedded or frozen tissue blocks are first sliced, and sections are stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin. The sections are then imaged using conventional bright field microscopy and their background is corrected using a phantom image. We then use the Fast-Marching algorithm to roughly extract the contours of the different morphological structures in the images. The result is then refined with the Level-Set method which converges to an accurate (sub-pixel) solution for the segmentation problem. Finally, our system stacks together the 2D results obtained in order to reconstruct a 3D representation of the entire tissue block under study. Our method is illustrated with results from the segmentation of human and mouse mammary gland tissue samples.

  5. Quantitative Assessment of First Annular Pulley and Adjacent Tissues Using High-Frequency Ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yi-Hsun; Yang, Tai-Hua; Wang, Shyh-Hau; Su, Fong-Chin

    2017-01-01

    Due to a lack of appropriate image resolution, most ultrasound scanners are unable to sensitively discern the pulley tissues. To extensively investigate the properties of the A1 pulley system and the surrounding tissues for assessing trigger finger, a 30 MHz ultrasound system was implemented to perform in vitro experiments using the hypodermis, A1 pulley, and superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT) dissected from cadavers. Ultrasound signals were acquired from both the transverse and sagittal planes of each tissue sample. The quantitative ultrasonic parameters, including sound speed, attenuation coefficient, integrated backscatter (IB) and Nakagami parameter (m), were subsequently estimated to characterize the tissue properties. The results demonstrated that the acquired ultrasound images have high resolution and are able to sufficiently differentiate the variations of tissue textures. Moreover, the attenuation slope of the hypodermis is larger than those of the A1 pulley and SDFT. The IB of A1 pulley is about the same as that of the hypodermis, and is very different from SDFT. The m parameter of the A1 pulley is also very different from those of hypodermis and SDFT. This study demonstrated that high-frequency ultrasound images in conjunction with ultrasonic parameters are capable of characterizing the A1 pulley system and surrounding tissues. PMID:28067854

  6. Comparison of transflection and transmission FTIR imaging measurements performed on differentially fixed tissue sections.

    PubMed

    Perez-Guaita, David; Heraud, Philip; Marzec, Katarzyna M; de la Guardia, Miguel; Kiupel, Matti; Wood, Bayden R

    2015-04-07

    The widespread and cost-effective use of transflection substrates in Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) imaging of clinical samples is affected by the presence of artefacts including the electric field standing wave (EFSW) and contributions from light dispersion. For IR-based diagnostics, the manifestation of undesirable artifacts can distort the spectra and lead to erroneous diagnosis. Nevertheless, there is no clear consensus in the literature about the degree of influence of these effects. The aim of this work is to contribute to this discussion by comparing transflection and transmission images of the same tissue. For this purpose two adjacent sections of the same tissue (lymphoma sample) were fixed onto a CaF2 window and a transflective slide for FTIR imaging. The samples in this case had a central area where based on morphology it was presumed the fixative did not penetrate to the same extent hence providing a comparable region for the two different substrates with a distinct physical/chemical difference. Transmission and transflection spectra from adjacent hyperspectral tissue images were combined in an extended dataset. Surprisingly, unsupervised hierarchical cluster analysis clustered together transflection and transmission spectra, being classified according to differences in tissue fixation instead of the geometry employed for the image acquisition. A more detailed examination of spectra from the peripheral zone of the tissue indicated that the main differences between the transflection and transmission spectra were: (1) a small shift of the amide I, (2) a larger "noise" component in the transflection spectra requiring more averaging to obtain representative spectra of tissue types, and (3) the phosphate bands were generally higher in absorbance in the transflection measurements compared to the transmission ones. The amide I shift and the larger spectral variance was consistent with results obtained in previous studies where the EFWS was present. The

  7. Tracking tissue section surfaces for automated 3D confocal cytometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agustin, Ramses; Price, Jeffrey H.

    2002-05-01

    Three-dimensional cytometry, whereby large volumes of tissue would be measured automatically, requires a computerized method for detecting the upper and lower tissue boundaries. In conventional confocal microscopy, the user interactively sets limits for axial scanning for each field-of-view. Biological specimens vary in section thickness, thereby driving the requirement for setting vertical scan limits. Limits could be set arbitrarily large to ensure the entire tissue is scanned, but automatic surface identification would eliminate storing undue numbers of empty optical sections and forms the basis for incorporating lateral microscope stage motion to collect unlimited numbers of stacks. This walk-away automation of 3D confocal scanning for biological imaging is the first sep towards practical, computerized statistical sampling from arbitrarily large tissue volumes. Preliminary results for automatic tissue surface tracking were obtained for phase-contrast microscopy by measuring focus sharpness (previously used for high-speed autofocus by our group). Measurements were taken from 5X5 fields-of-view from hamster liver sections, varying from five to twenty microns in thickness, then smoothed to lessen variations of in-focus information at each axial position. Because image sharpness (as the power of high spatial frequency components) drops across the axial boundaries of a tissue section, mathematical quantities including the full-width at half-maximum, extrema in the first derivative, and second derivative were used to locate the proximal and distal surfaces of a tissue. Results from these tests were evaluated against manual (i.e., visual) determination of section boundaries.

  8. Staining of Tissue Sections for Electron Microscopy with Heavy Metals

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Michael L.

    1958-01-01

    Heavy metals may be incorporated from solution into tissue sections for electron microscopy. The resulting increase in density of the tissue provides greatly enhanced contrast with minimal distortion. Relative densities of various structures are found to depend on the heavy metal ions present and on the conditions of staining. Certain hitherto unobserved details are revealed and some sort of specificity exists, although the factors involved are not yet understood. PMID:13563554

  9. Infrared microspectroscopic imaging of benign breast tumor tissue sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabian, H.; Lasch, P.; Boese, M.; Haensch, W.

    2003-12-01

    We have applied infrared microspectroscopic imaging for the examination of benign breast tumor tissue sections. The IR spectra of the sections were obtained by classical point microscopy with a movable stage and via a microscope equipped with a focal plane array detector. The infrared microscopic data were analysed using functional group mapping techniques and cluster analysis. The output values of the two procedures were reassembled into infrared images of the tissues, and were compared with standard staining images of the corresponding tissue region. The comparative examination of identical tissue sections by the two IR approaches enabled us to assess potential problems associated with tissue microheterogeneity. It was found that in case of fibroadenoma, a benign lesion located in breast ducts, point microscopy with a spot size of ˜30 μm is a useful practical approach which minimizes the possibility of 'contamination' of the spectra because of spectral averaging of all tissue components present in the corresponding microareas. A comparison of the spectra of the benign breast tumor with those of a malignant ductal carcinoma in situ revealed that IR microspectroscopy has the potential to differentiate between these two breast tumor types.

  10. Markers of fibrosis and epithelial to mesenchymal transition demonstrate field cancerization in histologically normal tissue adjacent to breast tumors

    PubMed Central

    Trujillo, Kristina A.; Heaphy, Christopher M.; Mai, Minh; Vargas, Keith M.; Jones, Anna C.; Vo, Phung; Butler, Kimberly S.; Joste, Nancy E.; Bisoffi, Marco; Griffith, Jeffrey K

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that a field of genetically altered but histologically normal tissue extends 1 cm or more from the margins of human breast tumors. The extent, composition and biological significance of this field are only partially understood, but the molecular alterations in affected cells could provide mechanisms for limitless replicative capacity, genomic instability and a microenvironment that supports tumor initiation and progression. We demonstrate by microarray, qRT-PCR and immunohistochemistry a signature of differential gene expression that discriminates between patient-matched, tumor-adjacent histologically normal breast tissues located 1 cm and 5 cm from the margins of breast adenocarcinomas (TAHN-1 and TAHN-5, respectively). The signature includes genes involved in extracellular matrix remodeling, wound healing, fibrosis and epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). Myofibroblasts, which are mediators of wound healing and fibrosis, and intra-lobular fibroblasts expressing MMP2, SPARC, TGF-β3, which are inducers of EMT, were both prevalent in TAHN-1 tissues, sparse in TAHN-5 tissues, and absent in normal tissues from reduction mammoplasty. Accordingly, EMT markers S100A4 and vimentin were elevated in both luminal and myoepithelial cells, and EMT markers α-smooth muscle actin and SNAIL were elevated in luminal epithelial cells of TAHN-1 tissues. These results identify cellular processes that are differentially activated between TAHN-1 and TAHN-5 breast tissues, implicate myofibroblasts as likely mediators of these processes, provide evidence that EMT is occurring in histologically normal tissues within the affected field and identify candidate biomarkers to investigate whether or how field cancerization contributes to the development of primary or recurrent breast tumors. PMID:21105047

  11. Evaluation of zinc finger E-box binding homeobox 1 and transforming growth factor-beta2 expression in bladder cancer tissue in comparison with healthy adjacent tissue

    PubMed Central

    Mahdavinezhad, Ali; Yadegarazari, Reza; Mousavi-Bahar, Seyed Habibollah; Poorolajal, Jalal; Jafari, Mohammad; Amirzargar, Mohammad Ali; Effatpanah, Hosein

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The fifth most common cancer is allocated to bladder cancer (BC) worldwide. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of BC invasion and metastasis to identify target therapeutic strategies will improve disease survival. So the aim of this study was to measure expression rate of zinc finger E-box binding homeobox 1 (ZEB1) and transforming growth factor-beta2 (TGF-β2) mRNA in tissue samples of patients with BC and its healthy adjacent tissue samples and their association with muscle invasion, size and grade of the tumor. Materials and Methods Tissue samples were collected from 35 newly diagnosed untreated patients with BC from 2013 to 2014. Total RNA was extracted from about 50-mg tissue samples using TRIzol reagent. TAKARA SYBR Premix EX Tag II was applied to determine the rate of mRNA expression by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). To obtain final validation, PCR product of ZEB1 and TGF-β2 were sequenced. STATA 11 software was used to analyze the data. Results The expression level of ZEB1 in tumor samples was significantly more than of in healthy adjacent tissue samples. Up-regulation of TGF-β2 showed a strong association with muscle invasion (p=0.017). There was also demonstrated a relationship between over expression of ZEB1 with the tumor size (p=0.050). Conclusions It looks ZEB1 and TGF-β2 had a role in BC patients. In this study ZEB1 expression was higher in BC tissues than that of in healthy control tissues. There was demonstrated a markedly association between overexpression of TGF-β2 and muscle invasion. Therefore, they are supposed to be candidate as potential biomarkers for early detection and progression of BC. PMID:28261684

  12. Immunofluorescence staining with frozen mouse or chick embryonic tissue sections.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Matise, Michael P

    2013-01-01

    Immunofluorescence (IF), a form of immunohistochemistry (IHC) with specific applications, is commonly used for both basic research and clinical studies, including diagnostics, and involves visualizing the cellular distribution of target molecules (e.g., proteins, DNA, and small molecules) using a microscope capable of exciting and detecting fluorochrome compounds that emit light at specific, largely nonoverlapping wavelengths. The procedure for carrying out IF varies according to the tissue type and methods for processing and preparing tissue (e.g., fixative used to preserve tissue morphology and antigenicity). The protocol presented here provides a general guideline for multichannel IF staining using frozen embryonic mouse or chicken tissue sectioned on a cryostat. In general, the procedure involves the following: (1) fixing freshly dissected tissues in a 4 % paraformaldehyde solution buffered in the physiological pH range, (2) cryopreservation of tissue in a 30 % sucrose solution, (3) embedding and sectioning tissue in Optimal Cutting Temperature (OCT) matrix compound, (4) direct or indirect detection of the target antigen/s using fluorochrome-conjugated antibodies.

  13. Clinical evaluation of expanded mesh connective tissue graft in the treatment for multiple adjacent gingival recessions in the esthetic zone

    PubMed Central

    Shanmugam, M.; Shivakumar, B.; Meenapriya, B.; Anitha, V.; Ashwath, B.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Multiple approaches have been used to replace lost, damaged or diseased gingival tissues. The connective tissue graft (CTG) procedure is the golden standard method for root coverage. Although multiple sites often need grafting, the palatal mucosa supplies only a limited area of grafting material. To overcome this limitation, expanded mesh graft provides a method whereby a graft can be stretched to cover a large area. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and the predictability of expanded mesh CTG (e-MCTG) in the treatment of adjacent multiple gingival recessions. Materials and Methods: Sixteen patients aged 20–50 years contributed to 55 sites, each site falling into at least three adjacent Miller's Class 1 or Class 2 gingival recession. The CTG obtained from the palatal mucosa was expanded to cover the recipient bed, which was 1.5 times larger than the graft. Clinical measurements were recorded at baseline and 3 months, 12 months postoperatively. Results: A mean coverage of 1.96 mm ± 0.66 mm and 2.22 mm ± 0.68 mm was obtained at the end of 3rd and 12th month, respectively. Twelve months after surgery a statistically significant increase in CAL (2.2 mm ± 0.68 mm, P < 0.001) and increasing WKT (1.75 ± 0.78, P < 0.001) were obtained. In 80% of the treated sites, 100% root coverage was achieved (mean 93.5%). Conclusions: The results of this study demonstrated that multiple adjacent recessions were treated by using e-MCTG technique can be applied and highly predictable root coverage can be achieved. PMID:26321829

  14. Enamel matrix derivative (emdogain) or subepithelial connective tissue graft for the treatment of adjacent multiple gingival recessions: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Alkan, Eylem Ayhan; Parlar, Ates

    2013-01-01

    One treatment approach for achieving healing by regeneration is the application of enamel matrix derivative (EMD) during periodontal surgery. The aim of this randomized clinical study was to compare the efficacy of EMD with a connective tissue graft (CTG) for the treatment of adjacent Miller Class l and II multiple gingival recessions. Twelve systemically healthy subjects with at least two Miller Class I or II multiple gingival recession defects affecting adjacent teeth on both sides of the mouth were enrolled. The surgical protocol was performed for both groups. The 56 recession defects were evaluated for recession depth (RD), recession width (RW), percentage of root coverage (PRC), height of keratinized tissue (HKT), probing depth (PD), and clinical attachment level (CAL). All measurements were repeated at 6 and 12 months. The mean PRC at the final evaluation was 89% ± 17% for the coronally advanced flap (CAF) + EMD group and 93% ± 17% for the CAF + CTG group. Both treatments resulted in statistically significant decreases in RD and RW and increases in HKT at 6 and 12 months. There was also a significant CAL gain for both groups. PD remained shallow over time. The results demonstrated that both procedures were successful in treating Miller Class I and II multiple gingival recessions; however, the greater results of the CAF + CTG group did not reach a statistically significant level.

  15. B-LINK: A hemicentin, plakin and integrin-dependent adhesion system that links tissues by connecting adjacent basement membranes

    PubMed Central

    Morrissey, Meghan A.; Keeley, Daniel P.; Hagedorn, Elliott J.; McClatchey, Shelly T. H.; Chi, Qiuyi; Hall, David H.; Sherwood, David R.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Basement membrane (BM), a sheet-like form of extracellular matrix, surrounds most tissues. During organogenesis specific adhesions between adjoining tissues frequently occur, however their molecular basis is unclear. Using live-cell imaging and electron microscopy we identify an adhesion system that connects the uterine and gonadal tissues through their juxtaposed BMs at the site of anchor cell (AC) invasion in C. elegans. We find that the extracellular matrix component hemicentin (HIM-4), found between BMs, forms punctate accumulations under the AC and controls BM linkage to promote rapid invasion. Through targeted screening we identify the integrin-binding cytolinker plakin (VAB-10A) and integrin (INA-1/PAT-3) as key BM-BM linkage regulators: VAB-10A localizes to the AC-BM interface and tethers hemicentin to the AC while integrin promotes hemicentin punctae formation. Together, plakin, integrin and hemicentin are founding components of a cell-directed adhesion system, which we name a B-LINK (Basement membrane-LINKage), that connects adjacent tissues through adjoining BMs. PMID:25443298

  16. Infrared imaging of normal and diseased cervical tissue sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Bayden R.; Bambery, Keith R.; Miller, Lisa M.; Quinn, Michael; Chiriboga, Luis; Diem, Max; McNaughton, Don

    2005-02-01

    Synchrotron FTIR maps, focal plane array and linear array images recorded of 4 μm cervical biopsy sections from the surface epithelium and glandular endometrium are compared in terms of spatial resolution and applicability to the clinical environment. Synchrotron FTIR maps using a 10 μm aperture appear to provide a better spatial resolution capable of discerning single nuclei in the tissue matrix. Unsupervised hierarchical cluster analysis performed on the synchrotron, focal plane array and linear array data in the 1700-1400 cm-1 region show very similar clusters and mean-extracted spectra, demonstrating the robustness of FTIR microscopy and UHCA in the analysis of tissue sections. Maps recorded with the focal plane array using a conventional globar source take one-fortieth of the time but the spatial resolution precludes true single cell analysis in the tissue matrix. The high spatial resolution achieved with the synchrotron shows potential as a gold standard for FTIR diagnosis of cervical samples.

  17. Comparative proteome analysis of human esophageal cancer and adjacent normal tissues

    PubMed Central

    Yazdian–Robati, Rezvan; Ahmadi, Homa; Riahi, Maryam Matbou; Lari, Parisa; Aledavood, Seyed Amir; Rashedinia, Marzieh; Abnous, Khalil; Ramezani, Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    Objective(s): Ranking as the sixth commonest cancer, esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) represents one of the leading causes of cancer death worldwide. One of the main reasons for the low survival of patients with esophageal cancer is its late diagnosis. Materials and Methods: We used proteomics approach to analyze ESCC tissues with the aim of a better understanding of the malignant mechanism and searching candidate protein biomarkers for early diagnosis of esophageal cancer. The differential protein expression between cancerous and normal esophageal tissues was investigated by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE). Then proteins were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ ionization tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS) and MASCOT web based search engine. Results: We reported 4 differentially expressed proteins involved in the pathological process of esophageal cancer, such as annexinA1 (ANXA1), peroxiredoxin-2 (PRDX2), transgelin (TAGLN) andactin-aortic smooth muscle (ACTA2). Conclusion: In this report we have introduced new potential biomarker (ACTA2). Moreover, our data confirmed some already known markers for EC in our region. PMID:28392898

  18. Breast Field Cancerization: Isolation and Comparison of Telomerase-Expressing Cells in Tumor and Tumor Adjacent, Histologically Normal Breast Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Trujillo, Kristina A.; Hines, William C.; Vargas, Keith M.; Jones, Anna C.; Joste, Nancy E.; Bisoffi, Marco; Griffith, Jeffrey K.

    2011-01-01

    Telomerase stabilizes chromosomes by maintaining telomere length, immortalizes mammalian cells, and is expressed in more than 90% of human tumors. However, the expression of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) is not restricted to tumor cells. We have previously shown that a subpopulation of human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) in tumor-adjacent, histologically normal (TAHN) breast tissues expresses hTERT mRNA at levels comparable with levels in breast tumors. In the current study, we first validated a reporter for measuring levels of hTERT promoter activity in early-passage HMECs and then used this reporter to compare hTERT promoter activity in HMECs derived from tumor and paired TAHN tissues 1, 3, and 5 cm from the tumor (TAHN-1, TAHN-3, and TAHN-5, respectively). Cell sorting, quantitative real-time PCR, and microarray analyses showed that the 10% of HMECs with the highest hTERT promoter activity in both tumor and TAHN-1 tissues contain more than 95% of hTERT mRNA and overexpress many genes involved in cell cycle and mitosis. The percentage of HMECs within this subpopulation showing high hTERT promoter activity was significantly reduced or absent in TAHN-3 and TAHN-5 tissues. We conclude that the field of normal tissue proximal to the breast tumors contains a population of HMECs similar in hTERT expression levels and in gene expression to the HMECs within the tumor mass and that this population is significantly reduced in tissues more distal to the tumor. PMID:21775421

  19. Monte Carlo assessment of computed tomography dose to tissue adjacent to the scanned volume.

    PubMed

    Boone, J M; Cooper, V N; Nemzek, W R; McGahan, J P; Seibert, J A

    2000-10-01

    The assessment of the radiation dose to internal organs or to an embryo or fetus is required on occasion for risk assessment or for comparing imaging studies. Limited resources hinder the ability to accurately assess the radiation dose received to locations outside the tissue volume actually scanned during computed tomography (CT). The purpose of this study was to assess peripheral doses and provide tabular data for dose evaluation. Validated Monte Carlo simulation techniques were used to compute the dose distribution along the length of water-equivalent cylindrical phantoms, 16 and 32 cm in diameter. For further validation, comparisons between physically measured and Monte Carlo-derived air kerma profiles were performed and showed excellent (1% to 2%) agreement. Polyenergetic x-ray spectra at 80, 100, 120, and 140 kVp with beam shaping filters were studied. Using 10(8) simulated photons input to the cylinders perpendicular to their long axis, line spread functions (LSF) of the dose distribution were determined at three depths in the cylinders (center, mid-depth, and surface). The LSF data were then used with appropriate mathematics to compute dose distributions along the long axis of the cylinder. The dose distributions resulting from helical (pitch = 1.0) scans and axial scans were approximately equivalent. Beyond about 3 cm from the edge of the CT scanned tissue volume, the fall-off of radiation dose was exponential. A series of tables normalized at 100 milliampere seconds (mAs) were produced which allow the straight-forward assessment of dose within and peripheral to the CT scanned volume. The tables should be useful for medical physicists and radiologists in the estimation of dose to sites beyond the edge of the CT scanned volume.

  20. Tissue section AFM: In situ ultrastructural imaging of native biomolecules

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Helen K.; Hodson, Nigel W.; Hoyland, Judith A.; Millward-Sadler, Sarah J.; Garrod, David; Scothern, Anthea; Griffiths, Christopher E.M.; Watson, Rachel E.B.; Cox, Thomas R.; Erler, Janine T.; Trafford, Andrew W.; Sherratt, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    Conventional approaches for ultrastructural high-resolution imaging of biological specimens induce profound changes in bio-molecular structures. By combining tissue cryo-sectioning with non-destructive atomic force microscopy (AFM) imaging we have developed a methodology that may be applied by the non-specialist to both preserve and visualize bio-molecular structures (in particular extracellular matrix assemblies) in situ. This tissue section AFM technique is capable of: i) resolving nm–µm scale features of intra- and extracellular structures in tissue cryo-sections; ii) imaging the same tissue region before and after experimental interventions; iii) combining ultrastructural imaging with complimentary microscopical and micromechanical methods. Here, we employ this technique to: i) visualize the macro-molecular structures of unstained and unfixed fibrillar collagens (in skin, cartilage and intervertebral disc), elastic fibres (in aorta and lung), desmosomes (in nasal epithelium) and mitochondria (in heart); ii) quantify the ultrastructural effects of sequential collagenase digestion on a single elastic fibre; iii) correlate optical (auto fluorescent) with ultrastructural (AFM) images of aortic elastic lamellae. PMID:20144712

  1. Immunohistochemical diagnosis of Neospora caninum in tissue sections.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, D S; Dubey, J P

    1989-11-01

    An avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex immunoperoxidase staining method was developed to detect Neospora caninum in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections. Specific antiserum to N caninum was made in rabbits and used to probe tissues from dogs naturally and experimentally infected with N caninum. The test detected tachyzoites and bradyzoites of N caninum. A reaction was not observed to Toxoplasma gondii, Hammondia hammondi, Sarcocystis cruzi, S capricanis, S tenella, Besnoitia jellisoni, Caryospora bigenetica, Hepatazoon canis, Atoxoplasma sp, or the organism causing canine dermal coccidiosis. When antiserum made in rabbits to T gondii was used in the test, reaction to N caninum was not observed.

  2. Immunohistochemical Expression of p16 and p21 in Pituitary Tissue Adjacent to Pituitary Adenoma versus Pituitary Tissue Obtained at Autopsy: Is There a Difference?

    PubMed

    Manojlovic Gacic, Emilija; Skender-Gazibara, Milica; Soldatovic, Ivan; Dundjerovic, Dusko; Boricic, Novica; Raicevic, Savo; Popovic, Vera

    2015-05-01

    Normal pituitary tissue is frequently used for comparison with protein expression in tumor tissue, being obtained either at surgery or at autopsy. p16 and p21 proteins are cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors, belonging to INK4 and Cip/Kip family, respectively. Their expression is increased in response to DNA damage or other cellular stressors, resulting in the activation of cell cycle checkpoints. They also play important roles in cellular senescence. The purpose of this study was to investigate differences in p16 and p21 immunohistochemical expression in normal pituitary tissue adjacent to pituitary adenoma obtained during neurosurgical procedure with pituitary tissue obtained at autopsy, from patients who died from non-endocrinological diseases. Our results show significant difference in p16 nuclear and p21 cytoplasmic immunohistochemical expression between two types of normal pituitary tissues. One of the reasons for this difference could be the age of subjects because those who underwent autopsy for a non-endocrinological disease were significantly older than subjects who underwent neurosurgery for a pituitary adenoma. Our finding that differences are probably not influenced by postmortem changes is supported by no significant correlation between postmortem interval and immunohistochemical p16 and p21 expression. The influence of the presence of a pituitary adenoma could not be evaluated in these specimens.

  3. Study of the response of osteogenic sarcoma and adjacent normal tissues to radiation. [/sup 60/Co

    SciTech Connect

    Gaitan-Yanguas, M.

    1981-05-01

    An analysis is made of the surgical specimens of 18 patients with hystologically-proven osteosarcoma who were treated with radiation as the first treatment, and submitted 6 months later to amputation (2 patients had only a second biopsy). Plotting of dose and treatment time against persistence or sterilization of the tumor shows that there is an intermediate zone that extends from 3200 to 5000 rad in 10 days to 8000 to 10,000 rad in 60 to 70 days, inside which the tumor may or may not be destroyed. All cases located above this zone were sterilized; and all those under it showed persistence of viable tumor cells. A similar correlation is made in 47 irradiated patients of the secondary reactions of normal skin and soft tissues surrounding the tumor. An intermediate zone also exists above which all reactions were severe, in some cases reaching necrosis; below this zone, all reactions were mild. When treatment time was longer than 45 days, reactions were only moderate.

  4. Lead in tissues of woodchucks fed crown vetch growing adjacent to a highway

    SciTech Connect

    Young, R.W.; Ridgely, S.L.; Blue, J.T.; Bache, C.A.; Lisk, D.J.

    1986-01-01

    Woodchucks (Marmota monax) were fed crown vetch (Coronilla varia) growing along a major highway that was harvested in 1979, before unleaded gas was widely used, and again in 1985. Crown vetch, harvested 300 m from the nearest road, was fed as the control. The crops were fed as 50% dry weight of the diet for 58 d. The concentrations of lead in the control, 1979 crop, and 1985 crop were, respectively, 0.74, 50.65, and 6.78 ppm dry weight. The average +/- SE) concentrations (ppm, dry weight) of lead found in the tissues of the control, 1979, and 1985 dietary-treatment animals were, respectively, kidney, 0.36 +/- 0.05, 5.78 +/- 0.72, and 0.79 +/- 0.09; liver, 0.09 +/- 0.01, 4.71 +/- 0.17, and 0.46 +/- 0.06; muscle, 0.07 +/- 0.01, 0.14 +/- 0.02, and 0.07 +/- 0.00; blood, 0.09 +/- 0.02, 2.17 +/- 0.13, and 0.31 +/- 0.05; and bone, 1.27 +/- 0.25, 47.52 +/- 7.05, and 3.71 +/- 0.65. No significant differences (p greater than 0.05) between dietary treatments were found in the general hematological analyses of the woodchucks. The ecological significance of these findings is discussed.

  5. Controlled ultrasonic micro-dissection of thin tissue sections.

    PubMed

    Ru, Changhai; Liu, Jun; Pang, Ming; Sun, Yu

    2014-08-01

    In order to obtain sufficient quantities of pure populations of cells or a single cell from surrounding tissue for analytical investigation, we have developed an ultrasonic microdissection system. The system utilizes a vision-based method for detecting the contact between the microdissection needle tip and a target surface. A multilayer stack piezoelectric actuator is employed to generate ultrasonic vibrations for histological isolation. Automated micro-dissection is also realized using visual feedback and vision-based control. Experimental results on tumor tissue sections show that the system has a high dissection accuracy and efficiency and is able to realize dissecting arbitrary shapes in specified locations on a tissue sample. Furthermore, effects in variations of vibration amplitude and frequency of ultrasonic micro-dissection as well as needle insertion depths on micro-dissection accuracy and speed were evaluated.

  6. LOW TEMPERATURE ULTRAMICROINCINERATION OF THIN-SECTIONED TISSUE

    PubMed Central

    Hohman, Wayne; Schraer, Harald

    1972-01-01

    Low temperature ultramicroincineration was employed to determine the morphological localization of "structure-bound" mineral and/or metallic elements within biological cells at the electron microscope level. This technique chemically removes organic material from thin sections of tissues with reactive, excited oxygen instead of heat as used in a furnace. The remaining ash representing the mineral/metallic ultrastructure of cells is advantageous for ultrastructural studies because incineration without applying heat is less destructive than the burning associated with high temperatures. This low temperature incineration method was applied to thin-sectioned avian shell gland mucosa, a calcium transporting system, as a sample tissue. The results include: recognition of many subcellular organelles in the ash patterns, identification of dense, ash-containing granules (possibly organic-metallic complexes) in epithelial cells which may be involved in calcium transport, description of ashed erythrocytes and collagen, comparison of ashed glutaraldehyde fixed tissue with and without osmium postfixation, description of lead-stained cells after ashing, demonstration that ash preservation is dependent upon section thickness, illustration of the fine resolution obtainable because the ash residues remain relatively near their in situ origins, discussion of technical problems in this relatively new field, and demonstration of the presence of Ca and P in the ash with electron microprobe X-ray analysis. PMID:4116522

  7. Can Breast Tumors Affect the Oxidative Status of the Surrounding Environment? A Comparative Analysis among Cancerous Breast, Mammary Adjacent Tissue, and Plasma

    PubMed Central

    Panis, C.; Victorino, V. J.; Herrera, A. C. S. A.; Cecchini, A. L.; Simão, A. N. C.; Tomita, L. Y.; Cecchini, R.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we investigated the oxidative profile of breast tumors in comparison with their normal adjacent breast tissue. Our study indicates that breast tumors present enhanced oxidative/nitrosative stress, with concomitant augmented antioxidant capacity when compared to the adjacent normal breast. These data indicate that breast cancers may be responsible for the induction of a prooxidant environment in the mammary gland, in association with enhanced TNF-α and nitric oxide. PMID:26697139

  8. Can Breast Tumors Affect the Oxidative Status of the Surrounding Environment? A Comparative Analysis among Cancerous Breast, Mammary Adjacent Tissue, and Plasma.

    PubMed

    Panis, C; Victorino, V J; Herrera, A C S A; Cecchini, A L; Simão, A N C; Tomita, L Y; Cecchini, R

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we investigated the oxidative profile of breast tumors in comparison with their normal adjacent breast tissue. Our study indicates that breast tumors present enhanced oxidative/nitrosative stress, with concomitant augmented antioxidant capacity when compared to the adjacent normal breast. These data indicate that breast cancers may be responsible for the induction of a prooxidant environment in the mammary gland, in association with enhanced TNF-α and nitric oxide.

  9. Computer-Aided Detection of Prostate Cancer on Tissue Sections

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Yahui; Jiang, Yulei; Chuang, Shang-Tian; Yang, Ximing J.

    2009-01-01

    We report an automated computer technique for detection of prostate cancer in prostate tissue sections processed with immunohistochemistry. Two sets of color optical images were acquired from prostate tissue sections stained with a double-chromogen triple-antibody cocktail combining alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase (AMACR), p63, and high-molecular-weight cytokeratin (HMWCK). The first set of images consisted of 20 training images (10 malignant) used for developing the computer technique and 15 test images (7 malignant) used for testing and optimizing the technique. The second set of images consisted of 299 images (114 malignant) used for evaluation of the performance of the computer technique. The computer technique identified image segments of AMACR-labeled malignant epithelial cells (red), p63-and HMWCK-labeled benign basal cells (brown), and secretory and stromal cells (blue) for identifying prostate cancer automatically. The sensitivity and specificity of the computer technique were 94% (16/17) and 94% (17/18), respectively, on the first (training and test) set of images, and 88% (79/90) and 97% (136/140), respectively, on the second (validation) set of images. If high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN), which is a precursor of cancer, and atypical cases were included, the sensitivity and specificity were 85% (97/114) and 89% (165/185), respectively. These results show that the novel automated computer technique can accurately identify prostatic adenocarcinoma in the triple-antibody cocktail-stained prostate sections. PMID:19417626

  10. Characterizing microscopic domains of birefringence in thin tissue sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacques, Steven L.; Moody, Alex; Ramella-Roman, Jessica C.

    2001-07-01

    A tissue engineering problem that we anticipate will become increasingly of interest is how to grow protein layers and filaments in preferred orientations. For example, the polymerization of monomers into an oriented structure which may exert influence on adherent cells. In this paper, we report on an optical solution using polarized light measurements to probe the structure and orientation of fibers. In particular in this initial study, we measure the fast-axis orientation and retardance of micro-domains in thin sections of liver, muscle, and skin tissues using a polarizing microscope. The size of microdomains of iso- retardance is in the range 10-100 μm, which suggests that optical measurements with laser beams that are on the order of 1-mm in diameter or with imaging cameras with pixels sizes on the order of 100 s of μm will average over several microdomains and consequently complicate interpretation of measurements.

  11. Quantitative Evaluation of Heavy Metals and Trace Elements in the Urinary Bladder: Comparison Between Cancerous, Adjacent Non-cancerous and Normal Cadaveric Tissue.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Gawad, Mahmoud; Elsobky, Emad; Shalaby, Mahmoud M; Abd-Elhameed, Mohamed; Abdel-Rahim, Mona; Ali-El-Dein, Bedeir

    2016-12-01

    The role of heavy metals and trace elements (HMTE) in the development of some cancers has been previously reported. Bladder carcinoma is a frequent malignancy of the urinary tract. The most common risk factors for bladder cancer are exposure to industrial carcinogens, cigarette smoking, gender, and possibly diet. The aim of this study was to evaluate HTME concentrations in the cancerous and adjacent non-cancerous tissues and compare them with those of normal cadaveric bladder. This prospective study included 102 paired samples of full-thickness cancer and adjacent non-cancerous bladder tissues of radical cystectomy (RC) specimens that were histologically proven as invasive bladder cancer (MIBC). We used 17 matched controls of non-malignant bladder tissue samples from cadavers. All samples were processed and evaluated for the concentration of 22 HMTE by using Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES). Outcome analysis was made by the Mann-Whitney U, chi-square, Kruskal-Wallis, and Wilcoxon signed ranks tests. When compared with cadaveric control or cancerous, the adjacent non-cancerous tissue had higher levels of six elements (arsenic, lead, selenium, strontium, zinc, and aluminum), and when compared with the control alone, it had a higher concentration of calcium, cadmium, chromium, potassium, magnesium, and nickel. The cancerous tissue had a higher concentration of cadmium, lead, chromium, calcium, potassium, phosphorous, magnesium, nickel, selenium, strontium, and zinc than cadaveric control. Boron level was higher in cadaveric control than cancerous and adjacent non-cancerous tissue. Cadmium level was higher in cancerous tissue with node-positive than node-negative cases. The high concentrations of cadmium, lead, chromium, nickel, and zinc, in the cancerous together with arsenic in the adjacent non-cancerous tissues of RC specimens suggest a pathogenic role of these elements in BC. However, further work-up is needed to support this

  12. Expression of TAK1/TAB1 expression in non-small cell lung carcinoma and adjacent normal tissues and their clinical significance.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jiang; Li, Qiang; He, Jin-Tao; Liu, Guang-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the expression of transforming growth factor beta-activated kinase 1 (TAK1) and its activation ligand, TAK1-binding protein 1 (TAB1), in non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) and adjacent normal tissues and to analyze the relevance between TAK1 and TAB1 protein expression and the pathological features of NSCLC patients. Surgical resection NSCLC specimens were collected from 74 patients undergoing surgery in our hospital from September 2003 to July 2008; tumor-adjacent normal tissue specimens were collected as controls. All cases were pathologically confirmed after surgery, and pathological data were complete for all patients. The expression of TAK1/TAB1 proteins in NSCLC and adjacent cancer tissues was detected by immunohistochemical analysis. The correlation between TAK1/TAB1 protein expression and the clinicopathological features and outcome of NSCLC was assessed. The positive expression ratio of TAK1 in NSCLC tissue was 63.5%, which was significantly higher than that in tumor-adjacent normal tissue (31.1%). The positive expression ratio of TAB1 in NSCLC tissue was 51.4%, which was significantly higher than that in tumor-adjacent normal tissue (24.3%). Further analysis showed that positive protein expression of TAK1 and TAB1 was unrelated to patient gender, age, tumor size, degree of differentiation, and history of smoking (P>0.05) but was significantly related to clinical stage and lymph node metastasis (P<0.05). Additionally, the expression of TAK1 as well as TAB1 was negatively related to NSCLC patient prognosis, and patients with positive protein expression had a significantly lower 5-year survival rate than those with negative protein expression (P<0.05). TAK1/TAB1 expression in NSCLC tissue is significantly increased and closely associated with patient clinical prognosis. These two proteins are likely to become new therapeutic targets for the treatment of NSCLC.

  13. Imaging of Intact Tissue Sections: Moving beyond the Microscope*

    PubMed Central

    Seeley, Erin H.; Schwamborn, Kristina; Caprioli, Richard M.

    2011-01-01

    MALDI-imaging MS is a new molecular imaging technology for direct in situ analysis of thin tissue sections. Multiple analytes can be monitored simultaneously without prior knowledge of their identities and without the need for target-specific reagents such as antibodies. Imaging MS provides important insights into biological processes because the native distributions of molecules are minimally disturbed, and histological features remain intact throughout the analysis. A wide variety of molecules can be imaged, including proteins, peptides, lipids, drugs, and metabolites. Several specific examples are presented to highlight the utility of the technology. PMID:21632549

  14. Comparison of Gene Expression Profile Between Tumor Tissue and Adjacent Non-tumor Tissue in Patients with Gastric Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor (GIST).

    PubMed

    Kou, Youwei; Zhao, Ying; Bao, Chenhui; Wang, Qiang

    2015-06-01

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are defined as spindle cell and/or epithelioid tumors originated from interstitial Cajal cells or precursors in the digestive tract. This study was conducted to identify genes differing in expression between the gastric tumors and the adjacent non-cancerous mucosas in patients with primary gastric GIST. The gene expression profile was determined by using oligonucleotide-based DNA microarrays and further validated by quantitative real-time PCR. The Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis was performed to predict signaling pathways involved in gastric GIST. Our data showed that the expression levels of 957 genes (RAB39B, member RAS oncogene family; VCAN, versican; etc.) were higher and that of 526 genes (CXCL14, chemokine C-X-C motif ligand 14; MTUS1, microtubule-associated tumor suppressor 1; etc.) were lower in the gastric tumor tissues as compared with normal gastric tissues. Results from KEGG pathway analysis revealed that the differentially expressed genes were enriched into 16 signaling transduction pathways, including Hedeghog and Wnt signaling pathways. Our study may provide basis for identification of novel biomarkers associated with primary gastric GIST pathogenesis and for exploration of underlying mechanisms involved in this gastric sarcoma.

  15. Automatic 3D acoustic tissue models from histologic tissue sections and application to ex vivo tissue characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamou, Jonathan; Oelze, Michael L.; O'Brien, William D.; Zachary, James F.

    2005-04-01

    Three-dimensional acoustic tissue models (3DATMs) can be used as computational tools for ultrasonic imaging algorithm development and analysis. 3DATMs are automatically constructed from digitized light microscope images of consecutive H&E-stained histologic tissue sections. Construction necessitated contrast equalization, registration, and interpolation of missing sections. The registered (with interpolated) sections yield a 3D histologic volume (3DHV). Acoustic properties are then assigned to each tissue constituent of the 3DHV to obtain the 3DATM. A tissue characterization technique was developed to obtain scatterer parameter estimates (size and acoustic concentration) from a 3D impedance map (3DZM) deduced from a 3DHV by assigning acoustic impedance values. 3DZMs were constructed for a rat fibroadenoma (FA), a mouse mammary tumor (MMT) and a mouse sarcoma (EHS). From these 3 3DZMs estimates, effective scatterer diameters of 91 μm, 31.5 μm, and 34.5 μm, respectively, were determined. Independent ultrasonic measurements yielded average scatterer diameters of 105 μm, 30 μm, and 33 μm, respectively. The 3DZM estimation scheme showed results similar to those obtained by the ultrasonic measurements. 3DATMs may therefore be a useful tool for quantifying ultrasonic tissue properties. [Work supported by the University of Illinois Research Board.

  16. Multicolor immunophenotyping of tissue sections by laser scanning cytometry (LSC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarnok, Attila; Gerstner, Andreas O.; Lenz, Dominik; Osmancik, Pavel; Schneider, Peter; Trumpfheller, Christine; Racz, Pal; Tenner-Racz, Klara

    2002-05-01

    In lymphatic organs the quantitative analysis of the spatial distribution of leukocytes would give relevant information about alterations during diseases (leukemia, HIV, AIDS) and their therapeutic regimen. Analysis of them in solid tissues is difficult to perform but would yield important data in a variety of clinical and experimental settings. We have developed an automated analysis method for LSC suitable for archived or fresh biopsy material of human lymph nodes and tonsils. Sections are stained with PI for DNA and up to three antigens using direct or indirect immunofluorescence staining. Measurement is triggered on DNA-fluorescence (Argon Laser). Due to the heterogeneity in cell density measurements are repeatedly performed at different threshold levels (low threshold: regions of low cellular density, germinal centers; high threshold: dense regions, mantle zone). Data are acquired by single- (Ar) or dual-laser excitation (Ar-HeNe) in order to determine data from single- (FITC), up to triple-staining (FITC/PE-Cy5/APC). Percentage and cellular density of cell-subsets is quantified in different structural regions of the specimen. Comparison with manual analysis of identical specimens showed very good correlation. With LSC a semi-automated operator-independent and immunophenotyping of lymphatic tissues with simultaneously up to four antibodies is possible. This technique should yield new insight into processes during diseases and should help to quantify the success of therapeutic interventions.

  17. Prostate Field Cancerization: Deregulated Expression of Macrophage Inhibitory Cytokine 1 (MIC-1) and Platelet Derived Growth Factor A (PDGF-A) in Tumor Adjacent Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Anna C.; Shoshan, Dor S.; Fischer, Edgar G.; Trujillo, Kristina A.; Bisoffi, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Prostate field cancerization denotes molecular alterations in histologically normal tissues adjacent to tumors. Such alterations include deregulated protein expression, as we have previously shown for the key transcription factor early growth response 1 (EGR-1) and the lipogenic enzyme fatty acid synthase (FAS). Here we add the two secreted factors macrophage inhibitory cytokine 1 (MIC-1) and platelet derived growth factor A (PDGF-A) to the growing list of protein markers of prostate field cancerization. Expression of MIC-1 and PDGF-A was measured quantitatively by immunofluorescence and comprehensively analyzed using two methods of signal capture and several groupings of data generated in human cancerous (n = 25), histologically normal adjacent (n = 22), and disease-free (n = 6) prostate tissues. A total of 208 digitized images were analyzed. MIC-1 and PDGF-A expression in tumor tissues were elevated 7.1x to 23.4x and 1.7x to 3.7x compared to disease-free tissues, respectively (p<0.0001 to p = 0.08 and p<0.01 to p = 0.23, respectively). In support of field cancerization, MIC-1 and PDGF-A expression in adjacent tissues were elevated 7.4x to 38.4x and 1.4x to 2.7x, respectively (p<0.0001 to p<0.05 and p<0.05 to p = 0.51, respectively). Also, MIC-1 and PDGF-A expression were similar in tumor and adjacent tissues (0.3x to 1.0x; p<0.001 to p = 0.98 for MIC-1; 0.9x to 2.6x; p<0.01 to p = 1.00 for PDGF-A). All analyses indicated a high level of inter- and intra-tissue heterogeneity across all types of tissues (mean coefficient of variation of 86.0%). Our data shows that MIC-1 and PDGF-A expression is elevated in both prostate tumors and structurally intact adjacent tissues when compared to disease-free specimens, defining field cancerization. These secreted factors could promote tumorigenesis in histologically normal tissues and lead to tumor multifocality. Among several clinical applications, they could also be exploited as indicators of disease in false negative

  18. Prostate field cancerization: deregulated expression of macrophage inhibitory cytokine 1 (MIC-1) and platelet derived growth factor A (PDGF-A) in tumor adjacent tissue.

    PubMed

    Jones, Anna C; Antillon, Kresta S; Jenkins, Shannon M; Janos, Sara N; Overton, Heidi N; Shoshan, Dor S; Fischer, Edgar G; Trujillo, Kristina A; Bisoffi, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Prostate field cancerization denotes molecular alterations in histologically normal tissues adjacent to tumors. Such alterations include deregulated protein expression, as we have previously shown for the key transcription factor early growth response 1 (EGR-1) and the lipogenic enzyme fatty acid synthase (FAS). Here we add the two secreted factors macrophage inhibitory cytokine 1 (MIC-1) and platelet derived growth factor A (PDGF-A) to the growing list of protein markers of prostate field cancerization. Expression of MIC-1 and PDGF-A was measured quantitatively by immunofluorescence and comprehensively analyzed using two methods of signal capture and several groupings of data generated in human cancerous (n = 25), histologically normal adjacent (n = 22), and disease-free (n = 6) prostate tissues. A total of 208 digitized images were analyzed. MIC-1 and PDGF-A expression in tumor tissues were elevated 7.1x to 23.4x and 1.7x to 3.7x compared to disease-free tissues, respectively (p<0.0001 to p = 0.08 and p<0.01 to p = 0.23, respectively). In support of field cancerization, MIC-1 and PDGF-A expression in adjacent tissues were elevated 7.4x to 38.4x and 1.4x to 2.7x, respectively (p<0.0001 to p<0.05 and p<0.05 to p = 0.51, respectively). Also, MIC-1 and PDGF-A expression were similar in tumor and adjacent tissues (0.3x to 1.0x; p<0.001 to p = 0.98 for MIC-1; 0.9x to 2.6x; p<0.01 to p = 1.00 for PDGF-A). All analyses indicated a high level of inter- and intra-tissue heterogeneity across all types of tissues (mean coefficient of variation of 86.0%). Our data shows that MIC-1 and PDGF-A expression is elevated in both prostate tumors and structurally intact adjacent tissues when compared to disease-free specimens, defining field cancerization. These secreted factors could promote tumorigenesis in histologically normal tissues and lead to tumor multifocality. Among several clinical applications, they could also be exploited as indicators of disease in false negative

  19. Evaluation of a completely automated tissue-sectioning machine for paraffin blocks.

    PubMed

    Onozato, Maristela L; Hammond, Stephen; Merren, Mark; Yagi, Yukako

    2013-02-01

    Tissue-sectioning automation can be a resourceful tool in processing anatomical pathology specimens. The advantages of an automated system compared with traditional manual sectioning are the invariable thickness, uniform orientation and fewer tissue-sectioning artefacts. This short report presents the design of an automated tissue-sectioning device and compares the sectioned specimens with normal manual tissue sectioning performed by an experienced histology technician. The automated system was easy to use, safe and the sectioned material showed acceptable quality with well-preserved morphology and tissue antigenicity. It is expected that the turnaround time will be improved in the near future.

  20. The expression patterns of tight junction protein claudin-1, -3, and -4 in human gastric neoplasms and adjacent non-neoplastic tissues

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Haiming; Yang, Xingwang

    2015-01-01

    Recently, there is growing evidence that tight junction proteins are often abnormally regulated in human tumors. The function of tight junction proteins in the maintenance of normal epithelial physiology has been well discussed, but their role in the tumorigenesis of gastric cancer is less well defined. To explore the expression distinction of the tight junction proteins claudin-1, -3, and -4 expression in the gastric cancer, the expression of claudin-1, -3, and -4 in 92 gastric cancer tissues and the non-neoplastic tissues adjacent to the tumors were examined by immunohistochemistry. Compared with adjacent non-neoplastic tissues, the expression of claudin-1 was down regulated. However, the expression of claudin-3 and claudin-4 were up-regulated in gastric cancer tissue. In addition, the expression of claudin-3 is correlated with claudin-4 expression in gastric cancer. Our present study reveals that claudin-1, -3, and -4 protein expression altered between human gastric cancers and adjacent non-neoplastic tissues. PMID:25755790

  1. Identification of reliable reference genes for quantitative gene expression studies in oral squamous cell carcinomas compared to adjacent normal tissues in the F344 rat model.

    PubMed

    Peng, Xinjian; McCormick, David L

    2016-08-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs) induced in F344 rats by 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4-NQO) demonstrate considerable phenotypic similarity to human oral cancers and the model has been widely used for carcinogenesis and chemoprevention studies. Molecular characterization of this model needs reliable reference genes (RGs) to avoid false- positive and -negative results for proper interpretation of gene expression data between tumor and adjacent normal tissues. Microarray analysis of 11 pairs of OSCC and site-matched phenotypically normal oral tissues from 4-NQO-treated rats identified 10 stably expressed genes in OSCC compared to adjacent normal tissues (p>0.5, CV<15%) that could serve as potential RGs in this model. The commonly used 27 RGs in the rat were also analyzed based on microarray data and most of them were found unsuitable for RGs in this model. Traditional RGs such as ACTB and GAPDH were significantly altered in OSCC compared to adjacent normal tissues (p<0.01, n=11); however, the Hsp90ab1 was ranked as the best RG candidate and the combination of Hsp90ab1 and HPRT1 was identified by NormFinder to be a superior reference for gene normalization among the commonly used RGs. This result was also validated by RT-PCR based on the selected top RG candidate pool. These data suggest that there are no common RGs suitable for different models and RG(s) should be identified before gene expression analysis. We successfully identified Hsp90ab1 as a stable RG in 4-NQO-induced OSCC compared to adjacent normal tissues in F344 rats. The combination of two stably expressed genes may be a better option for gene normalization in tissue samples.

  2. Immunohistochemical quantification of the cobalamin transport protein, cell surface receptor and Ki-67 in naturally occurring canine and feline malignant tumors and in adjacent normal tissues

    PubMed Central

    Sysel, Annette M.; Valli, Victor E.; Bauer, Joseph A.

    2015-01-01

    Cancer cells have an obligate need for cobalamin (vitamin B12) to enable DNA synthesis necessary for cellular replication. This study quantified the immunohistochemical expression of the cobalamin transport protein (transcobalamin II; TCII), cell surface receptor (transcobalamin II-R; TCII-R) and proliferation protein (Ki-67) in naturally occurring canine and feline malignant tumors, and compared these results to expression in corresponding adjacent normal tissues. All malignant tumor tissues stained positively for TCII, TCII-R and Ki-67 proteins; expression varied both within and between tumor types. Expression of TCII, TCII-R and Ki-67 was significantly higher in malignant tumor tissues than in corresponding adjacent normal tissues in both species. There was a strong correlation between TCII and TCII-R expression, and a modest correlation between TCII-R and Ki-67 expression in both species; a modest association between TCII and Ki-67 expression was present in canine tissues only. These results demonstrate a quantifiable, synchronous up-regulation of TCII and TCII-R expression by proliferating canine and feline malignant tumors. The potential to utilize these proteins as biomarkers to identify neoplastic tissues, streamline therapeutic options, evaluate response to anti-tumor therapy and monitor for recurrent disease has important implications in the advancement of cancer management for both human and companion animal patients. PMID:25633912

  3. Nucleic acids extraction from laser microdissected FFPE tissue sections.

    PubMed

    Burgemeister, Renate

    2011-01-01

    Tissue heterogeneity is a common source of unsuccessful experiments. Laser capture microdissection is a tool to prepare homogeneous tissue and cell areas as starting material for reliable and reproducible results as it allows the defined investigation of spatially different tissue areas.Nearly all samples allow the extraction of DNA. Fresh or fresh frozen samples are an ideal source for getting access to high-quality RNA. But also the large archives of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue specimens are a valuable source of sample material for RNA extraction. Optimized protocols may help to make the RNA from FFPE material suitable for expression studies.

  4. Hybrid-Cut: An Improved Sectioning Method for Recalcitrant Plant Tissue Samples

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Su-Chiung; Lien, Yi-Chen; Yang, Ting-Ting; Ko, Swee-Suak

    2016-01-01

    Maintaining plant section integrity is essential for studying detailed anatomical structures at the cellular, tissue, or even organ level. However, some plant cells have rigid cell walls, tough fibers and crystals(calcium oxalate, silica, etc.), and high water content that often disrupt tissue integrity during plant tissue sectioning. This study establishes a simple Hybrid-Cut tissue sectioning method. This protocol modifies a paraffin-based sectioning technique and improves the integrity of tissue sections from different plants. Plant tissues were embedded in paraffin before sectioning in a cryostat at -16 °C. Sectioning under low temperature hardened the paraffin blocks, reduced tearing and scratching, and improved tissue integrity significantly. This protocol was successfully applied to calcium oxalate-rich Phalaenopsis orchid tissues as well as recalcitrant tissues such as reproductive organs and leaves of rice, maize, and wheat. In addition, the high quality of tissue sections from Hybrid-Cut could be used in combination with in situ hybridization (ISH) to provide spatial expression patterns of genes of interest. In conclusion, this protocol is particularly useful for recalcitrant plant tissue containing high crystal or silica content. Good quality tissue sections enable morphological and other biological studies. PMID:27911377

  5. The sessile drop method for immunohistochemical processing of unmounted sections of nervous tissue.

    PubMed

    Nadelhaft, I

    1984-12-01

    A novel method for the immunohistochemical processing of free-floating tissue sections is described. Sections are immersed within drops of solution arranged on a hydrophobic surface. The procedure consists of sequentially suctioning away one fluid drop and replacing it by another, while the section remains in place. The technique permits easy testing of different antiserum dilutions, comparisons among different immunohistochemical protocols, and comparison of different antisera on serial tissue sections. Comparison is made to processing mounted sections.

  6. Stratigraphic cross section of measured sections and drill holes of the Neslan Formation and adjacent formations, Book Cliffs Area, Colorado and Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kirshbaum, Mark A.; Spear, Brianne D.

    2012-01-01

    This study updates a stratigraphic cross section published as plate 2 in Kirschbaum and Hettinger (2004) Digital Data Series 69-G (http://pubs.usgs.gov/dds/dds-069/dds-069-g/). The datum is a marine/tidal ravinement surface within the Cozzette Sandstone Member of the Iles Formation and the Thompson Canyon Sandstone and Sulphur Canyon Sandstone Beds of the Neslen Formation. One of the cores shown was included on the original cross section, and new core descriptions have been added to the upper part of the cored interval. A new core description (S178) is included in this report. Cores are stored in the U.S. Geological Survey Core Research Facility at the Denver Federal Center, Colorado. The following information has also been added to help define the stratigraphic framework: 1) At least five claystones interpreted as altered volcanic ashes have been identified and may give future workers a correlation tool within the largely continental section. 2) Thickness and general geometry of the Sego Sandstone, Buck Tongue of the Mancos Shale, and Castlegate Sandstone have been added to provide additional stratigraphic context. 3) The geometry in the Sego Sandstone, Buck Tongue of the Mancos Shale, and Castlegate Sandstone has been added to provide additional stratigraphic context. 4) Ammonite collections are from Gill and Hail. The zone of Didymoceras nebrascense projected into the East Salt Wash area is based on correlation of the flooding surface at the base of the Cozzette Member to this point as shown in Kirschbaum and Hettinger. 5) A leaf locality of the Denver Museum of Nature and Science is shown in its approximate stratigraphic position near Thompson Canyon. 6) A dinosaur locality of the Natural History Museum of Utah is shown in the Horse Canyon area measured section at the stratigraphic position where it was extracted.

  7. Heterogeneity assessment of histological tissue sections in whole slide images.

    PubMed

    Belhomme, Philippe; Toralba, Simon; Plancoulaine, Benoît; Oger, Myriam; Gurcan, Metin N; Bor-Angelier, Catherine

    2015-06-01

    Computerized image analysis (IA) can provide quantitative and repeatable object measurements by means of methods such as segmentation, indexation, classification, etc. Embedded in reliable automated systems, IA could help pathologists in their daily work and thus contribute to more accurate determination of prognostic histological factors on whole slide images. One of the key concept pathologists want to dispose of now is a numerical estimation of heterogeneity. In this study, the objective is to propose a general framework based on the diffusion maps technique for measuring tissue heterogeneity in whole slide images and to apply this methodology on breast cancer histopathology digital images.

  8. Pesticide residues in adipose tissue from hippopotami (Hippopotamus amphibius L) living in and adjacent to the Luangwa River in Zambia.

    PubMed

    Flåøyen, A; Polder, A; Mwase, M; Almli, B; Musonda, M M

    2005-06-01

    The concentration of organochlorines (OCs) such as organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls were measured in adipose tissue collected from 14 male hippopotami at Mfuwe in the southern part of the Luangwa National Park, Zambia. The samples contained low levels of OCs, and the concentrations of OCs were comparable to or lower than reported for wild herbivores studied in other parts of the world.

  9. Gene expression in normal-appearing tissue adjacent to prostate cancers are predictive of clinical outcome: evidence for a biologically meaningful field effect

    PubMed Central

    Magi-Galluzzi, Cristina; Maddala, Tara; Falzarano, Sara Moscovita; Cherbavaz, Diana B.; Zhang, Nan; Knezevic, Dejan; Febbo, Phillip G.; Lee, Mark; Lawrence, Hugh Jeffrey; Klein, Eric A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We evaluated gene expression in histologically normal-appearing tissue (NT) adjacent to prostate tumor in radical prostatectomy specimens, assessing for biological significance based on prediction of clinical recurrence (cR - metastatic disease or local recurrence). Results A total of 410 evaluable patients had paired tumor and NT. Fortysix genes, representing diverse biological pathways (androgen signaling, stromal response, stress response, cellular organization, proliferation, cell adhesion, and chromatin remodeling) were associated with cR in NT (FDR < 20%), of which 39 concordantly predicted cR in tumor (FDR < 20%). Overall GPS and its stromal response and androgen-signaling gene group components also significantly predicted time to cR in NT (RM-corrected HR/20 units = 1.25; 95% CI: 1.01-1.56; P = 0.024). Experimental Design Expression of 732 genes was measured by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) separately in tumor and adjacent NT specimens from 127 patients with and 374 without cR following radical prostatectomy for T1/T2 prostate cancer. A 17-gene expression signature (Genomic Prostate Score [GPS]), previously validated to predict aggressive prostate cancer when measured in tumor tissue, was also assessed using pre-specified genes and algorithms. Analysis used Cox proportional hazards models, Storey's false discovery rate (FDR) control, and regression to the mean (RM) correction. Conclusions Gene expression profiles, including GPS, from NT adjacent to tumor can predict prostate cancer outcome. These findings suggest that there is a biologically significant field effect in primary prostate cancer that is a marker for aggressive disease. PMID:27121323

  10. Expression of transforming growth factor-β2in vitreous body and adjacent tissues during prenatal development of human eye.

    PubMed

    Sukhikh, G T; Panova, I G; Smirnova, Yu A; Milyushina, L A; Firsova, N V; Markitantova, Yu V; Poltavtseva, R A; Zinov'eva, R D

    2010-12-01

    Expression of transforming growth factor-β2 was detected by PCR in the vitreous body, lens, retina, and ciliary-iris complex of human eye at early stages of fetal development. Immunochemical assay of the corresponding protein in eye tissues revealed a correlation between the localization of transforming growth factor-β2 and the development of intraocular hyaloid vascular network, its regression, formation of the vitreous body, and development of definite retinal vessels.

  11. Metal debris concentrations in soft tissues adjacent to loosened femoral stems is higher in uncemented than cemented implants

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There are still many questions related to aseptic femoral stem loosening. Systemic and local immune responses to the implanted “foreign body” is one of the reasons for loosening. The purpose of the study was to measure metal ion concentration (Ti, Co, Cr, Mo, Ni, Al) around loosened femoral stems and compare their levels around uncemented and cemented implants. Methods This paper reports 50 hips operated for isolated stem loosening, in 50 patients at the mean age of 57 years (from 21 to 87). There were 25 cemented (Co,Cr29,Mo,Ni) and 25 uncemented (Ti, Al) stems. The mean follow-up from primary hip replacement to revision was 10.1 years (from 0.5 to 17). During the procedure, scar tissue around the stem was taken for analysis of metal ions. Results The concentrations of titanium and aluminium in soft tissues around uncemented loosened stems were higher than cemented ones (p < 0.001, p < 0.001 respectively). However, no statistically significant differences were observed between both types of stems in terms of ions of the metal of which cemented implants had been made of (Co, Cr, Mo, Ni). Conclusions In soft tissue around a loosened stem, the concentrations of metal ions from implants are much higher in case of uncemented stems than of cemented ones. Metal ions from vitalium femoral heads were found around uncemented stems in similar values to cemented streams. PMID:25098913

  12. Quantitative analysis of the reconstruction errors of the currently popular algorithm of magnetic resonance electrical property tomography at the interfaces of adjacent tissues.

    PubMed

    Duan, Song; Xu, Chao; Deng, Guanhua; Wang, Jiajia; Liu, Feng; Xin, Sherman Xuegang

    2016-06-01

    This work quantitatively analyzed the reconstruction errors (REs) of electrical property (EP) images using a currently popular algorithm of magnetic resonance electrical property tomography (MREPT), which occurred along the tissue interfaces. Transmitted magnetic fields B1+ were acquired at 3 T using a birdcage coil loaded with a phantom consisting of various adjacent tissues. Homogeneous Helmholtz was employed to calculate the EP maps by Laplacian computation of central differences. The maps of absolute REs (aREs) and relative REs (rREs) were calculated. The maximum and mean rREs, in addition to rRE distributions at the interfaces, were presented. Reconstructed EP maps showed various REs along different interface boundaries. Among all the investigated tissue interfaces, the kidney-fat interface presented the maximum mean rREs for both conductivity and relative permittivity. The minimum mean rRE of conductivity was observed at the spleen-muscle interface, and the minimum mean rRE of relative permittivity was detected along the lung-heart interface. The mean rREs ranged from 0.3986 to 36.11 for conductivity and 0.2218 to 11.96 for relative permittivity. Overall, this research indicates that different REs occur at various tissue boundaries, as shown by the currently popular algorithm of MREPT. Thus, REs should be considered when applying MREPT to reconstruct the EP distributions inside the human body. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Laboratory and in vivo transport characterization of hollow fiber membranes and adjacent scar tissue that forms following their implantation in the central nervous system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bridge, Michael John

    Hollow fiber membrane (HFM) cell encapsulation devices use a semipermeable membrane to physically immunoisolate transplanted secretory cells from host tissues and high molecular weight solutes. Advantages inherent to macroencapsulation technology have led to extensive research towards their utilization for treating a wide range of disorders including a number of neurodegenerative diseases and diabetes. Although feasibility studies have already established the therapeutic potential of macroencapsulation technology, a common observation among these and later studies is diminishing therapeutic efficacy over a span of a few weeks following implantation of devices. Progress towards fulfilling the therapeutic potential of this technology initially recognized by investigators has potentially been hampered by inadequate diffusive transport characterization of membranes employed in studies. In addition, the potential effects of host tissue responses following central nervous system (CNS) implantation of these devices is completely unknown. To address these issues a membrane characterization instrument capable of efficiently characterizing the diffusive and convective transport properties of individual HFM segments, such as they are used in devices, was developed. The instrument was then employed to study the effects of ethanol exposure, a common sterilization method, on PAN-PVC membranes commonly used in CNS implantation macro encapsulation device studies. Lastly, the solute diffusivity properties of tissue that forms adjacent to the membranes of brain implanted transcranial access devices were investigated. Coinciding with this investigation was the development of a novel technique for examining the solute diffusivity properties in the extracellular spaces of CNS tissue.

  14. Protein extraction from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections: quality evaluation by mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Shi, Shan-Rong; Liu, Cheng; Balgley, Brian M; Lee, Cheng; Taylor, Clive R

    2006-06-01

    A satisfactory protocol of protein extraction has been established based on the heat-induced antigen retrieval (AR) technique widely applied in immunohistochemistry for archival formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue sections. Based on AR, an initial serial experiment to identify an optimal protocol of heat-induced protein extraction was carried out using FFPE mouse tissues. The optimal protocol for extraction of proteins was then performed on an archival FFPE tissue of human renal carcinoma. FFPE sections were boiled in a retrieval solution of Tris-HCl containing 2% SDS, followed by incubation. Fresh tissue taken from the same case of renal carcinoma was processed for extraction of proteins by a conventional method using radioimmunoprecipitation assay solution, to compare the efficiency of protein extraction from FFPE tissue sections with extraction from fresh tissue. As a control, further sections of the same FFPE sample were processed by the same procedure without heating treatment. Evaluation of the quality of protein extracted from FFPE tissue was done using gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry, showing most identified proteins extracted from FFPE tissue sections were overlapped with those extracted from fresh tissue.

  15. RT97- and calcitonin gene-related peptide-like immunoreactivity in lumbar intervertebral discs and adjacent tissue from the rat.

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, P W; Petts, P; Hamilton, A

    1992-01-01

    The innervation of rat intervertebral disc and adjacent ligamentous tissue has been investigated using 2 antibodies, RT97 and anti-calcitonin gene-related peptide. Immunoreactivity to the peptide was found in many fibres throughout the long ligaments around the intervertebral discs and in the periosteum, especially associated with vascular channels entering the vertebral bodies. Few of the immunoreactive fibres entered the annular lamellae of the disc tissue. Most of those which terminated did so as fine fibres which lay close to, or in, the interlamellar spaces of the outer annulus fibrosus. Calcitonin gene-related peptide-like immunoreactivity was also found in more complex endings in the longitudinal ligaments and rarely within the annulus fibrosus. RT97-immunoreactivity was also present in the complex endings and associated fibres. Conversely, RT97-immunoreactivity was apparent only in a few fine filamentous fibre endings. This suggested that the majority of fine filamentous, or free, nerve endings were of an unmyelinated sensory origin. Alternatively, those endings of a more complex nature, which were RT97-immunoreactive, were of a myelinated sensory origin. No immunoreactivity to either antibody was seen in the inner annular or nuclear tissue. It was therefore concluded that the sensory innervation of the rat intervertebral disc has both myelinated and unmyelinated components, the latter being more extensive. Both types of innervation appear to be restricted to the outermost rings of the annulus fibrosus. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:1452470

  16. Rapid OTAN method for localizing unsaturated lipids in lung tissue sections.

    PubMed

    Negi, D S; Stephens, R J

    1981-05-01

    The OTAN treatment, which is the only histochemical method available at present for the simultaneous localization of hydrophobic and hydrophilic unsaturated lipids in tissue sections, requires unduly long exposure to OsO4 and use of free-floating sections, which makes handling the sections difficult and often results in their loss or damage. Simple modifications using OsO4 treatment at 37 C and slide-mounted sections eliminate the practical drawbacks of the existing method and provide as good or better localization in less than one-eight of the time. The modified method is applicable to fixed as well as fresh frozen tissues.

  17. Raman spectroscopic analysis of human skin tissue sections ex-vivo: evaluation of the effects of tissue processing and dewaxing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Syed M.; Bonnier, Franck; Tfayli, Ali; Lambkin, Helen; Flynn, Kathleen; McDonagh, Vincent; Healy, Claragh; Clive Lee, T.; Lyng, Fiona M.; Byrne, Hugh J.

    2013-06-01

    Raman spectroscopy coupled with K-means clustering analysis (KMCA) is employed to elucidate the biochemical structure of human skin tissue sections and the effects of tissue processing. Both hand and thigh sections of human cadavers were analyzed in their unprocessed and formalin-fixed, paraffin-processed (FFPP), and subsequently dewaxed forms. In unprocessed sections, KMCA reveals clear differentiation of the stratum corneum (SC), intermediate underlying epithelium, and dermal layers for sections from both anatomical sites. The SC is seen to be relatively rich in lipidic content; the spectrum of the subjacent layers is strongly influenced by the presence of melanin, while that of the dermis is dominated by the characteristics of collagen. For a given anatomical site, little difference in layer structure and biochemistry is observed between samples from different cadavers. However, the hand and thigh sections are consistently differentiated for all cadavers, largely based on lipidic profiles. In dewaxed FFPP samples, while the SC, intermediate, and dermal layers are clearly differentiated by KMCA of Raman maps of tissue sections, the lipidic contributions to the spectra are significantly reduced, with the result that respective skin layers from different anatomical sites become indistinguishable. While efficient at removing the fixing wax, the tissue processing also efficiently removes the structurally similar lipidic components of the skin layers. In studies of dermatological processes in which lipids play an important role, such as wound healing, dewaxed samples are therefore not appropriate. Removal of the lipids does however accentuate the spectral features of the cellular and protein components, which may be more appropriate for retrospective analysis of disease progression and biochemical analysis using tissue banks.

  18. How shallow drilling would be useful in establishing a reference section for syntectonic Pennsylvania and Permian sedimentation patterns adjacent to the Wichita uplift

    SciTech Connect

    Donovan, R.N. . Geology Dept.)

    1993-02-01

    The Wichita uplift in southwestern Oklahoma is part of a record of Pennsylvania and early Permian tectonism that affected the Southern Oklahoma aulacogen. The principal effect of this tectonism was to either invert or accentuate the existing section into uplifts and syntectonic basins respectively. As a result of the Wichita uplift, the Paleozoic sedimentary section of the aulacogen was stripped off, resulting in the exposure of the Cambrian igneous fill. At the same time sediments shed from the uplift into the adjacent Anadarko (to the north) and Hardeman-Hollis (to the south) basins constitute an inverted record of this erosion. Collectively these sedimentary rocks are referred to as the Granite Wash' in the subsurface and the Post Oak Conglomerate' at the surface. In both situations the rocks were deposited as a complex of alluvial fans or fan deltas. In addition to being a tangible record of contemporary uplift and erosion, these rocks also bear the imprint of a gradually changing climate (humid to arid) that reflects the northward drift of the craton. Although the Granite Wash is encountered in drilling (and in places is a hydrocarbon reservoir), it is rarely cored and, because of the complexity of its facies, difficult to correlate. Similarly the overlying Post Oak Conglomerate is poorly exposed and equally difficult to correlate. Furthermore, the Post Oak is only a partial analogue of the Granite Wash in the sense that it is a deposit related to relief reduction rather than contemporary tectonism. It follows that a complete core or series of cores taken from both flanks of the Wichita uplift would be an invaluable reference to an understanding of the interractions between tectonic, climatic, depositional and diagenetic factors that have influenced these rocks.

  19. Molecular Imaging of Tissue Sections by Mass Spectrometry: Looking Beyond the Microscope

    PubMed Central

    Caprioli, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Imaging MALDI MS (matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry) produces molecular images of peptides, proteins, lipids and metabolites present in intact tissue sections. It employs desorption of molecules by direct laser irradiation to map the location of specific molecules from fresh frozen and formalin fixed tissue sections without the need of target specific reagents such as antibodies. Molecular maps can be directly correlated to known histological regions within the tissue. A high density of spots (pixels) ablated by the laser over the entire tissue produces many hundreds of molecular images or density maps with spatial resolutions from 5–200 microns. Images are produced in specific m/z (mass-to-charge) values, or ranges of values, typically covering the MW range 1000-100,000. Individual m/z values derived from each pixel can then be assembled to produce selected molecular images. Similarly, the approach has also been applied to a protocol termed histology-directed molecular analysis whereby only selected areas of cells in the tissue are of interest are ablated and analyzed based on studies performed by microscopy and other histology protocols. Both fresh frozen and formalin fixed tissues can be analyzed. The technology is extraordinarily high throughput with high molecular specificity, easily lending itself to the analysis of tissue microarrays. Sections obtained from any tissue type can be imaged, including sections through whole organs or animals. We have employed Imaging MS in studies of a variety of diseases, including several types of cancers, neurodegenerative diseases and kidney diseases, comparing proteins differentially expressed in diseased tissue with those in the corresponding normal tissue. From such comparisons, molecular signatures are developed that differentiate these tissues, typically consisting of 10-20 or more different proteins. Imaging MS has been applied to drug targeting and metabolic studies following drug

  20. Confocal Microscopy of thick tissue sections: 3D Visualization of rat kidney glomeruli

    EPA Science Inventory

    Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) as a technique capable of generating serial sections of whole-mount tissue and then reassembling the computer-acquired images as a virtual 3-dimentional structure. In many ways CLSM offers an alternative to traditional sectioning approac...

  1. Confocal microscopy of thick tissue sections: 3D visualizaiton of rat kidney glomeruli

    EPA Science Inventory

    Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) as a technique capable of generating serial sections of whole-mount tissue and then reassembling the computer-acquired images as a virtual 3-dimentional structure. In many ways CLSM offers an alternative to traditional sectioning approac...

  2. Determination of collagen content within picrosirius red stained paraffin-embedded tissue sections using fluorescence microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Vogel, Benjamin; Siebert, Hanna; Hofmann, Ulrich; Frantz, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Picrosirius red (PSR) staining is a commonly used histological technique to visualize collagen in paraffin-embedded tissue sections. PSR stained collagen appears red in light microscopy. However it is largely unknown that PSR stained collagen also shows a red fluorescence, whereas live cells have a distinct green autofluorescence. Both emission patterns can be detected using standard filter sets as found in conventional fluorescence microscopes. Here we used digital image addition and subtraction to determine the relative area of the pure collagen and live cell content in heart tissue in a semi-automated process using standard software. This procedure, which considers empty spaces (holes) within the section, can be easily adapted to quantify the collagen and live cell areas in healthy or fibrotic tissues as aorta, lung, kidney or liver by semi-automated planimetry exemplified herein for infarcted heart tissue obtained from the mouse myocardial infarction model. • Use of conventional PSR stained paraffin-embedded tissue sections for fluorescence analysis. • PSR and autofluorescence images are used to calculate area of collagen and area of live cells in the tissue; empty spaces (holes) in tissue are considered. • High throughput analysis of collagen and live cell content in tissue for statistical purposes. PMID:26150980

  3. Mapping the Micromechanical Properties of Cryo-sectioned Aortic Tissue with Scanning Acoustic Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Akhtar, Riaz; Sherratt, Michael J.; Watson, Rachel E.B.; Kundu, Tribikram; Derby, Brian

    2009-01-01

    Although the gross mechanical properties of ageing tissues have been extensively documented, biological tissues are highly heterogeneous and little is known concerning the variation of micro-mechanical properties within tissues. Here, we use Scanning Acoustic Microscopy (SAM) to map the acoustic wave speed (a measure of stiffness) as a function of distance from the outer adventitial layer of cryo-sectioned ferret aorta. With a 400 MHz lens, the images of the aorta samples matched those obtained following chemical fixation and staining of sections which were viewed with fluorescence microscopy. Quantitative analysis was conducted with a frequency scanning or V(f) technique by imaging the tissue from 960 MHz to 1.1 GHz. Undulating acoustic wave speed (stiffness) distributions corresponded with elastic fibre locations in the tissue; there was a decrease in wave speed of around 40 ms-1 from the adventitia (outer layer) to the intima (innermost). PMID:19603080

  4. Wide-field optical sectioning for live-tissue imaging by plane-projection multiphoton microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jiun-Yann; Kuo, Chun-Hung; Holland, Daniel B.; Chen, Yenyu; Ouyang, Mingxing; Blake, Geoffrey A.; Zadoyan, Ruben; Guo, Chin-Lin

    2011-11-01

    Optical sectioning provides three-dimensional (3D) information in biological tissues. However, most imaging techniques implemented with optical sectioning are either slow or deleterious to live tissues. Here, we present a simple design for wide-field multiphoton microscopy, which provides optical sectioning at a reasonable frame rate and with a biocompatible laser dosage. The underlying mechanism of optical sectioning is diffuser-based temporal focusing. Axial resolution comparable to confocal microscopy is theoretically derived and experimentally demonstrated. To achieve a reasonable frame rate without increasing the laser power, a low-repetition-rate ultrafast laser amplifier was used in our setup. A frame rate comparable to that of epifluorescence microscopy was demonstrated in the 3D imaging of fluorescent protein expressed in live epithelial cell clusters. In this report, our design displays the potential to be widely used for video-rate live-tissue and embryo imaging with axial resolution comparable to laser scanning microscopy.

  5. HistoStitcher(©): an interactive program for accurate and rapid reconstruction of digitized whole histological sections from tissue fragments.

    PubMed

    Chappelow, Jonathan; Tomaszewski, John E; Feldman, Michael; Shih, Natalie; Madabhushi, Anant

    2011-01-01

    We present an interactive program called HistoStitcher(©) for accurate and rapid reassembly of histology fragments into a pseudo-whole digitized histological section. HistoStitcher(©) provides both an intuitive graphical interface to assist the operator in performing the stitch of adjacent histology fragments by selecting pairs of anatomical landmarks, and a set of computational routines for determining and applying an optimal linear transformation to generate the stitched image. Reconstruction of whole histological sections from images of slides containing smaller fragments is required in applications where preparation of whole sections of large tissue specimens is not feasible or efficient, and such whole mounts are required to facilitate (a) disease annotation and (b) image registration with radiological images. Unlike manual reassembly of image fragments in a general purpose image editing program (such as Photoshop), HistoStitcher(©) provides memory efficient operation on high resolution digitized histology images and a highly flexible stitching process capable of producing more accurate results in less time. Further, by parameterizing the series of transformations determined by the stitching process, the stitching parameters can be saved, loaded at a later time, refined, or reapplied to multi-resolution scans, or quickly transmitted to another site. In this paper, we describe in detail the design of HistoStitcher(©) and the mathematical routines used for calculating the optimal image transformation, and demonstrate its operation for stitching high resolution histology quadrants of a prostate specimen to form a digitally reassembled whole histology section, for 8 different patient studies. To evaluate stitching quality, a 6 point scoring scheme, which assesses the alignment and continuity of anatomical structures important for disease annotation, is employed by three independent expert pathologists. For 6 studies compared with this scheme, reconstructed

  6. A silver impregnation method for nervous tissue suitable for routine use with mounted sections.

    PubMed

    Loots, J M; Loots, G P; Joubert, W S

    1977-03-01

    A simple, reliable silver impregnation method for nervous tissue is described for tissues fixed in various fixatives including formalin, Bouin, and Susa. Sections are impregnated in a solution containing 1 g Protargol, 2 ml of a 1% Cu(NO3)2 solution, 2 ml of a 1% AgNO3 solution, and 2-4 drops 30% H2O2 in 100 ml distilled water. Sections are impregnated 2-5 days at 37 C and thereafter reduced in a hydroquinone-formalin solution. This is followed by gold toning and subsequent reduction, dehydration and mounting. This method has been found to be very reliable and selective.

  7. A procedure for tissue freezing and processing applicable to both intra-operative frozen section diagnosis and tissue banking in surgical pathology.

    PubMed

    Steu, Susanne; Baucamp, Maya; von Dach, Gabriela; Bawohl, Marion; Dettwiler, Susanne; Storz, Martina; Moch, Holger; Schraml, Peter

    2008-03-01

    Different methods for snap freezing surgical human tissue specimens exist. At pathology institutes with higher work loads, solid carbon dioxide, freezing sprays, and cryostat freezing are commonly used as coolants for diagnosing frozen tissue sections, whereas for tissue banking, liquid nitrogen or isopentane cooled with liquid nitrogen is preferred. Freezing tissues for diagnostic and research purposes are therefore often time consuming, laborious, even hazardous, and not user friendly. In tissue banks, frozen tissue samples are stored in cryovials, capsules, cryomolds, or cryocassettes. Tissues are additionally embedded using freezing media or wrapped in plastic bags or aluminum foils to prevent desiccation. The latter method aggravates enormously further tissue handling and processing. Here, we describe an isopentane-based workflow which concurrently facilitates tissue freezing and processing for both routine intra-operative frozen section and tissue banking and satisfies the qualitative demands of pathologists, cancer researchers, laboratory technicians, and tissue bankers.

  8. RASSF1A promoter methylation in high-grade serous ovarian cancer: A direct comparison study in primary tumors, adjacent morphologically tumor cell-free tissues and paired circulating tumor DNA.

    PubMed

    Giannopoulou, Lydia; Chebouti, Issam; Pavlakis, Kitty; Kasimir-Bauer, Sabine; Lianidou, Evi S

    2017-02-10

    The RASSF1A promoter is frequently methylated in high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSC). We examined RASSF1A promoter methylation in primary tumors, adjacent morphologically tumor cell-free tissues and corresponding circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) samples of patients with HGSC, using a real-time methylation specific PCR (real-time MSP) and a methylation-sensitive high-resolution melting analysis (MS-HRMA) assay for the detection and semi-quantitative estimation of methylation, respectively. Two groups of primary HGSC tumor FFPE samples were recruited (Group A n=67 and Group B n=61), along with matched adjacent morphologically tumor cell-free tissues (n=58) and corresponding plasma samples (n=59) for group B. Using both assays, RASSF1A promoter was found highly methylated in primary tumors of both groups, and at lower percentages in the adjacent morphologically tumor cell-free tissues. Interestingly, RASSF1A promoter methylation was also observed in ctDNA by real-time MSP. Overall survival (OS) was significantly associated with RASSF1A promoter methylation in primary tumor samples using MS-HRMA (P=0.023). Our results clearly indicate that RASSF1A promoter is methylated in adjacent tissue surrounding the tumor in HGSC patients. We report for the first time that RASSF1A promoter methylation provides significant prognostic information in HGSC patients.

  9. Monitoring time-dependent degradation of phospholipids in sectioned tissues by MALDI imaging mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Nathan Heath; Thomas, Aurélien; Chaurand, Pierre

    2014-07-01

    Imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) is useful for visualizing the localization of phospholipids on biological tissue surfaces creating great opportunities for IMS in lipidomic investigations. With advancements in IMS of lipids, there is a demand for large-scale tissue studies necessitating stable, efficient and well-defined sample handling procedures. Our work within this article shows the effects of different storage conditions on the phospholipid composition of sectioned tissues from mouse organs. We have taken serial sections from mouse brain, kidney and liver thaw mounted unto ITO-coated glass slides and stored them under various conditions later analyzing them at fixed time points. A global decrease in phospholipid signal intensity is shown to occur and to be a function of time and temperature. Contrary to the global decrease, oxidized phospholipid and lysophospholipid species are found to increase within 2 h and 24 h, respectively, when mounted sections are kept at ambient room conditions. Imaging experiments reveal that degradation products increase globally across the tissue. Degradation is shown to be inhibited by cold temperatures, with sample integrity maintained up to a week after storage in -80 °C freezer under N2 atmosphere. Overall, the results demonstrate a timeline of the effects of lipid degradation specific to sectioned tissues and provide several lipid species which can serve as markers of degradation. Importantly, the timeline demonstrates oxidative sample degradation begins appearing within the normal timescale of IMS sample preparation of lipids (i.e. 1-2 h) and that long-term degradation is global. Taken together, these results strengthen the notion that standardized procedures are required for phospholipid IMS of large sample sets, or in studies where many serial sections are prepared together but analyzed over time such as in 3-D IMS reconstruction experiments.

  10. Acridine orange--its use in the specific staining of DNA in mammalian tissue sections.

    PubMed

    Dutt, M K

    1981-01-01

    This paper reports on a new method for the use of acridine orange (AO) in an aqueous solution at pH 4.5 for staining DNA of rat tissue sections from which RNA has been extracted selectively with cold phosphoric acid. Not only this, AO can also be used as dye-SO2 reagent, prepared with NHCl and potassium metabisulphite, for staining DNA-aldehyde molecules of acid-hydrolysed tissue sections. AO samples, manufactured by the National Aniline Division as well as by G. T. Gurr have been used with equal success. Studies of stained sections under light microscope reveal the presence of specifically stained yellowish-orange nuclei. Those sections under fluorescent microscope with proper exciter and barrier filters reveal nuclei of maroon colour. The in situ absorption spectra of nuclei stained with AO-SO2 following acid-hydrolysis of tissue sections as well as those of nuclei stained with an aqueous solution of the dye following extraction of RNA have been presented herein. The mode of binding in the former case has been considered to be due to binding of the teritary amino group of the dye molecules with the DNA-aldehyde molecules and in the latter case to be due to electrostatic binding between the positively charged dye molecules with negatively charged phosphate groups of DNA. Implications of all these findings have been discussed.

  11. Morphological segmentation of multiprobe fluorescence images for immunophenotyping in melanoma tissue sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dow, Alasdair I.; Shafer, Steven A.; Waggoner, Alan S.

    1993-08-01

    A fundamental task in studying the action of cancer chemotherapy is to determine the quantity and spatial relationship of tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte populations. Classically this is performed by staining thin tissue sections with antibodies by immunoperoxidase amplification. The staining technique is practically limited to locating a single cell type per tissue section. Full immunophenotyping requires successive staining of serial sections, using statistical analysis to correlate the results. This paper describes a system that brings together multi- parameter fluorescence imaging and morphological segmentation techniques to provide a fast, accurate, and automatic analysis of the lymphocyte infiltrate in tissue sections. With fluorescence techniques a single section can be stained with up to four distinct fluorescently labelled antibodies to determine cell phenotypes. To harness this potential computer vision techniques are required to analyze the images. A routine based on the water shed algorithm has been developed that segments the nuclei image with an accuracy of greater than 90%. By matching the nuclei boundaries to the local peak fluorescence, cell boundary estimates are obtained in the antigen images. By then extracting two measurements from the boundary signal the cells can be classified according to their antigen expression. Determining cell expression of multiple antigens simultaneously provides a more detailed and accurate picture of the tumor infiltrate than single parameter analysis, and increases understanding of the immune response associated with the chemotherapy.

  12. Automatic segementation of histological structures in normal and neoplastic mammary gland tissue sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez-Gonzalez, Rodrigo; Deschamps, Thomas; Idica, Adam; Malladi, Ravikanth; Ortiz de Solorzano, Carlos

    2003-07-01

    In this paper we present a scheme for real time segmentation of histological structures in microscopic images of normal and neoplastic mammary gland sections. Paraffin embedded or frozen tissue blocks are sliced, and sections are stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E). The sections are then imaged using conventional bright field microscopy. The background of the images is corrected by arithmetic manipulation using a "phantom." Then we use the fast marching method with a speed function that depends on the brightness gradient of the image to obtain a preliminary approximation to the boundaries of the structures of interest within a region of interest (ROI) of the entire section manually selected by the user. We use the result of the fast marching method as the initial condition for the level set motion equation. We run this last method for a few steps and obtain the final result of the segmentation. These results can be connected from section to section to build a three-dimensional reconstruction of the entire tissue block that we are studying.

  13. Automatic segmentation of histological structures in normal and neoplastic mammary gland tissue sections

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez-Gonzalez, Rodrigo; Deschamps, Thomas; Idica, Adam K.; Malladi, Ravi; Ortiz de Solorzano, Carlos

    2003-01-18

    In this paper we present a scheme for real time segmentation of histological structures in microscopic images of normal and neoplastic mammary gland sections. Paraffin embedded or frozen tissue blocks are sliced, and sections are stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E). The sections are then imaged using conventional bright field microscopy. The background of the images is corrected by arithmetic manipulation using a ''phantom.'' Then we use the fast marching method with a speed function that depends on the brightness gradient of the image to obtain a preliminary approximation to the boundaries of the structures of interest within a region of interest (ROI) of the entire section manually selected by the user. We use the result of the fast marching method as the initial condition for the level set motion equation. We run this last method for a few steps and obtain the final result of the segmentation. These results can be connected from section to section to build a three-dimensional reconstruction of the entire tissue block that we are studying.

  14. Proliferation assays (BrdU and EdU) on skeletal tissue sections.

    PubMed

    Mead, Timothy J; Lefebvre, Véronique

    2014-01-01

    Assessing cell proliferation in situ is an important phenotyping component of skeletal tissues from development to adult stages and disease. Various methods exist including immunostaining for proteins and protein modifications associated with specific steps of the cell cycle, but the gold standard is to quantify the percentage of DNA-synthesizing cells. The thymidine analog 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) has been widely used in the last decades for this purpose, with the inconvenience that its detection is lengthy and requires harsh treatment of tissue sections to give access of anti-BrdU antibody to nucleosides in genomic DNA. In 2008, Salic and Mitchison developed a new method and proved it to be quicker, simpler, and highly sensitive in non-skeletal tissues. This method relies on incorporation of 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) into de novo DNA. This other thymidine analog is readily detected by click chemistry, i.e., covalent cross-linking of its ethynyl group with a fluorescent azide, a molecule small enough to diffuse freely through native tissues and DNA. Here, we describe and compare the BrdU and EdU approaches in skeletal tissues and conclude that in these tissues too EdU provides an easy and very sensitive alternative to BrdU.

  15. Cross-sectional profiles and volume reconstructions of soft tissues using laser beam measurements.

    PubMed

    Langelier, Eve; Dupuis, Daniel; Guillot, Michel; Goulet, Francine; Rancourt, Denis

    2004-12-01

    Precise geometric reconstruction is a valuable tool in the study of soft tissues biomechanics. Optical methods have been developed to determine the tissue cross section without mechanical contact with the specimen. An adaptation of the laser micrometer developed by Lee and Woo [ASME J. Biomech. Eng., 110 (2), pp. 110-114]. is proposed in which the laser-collimated beam rotates around and moves along a fixed specimen to reconstruct its cross sections and volume. Beam motion is computer controlled to accelerate data acquisition and improve beam positioning accuracy. It minimizes time-dependent shape modifications and increases global reconstruction precision. The technique is also competent for the measurement of immersed collagen matrices.

  16. Guide to the identification of fish protozoan and metazoan parasites in stained tissue sections

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bruno, D.W.; Nowak, B.; Elliott, D.G.

    2006-01-01

    The identification of protozoan and metazoan parasites is traditionally carried out using a series of classical keys based upon the morphology of the whole organism. However, in stained tissue sections prepared for light microscopy, taxonomic features will be missing, thus making parasite identification difficult. This work highlights the characteristic features of representative parasites in tissue sections to aid identification. The parasite examples discussed are derived from species affecting finfish, and predominantly include parasites associated with disease or those commonly observed as incidental findings in disease diagnostic cases. Emphasis is on protozoan and small metazoan parasites (such as Myxosporidia) because these are the organisms most likely to be missed or mis-diagnosed during gross examination. Figures are presented in colour to assist biologists and veterinarians who are required to assess host/parasite interactions by light microscopy.

  17. Direct confocal acquisition of fluorescence from X-gal staining on thick tissue sections

    PubMed Central

    Levitsky, Konstantin L.; Toledo-Aral, Juan José; López-Barneo, José; Villadiego, Javier

    2013-01-01

    X-gal staining is a common procedure used in the histochemical monitoring of gene expression by light microscopy. However, this procedure does not permit the direct confocal acquisition of images, thus preventing the identification of labelled cells on the depth (Z) axis of tissue sections and leading sometimes to erroneous conclusions in co-localization and gene expression studies. Here we report a technique, based on X-gal fluorescence emission and mathematically-based optical correction, to obtain high quality fluorescence confocal images. This method, combined with immunofluorescence, makes it possible to unequivocally identify X-gal-labelled cells in tissue sections, emerging as a valuable tool in gene expression and cell tracing analysis. PMID:24121824

  18. Disaccharides Protect Antigens from Drying-Induced Damage in Routinely Processed Tissue Sections

    PubMed Central

    Boi, Giovanna; Scalia, Carla Rossana; Gendusa, Rossella; Ronchi, Susanna; Cattoretti, Giorgio

    2015-01-01

    Drying of the tissue section, partial or total, during immunostaining negatively affects both the staining of tissue antigens and the ability to remove previously deposited antibody layers, particularly during sequential rounds of de-staining and re-staining for multiple antigens. The cause is a progressive loss of the protein-associated water up to the removal of the non-freezable water, a step which abolishes the immunoavailability of the epitope. In order to describe and prevent these adverse effects, we tested, among other substances, sugars, which are known to protect unicellular organisms from freezing and dehydration, and stabilize drugs and reagents in solid state form in medical devices. Disaccharides (lactose, sucrose) prevented the air drying-induced antigen masking and protected tissue-bound antigens and antibodies from air drying-induced damage. Complete removal of the bound antibody layers by chemical stripping was permitted if lactose was present during air drying. Lactose, sucrose and other disaccharides prevent air drying artifacts, allow homogeneous, consistent staining and the reuse of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections for repeated immunostaining rounds by guaranteeing constant staining quality in suboptimal hydration conditions. PMID:26487185

  19. Tissue culture characteristics of maize (Zea mays L.) haploid coleoptile sections.

    PubMed

    Jiang, L; Jing, G X; Li, X Y; Wang, X Q; Xing, Z; Deng, P K; Zhao, R G

    2015-12-08

    Doubled haploid (DH) technology, which is used for rapidly purifying genetic resources, is a key technology in modern maize breeding. The present study evaluated the tissue culture characteristics of maize haploid coleoptile sections, in order to provide a new way of haploid doubling. With 20 combinations of haploid coleoptile sections, obtained by hybridization within Reid, Tangsipingtou, and Term-tropical groups, as explants, we analyzed the induction and differentiation rate of callus, observed the number of root tip chromosomes in regenerated plants, and analyzed the pollen fertility. In addition, we used 47 SSR markers to analyze the genotypes of regenerated plants. The Reid and Tangsipingtou groups had significantly higher induction rates of haploid coleoptile callus compared to the Term-tropical group. Fifteen haploid plants were obtained which had 10 chromosomes in the root tips as assessed by I-KI staining. It was also noticed that the pollen of pollinated anthers were partially fertile. The haploid plants had genetic stability and showed no variation. The Reid and Tangsipingtou groups had good culture characteristics of haploid coleoptile sections, while the Term-tropical group had poor culture characteristics. Genotypes of haploid plants generated by tissue culture were evidenced to come from recombinant types of parents. Thus, this study established a tissue culture system of maize haploid coleoptile.

  20. Optical Disector Counting in Cryosections and Vibratome Sections Underestimates Particle Numbers: Effects of Tissue Quality

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Tyson S.; Rosen, Glenn D.; Von Bartheld, Christopher S.

    2013-01-01

    Optical disector counting is currently applied most often to cryosections, followed in frequency by resin-embedded tissues, paraffin, and vibratome sections. The preservation quality of these embedding options differs considerably; yet, the effect of tissue morphology on numerical estimates is unknown. We tested whether different embedding media significantly influence numerical estimates in optical disector counting, using the previously calibrated trochlear motor nucleus of hatchling chickens. Animals were perfusion-fixed with paraformaldehyde (PFA) only or in addition with glutaraldehyde (GA), or by Methacarn immersion fixation. Brains were prepared for paraffin, cryo-, vibratome- or celloidin sectioning. Complete penetration of the thionin stain was verified by z-axis analysis. Neuronal nuclei were counted using an unbiased counting rule, numbers were averaged for each group and compared by ANOVA. In paraffin sections, 906 ± 12 (SEM) neurons were counted, similar to previous calibrated data series, and results obtained from fixation with Methacarn or PFA were statistically indistinguishable. In celloidin sections, 912 ± 28 neurons were counted—not statistically different from paraffin. In cryosections, 812 ± 12 neurons were counted (underestimate of 10.4%) when fixed with PFA only, but 867 ± 17 neurons were counted when fixed with PFA and GA. Vibratome sections had the most serious aberration with 729 ± 31 neurons—a deficit of 20%. Thus, our analysis shows that PFA-fixed cryosections and vibratome sections result in a substantial numerical deficit. The addition of GA to the PFA fixative significantly improved counts in cryosections. These results may explain, in part, the significant numerical differences reported from different labs and should help investigators select optimal conditions for quantitative morphological studies. PMID:17868132

  1. Adiposoft: automated software for the analysis of white adipose tissue cellularity in histological sections.

    PubMed

    Galarraga, Miguel; Campión, Javier; Muñoz-Barrutia, Arrate; Boqué, Noemí; Moreno, Haritz; Martínez, José Alfredo; Milagro, Fermín; Ortiz-de-Solórzano, Carlos

    2012-12-01

    The accurate estimation of the number and size of cells provides relevant information on the kinetics of growth and the physiological status of a given tissue or organ. Here, we present Adiposoft, a fully automated open-source software for the analysis of white adipose tissue cellularity in histological sections. First, we describe the sequence of image analysis routines implemented by the program. Then, we evaluate our software by comparing it with other adipose tissue quantification methods, namely, with the manual analysis of cells in histological sections (used as gold standard) and with the automated analysis of cells in suspension, the most commonly used method. Our results show significant concordance between Adiposoft and the other two methods. We also demonstrate the ability of the proposed method to distinguish the cellular composition of three different rat fat depots. Moreover, we found high correlation and low disagreement between Adiposoft and the manual delineation of cells. We conclude that Adiposoft provides accurate results while considerably reducing the amount of time and effort required for the analysis.

  2. 46 CFR 148.445 - Adjacent spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Adjacent spaces. 148.445 Section 148.445 Shipping COAST... THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Additional Special Requirements § 148.445 Adjacent spaces. When... following requirements must be met: (a) Each space adjacent to a cargo hold must be ventilated by...

  3. 46 CFR 148.445 - Adjacent spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Adjacent spaces. 148.445 Section 148.445 Shipping COAST... THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Additional Special Requirements § 148.445 Adjacent spaces. When... following requirements must be met: (a) Each space adjacent to a cargo hold must be ventilated by...

  4. 46 CFR 148.445 - Adjacent spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Adjacent spaces. 148.445 Section 148.445 Shipping COAST... THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Additional Special Requirements § 148.445 Adjacent spaces. When... following requirements must be met: (a) Each space adjacent to a cargo hold must be ventilated by...

  5. 46 CFR 148.445 - Adjacent spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Adjacent spaces. 148.445 Section 148.445 Shipping COAST... THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Additional Special Requirements § 148.445 Adjacent spaces. When... following requirements must be met: (a) Each space adjacent to a cargo hold must be ventilated by...

  6. Modulated-alignment dual-axis (MAD) confocal microscopy for deep optical sectioning in tissues

    PubMed Central

    Leigh, Steven Y.; Chen, Ye; Liu, Jonathan T.C.

    2014-01-01

    A strategy is presented to enable optical-sectioning microscopy with improved contrast and imaging depth using low-power (0.5 - 1 mW) diode laser illumination. This technology combines the inherent strengths of focal-modulation microscopy and dual-axis confocal (DAC) microscopy for rejecting out-of-focus and multiply scattered background light in tissues. The DAC architecture is unique in that it utilizes an intersecting pair of illumination and collection beams to improve the spatial-filtering and optical-sectioning performance of confocal microscopy while focal modulation selectively ‘labels’ in-focus signals via amplitude modulation. Simulations indicate that modulating the spatial alignment of dual-axis beams at a frequency f generates signals from the focal volume of the microscope that are modulated at 2f with minimal modulation of background signals, thus providing nearly an order-of-magnitude improvement in optical-sectioning contrast compared to DAC microscopy alone. Experiments show that 2f lock-in detection enhances contrast and imaging depth within scattering phantoms and fresh tissues. PMID:24940534

  7. Repeated immunostaining of the same tissue section using alkaline phosphatase as a reporter.

    PubMed

    Smith, A A

    2016-08-01

    One can determine the best dilution of a primary antibody for immunohistochemistry that uses horseradish peroxidase conjugated to a secondary antibody by testing increasing concentrations sequentially on the same tissue section. When the same tissue section is incubated repeatedly with increasing concentrations of primary antibodies to epithelial membrane antigen, smooth muscle α-actin, or vimentin using alkaline phosphatase conjugated to a secondary antibody as the reporter, the best staining was obtained with a less concentrated primary antibody than was optimal for a single staining test. The best concentration of primary antibody for single run staining using an alkaline phosphatase reporting system is usually four times the best concentration for staining with multiple runs. The optimal concentration can be determined by denaturing the residual alkaline phosphatase and extracting residual stain by incubating the section in 4:1 diglyme:phosphate buffered saline for 20 min at 80(o) C between tests of primary antibody concentrations. I tested the method for four chromogens from one supplier and one chromogen from a different supplier.

  8. Method for semiautomated serial section reconstruction and visualization of neural tissue from TEM images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montgomery, Kevin N.; Ross, Muriel D.

    1993-07-01

    A simple method to reconstruct details of neural tissue architectures from transmission electron microscope (TEM) images will help us to increase our knowledge of the functional organization of neural systems in general. To be useful, the reconstruction method should provide high resolution, quantitative measurement, and quick turnaround. In pursuit of these goals, we developed a modern, semiautomated system for reconstruction of neural tissue from TEM serial sections. Images are acquired by a video camera mounted on TEM (Zeiss 902) equipped with an automated stage control. The images are reassembled automatically as a mosaicked section using a crosscorrelation algorithm on a Connection Machine-2 (CM-2) parallel supercomputer. An object detection algorithm on a Silicon Graphics workstation is employed to aid contour extraction. An estimated registration between sections is computed and verified by the user. The contours are then tessellated into a triangle-based mesh. At this point the data can be visualized as a wireframe or solid object, volume rendered, or used as a basis for simulations of functional activity.

  9. Enhanced Histochemical Detection of Iron in Paraffin Sections of Mouse Central Nervous System Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Sands, Scott A.; Leung-Toung, Regis; Wang, Yingsheng; Connelly, John

    2016-01-01

    Histochemical methods of detecting iron in the rodent brain result mainly in the labeling of oligodendrocytes, but as all cells utilize iron, this observation suggests that much of the iron in the central nervous system goes undetected. Paraffin embedding of tissue is a standard procedure that is used to prepare sections for microscopic analysis. In the present study, we questioned whether we could modify the iron histochemical procedure to enable a greater detection of iron in paraffin sections. Indeed, various modifications led to the widespread labeling of iron in mouse brain tissue (for instance, labeling of neurons and neuropil). Sites of focal concentrations, such as cytoplasmic punctate or nucleolar staining, were also observed. The modified procedures were applied to paraffin sections of a mouse model (APP/PS1) of Alzheimer’s disease. Iron was revealed in the plaque core and rim. The plaque rim had a fibrillary or granular appearance, and it frequently contained iron-labeled cells. Further analysis indicated that the iron was tightly associated with the core of the plaque, but less so with the rim. In conclusion, modifications to the histochemical staining revealed new insights into the deposition of iron in the central nervous system. In theory, the approach should be transferrable to organs besides the brain and to other species, and the underlying principles should be incorporable into a variety of staining methods. PMID:27683879

  10. Liquid microjunction surface sampling of acetaminophen, terfenadine and their metabolites in thin tissue sections

    DOE PAGES

    Kertesz, Vilmos; Paranthaman, Nithya; Moench, Paul; ...

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this paper was to evaluate the analytical performance of a fully automated droplet-based surface-sampling system for determining the distribution of the drugs acetaminophen and terfenadine, and their metabolites, in rat thin tissue sections. The following are the results: The rank order of acetaminophen concentration observed in tissues was stomach > small intestine > liver, while the concentrations of its glucuronide and sulfate metabolites were greatest in the liver and small intestine. Terfenadine was most concentrated in the liver and kidney, while its major metabolite, fexofenadine, was found in the liver and small intestine. In conclusion, the spatialmore » distributions of both drugs and their respective metabolites observed in this work were consistent with previous studies using radiolabeled drugs.« less

  11. Liquid microjunction surface sampling of acetaminophen, terfenadine and their metabolites in thin tissue sections

    SciTech Connect

    Kertesz, Vilmos; Paranthaman, Nithya; Moench, Paul; Catoire, Alexandre; Flarakos, Jimmy; Van Berkel, Gary J.

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this paper was to evaluate the analytical performance of a fully automated droplet-based surface-sampling system for determining the distribution of the drugs acetaminophen and terfenadine, and their metabolites, in rat thin tissue sections. The following are the results: The rank order of acetaminophen concentration observed in tissues was stomach > small intestine > liver, while the concentrations of its glucuronide and sulfate metabolites were greatest in the liver and small intestine. Terfenadine was most concentrated in the liver and kidney, while its major metabolite, fexofenadine, was found in the liver and small intestine. In conclusion, the spatial distributions of both drugs and their respective metabolites observed in this work were consistent with previous studies using radiolabeled drugs.

  12. Carpal Tunnel Cross-Sectional Area Affected by Soft Tissues Abutting the Carpal Bones.

    PubMed

    Gabra, Joseph N; Li, Zong-Ming

    2013-02-01

    The carpal tunnel accommodates free movement of its contents, and the tunnel's cross-sectional area is a useful morphological parameter for the evaluation of the space available for the carpal tunnel contents and of potential nerve compression in the tunnel. The osseous boundary of the carpal bones as the dorsal border of the carpal tunnel is commonly used to determine the tunnel area, but this boundary contains soft tissues such as numerous intercarpal ligaments and the flexor carpi radialis tendon. The aims of this study were to quantify the thickness of the soft tissues abutting the carpal bones and to investigate how this soft tissue influences the calculation of the carpal tunnel area. Magnetic resonance images were analyzed for eight cadaveric specimens. A medical balloon with a physiological pressure was inserted into an evacuated tunnel to identify the carpal tunnel boundary. The balloon-based (i.e. true carpal tunnel) and osseous-based carpal tunnel boundaries were extracted and divided into regions corresponding to the hamate, capitate, trapezoid, trapezium, and transverse carpal ligament (TCL). From the two boundaries, the overall and regional soft tissue thicknesses and areas were calculated. The soft tissue thickness was significantly greater for the trapezoid (3.1±1.2mm) and trapezium (3.4±1.0mm) regions than for the hamate (0.7±0.3mm) and capitate (1.2±0.5mm) regions. The carpal tunnel area using the osseous boundary (243.0±40.4mm(2)) was significantly larger than the balloon-based area (183.9±29.7mm(2)) with a ratio of 1.32. In other words, the carpal tunnel area can be estimated as 76% (= 1/1.32) of the osseous-based area. The abundance of soft tissue in the trapezoid and trapezium regions can be attributed mainly to the capitate-trapezium ligament and the flexor carpi radialis tendon. Inclusion of such soft tissue leads to overestimations of the carpal tunnel area. Correct quantification of the carpal tunnel area aids in examining carpal

  13. Liquid Microjunction Surface Sampling Probe Electrospray Mass Spectrometry for Detection of Drugs and Metabolites in Thin Tissue Sections

    SciTech Connect

    Van Berkel, Gary J; Kertesz, Vilmos; Koeplinger, Kenneth A.; Vavek, Marissa; Kong, Ah-Ng Tony

    2008-01-01

    A self-aspirating, liquid micro-junction surface sampling probe/electrospray emitter mass spectrometry system was demonstrated for use in the direct analysis of spotted and dosed drugs and their metabolites in thin tissue sections. Proof-of-principle sampling and analysis directly from tissue without the need for sample preparation was demonstrated first by raster scanning a region on a section of rat liver onto which reserpine was spotted. The mass spectral signal from selected reaction monitoring was used to develop a chemical image of the spotted drug on the tissue. The probe was also used to selectively spot sample areas of sagittal whole mouse body tissue sections that had been dosed orally (90 mg/kg) with R,S-sulforaphane 3 hrs prior to sacrifice. Sulforaphane and its glutathione and N-acetyl cysteine conjugates were monitored with selected reaction monitoring and detected in the stomach and various other tissues from the dosed mouse. No signal for these species was observed in the tissue from a control mouse. The same dosed tissue section was used to illustrate the possibility of obtaining a line scan across the whole body section. In total these results illustrate the potential for rapid screening of the distribution of drugs and metabolites in tissue sections with the micro-liquid junction surface sampling probe/electrospray mass spectrometry approach.

  14. Digital 3D reconstructions using histological serial sections of lung tissue including the alveolar capillary network.

    PubMed

    Grothausmann, Roman; Knudsen, Lars; Ochs, Matthias; Mühlfeld, Christian

    2017-02-01

    Grothausmann R, Knudsen L, Ochs M, Mühlfeld C. Digital 3D reconstructions using histological serial sections of lung tissue including the alveolar capillary network. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 312: L243-L257, 2017. First published December 2, 2016; doi:10.1152/ajplung.00326.2016-The alveolar capillary network (ACN) provides an enormously large surface area that is necessary for pulmonary gas exchange. Changes of the ACN during normal or pathological development or in pulmonary diseases are of great functional impact and warrant further analysis. Due to the complexity of the three-dimensional (3D) architecture of the ACN, 2D approaches are limited in providing a comprehensive impression of the characteristics of the normal ACN or the nature of its alterations. Stereological methods offer a quantitative way to assess the ACN in 3D in terms of capillary volume, surface area, or number but lack a 3D visualization to interpret the data. Hence, the necessity to visualize the ACN in 3D and to correlate this with data from the same set of data arises. Such an approach requires a large sample volume combined with a high resolution. Here, we present a technically simple and cost-efficient approach to create 3D representations of lung tissue ranging from bronchioles over alveolar ducts and alveoli up to the ACN from more than 1 mm sample extent to a resolution of less than 1 μm. The method is based on automated image acquisition of serially sectioned epoxy resin-embedded lung tissue fixed by vascular perfusion and subsequent automated digital reconstruction and analysis of the 3D data. This efficient method may help to better understand mechanisms of vascular development and pathology of the lung.

  15. Label-free identification and characterization of murine hair follicle stem cells located in thin tissue sections with Raman micro-spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Tsung-Hua; Short, Michael A; McLean, David I; Zeng, Haishan; McElwee, Kevin; Lui, Harvey

    2014-06-07

    Stem cells offer tremendous opportunities for regenerative medicine. Over the past decade considerable research has taken place to identify and characterize the differentiation states of stem cells in culture. Raman micro-spectroscopy has emerged as an ideal technology since it is fast, nondestructive, and does not require potentially toxic dyes. Raman spectroscopy systems can also be incorporated into confocal microscope imaging systems allowing spectra to be obtained from below the tissue surface. Thus there is significant potential for monitoring stem cells in living tissue. Stem cells that reside in hair follicles are suitable for testing this possibility since they are close to the skin surface, and typically clustered around the bulge area. One of the first steps needed would be to obtain Raman micro-spectra from stem cells located in thin sections of tissue, and then see whether these spectra are clearly different from those of the surrounding differentiated cells. To facilitate this test, standard 5 μm thick sections of murine skin tissue were stained to identify the location of hair follicle stem cells and their progeny. Raman spectra were then obtained from adjacent cells in a subsequent unstained 10 μm thick section. The spectra revealed significant differences in peak intensities associated with nucleic acids, proteins, lipids and amino acids. Statistical analyses of the Raman micro-spectra identified stem cells with 98% sensitivity and 94% specificity, as compared with a CD34 immunostaining gold standard. Furthermore analyses of the spectral variance indicated differences in cellular dynamics between the two cell groups. This study shows that Raman micro-spectroscopy has a potential role in identifying adult follicle stem cells, laying the groundwork for future applications of hair follicle stem cells and other somatic stem cells in situ.

  16. A compact and versatile microfluidic probe for local processing of tissue sections and biological specimens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cors, J. F.; Lovchik, R. D.; Delamarche, E.; Kaigala, G. V.

    2014-03-01

    The microfluidic probe (MFP) is a non-contact, scanning microfluidic technology for local (bio)chemical processing of surfaces based on hydrodynamically confining nanoliter volumes of liquids over tens of micrometers. We present here a compact MFP (cMFP) that can be used on a standard inverted microscope and assist in the local processing of tissue sections and biological specimens. The cMFP has a footprint of 175 × 100 × 140 mm3 and can scan an area of 45 × 45 mm2 on a surface with an accuracy of ±15 μm. The cMFP is compatible with standard surfaces used in life science laboratories such as microscope slides and Petri dishes. For ease of use, we developed self-aligned mounted MFP heads with standardized "chip-to-world" and "chip-to-platform" interfaces. Switching the processing liquid in the flow confinement is performed within 90 s using a selector valve with a dead-volume of approximately 5 μl. We further implemented height-compensation that allows a cMFP head to follow non-planar surfaces common in tissue and cellular ensembles. This was shown by patterning different macroscopic copper-coated topographies with height differences up to 750 μm. To illustrate the applicability to tissue processing, 5 μm thick M000921 BRAF V600E+ melanoma cell blocks were stained with hematoxylin to create contours, lines, spots, gradients of the chemicals, and multiple spots over larger areas. The local staining was performed in an interactive manner using a joystick and a scripting module. The compactness, user-friendliness, and functionality of the cMFP will enable it to be adapted as a standard tool in research, development and diagnostic laboratories, particularly for the interaction with tissues and cells.

  17. Immunohistochemical localization of human and simian immunodeficiency viral antigens in fixed tissue sections.

    PubMed Central

    Ward, J. M.; O'Leary, T. J.; Baskin, G. B.; Benveniste, R.; Harris, C. A.; Nara, P. L.; Rhodes, R. H.

    1987-01-01

    Antigens of human (HIV) or simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIV) were identified with polyclonal or monoclonal antibodies and avidin-biotin complex (ABC) immunohistochemistry in fixed surgical pathology and autopsy specimens of humans or monkeys with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. With B-5 fixative, viral antigens were readily detected in lymph nodes of 8 of 13 patients with follicular hyperplasia, but in only 1 of 12 patients with follicular atrophy. Antigen was detected in follicular dendritic reticular cells and rare blastlike cells, extracellularly, and in postcapillary venules, medullary lymphocytes, sinus histiocytes, and macrophages in some lymph nodes. In the brain at autopsy, antigen could be found in gliomesenchymal-cell nodules, astrocytes, vascular endothelial cells, multinucleated cells, and astrocytes and macrophages associated with demyelination. In contrast, 4 rhesus monkeys with experimental SIV infection had abundant antigen in sinus histiocytes, macrophages, and multinucleated giant cells of lymph nodes and spleen and in thymic epithelial cells. Brain lesions of monkeys resembled those of humans, with antigen found in macrophages and multinucleated giant cells. Antibodies to HIV also were immunoreactive in formalin-fixed tissue sections of monkeys containing SIV antigens. The ABC technique provided a fast and efficient method for localizing HIV and SIV antigens in fixed surgical and autopsy specimens. These findings are consistent with those found with in situ hybridization, ultrastructural studies, frozen sections of lymph nodes, and permanent sections of brain. Images Figure 1 p[201]-b p[201]-c Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 4 Figure 7 PMID:3472469

  18. Feature-based analysis of mouse prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia in histological tissue sections

    PubMed Central

    Ruusuvuori, Pekka; Valkonen, Mira; Nykter, Matti; Visakorpi, Tapio; Latonen, Leena

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes work presented at the Nordic Symposium on Digital Pathology 2015, in Linköping, Sweden. Prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) represents premalignant tissue involving epithelial growth confined in the lumen of prostatic acini. In the attempts to understand oncogenesis in the human prostate, early neoplastic changes can be modeled in the mouse with genetic manipulation of certain tumor suppressor genes or oncogenes. As with many early pathological changes, the PIN lesions in the mouse prostate are macroscopically small, but microscopically spanning areas often larger than single high magnification focus fields in microscopy. This poses a challenge to utilize full potential of the data acquired in histological specimens. We use whole prostates fixed in molecular fixative PAXgene™, embedded in paraffin, sectioned through and stained with H&E. To visualize and analyze the microscopic information spanning whole mouse PIN (mPIN) lesions, we utilize automated whole slide scanning and stacked sections through the tissue. The region of interests is masked, and the masked areas are processed using a cascade of automated image analysis steps. The images are normalized in color space, after which exclusion of secretion areas and feature extraction is performed. Machine learning is utilized to build a model of early PIN lesions for determining the probability for histological changes based on the calculated features. We performed a feature-based analysis to mPIN lesions. First, a quantitative representation of over 100 features was built, including several features representing pathological changes in PIN, especially describing the spatial growth pattern of lesions in the prostate tissue. Furthermore, we built a classification model, which is able to align PIN lesions corresponding to grading by visual inspection to more advanced and mild lesions. The classifier allowed both determining the probability of early histological changes for uncategorized

  19. Grinding and polishing instead of sectioning for the tissue samples with a graft: Implications for light and electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Mukhamadiyarov, Rinat A; Sevostyanova, Victoria V; Shishkova, Daria K; Nokhrin, Andrey V; Sidorova, Olga D; Kutikhin, Anton G

    2016-06-01

    A broad use of the graft replacement requires a detailed investigation of the host-graft interaction, including both histological examination and electron microscopy. A high quality sectioning of the host tissue with a graft seems to be complicated; in addition, it is difficult to examine the same tissue area by both of the mentioned microscopy techniques. To solve these problems, we developed a new technique of epoxy resin embedding with the further grinding, polishing, and staining. Graft-containing tissues prepared by grinding and polishing preserved their structure; however, sectioning frequently required the explantation of the graft and led to tissue disintegration. Moreover, stained samples prepared by grinding and polishing may then be assessed by both light microscopy and backscattered scanning electron microscopy. Therefore, grinding and polishing outperform sectioning when applied to the tissues with a graft.

  20. Working with Commercially Available Quantum Dots for Immunofluorescence on Tissue Sections

    PubMed Central

    Kishen, Ria E. B.; Kluth, David C.; Bellamy, Christopher O. C.

    2016-01-01

    Quantum dots are semiconductor fluorescent nanocrystals that exhibit excellent characteristics compared with more commonly used organic fluorescent dyes. For many years quantum dot conjugated products have been available in multiple forms for fluorescence imaging of tissue sections under the trademark name Qdot®. They have much increased brightness, narrow emission spectrum, large Stokes shift and photostability compared with conventional organic fluorescent dyes, which together make them the fluorophores of choice for demanding requirements. Vivid Qdots are recent replacements for original Qdots, modified to improve brightness, however this has affected the fluorescence stability in commonly used conditions for immunohistochemistry. We present here our investigation of the stability of original and Vivid Qdots in solution and in immunohistochemistry, highlight the potential pitfalls and propose a protocol for stable and reliable multiplex staining with current commercially available original and Vivid Qdots. PMID:27685858

  1. Detecting Distance between Injected Microspheres and Target Tumor via 3D Reconstruction of Tissue Sections

    SciTech Connect

    Carson, James P.; Kuprat, Andrew P.; Colby, Sean M.; Davis, Cassi A.; Basciano, Christopher; Greene, Kevin; Feo, John T.; Kennedy, Andrew

    2012-08-28

    One treatment increasing in use for solid tumors in the liver is radioembolization via the delivery of 90Y microspheres to the vascular bed within or near the location of the tumor. It is desirable as part of the treatment for the microspheres to embed preferentially in or near the tumor. This work details an approach for analyzing the deposition of microspheres with respect to the location of the tumor. The approach used is based upon thin-slice serial sectioning of the tissue sample, followed by high resolution imaging, microsphere detection, and 3-D reconstruction of the tumor surface. Distance from the microspheres to the tumor was calculated using a fast deterministic point inclusion method.

  2. Hyperspectral microscopic analysis of normal, benign and carcinoma microarray tissue sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maggioni, Mauro; Davis, Gustave L.; Warner, Frederick J.; Geshwind, Frank B.; Coppi, Andreas C.; DeVerse, Richard A.; Coifman, Ronald R.

    2006-02-01

    We apply a unique micro-optoelectromechanical tuned light source and new algorithms to the hyper-spectral microscopic analysis of human colon biopsies. The tuned light prototype (Plain Sight Systems Inc.) transmits any combination of light frequencies, range 440nm 700nm, trans-illuminating H and E stained tissue sections of normal (N), benign adenoma (B) and malignant carcinoma (M) colon biopsies, through a Nikon Biophot microscope. Hyper-spectral photomicrographs, randomly collected 400X magnication, are obtained with a CCD camera (Sensovation) from 59 different patient biopsies (20 N, 19 B, 20 M) mounted as a microarray on a single glass slide. The spectra of each pixel are normalized and analyzed to discriminate among tissue features: gland nuclei, gland cytoplasm and lamina propria/lumens. Spectral features permit the automatic extraction of 3298 nuclei with classification as N, B or M. When nuclei are extracted from each of the 59 biopsies the average classification among N, B and M nuclei is 97.1%; classification of the biopsies, based on the average nuclei classification, is 100%. However, when the nuclei are extracted from a subset of biopsies, and the prediction is made on nuclei in the remaining biopsies, there is a marked decrement in performance to 60% across the 3 classes. Similarly the biopsy classification drops to 54%. In spite of these classification differences, which we believe are due to instrument and biopsy normalization issues, hyper-spectral analysis has the potential to achieve diagnostic efficiency needed for objective microscopic diagnosis.

  3. Choice of Illumination System & Fluorophore for Multiplex Immunofluorescence on FFPE Tissue Sections

    PubMed Central

    Kishen, Ria E. B.; Kluth, David C.; Bellamy, Christopher O. C.

    2016-01-01

    The recent availability of novel dyes and alternative light sources to facilitate complex tissue immunofluorescence studies such as multiplex labelling has not been matched by reports critically evaluating the considerations and relative benefits of these new tools, particularly in combination. Product information is often limited to wavelengths used for older fluorophores (FITC, TRITC & corresponding Alexa dyes family). Consequently, novel agents such as Quantum dots are not widely appreciated or used, despite highly favourable properties including extremely bright emission, stability and potentially reduced tissue autofluorescence at the excitation wavelength. Using spectral analysis, we report here a detailed critical appraisal and comparative evaluation of different light sources and fluorophores in multiplex immunofluorescence of clinical biopsy sections. The comparison includes mercury light, metal halide and 3 different LED-based systems, using 7 Qdots (525, 565, 585, 605, 625, 705), Cy3 and Cy5. We discuss the considerations relevant to achieving the best combination of light source and fluorophore for accurate multiplex fluorescence quantitation. We highlight practical limitations and confounders to quantitation with filter-based approaches. PMID:27632367

  4. Comparison of fine needle aspiration biopsy and paraffin embedded tissue sections for measuring AgNOR proteins.

    PubMed

    Tasdemir, S; Eroz, R; Cucer, N; Oktay, M; Türkeli, M

    2015-07-01

    Paraffin embedded tissue sections and fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) are important methods for diagnosis. We compared thyroid tissue obtained by FNAB to paraffin embedded sections to determine whether there were differences in detection of the amounts of argyrophilic nucleolar organizing region (AgNOR) proteins. Twenty-two patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma were included in the study. Slides were prepared with both FNAB tissue and 3 μm sections of paraffin embedded tissue, and stained for AgNOR. One hundred nuclei per individual were evaluated; total AgNOR number/nucleus (TAn/TNn) and total AgNOR area/nuclear area (TAa/TNa) of individual cells were determined. Mean TAn/TNn and TAa/TNa values were 4.800 ± 1.118 and 13.382 ± 2.612, respectively, for FNAB samples; corresponding values were 2.406 ± 0.649 and 8.49 ± 0.893, respectively, for paraffin embedded sections. The differences between FNAB materials and paraffin embedded tissue sections were significant for the mean TAn/TNn and TAa/TNa values. Significant differences in the amounts of AgNOR protein detected were found between FNAB and paraffin embedded tissue sections.

  5. Micro-Raman spectroscopy a powerful technique to identify crocidolite and erionite fibers in tissue sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rinaudo, C.; Croce, A.; Allegrina, M.; Baris, I. Y.; Dogan, A.; Powers, A.; Rivera, Z.; Bertino, P.; Yang, H.; Gaudino, G.; Carbone, M.

    2013-05-01

    Exposure to mineral fibers such asbestos and erionite is widely associated with the development of lung cancer and pleural malignant mesothelioma (MM). Pedigree and mineralogical studies indicated that genetics may influence mineral fiber carcinogenesis. Although dimensions strongly impact on the fiber carcinogenic potential, also the chemical composition and the fiber is relevant. By using micro-Raman spectroscopy we show here persistence and identification of different mineral phases, directly on histopathological specimens of mice and humans. Fibers of crocidolite asbestos and erionite of different geographic areas (Oregon, US and Cappadocia, Turkey) were injected in mice intra peritoneum. MM developed in 10/15 asbestos-treated mice after 5 months, and in 8-10/15 erionite-treated mice after 14 months. The persistence of the injected fibers was investigated in pancreas, liver, spleen and in the peritoneal tissue. The chemical identification of the different phases occurred in the peritoneal cavity or at the organ borders, while only rarely fibers were localized in the parenchyma. Raman patterns allow easily to recognize crocidolite and erionite fibers. Microscopic analysis revealed that crocidolite fibers were frequently coated by ferruginous material ("asbestos bodies"), whereas erionite fibers were always free from coatings. We also analyzed by micro-Raman spectroscopy lung tissues, both from MM patients of the Cappadocia, where a MM epidemic developed because of environmental exposure to erionite, and from Italian MM patients with occupational exposure to asbestos. Our findings demonstrate that micro-Raman spectroscopy is technique able to identify mineral phases directly on histopathology specimens, as routine tissue sections prepared for diagnostic purpose. REFERENCES A.U. Dogan, M. Dogan. Environ. Geochem. Health 2008, 30(4), 355. M. Carbone, S. Emri, A.U. Dogan, I. Steele, M. Tuncer, HI. Pass, et al. Nat. Rev. Cancer. 2007, 7 (2),147. M. Carbone, Y

  6. Epigenetic clustering of lung adenocarcinomas based on DNA methylation profiles in adjacent lung tissue: Its correlation with smoking history and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Sato, Takashi; Arai, Eri; Kohno, Takashi; Takahashi, Yoriko; Miyata, Sayaka; Tsuta, Koji; Watanabe, Shun-ichi; Soejima, Kenzo; Betsuyaku, Tomoko; Kanai, Yae

    2014-07-15

    The aim of this study was to clarify the significance of DNA methylation alterations during lung carcinogenesis. Infinium assay was performed using 139 paired samples of non-cancerous lung tissue (N) and tumorous tissue (T) from a learning cohort of patients with lung adenocarcinomas (LADCs). Fifty paired N and T samples from a validation cohort were also analyzed. DNA methylation alterations on 1,928 probes occurred in N samples relative to normal lung tissue from patients without primary lung tumors, and were inherited by, or strengthened in, T samples. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering using DNA methylation levels in N samples on all 26,447 probes subclustered patients into Cluster I (n = 32), Cluster II (n = 35) and Cluster III (n = 72). LADCs in Cluster I developed from the inflammatory background in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in heavy smokers and were locally invasive. Most patients in Cluster II were non-smokers and had a favorable outcome. LADCs in Cluster III developed in light smokers were most aggressive (frequently showing lymphatic and blood vessel invasion, lymph node metastasis and an advanced pathological stage), and had a poor outcome. DNA methylation levels of hallmark genes for each cluster, such as IRX2, HOXD8, SPARCL1, RGS5 and EI24, were again correlated with clinicopathological characteristics in the validation cohort. DNA methylation profiles reflecting carcinogenetic factors such as smoking and COPD appear to be established in non-cancerous lung tissue from patients with LADCs and may determine the aggressiveness of tumors developing in individual patients, and thus patient outcome.

  7. Advanced Image Acquisition and Analytical Techniques for Studies of Living Cells and Tissue Sections.

    PubMed

    Franek, Michal; Suchánková, Jana; Sehnalová, Petra; Krejčí, Jana; Legartová, Soňa; Kozubek, Stanislav; Večeřa, Josef; Sorokin, Dmitry V; Bártová, Eva

    2016-04-01

    Studies on fixed samples or genome-wide analyses of nuclear processes are useful for generating snapshots of a cell population at a particular time point. However, these experimental approaches do not provide information at the single-cell level. Genome-wide studies cannot assess variability between individual cells that are cultured in vitro or originate from different pathological stages. Immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence are fundamental experimental approaches in clinical laboratories and are also widely used in basic research. However, the fixation procedure may generate artifacts and prevents monitoring of the dynamics of nuclear processes. Therefore, live-cell imaging is critical for studying the kinetics of basic nuclear events, such as DNA replication, transcription, splicing, and DNA repair. This review is focused on the advanced microscopy analyses of the cells, with a particular focus on live cells. We note some methodological innovations and new options for microscope systems that can also be used to study tissue sections. Cornerstone methods for the biophysical research of living cells, such as fluorescence recovery after photobleaching and fluorescence resonance energy transfer, are also discussed, as are studies on the effects of radiation at the individual cellular level.

  8. Intensity-based signal separation algorithm for accuratequantification of clustered centrosomes in tissue sections

    SciTech Connect

    Fleisch, Markus C.; Maxell, Christopher A.; Kuper, Claudia K.; Brown, Erika T.; Parvin, Bahram; Barcellos-Hoff, Mary-Helen; Costes,Sylvain V.

    2006-03-08

    Centrosomes are small organelles that organize the mitoticspindle during cell division and are also involved in cell shape andpolarity. Within epithelial tumors, such as breast cancer, and somehematological tumors, centrosome abnormalities (CA) are common, occurearly in disease etiology, and correlate with chromosomal instability anddisease stage. In situ quantification of CA by optical microscopy ishampered by overlap and clustering of these organelles, which appear asfocal structures. CA has been frequently associated with Tp53 status inpremalignant lesions and tumors. Here we describe an approach toaccurately quantify centrosomes in tissue sections and tumors.Considering proliferation and baseline amplification rate the resultingpopulation based ratio of centrosomes per nucleus allow the approximationof the proportion of cells with CA. Using this technique we show that20-30 percent of cells have amplified centrosomes in Tp53 null mammarytumors. Combining fluorescence detection, deconvolution microscopy and amathematical algorithm applied to a maximum intensity projection we showthat this approach is superior to traditional investigator based visualanalysis or threshold-based techniques.

  9. 43 CFR 420.3 - Adjacent lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Adjacent lands. 420.3 Section 420.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFF-ROAD VEHICLE USE § 420.3 Adjacent lands. When administratively feasible, the regulation of...

  10. 43 CFR 420.3 - Adjacent lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Adjacent lands. 420.3 Section 420.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFF-ROAD VEHICLE USE § 420.3 Adjacent lands. When administratively feasible, the regulation of...

  11. 43 CFR 420.3 - Adjacent lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Adjacent lands. 420.3 Section 420.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFF-ROAD VEHICLE USE § 420.3 Adjacent lands. When administratively feasible, the regulation of...

  12. 43 CFR 420.3 - Adjacent lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Adjacent lands. 420.3 Section 420.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFF-ROAD VEHICLE USE § 420.3 Adjacent lands. When administratively feasible, the regulation of...

  13. 43 CFR 420.3 - Adjacent lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Adjacent lands. 420.3 Section 420.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFF-ROAD VEHICLE USE § 420.3 Adjacent lands. When administratively feasible, the regulation of...

  14. Novel mass spectrometry imaging software assisting labeled normalization and quantitation of drugs and neuropeptides directly in tissue sections.

    PubMed

    Källback, Patrik; Shariatgorji, Mohammadreza; Nilsson, Anna; Andrén, Per E

    2012-08-30

    MALDI MS imaging has been extensively used to produce qualitative distribution maps of proteins, peptides, lipids, small molecule pharmaceuticals and their metabolites directly in biological tissue sections. There is growing demand to quantify the amount of target compounds in the tissue sections of different organs. We present a novel MS imaging software including protocol for the quantitation of drugs, and for the first time, an endogenous neuropeptide directly in tissue sections. After selecting regions of interest on the tissue section, data is read and processed by the software using several available methods for baseline corrections, subtractions, denoising, smoothing, recalibration and normalization. The concentrations of in vivo administered drugs or endogenous compounds are then determined semi-automatically using either external standard curves, or by using labeled compounds, i.e., isotope labeled analogs as standards. As model systems, we have quantified the distribution of imipramine and tiotropium in the brain and lung of dosed rats. Substance P was quantified in different mouse brain structures, which correlated well with previously reported peptide levels. Our approach facilitates quantitative data processing and labeled standards provide better reproducibility and may be considered as an efficient tool to quantify drugs and endogenous compounds in tissue regions of interest.

  15. A rapid plastic embedding technique for preparation of three-micron thick sections of decalcified hard tissue.

    PubMed

    Kimmel, D; Jee, W S

    1975-03-01

    A 24 hour start-to-finish method is described for the preparation of three-micron-thick sections of decalcified hard tissues. Following acetone dehydration, the tissue to be embedded is infiltrated under vacuum with a series of graded clearing solutions which approach the content of the final methyl methacrylate mixture. After overnight in a 35 C oven, the plastic is polymerized by four hours heating at 42 C. Three-micron-thick sections are then easily prepared by using a Jung microtome for high resolution histologic or detailed autoradiographic procedures.

  16. Spatial mapping of metals in tissue-sections using combination of mass-spectrometry and histology through image registration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anyz, Jiri; Vyslouzilova, Lenka; Vaculovic, Tomas; Tvrdonova, Michaela; Kanicky, Viktor; Haase, Hajo; Horak, Vratislav; Stepankova, Olga; Heger, Zbynek; Adam, Vojtech

    2017-01-01

    We describe a new procedure for the parallel mapping of selected metals in histologically characterized tissue samples. Mapping is achieved via image registration of digital data obtained from two neighbouring cryosections by scanning the first as a histological sample and subjecting the second to laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. This computer supported procedure enables determination of the distribution and content of metals of interest directly in the chosen histological zones and represents a substantial improvement over the standard approach, which determines these values in tissue homogenates or whole tissue sections. The potential of the described procedure was demonstrated in a pilot study that analysed Zn and Cu levels in successive development stages of pig melanoma tissue using MeLiM (Melanoma-bearing-Libechov-Minipig) model. We anticipate that the procedure could be useful for a complex understanding of the role that the spatial distribution of metals plays within tissues affected by pathological states including cancer.

  17. Spatial mapping of metals in tissue-sections using combination of mass-spectrometry and histology through image registration

    PubMed Central

    Anyz, Jiri; Vyslouzilova, Lenka; Vaculovic, Tomas; Tvrdonova, Michaela; Kanicky, Viktor; Haase, Hajo; Horak, Vratislav; Stepankova, Olga; Heger, Zbynek; Adam, Vojtech

    2017-01-01

    We describe a new procedure for the parallel mapping of selected metals in histologically characterized tissue samples. Mapping is achieved via image registration of digital data obtained from two neighbouring cryosections by scanning the first as a histological sample and subjecting the second to laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. This computer supported procedure enables determination of the distribution and content of metals of interest directly in the chosen histological zones and represents a substantial improvement over the standard approach, which determines these values in tissue homogenates or whole tissue sections. The potential of the described procedure was demonstrated in a pilot study that analysed Zn and Cu levels in successive development stages of pig melanoma tissue using MeLiM (Melanoma-bearing-Libechov-Minipig) model. We anticipate that the procedure could be useful for a complex understanding of the role that the spatial distribution of metals plays within tissues affected by pathological states including cancer. PMID:28071735

  18. Direct detection of herceptin/trastuzumab binding on breast tissue sections.

    PubMed

    Glazyrin, Alexey; Shen, Xiaoyun; Blanc, Victoria; Eliason, James F

    2007-01-01

    The protooncogene product HER-2/neu is the target of the humanized monoclonal antibody trastuzumab (Herceptin). Several tests are used clinically to identify patients with HER-2/neu overexpression based on evaluation by pathologists of gene amplification by fluorescence in situ hybridization or protein expression using immunohistochemistry (IHC). A simple technique has been developed for staining formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded breast cancer tissue using unmodified Herceptin/trastuzumab as the primary antibody. Results were compared with staining with the commercial kit, HercepTest, as well as with polyclonal anti-HER-2/neu antibodies and with biotinylated trastuzumab. These procedures were tested using four breast cancer microarrays. There were 854 cores that were stained with all four antibodies, representing 325 cases. A standard 4-point scoring system (0-3) was used. A total of 156 cases (48%) were scored as 0 by all the methods used and 31 (9.5%) were positive (3+) by all methods. Of interest, three cases scored negative using polyclonal anti-HER-2/neu antibodies but were positive using unmodified trastuzumab. To clarify this discrepancy, whole sections of tumors were examined with both antibodies using double labeling. There were some tumors that demonstrated a mosaic pattern of staining with neighboring cells or groups of cells stained exclusively with one antibody or the other. These results demonstrate that unmodified humanized or human therapeutic antibodies could be used for preclinical testing or in a clinical laboratory setting for IHC-based selection of patients for treatment, and results of such selection could be different from those obtained using polyclonal antibody-based IHC procedure.

  19. A new laboratory device with mathematically based positioning of a frozen tissue block facilitating precise sectioning of large specimens.

    PubMed

    Bieniek, A; Matusiak, Ł; Woźniak, Z; Lichtenstein, M; Szymkowski, J; Kozioł, M; Salwa, A; Szepietowski, J C

    2016-06-01

    Mohs micrographic surgery (MMS) is a treatment method aiming at thorough, personalized eradication of skin cancers by mean of staged excision of tissues surrounding the tumor with complete (100%) histopathological examination of their margins. In many MMS laboratories, the excised tissue is divided, shaped, frozen in a cryostat with a heat extractor and positioned manually (with the block on the object disc) in an articulated cryostat chuck during cutting. However, these activities may be difficult, time-consuming and associated with the risk of imprecise tissue sectioning. Development of a laboratory device allowing for processing of large tissue specimens, with the function of mechanical, mathematically steered positioning of the tissue block surface directly to the microtome knife cutting place, eliminating the need for manual adjustment. The prototype device was designed and manufactured. Its functioning was tested on 513 histological slides produced during 212 operations of skin cancers using MMS. The depth of the first complete sections and the diameter of sections were measured. Complete sections were obtained at an average depth of 81.60 m (min. 20 m, max. 180 m, SD = 29.15), whereas the average diameter of sections was 18.11 mm (min. 4 mm, max. 42 mm, SD = 9.10). The histological processing of large specimens with mathematically based positioning of the tissue surface in relation to the cryotome knife cutting plane is precise, fast and easy. The device can be useful in those MMS centers which continue to employ manual setting of the cryostat chuck or share the cryostat with other users, which prevents fixing the chuck position (including large hospital settings). It may also be helpful in centers using a cryostat with a fixed chuck, for the correction of minimal inaccuracies of its preset position.

  20. In situ hybridization for the detection of rust fungi in paraffin embedded plant tissue sections

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rust fungi infect a wide range of plant species making them of particular interest to plant pathologists. In order to study the interactions between these important pathogenic fungi and their host plants it is useful to be able to differentiate fungal tissue from plant tissue. This can be accomplish...

  1. Quantification of inflammation in colonic tissue sections and wound healing in-vitro with digital holographic microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bettenworth, Dominik; Lenz, Philipp; Krausewitz, Philipp; Brückner, Markus; Ketelhut, Steffi; von Bally, Gert; Domagk, Dirk; Kemper, Björn

    2013-06-01

    We show that the tissue refractive index, obtained from quantitative digital holographic microscopy (DHM) phase contrast images of unstained histological colonic sections, is directly related to the degree of inflammation in experimental colitis. In addition, it is demonstrated that quantitative DHM phase contrast is capable to quantify in-vitro wound healing assays.

  2. Promoter methylation patterns of ABCB1, ABCC1 and ABCG2 in human cancer cell lines, multidrug-resistant cell models and tumor, tumor-adjacent and tumor-distant tissues from breast cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Spitzwieser, Melanie; Pirker, Christine; Koblmüller, Bettina; Pfeiler, Georg; Hacker, Stefan; Berger, Walter; Heffeter, Petra; Cichna-Markl, Margit

    2016-01-01

    Overexpression of ABCB1, ABCC1 and ABCG2 in tumor tissues is considered a major cause of limited efficacy of anticancer drugs. Gene expression of ABC transporters is regulated by multiple mechanisms, including changes in the DNA methylation status. Most of the studies published so far only report promoter methylation levels for either ABCB1 or ABCG2, and data on the methylation status for ABCC1 are scarce. Thus, we determined the promoter methylation patterns of ABCB1, ABCC1 and ABCG2 in 19 human cancer cell lines. In order to contribute to the elucidation of the role of DNA methylation changes in acquisition of a multidrug resistant (MDR) phenotype, we also analyzed the promoter methylation patterns in drug-resistant sublines of the cancer cell lines GLC-4, SW1573, KB-3-1 and HL-60. In addition, we investigated if aberrant promoter methylation levels of ABCB1, ABCC1 and ABCG2 occur in tumor and tumor-surrounding tissues from breast cancer patients. Our data indicates that hypomethylation of the ABCC1 promoter is not cancer type-specific but occurs in cancer cell lines of different origins. Promoter methylation was found to be an important mechanism in gene regulation of ABCB1 in parental cancer cell lines and their drug-resistant sublines. Overexpression of ABCC1 in MDR cell models turned out to be mediated by gene amplification, not by changes in the promoter methylation status of ABCC1. In contrast to the promoters of ABCC1 and ABCG2, the promoter of ABCB1 was significantly higher methylated in tumor tissues than in tumor-adjacent and tumor-distant tissues from breast cancer patients. PMID:27689338

  3. Comparison of DNA ploidy status and DNA ploidy-related parameters in malignant melanoma tissue microarrays and full sections.

    PubMed

    Korabiowska, Monika; Cordon-Cardo, Carlos; Buschmann, Nadine; Stachura, Jerzy; Fischer, Gösta; Brinck, Ulrich

    2004-07-01

    A new high-throughput tissue-arraying technique, now frequently used in tumor pathology, requires standardization of methods of DNA analysis, previously applied in full histological sections. The main objectives of this study were to evaluate DNA ploidy status and DNA ploidy-related parameters using the CAS200 image analyzer in malignant melanoma tissue microarrays and to compare them with full histological sections. Comparison of DNA ploidy-related parameters, including percentage of diploid cells, percentage of aneuploid cells between 2c and 4c, percentage of tetraploid cells, percentage of aneuploid cells between 4c and 8c, percentage of octaploid cells, percentage of 16-ploid cells, and 5c exceeding rate, did not reveal any significant differences between malignant melanoma tissue microarrays and full sections. The DNA ploidy status according to Auer differed in 1 out of 59 cases investigated. Our study demonstrated that it is possible to evaluate DNA ploidy status and DNA ploidy-related parameters in tissue microarrays, which is of practical relevance to tumor pathology.

  4. AutoStitcher: An Automated Program for Efficient and Robust Reconstruction of Digitized Whole Histological Sections from Tissue Fragments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penzias, Gregory; Janowczyk, Andrew; Singanamalli, Asha; Rusu, Mirabela; Shih, Natalie; Feldman, Michael; Stricker, Phillip D.; Delprado, Warick; Tiwari, Sarita; Böhm, Maret; Haynes, Anne-Maree; Ponsky, Lee; Viswanath, Satish; Madabhushi, Anant

    2016-07-01

    In applications involving large tissue specimens that have been sectioned into smaller tissue fragments, manual reconstruction of a “pseudo whole-mount” histological section (PWMHS) can facilitate (a) pathological disease annotation, and (b) image registration and correlation with radiological images. We have previously presented a program called HistoStitcher, which allows for more efficient manual reconstruction than general purpose image editing tools (such as Photoshop). However HistoStitcher is still manual and hence can be laborious and subjective, especially when doing large cohort studies. In this work we present AutoStitcher, a novel automated algorithm for reconstructing PWMHSs from digitized tissue fragments. AutoStitcher reconstructs (“stitches”) a PWMHS from a set of 4 fragments by optimizing a novel cost function that is domain-inspired to ensure (i) alignment of similar tissue regions, and (ii) contiguity of the prostate boundary. The algorithm achieves computational efficiency by performing reconstruction in a multi-resolution hierarchy. Automated PWMHS reconstruction results (via AutoStitcher) were quantitatively and qualitatively compared to manual reconstructions obtained via HistoStitcher for 113 prostate pathology sections. Distances between corresponding fiducials placed on each of the automated and manual reconstruction results were between 2.7%–3.2%, reflecting their excellent visual similarity.

  5. AutoStitcher: An Automated Program for Efficient and Robust Reconstruction of Digitized Whole Histological Sections from Tissue Fragments

    PubMed Central

    Penzias, Gregory; Janowczyk, Andrew; Singanamalli, Asha; Rusu, Mirabela; Shih, Natalie; Feldman, Michael; Stricker, Phillip D.; Delprado, Warick; Tiwari, Sarita; Böhm, Maret; Haynes, Anne-Maree; Ponsky, Lee; Viswanath, Satish; Madabhushi, Anant

    2016-01-01

    In applications involving large tissue specimens that have been sectioned into smaller tissue fragments, manual reconstruction of a “pseudo whole-mount” histological section (PWMHS) can facilitate (a) pathological disease annotation, and (b) image registration and correlation with radiological images. We have previously presented a program called HistoStitcher, which allows for more efficient manual reconstruction than general purpose image editing tools (such as Photoshop). However HistoStitcher is still manual and hence can be laborious and subjective, especially when doing large cohort studies. In this work we present AutoStitcher, a novel automated algorithm for reconstructing PWMHSs from digitized tissue fragments. AutoStitcher reconstructs (“stitches”) a PWMHS from a set of 4 fragments by optimizing a novel cost function that is domain-inspired to ensure (i) alignment of similar tissue regions, and (ii) contiguity of the prostate boundary. The algorithm achieves computational efficiency by performing reconstruction in a multi-resolution hierarchy. Automated PWMHS reconstruction results (via AutoStitcher) were quantitatively and qualitatively compared to manual reconstructions obtained via HistoStitcher for 113 prostate pathology sections. Distances between corresponding fiducials placed on each of the automated and manual reconstruction results were between 2.7%–3.2%, reflecting their excellent visual similarity. PMID:27457670

  6. Optical coherence microscopy of living cells and bioengineered tissue dynamics in high-resolution cross-section.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Akiyuki; Haraguchi, Yuji; Oikaze, Hirotoshi; Kabetani, Yasuhiro; Sakaguchi, Katsuhisa; Shimizu, Tatsuya

    2017-04-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a valuable tool in the cross-sectional observation/analysis of three-dimensional (3-D) biological tissues, and that histological observation is important clinically. However, the resolution of the technology is approximately 10-20 μm. In this study, optical coherence microscopy (OCM), a tomographic system combining OCT technology with a microscopic technique, was constructed for observing cells individually with a resolution at the submicrometer level. Cells and 3-D tissues fabricated by cell sheet technology were observed by OCM. Importantly, the cell nuclei and cytoplasm could be clearly distinguished, and the time-dependent dynamics of cell-sheet tissues could be observed in detail. Additionally, the 3-D migration of cells in the bioengineered tissue was also detected using OCM and metal-labeled cells. Bovine aortic endothelial cells, but not NIH3T3 murine embryonic skin fibroblasts, actively migrated within the 3-D tissues. This study showed that the OCM system would be a valuable tool in the fields of cell biology, tissue engineering, and regenerative medicine. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 105B: 481-488, 2017.

  7. Localization of telomerase hTERT protein in frozen sections of basal cell carcinomas (BCC) and tumor margin tissues.

    PubMed

    Fabricius, Eva-Maria; Kruse-Boitschenko, Ute; Khoury, Reem; Wildner, Gustav-Paul; Raguse, Jan-Dirk; Klein, Martin; Hoffmeister, Bodo

    2009-12-01

    In previous studies we demonstrated telomerase activity in frozen tissues from BCC and their tumor-free margins by the PCR ELISA. In this study we examined in the same frozen sections immunohistochemical presence of hTERT in the nucleus. After fixation in acetone and methanol followed by steaming we used for visualization the antigen-antibody reactions by APAAP. This was the best method of preparation of the frozen sections in our preliminary hTERT-study with squamous cell carcinomas. This study was supplemented with antibodies against Ki-67, nucleolin, common leucocyte antigen CD45 and mutated p53. The immunoreactive scores were determined and included the comparison with telomerase activity. The investigation of hTERT expression was performed in the tissues of 41 patients with BCC and control tissues of 14 patients without tumor. Eleven commercial antibodies were used for a nuclear staining of hTERT expression. With the anti-hTERT antibodies we looked for both satisfactory distribution and intensity of immunohistochemical labeling in the carcinomas and in the squamous epithelia of the tumor centers, of the tumor-free margins and of the control tissues. The hTERT expression in the BCC was distributed heterogeneously. The score values established by the anti-hTERT antibodies used were variably or significantly increased. In the stroma they tended to be negative, so we disregarded stroma hTERT. Proof of hTERT did not differ uniformly from telomerase activity. We compared the high with the lower median hTERT values in the Kaplan-Meier curve. Patients with lower hTERT scores in the center or tumor margin as shown by some of the antibodies suffered relapse earlier. Finally, we compared the hTERT expression in BCC tissues with the hTERT scores in HNSCC tissues from our previous study. Only one anti-hTERT antibody (our Ab 7) yielded significantly higher scores in BCC than in HNSCC.

  8. Visualizing and quantifying oxidized protein thiols in tissue sections: a comparison of dystrophic mdx and normal skeletal mouse muscles.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, Tomohito; Terrill, Jessica; Shavlakadze, Tea; Grounds, Miranda D; Arthur, Peter G

    2013-12-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are not only a cause of oxidative stress in a range of disease conditions but are also important regulators of physiological pathways in vivo. One mechanism whereby ROS can regulate cell function is by modification of proteins through the reversible oxidation of their thiol groups. An experimental challenge has been the relative lack of techniques to probe the biological significance of protein thiol oxidation in complex multicellular tissues and organs. We have developed a sensitive and quantitative fluorescence labeling technique to detect and localize protein thiol oxidation in histological tissue sections. In our technique, reduced and oxidized protein thiols are visualized and quantified on two consecutive tissue sections and the extent of protein thiol oxidation is expressed as a percentage of total protein thiols (reduced plus oxidized). We tested the application of this new technique using muscles of dystrophic (mdx) and wild-type C57Bl/10Scsn (C57) mice. In mdx myofibers, protein thiols were consistently more oxidized (19 ± 3%) compared with healthy myofibers (10 ± 1%) in C57 mice. A striking observation was the localization of intensive protein thiol oxidation (70 ± 9%) within myofibers associated with necrotic damage. Oxidative stress is an area of active investigation in many fields of research, and this technique provides a useful tool for locating and further understanding protein thiol oxidation in normal, damaged, and diseased tissues.

  9. MALDI imaging and in situ identification of integral membrane proteins from rat brain tissue sections

    PubMed Central

    Nicklay, Joshua J.; Harris, Glenn A.; Schey, Kevin L.; Caprioli, Richard M.

    2013-01-01

    Transmembrane proteins are greatly underrepresented in data generated by imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) because of analytical challenges related to their size and solubility. Here we present the first example of MALDI IMS of two highly modified multi-transmembrane domain proteins, myelin proteolipid protein (PLP, 30 kDa) and DM-20 (26 kDa), from various regions of rat brain, namely the cerebrum, cerebellum, and medulla. We utilize a novel tissue pre-treatment aimed at transmembrane protein enrichment to show the in situ distribution of fatty acylation of these proteins, particularly of post-translational palmitoylation. Additionally, we demonstrate the utility of protease-encapsulated hydrogels for spatially localized on-tissue protein digestion and peptide extraction for subsequent direct coupling to LC-MS/MS for protein identification. PMID:23829295

  10. Organochlorine pesticides in serum and adipose tissue of pregnant women in Southern Spain giving birth by cesarean section.

    PubMed

    Jimenez Torres, M; Campoy Folgoso, C; Cañabate Reche, F; Rivas Velasco, A; Cerrillo Garcia, I; Mariscal Arcas, M; Olea-Serrano, F

    2006-12-15

    Since the appearance of DDT, increasingly potent insecticides have been developed to overcome the resistance developed by insects to successive products. Pesticides are also used in public health programs to control disease vectors. Despite legislation to control the use of certain products, they repeatedly appear in the adipose tissue, milk and serum of human populations. The present study determined the presence of organochlorine molecules in the adipose tissue, serum, and umblical cord of women giving birth by cesarean section in order to establish a possible correlation in organochlorine molecule content between these biological compartments and to examine fetal exposure to molecules with hormonal effects. Presence of nine organochlorines was detected by GC/ECD and confirmed by GC/MS. Highly significant differences (p<0.000) were observed between adipose tissue and maternal serum in concentrations of lindane, HCB, DDE, DDD, and endosulfan but not (p>0.5) in concentrations of endosulfan II or endosulfan sulfate. Only DDE concentrations differed (p<0.001) between maternal serum and umbilical cord serum. An association between pp'DDE and op'DDT was observed in maternal serum (p<0.094). An association in pp'DDE and pp'DDD content was found between adipose tissue and umbilical cord serum, and in pp'DDT content between adipose tissue and maternal serum. Results obtained indicate that exposure can be measured solely in serum when relatively high concentrations of pesticides are present.

  11. 30 CFR 56.9103 - Clearance on adjacent tracks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Clearance on adjacent tracks. 56.9103 Section..., Hauling, and Dumping Traffic Safety § 56.9103 Clearance on adjacent tracks. Railcars shall not be left on side tracks unless clearance is provided for traffic on adjacent tracks....

  12. 30 CFR 57.9103 - Clearance on adjacent tracks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Clearance on adjacent tracks. 57.9103 Section..., Hauling, and Dumping Traffic Safety § 57.9103 Clearance on adjacent tracks. Railcars shall not be left on side tracks unless clearance is provided for traffic on adjacent tracks....

  13. Detection of Neospora caninum in tissue sections using a murine monoclonal antibody.

    PubMed

    Cole, R A; Lindsay, D S; Dubey, J P; Blagburn, B L

    1993-10-01

    A murine monoclonal antibody (MAb 6G7), isotype IgG2a, produced against tachyzoites of Neospora caninum (isolate NC-1) reacted specifically with tachyzoites of N. caninum in an indirect immunofluorescent antibody test. MAb 6G7 did not react with tachyzoites of Toxoplasma gondii, sporozoites of Isospora suis, Eimeria bovis, or E. tenella, or merozoites of E. bovis in the indirect immunofluorescent antibody test. MAb 6G7 reacted positively with both tachyzoites and bradyzoites of N. caninum in an avidin-biotin peroxidase complex immunohistochemical test on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues. No reaction was observed with the following: tachyzoites and bradyzoites of T. gondii, T. gondii-like parasites, or Hammondia hammondi; bradyzoites of Frenkelia microti; schizonts and merozoites of Sarcocystis-like organisms; schizonts, sarcocysts, and oocysts/sporocysts of S. cruzi; schizonts and merozoites of S. canis; schizonts of S. hirsuta, S. tenella, and S. capracanis; merozoites of S. neurona and S. neurona-like organisms, E. bovis, or Haemoproteus sp.; bradyzoites and merozoites of S. montanaensis; bradyzoites of S. odocoileocanis, S. cruzi, and S. tenella; meronts, sexual stages, and caryocysts of Caryospora sp. and C. bigenetica; micromerozoites, macromerozoites, and schizonts of Hepatozoon canis; sporozoites, sexual stages, and oocysts of Cryptosporidium parvum and C. baileyi; trophozoites of Monocystis lumbrici, Tritrichomonas foetus, and Balantidium coli; tissue cysts and bradyzoites of Besnoitia sp. and B. jellisoni; amastigotes of Leishmania sp.; and trophic theronts of Ichthyopthirius multifilis. MAb 6G7 reacted with tachyzoites and bradyzoites of N. caninum in natural and experimental infections in dogs, cattle, mice, rats, sheep, and goats, indicating that host origin of the tissues did not affect the performance of the test.

  14. Human brain receptor autoradiography using whole hemisphere sections: a general method that minimizes tissue artefacts

    SciTech Connect

    Quirion, R.; Robitaille, Y.; Martial, J.; Chabot, J.G.; Lemoine, P.; Pilapil, C.; Dalpe, M.

    1987-01-01

    A general method for the preparation of high-quality, mostly ice-crystal-artefact-free whole human brain hemisphere sections is described. Upon receipt, hemispheres are divided; one is then fixed in buffered 10% formalin for neuropathological analysis while the other is cut in 8-10-mm-thick coronal slices that are then rapidly frozen in 2-methylbutane at -40 degrees C (10-15 sec) before being placed in the brain bank at -80 degrees C. Such rapid freezing markedly decreases the formation of ice-crystal artefacts. Whole-hemisphere 20-micron thick sections are then cut and mounted onto lantern-type gelatin-coated slides. These sections are subsequently used for both qualitative and quantitative in vitro receptor autoradiography. Examples of data obtained are given by using various radioligands labelling classical neutrotransmitter, neuropeptide, enzyme, and ion channel receptor binding sites. This method should be useful for the obtention of various receptor maps in human brain. Such information could be most useful for in vivo receptor visualization studies using positron emission tomography (PET) scanning. It could also indicate if a given receptor population is specifically and selectively altered in certain brain diseases, eventually leading to the development of new therapeutic approaches.

  15. PIXE analysis of elements in gastric cancer and adjacent mucosa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Qixin; Zhong, Ming; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Yan, Lingnuo; Xu, Yongling; Ye, Simao

    1990-04-01

    The elemental regional distributions in 20 resected human stomach tissues were obtained using PIXE analysis. The samples were pathologically divided into four types: normal, adjacent mucosa A, adjacent mucosa B and cancer. The targets for PIXE analysis were prepared by wet digestion with a pressure bomb system. P, K, Fe, Cu, Zn and Se were measured and statistically analysed. We found significantly higher concentrations of P, K, Cu, Zn and a higher ratio of Cu compared to Zn in cancer tissue as compared with normal tissue, but statistically no significant difference between adjacent mucosa and cancer tissue was found.

  16. Virtual tissue alignment and cutting plane definition – a new method to obtain optimal longitudinal histological sections

    PubMed Central

    Danz, J C; Habegger, M; Bosshardt, D D; Katsaros, C; Stavropoulos, A

    2014-01-01

    Histomorphometric evaluation of the buccal aspects of periodontal tissues in rodents requires reproducible alignment of maxillae and highly precise sections containing central sections of buccal roots; this is a cumbersome and technically sensitive process due to the small specimen size. The aim of the present report is to describe and analyze a method to transfer virtual sections of micro-computer tomographic (CT)-generated image stacks to the microtome for undecalcified histological processing and to describe the anatomy of the periodontium in rat molars. A total of 84 undecalcified sections of all buccal roots of seven untreated rats was analyzed. The accuracy of section coordinate transfer from virtual micro-CT slice to the histological slice, right–left side differences and the measurement error for linear and angular measurements on micro-CT and on histological micrographs were calculated using the Bland–Altman method, interclass correlation coefficient and the method of moments estimator. Also, manual alignment of the micro-CT-scanned rat maxilla was compared with multiplanar computer-reconstructed alignment. The supra alveolar rat anatomy is rather similar to human anatomy, whereas the alveolar bone is of compact type and the keratinized gingival epithelium bends apical to join the junctional epithelium. The high methodological standardization presented herein ensures retrieval of histological slices with excellent display of anatomical microstructures, in a reproducible manner, minimizes random errors, and thereby may contribute to the reduction of number of animals needed. PMID:24266502

  17. Virtual tissue alignment and cutting plane definition--a new method to obtain optimal longitudinal histological sections.

    PubMed

    Danz, J C; Habegger, M; Bosshardt, D D; Katsaros, C; Stavropoulos, A

    2014-02-01

    Histomorphometric evaluation of the buccal aspects of periodontal tissues in rodents requires reproducible alignment of maxillae and highly precise sections containing central sections of buccal roots; this is a cumbersome and technically sensitive process due to the small specimen size. The aim of the present report is to describe and analyze a method to transfer virtual sections of micro-computer tomographic (CT)-generated image stacks to the microtome for undecalcified histological processing and to describe the anatomy of the periodontium in rat molars. A total of 84 undecalcified sections of all buccal roots of seven untreated rats was analyzed. The accuracy of section coordinate transfer from virtual micro-CT slice to the histological slice, right-left side differences and the measurement error for linear and angular measurements on micro-CT and on histological micrographs were calculated using the Bland-Altman method, interclass correlation coefficient and the method of moments estimator. Also, manual alignment of the micro-CT-scanned rat maxilla was compared with multiplanar computer-reconstructed alignment. The supra alveolar rat anatomy is rather similar to human anatomy, whereas the alveolar bone is of compact type and the keratinized gingival epithelium bends apical to join the junctional epithelium. The high methodological standardization presented herein ensures retrieval of histological slices with excellent display of anatomical microstructures, in a reproducible manner, minimizes random errors, and thereby may contribute to the reduction of number of animals needed.

  18. Using DSP, a reversible cross-linker, to fix tissue sections for immunostaining, microdissection and expression profiling

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, Charlie C.; Mezey, Eva; Chen, Mei; Key, Sharon; Ma, Li; Brownstein, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    Mammalian organs are typically comprised of several cell populations. Some (e.g. brain) are very heterogeneous, and this cellular complexity makes it difficult, if not impossible, to interpret expression profiles obtained with microarrays. Instruments, such as those manufactured by Leica or Arcturus, that permit laser capture microdissection of specific cells or cell groups from tissues were developed to solve this problem. To take full advantage of these instruments, however, one must be able to recognize cell populations of interest and, after they are harvested, to extract intact, unmodified RNA from them. Here we describe a novel, fast and simple method to fix and immunostain tissue sections that permits this to be done. PMID:15604454

  19. Distribution of the sex chromosome during mouse spermatogenesis in testis tissue sections

    PubMed Central

    OTAKA, Kosuke; HIRADATE, Yuuki; KOBAYASHI, Norio; SHIRAKATA, Yoshiki; TANEMURA, Kentaro

    2015-01-01

    During mammalian spermatogenesis, spermatogenic cells undergo mitotic division and are subsequently divided into haploid spermatids by meiotic division, but the dynamics of sex chromosomes during spermatogenesis are unclear in vivo. To gain insight into the distribution of sex chromosomes in the testis, we examined the localization of sex chromosomes before and after meiosis in mouse testis sections. Here, we developed a method of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using specific probes for the X and Y chromosomes to obtain their positional information in histological testis sections. FISH analysis revealed the sex chromosomal position during spermatogenesis in each stage of seminiferous epithelia and in each spermatogenic cell. In the spermatogonia and leptotene spermatocytes, sex chromosomes were distantly positioned in the cell. In the zygotene and pachytene spermatocytes at prophase I, X and Y chromosomes had a random distribution. After meiosis, the X and Y spermatids were random in every seminiferous epithelium. We also detected aneuploidy of sex chromosomes in spermatogenic cells using our developed FISH analysis. Our results provide further insight into the distribution of sex chromosomes during spermatogenesis, which could help to elucidate a specific difference between X and Y spermatids and sex chromosome-specific behavior. PMID:26073979

  20. Localization and imaging of gangliosides in mouse brain tissue sections by laserspray ionization inlet[S

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Alicia L.; Lietz, Christopher B.; Wager-Miller, James; Mackie, Ken; Trimpin, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    A new ionization method for the analysis of fragile gangliosides without undesired fragmentation or salt adduction is presented. In laserspray ionization inlet (LSII), the matrix/analyte sample is ablated at atmospheric pressure, and ionization takes place in the ion transfer capillary of the mass spectrometer inlet by a process that is independent of a laser wavelength or voltage. The softness of LSII allows the identification of gangliosides up to GQ1 with negligible sialic acid loss. This is of importance to the field of MS imaging, as undesired fragmentation has made it difficult to accurately map the spatial distribution of fragile ganglioside lipids in tissue. Proof-of-principle structural characterization of endogenous gangliosides using MSn fragmentation of multiply charged negative ions on a LTQ Velos and subsequent imaging of the GD1 ganglioside is demonstrated. This is the first report of multiply charged negative ions using inlet ionization. We find that GD1 is detected at higher levels in the mouse cortex and hippocampus compared with the thalamus. In LSII with the laser aligned in transmission geometry relative to the inlet, images were obtained in approximately 60 min using an inexpensive nitrogen laser. PMID:22262808

  1. Pointwise mutual information quantifies intratumor heterogeneity in tissue sections labeled with multiple fluorescent biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Spagnolo, Daniel M.; Gyanchandani, Rekha; Al-Kofahi, Yousef; Stern, Andrew M.; Lezon, Timothy R.; Gough, Albert; Meyer, Dan E.; Ginty, Fiona; Sarachan, Brion; Fine, Jeffrey; Lee, Adrian V.; Taylor, D. Lansing; Chennubhotla, S. Chakra

    2016-01-01

    Background: Measures of spatial intratumor heterogeneity are potentially important diagnostic biomarkers for cancer progression, proliferation, and response to therapy. Spatial relationships among cells including cancer and stromal cells in the tumor microenvironment (TME) are key contributors to heterogeneity. Methods: We demonstrate how to quantify spatial heterogeneity from immunofluorescence pathology samples, using a set of 3 basic breast cancer biomarkers as a test case. We learn a set of dominant biomarker intensity patterns and map the spatial distribution of the biomarker patterns with a network. We then describe the pairwise association statistics for each pattern within the network using pointwise mutual information (PMI) and visually represent heterogeneity with a two-dimensional map. Results: We found a salient set of 8 biomarker patterns to describe cellular phenotypes from a tissue microarray cohort containing 4 different breast cancer subtypes. After computing PMI for each pair of biomarker patterns in each patient and tumor replicate, we visualize the interactions that contribute to the resulting association statistics. Then, we demonstrate the potential for using PMI as a diagnostic biomarker, by comparing PMI maps and heterogeneity scores from patients across the 4 different cancer subtypes. Estrogen receptor positive invasive lobular carcinoma patient, AL13-6, exhibited the highest heterogeneity score among those tested, while estrogen receptor negative invasive ductal carcinoma patient, AL13-14, exhibited the lowest heterogeneity score. Conclusions: This paper presents an approach for describing intratumor heterogeneity, in a quantitative fashion (via PMI), which departs from the purely qualitative approaches currently used in the clinic. PMI is generalizable to highly multiplexed/hyperplexed immunofluorescence images, as well as spatial data from complementary in situ methods including FISSEQ and CyTOF, sampling many different components

  2. Spatiotemporal focusing-based widefield multiphoton microscopy for fast optical sectioning of thick tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Li-Chung; Chang, Chia-Yuan; Yen, Wei-Chung; Chen, Shean-Jen

    2012-10-01

    Conventional multiphoton microscopy employs beam scanning; however, in this study a microscope based on spatiotemporal focusing offering widefield multiphoton excitation has been developed to provide fast optical sectioning images. The microscope integrates a 10 kHz repetition rate ultrafast amplifier featuring strong instantaneous peak power (maximum 400 μJ/pulse at 90 fs pulse width) with a TE-cooled, ultra-sensitive photon detecting, electron multiplying charge-coupled device camera. This configuration can produce multiphoton excited images with an excitation area larger than 200 × 100 μm2 at a frame rate greater than 100 Hz. Brownian motions of fluorescent microbeads as small as 0.5 μm have been instantaneously observed with a lateral spatial resolution of less than 0.5 μm and an axial resolution of approximately 3.5 μm. Moreover, we combine the widefield multiphoton microscopy with structure illuminated technique named HiLo to reject the background scattering noise to get better quality for bioimaging.

  3. RootAnalyzer: A Cross-Section Image Analysis Tool for Automated Characterization of Root Cells and Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Chopin, Joshua; Laga, Hamid; Huang, Chun Yuan; Heuer, Sigrid; Miklavcic, Stanley J.

    2015-01-01

    The morphology of plant root anatomical features is a key factor in effective water and nutrient uptake. Existing techniques for phenotyping root anatomical traits are often based on manual or semi-automatic segmentation and annotation of microscopic images of root cross sections. In this article, we propose a fully automated tool, hereinafter referred to as RootAnalyzer, for efficiently extracting and analyzing anatomical traits from root-cross section images. Using a range of image processing techniques such as local thresholding and nearest neighbor identification, RootAnalyzer segments the plant root from the image’s background, classifies and characterizes the cortex, stele, endodermis and epidermis, and subsequently produces statistics about the morphological properties of the root cells and tissues. We use RootAnalyzer to analyze 15 images of wheat plants and one maize plant image and evaluate its performance against manually-obtained ground truth data. The comparison shows that RootAnalyzer can fully characterize most root tissue regions with over 90% accuracy. PMID:26398501

  4. Quantification of telomere features in tumor tissue sections by an automated 3D imaging-based workflow.

    PubMed

    Gunkel, Manuel; Chung, Inn; Wörz, Stefan; Deeg, Katharina I; Simon, Ronald; Sauter, Guido; Jones, David T W; Korshunov, Andrey; Rohr, Karl; Erfle, Holger; Rippe, Karsten

    2017-02-01

    The microscopic analysis of telomere features provides a wealth of information on the mechanism by which tumor cells maintain their unlimited proliferative potential. Accordingly, the analysis of telomeres in tissue sections of patient tumor samples can be exploited to obtain diagnostic information and to define tumor subgroups. In many instances, however, analysis of the image data is conducted by manual inspection of 2D images at relatively low resolution for only a small part of the sample. As the telomere feature signal distribution is frequently heterogeneous, this approach is prone to a biased selection of the information present in the image and lacks subcellular details. Here we address these issues by using an automated high-resolution imaging and analysis workflow that quantifies individual telomere features on tissue sections for a large number of cells. The approach is particularly suited to assess telomere heterogeneity and low abundant cellular subpopulations with distinct telomere characteristics in a reproducible manner. It comprises the integration of multi-color fluorescence in situ hybridization, immunofluorescence and DNA staining with targeted automated 3D fluorescence microscopy and image analysis. We apply our method to telomeres in glioblastoma and prostate cancer samples, and describe how the imaging data can be used to derive statistically reliable information on telomere length distribution or colocalization with PML nuclear bodies. We anticipate that relating this approach to clinical outcome data will prove to be valuable for pretherapeutic patient stratification.

  5. Three-Dimensional Human Cardiac Tissue Engineered by Centrifugation of Stacked Cell Sheets and Cross-Sectional Observation of Its Synchronous Beatings by Optical Coherence Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Hasegawa, Akiyuki; Matsuura, Katsuhisa; Kobayashi, Mari; Iwana, Shin-ichi; Kabetani, Yasuhiro

    2017-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) tissues are engineered by stacking cell sheets, and these tissues have been applied in clinical regenerative therapies. The optimal fabrication technique of 3D human tissues and the real-time observation system for these tissues are important in tissue engineering, regenerative medicine, cardiac physiology, and the safety testing of candidate chemicals. In this study, for aiming the clinical application, 3D human cardiac tissues were rapidly fabricated by human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell-derived cardiac cell sheets with centrifugation, and the structures and beatings in the cardiac tissues were observed cross-sectionally and noninvasively by two optical coherence tomography (OCT) systems. The fabrication time was reduced to approximately one-quarter by centrifugation. The cross-sectional observation showed that multilayered cardiac cell sheets adhered tightly just after centrifugation. Additionally, the cross-sectional transmissions of beatings within multilayered human cardiac tissues were clearly detected by OCT. The observation showed the synchronous beatings of the thicker 3D human cardiac tissues, which were fabricated rapidly by cell sheet technology and centrifugation. The rapid tissue-fabrication technique and OCT technology will show a powerful potential in cardiac tissue engineering, regenerative medicine, and drug discovery research. PMID:28326324

  6. Discrimination between basal cell carcinoma and hair follicles in skin tissue sections by Raman micro-spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larraona-Puy, M.; Ghita, A.; Zoladek, A.; Perkins, W.; Varma, S.; Leach, I. H.; Koloydenko, A. A.; Williams, H.; Notingher, I.

    2011-05-01

    Skin cancer is the most common human malignancy and basal cell carcinoma (BCC) represents approximately 80% of the non-melanoma cases. Current methods of treatment require histopathological evaluation of the tissues by qualified personnel. However, this method is subjective and in some cases BCC can be confused with other structures in healthy skin, including hair follicles. In this preliminary study, we investigated the potential of Raman micro-spectroscopy (RMS) to discriminate between hair follicles and BCC in skin tissue sections excised during Mohs micrographic surgery (MMS). Imaging and diagnosis of skin sections was automatically generated using ' a priori'-built spectral model based on LDA. This model had 90 ± 9% sensitivity and 85 ± 9% specificity for discrimination of BCC from dermis and epidermis. The model used selected Raman bands corresponding to the largest spectral differences between the Raman spectra of BCC and the normal skin regions, associated mainly with nucleic acids and collagen type I. Raman spectra corresponding to the epidermis regions of the hair follicles were found to be closer to those of healthy epidermis rather than BCC. Comparison between Raman spectral images and the gold standard haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) histopathology diagnosis showed good agreement. Some hair follicle regions were misclassified as BCC; regions corresponded mainly to the outermost layer of hair follicle (basal cells) which are expected to have higher nucleic acid concentration. This preliminary study shows the ability of RMS to distinguish between BCC and other tissue structures associated to healthy skin which can be confused with BCC due to their similar morphology.

  7. Elastic properties of hydrogels and decellularized tissue sections used in mechanobiology studies probed by atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Giménez, Alícia; Uriarte, Juan José; Vieyra, Joan; Navajas, Daniel; Alcaraz, Jordi

    2017-01-01

    The increasing recognition that tissue elasticity is an important regulator of cell behavior in normal and pathologic conditions such as fibrosis and cancer has driven the development of cell culture substrata with tunable elasticity. Such development has urged the need to quantify the elastic properties of these cell culture substrata particularly at the nanometer scale, since this is the relevant length scale involved in cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) mechanical interactions. To address this need, we have exploited the versatility of atomic force microscopy to quantify the elastic properties of a variety of cell culture substrata used in mechanobiology studies, including floating collagen gels, ECM-coated polyacrylamide gels, and decellularized tissue sections. In this review we summarize major findings in this field from our group within the context of the state-of-the-art in the field, and provide a critical discussion on the applicability and complementarity of currently available cell culture assays with tunable elasticity. In addition, we briefly describe how the limitations of these assays provide opportunities for future research, which is expected to continue expanding our understanding of the mechanobiological aspects that support both normal and diseased conditions. Microsc. Res. Tech. 80:85-96, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Simple method for pretreatment of tissue sections for the detection of apoptosis by in situ end-labelling and in situ nick translation

    PubMed Central

    Panchalingam, S; Reynolds, G M; Lammas, D A; Rowlands, D C; Kumararatne, D S

    1996-01-01

    Aims—To overcome the problems associated with proteolytic pretreatment of tissue sections for the detection of apoptosis. Methods—Formalin fixed, paraffin wax embedded tissue sections of reactive lymph nodes and biopsy specimens of Burkitt lymphoma were pretreated by pressure cooking for the detection of apoptosis using the in situ end-labelling and in situ nick translation methods. Results—The results achieved with the in situ end-labelling and nick translations methods were compared with those obtained using a novel anti-apoptosis specific protein (ASP) antibody. The staining patterns generated using the three methods were similar and consistent, although the ASP antibody seemed to be more sensitive and detected higher numbers of apoptotic cells within sections. Conclusions—Pressure cooking is advocated as an alternative method to proteolytic enzyme digestion for pretreating paraffin wax sections. It is reliable, inexpensive, reduces the need to optimise pretreatment variables for different tissues, and permits double immunostaining of sections. Images PMID:16696088

  9. Identification and characterization of spermatogonial subtypes and their expansion in whole mounts and tissue sections from primate testes.

    PubMed

    Ehmcke, Jens; Schlatt, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    The different types of spermatogonia present in the testes of all mammalian species have a series of functions in the adult testis. Some cycle regularly to (1) maintain the spermatogonial population and (2) derive differentiating germ cells to maintain continuous spermatogenesis; other spermatogonia act as a functional reserve, proliferating only very rarely under healthy conditions but repopulating the depleted seminiferous tubules after gonadotoxic insult. The number, appearance, and function of different types of spermatogonia differ greatly between mammalian species, and therefore the precise number of mitotic steps and the number of identifiable stages in spermatogenesis, the sperma-togenic efficiency, and the histological appearance of the seminiferous epithelium show remarkable variation. To characterize spermatogonial phenotypes and their respective functions and to understand the kinetics of spermatogenesis in any given species, a series of methods can be combined for best results. Conventional (hema-toxylin or Periodic acid Schiff's reagent PAS/hematoxylin) staining on sections allows histological identification of the different types of spermatogonia and stages of spermatogenesis in the tissue. Immunohistochemical detection of the proliferation marker bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) in sections and whole mounts of seminiferous tubules allows determination of which types of spermatogonia proliferate in which stage of spermatogenesis and determine the sizes of clones of proliferation spermatogonia in each stage. Combined, these methods allow the best possible characterization of spermatogenesis in any given mammalian species.

  10. Conductive carbon tape used for support and mounting of both whole animal and fragile heat-treated tissue sections for MALDI MS imaging and quantitation.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, Richard J A; Nilsson, Anna; Borg, Daniel; Langridge-Smith, Pat R R; Harrison, David J; Mackay, C Logan; Iverson, Suzanne L; Andrén, Per E

    2012-08-30

    Analysis of whole animal tissue sections by MALDI MS imaging (MSI) requires effective sample collection and transfer methods to allow the highest quality of in situ analysis of small or hard to dissect tissues. We report on the use of double-sided adhesive conductive carbon tape during whole adult rat tissue sectioning of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) embedded animals, with samples mounted onto large format conductive glass and conductive plastic MALDI targets, enabling MSI analysis to be performed on both TOF and FT-ICR MALDI mass spectrometers. We show that mounting does not unduly affect small molecule MSI detection by analyzing tiotropium abundance and distribution in rat lung tissues, with direct on-tissue quantitation achieved. Significantly, we use the adhesive tape to provide support to embedded delicate heat-stabilized tissues, enabling sectioning and mounting to be performed that maintained tissue integrity on samples that had previously been impossible to adequately prepare section for MSI analysis. The mapping of larger peptidomic molecules was not hindered by tape mounting samples and we demonstrate this by mapping the distribution of PEP-19 in both native and heat-stabilized rat brains. Furthermore, we show that without heat stabilization PEP-19 degradation fragments can detected and identified directly by MALDI MSI analysis.

  11. 47 CFR 90.221 - Adjacent channel power limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Adjacent channel power limits. 90.221 Section 90.221 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES General Technical Standards § 90.221 Adjacent channel...

  12. 47 CFR 90.221 - Adjacent channel power limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Adjacent channel power limits. 90.221 Section 90.221 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES General Technical Standards § 90.221 Adjacent channel...

  13. Identification of 5-Hydroxytryptamine-Producing Cells by Detection of Fluorescence in Paraffin-Embedded Tissue Sections

    PubMed Central

    Kaneko, Y.; Onda, N.; Watanabe, Y.; Shibutani, M.

    2016-01-01

    5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) produced by enterochromaffin (EC) cells is an important enteric mucosal signaling ligand and has been implicated in several gastrointestinal diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease and functional disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome. The present study reports a new, simple and rapid visualization method of 5-HT-producing EC cells utilizing detection of fluorescence in paraffin-embedded tissue sections after formalin fixation. In human samples, there was a high incidence of fluorescence+ cells in the 5-HT+ cells in the pyloric, small intestinal and colonic glands, while co-localization was lacking between fluorescence+ and gastrin+ cells in the pyloric and small intestinal glands. Fluorescence+ EC cells were detected in the colon of mice and rats. Fluorescence+ cells were also observed in 5-HT+ β cells in the pancreatic islets of Langerhans in pregnant mice, while non-pregnant mouse pancreatic islet cells showed no 5-HT immunoreactivity or fluorescence. These results suggest that fluorescence+ cells are identical to 5-HT+ cells, and the source of fluorescence may be 5-HT itself or molecules related to its synthesis or degradation. This fluorescence signal detection method may be applicable for monitoring of inflammatory status of inflammatory bowel diseases in both the experimental and clinical settings. PMID:27734992

  14. Metal content of biopsies adjacent to dental cast alloys.

    PubMed

    Garhammer, Pauline; Schmalz, G; Hiller, K-A; Reitinger, T

    2003-06-01

    Single case reports indicate that components of dental alloys accumulate in the adjacent soft tissue of the oral cavity. However, data on a wider range of dental alloys and patient groups are scarce. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to examine the metal content of oral tissues adjacent to dental alloys showing persisting signs of inflammation or other discoloration (affected sites) and of healthy control sites with no adjacent metal restoration in 28 patients. The composition of the adjacent alloys was analyzed and compared to the alloy components in the affected sites. Tissue analysis was performed using atomic absorption spectroscopy. Alloy analysis was performed with energy-dispersive X-ray analysis. In the affected sites, the metals Ag, Au, Cu, and Pd prevailed compared to control sites, reflecting the frequency distribution of single metals in the adjacent alloys. In most cases (84%), at least one of the analyzed metals was a component of the alloy and also detected in the tissue. Metal components from almost all dental cast alloys can be detected in adjacent tissue.

  15. Analysis of Chloroquine and Metabolites Directly from Whole-body Animal Tissue Sections by Liquid Extraction Surface Analysis (LESA) and Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Parson, Whitney B; Koeniger, Stormy L; Johnson, Robert W; Erickson, Jamie; Tian, Yu; Stedman, Christopher A.; Schwartz, Annette; Tarcsa, Edit; Cole, Roderic; Van Berkel, Gary J

    2012-01-01

    The rapid and direct analysis of the amount and spatial distribution of exogenous chloroquine and chloroquine metabolites from tissue sections by liquid extraction surface sampling analysis coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LESA-MS) was demonstrated. LESA-MS results compared well with previously published chloroquine quantification data collected by organ excision, extraction and fluorescent detection. The ability to directly sample and analyze spatially-resolved exogenous molecules from tissue sections with minimal sample preparation and analytical method development has the potential to facilitate the assessment of target tissue penetration of pharmaceutical compounds, to establish pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) relationships, and to complement established pharmacokinetic methods used in the drug discovery process during tissue distribution assessment.

  16. Dual X-Ray Absorptiometry Whole Body Composition of Bone Tissue in Rheumatoid Arthritis – a Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    POPESCU, Claudiu; BOJINCA, Violeta; OPRIS, Daniela; IONESCU, Ruxandra

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Previous studies of bone tissue in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) using dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) concentrated on regions of interest that were used to diagnose osteoporosis. This study aimed to compare the whole body bone tissue (wbBT) of RA patients with healthy subjects and to identify the RA variables which significantly predict wbBT. Methods: The study was cross-sectionally designed to include postmenopausal RA patients and age-matched healthy female controls. All 107 RA patients and all 104 controls underwent clinical examination, laboratory tests and whole body DXA composition, which recorded total and regional bone indices. Non-parametric standard statistical test and regression models after data normalization were used to assess correlations, associations and differences. Results: Compared to controls, RA patients had significantly lower whole body and regional bone mass (14.9 kg compared to 15.5 kg; p = 0.031). Disease duration (r = -0.402 ; p < 0.001), C-reactive protein (r = -0.279; p = 0.015) and inflammation (2.5% wbBT compared to 2.9%; p = 0.043), radiographic damage (14.3 kg compared to 16.2 kg; p < 0.001), disease activity scores (r = -0.275 ; p = 0.018 for HAQ) are significantly correlated/associated with lower wbBT. Clinical structural damage is associated with lower wbBT and it can significantly predict them (R2 = 0.014; p = 0.001), while glucocorticoid treatment, even in low doses, was associated with lower wbBT percent (2.6% compared to 2.8%; p = 0.045). Treatment with biologics was associated with a lower rate of whole body osteoporosis (0% compared to 22.2%; p = 0.013). Conclusions: The main associated factors with the generalized bone loss in female RA patients are disease duration and disease activity. Clinical structural damage is the most powerful predictor of the whole body bone loss. These results suggest a general disturbance of skeletal bone metabolism in RA and could explain a greater risk of fragility fractures of non

  17. An optimized xylene-free protein extraction method adapted to formalin-fixed paraffin embedded tissue sections for western blot analysis.

    PubMed

    Mansour, Anthony G; Khalil, Pamela Abou; Bejjani, Noha; Chatila, Rajaa; Dagher-Hamalian, Carole; Faour, Wissam H

    2017-03-01

    Deparaffinization of formalin-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) tissues with xylene currently remains a major challenge to the biomedical community. We developed an efficient xylene-free protocol to isolate proteins from archived FFPE human tissue sections. A total of 79 different types of FFPE tissue sections of 8 µm thickness were obtained from various archived FFPE specimens. Deparaffinization was conducted by gently washing each section with around 1 ml of hot distilled water (≈80°C). The deparaffinized tissues were homogenized in lysis buffer, and the isolated proteins were quantified and efficiently resolved using western blot analysis for the presence of Protein kinase B (PKB/AKT) and β-actin. Moreover, a significant amount of proteins was successfully isolated with an average of 2.31 µg/µl. The migration pattern of AKT and β-actin obtained from the specimens was similar to the positive control obtained from protein lysates prepared from in vitro cultured MDA231 cancer cell lines. AKT was successfully identified in all specimens, and β-actin protein was resolved with an efficiency higher than 80%. The entire extraction procedure requires only 20 minutes. This newly developed technique is an efficient, safe, cost-effective, and rapid method to isolate proteins from FFPE tissue sections adequate for molecular analysis.

  18. Doing more with less: fluorescence in situ hybridization and gene sequencing assays can be reliably performed on archival stained tumor tissue sections.

    PubMed

    Pelosi, Giuseppe; Perrone, Federica; Tamborini, Elena; Fabbri, Alessandra; Testi, Maria Adele; Busico, Adele; Settanni, Giulio; Picciani, Benedetta; Bovio, Enrica; Sonzogni, Angelica; Valeri, Barbara; Garassino, Marina; De Braud, Filippo; Pastorino, Ugo

    2016-04-01

    Little is known about molecular testing on tumor tissue retrieved from stained sections, for which there may be a clinical need. We retrospectively analyzed 112 sections from 56 tumor patients using either fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with different probes (19 sections from 17 patients) or Sanger or targeted next generation sequencing for detection of BRAF, EGFR, KRAS, C-KIT, and TP53 mutations (93 sections from 39 patients). Tumor tissue sections had been stained by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) (42 sections) or by immunohistochemistry for cytoplasmic or nuclear/nuclear-cytoplasmic markers (70 sections) with a peroxidase (P-IHC, with 3,3'-diaminobenzidine as chromogen) or alkaline phosphatase label (AP-IHC, with Warp Red™ as chromogen). For FISH analysis, the concordance rate between the original diagnosis and that obtained on H&E- or P-IHC-stained tissue sections (AP-IHC was not on record for this set of patients) was 95% (18 out of 19 tumor sections). Only one tumor sample, diffusely positive for MLH1, did not yield any nuclear hybridization signal. For sequencing analysis, the concordance rate was 100% on negative P-IHC and positive AP-IHC-stained sections, regardless of the subcellular localization of the reaction product. Mutations were detected in only 52% of cases expressing nuclear/nuclear-cytoplasmic markers, regardless of the sequencing technology used (p = 0.0002). In conclusion, stained sections may be a valuable resource for FISH or sequencing analysis, but on cases expressing nuclear markers sequencing results need to be interpreted cautiously.

  19. Immunohistochemical diagnosis of Fabry nephropathy and localisation of globotriaosylceramide deposits in paraffin-embedded kidney tissue sections.

    PubMed

    Valbuena, Carmen; Leitão, Dina; Carneiro, Fátima; Oliveira, João Paulo

    2012-02-01

    Fabry disease (FD) is a rare X-linked lysosomal storage disorder of glycosphingolipids, mostly globotriaosylceramide (Gb3). Proteinuric chronic kidney disease develops frequently, and recognition of Fabry nephropathy on a kidney biopsy may be the first clue to the underlying diagnosis. Since the accumulated glycosphingolipids are largely extracted by the paraffin-embedding procedure, the most characteristic feature of Fabry nephropathy on routine light microscopy (LM) is nonspecific cell vacuolization. To test whether residual Gb3 in kidney tissue might be exploited for the specific diagnosis of Fabry nephropathy, paraffin-embedded kidney biopsies of nine FD patients (one boy, four men, four women) and of a female carrier of a mild genetic mutation, with no evidence of Fabry nephropathy, were immunostained with an anti-Gb3 antibody. The adult biopsies were additionally co-stained with a lysosomal marker (anti-lysosomal-associated membrane protein 2 (anti-LAMP2) antibody). The distribution of Gb3 deposits was scored per cell type and compared to the histological scorings of glycosphingolipid inclusions on semi-thin sections. FD patients had residual Gb3 in all types of glomerular, tubular, interstitial and vascular kidney cells. The highest expression of LAMP2 was seen in tubular cells, but there were no meaningful associations between LAMP2 expression and prevalence of Gb3 deposits on different kidney cell types. The histological scorings of glycosphingolipid inclusions were relatively higher than the corresponding immunohistochemical scorings of Gb3 deposits. In the mildly affected female, Gb3 expression was limited to tubular cells, a pattern similar to controls. Gb3 immunostaining allows the specific diagnosis of Fabry nephropathy even in kidney biopsies routinely processed for LM.

  20. Comparison between whole mount tissue preparations and virtual tissue microarray samples for measuring Ki-67 and apoptosis indices in human bladder cancer: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Oshiro, Hisashi; Czerniak, Bogdan A; Sakamaki, Kentaro; Tsuta, Koji; Bondaruk, Jolanta; Keyhani, Afsaneh; Dinney, Colin P; Nagai, Takeshi; Kamat, Ashish M

    2016-08-01

    Recent tissue microarray (TMA)-based studies have shown that cell proliferation- and apoptosis-related biomarkers are associated with clinical outcomes in patients with bladder urothelial carcinoma. However, little is known about the differences in these biomarker measurements between whole mount tissue preparations and TMAs. This study aimed to elucidate the discrepancy in the measurements of Ki-67 indices (KIs) and apoptosis indices (AIs) between whole mount tissue preparations and TMAs of bladder urothelial carcinoma samples.Whole mount tissue preparations for Ki-67 immunohistochemistry and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling were made from 30 patients who underwent transurethral resection of bladder urothelial carcinoma. Digital microscopy-assisted virtual TMAs, consisting of 3 small round areas (1 or 0.6 mm in diameter), were generated from the same whole mount tissue preparations. The measurement results in highly reactive areas of biomarkers were compared between the whole mount tissue preparation- and the TMA-based methods. Bland-Altman plot analysis, regression analysis, and Kendall τ were performed to investigate differences in the measurement results, systematic biases, and correlations between biomarkers.Although the Bland-Altman plot analysis demonstrated that almost all the plots were within the limits of agreement, fixed biases were detected in the 1- and 0.6-mm TMAs for the KI (0.181 and 0.222, respectively) and the AI (0.055 and 0.063, respectively). Proportional biases were also detected in the 1- and 0.6-mm TMAs for the AI (P < 0.001 and P < 0.001, respectively). Furthermore, positive correlations between KIs and AIs were observed in whole mount tissue preparations (r = 0.260, P = 0.044) and in the 1 mm TMAs (r = 0.375, P = 0.004); however, no such correlation was observed in the 0.6 mm TMAs.Our study suggests that the measurement results for certain biomarkers of bladder urothelial

  1. Different detectability of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein in standard paraffin sections and tissue microarrays of human melanomas and naevi - comparative study.

    PubMed

    Kuźbicki, Lukasz; Urban, Justyna; Chwirot, Barbara W

    2014-09-01

    Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), overexpressed in many types of human cancer, may be a valuable marker for human melanoma. However, there are discrepancies between expression levels detected by different groups. The majority of the studies were carried out using standard paraffin sections. Tissue microarrays (TMAs) might enable analysis of COX-2 expression in numerous lesions. Our study assesses to what extent reprocessing of tissue samples used for preparing TMAs may influence reproducibility of data obtained for standard sections. The study included TMAs and standard histopathologic sections. COX-2 was detected by immunohistochemistry with two primary antibodies targeting different epitopes. COX-2 expression levels detected with both antibodies in standard sections were similar as in our previous study. Surprisingly, results obtained in TMAs were significantly different. While one of the antibodies yielded for TMAs results similar to standard sections, COX-2 expression levels found with the second antibody were very low and expression patterns strikingly different from those observed for standard sections and for both TMAs studied with the first antibody. Good performance of the antibodies found in standard sections of human skin and melanocytic lesions does not guarantee similar results in TMAs. The finding discloses a new aspect of immunohistochemical assays involving TMAs.

  2. Adjacent Segment Pathology after Anterior Cervical Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Jae Yoon; Park, Jong-Beom; Seo, Hyoung-Yeon

    2016-01-01

    Anterior cervical fusion has become a standard of care for numerous pathologic conditions of the cervical spine. However, subsequent development of clinically significant disc disease at levels adjacent to fused discs is a serious long-term complication of this procedure. As more patients live longer after surgery, it is foreseeable that adjacent segment pathology (ASP) will develop in increasing numbers of patients. Also, ASP has been studied more intensively with the recent popularity of motion preservation technologies like total disc arthroplasty. The true nature and scope of ASP remains poorly understood. The etiology of ASP is most likely multifactorial. Various factors including altered biomechanical stresses, surgical disruption of soft tissue and the natural history of cervical disc disease contribute to the development of ASP. General factors associated with disc degeneration including gender, age, smoking and sports may play a role in the development of ASP. Postoperative sagittal alignment and type of surgery are also considered potential causes of ASP. Therefore, a spine surgeon must be particularly careful to avoid unnecessary disruption of the musculoligamentous structures, reduced risk of direct injury to the disc during dissection and maintain a safe margin between the plate edge and adjacent vertebrae during anterior cervical fusion. PMID:27340541

  3. Spatially-directed protein identification from tissue sections by top-down LC-MS/MS with electron transfer dissociation.

    PubMed

    Schey, Kevin L; Anderson, David M; Rose, Kristie L

    2013-07-16

    MALDI imaging mass spectrometry (MALDI-IMS) has become a powerful tool for localizing both small molecules and intact proteins in a wide variety of tissue samples in both normal and diseased states. Identification of imaged signals in MALDI-IMS remains a bottleneck in the analysis and limits the interpretation of underlying biology of tissue specimens. In this work, spatially directed tissue microextraction of intact proteins followed by LC-MS/MS with electron transfer dissociation (ETD) was used to identify proteins from specific locations in three tissue types; ocular lens, brain, and kidney. Detection limits were such that a 1 μL extraction volume was sufficient to deliver proteins to the LC-MS/MS instrumentation with sufficient sensitivity to detect 50-100 proteins in a single experiment. Additionally, multiple modified proteins were identified; including truncated lens proteins that would be difficult to assign to an imaged mass using a bottom-up approach. Protein separation and identification are expected to improve with advances in intact protein fractionation/chromatography and advances in interpretation algorithms leading to increased depth of proteome coverage from distinct tissue locations.

  4. Spatially-Directed Protein Identification from Tissue Sections by Top-Down LC-MS/MS with Electron Transfer Dissociation

    PubMed Central

    Schey, Kevin L.; Anderson, David M.; Rose, Kristie L.

    2013-01-01

    MALDI imaging mass spectrometry (MALDI-IMS) has become a powerful tool for localizing both small molecules and intact proteins in a wide variety of tissue samples in both normal and diseased states. Identification of imaged signals in MALDI-IMS remains a bottleneck in the analysis and limits the interpretation of underlying biology of tissue specimens. In this work, spatially-directed tissue microextraction of intact proteins followed by LC-MS/MS with electron transfer dissociation (ETD) was used to identify proteins from specific locations in three tissue types; ocular lens, brain, and kidney. Detection limits were such that a 1 microliter extraction volume was sufficient to deliver proteins to the LC-MS/MS instrumentation with sufficient sensitivity to detect 50–100 proteins in a single experiment. Additionally, multiple modified proteins were identified; including truncated lens proteins that would be difficult to assign to an imaged mass using a bottom-up approach. Protein separation and identification are expected to improve with advances in intact protein fractionation/chromatography and advances in interpretation algorithms leading to increased depth of proteome coverage from distinct tissue locations. PMID:23718750

  5. Analytical procedure for mapping the distribution of 10B and 99Tc markers in cryo-sections of animal tissue samples by secondary ion mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchetti, Ilaria; Menichetti, Luca; Kusmic, Claudia; de las Heras, Laura Aldave; Salvadori, Piero; Fuoco, Roger; Belloni, Fabio; L'Abbate, Antonio; Betti, Maria

    2009-09-01

    The development of a complete, standard analytical procedure for a quantitative use of secondary ion mass spectrometry to map the distribution in animal tissues of exogenous isotopes presents difficulties inherently related to sample preparation and preservation, as well as to the specific application being considered. We have tested in two very different cases a procedure based on the cryo-preparation of samples and calibration standards. The applications under investigation were the mapping of 10B in mouse brain tissue, with relevance to the boron neutron capture therapy, and of the perfusion tracer 99Tc in mouse heart tissue, with relevance to the study of microcirculation and cardiovascular pathologies. Scanning electron microscopy and inductively coupled mass spectrometry analysis were used as reference techniques for secondary ion mass spectrometry images and analyte measurements, respectively. Cryo-preparation of tissue sections for ion microscopy proved to be simple and efficient (in terms of structural and chemical integrity) for both brain and heart samples derived from fresh organs. This technique, however, turned out to be reliable only on the brain tissue when applied to the preparation of standards, which required chemical fixation of portions of organs. Brain and heart tissues showed a totally different response to chemical fixation, from both a structural and an analytical point of view. On the one hand, we were able to estimate a relative sensitivity factor for 10B in the cryo-sectioned brain matrix; on the other hand, even without the possibility of an absolute quantification of the 99Tc signal and notwithstanding the presence of an isobaric interference, secondary ion mass spectrometry mapping however proved to be capable to resolve the specific response of the cardiac tissue to the perfusion mechanism.

  6. Quantitative structural markers of colorectal dysplasia in a cross sectional study of ex vivo murine tissue using label-free multiphoton microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prieto, Sandra P.; Greening, Gage J.; Lai, Keith K.; Muldoon, Timothy J.

    2016-03-01

    Two-photon excitation of label-free tissue is of increasing interest, as advances have been made in endoscopic clinical application of multiphoton microscopy, such as second harmonic generation (SHG) scanning endoscopy used to monitor cervical collagen in mice1. We used C57BL mice as a model to investigate the progression of gastrointestinal structures, specifically glandular area and circularity. We used multiphoton microscopy to image ex-vivo label-free murine colon, focusing on the collagen structure changes over time, in mice ranging from 10 to 20 weeks of age. Series of images were acquired within the colonic and intestinal tissue at depth intervals of 20 microns from muscularis to the epithelium, up to a maximum depth of 180 microns. The imaging system comprised a two-photon laser tuned to 800nm wavelength excitation, and the SHG emission was filtered with a 400/40 bandpass filter before reaching the photomultiplier tube. Images were acquired at 15 frames per second, for 200 to 300 cumulative frames, with a field of view of 261um by 261um, and 40mW at sample. Image series were compared to histopathology H&E slides taken from adjacent locations. Quantitative metrics for determining differences between murine glandular structures were applied, specifically glandular area and circularity.

  7. iSERS microscopy guided by wide field immunofluorescence: analysis of HER2 expression on normal and breast cancer FFPE tissue sections.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin-Ping; Zhang, Yuying; König, Matthias; Papadopoulou, Evanthia; Walkenfort, Bernd; Kasimir-Bauer, Sabine; Bankfalvi, Agnes; Schlücker, Sebastian

    2016-08-15

    Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) microscopy is an emerging imaging technique for tissue-based cancer diagnostics. Specifically, immuno-SERS (iSERS) microscopy employs antibodies labelled by molecularly functionalized noble metal colloids for antigen localization on tissue specimen. Spectrally resolved iSERS acquisition schemes are typically rather time-consuming when large tissue areas must be scanned. Here, we demonstrate the application of iSERS imaging guided by wide field immunofluorescence (IF) for localization of the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) on breast tissue sections. The addition of unlabelled anti-HER2 primary antibodies to the tissue is followed by the incubation with secondary antibodies labelled with both Alexa-647 (for IF) and hydrophilically stabilized gold nanostars coated with aromatic thiols (for iSERS). False-color iSERS images clearly reveal the different HER2 expression levels on normal and breast cancer tissue, respectively. A series of negative controls confirms that the binding specificity of the secondary antibody is maintained after conjugation to the SERS nanoparticles.

  8. High-definition Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopic imaging of human tissue sections towards improving pathology.

    PubMed

    Sreedhar, Hari; Varma, Vishal K; Nguyen, Peter L; Davidson, Bennett; Akkina, Sanjeev; Guzman, Grace; Setty, Suman; Kajdacsy-Balla, Andre; Walsh, Michael J

    2015-01-21

    High-definition Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopic imaging is an emerging approach to obtain detailed images that have associated biochemical information. FT-IR imaging of tissue is based on the principle that different regions of the mid-infrared are absorbed by different chemical bonds (e.g., C=O, C-H, N-H) within cells or tissue that can then be related to the presence and composition of biomolecules (e.g., lipids, DNA, glycogen, protein, collagen). In an FT-IR image, every pixel within the image comprises an entire Infrared (IR) spectrum that can give information on the biochemical status of the cells that can then be exploited for cell-type or disease-type classification. In this paper, we show: how to obtain IR images from human tissues using an FT-IR system, how to modify existing instrumentation to allow for high-definition imaging capabilities, and how to visualize FT-IR images. We then present some applications of FT-IR for pathology using the liver and kidney as examples. FT-IR imaging holds exciting applications in providing a novel route to obtain biochemical information from cells and tissue in an entirely label-free non-perturbing route towards giving new insight into biomolecular changes as part of disease processes. Additionally, this biochemical information can potentially allow for objective and automated analysis of certain aspects of disease diagnosis.

  9. 49 CFR 214.107 - Working over or adjacent to water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... conditions, including weather, water speed, and terrain, merit additional protection, the skiff or boat shall... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Working over or adjacent to water. 214.107 Section... Working over or adjacent to water. (a) Bridge workers working over or adjacent to water with a depth...

  10. 49 CFR 214.107 - Working over or adjacent to water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... conditions, including weather, water speed, and terrain, merit additional protection, the skiff or boat shall... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Working over or adjacent to water. 214.107 Section... Working over or adjacent to water. (a) Bridge workers working over or adjacent to water with a depth...

  11. 49 CFR 214.107 - Working over or adjacent to water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... conditions, including weather, water speed, and terrain, merit additional protection, the skiff or boat shall... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Working over or adjacent to water. 214.107 Section... Working over or adjacent to water. (a) Bridge workers working over or adjacent to water with a depth...

  12. 49 CFR 214.107 - Working over or adjacent to water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... conditions, including weather, water speed, and terrain, merit additional protection, the skiff or boat shall... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Working over or adjacent to water. 214.107 Section... Working over or adjacent to water. (a) Bridge workers working over or adjacent to water with a depth...

  13. 49 CFR 214.107 - Working over or adjacent to water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... conditions, including weather, water speed, and terrain, merit additional protection, the skiff or boat shall... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Working over or adjacent to water. 214.107 Section... Working over or adjacent to water. (a) Bridge workers working over or adjacent to water with a depth...

  14. 27 CFR 19.162 - Operations bond for distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar. 19.162 Section 19.162 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... bond for distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar. (a) One bond satisfying two requirements. A proprietor who operates a bonded wine cellar that is adjacent to the proprietor's...

  15. 27 CFR 19.162 - Operations bond for distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar. 19.162 Section 19.162 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... bond for distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar. (a) One bond satisfying two requirements. A proprietor who operates a bonded wine cellar that is adjacent to the proprietor's...

  16. 27 CFR 19.162 - Operations bond for distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar. 19.162 Section 19.162 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... bond for distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar. (a) One bond satisfying two requirements. A proprietor who operates a bonded wine cellar that is adjacent to the proprietor's...

  17. 27 CFR 19.162 - Operations bond for distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar. 19.162 Section 19.162 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... bond for distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar. (a) One bond satisfying two requirements. A proprietor who operates a bonded wine cellar that is adjacent to the proprietor's...

  18. Enablers of the Implementation of Tissue Plasminogen Activator in Acute Stroke Care: A Cross-Sectional Survey

    PubMed Central

    Grady, Alice; Bryant, Jamie; Carey, Mariko; Paul, Chris; Sanson-Fisher, Rob

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess emergency physicians’ perceptions of individual and system enablers to the use of tissue Plasminogen Activator in acute stroke. Method Australian fellows and trainees of Australasian College for Emergency Medicine completed a 57-item online survey assessing enablers to implementation of evidence-based practice across six domains: knowledge, skills, modelling, monitoring, feedback, and maintenance. Demographic and workplace characteristics were obtained. Descriptive statistics were calculated to describe demographic and workplace characteristics of responders, and survey responses. Each domain received an overall score (%) based on the number of responders agreeing with all items within the domain. Results A total of 429 (13%) Australasian College for Emergency Medicine members responded. 17.7% of respondents reported they and/or their workplace met all knowledge-related enablers, however only 2.3% had all skill-related enablers in place. Of respondents who decide which patients receive tissue Plasminogen Activator treatment, 18.1% agreed that all maintenance-related enablers are in place at their hospital, compared to 6.6% for those who do not decide which patients receive tissue Plasminogen Activator treatment. None of the respondents had all items in place cross all domains. Conclusions Even when allowing for the low response rate, it seems likely there is a lack of individual and system enablers supporting the implementation of best-practice stroke care in a number of Australian hospitals. Quality improvement programs could target all domains, particularly the skills-training and feedback emergency physicians receive, to aid implementation of tissue Plasminogen Activator treatment for acute stroke. PMID:25490546

  19. Effects of antigen retrieval by microwave heating in formalin-fixed tissue sections on a broad panel of antibodies.

    PubMed

    von Wasielewski, R; Werner, M; Nolte, M; Wilkens, L; Georgii, A

    1994-09-01

    Formaldehyde fixation of biopsy specimens for routine purposes has often been held responsible for the poor reproducibility of immunohistochemical studies. Recently, antigen retrieval (AGR) using microwave irradiation was described as a potential tool to enhance immunostaining. A comparison of conventional staining and staining after microwave heating was performed for 52 markers, using tissues fixed in formaldehyde for 24 h, 1 to 6 weeks and 3 years respectively, as well as consultant case material. After adequate duration of fixation (24 h), only a few markers (17%) showed better results after AGR, but this percentage was increased to 50% when tissues were fixed for longer periods. Maximal enhancement was obtained in the group of consultant cases (58% of tested markers demonstrated better staining results), in which the period of fixation and tissue processing was unknown. To achieve reliable enhancement with AGR, continuous heating (100 degrees C) should not be shorter than 20 min. In conclusion, AGR may become the most important tool to simplify and equalize immunohistochemical techniques, if critically evaluated.

  20. Localization and quantitation of tritiated compounds in tissue sections with a gaseous detector of beta particles: comparison with film autoradiography.

    PubMed Central

    Tribollet, E; Dreifuss, J J; Charpak, G; Dominik, W; Zaganidis, N

    1991-01-01

    Quantitative analysis of tritium polymer standards and of brain sections labeled with tritiated vasopressin was carried out by using a gaseous detector of beta particles designed for this purpose. The gaseous detector showed major advantages compared with film autoradiography: the linearity and the large dynamic range of intensity measurements as well as the short time needed for data acquisition. Images PMID:1996346

  1. Large-volume reconstruction of brain tissue from high-resolution serial section images acquired by SEM-based scanning transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Kuwajima, Masaaki; Mendenhall, John M; Harris, Kristen M

    2013-01-01

    With recent improvements in instrumentation and computational tools, serial section electron microscopy has become increasingly straightforward. A new method for imaging ultrathin serial sections is developed based on a field emission scanning electron microscope fitted with a transmitted electron detector. This method is capable of automatically acquiring high-resolution serial images with a large field size and very little optical and physical distortions. In this chapter, we describe the procedures leading to the generation and analyses of a large-volume stack of high-resolution images (64 μm × 64 μm × 10 μm, or larger, at 2 nm pixel size), including how to obtain large-area serial sections of uniform thickness from well-preserved brain tissue that is rapidly perfusion-fixed with mixed aldehydes, processed with a microwave-enhanced method, and embedded into epoxy resin.

  2. Molecular Evaluation of t(14;18)(bcl-2/IgH) Translocation in Follicular Lymphoma at Diagnosis Using Paraffin-Embedded Tissue Sections

    PubMed Central

    Selvi, Nur; Kosova, Buket; Hekimgil, Mine; Gündüz, Cumhur; Kaymaz, Burçin Tezcanlı; Karaca, Emin; Saydam, Güray; Tombuloğlu, Murat; Büyükkeçeci, Filiz; Çağırgan, Seçkin; Ertan, Yeşim; Topçuoğlu, Nejat

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Follicular lymphoma (FL) is one of the most common lymphomas, and is characterized by t(14;18)(q32;q21) in more than 80% of patients. The aim of this study was to determine the rate of t(14;18) positivity based onthe detection of mbr or mcr in paraffin-embedded tissue samples. Material and Methods: The study included 32 paraffin-embedded tissue samples collected from 32 consecutive FL patients that were diagnosed and followed-up at our hospital between 1999 and 2006. The MBR breakpoint wasidentified based on real-time PCR using a LightCycler v.2.0 t(14;18) Quantification Kit (MBR), multiplex PCR, and seminestedPCR. To identify the mcr breakpoint, real-time PCR was performed using specific primers and the FastStart DNAMaster SYBR Green I Kit. To detect t(14;18) via fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) nuclei from paraffin-embeddedtissue sections were extracted and used together with LSI IgH (immunoglobulin heavy chain) (spectrum green)/bcl-2(B-cell leukemia-lymphoma 2) (spectrum orange) probes. Results: The DNA and nuclei isolation success rate for B5 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections (n = 12)was 42% and 33%, respectively, versus 95% and 60%, respectively, for 20 tissue sections fixed in formalin only. In all,24 paraffin-embedded tissue sections were analyzed and mbr positivity was observed in the DNA of 82.14% via seminested PCR, in 53.57% via multiplex PCR, and in 28.57% via real-time PCR. We did not detect mcr rearrangementin any of the samples. In all, 15 of 16 patients (93.75%) whose nuclei were successfully isolated were observed to bet(14;18) positive via the FISH method. Conclusion: Semi-nested PCR and FISH facilitated the genetic characterization of FL tumors. As such, FISH and PCR complement each other and are both essential for detecting t(14;18) translocation. PMID:24744643

  3. Laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry: an emerging technology for detecting rare cells in tissue sections.

    PubMed

    Managh, Amy J; Hutchinson, Robert W; Riquelme, Paloma; Broichhausen, Christiane; Wege, Anja K; Ritter, Uwe; Ahrens, Norbert; Koehl, Gudrun E; Walter, Lisa; Florian, Christian; Schlitt, Hans J; Reid, Helen J; Geissler, Edward K; Sharp, Barry L; Hutchinson, James A

    2014-09-01

    Administering immunoregulatory cells to patients as medicinal agents is a potentially revolutionary approach to the treatment of immunologically mediated diseases. Presently, there are no satisfactory, clinically applicable methods of tracking human cells in patients with adequate spatial resolution and target cell specificity over a sufficient period of time. Laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) represents a potential solution to the problem of detecting very rare cells in tissues. In this article, this exquisitely sensitive technique is applied to the tracking of gold-labeled human regulatory macrophages (Mregs) in immunodeficient mice. Optimal conditions for labeling Mregs with 50-nm gold particles were investigated by exposing Mregs in culture to variable concentrations of label: Mregs incubated with 3.5 × 10(9) particles/ml for 1 h incorporated an average of 3.39 × 10(8) Au atoms/cell without loss of cell viability. Analysis of single, gold-labeled Mregs by LA-ICP-MS registered an average of 1.9 × 10(5) counts/cell. Under these conditions, 100% labeling efficiency was achieved, and label was retained by Mregs for ≥36 h. Gold-labeled Mregs adhered to glass surfaces; after 24 h of culture, it was possible to colabel these cells with human-specific (154)Sm-tagged anti-HLA-DR or (174)Yb-tagged anti-CD45 mAbs. Following injection into immunodeficient mice, signals from gold-labeled human Mregs could be detected in mouse lung, liver, and spleen for at least 7 d by solution-based inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and LA-ICP-MS. These promising results indicate that LA-ICP-MS tissue imaging has great potential as an analytical technique in immunology.

  4. Quantification of Candesartan in Mouse Plasma by MALDI-TOFMS and in Tissue Sections by MALDI-Imaging Using the Stable-Isotope Dilution Technique

    PubMed Central

    Nakanishi, Toyofumi; Takai, Shinji; Jin, Denan; Takubo, Takayuki

    2013-01-01

    To determine the contents of candesartan in mouse plasma, and blood vessel and kidney sliced sections and also better understand its pharmacokinetics, we applied matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOFMS) and MALDI-imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) with the selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode using a labeled-internal standard. The results of fundamental examinations showed that the slope of the resulting curves of candesartan in the plasma from the equation was 0.91 and the y-intercept was 0.02. Both intra- and inter-day accuracies (n=10) and the precision of candesartan in the plasma by MALDI-TOFMS with the SRM mode were in the range of 3.4 to 17.3% and 93.2%, respectively. The detection limit of candesartan in spiked plasma was 0.2 nmol/L. IMS analysis enabled us to clarify distinct spacial time-distribution images in sliced mouse blood vessel and kidney sections although it still needed to improve a protocol of quantification. Typical pharmacokinetic patterns of candesartan were obtained in the plasma and sliced kidney sections, but those in the blood vessel sections gradually increased 24 h after administration. MALDI-TOFMS and IMS with the SRM mode are powerful tools to identify the spacial distribution and traceability of candesartan in sliced blood vessel and tissue sections as well as in the plasma. PMID:24860711

  5. Concordance in diabetic foot ulceration: a cross-sectional study of agreement between wound swabbing and tissue sampling in infected ulcers.

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, E Andrea; Wright-Hughes, Alexandra; Brown, Sarah; Lipsky, Benjamin A; Backhouse, Michael; Bhogal, Moninder; Ndosi, Mwidimi; Reynolds, Catherine; Sykes, Gill; Dowson, Christopher; Edmonds, Michael; Vowden, Peter; Jude, Edward B; Dickie, Tom; Nixon, Jane

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND There is inadequate evidence to advise clinicians on the relative merits of swabbing versus tissue sampling of infected diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs). OBJECTIVES To determine (1) concordance between culture results from wound swabs and tissue samples from the same ulcer; (2) whether or not differences in bacterial profiles from swabs and tissue samples are clinically relevant; (3) concordance between results from conventional culture versus polymerase chain reaction (PCR); and (4) prognosis for patients with an infected DFU at 12 months' follow-up. METHODS This was a cross-sectional, multicentre study involving patients with diabetes and a foot ulcer that was deemed to be infected by their clinician. Microbiology specimens for culture were taken contemporaneously by swab and by tissue sampling from the same wound. In a substudy, specimens were also processed by PCR. A virtual 'blinded' clinical review compared the appropriateness of patients' initial antibiotic regimens based on the results of swab and tissue specimens. Patients' case notes were reviewed at 12 months to assess prognosis. RESULTS The main study recruited 400 patients, with 247 patients in the clinical review. There were 12 patients in the PCR study and 299 patients in the prognosis study. Patients' median age was 63 years (range 26-99 years), their diabetes duration was 15 years (range 2 weeks-57 years), and their index ulcer duration was 1.8 months (range 3 days-12 years). Half of the ulcers were neuropathic and the remainder were ischaemic/neuroischaemic. Tissue results reported more than one pathogen in significantly more specimens than swabs {86.1% vs. 70.1% of patients, 15.9% difference [95% confidence interval (CI) 11.8% to 20.1%], McNemar's p-value < 0.0001}. The two sampling techniques reported a difference in the identity of pathogens for 58% of patients. The number of pathogens differed in 50.4% of patients. In the clinical review study, clinicians agreed on the need for a

  6. Proliferation/apoptosis determination by tissue cytometry in gastrointestinal fresh frozen sections using triple labeling and automated scanning fluorescence microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bocsi, Jozsef; Sipos, Ferenc; Ficsor, Levente; Varga, Viktor S.; Tulassay, Zsolt; Tarnok, Attila; Molnár, Béla

    2006-02-01

    Proliferation/apoptosis balance is an important information in gastrointestinal ulcerative and malignant diseases. Immunohistochemical staining and visual counting is routine procedure. Recently we reported a new scanning fluorescence technique for automated motorized microscopes (SFM). Development of triple fluorescent labeling method for proliferating/apoptotic/resting cells and application of SFM for the automated analysis and counting on gastric biopsy specimen. Routine antral biopsy specimens by gastroscopy were fresh frozen and 5 micron sections were prepared. Proliferation was detected using a PCNA antibody, anti-mouse-biotin and streptavidin-Texas-Red labeling system. Apoptotic cells was labeled using the TUNEL reaction with FITC bound nucleotids. DAPI nuclear counter staining was applied. Labeled sections were scanned and digitized in the three fluorescent channels. SFM was modified to detect epithelial surface, glands in the biopsy specimen. Automated nuclei detection, PCNA and TUNEL detection was performed, ratio was calculated. In parallel standard biopsies were labeled with PCNA and AEC. TUNEL reaction was performed. Up to 1000 epithelial cells were manually counted. The mean PCNA labeling in healthy samples were 45,3+/-12,4%, that significantly increased to 56.4+/-8.7% in H. Pylori positive cases. Positive TUNEL reaction was found in 2,9+/-1,1% in H. pylori negative cases, while in the H. Pylori positive cases the apoptotic ratio was significantly increased (14.1+/-3.2%, p<0.05). Significant correlation in apoptosis/proliferation ratio between the SFM and routine methods could be observed (p<0,05). SFM procedure proved to be more time efficient both in labeling, both in detection procedures. Triple fluorescent labeling and automated fluorescence microscopy is an applicable tool for the proliferation, apoptosis determination in fresh frozen samples.

  7. Age-associated differences in triceps surae muscle composition and strength – an MRI-based cross-sectional comparison of contractile, adipose and connective tissue

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In human skeletal muscles, the aging process causes a decrease of contractile and a concomitant increase of intramuscular adipose (IMAT) and connective (IMCT) tissues. The accumulation of non-contractile tissues may contribute to the significant loss of intrinsic muscle strength typically observed at older age but their in vivo quantification is challenging. The purpose of this study was to establish MR imaging-based methods to quantify the relative amounts of IMCT, IMAT and contractile tissues in young and older human cohorts, and investigate their roles in determining age-associated changes in skeletal muscle strength. Methods Five young (31.6 ± 7.0 yrs) and five older (83.4 ± 3.2 yrs) Japanese women were subject to a detailed MR imaging protocol, including Fast Gradient Echo, Quantitative Fat/Water (IDEAL) and Ultra-short Echo Time (UTE) sequences, to determine contractile muscle tissue and IMAT within the entire Triceps Surae complex, and IMCT within both heads of the Gastrocnemius muscle. Specific force was calculated as the ratio of isometric plantarflexor force and the physiological cross-sectional area of the Triceps Surae complex. Results In the older cohort, total Triceps Surae volume was smaller by 17.5%, while the relative amounts of Triceps Surae IMAT and Gastrocnemius IMCT were larger by 55.1% and 48.9%, respectively. Differences of 38.6% and 42.1% in plantarflexor force and specific force were observed. After subtraction of IMAT and IMCT from total muscle volume, differences in intrinsic strength decreased to 29.6%. Conclusions Our data establishes that aging causes significant changes in skeletal muscle composition, with marked increases in non-contractile tissues. Such quantification of the remodeling process is likely to be of functional and clinical importance in elucidating the causes of the disproportionate age-associated decrease of force compared to that of muscle volume. PMID:24939372

  8. Microanalytical isotope ratio measurements and elemental mapping using laser ablation ICP-MS for tissue thin sections: zinc tracer studies in rats.

    PubMed

    Urgast, Dagmar S; Ou, Ou; Gordon, Margaret-Jane; Raab, Andrea; Nixon, Graeme F; Kwun, In-Sook; Beattie, John H; Feldmann, Jörg

    2012-01-01

    The kinetics of zinc absorption, metabolism and excretion is extensively studied by nutritionists. Stable isotopes of zinc can be used to identify body zinc compartments that have different turnover kinetics. Since the compartments might belong to physiological subsections of different organs, there is a need for microsampling analysis to determine isotope ratios of the trace element zinc in tissue samples. Here, we study the feasibility to use laser ablation coupled to quadrupole ICP-MS for the determination of zinc tracers given to rats at different time points with the aim to generate isotope ratio bioimages of heart tissue. A double tracer ((70)Zn and (67)Zn) experiment with rats was designed to label the exchangeable zinc pool as well as the stable zinc pool. The isotope ratios determined by laser ablation ICP-MS were evaluated by additional measurements of tissue digests. Accumulated tracers which made up more than 0.1% of total zinc could be identified in the tissues of the treated rats. It was established that at least 50 measurements from the microsampling were necessary to distinguish between controls and a tracer treated rat resulting in reduced resolution of the bioimage. With the parameters used, features in the tissue thin sections of at least 250 μm(2) in size are necessary to detect the incorporation of a tracer. When different time points have to be measured, higher precisions are required and therefore a larger area needs to be ablated (1 mm(2)). Using the bioimages and pool measurements from one physiological feature, it was possible to show that the aorta cell walls incorporate the zinc tracer at the different time points.

  9. Two-Photon Ratiometric Fluorescence Probe with Enhanced Absorption Cross Section for Imaging and Biosensing of Zinc Ions in Hippocampal Tissue and Zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Li, Wanying; Fang, Bingqing; Jin, Ming; Tian, Yang

    2017-02-21

    Zinc ion (Zn(2+)) not only plays an important function in the structural, catalytic, transcription, and regulatory of proteins, but is also an essential ionic signal to regulate brain neurotransmitters pass process. In this work, we designed and synthesized an intramolecular charge transfer-based ratiometric two-photon fluorescence probe, P-Zn, for imaging and biosensing of Zn(2+) in live cell, hippocampal tissue, and zebrafish. The developed probe demonstrated high two-photon absorption cross section (δ) of 516 ± 77 GM, which increased to 958 ± 144 GM after the probe was coordinated with Zn(2+). Furthermore, this P-Zn probe quickly recognized Zn(2+) with high selectivity, over other metal ions, amino acids, and reactive oxygen species. More interestingly, the initial emission peak of the present probe at 465 nm decreased with a new peak increased at 550 nm, leading to the ratiometric determination of Zn(2+) with high accuracy. Finally, this two-photon fluorescence probe with high temporal resolution and remarkable analytical performance, as well as low-cytotoxicity, was successfully applied in imaging of live cells, hippocampal tissues, and zebrafishes. The present P-Zn probe combined with FLIM provided accurate mapping of Zn(2+) distribution at single-cell level. More interestingly, the two-photon spectroscopic results demonstrated that the level of Zn(2+) in hippocampal tissue of mouse with AD was higher than that in normal mouse brain.

  10. Inability of shear-wave elastography to distinguish malignant from benign prostate tissue – a comparison of biopsy, whole-mount sectioning and shear-wave elastography

    PubMed Central

    Görner, Claudia; Wendler, Johann Jakob; Liehr, Uwe-Bernd; Lux, Anke; Siedentopf, Sandra; Schostak, Martin; Pech, Maciej

    2016-01-01

    Aim This study was designed to assess the possible usefulness of shear-wave elastography in differentiating between benign and malignant tissue in prostate neoplasia. Patients and methods A total of 120 prostate tissue samples were obtained from 10 patients treated by radical prostatectomy and investigated pre-operatively by ultrasound elastography followed by directed biopsy. After resection, whole-mount sectioning and histological examination was performed. The predictions based on shear-wave elastography were compared with biopsy and histological results. Results The comparison between the results of shear-wave elastography and those of biopsy was performed by receiver operating characteristic analysis, which suggested an optimum cut-off tissue elasticity value of 50 kPa, in agreement with earlier studies aimed at distinguishing between benign and malignant tissue. However, the diagnostic selectivity (and thus the diagnostic power) was poor (area under the curve 0.527, which hardly differs from the value of 0.500 that would correspond to a complete lack of predictive power); furthermore, application of this cut-off value to the samples led to a sensitivity of only 74% and a specificity of only 43%. An analogous comparison between the results of shear-wave elastography and those of whole-mount histology, which itself is more reliable than biopsy, gave an even poorer diagnostic selectivity (sensitivity of 62%, specificity of 35%). Meaningful association with Gleason score was not found for D’Amico risk groups (p = 0.35). Conclusions The (negative) findings of this investigation add to the dissonance among results of studies investigating the possible value of shear-wave elastography as a diagnostic tool to identify malignant neoplasia. There is a clear need for further research to elucidate the diversity of study results and to identify the usefulness, if any, of the method in question. PMID:28138406

  11. CpG Methylation Analysis of HPV16 in Laser Capture Microdissected Archival Tissue and Whole Tissue Sections from High Grade Anal Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions: A Potential Disease Biomarker

    PubMed Central

    Molano, Monica; Tabrizi, Sepehr N.; Garland, Suzanne M.; Roberts, Jennifer M.; Machalek, Dorothy A.; Phillips, Samuel; Chandler, David; Hillman, Richard J.; Grulich, Andrew E.; Jin, Fengyi; Poynten, I. Mary; Templeton, David J.; Cornall, Alyssa M.

    2016-01-01

    Incidence and mortality rates of anal cancer are increasing globally. More than 90% of anal squamous cell carcinomas (ASCC) are associated with human papillomavirus (HPV). Studies on HPV-related anogenital lesions have shown that patterns of methylation of viral and cellular DNA targets could potentially be developed as disease biomarkers. Lesion-specific DNA isolated from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues from existing or prospective patient cohorts may constitute a valuable resource for methylation analysis. However, low concentrations of DNA make these samples technically challenging to analyse using existing methods. We therefore set out to develop a sensitive and reproducible nested PCR-pyrosequencing based method to accurately quantify methylation at 10 CpG sites within the E2BS1, E2BS2,3,4 and Sp1 binding sites in the viral upstream regulatory region of HPV16 genome. Methylation analyses using primary and nested PCR-pyrosequencing on 52 FFPE tissue [26 paired whole tissue sections (WTS) and laser capture microdissected (LCM) tissues] from patients with anal squamous intraepithelial lesions was performed. Using nested PCR, methylation results were obtained for the E2BS1, E2BS2,3,4 and Sp1 binding sites in 86.4% of the WTS and 81.8% of the LCM samples. Methylation patterns were strongly correlated within median values of matched pairs of WTS and LCM sections, but overall methylation was higher in LCM samples at different CpG sites. High grade lesions showed low methylation levels in the E2BS1 and E2BS2 regions, with increased methylation detected in the E2BS,3,4/Sp1 regions, showing the highest methylation at CpG site 37. The method developed is highly sensitive in samples with low amounts of DNA and demonstrated to be suitable for archival samples. Our data shows a possible role of specific methylation in the HPV16 URR for detection of HSIL. PMID:27529629

  12. CpG Methylation Analysis of HPV16 in Laser Capture Microdissected Archival Tissue and Whole Tissue Sections from High Grade Anal Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions: A Potential Disease Biomarker.

    PubMed

    Molano, Monica; Tabrizi, Sepehr N; Garland, Suzanne M; Roberts, Jennifer M; Machalek, Dorothy A; Phillips, Samuel; Chandler, David; Hillman, Richard J; Grulich, Andrew E; Jin, Fengyi; Poynten, I Mary; Templeton, David J; Cornall, Alyssa M

    2016-01-01

    Incidence and mortality rates of anal cancer are increasing globally. More than 90% of anal squamous cell carcinomas (ASCC) are associated with human papillomavirus (HPV). Studies on HPV-related anogenital lesions have shown that patterns of methylation of viral and cellular DNA targets could potentially be developed as disease biomarkers. Lesion-specific DNA isolated from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues from existing or prospective patient cohorts may constitute a valuable resource for methylation analysis. However, low concentrations of DNA make these samples technically challenging to analyse using existing methods. We therefore set out to develop a sensitive and reproducible nested PCR-pyrosequencing based method to accurately quantify methylation at 10 CpG sites within the E2BS1, E2BS2,3,4 and Sp1 binding sites in the viral upstream regulatory region of HPV16 genome. Methylation analyses using primary and nested PCR-pyrosequencing on 52 FFPE tissue [26 paired whole tissue sections (WTS) and laser capture microdissected (LCM) tissues] from patients with anal squamous intraepithelial lesions was performed. Using nested PCR, methylation results were obtained for the E2BS1, E2BS2,3,4 and Sp1 binding sites in 86.4% of the WTS and 81.8% of the LCM samples. Methylation patterns were strongly correlated within median values of matched pairs of WTS and LCM sections, but overall methylation was higher in LCM samples at different CpG sites. High grade lesions showed low methylation levels in the E2BS1 and E2BS2 regions, with increased methylation detected in the E2BS,3,4/Sp1 regions, showing the highest methylation at CpG site 37. The method developed is highly sensitive in samples with low amounts of DNA and demonstrated to be suitable for archival samples. Our data shows a possible role of specific methylation in the HPV16 URR for detection of HSIL.

  13. In situ enzymatic activity of transglutaminase isoforms on brain tissue sections of rodents: A new approach to monitor differences in post-translational protein modifications during neurodegeneration.

    PubMed

    Schulze-Krebs, Anja; Canneva, Fabio; Schnepf, Rebecca; Dobner, Julia; Dieterich, Walburga; von Hörsten, Stephan

    2016-01-15

    Mammalian transglutaminases (TGs) catalyze the irreversible post-translational modifications of proteins, the most prominent of which is the calcium-dependent formation of covalent acyl transfers between the γ-carboxamide group of glutamine and the ε-amino-group of lysine (GGEL-linkage). In the central nervous system, at least four TG isoforms are present and some of them are differentially expressed under pathological conditions in human patients. However, the precise TG-isoform-dependent enzymatic activities in the brain as well as their anatomical distribution are unknown. Specificity of the used biotinylated peptides was analyzed using an in vitro assay. Isoform-specific TG activity was evaluated in in vitro and in situ studies, using brain extracts and native brain tissue obtained from rodents. Our method allowed us to reveal in vitro and in situ TG-isoform-dependent enzymatic activity in brain extracts and tissue of rats and mice, with a specific focus on TG6. In situ activity of this isoform varied between BACHD mice in comparison to their wt controls. TG isozyme-specific activity can be detected by isoform-specific biotinylated peptides in brain tissue sections of rodents to reveal differences in the anatomical and/or subcellular distribution of TG activity. Our findings yield the basis for a broader application of this method for the screening of pathological expression and activity of TGs in a variety of animal models of human diseases, as in the case of neurodegenerative conditions such as Huntington׳s, Parkinson׳s and Alzheimer׳s, where protein modification is involved as a key mechanism of disease progression.

  14. CT-soft tissue window of the cranial abdomen in clinically normal dogs: an anatomical description using macroscopic cross-sections with vascular injection.

    PubMed

    Rivero, M A; Vázquez, J M; Gil, F; Ramírez, J A; Vilar, J M; De Miguel, A; Arencibia, A

    2009-02-01

    The aim of this study was to provide a detailed anatomic atlas of the cranial abdomen by means of computed tomography (CT). Three mature dogs, all mixed breed males, were used. The dogs were sedated, anaesthetized and positioned in sternal recumbency. CT scans from the eighth thoracic vertebra to the fourth lumbar vertebra were performed using a third-generation equipment (TOSHIBA 600HQ scanner) with 1 cm slice thickness. CT-images of the cranial abdomen were taken with soft-tissue window (WL: -14, WW: 658) settings. Dogs were killed and vascular-injection technique was performed: red and blue latex filled the vascular system. Injected dogs were frozen in the same position as used for CT examination and sectioned with an electric bandsaw at 1-cm-thick intervals. The cuts matched as closely as possible to the CT-images. The anatomic sections were compared and studied with the corresponding CT-images, and clinically relevant abdominal anatomic structures were identified and labelled on the corresponding CT-images. The results of our study could be used as a reference for evaluating CT-images of the canine cranial abdomen with abdominal diseases.

  15. Adjacent tooth trauma in complicated mandibular third molar surgery: Risk degree classification and digital surgical simulation

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Zhou-Xi; Yang, Chi; Ge, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Analysis of adjacent tooth resistance is essential in wisdom teeth extraction to prevent adjacent tooth trauma, however it lacks adequate attention nowadays. This study aims at suggesting special extraction methods based on adjacent tooth resistance analysis for prevention of adjacent tooth damage. In this study, 136 complicated mandibular third molars extracted using piezosurgery were reviewed and classified based on the adjacent teeth resistances shown in orthopantomogram (OPG) during their mesio-distal rotations: degree I refers to teeth with no adjacent teeth resistance; degree II refers to teeth with resistance released after mesial-half crown sectioning; degree III refers to teeth which still had resistance after mesial-half crown sectioning. With the use of surgical simulations using cone beam computerized tomography (CBCT) reconstruction, all teeth in degree I were designed to rotate mesio-distally; 86.36%(38/44) teeth in degree II were designed to rotate mesio-distally after mesio-half crown sectioning; 69.09%(36/55) teeth in degree III were designed to rotate bucco-lingually. All teeth were extracted successfully, and only one adjacent tooth was subluxated due to the incomplete bone removal. Our study suggested that in order to prevent adjacent teeth trauma, complete bone removal is of importance, and impacted teeth with higher adjacent teeth trauma risks should consider bucco-lingual rotations. PMID:27974819

  16. 33 CFR 162.215 - Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach. 162.215 Section 162.215 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... § 162.215 Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach. (a) The restricted area....

  17. 33 CFR 162.215 - Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach. 162.215 Section 162.215 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... § 162.215 Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach. (a) The restricted area....

  18. 33 CFR 162.215 - Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach. 162.215 Section 162.215 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... § 162.215 Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach. (a) The restricted area....

  19. 33 CFR 162.215 - Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach. 162.215 Section 162.215 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... § 162.215 Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach. (a) The restricted area....

  20. 33 CFR 162.215 - Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach. 162.215 Section 162.215 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT... § 162.215 Lake Tahoe, Nev.; restricted area adjacent to Nevada Beach. (a) The restricted area....

  1. Exemplifying the Screening Power of Mass Spectrometry Imaging over Label-Based Technologies for Simultaneous Monitoring of Drug and Metabolite Distributions in Tissue Sections.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, Richard J A; Nilsson, Anna; Mackay, C Logan; Swales, John G; Johansson, Maria K; Billger, Martin; Andrén, Per E; Iverson, Suzanne L

    2016-02-01

    Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) provides pharmaceutical researchers with a suite of technologies to screen and assess compound distributions and relative abundances directly from tissue sections and offer insight into drug discovery-applicable queries such as blood-brain barrier access, tumor penetration/retention, and compound toxicity related to drug retention in specific organs/cell types. Label-free MSI offers advantages over label-based assays, such as quantitative whole-body autoradiography (QWBA), in the ability to simultaneously differentiate and monitor both drug and drug metabolites. Such discrimination is not possible by label-based assays if a drug metabolite still contains the radiolabel. Here, we present data exemplifying the advantages of MSI analysis. Data of the distribution of AZD2820, a therapeutic cyclic peptide, are related to corresponding QWBA data. Distribution of AZD2820 and two metabolites is achieved by MSI, which [(14)C]AZD2820 QWBA fails to differentiate. Furthermore, the high mass-resolving power of Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance MS is used to separate closely associated ions.

  2. Automated Liquid Microjunction Surface Sampling-HPLC-MS/MS Analysis of Drugs and Metabolites in Whole-Body Thin Tissue Sections

    SciTech Connect

    Kertesz, Vilmos; Van Berkel, Gary J

    2013-01-01

    A fully automated liquid extraction-based surface sampling system utilizing a commercially available autosampler coupled to high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) detection is reported. Discrete spots selected for droplet-based sampling and automated sample queue generation for both the autosampler and MS were enabled by using in-house developed software. In addition, co-registration of spatially resolved sampling position and HPLC-MS information to generate heatmaps of compounds monitored for subsequent data analysis was also available in the software. The system was evaluated with whole-body thin tissue sections from propranolol dosed rat. The hands-free operation of the system was demonstrated by creating heatmaps of the parent drug and its hydroxypropranolol glucuronide metabolites with 1 mm resolution in the areas of interest. The sample throughput was approximately 5 min/sample defined by the time needed for chromatographic separation. The spatial distributions of both the drug and its metabolites were consistent with previous studies employing other liquid extraction-based surface sampling methodologies.

  3. Quantification of β-Catenin Signaling Components in Colon Cancer Cell Lines, Tissue Sections, and Microdissected Tumor Cells using Reaction Monitoring Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yi; Gruidl, Mike; Remily-Wood, Elizabeth; Liu, Richard Z.; Eschrich, Steven; Lloyd, Mark; Nasir, Aejaz; Bui, Marilyn M.; Huang, Emina; Shibata, David; Yeatman, Timothy; Koomen, John M.

    2010-01-01

    Reaction monitoring mass spectrometry has emerged as a powerful tool for targeted detection and quantification of proteins in clinical samples. Here, we report the use of gel electrophoresis for protein fractionation and liquid chromatography coupled to multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry (LC-MRM) screening for quantitative analysis of components from the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, which contributes to colon tumor formation and progression. In silico tools are used to design LC-MRM screens for each target protein. Following successful peptide detection, stable isotope labeled peptides are synthesized and developed as internal standards. Then, the assays are implemented in colon cancer cell lines to achieve detection in minimal amounts of cells, compatible with direct translation to clinical specimens. Selected assays are compared with qualitative results from immunoblotting (Westerns) and translated to individual frozen colon tissue sections and laser capture microdissected tumor cells. This LC-MRM platform has been translated from in vitro models to clinical specimens, forming the basis for future experiments in patient assessment. PMID:20590165

  4. FISH is better than BIOMED-2 PCR to detect IgH/BCL2 translocation in follicular lymphoma at diagnosis using paraffin-embedded tissue sections.

    PubMed

    Espinet, Blanca; Bellosillo, Beatriz; Melero, Carme; Vela, Ma Carmen; Pedro, Carmen; Salido, Marta; Pijuan, Lara; Florensa, Lourdes; Besses, Carles; Serrano, Sergi; Solé, Francesc

    2008-05-01

    The most common genetic aberration in follicular lymphoma (FL) is the t(14;18)(q32;q21) translocation that juxtaposes the antiapoptotic BCL2 gene with the promoter of the immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) gene. Our aim was to test the usefulness of two different techniques, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and PCR to detect t(14;18) in FL at diagnosis in paraffin-embedded tissue sections. A total of 51 patients diagnosed of FL were analyzed. FISH was performed with dual color dual fusion commercial probes (VYSIS) and in PCR experiments, the BIOMED-2 primers covering MBR, mcr and 3'MBR regions were applied. FISH showed positivity for the IgH/BCL2 translocation in 96% of patients and PCR in 59% of patients. FISH was able to detect variant translocations involving light chain Ig, or showing variant patterns such as deletions of the IgH portion involved in translocation. In 4% of cases, the IgH/BCL2 translocation was not detected by any of the two techniques tested. Our results show that FISH represents the best technique to detect t(14;18) at diagnosis.

  5. Evaluation of Peptide Nucleic Acid-Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization for Identification of Clinically Relevant Mycobacteria in Clinical Specimens and Tissue Sections

    PubMed Central

    Lefmann, Michael; Schweickert, Birgitta; Buchholz, Petra; Göbel, Ulf B.; Ulrichs, Timo; Seiler, Peter; Theegarten, Dirk; Moter, Annette

    2006-01-01

    With fluorescently labeled PNA (peptide nucleic acid) probes targeting 16S rRNA, we established a 3-h fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) procedure for specific visualization of members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, M. leprae, M. avium, and M. kansasii. Probe specificity was tested against a panel of 25 Mycobacterium spp. and 10 gram-positive organisms. After validation, probes were used to identify 52 mycobacterial culture isolates. Results were compared to conventional genotypic identification with amplification-based methods. All isolates (M. tuberculosis complex, n = 24; M. avium, n = 7; M. kansasii, n = 1) were correctly identified by FISH. In addition, the technique was used successfully for visualization of mycobacteria in biopsies from infected humans or animals. In conclusion, PNA-FISH is a fast and accurate tool for species-specific identification of culture-grown mycobacteria and for direct visualization of these organisms in tissue sections. It may be used successfully for both research and clinical microbiology. PMID:17021106

  6. Raman Spectroscopy Study of Prostatic Adenocarcinoma Bulk Tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devpura, S.; Dai, H.; Thakur, J. S.; Naik, R.; Cao, A.; Pandya, A.; Auner, G. W.; Sarkar, F.; Sakr, W.; Naik, V.

    2009-03-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the most common types of cancer among men. The mortality rate for this disease can be dramatically reduced if it can be diagnosed in its early stages. Raman spectroscopy is one of the optical techniques which can provide fingerprints of a disease in terms of its molecular composition which changes due to the onset of disease. The aim of this project is to investigate the differences in the Raman spectra to identify benign epithelium (BE), prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) and adenocarcinoma of various Gleason grades in archived bulk tissues embedded in paraffin wax. For each tissue, two adjacent tissue sections were cut and dewaxed, where one of the sections was stained using haematoxylin and eosin for histological examination and the other unstained adjacent section was used for Raman spectroscopic studies. We have collected Raman spectra from 10 prostatic adenocarcinoma dewaxed tissue sections using Raman microscope (785 nm excitation laser). The data were analyzed using statistical methods of principal component analysis and discriminant function analysis to classify the tissue regions. The results indicate that Raman Spectroscopy can differentiate between BE, PIN and Cancer regions.

  7. Cross-sectional imaging of the thyroid gland.

    PubMed

    Loevner, Laurie A; Kaplan, Summer L; Cunnane, Mary Elizabeth; Moonis, Gul

    2008-08-01

    Directed imaging is useful in assessing the thyroid gland. Nuclear scintigraphy reveals functional information about the thyroid gland, while cross-sectional imaging, including ultrasound, CT, and MR imaging provide important adjunctive anatomic information about the thyroid as well as about related structures in the neck, including the presence or absence of cervical and mediastinal lymphadenopathy, or extension of thyroid disease into adjacent soft tissues or the mediastinum. This article reviews the anatomy and physiology of the thyroid gland and addresses issues related to diseases affecting the thyroid gland, with an emphasis on neoplasms and the role of cross-sectional MR and CT imaging in the assessment of thyroid neoplasia.

  8. 49 CFR 214.336 - On-track safety procedures for certain roadway work groups and adjacent tracks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... work groups and adjacent tracks. 214.336 Section 214.336 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... SAFETY Roadway Worker Protection § 214.336 On-track safety procedures for certain roadway work groups and... section, on-track safety is required for each adjacent controlled track when a roadway work group with...

  9. 49 CFR 214.336 - On-track safety procedures for certain roadway work groups and adjacent tracks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... work groups and adjacent tracks. 214.336 Section 214.336 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... SAFETY Roadway Worker Protection § 214.336 On-track safety procedures for certain roadway work groups and... section, on-track safety is required for each adjacent controlled track when a roadway work group with...

  10. Effects of holmium:YAG laser on equine articular cartilage and subchondral bone adjacent to traumatic lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collier, Michael A.; Haugland, L. Mark; Bellamy, Janine; Johnson, Lanny L.; Rohrer, Michael D.; Walls, Robert C.; Bartels, Kenneth E.

    1994-09-01

    The effects of Ho:YAG laser energy on articular cartilage and subchondral bone adjacent to traumatically created cartilage lesions in a continuous weight-bearing model were investigated. The 2.1 micrometers wavelength was delivered in hand-controlled contact and near-contact hard tissue arthroscopic surgery in a saline medium. Bilateral arthroscopy was performed on normal antebrachiocarpal and intercarpal joints of four adult horses. One-hundred twenty traumatic lesions were created on three weight-bearing articular surfaces with a knife, curette, or a motorized burr. Depths of the lesions were partial and full thickness. Configurations of the lesions were lacerations, scrapes, and craters. Left limbs were used as controls. Right limb lesions were treated with various intensities of laser energy. Animals were sacrificed at intervals of 1, 3, and 8 weeks. Gross microscopic anatomy was documented, and tissue sections were subjected to blind review by a pathologist. Mankin grading for cellularity and proteoglycan content was used to qualitatively evaluate cartilage response. Cartilage adjacent to all lesions exposed to laser energy had better cellularity and proteoglycan content than corresponding controls by Mankin grading.

  11. On the time-course of adjacent and non-adjacent transposed-letter priming

    PubMed Central

    Ktori, Maria; Kingma, Brechtsje; Hannagan, Thomas; Holcomb, Phillip J.; Grainger, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    We compared effects of adjacent (e.g., atricle-ARTICLE) and non-adjacent (e.g., actirle-ARTICLE) transposed-letter (TL) primes in an ERP study using the sandwich priming technique. TL priming was measured relative to the standard double-substitution condition. We found significantly stronger priming effects for adjacent transpositions than non-adjacent transpositions (with 2 intervening letters) in behavioral responses (lexical decision latencies), and the adjacent priming effects emerged earlier in the ERP signal, at around 200 ms post-target onset. Non-adjacent priming effects emerged about 50 ms later and were short-lived, being significant only in the 250-300 ms time-window. Adjacent transpositions on the other hand continued to produce priming in the N400 time-window (300-500 ms post-target onset). This qualitatively different pattern of priming effects for adjacent and non-adjacent transpositions is discussed in the light of different accounts of letter transposition effects, and the utility of drawing a distinction between positional flexibility and positional noise. PMID:25364497

  12. Air bubble-shock wave interaction adjacent to gelantine surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lush, P. A.; Tomita, Y.; Onodera, O.; Takayama, K.; Sanada, N.; Kuwahara, M.; Ioritani, N.; Kitayama, O.

    1990-07-01

    The interaction between a shock wave and an air bubble-adjacent to a gelatine surface is investigated in order to simulate human tissue damage resulting from extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy. Using high speed cine photography it is found that a shock wave of strength 11 MPa causes 1-3 mm diameter bubbles to produce high velocity microjets with penetration rates of approximately 110 m/s and penetration depths approximately equal to twice the initial bubble diameter. Theoretical considerations for liquid impact on soft solid of similar density indicate that microjet velocities will be twice the penetration rate, i.e. 220 m/s in the present case. Such events are the probable cause of observed renal tissue damage.

  13. Quantitative bioimaging of p-boronophenylalanine in thin liver tissue sections as a tool for treatment planning in boron neutron capture therapy.

    PubMed

    Reifschneider, Olga; Schütz, Christian L; Brochhausen, Christoph; Hampel, Gabriele; Ross, Tobias; Sperling, Michael; Karst, Uwe

    2015-03-01

    An analytical method using laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) was developed and applied to assess enrichment of 10B-containing p-boronophenylalanine-fructose (BPA-f) and its pharmacokinetic distribution in human tissues after application for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). High spatial resolution (50 μm) and limits of detection in the low parts-per-billion range were achieved using a Nd:YAG laser of 213 nm wavelength. External calibration by means of 10B-enriched standards based on whole blood proved to yield precise quantification results. Using this calibration method, quantification of 10B in cancerous and healthy tissue was carried out. Additionally, the distribution of 11B was investigated, providing 10B enrichment in the investigated tissues. Quantitative imaging of 10B by means of LA-ICP-MS was demonstrated as a new option to characterise the efficacy of boron compounds for BNCT.

  14. Label-free and depth resolved optical sectioning of iron-complex deposits in sickle cell disease splenic tissue by multiphoton microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vigil, Genevieve D.; Adami, Alexander J.; Ahmed, Tahsin; Khan, Aamir; Chapman, Sarah; Andemariam, Biree; Thrall, Roger S.; Howard, Scott S.

    2015-06-01

    Multiphoton microscopy (MPM) imaging of intrinsic two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) is performed on humanized sickle cell disease (SCD) mouse model splenic tissue. Distinct morphological and spectral features associated with SCD are identified and discussed in terms of diagnostic relevance. Specifically, spectrally unique splenic iron-complex deposits are identified by MPM; this finding is supported by TPEF spectroscopy and object size to standard histopathological methods. Further, iron deposits are found at higher concentrations in diseased tissue than in healthy tissue by all imaging methods employed here including MPM, and therefore, may provide a useful biomarker related to the disease state. These newly characterized biomarkers allow for further investigations of SCD in live animals as a means to gain insight into the mechanisms impacting immune dysregulation and organ malfunction, which are currently not well understood.

  15. New species of Amanita from the eastern Himalaya and adjacent regions.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhu L; Weiß, M; Oberwinkler, F

    2004-01-01

    Four new species of Amanita, Amanita-ceae (Agaricales) are described from the eastern Himalaya and adjacent regions of southwestern China. Amanita altipes and A. parvipantherina are members of section Amanita, while A. orientifulva and A. liquii are representatives of section Vaginatae. They are compared with similar species and illustrated with line drawings.

  16. Online, absolute quantitation of propranolol from spatially distinct 20-μm and 40-μm dissections of brain, liver, and kidney thin tissue sections by laser microdissection – liquid vortex capture – mass spectrometry

    DOE PAGES

    Kertesz, Vilmos; Vavrek, Marissa; Freddo, Carol; ...

    2016-05-23

    Here, spatial resolved quantitation of chemical species in thin tissue sections by mass spectrometric methods has been constrained by the need for matrix-matched standards or other arduous calibration protocols and procedures to mitigate matrix effects (e.g., spatially varying ionization suppression). Reported here is the use of laser cut and drop sampling with a laser microdissection-liquid vortex capture electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LMD-LVC/ESI-MS/MS) system for online and absolute quantitation of propranolol in mouse brain, kidney, and liver thin tissue sections of mice administered with the drug at a 7.5 mg/kg dose, intravenously. In this procedure either 20 μm x 20more » μm or 40 μm x 40 μm tissue microdissections were cut and dropped into the flowing solvent of the capture probe. During transport to the ESI source drug related material was completely extracted from the tissue into the solvent, which contained a known concentration of propranolol-d7 as an internal standard. This allowed absolute quantitation to be achieved with an external calibration curve generated from standards containing the same fixed concentration of propranolold-d7 and varied concentrations of propranolol. Average propranolol concentrations determined with the laser cut and drop sampling method closely agreed with concentration values obtained from 2.3 mm diameter tissue punches from serial sections that were extracted and quantified by HPLC/ESI-MS/MS measurements. In addition, the relative abundance of hydroxypropranolol glucuronide metabolites were recorded and found to be consistent with previous findings.« less

  17. Online, absolute quantitation of propranolol from spatially distinct 20-μm and 40-μm dissections of brain, liver, and kidney thin tissue sections by laser microdissection – liquid vortex capture – mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Kertesz, Vilmos; Vavrek, Marissa; Freddo, Carol; Van Berkel, Gary J.; Cahill, John F.; Weiskittel, Taylor M.

    2016-05-23

    Here, spatial resolved quantitation of chemical species in thin tissue sections by mass spectrometric methods has been constrained by the need for matrix-matched standards or other arduous calibration protocols and procedures to mitigate matrix effects (e.g., spatially varying ionization suppression). Reported here is the use of laser cut and drop sampling with a laser microdissection-liquid vortex capture electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LMD-LVC/ESI-MS/MS) system for online and absolute quantitation of propranolol in mouse brain, kidney, and liver thin tissue sections of mice administered with the drug at a 7.5 mg/kg dose, intravenously. In this procedure either 20 μm x 20 μm or 40 μm x 40 μm tissue microdissections were cut and dropped into the flowing solvent of the capture probe. During transport to the ESI source drug related material was completely extracted from the tissue into the solvent, which contained a known concentration of propranolol-d7 as an internal standard. This allowed absolute quantitation to be achieved with an external calibration curve generated from standards containing the same fixed concentration of propranolold-d7 and varied concentrations of propranolol. Average propranolol concentrations determined with the laser cut and drop sampling method closely agreed with concentration values obtained from 2.3 mm diameter tissue punches from serial sections that were extracted and quantified by HPLC/ESI-MS/MS measurements. In addition, the relative abundance of hydroxypropranolol glucuronide metabolites were recorded and found to be consistent with previous findings.

  18. Raman spectroscopy detects melanoma and the tissue surrounding melanoma using tissue-engineered melanoma models

    PubMed Central

    Yorucu, Ceyla; Lau, Katherine; Mittar, Shweta; Green, Nicola H.; Raza, Ahtasham; Rehman, Ihtesham Ur; MacNeil, Sheila

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Invasion of melanoma cells from the primary tumor involves interaction with adjacent tissues and extracellular matrix. The extent of this interaction is not fully understood. In this study Raman spectroscopy was applied to cryo-sections of established 3D models of melanoma in human skin. Principal component analysis was used to investigate differences between the tumor and normal tissue and between the peri-tumor area and the normal skin. Two human melanoma cells lines A375SM and C8161 were investigated and compared in 3D melanoma models. Changes were found in protein conformations and tryptophan configurations across the entire melanoma samples, in tyrosine orientation and in more fluid lipid packing only in tumor dense areas, and in increased glycogen content in the peri-tumor areas of melanoma. Raman spectroscopy revealed changes around the perimeter of a melanoma tumor as well as detecting differences between the tumor and the normal tissue. PMID:27158185

  19. 15 CFR 922.154 - Consultation with the State of Washington, affected Indian tribes, and adjacent county governments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Washington, affected Indian tribes, and adjacent county governments. 922.154 Section 922.154 Commerce and... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OCEAN AND COASTAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT NATIONAL MARINE... of Washington, affected Indian tribes, and adjacent county governments. (a) The Director...

  20. 15 CFR 922.154 - Consultation with the State of Washington, affected Indian tribes, and adjacent county governments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Washington, affected Indian tribes, and adjacent county governments. 922.154 Section 922.154 Commerce and... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OCEAN AND COASTAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT NATIONAL MARINE... of Washington, affected Indian tribes, and adjacent county governments. (a) The Director...

  1. 15 CFR 922.154 - Consultation with the State of Washington, affected Indian tribes, and adjacent county governments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Washington, affected Indian tribes, and adjacent county governments. 922.154 Section 922.154 Commerce and... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OCEAN AND COASTAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT NATIONAL MARINE... of Washington, affected Indian tribes, and adjacent county governments. (a) The Director...

  2. 15 CFR 922.154 - Consultation with the State of Washington, affected Indian tribes, and adjacent county governments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Washington, affected Indian tribes, and adjacent county governments. 922.154 Section 922.154 Commerce and... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OCEAN AND COASTAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT NATIONAL MARINE... of Washington, affected Indian tribes, and adjacent county governments. (a) The Director...

  3. 15 CFR 922.154 - Consultation with the State of Washington, affected Indian tribes, and adjacent county governments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Washington, affected Indian tribes, and adjacent county governments. 922.154 Section 922.154 Commerce and... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OCEAN AND COASTAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT NATIONAL MARINE... of Washington, affected Indian tribes, and adjacent county governments. (a) The Director...

  4. 33 CFR 165.1317 - Security and Safety Zone; Large Passenger Vessel Protection, Puget Sound and adjacent waters...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Passenger Vessel Protection, Puget Sound and adjacent waters, Washington. 165.1317 Section 165.1317... Vessel Protection, Puget Sound and adjacent waters, Washington. (a) Notice of enforcement or suspension... be enforced only upon notice by the Captain of the Port Puget Sound. Captain of the Port Puget...

  5. 33 CFR 165.1317 - Security and Safety Zone; Large Passenger Vessel Protection, Puget Sound and adjacent waters...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Passenger Vessel Protection, Puget Sound and adjacent waters, Washington. 165.1317 Section 165.1317... Vessel Protection, Puget Sound and adjacent waters, Washington. (a) Notice of enforcement or suspension... be enforced only upon notice by the Captain of the Port Puget Sound. Captain of the Port Puget...

  6. 33 CFR 165.1317 - Security and Safety Zone; Large Passenger Vessel Protection, Puget Sound and adjacent waters...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Passenger Vessel Protection, Puget Sound and adjacent waters, Washington. 165.1317 Section 165.1317... Vessel Protection, Puget Sound and adjacent waters, Washington. (a) Notice of enforcement or suspension... be enforced only upon notice by the Captain of the Port Puget Sound. Captain of the Port Puget...

  7. 33 CFR 165.1313 - Security zone regulations, tank ship protection, Puget Sound and adjacent waters, Washington

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ship protection, Puget Sound and adjacent waters, Washington 165.1313 Section 165.1313 Navigation and... Sound and adjacent waters, Washington (a) Notice of enforcement or suspension of enforcement. The tank... Port Puget Sound. Captain of the Port Puget Sound will cause notice of the enforcement of the tank...

  8. 33 CFR 165.1313 - Security zone regulations, tank ship protection, Puget Sound and adjacent waters, Washington

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ship protection, Puget Sound and adjacent waters, Washington 165.1313 Section 165.1313 Navigation and... Sound and adjacent waters, Washington (a) Notice of enforcement or suspension of enforcement. The tank... Port Puget Sound. Captain of the Port Puget Sound will cause notice of the enforcement of the tank...

  9. 33 CFR 165.1313 - Security zone regulations, tank ship protection, Puget Sound and adjacent waters, Washington

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ship protection, Puget Sound and adjacent waters, Washington 165.1313 Section 165.1313 Navigation and... Sound and adjacent waters, Washington (a) Notice of enforcement or suspension of enforcement. The tank... Port Puget Sound. Captain of the Port Puget Sound will cause notice of the enforcement of the tank...

  10. 33 CFR 165.1317 - Security and Safety Zone; Large Passenger Vessel Protection, Puget Sound and adjacent waters...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Passenger Vessel Protection, Puget Sound and adjacent waters, Washington. 165.1317 Section 165.1317... Vessel Protection, Puget Sound and adjacent waters, Washington. (a) Notice of enforcement or suspension... be enforced only upon notice by the Captain of the Port Puget Sound. Captain of the Port Puget...

  11. 33 CFR 165.1313 - Security zone regulations, tank ship protection, Puget Sound and adjacent waters, Washington

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Port Puget Sound. Captain of the Port Puget Sound will cause notice of the enforcement of the tank ship... ship protection, Puget Sound and adjacent waters, Washington 165.1313 Section 165.1313 Navigation and... Sound and adjacent waters, Washington (a) Notice of enforcement or suspension of enforcement. The...

  12. Distribution of inorganic mercury in liver and kidney of beluga and bowhead whales through autometallographic development of light microscopic tissue sections.

    PubMed

    Woshner, Victoria M; Ohara, Todd M; Eurell, Jo Ann; Wallig, Matthew A; Bratton, Gerald R; Suydam, Robert S; Beasley, Val R

    2002-01-01

    Inorganic mercury was localized through autometallography (AMG) in kidney and liver of free-ranging, subsistence-harvested beluga (Delphinapterus leucus: n = 20) and bowhead (Balaena mysticetrus: n = 5) whales. AMG granules were not evident in bowhead tissues, confirming nominal mercury (Hg) concentrations (range = 0.011 to 0.038 microg/g ww for total Hg). In belugas, total Hg ranged from 0.30 to 17.11 and from 0.33 to 82.47 microg/g ww in liver and kidney, respectively. AMG granules were restricted to cortical tubular epithelial cytoplasm in belugas with lower tissue burdens; whales with higher tissue burdens had granules throughout the uriniferous tubular epithelium. In liver, AMG granular densities differed between lobular zones, concentrating in stellate macrophages and bile cannalicular domains of hepatocytes. AMG granules aggregated in periportal regions in belugas with lower hepatic Hg concentrations, yet among whales with higher Hg, AMG granule deposition extended to pericentral and midzonal regions of liver lobules. Mean areas occupied by AMG granules correlated well with hepatic Hg concentrations and age. In beluga livers, AMG staining density was not associated with lipofuscin quantity (an index of oxidative damage). Occasionally, AMG granules and lipofuscin were colocalized, but more often were not, implying that Hg was not a prominent factor in hepatic lipofuscin deposition in belugas.

  13. Profiling of adrenocorticotropic hormone and arginine vasopressin in human pituitary gland and tumor thin tissue sections using droplet-based liquid-microjunction surface-sampling-HPLC-ESI-MS-MS.

    PubMed

    Kertesz, Vilmos; Calligaris, David; Feldman, Daniel R; Changelian, Armen; Laws, Edward R; Santagata, Sandro; Agar, Nathalie Y R; Van Berkel, Gary J

    2015-08-01

    Described here are the results from the profiling of the proteins arginine vasopressin (AVP) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) from normal human pituitary gland and pituitary adenoma tissue sections, using a fully automated droplet-based liquid-microjunction surface-sampling-HPLC-ESI-MS-MS system for spatially resolved sampling, HPLC separation, and mass spectrometric detection. Excellent correlation was found between the protein distribution data obtained with this method and data obtained with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) chemical imaging analyses of serial sections of the same tissue. The protein distributions correlated with the visible anatomic pattern of the pituitary gland. AVP was most abundant in the posterior pituitary gland region (neurohypophysis), and ATCH was dominant in the anterior pituitary gland region (adenohypophysis). The relative amounts of AVP and ACTH sampled from a series of ACTH-secreting and non-secreting pituitary adenomas correlated with histopathological evaluation. ACTH was readily detected at significantly higher levels in regions of ACTH-secreting adenomas and in normal anterior adenohypophysis compared with non-secreting adenoma and neurohypophysis. AVP was mostly detected in normal neurohypophysis, as expected. This work reveals that a fully automated droplet-based liquid-microjunction surface-sampling system coupled to HPLC-ESI-MS-MS can be readily used for spatially resolved sampling, separation, detection, and semi-quantitation of physiologically-relevant peptide and protein hormones, including AVP and ACTH, directly from human tissue. In addition, the relative simplicity, rapidity, and specificity of this method support the potential of this basic technology, with further advancement, for assisting surgical decision-making. Graphical Abstract Mass spectrometry based profiling of hormones in human pituitary gland and tumor thin tissue sections.

  14. Thrombospondin: a component of microfibrils in various tissues.

    PubMed

    Arbeille, B B; Fauvel-Lafeve, F M; Lemesle, M B; Tenza, D; Legrand, Y J

    1991-10-01

    We used antisera directed against human platelet thrombospondin (TSP) and microfibril-associated GP 128 to localize the presence of these glycoproteins in fixed sections of human placenta or porcine arteries and skin by immunogold labeling, using electron microscopy. These two antibodies reacted with both human and porcine tissues and always recognized the same structures. In all three tissues the antibodies were associated with the basement membranes and, more precisely, with the microfibrillar structures present at the junction between the basement membrane and the adjacent connective tissue. This localization indicates that GP 128 and TSP are associated with the microfibrils, and suggests their possible role in the attachment of basement membrane to the connective tissue meshwork. Their presence in microfibrils associated with the subendothelial basement membrane in arteries may be important in regard to the thrombogenicity of the subendothelium since, after an endothelial lesion, they may be directly accessible to blood platelets.

  15. Local soft tissue musculoskeletal disorders and injuries. The role of physical and rehabilitation medicine physicians. The European perspective based on the best evidence. A paper by the UEMS-PRM Section Professional Practice Committee.

    PubMed

    Oral, A; Ilieva, E M; Küçükdeveci, A A; Varela, E; Valero, R; Berteanu, M; Christodoulou, N

    2013-10-01

    One of the objectives of the Professional Practice Committee (PPC) of the Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (PRM) Section of the Union of European Medical Specialists (UEMS) is the development of the field of competence of PRM physicians in Europe. To achieve this objective, UEMS PRM Section PPC has adopted a systematic action plan of preparing a series of papers describing the role of PRM physicians in a number of disabling health conditions, based on the evidence of effectiveness of PRM interventions. Soft tissue musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) and injuries are associated with significant pain and loss of function that may lead to significant disability. The aim of this paper is to define the role of PRM physician in the management of local soft tissue MSDs and injuries with their specific focus on assessing and improving function as well as participation in the community. The training of PRM specialists make them well equipped to successfully treat MSDs including soft tissue MSDs and injuries. PRM specialists may well meet the needs of patients with soft tissue MSDs and injuries using PRM approaches including 1) assessment based on the comprehensive model of functioning, the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF), that enable them to identify the areas of impaired functioning in order to apply necessary measures; 2) accurate diagnosis using instrumental diagnostic procedures in addition to clinical examination; 3) outcome measurements available to them; 4) evidence-based pharmacological and nonpharmacological treatments; and finally 5) maintenance of social involvement including "return to work" based on restoration of function, all of which will eventually result in improved quality of life for patients with soft tissue MSDs and injuries.

  16. Spatial Quantitation of Drugs in tissues using Liquid Extraction Surface Analysis Mass Spectrometry Imaging.

    PubMed

    Swales, John G; Strittmatter, Nicole; Tucker, James W; Clench, Malcolm R; Webborn, Peter J H; Goodwin, Richard J A

    2016-11-24

    Liquid extraction surface analysis mass spectrometry imaging (LESA-MSI) has been shown to be an effective tissue profiling and imaging technique, producing robust and reliable qualitative distribution images of an analyte or analytes in tissue sections. Here, we expand the use of LESA-MSI beyond qualitative analysis to a quantitative analytical technique by employing a mimetic tissue model previously shown to be applicable for MALDI-MSI quantitation. Liver homogenate was used to generate a viable and molecularly relevant control matrix for spiked drug standards which can be frozen, sectioned and subsequently analyzed for the generation of calibration curves to quantify unknown tissue section samples. The effects of extraction solvent composition, tissue thickness and solvent/tissue contact time were explored prior to any quantitative studies in order to optimize the LESA-MSI method across several different chemical entities. The use of a internal standard to normalize regional differences in ionization response across tissue sections was also investigated. Data are presented comparing quantitative results generated by LESA-MSI to LC-MS/MS. Subsequent analysis of adjacent tissue sections using DESI-MSI is also reported.

  17. Spatial Quantitation of Drugs in tissues using Liquid Extraction Surface Analysis Mass Spectrometry Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Swales, John G.; Strittmatter, Nicole; Tucker, James W.; Clench, Malcolm R.; Webborn, Peter J. H.; Goodwin, Richard J. A.

    2016-01-01

    Liquid extraction surface analysis mass spectrometry imaging (LESA-MSI) has been shown to be an effective tissue profiling and imaging technique, producing robust and reliable qualitative distribution images of an analyte or analytes in tissue sections. Here, we expand the use of LESA-MSI beyond qualitative analysis to a quantitative analytical technique by employing a mimetic tissue model previously shown to be applicable for MALDI-MSI quantitation. Liver homogenate was used to generate a viable and molecularly relevant control matrix for spiked drug standards which can be frozen, sectioned and subsequently analyzed for the generation of calibration curves to quantify unknown tissue section samples. The effects of extraction solvent composition, tissue thickness and solvent/tissue contact time were explored prior to any quantitative studies in order to optimize the LESA-MSI method across several different chemical entities. The use of a internal standard to normalize regional differences in ionization response across tissue sections was also investigated. Data are presented comparing quantitative results generated by LESA-MSI to LC-MS/MS. Subsequent analysis of adjacent tissue sections using DESI-MSI is also reported. PMID:27883030

  18. Spatial Quantitation of Drugs in tissues using Liquid Extraction Surface Analysis Mass Spectrometry Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swales, John G.; Strittmatter, Nicole; Tucker, James W.; Clench, Malcolm R.; Webborn, Peter J. H.; Goodwin, Richard J. A.

    2016-11-01

    Liquid extraction surface analysis mass spectrometry imaging (LESA-MSI) has been shown to be an effective tissue profiling and imaging technique, producing robust and reliable qualitative distribution images of an analyte or analytes in tissue sections. Here, we expand the use of LESA-MSI beyond qualitative analysis to a quantitative analytical technique by employing a mimetic tissue model previously shown to be applicable for MALDI-MSI quantitation. Liver homogenate was used to generate a viable and molecularly relevant control matrix for spiked drug standards which can be frozen, sectioned and subsequently analyzed for the generation of calibration curves to quantify unknown tissue section samples. The effects of extraction solvent composition, tissue thickness and solvent/tissue contact time were explored prior to any quantitative studies in order to optimize the LESA-MSI method across several different chemical entities. The use of a internal standard to normalize regional differences in ionization response across tissue sections was also investigated. Data are presented comparing quantitative results generated by LESA-MSI to LC-MS/MS. Subsequent analysis of adjacent tissue sections using DESI-MSI is also reported.

  19. Quantitation of repaglinide and metabolites in mouse whole-body thin tissue sections using droplet-based liquid microjunction surface sampling-high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry

    DOE PAGES

    Chen, Weiqi; Wang, Lifei; Van Berkel, Gary J.; ...

    2015-11-03

    Herein, quantitation aspects of a fully automated autosampler/HPLC-MS/MS system applied for unattended droplet-based surface sampling of repaglinide dosed thin tissue sections with subsequent HPLC separation and mass spectrometric analysis of parent drug and various drug metabolites was studied. Major organs (brain, lung, liver, kidney, muscle) from whole-body thin tissue sections and corresponding organ homogenates prepared from repaglinide dosed mice were sampled by surface sampling and by bulk extraction, respectively, and analyzed by HPLC-MS/MS. A semi-quantitative agreement between data obtained by surface sampling and that by employing organ homogenate extraction was observed. Drug concentrations obtained by the two methods followed themore » same patterns for post-dose time points (0.25, 0.5, 1 and 2 h). Drug amounts determined in the specific tissues was typically higher when analyzing extracts from the organ homogenates. Furthermore, relative comparison of the levels of individual metabolites between the two analytical methods also revealed good semi-quantitative agreement.« less

  20. Quantitation of repaglinide and metabolites in mouse whole-body thin tissue sections using droplet-based liquid microjunction surface sampling-high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Weiqi; Wang, Lifei; Van Berkel, Gary J.; Gan, Jinping; Kertesz, Vilmos

    2015-11-03

    Herein, quantitation aspects of a fully automated autosampler/HPLC-MS/MS system applied for unattended droplet-based surface sampling of repaglinide dosed thin tissue sections with subsequent HPLC separation and mass spectrometric analysis of parent drug and various drug metabolites was studied. Major organs (brain, lung, liver, kidney, muscle) from whole-body thin tissue sections and corresponding organ homogenates prepared from repaglinide dosed mice were sampled by surface sampling and by bulk extraction, respectively, and analyzed by HPLC-MS/MS. A semi-quantitative agreement between data obtained by surface sampling and that by employing organ homogenate extraction was observed. Drug concentrations obtained by the two methods followed the same patterns for post-dose time points (0.25, 0.5, 1 and 2 h). Drug amounts determined in the specific tissues was typically higher when analyzing extracts from the organ homogenates. Furthermore, relative comparison of the levels of individual metabolites between the two analytical methods also revealed good semi-quantitative agreement.

  1. Liquid microjunction surface sampling coupled with high-pressure liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry for analysis of drugs and metabolites in whole-body thin tissue sections.

    PubMed

    Kertesz, Vilmos; Van Berkel, Gary J

    2010-07-15

    In this work, a commercially available autosampler was adapted to perform direct liquid microjunction (LMJ) surface sampling followed by a high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) separation of the extract components and detection with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). To illustrate the utility of coupling a separation with this direct liquid extraction based surface sampling approach, four different organs (brain, lung, kidney, and liver) from whole-body thin tissue sections of propranolol dosed and control mice were examined. The parent drug was observed in the chromatograms of the surface sampling extracts from all the organs of the dosed mouse examined. In addition, two isomeric phase II metabolites of propranolol (an aliphatic and an aromatic hydroxypropranolol glucuronide) were observed in the chromatograms of the extracts from lung, kidney, and liver. Confirming the presence of one or the other or both of these glucuronides in the extract from the various organs was not possible without the separation. These drug and metabolite data obtained using the LMJ surface sampling/HPLC-MS method and the results achieved by analyzing similar samples by conventional extraction of the tissues and subsequent HPLC-MS analysis were consistent. The ability to directly and efficiently sample from thin tissue sections via a liquid extraction and then perform a subsequent liquid phase separation increases the utility of this liquid extraction surface sampling approach.

  2. Association of serum KL-6 levels with interstitial lung disease in patients with connective tissue disease: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Oguz, Ekin Oktay; Kucuksahin, Orhan; Turgay, Murat; Yildizgoren, Mustafa Turgut; Ates, Askin; Demir, Nalan; Kumbasar, Ozlem Ozdemir; Kinikli, Gulay; Duzgun, Nursen

    2016-03-01

    It was aimed to evaluate KL-6 glycoprotein levels to determine if it may be a diagnostic marker for the connective tissue diseases (CTDs) predicting CTD-related interstitial lung diseases (ILDs) (CTD-ILD) development and to examine if there was a difference between patients and healthy controls. The study included 113 patients with CTD (45 CTD without lung involvement, 68 CTD-ILD) and 45 healthy control subjects. KL-6 glycoprotein levels were analyzed with ELISA in patients and the control group. The relationship between KL-6 glycoprotein levels and CTD-ILD was assessed. In the comparison of all the groups in the study, significantly higher levels of KL-6 were determined in the CTD-ILD group than in either the CTD without pulmonary involvement group or the healthy control group (p < 0.008 and p < 0.001, respectively). There was no statistically significant difference between the KL-6 levels in the healthy control group and the CTD without pulmonary involvement group (p = 0.289). The KL-6 levels did not differ significantly according to the connective tissue diseases in the diagnostic groups (systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjögren's syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis, mixed connective tissue disease, scleroderma, polymyositis/ dermatomyositis). In the healthy control group, there was a statistically significant difference between KL-6 levels in smokers and non-smokers. Smokers had significantly higher serum KL-6 levels compared with non-smokers (p < 0.05). There was no statistically significant difference between smoking status (pack-year) and serum KL-6 levels. There was no statistically significant correlation between serum KL-6 levels and time since diagnosis of CTD and CTD-ILD. The level of KL-6 as a predictive factor could be used to identify the clinical development of ILD before it is detected on imaging modality. Further prospective clinical studies are needed to define whether levels of KL-6 might have prognostic value or might predict

  3. Epicardial Adipose Tissue Thickness and Its Association With the Presence and Severity of Coronary Artery Disease in Clinical Setting: A Cross-Sectional Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Santosh Kumar; Thakur, Ramesh; Jha, Mukesh Jitendra; Goel, Amit; Kumar, Varun; Kumar, Ashutosh; Mishra, Vikas; Varma, Chandra Mohan; Krishna, Vinay; Singh, Avinash Kumar; Sachan, Mohit

    2016-01-01

    Background Obesity is an important risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). Estimation of visceral adipose tissue is important and several methods are available as its surrogate. Although correlation of epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) with visceral adipose tissue as estimated by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and/or CT is excellent, it is costlier and cumbersome. EAT can be accurately measured by two-dimensional (2D) echocardiography. It tends to be higher in patients with acute coronary syndrome than in subjects without coronary artery disease (CAD) and in those with stable angina. It also carries advantage as index of high cardiometabolic risk as it is a direct measure of visceral fat rather than anthropometric measurements. The present study evaluated the relationship of EAT to the presence and severity of CAD in clinical setting. Methods In this prospective, single-center study conducted in the Department of Cardiology, LPS Institute of Cardiology, Kanpur, India, 549 consecutive patients with acute coronary syndrome or chronic stable angina were enrolled. Sensitivity, specificity, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve were estimated to find cut-off value of EAT thickness for diagnosing CAD using coronary angiographic findings as gold standard. Results Patients were diagnosed as CAD group (n = 464, 60.30 ± 8.36 years) and non-CAD group (n = 85, 54.42 ± 11.93 years) after assessing coronary angiograms. The EAT was measured at end-systole from the PLAX views of three cardiac cycles on the free wall of the right ventricle. Lesion was significant if > 50% in left main and > 70% in other coronary arteries. The mean EAT thickness in CAD group was 5.10 ± 1.06 and in non-CAD group was 4.36 ± 1.01 which was significant (P = 0.003). Significant correlation was demonstrated between EAT thickness and presence of CAD (P < 0.003). Higher EAT was associated with severe CAD and presence of multivessel disease. By ROC analysis, EAT > 4

  4. Oolong tea extract as a substitute for uranyl acetate in staining of ultrathin sections based on examples of animal tissues for transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    He, Xiaohua; Liu, Bin

    2017-03-20

    Oolong tea extract (OTE) was assessed for its potential as an electron stain to substitute for uranyl acetate (UA) in transmission electron microscopy (TEM). A comparative analysis of the ultrastructures of biological specimens (i.e. compound eye and sciatic nerve tissue) stained by different methods (UA and 0.1% OTE) has been performed. Results revealed that there was no significant difference between the OTE double staining method and the traditional double staining method, except the contrast in the OTE method was slightly lower than the UA method. Nevertheless, the OTE method yielded better or equal details in collagen fibres, neurofilaments and basal lamina in the mammalian sciatic nerve samples, as well as in the microvilli between the cornea and crystalline cone of the insect compound eye. On the whole, it was suggested that OTE could potentially be used as a nonradioactive and hazard-free alternative to UA in TEM staining.

  5. Development and validation of a numerical model for cross-section optimization of a multi-part probe for soft tissue intervention.

    PubMed

    Frasson, L; Neubert, J; Reina, S; Oldfield, M; Davies, B L; Rodriguez Y Baena, F

    2010-01-01

    The popularity of minimally invasive surgical procedures is driving the development of novel, safer and more accurate surgical tools. In this context a multi-part probe for soft tissue surgery is being developed in the Mechatronics in Medicine Laboratory at Imperial College, London. This study reports an optimization procedure using finite element methods, for the identification of an interlock geometry able to limit the separation of the segments composing the multi-part probe. An optimal geometry was obtained and the corresponding three-dimensional finite element model validated experimentally. Simulation results are shown to be consistent with the physical experiments. The outcome of this study is an important step in the provision of a novel miniature steerable probe for surgery.

  6. Adjacent-level arthroplasty following cervical fusion.

    PubMed

    Rajakumar, Deshpande V; Hari, Akshay; Krishna, Murali; Konar, Subhas; Sharma, Ankit

    2017-02-01

    OBJECTIVE Adjacent-level disc degeneration following cervical fusion has been well reported. This condition poses a major treatment dilemma when it becomes symptomatic. The potential application of cervical arthroplasty to preserve motion in the affected segment is not well documented, with few studies in the literature. The authors present their initial experience of analyzing clinical and radiological results in such patients who were treated with arthroplasty for new or persistent arm and/or neck symptoms related to neural compression due to adjacent-segment disease after anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF). METHODS During a 5-year period, 11 patients who had undergone ACDF anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) and subsequently developed recurrent neck or arm pain related to adjacent-level cervical disc disease were treated with cervical arthroplasty at the authors' institution. A total of 15 devices were implanted (range of treated levels per patient: 1-3). Clinical evaluation was performed both before and after surgery, using a visual analog scale (VAS) for pain and the Neck Disability Index (NDI). Radiological outcomes were analyzed using pre- and postoperative flexion/extension lateral radiographs measuring Cobb angle (overall C2-7 sagittal alignment), functional spinal unit (FSU) angle, and range of motion (ROM). RESULTS There were no major perioperative complications or device-related failures. Statistically significant results, obtained in all cases, were reflected by an improvement in VAS scores for neck/arm pain and NDI scores for neck pain. Radiologically, statistically significant increases in the overall lordosis (as measured by Cobb angle) and ROM at the treated disc level were observed. Three patients were lost to follow-up within the first year after arthroplasty. In the remaining 8 cases, the duration of follow-up ranged from 1 to 3 years. None of these 8 patients required surgery for the same vertebral level during the follow

  7. Quantification of pancreatic secretory trypsin inhibitor in colonic carcinoma and normal adjacent colonic mucosa.

    PubMed Central

    Bohe, H; Bohe, M; Jönsson, P; Lindström, C; Ohlsson, K

    1992-01-01

    AIMS: To measure the content of immunoreactive human pancreatic secretory trypsin inhibitor (irPSTI) in colonic carcinoma and adjacent normal colonic mucosa. METHODS: From a stable hybridoma cell line producing monoclonal antibodies specific for human PSTI, a specific enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for human PSTI was developed. In a precipitation assay system these antibodies bound human PSTI in a dose-dependent manner. The specimens were obtained from resectional surgery. RESULTS: The content of irPSTI was 19.9 micrograms/g protein (0.55 micrograms/g tissue wet weight) in colonic carcinoma. In adjacent normal colonic mucosa 43.6 micrograms/g protein (1.12 micrograms/g tissue wet weight) was shown. CONCLUSIONS: The enzymatic degradation of surrounding tissue necessary for tumour cell invasion could be facilitated by this relative deficit of the inhibitor in infiltrative carcinoma. PMID:1479031

  8. Pretreatment in a high-pressure microwave processor for MIB-1 immunostaining of cytological smears and paraffin tissue sections to visualize the various phases of the mitotic cycle.

    PubMed

    Suurmeijer, A J; Boon, M E

    1999-08-01

    In many pathology laboratories, both microwave ovens and pressure cookers are used for pretreatment of cytologic smears and paraffin sections to allow MIB-1 staining. For both methods there are two problems. First, the results cannot be used for quantitation because standardization is impossible. Second, the staining results are often suboptimal, resulting in negative staining of cells in the G(1)- and S-phases. When pretreatment is performed in a microwave processor, allowing microwave heating under pressure, precise temperature monitoring becomes possible. In addition, the importance of the pH of the buffer was studied using a test battery series. Optimal staining is achieved at a temperature of 115C, 10 min, pH 6. This method proved to be highly reproducible. Because the immunostaining results are optimal, the various phases of the cell cycle can be defined in the sections and smears. In addition, the perinucleolar staining of the late G(1)-phase is optimally visualized and nuclei of the stable pKi-67 pathway can be identified. Under suboptimal conditions, in particular, the number of cells in the late G(1)-phase are underestimated in the MIB-1 counts.

  9. Comparative imaging of P, S, Fe, Cu, Zn and C in thin sections of rat brain tumor as well as control tissues by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoriy, Myroslav V.; Dehnhardt, Markus; Matusch, Andreas; Becker, J. Sabine

    2008-03-01

    Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) was used for quantitative imaging of selected elements (P, S, Fe, Cu, Zn and C) in thin sections of rat brain samples (thickness 20 μm). The sample surface was scanned (raster area ~ 2 cm 2) with a focused laser beam (wavelength 266 nm, diameter of laser crater 50 μm, and irradiance 1 × 10 9 W cm - 2 ). The laser ablation system was coupled to a double-focusing sector field. The possibility was evaluated of using carbon (via measurement of 13C +) as an internal standard element for imaging element distribution as part of this method. The LA-ICP-MS images obtained for P, S, Fe Cu and Zn were quantified using synthetically prepared matrix-matched laboratory standards. Depending on the sample analyzed, concentrations of Cu and Zn in the control tissue were found to be in the range of 8-10 μg g - 1 and 10-12 μg g - 1 , while in the tumor tissue these concentrations were in the range of 12-15 μg g - 1 and 15-17 μg g - 1 , respectively. The measurements of P, S and Fe distribution revealed the depletion of these elements in tumor tissue. In all the samples, the shape of the tumor could be clearly distinguished from the surrounding healthy tissue by the depletion in carbon. Additional experiments were performed in order to study the influence of the water content of the analyzed tissue on the intensity signal of the analyte. The results of these measurements show the linear correlation ( R2 = 0.9604) between the intensity of analyte and amount of water in the sample. The growth of a brain tumor was thus studied for the first time by imaging mass spectrometry.

  10. Age-related and sex-related changes in the normal soft tissue profile of native Northern Sudanese subjects: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Sforza, Chiarella; Dolci, Claudia; Gibelli, Daniele M; Codari, Marina; Pucciarelli, Valentina; Ferrario, Virgilio F; Elamin, Fadil

    2016-02-01

    Information about age-related and sex-related normative measurements of the nasolabial region in native Northern Sudanese subjects is scanty. We have therefore used a hand-held laser scanner to measure nasolabial angles and distances, and collected the 3-dimensional coordinates of seven landmarks on the facial soft tissues from 654 healthy native Northern Sudanese subjects (327 male and 327 female, aged 4-30 years). From these we calculated five angles and two linear distances and took the mean (SD) for age and sex, and compared them using factorial analysis of variance. All measurements analysed were significantly modified by age in both sexes (p < 0.01) except for the distance from the lower lip to Ricketts' E-line. Sex had a significant effect on the mentolabial and maxillary prominence angles and both distances (p < 0.005). Nasal convexity and the interlabial angle became more obtuse with growth, while the nasolabial and mentolabial angles reduced progressively with female subjects having significantly more obtuse mentolabial angles (p < 0.001). The maxillary prominence angle progressively decreased during childhood, and increased after adolescence, with larger values in male subjects. The upper and lower lip distances from Ricketts' E-line were also significantly larger in male subjects (p < 0.003), but the difference reduced with age. Overall, there were several differences when we compared our data with published data for African and white subjects, which points to the need for ethnic-specific data. Measurements collected in the current study could be used for the quantitative description of facial morphology in native Northern Sudanese children, adolescents, and young adults.

  11. Detection of binding of a synthetic granzyme B-like peptide fluorescent conjugate within platelet-like structures in cancer-related peripheral blood specimens and tissue sections.

    PubMed

    Lo, Wai Chun Jennifer; Luther, Donald Gene

    2014-09-01

    Platelets and cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) are important whole blood components in peripheral blood. Studies have shown that platelets, from precursor megakaryocytes, are significant factors in cancer prognosis, cancer progression, and metastasis; but a direct platelet-cancer relationship remains unclear. CTL play an essential role in cancer surveillance by inducing cancer cell death with granzyme B. A recent report has shown the presence of binding targets with binding affinity to a synthetic granzyme B-like peptide fluorescent conjugate (GP1R) in different types of cancer cells grown in vitro. It suggests that these binding targets may serve as a "universal-pathologic-biomarker". It is not known if similar biomarkers may be present in platelets of cancer patients. We show with fluoroscopic images that GP1R can bind to binding targets: 1) within platelets in methanol-fixed whole blood smears of patients with breast cancer and lung cancer, and 2) within platelet-like structures in formalin-fixed-paraffin-embedded (FFPE) nude mouse xenogeneic breast tumor tissues. Samples without cancer-association displayed no discernible GP1R-binding in platelet-like structures. Our data demonstrate for the first time that a similar "universal-pathologic-biomarker" detectable by GP1R-binding is present in circulating platelets of cancer patients. The data depict a co-existence of animal-platelets and human-breast cancer cells, both have a common pathologic biomarker detectable by GP1R, in the tumor growth. The fluoroscopic images indicate a visual direct connection between pathologic platelets and cancer. These preliminary results may lead to developments of novel platelet-based cancer diagnostics and therapeutics and a better understanding of the potential multifunction of GP1R and its relationship to megakaryocytes and PD1.

  12. 33 CFR 334.880 - San Diego Harbor, Calif.; naval restricted area adjacent to Point Loma.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Commander, Naval Base, San Diego, Calif. (3) The regulations in this section shall be enforced by the... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false San Diego Harbor, Calif.; naval....880 San Diego Harbor, Calif.; naval restricted area adjacent to Point Loma. (a) The area. That...

  13. 30 CFR 816.57 - Hydrologic balance: Activities in or adjacent to perennial or intermittent streams.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hydrologic balance: Activities in or adjacent to perennial or intermittent streams. 816.57 Section 816.57 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE... PERMANENT PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.57 Hydrologic balance: Activities...

  14. 30 CFR 816.57 - Hydrologic balance: Activities in or adjacent to perennial or intermittent streams.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hydrologic balance: Activities in or adjacent to perennial or intermittent streams. 816.57 Section 816.57 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE... PERMANENT PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS-SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES § 816.57 Hydrologic balance: Activities...

  15. 47 CFR 73.810 - Third adjacent channel complaint and license modification procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Third adjacent channel complaint and license modification procedure. 73.810 Section 73.810 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Low Power FM Broadcast Stations (LPFM) § 73.810...

  16. 47 CFR 73.810 - Third adjacent channel complaint and license modification procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Third adjacent channel complaint and license modification procedure. 73.810 Section 73.810 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Low Power FM Broadcast Stations (LPFM) § 73.810...

  17. 27 CFR 19.241 - Operations bond-distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar. 19.241 Section 19.241 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... wine cellar. (a) General. A wine cellar under the provisions of 27 CFR part 24 shall be treated as... subpart G for the production of distilled spirits; and (2) Such wine cellar and distilled spirits...

  18. 30 CFR 282.6 - Disclosure of data and information to an adjacent State.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disclosure of data and information to an adjacent State. 282.6 Section 282.6 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF FOR MINERALS OTHER THAN OIL, GAS, AND...

  19. 49 CFR 236.404 - Signals at adjacent control points.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Traffic Control Systems Standards § 236.404 Signals at adjacent control points. Signals at adjacent controlled... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Signals at adjacent control points....

  20. 49 CFR 236.404 - Signals at adjacent control points.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Traffic Control Systems Standards § 236.404 Signals at adjacent control points. Signals at adjacent controlled... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Signals at adjacent control points....

  1. 33 CFR 80.1395 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Thirteenth District § 80.1395 Puget Sound and adjacent waters. The 72 COLREGS shall apply on all waters of Puget Sound and adjacent waters, including Lake...

  2. 33 CFR 80.1395 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Thirteenth District § 80.1395 Puget Sound and adjacent waters. The 72 COLREGS shall apply on all waters of Puget Sound and adjacent waters, including Lake...

  3. 33 CFR 80.1395 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Thirteenth District § 80.1395 Puget Sound and adjacent waters. The 72 COLREGS shall apply on all waters of Puget Sound and adjacent waters, including Lake...

  4. 33 CFR 80.1395 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Thirteenth District § 80.1395 Puget Sound and adjacent waters. The 72 COLREGS shall apply on all waters of Puget Sound and adjacent waters, including Lake...

  5. 33 CFR 80.1395 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Thirteenth District § 80.1395 Puget Sound and adjacent waters. The 72 COLREGS shall apply on all waters of Puget Sound and adjacent waters, including Lake...

  6. Seismicity in Azerbaijan and Adjacent Caspian Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Panahi, Behrouz M.

    2006-03-23

    So far no general view on the geodynamic evolution of the Black Sea to the Caspian Sea region is elaborated. This is associated with the geological and structural complexities of the region revealed by geophysical, geochemical, petrologic, structural, and other studies. A clash of opinions on geodynamic conditions of the Caucasus region, sometimes mutually exclusive, can be explained by a simplified interpretation of the seismic data. In this paper I analyze available data on earthquake occurrences in Azerbaijan and the adjacent Caspian Sea region. The results of the analysis of macroseismic and instrumental data, seismic regime, and earthquake reoccurrence indicate that a level of seismicity in the region is moderate, and seismic event are concentrated in the shallow part of the lithosphere. Seismicity is mostly intra-plate, and spatial distribution of earthquake epicenters does not correlate with the plate boundaries.

  7. Tissue sealing device associated thermal spread: a comparison of histologic methods for detecting adventitial collagen denaturation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Ryan M.; Grisez, Brian T.; Thomas, Aaron C.; Livengood, Ryan H.; Coad, James E.

    2013-02-01

    Thermal spread (thermal tissue damage) results from heat conduction through the tissues immediately adjacent to a hyperthermic tissue sealing device. The extent of such heat conduction can be assessed by the detection of adventitial collagen denaturation. Several histologic methods have been reported to measure adventitial collagen denaturation as a marker of thermal spread. This study compared hematoxylin and eosin staining, Gomori trichrome staining and loss of collagen birefringence for the detection of collagen denaturation. Twenty-eight ex vivo porcine carotid arteries were sealed with a commercially available, FDA-approved tissue sealing device. Following formalin fixation and paraffin embedding, two 5-micron tissue sections were hematoxylin and eosin and Gomori trichrome stained. The hematoxylin and eosin-stained section was evaluated by routine bright field microscopy and under polarized light. The trichromestained section was evaluated by routine bright field microscopy. Radial and midline adventitial collagen denaturation measurements were made for both the top and bottom jaw sides of each seal. The adventitial collagen denaturation lengths were determined using these three methods and statistically compared. The results showed that thermal spread, as represented by histologically detected collagen denaturation, is technique dependent. In this study, the trichrome staining method detected significantly less thermal spread than the hematoxylin and eosin staining and birefringence methods. Of the three methods, hematoxylin and eosin staining provided the most representative results for true thermal spread along the adjacent artery.

  8. Histochemical analysis of blood group antigens in human sublingual glands and pancreas. An application of high-performance liquid chromatography to estimate the quantity of galactose liberated from tissue sections by alpha-galactosidase digestion.

    PubMed

    Ito, N; Tabata, S; Kawahara, S; Hirano, Y; Nakajima, K; Uchida, K; Hirota, T

    1993-03-01

    Using immunostaining with monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) from three different sources as well as anti-B lectin, GSAI-B4 staining and alpha-galactosidase digestion, blood group B antigens were localized and analysed in tissue sections of sublingual glands from blood group B and AB individuals. Quantitative analysis of galactose was simultaneously carried out on the supernatant enzyme solution used for treating tissue sections by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). In addition, galactose liberated from the pancreas tissues of blood group B and AB individuals was also estimated by HPLC analysis in order to compare the content of antigens. mAb-B(H079) and GSAI-B4 reacted uniformly with the mucous cells from blood group B and AB secretors. On the other hand, other mAbs-B(B006 and A582) recognized the antigen in a limited number of cells or was even negative in some cases of blood group AB individuals. Only mAb-B(H079) recognized the B antigens in mucous cells from non-secretors. Digestion with alpha-galactosidase resulted in the consistent appearance of H and Le(b) antigens in the mucous cells of all the secretors examined, although the reduction of staining intensity with anti-B reagents was not so marked. Le(y) antigens also appeared in some cases after the enzyme digestion. In non-secretors, Le(b) and Le(y) antigens, but not H antigens, appeared in some mucous cells following enzyme digestion. HPLC analysis of galactose revealed that alpha-galactosidase can specifically liberate the terminal galactose residues of B antigens, and no marked difference was present in the content of liberated galactose from mucous cells of sublingual glands among the individuals investigated (8.5-11.7 nmoles cm-2). No galactose was detected in samples from the sublingual glands of non-secretors, and only a trace amount of galactose was detected in the samples from pancreas tissues. These results suggest that the observed difference in the reactivity of different reagents with

  9. Profiling of adrenocorticotropic hormone and arginine vasopressin in human pituitary gland and tumor thin tissue sections using droplet-based liquid-microjunction surface-sampling-HPLC–ESI-MS–MS

    DOE PAGES

    Kertesz, Vilmos; Calligaris, David; Feldman, Daniel R.; ...

    2015-06-18

    Described here are the results from the profiling of the proteins arginine vasopressin (AVP) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) from normal human pituitary gland and pituitary adenoma tissue sections using a fully automated droplet-based liquid microjunction surface sampling-HPLC-ESI-MS/MS system for spatially resolved sampling, HPLC separation, and mass spectral detection. Excellent correlation was found between the protein distribution data obtained with this droplet-based liquid microjunction surface sampling-HPLC-ESI-MS/MS system and those data obtained with matrix assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) chemical imaging analyses of serial sections of the same tissue. The protein distributions correlated with the visible anatomic pattern of the pituitary gland.more » AVP was most abundant in the posterior pituitary gland region (neurohypophysis) and ATCH was dominant in the anterior pituitary gland region (adenohypophysis). The relative amounts of AVP and ACTH sampled from a series of ACTH secreting and non-secreting pituitary adenomas correlated with histopathological evaluation. ACTH was readily detected at significantly higher levels in regions of ACTH secreting adenomas and in normal anterior adenohypophysis compared to non-secreting adenoma and neurohypophysis. AVP was mostly detected in normal neurohypophysis as anticipated. This work demonstrates that a fully automated droplet-based liquid microjunction surface sampling system coupled to HPLC-ESI-MS/MS can be readily used for spatially resolved sampling, separation, detection, and semi-quantitation of physiologically-relevant peptide and protein hormones, such as AVP and ACTH, directly from human tissue. In addition, the relative simplicity, rapidity and specificity of the current methodology support the potential of this basic technology with further advancement for assisting surgical decision-making.« less

  10. Profiling of adrenocorticotropic hormone and arginine vasopressin in human pituitary gland and tumor thin tissue sections using droplet-based liquid-microjunction surface-sampling-HPLC–ESI-MS–MS

    SciTech Connect

    Kertesz, Vilmos; Calligaris, David; Feldman, Daniel R.; Changelian, Armen; Laws, Edward R.; Santagata, Sandro; Agar, Nathalie Y. R.; Van Berkel, Gary J.

    2015-06-18

    Described here are the results from the profiling of the proteins arginine vasopressin (AVP) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) from normal human pituitary gland and pituitary adenoma tissue sections using a fully automated droplet-based liquid microjunction surface sampling-HPLC-ESI-MS/MS system for spatially resolved sampling, HPLC separation, and mass spectral detection. Excellent correlation was found between the protein distribution data obtained with this droplet-based liquid microjunction surface sampling-HPLC-ESI-MS/MS system and those data obtained with matrix assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) chemical imaging analyses of serial sections of the same tissue. The protein distributions correlated with the visible anatomic pattern of the pituitary gland. AVP was most abundant in the posterior pituitary gland region (neurohypophysis) and ATCH was dominant in the anterior pituitary gland region (adenohypophysis). The relative amounts of AVP and ACTH sampled from a series of ACTH secreting and non-secreting pituitary adenomas correlated with histopathological evaluation. ACTH was readily detected at significantly higher levels in regions of ACTH secreting adenomas and in normal anterior adenohypophysis compared to non-secreting adenoma and neurohypophysis. AVP was mostly detected in normal neurohypophysis as anticipated. This work demonstrates that a fully automated droplet-based liquid microjunction surface sampling system coupled to HPLC-ESI-MS/MS can be readily used for spatially resolved sampling, separation, detection, and semi-quantitation of physiologically-relevant peptide and protein hormones, such as AVP and ACTH, directly from human tissue. In addition, the relative simplicity, rapidity and specificity of the current methodology support the potential of this basic technology with further advancement for assisting surgical decision-making.

  11. Gene promoter methylation in colorectal cancer and healthy adjacent mucosa specimens

    PubMed Central

    Coppedè, Fabio; Migheli, Francesca; Lopomo, Angela; Failli, Alessandra; Legitimo, Annalisa; Consolini, Rita; Fontanini, Gabriella; Sensi, Elisa; Servadio, Adele; Seccia, Massimo; Zocco, Giuseppe; Chiarugi, Massimo; Spisni, Roberto; Migliore, Lucia

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the promoter methylation levels of the APC, MGMT, hMLH1, RASSF1A and CDKN2A genes in 107 colorectal cancer (CRC) samples and 80 healthy adjacent tissues. We searched for correlation with both physical and pathological features, polymorphisms of folate metabolism pathway genes (MTHFR, MTRR, MTR, RFC1, TYMS, and DNMT3B), and data on circulating folate, vitamin B12 and homocysteine, which were available in a subgroup of the CRC patients. An increased number of methylated samples were found in CRC respect to adjacent healthy tissues, with the exception of APC, which was also frequently methylated in healthy colonic mucosa. Statistically significant associations were found between RASSF1A promoter methylation and tumor stage, and between hMLH1 promoter methylation and tumor location. Increasing age positively correlated with both hMLH1 and MGMT methylation levels in CRC tissues, and with APC methylation levels in the adjacent healthy mucosa. Concerning gender, females showed higher hMLH1 promoter methylation levels with respect to males. In CRC samples, the MTR 2756AG genotype correlated with higher methylation levels of RASSF1A, and the TYMS 1494 6bp ins/del polymorphism correlated with the methylation levels of both APC and hMLH1. In adjacent healthy tissues, MTR 2756AG and TYMS 1494 6bp del/del genotypes correlated with APC and MGMT promoter methylation, respectively. Low folate levels were associated with hMLH1 hypermethylation. Present results support the hypothesis that DNA methylation in CRC depends from both physiological and environmental factors, with one-carbon metabolism largely involved in this process. PMID:24500500

  12. Characterization of human breast cancer tissues by infrared imaging.

    PubMed

    Verdonck, M; Denayer, A; Delvaux, B; Garaud, S; De Wind, R; Desmedt, C; Sotiriou, C; Willard-Gallo, K; Goormaghtigh, E

    2016-01-21

    Fourier Transform InfraRed (FTIR) spectroscopy coupled to microscopy (IR imaging) has shown unique advantages in detecting morphological and molecular pathologic alterations in biological tissues. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of IR imaging as a diagnostic tool to identify characteristics of breast epithelial cells and the stroma. In this study a total of 19 breast tissue samples were obtained from 13 patients. For 6 of the patients, we also obtained Non-Adjacent Non-Tumor tissue samples. Infrared images were recorded on the main cell/tissue types identified in all breast tissue samples. Unsupervised Principal Component Analyses and supervised Partial Least Square Discriminant Analyses (PLS-DA) were used to discriminate spectra. Leave-one-out cross-validation was used to evaluate the performance of PLS-DA models. Our results show that IR imaging coupled with PLS-DA can efficiently identify the main cell types present in FFPE breast tissue sections, i.e. epithelial cells, lymphocytes, connective tissue, vascular tissue and erythrocytes. A second PLS-DA model could distinguish normal and tumor breast epithelial cells in the breast tissue sections. A patient-specific model reached particularly high sensitivity, specificity and MCC rates. Finally, we showed that the stroma located close or at distance from the tumor exhibits distinct spectral characteristics. In conclusion FTIR imaging combined with computational algorithms could be an accurate, rapid and objective tool to identify/quantify breast epithelial cells and differentiate tumor from normal breast tissue as well as normal from tumor-associated stroma, paving the way to the establishment of a potential complementary tool to ensure safe tumor margins.

  13. 33 CFR 334.830 - Lake Michigan; small-arms range adjacent to U.S. Naval Training Center, Great Lakes, Ill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Lake Michigan; small-arms range adjacent to U.S. Naval Training Center, Great Lakes, Ill. 334.830 Section 334.830 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.830 Lake Michigan; small-arms range adjacent to U.S. Naval Training Center, Great Lakes,...

  14. 33 CFR 334.830 - Lake Michigan; small-arms range adjacent to U.S. Naval Training Center, Great Lakes, Ill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lake Michigan; small-arms range adjacent to U.S. Naval Training Center, Great Lakes, Ill. 334.830 Section 334.830 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.830 Lake Michigan; small-arms range adjacent to U.S. Naval Training Center, Great Lakes,...

  15. 33 CFR 334.830 - Lake Michigan; small-arms range adjacent to U.S. Naval Training Center, Great Lakes, Ill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Lake Michigan; small-arms range adjacent to U.S. Naval Training Center, Great Lakes, Ill. 334.830 Section 334.830 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.830 Lake Michigan; small-arms range adjacent to U.S. Naval Training Center, Great Lakes,...

  16. 33 CFR 334.830 - Lake Michigan; small-arms range adjacent to U.S. Naval Training Center, Great Lakes, Ill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Lake Michigan; small-arms range adjacent to U.S. Naval Training Center, Great Lakes, Ill. 334.830 Section 334.830 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.830 Lake Michigan; small-arms range adjacent to U.S. Naval Training Center, Great Lakes,...

  17. Curved conveyor section guide assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Truszczinski, H.

    1981-02-03

    A guide assembly for a curved conveyor section of a scraperchain conveyor guides the scraper assembly from a first straight conveyor portion round the curved conveyor section to a second straight conveyor portion. This guiding is accomplished by a pair of independently rotatable pulley wheels. A further pair of independently rotatable pulley wheels are provided to guide the drive chain of a plough round the curved conveyor section. This enables the plough to be driven to and fro along the first straight conveyor portion by a drive station attached to the second straight conveyor portion adjacent to the guide assembly.

  18. The cytology of the dental follicle and adjacent alveolar bone during tooth eruption in the dog.

    PubMed

    Marks, S C; Cahill, D R; Wise, G E

    1983-11-01

    Previous studies from our laboratories have shown that premolar eruption in dogs depends upon the presence of the dental follicle and is independent of root or crown growth or attachment to the oral epithelium. The present study is an analysis of the cellular composition of the dental follicle and the cellular investment of the adjacent walls of the bony crypt before and during eruption of the third and fourth mandibular permanent premolars in young beagle dogs. Four premolar follicles and their adjacent bony crypts were examined at 2-week intervals over 12 weeks before and during eruption of these teeth. Tissues were removed, fixed, processed, and oriented so that each follicle and the adjacent crypt wall could be reproducibly examined in vertical and horizontal planes. Mononuclear cells with abundant cytoplasm, euchromatic nuclei, and prominent nucleoli were present in juxtavascular location in the coronal part of the dental follicle; and these cells increased in number immediately preceding and during tooth eruption in parallel with an increase in osteoclasts on the adjacent crypt wall. These data are interpreted to mean that the coronal part of the dental follicle may coordinate the alveolar bone resorption required for tooth eruption by attracting and directing to the crypt wall a population of mononuclear cells, which either become osteoclasts and/or direct osteoclastic activity during tooth eruption.

  19. Learning Non-Adjacent Regularities at Age 0 ; 7

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gervain, Judit; Werker, Janet F.

    2013-01-01

    One important mechanism suggested to underlie the acquisition of grammar is rule learning. Indeed, infants aged 0 ; 7 are able to learn rules based on simple identity relations (adjacent repetitions, ABB: "wo fe fe" and non-adjacent repetitions, ABA: "wo fe wo", respectively; Marcus et al., 1999). One unexplored issue is…

  20. View of north side from exterior stairs of adjacent building, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of north side from exterior stairs of adjacent building, bottom cut off by fringed buildings, view facing south-southwest - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Industrial X-Ray Building, Off Sixth Street, adjacent to and south of Facility No. 11, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  1. A Study of the Pronunciation of Words Containing Adjacent Vowels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greif, Ivo P.

    To determine the usefulness of the commonly taught phonics rule, "only pronounce the first vowel in words that contain adjacent vowels" (the VV rule, with the first "v" pronounced with the long vowel sound), two new studies applied it to words with adjacent vowels in several lists and dictionaries. The first study analyzed words containing…

  2. 30 CFR 57.14109 - Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways... conveyors with adjacent travelways. Unguarded conveyors next to travelways shall be equipped with— (a) Emergency stop devices which are located so that a person falling on or against the conveyor can...

  3. 30 CFR 56.14109 - Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways... MINES Machinery and Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14109 Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways. Unguarded conveyors next to the travelways shall be equipped with—...

  4. 30 CFR 56.14109 - Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways... MINES Machinery and Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14109 Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways. Unguarded conveyors next to the travelways shall be equipped with—...

  5. 30 CFR 57.14109 - Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways... conveyors with adjacent travelways. Unguarded conveyors next to travelways shall be equipped with— (a) Emergency stop devices which are located so that a person falling on or against the conveyor can...

  6. 30 CFR 56.14109 - Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways... MINES Machinery and Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14109 Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways. Unguarded conveyors next to the travelways shall be equipped with—...

  7. 30 CFR 57.14109 - Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways... conveyors with adjacent travelways. Unguarded conveyors next to travelways shall be equipped with— (a) Emergency stop devices which are located so that a person falling on or against the conveyor can...

  8. 30 CFR 56.14109 - Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways... MINES Machinery and Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14109 Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways. Unguarded conveyors next to the travelways shall be equipped with—...

  9. 30 CFR 56.14109 - Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways... MINES Machinery and Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14109 Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways. Unguarded conveyors next to the travelways shall be equipped with—...

  10. 30 CFR 57.14109 - Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways... conveyors with adjacent travelways. Unguarded conveyors next to travelways shall be equipped with— (a) Emergency stop devices which are located so that a person falling on or against the conveyor can...

  11. 30 CFR 57.14109 - Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways... conveyors with adjacent travelways. Unguarded conveyors next to travelways shall be equipped with— (a) Emergency stop devices which are located so that a person falling on or against the conveyor can...

  12. Outpatient frozen sections by telepathology in a Veterans Administration medical center.

    PubMed

    Dawson, P J; Johnson, J G; Edgemon, L J; Brand, C R; Hall, E; Van Buskirk, G F

    2000-07-01

    A relatively simple telepathology system is described for evaluating the margins of excision of cutaneous basal and squamous carcinomas. The system uses a microscope with a built-in television camera, but no eyepieces. The image is projected onto an adjacent monitor and transmitted by T1 line at 768 Kbs to a remote, large screen monitor. The microscope is operated by the surgeon under the telephone direction of the pathologist at the remote site. In a series of 66 cases involving more than 400 individual tissue blocks, we have had only 2 cases with false-negative interpretations and 2 in which the block was not fully displayed on the frozen section. In 15 cases, 1 or more surgical margins were positive, and the surgeon proceeded to excise additional tissue. Our success is attributed to dedicated involvement by the surgeon, very high-quality frozen sections, and the experience of the pathologist.

  13. Hydrologic sections through Lee County and adjacent areas of Hendry and Collier counties, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boggess, Durward H.; Missimer, T.M.; O'Donnell, T. H.

    1981-01-01

    The freshwater underlying Lee, western Hendry, and northern Collier Counties occurs within the marine terrace sands, the Fort Thompson, Caloosahatchee, Tamiami, and Hawthorn Formations. These are, respectively, the water-table aquifer, an aquifer in the Tamiami Formation, and an aquifer in the upper part of the Hawthorn Formation. These aquifers are separated by clay, marl, and marly limestone. Wells tapping the water-table aquifer are commonly less than 50 feet deep, with yields ranging from 5 to 500 gallons per minute. The water quality in the aquifer is usually good, except for iron, which generally exceeds 1 milligram per liter, and color, which ranges from 30 to 600 Platinum-Cobalt units. Wells tapping the Tamiami aquifer range in depth from about 60 to 300 feet; most are less than 100 feet deep. Yields range from 20 to 500 gallons per minute. The water quality in the Tamiami aquifer is good, except where affected by leakage from deep artesian wells. Wells tapping the upper Hawthorn aquifer range in depth from about 100 to 300 feet. Yields range from 10 to 500 gallons per minute. The water quality from the upper Hawthorn aquifer is good, except in areas where upward leakage from the deep artesian aquifer has occurred. (USGS)

  14. Oyster Shell Dredging in Atchafalaya Bay and Adjacent Waters, Louisiana. Volume 2. Public Comments.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-11-01

    Dredging in Atchafalaya Bay and Adjacent Waters, Louisiana. We appreciate the opportunity to review the DEIS. Sincerely yours, David Cottinginm Ecology ...subsequent effects on the aquatic ecosystem . General evaluation and testing procedures are outlined in the 404(b)(1) guidelines [Section 230.60 of Subpart G3...does not include zones 4-9 as integral parts of the regional ecosystem . The overall cummulative impact to the biology of the region can only be

  15. Generalised and regional soft tissue pain syndromes. The role of physical and rehabilitation medicine physicians. The European perspective based on the best evidence. A paper by the UEMS-PRM Section Professional Practice Committee.

    PubMed

    Oral, A; Ilieva, E M; Küçükdeveci, A A; Varela, E; Valero, R; Berteanu, M; Christodoulou, N

    2013-08-01

    One of the objectives of the Professional Practice Committee (PPC) of the Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (PRM) Section of the Union of European Medical Specialists (UEMS) is the development of the field of competence of PRM physicians in Europe. To achieve this objective, UEMS PRM Section PPC has adopted a systematic action plan of preparing a series of papers describing the role of PRM physicians in a number of disabling health conditions, based on the evidence of effectiveness of PRM interventions. Generalised and regional soft tissue pain syndromes constitute a major problem leading to loss of function and disability, resulting in enormous societal burden. The aim of this paper is to describe the unique role of PRM physicians in the management of these disabling conditions that require not only pharmacological interventions but also a holistic approach including the consideration of body functions, activities and participation as well as contextual factors as described in the ICF. Evidence-based effective PRM interventions include exercise and multicomponent treatment including a psychotherapeutic intervention such as cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) in addition to exercise, the latter based on strong evidence for reducing pain and improving quality of life in fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS). Balneotherapy, meditative movement therapies, and acupuncture have also been shown as efficacious in improving symptoms in FMS. Emerging evidence suggests the use of transcranial magnetic or direct current stimulation (rTMS or tDCS) in FMS patients with intractable pain not alleviated by other interventions. Graded exercise therapy and CBT are evidence-based options for chronic fatigue syndrome. The use of some physical modalities and manipulation for myofascial pain syndrome is also supported by evidence. As for complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), strong evidence exists for rTMS and graded motor imagery as well as moderate evidence for mirror therapy

  16. Thin Sections

    PubMed Central

    Peachey, Lee D.

    1958-01-01

    Knowledge of the thickness of sections is important for proper interpretation of electron micrographs. Therefore, the thicknesses of sections of n-butyl methacrylate polymer were determined by ellipsometry, and correlated with the color shown in reflected light. The results are: gray, thinner than 60 mµ; silver, 60 to 90 mµ; gold, 90 to 150 mµ; purple, 150 to 190 mµ; blue, 190 to 240 mµ; green, 240 to 280 mµ; and yellow, 280 to 320 mµ. These results agree well with optical theory and with previous published data for thin films. Sections, after cutting, are 30 to 40 per cent shorter than the face of the block from which they were cut. Only a small improvement results from allowing the sections to remain in the collecting trough at room temperature. Heating above room temperature, however, reduces this shortening, with a corresponding improvement in dimensions and spatial relationships in the sections. When the thickness of the section is considered in interpreting electron micrographs instead of considering the section to be two-dimensional, a more accurate interpretation is possible. The consideration of electron micrographs as arising from projections of many profiles from throughout the whole thickness of the section explains the apparent lack of continuity often observed in serial sections. It is believed that serial sections are actually continuous, but that the change in size of structure through the thickness of one section and the consideration of only the largest profile shown in the micrograph can account for the lack of continuity previously observed. PMID:13549493

  17. Thermoelastic response of thin metal films and their adjacent materials

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, S.; Yoon, Y.; Kim, J.; Kim, W.

    2013-01-14

    A pulsed laser beam applied to a thin metal film is capable of launching an acoustic wave due to thermal expansion. Heat transfer from the thin metal film to adjacent materials can also induce thermal expansion; thus, the properties of these adjacent materials (as well as the thin metal film) should be considered for a complete description of the thermoelastic response. Here, we show that adjacent materials with a small specific heat and large thermal expansion coefficient can generate an enhanced acoustic wave and we demonstrate a three-fold increase in the peak pressure of the generated acoustic wave on substitution of parylene for polydimethylsiloxane.

  18. Infrared spectroscopy with multivariate analysis to interrogate endometrial tissue: a novel and objective diagnostic approach

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, S E; Cheung, K T; Patel, I I; Trevisan, J; Stringfellow, H F; Ashton, K M; Wood, N J; Keating, P J; Martin-Hirsch, P L; Martin, F L

    2011-01-01

    Background: Endometrial cancer is the most common gynaecological malignancy in the United Kingdom. Diagnosis currently involves subjective expert interpretation of highly processed tissue, primarily using microscopy. Previous work has shown that infrared (IR) spectroscopy can be used to distinguish between benign and malignant cells in a variety of tissue types. Methods: Tissue was obtained from 76 patients undergoing hysterectomy, 36 had endometrial cancer. Slivers of endometrial tissue (tumour and tumour-adjacent tissue if present) were dissected and placed in fixative solution. Before analysis, tissues were thinly sliced, washed, mounted on low-E slides and desiccated; 10 IR spectra were obtained per slice by attenuated total reflection Fourier-transform IR (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy. Derived data was subjected to principal component analysis followed by linear discriminant analysis. Post-spectroscopy analyses, tissue sections were haematoxylin and eosin-stained to provide histological verification. Results: Using this approach, it is possible to distinguish benign from malignant endometrial tissue, and various subtypes of both. Cluster vector plots of benign (verified post-spectroscopy to be free of identifiable pathology) vs malignant tissue indicate the importance of the lipid and secondary protein structure (Amide I and Amide II) regions of the spectrum. Conclusion: These findings point towards the possibility of a simple objective test for endometrial cancer using ATR-FTIR spectroscopy. This would facilitate earlier diagnosis and so reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with this disease. PMID:21326237

  19. Overall view of tower and adjacent aircraft shelters on flight ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Overall view of tower and adjacent aircraft shelters on flight line. View to east. - Plattsburgh Air Force Base, Security Guard Tower, Florida Street at Aircraft Shelters Area, Plattsburgh, Clinton County, NY

  20. Interior building details of Building A, dungeon cell adjacent to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior building details of Building A, dungeon cell adjacent to northwest cell: granite and brick threshold, poured concrete floors, plastered finished walls, vaulted veiling; northwesterly view - San Quentin State Prison, Building 22, Point San Quentin, San Quentin, Marin County, CA

  1. 10. View north from the adjacent B & O railroad ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. View north from the adjacent B & O railroad bridge of portion of the Main truss span over the reservoir of the Augustine Paper Mills, National Register Site. - Augustine Bridge, Brandywine River,Augustine Cutoff, Wilmington, New Castle County, DE

  2. Lock 4 View east of lock wall and adjacent ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Lock 4 - View east of lock wall and adjacent roadway built atop tow path. The gate pocket can be seen at center. - Savannah & Ogeechee Barge Canal, Between Ogeechee & Savannah Rivers, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  3. 1. A BRICK AND CONCRETE FAN HOUSING ADJACENT TO ONE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. A BRICK AND CONCRETE FAN HOUSING ADJACENT TO ONE OF THE ADIT OPENINGS (VIEW TO THE NORTH). - Foster Gulch Mine, Fan Housing, Bear Creek 1 mile Southwest of Town of Bear Creek, Red Lodge, Carbon County, MT

  4. 1. VIEW FROM ROOFTOP OF BUILDING (MOTEL) ADJACENT TO TECHWOOD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW FROM ROOFTOP OF BUILDING (MOTEL) ADJACENT TO TECHWOOD HOMES, LOOKING SOUTH. GARAGE TO EXTREME LEFT, BUILDING 1 TO EXTREME RIGHT. - Techwood Homes (Public Housing), Bounded by North Avenue, Parker Street, William Street & Lovejoy Street, Atlanta, Fulton County, GA

  5. VIEW FROM ROOFTOP OF BUILDING (MOTEL) ADJACENT TO TECHWOOD HOMES, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW FROM ROOFTOP OF BUILDING (MOTEL) ADJACENT TO TECHWOOD HOMES, LOOKING SOUTH. GARAGE TO EXTREME LEFT, BUILDING 1 TO EXTREME RIGHT. - Techwood Homes, Building No. 16, 488-514 Techwood Drive, Atlanta, Fulton County, GA

  6. View from water showing south facade and adjacent boat slips ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View from water showing south facade and adjacent boat slips (Facility Nos. S375 & S376) - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Boat House, Hornet Avenue at Independence Street, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  7. Cement Leakage into Adjacent Vertebral Body Following Percutaneous Vertebroplasty.

    PubMed

    Park, Jae Hoo; Kim, Hyeun Sung; Kim, Seok Won

    2016-06-01

    Percutaneous vertebroplasty (PV) is a minimally invasive procedure for osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures that fail to respond to conventional conservative treatment. It significantly improves intolerable back pain within hours, and has a low complication rate. Although rare, PV is not free of complications, most of which are directly related to cement leakage. Because of its association with new adjacent fracture, the importance of cement leakage into the adjacent disc space is paramount. Here, we report an interesting case of cement leakage into the adjacent upper vertebral body as well as disc space following PV. To the best of our knowledge, there has been no report of cement leakage into the adjacent vertebral body following PV. This rare case is presented along with a review of the literature.

  8. 15. View north from the adjacent B & O railroad ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. View north from the adjacent B & O railroad bridge of Pier No. 5 and portion of the deck and super-structure. - Augustine Bridge, Brandywine River,Augustine Cutoff, Wilmington, New Castle County, DE

  9. 7. View north from the adjacent B & O railroad ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. View north from the adjacent B & O railroad bridge of Pier No. 1 and portions of the deck and super-structure. - Augustine Bridge, Brandywine River,Augustine Cutoff, Wilmington, New Castle County, DE

  10. 8. View north from the adjacent B & O railroad ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. View north from the adjacent B & O railroad bridge of Pier No. 2 and portions of the deck and super-structure. - Augustine Bridge, Brandywine River,Augustine Cutoff, Wilmington, New Castle County, DE

  11. VIEW OF NORTHERN AND EASTERN SIDES FROM PARKING LOT ADJACENT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF NORTHERN AND EASTERN SIDES FROM PARKING LOT ADJACENT TO BUILDING 199 (POLICE STATION) - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Post Office, Avenue A near Eleventh Avenue, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  12. Basement, room 23, looking southwest into two adjacent offices with ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Basement, room 23, looking southwest into two adjacent offices with soundproof walls and pedestal flooring - March Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command, Combat Operations Center, 5220 Riverside Drive, Moreno Valley, Riverside County, CA

  13. 3. View of north side of house facing from adjacent ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. View of north side of house facing from adjacent vacant property. Original wood lap siding and trim is covered by aluminum siding. Recessed side porch is in middle. - 645 South Eighteenth Street (House), Louisville, Jefferson County, KY

  14. View of viaduct, looking SE from roof of adjacent parking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of viaduct, looking SE from roof of adjacent parking garage. - Mulberry Street Viaduct, Spanning Paxton Creek & Cameron Street (State Route 230) at Mulberry Street (State Route 3012), Harrisburg, Dauphin County, PA

  15. 1. Ninth Street (west) facade. Adjacent on the north is ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Ninth Street (west) facade. Adjacent on the north is the 9th Street facade of 816 E Street. Both buildings were originally one property. - Riley Building, Rendezvous Adult Magazines & Films, 437 Ninth Street, Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  16. 6. Detail, vertical guides adjacent to east portal of Tunnel ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Detail, vertical guides adjacent to east portal of Tunnel 28, view to southwest, 135mm lens with electronic flash fill. - Central Pacific Transcontinental Railroad, Tunnel No. 28, Milepost 134.75, Applegate, Placer County, CA

  17. VIEW OF LAMP FIXTURE (EXTERIOR) ADJACENT TO ENTRANCE AT SOUTHWEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF LAMP FIXTURE (EXTERIOR) ADJACENT TO ENTRANCE AT SOUTHWEST CORNER OF BUILDING 23, FACING NORTH - Roosevelt Base, Auditorium-Gymnasium, West Virginia Street between Richardson & Reeves Avenues, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  18. 73. PASSAGE ADJACENT TO ROOM 232, EAST WING, SECOND FLOOR, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    73. PASSAGE ADJACENT TO ROOM 232, EAST WING, SECOND FLOOR, LOOKING WEST BY NORTHWEST, SHOWING EASTERNMOST ARCH OF FORMER GREAT HALL NORTH ARCADE - Smithsonian Institution Building, 1000 Jefferson Drive, between Ninth & Twelfth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  19. Detail exterior view looking north showing piping system adjacent to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail exterior view looking north showing piping system adjacent to engine house. Gas cooling system is on far right. - Burnsville Natural Gas Pumping Station, Saratoga Avenue between Little Kanawha River & C&O Railroad line, Burnsville, Braxton County, WV

  20. 52. EASTSIDE PLANT: GENERAL VIEW OF GOVERNOR ADJACENT TO GENERATOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    52. EASTSIDE PLANT: GENERAL VIEW OF GOVERNOR ADJACENT TO GENERATOR - American Falls Water, Power & Light Company, Island Power Plant, Snake River, below American Falls Dam, American Falls, Power County, ID

  1. OBLIQUE OF SOUTHWEST END AND SOUTHEAST SIDE, WITH ADJACENT FACILITY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE OF SOUTHWEST END AND SOUTHEAST SIDE, WITH ADJACENT FACILITY 391 IN THE FOREGROUND. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Joint Intelligence Center, Makalapa Drive in Makalapa Administration Area, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  2. Brick incinerator structure located adjacent to "motor courts." This example ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Brick incinerator structure located adjacent to "motor courts." This example is located between Buildings 26 and 27. Facing northeast - Harbor Hills Housing Project, 26607 Western Avenue, Lomita, Los Angeles County, CA

  3. 7. August, 1970 9 ORANGE STREET, ADJACENT TO UNITARIAN CHURCH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. August, 1970 9 ORANGE STREET, ADJACENT TO UNITARIAN CHURCH (NOT IN STUDY AREA) - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  4. VIEW FROM ROOFTOP OF BUILDING (MOTEL) ADJACENT TO TECHWOOD HOME, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW FROM ROOFTOP OF BUILDING (MOTEL) ADJACENT TO TECHWOOD HOME, LOOKING WEST. GEORGIA TECH DORMITORY BUILDING, 581-587 TECHWOOD DRIVE, IN FOREGROUND. - Techwood Homes, Building No. 16, 488-514 Techwood Drive, Atlanta, Fulton County, GA

  5. 72. View of reservoir adjacent to south wall of blowing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    72. View of reservoir adjacent to south wall of blowing engine house where water from furnaces was allowed to cool. - Sloss-Sheffield Steel & Iron, First Avenue North Viaduct at Thirty-second Street, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  6. Cesarean Sections

    MedlinePlus

    ... the uterus itself. This incision can also be vertical or horizontal. Doctors usually use a horizontal incision ... especially if the incision on the uterus was vertical rather than horizontal. A C-section can also ...

  7. Deformation mechanisms adjacent to a thrust fault, Sangre de Cristo Mountains, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, J.C.; McConnell, D.A.; Friberg, V.M. . Dept. of Geology)

    1994-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the character of grain-scale deformation adjacent to a Laramide thrust fault in the Sangre de Cristo Mountains. This site represents a window through the hanging wall of a thrust sheet which juxtaposes Precambrian rocks over Pennsylvanian rocks. It provides a rare opportunity to examine deformation mechanisms in the footwall of a basement-involved thrust. Brittle deformation is evident at both outcrop and grain-scale. Filled fractures and slickensides composed of quartz and epidote are present throughout the area, and increase in abundance adjacent to the fault zone, as does the frequency of mesoscopic faulting. Variations in deformation mechanisms can be seen between the Precambrian rocks of the thrust sheet and the Pennsylvanian metasedimentary rocks, and between the metamorphosed arkoses and metapelites within the Pennsylvanian section. Cataclastic textures are present in deformed Precambrian rocks, and the degree of cataclasis is greatest immediately adjacent to the fault zone. Deformation in the Pennsylvanian rocks is largely dependent upon the abundance of fine-grained matrix within each sample. The degree of brittle deformation is negatively correlated to the percentage of matrix. Coarser-grained sections show microscopic faults which offset quartz and feldspar grains. Offsets decrease on the faults as they pass from coarse grains into the matrix.

  8. Tissue Microarray Analysis Applied to Bone Diagenesis

    PubMed Central

    Mello, Rafael Barrios; Silva, Maria Regina Regis; Alves, Maria Teresa Seixas; Evison, Martin Paul; Guimarães, Marco Aurelio; Francisco, Rafaella Arrabaca; Astolphi, Rafael Dias; Iwamura, Edna Sadayo Miazato

    2017-01-01

    Taphonomic processes affecting bone post mortem are important in forensic, archaeological and palaeontological investigations. In this study, the application of tissue microarray (TMA) analysis to a sample of femoral bone specimens from 20 exhumed individuals of known period of burial and age at death is described. TMA allows multiplexing of subsamples, permitting standardized comparative analysis of adjacent sections in 3-D and of representative cross-sections of a large number of specimens. Standard hematoxylin and eosin, periodic acid-Schiff and silver methenamine, and picrosirius red staining, and CD31 and CD34 immunohistochemistry were applied to TMA sections. Osteocyte and osteocyte lacuna counts, percent bone matrix loss, and fungal spheroid element counts could be measured and collagen fibre bundles observed in all specimens. Decalcification with 7% nitric acid proceeded more rapidly than with 0.5 M EDTA and may offer better preservation of histological and cellular structure. No endothelial cells could be detected using CD31 and CD34 immunohistochemistry. Correlation between osteocytes per lacuna and age at death may reflect reported age-related responses to microdamage. Methodological limitations and caveats, and results of the TMA analysis of post mortem diagenesis in bone are discussed, and implications for DNA survival and recovery considered. PMID:28051148

  9. 30 CFR 817.57 - Hydrologic balance: Surface activities in or adjacent to perennial or intermittent streams.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hydrologic balance: Surface activities in or adjacent to perennial or intermittent streams. 817.57 Section 817.57 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE... PERMANENT PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.57 Hydrologic balance:...

  10. 30 CFR 817.57 - Hydrologic balance: Surface activities in or adjacent to perennial or intermittent streams.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hydrologic balance: Surface activities in or adjacent to perennial or intermittent streams. 817.57 Section 817.57 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE... PERMANENT PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND MINING ACTIVITIES § 817.57 Hydrologic balance:...

  11. 33 CFR 334.710 - The Narrows and Gulf of Mexico adjacent to Santa Rosa Island, Headquarters Air Armament Center...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... adjacent to Santa Rosa Island, Headquarters Air Armament Center, Eglin Air Force Base, Fla. 334.710 Section... Santa Rosa Island, Headquarters Air Armament Center, Eglin Air Force Base, Fla. (a) The restricted area..., 96 Air Base Wing, Eglin AFB, Florida and such agencies as he/she may designate. (2) Enforcement...

  12. 33 CFR 334.710 - The Narrows and Gulf of Mexico adjacent to Santa Rosa Island, Headquarters Air Armament Center...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... adjacent to Santa Rosa Island, Headquarters Air Armament Center, Eglin Air Force Base, Fla. 334.710 Section... Santa Rosa Island, Headquarters Air Armament Center, Eglin Air Force Base, Fla. (a) The restricted area..., 96 Air Base Wing, Eglin AFB, Florida and such agencies as he/she may designate. (2) Enforcement...

  13. 33 CFR 334.710 - The Narrows and Gulf of Mexico adjacent to Santa Rosa Island, Headquarters Air Armament Center...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... adjacent to Santa Rosa Island, Headquarters Air Armament Center, Eglin Air Force Base, Fla. 334.710 Section... Santa Rosa Island, Headquarters Air Armament Center, Eglin Air Force Base, Fla. (a) The restricted area..., 96 Air Base Wing, Eglin AFB, Florida and such agencies as he/she may designate. (2) Enforcement...

  14. 33 CFR 334.420 - Pamlico Sound and adjacent waters, N.C.; danger zones for Marine Corps operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., N.C.; danger zones for Marine Corps operations. 334.420 Section 334.420 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.420 Pamlico Sound and adjacent waters, N.C.; danger zones for Marine Corps operations. (a... date. Marine Corps Air Station Cherry Point will have a call-in number for public use to...

  15. Soil chemistry adjacent to roads treated with dust control products at Squaw Creek National Wildlife Refuge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kunz, Bethany K.

    2016-01-01

    The health of soils along roadways is critical for maximizing habitat quality and minimizing negative ecological effects of roads. Adjacent to unpaved roads, soil chemistry may be altered by the deposition of dust, as well as by road treatment with dust suppressants or soil stabilizer products. If present in roadside soils, these product residues may be available to plants, terrestrial invertebrates, or small mammals. Unfortunately, very few studies have attempted to track the transport of dust suppressants after application. As part of a larger ongoing study on the environmental effects of dust suppressant products on roadside plants and animals, we sampled roadside soils at Squaw Creek National Wildlife Refuge (NWR). Replicated road sections at Squaw Creek NWR had been previously treated with two road products—calcium chloride-based durablend-C™ and synthetic iso-alkane EnviroKleen®. In order to quantify the effect of dust suppressant treatment on roadside soils, we took replicated composite soil samples one year after treatment at 1m and 4m from the road’s edge, and analyzed samples for a suite of soil chemistry variables (pH, conductivity, NO3-N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Na and S). We also assessed dust suppressant product residues in the soil. For durablend-C™, we used soil conductivity as an indicator. For EnviroKleen®, we developed a method for extraction and isolation, followed by analysis with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry to look for a specific EnviroKleen® signature. Surprisingly, soil conductivity was not elevated adjacent to road sections treated with durablend-C™, relative to other sections. EnviroKleen® was detectable at both 1m and 4m from treated sections at concentrations from 1 to 1500 mg/kg, and was non-detectable in soils adjacent to the untreated section. The most notable characteristic of soils across all treated and untreated sections at 1m was elevated calcium (up to 30,000 mg/kg), likely as a result of dust deposition from the

  16. Golden Sections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, Stephen N.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author states that architects, musicians and other thoughtful people have, since the time of Pythagoras, been fascinated by various harmonious proportions. One, is the visual harmony attributed to Euclid, called "the golden section". He explores this concept in geometries of one, two and three dimensions. He added, that in…

  17. Biomechanical effects of pedicle screw fixation on adjacent segments.

    PubMed

    Kyaw, Thein Aung; Wang, Zhuo; Sakakibara, Toshihiko; Yoshikawa, Takamasa; Inaba, Tadashi; Kasai, Yuichi

    2014-07-01

    Various biomechanical investigations have attempted to clarify the aetiology of adjacent segment disease (ASD). However, no biomechanical study has examined in detail the deformation behaviour of the adjacent segments when both pure torque and an angular displacement load are applied to the vertebrae along multiple segments. The purpose of this study is to investigate the biomechanical effects of pedicle screw fixation on adjacent segments. Ten cadaveric lumbar spines (L2-L5) of boars were used. Control and fusion models were prepared by disc damage and pedicle screw fixation of each specimen, and then, bending and rotation tests were performed using a six-axis material tester. In the biomechanical tests regulated by an angular displacement load, the range of motion (ROM) of the cranial and caudal adjacent segments in antero-posterior flexion and lateral bending was increased by about 20 % (p < 0.05), and the maximal torque in the fusion model was about threefold (p < 0.05) that in the control model. And in axial rotation, the ROM of cranial and caudal adjacent segments was increased by about 100 % (p < 0.001), and the maximal torque was about sixfold (p < 0.01) that in the control model. The ROM of adjacent segments was significantly increased after pedicle screw fixation as assessed by biomechanical tests regulated by an angular displacement load, but not in those regulated by torque. We present the results of biomechanical tests regulated by torque and angular displacement and show that the maximum torque of the fusion model was larger than that of the control model in the biomechanical test regulated by an angular displacement load, suggesting that mechanical stress on the segments adjacent to the fused segment is large. We think that ASD arises after spinal fusion surgery as a mechanism to compensate for the ROM lost due to excessive fusion by pedicle screw fixation, so that a large torque may be applied to adjacent segments within a physiologically

  18. Comparison of aluminum sulphonated phthalocyanine with 5-aminolaevulinic-acid-induced protoporphyrin IX: tissue distributions, photodamage, and photodegradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacRobert, Alexander J.; Bedwell, Joanne; Loh, C. S.; Chatlani, P. T.; Bown, Stephen G.

    1993-06-01

    Fluorescence spectroscopic studies have been carried out on tissue sensitization by Aluminium Sulphonated Phthalocyanine (AlSPc) and endogenous Protoporphyrin IX induced by administration of exogenous 5-aminolaevulinic acid (ALA). A charge-coupled device (CCD) imaging system has been used to obtain quantitative fluorescence distributions of sensitization in frozen sections taken from rat tumors together with normal adjacent tissues. Using ALA, specific porphyrin sensitization of malignant epithelium is observed with much less sensitization present in connective tissue. Photodegradation of AlSPc and PPIX was studied by monitoring of fluorescence bleaching: in normal rat colon there is a significant reduction in AlSPc fluorescence at the edge of the photonecrosed zone which suggests that photodegradation may provide a means of diagnosing the extent of tissue damage. ALA- induced PPIX fluorescence is also observed to bleach in colon simultaneously with an increase in fluorescence emission near 675 nm which we attribute to a photoprotoporphyrin degradation product.

  19. Perlecan/HSPG2 and matrilysin/MMP-7 as indices of tissue invasion: tissue localization and circulating perlecan fragments in a cohort of 288 radical prostatectomy patients

    PubMed Central

    Grindel, Brian; Li, Quanlin; Arnold, Rebecca; Petros, John; Zayzafoon, Majd; Muldoon, Mark; Stave, James; Chung, Leland W. K.; Farach-Carson, Mary C.

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) cells use matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) to degrade tissue during invasion. Perlecan/HSPG2 is degraded at basement membranes, in reactive stroma and in bone marrow during metastasis. We previously showed MMP-7 efficiently degrades perlecan. We now analyzed PCa tissue and serum from 288 prostatectomy patients of various Gleason grades to decipher the relationship between perlecan and MMP-7 in invasive PCa. In 157 prostatectomy specimens examined by tissue microarray, perlecan levels were 18% higher than their normal counterparts. In Gleason grade 4 tissues, MMP-7 and perlecan immunostaining levels were highly correlated with each other (average correlation coefficient of 0.52) in PCa tissue, regardless of grade. Serial sections showed intense, but non-overlapping, immunostaining for MMP-7 and perlecan at adjacent borders, reflecting the protease-substrate relationship. Using a capture assay, analysis of 288 PCa sera collected at prostatectomy showed elevated levels of perlecan fragments, with most derived from domain IV. Perlecan fragments in PCa sera were associated with overall MMP-7 staining levels in PCa tissues. Domain IV perlecan fragments were present in stage IV, but absent in normal, sera, suggesting perlecan degradation during metastasis. Together, perlecan fragments in sera and MMP-7 in tissues of PCa patients are measures of invasive PCa. PMID:26862737

  20. Perlecan/HSPG2 and matrilysin/MMP-7 as indices of tissue invasion: tissue localization and circulating perlecan fragments in a cohort of 288 radical prostatectomy patients.

    PubMed

    Grindel, Brian; Li, Quanlin; Arnold, Rebecca; Petros, John; Zayzafoon, Majd; Muldoon, Mark; Stave, James; Chung, Leland W K; Farach-Carson, Mary C

    2016-03-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) cells use matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) to degrade tissue during invasion. Perlecan/HSPG2 is degraded at basement membranes, in reactive stroma and in bone marrow during metastasis. We previously showed MMP-7 efficiently degrades perlecan. We now analyzed PCa tissue and serum from 288 prostatectomy patients of various Gleason grades to decipher the relationship between perlecan and MMP-7 in invasive PCa. In 157 prostatectomy specimens examined by tissue microarray, perlecan levels were 18% higher than their normal counterparts. In Gleason grade 4 tissues, MMP-7 and perlecan immunostaining levels were highly correlated with each other (average correlation coefficient of 0.52) in PCa tissue, regardless of grade. Serial sections showed intense, but non-overlapping, immunostaining for MMP-7 and perlecan at adjacent borders, reflecting the protease-substrate relationship. Using a capture assay, analysis of 288 PCa sera collected at prostatectomy showed elevated levels of perlecan fragments, with most derived from domain IV. Perlecan fragments in PCa sera were associated with overall MMP-7 staining levels in PCa tissues. Domain IV perlecan fragments were present in stage IV, but absent in normal, sera, suggesting perlecan degradation during metastasis. Together, perlecan fragments in sera and MMP-7 in tissues of PCa patients are measures of invasive PCa.

  1. Laplacian versus adjacency matrix in quantum walk search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Thomas G.; Tarrataca, Luís; Nahimov, Nikolay

    2016-10-01

    A quantum particle evolving by Schrödinger's equation contains, from the kinetic energy of the particle, a term in its Hamiltonian proportional to Laplace's operator. In discrete space, this is replaced by the discrete or graph Laplacian, which gives rise to a continuous-time quantum walk. Besides this natural definition, some quantum walk algorithms instead use the adjacency matrix to effect the walk. While this is equivalent to the Laplacian for regular graphs, it is different for non-regular graphs and is thus an inequivalent quantum walk. We algorithmically explore this distinction by analyzing search on the complete bipartite graph with multiple marked vertices, using both the Laplacian and adjacency matrix. The two walks differ qualitatively and quantitatively in their required jumping rate, runtime, sampling of marked vertices, and in what constitutes a natural initial state. Thus the choice of the Laplacian or adjacency matrix to effect the walk has important algorithmic consequences.

  2. High prevalence of preinvasive lesions adjacent to BRCA1/2-associated breast cancers.

    PubMed

    Arun, Banu; Vogel, Kristen J; Lopez, Adriana; Hernandez, Mike; Atchley, Deann; Broglio, Kristine R; Amos, Christopher I; Meric-Bernstam, Funda; Kuerer, Henry; Hortobagyi, Gabriel N; Albarracin, Constance T

    2009-02-01

    Mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 increase a woman's lifetime risk of developing breast cancer by 43% to 84%. It was originally postulated that BRCA1/2-associated breast cancers develop more rapidly than sporadic cancers and may lack preinvasive lesions. More recent studies have found preinvasive lesions in prophylactic mastectomy specimens from mutation carriers; however, there is little information on the presence of preinvasive lesions in tissue adjacent to breast cancers. Our aim is to investigate the role of preinvasive lesions in BRCA-associated breast carcinogenesis. We retrospectively compared BRCA1/2-associated breast cancers and sporadic breast cancers for the prevalence of preinvasive lesions [ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), lobular carcinoma in situ, and atypical lobular hyperplasia] in tissue adjacent to invasive breast cancers. Pathology was reviewed for 73 BRCA1/2-associated tumors from patients with breast cancer. We selected 146 patients with mutation-negative breast cancer as age-matched controls. Among the BRCA1/2-associated breast cancers, 59% had at least one associated preinvasive lesion compared with 75% of controls. Preinvasive lesions were more prevalent in BRCA2 mutation carriers than in BRCA1 mutation carriers (70% versus 52%, respectively). The most common preinvasive lesion in both groups was DCIS; 56% of BRCA1/2-associated breast cancers and 71% of the sporadic breast cancers had adjacent intraductal disease, respectively. Preinvasive lesions, most notably DCIS, are common in BRCA1/2-associated breast cancers. These findings suggest that BRCA1/2-associated breast cancers progress through the same intermediate steps as sporadic breast cancers, and that DCIS should be considered as a part of the BRCA1/2 tumor spectrum.

  3. High Prevalence of Pre-invasive Lesions Adjacent to BRCA1/2-Associated Breast Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Arun, Banu; Vogel, Kristen J.; Lopez, Adriana; Hernandez, Mike; Atchley, Deann; Broglio, Kristine R.; Amos, Christopher I.; Meric-Bernstam, Funda; Kuerer, Henry; Hortobagyi, Gabriel N.; Albarracin, Constance T.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 increase a woman's lifetime risk of developing breast cancer to 43%-84%. It was originally postulated that BRCA1/2-associated breast cancers develop more rapidly than sporadic cancers and may lack pre-invasive lesions. More recent studies have found pre-invasive lesions in prophylactic mastectomy specimens from mutation carriers; however, there is little information on the presence of pre-invasive lesions in tissue adjacent to breast cancers. Our aim is to investigate the role of pre-invasive lesions in BRCA-associated breast carcinogenesis. Methods We retrospectively compared BRCA1/2-associated breast cancers and sporadic breast cancers for the prevalence of pre-invasive lesions (ductal carcinoma in situ [DCIS], lobular carcinoma in situ [LCIS], and atypical lobular hyperplasia [ALH]) in tissue adjacent to invasive breast cancers. Results Pathology was reviewed for 73 BRCA1/2-associated tumors from breast cancer patients. We selected 146 mutation-negative breast cancer patients as age-matched controls. Of BRCA1/2-associated breast cancers, 59% had at least one associated pre-invasive lesion compared with 75% of controls. Pre-invasive lesions were more prevalent in BRCA2 mutation carriers than in BRCA1 mutation carriers (70% vs. 52%, respectively). The most common pre-invasive lesion in both groups was DCIS; 56% of BRCA1/2-associated breast cancers and 71% of the sporadic breast cancers had adjacent intraductal disease, respectively. Conclusions Pre-invasive lesions, most notably DCIS, are common in BRCA1/2-associated breast cancers. These findings suggest that BRCA1/2-associated breast cancers progress through the same intermediate steps as sporadic breast cancers, and that DCIS should be considered as a part of the BRCA1/2 tumor spectrum. PMID:19174581

  4. Trends in trace organic and metal concentrations in the Pechora and Kara Seas and adjacent rivers

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, J.M.; Champ, M.A.; Wade, T.L.; Kennicutt, M.C. II; Chambers, L.; Davis, T.

    1995-12-31

    Trace organic (pesticides, PCBs, PAHs and dioxin/furan) and trace metal concentrations have been measured in surficial sediment and tissue (i.e., clam, fish liver and flesh) samples from the Pechora and Kara Seas and their adjacent rivers -- Pechora, Ob and Yenisey Rivers. Total PAH, PCB and total DDT and chlordane concentrations ranged in surficial sediments from n.d. to 810 ppb, n.d.--8.7 ppb, n.d.--1.2 ppb, and n.d.--1.2 ppb, respectively, in a suite of 40 samples from the Kara Sea and its adjacent rivers. The highest concentrations of many of the trace organic and metal contaminants were found in the lower part of the Yenisey River below the salt wedge. Some trace metals (As for example) were elevated in the Pechora River dispositional plume region. Dioxin ranged from 1.36 to 413 ppt in a subset of 20 sediment samples. Higher trace organic contaminant concentrations compared to sediments were found in tissue samples from the region, especially fish liver samples. Concentrations as high as 1,114 ppb total PAHs, 89 ppb chlordane, 1,011 ppb for total DDT and 663 ppb PCBs were found in some fish liver samples. Dioxin concentrations in tissue samples ranged from 11.7 to 61 ppt. Concentrations of many trace organic and metal contaminants in these Russian marginal seas are influenced by inputs from these large Arctic rivers. Many organic contaminant concentrations in sediments are low, however detecting these compounds in tissue show they are bioavailable.

  5. Pathogenesis of the discal cysts communicating with an adjacent herniated disc. Histological and ultrastructual studies of two cases.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Shigeru; Takeno, Kenichi; Uchida, Kenzo; Yayama, Takafumi; Nakajima, Hideaki; Miyazaki, Tsuyoshi; Guerrero, Alexander; Baba, Hisatoshi

    2010-03-01

    Discal cyst of the lumbar spine is a very rare cause of back pain and sciatica. We report two cases of discal cysts communicating with an adjacent herniated disc. From CT and MRI findings, they were diagnosed as having a discal cyst in the epidural space, which compressed the nerve root. After an adequate surgical field was obtained with a microscope and a Casper retractor, the discal cyst could be excised and satisfactory decompression of the adjacent nerve root was obtained. From histological and electron microscopic study, the presence of residual herniated tissues was confirmed in the cyst wall. Macrophages played an important role in the absorption of herniated tissue and the formation of the discal cyst. Hemorrhage in the cyst wall will make the serous hemorrhagic fluid-filled cystic structure in the absorbed spaces of the prolapsed disc. In this study, we confirmed that the discal cyst could have developed from the absorption process of a disc herniation.

  6. Modeling fires in adjacent ship compartments with computational fluid dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Wix, S.D.; Cole, J.K.; Koski, J.A.

    1998-05-10

    This paper presents an analysis of the thermal effects on radioactive (RAM) transportation packages with a fire in an adjacent compartment. An assumption for this analysis is that the adjacent hold fire is some sort of engine room fire. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis tools were used to perform the analysis in order to include convective heat transfer effects. The analysis results were compared to experimental data gathered in a series of tests on tile US Coast Guard ship Mayo Lykes located at Mobile, Alabama.

  7. Management of adjacent segment disease after cervical spinal fusion.

    PubMed

    Kepler, Christopher K; Hilibrand, Alan S

    2012-01-01

    Adjacent segment disease (ASD) was described after long-term follow-up of patients treated with cervical fusion. The term describes new-onset radiculopathy or myelopathy referable to a motion segment adjacent to previous arthrodesis and often attributed to alterations in the biomechanical environment after fusion. Evidence suggests that ASD affects between 2% and 3% of patients per year. Although prevention of ASD was one major impetus behind the development of motion-sparing surgery, the literature does not yet clearly distinguish a difference in the rate of ASD between fusion and disk replacement. Surgical techniques during index surgery may reduce the rate of ASD.

  8. Preparation of biological material for X-ray microanalysis of diffusible elements. I. Rapid freezing of biological tissue in nitrogen slush and preparation of ultrathin frozen sections in the absence of trough liquid.

    PubMed

    Sevéus, L

    1978-04-01

    Any method used for the analysis of diffusible elements within a cell should involve conditions which eliminate the redistribution of those elements. Redistribution of diffusible substances is caused by (a) ice damage during freezing, (b) thawing during sectioning, and (c) thawing during handling of sections. To eliminate this sections were cut (a) in the 5-8 micrometer ice crystal free surface layer obtained by freezing in melting nitrogen, (b) at a specimen temperature of 133 K and a knife temperature of 173 K to 153 K, and the temperature of the chamber was kept low by evaporating nitrogen from an extra reservoir inside the chamber, by regulating the output of a foil heater. A grid carrier was designed to simplify the section collection and the sections were affixed on to the grid in a press assembly. The sections were hard and translucent, and showed faint interference colours.

  9. LEHR NO. 2 AND LEHR NO. 3 ADJACENT TO FURNACE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    LEHR NO. 2 AND LEHR NO. 3 ADJACENT TO FURNACE ROOM; THE PIPES AT THE BOTTOM ARE PART OF THE RADIANT HEATING SYSTEM USED FOR HEATING THE FACTORY DURING COLD WEATHER. - Westmoreland Glass Company, Seventh & Kier Streets, Grapeville, Westmoreland County, PA

  10. Biogeochemistry of hydrothermally and adjacent non-altered soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As a field/lab project, students in the Soil Biogeochemistry class of the University of Nevada, Reno described and characterized seven pedons, developed in hydrothermally and adjacent non-hydrothermally altered andesitic parent material near Reno, NV. Hydrothermally altered soils had considerably lo...

  11. 12. LOG FOUNDATION ELEMENTS OF THE SAWMILL ADJACENT TO THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. LOG FOUNDATION ELEMENTS OF THE SAWMILL ADJACENT TO THE CANAL, LOOKING EAST. BARREN AREA IN FOREGROUND IS DECOMPOSING SAWDUST. DIRT PILE IN BACKGROUND IS THE EDGE OF THE SUMMIT COUNTY LANDFILL. - Snake River Ditch, Headgate on north bank of Snake River, Dillon, Summit County, CO

  12. Measurement Methods to Determine Air Leakage Between Adjacent Zones

    SciTech Connect

    Hult, Erin L.; Dickerhoff, Darryl J.; Price, Phillip N.

    2012-09-01

    Air leakage between adjacent zones of a building can lead to indoor air quality and energy efficiency concerns, however there is no existing standard for measuring inter-zonal leakage. In this study, synthesized data and field measurements are analyzed in order to explore the uncertainty associated with different methods for collecting and analyzing fan pressurization measurements to calculate interzone leakage.

  13. 1. OVERVIEW SHOWING FIRING CONTROL BLOCKHOUSE 0502 AND ADJACENT OBSERVATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. OVERVIEW SHOWING FIRING CONTROL BLOCKHOUSE 0502 AND ADJACENT OBSERVATION TOWER. WATER BRAKE TROUGH SEGMENT AT LOWER RIGHT. Looking north northeast. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Firing & Control Blockhouse for 10,000-foot Track, South of Sled Track at midpoint of 20,000-foot track, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

  14. 45. 1915 CLOTH ROOM ADJACENT TO PICKER ROOM, SECOND FLOOR, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. 1915 CLOTH ROOM ADJACENT TO PICKER ROOM, SECOND FLOOR, NORTH END OF MILL NO. 2, WALL ON LEFT DIVIDING CLOTH ROOM ADDED LATER (PROBABLY C. 1970s). - Prattville Manufacturing Company, Number One, 242 South Court Street, Prattville, Autauga County, AL

  15. 11. View north from the adjacent B & O railroad ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. View north from the adjacent B & O railroad bridge of portion of the Main truss span over the reservoir of the Augustine Paper Mills, National Register Site, including Pier No. 4. - Augustine Bridge, Brandywine River,Augustine Cutoff, Wilmington, New Castle County, DE

  16. 12. View north from the adjacent B & O railroad ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. View north from the adjacent B & O railroad bridge of portion of the Main truss span over the reservoir of the Augustine Paper Mills, National Register Site, including Pier No. 4. - Augustine Bridge, Brandywine River,Augustine Cutoff, Wilmington, New Castle County, DE

  17. 10. Detail and contextual view of bridge and adjacent farmstead ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Detail and contextual view of bridge and adjacent farmstead setting. Note laced vertical compression members, latticed portal strut, decorative strut bracing, and lightness of diagonal and lateral tension members. View to southeast through southeast portal from truss mid-span. - Red Bank Creek Bridge, Spanning Red Bank Creek at Rawson Road, Red Bluff, Tehama County, CA

  18. 47 CFR 73.810 - Third adjacent channel interference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Low Power FM Broadcast Stations (LPFM) § 73.810 Third adjacent channel... power FM, FM translator or FM booster station to such affected station and to the Commission. (ii) A full power FM, FM translator or FM booster station shall review all complaints it receives,...

  19. 47 CFR 73.810 - Third adjacent channel interference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Low Power FM Broadcast Stations (LPFM) § 73.810 Third adjacent channel... power FM, FM translator or FM booster station to such affected station and to the Commission. (ii) A full power FM, FM translator or FM booster station shall review all complaints it receives,...

  20. 8. Exterior view, showing tank and associated piping adjacent to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Exterior view, showing tank and associated piping adjacent to Test Cell 6, Systems Integration Laboratory Building (T-28), looking south. - Air Force Plant PJKS, Systems Integration Laboratory, Systems Integration Laboratory Building, Waterton Canyon Road & Colorado Highway 121, Lakewood, Jefferson County, CO

  1. VIEW FROM ATOP ADJACENT RESIDENTIAL TOWER, SHOWING RECREATION AREA ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW FROM ATOP ADJACENT RESIDENTIAL TOWER, SHOWING RECREATION AREA ON RIGHT, AND HOUSING AREA ON LEFT. VIEW FACING EAST/NORTHEAST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Intersection of Acacia Road and Brich Circle, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  2. VIEW FROM ATOP ADJACENT RESIDENTIAL TOWER, SHOWING RECREATION AREA AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW FROM ATOP ADJACENT RESIDENTIAL TOWER, SHOWING RECREATION AREA AND ENTRY TO NEIGHBORHOOD. VIEW FACING SOUTHEAST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Intersection of Acacia Road and Brich Circle, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  3. VIEW FROM ATOP ADJACENT RESIDENTIAL TOWER, SHOWING WESTERN SIDE OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW FROM ATOP ADJACENT RESIDENTIAL TOWER, SHOWING WESTERN SIDE OF NEIGHBORHOOD. VIEW FACING NORTHWEST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Intersection of Acacia Road and Brich Circle, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  4. VIEW FROM ATOP ADJACENT RESIDENTIAL TOWER, SHOWING INTERSECTION OF ACACIA ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW FROM ATOP ADJACENT RESIDENTIAL TOWER, SHOWING INTERSECTION OF ACACIA ROAD WITH BIRCH CIRCLE. VIEW FACING NORTHEAST - Camp H.M. Smith and Navy Public Works Center Manana Title VII (Capehart) Housing, Intersection of Acacia Road and Brich Circle, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  5. 3. View of side of house facing north from adjacent ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. View of side of house facing north from adjacent property. Original wood siding and trim is visible. Note: later addition to rear of house is shown in right side of photograph. - 322 South Fifteenth Street (House), Louisville, Jefferson County, KY

  6. 22. Float located adjacent to entry stair in filtration bed. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. Float located adjacent to entry stair in filtration bed. The float actuates a valve that maintains water level over the bed. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Filtration Plant, South side of Armory Street between Edgehill Road & Whitney Avenue, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

  7. How subaerial salt extrusions influence water quality in adjacent aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehdizadeh, Razieh; Zarei, Mehdi; Raeisi, Ezzat

    2015-12-01

    Brines supplied from salt extrusions cause significant groundwater salinization in arid and semi-arid regions where salt rock is exposed to dissolution by episodic rainfalls. Here we focus on 62 of the 122 diapirs of Hormuz salt emergent in the southern Iran. To consider managing the degradation effect that salt extrusions have on the quality of adjoining aquifers, it is first necessary to understand how they influence adjacent water resources. We evaluate here the impacts that these diapirs have on adjacent aquifers based on investigating their geomorphologies, geologies, hydrologies and hydrogeologies. The results indicate that 28/62 (45%) of our sample of salt diapirs have no significant impact on the quality of groundwater in adjoining aquifers (namely Type N), while the remaining 34/62 (55%) degrade nearby groundwater quality. We offer simple conceptual models that account for how brines flowing from each of these types of salt extrusions contaminate adjacent aquifers. We identify three main mechanisms that lead to contamination: surface impact (Type A), subsurface intrusion (Type B) and indirect infiltration (Type C). A combination of all these mechanisms degrades the water quality in nearby aquifers in 19/62 (31%) of the salt diapirs studied. Having characterized the mechanism(s) by which each diapir affects the adjacent aquifer, we suggest a few possible remediation strategies to be considered. For instance, engineering the surface runoff of diapirs Types A and C into nearby evaporation basins would improve groundwater quality.

  8. MTR COOLING TOWER. BASIN IS ADJACENT TO PUMP HOUSE. CAMERA ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR COOLING TOWER. BASIN IS ADJACENT TO PUMP HOUSE. CAMERA FACES SOUTHEAST TOWARD NORTH SIDE OF PUMP HOUSE. INL NEGATIVE NO. 2690. Unknown Photographer, 6/1951. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  9. 1. VIEW FROM SOUTHWEST SHOWING SOUTH (FRONT) ELEVATION, ADJACENT LOUGHRAN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW FROM SOUTHWEST SHOWING SOUTH (FRONT) ELEVATION, ADJACENT LOUGHRAN BUILDING (BASSIN'S RESTAURANT) (HABS No. DC-357), 501-511 14TH STREET (THE LOCKER ROOM) HABS No. DC-356) ON CORNER, AND MUNSEY BUILDING (HABS No. DC-358) - William J. Stone Building, 1345 E Street Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  10. 2. VIEW FROM ROOFTOP OF BUILDING (MOTEL) ADJACENT TO TECHWOOD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW FROM ROOFTOP OF BUILDING (MOTEL) ADJACENT TO TECHWOOD HOMES, LOOKING WEST. GEORGIA TECH DORMITORY BUILDING, 581-587 TECHWOOD DRIVE, IN FOREGROUND. - Techwood Homes (Public Housing), Bounded by North Avenue, Parker Street, William Street & Lovejoy Street, Atlanta, Fulton County, GA

  11. 7. VIEW OF WATER TREATMENT PLANT, ADJACENT TO THE COAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW OF WATER TREATMENT PLANT, ADJACENT TO THE COAL CONVEYOR; IN THE DISTANCE IS THE FREQUENCY CHANGER HOUSE, WHICH IS ATTACHED TO SWITCH HOUSE NO. 1; LOOKING WEST. - Commonwealth Electric Company, Fisk Street Electrical Generating Station, 1111 West Cermak Avenue, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  12. 33 CFR 334.710 - The Narrows and Gulf of Mexico adjacent to Santa Rosa Island, Air Force Proving Ground Command...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... adjacent to Santa Rosa Island, Air Force Proving Ground Command, Eglin Air Force Base, Fla. 334.710 Section... Santa Rosa Island, Air Force Proving Ground Command, Eglin Air Force Base, Fla. (a) The restricted area... regulations in this section shall be enforced by the Commander, Air Force Proving Ground Command, Eglin......

  13. 33 CFR 334.710 - The Narrows and Gulf of Mexico adjacent to Santa Rosa Island, Air Force Proving Ground Command...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... adjacent to Santa Rosa Island, Air Force Proving Ground Command, Eglin Air Force Base, Fla. 334.710 Section... Santa Rosa Island, Air Force Proving Ground Command, Eglin Air Force Base, Fla. (a) The restricted area... regulations in this section shall be enforced by the Commander, Air Force Proving Ground Command, Eglin......

  14. Tissue macerating instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baehr, E. F.; Burnett, J. E. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A surgical tissue macerating and removal tool is described which has a rotating rod with a cutting member at one end and which disposed in a tube which is then contained in an extension of the tool handle. A frusto-conical member extends into the extension at the cutter member end of the rotating rod with its small end engaging the tube. The portion of the frusto-conical member outside of the extension forms a tissue engaging member and may be cut-off at an angle to the axis of the rod to form a tissue engaging edge. Apertures are provided in the extension adjacent the frusto-concial member so that treatment fluid supplied in the annular space between the tube and the extension may flow to the operative site. An aperture is provided in the frustoconical member between the extension and the tube so that fluid may also flow into the tube where it mixes with macerated tissue being directed through an aperture in the tube to a passageway which may have suction applied to help remove macerated material.

  15. Tissue spray ionization mass spectrometry for rapid recognition of human lung squamous cell carcinoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Yiping; Chen, Liru; Zhou, Wei; Chingin, Konstantin; Ouyang, Yongzhong; Zhu, Tenggao; Wen, Hua; Ding, Jianhua; Xu, Jianjun; Chen, Huanwen

    2015-05-01

    Tissue spray ionization mass spectrometry (TSI-MS) directly on small tissue samples has been shown to provide highly specific molecular information. In this study, we apply this method to the analysis of 38 pairs of human lung squamous cell carcinoma tissue (cancer) and adjacent normal lung tissue (normal). The main components of pulmonary surfactants, dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC, m/z 757.47), phosphatidylcholine (POPC, m/z 782.52), oleoyl phosphatidylcholine (DOPC, m/z 808.49), and arachidonic acid stearoyl phosphatidylcholine (SAPC, m/z 832.43), were identified using high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry. Monte Carlo sampling partial least squares linear discriminant analysis (PLS-LDA) was used to distinguish full-mass-range mass spectra of cancer samples from the mass spectra of normal tissues. With 5 principal components and 30 - 40 Monte Carlo samplings, the accuracy of cancer identification in matched tissue samples reached 94.42%. Classification of a tissue sample required less than 1 min, which is much faster than the analysis of frozen sections. The rapid, in situ diagnosis with minimal sample consumption provided by TSI-MS is advantageous for surgeons. TSI-MS allows them to make more informed decisions during surgery.

  16. Rapid evaluation of fresh ex vivo kidney tissue with full-field optical coherence tomography

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Manu; Robinson, Brian D.; Salamoon, Bekheit; Thouvenin, Olivier; Boccara, Claude; Mukherjee, Sushmita

    2015-01-01

    Background: Full-field optical coherence tomography (FFOCT) is a real-time imaging technique that rapidly generates images reminiscent of histology without any tissue processing, warranting its exploration for evaluation of ex vivo kidney tissue. Methods: Fresh tissue sections from tumor and adjacent nonneoplastic kidney (n = 25 nephrectomy specimens; clear cell renal cell carcinoma (CCRCC) = 12, papillary RCC (PRCC) = 4, chromophobe RCC (ChRCC) = 4, papillary urothelial carcinoma (PUC) = 1, angiomyolipoma (AML) = 2 and cystic nephroma = 2) were imaged with a commercial FFOCT device. Sections were submitted for routine histopathological diagnosis. Results: Glomeruli, tubules, interstitium, and blood vessels were identified in nonneoplastic tissue. In tumor sections, the normal architecture was completely replaced by either sheets of cells/trabeculae or papillary structures. The former pattern was seen predominantly in CCRCC/ChRCC and the latter in PRCC/PUC (as confirmed on H&E). Although the cellular details were not very prominent at this resolution, we could identify unique cytoplasmic signatures in some kidney tumors. For example, the hyper-intense punctate signal in the cytoplasm of CRCC represents glycogen/lipid, large cells with abundant hyper-intense cytoplasm representing histiocytes in PRCC, and signal-void large polygonal cell representing adipocytes in AML. According to a blinded analysis was performed by an uropathologist, all nonneoplastic tissues were differentiated from neoplastic tissues. Further, all benign tumors were called benign and malignant were called malignant. A diagnostic accuracy of 80% was obtained in subtyping the tumors. Conclusion: The ability of FFOCT to reliably differentiate nonneoplastic from neoplastic tissue and identify some tumor types makes it a valuable tool for rapid evaluation of ex vivo kidney tissue e.g. for intraoperative margin assessment and kidney biopsy adequacy. Recently, higher resolution images were achieved

  17. Imaging of uranium on rat brain sections using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry: a new tool for the study of critical substructures affined to heavy metals in tissues.

    PubMed

    Becker, J Sabine; Dobrowolska, Justina; Zoriy, Miroslav; Matusch, Andreas

    2008-09-01

    The specific toxicity of trace metals and compounds largely depends on their bioavailability in different organs or compartments of the organism considered. Imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) with a spatial resolution in the 100 microm range was developed and employed to study heavy metal distribution in brain tissues for toxicological screening. Rat brain post-mortem tissues were stained in an aqueous solution of either uranium or neodymium (metal concentration 100 microg g(-1)) for 3 h. The incubation of heavy metal in thin slices of brain tissue is followed by an imaging mass spectrometric LA-ICP-MS technique. Stained rat brain tissue (thickness 30 microm) were scanned with a focused laser beam (wavelength 266 nm, diameter of laser crater 100 microm and laser power density 3 x 10(9) W cm(-2)). The ion intensities of (235)U(+), (238)U(+), (145)Nd(+) and (146)Nd(+) were measured by LA-ICP-MS within the ablated area. For quantification purposes, matrix-matched laboratory standards were prepared by dosing each analyte to the pieces of homogenized brain tissue. Imaging LA-ICP-MS allows structures of interest to be identified and the relevant dose range to be estimated.

  18. Normal osteoid tissue

    PubMed Central

    Raina, Vinita

    1972-01-01

    The results of a histological study of normal osteoid tissue in man, the monkey, the dog, and the rat, using thin microtome sections of plastic-embedded undecalcified bone, are described. Osteoid tissue covers the entire bone surface, except for areas of active resorption, although the thickness of the layer of osteoid tissue varies at different sites and in different species of animals. The histological features of osteoid tissue, apart from its amount, are the same in the different species studied. Distinct bands or zones are recognizable in some layers of osteoid tissue, particularly those of greatest thickness, and their significance is discussed. Some of the histological features of the calcification front are described. Images PMID:4111820

  19. Avian Soft Tissue Surgery.

    PubMed

    Guzman, David Sanchez-Migallon

    2016-01-01

    Basic surgical instrumentation for avian soft tissue surgery includes soft tissue retractors, microsurgical instrumentation, surgical loupes, and head-mounted lights. Hemostasis is fundamental during the surgical procedures. The indications, approach, and complications associated with soft tissue surgeries of the integumentary (digit constriction repair, feather cyst excision, cranial wound repair, sternal wound repair, uropygial gland excision), gastrointestinal (ingluviotomy, crop biopsy, crop burn repair, celiotomy, coelomic hernia and pseudohernia repair, proventriculotomy, ventriculotomy, enterotomy, intestinal resection and anastomosis, cloacoplasty, cloacopexy), respiratory (rhinolith removal, sinusotomy, tracheotomy, tracheal resection and anastomosis, tracheostomy, pneumonectomy) and reproductive (ovocentesis, ovariectomy, salpingohysterectomy, cesarean section, orchidectomy, vasectomy, phallectomy) systems are reviewed.

  20. Exploring the spatial dimension of estrogen and progesterone signaling: detection of nuclear labeling in lobular epithelial cells in normal mammary glands adjacent to breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Comprehensive spatial assessment of hormone receptor immunohistochemistry staining in digital whole slide images of breast cancer requires accurate detection of positive nuclei within biologically relevant regions of interest. Herein, we propose a combination of automated region labeling at low resolution and subsequent detailed tissue evaluation of subcellular structures in lobular structures adjacent to breast cancer, as a proof of concept for the approach to analyze estrogen and progesterone receptor expression in the spatial context of surrounding tissue. Methods Routinely processed paraffin sections of hormone receptor-negative ductal invasive breast cancer were stained for estrogen and progesterone receptor by immunohistochemistry. Digital whole slides were analyzed using commercially available image analysis software for advanced object-based analysis, applying textural, relational, and geometrical features. Mammary gland lobules were targeted as regions of interest for analysis at subcellular level in relation to their distance from coherent tumor as neighboring relevant tissue compartment. Lobule detection quality was evaluated visually by a pathologist. Results After rule set optimization in an estrogen receptor-stained training set, independent test sets (progesterone and estrogen receptor) showed acceptable detection quality in 33% of cases. Presence of disrupted lobular structures, either by brisk inflammatory infiltrate, or diffuse tumor infiltration, was common in cases with lower detection accuracy. Hormone receptor detection tended towards higher percentage of positively stained nuclei in lobules distant from the tumor border as compared to areas adjacent to the tumor. After adaptations of image analysis, corresponding evaluations were also feasible in hormone receptor positive breast cancer, with some limitations of automated separation of mammary epithelial cells from hormone receptor-positive tumor cells. Conclusions As a proof of

  1. Surgical treatment of complex axis fractures with adjacent segment instability.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Xia, Tian; Dong, Shuanghai; Zhao, Qinghua; Tian, Jiwei

    2012-03-01

    This study investigates the clinical and radiographic characteristics of complex axis fractures with adjacent segment instability and describes the outcome of surgical treatment. Twenty-one patients (14 male, seven female; mean age=34 years) with complex axis fractures and adjacent segment instability who were treated between August 2003 and June 2009 were retrospectively reviewed. Treatment selection was based on fracture type and stability of the upper cervical segments. All patients were immobilized with a hard collar for three months after surgery. The mean follow-up period was 12 months (range=6-36 months). No intraoperative surgery-related complications were observed and fusion was achieved in all patients. The outcome was excellent for 17 patients, good for two patients, fair for one patient, and poor for one patient. The upper cervical segments that can become unstable due to complex axis fractures include the atlantoaxial and C2-3 joints. Recommended surgical treatments produce good results.

  2. Osmium complex binding to mismatched methylcytosine: effect of adjacent bases.

    PubMed

    Nomura, Akiko; Tainaka, Kazuki; Okamoto, Akimitsu

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the efficiency of osmium complex formation at 5-methylcytosine in mismatched DNA duplexes. Osmium complexation was not observed in fully matched duplexes, whereas the complexation site and efficiency in mismatched duplexes depended on the 5'-neighboring base of the 5-methylcytosine. In particular, when the base adjacent to the 5' side of the mismatched base pair was thymine, a unique side reaction was observed. However, the mismatched base pairs did not influence the selectivity of osmium complexation with methylated DNA.

  3. Conference room 211, adjacent to commander's quarters, with vault door ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Conference room 211, adjacent to commander's quarters, with vault door at right. Projection area at center is equipped with automatic security drapes. Projection room uses a 45 degree mirror to reflect the image onto the frosted glass screen. Door on far left leads to display area senior battle staff viewing bridge, and the commander's quarters - March Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command, Combat Operations Center, 5220 Riverside Drive, Moreno Valley, Riverside County, CA

  4. 20. Interior view of fuel storage pit or vault adjacent ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. Interior view of fuel storage pit or vault adjacent to Test Cell 9 in Component Test Laboratory (T-27), looking west. Photograph shows upgraded instrumentation, piping, tanks, and technological modifications installed in 1997-99 to accommodate component testing requirements for the Atlas V missile. - Air Force Plant PJKS, Systems Integration Laboratory, Components Test Laboratory, Waterton Canyon Road & Colorado Highway 121, Lakewood, Jefferson County, CO

  5. Four-body central configurations with adjacent equal masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Yiyang; Li, Bingyu; Zhang, Shiqing

    2017-04-01

    For any convex non-collinear central configuration of the planar Newtonian 4-body problem with adjacent equal masses m1 =m2 ≠m3 =m4, with equal lengths for the two diagonals, we prove it must possess a symmetry and must be an isosceles trapezoid; furthermore, which is also an isosceles trapezoid when the length between m1 and m4 equals the length between m2 and m3.

  6. Processing multiple non-adjacent dependencies: evidence from sequence learning.

    PubMed

    de Vries, Meinou H; Petersson, Karl Magnus; Geukes, Sebastian; Zwitserlood, Pienie; Christiansen, Morten H

    2012-07-19

    Processing non-adjacent dependencies is considered to be one of the hallmarks of human language. Assuming that sequence-learning tasks provide a useful way to tap natural-language-processing mechanisms, we cross-modally combined serial reaction time and artificial-grammar learning paradigms to investigate the processing of multiple nested (A(1)A(2)A(3)B(3)B(2)B(1)) and crossed dependencies (A(1)A(2)A(3)B(1)B(2)B(3)), containing either three or two dependencies. Both reaction times and prediction errors highlighted problems with processing the middle dependency in nested structures (A(1)A(2)A(3)B(3)_B(1)), reminiscent of the 'missing-verb effect' observed in English and French, but not with crossed structures (A(1)A(2)A(3)B(1)_B(3)). Prior linguistic experience did not play a major role: native speakers of German and Dutch-which permit nested and crossed dependencies, respectively-showed a similar pattern of results for sequences with three dependencies. As for sequences with two dependencies, reaction times and prediction errors were similar for both nested and crossed dependencies. The results suggest that constraints on the processing of multiple non-adjacent dependencies are determined by the specific ordering of the non-adjacent dependencies (i.e. nested or crossed), as well as the number of non-adjacent dependencies to be resolved (i.e. two or three). Furthermore, these constraints may not be specific to language but instead derive from limitations on structured sequence learning.

  7. 38. VIEW OF COTTRELL MAGNETIC IMPULSE GENERATOR ADJACENT TO SIX ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. VIEW OF COTTRELL MAGNETIC IMPULSE GENERATOR ADJACENT TO SIX GAP ROTARY RECTIFIER. THIS UNIT GENERATED A MAGNETIC PULSE WHICH WAS TRANSMITTED TO THE COLLECTION PLATES IN THE ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATOR CHAMBER. THESE PERIODIC PULSES VIBRATE THE PLATES AND CAUSE PRECIPITATED ARTICLES OF SMOKE AND FLY ASH TO FALL TO THE BOTTOM OF THE PRECIPITATOR CHAMBER. - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Cos Cob Power Plant, Sound Shore Drive, Greenwich, Fairfield County, CT

  8. Predicting Agenesis of the Mandibular Second Premolar from Adjacent Teeth

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Early diagnosis of agenesis of the mandibular second premolar (P2) enhances management of the dental arch in the growing child. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship in the development of the mandibular first molar (M1) and first premolar (P1) at early stages of P2 (second premolar). Specifically, we ask if the likelihood of P2 agenesis can be predicted from adjacent developing teeth. We selected archived dental panoramic radiographs with P2 at crown formation stages (N = 212) and calculated the likelihood of P2 at initial mineralisation stage ‘Ci’ given the tooth stage of adjacent teeth. Our results show that the probability of observing mandibular P2 at initial mineralisation stage ‘Ci’ decreased as both the adjacent P1 and M1 matured. The modal stage at P2 ‘Ci’ was P1 ‘Coc’ (cusp outline complete) and M1 ‘Crc’ (crown complete). Initial mineralisation of P2 was observed up to P1 ‘Crc’ and M1 stage ‘R½’ (root half). The chance of observing P2 at least ‘Coc’ (coalescence of cusps) was considerably greater prior to these threshold stages compared to later stages of P1 and M1. These findings suggest that P2 is highly unlikely to develop if P1 is beyond ‘Crc’ and M1 is beyond ‘R½’. PMID:26673218

  9. Adjacent Segment Disease in the Cervical and Lumbar Spine.

    PubMed

    Tobert, Daniel G; Antoci, Valentin; Patel, Shaun P; Saadat, Ehsan; Bono, Christopher M

    2017-04-01

    Adjacent segment disease (ASD) is disappointing long-term outcome for both the patient and clinician. In contrast to adjacent segment degeneration, which is a common radiographic finding, ASD is less common. The incidence of ASD in both the cervical and lumbar spine is between 2% and 4% per year, and ASD is a significant contributor to reoperation rates after spinal arthrodesis. The etiology of ASD is multifactorial, stemming from existing spondylosis at adjacent levels, predisposed risk to degenerative changes, and altered biomechanical forces near a previous fusion site. Numerous studies have sought to identify both patient and surgical risk factors for ASD, but a consistent, sole predictor has yet to be found. Spinal arthroplasty techniques seek to preserve physiological biomechanics, thereby minimizing the risk of ASD, and long-term clinical outcome studies will help quantify its efficacy. Treatment strategies for ASD are initially nonoperative, provided a progressive neurological deficit is not present. The spine surgeon is afforded many surgical strategies once operative treatment is elected. The goal of this manuscript is to consider the etiologies of ASD, review its manifestations, and offer an approach to treatment.

  10. Fouling assemblages on offshore wind power plants and adjacent substrata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilhelmsson, Dan; Malm, Torleif

    2008-09-01

    A significant expansion of offshore wind power is expected in the near future, with thousands of turbines in coastal waters, and various aspects of how this may influence the coastal ecology including disturbance effects from noise, shadows, electromagnetic fields, and changed hydrological conditions are accordingly of concern. Further, wind power plants constitute habitats for a number of organisms, and may locally alter assemblage composition and biomass of invertebrates, algae and fish. In this study, fouling assemblages on offshore wind turbines were compared to adjacent hard substrate. Influences of the structures on the seabed were also investigated. The turbines differed significantly from adjacent boulders in terms of assemblage composition of epibiota and motile invertebrates. Species number and Shannon-Wiener diversity were, also, significantly lower on the wind power plants. It was also indicated that the turbines might have affected assemblages of invertebrates and algae on adjacent boulders. Off shore wind power plant offer atypical substrates for fouling assemblages in terms of orientation, depth range, structure, and surface texture. Some potential ecological implications of the addition of these non-natural habitats for coastal ecology are discussed.

  11. Perceptual processing of adjacent and nonadjacent tactile nontargets.

    PubMed

    Evans, P M; Craig, J C; Rinker, M A

    1992-11-01

    Previous research has shown that subjects appear unable to restrict processing to a single finger and ignore a stimulus presented to an adjacent finger. Furthermore, the evidence suggests that, at least for moving stimuli, an adjacent nontarget is fully processed to the level of incipient response activation. The present study replicated and expanded upon these original findings. The results of Experiment 1 showed that an equally large response-competition effect occurred when the nontarget was presented to adjacent and nonadjacent fingers (on the same hand). The results of Experiment 2 showed that the effects observed in Experiment 1 (and in previous studies) were also obtained with stationary stimuli. Although small, there was some indication in the results of Experiment 2 that interference may dissipate more rapidly with distance with stationary stimuli. An additional finding was that interference effects were observed in both experiments with temporal separations between the target and nontarget of up to 100 msec. In Experiment 3, target and nontarget stimuli were presented to opposite hands. Although reduced, interference was still evident with target and nontarget stimuli presented to opposite hands. Varying the physical distance between hands did not produce any change in the amount of interference. The results suggest that the focus of attention on the skin extends nearly undiminished across the fingers of one hand and is not dependent upon the physical distance between sites of stimulation.

  12. Using BRDFs for accurate albedo calculations and adjacency effect corrections

    SciTech Connect

    Borel, C.C.; Gerstl, S.A.W.

    1996-09-01

    In this paper the authors discuss two uses of BRDFs in remote sensing: (1) in determining the clear sky top of the atmosphere (TOA) albedo, (2) in quantifying the effect of the BRDF on the adjacency point-spread function and on atmospheric corrections. The TOA spectral albedo is an important parameter retrieved by the Multi-angle Imaging Spectro-Radiometer (MISR). Its accuracy depends mainly on how well one can model the surface BRDF for many different situations. The authors present results from an algorithm which matches several semi-empirical functions to the nine MISR measured BRFs that are then numerically integrated to yield the clear sky TOA spectral albedo in four spectral channels. They show that absolute accuracies in the albedo of better than 1% are possible for the visible and better than 2% in the near infrared channels. Using a simplified extensive radiosity model, the authors show that the shape of the adjacency point-spread function (PSF) depends on the underlying surface BRDFs. The adjacency point-spread function at a given offset (x,y) from the center pixel is given by the integral of transmission-weighted products of BRDF and scattering phase function along the line of sight.

  13. Presence of interleukin-4-producing cells for human bone regeneration after application of guided tissue regeneration membranes.

    PubMed

    Kabashima, H; Nagata, K

    2001-07-01

    To study the process of bone regeneration we examined three samples of periapical regenerative tissue obtained from two patients under a guided tissue regeneration treatment in endodontic surgery by the immunohistochemical and enzyme histochemical methods. The regenerative tissue consisted of a large number of fibroblast-like cells and a small number of mononuclear cells. Fibroblast-like cells stained positively for alkaline phosphatase and osteopontin, whereas mononuclear cells stained positively for CD4. Interleukin-4-producing cells could be detected in adjacent sections. However, interferon-y-producing cells could not be detected. These findings suggest that interleukin-4-producing cells may be one of the elements associated with success in the human bone regeneration process in vivo.

  14. Comparison of Methylmercury Ecology in Adjacent Coastal Plain Rivers in South Carolina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradley, P. M.; Journey, C. A.; Chapelle, F. H.; Lowery, M. A.; Conrads, P. A.

    2010-12-01

    Fish-tissue mercury concentrations (approximately 2 micrograms per gram) in the Edisto River basin of South Carolina are among the highest recorded in the United States. Substantially lower mercury concentrations (approximately 0.2 microgram per gram) are reported in fish from the adjacent Congaree River sub-basin and the Congaree National Park. Concentrations of total mercury were statistically higher in sediments from the Congaree River compared with those in sediments from the Edisto River. No statistically significant differences were observed in concentrations of methylmercury or in the range of net methylation potentials in sediments collected from various Edisto and Congaree hydrologic settings. In both systems, net methylation potentials were an order of magnitude or more lower in stream-channel sediments than in wetland sediments. These results are not consistent with the hypothesis that differences in fish-tissue mercury between the Edisto and Congaree basins reflect fundamental differences in the potential for each system to methylate mercury. The marked differences in net methylation potential observed between the wetland and in-stream settings suggested an alternative hypothesis: differences in the efficiency of methylmercury transport from zones of production (wetlands) to points of entry into the food chain (channels) contribute to the observed differences in fish-tissue mercury concen¬trations between the two river systems. An assessment of the flood hydrodynamics of these two rivers is consistent with the alternative hypothesis.

  15. In situ hybridization for Coccidioides immitis 5.8S ribosomal RNA sequences in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded pulmonary specimens using a locked nucleic acid probe: a rapid means for identification in tissue sections.

    PubMed

    Montone, Kathleen T; Litzky, Leslie A; Feldman, Michael D; Peterman, Heather; Mathis, Benjamin; Baliff, Jeffrey; Kaiser, Larry R; Kucharczuk, John; Nachamkin, Irving

    2010-06-01

    Coccidioides immitis/Coccidioides posadasii are common causes of pulmonary infection in certain geographic areas, and are highly infectious when working with culture isolates in the laboratory. Rapid techniques to accurately identify this pathogen in tissues may be of benefit for diagnosis and in limiting the exposure of laboratory personnel to this agent. Locked nucleic acids (LNA) are modified nucleotides in which a ribonucleoside is linked between the 2'-oxygen and the 4'-carbon atoms with a methylene unit. LNA oligonucleotides exhibit increased thermal stability and make excellent probes for in situ hybridization (ISH). In this study, ISH utilizing a biotin-labeled LNA probe targeting Coccidioides sp. ribosomal RNA sequences in 6 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded pulmonary tissue specimens from 6 patients with culture positive or histologic findings suggestive of Coccidioides sp. infection is described. The cultures of the pulmonary specimens confirmed C. immitis in 3 of 6 patients. The ISH procedure with the LNA probe was positive in all 6 cases, although the number of organisms that were highlighted varied from rare to numerous. ISH with a biotin-labeled DNA probe of the same sequence was positive in 4 of the 6 cases and the signal intensity and number of organisms was much less than that observed with the LNA probe. Negative control tissues containing a variety of different fungal pathogens including Aspergillus sp., Fusarium sp., Blastomyces dermatitidis, Candida sp, Histoplasma capsulatum, and Zygomyces did not hybridize with the LNA and DNA probes. ISH with an LNA oligonucleotide probe targeting Coccidioides sp. ribosomal RNA is useful for rapid ISH. ISH could be rapidly performed when fungal pathogens are observed in tissue but cultures are negative or have not been performed.

  16. Tissue types (image)

    MedlinePlus

    There are 4 basic types of tissue: connective tissue, epithelial tissue, muscle tissue, and nervous tissue. Connective tissue supports other tissues and binds them together (bone, blood, and lymph tissues). ...

  17. Expandable mixing section gravel and cobble eductor

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Arthur L.; Krawza, Kenneth I.

    1997-01-01

    In a hydraulically powered pump for excavating and transporting slurries in hich it is immersed, the improvement of a gravel and cobble eductor including an expandable mixing section, comprising: a primary flow conduit that terminates in a nozzle that creates a water jet internal to a tubular mixing section of the pump when water pressure is applied from a primary supply flow; a tubular mixing section having a center line in alignment with the nozzle that creates a water jet; a mixing section/exit diffuser column that envelopes the flexible liner; and a secondary inlet conduit that forms an opening at a bas portion of the column and adjacent to the nozzle and water jet to receive water saturated gravel as a secondary flow that mixes with the primary flow inside of the mixing section to form a combined total flow that exits the mixing section and decelerates in the exit diffuser.

  18. Impact of adjacent land use on coastal wetland sediments.

    PubMed

    Karstens, Svenja; Buczko, Uwe; Jurasinski, Gerald; Peticzka, Robert; Glatzel, Stephan

    2016-04-15

    Coastal wetlands link terrestrial with marine ecosystems and are influenced from both land and sea. Therefore, they are ecotones with strong biogeochemical gradients. We analyzed sediment characteristics including macronutrients (C, N, P, K, Mg, Ca, S) and heavy metals (Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Al, Co, Cr, Ni) of two coastal wetlands dominated by Phragmites australis at the Darss-Zingst Bodden Chain, a lagoon system at the Southern Baltic Sea, to identify the impact of adjacent land use and to distinguish between influences from land or sea. In the wetland directly adjacent to cropland (study site Dabitz) heavy metal concentrations were significantly elevated. Fertilizer application led to heavy metal accumulation in the sediments of the adjacent wetland zones. In contrast, at the other study site (Michaelsdorf), where the hinterland has been used as pasture, heavy metal concentrations were low. While the amount of macronutrients was also influenced by vegetation characteristics (e.g. carbon) or water chemistry (e.g. sulfate), the accumulation of heavy metals is regarded as purely anthropogenic influence. A principal component analysis (PCA) based on the sediment data showed that the wetland fringes of the two study sites are not distinguishable, neither in their macronutrient status nor in their concentrations of heavy metals, whereas the interior zones exhibit large differences in terms of heavy metal concentrations. This suggests that seaside influences are minor compared to influences from land. Altogether, heavy metal concentrations were still below national precautionary and action values. However, if we regard the macronutrient and heavy metal concentrations in the wetland fringes as the natural background values, an accumulation of trace elements from agricultural production in the hinterland is apparent. Thus, coastal wetlands bordering croplands may function as effective pollutant buffers today, but the future development has to be monitored closely to avoid

  19. Adjacent segment disease and C-ADR: promises fulfilled?

    PubMed Central

    Riew, K Daniel; Schenk-Kisser, Jeannette M.; Skelly, Andrea C.

    2012-01-01

    Study design: Systematic review. Clinical question: Do the rates and timing of adjacent segment disease (ASD) differ between cervical total disc arthroplasty (C-ADR) and anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) in patients treated for cervical degenerative disc disease? Methods: A systematic search of MEDLINE/PubMed and bibliographies of key articles was done to identify studies with long-term follow-up for symptomatic and/or radiographic ASD comparing C-ADR with fusion for degenerative disc disease of the cervical spine. The focus was on studies with longer follow-up (48–60 months) of primary US Food and Drug Administration trials of Prestige ST, Prodisc-C, and Bryan devices as available. Trials of other discs with a minimum of 24 months follow-up were considered for inclusion. Studies evaluating lordosis/angle changes at adjacent segments and case series were excluded. Results: From 14 citations identified, four reports from three randomized controlled trials and four nonrandomized studies are summarized. Risk differences between C-ADR and ACF for symptomatic ASD were 1.5%–2.3% and were not significant across RCT reports. Time to development of ASD did not significantly differ between treatments. Rates of radiographic ASD were variable. No meaningful comparison of ASD rates based on disc design was possible. No statistical differences in adjacent segment range of motion were noted between treatment groups. Conclusion: Our analysis reveals that, to date, there is no evidence that arthroplasty decreases ASD compared with ACDF; the promise of arthroplasty decreasing ASD has not been fulfilled. PMID:23236312

  20. CLOUD PEAK PRIMITIVE AREA AND ADJACENT AREAS, WYOMING.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kiilsgaard, Thor H.; Patten, Lowell L.

    1984-01-01

    The results of a mineral survey of the Cloud Peak Primitive Area and adjacent areas in Wyoming indicated little promise for the occurrence of mineral resources. There are some prospect workings, particularly in the northern part of the area, but in none of them were there indications that ore had been mined. Samples from the workings, from nearby rocks and sediments from streams that drain the area did not yield any metal values of significance. The crystalline rocks that underlie the area do not contain oil and gas or coal, products that are extracted from the younger rocks that underlie basins on both sides of the study area.

  1. Stereoselective Organocatalytic Synthesis of Oxindoles with Adjacent Tetrasubstituted Stereocenters.

    PubMed

    Engl, Oliver D; Fritz, Sven P; Wennemers, Helma

    2015-07-06

    Oxindoles with adjacent tetrasubstituted stereocenters were obtained in high yields and stereoselectivities by organocatalyzed conjugate addition reactions of monothiomalonates (MTMs) to isatin-derived N-Cbz ketimines. The method requires only a low catalyst loading (2 mol %) and proceeds under mild reaction conditions. Both enantiomers are accessible in good yields and excellent stereoselectivities by using either Takemoto's catalyst or a cinchona alkaloid derivative. The synthetic methodology allowed establishment of a straightforward route to derivatives of the gastrin/cholecystokinin-B receptor antagonist AG-041R.

  2. Interaction of Cracks Between Two Adjacent Indents in Glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, S. R.; Salem, J. A.

    1993-01-01

    Experimental observations of the interaction behavior of cracks between two adjacent indents were made using an indentation technique in soda-lime glass. It was specifically demonstrated how one indent crack initiates and propagates in the vicinity of another indent crack. Several types of crack interactions were examined by changing the orientation and distance of one indent relative to the other. It was found that the residual stress field produced by elastic/plastic indentation has a significant influence on controlling the mode of crack interaction. The interaction of an indent crack with a free surface was also investigated for glass and ceramic specimens.

  3. Astronaut Charles Duke stands at rock adjacent to 'House Rock'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Astronaut Charles M. Duke Jr., Apollo 16 lunar module pilot, stands at a rock adjacent (south) to the huge 'House Rock' (barely out of view at right edge). Note shadow at extreme right center where the two moon-exploring crewmen of the mission sampled what they referred to as the 'eastwest split of House Rock' or the open space between this rock and 'House Rock'. Duke has a sample bag in his hand, and a lunar surface rake leans against the large boulder.

  4. Empires and percolation: stochastic merging of adjacent regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldous, D. J.; Ong, J. R.; Zhou, W.

    2010-01-01

    We introduce a stochastic model in which adjacent planar regions A, B merge stochastically at some rate λ(A, B) and observe analogies with the well-studied topics of mean-field coagulation and of bond percolation. Do infinite regions appear in finite time? We give a simple condition on λ for this hegemony property to hold, and another simple condition for it to not hold, but there is a large gap between these conditions, which includes the case λ(A, B) ≡ 1. For this case, a non-rigorous analytic argument and simulations suggest hegemony.

  5. Differential gene expression profiling in aggressive bladder transitional cell carcinoma compared to the adjacent microscopically normal urothelium by microdissection-SMART cDNA PCR-SSH.

    PubMed

    Wang, H T; Ma, F L; Ma, X B; Han, R F; Zhang, Y B; Chang, J W

    2006-01-01

    Identifying novel and known genes that are differentially expressed in aggressive bladder transitional cell carcinoma (BTCC) has important implications in understanding the biology of bladder tumorigenesis and developing new diagnostic and therapeutic agents. In this study we identified the differential gene expression profiles comparing tumor to the adjacent microscopically normal mucosa by manual microdissection on frozen sections. The RNAs extracted from microdissected tissues were amplified by SMART cDNA PCR technology to generate forward subtractive cDNA library by suppressive subtractive hybridization (SSH). We obtained 376 positive clones, one hundred clones of aggressive BTCC subtracted cDNA library were selected at random and inserts were reamplified by PCR. After differential screening by reverse dot blotting, 73 positive clones, that contend inserts putatively upregulated in aggressive BTCC, were further analysed by DNA sequencing, GenBank and EST database searching. Sequencing results showed that 66 clones stand for 23 known genes and 7 clones for three new EST (Genbank number: DN236875, DN236874 and DN236873). In conclusion, microdissection-SMART cDNA PCR-SSH allowed for an efficient way to identify aggressive BTCC-specific differential expressed genes that may potentially be involved in the carcinogenesis and/or progression of aggressive BTCC. These differentially expressed genes may be of potential utility as therapeutic and diagnostic targets for aggressive BTCC.

  6. Method for closing a drift between adjacent in-situ oil shale retorts

    SciTech Connect

    Hines, A.E.

    1984-04-10

    A row of horizontally spaced-apart in situ oil shale retorts is formed in a subterranean formation containing oil shale. Each row of retorts is formed by excavating development drifts at different elevations through opposite side boundaries of a plurality of retorts in the row of retorts. Each retort is formed by explosively expanding formation toward one or more voids within the boundaries of the retort site to form a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles containing oil shale in each retort. Following formation of each retort, the retort development drifts on the advancing side of the retort are closed off by covering formation particles within the development drift with a layer of crushed oil shale particles having a particle size smaller than the average particle size of oil shale particles in the adjacent retort. In one embodiment, the crushed oil shale particles are pneumatically loaded into the development drift to pack the particles tightly all the way to the top of the drift and throughout the entire cross section of the drift. The closure between adjacent retorts provided by the finely divided oil shale provides sufficient resistance to gas flow through the development drift to effectively inhibit gas flow through the drift during subsequent retorting operations.

  7. Method for closing a drift between adjacent in situ oil shale retorts

    DOEpatents

    Hines, Alex E.

    1984-01-01

    A row of horizontally spaced-apart in situ oil shale retorts is formed in a subterranean formation containing oil shale. Each row of retorts is formed by excavating development drifts at different elevations through opposite side boundaries of a plurality of retorts in the row of retorts. Each retort is formed by explosively expanding formation toward one or more voids within the boundaries of the retort site to form a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles containing oil shale in each retort. Following formation of each retort, the retort development drifts on the advancing side of the retort are closed off by covering formation particles within the development drift with a layer of crushed oil shale particles having a particle size smaller than the average particle size of oil shale particles in the adjacent retort. In one embodiment, the crushed oil shale particles are pneumatically loaded into the development drift to pack the particles tightly all the way to the top of the drift and throughout the entire cross section of the drift. The closure between adjacent retorts provided by the finely divided oil shale provides sufficient resistance to gas flow through the development drift to effectively inhibit gas flow through the drift during subsequent retorting operations.

  8. Floor Plans: Section "AA", Section "BB"; Floor Framing Plans: Section ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Floor Plans: Section "A-A", Section "B-B"; Floor Framing Plans: Section "A-A", Section "B-B" - Fort Washington, Fort Washington Light, Northeast side of Potomac River at Fort Washington Park, Fort Washington, Prince George's County, MD

  9. Temporal and spatial distribution of dissolved oxygen in the Pearl River Estuary and adjacent coastal waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Kedong; Lin, Zhifeng; Ke, Zhiyuan

    2004-10-01

    The Pearl River is one of the large rivers in the world and it discharges to the northern part of the South China Sea. There has been a concern about the deterioration of dissolved oxygen conditions in the Pearl River estuary and adjacent coastal waters. In this study, historical data on dissolved oxygen (DO) from 1980s, recent data from a summer cruise in 1999, and a 10-year time series in DO for 1990-2000 were used to examine spatial and temporal distribution of DO in the Pearl River estuary and adjacent coastal waters near Hong Kong. In the adjacent coastal waters, low oxygen waters <4 mg l-1 occurred in large areas during the summer of 1981, but DO rarely dropped to <3 mg l-1. In the Pearl River estuary, DO was 3.5-4 mg l-1 in the eastern part, but was >4 mg l-1 in the western part in August 1984. In July 1999, DO was<4 mg l-1 in a near bottom 2 m layer in a large area of the estuary and was <2.5 mg l-1 in the eastern section, just inside the entrance of the estuary. In the coastal waters adjacent to Hong Kong, DO was>4 mg l-1. The 9-year time series showed that DO decreased periodically in summer, but rarely dropped to <3 mg l-1. There was no apparent trend of decreasing DO between 1990 and 2000. Compared to August 1984, DO decreased significantly during the summer of 1999 in the Pearl River estuary, but large scale hypoxia (<2 mg l-1) was not observed. The spatial distribution of low oxygen waters may be controlled by estuarine circulation because DO was significantly correlated with salinity in the summers of 1981 and 1984. Furthermore, the spatial distribution of DO in the bottom layer was parallel to the topography of the bottom, indicating the importance of benthic consumption of DO in the sediment and the subsequent flux of low DO waters from the sediment-water interface resuspended by physical mixing. Relative to the high loading of nitrogen from the Pearl River, the present PO4 concentration is still low. It is possible that the lack of large areas of

  10. Stress Wave Interaction Between Two Adjacent Blast Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Changping; Johansson, Daniel; Nyberg, Ulf; Beyglou, Ali

    2016-05-01

    Rock fragmentation by blasting is determined by the level and state of stress in the rock mass subjected to blasting. With the application of electronic detonators, some researchers stated that it is possible to achieve improved fragmentation through stress wave superposition with very short delay times. This hypothesis was studied through theoretical analysis in the paper. First, the stress in rock mass induced by a single-hole shot was analyzed with the assumptions of infinite velocity of detonation and infinite charge length. Based on the stress analysis of a single-hole shot, the stress history and tensile stress distribution between two adjacent holes were presented for cases of simultaneous initiation and 1 ms delayed initiation via stress superposition. The results indicated that the stress wave interaction is local around the collision point. Then, the tensile stress distribution at the extended line of two adjacent blast holes was analyzed for a case of 2 ms delay. The analytical results showed that the tensile stress on the extended line increases due to the stress wave superposition under the assumption that the influence of neighboring blast hole on the stress wave propagation can be neglected. However, the numerical results indicated that this assumption is unreasonable and yields contrary results. The feasibility of improving fragmentation via stress wave interaction with precise initiation was also discussed. The analysis in this paper does not support that the interaction of stress waves improves the fragmentation.

  11. Coexistence Analysis of Adjacent Long Term Evolution (LTE) Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Aulama, Mohannad M.; Olama, Mohammed M

    2013-01-01

    As the licensing and deployment of Long term evolution (LTE) systems are ramping up, the study of coexistence of LTE systems is an essential topic in civil and military applications. In this paper, we present a coexistence study of adjacent LTE systems aiming at evaluating the effect of inter-system interference on system capacity and performance as a function of some of the most common mitigation techniques: frequency guard band, base station (BS) antenna coupling loss, and user equipment (UE) antenna spacing. A system model is constructed for two collocated macro LTE networks. The developed model takes into consideration the RF propagation environment, power control scheme, and adjacent channel interference. Coexistence studies are performed for a different combination of time/frequency division duplex (TDD/FDD) systems under three different guard-bands of 0MHz, 5MHz, and 10MHz. Numerical results are presented to advice the minimum frequency guard band, BS coupling loss, and UE antenna isolation required for a healthy system operation.

  12. Tissue repair

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    As living beings that encounter every kind of traumatic event from paper cut to myocardial infarction, we must possess ways to heal damaged tissues. While some animals are able to regrow complete body parts following injury (such as the earthworm who grows a new head following bisection), humans are sadly incapable of such feats. Our means of recovery following tissue damage consists largely of repair rather than pure regeneration. Thousands of times in our lives, a meticulously scripted but unseen wound healing drama plays, with cells serving as actors, extracellular matrix as the setting and growth factors as the means of communication. This article briefly reviews the cells involved in tissue repair, their signaling and proliferation mechanisms and the function of the extracellular matrix, then presents the actors and script for the three acts of the tissue repair drama. PMID:21220961

  13. Tissue Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metz, James

    2016-01-01

    Every day, 27,000 trees are used to make bathroom tissue. Americans use an average of 23.6 rolls per person per year, and more than 7 billion rolls of toilet paper are sold yearly in the United States alone. Perhaps the amount of bathroom tissue used can be reduced by changing the dimensions of the paper or the core. This brief article presents…

  14. Increased oxidative DNA damage seen in renal biopsies adjacent stones in patients with nephrolithiasis.

    PubMed

    Kittikowit, Wipawee; Waiwijit, Uraiwan; Boonla, Chanchai; Ruangvejvorachai, Preecha; Pimratana, Chaowat; Predanon, Chagkrapan; Ratchanon, Supoj; Tosukhowong, Piyaratana

    2014-10-01

    Urinary excretion of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), a marker of oxidative DNA damage, is significantly higher in nephrolithiasis patients than in healthy individuals, indicating that these patients have higher degree of oxidative stress. In the present study, we investigated 8-OHdG expression in renal biopsies of patients with nephrolithiasis and in renal tubular cells (HK-2 cells) exposed to calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM). We performed immunohistochemical staining for 8-OHdG in renal biopsies adjacent stones obtained from 28 patients with nephrolithiasis. Controls were noncancerous renal tissues from nephrectomies of patients with renal cancer. 8-OHdG was overexpressed in the nucleus of renal tubular cells in patients with nephrolithiasis compared with controls. Only one nephrolithiasis biopsy was negative for 8-OHdG, whereas in 19 cases 8-OHdG was highly expressed. The level of expression of 8-OHdG among patients with calcium oxalate (mostly mixed with calcium phosphate) and uric acid stones was not significantly different. Increased leukocyte infiltration was observed in renal tissues from patients with nephrolithiasis. Exposure of HK-2 cells to COM caused increased intracellular reactive oxygen species and nuclear expression of 8-OHdG. To our knowledge, this is the first report of increased 8-OHdG expression in renal tubular cells of patients with nephrolithiasis. In vitro, COM crystals were capable of inducing oxidative damage of DNA in the proximal renal tubular cells.

  15. 3D reconstruction of digitized histological sections for vasculature quantification in the mouse hind limb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yiwen; Pickering, J. Geoffrey; Nong, Zengxuan; Gibson, Eli; Ward, Aaron D.

    2014-03-01

    In contrast to imaging modalities such as magnetic resonance imaging and micro computed tomography, digital histology reveals multiple stained tissue features at high resolution (0.25μm/pixel). However, the two-dimensional (2D) nature of histology challenges three-dimensional (3D) quantification and visualization of the different tissue components, cellular structures, and subcellular elements. This limitation is particularly relevant to the vasculature, which has a complex and variable structure within tissues. The objective of this study was to perform a fully automated 3D reconstruction of histology tissue in the mouse hind limb preserving the accurate systemic orientation of the tissues, stained with hematoxylin and immunostained for smooth muscle α actin. We performed a 3D reconstruction using pairwise rigid registrations of 5μm thick, paraffin-embedded serial sections, digitized at 0.25μm/pixel. Each registration was performed using the iterative closest points algorithm on blood vessel landmarks. Landmarks were vessel centroids, determined according to a signed distance map of each pixel to a decision boundary in hue-saturation-value color space; this decision boundary was determined based on manual annotation of a separate training set. Cell nuclei were then automatically extracted and corresponded to refine the vessel landmark registration. Homologous nucleus landmark pairs appearing on not more than two adjacent slides were chosen to avoid registrations which force curved or non-sectionorthogonal structures to be straight and section-orthogonal. The median accumulated target registration errors ± interquartile ranges for the vessel landmark registration, and the nucleus landmark refinement were 43.4+/-42.8μm and 2.9+/-1.7μm, respectively (p<0.0001). Fully automatic and accurate 3D rigid reconstruction of mouse hind limb histology imaging is feasible based on extracted vasculature and nuclei.

  16. 25 CFR 166.307 - Will the grazing capacity be increased if I graze adjacent trust or non-trust rangelands not...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Will the grazing capacity be increased if I graze adjacent trust or non-trust rangelands not covered by the permit? 166.307 Section 166.307 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GRAZING PERMITS Land and Operations...

  17. Protocol for qRT-PCR analysis from formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissue sections from diffuse large b-cell lymphoma: Validation of the six-gene predictor score

    PubMed Central

    Tekin, Nilgun; Conget, Paulette; Bruna, Flavia; Timar, Botond; Gagyi, Eva; Basak, Ranjan; Naik, Omkar; Auewarakul, Chirayu; Sritana, Narongrit; Levy, Debora; Cerci, Juliano Julio; Bydlowski, Sergio Paulo; Pereira, Juliana; Dimamay, Mark Pierre; Natividad, Filipinas; Chung, June-Key; Belder, Nevin; Kuzu, Isinsu; Paez, Diana; Dondi, Maurizio; Carr, Robert

    2016-01-01

    As a part of an international study on the molecular analysis of Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma (DLBCL), a robust protocol for gene expression analysis from RNA extraction to qRT-PCR using Formalin Fixed Paraffin Embedded tissues was developed. Here a study was conducted to define a strategy to validate the previously reported 6-gene (LMO2, BCL6, FN1, CCND2, SCYA3 and BCL2) model as predictor of prognosis in DLBCL. To avoid variation, all samples were tested in a single centre and single platform. This study comprised 8 countries (Brazil, Chile, Hungary, India, Philippines, S. Korea, Thailand and Turkey). Using the Kaplan-Meier and log rank test on patients (n=162) and two mortality risk groups (with those above and below the mean representing high and low risk groups) confirmed that the 6-gene predictor score correlates significantly with overall survival (OS, p<0.01) but not with event free survival (EFS, p=0.18). Adding the International Prognostic Index (IPI) shows that the 6-gene predictor score correlates significantly with high IPI scores for OS (p<0.05), whereas those with low IPI scores show a trend not reaching significance (p=0.08). This study defined an effective and economical qRT-PCR strategy and validated the 6-gene score as a predictor of OS in an international setting. PMID:27825111

  18. A method for obtaining simian immunodeficiency virus RNA sequences from laser capture microdissected and immune captured CD68+ and CD163+ macrophages from frozen tissue sections of bone marrow and brain.

    PubMed

    Mallard, Jaclyn; Papazian, Emily; Soulas, Caroline; Nolan, David J; Salemi, Marco; Williams, Kenneth C

    2017-03-01

    Laser capture microdissection (LCM) is used to extract cells or tissue regions for analysis of RNA, DNA or protein. Several methods of LCM are established for different applications, but a protocol for consistently obtaining lentiviral RNA from LCM captured immune cell populations is not described. Obtaining optimal viral RNA for analysis of viral genes from immune-captured cells using immunohistochemistry (IHC) and LCM is challenging. IHC protocols have long antibody incubation times that increase risk of RNA degradation. But, immune capture of specific cell populations like macrophages without staining for virus cannot result in obtaining only a fraction of cells which are productively lentivirally infected. In this study we sought to obtain simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) RNA from SIV gp120+ and CD68+ monocyte/macrophages in bone marrow (BM) and CD163+ perivascular macrophages in brain of SIV-infected rhesus macaques. Here, we report an IHC protocol with RNase inhibitors that consistently results in optimal quantity and yield of lentiviral RNA from LCM-captured immune cells.

  19. Protocol for qRT-PCR analysis from formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissue sections from diffuse large b-cell lymphoma: Validation of the six-gene predictor score.

    PubMed

    Tekin, Nilgun; Omidvar, Nader; Morris, Tim Peter; Conget, Paulette; Bruna, Flavia; Timar, Botond; Gagyi, Eva; Basak, Ranjan; Naik, Omkar; Auewarakul, Chirayu; Sritana, Narongrit; Levy, Debora; Cerci, Juliano Julio; Bydlowski, Sergio Paulo; Pereira, Juliana; Dimamay, Mark Pierre; Natividad, Filipinas; Chung, June-Key; Belder, Nevin; Kuzu, Isinsu; Paez, Diana; Dondi, Maurizio; Carr, Robert; Ozdag, Hilal; Padua, Rose Ann

    2016-12-13

    As a part of an international study on the molecular analysis of Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma (DLBCL), a robust protocol for gene expression analysis from RNA extraction to qRT-PCR using Formalin Fixed Paraffin Embedded tissues was developed. Here a study was conducted to define a strategy to validate the previously reported 6-gene (LMO2, BCL6, FN1, CCND2, SCYA3 and BCL2) model as predictor of prognosis in DLBCL. To avoid variation, all samples were tested in a single centre and single platform. This study comprised 8 countries (Brazil, Chile, Hungary, India, Philippines, S. Korea, Thailand and Turkey). Using the Kaplan-Meier and log rank test on patients (n=162) and two mortality risk groups (with those above and below the mean representing high and low risk groups) confirmed that the 6-gene predictor score correlates significantly with overall survival (OS, p<0.01) but not with event free survival (EFS, p=0.18). Adding the International Prognostic Index (IPI) shows that the 6-gene predictor score correlates significantly with high IPI scores for OS (p<0.05), whereas those with low IPI scores show a trend not reaching significance (p=0.08). This study defined an effective and economical qRT-PCR strategy and validated the 6-gene score as a predictor of OS in an international setting.

  20. 38. METAL WORKING TOOLS AND MACHINES ADJACENT TO THE CIRCA ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. METAL WORKING TOOLS AND MACHINES ADJACENT TO THE CIRCA 1900 MICHIGAN MACHINERY MFG. CO. PUNCH PRESS NEAR THE CENTER OF THE FACTORY BUILDING. AT THE LEFT FOREGROUND IS A MOVABLE TIRE BENDER FOR SHAPING ELI WINDMILL WHEEL RIMS. AT THE CENTER IS A FLOOR-MOUNTED CIRCA 1900 SNAG GRINDER OF THE TYPE USED FOR SMOOTHING ROUGH CASTINGS. ON THE WHEELED WORK STATION IS A SUNNEN BUSHING GRINDER, BEHIND WHICH IS A TRIPOD CHAIN VICE. IN THE CENTER BACKGROUND IS A WOODEN CHEST OF DRAWERS WHICH CONTAINS A 'RAG DRAWER' STILL FILLED WITH CLOTH RAGS PLACED IN THE FACTORY BUILDING AT THE INSISTENCE OF LOUISE (MRS. ARTHUR) KREGEL FOR THE CONVENIENCE AND CLEANLINESS OF WORKERS. IN THE LEFT BACKGROUND IS A CIRCA 1900 CROSS-CUTOFF CIRCULAR SAW. - Kregel Windmill Company Factory, 1416 Central Avenue, Nebraska City, Otoe County, NE

  1. Scolopendromorpha of New Guinea and adjacent islands (Myriapoda, Chilopoda).

    PubMed

    Schileyko, Arkady A; Stoev, Pavel E

    2016-08-04

    The centipede fauna of the second largest island in the world, New Guinea, and its adjacent islands, is poorly known, with most information deriving from the first half of the 20th century. Here we present new data on the order Scolopendromorpha based on material collected in the area in the last 40 years, mainly by Bulgarian and Latvian zoologists. The collections comprise eleven species of six genera and three families. The diagnosis of Cryptops (Trigonocryptops) is emended in the light of the recent findings. The old and doubtful record of Scolopendra multidens Newport, 1844 from New Guinea is referred to S. subspinipes Leach, 1815 and the species is here excluded from the present day list of New Guinean scolopendromorphs. Cryptops nepalensis Lewis, 1999 is here recorded from New Guinea for the first time. An annotated list and an identification key to the scolopendromorphs of the studied region are presented.

  2. GOAT ROCKS WILDERNESS AND ADJACENT ROADLESS AREAS, WASHINGTON.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Church, S.E.; Close, T.J.

    1984-01-01

    The Goat Rocks Wilderness and adjacent roadless areas are a rugged, highly forested, scenic area located on the crest of the Cascade Range in south-central Washington. Several mineral claims have been staked in the area. Mineral surveys were conducted. Geochemical, geophysical, and geologic investigations indicate that three areas have probable mineral-resource potential for base metals in porphyry-type deposits. Available data are not adequate to permit definition of the potential for oil and gas. There is little likelihood for the occurrence of other kinds of energy resources in the area. Evaluation of resource potential in the three areas identified as having probable mineral-resource potential could be improved by more detailed geochemical studies and geologic mapping.

  3. Reconnaissance geologic map of Kodiak Island and adjacent islands, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Frederic H.

    2013-01-01

    Kodiak Island and its adjacent islands, located on the west side of the Gulf of Alaska, contain one of the largest areas of exposure of the flysch and melange of the Chugach terrane of southern Alaska. However, in the past 25 years, only detailed mapping covering small areas in the archipelago has been done. This map and its associated digital files (Wilson and others, 2005) present the best available mapping compiled in an integrated fashion. The map and associated digital files represent part of a systematic effort to release geologic map data for the United States in a uniform manner. The geologic data have been compiled from a wide variety of sources, ranging from state and regional geologic maps to large-scale field mapping. The map data are presented for use at a nominal scale of 1:500,000, although individual datasets (see Wilson and others, 2005) may contain data suitable for use at larger scales.

  4. Soil Carbon Storage and Turnover in an Old-Growth Coastal Redwood Forest and Adjacent Prairie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFarlane, K. J.; Torn, M. S.; Mambelli, S.; Dawson, T. E.

    2010-12-01

    Coastal redwood (Sequoia sempervirens) forests store lots of carbon in aboveground tree biomass because redwoods are very long-lived and can grow very large. Redwood is known for its high resistance to decay, a result of high levels of aromatic compounds (tannins) in the tree’s tissues. We tested the hypothesis that because coastal redwoods are highly productive and produce organic matter that is chemically resistant to decay, old-growth redwood forests should store large amounts of stabilized soil carbon. We measured soil C storage to 110 cm depth in an old-growth coastal redwood forest and used physical soil fractionation combined with radiocarbon measurements to determine soil organic matter turnover time. In addition, we measured soil C storage and turnover at an adjacent prairie experiencing the same climate and with soils derived from the same parent material. We found larger soil C stocks to 110 cm at the prairie (350 Mg C ha-1) than the redwood forest (277 Mg C ha-1) even with O-horizons included for the forest. Larger N stocks were also observed at the prairie than the redwood and these differences in stocks were driven by higher C and N concentrations in mineral soils at the prairie. Differences between ecosystems in soil C and N concentrations, C:N ratios, and C and N stocks were observed for the top 50 cm only, suggesting that the influence of the different litter types did not extend to deeper soils. Contrary to what was expected, bulk soil and heavy density-fraction Δ14C values were higher, indicating shorter turnover times, for the redwood forest than the prairie. In summary, we did not observe greater C storage or 14C-based turnover times in old-growth redwood forest compared to adjacent prairie, suggesting chemical recalcitrance of litter inputs does not drive soil C stabilization at these ecosystems.

  5. Tissue Classification

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, David Gerald

    2015-01-01

    The project began as a e ort to support InLight and Lumidigm. With the sale of the companies to a non-New Mexico entity, the project then focused on supporting a new company Medici Technologies. The Small Business (SB) is attempting to quantify glucose in tissue using a series of short interferometer scans of the nger. Each scan is produced from a novel presentation of the nger to the device. The intent of the project is to identify and, if possible, implement improved methods for classi cation, feature selection, and training to improve the performance of predictive algorithms used for tissue classi cation.

  6. Detrimental influences of intraluminally-administered sclerotic agents on surrounding tissues and peripheral nerves: An experimental study

    PubMed Central

    Fujiki, Masahide; Kurita, Masakazu; Ozaki, Mine; Kawakami, Hayato; Kaji, Nobuyuki; Takushima, Akihiko; Harii, Kiyonori

    2012-01-01

    The minimally-invasive nature of sclerotherapy makes it one of the first treatment options for venous malformations, although treatment-related complications, such as peripheral nerve paralysis, have been reported in some clinical cases. However, no studies of the aetiology of the detrimental effects of intraluminally-administered sclerotic agents on the surrounding tissues, including the peripheral nerves, have yet been published. This study therefore investigated the influences of intraluminally-administered sclerotic agents on the tissues surrounding the injection site using a newly-developed rat femoral vein model. Using this model, the effects of absolute ethanol, 5% ethanolamine oleate, and 1% polidocanol were compared histologically with those of normal saline controls. Fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated agents were administered and the leakage of sclerotic agents through the venous wall was evaluated by fluorescence microscopy. Damage to the adjacent femoral nerve was quantitatively evaluated by counting the numbers of axons in cross-sections. All the sclerotic agents caused vascular wall injuries and leakage into the surrounding tissues. The number of axons in the femoral nerve was significantly reduced following administration of absolute ethanol or 5% ethanolamine oleate, compared with normal saline. The results of this study suggest that sclerotic agents commonly leak out the vascular lumen, and some agents can cause adjacent nerve injury. It is important to be aware of this type of complication of sclerotherapy for venous malformations when selecting appropriate therapeutic interventions. PMID:22686430

  7. Ki-67 and PCNA Expression in Canine Mammary Tumors and Adjacent Nonneoplastic Mammary Glands: Prognostic Impact by a Multivariate Survival Analysis.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, M I; Pires, I; Prada, J; Lobo, L; Queiroga, F L

    2016-11-01

    The assessment of tumor proliferation has been considered a determining prognostic factor in canine mammary tumors (CMTs). However, no studies have assessed the prognostic importance of proliferation in adjacent nonneoplastic mammary glands. We included 64 CMTs (21 benign and 43 malignant) and studied the proliferation index (PI) of Ki-67 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) together with several clinicopathological characteristics. A positive and statistically significant correlation between the PI of Ki-67 and PCNA in tumors and adjacent nonneoplastic mammary glands was observed in benign and malignant tumors. Tumor size, skin ulceration, histological type, mitotic index, nuclear grade, differentiation grade, histological grade of malignancy, lymph node metastasis, Ki-67, and PCNA expression in tumors and adjacent nonneoplastic mammary glands were statistically associated with overall survival by univariate analysis in malignant cases (n = 43). Histological grade of malignancy and high intratumoral PCNA retained their significance by multivariate analysis arising as independent predictors of overall survival. Interestingly, the PI of Ki-67 and PCNA of adjacent nontumoral mammary glands were associated with clinicopathological features of tumor aggressiveness and shorter overall survival, demonstrating the need to better explore this adjacent non-neoplastic tissue.

  8. Tissue modification with feedback: the smart scalpel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sebern, Elizabeth L.; Brenan, Colin J. H.; Anderson, R. Rox; Hunter, Ian W.

    1998-10-01

    While feedback control is widespread throughout many engineering fields, there are almost no examples of surgical instruments that utilize a real-time detection and intervention strategy. This concept of closed loop feedback can be applied to the development of autonomous or semi- autonomous minimally invasive robotic surgical systems for efficient excision or modification of diseased tissue. Spatially localized regions of the tissue are first probed to distinguish pathological from healthy tissue based on differences in histochemical and morphological properties. Energy is directed to only the diseased tissue, minimizing collateral damage by leaving the adjacent healthy tissue intact. Continuous monitoring determines treatment effectiveness and, if needed, enables real-time treatment modifications to produce optimal therapeutic outcomes. The present embodiment of this general concept is a microsurgical instrument we call the Smart Scalpel, designed to treat skin angiodysplasias such as port wine stains. Other potential Smart Scalpel applications include psoriasis treatment and early skin cancer detection and intervention.

  9. High-resolution CT analysis of facial struts in trauma: 2. Osseous and soft-tissue complications.

    PubMed

    Gentry, L R; Manor, W F; Turski, P A; Strother, C M

    1983-03-01

    In six cadavers, high-resolution thin-section computed tomography (CT) was used to evaluate the sequelae of experimentally produced facial trauma. As confirmed by pluridirectional tomography, CT was an effective imaging method for the detection and classification of facial fractures. The ability of CT to simultaneously depict both osseous and soft-tissue structures expands the role that diagnostic radiology can play in the evaluation of the traumatized face. A method of evaluation is presented in which the face is geometrically conceptualized as a series of triplanar (horizontal, sagittal, and coronal) osseous struts. Sequential, systematic assessment of each strut for fracture and its adjacent soft tissue for injury can facilitate evaluation of the traumatized face. Using this approach the osseous and soft-tissue complications arising from experimentally produced trauma are reviewed and illustrated with CT. Examples of potential soft-tissue complications that may occur with fractures of the horizontal group of struts include disruption of the dura matter at the cribiform plate, involvement of the structures of the anterior cranial fossa, injury to the optic nerve, and involvement of the superior and inferior groups of extraocular muscles. Injury to the nasolacrimal duct, maxillary sinus ostium, medial and lateral rectus muscles, or the soft-tissue structures in the superior and inferior orbital fissures may arise from disruption of the sagittal struts. Fractures of the coronal struts may involve the frontal sinus, anterior cranial fossa, lacrimal gland, nasofrontal duct, lacrimal sac, or the soft tissues of the pterygopalatine fossa.

  10. Tissue pertechnetate and iodinated contrast material ischemic stroke

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, D.C.; Coss, D.T.; Jacobson, R.L.; Meyer, M.W.

    1980-11-01

    Isotope uptake during static radionuclide scanning and contrast enhancement during CT scanning, which may result from similar pathophysiologic mechanisms after ischemic infarction, were investigated in an animal model. Infarction was produced by transorbital occlusion of the middle cerebral artery in cats killed one, 2, 4, 8, or 16 days later. Sodium pertechnetate containing technetium-99m and 30% methylglucamine iothalamate labeled with I-125 were administered intravenously 60 and 15 min respectively prior to sacrifice. A coronal section through the infarct was parceled into 30 portions which were assayed for concentration of each isotope. Adjacent brain was prepared for histopathologic correlation. Concentrations of the 2 materials were highest in infarcted brain at 4 and 8 days. Strong positive correlation was found between tissue concentrations of the 2 materials in all brain samples. Elevated tissue levels correlated with necrosis, macrophage infiltration, and vascular hyperplasia. The results support the probability that radionuclide scan positivity and CT contrast enhancement reflect the same pathophysiologic development, probably extravasation of the respective labels, after schemic stroke.

  11. Ambiguities in the elastic scattering of 8 MeV neutrons from adjacent nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, A.B.; Lawson, R.D.; Guenther, P.T.

    1989-10-01

    Ratios of the cross sections for elastic scattering of 8 MeV neutrons from adjacent nuclei are measured over the angular range {approx}20{degree} {minus} 160{degree} for the target pairs {sup 51}V/Cr, {sup 59}Co/{sup 58}Ni, Cu/Zn, {sup 89}Y/{sup 93}Nb, {sup 89}Y/Zr, {sup 93}Nb/Zr, In/Cd and {sup 209}Bi/Pb. The observed ratios vary from unity by as much as a factor of {approx}2 at some angles for the lighter target pairs. Approximately half the measured ratios are reasonably explained by a simple spherical optical model, including size and isospin contributions. In all cases, the geometry of the real optical--model potential is essentially the same for neighboring nuclei, and the real--potential strengths are consistent with the Lane model. In contrast, it is found that the imaginary potential may be quite different for adjacent nuclei, and the nature of this difference is examined. It is shown that the spin--spin interaction has a negligible effect on the calculation of the elastic--scattering ratios, but that channel coupling, leading to a large reorientation of the target ground state, can be a consideration, particularly in the {sup 59}Co/{sup 58}Ni case. In the A {approx} 50--60 region the calculated ratios are sensitive to spin--orbit effects, but the exact nature of this interaction must await more definitive polarization measurements. The measured and calculated results suggest that the concept of a conventional global'' or even regional'' optical potential provides no more than a qualitative representation of the physical reality for a number of cases. 48 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Hydrocarbon provinces and productive trends in Libya and adjacent areas

    SciTech Connect

    Missallati, A.A. Ltd., Tripoli )

    1988-08-01

    According to the age of major reservoirs, hydrocarbon occurrences in Libya and adjacent areas can be grouped into six major systems which, according to their geographic locations, can be classified into two major hydrocarbon provinces: (1) Sirte-Pelagian basins province, with major reservoirs ranging from middle-late Mesozoic to early Tertiary, and (2) Murzog-Ghadames basins province, with major reservoirs ranging from early Paleozoic to early Mesozoic. In the Sirte-Pelagian basins province, hydrocarbons have been trapped in structural highs or in stratigraphic wedge-out against structural highs and in carbonate buildups. Here, hydrocarbon generation is characterized by the combined effect of abundant structural relief and reservoir development in the same hydrocarbon systems of the same age, providing an excellent example of hydrocarbon traps in sedimentary basins that have undergone extensive tensional fracturing in a shallow marine environment. In the Murzog-Ghadames basins province, hydrocarbons have been trapped mainly in structural highs controlled by paleostructural trends as basement arches which acted as focal points for oil migration and accumulation.

  13. Varied interactions between proviruses and adjacent host chromatin.

    PubMed Central

    Conklin, K F; Groudine, M

    1986-01-01

    Retroviruses integrated at unique locations in the host genome can be expressed at different levels. We have analyzed the preintegration sites of three transcriptionally competent avian endogenous proviruses (evs) to determine whether the various levels of provirus expression correlate with their location in active or inactive regions of chromatin. Our results show that in three of four cell types, the chromatin conformation (as defined by relative nuclease sensitivity) of virus preintegration sites correlates with the level of expression of the resident provirus in ev+ cells: two inactive proviruses (ev-1 and ev-2) reside in nuclease-resistant chromatin domains and one active provirus (ev-3) resides in a nuclease-sensitive domain. Nuclear runoff transcription assays reveal that the preintegration sites of the active and inactive viruses are not transcribed. However, in erythrocytes of 15-day-old chicken embryos (15d RBCs), the structure and activity of the ev-3 provirus is independent of the conformation of its preintegration site. In this cell type, the ev-3 preintegration site is organized in a nuclease-resistant conformation, while the ev-3 provirus is in a nuclease-sensitive conformation and is transcribed. In addition, the nuclease sensitivity of host sequences adjacent to ev-3 is altered in ev-3+ 15d RBCs relative to that found in 15d RBCs that lack ev-3. These data suggest that the relationship between preintegration site structure and retrovirus expression is more complex than previously described. Images PMID:3025623

  14. Light scattering by adjacent red blood cells: a mathematical model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uzunoglou, Nikolaos K.; Stamatakos, Georgios; Koutsouris, Dimitrios; Yova-Loukas, Dido M.

    1995-01-01

    Simple approximate scattering theories such as the Rayleigh-Gans theory are not generally applicable to the case of light scattering by red blood cell (RBC) aggregates, including thrombus. This is mainly due to the extremely short distance separating erythrocytes in the aggregates (of the order of 25 nm) as well as to the substantial size of the aggregates. Therefore, in this paper a new mathematical model predicting the electromagnetic field produced by the scattering of a plane electromagnetic wave by a system of two adjacent RBCs is presented. Each RBC is modeled as a homogeneous dielectric ellipsoid of complex index of refraction surrounded by transparent plasma. The relative position and orientation of the ellipsoids are arbitrary. Scattering is formulated in terms of an integral equation which, however, contains two singular kernels. The singular equation is transformed into a pair of nonsingular integral equations for the Fourier transform of the internal field of each RBC. The latter equations are solved by reducing them by quadrature into a matrix equation. The resulting solutions are used to estimate the scattering amplitude. Convergence aspects concerning the numerical calculation of the matrix elements originating from the interaction between the RBCs are also presented.

  15. Stereotactic radiotherapy using Novalis for craniopharyngioma adjacent to optic pathways.

    PubMed

    Hashizume, Chisa; Mori, Yoshimasa; Kobayashi, Tatsuya; Shibamoto, Yuta; Nagai, Aiko; Hayashi, Naoki

    2010-06-01

    Craniopharyngioma has benign histological character. However, because of proximity to optic pathways, pituitary gland, and hypothalamus, it may cause severe and permanent damage to such critical structures and can even be life threatening. Total surgical resection is often difficult. This study aims to evaluate treatment results of Novalis stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) for craniopharyngioma adjacent to optic pathways. Ten patients (six men, four women) with craniopharyngioma and median age of 56.5 years (range 10-74 years) were treated by SRT using Novalis from July 2006 through March 2009. Median volume of tumor was 7.9 ml (range 1.1-21 ml). Three-dimensional noncoplanar five- or seven-beam SRT or coplanar five-beam SRT with intensity modulation was performed. Total dose of 30-39 Gy in 10-15 fractions (median 33 Gy) was delivered to the target. Ten patients were followed up for 9-36 months (median 25.5 months). Response rate was 80% (8/10), and control rate was 100%. Improvement of neurological symptoms was observed in five patients. No serious complications due to SRT were found. SRT for craniopharyngioma may be a safe and effective treatment. Longer follow-up is necessary to determine long-term tumor control or late complications.

  16. Congenital stenosis and adjacent segment disease in the cervical spine.

    PubMed

    Eubanks, Jason David; Belding, Jon; Schnaser, Erik; Rowan, Andrew; Moffitt, Gable; Weaver, John; Reich, Michael S; Bechtel, Chris; Xie, Ke; Gande, Abhiram; Hohl, Justin; Braly, Brett; Hilibrand, Alan; Kang, James D

    2013-10-01

    Symptomatic adjacent segment disease (ASD) after anterior cervical fusion (ACF) is reported in 25% of patients at 10 years postoperatively. Debate continues as to whether this degeneration is due to the natural history of the disk or the changed biomechanics after ACF. This study explored whether congenital stenosis predisposes patients to an increased incidence of ASD after ACF. A retrospective review of 635 patients with myelopathy or radiculopathy was performed; 364 patients had complete records for review. Patients underwent 1- to 5-level ACF (94 one-level, 145 two-level, 79 three-level, 45 four-level, and 1 five-level). Radiographs were evaluated for bony congenital stenosis using validated parameters, and ASD was measured according to Hilibrand's criteria and correlated with symptomatic ASD. Congenital stenosis was found in 21.7% of patients and radiographic ASD in 33.5%, with a significant association between these parameters. However, symptomatic ASD occurred in 11.8% of patients; no association between congenital stenosis and symptomatic ASD or myelopathy and ASD was found. Clinical results demonstrated excellent or good Robinson scores in 86.2% of patients and Odom scores in 87% of patients. Despite mostly excellent to good outcomes, symptomatic ASD is common after ACF. Although congenital stenosis appears to increase the incidence of radiographic ASD, it does not appear to predict symptomatic ASD.

  17. The hydraulics of exchange flow between adjacent confined building zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nabi, Saleh; Flynn, Morris

    2012-11-01

    Buoyancy-driven flow between two finite zones containing fluid of slightly different density is investigated. The two zones are connected through a common opening that spans the channel width so that a two layer exchange flow develops once it is removed. In the zone that initially contained dense fluid, a buoyant plume of light fluid mixes with the dense fluid leading, over time, to the development of a nontrivial ambient density stratification. Meanwhile, dense fluid flows as a gravity current into the zone that initially contained light fluid. This gravity current reflects from the end wall and propagates back toward the opening in the form of an internal bore. When the bore reaches the opening, the dynamics of the exchange flow (and consequently the source conditions of the buoyant plume) are substantially altered. Such dynamics are modeled by combining elements of gravity current, internal bore, plume and exchange flow theory; model predictions, such as that the density jump across the first front steadily decreases once the exchange flow becomes transient, are corroborated by salt-bath laboratory experiments. Substantially different predictions arise when either or both of the adjacent zones are assumed to be well-mixed so that no vertical gradient of density is allowed.

  18. The Thermomagnetic Instability in Superconducting Films with Adjacent Metal Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vestgården, J. I.; Galperin, Y. M.; Johansen, T. H.

    2013-12-01

    Dendritic flux avalanches is a frequently encountered consequence of the thermomagnetic instability in type-II superconducting films. The avalanches, which are potentially harmful for superconductor-based devices, can be suppressed by an adjacent normal metal layer, even when the two layers are not in thermal contact. The suppression of the avalanches in this case is due to so-called magnetic braking, caused by eddy currents generated in the metal layer by propagating magnetic flux. We develop a theory of magnetic braking by analyzing coupled electrodynamics and heat flow in a superconductor-normal metal bilayer. The equations are solved by linearization and by numerical simulation of the avalanche dynamics. We find that in an uncoated superconductor, even a uniform thermomagnetic instability can develop into a dendritic flux avalanche. The mechanism is that a small non-uniformity caused by the electromagnetic non-locality induces a flux-flow hot spot at a random position. The hot spot quickly develops into a finger, which at high speeds penetrates into the superconductor, forming a branching structure. Magnetic braking slows the avalanches, and if the normal metal conductivity is sufficiently high, it can suppress the formation of the dendritic structure. During avalanches, the braking by the normal metal layer prevents the temperature from exceeding the transition temperature of the superconductor. Analytical criteria for the instability threshold are developed using the linear stability analysis. The criteria are found to match quantitatively the instability onsets obtained in simulations.

  19. Snow Distribution Patterns in Clearings and Adjacent Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golding, Douglas L.; Swanson, Robert H.

    1986-12-01

    Snow accumulation patterns were determined for clearings and adjacent forest at Marmot Creek experimental watershed and James River, Alberta. At maximum accumulation snow water equivalent (SWE) was greater in clearings than in forest whether clearings were large, as in 8- to 13-ha blocks where SWE averaged 20% more than in the forest, or small as in the ¼ to 6-H (height) diameter circular clearings where SWE was 13-45% greater than in the forest. SWE was 42 to 52% less in north than in south sectors of 2-6 H clearings. These differences increased with clearing size and time since beginning of accumulation period and are caused by snow ablation (melt and evaporation), a function of direct solar radiation reaching the snowpack. In such situations the snow that has accumulated on the ground cannot be considered a measure of the snow that has actually fallen there. For water balances and hydrologic modeling, snow measurements in partially cleared watersheds must be adjusted for temporal and spatial factors specific to the watershed.

  20. Field guide to geologic excursions in southwestern Utah and adjacent areas of Arizona and Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lund, William R.; Lund, William R.

    2002-01-01

    This field guide contains road logs for field trips planned in conjunction with the 2002 Rocky Mountain Section meeting of the Geological Society of America held at Southern Utah University in Cedar City, Utah. There are a total of eight field trips, covering various locations and topics in southwestern Utah and adjacent areas of Arizona and Nevada. In addition, the field guide contains a road log for a set of Geological Engineering Field Camp Exercises run annually by the University of Missouri at Rolla in and around Cedar City. Two of the field trips address structural aspects of the geology in southwestern Utah and northwestern Arizona; two trips deal with ground water in the region; and along with the Field Camp Exercises, one trip, to the Grand Staircase, is designed specifically for educators. The remaining trips examine the volcanology and mineral resources of a large area in and around the Tusher Mountains in Utah; marine and brackish water strata in the Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument; and the Pine Valley Mountains, which are cored by what may be the largest known laccolith in the world. The "Three Corners" area of Utah, Arizona, and Nevada is home to truly world-class geology, and I am confident that all of the 2002 Rocky Mountain Section meeting attendees will find a field trip suited to their interests.

  1. Distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls in the Housatonic River and adjacent aquifer, Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gay, Frederick B.; Frimpter, Michael H.

    1985-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's) are sorbed to the fine-grained stream-bottom sediments along the Housatonic River from Pittsfield, Massachusetts, southward to the Massachusetts-Connecticut boundary. The highest PCB concentrations, up to 140,000 micrograms per kilogram, were found in samples of bottom material from a reach of the river between Pittsfield and Woods Pond Dam in Lee, Massachusetts. Sediments in Woods Pond have been estimated to contain about 11,000 pounds of PCB's. Approximately 490 pounds per year of PCB's have also been estimated to move past the Housatonic River gaging station at Great Barrington. The distribution of hydraulic heads, water temperatures, and concentrations of dissolved oxygen, ammonia, nitrate, iron, and manganese in ground water shows that industrial water-supply wells in a sand and gravel aquifer adjacent to a stretch of the river called Woods Pond have been inducing ground-water recharge through the PCB-contaminated bottom sediments of the pond since late 1956. These data indicate that, at one location along the shore of the pond, the upper 40 feet of the aquifer contains water derived from induced infiltration. However, this induced recharge has not moved PCB's from the bottom sediments into a vertical section of the aquifer located 5 feet downgradient from the edge of Woods Pond. Samples taken at selected intervals in this section showed that no PCB's sorbed to the aquifer material or dissolved in the ground water within the detection limits of the chemical analyses.

  2. Gene promoter methylation in colorectal cancer and healthy adjacent mucosa specimens: correlation with physiological and pathological characteristics, and with biomarkers of one-carbon metabolism.

    PubMed

    Coppedè, Fabio; Migheli, Francesca; Lopomo, Angela; Failli, Alessandra; Legitimo, Annalisa; Consolini, Rita; Fontanini, Gabriella; Sensi, Elisa; Servadio, Adele; Seccia, Massimo; Zocco, Giuseppe; Chiarugi, Massimo; Spisni, Roberto; Migliore, Lucia

    2014-04-01

    We evaluated the promoter methylation levels of the APC, MGMT, hMLH1, RASSF1A and CDKN2A genes in 107 colorectal cancer (CRC) samples and 80 healthy adjacent tissues. We searched for correlation with both physical and pathological features, polymorphisms of folate metabolism pathway genes (MTHFR, MTRR, MTR, RFC1, TYMS, and DNMT3B), and data on circulating folate, vitamin B12 and homocysteine, which were available in a subgroup of the CRC patients. An increased number of methylated samples were found in CRC respect to adjacent healthy tissues, with the exception of APC, which was also frequently methylated in healthy colonic mucosa. Statistically significant associations were found between RASSF1A promoter methylation and tumor stage, and between hMLH1 promoter methylation and tumor location. Increasing age positively correlated with both hMLH1 and MGMT methylation levels in CRC tissues, and with APC methylation levels in the adjacent healthy mucosa. Concerning gender, females showed higher hMLH1 promoter methylation levels with respect to males. In CRC samples, the MTR 2756AG genotype correlated with higher methylation levels of RASSF1A, and the TYMS 1494 6bp ins/del polymorphism correlated with the methylation levels of both APC and hMLH1. In adjacent healthy tissues, MTR 2756AG and TYMS 1494 6bp del/del genotypes correlated with APC and MGMT promoter methylation, respectively. Low folate levels were associated with hMLH1 hypermethylation. Present results support the hypothesis that DNA methylation in CRC depends from both physiological and environmental factors, with one-carbon metabolism largely involved in this process.

  3. Practical assessment of magnetic methods for corrosion detection in an adjacent precast, prestressed concrete box-beam bridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, Bertrand; Titus, Michael; Nims, Douglas Karl; Ghorbanpoor, Al; Devabhaktuni, Vijay Kumar

    2013-06-01

    Magnetic methods are progressing in the detection of corrosion in prestressing strands in adjacent precast, prestressed concrete box-beam bridges. This study is the first field trial of magnetic strand defect detection systems on an adjacent box-beam bridge. A bridge in Fayette County, Ohio, which was scheduled for demolition, was inspected. Damage to prestressed box-beams is often due to corrosion of the prestressing strands. The corroded strands show discontinuities and a reduced cross-sectional area. These changes, due to corrosion, are reflected in the magnetic signatures of the prestressing steel. Corrosion in the prestressing steel was detected using two magnetic methods, namely the 'magnetic flux leakage' (MFL) and the 'induced magnetic field'. The purpose of these tests was to demonstrate the ability of the magnetic methods to detect hidden corrosion in box-beams in the field and tackle the logistic problem of inspecting box-beams from the bottom. The inspections were validated by dissecting the bottom of the box-beams after the inspections. The results showed that the MFL method can detect hidden corrosion and strand breaks. Both magnetic field methods were also able to estimate corrosion by detecting the effective cross-sectional area of the strand in sections of the beams. Thus, it was shown that the magnetic methods can be used to predict hidden corrosion in prestressing strands of box-beams.

  4. High-speed stimulated Raman spectral imaging for digital staining of mouse cancer tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otsuka, Yoichi; Satoh, Shuya; Kyogaku, Masafumi; Hashimoto, Hiroyuki; Itoh, Kazuyoshi; Ozeki, Yasuyuki

    2014-03-01

    We previously reported the combination of the high-speed stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscope and the multivariate analysis (principal component analysis and independent component analysis) for the tissue imaging. The results indicated the visualization of tissue components without chemical staining. Here, we report the multi-area observation of the tumor-grafted mouse tissue based on the same approach. The tumor-grafted mouse (balb/cAcJ nu/nu) was prepared by injection of human pancreatic carcinoma cell line (SUIT-2) into the tail of pancreas. Both of the pancreas cancer and the liver metastasis were harvested and fixed in formalin. Tissues were cryo-sectioned with a thickness of 100 μm and observed. The multispectral images (130 μm square, 500 x 500 pixels) of C-H vibration range from 2800 to 3100cm-1 (91 different Raman shift images) were obtained at a frame rate of 30 frames/sec. The data acquisition both of pancreas and liver were continued for the 48 adjacent areas for the observation both of cancerous and non-cancerous region, respectively. All the datasets were combined to analyze for multivariate analysis. We propose a protocol for drastic data reduction, which we found to give reproducible results and allows fast calculation of ICA. The independent component images indicated the different shapes and compositions between the cancerous region and the non-cancerous region.

  5. Severe muscle trauma triggers heightened and prolonged local musculoskeletal inflammation and impairs adjacent tibia fracture healing

    PubMed Central

    Hurtgen, B.J.; Ward, C.L.; Garg, K.; Pollot, B.E.; Goldman, S.M.; McKinley, T.O.; Wenke, J.C.; Corona, B.T.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Complicated fracture healing is often associated with the severity of surrounding muscle tissue trauma. Since inflammation is a primary determinant of musculoskeletal health and regeneration, it is plausible that delayed healing and non-unions are partly caused by compounding local inflammation in response to concomitant muscle trauma. Methods and results: To investigate this possibility, a Lewis rat open fracture model [tibia osteotomy with adjacent tibialis anterior (TA) muscle volumetric muscle loss (VML) injury] was interrogated. We observed that VML injury impaired tibia healing, as indicated by diminished mechanical strength and decreased mineralized bone within the fracture callus, as well as continued presence of cartilage instead of woven bone 28 days post-injury. The VML injured muscle presented innate and adaptive immune responses that were atypical of canonical muscle injury healing. Additionally, the VML injury resulted in a perturbation of the inflammatory phase of fracture healing, as indicated by elevations of CD3+ lymphocytes and CD68+ macrophages in the fracture callus at 3 and 14d post-injury, respectively. Conclusions: These data indicate that heightened and sustained innate and adaptive immune responses to traumatized muscle are associated with impaired fracture healing and may be targeted for the prevention of delayed and non-union following musculoskeletal trauma. PMID:27282456

  6. Seismotectonics of Northeastern United States and adjacent Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, J.; Aggarwal, Y.P.

    1981-06-10

    Data for local earthquakes recorded by a network of stations in northeastern United States and adjacent Canada were analyzed to study the seismicity, the relationship between earthquakes and known faults, the state of stress, and crustal and upper mantle velocity structure. In addition, portable seismographs were deployed in the field to study aftershocks. As a result, accurate locations for about 364 local earthquakes (2< or =m/sub b/< or =5) and 22 focal mechanism solutions were determined. A comparison of the spatial distribution of these events (1970--1979) with historical earthquakes (1534--1959) reveals that seismic activity in the northeast is relatively stationary in space: those areas that have had little or no seismicity historically are relatively aseismic today, whereas the historically active areas are also active today. The instrumental locations, historical seismicity, and focal mechanism solutions show an internal consistency that help us distinguish two distinct seismogenic provinces. (1) The Adirondack-western Quebec province is a northwesterly trending zone of seismic activity, about 200 km wide and at least 500 km long, extending from the SE Adirondacks into western Quebec, Canada. Thrust faulting on planes striking NNW to NW appears to predominate, and the inferred axis of maximum horizontal compression is largely uniform and trends WSW, nearly parallel to the calculated absolute plate motion of North America. Little or no seismicity is found where anorthosite outcrops at the surface. Correlations between gravity anomalies and earthquake locations suggest that seismic activity in this zone is localized to regions of steep NE or SW gradient in Bouguer anomalies. This zone does not appear to extend southeastward to Boston, as proposed by some workers. (2) The Appalachian province is a northeasterly trending zone of seismic activity extending from northern Virginia to New Brunswick, Canada.

  7. Tidally influenced alongshore circulation at an inlet-adjacent shoreline

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, Jeff E.; Elias, Edwin P.L.; List, Jeffrey H.; Erikson, Li H.; Barnard, Patrick L.

    2013-01-01

    The contribution of tidal forcing to alongshore circulation inside the surfzone is investigated at a 7 km long sandy beach adjacent to a large tidal inlet. Ocean Beach in San Francisco, CA (USA) is onshore of a ∼150 km2 ebb-tidal delta and directly south of the Golden Gate, the sole entrance to San Francisco Bay. Using a coupled flow-wave numerical model, we find that the tides modulate, and in some cases can reverse the direction of, surfzone alongshore flows through two separate mechanisms. First, tidal flow through the inlet results in a barotropic tidal pressure gradient that, when integrated across the surfzone, represents an important contribution to the surfzone alongshore force balance. Even during energetic wave conditions, the tidal pressure gradient can account for more than 30% of the total alongshore pressure gradient (wave and tidal components) and up to 55% during small waves. The wave driven component of the alongshore pressure gradient results from alongshore wave height and corresponding setup gradients induced by refraction over the ebb-tidal delta. Second, wave refraction patterns over the inner shelf are tidally modulated as a result of both tidal water depth changes and strong tidal flows (∼1 m/s), with the effect from currents being larger. These tidally induced changes in wave refraction result in corresponding variability of the alongshore radiation stress and pressure gradients within the surfzone. Our results indicate that tidal contributions to the surfzone force balance can be significant and important in determining the direction and magnitude of alongshore flow.

  8. Progenitor/Stem Cell Markers in Brain Adjacent to Glioblastoma: GD3 Ganglioside and NG2 Proteoglycan Expression.

    PubMed

    Lama, Gina; Mangiola, Annunziato; Proietti, Gabriella; Colabianchi, Anna; Angelucci, Cristiana; D' Alessio, Alessio; De Bonis, Pasquale; Geloso, Maria Concetta; Lauriola, Libero; Binda, Elena; Biamonte, Filippo; Giuffrida, Maria Grazia; Vescovi, Angelo; Sica, Gigliola

    2016-02-01

    Characterization of tissue surrounding glioblastoma (GBM) is a focus for translational research because tumor recurrence invariably occurs in this area. We investigated the expression of the progenitor/stem cell markers GD3 ganglioside and NG2 proteoglycan in GBM, peritumor tissue (brain adjacent to tumor, BAT) and cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) isolated from GBM (GCSCs) and BAT (PCSCs). GD3 and NG2 immunohistochemistry was performed in paired GBM and BAT specimens from 40 patients. Double-immunofluorescence was carried out to characterize NG2-positive cells of vessel walls. GD3 and NG2 expression was investigated in GCSCs and PCSCs whose tumorigenicity was also evaluated in Scid/bg mice. GD3 and NG2 expression was higher in tumor tissue than in BAT. NG2 decreased as the distance from tumor margin increased, regardless of the tumor cell presence, whereas GD3 correlated with neoplastic infiltration. In BAT, NG2 was coexpressed with a-smooth muscle actin (a-SMA) in pericytes and with nestin in the endothelium. Higher levels of NG2 mRNA and protein were found in GCSCs while GD3 synthase was expressed at similar levels in the 2 CSC populations. PCSCs had lower tumorigenicity than GCSCs. These data suggest the possible involvement of GD3 and NG2 in pre/pro-tumorigenic events occurring in the complex microenvironment of the tissue surrounding GBM.

  9. The sedimentary and crustal velocity structure of Makarov Basin and adjacent Alpha Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evangelatos, John; Funck, Thomas; Mosher, David C.

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the velocity structure of Makarov Basin and the adjacent Alpha Ridge to determine the tectonic origins of these features and link them to the larger Amerasia Basin. Seismic data from sonobuoys distributed along a 650 km-long line extending from Alpha Ridge and across Makarov Basin to the Lomonosov Ridge were analyzed for this purpose. Forward modelling of traveltimes, supported by coincident multi-channel seismic reflection and shipborne gravity data, were used to determine the P-wave velocity structure along the line. The sedimentary cover averages 0.5 km-thick on Alpha Ridge and 1.9 km-thick in Makarov Basin, but reaches up to 5 km-thick at the base of Lomonosov Ridge. Velocities in the sedimentary section range from 1.6 to 4.3 km s- 1. As suggested by relatively high velocities, interbedded volcaniclastic or volcanic rock may occur in the deep sedimentary section. The shallow basement of Alpha Ridge (3.3 to 3.6 km s- 1) is characterized by semi-continuous high amplitude reflections and is interpreted as volcanic rock possibly intercalated with sedimentary rock. Velocities do not vary significantly in the upper and mid-crustal layers between Alpha Ridge and Makarov Basin. Total crustal thickness decreases from 27 km beneath Alpha Ridge to 5 km-thick in Makarov Basin then thickens to > 20 km over a short distance as part of Lomonosov Ridge. The crustal structure of Alpha Ridge is consistent with previous studies suggesting that the Alpha-Mendeleev ridge complex is part of a large igneous province (LIP) with thick igneous crust. The lack of change in crustal velocities between Alpha Ridge and Makarov Basin suggests that the basin, at least partly, either formed during or was influenced by LIP-related magmatism. The rapid transition of crustal thicknesses from Makarov Basin to Lomonosov Ridge supports the interpretation that this section of the ridge is a transform margin.

  10. Assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon input to urban wetlands in relation to adjacent land use.

    PubMed

    Kimbrough, K L; Dickhut, R M

    2006-11-01

    The relationship between polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in wetland surface sediments and adjacent land use was assessed in the Elizabeth River, VA, an urbanized sub-estuary of the Chesapeake Bay. Significant differences (p<0.05) in surface sediment PAH concentration between sites indicated adjacent land use had a substantial influence on PAH concentration in wetland sediments. Wetlands adjacent to parking lots and petroleum industrial sites exhibited the highest PAH concentrations of all wetlands examined. Overall, commercial land uses had the highest PAH concentrations and automotive sources dominated (52-69%) PAH input to wetland surface sediments irrespective of adjacent land use.

  11. Mangroves as a major source of soil carbon storage in adjacent seagrass meadows

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Guangcheng; Azkab, Muhammad Husni; Chmura, Gail L.; Chen, Shunyang; Sastrosuwondo, Pramudji; Ma, Zhiyuan; Dharmawan, I. Wayan Eka; Yin, Xijie; Chen, Bin

    2017-01-01

    Mangrove forests have the potential to export carbon to adjacent ecosystems but whether mangrove-derived organic carbon (OC) would enhance the soil OC storage in seagrass meadows adjacent to mangroves is unclear. In this study we examine the potential for the contribution of mangrove OC to seagrass soils on the coast of North Sulawesi, Indonesia. We found that seagrass meadows adjacent to mangroves had significantly higher soil OC concentrations, soil OC with lower δ 13C, and lower bulk density than those at the non-mangrove adjacent meadows. Soil OC storage to 30 cm depth ranged from 3.21 to 6.82 kg C m−2, and was also significantly higher at the mangrove adjacent meadows than those non-adjacent meadows. δ13C analyses revealed that mangrove OC contributed 34 to 83% to soil OC at the mangrove adjacent meadows. The δ13C value of seagrass plants was also different between the seagrasses adjacent to mangroves and those which were not, with lower values measured at the seagrasses adjacent to mangroves. Moreover, we found significant spatial variation in both soil OC concentration and storage, with values decreasing toward sea, and the contribution of mangrove-derived carbon also reduced with distance from the forest. PMID:28186151

  12. Mangroves as a major source of soil carbon storage in adjacent seagrass meadows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Guangcheng; Azkab, Muhammad Husni; Chmura, Gail L.; Chen, Shunyang; Sastrosuwondo, Pramudji; Ma, Zhiyuan; Dharmawan, I. Wayan Eka; Yin, Xijie; Chen, Bin

    2017-02-01

    Mangrove forests have the potential to export carbon to adjacent ecosystems but whether mangrove-derived organic carbon (OC) would enhance the soil OC storage in seagrass meadows adjacent to mangroves is unclear. In this study we examine the potential for the contribution of mangrove OC to seagrass soils on the coast of North Sulawesi, Indonesia. We found that seagrass meadows adjacent to mangroves had significantly higher soil OC concentrations, soil OC with lower δ 13C, and lower bulk density than those at the non-mangrove adjacent meadows. Soil OC storage to 30 cm depth ranged from 3.21 to 6.82 kg C m‑2, and was also significantly higher at the mangrove adjacent meadows than those non-adjacent meadows. δ13C analyses revealed that mangrove OC contributed 34 to 83% to soil OC at the mangrove adjacent meadows. The δ13C value of seagrass plants was also different between the seagrasses adjacent to mangroves and those which were not, with lower values measured at the seagrasses adjacent to mangroves. Moreover, we found significant spatial variation in both soil OC concentration and storage, with values decreasing toward sea, and the contribution of mangrove-derived carbon also reduced with distance from the forest.

  13. Tissue irradiator

    DOEpatents

    Hungate, F.P.; Riemath, W.F.; Bunnell, L.R.

    1975-12-16

    A tissue irradiator is provided for the in-vivo irradiation of body tissue. The irradiator comprises a radiation source material contained and completely encapsulated within vitreous carbon. An embodiment for use as an in- vivo blood irradiator comprises a cylindrical body having an axial bore therethrough. A radioisotope is contained within a first portion of vitreous carbon cylindrically surrounding the axial bore, and a containment portion of vitreous carbon surrounds the radioisotope containing portion, the two portions of vitreous carbon being integrally formed as a single unit. Connecting means are provided at each end of the cylindrical body to permit connections to blood- carrying vessels and to provide for passage of blood through the bore. In a preferred embodiment, the radioisotope is thulium-170 which is present in the irradiator in the form of thulium oxide. A method of producing the preferred blood irradiator is also provided, whereby nonradioactive thulium-169 is dispersed within a polyfurfuryl alcohol resin which is carbonized and fired to form the integral vitreous carbon body and the device is activated by neutron bombardment of the thulium-169 to produce the beta-emitting thulium-170.

  14. Seismotectonics of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jih-Ping; Aggarwal, Yash Pal

    1981-06-01

    Data for local earthquakes recorded by a network of stations in northeastern United States and adjacent Canada were analyzed to study the seismicity, the relationship between earthquakes and known faults, the state of stress, and crustal and upper mantle velocity structure. In addition, portable seismographs were deployed in the field to study aftershocks. As a result, accurate locations for about 364 local earthquakes (2 ≤ mb ≤ 5) and 22 focal mechanism solutions were determined. A comparison of the spatial distribution of these events (1970-1979) with historical earthquakes (1534-1959) reveals that seismic activity in the northeast is relatively stationary in space: those areas that have had little or no seismicity historically are relatively aseismic today, whereas the historically active areas are also active today. The instrumental locations, historical seismicity, and focal mechanism solutions show an internal consistency that help us distinguish two distinct seismogenic provinces. (1) The Adirondack-western Quebec province is a northwesterly trending zone of seismic activity, about 200 km wide and at least 500 km long, extending from the SE Adirondacks into western Quebec, Canada. Thrust faulting on planes striking NNW to NW appears to predominate, and the inferred axis of maximum horizontal compression is largely uniform and trends WSW, nearly parallel to the calculated absolute plate motion of North America. Little or no seismicity is found where anorthosite outcrops at the surface. Correlations between gravity anomalies and earthquake locations suggest that seismic activity in this zone is localized to regions of steep NE or SW gradient in Bouguer anomalies. This zone does not appear to extend southeastward to Boston, as proposed by some workers. (2) The Appalachian province is a northeasterly trending zone of seismic activity extending from northern Virginia to New Brunswick, Canada. Highangle reverse or thrust faulting on N to NE trending planes

  15. Average Case Analysis of an Adjacency Map Searching Technique.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-12-01

    next section (see Figure 2.2 (c)). A pidgin algol program for procedure SEARCHTREE is given in Table 1. Q Q 1 1 Q29 U, Z are queues; s Q and Q s denote...rectangle to which they belong. In a second scan, a list Pi of sorted points is easily built for I° Table 1. A pidgin algol program for procedure

  16. Immuno-inflammatory tissue reaction to stainless-steel and titanium plates used for internal fixation of long bones.

    PubMed

    Voggenreiter, Gregor; Leiting, Stefan; Brauer, Holger; Leiting, Peter; Majetschak, Matthias; Bardenheuer, Mark; Obertacke, Udo

    2003-01-01

    The immuno-inflammatory responses to stainless-steel (21 implants in 20 patients) and titanium plates (22 implants in 20 patients) used in the treatment of long bone fractures were studied immunohistochemically. All fractures healed without complications. In the soft tissue adjacent to the surface of the implants a dark discolouration of the tissue was visible in 18/21 stainless-steel and 20/22 titanium plates. Tissue specimens of all patients contained positive staining for macrophages (CD68-positive cells). Serial sections showed that the majority of cells were found to express the HLA-DR molecule indicating their activation. Many of the macrophages were surrounded by clusters of T-lymphocytes (CD3-positive cells). 17 out of 21 steel specimens and 15 out of 22 titanium specimens showed the infiltration of moderate amounts of cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CD8-positive cells). Moderate amounts of B-lymphocytes (CD79alpha positive cells) were evident in four patients with steel and six patients with titanium implants. The results of the present study clearly demonstrate the presence of a marked inflammation and tissue reaction in the soft tissue covering stainless-steel and titanium plates used for internal fixation of fractures of long bones independently from the material used.

  17. Correlation between Focal Nodular Low Signal Changes in Hoffa's Fat Pad Adjacent to Anterior Femoral Cartilage and Focal Cartilage Defect Underlying This Region and Its Possible Implication

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Wuey Min

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. This study investigates the association between focal nodular mass with low signal in Hoffa's fat pad adjacent to anterior femoral cartilage of the knee (FNMHF) and focal cartilage abnormality in this region. Method. The magnetic resonance fast imaging employing steady-state acquisition sequence (MR FIESTA) sagittal and axial images of the B1 and C1 region (described later) of 148 patients were independently evaluated by two reviewers and categorized into four categories: normal, FNMHF with underlying focal cartilage abnormality, FNMHF with normal cartilage, and cartilage abnormality with no FNMHF. Results. There was a significant association (p = 0.00) between FNMHF and immediate adjacent focal cartilage abnormality with high interobserver agreement. The absence of focal nodular lesions next to the anterior femoral cartilage has a very high negative predictive value for chondral injury (97.8%). Synovial biopsy of focal nodular lesion done during arthroscopy revealed some fibrocollagenous tissue and no inflammatory cells. Conclusion. We postulate that the FNMHF adjacent to the cartilage defects is a form of normal healing response to the cartilage damage. One patient with FHMHF and underlying cartilage abnormality was rescanned six months later. In this patient, the FNMHF disappeared and normal cartilage was observed in the adjacent region which may support this theory. PMID:27213085

  18. A new system for cutting brain tissue preserving vessels: water jet cutting.

    PubMed

    Terzis, A J; Nowak, G; Rentzsch, O; Arnold, H; Diebold, J; Baretton, G

    1989-01-01

    The water jet cutting system allows transaction and dissection of biological structures with little bleeding. Structures of higher tissue rigidity remain unchanged while softer tissues are mechanically dissected. In brain tissue, all vessels larger than 20 microns are left intact after the passage of the jet stream with a pressure of up to 5 bar, and therefore vessels can be isolated selectively from the surrounding tissue. Oedema is present adjacent to the cut and no increase of temperature occurs.

  19. Advances in Thin Tissue Golgi-Cox Impregnation: Fast, Reliable Methods for Multi-Assay Analyses in Rodent and Non-human Primate Brain

    PubMed Central

    Levine, Nathan D.; Rademacher, David J.; Collier, Timothy J.; O’Malley, Jennifer A.; Kells, Adrian P.; Sebastian, Waldy San; Bankiewicz, Krystof S.; Steece-Collier, Kathy

    2013-01-01

    In 1873 Camillo Golgi discovered a staining technique that allowed for the visualization of whole neurons within the brain, initially termed ‘the black reaction’ and is now known as Golgi impregnation. Despite the capricious nature of this method, Golgi impregnation remains a widely used method for whole neuron visualization and analysis of dendritic arborization and spine quantification. We describe a series of reliable, modified ‘Golgi-Cox’ impregnation methods that complement some existing methods and have several advantages over traditional whole brain ‘Golgi’ impregnation. First, these methods utilize 60–100μm thick brain sections, which allows for fast, reliable impregnation of neurons in rats (7–14 days) and non-human primates (NHP) (30 days) while avoiding the pitfalls of other ‘rapid Golgi’ techniques traditionally employed with thin sections. Second, these methods employ several common tissue fixatives, resulting in high quality neuron impregnation in brain sections from acrolein, glutaraldehyde, and paraformaldehyde perfused rats, and in glutaraldehyde perfused NHP brain tissue. Third, because thin sections are obtained on a vibratome prior to processing, alternate sections of brain tissue can be used for additional analyses such as immunohistochemistry or electron microscopy. This later advantage allows for comparison of, for example, dendrite morphology in sections adjacent to pertinent histochemical markers or ultrastructural components. Finally, we describe a method for simultaneous light microscopic visualization of both tyrosine hydroxylase immunohistochemistry and Golgi impregnation in the same tissue section. Thus, the methods described here allow for fast, high quality Golgi impregnation and conserve experimental subjects by allowing multiple analyses within an individual animal. PMID:23313849

  20. Photochemical tissue bonding

    DOEpatents

    Redmond, Robert W [Brookline, MA; Kochevar, Irene E [Charlestown, MA

    2012-01-10

    Photochemical tissue bonding methods include the application of a photosensitizer to a tissue and/or tissue graft, followed by irradiation with electromagnetic energy to produce a tissue seal. The methods are useful for tissue adhesion, such as in wound closure, tissue grafting, skin grafting, musculoskeletal tissue repair, ligament or tendon repair and corneal repair.

  1. Population structure of harbour porpoises Phocoena phocoena in the seas around the UK and adjacent waters.

    PubMed Central

    Walton, M J

    1997-01-01

    The population structure of harbour porpoises from British and adjacent waters was studied by examining variability in a 200 bp (base pair) section of the control region of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) extracted from 327 animals. This region contained 20 variable sites giving rise to 24 different haplotypes. Mean nucleotide diversity between all pairs of haplotypes was 0.81% (range 0-4%). The most common haplotype occurred in 63% of the samples and was recorded in all geographical areas; several other haplotypes were present in two or more of the sampling locations. This suggests considerable historical interconnections among populations, probably through gene flow. However, there were significant differences (p < 0.05) as determined by AMOVA (Analysis of Molecular Variance, Excoffier et al. 1992), between porpoises from the northern and southern North Sea, and between the northern North Sea and the Celtic/Irish Sea. The differences were predominantly due to variation among females. This sex-related difference in population genetic structure suggests that males disperse more than females. This has important consequences for evaluating the consequences of incidental catches of porpoises by fisheries in these seas since there may be a greater impact on local populations than is implied by simple calculations of mortality. PMID:9061964

  2. Novel use of polymerase chain reaction to amplify cellular DNA adjacent to an integrated provirus.

    PubMed Central

    Silver, J; Keerikatte, V

    1989-01-01

    We describe a modification of the polymerase chain reaction technique which allows amplification of cellular DNA adjacent to an integrated provirus given sequence information for the provirus only. The modified technique should be generally useful for studies of insertional mutagenesis and other situations in which one wishes to isolate DNA adjacent to a region of known sequence. Images PMID:2704070

  3. 47 CFR 101.1421 - Coordination of adjacent area MVDDS stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... and architecture of their systems, in order to ensure that no harmful interference occurs between...) Cooperate fully and in good faith to resolve interference and transmission problems that are present on adjacent and co-channel operations in adjacent areas. (b) Harmful interference to public safety...

  4. 47 CFR 101.1421 - Coordination of adjacent area MVDDS stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... and architecture of their systems, in order to ensure that no harmful interference occurs between...) Cooperate fully and in good faith to resolve interference and transmission problems that are present on adjacent and co-channel operations in adjacent areas. (b) Harmful interference to public safety...

  5. 47 CFR 101.1421 - Coordination of adjacent area MVDDS stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... and architecture of their systems, in order to ensure that no harmful interference occurs between...) Cooperate fully and in good faith to resolve interference and transmission problems that are present on adjacent and co-channel operations in adjacent areas. (b) Harmful interference to public safety...

  6. Variable length adjacent partitioning for PTS based PAPR reduction of OFDM signal

    SciTech Connect

    Ibraheem, Zeyid T.; Rahman, Md. Mijanur; Yaakob, S. N.; Razalli, Mohammad Shahrazel; Kadhim, Rasim A.

    2015-05-15

    Peak-to-Average power ratio (PAPR) is a major drawback in OFDM communication. It leads the power amplifier into nonlinear region operation resulting into loss of data integrity. As such, there is a strong motivation to find techniques to reduce PAPR. Partial Transmit Sequence (PTS) is an attractive scheme for this purpose. Judicious partitioning the OFDM data frame into disjoint subsets is a pivotal component of any PTS scheme. Out of the existing partitioning techniques, adjacent partitioning is characterized by an attractive trade-off between cost and performance. With an aim of determining effects of length variability of adjacent partitions, we performed an investigation into the performances of a variable length adjacent partitioning (VL-AP) and fixed length adjacent partitioning in comparison with other partitioning schemes such as pseudorandom partitioning. Simulation results with different modulation and partitioning scenarios showed that fixed length adjacent partition had better performance compared to variable length adjacent partitioning. As expected, simulation results showed a slightly better performance of pseudorandom partitioning technique compared to fixed and variable adjacent partitioning schemes. However, as the pseudorandom technique incurs high computational complexities, adjacent partitioning schemes were still seen as favorable candidates for PAPR reduction.

  7. 33 CFR 165.1303 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters, WA-regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... § 165.1303 Puget Sound and adjacent waters, WA—regulated navigation area. (a) The following is a... Light to New Dungeness Light and all points in the Puget Sound area north and south of these lights....

  8. 33 CFR 165.1303 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters, WA-regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... § 165.1303 Puget Sound and adjacent waters, WA—regulated navigation area. (a) The following is a... Light to New Dungeness Light and all points in the Puget Sound area north and south of these lights....

  9. 33 CFR 165.1303 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters, WA-regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... § 165.1303 Puget Sound and adjacent waters, WA—regulated navigation area. (a) The following is a... Light to New Dungeness Light and all points in the Puget Sound area north and south of these lights....

  10. 33 CFR 165.1303 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters, WA-regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... § 165.1303 Puget Sound and adjacent waters, WA—regulated navigation area. (a) The following is a... Light to New Dungeness Light and all points in the Puget Sound area north and south of these lights....

  11. 33 CFR 165.1303 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters, WA-regulated navigation area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... § 165.1303 Puget Sound and adjacent waters, WA—regulated navigation area. (a) The following is a... Light to New Dungeness Light and all points in the Puget Sound area north and south of these lights....

  12. Tissue Photolithography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wade, Lawrence A.; Kartalov, Emil; Shibata, Darryl; Taylor, Clive

    2011-01-01

    Tissue lithography will enable physicians and researchers to obtain macromolecules with high purity (greater than 90 percent) from desired cells in conventionally processed, clinical tissues by simply annotating the desired cells on a computer screen. After identifying the desired cells, a suitable lithography mask will be generated to protect the contents of the desired cells while allowing destruction of all undesired cells by irradiation with ultraviolet light. The DNA from the protected cells can be used in a number of downstream applications including DNA sequencing. The purity (i.e., macromolecules isolated form specific cell types) of such specimens will greatly enhance the value and information of downstream applications. In this method, the specific cells are isolated on a microscope slide using photolithography, which will be faster, more specific, and less expensive than current methods. It relies on the fact that many biological molecules such as DNA are photosensitive and can be destroyed by ultraviolet irradiation. Therefore, it is possible to protect the contents of desired cells, yet destroy undesired cells. This approach leverages the technologies of the microelectronics industry, which can make features smaller than 1 micrometer with photolithography. A variety of ways has been created to achieve identification of the desired cell, and also to designate the other cells for destruction. This can be accomplished through chrome masks, direct laser writing, and also active masking using dynamic arrays. Image recognition is envisioned as one method for identifying cell nuclei and cell membranes. The pathologist can identify the cells of interest using a microscopic computerized image of the slide, and appropriate custom software. In one of the approaches described in this work, the software converts the selection into a digital mask that can be fed into a direct laser writer, e.g. the Heidelberg DWL66. Such a machine uses a metalized glass plate (with

  13. Assessment of heavy metal levels in surface sediments of estuaries and adjacent coastal areas in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xianbin; Li, Deliang; Song, Guisheng

    2017-03-01

    This article investigates the variations of contamination levels of heavy metals such as copper, lead, chromium, cadmium, zinc, arsenic, and mercury over time in surface sediments of the Changjiang River Estuary (CRE), Yellow River Estuary (YRE), Pearl River Estuary (PRE), and their adjacent coastal areas in China. The contamination factor (CF), pollution load index (PLI), and geoaccumulation index ( I geo) are used to evaluate the quality of the surface sediments in the study areas. The results showed that the CRE, YRE, and their adjacent coastal areas were at a low risk of contamination in terms of heavy metals, while the PRE and its adjacent coastal area were at a moderate level. By comparison, the concentrations of heavy metals in the surface sediments of the YRE and its adjacent coastal area were relatively lower than those in the CRE, PRE, and their adjacent coastal areas.

  14. Assessment of heavy metal levels in surface sediments of estuaries and adjacent coastal areas in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xianbin; Li, Deliang; Song, Guisheng

    2016-05-01

    This article investigates the variations of contamination levels of heavy metals such as copper, lead, chromium, cadmium, zinc, arsenic, and mercury over time in surface sediments of the Changjiang River Estuary (CRE), Yellow River Estuary (YRE), Pearl River Estuary (PRE), and their adjacent coastal areas in China. The contamination factor (CF), pollution load index (PLI), and geoaccumulation index (I geo) are used to evaluate the quality of the surface sediments in the study areas. The results showed that the CRE, YRE, and their adjacent coastal areas were at a low risk of contamination in terms of heavy metals, while the PRE and its adjacent coastal area were at a moderate level. By comparison, the concentrations of heavy metals in the surface sediments of the YRE and its adjacent coastal area were relatively lower than those in the CRE, PRE, and their adjacent coastal areas.

  15. Seismic analysis of adjacent buildings subjected to double pounding considering soil-structure interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farghaly, Ahmed Abdelraheem

    2017-02-01

    A 2D model of two adjacent buildings with different heights (6 and 12 floors) and foundation levels without separation distance under seismic load and considering SSI is investigated. A special arrangement of contact elements (gap elements) each 1 m of the low height building in the contact zone is taken into consideration to fulfill all possible deformation contact modes which take place under seismic load (earthquake). Soil is modeled by 2D shell elements in contact with foundations of the two adjacent buildings. This paper focuses on the study of double pounding that takes place between the two adjacent buildings in some upper points at superstructure in the contact zone and also at foundation level. The forces of double pounding between the two adjacent buildings, which increase by softening of the soil, give a valuable assessment of straining actions of the two adjacent buildings and change the behavior of soil under the foundations and around basement floor.

  16. Seismic analysis of adjacent buildings subjected to double pounding considering soil-structure interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farghaly, Ahmed Abdelraheem

    2017-03-01

    A 2D model of two adjacent buildings with different heights (6 and 12 floors) and foundation levels without separation distance under seismic load and considering SSI is investigated. A special arrangement of contact elements (gap elements) each 1 m of the low height building in the contact zone is taken into consideration to fulfill all possible deformation contact modes which take place under seismic load (earthquake). Soil is modeled by 2D shell elements in contact with foundations of the two adjacent buildings. This paper focuses on the study of double pounding that takes place between the two adjacent buildings in some upper points at superstructure in the contact zone and also at foundation level. The forces of double pounding between the two adjacent buildings, which increase by softening of the soil, give a valuable assessment of straining actions of the two adjacent buildings and change the behavior of soil under the foundations and around basement floor.

  17. Stokes polarimetry imaging of dog prostate tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jihoon; Johnston, William K., III; Walsh, Joseph T., Jr.

    2010-02-01

    Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of death in the United States in 2009. Radical prostatectomy (complete removal of the prostate) is the most common treatment for prostate cancer, however, differentiating prostate tissue from adjacent bladder, nerves, and muscle is difficult. Improved visualization could improve oncologic outcomes and decrease damage to adjacent nerves and muscle important for preservation of potency and continence. A novel Stokes polarimetry imaging (SPI) system was developed and evaluated using a dog prostate specimen in order to examine the feasibility of the system to differentiate prostate from bladder. The degree of linear polarization (DOLP) image maps from linearly polarized light illumination at different visible wavelengths (475, 510, and 650 nm) were constructed. The SPI system used the polarization property of the prostate tissue. The DOLP images allowed advanced differentiation by distinguishing glandular tissue of prostate from the muscular-stromal tissue in the bladder. The DOLP image at 650 nm effectively differentiated prostate and bladder by strong DOLP in bladder. SPI system has the potential to improve surgical outcomes in open or robotic-assisted laparoscopic removal of the prostate. Further in vivo testing is warranted.

  18. Regional prospectivity of Mesozoic and Tertiary in the eastern Adriatic and adjacent area

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, J.; Dolan, P.; Lunn, G. )

    1988-08-01

    Post-Hercynian deposits in the eastern Adriatic and the adjacent external zones of the Dinarides and Albanian Hellenides may be subdivided into four facies groups. (1) Permian-Lower Triassic clastics and carbonates with some evaporites, (2) Middle Triassic-lower Tertiary carbonate platform facies with associated continental margin deeper marine sequences, (3) Upper Cretaceous-lower Tertiary flysch, and (4) middle Tertiary molasse and postorogenic Neogene sediments. The Permian to lower Tertiary section was deposited during the complex Alpine cycle, while the upper Tertiary section is the product of post-Alpine deposition. This depositional history during markedly different tectonic regimes creates two groups of petroleum plays in the eastern Adriatic: (1) Alpine cycle plays in the Permian to lower Tertiary in the thrust-faulted and folded foreland of Adria and (2) post-Alpine plays in upper Tertiary postorogenic or late synorogenic basins. Around the Adriatic, the post-Alpine plays have so far proved the most successful. Major production occurs in the onshore Po basin and its extension beneath the Adriatic. Some of this production is from deep Alpine-cycle reservoirs, but the bulk is from the upper Tertiary-Quaternary. Similar horizons produce onshore and offshore the central-southern Adriatic coast of Italy. Major Tertiary production also occurs to the northeast in the Pannonian basin of Yugoslavia and Hungary from Miocene and younger sequences. Onshore Albania produces significant quantities of hydrocarbons; although data are scarce, much of this production is presumably from upper Tertiary molasse or lower Tertiary flysch.

  19. Analysis of hydrodynamic conditions in adjacent free and heterogeneous porous flow domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, D. B.; Hanspal, N. S.; Nassehi, V.

    2005-09-01

    The existence of a free-flow domain (e.g. a liquid layer) adjacent to a porous medium is a common occurrence in many environmental and petroleum engineering problems. The porous media may often contain various forms of heterogeneity, e.g. layers, fractures, micro-scale lenses, etc. These heterogeneities affect the pressure distribution within the porous domain. This may influence the hydrodynamic conditions at the free-porous domain interface and, hence, the combined flow behaviour. Under steady-state conditions, the heterogeneities are known to have negligible effects on the coupled flow behaviour. However, the significance of the heterogeneity effects on coupled free and porous flow under transient conditions is not certain. In this study, numerical simulations have been carried out to investigate the effects of heterogeneous (layered) porous media on the hydrodynamics conditions in determining the behaviour of combined free and porous regimes. Heterogeneity in the porous media is introduced by defining a domain composed of two layers of porous media with different values of intrinsic permeability. The coupling of the governing equations of motion in free and porous domains has been achieved through the well-known Beavers and Joseph interfacial condition. Of special interest in this work are porous domains with flow-through ends. They represent the general class of problems where large physical domains are truncated to smaller sections for ease of mathematical analysis. However, this causes a practical difficulty in modelling such systems. This is because the information on flow behaviour, i.e. boundary conditions at the truncated sections, is usually not available. Use of artificial boundary conditions to solve these problems effectively implies the imposition of conditions that do not necessarily match with the solutions required for the interior of the domain. This difficulty is resolved in this study by employing stress-free boundary conditions at the open

  20. In vivo tissue engineering of musculoskeletal tissues.

    PubMed

    McCullen, Seth D; Chow, Andre G Y; Stevens, Molly M

    2011-10-01

    Tissue engineering of musculoskeletal tissues often involves the in vitro manipulation and culture of progenitor cells, growth factors and biomaterial scaffolds. Though in vitro tissue engineering has greatly increased our understanding of cellular behavior and cell-material interactions, this methodology is often unable to recreate tissue with the hierarchical organization and vascularization found within native tissues. Accordingly, investigators have focused on alternative in vivo tissue engineering strategies, whereby the traditional triad (cells, growth factors, scaffolds) or a combination thereof are directly implanted at the damaged tissue site or within ectopic sites capable of supporting neo-tissue formation. In vivo tissue engineering may offer a preferential route for regeneration of musculoskeletal and other tissues with distinct advantages over in vitro methods based on the specific location of endogenous cultivation, recruitment of autologous cells, and patient-specific regenerated tissues.