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Sample records for adjacent upland habitats

  1. Ecological assessment for the wetlands at Milltown Reservoir, Missoula, Montana: Characterization of emergent and upland habitats

    SciTech Connect

    Linder, G. ); Hazelwood, R.; Palawski, D. . Ecological Services)

    1994-12-01

    Wetlands in mining districts in the western US are frequently impacted by heavy metal-contaminated sediments. The present study summarizes a soil contamination evaluation and an ecological assessment completed for a Superfund site located at Milltown Reservoir wetlands (MRW) in western Montana. For wetlands, as well as upland habitats adjacent to wetlands, biological evaluations in the field and laboratory should be considered critical components in the ecological risk assessment process. Depending upon habitat type, field and laboratory methods have been developed for hazard and risk assessment that lend themselves directly to the Superfund ecological risk assessment process, and that consider contaminant bioavailability and subtle expressions of adverse biological effects associated with chronic exposures. As part of an ecological risk assessment for MRW, field surveys and a variety of biological test methods (e.g., terrestrial and aquatic tests) were critical to the wetland evaluation. For evaluating heavy metal effects at MRW, field and laboratory methods within the ecological assessment included wetlands delineation and preliminary plant and wildlife survey; vegetation tests in emergent and upland habitats; soil macroinvertebrate (earthworm) tests; preliminary studies using amphibian and bacterial test systems; soil characterizations; and chemical analysis of soils, sediments, and biological materials. Inn conjunction with chemical analyses, these biological and ecological evaluations yielded an integrated evaluation of ecological effects and exposure at MRW. The data gathered from laboratory and field work at MRW suggested that biological and ecological effects were subtle in their expression in the wetland. In conjunction with sediment contamination evaluations, these studies should reduce the uncertainty associated with the baseline ecological risk assessment for MRW.

  2. Estimating soil moisture in gullies from adjacent upland measurements through different observation operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, X.; Wu, P.; Zhao, X.; Zhou, X.; Zhang, B.; Shi, Y.; Wang, J.

    2013-04-01

    SummarySoil moisture datasets in large gullies are rare due to the difficulty of direct sampling in such landform. This study attempted to estimate spatial soil moisture averages in gullies from measurements of adjacent uplands by using observation operators, based on three-year soil moisture datasets in a gully catchment of the Loess Plateau. Soil moisture datasets in 2010 and 2011 were used for developing observation operators and those in 2012 were used for validation. Several nonlinear and linear methods including cumulative distribution function (CDF) matching method, linear regression (LRG) method, mean relative difference (MRD) method and linear rescaling (LRS) method were used to define observation operators. The results showed observation operators significantly improved the predictions compared to when using spatial averages of uplands as the direct surrogates for gullies. Among different methods, the CDF matching method performed best in estimating soil moisture in gullies followed by the LRG, LRS and MRD methods. Validation analysis showed that the linear observation operators such as LRS, MRD and LRG had better temporal transferability than the nonlinear operators. The MRD observation operators for various layers could successfully transfer in time whereas temporal transferability only succeeds to a limited extent for other observation operators. Furthermore, the MRD, LRG and LRS methods exhibited better vertical transferability than the CDF matching method. However, the transferability of observation operators across the whole root zone layers was not successful.

  3. Contrasting Patterns of Fine Fluvial Sediment Delivery in Two Adjacent Upland Catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perks, M.; Bracken, L.; Warburton, J.

    2010-12-01

    Quantifying patterns of fine suspended sediment transfer in UK upland rivers is of vital importance in combating the damaging effects of elevated fluxes of suspended sediment, and sediment associated transport of contaminants, on in-stream biota. In many catchments of the UK there is still a lack of catchment-wide understanding of both the spatial patterns and temporal variation in fine sediment delivery. This poster describes the spatial and temporal distribution of in-stream fine sediment delivery from a network of 44 time-integrated mass flux samplers (TIMs) in two adjacent upland catchments. The two catchments are the Esk (210 km2) and Upper Derwent (236 km2) which drain the North York Moors National Park. Annual suspended sediment loads in the Upper Derwent are 1273 t, whereas in the Esk catchment they are greater at 1778 t. Maximum yields of 22 t km-2 yr -1 were measured in the headwater tributaries of the Rye River (Derwent), whereas peak yields in the Esk are four times greater (98 t km-2 yr-1) on the Butter Beck subcatchment. Analysis of the within-storm sediment dynamics, indicates that the sediment sources within the Upper Derwent catchment are from distal locations possibly mobilised by hillslope runoff processes, whereas in the Esk, sediment sources are more proximal to the channel e.g. within channel stores or bank failures. These estimates of suspended sediment flux are compared with the diffuse pollution potential generated by a risk-based model of sediment transfer (SCIMAP) in order to assess the similarity between the model predictions and observed fluxes.

  4. Modeling tidal marsh distribution with sea-level rise: evaluating the role of vegetation, sediment, and upland habitat in marsh resiliency.

    PubMed

    Schile, Lisa M; Callaway, John C; Morris, James T; Stralberg, Diana; Parker, V Thomas; Kelly, Maggi

    2014-01-01

    Tidal marshes maintain elevation relative to sea level through accumulation of mineral and organic matter, yet this dynamic accumulation feedback mechanism has not been modeled widely in the context of accelerated sea-level rise. Uncertainties exist about tidal marsh resiliency to accelerated sea-level rise, reduced sediment supply, reduced plant productivity under increased inundation, and limited upland habitat for marsh migration. We examined marsh resiliency under these uncertainties using the Marsh Equilibrium Model, a mechanistic, elevation-based soil cohort model, using a rich data set of plant productivity and physical properties from sites across the estuarine salinity gradient. Four tidal marshes were chosen along this gradient: two islands and two with adjacent uplands. Varying century sea-level rise (52, 100, 165, 180 cm) and suspended sediment concentrations (100%, 50%, and 25% of current concentrations), we simulated marsh accretion across vegetated elevations for 100 years, applying the results to high spatial resolution digital elevation models to quantify potential changes in marsh distributions. At low rates of sea-level rise and mid-high sediment concentrations, all marshes maintained vegetated elevations indicative of mid/high marsh habitat. With century sea-level rise at 100 and 165 cm, marshes shifted to low marsh elevations; mid/high marsh elevations were found only in former uplands. At the highest century sea-level rise and lowest sediment concentrations, the island marshes became dominated by mudflat elevations. Under the same sediment concentrations, low salinity brackish marshes containing highly productive vegetation had slower elevation loss compared to more saline sites with lower productivity. A similar trend was documented when comparing against a marsh accretion model that did not model vegetation feedbacks. Elevation predictions using the Marsh Equilibrium Model highlight the importance of including vegetation responses to sea

  5. Water quality in the lower Puyallup River valley and adjacent uplands, Pierce County, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ebbert, J.C.; Bortleson, Gilbert C.; Fuste, L.A.; Prych, E.A.

    1987-01-01

    The quality of most ground and surface water within and adjacent to the lower Puyallup River valley is suitable for most typical uses; however, some degradation of shallow groundwater quality has occurred. High concentrations of iron and manganese were found in groundwater, sampled at depths of < 40 ft, from wells tapping alluvial aquifers and in a few wells tapping deeper aquifers. Volatile and acid- and base/neutral-extractable organic compounds were not detected in either shallow or deep groundwater samples. The quality of shallow groundwater was generally poorer than that of deep water. Deep ground water (wells set below 100 ft) appears suitable as a supplementary water supply for fish-hatchery needs. Some degradation of water quality, was observed downstream from river mile 1.7 where a municipal wastewater-treatment plant discharges into the river. In the Puyallup River, the highest concentrations of most trace elements were found in bed sediments collected downstream from river mile 1.7. Median concentrations of arsenic, lead, and zinc were higher in bed sediments from small streams compared with those from the Puyallup River, possibly because the small stream drainages, which are almost entirely within developed areas, receive more urban runoff as a percentage of total flow. Total-recoverable trace-element concentrations exceeded water-quality criteria for acute toxicity in the Puyallup River and in some of the small streams. In most cases, high concentrations of total-recoverable trace elements occurred when suspended-sediment concentrations were high. Temperatures in all streams except Wapato Creek and Fife Dutch were within limits (18 C) for Washington State class A water. Minimum dissolved oxygen concentrations were relatively low at 5.6 and 2.0 mg/L, respectively, for Wapato Creek and Fife Dutch. The poorest surface-water quality, which can be characterized as generally unsuitable for fish, was in Fife Dutch, a manmade channel and therefore

  6. Climate Change and Conservation Planning in California: The San Francisco Bay Area Upland Habitat Goals Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Branciforte, R.; Weiss, S. B.; Schaefer, N.

    2008-12-01

    Climate change threatens California's vast and unique biodiversity. The Bay Area Upland Habitat Goals is a comprehensive regional biodiversity assessment of the 9 counties surrounding San Francisco Bay, and is designing conservation land networks that will serve to protect, manage, and restore that biodiversity. Conservation goals for vegetation, rare plants, mammals, birds, fish, amphibians, reptiles, and invertebrates are set, and those goals are met using the optimization algorithm MARXAN. Climate change issues are being considered in the assessment and network design in several ways. The high spatial variability at mesoclimatic and topoclimatic scales in California creates high local biodiversity, and provides some degree of local resiliency to macroclimatic change. Mesoclimatic variability from 800 m scale PRISM climatic norms is used to assess "mesoclimate spaces" in distinct mountain ranges, so that high mesoclimatic variability, especially local extremes that likely support range limits of species and potential climatic refugia, can be captured in the network. Quantitative measures of network resiliency to climate change include the spatial range of key temperature and precipitation variables within planning units. Topoclimatic variability provides a finer-grained spatial patterning. Downscaling to the topoclimatic scale (10-50 m scale) includes modeling solar radiation across DEMs for predicting maximum temperature differentials, and topographic position indices for modeling minimum temperature differentials. PRISM data are also used to differentiate grasslands into distinct warm and cool types. The overall conservation strategy includes local and regional connectivity so that range shifts can be accommodated.

  7. Management implications of fish trap effectiveness in adjacent coral reef and gorgonian habitats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wolff, Nicholas; Grober-Dunsmore, Rikki; Rogers, Caroline S.; Beets, James P.

    1999-01-01

    A combination of visual census and trap sampling in St. John, USVI indicated that traps performed better in gorgonian habitat than in adjacent coral reef habitat. Although most families were seen more commonly in coral habitat, they were caught more often in gorgonian areas. Traps probably fished more effectively in gorgonian habitats, especially for migrating species, because traps provided shelter in the relatively topographically uniform environment of gorgonian dominated habitats. Recently, trap fishermen on St. John have been moving effort away from traditionally fished nearshore coral reefs and into a variety of more homogeneous habitats such as gorgonian habitat. Consequently, exploitation rates of the already over-harvested reef fish resources may be increasing. Reef fish managers and marine reserve designers should consider limiting trap fishing in gorgonian habitats to slow the decline of reef fisheries.

  8. The relative influence of road characteristics and habitat on adjacent lizard populations in arid shrublands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hubbard, Kaylan A.; Chalfoun, Anna D.; Gerow, Kenneth G.

    2016-01-01

    As road networks continue to expand globally, indirect impacts to adjacent wildlife populations remain largely unknown. Simultaneously, reptile populations are declining worldwide and anthropogenic habitat loss and fragmentation are frequently cited causes. We evaluated the relative influence of three different road characteristics (surface treatment, width, and traffic volume) and habitat features on adjacent populations of Northern Sagebrush Lizards (Sceloporus graciosus graciosus), Plateau Fence Lizards (S. tristichus), and Greater Short-Horned Lizards (Phrynosoma hernandesi) in mixed arid shrubland habitats in southwest Wyoming. Neither odds of lizard presence nor relative abundance was significantly related to any of the assessed road characteristics, although there was a trend for higher Sceloporus spp. abundance adjacent to paved roads. Sceloporus spp. relative abundance did not vary systematically with distance to the nearest road. Rather, both Sceloporus spp. and Greater Short-Horned Lizards were associated strongly with particular habitat characteristics adjacent to roads. Sceloporus spp. presence and relative abundance increased with rock cover, relative abundance was associated positively with shrub cover, and presence was associated negatively with grass cover. Greater Short-Horned Lizard presence increased with bare ground and decreased marginally with shrub cover. Our results suggest that habitat attributes are stronger correlates of lizard presence and relative abundance than individual characteristics of adjacent roads, at least in our system. Therefore, an effective conservation approach for these species may be to consider the landscape through which new roads and their associated development would occur, and the impact that placement could have on fragment size and key habitat elements.

  9. Malaria vectors in Lake Victoria and adjacent habitats in western Kenya.

    PubMed

    Minakawa, Noboru; Dida, Gabriel O; Sonye, George O; Futami, Kyoko; Njenga, Sammy M

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of malaria among the residents of the Lake Victoria basin remains high. The environment associated with the lake may maintain a high number of malaria vectors. Lake habitats including water hyacinths have been suspected to be the source of vectors. This study investigated whether malaria vectors breed in the lake habitats and adjacent backwater pools. Anopheline larvae were collected within the littoral zone of the lake and adjacent pools located along approximately 24.3 km of the lakeshore in western Kenya, and their breeding sites characterized. Three primary vector species, Anopheles arabiensis, Anopheles gambiae s.s. and Anopheles funestus s.s., and three potential vectors, were found in the lake habitats. Unexpectedly, An. arabiensis was the most dominant vector species in the lake sampling sites. Its habitats were uncovered or covered with short grass. A potential secondary malaria vector, Anopheles rivulorum, dominated the water hyacinths in the lake. Most breeding sites in the lake were limited to areas that were surrounded by tall emergent plants, including trees, and those not exposed to waves. Nearly half of adjacent habitats were lagoons that were separated from the lake by sand bars. Lagoons contained a variety of microhabitats. Anopheles arabiensis dominated open habitats, whereas An. funestus s.s. was found mainly in vegetated habitats in lagoons. The current study confirmed that several breeding sites are associated with Lake Victoria. Given that Lake Victoria is the second largest lake in the world, the lake related habitats must be extensive; therefore, making targeted vector control difficult. Further exploration is necessary to estimate the effects of lake associated habitats on malaria transmission so as to inform a rational decision-making process for vector control.

  10. Post larval, short-term, colonization patterns: The effect of substratum complexity across subtidal, adjacent, habitats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Sanz, Sara; Tuya, Fernando; Navarro, Pablo G.; Angulo-Preckler, Carlos; Haroun, Ricardo J.

    2012-10-01

    Benthic habitats are colonized by organisms from the water column and adjacent habitats. There are, however, variations in the 'acceptability' of any habitat to potential colonists. We assessed whether the structural complexity of artificial substrata affected patterns of short-term colonization of post larval faunal assemblages across subtidal habitats within a coastal landscape. Specifically, we tested whether short-term colonization patterns on 3 types of artificial substrata encompassing a range of complexities, including a leaf-like unit, a cushion-shaped leaf-like unit and a cushion-shaped unit, were consistent across 4 adjacent habitats: macroalgal-dominated bottoms, urchin-grazed barrens, seagrass meadows and sandy patches, at Gran Canaria (eastern Atlantic). A total of 16,174 organisms were collected after 4 weeks and 4 taxonomic groups (Crustacea, Chordata, Echinodermata and Mollusca) dominated the assemblage. Despite considerable among-taxa variability being observed in response to habitat effects, the total abundance of colonizers, as well as the abundance of Arthropoda, Chordata and Echinodermata, was affected by the habitat where collectors were deployed, but did not differ among types of collectors. Similarly, the assemblage structure of colonizers was mainly affected by the habitat, but not by the type of collector; habitat contributed to explain most variation in the assemblage structure of the four dominant taxonomic groups (from ca. 5.44-19.23%), and obscured, in all cases, variation explained by the type of collector. As a result, the variation in short-term colonization patterns of faunal assemblages into artificial collectors was mostly affected by variation associated with habitats rather than by differences in the structural complexity of collectors. The largest abundances of colonizers, particularly Echinodermata, were found on sandy patches relative to other habitats, suggesting that the 'availability', rather than any particular attribute

  11. High-resolution coproecology: using coprolites to reconstruct the habits and habitats of New Zealand's extinct upland moa (Megalapteryx didinus).

    PubMed

    Wood, Jamie R; Wilmshurst, Janet M; Wagstaff, Steven J; Worthy, Trevor H; Rawlence, Nicolas J; Cooper, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge about the diet and ecology of extinct herbivores has important implications for understanding the evolution of plant defence structures, establishing the influences of herbivory on past plant community structure and composition, and identifying pollination and seed dispersal syndromes. The flightless ratite moa (Aves: Dinornithiformes) were New Zealand's largest herbivores prior to their extinction soon after initial human settlement. Here we contribute to the knowledge of moa diet and ecology by reporting the results of a multidisciplinary study of 35 coprolites from a subalpine cave (Euphrates Cave) on the South Island of New Zealand. Ancient DNA analysis and radiocarbon dating revealed the coprolites were deposited by the extinct upland moa (Megalapteryx didinus), and span from at least 6,368±31 until 694±30 (14)C years BP; the approximate time of their extinction. Using pollen, plant macrofossil, and ancient DNA analyses, we identified at least 67 plant taxa from the coprolites, including the first evidence that moa fed on the nectar-rich flowers of New Zealand flax (Phormium) and tree fuchsia (Fuchsia excorticata). The plant assemblage from the coprolites reflects a highly-generalist feeding ecology for upland moa, including browsing and grazing across the full range of locally available habitats (spanning southern beech (Nothofagus) forest to tussock (Chionochloa) grassland). Intact seeds in the coprolites indicate that upland moa may have been important dispersal agents for several plant taxa. Plant taxa with putative anti-browse adaptations were also identified in the coprolites. Clusters of coprolites (based on pollen assemblages, moa haplotypes, and radiocarbon dates), probably reflect specimens deposited at the same time by individual birds, and reveal the necessity of suitably large sample sizes in coprolite studies to overcome potential biases in diet interpretation.

  12. Small mammal habitat use within restored riparian habitats adjacent to channelized streams in Mississippi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Riparian zones of channelized agricultural streams in northwestern Mississippi typically consist of narrow vegetative corridors low in habitat diversity and lacking riparian wetlands. Land clearing practices and stream channelization has led to the development of gully erosion and further fragmenta...

  13. Modelling the Influence of Long-Term Hydraulic Conditions on Juvenile Salmon Habitats in AN Upland Scotish River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabris, L.; Malcolm, I.; Millidine, K. J.; Buddendorf, B.; Tetzlaff, D.; Soulsby, C.

    2015-12-01

    Wild Atlantic salmon populations in Scottish rivers constitute an important economic and recreational resource, as well as being a key component of biodiversity. Salmon have very specific habitat requirements at different life stages and their distribution is therefore strongly influenced by a complex suite of biological and physical controls. Previous research has shown that stream hydrodynamics and channel morphology have a strong influence on the distribution and density of juvenile salmon. Here, we utilise a unique 20 year data set of spatially distributed juvenile salmon densities derived from annual electro-fishing surveys in an upland Scottish river. We examine to what extent the spatial and temporal variability of in-stream hydraulics regulates the spatial and temporal variability in the performance and density of juvenile salmon. A 2-D hydraulic model (River2D) is used to simulate water velocity and water depth under different flow conditions for seven different electro-fishing sites. The selected sites represent different hydromorphological environments including plane-bed, step-pool and pool riffle reaches. The bathymetry of each site was characterised using a total station providing an accurate DTM of the bed, and hydraulic simulations were driven by 20 year stream flow records. Habitat suitability curves, based on direct observations during electro-fishing surveys, were produced for a range of hydraulic indices for juvenile salmon. The hydraulic simulations showed marked spatial differences in juvenile habitat quality both within and between reaches. They also showed marked differences both within and between years. This is most evident in extreme years with wet summers when salmon feeding opportunities may be constrained. Integration of hydraulic habitat models, with fish preference curves and the long term hydrological data allows us to assess whether long-term changes in hydroclimate may be affecting juvenile salmonid populations in the study stream

  14. Spillover from adjacent crop and forest habitats shapes carabid beetle assemblages in fragmented semi-natural grasslands.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Gudrun; Krauss, Jochen; Boetzl, Fabian A; Fritze, Michael-Andreas; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf

    2016-12-01

    Semi-natural grasslands in Europe are insect biodiversity hotspots and important source habitats delivering ecosystem services to adjacent agricultural land by species spillover. However, this spillover might also occur in the opposite direction, affecting the diversity of semi-natural grasslands. This opposite spillover has got little attention in scientific literature even though generalist species penetrating into the grasslands can affect local biotic interactions, community composition and the conservation value of grassland habitats. In this study, we examined spillover effects from two different adjacent habitat types on carabid beetle assemblages in 20 semi-natural calcareous grasslands. The grasslands were either adjacent to a cereal crop field or to a coniferous forest. We found distinct differences in carabid beetle assemblages in calcareous grasslands depending on adjacent habitat type. Species richness and activity density were higher, but the evenness was lower in calcareous grasslands adjacent to crop fields compared with calcareous grasslands adjacent to coniferous forests. Further, we found a strong spillover of carabid beetles from adjacent crop fields after crop harvest, which may result in transiently increased predation pressure and resource competition in calcareous grasslands. Our results highlight that species composition, diversity and presumably ecosystem functions within semi-natural habitats are affected by the type and management of surrounding habitats. This needs to be considered by nature conservation measures, which aim to protect the unique insect communities of semi-natural European grasslands.

  15. Impact of Invasive Fish on Nitrogen Transport to Adjacent Stream Habitats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tronstad, L.; Hall, R.; Koel, T.

    2005-05-01

    Consumers can alter in-situ ecosystem processes, but less is known about their impacts on adjacent habitats. Animals may influence ecosystem dynamics in adjacent areas, especially if energy is exchanged between systems. Lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) were introduced to Yellowstone Lake and are reducing the native Yellowstone cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki bouvieri) through predation. Both trout live in Yellowstone Lake, but only cutthroat spawn in and transport nutrients to streams. To estimate the indirect impact of lake trout on nutrient cycling in adjacent streams, we estimated how much nitrogen cutthroat transport. Spawners supplied 100 mg NH4-N m-2d-1 prior to lake trout when 50,000 cutthroat spawned, but only 1.8 mg NH4-N m-2d-1 to tributary streams in 2004 when 1,400 fish spawned. In contrast, cutthroat excreted 5.9 mg NH4-N m-2d-1 in Yellowstone Lake prior to lake trout and only 1.9 mg NH4-N m-2d-1 currently. Given a 90 day spawning period, tributary streams are more impacted (8,838 mg NH4-N m-2yr-1) than Yellowstone Lake (1,460 mg NH4-N m-2yr-1). Consumers can have large impacts not only in their primary habitat, but also in neighboring areas. Less transported nitrogen could reduce stream primary and secondary production, and cutthroat recruitment through time.

  16. Differential energy costs of winter acclimatized common spiny mice Acomys cahirinus from two adjacent habitats.

    PubMed

    Scantlebury, Michael; Shanas, Uri; Kupshtein, Hagai; Speakman, John R; Haim, Abraham

    2004-02-01

    The common spiny mouse Acomys cahirinus, of Ethiopian origin, has a widespread distribution across arid, semi-arid and Mediterranean parts of the Arabian sub-region. We compared the daily energy expenditure (DEE), water turnover (WTO) and sustained metabolic scope (SusMS=DEE/resting metabolic rate) of two adjacent populations during the winter. Mice were captured from North- and South- facing slopes (NFS and SFS) of the same valley, comprising mesic and xeric habitats, respectively. Both DEE and SusMS winter values were greater in NFS than SFS mice and were significantly greater than values previously measured in the summer for these two populations in the same environments. However, WTO values were consistent with previously established values and were not significantly different from allometric predictions for desert eutherians. We suggest that physiological plasticity in energy expenditure, which exists both temporally and spatially, combined with stable WTO, perhaps reflecting a xeric ancestry, has enabled A. cahirinus to invade a wide range of habitats.

  17. Multiple stressors in sediments impact adjacent hard substrate habitats and across biological domains.

    PubMed

    Lawes, Jasmin C; Dafforn, Katherine A; Clark, Graeme F; Brown, Mark V; Johnston, Emma L

    2017-08-15

    Coastal systems are increasingly impacted by human activities. While the direct effects of individual contaminants have been investigated, the potential for multiple contaminants to impact adjacent hard substrate habitats is poorly understood. Sediment-bound contaminants pose a risk to water column organisms through resuspension and the fluxing of dissolved nutrients and metals. This study experimentally manipulated contaminated coastal sediments in mesocosms with additions of a common fertiliser to investigate the impact on both bacterial biofilms and macrofouling communities on nearby hard substrates. Field mesocosms were deployed sub-tidally for two weeks in a fully crossed design with two levels of metal contamination (ambient or high) and three levels of organic enrichment (ambient, low and high). Developing biofilm and macrofaunal communities were collected on acetate settlement sheets above the mesocosm sediments and censused with a combination of high-throughput sequencing (biofilm) and microscopy (macrofauna). Organic enrichment of sediments induced compositional shifts in biofilm communities, reducing their diversity, evenness and richness. Furthermore, co-occurrence networks built from microbial assemblages exposed to contaminated sediments displayed reduced connectivity compared to controls, suggesting a more stochastic assembly dynamic, where microbial interactions are reduced. Macrofouling community composition shifted in response to increased enrichment with separate and interactive effects of metals also observed for individual taxa. Specifically, antagonistic stressor interactions were observed for colonial ascidians and arborescent bryozoans; metal contamination decreased abundances of these taxa, except under high enrichment conditions. Together these micro- and macrofaunal responses indicate selection for depauperate, but contaminant-tolerant, communities and a potential breakdown in biotic connectivity through multiple stressor impacts across

  18. Metal and arsenic impacts to soils, vegetation communities and wildlife habitat in southwest Montana uplands contaminated by smelter emissions. 1: Field evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Galbraith, H.; LeJeune, K.; Lipton, J.

    1995-11-01

    Concentrations of arsenic and metals in soils surrounding a smelter in southwest Montana were correlated with vegetative community structure and composition and wildlife habitat quality. Soils in the uplands surrounding the smelter were highly enriched with arsenic and metals. Concentrations of these analytes decreased with distance from the smelter and with soil depth, suggesting that the smelter is the source of the enrichment. In enriched areas, marked modifications to the native vegetation community structure and composition were observed. These included replacement of evergreen forest with bare unvegetated ground; species impoverishment and increased dominance by weed species in grasslands; and reductions in the vertical complexity of the habitat. Significant negative correlations existed between soil arsenic and metals concentrations and the extent of vegetative cover and the vertical diversity of plant communities. Loss of vegetative cover in the affected areas has been accompanied by reductions in their capacity to support indigenous wildlife populations.

  19. Trends in Developed Land Cover Adjacent to Habitat for Threatened Salmon in Puget Sound, Washington, U.S.A.

    PubMed Central

    Bartz, Krista K.; Ford, Michael J.; Beechie, Timothy J.; Fresh, Kurt L.; Pess, George R.; Kennedy, Robert E.; Rowse, Melinda L.; Sheer, Mindi

    2015-01-01

    For widely distributed species at risk, such as Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.), habitat monitoring is both essential and challenging. Only recently have widespread monitoring programs been implemented for salmon habitat in the Pacific Northwest. Remote sensing data, such as Landsat images, are therefore a useful way to evaluate trends prior to the advent of species-specific habitat monitoring programs. We used annual (1986-2008) land cover maps created from Landsat images via automated algorithms (LandTrendr) to evaluate trends in developed (50-100% impervious) land cover in areas adjacent to five types of habitat utilized by Chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) in the Puget Sound region of Washington State, U.S.A. For the region as a whole, we found significant increases in developed land cover adjacent to each of the habitat types evaluated (nearshore, estuary, mainstem channel, tributary channel, and floodplain), but the increases were small (<1% total increase from 1986 to 2008). For each habitat type, the increasing trend changed during the time series. In nearshore, mainstem, and floodplain areas, the rate of increase in developed land cover slowed in the latter portion of the time series, while the opposite occurred in estuary and tributary areas. Watersheds that were already highly developed in 1986 tended to have higher rates of development than initially less developed watersheds. Overall, our results suggest that developed land cover in areas adjacent to Puget Sound salmon habitat has increased only slightly since 1986 and that the rate of change has slowed near some key habitat types, although this has occurred within the context of a degraded baseline condition. PMID:25923327

  20. Diet and body mass of wintering ducks in adjacent brackish and freshwater habitats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, M.R.; Burns, E.G.; Wickland, B.E.; Eadie, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Field-collected and hunter-donated ducks obtained during September-January of 1997-98 and 1998-99 were used to determine if food habits and body mass of Northern Pintails (Anas acuta) and Mallards (A. platyrhynchos) wintering in Suisun Marsh (Suisun), California, a managed estuarine brackish marsh, differed from values in the adjacent Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta (the Delta), a freshwater region of grain fields flooded after harvest. Ducks in Suisun fed primarily on seeds of Sea Purslane (Sesuvium verrucosum), followed by Alkali Bulrush (Schoenoplectus maritimus) and Wild Millet (Echinochloa crusgalli), together forming 73-90% (aggregate % dry mass) of the diets. Ducks in the Delta fed primarily on seeds of Smartweed (Polygonum spp.), followed by corn (Zea mays) and tomato seeds (Lycopersicon esculentum), together forming 62-88% of the diets. Pintails and Mallards collected in Suisun each had similar (5 of 11 seasonal comparisons) or greater (6 of the 11 comparisons) body mass compared to their conspecifics collected from the Delta (90% confidence interval analyses), despite a composite diet in the Delta having about 39% greater metabolizable energy content (ME) and 24% greater protein content than in Suisun. Therefore, diet quality alone was not a predictor of body mass in these two areas. Other factors must have been involved, such as greater food abundance and density, lower waterfowl abundance and density, or lower daily energy costs in Suisun. Direct measurement of these factors should explain the apparent inconsistencies in body mass relative to food quality in these brackish and freshwater habitats.

  1. High-Resolution Coproecology: Using Coprolites to Reconstruct the Habits and Habitats of New Zealand’s Extinct Upland Moa (Megalapteryx didinus)

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Jamie R.; Wilmshurst, Janet M.; Wagstaff, Steven J.; Worthy, Trevor H.; Rawlence, Nicolas J.; Cooper, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge about the diet and ecology of extinct herbivores has important implications for understanding the evolution of plant defence structures, establishing the influences of herbivory on past plant community structure and composition, and identifying pollination and seed dispersal syndromes. The flightless ratite moa (Aves: Dinornithiformes) were New Zealand’s largest herbivores prior to their extinction soon after initial human settlement. Here we contribute to the knowledge of moa diet and ecology by reporting the results of a multidisciplinary study of 35 coprolites from a subalpine cave (Euphrates Cave) on the South Island of New Zealand. Ancient DNA analysis and radiocarbon dating revealed the coprolites were deposited by the extinct upland moa (Megalapteryx didinus), and span from at least 6,368±31 until 694±30 14C years BP; the approximate time of their extinction. Using pollen, plant macrofossil, and ancient DNA analyses, we identified at least 67 plant taxa from the coprolites, including the first evidence that moa fed on the nectar-rich flowers of New Zealand flax (Phormium) and tree fuchsia (Fuchsia excorticata). The plant assemblage from the coprolites reflects a highly-generalist feeding ecology for upland moa, including browsing and grazing across the full range of locally available habitats (spanning southern beech (Nothofagus) forest to tussock (Chionochloa) grassland). Intact seeds in the coprolites indicate that upland moa may have been important dispersal agents for several plant taxa. Plant taxa with putative anti-browse adaptations were also identified in the coprolites. Clusters of coprolites (based on pollen assemblages, moa haplotypes, and radiocarbon dates), probably reflect specimens deposited at the same time by individual birds, and reveal the necessity of suitably large sample sizes in coprolite studies to overcome potential biases in diet interpretation. PMID:22768206

  2. Adjacent Habitat Influence on Stink Bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) Densities and the Associated Damage at Field Corn and Soybean Edges

    PubMed Central

    Venugopal, P. Dilip; Coffey, Peter L.; Dively, Galen P.; Lamp, William O.

    2014-01-01

    The local dispersal of polyphagous, mobile insects within agricultural systems impacts pest management. In the mid-Atlantic region of the United States, stink bugs, especially the invasive Halyomorpha halys (Stål 1855), contribute to economic losses across a range of cropping systems. Here, we characterized the density of stink bugs along the field edges of field corn and soybean at different study sites. Specifically, we examined the influence of adjacent managed and natural habitats on the density of stink bugs in corn and soybean fields at different distances along transects from the field edge. We also quantified damage to corn grain, and to soybean pods and seeds, and measured yield in relation to the observed stink bug densities at different distances from field edge. Highest density of stink bugs was limited to the edge of both corn and soybean fields. Fields adjacent to wooded, crop and building habitats harbored higher densities of stink bugs than those adjacent to open habitats. Damage to corn kernels and to soybean pods and seeds increased with stink bug density in plots and was highest at the field edges. Stink bug density was also negatively associated with yield per plant in soybean. The spatial pattern of stink bugs in both corn and soybeans, with significant edge effects, suggests the use of pest management strategies for crop placement in the landscape, as well as spatially targeted pest suppression within fields. PMID:25295593

  3. Ord's kangaroo rats living in floodplain habitats: Factors contributing to habitat attraction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, M.S.; Wilson, K.R.; Andersen, D.C.

    2003-01-01

    High densities of an aridland granivore, Ord's kangaroo rat (Dipodomys ordii), have been documented in floodplain habitats along the Yampa River in northwestern Colorado. Despite a high probability of inundation and attendant high mortality during the spring flood period, the habitat is consistently recolonized. To understand factors that potentially make riparian habitats attractive to D. ordii, we compared density and spatial pattern of seeds, density of a competitor (western harvester ant, Pogonomyrmex occidentalis), and digging energetics within floodplain habitats and between floodplain and adjacent upland habitats. Seed density within the floodplain was greatest in the topographically high (rarely flooded) floodplain and lowest immediately after a spring flood in the topographically low (frequently flooded) floodplain. Seed densities in adjacent upland habitat that never floods were higher than the lowest floodplain habitat. In the low floodplain prior to flooding, seeds had a clumped spatial pattern, which D. ordii is adept at exploiting; after spring flooding, a more random pattern resulted. Populations of the western harvester ant were low in the floodplain relative to the upland. Digging by D. ordii was energetically less expensive in floodplain areas than in upland areas. Despite the potential for mortality due to annual spring flooding, the combination of less competition from harvester ants and lower energetic costs of digging might promote the use of floodplain habitat by D. ordii.

  4. Spillover edge effects: the dispersal of agriculturally subsidized insect natural enemies into adjacent natural habitats.

    PubMed

    Rand, Tatyana A; Tylianakis, Jason M; Tscharntke, Teja

    2006-05-01

    The cross-edge spillover of subsidized predators from anthropogenic to natural habitats is an important process affecting wildlife, especially bird, populations in fragmented landscapes. However, the importance of the spillover of insect natural enemies from agricultural to natural habitats is unknown, despite the abundance of studies examining movement in the opposite direction. Here, we synthesize studies from various ecological sub-disciplines to suggest that spillover of agriculturally subsidized insect natural enemies may be an important process affecting prey populations in natural habitat fragments. This contention is based on (1) the ubiquity of agricultural-natural edges in human dominated landscapes; (2) the substantial literature illustrating that crop and natural habitats share important insect predators; and (3) the clear importance of the landscape matrix, specifically distance to ecological edges, in influencing predator impacts in agroecosystems. Further support emerges from theory on the importance of cross-boundary subsidies for within site consumer-resource dynamics. In particular, high productivity and temporally variable resource abundance in agricultural systems are predicted to result in strong spillover effects. More empirical work examining the prevalence and significance of such natural enemy spillover will be critical to a broader understanding of fragmentation impacts on insect predator-prey interactions.

  5. Ants of three adjacent habitats of a transition region between the cerrado and caatinga biomes: the effects of heterogeneity and variation in canopy cover.

    PubMed

    Neves, F S; Queiroz-Dantas, K S; da Rocha, W D; Delabie, J H C

    2013-06-01

    Habitat heterogeneity and complexity associated with variations in climatic conditions are important factors determining the structure of ant communities in different terrestrial ecosystems. The objective of this study was to describe the horizontal and vertical distribution patterns of the ant community associated with three adjacent habitats in a transition area between the Cerrado and Caatinga biomes at the Pandeiros River, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. We tested the following hypotheses: (1) the richness and composition of ant species and functional group structure changes between different habitats and strata; (2) habitats with higher tree species richness and density support higher ant species richness; and (3) habitats with lower variation in canopy cover support higher ant species richness. Sampling was conducted in three adjacent habitats and at three vertical strata. Ant species richness was significantly different among vertical strata. Ant species composition was different among both habitats and vertical strata and functional group structure was divergent among habitats. Partitioning of the diversity revealed that the diversity for the three components was statistically different from the one expected by the null model; α and β 2 were higher and β 1 was lower than the values expected by chance. Tree density and variation in canopy cover negatively affected ant species richness. The occurrence of different species and the changing of functional group structures in different habitats and strata suggest an ecological-evolutionary relationship between ants and their habitats and emphasize the need to implement local conservation strategies in the ecotones between biomes.

  6. Potential interactions among disease, pesticides, water quality and adjacent land cover in amphibian habitats in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Battaglin, William A.; Smalling, Kelly L.; Anderson, Chauncey; Calhoun, Daniel L.; Chestnut, Tara E.; Muths, Erin L.

    2016-01-01

    To investigate interactions among disease, pesticides, water quality, and adjacent land cover, we collected samples of water, sediment, and frog tissue from 21 sites in 7 States in the United States (US) representing a variety of amphibian habitats. All samples were analyzed for > 90 pesticides and pesticide degradates, and water and frogs were screened for the amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) using molecular methods. Pesticides and pesticide degradates were detected frequently in frog breeding habitats (water and sediment) as well as in frog tissue. Fungicides occurred more frequently in water, sediment, and tissue than was expected based upon their limited use relative to herbicides or insecticides. Pesticide occurrence in water or sediment was not a strong predictor of occurrence in tissue, but pesticide concentrations in tissue were correlated positively to agricultural and urban land, and negatively to forested land in 2-km buffers around the sites. Bd was detected in water at 45% of sites, and on 34% of swabbed frogs. Bd detections in water were not associated with differences in land use around sites, but sites with detections had colder water. Frogs that tested positive for Bd were associated with sites that had higher total fungicide concentrations in water and sediment, but lower insecticide concentrations in sediments relative to frogs that were Bd negative. Bd concentrations on frog swabs were positively correlated to dissolved organic carbon, and total nitrogen and phosphorus, and negatively correlated to pH and water temperature.Data were collected from a range of locations and amphibian habitats and represent some of the first field-collected information aimed at understanding the interactions between pesticides, land use, and amphibian disease. These interactions are of particular interest to conservation efforts as many amphibians live in altered habitats and may depend on wetlands embedded in these landscapes to

  7. Diving behavior of the reef manta ray links coral reefs with adjacent deep pelagic habitats.

    PubMed

    Braun, Camrin D; Skomal, Gregory B; Thorrold, Simon R; Berumen, Michael L

    2014-01-01

    Recent successful efforts to increase protection for manta rays has highlighted the lack of basic ecological information, including vertical and horizontal movement patterns, available for these species. We deployed pop-up satellite archival transmitting tags on nine reef manta rays, Manta alfredi, to determine diving behaviors and vertical habitat use. Transmitted and archived data were obtained from seven tagged mantas over deployment periods of 102-188 days, including three recovered tags containing 2.6 million depth, temperature, and light level data points collected every 10 or 15 seconds. Mantas frequented the upper 10 m during daylight hours and tended to occupy deeper water throughout the night. Six of the seven individuals performed a cumulative 76 deep dives (>150 m) with one individual reaching 432 m, extending the known depth range of this coastal, reef-oriented species and confirming its role as an ecological link between epipelagic and mesopelagic habitats. Mean vertical velocities calculated from high-resolution dive data (62 dives >150 m) from three individuals suggested that mantas may use gliding behavior during travel and that this behavior may prove more efficient than continuous horizontal swimming. The behaviors in this study indicate manta rays provide a previously unknown link between the epi- and mesopelagic layers of an extremely oligotrophic marine environment and provide evidence of a third marine species that utilizes gliding to maximize movement efficiency.

  8. Nocturnal Fish Use of New Jersey Marsh Creek and Adjacent Bay Shoal Habitats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rountree, R. A.; Able, K. W.

    1997-06-01

    Night-time sampling with gill nets in the Little Egg Harbor estuary revealed a component of the estuarine fish fauna, hitherto poorly documented, which is comprised of relatively large size classes of juvenile and adult life history stages. The fishesMustelus canis, Pomatomus saltatrix, Paralichthys dentatus, Brevoortia tyrannus, Prionotus evolansandAlosa mediocriswere the most abundant fishes captured. These observations suggest that Mid-Atlantic Bight estuaries are important nurseries for juvenile stages beyond the first year, as well as for the young of the year (YOY). Although many other studies emphasise the importance of estuaries as nurseries for YOY stages, the importance of estuaries to later juvenile life stages has been largely overlooked. This component of estuarine fish fauna has been poorly represented in previous North American studies because of probable gear avoidance, and because most studies are conducted primarily during the day. The authors hypothesise that these later juvenile stages are likely to be important estuarine faunal components in other geographic regions, as well as in the Mid-Atlantic Bight. A descriptive comparison of catches between ebb and flood tide stages, and between bay shoal and tidal marsh creek habitats, suggests that later juvenile and adult stages of several species make tidal migrations into shallow estuarine habitats, such as shoals and marsh creeks, during the night hours.

  9. Methane Emissions from Upland Forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Megonigal, Patrick; Pitz, Scott; Wang, Zhi-Ping

    2016-04-01

    Global budgets ascribe 4-10% of atmospheric methane sinks to upland soils and assume that soils are the sole surface for methane exchange between upland forests and the atmosphere. The dogma that upland forests are uniformly atmospheric methane sinks was challenged a decade ago by the discovery of abiotic methane production from plant tissue. Subsequently a variety of relatively cryptic microbial and non-microbial methane sources have been proposed that have the potential to emit methane in upland forests. Despite the accumulating evidence of potential methane sources, there are few data demonstrating actual emissions of methane from a plant surface in an upland forest. We report direct observations of methane emissions from upland tree stems in two temperate forests. Stem methane emissions were observed from several tree species that dominate a forest located on the mid-Atlantic coast of North America (Maryland, USA). Stem emissions occurred throughout the growing season while soils adjacent to the trees simultaneously consumed methane. Scaling fluxes by stem surface area suggested the forest was a net methane source during a wet period in June, and that stem emissions offset 5% of the soil methane sink on an annual basis. High frequency measurements revealed diurnal cycles in stem methane emission rates, pointing to soils as the methane source and transpiration as the most likely pathway for gas transport. Similar observations were made in an upland forest in Beijing, China. However, in this case the evidence suggested the methane was not produced in soils, but in the heartwood by microbial or non-microbial processes. These data challenge the concept that forests are uniform sinks of methane, and suggest that upland forests are smaller methane sinks than previously estimated due to stem emissions. Tree emissions may be particularly important in upland tropical forests characterized by high rainfall and transpiration.

  10. Relation of ramet size to acorn production in five oak species of xeric upland habitats in south-central Florida.

    PubMed

    Abrahamson, Warren G; Layne, James N

    2002-01-01

    This study examined variation in two components of acorn production. Percentage of bearing ramets (stems) and number of acorns per bearing ramet were examined in five clonal oaks in three xeric habitats of south-central peninsular Florida in relation to ramet size within and between species and vegetative associations. Counts of acorns on two white oaks (Quercus chapmanii and Q. geminata) and three red oaks (Q. inopina, Q. laevis, and Q. myrtifolia) were conducted annually from 1969 to 1996 (except in 1991) on permanent grids in southern ridge sandhill, sand pine scrub, and scrubby flatwoods associations at the Archbold Biological Station, Florida, USA. Percentage of bearing individuals and mean number of acorns per bearing individual increased with increasing ramet size for all species across all vegetation associations. However, in Q. geminata and Q. myrtifolia, acorn production declined in the largest size class (>3.2 m), implying that larger individuals of these clonal species may become senescent. All oak species in sand pine scrub, which had a nearly closed overstory, had lower frequencies of bearing oaks and mean numbers of acorns compared with similar-sized individuals of the same species in the more open-canopied southern ridge sandhill and scrubby flatwoods associations, suggesting light limitation. The annual production of acorns by a given oak species was correlated across vegetative associations and annual acorn production of oak species was correlated for species within the same section. Intermediate-size class oaks contributed the most acorns per unit area, suggesting that stands managed with short fire-return times will provide fewer acorns to wildlife than stands managed to produce more variable distributions of oak size classes. However, our study suggests that long-unburned stands, such as those studied here, will maintain relatively constant levels of acorn production as a consequence of ramet replacement within the clones of these shrubby oaks

  11. Immediate changes in stream channel geomorphology, aquatic habitat, and fish assemblages following dam removal in a small upland catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magilligan, F. J.; Nislow, K. H.; Kynard, B. E.; Hackman, A. M.

    2016-01-01

    downstream reach. Post-removal, but pre-flood, bed surveys indicate 2 m of incision had migrated 25 m upstream of the former reservoir before encountering the exhumed dam, which now acts as the new grade control, limiting progressive headcutting. Approximately 1000 m3 of sediment was evacuated in the first year, with 67% of the volume occurring by pre-flood, process-driven (e.g., changes in base level) controls. The combination of changes in channel-bed sedimentology, the occurrence of a large magnitude flood, and the emergence of the new crib dam that is a likely barrier to fish movement was associated with major reductions in abundance and richness in sites downstream and immediately upstream adjacent to the former dam in post-removal sampling. At the same time, we documented the presence of four species of fish, including sea lamprey, which were not present above the dam prior to removal, indicating that upstream passage has been achieved; and we also documented lamprey spawning activity at sites immediately below the dam, which had previously been unsuitable owing to an excessively coarse and armored riverbed. Our results point to the importance of interactions between dam removal and flood disturbance effects, with important implications for short- and long-term monitoring and assessment of dam impacts to river systems.

  12. Interactions of polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides with sedimentary organic matter of retrogressive thaw slump-affected lakes in the tundra uplands adjacent to the Mackenzie Delta, NT, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eickmeyer, David C.; Kimpe, Linda E.; Kokelj, Steve V.; Pisaric, Michael F. J.; Smol, John P.; Sanei, Hamed; Thienpont, Joshua R.; Blais, Jules M.

    2016-02-01

    Using a comparative spatial analysis of sediment cores from eight lakes in tundra uplands adjacent to the Mackenzie Delta, NT, we examined how the presence of retrogressive thaw slumps on lake shores affected persistent organic pollutant (POPs, including polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides) accumulation in lake sediments. Sediments of slump-affected lakes contained higher total organic carbon (TOC)-normalized POP concentrations than nearby reference lakes that were unaffected by thaw slumps. Mean focus-corrected inorganic sedimentation rates were positively related to TOC-normalized contaminant concentrations, explaining 58-94% of the variation in POP concentrations in sediment, suggesting that reduced organic carbon in slump-affected lake water results in higher concentrations of POPs on sedimentary organic matter. This explanation was corroborated by an inverse relationship between sedimentary POP concentrations and TOC content of the lake water. Inferred chlorophyll a, S2, and S3 carbon fluxes to sediment were not significantly correlated to POP fluxes. Higher POP concentrations observed in sediment of slump-affected lakes are best explained by simple solvent switching processes of hydrophobic organic contaminants onto a smaller pool of available organic carbon when compared to neighboring lakes unaffected by thaw slump development.

  13. Upland Impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    24 March 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a relatively fresh crater with dark, rayed ejecta on an upland plain above one of the many depressions in the eastern Labyrinthus Noctis region. The presence of the dark rays emanating from the crater suggests that the impact was a relatively recent event compared to other craters of similar diameter in the scene. Over time, the dark ejecta will fade and blend in with its surroundings, owing to settling of dust from the atmosphere.

    Location near: 9.7oS, 94.8oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Summer

  14. Responses of Isolated Wetland Herpetofauna to Upland Forest Management

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, K.R.; Hanlin, H.G.; Wigley, T.B.; Guynn, D.C., Jr.

    2002-01-02

    Measurement of responses of herpetofauna at isolated wetlands in the Coastal Plain of South Carolina to disturbance of adjacent loblolly pine forest. Many species of isolated wetland herpetofauna in the Southeastern Coastal Plain may tolerate some disturbance in adjacent upland stands. Responses of isolated wetland herpetofauna to upland silviculture and the need for adjacent forested buffers likely depend on the specific landscape context in which the wetlands occur and composition of the resident herpetofaunal community.

  15. Effects of adjacent habitat on populations of stink bugs (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) in cotton as part of a variable agricultural landscape in South Carolina.

    PubMed

    Reeves, R B; Greene, J K; Reay-Jones, F P F; Toews, M D; Gerard, P D

    2010-10-01

    The distribution of phytophagous stink bugs and associated boll injury in margins of cotton fields bordering various agronomic crops and woodlands were studied in 2007 and 2008. Two commercial cotton fields, ranging in size from 7.8 to 12.1 ha in Barnwell and Lee Counties, SC, were sampled weekly each year along predetermined transects at 0, 5, 10, and 25 m from the outside margin into the cotton field. Stink bugs were sampled using a ground cloth (0.91 by 0.91 m), and quarter-sized bolls (≈ 2.5 cm in diameter) were collected and examined for internal damage. Density (bugs/row-m) of total stink bugs (adults plus nymphs) was greatest in cotton adjacent to peanut. Boll injury was significantly greater in cotton adjacent to soybean and peanut than in cotton next to other habitats, including corn, cotton, and woodlands, during midseason. Density of nymphs was greatest in cotton adjacent to peanut during mid and late season. Densities of total stink bugs and adults were greatest in cotton immediately adjacent (0 m) to all bordering crops and decreased as distance from the margin increased. Boll injury was greatest in cotton immediately adjacent (0 m) to the bordering crop in mid and late season. Because densities of stink bugs and boll injury vary spatially and temporally along field margins of cotton and can vary significantly based on the adjacent crop, such factors should be considered when developing integrated pest management strategies in cotton.

  16. Cryptic Methane Emissions from Upland Forest Ecosystems

    SciTech Connect

    Megonigal, Patrick; Pitz, Scott

    2016-04-19

    This exploratory research on Cryptic Methane Emissions from Upland Forest Ecosystems was motivated by evidence that upland ecosystems emit 36% as much methane to the atmosphere as global wetlands, yet we knew almost nothing about this source. The long-term objective was to refine Earth system models by quantifying methane emissions from upland forests, and elucidate the biogeochemical processes that govern upland methane emissions. The immediate objectives of the grant were to: (i) test the emerging paradigm that upland trees unexpectedly transpire methane, (ii) test the basic biogeochemical assumptions of an existing global model of upland methane emissions, and (iii) develop the suite of biogeochemical approaches that will be needed to advance research on upland methane emissions. We instrumented a temperate forest system in order to explore the processes that govern upland methane emissions. We demonstrated that methane is emitted from the stems of dominant tree species in temperate upland forests. Tree emissions occurred throughout the growing season, while soils adjacent to the trees consumed methane simultaneously, challenging the concept that forests are uniform sinks of methane. High frequency measurements revealed diurnal cycling in the rate of methane emissions, pointing to soils as the methane source and transpiration as the most likely pathway for methane transport. We propose the forests are smaller methane sinks than previously estimated due to stem emissions. Stem emissions may be particularly important in upland tropical forests characterized by high rainfall and transpiration, resolving differences between models and measurements. The methods we used can be effectively implemented in order to determine if the phenomenon is widespread.

  17. Habitat use and preferences of cetaceans along the continental slope and the adjacent pelagic waters in the western Ligurian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azzellino, A.; Gaspari, S.; Airoldi, S.; Nani, B.

    2008-03-01

    The physical habitat of cetaceans occurring along the continental slope in the western Ligurian Sea was investigated. Data were collected from two different sighting platforms, one of the two being a whale-watching boat. Surveys, conducted from May to October and from 1996 to 2000, covered an area of approximately 3000 km 2 with a mean effort of about 10,000 km year -1. A total of 814 sightings was reported, including all the species occurring in the area: Stenella coeruleoalba, Balaenoptera physalus, Physeter macrocephalus, Globicephala melas, Grampus griseus, Ziphius cavirostris, Tursiops truncatus, Delphinus delphis. A Geographic Information System was used to integrate sighting data to a set of environmental characteristics, which included bottom gradient, area between different isobaths, and length and linearity of the isobaths within a cell unit. Habitat use was analysed by means of a multi-dimensional scaling, MDS, analysis. Significant differences were found in the habitat preference of most of the species regularly occurring in the area. Bottlenose dolphin, Risso's dolphin, sperm whale and Cuvier's beaked whale were found strongly associated to well-defined depth and slope gradient characteristics of the shelf-edge and the upper and lower slope. The hypothesis of habitat segregation was considered for Risso's dolphin, sperm whale and Cuvier's beaked whale. Canonical discriminant functions using depth and slope as predictors outlined clear and not overlapping habitat preferences for Risso's dolphin and Cuvier's beaked whale, whereas a partial overlapping of the habitat of the other two species was observed for sperm whale. Such a partitioning of the upper and lower slope area may be the result of the common feeding habits and suggests a possible competition of these three species. A temporal segregation in the use of the slope area was also observed for sperm whales and Risso's dolphins. Fin whales, and the occasionally encountered common dolphin and long

  18. Differences in the ectoparasite fauna between micromammals captured in natural and adjacent residential areas are better explained by sex and season than by type of habitat.

    PubMed

    Cevidanes, Aitor; Proboste, Tatiana; Chirife, Andrea D; Millán, Javier

    2016-06-01

    We compared the ectoparasite fauna in 608 micromammals (chiefly 472 wood mice Apodemus sylvaticus, 63 Algerian mice Mus spretus, and 51 greater white-toothed shrews Crocidura russula) captured in natural and adjacent residential areas in spring and autumn during three consecutive years in four areas in periurban Barcelona (NE Spain). We found little support for an association of urbanization with differences in infestation by ectoparasites. Prevalence of Rhipicephalus sp. tick in wood mice and shrews was significantly higher in residential than in natural habitats, and the opposite was found for the flea Ctenophtalmus andorrensis catalanensis in shrews. Marked differences in the prevalence of the flea Leptopsylla taschenbergi amitina in wood mice between seasons were observed in natural but not in residential habitats, probably due to enhanced flea survival probabilities in the latter. However, as a rule, males were more frequently and heavily infested than females, and the prevalence was higher in autumn than in spring. Our results suggest that the ectoparasite fauna of periurban micromammals is shaped more by other factors than by habitat modification. People living in residential areas are at risk of contact with the arthropods borne by non-commensal micromammals and the pathogens transmitted by them.

  19. Metal and arsenic impacts to soils, vegetation communities and wildlife habitat in southwest Montana uplands contaminated by smelter emissions. 2: Laboratory phytotoxicity studies

    SciTech Connect

    Kapustka, L.A.; Lipton, J.; Galbraith, H.; Cacela, D.; LeJeune, K.

    1995-11-01

    Vegetation communities on metal- and arsenic-contaminated uplands surrounding a smelter in southwest Montana have been eliminated or highly modified. Laboratory toxicity tests were performed using site soils from the impacted areas to determine whether the soils limit the ability of plants to establish and grow. The germination and growth of alfalfa, lettuce, and wheat in impacted area soils was compared to germination and growth of the three species in reference soils. The degree of phytotoxicity was quantified using a species-endpoint toxicity score calculated on the magnitude of difference between germination and growth of plants in impacted and reference soils. The impacted soils exhibited substantial toxicity to plants: 5% of the sites were severely phytotoxic, 55% were highly phytotoxic, 10% were moderately phytotoxic, 20% were mildly phytotoxic, and 10% were nontoxic. Root growth was consistently the most affected endpoint (18 of 20 impacted soils) and reduction in root length and mass was observed. Correlation and partial correlation analysis was used to evaluate the causes of phytotoxicity. Concentrations of As, Cu, and Zn and, to a lesser extent, Pb and Cd were found to be positively correlated with phytotoxicity.

  20. Predation of the newly invasive pest Megacopta cribraria (Hemiptera: Plataspidae) in soybean habitats adjacent to cotton by a complex of predators.

    PubMed

    Greenstone, M H; Tillman, P G; Hu, J S

    2014-06-01

    The kudzu bug, Megacopta cribraria (F.) (Hemiptera: Plataspidae),is a newly invasive exotic insect found primarily on kudzu, but also on soybean, in the southeastern United States. We used molecular gut-content analysis to document predation on this pest by insects and spiders in soybean, and to detect remains of crop-specific alternative prey in predators' guts as markers of predator migration between soybean and adjacent cotton. M. cribraria was found exclusively on soybean. Eight native generalist predators over both crops screened positive by specific PCR for DNA of the pest: Geocoris punctipes (Say), Geocoris uliginosus (Say), Orius insidiosus (Say), Podisus maculicentris (Say), Hippodamia convergens Guérin-Méneville, Zelus renardii (Kolenati), Oxyopes salticus Hentz, and Peucetia viridans (Hentz); a ninth predator, the exotic Solenopsis invicta Buren, also screened positive for M. cribraria DNA. P. viridans was the only arthropod that tested positive for DNA of this invasive pest in only one crop, cotton. Two plant-feeding pentatomid species, Piezodorus guildinii (Westwood) and Thyanta custator (F.), were found exclusively on soybean, and another, Euschistus tristigmus (Say), was specific to cotton in the context of this study. Detection of predation on a combination of M. cribraria and P. guildinii and T. custator in cotton and M. cribraria and E. tristigmus in soybean demonstrated that these predators dispersed between crops. These results strongly support the use of soybean habitats adjacent to cotton as part of a conservation biological control strategy against M. cribraria. This is the first report documenting predation on this exotic pest in the field via molecular gut-content analysis.

  1. Mosquito Larval Habitats, Land Use, and Potential Malaria Risk in Northern Belize from Satellite Image Analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pope, Kevin; Masuoka, Penny; Rejmankova, Eliska; Grieco, John; Johnson, Sarah; Roberts, Donald

    2004-01-01

    The distribution of Anopheles mosquito habitats and land use in northern Belize is examined with satellite data. -A land cover classification based on multispectral SPOT and multitemporal Radarsat images identified eleven land cover classes, including agricultural, forest, and marsh types. Two of the land cover types, Typha domingensis marsh and flooded forest, are Anopheles vestitipennis larval habitats. Eleocharis spp. marsh is the larval habitat for Anopheles albimanus. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) analyses of land cover demonstrate that the amount of T-ha domingensis in a marsh is positively correlated with the amount of agricultural land in the adjacent upland, and negatively correlated with the amount of adjacent forest. This finding is consistent with the hypothesis that nutrient (phosphorus) runoff from agricultural lands is causing an expansion of Typha domingensis in northern Belize. This expansion of Anopheles vestitipennis larval habitat may in turn cause an increase in malaria risk in the region.

  2. Oak-black bear relationships in southeastern uplands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Joseph D.; Spetich, Martin A.

    2004-01-01

    Bears (Ursus americanus) primarily occur in upland habitats in the Southeast because uplands were the last to be developed for agriculture and were more likely to become publicly owned. National parks and forests created in the early to mid-1900s served as sources to supply surrounding uplands with bears. Bears could not survive in southeastern uplands without oak mast. Bear reproductive and mortality rates in the region have been shown to be directly linked with acorn production. Masting is thought to be an adaptation by oaks to satiate predators during good acorn years, thus ensuring that the remainder will germinate. Acorn predator populations, however, cannot respond numerically to increased acorn production because the masting is episodic and synchronous. Consequently, bears have developed physiological, behavioral, and ecological adaptations to cope with such food shortages. Despite such adaptations, upland hardwood forests in the Southeast are of lower quality than they once were. The loss of the American chestnut (Castanea dentata), higrading, and soil degradation have markedly decreased the carrying capacity for bears and other wildlife. Other changes such as recent forest management practices, forest fragmentation, invasion by the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar), and oak decline threaten to further degrade the capability of southeastern uplands to support bears.

  3. Responses of upland herpetofauna to the restoration of Carolina Bays and thinning of forested Bay Margins.

    SciTech Connect

    Ledvina, Joseph A.

    2008-05-01

    Research on the effects of wetland restoration on reptiles and amphibians is becoming more common, but almost all of these studies have observed the colonization of recently disturbed habitats that were completely dry at the time of restoration. In a similar manner, investigations herpetofaunal responses to forest management have focused on clearcuts, and less intensive stand manipulations are not as well studied. To evaluate community and population responses of reptiles and amphibians to hydrology restoration and canopy removal in the interior of previously degraded Carolina bays, I monitored herpetofauna in the uplands adjacent to six historically degraded Carolina bays at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in South Carolina for four years after restoration. To evaluate the effects of forest thinning on upland herpetofauna, forests were thinned in the margins of three of these bays. I used repeated measures ANOVA to compare species richness and diversity and the abundance of selected species and guilds between these bays and with those at three reference bays that were not historically drained and three control bays that remained degraded. I also used Non-metric Multidimensional Scaling (NMDS) to look for community-level patterns based treatments.

  4. Patterns of Distribution of Macro-fauna in Different Types of Estuarine, Soft Sediment Habitats Adjacent to Urban and Non-urban Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindegarth, M.; Hoskin, M.

    2001-02-01

    Urban development typically creates a large number of potentially interacting disturbances that may cause impacts on assemblages of animals and plans in estuarine habitats. We tested predictions from the general model that intertidal areas exposed to different types of disturbances have different types of assemblages of benthic macrofauna. Different parts of the Port Hacking Estuary (New South Wales, Australia) are exposed to varying degrees of disturbance by human activities. We predicted that the average structure of assemblages of intertidal animals, and patterns of variability would differ between urban and non-urban areas of Port Hacking. Consistent with previous observations from the literature, there were differences in average structure between urban and non-urban sandy areas. Qualitative differences between abundances of individual taxa in urban and non-urban areas were generally not consistent with previous observations. Differences between assemblages in urban and non-urban areas were not observed in muddy sediments, nor in sediments among mangroves and seagrass. No significant differences in variability was observed between urban and non-urban areas. Two general models may be proposed to explain the observed differences in response to urbanization in different habitats: (1) animals are exposed to different levels or combinations of disturbances in different habitats; or (2) assemblages of animals differ in sensitivity to disturbances among habitats.

  5. CHUM: a hydrochemical model for upland catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tipping, Edward

    1996-01-01

    CHUM (CHemistry of the Uplands Model) simulates soil-water chemical interactions and water flows in upland catchments with acid soils. The chemical interactions are described with the equilibrium speciation code WHAM, which emphasises the interactions of inorganic chemical species with solid-phase and dissolved organic matter, and also considers inorganic solution speciation and sorption reactions of fulvic acid. Of special significance is the treatment of aluminium chemistry; control of dissolved aluminium concentrations is assumed to be due primarily to complexation reactions with solid phase organic matter, whereas previous models have postulated equilibrium with mineral phases or simple ion-exchange. In addition, CHUM takes nitrogen transformations and weathering (dissolution) reactions into account. The catchment is conceptualised as a series of columns consisting of two soil horizons and an underlying permeable or fractured bedrock zone. Water flows are described with a hydrological submodel that distinguishes immobile water present in soil micropores (which is in chemical equilibrium with the soil solids) from mobile drainage water. The mobile water can move vertically from one horizon to another, from one column to the column immediately downslope, or as outflow from a column adjacent to a stream or lake. Solutes exchange between the mobile and immobile compartments. The model runs on a daily time-step. The fundamentals of the model are given, together with a description of its application to a site in the English Lake District.

  6. 7 CFR 1205.13 - Upland cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Upland cotton. 1205.13 Section 1205.13 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Procedures for Conduct of Sign-up Period Definitions § 1205.13 Upland cotton. The term Upland cotton...

  7. 7 CFR 1205.13 - Upland cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Upland cotton. 1205.13 Section 1205.13 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Procedures for Conduct of Sign-up Period Definitions § 1205.13 Upland cotton. The term Upland cotton...

  8. 7 CFR 1205.305 - Upland cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Upland cotton. 1205.305 Section 1205.305 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.305 Upland cotton. Upland cotton means all...

  9. 7 CFR 1205.13 - Upland cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Upland cotton. 1205.13 Section 1205.13 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Procedures for Conduct of Sign-up Period Definitions § 1205.13 Upland cotton. The term Upland cotton...

  10. 7 CFR 1205.13 - Upland cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Upland cotton. 1205.13 Section 1205.13 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Procedures for Conduct of Sign-up Period Definitions § 1205.13 Upland cotton. The term Upland cotton...

  11. 7 CFR 1205.305 - Upland cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Upland cotton. 1205.305 Section 1205.305 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.305 Upland cotton. Upland cotton means all...

  12. 7 CFR 1205.13 - Upland cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Upland cotton. 1205.13 Section 1205.13 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Procedures for Conduct of Sign-up Period Definitions § 1205.13 Upland cotton. The term Upland cotton...

  13. 77 FR 19925 - Upland Cotton Base Quality

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-03

    ... Corporation 7 CFR Part 1427 RIN 0560-AI16 Upland Cotton Base Quality AGENCY: Commodity Credit Corporation and... Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC) upland cotton marketing assistance loan (MAL) regulations to revise... further specification. CCC uses base quality to calculate upland cotton loan rates, Adjusted World...

  14. 7 CFR 1205.305 - Upland cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Upland cotton. 1205.305 Section 1205.305 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.305 Upland cotton. Upland cotton means all...

  15. 7 CFR 1205.305 - Upland cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Upland cotton. 1205.305 Section 1205.305 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.305 Upland cotton. Upland cotton means all...

  16. 7 CFR 1205.305 - Upland cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Upland cotton. 1205.305 Section 1205.305 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.305 Upland cotton. Upland cotton means all...

  17. Songbird use of floodplain and upland forests along the Upper Mississippi River corridor during spring migration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kirsch, Eileen M.; Heglund, Patricia J.; Gray, Brian R.; Mckann, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    The Upper Mississippi River is thought to provide important stopover habitat for migrating landbirds because of its north-south orientation and floodplain forests. The river flows through the Driftless Area of southwestern Wisconsin and southeastern Minnesota where forests are plentiful, yet forests of the floodplain and Driftless Area uplands differ greatly in landscape setting, tree species composition, and topography. We compared landbird assemblages in these upland and floodplain forests over three springs, 2005–2007, using line-transect surveys at randomly selected areas in and within 16 km of the floodplain. We found more species of both transient and locally breeding migrants per survey in floodplain than in upland forest. Detections of transient neotropical migrants did not differ statistically by habitat. Detections of locally breeding neotropical and temperate-zone migrants and transient temperate-zone migrants were greater in floodplain than in upland forest. Between floodplain and upland forest, assemblages of locally breeding species, including neotropical and temperate-zone migrants (of which some individuals were in transit), differed substantially, but assemblages of transients (including both neotropical and temperate-zone migrants) did not differ as much. Only two species of transient migrants had clear affinities for floodplain forest, and none had an affinity for upland forest, whereas most locally breeding migrants had an affinity for either upland or floodplain forest. Within each spring, however, detections of transient neotropical migrants shifted from being greater in floodplain to greater in upland forests. This intraseasonal shift may be related to the phenology of certain tree species.

  18. Methane Emissions from Upland Trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitz, S.; Megonigal, P.; Schile, L. M.; Szlavecz, K. A.; King, K.

    2013-12-01

    Most work on methane (CH4) emissions from natural ecosystems has focused on wetlands and wetland soils because they are predictable emitters and relatively simple to quantify. Less attention has been directed toward upland ecosystems that cover far larger areas, but are assumed to be too dry to emit CH4. There is abundant evidence that upland ecosystems emit small amounts of CH4 during hot moments that collectively constitute a significant source in the global budget of this potent greenhouse gas. We have established two transects across natural moisture gradients in two forests near Annapolis, Maryland. Both tree and soil methane fluxes were measured using chamber methods. Each tree chamber was custom fit to the stem near the base. In addition, porewater methane concentrations were collected at multiple depths near trees. Abiotic parameters such as soil temperature, soil moisture, water potential, and depth to groundwater were monitored using a wireless sensor network. Upland emissions from tree stems were as high as 14.6 umoles CH4 m-2 hr-1 while the soil uptake was -1.5 umoles CH4 m-2 hr-1. These results demonstrate that tree methane emissions and soil methane uptake can occur simultaneously in a mesic forest. Factors controlling methane emissions were soil temperature, soil moisture, and depth to groundwater. Based on our preliminary data, tree mediated methane emissions may be offsetting the soil methane sink of upland forests by 20 to 30%. Future methane budgets and climate models will need to include tree fluxes and the parameters that control methane emissions for accurate accounting and predictions.

  19. 77 FR 36287 - Proposed Low-Effect Habitat Conservation Plan for the California Tiger Salamander, Calaveras...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-18

    ... take permit for covered activities within 109 acres of grassland associated with the construction of 15... proposed subdivision, the on-site upland grassland habitat would not receive protection, and no take would... upland grassland habitat for the California tiger salamander. To mitigate for these effects,...

  20. Mixed Grazing Systems Benefit both Upland Biodiversity and Livestock Production

    PubMed Central

    Fraser, Mariecia D.; Moorby, Jon M.; Vale, James E.; Evans, Darren M.

    2014-01-01

    Background With world food demand expected to double by 2050, identifying farming systems that benefit both agricultural production and biodiversity is a fundamentally important challenge for the 21st century, but this has to be achieved in a sustainable way. Livestock grazing management directly influences both economic outputs and biodiversity on upland farms while contributing to potentially damaging greenhouse gas emissions, yet no study has attempted to address these impacts simultaneously. Methods Using a replicated, landscape-scale field experiment consisting of five management ‘systems’ we tested the effects of progressively altering elements within an upland farming system, viz i) incorporating cattle grazing into an upland sheep system, ii) integrating grazing of semi-natural rough grazing into a mixed grazing system based on improved pasture, iii) altering the stocking ratio within a mixed grazing system, and iv) replacing modern crossbred cattle with a traditional breed. We quantified the impacts on livestock productivity and numbers of birds and butterflies over four years. Results, Conclusion and Significance We found that management systems incorporating mixed grazing with cattle improve livestock productivity and reduce methane emissions relative to sheep only systems. Systems that also included semi-natural rough grazing consistently supported more species of birds and butterflies, and it was possible to incorporate bouts of summer grazing of these pastures by cattle to meet habitat management prescriptions without compromising cattle performance overall. We found no evidence that the system incorporating a cattle breed popular as a conservation grazer was any better for bird and butterfly species richness than those based on a mainstream breed, yet methane emissions from such a system were predicted to be higher. We have demonstrated that mixed upland grazing systems not only improve livestock production, but also benefit biodiversity

  1. Communications: Mosquito Habitats, Land Use, and Malaria Risk in Belize from Satellite Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pope, Kevin; Masuoka, Penny; Rejmankova, Eliska; Grieco, John; Johnson, Sarah; Roberts, Donald

    2004-01-01

    Satellite imagery of northern Belize is used to examine the distribution of land use and breeding habitats of the malaria vector the Anopheles mosquito. A land cover classification based on multispectral SPOT and multitemporal Radarsat images identified eleven land cover classes, including agricultural, forest, and marsh types. Two of the land cover types, Typha domingensis marsh and flooded forest, are Anopheles vestitipennis larval habitats, and one, Eleocharis spp. marsh, is the larval habitat for Anopheles albimanus. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) analyses of land cover demonstrate that the amount of Typha domingensis in a marsh is positively correlated with the amount of agricultural land in the adjacent upland, and negatively correlated with the amount of adjacent forest. This finding is consistent with the hypothesis that nutrient (phosphorus) runoff from agricultural lands is causing an expansion of Typha domingensis in northern Belize. Thus, land use induced expansion of Anopheles vestitipennis larval habitat is potentially increasing malaria risk in Belize, and in other regions where Anopheles vestitipennis is a major malaria vector.

  2. Upslope development of a tidal marsh as a function of upland land use.

    PubMed

    Anisfeld, Shimon C; Cooper, Katharine R; Kemp, Andrew C

    2017-02-01

    To thrive in a time of rapid sea-level rise, tidal marshes will need to migrate upslope into adjacent uplands. Yet little is known about the mechanics of this process, especially in urbanized estuaries, where the adjacent upland is likely to be a mowed lawn rather than a wooded natural area. We studied marsh migration in a Long Island Sound salt marsh using detailed hydrologic, edaphic, and biotic sampling along marsh-to-upland transects in both wooded and lawn environments. We found that the overall pace of marsh development was largely unaffected by whether the upland being invaded was lawn or wooded, but the marsh-edge plant communities that developed in these two environments were quite different, and some indicators (soil salinity, foraminifera) appeared to migrate more easily into lawns. In addition, we found that different aspects of marsh structure and function migrated at different rates: Wetland vegetation appeared to be a leading indicator of marsh migration, while soil characteristics such as redox potential and surface salinity developed later in the process. We defined a 'hydrologic migration zone', consisting of elevations that experience tidal inundation with frequencies ranging from 20% to 0.5% of high tides. This hydrologically defined zone - which extended to an elevation higher than the highest astronomical tide datum - captured the biotic and edaphic marsh-upland ecotone. Tidal inundation at the upper border of this migration zone is highly variable over time and may be rising more rapidly than mean sea level. Our results indicate that land management practices at the upland periphery of tidal marshes can facilitate or impede ecosystem migration in response to rising sea level. These findings are applicable to large areas of tidal marsh along the U.S. Atlantic coast and in other urbanized coastal settings.

  3. Libby/Hungry Horse Dams Wildlife Mitigation : Montana Wildlife Habitat Protection : Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, Marilyn

    1992-12-01

    The purpose of this project was to develop and obtain information necessary to evaluate and undertake specific wildlife habitat protection/enhancement actions in northwest Montana as outlined in the Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. Three waterfowl projects were evaluated between September 1989 and June 1990. Weaver's Slough project involved the proposed acquisition of 200 acres of irrigated farmland and a donated conservation easement on an additional 213 acres. The proposal included enhancement of the agricultural lands by conversion to upland nesting cover. This project was rated the lowest priority based on limited potential for enhancement and no further action was pursued. The Crow Creek Ranch project involved the proposed acquisition of approximately 1830 acres of grazing and dryland farming lands. The intent would be to restore drained potholes and provide adjacent upland nesting cover to increase waterfowl production. This project received the highest rating based on the immediate threat of subdivision, the opportunity to restore degraded wetlands, and the overall benefits to numerous species besides waterfowl. Ducks Unlimited was not able to participate as a cooperator on this project due to the jurisdiction concerns between State and tribal ownership. The USFWS ultimately acquired 1,550 acres of this proposed project. No mitigation funds were used. The Ashley Creek project involved acquisition of 870 acres adjacent to the Smith Lake Waterfowl Production Area. The primary goal was to create approximately 470 acres of wetland habitat with dikes and subimpoundments. This project was rated second in priority due to the lesser threat of loss. A feasibility analysis was completed by Ducks Unlimited based on a concept design. Although adequate water was available for the project, soil testing indicated that the organic soils adjacent to the creek would not support the necessary dikes. The project was determined not feasible for mitigation

  4. Understanding fine sediment and phosphorous delivery in upland catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perks, M. T.; Reaney, S. M.

    2013-12-01

    station at the 12.5 km2 outlet provides flow, turbidity, total phosphorous (TP), total reactive phosphorous (TRP), conductivity, temperature and pH measurements at 15-minute intervals. Within this catchment, two additional monitoring stations along adjacent tributaries with catchment areas of 2.3 km2 and 3.8 km2 provide continuous flow and turbidity data with soluble reactive phosphorous and TP collected during storms. Collection and analysis of this data over two full hydrological years has proved effective in; a) producing load estimates; b) producing better assessments of the magnitude and duration of aquatic organisms exposure to detrimental levels of suspended sediment and phosphorous; c) exploring the processes responsible for the delivery and transfer of fine sediment and phosphorous to and from the channel and; d) enhancing our understanding and prediction of the fluvial sediment system. The process understanding achieved using this monitoring framework has facilitated the production of a mitigation plan for the Morland catchment. Following this plan, a range of measures are currently being implemented to reduce the movement of diffuse pollutants across the hillslopes and channels whilst in-stream monitoring continues. The adopted mitigation measures may act as a trial for other upland catchments facing similar pressures.

  5. 76 FR 71300 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing and Designation of Critical Habitat for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-17

    ... uplands are essential to the species because they produce food for the snails and protect the substrate..., predation by nonnative crayfish, and potential competition from nonnative snails. Also, human-caused changes... vegetation in the adjacent uplands are essential to the species, because they produce food for the snails...

  6. Walla Walla River Basin Fish Habitat Enhancement Project, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Volkman, Jed

    2005-12-01

    In 2002 and 2003, the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) Fisheries Habitat Program implemented stream habitat restoration and protection efforts on private properties in the Walla Walla River Basin with funding from Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). The objective of this effort is to protect and restore habitat critical to the recovery of weak or reintroduced populations of salmonid fish. The CTUIR has currently enrolled nine properties into this program: two on Couse Creek, two adjacent properties on Blue Creek, one on Patit Creek, and four properties on the mainstem Walla Walla River. Major accomplishments during the reporting period include the following: (1) Secured approximately $229,000 in project cost share; (2) Purchase of 46 acres on the mainstem Walla Walla River to be protected perpetually for native fish and wildlife; (3) Developed three new 15 year conservation easements with private landowners; (4) Installed 3000 feet of weed barrier tarp with new plantings within project area on the mainstem Walla Walla River; (5) Expanded easement area on Couse Creek to include an additional 0.5 miles of stream corridor and 32 acres of upland habitat; (6) Restored 12 acres on the mainstem Walla Walla River and 32 acres on Couse Creek to native perennial grasses; and (7) Installed 50,000+ new native plants/cuttings within project areas.

  7. Sea-level rise and refuge habitats for tidal marsh species: can artificial islands save the California Ridgway's rail?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Overton, Cory T.; Takekawa, John Y.; Casazza, Michael L.; Bui, Thuy-Vy D.; Holyoak, Marcel; Strong, Donald R.

    2014-01-01

    Terrestrial species living in intertidal habitats experience refuge limitation during periods of tidal inundation, which may be exacerbated by seasonal variation in vegetation structure, tidal cycles, and land-use change. Sea-level rise projections indicate the severity of refuge limitation may increase. Artificial habitats that provide escape cover during tidal inundation have been proposed as a temporary solution to alleviate these limitations. We tested for evidence of refuge habitat limitation in a population of endangered California Ridgway's rail (Rallus obsoletus obsoletus; hereafter California rail) through use of artificial floating island habitats provided during two winters. Previous studies demonstrated that California rail mortality was especially high during the winter and periods of increased tidal inundation, suggesting that tidal refuge habitat is critical to survival. In our study, California rail regularly used artificial islands during higher tides and daylight hours. When tide levels inundated the marsh plain, use of artificial islands was at least 300 times more frequent than would be expected if California rails used artificial habitats proportional to their availability (0.016%). Probability of use varied among islands, and low levels of use were observed at night. These patterns may result from anti-predator behaviors and heterogeneity in either rail density or availability of natural refuges. Endemic saltmarsh species are increasingly at risk from habitat change resulting from sea-level rise and development of adjacent uplands. Escape cover during tidal inundation may need to be supplemented if species are to survive. Artificial habitats may provide effective short-term mitigation for habitat change and sea-level rise in tidal marsh environments, particularly for conservation-reliant species such as California rails.

  8. Freshwater Wetland Habitat Loss and Fragmentation: Implications for Aquatic Biodiversity Conservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolaver, B. D.; Pierre, J. P.; Labay, B. J.; Ryberg, W. A.; Hibbits, T. J.; Prestridge, H. L.

    2015-12-01

    Anthropogenic land use changes have caused widespread wetland loss and fragmentation. This trend has important implications for aquatic biota conservation, including the semi-aquatic Western Chicken Turtle (Deirochelys reticularia miaria). This species inhabits seasonally inundated, ephemeral water bodies and adjacent uplands in the southeastern U.S. However, wetland conversion to agriculture and urbanization is thought to cause the species' decline, particularly in Texas, which includes the westernmost part of its range. Because the species moves only a few kilometers between wetlands, it particularly sensitive to habitat loss and fragmentation. Thus, as part of the only state-funded species research program, this study provides the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) with scientific data to determine if the species warrants protection under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). We use a species distribution model to map potentially suitable habitat for most of East Texas. We evaluate landscape-scale anthropogenic activities in this region which may be contributing to the species' decline. We identify areas of urbanization, agricultural expansion, forestry, and resulting wetland loss. We find that between 2001 and 2011 approximately 80 km2 of wetlands were lost in potentially suitable habitat, including the urbanizing Houston area. We use spatial geostatistics to quantify wetland habitat fragmentation. We also introduce the Habitat Alteration Index (HAI), which calculates total landscape alteration and mean probability of occurrence to identify high-quality habitat most at risk of recent anthropogenic alteration. Population surveys by biologists are targeting these areas and future management actions may focus on mitigating anthropogenic activities there. While this study focuses on D. r. miaria, this approach can evaluate wetland habitat of other aquatic organisms.

  9. 7 CFR 1427.103 - Upland cotton Domestic User Agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Upland cotton Domestic User Agreement. 1427.103... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Economic Adjustment Assistance to Users of Upland Cotton § 1427.103 Upland cotton Domestic User Agreement. (a) Payments...

  10. 7 CFR 1427.103 - Upland cotton Domestic User Agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Upland cotton Domestic User Agreement. 1427.103... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Economic Adjustment Assistance to Users of Upland Cotton § 1427.103 Upland cotton Domestic User Agreement. (a) Payments...

  11. 7 CFR 1427.103 - Upland cotton Domestic User Agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Upland cotton Domestic User Agreement. 1427.103... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Economic Adjustment Assistance to Users of Upland Cotton § 1427.103 Upland cotton Domestic User Agreement. (a) Payments...

  12. 7 CFR 1427.101 - Eligible upland cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Eligible upland cotton. 1427.101 Section 1427.101... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Economic Adjustment Assistance to Users of Upland Cotton § 1427.101 Eligible upland cotton. (a) For purposes of this subpart, eligible...

  13. 7 CFR 1427.101 - Eligible upland cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Eligible upland cotton. 1427.101 Section 1427.101... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Economic Adjustment Assistance to Users of Upland Cotton § 1427.101 Eligible upland cotton. (a) For purposes of this subpart, eligible...

  14. 7 CFR 1427.101 - Eligible upland cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eligible upland cotton. 1427.101 Section 1427.101... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Economic Adjustment Assistance to Users of Upland Cotton § 1427.101 Eligible upland cotton. (a) For purposes of this subpart, eligible...

  15. 7 CFR 1427.103 - Upland cotton Domestic User Agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Upland cotton Domestic User Agreement. 1427.103... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Economic Adjustment Assistance to Users of Upland Cotton § 1427.103 Upland cotton Domestic User Agreement. (a) Payments...

  16. 7 CFR 1427.103 - Upland cotton Domestic User Agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Upland cotton Domestic User Agreement. 1427.103... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Economic Adjustment Assistance to Users of Upland Cotton § 1427.103 Upland cotton Domestic User Agreement. (a) Payments...

  17. 7 CFR 1427.101 - Eligible upland cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Eligible upland cotton. 1427.101 Section 1427.101... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Economic Adjustment Assistance to Users of Upland Cotton § 1427.101 Eligible upland cotton. (a) For purposes of this subpart, eligible...

  18. 7 CFR 1427.101 - Eligible upland cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Eligible upland cotton. 1427.101 Section 1427.101... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Economic Adjustment Assistance to Users of Upland Cotton § 1427.101 Eligible upland cotton. (a) For purposes of this subpart, eligible...

  19. Upland forests of the American/Pacific islands: Research opportunities in Micronesia and American Samoa. Forest Service general technical report (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    DeBell, D.S.; Whitesell, C.D.

    1993-07-01

    The Upland forests of Micronesia and American Samoa can provide many social, ecological, and esthetic benefits for island inhabitants. Substantial upland areas (the majority of acreage on some islands) are now occupied by secondary and grassland/savanna vegetation: such areas represent opportunities for restoration, with both native forest cover and plantations of introduced species. The review briefly describes characteristics of the islands and the nature of existing and potential upland forests, including the most common upland tree species. Principal information needs and research opportunities are discussed for 10 subjects: watershed rehabilitation, forest restoration in secondary vegetation areas, basic ecology, soils and nutrient relationships, damaging agents, forest inventory and productivity assessment, silvicultural systems, valuation of forest products and services, threatened and endangered species, and description and protection of native forest habitats.

  20. Effects of upland disturbance and instream restoration on hydrodynamics and ammonium uptake in headwater streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roberts, B.J.; Mulholland, P.J.; Houser, J.N.

    2007-01-01

    Delivery of water, sediments, nutrients, and organic matter to stream ecosystems is strongly influenced by the catchment of the stream and can be altered greatly by upland soil and vegetation disturbance. At the Fort Benning Military Installation (near Columbus, Georgia), spatial variability in intensity of military training results in a wide range of intensities of upland disturbance in stream catchments. A set of 8 streams in catchments spanning this upland disturbance gradient was selected for investigation of the impact of disturbance intensity on hydrodynamics and nutrient uptake. The size of transient storage zones and rates of NH4+ uptake in all study streams were among the lowest reported in the literature. Upland disturbance did not appear to influence stream hydrodynamics strongly, but it caused significant decreases in instream nutrient uptake. In October 2003, coarse woody debris (CWD) was added to 1/2 of the study streams (spanning the disturbance gradient) in an attempt to increase hydrodynamic and structural complexity, with the goals of enhancing biotic habitat and increasing nutrient uptake rates. CWD additions had positive short-term (within 1 mo) effects on hydrodynamic complexity (water velocity decreased and transient storage zone cross-sectional area, relative size of the transient storage zone, fraction of the median travel time attributable to transient storage over a standardized length of 200 m, and the hydraulic retention factor increased) and nutrient uptake (NH4+ uptake rates increased). Our results suggest that water quality in streams with intense upland disturbances can be improved by enhancing instream biotic nutrient uptake capacity through measures such as restoring stream CWD. ?? 2007 by The North American Benthological Society.

  1. Effects of upland disturbance and instream restoration on hydrodynamics and ammonium uptake in headwater streams

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, Brian J; Mulholland, Patrick J; Houser, Jeffrey N

    2007-01-01

    Delivery of water, sediments, nutrients, and organic matter to stream ecosystems is strongly influenced by the catchment of the stream and can be altered greatly by upland soil and vegetation disturbance. At the Fort Benning Military Installation (near Columbus, Georgia), spatial variability in intensity of military training results in a wide range of intensities of upland disturbance in stream catchments. A set of 8 streams in catchments spanning this upland disturbance gradient was selected for investigation of the impact of disturbance intensity on hydrodynamics and nutrient uptake. The size of transient storage zones and rates of NH4+ uptake in all study streams were among the lowest reported in the literature. Upland disturbance did not appear to influence stream hydrodynamics strongly, but it caused significant decreases in instream nutrient uptake. In October 2003, coarse woody debris (CWD) was added to of the study streams (spanning the disturbance gradient) in an attempt to increase hydrodynamic and structural complexity with the goals of enhancing biotic habitat and increasing nutrient uptake rates. CWD additions had positive short-term (within 1 mo) effects on hydrodynamic complexity (water velocity decreased and transient storage zone cross-sectional area, relative size of the transient storage zone, fraction of the median travel time attributable to transient storage over a standardized length of 200 m, and the hydraulic retention factor increased) and nutrient uptake (NH4+ uptake rates increased). Our results suggest that water quality in streams with intense upland disturbances can be improved by enhancing instream biotic nutrient uptake capacity through measures such as restoring stream CWD.

  2. How old is upland catchment water?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, Harald; Cartwright, Ian; Morgenstern, Uwe; Gilfedder, Benjamin

    2014-05-01

    Understanding the dynamics of water supply catchments is an essential part of water management. Upland catchments provide a continuous, reliable source of high quality water not only for some of the world's biggest cities, but also for agriculture and industry. Headwater streams control river flow in lowland agricultural basins as the majority of river discharge emerges from upland catchments. Many rivers are perennial and flow throughout the year, even during droughts. However, it is still unclear how reliable and continuous upland catchment water resources really are. Despite many efforts in upland catchment research, there is still little known about where the water is stored and how long it takes to travel through upper catchments. Resolving these questions is crucial to ensure that this resource is protected from changing land use and to estimate potential impacts from a changing climate. Previous research in this important area has been limited by existing measurement techniques. Knowledge to date has relied heavily on the use of variation in stable isotope signals to estimate the age and origin of water from upland catchments. The problem with relying on these measures is that as the water residence time increases, the variation in the stable isotope signal decreases. After a maximum period of four years, no variation can be detected This means that to date, the residence time in upland catchments is likely to have been vastly underestimated. Consequently, the proportion of water flow out of upland river catchments to the total river flow is also underestimated. Tritium (3H) combines directly with water molecules and enters the flow paths with the infiltrating water. Its half-life (12.32 years) makes it ideal to describe residence times in upper catchment reservoirs as it can theoretically measure water up to about 150 years old. The bomb pulse peak in the southern hemisphere was several orders of magnitude lower than in the northern hemisphere. Hence the

  3. Constraints on the Pattern of Hydraulic Properties, Groundwater Flow, and Transport at Upland-Estuary Margins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, G.; Ruppel, C.

    2001-05-01

    The patterns of groundwater flux from uplands to adjacent water bodies in the coastal zone depend on both the spatial and temporal characteristics of coastal aquifer systems. In this study, we integrate hydrologic measurements and non-invasive environmental geophysics in an effort to constrain the groundwater flux from terrestrial uplands into adjacent tidal creeks and salt marshes near an island-estuary margin in the South Atlantic Bight. Aquifer testing and parameter estimation conducted at both the laboratory (grain size analyses and falling-head permeameter tests) and field (pumping tests and analyses of natural tidal pumping) scales provide independent constraints on hydraulic properties of the unconfined surficial aquifer systems at two focus sites. The analyses reveal a decrease in hydraulic conductivity of 3 to 4 orders of magnitude ( ~10-8 to ~10-4 m s-1) across the upland-estuary margin. The extent and variability of reduced permeability at the aquifer boundary may lead to localized areas of focused groundwater flux into the adjacent estuary and a variable distribution of subsurface salinity. Geophysical surveys (e.g., two-dimensional DC resistivity, terrain conductivity), borehole conductivity measurements, and geochemical analyses of groundwater samples confirm the existence of variable subsurface salinity regimes between the two different sites in the same tidal watershed. Based on the observed distribution of hydraulic properties and subsurface salinity near the island-estuary interface, we suggest that the combined effects of a low permeability clogging layer and tidal fluctuations may lead to a more diffuse region of freshwater discharge into the adjacent tidal creek-salt marsh complex. Using water level fluctuations monitored over a 32-day period, we calculate the frequency-dependent admittance between well levels and observed forcing functions. The results show that the aquifer acts as a low-pass filter for tidally forced perturbations and

  4. Population and habitat dynamics of the white-footed mouse (Peromyscus leucopus) in a heterogeneous forest

    SciTech Connect

    Ormiston, B.G.

    1984-07-01

    Movements and demography of white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) were determined by live-trapping and radiotelemetry in contiguous upland and lowland forest habitat to assess the extent of variation in local habitat distribution due to season, age, and sex factors. Mice were marked and recaptured monthly in 1980 and 1981 from April through December on a continuous 20 ha trapping grid, thus yielding 1486 captures of 397 individuals. Locations and activity of 43 mice were determined by radiotracking. Various measures of habitat suitability, including adult density, sex ratio, reproduction, persistence, home range size, and immigration, indicated a seasonal cycle of habitat suitability. Upland habitat appeared better for overwintering, and lowland habitat was superior relative to the upland from June through October. Tendencies for breeding females to be restricted to lowland, and for lowland males to display greater mean body weights and smaller home range sizes than upland males, were attributed to greater food availability in the lowland over this period. Individual P. leucopus use local habitats opportunistically, but variations in habitat distribution between the age- and sex-classes of the population noted during the breeding season suggest that local habitats provide a spatial framework for behavioral population regulation in P. leucopus. 49 references, 5 figures, 10 tables.

  5. Distribution of tetraether lipids in agricultural soils - differentiation between paddy and upland management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller-Niggemann, C.; Utami, S. R.; Marxen, A.; Mangelsdorf, K.; Bauersachs, T.; Schwark, L.

    2015-10-01

    Insufficient knowledge of the composition and variation of isoprenoid and branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs) in agricultural soils exists, despite of the potential effect of different management types (e.g. soil/water and redox conditions, cultivated plants) on GDGT distribution. Here, we determined the influence of different soil management types on the GDGT composition in paddy (flooded) and adjacent upland (non-flooded) soils, and if available also forest, bushland and marsh soils. To compare the local effects on GDGT distribution patterns, we collected comparable soil samples in various locations from tropical (Indonesia, Vietnam and Philippines) and subtropical (China and Italy) sites. We found that differences in the distribution of isoprenoid GDGTs (iGDGTs) as well as of branched GDGTs (brGDGTs) are predominantly controlled by management type and only secondarily by climatic exposition. In general upland soil had higher crenarchaeol contents than paddy soil, which on the contrary was more enriched in GDGT-0. The GDGT-0 / crenarchaeol ratio was 3-27 times higher in paddy soil and indicates the enhanced presence of methanogenic archaea, which were additionally linked to the number of rice cultivation cycles per year (higher number of cycles was coupled with an increase in the ratio). The TEX86 values were 1.3 times higher in upland, bushland and forest soils than in paddy soils. In all soils brGDGT predominated over iGDGTs, with the relative abundance of brGDGTs increasing from subtropical to tropical soils. Higher BIT values in paddy soils compared to upland soils together with higher BIT values in soil from subtropical climates indicate effects on the amounts of brGDGT through differences in management as well as climatic zones. In acidic soil CBT values correlated well with soil pH. In neutral to alkaline soils, however, no apparent correlation but an offset between paddy and upland managed soils was detected, which may suggest that soil

  6. Habitat selection by juvenile Swainson’s thrushes (Catharus ustulatus) in headwater riparian areas, northwestern Oregon, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jenkins, Stephanie R.; Betts, Matthew G.; Huso, Manuela M.; Hagar, Joan C.

    2013-01-01

    Lower order, non-fish-bearing streams, often termed “headwater streams”, have received minimal research effort and protection priority, especially in mesic forests where distinction between riparian and upland vegetation can be subtle. Though it is generally thought that breeding bird abundance is higher in riparian zones, little is known about species distributions when birds are in their juvenile stage – a critical period in terms of population viability. Using radio telemetry, we examined factors affecting habitat selection by juvenile Swainson’s thrushes during the post-breeding period in headwater basins in the Coast Range of Oregon, USA. We tested models containing variables expected to influence the amount of food and cover (i.e., deciduous cover, coarse wood volume, and proximity to stream) as well as models containing variables that are frequently measured and manipulated in forest management (i.e., deciduous and coniferous trees separated into size classes). Juvenile Swainson’s thrushes were more likely to select locations with at least 25% cover of deciduous, mid-story vegetation and more than 2.0 m3/ha of coarse wood within 40 m of headwater streams. We conclude that despite their small and intermittent nature, headwater streams and adjacent riparian areas are selected over upland areas by Swainson’s thrush during the postfledging period in the Oregon Coast Range.

  7. Northern Hemisphere control of deglacial vegetation changes in the Rufiji uplands (Tanzania)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouimetarhan, I.; Dupont, L.; Kuhlmann, H.; Patzold, J.; Prange, M.; Schefuss, E.; Zonneveld, K.

    2015-05-01

    In tropical eastern Africa, vegetation distribution is largely controlled by regional hydrology, which has varied over the past 20 000 years. Therefore, accurate reconstructions of past vegetation and hydrological changes are crucial for a better understanding of climate variability in the tropical southeastern African region. We present high-resolution pollen records from a marine sediment core recovered offshore of the Rufiji River delta. Our data document significant shifts in pollen assemblages during the last deglaciation, identifying, through changes in both upland and lowland vegetation, specific responses of plant communities to atmospheric (precipitation) and coastal (coastal dynamics and sea-level changes) alterations. Specifically, arid conditions reflected by a maximum pollen representation of dry and open vegetation occurred during the Northern Hemisphere cold Heinrich event 1 (H1), suggesting that the expansion of drier upland vegetation was synchronous with cold Northern Hemisphere conditions. This arid period is followed by an interval in which forest and humid woodlands expanded, indicating a hydrologic shift towards more humid conditions. Droughts during H1 and the shift to humid conditions around 14.8 kyr BP in the uplands are consistent with latitudinal shifts of the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) driven by high-latitude Northern Hemisphere climatic fluctuations. Additionally, our results show that the lowland vegetation, consisting of well-developed salt marshes and mangroves in a successional pattern typical for vegetation occurring in intertidal habitats, has responded mainly to local coastal dynamics related to marine inundation frequencies and soil salinity in the Rufiji Delta as well as to the local moisture availability. Lowland vegetation shows a substantial expansion of mangrove trees after ~ 14.8 kyr BP, suggesting an increased moisture availability and river runoff in the coastal area. The results of this study highlight the

  8. A comparison of Bromus tectorum growth and mycorrhizal colonization in salt desert versus sagebrush habitat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cheatgrass has recently invaded marginal low elevation salt desert habitats across the Great Basin, USA. We tested the hypothesis that cheatgrass seed produced in populations from the more stressful salt desert versus upland sagebrush habitats should grow differently in salt desert soils compared to...

  9. Litter and nutrient flows in tropical upland forest flooded by a hydropower plant in the Amazonian basin.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Guilherme Henrique A; Jordão, Henos Carlos K; Silva, Vanessa Francieli V; Pereira, Marcos Gervasio

    2016-12-01

    Extensive areas in the Brazilian Amazon have been flooded for the construction of hydroelectric dams. However, the water regime of these areas affects the dynamics of igarapés (streams) in adjacent terra firme (upland forests). When the reservoirs are filled, the water levels of streams rise above the normal levels and upland bank forests are flooded. We investigated how this flooding affects the litterfall and nutrient input in the upland forests upstream of a hydroelectric dam reservoir in the Central Amazonia. When the reservoir was filled, the forests were flooded and produced more than twice the litter (8.80Mg·ha(-1)yr(-1)), with three times more leaves (6.36Mg·ha(-1)yr(-1)) than when they were not flooded (4.20 and 1.92Mg·ha(-1)yr(-1), respectively). During flooding, the decomposition rate was four times lower in flooded forests (0.328g·g(-1)yr(-1)) than in control forests (1.460g·g(-1)yr(-1)). Despite this, the flooding did not favor litter or nutrient accumulation. Therefore, dam construction changes the organic matter and nutrient cycling in upland Amazon rainforests. This may influence the important role that they play in organic matter dynamics and could have consequences for the regional carbon balance and, ultimately, global climate.

  10. Back-pack unit for capturing waterfowl and upland game by night-lighting

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Drewien, R.C.; Reeves, H.M.; Springer, P.F.; Kuck, T.L.

    1967-01-01

    A night-lighting unit, designed as a light weight back-pack, proved successful for capturing waterfowl pairs, pheasants (Phasianus colchicus), and cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus) during the spring and summer when most breeding populations are widely dispersed. Eighty ducks of seven species were captured in 48 hours (1.7 ducks per hour) of night-lighting in marsh habitat. Similarly, 30 pheasants were trapped in 25 hours (1.2 birds per hour) and 63 cottontail rabbits were either observed at close range (6-12 ft) or captured during night-lighting operations in upland habitat. Catch per hour of effort increased for all species as their night habitat requirements and reaction to night-lights became known. The mobile unit proved well suited for intensive use on small areas where other methods of capture were unfeasible and where representative coverage of various habitat types was desired. Besides its utility for capturing animals, the unit provided a method for studying nocturnal movements, behavior, and habitat use of marked animals.

  11. Habitat associations of birds in the Georgia piedmont during winter

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, D.H.; Kepler, C.B.; Hatfield, J.S.; Sykes, P.W.; Seginak, J.T.

    1996-01-01

    During three winter seasons (1991-1994), we studied the distribution and abundance of birds in three habitat types of the Georgia Piedmont. Bird densities were calculated using data from 2160 variable circular-plot counts, 720 each in the interiors of the three habitats. Habitat variables were measured in 135 0.04-ha circles, 45 in each of the three habitats. The objective was to compare bird densities during winter in the Piedmont?s fragmented mature (60+ yr) pine forests and upland hardwood forests with those in planted pine plantations, a major replacement type. A total of 49 species was detected: 44 in mature pines, 42 in mature upland hardwoods, and 32 in 20-30-yr old pine plantations. Twenty-nine species occurred across all habitats. Overall, density estimates were low and variability among counts was high; consequently, significant (P <0.05) habitat preferences were found for only about 25% of the species. Species richness (S) and diversity (H ) were greatest (P <0.05) in mature pines and lowest (P <0.05) in planted pine plantations. Also, species evenness (E) was higher (P <0.05) in mature pines and upland hardwoods than in planted pine plantations.

  12. A new skink (Scincidae: Saproscincus) from rocky rainforest habitat on Cape Melville, north-east Australia.

    PubMed

    Hoskin, Conrad J

    2013-01-01

    Saproscincus skinks are restricted to wet forest habitats of eastern Australia. Eleven species have previously been described, with most having small distributions in disjunct areas of subtropical and tropical rainforest. The localized distributions and specific habitat requirements of Saproscincus have made them a key group for understanding the biogeographic history of Australia's rainforests. Here I describe a new species of Saproscincus from the Melville Range on Cape Melville, north-east Australia. The Melville Range is composed of boulder-fields and areas of rainforest in the uplands, and is highly isolated from other areas of elevated rainforest. All individuals of the new species were found on a moist ridgeline, active on boulders under a rainforest canopy or on boulder-field immediately adjacent to rainforest. Saproscincus saltus sp. nov. is highly distinct in morphology and colour pattern. Of particular interest are its long limbs and digits compared to congeners, which in conjunction with the observed ecology, suggest a long history of association with rock. The discovery of S. saltus sp. nov. extends the distribution of the genus over 100 km north from the nearest congeners in the Wet Tropics region. This species brings the number of vertebrates known to be endemic to the Melville Range to six, which is remarkable for such a small area.

  13. Migrating birds’ use of stopover habitat in the southwestern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruth, Janet M.; Diehl, R.H.; Felix, R.K.

    2012-01-01

    In the arid Southwest, migratory birds are known to use riparian stopover habitats; we know less about how migrants use other habitat types during migratory stopover. Using radar data and satellite land-cover data, we determined the habitats with which birds are associated during migration stopover. Bird densities differed significantly by habitat type at all sites in at least one season. In parts of Arizona and New Mexico upland forest supported high densities of migrants, especially in fall. Developed habitat, in areas with little upland forest, also supported high densities of migrants. Scrub/shrub and grassland habitats supported low to intermediate densities, but because these habitat types dominate the Southwestern landscape, they may provide stopover habitat for larger numbers of migratory birds than previously recognized. These results are complicated by continuing challenges related to target identity (i.e., distinguishing among birds, arthropods and bats). Our results suggest that it is too simplistic to (1) consider the arid West as a largely inhospitable landscape in which there are only relatively small oases of habitat that provide the resources needed by all migrants, (2) think of western riparian and upland forests as supporting the majority of migrants in all cases, and (3) consider a particular habitat unimportant for stopover solely on the basis of low densities of migrants.

  14. Denitrification during vertical upwelling at an alluvium-diluvium interface below the upland perimeter of a riparian paddy.

    PubMed

    Eguchi, Sadao; Nakajima, Yasuhiro; Yabusaki, Shiho; Kasuya, Masahiro; Shibayama, Hiroko; Tsunekawa, Ayumi; Imai, Katsuhiko

    2009-01-01

    Denitrification hotspots in riparian aquifers often develop in a relatively narrow zone at the upland-riparian interface, where nitrate-rich ground water of upland origin interacts with available soil organic carbon. In riparian paddy fields, denitrification in the aquifer has received less attention than that in the surface water and soil. This study aimed to determine the in situ activity of the denitrification hotspot formed at the vertical interface between the organic alluvial and the nitrate-rich diluvial aquifers around the depth of 2.0 m below the upland perimeter of riparian paddy, where vertical upwelling dominates the ground water recharge. The mass balances of water and solutes were approximately calculated from the one-dimensional vertical pressure head and water quality profiles with help of the stable isotopes analyses of water. The confined ground water of adjacent diluvial upland origin, with a high nitrate concentration of 1.72+/-0.42 mmol L(-1), mixed with the nitrate-deficient unconfined ground water at the alluvium-diluvium interface, and 63% of nitrate was removed by denitrification at a rate of 33 mg N m(-2) d(-1) and a nitrogen isotope fractionation factor of 0.988. The increase in bicarbonate concentration with the decrease in nitrate concentration suggested a heterotrophic denitrification with a stoichiometry of C:N=5:4. These results are the first to demonstrate the quantitative importance of denitrification in the aquifer below a riparian paddy in the removal of nitrate from the ground water of upland origin and emphasize the necessity of including this process in models for predicting watershed-scale surface water and ground water qualities.

  15. Associations of breeding birds with fire-influenced and riparian-upland gradients in a longleaf pine ecosystem

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, J.C.; Krieger, S.M.; Walters, J.R.; Collazo, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    We determined the effects of fire history and a riparian-upland gradient on the breeding bird community at Fort Bragg Military Installation in North Carolina, one of the largest remnant areas of the endangered longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) ecosystem. Study sites were classified into two treatments: fire-intense (areas experiencing growing-season burns) and fire-suppressed (areas lacking fires). Within each treatment, bird and vegetation data were recorded at point-count stations positioned at three distances from streamhead pocosins to characterize the riparian-upland habitat gradient: 0, 75, and ???150 m. Total bird abundance and species richness varied significantly along the riparian-upland gradient, with pocosins contributing greatly to avian biodiversity. Our data revealed strong effects of fire history and riparian-upland gradient on bird species, which we described in terms of breeding-bird assemblages. Members of the open longleaf assemblage (e.g., Red-cockaded Woodpecker [Picoides borealis], Bachman's Sparrow [Aimophila aestivalis]) were most common in fire-intense areas and at upland locations. Members of the fire-suppressed assemblage (e.g., Wood Thrush [Hylocichla mustelina], Ovenbird [Seiurus aurocapilla]) were confined to pocosins in fire-intense areas, but became more abundant in fire-suppressed areas. Members of the pocosin assemblage (e.g., Eastern Towhee [Pipilo erythropthalamus], Common Yellowthroat [Geothlypis trichas]) were largely confined to pocosins and, in some cases, were most abundant in fire-intense pocosins. Fire suppression increased structural diversity of vegetation and promoted one breeding-bird assemblage (fire-suppressed), but at the expense of two others (open longleaf, pocosin). Continued management of Fort Bragg to promote longleaf pine restoration is essential for supporting conservation of the open-longleaf bird assemblage; in addition, it will benefit the pocosin assemblage. ?? The American Ornithologists' Union, 2006.

  16. Unusual larval habitats and life history of chironomid (Diptera) genera

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hudson, Patrick L.

    1987-01-01

    Ninety-three genera, representing all subfamilies of Chironomidae, are organized into 9 categories of unusual habitats or life history including hygropetric, riparian (bank, floodplain, upland), hyporheic, symbiotic, and intertidal; others live in water held in plants or mine into unusual substrates. In riparian zones precise location of optimum habitat is difficult to determine as is definition of habitat within the continuum from shoreline to upland areas. The ecological importance of the riparian group appears to lie in its processing of coarse particulate matter along the floodplain of streams and rivers. All riparian genera are zoogeographically useful and can be used in reconstructing evolutionary dispersal pathways because they are adapted to unique habits that have remained largely undisturbed by human activities.

  17. Ground-based structure from motion - multi view stereo (SFM-MVS) for upland soil erosion assessment.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McShane, Gareth; James, Mike; Quniton, John; Farrow, Luke; Glendell, Miriam; Jones, Lee; Kirkham, Matthew; Morgan, David; Evans, Martin; Anderson, Karen; Lark, Murray; Rawlins, Barry; Rickson, Jane; Quine, Timothy; Benaud, Pia; Brazier, Richard

    2016-04-01

    In upland environments, quantifying soil loss through erosion processes at a high resolution can be time consuming, costly and logistically difficult. In this pilot study 'A cost effective framework for monitoring soil erosion in England and Wales', funded by the UK Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra), we evaluate the use of annually repeated ground-based photography surveys, processed using structure-from-motion and multi-view stereo (SfM-MVS) 3-D reconstruction software (Agisoft Photoscan). The aim is to enable efficient but detailed site-scale studies of erosion forms in inaccessible UK upland environments, in order to quantify dynamic processes, such as erosion and mass movement. The evaluation of the SfM-MVS technique is particularly relevant in upland landscapes, where the remoteness and inaccessibility of field sites may render some of the more established survey techniques impractical. We present results from 5 upland sites across the UK, acquired over a 2-year period. Erosion features of varying width (3 m to 35 m) and length (20 m to 60 m), representing a range of spatial scales (from 100 m2 to 1000 m2) were surveyed, in upland habitats including bogs, peatland, upland grassland and moorland. For each feature, around 150 to 600 ground-based photographs were taken at oblique angles over a 10 to 20 minute period, using an uncalibrated Canon 600D SLR camera with a 28 mm lens (focal length set to infinity). Camera settings varied based upon light conditions (exposure 100-400 ISO, aperture F4.5 to F8, shutter speed 1/100 to 1/250 second). For inter-survey comparisons, models were geo-referenced using 20 to 30 ground control points (numbered black markers with a white target) placed around and within the feature, with their co-ordinates measured by survey-grade differential GNSS (Trimble R4). Volumetric estimates of soil loss were quantified using digital surface models (DSMs) derived from the repeat survey data and subtracted from a

  18. Geomorphic, flood, and groundwater-flow characteristics of Bayfield Peninsula streams, Wisconsin, and implications for brook-trout habitat

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fitzpatrick, Faith A.; Peppler, Marie C.; Saad, David A.; Pratt, Dennis M.; Lenz, Bernard N.

    2015-01-01

    Available brook-trout habitat is dependent on the locations of groundwater upwellings, the sizes of flood peaks, and sediment loads. Management practices that focus on reducing or slowing runoff from upland areas and increasing channel roughness have potential to reduce flood peaks, erosion, and sedimentation and improve brook-trout habitat in all Bayfield Peninsula streams.

  19. Hydrological responses to managed burning and grazing in an upland blanket bog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clay, Gareth D.; Worrall, Fred; Clark, Emma; Fraser, Evan D. G.

    2009-10-01

    SummaryThe management of the UK uplands by rotational burning and grazing is a widespread practice that aims to control the development of vegetation in order to create suitable habitats for grouse and sheep. By modifying the above ground biomass it is possible that above and/or below ground hydrological regimes may be altered. This study investigates the effect burning has on various hydrological parameters of an upland blanket bog. The study was conducted on a long-term experimental site examining different combinations of managed burning and grazing intensities. The study has found that: Although depth to water table shows strong seasonal trends, the shallowest water tables were found on those sites that were burnt every 20 years and grazed by sheep. The deepest water tables were found on those sites that had never been burnt. In the year following a managed burn, water tables on those sites that were burnt were significantly shallower than before the burn. Hydraulic conductivity, as determined by dipwell slug tests, was found to be significantly lower on those plots that were burnt every 20 years. Runoff occurrence was recorded and occurred at a significantly greater frequency on those sites that had recently been burnt. By using antecedent weather conditions, significant parameters were found that could be used to model runoff generation. This paper demonstrates how the use of managed burning in upland settings can affect various hydrological responses of the peatland. These variations in hydrological response will have important consequences on DOC export through changes in water table and the partitioning of precipitation into runoff.

  20. Methane emissions from upland forest soils and vegetation.

    PubMed

    Megonigal, J Patrick; Guenther, Alex B

    2008-04-01

    Most work on methane (CH(4)) emissions from natural ecosystems has focused on wetlands because they are hotspots of CH(4) production. Less attention has been directed toward upland ecosystems that cover far larger areas, but are assumed to be too dry to emit CH(4). Here we review CH(4) production and emissions in upland ecosystems, with attention to the influence of plant physiology on these processes in forests. Upland ecosystems are normally net sinks for atmospheric CH(4) because rates of CH(4) consumption exceed CH(4) production. Production of CH(4) in upland soils occurs in microsites and may be common in upland forest soils. Some forests switch from being CH(4) sinks to CH(4) sources depending on soil water content. Plant physiology influences CH(4) cycling by modifying the availability of electron donors and acceptors in forest soils. Plants are the ultimate source of organic carbon (electron donor) that microbes process into CH(4). The availability of O(2) (electron acceptor) is sensitive to changes in soil water content, and therefore, to transpiration rates. Recently, abiotic production of CH(4) from aerobic plant tissue was proposed, but has not yet been verified with independent data. If confirmed, this new source is likely to be a minor term in the global CH(4) budget, but important to quantify for purposes of greenhouse gas accounting. A variety of observations suggest that our understanding of CH(4) sources in upland systems is incomplete, particularly in tropical forests which are stronger sources then expected.

  1. Aquatic Biodiversity in the Amazon: Habitat Specialization and Geographic Isolation Promote Species Richness.

    PubMed

    Albert, James S; Carvalho, Tiago P; Petry, Paulo; Holder, Meghan A; Maxime, Emmanuel L; Espino, Jessica; Corahua, Isabel; Quispe, Roberto; Rengifo, Blanca; Ortega, Hernan; Reis, Roberto E

    2011-04-29

    The Neotropical freshwater ichthyofauna has among the highest species richness and density of any vertebrate fauna on Earth, with more than 5,600 species compressed into less than 12% of the world's land surface area, and less than 0.002% of the world's total liquid water supply. How have so many species come to co-exist in such a small amount of total habitat space? Here we report results of an aquatic faunal survey of the Fitzcarrald region in southeastern Peru, an area of low-elevation upland (200-500 m above sea level) rainforest in the Western Amazon, that straddles the headwaters of four large Amazonian tributaries; the Juruá (Yurúa), Ucayali, Purús, and Madre de Dios rivers. All measures of fish species diversity in this region are high; there is high alpha diversity with many species coexisting in the same locality, high beta diversity with high turnover between habitats, and high gamma diversity with high turnover between adjacent tributary basins. Current data show little species endemism, and no known examples of sympatric sister species, within the Fitzcarrald region, suggesting a lack of localized or recent adaptive divergences. These results support the hypothesis that the fish species of the Fitzcarrald region are relatively ancient, predating the Late Miocene-Pliocene (c. 4 Ma) uplift that isolated its several headwater basins. The results also suggest that habitat specialization (phylogenetic niche conservatism) and geographic isolation (dispersal limitation) have contributed to the maintenance of high species richness in this region of the Amazon Basin.

  2. Effects of wind turbines on upland nesting birds in Conservation Reserve Program grasslands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leddy, K.L.; Higgins, K.F.; Naugle, D.E.

    1999-01-01

    Grassland passerines were surveyed during summer 1995 on the Buffalo Ridge Wind Resource Area in southwestern Minnesota to determine the relative influence of wind turbines on overall densities of upland nesting birds in Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) grasslands. Birds were surveyed along 40 m fixed width transects that were placed along wind turbine strings within three CRP fields and in three CRP fields without turbines. Conservation Reserve Program grasslands without turbines and areas located 180 m from turbines supported higher densities (261.0-312.5 males/100 ha) of grassland birds than areas within 80 m of turbines (58.2-128.0 males/100 ha). Human disturbance, turbine noise, and physical movements of turbines during operation may have disturbed nesting birds. We recommend that wind turbines be placed within cropland habitats that support lower densities of grassland passerines than those found in CRP grasslands.

  3. Habitat automation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swab, Rodney E.

    1992-01-01

    A habitat, on either the surface of the Moon or Mars, will be designed and built with the proven technologies of that day. These technologies will be mature and readily available to the habitat designer. We believe an acceleration of the normal pace of automation would allow a habitat to be safer and more easily maintained than would be the case otherwise. This document examines the operation of a habitat and describes elements of that operation which may benefit from an increased use of automation. Research topics within the automation realm are then defined and discussed with respect to the role they can have in the design of the habitat. Problems associated with the integration of advanced technologies into real-world projects at NASA are also addressed.

  4. Influences of upland and riparian land use patterns on stream biotic integrity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, C.D.; Young, J.A.; Villella, R.; Lemarie, D.P.

    2003-01-01

    We explored land use, fish assemblage structure, and stream habitat associations in 20 catchments in Opequon Creek watershed, West Virginia. The purpose was to determine the relative importance of urban and agriculture land use on stream biotic integrity, and to evaluate the spatial scale (i.e., whole-catchment vs riparian buffer) at which land use effects were most pronounced. We found that index of biological integrity (IBI) scores were strongly associated with extent of urban land use in individual catchments. Sites that received ratings of poor or very poor based on IBI scores had > 7% of urban land use in their respective catchments. Habitat correlations suggested that urban land use disrupted flow regime, reduced water quality, and altered stream channels. In contrast, we found no meaningful relationship between agricultural land use and IBI at either whole-catchment or riparian scales despite strong correlations between percent agriculture and several important stream habitat measures, including nitrate concentrations, proportion of fine sediments in riffles, and the abundance of fish cover. We also found that variation in gradient (channel slope) influenced responses of fish assemblages to land use. Urban land use was more disruptive to biological integrity in catchments with steeper channel slopes. Based on comparisons of our results in the topographically diverse Opequon Creek watershed with results from watersheds in flatter terrains, we hypothesize that the potential for riparian forests to mitigate effects of deleterious land uses in upland portions of the watershed is inversely related to gradient.

  5. Strength Matters: Resisting Erosion Across Upland Landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heimsath, A. M.

    2012-12-01

    Soil-covered upland landscapes comprise a critical part of the habitable world and our understanding of their evolution as a function of different climatic, tectonic, and geologic regimes is important across a wide range of disciplines. Erosion laws, which help direct our study and drive our models of Earth surface processes are based on little field data. Soil production and transport play essential roles in controlling the spatial variation of soil depth and therefore hillslope hydrological processes, vegetation, and soil biological activity. Field-based confirmation of the hypothesized relationship between soil thickness and soil production is recent, however, and here we quantify the first direct physical explanation of variable soil production across landscapes. We report clear empirical linkages between the mechanical strength of the parent material (erodability), soil production rates determined from the same material, and the routing of water on hillslopes. Specifically, soil production rates determined from in situ produced 10Be and 26Al decrease exponentially with increasing shear strength of parent material across three very different field sites, all underlain by granitic bedrock: The Point Reyes Peninsular and The San Gabriel Mountains in California and the Nunnock River, Australia field site used for extensive previous work. At the same field sites, we use fallout radionuclide profiles to show how the flux of water across the soil-saprolite boundary changes significantly along the hillslope profile. Specifically, we quantify the transition from creep dominated bioturbation on the upper parts of the hillslopes to overland flow dominated surficial erosion towards the axis of the unchannelled swales. Our field-based data, collected across a full range of erosion and soil production rates and topographic settings, help explain more clearly the linkages between biota, weathering, hillslope hydrology, and the evolution of the Earth's surface.

  6. Distribution of tetraether lipids in agricultural soils - differentiation between paddy and upland management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller-Niggemann, Cornelia; Rahayu Utami, Sri; Marxen, Anika; Mangelsdorf, Kai; Bauersachs, Thorsten; Schwark, Lorenz

    2016-03-01

    Rice paddies constitute almost a fifth of global cropland and provide more than half of the world's population with staple food. At the same time, they are a major source of methane and therewith significantly contribute to the current warming of Earth's atmosphere. Despite their apparent importance in the cycling of carbon and other elements, however, the microorganisms thriving in rice paddies are insufficiently characterized with respect to their biomolecules. Hardly any information exists on human-induced alteration of biomolecules from natural microbial communities in paddy soils through varying management types (affecting, e.g., soil or water redox conditions, cultivated plants). Here, we determined the influence of different land use types on the distribution of glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs), which serve as molecular indicators for microbial community structures, in rice paddy (periodically flooded) and adjacent upland (non-flooded) soils and, for further comparison, forest, bushland and marsh soils. To differentiate local effects on GDGT distribution patterns, we collected soil samples in locations from tropical (Indonesia, Vietnam and Philippines) and subtropical (China and Italy) sites. We found that differences in the distribution of isoprenoid GDGTs (iGDGTs) as well as of branched GDGTs (brGDGTs) are predominantly controlled by management type and only secondarily by climatic exposition. In general, upland soil had higher crenarchaeol contents than paddy soil, which by contrast was more enriched in GDGT-0. The GDGT-0 / crenarchaeol ratio, indicating the enhanced presence of methanogenic archaea, was 3-27 times higher in paddy soils compared to other soils and increased with the number of rice cultivation cycles per year. The index of tetraethers consisting of 86 carbons (TEX86) values were 1.3 times higher in upland, bushland and forest soils than in paddy soils, potentially due to differences in soil temperature. In all soils br

  7. Tissue radionuclide concentrations in water birds and upland birds on the Hanford Site (USA) from 1971-2009.

    PubMed

    Delistraty, Damon; Van Verst, Scott

    2011-08-01

    Historical operations at the Hanford Site (Washington State, USA) have released a wide array of non-radionuclide and radionuclide contaminants into the environment. As a result, there is a need to characterize contaminant effects on site biota. Within this framework, the main purpose of our study was to evaluate radionuclide concentrations in bird tissue, obtained from the Hanford Environmental Information System (HEIS). The database was sorted by avian group (water bird vs. upland bird), radionuclide (over 20 analytes), tissue (muscle, bone, liver), location (onsite vs. offsite), and time period (1971-1990 vs. 1991-2009). Onsite median concentrations in water birds were significantly higher (Bonferroni P < 0.05) than those in onsite upland birds for Cs-137 in muscle (1971-1990) and Sr-90 in bone (1991-2009), perhaps due to behavioral, habitat, or trophic species differences. Onsite median concentrations in water birds were higher (borderline significance with Bonferroni P = 0.05) than those in offsite birds for Cs-137 in muscle (1971-1990). Onsite median concentrations in the earlier time period were significantly higher (Bonferroni P < 0.05) than those in the later time period for Co-60, Cs-137, Eu-152, and Sr-90 in water bird muscle and for Cs-137 in upland bird muscle tissue. Median concentrations of Sr-90 in bone were significantly higher (Bonferroni P < 0.05) than those in muscle for both avian groups and both locations. Over the time period, 1971-2009, onsite median internal dose was estimated for each radionuclide in water bird and upland bird tissues. However, a meaningful dose comparison between bird groups was not possible, due to a dissimilar radionuclide inventory, mismatch of time periods for input radionuclides, and lack of an external dose estimate. Despite these limitations, our results contribute toward ongoing efforts to characterize ecological risk at the Hanford Site.

  8. Foraging and nesting habitat of breeding male northern goshawks in the laurentian mixed forest province, Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boal, C.W.; Andersen, D.E.; Kennedy, P.L.

    2005-01-01

    We used radiotelemetry to examine foraging habitat preferences of 17 breeding, male northern goshawks (Accipiter gentilis) in Minnesota from 1998-2000. We assessed habitat preference using radio relocation points and 50-m radius buffers of radio relocation points. Our data suggested that foraging male goshawks used early-successional upland conifer stands (???25 yrs old), early-successional upland deciduous stands (???50 yrs old), late-successional upland conifer stands (???50 yrs old), and late-successional upland deciduous stands (???50 yrs old) more frequently than expected based on the abundance of these vegetation types in the landscape. The 2 most available stand types, early-successional upland deciduous (<25 yrs old) and all ages of late-successional lowland conifer stands, were used less than expected by foraging goshawks. Late-successional lowland deciduous stands (???50 yrs old) were used in proportion to availability. Although analysis of relocation points suggested early-successional upland deciduous stands (25-49 yrs old) and late-successional upland conifer stands (???50 yrs old) were used in proportion to availability, analysis of buffers around relocation points indicated that these stand types were also used more than expected by foraging goshawks. Regardless of vegetation community type, stands used by goshawks were structurally similar with high canopy and understory stem densities, high canopy closure, substantial shrub cover, and large amounts of woody debris. Nest stands consisted of taller and larger diameter canopy trees and fewer understory trees than foraging stands, but stands were otherwise similar in structural features, suggesting goshawks used similar stands for nesting and foraging but that they tended to select the most mature stands for nesting. A commonality among nesting and foraging stands was the presence of open spaces between the canopy and understory foliage, and between understory and shrub layer foliage. In our study area

  9. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report : Oxbow Conservation Area, 2002-2005 Technical Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Cochran, Brian

    2005-02-01

    This Habitat Evaluation Procedure (HEP) study was performed to determine baseline habitat units on the Oxbow Conservation Area in Grant County, Oregon. The evaluation is a required part of the Memorandum of Agreement between the Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs and Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) relating to the acquisition and management of the Oxbow Conservation Area. The HEP team was comprised of individuals from the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife and the Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs Reservation of Oregon. The survey was conducted using the following HEP evaluation models for key species: black-capped chickadee (Poecile atricapilla), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), mink (Mustela vison), western meadowlark (Sturnella neglecta), white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginiana), and yellow warbler (Dendroica petechia). Cover types used in this survey were conifer forest, irrigated meadow, riparian meadow, upland meadow, riparian shrub, upland shrub, and mine tailings. The project generated 701.3 habitat units for mitigation crediting purposes. Results for each HEP species are: (1) Black-capped chickadee habitat was good, with only isolated areas lacking snags or having low tree canopy cover. (2) Mallard habitat was poor in upland meadows and marginal elsewhere due to a lack of herbaceous/shrub cover and low herbaceous height. (3) Mink habitat was good, limited only by the lack of the shrub component. (4) Western meadowlark habitat was marginal in upland meadow and mine tailing cover types and good in irrigated meadow. Percent cover of grass and height of herbaceous variables were limiting factors. (5) White-tailed deer habitat was marginal due to relatively low tree canopy cover, reduced shrub cover, and limited browse diversity. (6) Yellow Warbler habitat was marginal due to less than optimum shrub height and the lack of hydrophytic shrubs. General ratings (poor, marginal, etc.) are described in the introduction section.

  10. Use of a 15N tracer to determine linkages between a mangrove and an upland freshwater swamp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacKenzie, R. A.; Cormier, N.

    2005-05-01

    Mangrove forests and adjacent upland freshwater swamps are important components of subsistence-based economies of Pacific islands. Mangroves provide valuable firewood (Rhizophora apiculata) and mangrove crabs (Scylla serrata); intact freshwater swamps are often used for agroforestry (e.g., taro cultivation). While these two systems are connected hydrologically via groundwater and surface flows, little information is available on how they may be biogeochemically or ecologically linked. For example, mangrove leaf litter was once thought to be an important food source for resident and transient nekton and invertebrates, but this value may have been overestimated. Instead, nutrients or allochthonous material (e.g., phytoplankton, detritus) delivered via groundwater or surface water from upland freshwater swamps may play a larger role in mangrove food webs. Understanding the linkages between these two ecologically and culturally important ecosystems will help us to understand the potential impacts of hydrological alterations that occur when roads or bridges are constructed through them. We conducted a 15N tracer study in the Yela watershed on the island of Kosrae, Federated States of Micronesia. K15NO3 was continually added at trace levels for 4 weeks to the Yela River in an upland freshwater swamp adjacent to a mangrove forest. Nitrate and ammonium pools, major primary producers, macroinvertebrates, and fish were sampled from stations 5 m upstream (freshwater swamp) and 138, 188, 213, and 313 m downstream (mangrove) from the tracer addition. Samples were collected once a week prior to, during, and after the 15N addition for a total of 6 weeks. Preliminary results revealed no significant enrichment (< 1 ‰) in the 15N isotope composition of either resident shrimp (Macrobrachium sp.) or mudskipper fish (Periophthalmus sp.). However, the 15N signature of ammonium pools was enriched 10-60 ‰ by the end of the third week. These results suggest that the tracer was present

  11. Mercury Speciation and Bioaccumulation In Riparian and Upland Food Webs of the White Mountains Region, New Hampshire, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodenhouse, N.; Gebauer, R.; Lowe, W.; McFarland, K.; Bank, M. S.

    2015-12-01

    The soils and foods webs associated with mid to high elevation, forested, headwater streams are potential hotspots for mercury methylation and bioaccumulation but are not well studied. We tested the hypothesis that spatial variation in mercury bioaccumulation in upland taxa associated with headwater streams can be explained by variation in soil conditions promoting Hg methylation such as soil moisture, pH, and sulfur and organic matter content. We sampled at high (c. 700m) and mid elevation (c. 500m) in northern hardwood forest adjacent to and away from (75m) replicate headwater streams in the Hubbard Brook and Jeffers Brook watersheds of the White Mountains region, New Hampshire, USA. These forested watersheds differed primarily in soil calcium content and pH. We measured and assessed spatial variation in total Hg (THg) and methyl Hg (MeHg) concentrations in soils, insects, spiders, salamanders and birds. We also tested whether trophic position, as determined by nitrogen stable isotopes, was a major predictor of Hg bioaccumulation across these riparian and upland forest taxa. We found elevated levels of THg in all measured components of the food web, and conditions for methylation were better in the upland forest sites compared to the riparian sites located adjacent to headwater streams. Both THg and MeHg in biota were positively correlated with trophic position as indicated by 15N enrichment. In fact, trophic position was a better predictor of THg and MeHg content than spatial location, but the spatial patterning of bioaccumulation differed among taxa. Our data show that that significant Hg bioaccumulation and biomagnification can occur in soils and food webs of mid to high elevation temperate deciduous forests of the Northeast. They also suggest that mercury methylation in forested watersheds is a widespread phenomenon and not limited to areas with high soil moisture, such as lotic environments.

  12. Correspondence between vegetation and soils in wetlands and nearby uplands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scott, Michael L.; Slauson, William L.; Segelquist, Charles A.; Auble, Gregor T.

    1989-01-01

    The association between vegetation and soils from a geographically broad sampling of wetlands and adjoining uplands is reported for 38 hydric and 26 nonhydric soils, as recognized in the hydric soils list of the Soil Conservation Service. Wetlands represented in the study include estuaries, pitcher plant bogs, prairie depressional wetlands, and western riparian lands. The agreement between vegetation and soils is clear with few exceptions. In general, hydric soils support hydrophytic plant communities, and nonhydric soils support upland communities. Only 10% of the hydric soils sampled support upland communities and only 15% of the nonhydric soils support wetland communities. Exceptions to the correspondence between vegetation and soils are discussed; local hydrology, the transitional nature of some soils, and other determinants of wetland vegetation structure (e.g., salinity, disturbance) seem to account for many of the observed discrepancies. A method that simplifies the complexity of soils and vegetation cannot be expected to represent accurately all details of their interrelations.

  13. Effects of Habitat Management Treatments on Plant Community Composition and Biomass in a Montane Wetland

    EPA Science Inventory

    We evaluated the vegetative response of wetlands and adjacent upland grasslands to four treatment regimes (continuous idle, fall prescribed burning followed by idle, annual fall cattle grazing, and rotation of summer grazing and idle) commonly used by the USGS. . . Our results il...

  14. Relationships of field habitat measurements, visual habitat indices, and land cover to benthic macroinvertebrates in urbanized streams of the Santa Clara Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fend, S.V.; Carter, J.L.; Kearns, F.R.

    2005-01-01

    We evaluated several approaches for measuring natural and anthropogenic habitat characteristics to predict benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages over a range of urban intensity at 85 stream sites in the Santa Clara Valley, California. Land cover was summarized as percentage urban land cover and impervious area within upstream buffers and the upstream subwatersheds. Field measurements characterized water chemistry, channel slope, sediment, and riparian canopy. In . addition to applying the visual-based habitat assessment in U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's rapid bioassessment protocol, we developed a simplified urban habitat assessment index based on turbidity, fine sediment deposition, riparian condition, and channel modification. Natural and anthropogenic habitat variables covaried along longitudinal stream gradients and were highly correlated with elevation. At the scale of the entire watershed, benthic macroinvertebrate measures were equally correlated with variables expressing natural gradients and urbanization effects. When natural gradients were reduced by partitioning sites into ecoregion subsection groupings, habitat variables most highly correlated with macroinvertebrate measures differed between upland and valley floor site groups. Among the valley floor sites, channel slope and physical modification of channel and riparian habitats appeared more important than upstream land cover or water quality in determining macroinvertebrate richness and ordination scores. Among upland sites, effects of upstream reservoir releases on habitat quality appeared important. Rapid habitat evaluation methods appeared to be an effective method for describing habitat features important to benthic macroinvertebrates when adapted for the region and the disturbance of interest. ?? 2005 by the American Fisheries Society.

  15. Mapping Habitat Connectivity for Multiple Rare, Threatened, and Endangered Species on and Around Military Installations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-01

    longleaf pine forest and riparian habitats and open areas. Longleaf pine forest on base is subject to controlled burning on a 3-yr rotation. Fire...and foraging habitats differ among the four species we are considering. RCWs nest and forage in high quality longleaf pine woodlands with an open...migrate to upland longleaf - pine and other forest where they live in holes or under coarse woody debris. Our taxonomy differentiates between forest

  16. Development of interspecific hybrids between upland cotton and D-genome diploid species of Gossypium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Upland cotton, G. hirsutum, is a tetraploid (AADD) that has become the predominant cotton species of commerce worldwide. Bottlenecks during speciation and domestication have resulted in limited genetic diversity among upland cotton cultivars. In the summer of 2006 we crossed three upland cotton cu...

  17. 75 FR 70221 - City of Upland Public Works Department; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing, Soliciting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-17

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission City of Upland Public Works Department; Notice of Application Accepted for.... Applicant: City of Upland Public Works Department. e. Name of Project: Upland Hydrogeneration Project... Pursuant to: Federal Power Act, 16 U.S.C. 791a-825r. h. Applicant Contact: Mr. Anthony M. La, Public...

  18. Carpinteria salt marsh habitat polygons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lafferty, Kevin D.; Dunham, Eleca J.; Mancini, Frank T.; Stewart, Tara E.; Hechinger, Ryan F.

    2017-01-01

    We identified five common habitat types in Carpinteria Salt Marsh: channels, pans (flats), marsh, salt flat and upland.  We then drew polygons around each habitat type identified from a registered and orthorectified aerial photograph and created a GIS shapefile. Polygons were ground-truthed in the field. From these habitat polygons, one can use GIS applications to estimate the area of each habitat type in this estuary. These data support the following publications: Kuris, Armand M., et al. "Ecosystem energetic implications of parasite and free-living biomass in three estuaries." Nature 454.7203 (2008): 515-518.Hechinger, Ryan F., Kevin D. Lafferty, Andy P. Dobson, James H. Brown, and Armand M. Kuris. "A common scaling rule for abundance, energetics, and production of parasitic and free-living species." Science 333, no. 6041 (2011): 445-448.Hechinger, Ryan F., Kevin D. Lafferty, John P. McLaughlin, Brian L. Fredensborg, Todd C. Huspeni, Julio Lorda, Parwant K. Sandhu et al. "Food webs including parasites, biomass, body sizes, and life stages for three California/Baja California estuaries." Ecology 92, no. 3 (2011): 791-791.Buck, J.C., Hechinger, R.F., Wood, A.C., Stewart, T.E., Kuris, A.M., and Lafferty, K.D., "Host density increases parasite recruitment but decreases host risk in a snail-trematode system." Manuscript submitted for publication. Lafferty, K.D., Stewart, T.E., and Hechinger, R.F. (in press). Bird distribution surveys at Carpinteria Salt Marsh, California USA, January 2012 to March 2013: U.S. Geological Survey data release, http://dx.doi.org/10.5066/F7F47M95. 

  19. Upland fiber changes due to ginning and lint cleaning

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was done to determine how upland cotton fiber length distribution was affected during ginning and how possible length changes might affect subsequent textile processing. The full range of ginning treatments currently commercially available in the U. S. cotton industry were utilized. These ...

  20. Nitrous oxide emission from uplands in Northern China

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For uplands with high pH, low groundwater table and low dissolved organic carbon content, such as the Northern China, nitrification may play an important role in soil N2O emission. The microbial mechanisms and controls seem to be different in soils with high groundwater table, e.g., the Nort...

  1. Development of Reniform Nematode Resistance in Upland Cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this review is to assess development of resistance to the reniform nematode (Rotylenchulus reniformis) in Upland Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum). Cotton cultivars with reniform nematode resistance are needed. The development of resistant cultivars appears possible but presents a signifi...

  2. Multitaxonomic Diversity Patterns along a Desert Riparian–Upland Gradient

    PubMed Central

    Soykan, Candan U.; Brand, L. Arriana; Ries, Leslie; Stromberg, Juliet C.; Hass, Christine; Simmons, David A.; Patterson, William J. D.; Sabo, John L.

    2012-01-01

    Riparian areas are noted for their high biodiversity, but this has rarely been tested across a wide range of taxonomic groups. We set out to describe species richness, species abundance, and community similarity patterns for 11 taxonomic groups (forbs & grasses, shrubs, trees, solpugids, spiders, scarab beetles, butterflies, lizards, birds, rodents, and mammalian carnivores) individually and for all groups combined along a riparian–upland gradient in semiarid southeastern Arizona, USA. Additionally, we assessed whether biological characteristics could explain variation in diversity along the gradient using five traits (trophic level, body size, life span, thermoregulatory mechanism, and taxonomic affiliation). At the level of individual groups diversity patterns varied along the gradient, with some having greater richness and/or abundance in riparian zones whereas others were more diverse and/or abundant in upland zones. Across all taxa combined, riparian zones contained significantly more species than the uplands. Community similarity between riparian and upland zones was low, and beta diversity was significantly greater than expected for most taxonomic groups, though biological traits explained little variance in diversity along the gradient. These results indicate heterogeneity amongst taxa in how they respond to the factors that structure ecological communities in riparian landscapes. Nevertheless, across taxonomic groups the overall pattern is one of greater species richness and abundance in riparian zones, coupled with a distinct suite of species. PMID:22272224

  3. Greenhouse Gas Fluxes from Forested Wetland and Upland Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savage, K. E.; Davidson, E. A.

    2015-12-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O) are the most important greenhouse gases. Soils are the dominant natural source of N2O, and have been shown to be a small sink under N-limited conditions. Wetlands are a significant natural source of CH4, and dry upland soils a natural CH4 sink. Soils release CO2 produced by both autotrophic (root) and heterotrophic (microbial) respiration processes. Variation in soil moisture can be very dynamic, and it is one of the dominant factors controlling soil aeration, and hence the balance between aerobic (predominantly CO2 producing) and anaerobic (both CO2 and CH4 producing) respiration. The production and consumption of N2O is also highly dependent on spatial and temporal variation in soil moisture. Howland forest, ME is a mosaic of well drained upland, wetland and small transitional upland/wetland soils which makes for a unique and challenging environment to measure the effects of soil moisture on the net exchange of these important greenhouse gases. To quantify the flux of CO2, CH4 and N2O from the Howland forest soils, we utilized a previously developed automated chamber system for measuring CO2 efflux (Licor 6252 IRGA) from soils, and configured it to run in-line with a new model quantum cascade laser (QCL) system which measures N2O and CH4 (Aerodyne model QC-TILDAS-CS). This system allowed for simultaneous, high frequency, continuous measurement of all three greenhouse gases. Fourteen sampling chambers were deployed in an upland soil (8), nearby wetland (3) and a transitional upland/wetland (3). Each chamber was measured every 90 minutes. Upland soils were consistent sources of CO2 and sinks for CH4, however the N2O fluxes were transient between sources and sinks. The wetland soils were consistent sources of high CH4 emissions, low CO2 emissions and a consistently small N2O sink. The transitional upland/wetland soil was a consistent source of CO2 but was much more transient between CH4 and N2O sources and

  4. Exposure age and erosional history of an upland planation surface in the US Atlantic Piedmont

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stanford, S.D.; Seidl, M.A.; Ashley, G.M.

    2000-01-01

    The upland planation surface in the Piedmont of central New Jersey consists of summit flats, as much as 130 km2 in area, that truncate bedding and structure in diabase, basalt, sandstone, mudstone and gneiss. These flats define a low-relief regional surface that corresponds in elevation to residual hills in the adjacent Coastal Plain capped by a fluvial gravel of late Miocene age. A Pliocene fluvial sand is inset 50 m below the upland features. These associations suggest a late Miocene or early Pliocene age for the surface. To assess exposure age and erosional history, a 4??4 m core of clayey diabase saprolite on a 3 km2 remnant of the surface was sampled at six depths for atmospherically produced cosmogenic 10Be. The measured inventory, assuming a deposition rate of 1??3 x 106 atoms cm-2 a-1, yields a minimum exposure age of 227 000 years, or, assuming continuous surface erosion, a constant erosion rate of 10 m Ma-1. Because the sample site lies about 60 m above the aggradation surface of the Pliocene fluvial deposit, and itself supports a pre-Pliocene fluvial gravel lag, this erosion rate is too high. Rather, episodic surface erosion and runoff bypassing probably have produced an inventory deficit. Reasonable estimates of surface erosion (up to 10 m) and bypassing (up to 50 per cent of total precipitation) yield exposure ages of as much as 6??4 Ma. These results indicate that (1) the surface is probably of pre-Pleistocene age and has been modified by Pleistocene erosion, and (2) exposure ages based on 10Be inventories are highly sensitive to surface erosion and runoff bypassing. Copyright (C) 2000 John Wiley and Sons, Ltd.

  5. Discrimination of rewetted / renaturated habitats from natural moist habitat in a mire by means of DOM quality differences using fluorescence indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herzsprung, Peter; Osterloh, Katja; von Tümpling, Wolf; Harir, Mourad; Hertkorn, Norbert; Meissner, Ralf; Friese, Kurt; Bernsdorf, Sabine; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe

    2015-04-01

    Discrimination of rewetted / renaturated habitats from natural moist habitat in a mire by means of DOM quality differences using fluorescence indices Mires can be a potential source of dissolved organic matter load (DOC) in fresh water catchment areas. Renaturation and rewetting of formerly drained mire sites is often debated in terms of nature protection aspects as well as in terms of climatic and adjacent water protection. Latter aspect is closely connected with the drinking water supply and thus of major human interest. In this case the Central German uplands play an important role. For estimation of potential leaching of humic substances the principal comparison of natural habitat with artificially rewetted habitats concerning dissolved organic matter quality can be of interest. In this regard a partly rewetted mire in the Harz Mountains, Germany was investigated. Seven locations, one oligotrophic natural, one mesotrophic natural, and together 5 rewetted locations were investigated. The soil water of all sites was sampled monthly and its quality was analysed by bulk parameters like DOC and bulk optical parameters like excitation emission matrix fluorescence (EEM) and UV spectra. Water was pumped from piezometers and immediately filtered. Each site consisted of four parallel piezometers in the peat soil. Samples were stored at 4° C before analysis. All spectroscopic data, both UV spectra and EEM were recorded simultaneously. Fluorescence EEMs were collected using a spectrofluorometer (AQUALOG, HORIBA Jobin Yvon, USA). Fluorescence intensity was measured during emission scans (240 nm - 600 nm every 3.27 nm, 8 pixel) at set excitation wavelength in 3 nm increments from 240 nm to 600 nm. The fluorescence indices freshness (ß/α), Fluorescence Index (FI), and Humification Index (HIX) were calculated [1] from the inner filter effect (IFE) corrected EEM spectra. The natural habitat could be clearly discriminated from the rewetted sites. The DOC, UV absorption at 254

  6. Symbiotic functioning, structural adaptation, and subcellular organization of root nodules from Psoralea pinnata (L.) plants grown naturally under wetland and upland conditions in the Cape Fynbos of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Kanu, Sheku A; Dakora, Felix D

    2017-01-01

    In the Cape Fynbos of South Africa, Psoralea pinnata (L.) plants occur naturally in both wetland and well-drained soils and yet effectively fix N2 under the two contrasting conditions. In this study, nodule structure and functioning in P. pinnata plants from the two habitats were evaluated using light and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), as well as the (15)N natural abundance technique. The results showed that, structurally, fully developed P. pinnata nodules were spherical in shape with six components (namely, lenticels, periderm, outer cortex, middle cortex, inner cortex, and a central bacteria-infected medulla region). Morphometric analysis revealed 44 and 84 % increase in cell area and volume of wetland nodules compared to those from upland. The percentage area of nodules occupied by the middle cortex in wetland nodules was twice that of upland nodules. As a result, the size of the medulla region in wetland nodules was significantly reduced compared to upland nodules. Additionally, the average area of medulla occupied by intercellular air spaces in wetland nodules was about five times that of upland nodules (about 431 % increase in wetland over upland nodules). TEM data also showed more bacteroids in symbiosomes of upland nodules when compared to wetland nodules. However, isotopic analysis of above-ground plant parts revealed no differences in symbiotic parameters such as N concentration, ∂(15)N and %Ndfa between wetland and upland P. pinnata plants. These results suggest that, under limiting O2 conditions especially in wetlands, nodules make structural and functional adjustments to meet the O2 demands of N2-fixing bacteroids.

  7. WILDLIFE HABITAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Habitat change statistics were used to estimate the effects of alternative future scenarios for agriculture on non-fish vertebrate diversity in Iowa farmlands. Study areas were two watersheds in central Iowa of about 50 and 90 square kilometers, respectively. Future scenarios w...

  8. Upland beech trees significantly contribute to forest methane exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machacova, Katerina; Maier, Martin; Svobodova, Katerina; Halaburt, Ellen; Haddad, Sally; Lang, Friederike; Urban, Otmar

    2016-04-01

    Methane (CH4) can be emitted not only from soil, but also from plants. Fluxes of CH4were predominantly investigated in riparian herbaceous plants, whereas studies on trees, particularly those lacking an aerenchyma, are rare. In soil produced CH4 can be taken up by roots, transported via intercellular spaces and the aerenchyma system, or transpiration stream to aboveground plant tissues and released to the atmosphere via lenticels or stomata. Although CH4 might be also produced by microorganisms living in plant tissues or photochemical processes in plants, these processes are relatively minor. It has been shown that seedlings of European beech (Fagus sylvatica) emit CH4 from its stems despite the lack of an aerenchyma. Our objectives were to determine the CH4 fluxes from mature beech trees and adjacent soil under natural field conditions, and to estimate the role of trees in the CH4exchange within the soil-tree-atmosphere continuum. Measurements were conducted in two mountain beech forests with different geographical and climatic conditions (White Carpathians, Czech Republic; Black Forest, Germany). CH4 fluxes at stems (profile) and root bases level were simultaneously measured together with soil-atmosphere fluxes using static chamber systems followed by chromatographic analysis or continuous laser detection of CH4 concentrations. Our study shows that mature beech trees have the ability to exchange CH4 with the atmosphere. The beech stems emitted CH4 into the atmosphere at the White Carpathians site in the range from 2.00 to 179 μg CH4 m-2 stem area h-1, while CH4 flux rates ranged between -1.34 to 1.73 μg CH4 m-2 h-1 at the Black Forest site. The root bases of beech trees from the White Carpathians released CH4 into the atmosphere (from 0.62 to 49.8 μg CH4 m-2 root area h-1), whereas a prevailing deposition was observed in the Black Forest (from -1.21 to 0.81 μg CH4 m-2 h-1). These fluxes seem to be affected by soil water content and its spatial heterogeneity

  9. Umatilla River Basin Anadromus Fish Habitat Enhancement Project : 1994 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, R. Todd

    1994-05-01

    The Umatilla Basin Anadromous Fish Habitat Enhancement Project is funded under the Northwest Power Planning Council's Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program, Section 7.6-7.8 and targets the improvement of water quality and restoration of riparian areas, holding, spawning and rearing habitats of steelhead, spring and fall chinook and coho salmon. The project focused on implementing cooperative instream and riparian habitat improvements on private lands on the Umatilla Indian Reservation (hereafter referred to as Reservation) from April 1, 1988 to March 31, 1992. These efforts resulted in enhancement of the lower l/4 mile of Boston Canyon Creek, the lower 4 river miles of Meacham Creek and 3.2 river miles of the Umatilla River in the vicinity of Gibbon, Oregon. In 1993, the project shifted emphasis to a comprehensive watershed approach, consistent with other basin efforts, and began to identify upland and riparian watershed-wide causative factors impacting fisheries habitat and natural fisheries production capabilities throughout the Umatilla River Watershed. During the 1994-95 project period, a one river mile demonstration project was implemented on two privately owned properties on Wildhorse Creek. This was the first watershed improvement project to be implemented by the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) off of the Reservation. Four 15 year riparian easements and two right-of-way agreements were secured for enhancement of one river mile on Wildhorse Creek and l/2 river mile on Meacham Creek. Enhancements implemented between river mile (RM) 9.5 and RM 10.5 Wildhorse Creek included: (1) installation of 1.43 miles of smooth wire high tensile fence line and placement of 0.43 miles of fence posts and structures to restrict livestock from the riparian corridor, (2) construction of eighteen sediment retention structures in the stream channel to speed riparian recovery by elevating the stream grade, slowing water velocities and

  10. Habitat selection by breeding red-winged blackbirds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Albers, P.H.

    1978-01-01

    Habitat preferences of breeding Red-winged Blackbirds in an agricultural area were determined by comparing population density, landscape characteristics, and vegetational descriptions. Observations were made throughout the breeding season. Preferred breeding habitats of Red-wings, in order of preference, were wetlands, hayfields, old fields, and pastures. Males and females occupied old fields and wetlands first, then hayfields, and finally, pastures. Cutting of hayfields caused territorial abandonment by both sexes within 48 h. The apparent movement of displaced females from cut hayfields to uncut hayfields suggests that habitat fidelity of females is strong after the breeding effort has begun. Breeding Red-wings exhibited general preferences for trees, large amounts of habitat edge, erect old vegetation, and sturdy, tall, and dense vegetation. Vegetative forms and species, such as upland grasses, broad- and narrow-leafed monocots in wetlands, and forbs were important to the Red-wing at various times during the breeding season. Landscape and vegetational preferences of breeding adults were easier to observe early in the breeding season (March through May) than later. Vegetational growth and increases in the size of the breeding population probably make these preferences more difficult to detect. Territory size was poorly correlated with landscape and vegetational characteristics in uplands but strongly correlated with broad- and narrow-leafed mono cots and vegetative height in wetlands. Wetland territories were smaller than upland territories. Territories increased in size during the middle and late portions of the breedi g season. Habitat selection by the Red-winged Blackbird can best be studied by evaluating vegetative preferences throughout the breeding season.

  11. 77 FR 5564 - Tehachapi Uplands Multiple Species Habitat Conservation Plan; Kern County, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-03

    ... EIS, and considers a 2010 analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey on occurrence of California condor in... the following federally listed animal species: California condor (Gymnogyps californianus--federally... acre Tunis and Winters ridge area, which is designated as the Condor Study Area under the plan and...

  12. 77 FR 65398 - Tehachapi Uplands Multiple Species Habitat Conservation Plan; Kern County, CA; Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-26

    ... permit would include the following federally listed animal species: California condor (Gymnogyps... Tunis and Winters ridge area is designated as the Condor Study Area under the TU MSHCP and is the area of the ranch most likely to be frequented by condors. An additional 23,001 acres would be...

  13. Fouling assemblages on offshore wind power plants and adjacent substrata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilhelmsson, Dan; Malm, Torleif

    2008-09-01

    A significant expansion of offshore wind power is expected in the near future, with thousands of turbines in coastal waters, and various aspects of how this may influence the coastal ecology including disturbance effects from noise, shadows, electromagnetic fields, and changed hydrological conditions are accordingly of concern. Further, wind power plants constitute habitats for a number of organisms, and may locally alter assemblage composition and biomass of invertebrates, algae and fish. In this study, fouling assemblages on offshore wind turbines were compared to adjacent hard substrate. Influences of the structures on the seabed were also investigated. The turbines differed significantly from adjacent boulders in terms of assemblage composition of epibiota and motile invertebrates. Species number and Shannon-Wiener diversity were, also, significantly lower on the wind power plants. It was also indicated that the turbines might have affected assemblages of invertebrates and algae on adjacent boulders. Off shore wind power plant offer atypical substrates for fouling assemblages in terms of orientation, depth range, structure, and surface texture. Some potential ecological implications of the addition of these non-natural habitats for coastal ecology are discussed.

  14. Integrated monitoring of ecological conditions in wetland-upland landscapes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gallant, Alisa; Sadinski, Walt

    2012-01-01

    Landscapes of interwoven wetlands and uplands offer a rich set of ecosystem goods and services. Managing lands to maximize ecosystem services requires information that distinguishes change caused by local actions from broader-scale shifts in climate, land use, and other forms of global change. Satellite and airborne sensors collect valuable data for this purpose, especially when the data are analyzed along with data collected from ground-based sensors. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is using remote sensing technology in this way as part of the Terrestrial Wetland Global Change Research Network to assess effects of climate change interacting with land-use change and other potential stressors along environmental gradients of wetland-upland landscapes in the United States and Canada.

  15. Phenological assessment in the Owhyee Uplands: integrating climate drivers and ecological response at local to regional scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torregrosa, A.; Hanser, S.; Tumbusch, M. L.; Bedford, D.

    2009-12-01

    The seasonal cycle of vegetation change in biomass, structure, and composition is a dominant landscape feature influencing many ecosystem components of the Owyhee Uplands particularly resident and migratory vertebrates and invertebrates. Encompassing portions of Idaho, Nevada, and Oregon, the Owyhee Uplands have remained relatively intact with climate, exotic plant invasions, and anthropogenic agents, such as grazing, acting as the principle causes of ecosystem stress. The sagebrush habitats of the Owyhee Uplands are a stronghold for several federal and state species of special concern, including the Greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus). We examined phenological variation in response to climate conditions such as temperature, relative humidity, precipitation, soil moisture, solar irradiance, and snowfall at a range of spatial and temporal scales across a gradient of soil and landforms. We integrated/analyzed measures of greenness derived from ground-based cameras and several satellite sensors (AVHRR, MODIS, and Landsat), early and late season field-collected measures of plant species cover and passerine bird diversity and abundance, daily measurement of soil moisture conditions from in-situ sensors, site-level snow depth conditions from thermochron fitted snow poles, and climate conditions derived from a combination of site-based meteorological stations and interpolated PRISM data. Our objectives include 1) quantifying covariation between greenness-climate-soil-snow conditions and vertebrate and plant species phenology, 2) spatial interscale comparisons of the covariation, and 3) recommendations for on-going data collection and analysis methods to explore phenological response within the context of the natural range of variability and under climate change scenarios.

  16. Development of a Site Comparison Index: Southeast Upland Forests

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-05-01

    ER D C/ CE R L TR -0 7 -1 2 Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program Development of a Site Comparison Index : Southeast...Development of a Site Comparison Index : Southeast Upland Forests Anthony J. Krzysik Prescott College 220 Grove Avenue Prescott, AZ 86301 Harold E...jective site comparison index (SCI), a combination of metrics: soil A- horizon depth, soil compaction, ground cover, canopy cover, basal area, remote

  17. Denitrification in upland of China: Magnitude and influencing factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jinyang; Yan, Xiaoyuan

    2016-12-01

    A better understanding of influencing factors and accurate estimate of soil denitrification is a global concern. Here we present a synthesis of 300 observations of denitrification in Chinese upland soils from 39 field and laboratory studies using the acetylene inhibition technique. The results of a linear mixed model analysis showed that the rates of soil denitrification were significantly affected by crop type, soil organic carbon, soil pH, the measurement period, and the rate of N application. The emission factor (EF) and N2O/(N2O + N2) ratio for soil denitrification were on average 2.11 ± 0.17% and 0.508 ± 0.020, respectively. Our meta-analysis indicated that N fertilization increased soil denitrification by 311% (95% CI: 279-346%) and 112% (95% CI: 66-171%) in the field and laboratory studies, respectively. Substantial interactive effects between soil properties and N fertilization on soil denitrification were found. Although the highest values of both the rate of denitrification and the EF were found in vegetable fields, the size of the stimulating effect of N fertilization on soil denitrification was lower in vegetable fields than in maize and wheat fields. These results suggest that the crop-specific effect is important and that vegetable fields are potential hot spots of denitrification in Chinese uplands. Based on either the EF or the N2O/(N2O + N2) ratio obtained, the estimated amount of total denitrification from the upland soils was an order of magnitude lower than that from budget calculations, suggesting that the acetylene inhibition technique may significantly underestimate denitrification in Chinese upland soils.

  18. The role of igneous sills in shaping the Martian uplands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilhelms, D. E.; Baldwin, R. J.

    1989-01-01

    Relations among geologic units and landforms suggest that igneous sills lie beneath much of the intercrater and intracrater terrain of the Martian uplands. The igneous rocks crop out along the upland-lowland front and in crater floors and other depressions that are low enough to intersect the sill's intrusion horizons. It is suggested that heat from the cooling sills melted some of the ice contained in overlying fragmental deposits, creating valley networks by subsurface flow of the meltwater. Terrains with undulatory, smooth surfaces and softened traces of valleys were created by more direct contact with the sills. Widespread subsidence following emplacement of the sills deformed both them and the nonvolcanic deposits that overlie them, accounting for the many structures that continue from ridged plains into the hilly uplands. Crater counts show that the deposit that became valleyed, softened, and ridged probably began to form (and to acquire interstitial ice) during or shortly after the Middle Noachian Epoch, and continued to form as late as the Early Hesperian Epoch. The upper layers of this deposit, many of the visible valleys, and the ridged plains and postulated sills all have similar Early Hesperian ages. Continued formation of valleys is indicated by their incision of fresh-appearing crater ejecta. The dependence of valley formation on internal processes implies that Mars did not necessarily have a dense early atmosphere or warm climate.

  19. The Influence of Dam Removal on Upland Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lafrenz, M. D.; Bean, R. A.; Uthman, D.

    2011-12-01

    Driven largely by anadromous fish passage issues, several dams have been removed in the Pacific Northwest and several more are slated to be removed there and in other regions of North America. While much effort has gone into modeling and monitoring the geomorphic and ecologic response of stream channels to dam removal, little research has investigated changes in upland soils following inundation resulting from dam construction, and none had evaluated how these upland soils would respond to dewatering following dam removal. The removal of a relatively large dam - Marmot Dam on the Sandy River in Northwest Oregon, presented an opportunity to evaluate the effect of dewatering on what were formerly upland rather than floodplain soils. We compared the dewatered soils to downstream upland soils that had not been inundated and modified a "ripening" index, which had been developed to characterize dewatered estuary soils in Dutch polders, in order to evaluate the physical and chemical changes taking place in these soils. Two years following dam removal, the previously inundated soils have higher organic matter percentage, cation exchange capacity, and nitrogen levels than downstream soils that were not inundated; yet, this new riparian area is largely devoid of vegetation while the downstream soils maintain a thick (10 cm) O horizon. The carbon to nitrogen ratios (C:N) of upstream surface horizons are low (13:1) and increase markedly with soil depth (54:1); the C:N ratios of downstream soils are typical of other forested soils in this region (28:1 at the surface and 26:1 at depth). Prior to dam removal, it is likely that all upstream, inundated soils had high C:N ratios due to the persistent anaerobic conditions under the reservoir. Following dam removal, soil microbes needing to supplement their nitrogen consumption with soluble nitrogen likely out-competed higher plants for plant available nitrogen. The C:N ratio should have dropped to an equilibrium; this was not

  20. Mars habitat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The College of Engineering & Architecture at Prairie View A&M University has been participating in the NASA/USRA Advanced Design Program since 1986. The interdisciplinary nature of the program allowed the involvement of students and faculty throughout the College of Engineering & Architecture for the last five years. The research goal for the 1990-1991 year is to design a human habitat on Mars that can be used as a permanent base for 20 crew members. The research is being conducted by undergraduate students from the Department of Architecture.

  1. Using Landsat MSS data with soils information to identify wetland habitats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ernst, C. L.; Hoffer, R. M.

    1981-01-01

    A previous study showed that certain fresh water wetland vegetation types can be spectrally separated when a maximum likelihood classification procedure is applied to Landsat spectral data. However, wetland and upland types which have similar vegetative life forms (e.g., upland hardwoods and hardwood swamps) are often confused because of spectral similarity. Therefore, the current investigation attempts to differentiate similar wetland and upland types by combining Landsat multispectral scanner (MSS) data with soils information. The Pigeon River area in northern Indiana used in the earlier study was also employed in this investigation. A layered classification algorithm which combined soils and spectral data was used to generate a wetland classification. The results of the spectral/soils wetland classification are compared to the previous classification that had been based on spectral data alone. The results indicate wetland habitat mapping can be improved by combining soils and other ancillary data with Landsat spectral data.

  2. Effects of Upland Forest Management on Small Isolated Wetland Herptofauna in the Coastal Plain of South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, K.R.

    2000-08-01

    Forest management practices were compared in five isolated wetlands. These isolated wetlands support a large number of reptiles and amphibians in the forest landscape. However, the effect of adjacent conditions on juvenile and adult mortality was unknown. Several treatments were applied around each bay. The latter included harvesting, harvesting plus site preparation, and a control or intact forest cover. The richness of the communities were similar at the five sites; however, significant differences were observed and associated with upland conditions prior to harvest. No differences in the richness abundance or diversity were detected among treatments. Short term decreases in the abundance of turtles and snakes were noted, but not after 1.5 years.

  3. Habitats of North American sea ducks.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Derksen, Dirk V.; Petersen, Margaret R.; Savard, Jean-Pierre L.

    2015-01-01

    Breeding, molting, fall and spring staging, and wintering habitats of the sea duck tribe Mergini are described based on geographic locations and distribution in North America, geomorphology, vegetation and soil types, and fresh water and marine characteristics. The dynamics of habitats are discussed in light of natural and anthropogenic events that shape areas important to sea ducks. Strategies for sea duck habitat management are outlined and recommendations for international collaboration to preserve key terrestrial and aquatic habitats are advanced. We follow the definition of habitat advanced by Odum (1971), which is the place or space where an organism lives. Weller (1999) emphasized that habitats for waterbirds required presence of sufficient resources (i.e., food, water, cover, space) for maintenance during a portion of their annual cycle. Habitats exploited by North American sea ducks are diverse, widespread across the continent and adjacent marine waters and until recently, most were only superficially known. Even following a 15-year-long effort through the Sea Duck Joint Venture and U.S. and Canadian Endangered/Threatened Species programs to fund research focused on sea duck habitats there are still important gaps in our understanding of key elements required by some species during various life stages. Importantly, many significant habitats, especially staging and wintering sites, have been and continue to be destroyed or altered, largely as a result of anthropogenic effects. Our goal here is to develop a comprehensive summary of marine, freshwater, and terrestrial habitats and their characteristics by considering sea duck species with similar needs as groups (e.g., eiders) within the tribe Mergini. Additionally, this chapter will examine threats and changes to sea duck habitats from human-caused and natural events. Finally, we will evaluate conservation and management programs underway or available for maintenance and enhancement of habitats critical for

  4. Genetic analysis of Upland cotton dynamic heterosis for boll number per plant at multiple developmental stages

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Lianguang; Wang, Yumei; Cai, Shihu; Ma, Lingling; Liu, Fang; Chen, Zhiwen; Su, Ying; Wang, Kunbo; Hua, Jinping

    2016-01-01

    Yield is an important breeding target. As important yield components, boll number per plant (BNP) shows dynamic character and strong heterosis in Upland cotton. However, the genetic basis underlying the dynamic heterosis is poorly understood. In this study, we conducted dynamic quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis for BNP and heterosis at multiple developmental stages and environments using two recombinant inbred lines (RILs) and two corresponding backcross populations. By the single-locus analysis, 23 QTLs were identified at final maturity, while 99 QTLs were identified across other three developmental stages. A total of 48 conditional QTLs for BNP were identified for the adjacent stages. QTLs detected at later stage mainly existed in the partial dominance to dominance range and QTLs identified at early stage mostly showed effects with the dominance to overdominance range during plant development. By two-locus analysis, we observe that epistasis played an important role not only in the variation of the performance of the RIL population but also in the expression of heterosis in backcross population. Taken together, the present study reveals that the genetic basis of heterosis is dynamic and complicated, and it is involved in dynamic dominance effect, epistasis and QTL by environmental interactions. PMID:27748451

  5. Water track distribution and effects on carbon dioxide flux in an eastern Siberian upland tundra landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curasi, Salvatore R.; Loranty, Michael M.; Natali, Susan M.

    2016-04-01

    Shrub expansion in tundra ecosystems may act as a positive feedback to climate warming, the strength of which depends on its spatial extent. Recent studies have shown that shrub expansion is more likely to occur in areas with high soil moisture and nutrient availability, conditions typically found in sub-surface water channels known as water tracks. Water tracks are 5-15 m wide channels of subsurface water drainage in permafrost landscapes and are characterized by deeper seasonal thaw depth, warmer soil temperatures, and higher soil moisture and nutrient content relative to adjacent tundra. Consequently, enhanced vegetation productivity, and dominance by tall deciduous shrubs, are typical in water tracks. Quantifying the distribution of water tracks may inform investigations of the extent of shrub expansion and associated impacts on tundra ecosystem carbon cycling. Here, we quantify the distribution of water tracks and their contribution to growing season CO2 dynamics for a Siberian tundra landscape using satellite observations, meteorological data, and field measurements. We find that water tracks occupy 7.4% of the 448 km2 study area, and account for a slightly larger proportion of growing season carbon uptake relative to surrounding tundra. For areas inside water tracks dominated by shrubs, field observations revealed higher shrub biomass and higher ecosystem respiration and gross primary productivity relative to adjacent upland tundra. Conversely, a comparison of graminoid-dominated areas in water tracks and inter-track tundra revealed that water track locations dominated by graminoids had lower shrub biomass yet increased net uptake of CO2. Our results show water tracks are an important component of this landscape. Their distribution will influence ecosystem structural and functional responses to climate, and is therefore of importance for modeling.

  6. A new skink (Scincidae: Carlia) from the rainforest uplands of Cape Melville, north-east Australia.

    PubMed

    Hoskin, Conrad J

    2014-10-01

    Carlia skinks are widespread in New Guinea, Wallacea, and northern and eastern Australia. Most Australian species occur in dry woodlands and savannas or marginal rainforest habitats associated with these. There are two rainforest species, parapatrically distributed in coastal mid-eastern Queensland (C. rhomboidalis) and the Wet Tropics of north-eastern Queensland (C. rubrigularis). These two sister species share a diagnostic morphological trait in having the interparietal scale fused to the frontoparietal. Here I describe a third species in this group, Carlia wundalthini sp. nov., from rainforest uplands of the Melville Range, a rainforest isolate 170 km north of the Wet Tropics. This species is diagnosable on male breeding colouration, morphometrics and scalation. The description of C. wundalthini sp. nov. brings the number of vertebrate species known to be endemic to the rainforest and boulder-fields of Cape Melville to seven. Carlia wundalthini sp. nov. is distinct among these endemics in being the only one that does not appear to be directly associated with rock, being found in rainforest leaf-litter. 

  7. Transformation of upland wash slope - a case study from the Lublin Upland (SE Poland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janicki, Grzegorz

    2014-06-01

    -arid zone (warm half-year) or tundra (cold half-year). Landscape “steppisation” and “tundration” is “accelerated” by adjustment of slope systems to new conditions. Additionally, the long-lasting agricultural activity disturbed the dynamic balance of the slope, and resulted in the development of new landforms. Anthropogenic relief and tillage erosion change the conditions of overland flow to a significant degree, and affect the direction of slope development (Gerlach 1966; Lach 1984; Twardy 1995; Poesen et al. 2003; Rejman 2006). The co-occurrence of those factors is reflected particularly during the intensive slopewash caused by violent downpours and snow melt. Activated slopewash processes are responsible for modern shaping of slopes subject to agricultural use in the temperate morphoclimatic domain, particularly slopes developed on soft Quaternary deposits, hardly resistant to erosion. These slopes are called slopewashes (Kirkby 1971, 1978; Teisseyre 1994; Janicki 2002). The objective of the paper is to determine the intensity of modern slopewash processes, and to estimate their effect on the development of slopes under agricultural use, lying on loess and like-loess deposits, in various landscape types of the Lublin Upland (sensu lato). The role of extreme events in the functioning of slope systems in short time period was also estimated. According to a number of scholars, those events determine the rate and direction of development of geomorphological systems (Starkel 1976, 1986; Brunsden 1996)

  8. Multiscale remote sensing analysis to monitor riparian and upland semiarid vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Uyen

    The health of natural vegetation communities is of concern due to observed changes in the climatic-hydrological regime and land cover changes particularly in arid and semiarid regions. Monitoring vegetation at multi temporal and spatial scales can be the most informative approach for detecting change and inferring causal agents of change and remediation strategies. Riparian communities are tightly linked to annual stream hydrology, ground water elevations and sediment transport. These processes are subject to varying magnitudes of disturbance overtime and are candidates for multi-scale monitoring. My first research objective focused on the response of vegetation in the Upper San Pedro River, Arizona, to reduced base flows and climate change. I addressed the correlation between riparian vegetation and hydro-climate variables during the last three decades in one of the remaining undammed rivers in the southwestern U.S. Its riparian forest is threatened by the diminishing base flows, attributed by different studies either to increases in evapotranspiration (ET) due to conversion of grasslands to mesquite shrublands in the adjacent uplands, or to increased regional groundwater pumping to serve growing populations in surrounding urban areas and or to some interactions of those causes. Landsat 5 imagery was acquired for pre- monsoon period, when riparian trees had leafed out but before the arrival of summer monsoon rains in July. The result has showed Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) values from both Landsat and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) had significant decreases which positively correlated to river flows, which decreased over the study period, and negatively correlated with air temperatures, which have increased by about 1.4°C from 1904 to the present. The predictions from other studies that decreased river flows could negatively impact the riparian forest were supported by this study. The pre-monsoon Normalized Different Vegetation

  9. 46 CFR 148.445 - Adjacent spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Adjacent spaces. 148.445 Section 148.445 Shipping COAST... THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Additional Special Requirements § 148.445 Adjacent spaces. When... following requirements must be met: (a) Each space adjacent to a cargo hold must be ventilated by...

  10. 46 CFR 148.445 - Adjacent spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Adjacent spaces. 148.445 Section 148.445 Shipping COAST... THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Additional Special Requirements § 148.445 Adjacent spaces. When... following requirements must be met: (a) Each space adjacent to a cargo hold must be ventilated by...

  11. 46 CFR 148.445 - Adjacent spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Adjacent spaces. 148.445 Section 148.445 Shipping COAST... THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Additional Special Requirements § 148.445 Adjacent spaces. When... following requirements must be met: (a) Each space adjacent to a cargo hold must be ventilated by...

  12. 46 CFR 148.445 - Adjacent spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Adjacent spaces. 148.445 Section 148.445 Shipping COAST... THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Additional Special Requirements § 148.445 Adjacent spaces. When... following requirements must be met: (a) Each space adjacent to a cargo hold must be ventilated by...

  13. The Habitat Connection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naturescope, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Consists of activities which address the causes of habitat destruction and the effects of habitat loss on animals and plants. Identifies habitat loss as the major reason for the endangerment and extinction of plant and animal species. (ML)

  14. Habitat Demonstration Unit - Deep Space Habitat Configuration

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animated video shows the process of transporting, assembling and testing the Habitat Demonstration Unit - Deep Space Habitat (HDU DSH) configuration, which will be deployed during the 2011 Des...

  15. Habitat selection by tundra swans on Northern Alaska breeding grounds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Earnst, Susan L.; Rothe, T.

    2004-01-01

    Habitat selection by the Tundra Swan (Cygnus columbianus columbianus) was evaluated on the Colville River Delta prior to oil field development (1982-1989). Tundra Swan territories comprised a lake, used for refuge and foraging, and terrestrial habitats and ponds near the lakea??s perimeter used for foraging and nesting. Tundra swan sightings from early and late summer aerial surveys were used to investigate habitat selection at the territory and within-territory scale. At the territory or lake scale, swan sightings/lake increased with lake size, and increased from discrete to tapped (i.e., connected to a river channel) to drained lakes within size categories. Overall, 49% of the variation in swan sightings/lake was explained by lake size and type, a size-x-type interaction term, and the proportion of lake perimeter comprised of Halophytic Ponds and Halophytic Wet Meadows. At the within-territory or within-lake scale, foraging swans significantly selected Halophytic Ponds, Halophytic Wet Meadows, and Fresh Ponds relative to Uplands; nesting swans significantly selected Halophytic Ponds and significantly avoided Fresh Wet Meadows relative to Uplands. Vegetation sampling indicated that sites used by Tundra Swans on river channels and tapped lakes were significantly more likely to have Sheathed Pondweed (Potamogeton vaginatus) than control sites. The three major components of Tundra Swan diet were Carex sedges, Sheathed Pondweed, and algae, together comprising 85% of identifiable plant fragments in feces.

  16. Aquatic Biodiversity in the Amazon: Habitat Specialization and Geographic Isolation Promote Species Richness

    PubMed Central

    Albert, James S.; Carvalho, Tiago P.; Petry, Paulo; Holder, Meghan A.; Maxime, Emmanuel L.; Espino, Jessica; Corahua, Isabel; Quispe, Roberto; Rengifo, Blanca; Ortega, Hernan; Reis, Roberto E.

    2011-01-01

    Simple Summary The immense rainforest ecosystems of tropical America represent some of the greatest concentrations of biodiversity on the planet. Prominent among these are evolutionary radiations of freshwater fishes, including electric eels, piranhas, stingrays, and a myriad of small-bodied and colorful tetras, cichlids, and armored catfishes. In all, the many thousands of these forms account for nearly 10% of all the vertebrate species on Earth. This article explores the complimentary roles that ecological and geographic filters play in limiting dispersal in aquatic species, and how these factors contribute to the accumulation of species richness over broad geographic and evolutionary time scales. Abstract The Neotropical freshwater ichthyofauna has among the highest species richness and density of any vertebrate fauna on Earth, with more than 5,600 species compressed into less than 12% of the world's land surface area, and less than 0.002% of the world's total liquid water supply. How have so many species come to co-exist in such a small amount of total habitat space? Here we report results of an aquatic faunal survey of the Fitzcarrald region in southeastern Peru, an area of low-elevation upland (200–500 m above sea level) rainforest in the Western Amazon, that straddles the headwaters of four large Amazonian tributaries; the Juruá (Yurúa), Ucayali, Purús, and Madre de Dios rivers. All measures of fish species diversity in this region are high; there is high alpha diversity with many species coexisting in the same locality, high beta diversity with high turnover between habitats, and high gamma diversity with high turnover between adjacent tributary basins. Current data show little species endemism, and no known examples of sympatric sister species, within the Fitzcarrald region, suggesting a lack of localized or recent adaptive divergences. These results support the hypothesis that the fish species of the Fitzcarrald region are relatively ancient

  17. Habitat Specialization in Tropical Continental Shelf Demersal Fish Assemblages

    PubMed Central

    Fitzpatrick, Ben M.; Harvey, Euan S.; Heyward, Andrew J.; Twiggs, Emily J.; Colquhoun, Jamie

    2012-01-01

    The implications of shallow water impacts such as fishing and climate change on fish assemblages are generally considered in isolation from the distribution and abundance of these fish assemblages in adjacent deeper waters. We investigate the abundance and length of demersal fish assemblages across a section of tropical continental shelf at Ningaloo Reef, Western Australia, to identify fish and fish habitat relationships across steep gradients in depth and in different benthic habitat types. The assemblage composition of demersal fish were assessed from baited remote underwater stereo-video samples (n = 304) collected from 16 depth and habitat combinations. Samples were collected across a depth range poorly represented in the literature from the fringing reef lagoon (1–10 m depth), down the fore reef slope to the reef base (10–30 m depth) then across the adjacent continental shelf (30–110 m depth). Multivariate analyses showed that there were distinctive fish assemblages and different sized fish were associated with each habitat/depth category. Species richness, MaxN and diversity declined with depth, while average length and trophic level increased. The assemblage structure, diversity, size and trophic structure of demersal fishes changes from shallow inshore habitats to deeper water habitats. More habitat specialists (unique species per habitat/depth category) were associated with the reef slope and reef base than other habitats, but offshore sponge-dominated habitats and inshore coral-dominated reef also supported unique species. This suggests that marine protected areas in shallow coral-dominated reef habitats may not adequately protect those species whose depth distribution extends beyond shallow habitats, or other significant elements of demersal fish biodiversity. The ontogenetic habitat partitioning which is characteristic of many species, suggests that to maintain entire species life histories it is necessary to protect corridors of connected

  18. Habitat specialization in tropical continental shelf demersal fish assemblages.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, Ben M; Harvey, Euan S; Heyward, Andrew J; Twiggs, Emily J; Colquhoun, Jamie

    2012-01-01

    The implications of shallow water impacts such as fishing and climate change on fish assemblages are generally considered in isolation from the distribution and abundance of these fish assemblages in adjacent deeper waters. We investigate the abundance and length of demersal fish assemblages across a section of tropical continental shelf at Ningaloo Reef, Western Australia, to identify fish and fish habitat relationships across steep gradients in depth and in different benthic habitat types. The assemblage composition of demersal fish were assessed from baited remote underwater stereo-video samples (n = 304) collected from 16 depth and habitat combinations. Samples were collected across a depth range poorly represented in the literature from the fringing reef lagoon (1-10 m depth), down the fore reef slope to the reef base (10-30 m depth) then across the adjacent continental shelf (30-110 m depth). Multivariate analyses showed that there were distinctive fish assemblages and different sized fish were associated with each habitat/depth category. Species richness, MaxN and diversity declined with depth, while average length and trophic level increased. The assemblage structure, diversity, size and trophic structure of demersal fishes changes from shallow inshore habitats to deeper water habitats. More habitat specialists (unique species per habitat/depth category) were associated with the reef slope and reef base than other habitats, but offshore sponge-dominated habitats and inshore coral-dominated reef also supported unique species. This suggests that marine protected areas in shallow coral-dominated reef habitats may not adequately protect those species whose depth distribution extends beyond shallow habitats, or other significant elements of demersal fish biodiversity. The ontogenetic habitat partitioning which is characteristic of many species, suggests that to maintain entire species life histories it is necessary to protect corridors of connected habitats

  19. Shrubby Reed-Mustard Habitat: Parent Material, Soil, and Landscape Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, L. S.; Boettinger, J. L.

    2012-12-01

    Shrubby reed-mustard (Glaucocarpum suffrutescens, a.k.a. Schoenocrambe suffrutescens, Glaucocarpum suffrutescens, or Hesperidanthus suffrutescens) is an endangered perennial shrub endemic to the southern Uinta Basin in northeast Utah. Only seven populations of shrubby reed-mustard have been identified. The arid area where the plant grows is rich in natural gas and oil deposits, as well as oil shale. Oil wells already dot the landscape, and there is significant concern that further development of these resources will threaten the continued existence of shrubby reed-mustard. Determination of the parent material, soil and landscape characteristics associated with shrubby reed-mustard habitat is imperative to facilitate conservation management. Shrubby reed-mustard grows where little else does and, based on field observations and remotely sensed spectral data, appears to occur in a particular type of strata. Our objective is to identify the physical and chemical characteristics of shrubby reed-mustard's environment. Site characteristics such as parent material and associated vegetation have been identified and documented. Soil properties such as water-soluble and total leachable elements, particle-size distribution, organic carbon, cation exchange capacity, total nitrogen, and available phosphorus and potassium are being determined. During the course of this investigation, soils within four shrubby reed-mustard habitat areas were sampled. Soils from non-shrubby reed-mustard areas adjacent to the four shrubby reed-mustard populations were also sampled. Soil samples were collected from a total of twenty-five shrubby reed-mustard soil pits and twenty-four non-shrubby reed-mustard soil pits. The soil horizons of each pedon were delineated, and samples were collected from each horizon. Field data indicate that shrubby reed-mustard occurs exclusively in shale-derived, shallow soils on bedrock-controlled uplands. Although there is some overlap of plant species on both types

  20. Effects of soil moisture content on upland nitrogen loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouyang, Wei; Xu, Xueting; Hao, Zengchao; Gao, Xiang

    2017-03-01

    In recent years, nitrogen (N) loss from upland fields has become one of the most important sources for agricultural nonpoint source (NPS) pollution. Understanding the relationships between soil hydrological processes and N loss in NPS pollution is vital for controlling the agricultural NPS pollution in upland fields. The objective of this study was to analyze the interaction of N loss with different moisture conditions in the freeze-thaw zone. The semi-distributed hydrologic model Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was used in this study to simulate runoff and different forms of N loss, which provided a basis for analyzing characteristics of N loss in the study region. Results showed that the soil moisture content was an important factor affecting N loss in the study region. Different forms of N loss were also analyzed and it was found that N loss occurred primarily in the form of organic-N, which is likely due to the dominant role of erosion-induced pollution. This study provides useful information for preventing NPS pollution within the study region.

  1. Upland sandpiper nesting and management in North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kirsch, L.M.; Higgins, K.F.

    1976-01-01

    Nests of 195 upland sandpipers (Bartramia longicauda) on the Missouri Coteau of North Dakota generally were well concealed by grassy vegetation which ranged from 15.4-30.8 cm in height. Nest densities ranged from 0.3 per 40.5 ha on annually tilled croplands to 6.8 per 40.5 ha on native grasslands during the second growing season after a prescribed burn. Hatching success in native grasslands varied from 48 percent on annually grazed areas to 71 percent on both undisturbed and burned areas. No production was observed on annually tilled croplands and production was comparatively low on former cropland fields seeded to grass-legume mixtures. Expressed as hatched nests per 40.5 ha, production was 0.5 for annually grazed grassland, 1.1 for undisturbed grassland, and 2.2 for grassland managed by prescribed burning. To maintain native grasslands in the best condition for upland sandpiper nesting we recommend rotational burning at 3-year intervals; otherwise grasslands should remain undisturbed.

  2. Spatial Analysis of Cryoplanation Landforms in Beringian Uplands, Alaska, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyland, K. E.; Nelson, F. E.

    2015-12-01

    Cryoplanation terraces are large periglacial landforms characteristic of cold, unglaciated mountainous environments. Terrace sequences are composed of alternating slope segments with steep rubble-covered risers and gently sloping treads, culminating in extensive summit flats. Entire Beringian upland landscapes are dominated by these features. Cryoplanation terraces are cut into bedrock and thought to evolve through locally intensified periglacial weathering and mass-movement processes in the vicinity of late-lying snowpatches. Geospatial analysis demonstrates that terrace elevation rises from 100-300 m.a.s.l. on Bering Sea islands to median values greater than 1200 m in the Yukon-Tanana Upland, near the Alaska-Canada border. The regional trends of cryoplanation terrace elevation are similar to those of cirques and reconstructed ELAs across interior and western Alaska, with gradients ranging from 0.74 to 1.2 m km-1. The similarity of these trends indicates close genetic links between glacial cirques and cryoplanation terraces, involving topographic position, continentality gradients, and the mass balance of localized snow accumulation. Cryoplanation terraces can be considered as the periglacial analogs of glacial cirques, and have greater potential as sources of paleoclimatic information than smaller periglacial features more sensitive to short-term climate variations. Process-oriented studies, age determinations, and high-resolution mapping are needed before their paleoenvironmental potential of these landforms can be fully realized.

  3. Field Verification of Stable Perched Groundwater in Layered Bedrock Uplands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carter, J.T.; Gotkowitz, M.B.; Anderson, M.P.

    2011-01-01

    Data substantiating perched conditions in layered bedrock uplands are rare and have not been widely reported. Field observations in layered sedimentary bedrock in southwestern Wisconsin, USA, provide evidence of a stable, laterally extensive perched aquifer. Data from a densely instrumented field site show a perched aquifer in shallow dolomite, underlain by a shale-and-dolomite aquitard approximately 25 m thick, which is in turn underlain by sandstone containing a 30-m-thick unsaturated zone above a regional aquifer. Heads in water supply wells indicate that perched conditions extend at least several kilometers into hillsides, which is consistent with published modeling studies. Observations of unsaturated conditions in the sandstone over a 4-year period, historical development of the perched aquifer, and perennial flow from upland springs emanating from the shallow dolomite suggest that perched groundwater is a stable hydrogeologic feature under current climate conditions. Water-table hydrographs exhibit apparent differences in the amount and timing of recharge to the perched and regional flow systems; steep hydraulic gradients and tritium and chloride concentrations suggest there is limited hydraulic connection between the two. Recognition and characterization of perched flow systems have practical importance because their groundwater flow and transport pathways may differ significantly from those in underlying flow systems. Construction of multi-aquifer wells and groundwater withdrawal in perched systems can further alter such pathways. ?? 2010 The Author(s). Journal compilation ?? 2010 National Ground Water Association.

  4. Field verification of stable perched groundwater in layered bedrock uplands.

    PubMed

    Carter, Jonathon T V; Gotkowitz, Madeline B; Anderson, Mary P

    2011-01-01

    Data substantiating perched conditions in layered bedrock uplands are rare and have not been widely reported. Field observations in layered sedimentary bedrock in southwestern Wisconsin, USA, provide evidence of a stable, laterally extensive perched aquifer. Data from a densely instrumented field site show a perched aquifer in shallow dolomite, underlain by a shale-and-dolomite aquitard approximately 25 m thick, which is in turn underlain by sandstone containing a 30-m-thick unsaturated zone above a regional aquifer. Heads in water supply wells indicate that perched conditions extend at least several kilometers into hillsides, which is consistent with published modeling studies. Observations of unsaturated conditions in the sandstone over a 4-year period, historical development of the perched aquifer, and perennial flow from upland springs emanating from the shallow dolomite suggest that perched groundwater is a stable hydrogeologic feature under current climate conditions. Water-table hydrographs exhibit apparent differences in the amount and timing of recharge to the perched and regional flow systems; steep hydraulic gradients and tritium and chloride concentrations suggest there is limited hydraulic connection between the two. Recognition and characterization of perched flow systems have practical importance because their groundwater flow and transport pathways may differ significantly from those in underlying flow systems. Construction of multi-aquifer wells and groundwater withdrawal in perched systems can further alter such pathways.

  5. Textile processing improvements due to high speed roller ginning of upland cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Selective breeding has improved upland cotton fiber properties. Processing capacities of new high-speed roller ginning technology approach that of saw ginning. Spinning mills are interested in mill performance data comparing new upland cultivars processed by both saw and roller ginning. Four dive...

  6. CARBON MONOXIDE FLUXES OF DIFFERENT SOIL LAYERS IN UPLAND CANADIAN BOREAL FORESTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dark or low-light carbon monoxide fluxes at upland Canadian boreal forest sites were measured on-site with static chambers and with a laboratory incubation technique using cores from different depths at the same sites. Three different upland black spruce sites, burned in 1987,199...

  7. Projected irrigation requirements for upland crops using soil moisture model under climate change in South Korea

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An increase in abnormal climate change patterns and unsustainable irrigation in uplands cause drought and affect agricultural water security, crop productivity, and price fluctuations. In this study, we developed a soil moisture model to project irrigation requirements (IR) for upland crops under cl...

  8. 78 FR 34374 - Notice of Availability of Final Revisions to the Upland Erosion Control, Revegetation, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-07

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of Availability of Final Revisions to the Upland Erosion Control... of the Office of Energy Projects has revised its Upland Erosion Control, Revegetation, and... minimizing erosion, enhancing revegetation, and minimizing the extent and duration of disturbance on...

  9. Area C borrow Site Habitat Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Sackschewsky, Michael R.; Downs, Janelle L.

    2009-12-04

    A habitat quality assessment was performed within selected portions of the proposed Area C Borrow Source. The previously identified Bitterbrush / Indian ricegrass stabilized dune element occurrence was determined to be better described as a sagebrush /needle-and-thread grass element occurrence of fair to good quality. A new habitat polygon is suggested adjacent to this element occurrence, which would also be sagebrush/needle-and-thread grass, but of poor quality. The proposed site of initial borrow site development was found to be a very low quality community dominated by cheatgrass.

  10. Winter habitat of Kirtland's warbler: an endangered nearctic/neotropical migrant

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sykes, P.W.; Clench, M.H.

    1998-01-01

    Habitats of Kirtland?s Warbler (Dendroica kirtlandii) on the wintering grounds in the Bahama Archipelago are presented based upon data from 29 specimens, two bandings, and 67 sightings of at least 61 individuals on 13 islands scattered through the region. Major emphasis is placed on a study site in central Eleuthera, with additional information on sites on Grand Turk, North Caicos, and Crooked Island. The warblers used upland habitats that have a low shrub/scrub component with a patchiness of small openings and openings within the vegetation at the ground level. Six broad habitats were identified as being used: Natural Shrub/Scrub, Secondary Shrub/Scrub, Low Coppice, Pineland Understory, Saline/Upland Ecotone, and Suburban; High Coppice is not used. The structure and floristic composition of the habitats are described. Observations (N=451) of a Kirtland?s Warbler male (uniquely color banded) and female over three months indicated the birds generally stayed on or near the ground, generally < 3 m (98% of observations), and used a territory of 8.3 ha. A crude estimate of potential winter habitat suggests that there is more than an adequate amount in the Bahama Archipelago for the currently small warbler population (733 singing males in 1997) and allows for a considerable population increase. No serious future threat to the amount of that habitat is foreseen.

  11. Library of Habitat Models to Evaluate Benefits of Aquatic Restoration Projects on Fishes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-08-01

    pool, and oxbow lake . An HSI of 1.0 was assigned to the habitat with the highest mean abundance of a particular guild, and the mean abundances in... oxbow lakes (Table 1). For each model, the location and a description of the water body size and other geomorphic conditions are provided. These...evaluations. Models represent large navigable rivers with both upland and lowland tributaries. In addition, wetlands and oxbow lakes that are

  12. Late Quaternary history of the southwestern St. Lawrence Lowlands and adjacent Adirondack Highlands

    SciTech Connect

    Pair, D.L. . Dept. of Geology)

    1993-03-01

    The reconstruction of Late Wisconsinan ice retreat, proglacial lakes, and Champlain Sea history from the northwest Adirondack slope and adjacent St. Lawrence Lowlands is critical to the synthesis of a regional picture of deglacial events in the eastern Great Lakes region. Unfortunately, these same areas are well known for their limited exposures, landforms covered by thick forest, large tracts of land inaccessible to detailed field mapping, and the overall paucity of glacial materials preserved on upland surfaces. Despite these limitations, a model which utilizes multiple and field-truthed evidence has been used to designate areas where ice border deposits indicate a substantial recessional position. It employs the following criteria in this analysis: sedimentology and morphostratigraphy of morainal landform segments and related sediments; orientation and continuity of ice border drainage channels; and the relationship of ice borders and drainage systems to well documented local and regional water bodies which accompanied ice retreat. The results of this approach have provided a unique regional picture of deglaciation. Despite the inherent limitations of working in upland areas to reconstruct glacial events, detailed morphostratigraphic correlations based on multiple lines of evidence can yield important information. The positions of five former ice borders have been reconstructed from the available data. These ice margins correspond closely with those documented previously by others adjoining areas. This type of study, utilizing multiple and field-truthed lines of evidence, constitutes a tangible step towards understanding the nature and history of ice retreat along this portion of the Laurentide Ice Sheet.

  13. Effects of tide cycles on habitat selection and habitat partitioning by migrating shorebirds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burger, J.; Howe, M.A.; Hahn, D.C.; Chase, J.

    1977-01-01

    We studied assemblages of feeding shorebirds in three intertidal habitats on the coast of New Jersey during August to document how species segregates patially both among and within habitats and to determine the effects of tidal cycles on these patterns. The habitats were a sandy beach facing the ocean proper (outer beach), a sandy beach on the mainland side of a barrier island (inner beach), and a small mudflat adjacent to a Spartina alternifiora salt marsh. We were able to identify several microhabitats on the outer beach and mudflat. Most speciesfe d in more than one habitat, but only two, Charadrius semipalmatus and Calidris canutus, used all three habitats regularly. Within habitats, most species exhibited strong preferences for the wettest areas, but we found differences among species in degrees of preference. The least amount of partitioning occurred on the inner beach, where birds crowded into a small zone near the water's edge and had frequent agonistic encounters suggesting intense competition. Shorebird feeding activity was partly a function of tide time: each habitat had a characteristic temporal pattern of use by shorebirds related to tide time rather than diel time; within habitats, we found species-characteristic feeding activity rhythms that were also a function of tide time. Feeding by most species peaked during the first 2 hours after low tide on the outer beach and mudflat. The results are discussed in terms of feeding strategies and interspecific competition.

  14. Terrestrial habitat use by pacific pond turtles in a Mediterranean climate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rathbun, G.B.; Scott, N.J.; Murphey, T.G.

    2002-01-01

    The Pacific pond turtle (Clemmys marmorata) is a widespread aquatic turtle in the Pacific states, yet relatively little is known about its ecology. We radio-tracked 34 individuals during an 8 year period in 4 small coastal creeks in central California to determine their use of terrestrial upland habitats. Most of our turtles left the drying arroyos during late summer and returned after winter floods. Turtles spent an average of 111 days at these land refuges, which were located in woodland and coastal sage scrub habitats an average of 50 m from arroyos. Most gravid females left the creeks during June to oviposit in sunny upland habitats with low vegetation structure, such as grazed pastures. Nest sites were an average of 28 m from creeks. Terrestrial basking sites averaged 4.5 m from streams, but were only used for a few days. We believe the use of terrestrial upland sites was related to the Mediterranean climate and the resulting unique hydrodynamics of the small coastal arroyos (dry in summer and flooding in winter).

  15. Effects of management practices on grassland birds: Upland Sandpiper

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dechant, Jill A.; Dinkins, Meghan F.; Johnson, Douglas H.; Igl, Lawrence D.; Goldade, Christopher M.; Parkin, Barry D.; Euliss, Betty R.

    1999-01-01

    Information on the habitat requirements and effects of habitat management on grassland birds were summarized from information in more than 5,500 published and unpublished papers. A range map is provided to indicate the relative densities of the species in North America, based on Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) data. Although birds frequently are observed outside the breeding range indicated, the maps are intended to show areas where managers might concentrate their attention. It may be ineffectual to manage habitat at a site for a species that rarely occurs in an area. The species account begins with a brief capsule statement, which provides the fundamental components or keys to management for the species. A section on breeding range outlines the current breeding distribution of the species in North America, including areas that could not be mapped using BBS data. The suitable habitat section describes the breeding habitat and occasionally microhabitat characteristics of the species, especially those habitats that occur in the Great Plains. Details on habitat and microhabitat requirements often provide clues to how a species will respond to a particular management practice. A table near the end of the account complements the section on suitable habitat, and lists the specific habitat characteristics for the species by individual studies. A special section on prey habitat is included for those predatory species that have more specific prey requirements. The area requirements section provides details on territory and home range sizes, minimum area requirements, and the effects of patch size, edges, and other landscape and habitat features on abundance and productivity. It may be futile to manage a small block of suitable habitat for a species that has minimum area requirements that are larger than the area being managed. The Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater) is an obligate brood parasite of many grassland birds. The section on cowbird brood parasitism summarizes rates

  16. Structured heterogeneity in a marine terrace chronosequence: Upland mottling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schulz, Marjorie S.; Stonestrom, David A.; Lawrence, Corey R.; Bullen, Thomas D.; Fitzpatrick, John; Kyker-Snowman, Emily; Manning, Jane; Mnich, Meagan

    2016-01-01

    Soil mottles generally are interpreted as a product of reducing conditions during periods of water saturation. The upland soils of the Santa Cruz, CA, marine terrace chronosequence display an evolving sequence of reticulate mottling from the youngest soil (65 ka) without mottles to the oldest soil (225 ka) with well-developed mottles. The mottles consist of an interconnected network of clay and C-enriched regions (gray, 2.5Y 6/1) bordered by leached parent material (white, 2.5Y 8/1) within a diminishing matrix of oxidized parent material (orange, 7.5YR 5/8). The mottles develop in soils that formed from relatively uniform nearshore sediments and occur below the depth of soil bioturbation. To explore how a presumably wetland feature occurs in an unsaturated upland soil, physical and chemical characteristics of mottle separates (orange, gray, and white) were compared through the deep time represented by the soil chronosequence. Mineralogical, isotopic, and surface-area differences among mottle separates indicate that rhizogenic centimeter-scale mass transfer acting across millennia is an integral part of weathering, pedogenesis, and C and nutrient transfer. Elemental analysis, electron microscopy, and Fe-isotope systematics indicate that mottle development is driven by deep roots together with their fungal and microbial symbionts. Taken together, these data suggest that deep soil horizons on old stable landforms can develop reticulate mottling as the long-term imprint of rhizospheric processes. The processes of rhizogenic mottle formation appear to regulate pedogenesis, nutrients, and C sequestration at depth in unsaturated zones.

  17. Abandoned Rice Fields Make Streams Go Dry in Upland Landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayawickreme, D.

    2015-12-01

    In South Asia, new economic realities are driving many rural rice farmers out of agriculture. With increasing neglect, abandonment, and rising conversions of centuries old rice fields into other uses, ecological and environmental consequences of these transitions are becoming progressively clear. Field observations in Sri Lanka's central highlands suggest that small shifts in rice to non-rice land uses in headwater watersheds can have a domino effect on the productivity and viability of rice fields and other ecological systems downstream by inflicting groundwater recharge reductions, lowering groundwater yields, and causing other hydrological changes. Preliminary analysis shows that although rice itself is a very water intensive crop, the presence of rain-fed upland rice-fields is hugely beneficial to the watersheds they reside. In particular, water benefits of rice appear to be derived from ponded conditions (3-5 inches of standing water) in which rice is grown, and the contribution rice fields makes to enhance water retention and storage capacity of their watersheds during the monsoon season that coincide with the cropping season. In the absence of well managed rice-fields, hilly upland landscapes produce more runoff and retain little rainwater during the wet season. Furthermore, after centuries of intensive use, much of South Asia's rice fields are nutrient poor and minimally productive without fertilizer applications and other interventions. Consequently, when abandoned, soil erosion and other impacts that affect aquatic ecosystems and watershed health also emerge. Despite these multiple concerns however, little research is currently done to better understand the environmental significance of rice cultivations that are a dominant land-use in many South Asian landscapes. The aim of this presentation is to stir interest among the scientific community to engage more broadly in rice, water, and environmental change research in the face of new economic realities in

  18. Climate change and prairie pothole wetlands: mitigating water-level and hydroperiod effects through upland management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Renton, David A.; Mushet, David M.; DeKeyser, Edward S.

    2015-01-01

    Prairie pothole wetlands offer crucial habitat for North America’s waterfowl populations. The wetlands also support an abundance of other species and provide ecological services valued by society. The hydrology of prairie pothole wetlands is dependent on atmospheric interactions. Therefore, changes to the region’s climate can have profound effects on wetland hydrology. The relevant literature related to climate change and upland management effects on prairie pothole wetland water levels and hydroperiods was reviewed. Climate change is widely expected to affect water levels and hydroperiods of prairie pothole wetlands, as well as the biota and ecological services that the wetlands support. In general, hydrologic model projections that incorporate future climate change scenarios forecast lower water levels in prairie pothole wetlands and longer periods spent in a dry condition, despite potential increases in precipitation. However, the extreme natural variability in climate and hydrology of prairie pothole wetlands necessitates caution when interpreting model results. Recent changes in weather patterns throughout much of the Prairie Pothole Region have been in increased precipitation that results in increased water inputs to wetlands above losses associated with warmer temperatures. However, observed precipitation increases are within the range of natural climate variability and therefore, may not persist. Identifying management techniques with the potential to affect water inputs to prairie pothole wetlands would provide increased options for managers when dealing with the uncertainties associated with a changing climate. Several grassland management techniques (for example, grazing and burning) have the potential to affect water levels and hydroperiods of prairie pothole by affecting infiltration, evapotranspiration, and snow deposition.

  19. Quantile equivalence to evaluate compliance with habitat management objectives

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cade, Brian S.; Johnson, Pamela R.

    2011-01-01

    Equivalence estimated with linear quantile regression was used to evaluate compliance with habitat management objectives at Arapaho National Wildlife Refuge based on monitoring data collected in upland (5,781 ha; n = 511 transects) and riparian and meadow (2,856 ha, n = 389 transects) habitats from 2005 to 2008. Quantiles were used because the management objectives specified proportions of the habitat area that needed to comply with vegetation criteria. The linear model was used to obtain estimates that were averaged across 4 y. The equivalence testing framework allowed us to interpret confidence intervals for estimated proportions with respect to intervals of vegetative criteria (equivalence regions) in either a liberal, benefit-of-doubt or conservative, fail-safe approach associated with minimizing alternative risks. Simple Boolean conditional arguments were used to combine the quantile equivalence results for individual vegetation components into a joint statement for the multivariable management objectives. For example, management objective 2A required at least 809 ha of upland habitat with a shrub composition ≥0.70 sagebrush (Artemisia spp.), 20–30% canopy cover of sagebrush ≥25 cm in height, ≥20% canopy cover of grasses, and ≥10% canopy cover of forbs on average over 4 y. Shrub composition and canopy cover of grass each were readily met on >3,000 ha under either conservative or liberal interpretations of sampling variability. However, there were only 809–1,214 ha (conservative to liberal) with ≥10% forb canopy cover and 405–1,098 ha with 20–30%canopy cover of sagebrush ≥25 cm in height. Only 91–180 ha of uplands simultaneously met criteria for all four components, primarily because canopy cover of sagebrush and forbs was inversely related when considered at the spatial scale (30 m) of a sample transect. We demonstrate how the quantile equivalence analyses also can help refine the numerical specification of habitat objectives and explore

  20. 43 CFR 420.3 - Adjacent lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Adjacent lands. 420.3 Section 420.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFF-ROAD VEHICLE USE § 420.3 Adjacent lands. When administratively feasible, the regulation of...

  1. 43 CFR 420.3 - Adjacent lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Adjacent lands. 420.3 Section 420.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFF-ROAD VEHICLE USE § 420.3 Adjacent lands. When administratively feasible, the regulation of...

  2. 43 CFR 420.3 - Adjacent lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Adjacent lands. 420.3 Section 420.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFF-ROAD VEHICLE USE § 420.3 Adjacent lands. When administratively feasible, the regulation of...

  3. 43 CFR 420.3 - Adjacent lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Adjacent lands. 420.3 Section 420.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFF-ROAD VEHICLE USE § 420.3 Adjacent lands. When administratively feasible, the regulation of...

  4. 43 CFR 420.3 - Adjacent lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Adjacent lands. 420.3 Section 420.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFF-ROAD VEHICLE USE § 420.3 Adjacent lands. When administratively feasible, the regulation of...

  5. Beneficial Insect Borders Provide Northern Bobwhite Brood Habitat

    PubMed Central

    Moorman, Christopher E.; Plush, Charles J.; Orr, David B.; Reberg-Horton, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Strips of fallow vegetation along cropland borders are an effective strategy for providing brood habitat for declining populations of upland game birds (Order: Galliformes), including northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus), but fallow borders lack nectar-producing vegetation needed to sustain many beneficial insect populations (e.g., crop pest predators, parasitoids, and pollinator species). Planted borders that contain mixes of prairie flowers and grasses are designed to harbor more diverse arthropod communities, but the relative value of these borders as brood habitat is unknown. We used groups of six human-imprinted northern bobwhite chicks as a bioassay for comparing four different border treatments (planted native grass and prairie flowers, planted prairie flowers only, fallow vegetation, or mowed vegetation) as northern bobwhite brood habitat from June-August 2009 and 2010. All field border treatments were established around nine organic crop fields. Groups of chicks were led through borders for 30-min foraging trials and immediately euthanized, and eaten arthropods in crops and gizzards were measured to calculate a foraging rate for each border treatment. We estimated arthropod prey availability within each border treatment using a modified blower-vac to sample arthropods at the vegetation strata where chicks foraged. Foraging rate did not differ among border treatments in 2009 or 2010. Total arthropod prey densities calculated from blower-vac samples did not differ among border treatments in 2009 or 2010. Our results showed plant communities established to attract beneficial insects should maximize the biodiversity potential of field border establishment by providing habitat for beneficial insects and young upland game birds. PMID:24376759

  6. Distribution and diversity of fungal species in and adjacent to the Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Balice, R.G.; Jarmie, N.; Rogers, F.J.

    1997-12-01

    Fungi have demonstrated their ability to diversify and specialize to take advantage of new environments (Murphy 1996). These species are essential to the normal functioning of ecosystems and the impacts of human activities may be harmful to fungi. There is a need to inventory fungi throughout the range of their environments. Previously archived information representing 43 sample locations was used to perform a preliminary evaluation of the distributions and diversity of fungal species at the Los Alamos National Laboratory and in adjacent environments. Presence-absence data for 71 species of fungi in five habitats, pinon-juniper, canyon-bottom ponderosa pine, ponderosa pine, canyon-bottom mixed conifer, and mixed conifer were analyzed. The results indicate that even though fungi occur in each of the habitats, fungal species are not distributed evenly among these habitats. The richness of fungal species is greater in the canyon-bottom mixed conifer and mixed conifer habitats than in the pinon-juniper, canyon-bottom ponderosa pine or ponderosa pine habitats. All but three of the fungal species were recorded in either the canyon-bottom mixed conifer or the mixed conifer habitats, and all but seven of the fungal species were found in the mixed conifer habitat.

  7. Effects of habitat management treatments on plant community composition and biomass in a Montane wetland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Austin, J.E.; Keough, J.R.; Pyle, W.H.

    2007-01-01

    Grazing and burning are commonly applied practices that can impact the diversity and biomass of wetland plant communities. We evaluated the vegetative response of wetlands and adjacent upland grasslands to four treatment regimes (continuous idle, fall prescribed burning followed by idle, annual fall cattle grazing, and rotation of summer grazing and idle) commonly used by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Our study area was Grays Lake, a large, montane wetland in southeastern Idaho that is bordered by extensive wet meadows. We identified seven plant cover types, representing the transition from dry meadow to deep wetland habitats: mixed deep marsh, spikerush slough, Baltic rush (Juncus balticus), moist meadow, alkali, mesic meadow, and dry meadow. We compared changes in community composition and total aboveground biomass of each plant cover type between 1998, when all units had been idled for three years, and 1999 (1 yr post-treatment) and 2000 (2 yr post-treatment). Analysis using non-metric multidimensional scaling indicated that compositional changes varied among cover types, treatments, and years following treatment. Treatment-related changes in community composition were greatest in mixed deep marsh, Baltic rush, and mesic meadow. In mixed deep marsh and Baltic rush, grazing and associated trampling contributed to changes in the plant community toward more open water and aquatic species and lower dominance of Baltic rush; grazing and trampling also seemed to contribute to increased cover in mesic meadow. Changing hydrological conditions, from multiple years of high water to increasing drought, was an important factor influencing community composition and may have interacted with management treatments. Biomass differed among treatments and between years within cover types. In the wettest cover types, fall burning and grazing rotation treatments had greater negative impact on biomass than the idle treatment, but in drier cover types, summer grazing stimulated

  8. Upscaling of greenhouse gas emissions in upland forestry following clearfell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toet, Sylvia; Keane, Ben; Yamulki, Sirwan; Blei, Emanuel; Gibson-Poole, Simon; Xenakis, Georgios; Perks, Mike; Morison, James; Ineson, Phil

    2016-04-01

    Data on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions caused by forest management activities are limited. Management such as clearfelling may, however, have major impacts on the GHG balance of forests through effects of soil disturbance, increased water table, and brash and root inputs. Besides carbon dioxide (CO2), the biogenic GHGs nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) may also contribute to GHG emissions from managed forests. Accurate flux estimates of all three GHGs are therefore necessary, but, since GHG emissions usually show large spatial and temporal variability, in particular CH4 and N2O fluxes, high-frequency GHG flux measurements and better understanding of their controls are central to improve process-based flux models and GHG budgets at multiple scales. In this study, we determined CO2, CH4 and N2O emissions following felling in a mature Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis) stand in an upland forest in northern England. High-frequency measurements were made along a transect using a novel, automated GHG chamber flux system ('SkyLine') developed at the University of York. The replicated, linear experiment aimed (1) to quantify GHG emissions from three main topographical features at the clearfell site, i.e. the ridges on which trees had been planted, the hollows in between and the drainage ditches, and (2) to determine the effects of the green-needle component of the discarded brash. We also measured abiotic soil and climatic factors alongside the 'SkyLine' GHG flux measurements to identify drivers of the observed GHG emissions. All three topographic features were overall sources of GHG emissions (in CO2 equivalents), and, although drainage ditches are often not included in studies, GHG emissions per unit area were highest from ditches, followed by ridges and lowest in hollows. The CO2 emissions were most important in the GHG balance of ridges and hollows, but CH4 emissions were very high from the drainage ditches, contributing to over 50% of their overall net GHG emissions

  9. Predictive Seagrass Habitat Model

    EPA Science Inventory

    Restoration of ecosystem services provided by seagrass habitats in estuaries requires a firm understanding of the modes of action of multiple interacting stressors including nutrients, climate change, coastal land-use change, and habitat modification. We explored the application...

  10. Indicators: Physical Habitat Complexity

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Physical habitat complexity measures the amount and variety of all types of cove at the water’s edge in lakes. In general, dense and varied shoreline habitat is able to support more diverse communities of aquatic life.

  11. ESTUARINE HABITAT RESTORATION

    SciTech Connect

    Thom, Ronald M.; Borde, Amy B.

    2015-09-01

    Restoring estuarine habitats generally means repairing damages caused by humans and natural forces. Because of the extensive human occupation, development, and use of coastal areas for centuries, the extensive estuarine habitats have been either destroyed or significantly impaired.

  12. MODELING PHYSICAL HABITAT PARAMETERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Salmonid populations can be affected by alterations in stream physical habitat. Fish productivity is determined by the stream's physical habitat structure ( channel form, substrate distribution, riparian vegetation), water quality, flow regime and inputs from the watershed (sedim...

  13. Analysis of elite variety tag SNPs reveals an important allele in upland rice.

    PubMed

    Lyu, Jun; Zhang, Shilai; Dong, Yang; He, Weiming; Zhang, Jing; Deng, Xianneng; Zhang, Yesheng; Li, Xin; Li, Baoye; Huang, Wangqi; Wan, Wenting; Yu, Yang; Li, Qiong; Li, Jun; Liu, Xin; Wang, Bo; Tao, Dayun; Zhang, Gengyun; Wang, Jun; Xu, Xun; Hu, Fengyi; Wang, Wen

    2013-01-01

    Elite crop varieties usually fix alleles that occur at low frequencies within non-elite gene pools. Dissecting these alleles for desirable agronomic traits can be accomplished by comparing the genomes of elite varieties with those from non-elite populations. Here we deep-sequence six elite rice varieties and use two large control panels to identify elite variety tag single-nucleotide polymorphism alleles (ETASs). Guided by this preliminary analysis, we comprehensively characterize one protein-altering ETAS in the 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase gene of the IRAT104 upland rice variety. This allele displays a drastic frequency difference between upland and irrigated rice, and a selective sweep is observed around this allele. Functional analysis indicates that in upland rice, this allele is associated with significantly higher abscisic acid levels and denser lateral roots, suggesting its association with upland rice suitability. This report provides a potential strategy to mine rare, agronomically important alleles.

  14. Determining the direct upland hydrological contribution area of estuarine wetlands using Arc/GIS tools

    EPA Science Inventory

    The delineation of a polygon layer representing the direct upland runoff contribution to esturine wetland polygons can be a useful tool in estuarine wetland assessment. However, the traditional methods of watershed delineation using pour points and digital elevation models (DEMs)...

  15. Wrinkle ridge-upland scarp transitions: Implications for the mechanical properties of the deformed materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watters, Thomas R.; Tuttle, Michael J.; Simpson, Debra

    1991-01-01

    Wrinkle ridge-upland scarp transitions are structures that occur at the contact between smooth plains material and highlands or uplands materials on the Moon and Mars. In the smooth plains material the structures have a morphology typical of wrinkle ridges, interpreted to be the result of a combination of folding and thrust faulting. Where the structures extend into the uplands, a distinct change in the morphology occurs. The generally asymmetric cross sectional geometry characteristics of wrinkle ridges becomes that of a one-sided, often lobate scarp. The scarp is indistinguishable from other highland/upland scarps, interpreted to be the result of reverse or thrust faulting. Although these structures are rare, they provide important insight into the mechanical properties of deformed materials. These insights are discussed.

  16. Habitat use by Swainson's Warblers in a managed bottomland forest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Somershoe, S.G.; Hudman, S.P.; Chandler, C.R.

    2003-01-01

    The Swainson's Warbler (Limnothlypis swainsonii) is a locally distributed and relatively uncommon Neotropical migrant songbird that breeds in the bottomland forests of the southeastern United States and spends the nonbreeding season in the Caribbean Basin. Populations of Swainson's Warblers have declined during recent decades as bottomland forests have come under increasingly intensive management and large areas have been converted to other land uses. We examined the habitat around song perches used by male Swainson's Warblers at Big Hammock Wildlife Management Area, a managed bottomland forest along the Altamaha River in Tattnall County, Georgia. We quantified 20 features of habitat structure in areas occupied by Swainson's Warblers (occupied plots) and two sets of controls: unoccupied plots adjacent to occupied plots (adjacent control plots) and unoccupied plots throughout the management area (general control plots). Occupied plots and adjacent control plots both differed in structure from the general control plots. We detected no significant differences, however, in vegetation structure between occupied plots and adjacent control plots. General control plots tended to have a greater number of trees, greater basal area, and a complete canopy, whereas occupied and adjacent control plots had high densities of small stems, cane, herbaceous ground cover, and leaf litter; this latter pattern is typical of documented Swainson's Warbler breeding habitat. Lack of significant differences in vegetation structure may be due to great variation in habitat structure around song perches, small sample size, or scarcity of Swainson's Warblers. Future research should focus on quantifying habitat characteristics around nest sites, song perches, and feeding areas. Our results suggest that management of bottomland habitats by thinning forests and encouraging regeneration of canebrakes is needed for successful conservation of Swainson's Warblers.

  17. Uncertainty of upland soil carbon sink estimate for Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehtonen, Aleksi; Heikkinen, Juha

    2016-04-01

    Changes in the soil carbon stock of Finnish upland soils were quantified using forest inventory data, forest statistics, biomass models, litter turnover rates, and the Yasso07 soil model. Uncertainty in the estimated stock changes was assessed by combining model and sampling errors associated with the various data sources into variance-covariance matrices that allowed computationally efficient error propagation in the context of Yasso07 simulations. In sensitivity analysis, we found that the uncertainty increased drastically as a result of adding random year-to-year variation to the litter input. Such variation is smoothed out when using periodic inventory data with constant biomass models and turnover rates. Model errors (biomass, litter, understorey vegetation) and the systematic error of total drain had a marginal effect on the uncertainty regarding soil carbon stock change. Most of the uncertainty appears to be related to uncaptured annual variation in litter amounts. This is due to fact that variation in the slopes of litter input trends dictates the uncertainty of soil carbon stock change. If we assume that there is annual variation only in foliage and fine root litter rates and that this variation is less than 10% from year to year, then we can claim that Finnish upland forest soils have accumulated carbon during the first Kyoto period (2008-2012). The results of the study underline superiority of permanent sample plots compared to temporary ones, when soil model litter input trends have been estimated from forest inventory data. In addition, we also found that the use of IPCC guidelines leads to underestimation of the uncertainty of soil carbon stock change. This underestimation of the error results from the guidance to remove inter-annual variation from the model inputs, here illustrated with constant litter life spans. Model assumptions and model input estimation should be evaluated critically, when GHG-inventory results are used for policy planning

  18. Urban Areas. Habitat Pac.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fish and Wildlife Service (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    The materials in this educational packet are designed for use with students in grades 4 through 7. They consist of an overview, teaching guides and student data sheets for three activities, and a poster. The overview discusses the city as an ecosystem, changing urban habitats, urban wildlife habitats, values of wildlife, habitat management, and…

  19. Biodiversity: Habitat Suitability

    EPA Science Inventory

    Habitat suitability quantifies the relationship between species and habitat, and is evaluated according to the species’ fitness (i.e. proportion of birth rate to death rate). Even though it might maximize evolutionary success, species are not always in habitat that optimizes fit...

  20. Landscapes of fear or competition? Predation did not alter habitat choice by Arctic rodents.

    PubMed

    Dupuch, Angélique; Morris, Douglas W; Ale, Som B; Wilson, Deborah J; Moore, Debra E

    2014-02-01

    In systems where predation plays a key role in the dynamics of prey populations, such as in Arctic rodents, it is reasonable to assume that differential patterns of habitat use by prey species represent adaptive responses to spatial variation in predation. However, habitat selection by collared (Dicrostonyx groenlandicus) and brown (Lemmus trimucronatus) lemmings depends on intra- and inter-specific densities, and there has been little agreement on the respective influences of food abundance, predators, and competition for habitat on lemming dynamics. Thus, we investigated whether predation affected selection of sedge-meadow versus upland tundra by collared lemmings in the central Canadian Arctic. We first controlled for the effects of competition on lemming habitat selection. We then searched for an additional signal of predation by comparing habitat selection patterns between 12 control plots and one large grid where lemmings were protected from predators by fencing in 1996 and 1997, but not during 5 subsequent years when we monitored habitat use in the grid as well as in the control plots. Dicrostonyx used upland preferentially over meadows and was more numerous in 1996 and 2011 than in other sample years. Lemmus was also more abundant in 1996 than in subsequent years, but its abundance was too low in the exclosure to assess whether exclusion of predators influenced its habitat selection. Contrary to the effects of competition, predation had a negligible impact on the spatial dynamics of Dicrostonyx, at least during summer. These results suggest that any differences in predation risk between the two habitats have little direct influence on the temporal dynamics of Dicrostonyx even if induced through predator-prey cycles.

  1. Accumulation of metallic elements by Amanita muscaria from rural lowland and industrial upland regions.

    PubMed

    Lipka, Krzysztof; Falandysz, Jerzy

    2017-03-04

    This study was carried out on the accumulation and occurrence of Ag, Al, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Hg, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, Sr and Zn in the mushroom Amanita muscaria and forest topsoil from two lowland sites in the Tuchola Pinewoods in the north-central region and an upland site in the Świetokrzyskie Mountains in the south-central region of Poland. Topsoil from the upland location showed Ag, Al, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Hg, Na and Zn at significantly higher concentration levels (pseudo-total fraction and often also the labile or extractable fraction) than at both lowland locations, where topsoil was richer in Mg, and similar in Rb. Amanita muscaria from the upland region differed from individuals collected in the lowland sites by higher concentration levels of Cd, Cu, Hg and Mn in caps. This could be related to higher concentration levels of the metallic elements in topsoil in the upland region. On other side, A. muscaria from the upland site was poorer in Co and Fe in caps, and in Ca, Co, Fe and Sr in stipes. In spite of the differences in content of the geogenic metallic elements in topsoil between the lowland and upland locations, A. muscaria from both regions was able to regulate uptake and accumulation of Ag, Al, Ba, Ca, K, Mg, Na, Rb and Zn, which were at similar concentration levels in caps but not necessarily in stipes.

  2. Rainwater Wildlife Area Habitat Evaluation Procedures Report; A Columbia Basin Wildlife Mitigation Project.

    SciTech Connect

    Childs, Allen B.

    2004-01-01

    The 8,768 acre Rainwater Wildlife Area was acquired in September 1998 by the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) through an agreement with Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) to partially offset habitat losses associated with construction of the John Day and McNary hydroelectric facilities on the mainstem Columbia River. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) were used to determine the number of habitat units credited to BPA for acquired lands. Upland and riparian forest, upland and riparian shrub, and grassland cover types are evaluated in this study. Targeted wildlife species include downy woodpecker (Picoides pubescens), black-capped chickadee (Parus atricopillus), blue grouse (Dendragapus obscurus), great blue heron (Ardea herodias), yellow warbler (Dendroica petechia), mink (Mustela vison), and Western meadowlark (Sturnella neglecta). Habitat surveys were conducted in 1998 and 1999 in accordance with published HEP protocols and included 65,300, 594m{sup 2}2 plots, and 112 one-tenth-acre plots. Between 153.3 and 7,187.46 acres were evaluated for each target wildlife mitigation species. Derived habitat suitability indices were multiplied by corresponding cover-type acreages to determine the number of habitat units for each species. The total baseline habitat units credited to BPA for the Rainwater Wildlife Area and its seven target species is 5,185.3 habitat units. Factors limiting habitat suitability are related to the direct, indirect, and cumulative effects of past livestock grazing, road construction, and timber harvest which have simplified the structure, composition, and diversity of native plant communities. Alternatives for protecting and improving habitat suitability include exclusion of livestock grazing, road de-commissioning/obliteration, reforestation and thinning, control of competing and unwanted vegetation (including noxious weeds), reestablishing displaced or reduced native

  3. Assessment of chitin decomposer diversity within an upland grassland.

    PubMed

    Krsek, M; Wellington, E M

    2001-09-01

    The breakdown of chitin within an acidic upland grassland was studied. The aim was to provide a molecular characterisation of microorganisms involved in chitin degradation in the soil using soil microcosms and buried litter bags containing chitin. The investigation involved an examination of the effects of liming on the microbial communities within the soil and their chitinolytic activity. Microcosm experiments were designed to study the influence of lime and chitin enrichment on the grassland soil bacterial community ex situ under controlled environmental conditions. Bacterial and actinomycete counts were determined and total community DNA was extracted from the microcosms and from chitin bags buried at the experimental site. PCR based on specific 16S rRNA target sequences provided products for DGGE analysis to determine the structure of bacterial and actinomycete communities. Chitinase activity was assessed spectrophotometrically using chitin labelled with remazol brilliant violet. Both liming and chitin amendment increased bacterial and actinomycete viable counts and the chitinase activity. DGGE band patterns confirmed changes in bacterial populations under the influence of both treatments. PCR products amplified from DNA isolated from chitin bags were cloned and sequenced. Only a few matched known species but a prominent coloniser of chitin proved to be Stenotrophomonas maltophilia.

  4. Interpolations of groundwater table elevation in dissected uplands.

    PubMed

    Chung, Jae-won; Rogers, J David

    2012-01-01

    The variable elevation of the groundwater table in the St. Louis area was estimated using multiple linear regression (MLR), ordinary kriging, and cokriging as part of a regional program seeking to assess liquefaction potential. Surface water features were used to determine the minimum water table for MLR and supplement the principal variables for ordinary kriging and cokriging. By evaluating the known depth to the water and the minimum water table elevation, the MLR analysis approximates the groundwater elevation for a contiguous hydrologic system. Ordinary kriging and cokriging estimate values in unsampled areas by calculating the spatial relationships between the unsampled and sampled locations. In this study, ordinary kriging did not incorporate topographic variations as an independent variable, while cokriging included topography as a supporting covariable. Cross validation suggests that cokriging provides a more reliable estimate at known data points with less uncertainty than the other methods. Profiles extending through the dissected uplands terrain suggest that: (1) the groundwater table generated by MLR mimics the ground surface and elicits a exaggerated interpolation of groundwater elevation; (2) the groundwater table estimated by ordinary kriging tends to ignore local topography and exhibits oversmoothing of the actual undulations in the water table; and (3) cokriging appears to give the realistic water surface, which rises and falls in proportion to the overlying topography. The authors concluded that cokriging provided the most realistic estimate of the groundwater surface, which is the key variable in assessing soil liquefaction potential in unconsolidated sediments.

  5. ELF communications system ecological monitoring program: Upland flora studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mroz, Glenn D.; Cattelino, Peter J.; Gale, Margaret R.; Jones, Elizabeth A.; Jurgensen, Martin F.

    1994-10-01

    The U.S. Navy has completed a program monitoring flora, fauna, and ecological relationships for possible effects from electromagnetic (EM) fields produced by its Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) Communications System. This report documents studies of upland flora conducted near the Navy's transmitting antenna in Michigan. From 1982 through 1993 researchers from the Michigan Technological University (MTU) monitored tree, herb, and fungal species dominant in areas near (treatment) and far (control) from the ELF antenna. Above-ground parameters included the productivity, physiology, and phenology of trees, as well as the morphology and phenology of an herb. Below-ground, the important association between tree roots and fungi were monitored. Investigators also measured ambient weather conditions, soil nutrients, and EM field intensities. The MTU research team used analysis of variance and covariance to examine the data. When site-by-year interactions were significant, correlations and regressions were used to determine whether residuals were related to EM exposure. Results suggest a possible subtle EM effect to the cambial and stemwood growth of some tree species but not to any other parameter. MTU investigators conclude no short-term, adverse effects on forest health from exposure to EM fields produced by the Naval Radio Transmitting Facility-Republic, Michigan.

  6. Trace metals in upland headwater lakes in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Burton, Andrew; Aherne, Julian; Hassan, Nouri

    2013-10-01

    Trace elements (n = 23) in Irish headwater lakes (n = 126) were investigated to determine their ambient concentrations, fractionation (total, dissolved, and non-labile), and geochemical controls. Lakes were generally located in remote upland, acid-sensitive regions along the coastal margins of the country. Total trace metal concentrations were low, within the range of natural pristine surface waters; however, some lakes (~20 %) had inorganic labile aluminum and manganese at levels potentially harmful to aquatic organisms. Redundancy analysis indicated that geochemical weathering was the dominant controlling factor for total metals, compared with acidity for dissolved metals. In addition, many metals were positively correlated with dissolved organic carbon indicating their affinity (or complexation) with humic substances (e.g., aluminum, iron, mercury, lead). However, a number of trace metals (e.g., aluminum, mercury, zinc) were correlated with anthropogenic acidic deposition (i.e., non-marine sulfate), suggesting atmospheric sources or elevated leaching owing to acidic deposition. As transboundary air pollution continues to decline, significant changes in the cycling of trace metals is anticipated.

  7. The airspace is habitat

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Diehl, Robert H.

    2013-01-01

    A preconception concerning habitat persists and has gone unrecognized since use of the term first entered the lexicon of ecological and evolutionary biology many decades ago. Specifically, land and water are considered habitats, while the airspace is not. This might at first seem a reasonable, if unintended, demarcation, since years of education and personal experience as well as limits to perception predispose a traditional view of habitat. Nevertheless, the airspace satisfies the definition and functional role of a habitat, and its recognition as habitat may have implications for policy where expanding anthropogenic development of airspace could impact the conservation of species and subject parts of the airspace to formalized legal protection.

  8. Non-random food-web assembly at habitat edges increases connectivity and functional redundancy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Habitat fragmentation dramatically alters the spatial configuration of landscapes, with the creation of artificial edges affecting community structure and species interactions. Despite this, it is not known how the different food-webs in adjacent habitats merge at their boundaries, and what the cons...

  9. USE OF SHALLOW WATER HABITATS BY ECONOMICALLY VALUABLE FISHES AND CRUSTACEANS

    EPA Science Inventory

    I investigated nekton use of bay-exposed fringing salt marsh habitats at the Goodwin Islands NERRS location (York River, Virginia) in two separate studies. In a 1995 project, depositional-edged salt marshes and the adjacent non-vegetated habitats were sampled with quantitative 1....

  10. Field Review of Fish Habitat Improvement Projects in Central Idaho.

    SciTech Connect

    Beschta, Robert L.; Griffith, Jack; Wesche, Thomas A.

    1993-05-01

    The goal of this field review was to provide information to the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) regarding previous and ongoing fish habitat improvement projects in central Idaho. On July 14, 1992, the review team met at the Sawtooth National Recreation Area office near Ketchum, Idaho, for a slide presentation illustrating several habitat projects during their construction phases. Following the slide presentation, the review team inspected fish habitat projects that have been implemented in the last several years in the Stanley Basin and adjacent valleys. At each site the habitat project was described to the field team and a brief period for project inspection followed. The review team visited approximately a dozen sites on the Challis, Sawtooth, and Boise National Forests over a period of approximately two and a half days. There are two objectives of this review namely to summarize observations for specific field sites and to provide overview commentary regarding the BPA habitat improvement program in central Idaho.

  11. Forage and grasslands as pollinator habitat in North Dakota

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Perennial grasslands typically support a diversity of vegetation and an abundance of pollinators. The northern Great Plains provide critical habitat for pollinators, both native and those managed for honey production. The objective of this research was to broadly assess the land use adjacent to apia...

  12. Habitat values for artificial oyster ( Crassostrea ariakensis) reefs compared with natural shallow-water habitats in Changjiang River estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quan, Weimin; Zheng, Lin; Li, Beijun; An, Chuanguang

    2013-09-01

    Oyster reefs have an equivalent, complex 3-dimensional structure to vegetated habitats and may provide similar functions in estuarine environments. Nevertheless, few studies have compared oyster reefs with adjacent natural shallow-water habitats. Here the resident benthic macroinvertebrate communities in an artificial oyster ( Crassostrea ariakensis) reef and in adjacent natural estuarine shallow-water habitats (salt marsh, intertidal mudflat, and subtidal soft bottom) in the Changjiang (Yangtze) River estuary were described. The mean total densities and biomass, Margalef's species richness, Pielou's evenness and Shannon-Weaver biodiversity indices of the resident benthic macroinvertebrate communities differed significantly among the habitats. Significantly higher densities and biomass of benthic macroinvertebrates occurred in the oyster reef compared with the other three habitats. Ordination plots showed a clear separation in benthic macroinvertebrate communities among the four habitat types. The results demonstrated that the artificial oyster reef supported distinct and unique benthic communities, playing an important role in the complex estuarine habitat by supplying prey resources and contributing to biodiversity. In addition, the results suggested that the oyster reef had been restored successfully.

  13. Habitat, topographical, and geographical components structuring shrubsteppe bird communities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knick, S.T.; Rotenberry, J.T.; Leu, M.

    2008-01-01

    Landscapes available to birds to select for breeding locations are arrayed along multiple dimensions. Identifying the primary gradients structuring shrubsteppe bird communities in the western United States is important because widespread habitat loss and alteration are shifting the environmental template on which these birds depend. We integrated field habitat surveys, GIS coverages, and bird counts from 61 Breeding Bird Survey routes located in shrubsteppe habitats across a >800 000 km2 region to determine the gradients of habitat, topography, and geography underlying bird communities. A small set of habitat features dominated the primary environmental gradients in a canonical ordination; the 13 species in the shrubsteppe bird community were closely packed along the first two axes. Using hierarchical variance partitioning, we identified habitat as the most important pure (31% explained variation) or shared component. Topography (9%) and geography (4%) were minor components but each shared a larger contribution with habitat (habitat-topography 21%; habitat-geography 22%) in explaining the organization of the bird community. In a second tier partition of habitat structure, pure composition (% land cover) was more important (45%) than configuration (patch size and edge) (7%); the two components shared 27% of the explained variation in the bird community axes. Local (9%), community (14%), and landscape (10%) levels contributed equally. Adjacent organizational levels had a larger shared contribution (local-community 26%; community-landscape 27%) than more separated local-landscape levels (21%). Extensive conversion of shrubsteppe habitats to agriculture, exotic annual grasslands, or pinyon (Pinus spp.)-juniper (Juniperus spp.) woodlands is occurring along the primary axes of habitat structure. Because the shrubsteppe bird community was organized along short gradients dominated by habitat features, relatively small shifts in their available environment will exert a

  14. Riverine habitat dynamics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jacobson, R.B.

    2013-01-01

    The physical habitat template is a fundamental influence on riverine ecosystem structure and function. Habitat dynamics refers to the variation in habitat through space and time as the result of varying discharge and varying geomorphology. Habitat dynamics can be assessed at spatial scales ranging from the grain (the smallest resolution at which an organism relates to its environment) to the extent (the broadest resolution inclusive of all space occupied during its life cycle). In addition to a potentially broad range of spatial scales, assessments of habitat dynamics may include dynamics of both occupied and nonoccupied habitat patches because of process interactions among patches. Temporal aspects of riverine habitat dynamics can be categorized into hydrodynamics and morphodynamics. Hydrodynamics refers to habitat variation that results from changes in discharge in the absence of significant change of channel morphology and at generally low sediment-transport rates. Hydrodynamic assessments are useful in cases of relatively high flow exceedance (percent of time a flow is equaled or exceeded) or high critical shear stress, conditions that are applicable in many studies of instream flows. Morphodynamics refers to habitat variation resulting from changes to substrate conditions or channel/floodplain morphology. Morphodynamic assessments are necessary when channel and floodplain boundary conditions have been significantly changed, generally by relatively rare flood events or in rivers with low critical shear stress. Morphodynamic habitat variation can be particularly important as disturbance mechanisms that mediate population growth or for providing conditions needed for reproduction, such as channel-migration events that erode cutbanks and provide new pointbar surfaces for germination of riparian trees. Understanding of habitat dynamics is increasing in importance as societal goals shift toward restoration of riverine ecosystems. Effective investment in restoration

  15. High resilience of bryophyte assemblages in streamside compared to upland forests.

    PubMed

    Dynesius, Mats; Hylander, Kristoffer; Nilsson, Christer

    2009-04-01

    Landscape heterogeneity causes spatial variation in disturbance regimes and resilience. We asked whether the resilience of bryophyte (liverwort and moss) assemblages to clear-cutting differs between streamside and upland boreal forests in northern Sweden. We hypothesized that bryophyte survival and recolonization rates are higher in streamside areas, thus raising resilience. Conversely, disturbance-intolerant but also invading species should be more frequent here, potentially reducing resilience. In each of 18 sites, we compared two 0.1-ha plots (one streamside and one upland) located in old forest that had never been clear-cut with two matching plots in young stands established after clear-cutting of old forests 30-50 years earlier. We used the magnitude of the difference in assemblages between old and young stands as a measure of change and, therefore, resilience (large difference implying low resilience). Species assemblages were more resilient in streamside than in upland forests. Species composition changed significantly in upland but not in streamside forests. Reductions in species richness were more pronounced in upland forests for total richness and for eight subgroups of species. Two results indicated lower survival/recolonization in upland forests: (1) species had a stronger association with old stands in upland areas, and (2) among species present in both the old streamside and old upland plot in a site, fewer appeared in the young upland than in the corresponding streamside plot. Simultaneously, a higher proportion of species invaded streamside areas; 40 of the 262 species encountered in streamside forests increased their occupancy by two or more sites compared to only two of 134 species in uplands. We suggest that in boreal forests spatial variation in resilience of assemblages of forest organisms intolerant of canopy removal is related to factors governed mainly by topography. More generally, we argue that landscape-scale variation in resilience of

  16. FISH-MEDIATED NUTRIENT AND ENERGY EXCHANGE BETWEEN A LAKE SUPERIOR COASTAL WETLAND AND ITS ADJACENT BAY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Little has been done to quantify fluxes of organisms, nutrients, and energy between freshwater coastal habitats and adjacent offshore waters or to evaluate the ecological implications of these exchanges on a whole-lake basis. To test the hypothesis that fish-mediated transport m...

  17. Habitat assessment, Missouri River at Hermann, Missouri

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jacobson, Robert B.; Laustrup, Mark S.; Reuter, Joanna M.

    2002-01-01

    This report documents methods and results of aquatic habitat assessment in the Missouri River near Hermann, Missouri. The assessment is intended to improve understanding of spatial and temporal variability of aquatic habitat, including habitats thought to be critical for the endangered pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus). Physical aquatic habitat - depth, velocity, and substrate - was assessed around 9 wing dikes and adjacent to the U.S. Route 19 bridge, at discharges varying from 44,000 cubic feet per second (cfs) to 146, 000 cfs during August 2000-May, 2001. For the river as a whole, velocities are bi-modally distributed with distinct peaks relating to navigation channel and wing-dike environments. Velocities predictably showed an increasing trend with increasing discharge. Substrate within wing dikes was dominated by mud at low discharges, whereas the navigation channel had patches of transporting sand, rippled sand, and coarse sand. Discharges that overtopped the wing dikes (about 93,000 cfs, March 2001) were associated with increases of patchy sand, rippled sand, and coarse sand within the wing dikes. When flows were substantially over the wing dikes (146,000 cfs, May 2001) substrates within most wing dikes showed substantial reorganization and coarsening. The habitat assessment provides a geospatial database that can be used to query wing dikes for distributions of depth, velocity, and substrate for comparison with fish samples collected by US Fish and Wildlife Service biologists (Grady and others, 2001). In addition, the assessment documented spatial and temporal variation in habitat within the Hermann reach and over a range of discharges. Measurable geomorphic change--alteration of substrate conditions plus substantial erosion and deposition--was associated with flows equaled or exceeded 12-40% of the time (40-140 days per year). Documented geomorphic change associated with high-frequency flows underscores the natural temporal variability of physical

  18. Habitat use by prairie raccoons during the waterfowl breeding season

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fritzell, E.K.

    1978-01-01

    Mobility and habitat use of raccoons (Procyon lotor) in an intensively farmed area of the prairie pothole region were studied during the waterfowl breeding seasons (April-July) of 1973-75. Over 5700 locations of 30 raccoons were analyzed. Movement patterns varied with sex, age, and reproductive status. Adult males moved regularly throughout slightly overlapping ranges that averaged 2560 ha. Yearling males dispersed during May-June but their movements before and after dispersal were similar. Parous or pregnant females (mostly adults) had ranges averaging 806 ha but their movements were confined to smaller areas near the litter site after parturition. Nulliparous yearling females did not disperse and their ranges averaged 656 ha. Building sites, wooded areas, and wetlands were the only habitats preferentially used both at night and during the day. Eighty-one percent of all nocturnal locations and 94 percent of all diurnal locations were in these 3 habitats which comprised only 10 percent of the study area. Use of building sites decreased concomitantly with increased use of wetlands. Upland habitats were seldom used.

  19. Global Change Simulations Affect Potential Methane Oxidation in Upland Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blankinship, J. C.; Hungate, B. A.

    2004-12-01

    Atmospheric concentrations of methane (CH4) are higher now than they have ever been during the past 420,000 years. However, concentrations have remained stable since 1999. Emissions associated with livestock husbandry are unlikely to have changed, so some combination of reduced production in wetlands, more efficient capture by landfills, or increased consumption by biological CH4 oxidation in upland soils may be responsible. Methane oxidizing bacteria are ubiquitous in upland soils and little is known about how these bacteria respond to anthropogenic global change, and how they will influence - or already are influencing - the radiative balance of the atmosphere. Might ongoing and future global changes increase biological CH4 oxidation? Soils were sampled from two field experiments to assess changes in rates of CH4 oxidation in response to global change simulations. Potential activities of CH4 oxidizing bacterial communities were measured through laboratory incubations under optimal temperature, soil moisture, and atmospheric CH4 concentrations (~18 ppm, or 10x ambient). The ongoing 6-year multifactorial Jasper Ridge Global Change Experiment (JRGCE) simulates warming, elevated precipitation, elevated atmospheric CO2, elevated atmospheric N deposition, and increased wildfire frequency in an annual grassland in a Mediterranean-type climate in central California. The ongoing 1-year multifactorial Merriam Climate Change Experiment (MCCE) simulates warming, elevated precipitation, and reduced precipitation in four different types of ecosystems along an elevational gradient in a semi-arid climate in northern Arizona. The high desert grassland, pinyon-juniper woodland, ponderosa pine forest, and mixed conifer forest ecosystems range in annual precipitation from 100 to 1000 mm yr-1, and from productivity being strongly water limited to strongly temperature limited. Among JRGCE soils, elevated atmospheric CO2 increased potential CH4 oxidation rates (p=0.052) and wildfire

  20. The composition and degradability of upland dissolved organic matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moody, Catherine; Worrall, Fred; Clay, Gareth

    2016-04-01

    In order to assess controls on the degradability of DOM in stream water, samples of dissolved organic matter (DOM) and particulate organic matter (POM) were collected every month for a period of 24 months from an upland, peat-covered catchment in northern England. Each month the degradability of the DOM was assessed by exposing river water to light for up to 24 hours, and the change in the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration in the water was measured. To provide context for the analysis of DOM and its degradability, samples of peat, vegetation, and litter were also taken from the same catchment and analysed. The organic matter samples were analysed by several methods including: elemental analysis (CHN and O), bomb calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis, pyrolysis GC/MS, ICP-OES, stable isotope analysis (13C and 15N) and 13C solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The water samples were analysed for pH, conductivity, absorbance at 400nm, anions, cations, particulate organic carbon (POC) and DOC concentrations. River flow conditions and meteorology were also recorded at the site and included in the analysis of the composition and degradability of DOM. The results of multiple regression models showed that the rates of DOC degradation were affected by the N-alkyl, O-alkyl, aldehyde and aromatic relative intensities, gross heat, OR and C:N. Of these, the N-alkyl relative intensity had the greatest influence, and this in turn was found to be dependent on the rainfall and soil temperature in the week before sampling.

  1. Upland duck nesting related to land use and predator reduction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duebbert, H.F.; Kantrud, H.A.

    1974-01-01

    Duck nesting was studied during 1971 in north-central South Dakota under four conditions: in idle, five or six year old fields of domestic grass-legume mixtures in an area where predators including the red fox (Vulpes fulva), raccoon (Procyon lotor), striped skunk (Mephitis mephitis), and badger (Taxidea taxus) were (1) reduced and (2) not reduced. Nesting was also studied in tracts of active agricultural land (primarily croplands and pastures) where predators were (3) reduced, and (4) not reduced. Under condition (1), 260 nests were found on 0.87 km2 (299 nests/km2), eggs hatched in 92 percent of the nests and production was 22.0 ducklings/hectare. Under condition (2), 187 nests were found on 2.22 km2 (84 nests/km2), nest success was 68 percent and 4.7 ducklings/hectare were produced. On active agricultural land subject to predator reduction (condition 3), 64 nests were found on 5.14 km2 (12 nests/km2). Eggs in 85 percent of the nests hatched and production was 0.7 duckling/hectare. On active agricultural land not subject to predator reduction (condition 4), 58 nests were found on 4.01 km2 (14 nests/km2), nest success was 51 percent and 0.5 duckling/hectare was produced. Idle, 16 to 65-hectare (40 to 160-acre) stands of cool-season, introduced grasses in combination with legumes produced maximum numbers of upland nesting ducks.

  2. On the time-course of adjacent and non-adjacent transposed-letter priming

    PubMed Central

    Ktori, Maria; Kingma, Brechtsje; Hannagan, Thomas; Holcomb, Phillip J.; Grainger, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    We compared effects of adjacent (e.g., atricle-ARTICLE) and non-adjacent (e.g., actirle-ARTICLE) transposed-letter (TL) primes in an ERP study using the sandwich priming technique. TL priming was measured relative to the standard double-substitution condition. We found significantly stronger priming effects for adjacent transpositions than non-adjacent transpositions (with 2 intervening letters) in behavioral responses (lexical decision latencies), and the adjacent priming effects emerged earlier in the ERP signal, at around 200 ms post-target onset. Non-adjacent priming effects emerged about 50 ms later and were short-lived, being significant only in the 250-300 ms time-window. Adjacent transpositions on the other hand continued to produce priming in the N400 time-window (300-500 ms post-target onset). This qualitatively different pattern of priming effects for adjacent and non-adjacent transpositions is discussed in the light of different accounts of letter transposition effects, and the utility of drawing a distinction between positional flexibility and positional noise. PMID:25364497

  3. Riparian and Upland Restoration at the U.S. Department of Energy Rocky Flats, Colorado, Site - 12360

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Jody K.

    2012-07-01

    Remedial investigation and cleanup at the Rocky Flats, Colorado, Site was completed in 2005. Uplands, riparian, and wetland habitat were disturbed during cleanup and closure activities and required extensive revegetation. Unavoidable disturbances to habitat of the Preble's meadow jumping mouse (a federally listed species) and wetlands required consultation with regulatory agencies and mitigation. Mitigation wetlands were constructed in two drainages, and a third developed naturally where a soil borrow area intercepted the groundwater table. During the 50-plus years of site operations, 12 ponds were constructed in three drainages to manage and retain runoff and sewage treatment plant discharges prior to release off site. A batch-release protocol has been used for the past several decades at the terminal ponds, which has affected the riparian communities downstream. To return the hydrologic regime to a more natural flow-through system similar to the pre-industrial-use conditions, seven interior dams (of 12) have been breached, and the remaining five dams are scheduled for breaching between 2011 and 2020. At the breached dams, the former open water areas have transformed to emergent wetlands, and the stream reaches have returned to a flow-through system. Riparian and wetland vegetation has established very well. The valves of the terminal ponds were opened in fall 2011 to begin flow-through operations and provide water to the downstream plant communities while allowing reestablishment of vegetation in the former pond bottoms prior to breaching. A number of challenges and issues were addressed during the revegetation effort. These included reaching an agreement on revegetation goals, addressing poor substrate quality and soil compaction problems, using soil amendments and topsoil, selecting seeds, determining the timing and location of revegetation projects relative to continuing closure activities, weed control, erosion control, revegetation project field oversight

  4. Habitat selection by Forster's Terns (Sterna forsteri) at multiple spatial scales in an urbanized estuary: The importance of salt ponds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bluso-Demers, Jill; Ackerman, Josh; Takekawa, John; Peterson, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    The highly urbanized San Francisco Bay Estuary, California, USA, is currently undergoing large-scale habitat restoration, and several thousand hectares of former salt evaporation ponds are being converted to tidal marsh. To identify potential effects of this habitat restoration on breeding waterbirds, habitat selection of radiotagged Forster's Terns (Sterna forsteri) was examined at multiple spatial scales during the pre-breeding and breeding seasons of 2005 and 2006. At each spatial scale, habitat selection ratios were calculated by season, year, and sex. Forster's Terns selected salt pond habitats at most spatial scales and demonstrated the importance of salt ponds for foraging and roosting. Salinity influenced the types of salt pond habitats that were selected. Specifically, Forster's Terns strongly selected lower salinity salt ponds (0.5–30 g/L) and generally avoided higher salinity salt ponds (≥31 g/L). Forster's Terns typically used tidal marsh and managed marsh habitats in proportion to their availability, avoided upland and tidal flat habitats, and strongly avoided open bay habitats. Salt ponds provide important habitat for breeding waterbirds, and restoration efforts to convert former salt ponds to tidal marsh may reduce the availability of preferred breeding and foraging areas.

  5. Microbial phototrophic fixation of atmospheric CO2 in China subtropical upland and paddy soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Tida; Wu, Xiaohong; Chen, Xiaojuan; Yuan, Hongzhao; Zou, Ziying; Li, Baozhen; Zhou, Ping; Liu, Shoulong; Tong, Chengli; Brookes, Phil; Wu, Jinshui

    2013-07-01

    Autotrophic microorganisms, which can fix atmospheric CO2 to synthesize organic carbon, are numerous and widespread in soils. However, the extent and the mechanism of CO2 fixation in soils remain poorly understood. We incubated five upland and five paddy soils from subtropical China in an enclosed, continuously 14CO2-labeled, atmosphere and measured 14CO2 incorporated into soil organic matter (SOC14) and microbial biomass (MBC14) after 110 days. The five upland soils supported dominant crops soils (maize, wheat, sweet potato, and rapeseed) in the region, while all paddy soils were cultivated in a regime consisting of permanently-flooded double-cropping rice cultivation. The upland and paddy soils represented typical soil types (fluvisols and ultisols) and three landforms (upland, hill, and low mountain), ranging in total carbon from low (<10 g kg-1 soil organic carbon) to medium (10-20 g kg-1) to high (>20 g kg-1). Substantial amounts of 14CO2 were fixed into SOC14 (mean 20.1 ± 7.1 mg C kg-1 in upland soil, 121.1 ± 6.4 mg C kg-1 in paddy soil) in illuminated soils (12 h light/12 h dark), whereas no 14C was fixed in soils incubated in continuous darkness. We concluded that the microbial CO2 fixation was almost entirely phototrophic rather than chemotrophic. The rate of SOC14 synthesis was significantly higher in paddy soils than in upland soils. The SOC14 comprised means of 0.15 ± 0.01% (upland) and 0.65 ± 0.03% (paddy) of SOC. The extent of 14C immobilized as MBC14 and that present as dissolved organic C (DOC14) differed between soil types, accounting for 15.69-38.76% and 5.54-18.37% in upland soils and 15.57-40.03% and 3.67-7.17% of SOC14 in paddy soils, respectively. The MBC14/MBC and DOC14/DOC were 1.76-5.70% and 1.69-5.17% in the upland soils and 4.23-28.73% and 5.65-14.30% in the paddy soils, respectively. Thus, the newly-incorporated C stimulated the dynamics of DOC and MBC more than the dynamics of SOC. The SOC14 and MBC14 concentrations were highly

  6. Hydrogeomorphic Controls on Redox Chemistry Across Boreal Upland-Wetland Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, C. P.; Branfireun, B. A.

    2002-12-01

    The reduction-oxidation (redox) state of wetland pore waters plays an important role in wetland biogeochemical processes. Many hydrological interfaces have been shown to be biogeochemical hot spots due to the supply of oxidized nutrients to more nutrient limited anaerobic environments. Methylmercury is a by-product of sulphate reduction, one of these redox reactions. In boreal forest catchments, hydrological interfaces such as upland-wetland groundwater connections have been found to be zones of elevated methylmercury concentrations. Little is known, however, about the spatial and temporal dynamics of the redox-cline, or the specific in situ biogeochemical controls on sulphate reduction and subsequent mercury methylation. As part of the Mercury Experiment to Assess Atmospheric Loading in Canada and the United States (METAALICUS), this study examined the spatiotemporal dynamics of the redox state of groundwater along several upland-wetland transitions by measuring concentrations of oxidized and reduced iron and sulphur, pH, and reduction-oxidation potential (Eh) using in situ platinum electrodes. Hydrological controls including water table elevation, precipitation, and hydraulic head were measured. It was found that although there was a clear chemical distinction between oxic upland and anoxic wetland waters, the extent of the zones of oxidized and reduced chemical species across the interface was highly variable throughout the summer, often responding to individual hydrologic events such as enhanced oxic groundwater flow due to precipitation inputs. Moreover, patterns of chemical distribution differed greatly between the two upland-wetland transects. Across one transect, the hydrological connection between upland and wetland was episodic and event-driven with large hydraulic gradients observed under storm conditions. This led to plug-flow through the wetland and a rapid gradient in oxic species reduction at the upland-wetland interface. The other transect had

  7. Soil Physicochemical and Biological Properties of Paddy-Upland Rotation: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Teng-Fei; Chen, Yong; Westby, Anthony P.; Ren, Wan-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Paddy-upland rotation is an unavoidable cropping system for Asia to meet the increasing demand for food. The reduction in grain yields has increased the research interest on the soil properties of rice-based cropping systems. Paddy-upland rotation fields are unique from other wetland or upland soils, because they are associated with frequent cycling between wetting and drying under anaerobic and aerobic conditions; such rotations affect the soil C and N cycles, make the chemical speciation and biological effectiveness of soil nutrient elements varied with seasons, increase the diversity of soil organisms, and make the soil physical properties more difficult to analyze. Consequently, maintaining or improving soil quality at a desirable level has become a complicated issue. Therefore, fully understanding the soil characteristics of paddy-upland rotation is necessary for the sustainable development of the system. In this paper, we offer helpful insight into the effect of rice-upland combinations on the soil chemical, physical, and biological properties, which could provide guidance for reasonable cultivation management measures and contribute to the improvement of soil quality and crop yield. PMID:24995366

  8. Application of SPARROW modeling to understanding contaminant fate and transport from uplands to streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ator, Scott; Garcia, Ana Maria.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding spatial variability in contaminant fate and transport is critical to efficient regional water-quality restoration. An approach to capitalize on previously calibrated spatially referenced regression (SPARROW) models to improve the understanding of contaminant fate and transport was developed and applied to the case of nitrogen in the 166,000 km2 Chesapeake Bay watershed. A continuous function of four hydrogeologic, soil, and other landscape properties significant (α = 0.10) to nitrogen transport from uplands to streams was evaluated and compared among each of the more than 80,000 individual catchments (mean area, 2.1 km2) in the watershed. Budgets (including inputs, losses or net change in storage in uplands and stream corridors, and delivery to tidal waters) were also estimated for nitrogen applied to these catchments from selected upland sources. Most (81%) of such inputs are removed, retained, or otherwise processed in uplands rather than transported to surface waters. Combining SPARROW results with previous budget estimates suggests 55% of this processing is attributable to denitrification, 23% to crop or timber harvest, and 6% to volatilization. Remaining upland inputs represent a net annual increase in landscape storage in soils or biomass exceeding 10 kg per hectare in some areas. Such insights are important for planning watershed restoration and for improving future watershed models.

  9. Surface Habitat Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, Kriss J.

    2009-01-01

    The Surface Habitat Systems (SHS) Focused Investment Group (FIG) is part of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Johnson Space Center (JSC) effort to provide a focused direction and funding to the various projects that are working on human surface habitat designs and technologies for the planetary exploration missions. The overall SHS-FIG effort focuses on directing and guiding those projects that: 1) develop and demonstrate new surface habitat system concepts, innovations, and technologies to support human exploration missions, 2) improve environmental systems that interact with human habitats, 3) handle and emplace human surface habitats, and 4) focus on supporting humans living and working in habitats on planetary surfaces. The activity areas of the SHS FIG described herein are focused on the surface habitat project near-term objectives as described in this document. The SHS-FIG effort focuses on mitigating surface habitat risks (as identified by the Lunar Surface Systems Project Office (LSSPO) Surface Habitat Element Team; and concentrates on developing surface habitat technologies as identified in the FY08 gap analysis. The surface habitat gap assessment will be updated annually as the surface architecture and surface habitat definition continues to mature. These technologies are mapped to the SHS-FIG Strategic Development Roadmap. The Roadmap will bring to light the areas where additional innovative efforts are needed to support the development of habitat concepts and designs and the development of new technologies to support of the LSSPO Habitation Element development plan. Three specific areas of development that address Lunar Architecture Team (LAT)-2 and Constellation Architecture Team (CxAT) Lunar habitat design issues or risks will be focused on by the SHS-FIG. The SHS-FIG will establish four areas of development that will help the projects prepare in their planning for surface habitat systems development. Those development areas are

  10. Desert tortoise use of burned habitat in the Eastern Mojave desert

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Drake, Karla K.; Esque, Todd C.; Nussear, Kenneth E.; DeFalco, Lesley; Scoles, Sara; Modlin, Andrew T.; Medica, Philip A.

    2015-01-01

    Wildfires burned 24,254 ha of critical habitat designated for the recovery of the threatened Mojave desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) in southern Nevada during 2005. The proliferation of non-native annual grasses has increased wildfire frequency and extent in recent decades and continues to accelerate the conversion of tortoise habitat across the Mojave Desert. Immediate changes to vegetation are expected to reduce quality of critical habitat, yet whether tortoises will use burned and recovering habitat differently from intact unburned habitat is unknown. We compared movement patterns, home-range size, behavior, microhabitat use, reproduction, and survival for adult desert tortoises located in, and adjacent to, burned habitat to understand how tortoises respond to recovering burned habitat. Approximately 45% of home ranges in the post-fire environment contained burned habitat, and numerous observations (n = 12,223) corroborated tortoise use of both habitat types (52% unburned, 48% burned). Tortoises moved progressively deeper into burned habitat during the first 5 years following the fire, frequently foraging in burned habitats that had abundant annual plants, and returning to adjacent unburned habitat for cover provided by intact perennial vegetation. However, by years 6 and 7, the live cover of the short-lived herbaceous perennial desert globemallow (Sphaeralcea ambigua) that typically re-colonizes burned areas declined, resulting in a contraction of tortoise movements from the burned areas. Health and egg production were similar between burned and unburned areas indicating that tortoises were able to acquire necessary resources using both areas. This study documents that adult Mojave desert tortoises continue to use habitat burned once by wildfire. Thus, continued management of this burned habitat may contribute toward the recovery of the species in the face of many sources of habitat loss.

  11. Agricultural Intensification Exacerbates Spillover Effects on Soil Biogeochemistry in Adjacent Forest Remnants

    PubMed Central

    Didham, Raphael K.; Barker, Gary M.; Bartlam, Scott; Deakin, Elizabeth L.; Denmead, Lisa H.; Fisk, Louise M.; Peters, Jennifer M. R.; Tylianakis, Jason M.; Wright, Hannah R.; Schipper, Louis A.

    2015-01-01

    Land-use intensification is a central element in proposed strategies to address global food security. One rationale for accepting the negative consequences of land-use intensification for farmland biodiversity is that it could ‘spare’ further expansion of agriculture into remaining natural habitats. However, in many regions of the world the only natural habitats that can be spared are fragments within landscapes dominated by agriculture. Therefore, land-sparing arguments hinge on land-use intensification having low spillover effects into adjacent protected areas, otherwise net conservation gains will diminish with increasing intensification. We test, for the first time, whether the degree of spillover from farmland into adjacent natural habitats scales in magnitude with increasing land-use intensity. We identified a continuous land-use intensity gradient across pastoral farming systems in New Zealand (based on 13 components of farmer input and soil biogeochemistry variables), and measured cumulative off-site spillover effects of fertilisers and livestock on soil biogeochemistry in 21 adjacent forest remnants. Ten of 11 measured soil properties differed significantly between remnants and intact-forest reference sites, for both fenced and unfenced remnants, at both edge and interior. For seven variables, the magnitude of effects scaled significantly with magnitude of surrounding land-use intensity, through complex interactions with fencing and edge effects. In particular, total C, total N, δ15N, total P and heavy-metal contaminants of phosphate fertilizers (Cd and U) increased significantly within remnants in response to increasing land-use intensity, and these effects were exacerbated in unfenced relative to fenced remnants. This suggests movement of livestock into surrounding natural habitats is a significant component of agricultural spillover, but pervasive changes in soil biogeochemistry still occur through nutrient spillover channels alone, even in fenced

  12. Agricultural intensification exacerbates spillover effects on soil biogeochemistry in adjacent forest remnants.

    PubMed

    Didham, Raphael K; Barker, Gary M; Bartlam, Scott; Deakin, Elizabeth L; Denmead, Lisa H; Fisk, Louise M; Peters, Jennifer M R; Tylianakis, Jason M; Wright, Hannah R; Schipper, Louis A

    2015-01-01

    Land-use intensification is a central element in proposed strategies to address global food security. One rationale for accepting the negative consequences of land-use intensification for farmland biodiversity is that it could 'spare' further expansion of agriculture into remaining natural habitats. However, in many regions of the world the only natural habitats that can be spared are fragments within landscapes dominated by agriculture. Therefore, land-sparing arguments hinge on land-use intensification having low spillover effects into adjacent protected areas, otherwise net conservation gains will diminish with increasing intensification. We test, for the first time, whether the degree of spillover from farmland into adjacent natural habitats scales in magnitude with increasing land-use intensity. We identified a continuous land-use intensity gradient across pastoral farming systems in New Zealand (based on 13 components of farmer input and soil biogeochemistry variables), and measured cumulative off-site spillover effects of fertilisers and livestock on soil biogeochemistry in 21 adjacent forest remnants. Ten of 11 measured soil properties differed significantly between remnants and intact-forest reference sites, for both fenced and unfenced remnants, at both edge and interior. For seven variables, the magnitude of effects scaled significantly with magnitude of surrounding land-use intensity, through complex interactions with fencing and edge effects. In particular, total C, total N, δ15N, total P and heavy-metal contaminants of phosphate fertilizers (Cd and U) increased significantly within remnants in response to increasing land-use intensity, and these effects were exacerbated in unfenced relative to fenced remnants. This suggests movement of livestock into surrounding natural habitats is a significant component of agricultural spillover, but pervasive changes in soil biogeochemistry still occur through nutrient spillover channels alone, even in fenced

  13. Hood River Production Program : Hood River Fish Habitat Protection, Restoration, and Monitoring Plan.

    SciTech Connect

    Coccoli, Holly; Lambert, Michael

    2000-02-01

    Effective habitat protection and rehabilitation are essential to the long-term recovery of anadromous fish populations in the Hood River subbasin. This Habitat Protection, Restoration, and Monitoring Plan was prepared to advance the goals of the Hood River Production Program (HRRP) which include restoring self-sustaining runs of spring chinook salmon and winter and summer steelhead. The HRPP is a fish supplementation and monitoring and evaluation program initiated in 1991 and funded by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) as part of the Northwest Power Planning Council Fish and Wildlife Program. The HRPP is a joint effort of the Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs Reservation of Oregon (CTWSRO) and Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW). Using recent watershed assessment and federal watershed analysis reports, this Plan reviews the historic and current condition of riparian, instream and upland habitats; natural watershed processes; anadromous and resident fish populations; identifies limiting factors, and indicates those subbasin areas that need protection or are likely to respond to restoration. Primary habitat restoration needs were identified as (1) improved fish screening and upstream adult passage at water diversions; (2) improved spawning gravel availability, instream habitat structure and diversity; and (3) improved water quality and riparian conditions. While several early action projects have been initiated in the Hood River subbasin since the mid 1990s, this Plan outlines additional projects and strategies needed to protect existing high quality habitat, correct known fish survival problems, and improve the habitat capacity for natural production to meet HRPP goals.

  14. Habitat assessment for giant pandas in the Qinling Mountain region of China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Feng, Tian-Tian; Van Manen, Frank T.; Zhao, Na-Xun; Li, Ming; Wei, Fu-Wen

    2009-01-01

    Because habitat loss and fragmentation threaten giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca), habitat protection and restoration are important conservation measures for this endangered species. However, distribution and value of potential habitat to giant pandas on a regional scale are not fully known. Therefore, we identified and ranked giant panda habitat in Foping Nature Reserve, Guanyinshan Nature Reserve, and adjacent areas in the Qinling Mountains of China. We used Mahalanobis distance and 11 digital habitat layers to develop a multivariate habitat signature associated with 247 surveyed giant panda locations, which we then applied to the study region. We identified approximately 128 km2 of giant panda habitat in Foping Nature Reserve (43.6% of the reserve) and 49 km2 in Guanyinshan Nature Reserve (33.6% of the reserve). We defined core habitat areas by incorporating a minimum patch-size criterion (5.5 km2) based on home-range size. Percentage of core habitat area was higher in Foping Nature Reserve (41.8% of the reserve) than Guanyinshan Nature Reserve (26.3% of the reserve). Within the larger analysis region, Foping Nature Reserve contained 32.7% of all core habitat areas we identified, indicating regional importance of the reserve. We observed a negative relationship between distribution of core areas and presence of roads and small villages. Protection of giant panda habitat at lower elevations and improvement of habitat linkages among core habitat areas are important in a regional approach to giant panda conservation.

  15. Wildlife Habitat Evaluation Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neilson, Edward L., Jr.; Benson, Delwin E.

    The National 4-H Wildlife Invitational is a competitive event to teach youth about the fundamentals of wildlife management. Youth learn that management for wildlife means management of wildlife habitat and providing for the needs of wildlife. This handbook provides information about wildlife habitat management concepts in both urban and rural…

  16. The Habitat Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hein, Annamae J.

    2011-01-01

    The Habitat Project is a multiday, differentiated, interdisciplinary environmental science lesson that incorporates skill-building and motivational strategies to internalize ecosystem vocabulary. Middle school students research an animal, display its physical characteristics on a poster, build a three-dimensional habitat and present their work…

  17. Advanced Plant Habitat (APH)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richards, Stephanie E. (Compiler); Levine, Howard G.; Reed, David W.

    2016-01-01

    The Advanced Plant Habitat (APH) hardware will be a large growth volume plant habitat, capable of hosting multigenerational studies, in which environmental variables (e.g., temperature, relative humidity, carbon dioxide level light intensity and spectral quality) can be tracked and controlled in support of whole plant physiological testing and Bio-regenerative Life Support System investigations.

  18. Schoolyard Habitat Project Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Rich

    This project aims to provide basic steps for students to restore and create wildlife habitats on school grounds. Four chapters are included in this guide, and each chapter is divided into teacher and student sections. Chapter 1 provides necessary information for starting a habitat project. Chapters 2, 3, and 4 discuss the details for the Forest…

  19. Comparative assessment of genetic diversity in cytoplasmic and nuclear genome of upland cotton.

    PubMed

    Egamberdiev, Sharof S; Saha, Sukumar; Salakhutdinov, Ilkhom; Jenkins, Johnie N; Deng, Dewayne; Y Abdurakhmonov, Ibrokhim

    2016-06-01

    The importance of the cytoplasmic genome for many economically important traits is well documented in several crop species, including cotton. There is no report on application of cotton chloroplast specific SSR markers as a diagnostic tool to study genetic diversity among improved Upland cotton lines. The complete plastome sequence information in GenBank provided us an opportunity to report on 17 chloroplast specific SSR markers using a cost-effective data mining strategy. Here we report the comparative analysis of genetic diversity among a set of 42 improved Upland cotton lines using SSR markers specific to chloroplast and nuclear genome, respectively. Our results revealed that low to moderate level of genetic diversity existed in both nuclear and cytoplasm genome among this set of cotton lines. However, the specific estimation suggested that genetic diversity is lower in cytoplasmic genome compared to the nuclear genome among this set of Upland cotton lines. In summary, this research is important from several perspectives. We detected a set of cytoplasm genome specific SSR primer pairs by using a cost-effective data mining strategy. We reported for the first time the genetic diversity in the cytoplasmic genome within a set of improved Upland cotton accessions. Results revealed that the genetic diversity in cytoplasmic genome is narrow, compared to the nuclear genome within this set of Upland cotton accessions. Our results suggested that most of these polymorphic chloroplast SSRs would be a valuable complementary tool in addition to the nuclear SSR in the study of evolution, gene flow and genetic diversity in Upland cotton.

  20. Detroit River habitat inventory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manny, Bruce A.

    2003-01-01

    This inventory complements a previous survey of habitat in Ontario waters of the Detroit River (OMNR,1993). It is a starting point for balanced and sustained use of the river for natural resource conservation and economic development. The objectives of the inventory were to: (1) locate candidate sites for protection and restoration of fish and wildlife habitat in Michigan waters of the Detroit River; (2) describe the ownership and size of each site, as well as its potential for habitat protection and restoration; and (3) subjectively assess the extent to which existing habitat along the river is productive of fish and wildlife and protected from land uses that have degraded or destroyed such habitat.

  1. Landsat TM as a Tool for Locating Habitat for Cerulean Warblers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kellner, Chris

    2000-01-01

    I believe that I made significant strides in three areas between fall of 1997 and fall of 2000 when I concluded my participation in the JOVE program. First, I acquired skill in digital remote sensing. This was significant to me because it had been 20 years since I had done any work utilizing remote sensing. I used my new skills in two classroom settings (forest ecology and GIS). In addition, I will participate as an instructor of digital remote sensing in a workshop for secondary educators this coming spring. Second, I received funding from the Arkansas Game and Fish Commission and the U.S. Forest Service to supplement JOVE funds. Third, and most importantly, a students and I developed a technique using LandSAT TM for identifying habitat for cerulean warblers. We developed a habitat model using logistic regression to discriminate between pixels that had a high probability of representing good cerulean warbler habitat and pixels that had a low probability of representing cerulean warbler habitat. Using this model, we located five significant populations of cerulean warblers in the Ozark National Forest of Arkansas. These populations were unknown before the initiation of this research and further represent a significant proportion of the known cerulean warblers in Arkansas. Preliminary findings were presented at the Ornithological Societies of America meeting in August of 1999. I also presented findings at the Arkansas Game and Fish Commission Research Symposium held in June of 2000. Finally, one paper is in press: James, D. A., C.J. Kellner, J. Self, and J. Davis., 'Breeding season distribution of cerulean warblers in Arkansas in the 1990's'. In addition, one paper is under construction: 'Population fluctuation and habitat selection by cerulean warblers in upland forests of Arkansas,' and one paper is under consideration: 'LandSAT TM and Logistic regression for identification of cerulean warbler habitat in upland forests of Arkansas.'

  2. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report; Iskuulpa Wildlife Mitigation and Watershed Project, Technical Report 1998-2003.

    SciTech Connect

    Quaempts, Eric

    2003-01-01

    U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) were used to determine the number of habitat units credited to evaluate lands acquired and leased in Eskuulpa Watershed, a Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation watershed and wildlife mitigation project. The project is designed to partially credit habitat losses incurred by BPA for the construction of the John Day and McNary hydroelectric facilities on the Columbia River. Upland and riparian forest, upland and riparian shrub, and grasslands cover types were included in the evaluation. Indicator species included downy woodpecker (Picuides puhescens), black-capped chickadee (Pams atricopillus), blue grouse (Beadragapus obscurus), great blue heron (Ardea herodias), yellow warbler (Dendroica petschia), mink (Mustela vison), and Western meadowlark (Sturnello neglects). Habitat surveys were conducted in 1998 and 1999 in accordance with published HEP protocols and included 55,500 feet of transects, 678 m2 plots, and 243 one-tenth-acre plots. Between 123.9 and f 0,794.4 acres were evaluated for each indicator species. Derived habitat suitability indices were multiplied by corresponding cover-type acreages to determine the number of habitat units for each species. The total habitat units credited to BPA for the Iskuulpa Watershed Project and its seven indicator species is 4,567.8 habitat units. Factors limiting habitat suitability are related to the direct, indirect, and cumulative effects of past livestock grazing, road construction, and timber harvest, which have simplified the structure, composition, and diversity of native plant communities. Alternatives for protecting and improving habitat suitability include exclusion of livestock grazing or implementation of restoration grazing schemes, road de-commissioning, reforestation, large woody debris additions to floodplains, control of competing and unwanted vegetation, reestablishing displaced or reduced native vegetation species

  3. Volumes of recent floods and potential for storage in upland watershed areas of Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buchmiller, Robert C.; Eash, David A.; Harvey, Craig A.

    2000-01-01

    During the autumn of 1997, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, began a study to determine the volume of water associated with recent flood events in parts of the Midwestern United States and a preliminary evaluation of the potential upland areas for storage of flood-waters in selected watersheds. This analysis, although preliminary, may be useful in determining the feasibility of conducting additional, more detailed studies into the role of upland areas in a watershed management strategy. The methods and results of this preliminary hydrologic study are presented in this report.

  4. Transport and fate of trifluoroacetate in upland forest and wetland ecosystems

    SciTech Connect

    Likens, G.E.; Tartowski, S.L.; Berger, T.W.

    1997-04-29

    Although trifluoroacetate (TFA), a breakdown product of chlorofluorocarbon replacements, is being dispersed widely within the biosphere, its ecological fate is largely unknown. TFA was added experimentally to an upland, northern hardwood forest and to a small forest wetland ecosystem within the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest in New Hampshire. Inputs of TFA were not transported conservatively through these ecosystems; instead, significant amounts of TFA were retained within the vegetation and soil compartments. More TFA was retained by the wetland ecosystem than by the upland forest ecosystem. Using simulation modeling, TFA concentrations were predicted for soil and drainage water until the year 2040. 32 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  5. 7 CFR 1427.25 - Determination of the prevailing world market price and the adjusted world price for upland cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... and the adjusted world price for upland cotton. 1427.25 Section 1427.25 Agriculture Regulations of the..., PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Nonrecourse Cotton Loan and Loan Deficiency Payments § 1427.25 Determination of the prevailing world market price and the adjusted world price for upland cotton. (a) CCC...

  6. 7 CFR 1427.25 - Determination of the prevailing world market price and the adjusted world price for upland cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... and the adjusted world price for upland cotton. 1427.25 Section 1427.25 Agriculture Regulations of the..., PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Nonrecourse Cotton Loan and Loan Deficiency Payments § 1427.25 Determination of the prevailing world market price and the adjusted world price for upland cotton. (a) CCC...

  7. 7 CFR 1427.25 - Determination of the prevailing world market price and the adjusted world price for upland cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... and the adjusted world price for upland cotton. 1427.25 Section 1427.25 Agriculture Regulations of the..., PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Nonrecourse Cotton Loan and Loan Deficiency Payments § 1427.25 Determination of the prevailing world market price and the adjusted world price for upland cotton. (a) CCC...

  8. Registration of RMBUP-C4, a random mated population with Gossypium hirsutum L. alleles, introgresssed into Upland cotton germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    RMBUP-C4 (Random Mated Barbadense Upland Population Cycle 4) (Reg. No. GP_____: PI______) is a unique random mated germplasm population of Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) which has introgression of G. barbadense L. alleles. This population involved five cycles of random mating beginning ...

  9. Quantitative trait locus analysis of Verticillium wilt resistance in an introgressed recombinant inbred population of Upland cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Verticillium wilt (VW) of Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) is caused by the soil-borne fungal pathogen Verticillium dahlia Kleb. The availability of VW-resistant cultivars is vital for control of this economically important disease, but there is a paucity of Upland cotton breeding lines and cul...

  10. 76 FR 68745 - Notice of Intent To Update the Upland Erosion Control and Revegetation and Maintenance Plan and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-07

    ...-000] Notice of Intent To Update the Upland Erosion Control and Revegetation and Maintenance Plan and... the Office of Energy Projects is in the process of reviewing its Upland Erosion Control, Revegetation... Existing Regulations Under Part 157 and Related Sections of the Commission's Regulations Under the...

  11. Investigations of the characteristics, origin, and residence time of the upland residual mantle of the Piedmont of Fairfax County, Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pavich, M.J.; Leo, G.W.; Obermeier, S.F.; Estabrook, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    Undisturbed cores of upland regolith developed from a variety of crystalline rocks of the Piedmont province in Fairfax County, Va., have been obtained by using a combination of Shelby tubes, Denison sampler, and modified diamond core drilling. The core study correlated variations in chemistry, mineralogy, and texture with engineering properties throughout individual weathering profiles and contrasted these parameters among weathering profiles developed from various parent rocks. Coring sites were chosen to obtain a maximum depth of weathering on diverse lithologies. The rocks that were investigated included metapelite, metagraywacke, granite, diabase, and serpentinite. Four to twelve samples per core were selected for analysis of petrography, texture, clay mineralogy, and major-element chemistry. The number of samples was determined on the basis of (1) the thickness of the weathering profile (from about 1 m in serpentinite to more than 30 m in pelitic schist) and (2) megascopic changes in the weathering profile. Shear strength and compressibility were determined on corresponding segments of core. Standard penetration tests were performed adjacent to coring sites to evaluate in-place engineering properties. The regolith profiles on all rocks can be subdivided into soil, massive subsoil, saprolite, and weathered rock zones. Major differences in thicknesses of these zones are related to parent rock. Total regolith thickness is related to saprolite thickness. Saprolite is thickest on quartzofeldspathic metapelite, metagraywacke, and granite; thinner on diabase; and thinnest on serpentinite. Thickness of saprolite is related to rock structure and mineralogy. Geochemical changes of saprolite developed from each rock type follow predictable trends from fresh rock to soil profile, with increases in Ti, AI, Fe 3 +, and H 2 0+relative to absolute losses of Si, Fe2+, Mg, Ca, and Na. These variations are more pronounced in the weathering profiles above mafic and ultramafic

  12. Avian use of Sheyenne Lake and associated habitats in central North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Faanes, Craig A.

    1982-01-01

    A study of avian use of various habitats was conducted in the Sheyenne Lake region of central North Dakota during April-June 1980. Population counts of birds were made in wetlands of various classes, prairie thickets, upland native prairie, shelterbelts, and cropland. About 22,000 breeding bird pairs including 92 species that nested occupied the area. Population means for most species were equal to or greater than statewide means. Red-winged blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus), yellow-headed blackbird (Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus), mourning dove (Zenaida macroura), and blue-winged teal (Anas discors) were the most numerous species, and made up 32.9% of the total population . Highest densities of breeding birds occurred in shelterbelts, semipermanent wetlands, and prairie thickets. Lowest densities occurred in upland native prairie and cropland. The study area was used by 49.6% of the total avifauna of the State, and 51% of the breeding avifauna of North Dakota probably nested in the study area. The diversity of birds using the area was unusual in that such a large number of species occupied a relatively small area. The close interspersion of many native habitats, several of which are unique in North Dakota, probably accounted for this diversity. Data on dates of occurrence, nesting records, and habitat use are presented for the 175 species recorded in 1980. Observations of significance by refuge staff are also provided.

  13. Leucaena leucocephala and adjacent native limestone forest habitats contrast in soil properties on Tinian Island.

    PubMed

    Marler, Thomas E; Dongol, Nirmala; Cruz, Gil N

    2016-01-01

    An ex situ germplasm collection of the endangered Cycas micronesica was established in a transition zone between biodiverse native forest and mature stands of the invasive species Leucaena leucocephala. Soil chemical properties were determined for the 2 tree cover types to inform management decisions. Total carbon, total nitrogen, calcium, and net ammonification were greater in native forest cover than in L. leucocephala patches. Net nitrification and net mineralization were greater under L. leucocephala cover. Trace metals also differed between the 2 forest cover types, with chromium, cobalt, and nickel accumulating to greater concentration under L. leucocephala cover and zinc accumulating to greater concentration under native forest cover. The results indicated that L. leucocephala cover generated substantial changes in soil chemical properties when compared with native forest tree cover, illuminating one means by which understory vegetation may be affected by changes in invasive tree cover.

  14. Leucaena leucocephala and adjacent native limestone forest habitats contrast in soil properties on Tinian Island

    PubMed Central

    Marler, Thomas E.; Dongol, Nirmala; Cruz, Gil N.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT An ex situ germplasm collection of the endangered Cycas micronesica was established in a transition zone between biodiverse native forest and mature stands of the invasive species Leucaena leucocephala. Soil chemical properties were determined for the 2 tree cover types to inform management decisions. Total carbon, total nitrogen, calcium, and net ammonification were greater in native forest cover than in L. leucocephala patches. Net nitrification and net mineralization were greater under L. leucocephala cover. Trace metals also differed between the 2 forest cover types, with chromium, cobalt, and nickel accumulating to greater concentration under L. leucocephala cover and zinc accumulating to greater concentration under native forest cover. The results indicated that L. leucocephala cover generated substantial changes in soil chemical properties when compared with native forest tree cover, illuminating one means by which understory vegetation may be affected by changes in invasive tree cover. PMID:27829978

  15. Habitat productivity influences root mass vertical distribution in grazed Mediterranean ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rueda, Marta; Rebollo, Salvador; Rodríguez, Miguel Á.

    2010-07-01

    Herbivores are expected to influence grassland ecosystems by modifying root biomass and root spatial distribution of plant communities. Studies in perennial dominated grasslands suggest that grazing intensity and primary productivity may be strong determinants of the vertical distribution of subterranean biomass. However, no studies have addressed this question in annual dominated pastures. In this study we assess the effect of grazing and habitat productivity on the vertical distribution of root mass in an annual dominated Mediterranean pasture grazed by free-ranging sheep and wild rabbits. We evaluate the effects of grazing on total root mass and vertical root distribution (0-4, 4-8 and 8-12 cm depths) in two neighboring topographic sites (uplands and lowlands) with different productivity using a replicated fence experiment which excludes sheep and sheep plus rabbits. We found evidences that grazing affected root biomass and vertical distribution at lowlands (high productivity habitats), where places grazed by sheep plus rabbits exhibit more root mass and a higher concentration of it towards the soil surface than only rabbits and ungrazed places. In contrast, grazing did not affect root biomass and vertical distribution at uplands (low productivity habitats). We suggest that higher nitrogen and organic matter found in lowlands permit a plant adjustment for nitrogen acquisition by increasing biomass allocation to root production which would allow plant regrowth and the quick completion of the annual life cycle. Contrary, soil resources scarcity at uplands do not permit plants modify their root growth patterns in response to grazing. Our study emphasizes the importance of primary productivity in predicting grazing effect on belowground processes in Mediterranean environments dominated by annuals.

  16. Matrix intensification alters avian functional group composition in adjacent rainforest fragments.

    PubMed

    Deikumah, Justus P; McAlpine, Clive A; Maron, Martine

    2013-01-01

    Conversion of farmland land-use matrices to surface mining is an increasing threat to the habitat quality of forest remnants and their constituent biota, with consequences for ecosystem functionality. We evaluated the effects of matrix type on bird community composition and the abundance and evenness within avian functional groups in south-west Ghana. We hypothesized that surface mining near remnants may result in a shift in functional composition of avifaunal communities, potentially disrupting ecological processes within tropical forest ecosystems. Matrix intensification and proximity to the remnant edge strongly influenced the abundance of members of several functional guilds. Obligate frugivores, strict terrestrial insectivores, lower and upper strata birds, and insect gleaners were most negatively affected by adjacent mining matrices, suggesting certain ecosystem processes such as seed dispersal may be disrupted by landscape change in this region. Evenness of these functional guilds was also lower in remnants adjacent to surface mining, regardless of the distance from remnant edge, with the exception of strict terrestrial insectivores. These shifts suggest matrix intensification can influence avian functional group composition and related ecosystem-level processes in adjacent forest remnants. The management of matrix habitat quality near and within mine concessions is important for improving efforts to preserveavian biodiversity in landscapes undergoing intensification such as through increased surface mining.

  17. Computing Risk to West Coast Intertidal Rocky Habitat due to ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Compared to marshes, little information is available on the potential for rocky intertidal habitats to migrate upward in response to sea level rise (SLR). To address this gap, we utilized topobathy LiDAR digital elevation models (DEMs) downloaded from NOAA’s Digital Coast GIS data repository to estimate percent change in the area of rocky intertidal habitat in 10 cm increments with eustatic sea level rise. The analysis was conducted at the scale of the four Marine Ecoregions of the World (MEOW) ecoregions located along the continental west coast of the United States (CONUS). Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) map data were used to identify rocky shoreline. Such stretches of shoreline were extracted for each of the four ecoregions and buffered by 100 m to include the intertidal and evaluate the potential area for upland habitat migration. All available LiDAR topobathy DEMs from Digital Coast were extracted using the resulting polygons and two rasters were synthesized from the results, a 10 cm increment zone raster and a non-planimetric surface area raster for zonal summation. Current rocky intertidal non-planimetric surface areas for each ecoregion were computed between Mean Higher High Water (MHHW) and Mean Lower Low Water (MLLW) levels established from published datum sheets for tidal stations central to each MEOW ecoregion. Percent change in non-planimetric surface area for the same relative ranges were calculated in 10 cm incremental steps of eustatic S

  18. Habitat use and home range of mallards breeding in Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gilmer, D.S.; Ball, I.J.; Cowardin, L.M.; Riechmann, J.

    1975-01-01

    Telemetry techniques were used to study habitat use and home range of 12 drake and 12 hen mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) in the forested region of north-central Minnesota during the 1968-72 breeding seasons. Circumneutral bogs and seasonal wetlands were the most frequently used communities; the lakeshore communities most used were sand-gravel, overhanging brush, and bog mat. Based on the availability of habitat, the highest preference shown was for the seasonal community and the least for the softwood swamp; however, all communities were used to some extent during the breeding season. Lakeshore was always among the habitats most frequently used by pairs. Twelve nest were found, nine in nonpermanent wetlands and three in upland forest sites. Mean home range was 210 ha for hens and 240 ha for drakes. The long axis of the home ranges of drakes and hens averaged 2.8 and 2.7 km, respectively. Hens had smaller home ranges during the laying period (mean = 70 ha) than during prenesting (mean = 135 ha).

  19. Habitat Demonstration Unit (HDU) Vertical Cylinder Habitat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howe, Alan; Kennedy, Kriss J.; Gill, Tracy R.; Tri, Terry O.; Toups, Larry; Howard, Robert I.; Spexarth, Gary R.; Cavanaugh, Stephen; Langford, William M.; Dorsey, John T.

    2014-01-01

    NASA's Constellation Architecture Team defined an outpost scenario optimized for intensive mobility that uses small, highly mobile pressurized rovers supported by portable habitat modules that can be carried between locations of interest on the lunar surface. A compact vertical cylinder characterizes the habitat concept, where the large diameter maximizes usable flat floor area optimized for a gravity environment and allows for efficient internal layout. The module was sized to fit into payload fairings for the Constellation Ares V launch vehicle, and optimized for surface transport carried by the All-Terrain Hex-Limbed Extra-Terrestrial Explorer (ATHLETE) mobility system. Launch and other loads are carried through the barrel to a top and bottom truss that interfaces with a structural support unit (SSU). The SSU contains self-leveling feet and docking interfaces for Tri-ATHLETE grasping and heavy lift. A pressurized module needed to be created that was appropriate for the lunar environment, could be easily relocated to new locations, and could be docked together in multiples for expanding pressurized volume in a lunar outpost. It was determined that horizontally oriented pressure vessels did not optimize floor area, which takes advantage of the gravity vector for full use. Hybrid hard-inflatable habitats added an unproven degree of complexity that may eventually be worked out. Other versions of vertically oriented pressure vessels were either too big, bulky, or did not optimize floor area. The purpose of the HDU vertical habitat module is to provide pressurized units that can be docked together in a modular way for lunar outpost pressurized volume expansion, and allow for other vehicles, rovers, and modules to be attached to the outpost to allow for IVA (intra-vehicular activity) transfer between them. The module is a vertically oriented cylinder with a large radius to allow for maximal floor area and use of volume. The modular, 5- m-diameter HDU vertical habitat

  20. Kootenai River Wildlife Habitat Enhancement Project : Long-term Bighorn Sheep/Mule Deer Winter and Spring Habitat Improvement Project : Wildlife Mitigation Project, Libby Dam, Montana : Management Plan.

    SciTech Connect

    Yde, Chis

    1990-06-01

    The Libby hydroelectric project, located on the Kootenai River in northwestern Montana, resulted in several impacts to the wildlife communities which occupied the habitats inundated by Lake Koocanusa. Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks, in cooperation with the other management agencies, developed an impact assessment and a wildlife and wildlife habitat mitigation plan for the Libby hydroelectric facility. In response to the mitigation plan, Bonneville Power Administration funded a cooperative project between the Kootenai National Forest and Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks to develop a long-term habitat enhancement plan for the bighorn sheep and mule deer winter and spring ranges adjacent to Lake Koocanusa. The project goal is to rehabilitate 3372 acres of bighorn sheep and 16,321 acres of mule deer winter and spring ranges on Kootenai National Forest lands adjacent to Lake Koocanusa and to monitor and evaluate the effects of implementing this habitat enhancement work. 2 refs.

  1. Landscape-stream interactions and habitat conservation for amphibians.

    PubMed

    Ficetola, Gentile Francesco; Marziali, Laura; Rossaro, Bruno; De Bernardi, Fiorenza; Padoa-Schioppa, Emilio

    2011-06-01

    Semiaquatic organisms depend on the features of both water bodies and landscapes; the interplay between terrestrial and aquatic systems might influence the semiaquatic communities, determining the scale at which management would be more effective. However, the consequences of such interplay are not frequently quantified, particularly at the community level. We analyzed the distribution of amphibians to evaluate whether the influence of landscape features on freshwater ecosystems can have indirect consequences at both the species and community level. We surveyed 74 streams in northern Italy to obtain data on breeding amphibians, water, and microhabitat features; we also measured features of surrounding landscapes. We used an information-theoretic approach and structural equation models to compare hypotheses on causal relationships between species distribution and variables measured at multiple levels. We also used a constrained redundancy analyses to evaluate causal relationships between multivariate descriptors of habitat features and community composition. Distribution of Salamandra salamandra was related to landscape, hydrological, and water characteristics: salamanders were more frequent in permanent streams with low phosphate concentration within natural landscapes. Water characteristics were dependent on landscape: streams in natural landscapes had less phosphates. Landscape influenced the salamander both directly and indirectly through its influence on phosphates. Community structure was determined by both landscape and water characteristics. Several species were associated with natural landscapes, and with particular water characteristics. Landscape explained a significant proportion of variability of water characteristics; therefore it probably had indirect effects on community. Upland environments play key roles for amphibians, for example, as the habitat of adults, but upland environments also have indirect effects on the aquatic life stages, mediated

  2. Adjacent Segment Pathology after Anterior Cervical Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Jae Yoon; Park, Jong-Beom; Seo, Hyoung-Yeon

    2016-01-01

    Anterior cervical fusion has become a standard of care for numerous pathologic conditions of the cervical spine. However, subsequent development of clinically significant disc disease at levels adjacent to fused discs is a serious long-term complication of this procedure. As more patients live longer after surgery, it is foreseeable that adjacent segment pathology (ASP) will develop in increasing numbers of patients. Also, ASP has been studied more intensively with the recent popularity of motion preservation technologies like total disc arthroplasty. The true nature and scope of ASP remains poorly understood. The etiology of ASP is most likely multifactorial. Various factors including altered biomechanical stresses, surgical disruption of soft tissue and the natural history of cervical disc disease contribute to the development of ASP. General factors associated with disc degeneration including gender, age, smoking and sports may play a role in the development of ASP. Postoperative sagittal alignment and type of surgery are also considered potential causes of ASP. Therefore, a spine surgeon must be particularly careful to avoid unnecessary disruption of the musculoligamentous structures, reduced risk of direct injury to the disc during dissection and maintain a safe margin between the plate edge and adjacent vertebrae during anterior cervical fusion. PMID:27340541

  3. Effects of habitat availability on dispersion of a stream cyprinid

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Freeman, Mary C.; Grossman, G.D.

    1993-01-01

    We analyzed temporal changes in the dispersion of the rosyside dace,Clinostomus funduloides, (family Cyprinidae) in a headwater stream, to assess the role of habitat availability in promoting fish aggregation. The dace foraged alone and in groups of up to about 25 individuals, and dispersion varied significantly among monthly censuses conducted from May through December. In two of three study pools, dace aggregated during July, October and/or December, but spread out during other months, especially during September when dispersion did not differ significantly from random. Dispersion was not significantly correlated with the total amount of suitable habitat available to foraging dace, but during summer, corresponded to the availability of depositional areas adjacent to rapid currents. Foragers aggregated in eddies or depositional areas during high stream discharge in July, and shifted out of depositional areas when current velocities declined from July to September. During late autumn, however, aggregations formed independently of changes in habitat conditions, and dace dispersion did not vary significantly among months in a third pool. The study suggests that dace dispersion cannot be predicted from the overall availability of suitable habitat as estimated from point measurements of depth and velocity; both the occurrence of a specific habitat feature (i.e., eddies adjacent to high velocity currents) and seasonal differences in behavior more strongly influenced the spatial distribution of foragers.

  4. 77 FR 33985 - Proposed Establishment of the Indiana Uplands Viticultural Area and Modification of the Ohio...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-08

    ... greater incidence of heavy rains than in other areas of the state; and (3) poor farming practices in the... and good vineyard management practices are needed in this area. The erosion rate of the soils in the... of the Indiana Uplands region are not suited to most types of farming without liming, deep...

  5. Impacts of forestry planting on primary production in upland lakes from north-west Ireland.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Mark A; McGowan, Suzanne; Anderson, N John; Foy, Robert H; Leavitt, Peter R; McElarney, Yvonne R; Engstrom, Daniel R; Pla-Rabés, Sergi

    2016-04-01

    Planted forests are increasing in many upland regions worldwide, but knowledge about their potential effects on algal communities of catchment lakes is relatively unknown. Here, the effects of afforestation were investigated using palaeolimnology at six upland lake sites in the north-west of Ireland subject to different extents of forest plantation cover (4-64% of catchment area). (210)Pb-dated sediment cores were analysed for carotenoid pigments from algae, stable isotopes of bulk carbon (δ(13)C) and nitrogen (δ(15)N), and C/N ratios. In lakes with >50% of their catchment area covered by plantations, there were two- to sixfold increases in pigments from cryptophytes (alloxanthin) and significant but lower increases (39-116%) in those from colonial cyanobacteria (canthaxanthin), but no response from biomarkers of total algal abundance (β-carotene). In contrast, lakes in catchments with <20% afforestation exhibited no consistent response to forestry practices, although all lakes exhibited fluctuations in pigments and geochemical variables due to peat cutting and upland grazing prior to forest plantation. Taken together, patterns suggest that increases in cyanobacteria and cryptophyte abundance reflect a combination of mineral and nutrient enrichment associated with forest fertilization and organic matter influx which may have facilitated growth of mixotrophic taxa. This study demonstrates that planted forests can alter the abundance and community structure of algae in upland humic lakes of Ireland and Northern Ireland, despite long histories of prior catchment disturbance.

  6. Envisioning Upland Futures: Stakeholder Responses to Scenarios for Europe's Mountain Landscapes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soliva, Reto; Ronningen, Katrina; Bella, Ioanna; Bezak, Peter; Cooper, Tamsin; Flo, Bjorn Egil; Marty, Pascal; Potter, Clive

    2008-01-01

    In a period of agricultural decline in the uplands of Europe, agriculture is ceasing to provide the primary rationale for the organisation, utilisation and functioning of rural space. Policy reform, market trends and changes to the way citizens and consumers think about the countryside all suggest a need for thinking strategically about the future…

  7. Engaging in School-Led Multisectoral Collaboration: Implications to Agroforestry Promotion in the Philippine Uplands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landicho, Leila D.; Cabahug, Rowena D.; De Luna, Catherine C.

    2009-01-01

    The Agroforestry Support Program for Empowering Communities Towards Self-Reliance (ASPECTS) was conceived to develop a model of two-stage approach in agroforestry promotion by capacitating the upland communities to establish community-managed agroforestry extension services, while strengthening the agroforestry education programs of the three…

  8. Ginning efficiency in upland cotton - a value-added trait in cotton improvement

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the past few years, there has been some consorted effort between cotton geneticists and ginning engineers to understand "ginning efficiency" in upland cotton. Ginning efficiency includes ginning rate (measured in gm lint sec -1) and net gin stand energy (measured in Wh kg -1 lint). Improved ginn...

  9. Genome sequence of cultivated Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum TM-1) provides insights into genome evolution

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic and genomic analyses of Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) are difficult because it has a complex allotetraploid (AADD; 2n = 4x = 52) genome. Here we sequenced, assembled and analyzed the world's most important cultivated cotton genome with 246.2 gigabase (Gb) clean data obtained using whol...

  10. MANAGING AND RESTORING UPLAND RIPARIAN MEADOWS IN THE CENTRAL GREAT BASIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Riparian meadow ecosystems in upland watersheds are of local and regional importance in the Great Basin. Covering only 1-3% of the total land area, these ecosystems contain a disproportionally large percentage of the region's biodiversity. Stream incision, due to natural and anth...

  11. The Uplands after Neoliberalism?--The Role of the Small Farm in Rural Sustainability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shucksmith, Mark; Ronningen, Katrina

    2011-01-01

    The modernist project foresaw no role for small farms, but this can no longer be regarded as axiomatic as neoliberalism enters what Peck et al. call its "zombie phase". This paper asks what contribution small farms in the uplands can make to societies' goals, what role they might play in the sustainability of rural communities in such…

  12. Test cross evaluation of upland cotton accessions for selected fiber properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Texas A&M AgriLife Research released several upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) germplasm lines that exhibit near extra-long and extra-long staple (ELS) upper half mean length (UHML) fibers, similar to those produced by pima cotton (Gossypium barbadense L.) and significantly longer than those of ...

  13. Macronutrient concentration in plant parts of cotton fertilized with broiler Litter in a marginal upland Soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effectiveness of surface-applied unincorporated litter relative to conventional inorganic fertilizers under no-till or conventional-till cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) production systems and the magnitude of litter benefit reduction associated with lack of incorporation in the upland soils of the so...

  14. Initial experiences utilizing exotic landrace germplasm in an upland cotton breeding program

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A critical objective of plant breeding programs is accessing new sources of genetic variation. In upland cotton, one of the relatively untapped sources of genetic variation is maintained in the USDA-ARS cotton germplasm collection and is the exotic landrace collection. Photoperiod sensitivity is a m...

  15. Effect of Soil Stratification on the Development and Migration of Headcuts in Upland Concentrated Flows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Experiments were conducted to examine the effect of vertical stratification in soil erodibility on the development and migration of steady-state headcut scour holes in upland concentrated flows typical of agricultural fields. Packed soil beds with a pre-formed step were subjected to identical simul...

  16. Components of hybrid vigor in upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) and their relationship with environment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) hybrids display commercially useful levels of heterosis for lint yield. Cotton lint yield is primarily a multiplicative product of boll number and lint per boll, both of which can be further dissected into sub-components. Relationships among the yield components...

  17. 75 FR 50847 - Cotton Program Changes for Upland Cotton, Adjusted World Price, and Active Shipping Orders

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-18

    ... implemented the 2008 Farm Bill provisions for the cotton program. The correction removes definitions that are... program required by the Food, Conservation, and Energy Act of 2008 (the 2008 Farm Bill, Pub. L. 110-246... The 2008 Farm Bill provides benefits to domestic users of upland cotton through EAAP. EAAP provides...

  18. Myth or relict: Does ancient DNA detect the enigmatic Upland seal?

    PubMed

    Salis, Alexander T; Easton, Luke J; Robertson, Bruce C; Gemmell, Neil; Smith, Ian W G; Weisler, Marshall I; Waters, Jonathan M; Rawlence, Nicolas J

    2016-04-01

    The biological status of the so-called 'Upland seal' has remained contentious ever since historical records described a distinct seal from the uplands of New Zealand's (NZ) remote sub-Antarctic islands. Subsequent genetic surveys of the NZ fur seal (Arctocephalus forsteri) detected two highly-divergent mtDNA clades, hypothesized to represent a post-sealing hybrid swarm between 'mainland' (Australia-NZ; A. forsteri) and sub-Antarctic (putative 'Upland'; A. snaresensis) lineages. We present ancient-DNA analyses of prehistoric mainland NZ and sub-Antarctic fur seals, revealing that both of these genetic lineages were already widely distributed across the region at the time of human arrival. These findings indicate that anthropogenic factors did not contribute to the admixture of these lineages, and cast doubt on the validity of the Upland seal. Human-mediated impacts on Arctocephalus genetic diversity are instead highlighted by a dramatic temporal haplotype frequency-shift due to genetic drift in heavily bottlenecked populations following the cessation of industrial-scale harvesting. These extinction-recolonisation dynamics add to a growing picture of human-mediated change in NZ's coastal and marine ecosystems.

  19. Runoff water quality from a sierran upland forest, transition ecotone, and riparian wet meadow

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High concentrations of inorganic N, P, and S have been reported in overland and litter interflow within forested uplands of the Tahoe basin and surrounding watersheds. In this study we compared runoff nutrient concentration and load as well as soil nutrient fluxes at three watershed locations; an up...

  20. Insights for empirically modeling evapotranspiration influenced by riparian and upland vegetation in semiarid regions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bunting, Daniel P.; Kurc, Shirley A.; Glenn, Edward P.; Nagler, Pamela L.; Scott, Russell L.

    2014-01-01

    Water resource managers aim to ensure long-term water supplies for increasing human populations. Evapotranspiration (ET) is a key component of the water balance and accurate estimates are important to quantify safe allocations to humans while supporting environmental needs. Scaling up ET measurements from small spatial scales has been problematic due to spatiotemporal variability. Remote sensing products provide spatially distributed data that account for seasonal climate and vegetation variability. We used MODIS products [i.e., Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) and nighttime land surface temperatures (LSTn)] to create empirical ET models calibrated using measured ET from three riparian-influenced and two upland, water-limited flux tower sites. Results showed that combining all sites introduced systematic bias, so we developed separate models to estimate riparian and upland ET. While EVI and LSTn were the main drivers for ET in riparian sites, precipitation replaced LSTn as the secondary driver of ET in upland sites. Riparian ET was successfully modeled using an inverse exponential approach (r2 = 0.92) while upland ET was adequately modeled using a multiple linear regression approach (r2 = 0.77). These models can be used in combination to estimate ET at basin scales provided each region is classified and precipitation data is available.

  1. Combining ability of ginning rate and net ginning energy requirement in upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Combining ability describes the breeding value of parental lines to produce hybrids. The objectives of this study were to detect specific (SCA) and general combining ability (GCA) estimates for ginning rate and net ginning energy requirement in some upland cotton germplasm (Gossypium hirsutum L.). T...

  2. Biosecurity and bird movement practices in upland game bird facilities in the United States.

    PubMed

    Slota, Katharine E; Hill, Ashley E; Keefe, Thomas J; Bowen, Richard A; Pabilonia, Kristy L

    2011-06-01

    Since 1996, the emergence of Asian-origin highly pathogenic avian influenza subtype H5N1 has spurred great concern for the global poultry industry. In the United States, there is concern over the potential of a foreign avian disease incursion into the country. Noncommercial poultry operations, such as upland game bird facilities in the United States, may serve as a potential source of avian disease introduction to other bird populations including the commercial poultry industry, backyard flocks, or wildlife. In order to evaluate how to prevent disease transmission from these facilities to other populations, we examined biosecurity practices and bird movement within the upland game bird industry in the United States. Persons that held a current permit to keep, breed, or release upland game birds were surveyed for information on biosecurity practices, flock and release environments, and bird movement parameters. Biosecurity practices vary greatly among permit holders. Many facilities allow for interaction between wild birds and pen-reared birds, and there is regular long-distance movement of live adult birds among facilities. Results suggest that upland game bird facilities should be targeted for biosecurity education and disease surveillance efforts.

  3. Nutrient dynamics from broiler litter applied to no-till cotton in an upland soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Surface-applying broiler litter to a no-till cotton field increases the potential for loss of manure nutrients from the fields in runoff events and volitization of the NH4-N. An experiment was conducted on an upland Atwood silt loam soil (fine-silty, mixed, thermic Typic Paleududalfs) at the Pontoto...

  4. 77 FR 47063 - Notice of Availability of Draft Revisions; Upland Erosion Control, Revegetation, and Maintenance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-07

    ... Certificates: Construction, Acquisition, and Abandonment'' (OMB Control No. 1902-0060), which is used by the... reuse of construction materials is provided in revised Plan sections II.B.17. and III.E. Identification... Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of Availability of Draft Revisions; Upland Erosion...

  5. Breeding implications of boll distribution responses to water stress deficits in Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To identify the impact of different water stress deficits on the boll distribution of elite Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) cultivars in the Texas High Plains, cultivars which represent the diverse gene-pools of the private sector were subjected to three different water deficit regimes. This s...

  6. Genetic diversity and population structure in the US Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Elite plant breeding programs could likely benefit from the unexploited standing genetic variation of obsolete cultivars without the yield drag typically associated with wild accessions. A set of 381 accessions comprising 378 Upland (Gossypium hirsutum L.) and 3 Gossypium barbadense L. accessions of...

  7. Duration-Related Variations in Archaeal Communities after a Change from Upland Fields to Paddy Fields.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Nan; Wei, Kai; Chen, Lijun; Chen, Rui

    2016-05-28

    Archaea substantially contribute to global geochemical cycling and energy cycling and are impacted by land-use change. However, the response of archaeal communities to a change from upland field to paddy field has been poorly characterized. Here, soil samples were collected at two depths (0-20 cm and 20-40 cm) from one upland field and six paddy fields that were established on former upland fields at different times (1, 5, 10, 20, 30, and 40 years before the study). Barcoded pyrosequencing was employed to assess the archaeal communities from the samples at taxonomic resolutions from phylum to genus levels. The total archaeal operational taxonomic unit (OTU) richness showed a significant positive correlation with the land-use change duration. Two phyla, Euryarchaeota and Crenarchaeota, were recorded throughout the study. Both the relative abundance and OTU richness of Euryarchaeota increased at both depths but increased more steadily at the subsurface rather than at the surface. However, these data of Crenarchaeota were the opposite. Additionally, the archaeal composition exhibited a significant relationship with C/N ratios, total phosphorus, soil pH, Olsen phosphorus, and the land-use change duration at several taxonomic resolutions. Our results emphasize that after a change from upland fields to paddy fields, the archaeal diversity and composition changed, and the duration is an important factor in addition to the soil chemical properties.

  8. Backyard Wildlife Habitat Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owens, Katharine D.

    1998-01-01

    Presents a curriculum designed to infuse environmental concepts and attitudes into the middle school curriculum. Developed through an educational partnership with industry, this curriculum focuses on the establishment and maintenance of backyard wildlife habitats. (DDR)

  9. Permafrost collapse alters soil carbon stocks, respiration, CH4 , and N2O in upland tundra.

    PubMed

    Abbott, Benjamin W; Jones, Jeremy B

    2015-12-01

    Release of greenhouse gases from thawing permafrost is potentially the largest terrestrial feedback to climate change and one of the most likely to occur; however, estimates of its strength vary by a factor of thirty. Some of this uncertainty stems from abrupt thaw processes known as thermokarst (permafrost collapse due to ground ice melt), which alter controls on carbon and nitrogen cycling and expose organic matter from meters below the surface. Thermokarst may affect 20-50% of tundra uplands by the end of the century; however, little is known about the effect of different thermokarst morphologies on carbon and nitrogen release. We measured soil organic matter displacement, ecosystem respiration, and soil gas concentrations at 26 upland thermokarst features on the North Slope of Alaska. Features included the three most common upland thermokarst morphologies: active-layer detachment slides, thermo-erosion gullies, and retrogressive thaw slumps. We found that thermokarst morphology interacted with landscape parameters to determine both the initial displacement of organic matter and subsequent carbon and nitrogen cycling. The large proportion of ecosystem carbon exported off-site by slumps and slides resulted in decreased ecosystem respiration postfailure, while gullies removed a smaller portion of ecosystem carbon but strongly increased respiration and N2 O concentration. Elevated N2 O in gully soils persisted through most of the growing season, indicating sustained nitrification and denitrification in disturbed soils, representing a potential noncarbon permafrost climate feedback. While upland thermokarst formation did not substantially alter redox conditions within features, it redistributed organic matter into both oxic and anoxic environments. Across morphologies, residual organic matter cover, and predisturbance respiration explained 83% of the variation in respiration response. Consistent differences between upland thermokarst types may contribute to the

  10. Construction of a high-density genetic map and lint percentage and cottonseed nutrient trait QTL identification in upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.).

    PubMed

    Liu, Dexin; Liu, Fang; Shan, Xiaoru; Zhang, Jian; Tang, Shiyi; Fang, Xiaomei; Liu, Xueying; Wang, Wenwen; Tan, Zhaoyun; Teng, Zhonghua; Zhang, Zhengsheng; Liu, Dajun

    2015-10-01

    Upland cotton plays a critical role not only in the textile industry, but also in the production of important secondary metabolites, such as oil and proteins. Construction of a high-density linkage map and identifying yield and seed trait quantitative trail loci (QTL) are prerequisites for molecular marker-assisted selective breeding projects. Here, we update a high-density upland cotton genetic map from recombinant inbred lines. A total of 25,313 SSR primer pairs were screened for polymorphism between Yumian 1 and T586, and 1712 SSR primer pairs were used to genotype the mapping population and construct a map. An additional 1166 loci have been added to our previously published map with 509 SSR markers. The updated genetic map spans a total recombinant length of 3338.2 cM and contains 1675 SSR loci and nine morphological markers, with an average interval of 1.98 cM between adjacent markers. Green lint (Lg) mapped on chromosome 15 in a previous report is mapped in an interval of 2.6 cM on chromosome 21. Based on the map and phenotypic data from multiple environments, 79 lint percentage and seed nutrient trait QTL are detected. These include 8 lint percentage, 13 crude protein, 15 crude oil, 8 linoleic, 10 oleic, 13 palmitic, and 12 stearic acid content QTL. They explain 3.5-62.7 % of the phenotypic variation observed. Four morphological markers identified have a major impact on lint percentage and cottonseed nutrients traits. In this study, our genetic map provides new sights into the tetraploid cotton genome. Furthermore, the stable QTL and morphological markers could be used for fine-mapping and map-based cloning.

  11. Subfossil Leaves Reveal a New Upland Hardwood Component of the Pre-European Piedmont Landscape, Lancaster County, Pennsylvania

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, Sara J.; Wilf, Peter; Walter, Robert C.; Merritts, Dorothy J.

    2013-01-01

    Widespread deforestation, agriculture, and construction of milldams by European settlers greatly influenced valley-bottom stream morphology and riparian vegetation in the northeastern USA. The former broad, tussock-sedge wetlands with small, anastomosing channels were converted into today’s incised, meandering streams with unstable banks that support mostly weedy, invasive vegetation. Vast accumulations of fine-grained “legacy” sediments that blanket the regional valley-bottom Piedmont landscape now are being reworked from stream banks, significantly impairing the ecological health of downstream water bodies, most notably the Chesapeake Bay. However, potential restoration is impaired by lack of direct knowledge of the pre-settlement riparian and upslope floral ecosystems. We studied the subfossil leaf flora of Denlingers Mill, an obsolete (breached) milldam site in southeastern Pennsylvania that exhibits a modern secondary forest growing atop thin soils, above bedrock outcrops immediately adjacent to a modified, incised stream channel. Presumably, an overhanging old-growth forest also existed on this substrate until the early 1700s and was responsible for depositing exceptionally preserved, minimally transported subfossil leaves into hydric soil strata, which immediately underlie post-European settlement legacy sediments. We interpret the eleven identified species of the subfossil assemblage to primarily represent a previously unknown, upland Red Oak-American Beech mixed hardwood forest. Some elements also appear to belong to a valley-margin Red Maple-Black Ash swamp forest, consistent with preliminary data from a nearby site. Thus, our results add significantly to a more complete understanding of the pre-European settlement landscape, especially of the hardwood tree flora. Compared with the modern forest, it is apparent that both lowland and upslope forests in the region have been modified significantly by historical activities. Our study underscores that

  12. Subfossil leaves reveal a new upland hardwood component of the pre-European Piedmont landscape,Lancaster County, Pennsylvania.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Sara J; Wilf, Peter; Walter, Robert C; Merritts, Dorothy J

    2013-01-01

    Widespread deforestation, agriculture, and construction of milldams by European settlers greatly influenced valley-bottom stream morphology and riparian vegetation in the northeastern USA. The former broad, tussock-sedge wetlands with small, anastomosing channels were converted into today's incised, meandering streams with unstable banks that support mostly weedy, invasive vegetation. Vast accumulations of fine-grained "legacy" sediments that blanket the regional valley-bottom Piedmont landscape now are being reworked from stream banks, significantly impairing the ecological health of downstream water bodies, most notably the Chesapeake Bay. However, potential restoration is impaired by lack of direct knowledge of the pre-settlement riparian and upslope floral ecosystems. We studied the subfossil leaf flora of Denlingers Mill, an obsolete (breached) milldam site in southeastern Pennsylvania that exhibits a modern secondary forest growing atop thin soils, above bedrock outcrops immediately adjacent to a modified, incised stream channel. Presumably, an overhanging old-growth forest also existed on this substrate until the early 1700s and was responsible for depositing exceptionally preserved, minimally transported subfossil leaves into hydric soil strata, which immediately underlie post-European settlement legacy sediments. We interpret the eleven identified species of the subfossil assemblage to primarily represent a previously unknown, upland Red Oak-American Beech mixed hardwood forest. Some elements also appear to belong to a valley-margin Red Maple-Black Ash swamp forest, consistent with preliminary data from a nearby site. Thus, our results add significantly to a more complete understanding of the pre-European settlement landscape, especially of the hardwood tree flora. Compared with the modern forest, it is apparent that both lowland and upslope forests in the region have been modified significantly by historical activities. Our study underscores that

  13. Mountain Lions of the Flagstaff Uplands: 2003-2006 Progress Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mattson, David J.

    2007-01-01

    Executive Summary Stakeholders in management of mountain lions in the Flagstaff Uplands of northern Arizona have expressed increasing concern about both potential impacts of humans on lions and potential risks posed by lions to humans. A series of human-mountain lion encounters during 2000-2001 on Mt. Elden, immediately adjacent to Flagstaff, and similar incidents during 2004 near Tucson brought increased attention to management of human safety in mountain lion range. These human-centered concerns, together with long-standing questions about how the human infrastructure centered on Flagstaff might be affecting lion movements led us to initiate a mountain lion study in 2003 which we plan to continue through 2009. Our study focuses on movements and other behaviors of mountain lions, with the goal of providing information that can be used to increase human safety, decrease human impacts, and, overall, provide insight into the ecology of lions in this region. To serve this goal, we have focused on collecting data that will be the basis of explanatory models that can provide spatially-explicit predictions of mountain lion activity, specify the effects of human facilities, such as highways and urban areas, and provide insight into when, where, and how often different kinds of lions kill different kinds of prey. During 2003-2006, we captured six female and five male mountain lions in the Flagstaff Uplands, 10 of which we fitted with collars that collected up to six high-precision GPS fixes per day, transmitted daily to our offices via Argos satellites. This timely delivery of data allowed us to visit kill sites and other foci of localized activity to collect detailed information on lion behavior. By June 2006 we had obtained 9357 GPS locations and visited 394 sites, at which we documented 218 kills, 165 of which were by five females and 53 by five males. These data were the basis for preliminary analyses presented in this report. All lions during all seasons exhibited a

  14. Road to evolution? Local adaptation to road adjacency in an amphibian (Ambystoma maculatum).

    PubMed

    Brady, Steven P

    2012-01-01

    The network of roads on the landscape is vast, and contributes a suite of negative ecological effects on adjacent habitats, ranging from fragmentation to contamination by runoff. In addition to the immediate consequences faced by biota living in roaded landscapes, road effects may further function as novel agents of selection, setting the stage for contemporary evolutionary changes in local populations. Though the ecological consequences of roads are well described, evolutionary outcomes remain largely unevaluated. To address these potential responses in tandem, I conducted a reciprocal transplant experiment on early life history stages of a pool-breeding salamander. My data show that despite a strong, negative effect of roadside pools on salamander performance, populations adjacent to roads are locally adapted. This suggests that the response of species to human-altered environments varies across local populations, and that adaptive processes may mediate this response.

  15. Road to evolution? Local adaptation to road adjacency in an amphibian (Ambystoma maculatum)

    PubMed Central

    Brady, Steven P.

    2012-01-01

    The network of roads on the landscape is vast, and contributes a suite of negative ecological effects on adjacent habitats, ranging from fragmentation to contamination by runoff. In addition to the immediate consequences faced by biota living in roaded landscapes, road effects may further function as novel agents of selection, setting the stage for contemporary evolutionary changes in local populations. Though the ecological consequences of roads are well described, evolutionary outcomes remain largely unevaluated. To address these potential responses in tandem, I conducted a reciprocal transplant experiment on early life history stages of a pool-breeding salamander. My data show that despite a strong, negative effect of roadside pools on salamander performance, populations adjacent to roads are locally adapted. This suggests that the response of species to human-altered environments varies across local populations, and that adaptive processes may mediate this response. PMID:22355748

  16. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Fallfish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trial, Joan G.; Wade, Charles S.; Stanley, Jon G.; Nelson, Patrick C.

    1983-01-01

    A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop riverine and lacustrine habitat models for fallfish (Semotilis corporalis), a freshwater species. The models are scaled to produce an index of habitat suitability between 0 (unsuitable habitat) to 1 (optimally suitable habitat) for freshwater, marine and estuarine areas of the continental United States. Habitat suitability indexes (HSI's) are designed for use with the habitat evaluation procedures developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Also included are discussions of Suitability Index (SI) curves as used in the Instream Flow Incremental Methodology (IFIM) and SI curves available for an IFIM analysis of Fallfish habitat.

  17. Adjacent-level arthroplasty following cervical fusion.

    PubMed

    Rajakumar, Deshpande V; Hari, Akshay; Krishna, Murali; Konar, Subhas; Sharma, Ankit

    2017-02-01

    OBJECTIVE Adjacent-level disc degeneration following cervical fusion has been well reported. This condition poses a major treatment dilemma when it becomes symptomatic. The potential application of cervical arthroplasty to preserve motion in the affected segment is not well documented, with few studies in the literature. The authors present their initial experience of analyzing clinical and radiological results in such patients who were treated with arthroplasty for new or persistent arm and/or neck symptoms related to neural compression due to adjacent-segment disease after anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF). METHODS During a 5-year period, 11 patients who had undergone ACDF anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) and subsequently developed recurrent neck or arm pain related to adjacent-level cervical disc disease were treated with cervical arthroplasty at the authors' institution. A total of 15 devices were implanted (range of treated levels per patient: 1-3). Clinical evaluation was performed both before and after surgery, using a visual analog scale (VAS) for pain and the Neck Disability Index (NDI). Radiological outcomes were analyzed using pre- and postoperative flexion/extension lateral radiographs measuring Cobb angle (overall C2-7 sagittal alignment), functional spinal unit (FSU) angle, and range of motion (ROM). RESULTS There were no major perioperative complications or device-related failures. Statistically significant results, obtained in all cases, were reflected by an improvement in VAS scores for neck/arm pain and NDI scores for neck pain. Radiologically, statistically significant increases in the overall lordosis (as measured by Cobb angle) and ROM at the treated disc level were observed. Three patients were lost to follow-up within the first year after arthroplasty. In the remaining 8 cases, the duration of follow-up ranged from 1 to 3 years. None of these 8 patients required surgery for the same vertebral level during the follow

  18. Contrasting transit times of water from peatlands and eucalypt forests in the Australian Alps determined by tritium: implications for vulnerability and the source of water in upland catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartwright, Ian; Morgenstern, Uwe

    2016-12-01

    Peatlands are a distinctive and important component of many upland regions that commonly contain distinctive flora and fauna which are different from those of adjacent forests and grasslands. Peatlands also represent a significant long-term store of organic carbon. While their environmental importance has long since been recognised, water transit times within peatlands are not well understood. This study uses tritium (3H) to estimate the mean transit times of water from peatlands and from adjacent gullies that contain eucalypt forests in the Victorian Alps (Australia). The 3H activities of the peatland water range from 2.7 to 3.3 tritium units (TUs), which overlap the measured (2.9 to 3.0 TU) and expected (2.8 to 3.2 TU) average 3H activities of rainfall in this region. Even accounting for seasonal recharge by rainfall with higher 3H activities, the mean transit times of the peatland waters are < 6.5 years and may be less than 2 years. Water from adjacent eucalypt forest streams has 3H activities of 1.6 to 2.1 TU, implying much longer mean transit times of 5 to 29 years. Cation / Cl and Si / Cl ratios are higher in the eucalypt forest streams than the peatland waters and both of these water stores have higher cation / Cl and Si / Cl ratios than rainfall. The major ion geochemistry reflects the degree of silicate weathering in these catchments that is controlled by both transit times and aquifer lithology. The short transit times imply that, unlike the eucalypt forests, the peatlands do not represent a long-lived store of water for the local river systems. Additionally, the peatlands are susceptible to drying out during drought, which renders them vulnerable to damage by the periodic bushfires that occur in this region.

  19. Structure, function and management of semi-natural habitats for conservation biological control: a review of European studies.

    PubMed

    Holland, John M; Bianchi, Felix Jja; Entling, Martin H; Moonen, Anna-Camilla; Smith, Barbara M; Jeanneret, Philippe

    2016-09-01

    Different semi-natural habitats occur on farmland, and it is the vegetation's traits and structure that subsequently determine their ability to support natural enemies and their associated contribution to conservation biocontrol. New habitats can be created and existing ones improved with agri-environment scheme funding in all EU member states. Understanding the contribution of each habitat type can aid the development of conservation control strategies. Here we review the extent to which the predominant habitat types in Europe support natural enemies, whether this results in enhanced natural enemy densities in the adjacent crop and whether this leads to reduced pest densities. Considerable variation exists in the available information for the different habitat types and trophic levels. Natural enemies within each habitat were the most studied, with less information on whether they were enhanced in adjacent fields, while their impact on pests was rarely investigated. Most information was available for woody and herbaceous linear habitats, yet not for woodland which can be the most common semi-natural habitat in many regions. While the management and design of habitats offer potential to stimulate conservation biocontrol, we also identified knowledge gaps. A better understanding of the relationship between resource availability and arthropod communities across habitat types, the spatiotemporal distribution of resources in the landscape and interactions with other factors that play a role in pest regulation could contribute to an informed management of semi-natural habitats for biocontrol. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Pronghorn

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, Arthur W.; Cook, John G.; Armbruster, Michael J.

    1984-01-01

    This is one of a series of publications that provide information on the habitat requirements of selected fish and wildlife species. Literature describing the relationship between habitat variables related to life requisites and habitat suitability for the pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) are synthesized. These data are subsequently used to develop Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) models. The HSI models are designed to provide information that can be used in impact assessment and habitat management.

  1. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Bullfrog

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Graves, Brent M.; Anderson, Stanley H.

    1987-01-01

    A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) model for the bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana). The model consolidates habitat use information into a framework appropriate for field application, and is scaled to produce an index between 0.0 (unsuitable habitat) to 1.0 (optimum habitat). HSI models are designed to be used with Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  2. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Bobcat

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boyle, Katherine A.; Fendley, Timothy T.

    1987-01-01

    A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) model for the bobcat (Felis rufus). The model consolidates habitat use information into a framework appropriate for field application, and is scaled to produce an index between 0.0 (unsuitable habitat) to 1.0 (optimum habitat). HSI models are designed to be used with Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  3. Where does Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) overwinter in adjacent peach, pear and apple orchards?

    PubMed

    Yang, X-F; Fan, F; Wang, C; Wei, G-S

    2016-02-01

    The Oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is a major pest of tree fruits worldwide, and the diapausing larvae overwinter in cryptic habitats. Investigations of overwintering G. molesta were conducted in adjacent peach, pear and apple orchards in Northern China over three consecutive winters to determine the overwintering site and habitat preferences of the moth. Counts of overwintering larvae in the different orchards demonstrated that the late-maturing peach orchard ('Shenzhou honey peach') was the most preferred overwintering habitat with more than 90% of the collected larvae. Larvae were more abundant in host trees, and they very rarely overwintered in the soil. The overwintering site preferences on the host trees were significantly different; over 50% larvae were located in the tree trunks, and followed by main branches. Most of the G. molesta overwintered on the sunny side of the host trees at or below 60 cm from the ground; a few were cocooned on the shaded sides of the trees or greater than 60 cm from the ground. G. molesta began overwintering between August and October, mid- to late September was the peak period for entering winter diapause during 2011-2013 (77.78, 67.59 and 71.15%, respectively). Our findings improve understanding of the orchard habitat and overwintering site preferences of G. molesta and would be useful in the development of efficient forecasting and pest-management strategies for orchards during the winter and early spring.

  4. Ammonia- and methane-oxidizing microorganisms in high-altitude wetland sediments and adjacent agricultural soils.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yuyin; Shan, Jingwen; Zhang, Jingxu; Zhang, Xiaoling; Xie, Shuguang; Liu, Yong

    2014-12-01

    Ammonia oxidation is known to be carried out by ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and archaea (AOA), while methanotrophs (methane-oxidizing bacteria (MOB)) play an important role in mitigating methane emissions from the environment. However, the difference of AOA, AOB, and MOB distribution in wetland sediment and adjacent upland soil remains unclear. The present study investigated the abundances and community structures of AOA, AOB, and MOB in sediments of a high-altitude freshwater wetland in Yunnan Province (China) and adjacent agricultural soils. Variations of AOA, AOB, and MOB community sizes and structures were found in water lily-vegetated and Acorus calamus-vegetated sediments and agricultural soils (unflooded rice soil, cabbage soil, and garlic soil and flooded rice soil). AOB community size was higher than AOA in agricultural soils and lily-vegetated sediment, but lower in A. calamus-vegetated sediment. MOB showed a much higher abundance than AOA and AOB. Flooded rice soil had the largest AOA, AOB, and MOB community sizes. Principal coordinate analyses and Jackknife Environment Clusters analyses suggested that unflooded and flooded rice soils had relatively similar AOA, AOB, and MOB structures. Cabbage soil and A. calamus-vegetated sediment had relatively similar AOA and AOB structures, but their MOB structures showed a large difference. Nitrososphaera-like microorganisms were the predominant AOA species in garlic soil but were present with a low abundance in unflooded rice soil and cabbage soil. Nitrosospira-like AOB were dominant in wetland sediments and agricultural soils. Type I MOB Methylocaldum and type II MOB Methylocystis were dominant in wetland sediments and agricultural soils. Moreover, Pearson's correlation analysis indicated that AOA Shannon diversity was positively correlated with the ratio of organic carbon to nitrogen (p < 0.05). This work could provide some new insights toward ammonia and methane oxidation in soil and wetland sediment

  5. Food choice behaviour may promote habitat specificity in mixed populations of clonal and sexual Potamopyrgus antipodarum.

    PubMed

    Negovetic; Jokela

    2000-10-01

    Genetic polymorphism along an environmental gradient may be maintained if disruptive selection on habitat-specific traits leads to a correlated response in traits that reduce gene flow between habitats. We studied a short-distance cline in a population of freshwater snails Potamopyrgus antipodarum in which sexual and clonal snails coexist. Sexuals and clones show a life history cline by depth: snails reproduce at a smaller size in shallower habitats. Clones are also structured genetically across habitats and seem not to mix, even though habitats are within the dispersal distance of the snails and the opportunity for gene flow via migration must be considerable. Because habitat preference may promote divergence in both clones and sexuals along the depth gradient, we investigated whether snails show habitat-specific food choice behaviour that could reduce migration. We tested the food choice behaviour of the snails by exposing them simultaneously to food from their home and adjacent habitats. Both juvenile and adult snails from the shallow shore bank and a mid-water macrophyte habitat preferentially grazed on the vegetation of their original habitats. We suggest that the observed genetic and life history cline may be maintained by food choice behaviour that may promote a partial barrier to gene flow between the habitats. Copyright 2000 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.

  6. 7 CFR 623.16 - Monitoring and enforcement of easement terms and conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES EMERGENCY WETLANDS... wetlands and adjacent upland habitat of the easement area is being managed as required in the WRPO and...

  7. Diversity and Community Composition of Vertebrates in Desert River Habitats.

    PubMed

    Free, C L; Baxter, G S; Dickman, C R; Lisle, A; Leung, L K-P

    2015-01-01

    Animal species are seldom distributed evenly at either local or larger spatial scales, and instead tend to aggregate in sites that meet their resource requirements and maximise fitness. This tendency is likely to be especially marked in arid regions where species could be expected to concentrate at resource-rich oases. In this study, we first test the hypothesis that productive riparian sites in arid Australia support higher vertebrate diversity than other desert habitats, and then elucidate the habitats selected by different species. We addressed the first aim by examining the diversity and composition of vertebrate assemblages inhabiting the Field River and adjacent sand dunes in the Simpson Desert, western Queensland, over a period of two and a half years. The second aim was addressed by examining species composition in riparian and sand dune habitats in dry and wet years. Vertebrate species richness was estimated to be highest (54 species) in the riverine habitats and lowest on the surrounding dune habitats (45 species). The riverine habitats had different species pools compared to the dune habitats. Several species, including the agamid Gowidon longirostris and tree frog Litoria rubella, inhabited the riverine habitats exclusively, while others such as the skinks Ctenotus ariadnae and C. dux were captured only in the dune habitats. The results suggest that, on a local scale, diversity is higher along riparian corridors and that riparian woodland is important for tree-dependent species. Further, the distribution of some species, such as Mus musculus, may be governed by environmental variables (e.g. soil moisture) associated with riparian corridors that are not available in the surrounding desert environment. We conclude that inland river systems may be often of high conservation value, and that management should be initiated where possible to alleviate threats to their continued functioning.

  8. Diversity and Community Composition of Vertebrates in Desert River Habitats

    PubMed Central

    Free, C. L.; Baxter, G. S.; Dickman, C. R.; Lisle, A.; Leung, L. K.-P.

    2015-01-01

    Animal species are seldom distributed evenly at either local or larger spatial scales, and instead tend to aggregate in sites that meet their resource requirements and maximise fitness. This tendency is likely to be especially marked in arid regions where species could be expected to concentrate at resource-rich oases. In this study, we first test the hypothesis that productive riparian sites in arid Australia support higher vertebrate diversity than other desert habitats, and then elucidate the habitats selected by different species. We addressed the first aim by examining the diversity and composition of vertebrate assemblages inhabiting the Field River and adjacent sand dunes in the Simpson Desert, western Queensland, over a period of two and a half years. The second aim was addressed by examining species composition in riparian and sand dune habitats in dry and wet years. Vertebrate species richness was estimated to be highest (54 species) in the riverine habitats and lowest on the surrounding dune habitats (45 species). The riverine habitats had different species pools compared to the dune habitats. Several species, including the agamid Gowidon longirostris and tree frog Litoria rubella, inhabited the riverine habitats exclusively, while others such as the skinks Ctenotus ariadnae and C. dux were captured only in the dune habitats. The results suggest that, on a local scale, diversity is higher along riparian corridors and that riparian woodland is important for tree-dependent species. Further, the distribution of some species, such as Mus musculus, may be governed by environmental variables (e.g. soil moisture) associated with riparian corridors that are not available in the surrounding desert environment. We conclude that inland river systems may be often of high conservation value, and that management should be initiated where possible to alleviate threats to their continued functioning. PMID:26637127

  9. Effects of soils and grazing on breeding birds of uncultivated upland grasslands of the Northern Great Plains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kantrud, H.A.; Kologiski, R.L.

    1982-01-01

    The principal use of uncultivated upland grasslands in the northern Great Plains is for livestock production. However, on lands set aside for wildlife or for scientific or recreational use, grazing by livestock may be used as a management measure to enhance populations of game species or to create conditions that increase the diversity of plant or animal species. To determine the effects of grazing on the avifauna of various types of Great Plains grasslands, we conducted bird censuses and plant surveys during 1974-78 on 615 plots of lightly, moderately, or heavily grazed native rangeland.Numbers of horned lark (Eremophila alpestris), western meadowlark (Sturnella neglecta), lark bunting (Calamospiza melanocorys), and chestnut-collared longspur (Calcarius ornatus) accounted for 65-75% of the total bird population, regardless of grazing intensity. For the entire area sampled (600,000 km2), horned lark, western meadowlark, and chestnut-collared longspur were the dominant birds. Major differences in composition of the dominant species and species richness occurred among the major soils. Increased mean annual soil temperature seemingly had a greater negative influence on avian species richness than did decreased soil moisture or organic matter content. Differences in total bird density were not significant among soils and among grazing intensities within most soils. For the area as a whole, light or moderate grazing resulted in increased species richness. Of the 29 species studied, 2 responded significantly to grazing for the area as a whole and 6 others to grazing on the soil in which peak densities occurred. Response of several other species to grazing effects evidently varied among strata.A list of plants with mean cover values of more than 1% in any of the 18 combinations of soils and grazing intensities contained less than 25 species, attesting to the relative simplicity of the grassland vegetation in the northern Great Plains. Agropyron spp. and Bouteloua gracilis

  10. Non-random food-web assembly at habitat edges increases connectivity and functional redundancy.

    PubMed

    Peralta, Guadalupe; Frost, Carol M; Didham, Raphael K; Rand, Tatyana A; Tylianakis, Jason M

    2017-04-01

    Habitat fragmentation dramatically alters the spatial configuration of landscapes, with the creation of artificial edges affecting community structure and dynamics. Despite this, it is not known how the different food webs in adjacent habitats assemble at their boundaries. Here we demonstrate that the composition and structure of herbivore-parasitoid food webs across edges between native and plantation forests are not randomly assembled from those of the adjacent communities. Rather, elevated proportions of abundant, interaction-generalist parasitoid species at habitat edges allowed considerable interaction rewiring, which led to higher linkage density and less modular networks, with higher parasitoid functional redundancy. This was despite high overlap in host composition between edges and interiors. We also provide testable hypotheses for how food webs may assemble between habitats with lower species overlap. In an increasingly fragmented world, non-random assembly of food webs at edges may increasingly affect community dynamics at the landscape level.

  11. Multiscale habitat use and selection in cooperatively breeding Micronesian kingfishers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kesler, D.C.; Haig, S.M.

    2007-01-01

    Information about the interaction between behavior and landscape resources is key to directing conservation management for endangered species. We studied multi-scale occurrence, habitat use, and selection in a cooperatively breeding population of Micronesian kingfishers (Todiramphus cinnamominus) on the island of Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia. At the landscape level, point-transect surveys resulted in kingfisher detection frequencies that were higher than those reported in 1994, although they remained 15-40% lower than 1983 indices. Integration of spatially explicit vegetation information with survey results indicated that kingfisher detections were positively associated with the amount of wet forest and grass-urban vegetative cover, and they were negatively associated with agricultural forest, secondary vegetation, and upland forest cover types. We used radiotelemetry and remote sensing to evaluate habitat use by individual kingfishers at the home-range scale. A comparison of habitats in Micronesian kingfisher home ranges with those in randomly placed polygons illustrated that birds used more forested areas than were randomly available in the immediate surrounding area. Further, members of cooperatively breeding groups included more forest in their home ranges than birds in pair-breeding territories, and forested portions of study areas appeared to be saturated with territories. Together, these results suggested that forest habitats were limited for Micronesian kingfishers. Thus, protecting and managing forests is important for the restoration of Micronesian kingfishers to the island of Guam (United States Territory), where they are currently extirpated, as well as to maintaining kingfisher populations on the islands of Pohnpei and Palau. Results further indicated that limited forest resources may restrict dispersal opportunities and, therefore, play a role in delayed dispersal and cooperative behaviors in Micronesian kingfishers.

  12. Geomorphological evolution of a newly restored upland temporary stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marteau, Baptiste; Batalla, Ramon J.; Gibbins, Chris N.; Green, David R.; Vericat, Damià

    2015-04-01

    The river Ehen, NW England, has been designated as a Special Area of Conservation (SAC) as it hosts England's largest population of freshwater pearl mussels (M. margaritifera). One of the Ehen's main headwater tributary, Ben Gill, was diverted to Ennerdale Lake in the 1970s to help increase the volume of water available for abstraction. Concerns over this diversion on the hydrology and sediment dynamics of the Ehen has led to the reconnection of this temporary stream as part of a project designed to improve habitat conditions for mussels in the Ehen. The reconnection has involved the construction of a new section of channel, following the natural (pre-diversion) course of Ben Gill. This paper presents findings of research designed to track the morphological evolution of the newly created Ben Gill channel. The work follows a previous research in which fluvial dynamics in the Ehen were studied before the reconnection of Ben Gill. Morpho-sedimentary dynamics are analysed at multiple scales: from the movement of individual particles, to changes on channel morphology following competent flow events. Changes in the channel's grain size distributions have been investigated in different sections, while bed mobility has been assessed using a combination of radio frequency identification (RFID) tags inserted into representative particles and painted bed patches. Additionally, digital elevation models (DEMs) of the entire new channel have been constructed by means of automatic digital photogrammetry using high resolution aerial photography taken by an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). DEMs of difference (DoD) between major flow events have been used to track lateral and longitudinal changes in the channel at a spatial resolution of less than 5cm. Finally, in order to link sedimentological changes in the new channel to its impact on the main stem Ehen, morpho-sedimentary changes of a gravel bar at the confluence have been monitored combining tracers (i.e. RFID) and repeated

  13. Habitat selection and productivity of least terns on the lower Platte River, Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kirsch, Eileen M.

    1996-01-01

    Least terns (Sterna antillarum) were studied on the lower Platte River, Nebraska, where this endangered population nests on natural sandbar habitat and on sandpit sites created by gravel dredging adjacent to the river. Theoretically terns should select habitats according to habitat suitability. However, the introduction of sandpits and conversion of tallgrass prairies along the river banks to agriculture, residential, and wooded areas may have affected terns' abilities to distinguish suitable habitat or the suitability of nesting habitats in general. I examined habitat selection and productivity of least terns to determine if terns selected habitat according to suitability (as indicated by productivity), what factors affected habitat selection and productivity, and if estimated productivity could support this population. Available habitats of both types were characterized and quantified using aerial videography (1989-90), and habitat use was assessed from census data (1987-90). Productivity of adults and causes and correlates of egg and chick mortality were estimated (1987-90). Population trend was assessed with a deterministic model using my estimates of productivity and a range of survival estimates for Laridae reported in the literature. Terns tended to use river sites with large midstream sandbars and a wide channel, and large sandpit sites with large surface areas of water relative to unused sites on both habitats. Number of sites and area of sand available were estimated using discriminant function analysis of variables quantified from video scenes of both habitats. Terns apparently did not use all potentially available sandbar and sandpit sites because discriminant function factor scores for used and unused sites overlapped broadly for both habitats. Terns did not prefer 1 habitat over the other. Although proportions of available sites used were greater on sandpits than on the river, proportions of available sand used did not differ between habitats

  14. Letter from Galo Jackson Final Comments on November 2012 Draft ofthe Remedial Investigation Report fpr Operable Unit 3-Upland Soils

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Letter from Galo Jackson contains the Final Comments on November 2012 Draft ofthe Remedial Investigation Report for Operable Unit 3-Upland Soils: LCP Chemical National Priorities List Site, Brunswick, Glynn County, GA.

  15. Hnt'k'wipn 2005 Habitat Evaluation Procedure Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Green, Gerald I.

    2007-02-01

    Administration funded the acquisition of the mitigation properties covered in this baseline HU assessment in accordance with the NPCC's Fish and Wildlife Program and is due the appropriate HU crediting for both protecting and enhancing that area. The mitigation property is composed of three separate property acquisitions completed in the southern portion of the Coeur d'Alene Indian Reservation (Figure 1). These acreages are contiguous (Figure 2) and were targeted because of their potential instream, wetland and riparian habitats. The 909 acre Hanson Property was purchased fee title in December of 2004 and includes the northern and southern most parcels. The 159.7 acre Allotment 331 was purchased in February of 2005 and lies along Hangman Creek and includes the majority of the forested land. Allotments 1021, 333A and 333B, which were acquired in September of 2005, lie along Hangman Creek upstream of Allotment 331 and are 160 acres, 80 acres and 75 acres respectively. The Allotments remain in Trust but are now held by the Department of Interior for the Coeur d'Alene Tribe rather than for individual Tribal members. Approximately 174.8 acres (acreage determined by Coeur d'Alene Tribal GIS) of the Hanson Property lies south and west of U.S. Highway 95. These 174.8 acres encompass uplands along with a farmstead that includes a dwelling, several shops, storage sheds and a loft barn. The Coeur d'Alene Tribe decided at the time of purchase not to retain those uplands in the mitigation program since uplands and residential areas are not suitable to the Albeni Falls Wildlife Mitigation Program. This baseline HU assessment encompasses only the contiguous acreages that lie north and east of U.S. Highway 95. This report is a summary of the 2005 baseline Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) conducted on the 1,195.2 acres (as determined from the Coeur d'Alene Tribe's GIS database) of hnt'k'wipn surrounding the confluence of Sheep Creek and Hangman Creeks on the Coeur d'Alene Indian Reservation

  16. 30 CFR 56.9103 - Clearance on adjacent tracks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Clearance on adjacent tracks. 56.9103 Section..., Hauling, and Dumping Traffic Safety § 56.9103 Clearance on adjacent tracks. Railcars shall not be left on side tracks unless clearance is provided for traffic on adjacent tracks....

  17. 30 CFR 57.9103 - Clearance on adjacent tracks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Clearance on adjacent tracks. 57.9103 Section..., Hauling, and Dumping Traffic Safety § 57.9103 Clearance on adjacent tracks. Railcars shall not be left on side tracks unless clearance is provided for traffic on adjacent tracks....

  18. 49 CFR 236.404 - Signals at adjacent control points.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Traffic Control Systems Standards § 236.404 Signals at adjacent control points. Signals at adjacent controlled... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Signals at adjacent control points....

  19. 49 CFR 236.404 - Signals at adjacent control points.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Traffic Control Systems Standards § 236.404 Signals at adjacent control points. Signals at adjacent controlled... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Signals at adjacent control points....

  20. 33 CFR 80.1395 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Thirteenth District § 80.1395 Puget Sound and adjacent waters. The 72 COLREGS shall apply on all waters of Puget Sound and adjacent waters, including Lake...

  1. 33 CFR 80.1395 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Thirteenth District § 80.1395 Puget Sound and adjacent waters. The 72 COLREGS shall apply on all waters of Puget Sound and adjacent waters, including Lake...

  2. 33 CFR 80.1395 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Thirteenth District § 80.1395 Puget Sound and adjacent waters. The 72 COLREGS shall apply on all waters of Puget Sound and adjacent waters, including Lake...

  3. 33 CFR 80.1395 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Thirteenth District § 80.1395 Puget Sound and adjacent waters. The 72 COLREGS shall apply on all waters of Puget Sound and adjacent waters, including Lake...

  4. 33 CFR 80.1395 - Puget Sound and adjacent waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Puget Sound and adjacent waters... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Thirteenth District § 80.1395 Puget Sound and adjacent waters. The 72 COLREGS shall apply on all waters of Puget Sound and adjacent waters, including Lake...

  5. Utilization of ERTS-1 for appraising changes in continental migratory bird habitat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilmer, D. S. (Principal Investigator); Work, E. A., Jr.; Klett, A. T.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Information on numbers, distribution, and quality of wetlands in the breeding range of migratory waterfowl is important for the management of this wildlife resource. Using computer processing of data gathered by the ERTS-1 multispectral scanner, techniques for obtaining indices of annual waterfowl recruitment, and habitat quality are examined. As a primary task, thematic maps and statistics relating to open surface water were produced. Discrimination of water was based upon water's low apparent radiance in a single, near-infrared waveband. An advanced technique using multispectral information for discerning open water at a level of detail finer than the virtual resolution of the data was also successfully tested. In another related task, vegetation indicators were used for detecting conditions of latent or occluded water and upland habitat characteristics.

  6. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report : Rainwater Wildlife Area, 1998-2001 Technical Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Childs, Allen

    2004-01-01

    The 8,768 acre Rainwater Wildlife Area was acquired in September 1998 by the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) through an agreement with Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) to partially offset habitat losses associated with construction of the John Day and McNary hydroelectric facilities on the mainstem Columbia River. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) were used to determine the number of habitat units credited to BPA for acquired lands. Upland and riparian forest, upland and riparian shrub, and grassland rover types are evaluated in this study. Targeted wildlife species include downy woodpecker (Picoides pubescens), black-capped chickadee (Parus atricopillus), blue grouse (Dendragapus obscurus), great blue heron (Ardea herodias), yellow warbler (Dendroica petechia), mink (Mustela vison), and Western meadowlark (Sturnella neglects). Habitat surveys were conducted in 1998 and 1999 in accordance with published HEP protocols and included 65,300, 594m{sup 2} plots, and 112 one-tenth-acre plots. Between 153.3 and 7,187.46 acres were evaluated for each target wildlife mitigation species. Derived habitat suitability indices were multiplied by corresponding cover-type acreages to determine the number of habitat units for each species. The total baseline habitat units credited to BPA for the Rainwater Wildlife Area and its seven target species is 5,185.3 habitat units. Factors limiting habitat suitability are related to the direct, indirect, and cumulative effects of past livestock grazing, road construction, and timber harvest which have simplified the structure, composition, and diversity of native plant communities. Alternatives for protecting and improving habitat suitability include exclusion of livestock grazing, road de-commissioning/obliteration, reforestation and thinning, control of competing and unwanted vegetation (including noxious weeds), reestablishing displaced or reduced native

  7. Anticipated effects of development on habitat fragmentation and movement of mammals into and out of the Schoodic District, Acadia National Park, Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rohweder, Jason J.; De Jager, Nathan R.; Guntenspergen, Glenn R.

    2012-01-01

    Most national parks interact with adjacent lands because their boundaries fail to encompass all regional habitats, species pools, and migration routes. Activities planned for adjacent lands can have adverse effects on park resources and visitor experiences. For example, fragmentation of adjacent habitat into smaller and more isolated remnants may influence the suitability of park habitat for a wide range of species and limit animal dispersal pathways, which may influence visitor experiences and park resources as well as the energy balance and population dynamics of the animals themselves. In this study, we examined habitat fragmentation consequences owing to a planned 1,295 hectare development by Winter Harbor Holding Company (WHHC) adjacent to the Schoodic District of Acadia National Park (ANP), Maine. Specifically, we examined the effects of development on (a) core natural habitat area (a cross-habitat indicator of fragmentation), (b) the suitability of habitat for bobcat, fisher, mink, and moose, and (c) the movement of these four species between ANP and other nearby protected areas (species specific indicators of fragmentation). Our intention was to assist ANP staff in forecasting both the general and specific effects of development on natural habitat area, habitat suitability, and animal movement, which would allow them to develop suitable management alternatives.

  8. Seismicity in Azerbaijan and Adjacent Caspian Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Panahi, Behrouz M.

    2006-03-23

    So far no general view on the geodynamic evolution of the Black Sea to the Caspian Sea region is elaborated. This is associated with the geological and structural complexities of the region revealed by geophysical, geochemical, petrologic, structural, and other studies. A clash of opinions on geodynamic conditions of the Caucasus region, sometimes mutually exclusive, can be explained by a simplified interpretation of the seismic data. In this paper I analyze available data on earthquake occurrences in Azerbaijan and the adjacent Caspian Sea region. The results of the analysis of macroseismic and instrumental data, seismic regime, and earthquake reoccurrence indicate that a level of seismicity in the region is moderate, and seismic event are concentrated in the shallow part of the lithosphere. Seismicity is mostly intra-plate, and spatial distribution of earthquake epicenters does not correlate with the plate boundaries.

  9. Fate of 14C-labeled dissolved organic matter in paddy and upland soils in responding to moisture.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiangbi; Wang, Aihua; Li, Yang; Hu, Lening; Zheng, Hua; He, Xunyang; Ge, Tida; Wu, Jinshui; Kuzyakov, Yakov; Su, Yirong

    2014-08-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM) content in paddy soils is higher than that in upland soils in tropical and subtropical China. The dissolved organic matter (DOM) concentration, however, is lower in paddy soils. We hypothesize that soil moisture strongly controls the fate of DOM, and thereby leads to differences between the two agricultural soils under contrasting management regimens. A 100-day incubation experiment was conducted to trace the fate and biodegradability of DOM in paddy and upland soils under three moisture levels: 45%, 75%, and 105% of the water holding capacity (WHC). (14)C labeled DOM, extracted from the (14)C labeled rice plant material, was incubated in paddy and upland soils, and the mineralization to (14)CO2 and incorporation into microbial biomass were analyzed. Labile and refractory components of the initial (14)C labeled DOM and their respective half-lives were calculated by a double exponential model. During incubation, the mineralization of the initial (14)C labeled DOM in the paddy soils was more affected by moisture than in the upland soils. The amount of (14)C incorporated into the microbial biomass (2.4-11.0% of the initial DOM-(14)C activity) was less affected by moisture in the paddy soils than in the upland soils. At any of the moisture levels, 1) the mineralization of DOM to (14)CO2 within 100 days was 1.2-2.1-fold higher in the paddy soils (41.9-60.0% of the initial DOM-(14)C activity) than in the upland soils (28.7-35.7%), 2) (14)C activity remaining in solution was significantly lower in the paddy soils than in the upland soils, and 3) (14)C activity remaining in the same agricultural soil solution was not significantly different among the three moisture levels after 20 days. Therefore, moisture strongly controls DOM fate, but moisture was not the key factor in determining the lower DOM in the paddy soils than in the upland soils. The UV absorbance of DOM at 280 nm indicates less aromaticity of DOM from the paddy soils than from the

  10. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Beaver

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, Arthur W.

    1982-01-01

    Habitat preferences of the beaver (Castor canadensis) are described in this publication, which is one of a series of Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) models. Habitat use information is presented in a synthesis of the literature on the species-habitat requirements of the beaver, followed by the development of the HSI model. The model is designed to provide information for use in impact assessment and habitat management activities, and should be used in conjunction with habitat evaluation procedures previously developed by the Fish and Wildlife Service. This revised model updates the original publication dated September 1982.

  11. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Marten

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, Arthur W.

    1982-01-01

    Habitat preferences and species characteristics of the pine marten (Martes americana) are described in this publication. It is one of a series of Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) models and was developed through an analysis of available scientific data on the species-habitat requirements of the pine marten. Habitat use information is presented in a review of the literature, followed by the development of a HSI model. The model is presented in three formats: graphic, word and mathematical. Suitability index graphs quantify the species-habitat relationship. These data are then synthesized into a model which is designed to provide information for use in impact assessment and habitat management activities.

  12. Habitat Suitability Information: Blacknose dace

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trial, Joan G.; Stanley, Jon G.; Batcheller, Mary; Gebhart, Gary; Maughan, O. Eugene; Nelson, Patrick C.

    1983-01-01

    A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop riverine and lacustrine habitat models for Blacknose dace, a freshwater species. The models are scaled to produce an index of habitat suitability between 0 (unsuitable habitat) to 1 (optimally suitable habitat) for freshwater, marine, and estuarine areas of the continental United States. Habitat suitability indexes (HSI's) are designed for use with the habitat evaluation procedures developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Also included are discussions of Suitability Index (SI) curves as used in the Instream Flow Incremental Methodology (IFIM) and SI curves available for an IFIM analysis of Blacknose dace.

  13. Indicators: Shallow Water Habitat/In-stream Fish Habitat

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Shallow water habitat, also referred to as in-stream fish habitat, refers to areas that fish and other aquatic organisms need for concealment, breeding and feeding. This includes large woody snags, boulders, rock ledges, and undercut banks.

  14. Sharp-tailed Grouse Restoration; Colville Tribes Restore Habitat for Sharp-tailed Grouse, Annual Report 2002-2003.

    SciTech Connect

    Whitney, Richard

    2004-01-01

    Columbian Sharp-Tailed Grouse (Tympanuchus phasianellus columbianus) (CSTG) are an important traditional and cultural species to the Colville Confederated Tribes (CCT), Spokane Tribe of Indians (STOI), and other Tribes in the Region. They were once the most abundant upland bird in the Region. Currently, the largest remaining population in Washington State occurs on the CCT Reservation in Okanogan County. Increasing agricultural practices and other land uses has contributed to the decline of sharp-tail habitat and populations putting this species at risk. The decline of this species is not new (Yokum, 1952, Buss and Dziedzic, 1955, Zeigler, 1979, Meints 1991, and Crawford and Snyder 1994). The Tribes (CCT and STOI) are determined to protect, enhance and restore habitat for this species continued existence. When Grand Coulee and Chief Joseph Hydro-projects were constructed, inundated habitat used by this species was lost forever adding to overall decline. To compensate and prevent further habitat loss, the CCT proposed a project with Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) funding to address this species and their habitat requirements. The projects main focus is to address habitat utilized by the current CSTG population and determine ways to protect, restore, and enhance habitats for the conservation of this species over time. The project went through the NPPC Review Process and was funded through FY03 by BPA. This report addresses part of the current CCT effort to address the conservation of this species on the Colville Reservation.

  15. Predicting coliform concentrations in upland impoundments: design and calibration of a multivariate model.

    PubMed Central

    Kay, D; McDonald, A

    1983-01-01

    This paper reports on the calibration and use of a multiple regression model designed to predict concentrations of Escherichia coli and total coliforms in two upland British impoundments. The multivariate approach has improved predictive capability over previous univariate linear models because it includes predictor variables for the timing and magnitude of hydrological input to the reservoirs and physiochemical parameters of water quality. The significance of these results for catchment management research is considered. PMID:6639016

  16. Estimation of biophysical properties of upland Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis) plantations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Robert M.

    1993-01-01

    It is widely accepted that estimates of forest above-ground biomass are required as inputs to forest ecosystem models, and that SAR data have the potential to provide such information. This study describes relationships between polarimetric radar backscatter and key biophysical properties of a coniferous plantation in upland central Wales, U.K. Over the test site, topography was relatively complex and was expected to influence the amount of radar backscatter.

  17. Upland disturbance affects headwater stream nutrients and suspended sediments during baseflow and stormflow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Houser, J.N.; Mulholland, P.J.; Maloney, K.O.

    2006-01-01

    Because catchment characteristics determine sediment and nutrient inputs to streams, upland disturbance can affect stream chemistry. Catchments at the Fort Benning Military Installation (near Columbus, Georgia) experience a range of upland disturbance intensities due to spatial variability in the intensity of military training. We used this disturbance gradient to investigate the effects of upland soil and vegetation disturbance on stream chemistry. During baseflow, mean total suspended sediment (TSS) concentration and mean inorganic suspended sediment (ISS) concentration increased with catchment disturbance intensity (TSS: R2 = 0.7, p = 0.005, range = 4.0-10.1 mg L-1; ISS: R2 = 0.71, p = 0.004, range = 2.04-7.3 mg L-1); dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration (R2 = 0.79, p = 0.001, range = 1.5-4.1 mg L-1) and soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) concentration (R2 = 0.75, p = 0.008, range = 1.9-6.2 ??g L-1) decreased with increasing disturbance intensity; and ammonia (NH 4+), nitrate (NO3-), and dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) concentrations were unrelated to disturbance intensity. The increase in TSS and ISS during storms was positively correlated with disturbance (R2 = 0.78 and 0.78, p = 0.01 and 0.01, respectively); mean maximum change in SRP during storms increased with disturbance (r = 0.7, p = 0.04); and mean maximum change in NO3- during storms was marginally correlated with disturbance (r = 0.58, p = 0.06). Soil characteristics were significant predictors of baseflow DOC, SRP, and Ca 2+, but were not correlated with suspended sediment fractions, any nitrogen species, or pH. Despite the largely intact riparian zones of these headwater streams, upland soil and vegetation disturbances had clear effects on stream chemistry during baseflow and stormflow conditions. ?? ASA, CSSA, SSSA.

  18. Upland disturbance affects headwater stream nutrients and suspended sediments during baseflow and stormflow

    SciTech Connect

    Houser, Jeffrey N

    2006-01-01

    Because catchment characteristics determine sediment and nutrient inputs to streams, upland disturbance can affect stream chemistry. Catchments at the Fort Benning Military Installation (near Columbus, Georgia) experience a range of upland disturbance intensities due to spatial variability in the intensity of military training. We used this disturbance gradient to investigate the effects of upland soil and vegetation disturbance on stream chemistry. During baseflow, mean total suspended sediment (TSS) concentration and mean inorganic suspended sediment (ISS) concentration increased with catchment disturbance intensity (TSS: R 2 = 0.7, p = 0.005, range = 4.0-10.1 mg L-1; ISS: R 2 = 0.71, p = 0.004, range = 2.04-7.3 mg L-1); dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration (R 2 = 0.79, p = 0.001, range = 1.5-4.1 mg L-1) and soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) concentration (R 2 = 0.75, p = 0.008, range = 1.9-6.2 {micro}g L-1) decreased with increasing disturbance intensity; and ammonia (NH4 +), nitrate (NO3 -), and dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) concentrations were unrelated to disturbance intensity. The increase in TSS and ISS during storms was positively correlated with disturbance (R 2 = 0.78 and 0.78, p = 0.01 and 0.01, respectively); mean maximum change in SRP during storms increased with disturbance (r = 0.7, p = 0.04); and mean maximum change in NO3 - during storms was marginally correlated with disturbance (r = 0.58, p = 0.06). Soil characteristics were significant predictors of baseflow DOC, SRP, and Ca2+, but were not correlated with suspended sediment fractions, any nitrogen species, or pH. Despite the largely intact riparian zones of these headwater streams, upland soil and vegetation disturbances had clear effects on stream chemistry during baseflow and stormflow conditions.

  19. Crop rotation of flooded rice with upland maize impacts the resident and active methanogenic microbial community.

    PubMed

    Breidenbach, Björn; Blaser, Martin B; Klose, Melanie; Conrad, Ralf

    2016-09-01

    Crop rotation of flooded rice with upland crops is a common management scheme allowing the reduction of water consumption along with the reduction of methane emission. The introduction of an upland crop into the paddy rice ecosystem leads to dramatic changes in field conditions (oxygen availability, redox conditions). However, the impact of this practice on the archaeal and bacterial communities has scarcely been studied. Here, we provide a comprehensive study focusing on the crop rotation between flooded rice in the wet season and upland maize (RM) in the dry season in comparison with flooded rice (RR) in both seasons. The composition of the resident and active microbial communities was assessed by 454 pyrosequencing targeting the archaeal and bacterial 16S rRNA gene and 16S rRNA. The archaeal community composition changed dramatically in the rotational fields indicated by a decrease of anaerobic methanogenic lineages and an increase of aerobic Thaumarchaeota. Members of Methanomicrobiales, Methanosarcinaceae, Methanosaetaceae and Methanocellaceae were equally suppressed in the rotational fields indicating influence on both acetoclastic and hydrogenotrophic methanogens. On the contrary, members of soil crenarchaeotic group, mainly Candidatus Nitrososphaera, were higher in the rotational fields, possibly indicating increasing importance of ammonia oxidation during drainage. In contrast, minor effects on the bacterial community were observed. Acidobacteria and Anaeromyxobacter spp. were enriched in the rotational fields, whereas members of anaerobic Chloroflexi and sulfate-reducing members of Deltaproteobacteria were found in higher abundance in the rice fields. Combining quantitative polymerase chain reaction and pyrosequencing data revealed increased ribosomal numbers per cell for methanogenic species during crop rotation. This stress response, however, did not allow the methanogenic community to recover in the rotational fields during re-flooding and rice

  20. Restoring Anadromous Fish Habitat in Big Canyon Creek Watershed, 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Rasmussen, Lynn

    2006-07-01

    The ''Restoring Anadromous Fish Habitat in the Big Canyon Creek Watershed'' is a multi-phase project to enhance steelhead trout in the Big Canyon Creek watershed by improving salmonid spawning and rearing habitat. Habitat is limited by extreme high runoff events, low summer flows, high water temperatures, poor instream cover, spawning gravel siltation, and sediment, nutrient and bacteria loading. Funded by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) as part of the Northwest Power Planning Council's Fish and Wildlife Program, the project assists in mitigating damage to steelhead runs caused by the Columbia River hydroelectric dams. The project is sponsored by the Nez Perce Soil and Water Conservation District. Target fish species include steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Steelhead trout within the Snake River Basin were listed in 1997 as threatened under the Endangered Species Act. Accomplishments for the contract period September 1, 2004 through October 31, 2005 include; 2.7 riparian miles treated, 3.0 wetland acres treated, 5,263.3 upland acres treated, 106.5 riparian acres treated, 76,285 general public reached, 3,000 students reached, 40 teachers reached, 18 maintenance plans completed, temperature data collected at 6 sites, 8 landowner applications received and processed, 14 land inventories completed, 58 habitat improvement project designs completed, 5 newsletters published, 6 habitat plans completed, 34 projects installed, 2 educational workshops, 6 displays, 1 television segment, 2 public service announcements, a noxious weed GIS coverage, and completion of NEPA, ESA, and cultural resources requirements.

  1. Wood Thrush movements and habitat use: effects of forest management for Red-cockaded Woodpeckers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lang, J.D.; Powell, L.A.; Krementz, D.G.; Conroy, M.J.

    2002-01-01

    We monitored adult and juvenile breeding season movements and habitat use of radio-tagged Wood Thrushes (Hylocichla mustelina) at the Piedmont National Wildlife Refuge, central Georgia, USA. We investigated the effects that management for Red-cockaded Woodpeckers (Picoides borealis), thinning and burning >30 year old loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) habitat, had on Wood Thrushes, a ground-foraging and midstory-nesting species. Adult Wood Thrush pairs regularly moved long distances between nesting attempts (range 1 to 17,388 m). The only experimental effect we found on adult movements was a decrease in weekly emigration rates (Y ) from thinned and burned compartments after silvicultural management. Adult males preferred riparian hardwoods with sparse to moderate cover and those preferences increased following management. Juveniles remained near their nest site (0 = 177 m, SE = 113) for an average 24 days (SE = 6.3), and then dispersed a mean 2,189 m (SE = 342). Before dispersal, juveniles preferred upland hardwood?pine mixed habitat (P < 0.05) with moderate overstory cover (P < 0.05). We found no management effects on dispersal distances or predispersal habitat use. However, juveniles from thinned and burned compartments dispersed to hardwood habitats with dense cover, whereas birds from control compartments dispersed to pine-dominated habitats with sparse cover. All juveniles dispersed to areas with habitat similar to what they used before dispersal. Small-scale thinning and burning for Red-cockaded Woodpeckers may have had little effect on Wood Thrush habitat use and movements because typical movements were often larger than the scale (stand or compartment) targeted for management.

  2. Modeling sensitive elasmobranch habitats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pennino, M. Grazia; Muñoz, Facundo; Conesa, David; López-Quílez, Antonio; Bellido, José Marí; a

    2013-10-01

    Basic information on the distribution and habitat preferences of ecologically important species is essential for their management and protection. In the Mediterranean Sea there is increasing concern over elasmobranch species because their biological (ecological) characteristics make them highly vulnerable to fishing pressure. Their removal could affect the structure and function of marine ecosystems, inducing changes in trophic interactions at the community level due to the selective elimination of predators or prey species, competitors and species replacement. In this study Bayesian hierarchical spatial models are used to map the sensitive habitats of the three most caught elasmobranch species (Galeus melastomus, Scyliorhinus canicula, Etmopterus spinax) in the western Mediterranean Sea, based on fishery-dependent bottom trawl data. Results show that habitats associated with hard substrata and sandy beds, mainly in deep waters and with a high seabed gradient, have a greater probability registering the presence of the studied species than those associated with muddy shallow waters. Temperature and chlorophyll-α concentration show a negative relationship with S. canicula occurrence. Our results identify some of the sensitive habitats for elasmobranchs in the western Mediterranean Sea (GSA06 South), providing essential and easy-to-use interpretation tools, such as predictive distribution maps, with the final aim of improving management and conservation of these vulnerable species.

  3. Characterization and Functional Analysis of PEBP Family Genes in Upland Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Congcong; Pang, Chaoyou; Wei, Hengling; Wang, Hantao; Song, Meizhen; Fan, Shuli; Yu, Shuxun

    2016-01-01

    Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) is a naturally occurring photoperiod-sensitive perennial plant species. However, sensitivity to the day length was lost during domestication. The phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein (PEBP) gene family, of which three subclades have been identified in angiosperms, functions to promote and suppress flowering in photoperiod pathway. Recent evidence indicates that PEBP family genes play an important role in generating mobile flowering signals. We isolated homologues of the PEBP gene family in upland cotton and examined their regulation and function. Nine PEBP-like genes were cloned and phylogenetic analysis indicated the genes belonged to four subclades (FT, MFT, TFL1 and PEBP). Cotton PEBP-like genes showed distinct expression patterns in relation to different cotton genotypes, photoperiod responsive and cultivar maturity. The GhFT gene expression of a semi-wild race of upland cotton were strongly induced under short day condition, whereas the GhPEBP2 gene expression was induced under long days. We also elucidated that GhFT but not GhPEBP2 interacted with FD-like bZIP transcription factor GhFD and promote flowering under both long- and short-day conditions. The present result indicated that GhPEBP-like genes may perform different functions. This work corroborates the involvement of PEBP-like genes in photoperiod response and regulation of flowering time in different cotton genotypes, and contributes to an improved understanding of the function of PEBP-like genes in cotton. PMID:27552108

  4. Catchment-scale deposition and redistribution of Chernobyl radiocaesium in upland Britain

    SciTech Connect

    Higgitt, D.L.; Rowan, J.S. ); Walling, D.E. )

    1993-01-01

    Fallout from the Chernobyl nuclear accident in April 1986 resulted in a significant increase in the inventory of radiocaesium in many areas of upland Britain. Caesium-137 derived from nuclear weapons testing in the 1950s and 1960s has been widely used as a sediment tracer to monitor soil erosion. The presence of Chernobyl fallout provides an opportunity to examine the short-term, post-input behavior of radiocaesium in upland soils and assess its potential for investigating sediment transfer in upland systems. Sampling undertaken in the catchment of Lake Vyrnwy, North Wales considered the vertical distribution of radiocaesium in different soil types, the catchment-wide variation in Chernobyl fallout deposition, and the radiocaesium content of sediment from a variety of slope and fluvial environments. Whilst uncertainty surrounding the estimation of baseline inventories limits the detailed interpretation of short-term sediment dynamics, it is apparent that the sediment-associated redistribution of Chernobyl radioactivity may result in its accumulation in certain parts of the catchment over longer timescales. 18 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Proteomic analysis of upland rice (Oryza sativa L.) exposed to intermittent water deficit.

    PubMed

    Rabello, Fernanda R; Villeth, Gabriela R C; Rabello, Aline R; Rangel, Paulo H N; Guimarães, Cleber M; Huergo, Luciano F; Souza, Emanuel M; Pedrosa, Fabio O; Ferreira, Márcio E; Mehta, Angela

    2014-06-01

    Rice is the most important crop consumed all over the world. In Brazil, irrigated rice covers 50 % of the rice producing area and is responsible for 75 % of the national production. Upland rice covers most of the remaining area, and is therefore, a very important production system in the country. In the present study, we have used the drought tolerant upland rice variety Três Meses Antigo to investigate the proteomic changes that occur during drought stress. Plants were submitted to drought by the reposition of 50 % of the water lost daily. Twenty days after the beginning of the drought stress period, leaves were harvested and used for protein extraction. The 2D maps obtained from treated and control plants revealed 408 reproducible spots, 44 of which were identified by mass spectrometry, including 15 differential proteins. Several unaltered proteins were also identified (39 spots) and were mainly involved in photosynthesis. Taken together, the results obtained suggest that the tolerant upland rice up-regulates anti-oxidant and energy production related proteins in order to cope with water deficit.

  6. Demographic consequences of terrestrial habitat loss for pool-breeding amphibians: predicting extinction risks associated with inadequate size of buffer zones.

    PubMed

    Harper, Elizabeth B; Rittenhouse, Tracy A G; Semlitsch, Raymond D

    2008-10-01

    Much of the biodiversity associated with isolated wetlands requires aquatic and terrestrial habitat to maintain viable populations. Current federal wetland regulations in the United States do not protect isolated wetlands or extend protection to surrounding terrestrial habitat. Consequently, some land managers, city planners, and policy makers at the state and local levels are making an effort to protect these wetland and neighboring upland habitats. Balancing human land-use and habitat conservation is challenging, and well-informed land-use policy is hindered by a lack of knowledge of the specific risks of varying amounts of habitat loss. Using projections of wood frog (Rana sylvatica) and spotted salamander (Ambystoma maculatum) populations, we related the amount of high-quality terrestrial habitat surrounding isolated wetlands to the decline and risk of extinction of local amphibian populations. These simulations showed that current state-level wetland regulations protecting 30 m or less of surrounding terrestrial habitat are inadequate to support viable populations of pool-breeding amphibians. We also found that species with different life-history strategies responded differently to the loss and degradation of terrestrial habitat. The wood frog, with a short life span and high fecundity, was most sensitive to habitat loss and isolation, whereas the longer-lived spotted salamander with lower fecundity was most sensitive to habitat degradation that lowered adult survival rates. Our model results demonstrate that a high probability of local amphibian population persistence requires sufficient terrestrial habitat, the maintenance of habitat quality, and connectivity among local populations. Our results emphasize the essential role of adequate terrestrial habitat to the maintenance of wetland biodiversity and ecosystem function and offer a means of quantifying the risks associated with terrestrial habitat loss and degradation.

  7. Earth is a Marine Habitat. Habitat Conservation Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (DOC), Rockville, MD.

    This brochure is intended to educate the public about the need to conserve and preserve the earth's environment (man's habitat). It contains an introduction to the ocean world and threats to coastal habitat. Photos and narrative revolve around the theme "Earth is a Marine Habitat." Sections include: "The Web of…

  8. Resampling method for applying density-dependent habitat selection theory to wildlife surveys.

    PubMed

    Tardy, Olivia; Massé, Ariane; Pelletier, Fanie; Fortin, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Isodar theory can be used to evaluate fitness consequences of density-dependent habitat selection by animals. A typical habitat isodar is a regression curve plotting competitor densities in two adjacent habitats when individual fitness is equal. Despite the increasing use of habitat isodars, their application remains largely limited to areas composed of pairs of adjacent habitats that are defined a priori. We developed a resampling method that uses data from wildlife surveys to build isodars in heterogeneous landscapes without having to predefine habitat types. The method consists in randomly placing blocks over the survey area and dividing those blocks in two adjacent sub-blocks of the same size. Animal abundance is then estimated within the two sub-blocks. This process is done 100 times. Different functional forms of isodars can be investigated by relating animal abundance and differences in habitat features between sub-blocks. We applied this method to abundance data of raccoons and striped skunks, two of the main hosts of rabies virus in North America. Habitat selection by raccoons and striped skunks depended on both conspecific abundance and the difference in landscape composition and structure between sub-blocks. When conspecific abundance was low, raccoons and striped skunks favored areas with relatively high proportions of forests and anthropogenic features, respectively. Under high conspecific abundance, however, both species preferred areas with rather large corn-forest edge densities and corn field proportions. Based on random sampling techniques, we provide a robust method that is applicable to a broad range of species, including medium- to large-sized mammals with high mobility. The method is sufficiently flexible to incorporate multiple environmental covariates that can reflect key requirements of the focal species. We thus illustrate how isodar theory can be used with wildlife surveys to assess density-dependent habitat selection over large

  9. Resampling Method for Applying Density-Dependent Habitat Selection Theory to Wildlife Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Tardy, Olivia; Massé, Ariane; Pelletier, Fanie; Fortin, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Isodar theory can be used to evaluate fitness consequences of density-dependent habitat selection by animals. A typical habitat isodar is a regression curve plotting competitor densities in two adjacent habitats when individual fitness is equal. Despite the increasing use of habitat isodars, their application remains largely limited to areas composed of pairs of adjacent habitats that are defined a priori. We developed a resampling method that uses data from wildlife surveys to build isodars in heterogeneous landscapes without having to predefine habitat types. The method consists in randomly placing blocks over the survey area and dividing those blocks in two adjacent sub-blocks of the same size. Animal abundance is then estimated within the two sub-blocks. This process is done 100 times. Different functional forms of isodars can be investigated by relating animal abundance and differences in habitat features between sub-blocks. We applied this method to abundance data of raccoons and striped skunks, two of the main hosts of rabies virus in North America. Habitat selection by raccoons and striped skunks depended on both conspecific abundance and the difference in landscape composition and structure between sub-blocks. When conspecific abundance was low, raccoons and striped skunks favored areas with relatively high proportions of forests and anthropogenic features, respectively. Under high conspecific abundance, however, both species preferred areas with rather large corn-forest edge densities and corn field proportions. Based on random sampling techniques, we provide a robust method that is applicable to a broad range of species, including medium- to large-sized mammals with high mobility. The method is sufficiently flexible to incorporate multiple environmental covariates that can reflect key requirements of the focal species. We thus illustrate how isodar theory can be used with wildlife surveys to assess density-dependent habitat selection over large

  10. The role of common upland vegetation on gaseous carbon cycling on UK blanket peat bogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixon, Simon; Rowson, James; Worrall, Fred

    2010-05-01

    The most important control upon the carbon dynamics of any peatland is vegetation. However there is a gap in the literature with respect to comparative, in-situ studies of common upland vegetation types on peat bogs from a carbon cycling perspective. Where studies exist they tend to be narrowly focused (i.e. on one or two species or a small geographical area) or are laboratory manipulation studies. This study set out to compare gaseous CO2 exchange, in situ, across a broad (geographic) range of sites dominated by differing, common, upland vegetation types. The vegetation types studied were; Calluna vulgaris, Sphagnum spp., Eriophorum (E. angustifolium + E. vaginatum), Molinia caerulea and areas revegetated with a lawn grass mixture that was used for restoration (Festuca spp, Deschampsia spp. and Agrostis spp.).The primary aim of the study was to assess the carbon cycling potential of the common upland vegetation types, in order to produce clearer evidence as to which upland species produce the most efficient carbon sinks. The study was carried out in the South Pennines and Peak District of England. All readings were taken from upland-blanket peat bogs, as this type of bog accounts for 87% of the UK's peatlands, and therefore the results of this study can have the widest possible applicability to the rest of the UK's peat reserves. NEE and NER measurements were taken with a PP Systems EMG-4 infra-red gas analyzer. PAR and air temperature readings were taken along side water table and soil pore water samples from every site. Each site was visited monthly for at least 12 months and between 3-9 replicates were recorded per site. The results of this study will deal with the effects vegetation has on NER, GPP and NEE, focusing on which vegetation types make the most efficient gaseous carbon sinks. Moreover the effect of vegetation on water table levels and water quality will be discussed. Finally a consideration of how the age of Calluna vulgaris affects the parameters

  11. Habitat Suitability Index Models: American black duck (wintering)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lewis, James C.; Garrison, Russell L.

    1984-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The American black duck, commonly known as the black duck, is migratory and has a wide geographic range. American black ducks breed from Cape Hatteras, North Carolina, west to the Mississippi River and north through the eastern Canadian boreal forest (Bellrose 1976). The winter range extends from the Rio Grande River on the Texas coast, northeast to Lake Michigan, east to Nova Scotia, south to Florida, and west to Texas (Wright 1954). American black ducks arrive on their wintering habitats between September and early December and remain there until February to April (Bellrose 1976). Their preferred habitat varies considerably through the wintering range. Habitat use appears related to food availability, freedom from disturbance, weather, and often upon the presence of large bodies of open water. These interrelated elements are essential for meeting the energy demands and other nutritional requirements of black ducks in response to the rigors of cold weather and migration. In the Atlantic Flyway, winter populations of American black ducks concentrate in marine and estuarine wetlands (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 1979). They use salt marshes and small tidal bays for feeding and loafing areas. In wintering areas north of Chesapeake Bay, American black ducks frequently feed on tidal flats and rest in emergent wetlands or on ice-free bays, rivers, and coastal reservoirs. In the Chesapeake bay area, migrant and wintering American black ducks occupy a wide variety of habitats (Stewart 1962). They strongly favor brackish bays with extensive adjacent agricultural lands. Estuarine bays, coastal salt marshes, tidal fresh marshes, and adjacent impoundments receive high usage. American black ducks also concentrate in forested wetlands in and adjacent to estuaries in the South Atlantic Flyway, especially in Virginia and North Carolina.

  12. Environmental effects of dredging. Long-term evaluation of plants and animals colonizing contaminated esturaine dredged material placed in an upland environment. Technical notes

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, C.R.; Brandon, D.L.

    1991-09-01

    Contaminated sediment was dredged from Black Rock Harbor, Connecticut, in October 1983 and placed in aquatic, upland, and wetland environments as part of the US Army Corps of Engineers/Environmental Protection Agency Field Verification Program (FVP), 1981-1986 (Peddicord 1988). Upland tests (plant and earthworm bioassays) were conducted on the sediment before dredging to evaluate potential contaminant mobility under the upland disposal alternative. Laboratory test results were subsequently field verified at the field test site at `Tongue Point,` Bridgeport, Connecticut. The results of the upland disposal portion of the FVP and the changes occurring since the completion of the FVP for the upland disposal environment are summarized herein. This technical note emphasizes the contaminant mobility of heavy metals. Contaminant mobility and the progressive development of the upland ecosystem at this site will be evaluated until September 1995.

  13. Joint Effect of Habitat Identity and Spatial Distance on Spiders’ Community Similarity in a Fragmented Transition Zone

    PubMed Central

    Ziv, Yaron

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the main processes that affect community similarity have been the focus of much ecological research. However, the relative effects of environmental and spatial aspects in structuring ecological communities is still unresolved and is probably scale-dependent. Here, we examine the effect of habitat identity and spatial distance on fine-grained community similarity within a biogeographic transition zone. We compared four hypotheses: i) habitat identity alone, ii) spatial proximity alone, iii) non-interactive effects of both habitat identity and spatial proximity, and iv) interactive effect of habitat identity and spatial proximity. We explored these hypotheses for spiders in three fragmented landscapes located along the sharp climatic gradient of Southern Judea Lowlands (SJL), Israel. We sampled 14,854 spiders (from 199 species or morphospecies) in 644 samples, taken in 35 patches and stratified to nine different habitats. We calculated the Bray-Curtis similarity between all samples-pairs. We divided the pairwise values to four functional distance categories (same patch, different patches from the same landscape, adjacent landscapes and distant landscapes) and two habitat categories (same or different habitats) and compared them using non-parametric MANOVA. A significant interaction between habitat identity and spatial distance was found, such that the difference in mean similarity between same-habitat pairs and different-habitat pairs decreases with spatial distance. Additionally, community similarity decayed with spatial distance. Furthermore, at all distances, same-habitat pairs had higher similarity than different-habitats pairs. Our results support the fourth hypothesis of interactive effect of habitat identity and spatial proximity. We suggest that the environmental complexity of habitats or increased habitat specificity of species near the edge of their distribution range may explain this pattern. Thus, in transitions zones care should be taken

  14. Joint Effect of Habitat Identity and Spatial Distance on Spiders' Community Similarity in a Fragmented Transition Zone.

    PubMed

    Gavish, Yoni; Ziv, Yaron

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the main processes that affect community similarity have been the focus of much ecological research. However, the relative effects of environmental and spatial aspects in structuring ecological communities is still unresolved and is probably scale-dependent. Here, we examine the effect of habitat identity and spatial distance on fine-grained community similarity within a biogeographic transition zone. We compared four hypotheses: i) habitat identity alone, ii) spatial proximity alone, iii) non-interactive effects of both habitat identity and spatial proximity, and iv) interactive effect of habitat identity and spatial proximity. We explored these hypotheses for spiders in three fragmented landscapes located along the sharp climatic gradient of Southern Judea Lowlands (SJL), Israel. We sampled 14,854 spiders (from 199 species or morphospecies) in 644 samples, taken in 35 patches and stratified to nine different habitats. We calculated the Bray-Curtis similarity between all samples-pairs. We divided the pairwise values to four functional distance categories (same patch, different patches from the same landscape, adjacent landscapes and distant landscapes) and two habitat categories (same or different habitats) and compared them using non-parametric MANOVA. A significant interaction between habitat identity and spatial distance was found, such that the difference in mean similarity between same-habitat pairs and different-habitat pairs decreases with spatial distance. Additionally, community similarity decayed with spatial distance. Furthermore, at all distances, same-habitat pairs had higher similarity than different-habitats pairs. Our results support the fourth hypothesis of interactive effect of habitat identity and spatial proximity. We suggest that the environmental complexity of habitats or increased habitat specificity of species near the edge of their distribution range may explain this pattern. Thus, in transitions zones care should be taken

  15. Habitat use, movements and home range of wintering Lesser Scaup in Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herring, G.; Collazo, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    Radio telemetry and diurnal time activity budgets were used to show that wintering Lesser Scaup (Aythya affinis) used different habitats for comfort and feeding activities at Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge (Merritt Island), Florida and adjacent estuarine areas. Management should take this spatial consideration into account. The same data were used to determine if habitat use differed between sexes. Data on movements and home range were used to evaluate habitat quality and potential effects of human disturbance. Scaup foraged more in impounded wetlands and rested more in open estuarine regions. Mean distance between diurnal and nocturnal sites was 2.7 km (SE ?? 0.3), and was similar between sexes and from mid to late winter. Male and female fixed kernel home ranges and core use areas did not differ. Mean fixed kernel 95% home range and 50% core use areas were 15.1 km2 (SE ?? 2.0) and 2.7 km2 (SE ?? 0.5) respectively, representing 3% and 0.5% of surveyed habitats. Males and females used habitats similarly and short distances traveled between diurnal and nocturnal sites suggested that habitat conditions were similar across the impounded wetlands and shallow portions of both the Indian River and Banana River. Sedentary or short movements suggested that disturbance was probably negligible at the principal areas used by Lesser Scaup. Habitat management strategies for scaup should not be restricted to Merritt Island. Adjustments should be made to take into account that maintenance activities occur in adjacent estuarine areas as well.

  16. Habitats of Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dirk, Schulze-Makuch; Irwin, Louis N.

    There are four principal habitats in which life may exist - the surface of a planetary body, its subsurface, its atmosphere and space. From our own experience we know that life does exist on the surface of a planet, in its subsurface, and transiently at least in the atmosphere. Where it is present, it exists in a surprising diversity and in a variety of microhabitats, from deep caverns (Hose et al. 2000, Melim et al. 2001) to hydrothermal fluids and hot springs of various chemistries (Jannasch 1995, Rzonca and Schulze-Makuch 2002), to the frozen deserts of Antarctica (Friedmann 1982, Sun and Friedmann 1999). In this chapter we will elaborate on the principal habitats, the constraints they impose on life, and the possibilities they provide.

  17. Habitat and host specificity of trematode metacercariae in fiddler crabs from mangrove habitats in Florida.

    PubMed

    Smith, Nancy F; Ruiz, Gregory M; Reed, Sherry A

    2007-10-01

    Fiddler crabs (Uca spp.) are common inhabitants of temperate and tropical coastal communities throughout the world, often occupying specific microenvironments within mangrove and salt marsh habitats. As second intermediate hosts for trematodes, we investigated patterns of host distribution and parasitism for 3 species of sympatric fiddler crabs in mangrove habitats adjacent to the Indian River Lagoon, Florida. Fiddler crab distribution varied among species, with Uca speciosa dominating the low and mid intertidal regions of mangrove banks. This species also exhibited higher prevalence and abundance of Probolocoryphe lanceolata metacercariae compared with Uca rapax, which is relatively more abundant in the high intertidal zone. We conducted a field experiment to test whether U. speciosa was more heavily parasitized by P. lanceolata as a result of its habitat distribution by raising U. speciosa and U. rapax under identical environmental conditions. After exposure to shedding cercariae under the same field conditions, all individuals of U. speciosa became parasitized by P. lanceolata, whereas no U. rapax were parasitized, suggesting that differences in parasitism were driven by host selection.

  18. Measuring acoustic habitats.

    PubMed

    Merchant, Nathan D; Fristrup, Kurt M; Johnson, Mark P; Tyack, Peter L; Witt, Matthew J; Blondel, Philippe; Parks, Susan E

    2015-03-01

    1. Many organisms depend on sound for communication, predator/prey detection and navigation. The acoustic environment can therefore play an important role in ecosystem dynamics and evolution. A growing number of studies are documenting acoustic habitats and their influences on animal development, behaviour, physiology and spatial ecology, which has led to increasing demand for passive acoustic monitoring (PAM) expertise in the life sciences. However, as yet, there has been no synthesis of data processing methods for acoustic habitat monitoring, which presents an unnecessary obstacle to would-be PAM analysts. 2. Here, we review the signal processing techniques needed to produce calibrated measurements of terrestrial and aquatic acoustic habitats. We include a supplemental tutorial and template computer codes in matlab and r, which give detailed guidance on how to produce calibrated spectrograms and statistical analyses of sound levels. Key metrics and terminology for the characterisation of biotic, abiotic and anthropogenic sound are covered, and their application to relevant monitoring scenarios is illustrated through example data sets. To inform study design and hardware selection, we also include an up-to-date overview of terrestrial and aquatic PAM instruments. 3. Monitoring of acoustic habitats at large spatiotemporal scales is becoming possible through recent advances in PAM technology. This will enhance our understanding of the role of sound in the spatial ecology of acoustically sensitive species and inform spatial planning to mitigate the rising influence of anthropogenic noise in these ecosystems. As we demonstrate in this work, progress in these areas will depend upon the application of consistent and appropriate PAM methodologies.

  19. Measuring acoustic habitats

    PubMed Central

    Merchant, Nathan D; Fristrup, Kurt M; Johnson, Mark P; Tyack, Peter L; Witt, Matthew J; Blondel, Philippe; Parks, Susan E

    2015-01-01

    1. Many organisms depend on sound for communication, predator/prey detection and navigation. The acoustic environment can therefore play an important role in ecosystem dynamics and evolution. A growing number of studies are documenting acoustic habitats and their influences on animal development, behaviour, physiology and spatial ecology, which has led to increasing demand for passive acoustic monitoring (PAM) expertise in the life sciences. However, as yet, there has been no synthesis of data processing methods for acoustic habitat monitoring, which presents an unnecessary obstacle to would-be PAM analysts. 2. Here, we review the signal processing techniques needed to produce calibrated measurements of terrestrial and aquatic acoustic habitats. We include a supplemental tutorial and template computer codes in matlab and r, which give detailed guidance on how to produce calibrated spectrograms and statistical analyses of sound levels. Key metrics and terminology for the characterisation of biotic, abiotic and anthropogenic sound are covered, and their application to relevant monitoring scenarios is illustrated through example data sets. To inform study design and hardware selection, we also include an up-to-date overview of terrestrial and aquatic PAM instruments. 3. Monitoring of acoustic habitats at large spatiotemporal scales is becoming possible through recent advances in PAM technology. This will enhance our understanding of the role of sound in the spatial ecology of acoustically sensitive species and inform spatial planning to mitigate the rising influence of anthropogenic noise in these ecosystems. As we demonstrate in this work, progress in these areas will depend upon the application of consistent and appropriate PAM methodologies. PMID:25954500

  20. Understanding barite and gypsum precipitation in upland acid-sulfate soils: An example from a Lufkin Series toposequence, south-central Texas, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jennings, Debra S.; Driese, Steven G.

    2014-01-01

    Although low-temperature barite precipitation has been previously documented in soils and paleosols, pedogenic barite precipitation remains poorly understood. This study characterizes the micromorphology, elemental trends, and stable isotope geochemistry of sulfates in a barite-bearing soil (Lufkin Series) toposequence using optical microscopy, XRD, ICP-MS, and stable S and O isotope data. Synthesized data indicate that fluctuating redox processes and microbial activity resulting from epiaquatic and evaporative conditions lead to the precipitation of sulfates in the Lufkin soils. Stable sulfur and oxygen isotopes indicate that the primary source of sulfur is the partial dissolution of jarosite during microbial sulfate reduction. Barium-rich parent material provides adequate barium for barite precipitation. Barium is mobilized and concentrated in Btg horizons ~ 100-160 cm below the surface. The presence of humic acids in profiles lower on the landscape prevents barite precipitation and drives the precipitation of gypsum between saturated, anoxic conditions (November to May) and drier, more oxic conditions (May to November). Barite precipitation is a slow, punctuated process. Micromorphological data reveal that barite precipitates first along evacuated macropores and then in the adjacent matrix. In general, optimal conditions for pedogenic barite precipitation in upland wetland acid-sulfate soils are: 1) warm soil temperature that supports active sulfur-reducing and sulfur oxidizing microbes; 2) distinct wet/dry seasons that allow alternating redox conditions; 3) low-gradient landscape; 4) parent material that contains barium- and sulfur-rich constituents; and 5) a long-lived, stable landscape.

  1. Integral habitat transport system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliott, Bill; Frazer, Scott; Higgs, Joey; Huff, Jason; Milam, Tigree

    1994-01-01

    In the 1993 Fall quarter, the ME 4182 design class was sponsored to study various scenarios that needed to be studied for Martian travel. The class was sponsored by NASA and there were several different design projects. The design that group three chose was an integral transport system for a Martian habitat. An integral transport system means the design had to be one that was attached to the habitat. There were several criteria that the design had to meet. Group three performed an in depth study of the Martian environment and looked at several different design ideas. The concept group three developed involved the use of kinematic linkages and the use of Martian gravity to move the habitat. The various design concepts, the criteria matrices and all other aspects that helped group three develop their design can be found in their 1993 ME 4182 design report. Now it is Winter quarter 1994 and group three is faced with another problem. The problem is building a working prototype of their Fall design. The limitations this quarter were the parts. The group had to make the prototype work with existing manufactured parts or make the parts themselves in a machine shop. The prototype was scaled down roughly about twelve times smaller than the original design. The following report describes the actions taken by group three to build a working model.

  2. Woodcock response to habitat management in Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sepik, G.F.; Dwyer, T.J.

    1982-01-01

    A study was initiated in 1975 at the Moosehorn National Wildlife Refuge to develop habitat management techniques for woodcock (Philohela minor) that could be used by small landowners as well as in commercial forestry operations. Use of selected diurnal covers by adult female and juvenile woodcock increased after strips were clearcut through these covers. Woodcock use of clearcut strips for feeding was equivalent to that in adjacent uncut areas after only 6 years of growth. Small clearings created by firewood cutters in a 1,200-ha hardwood stand increased singing male activity, but commercial forest operations were necessary to increase singing-male use in relation to the rest of the refuge. The age structure of courting males on new clearings favored second-year males (65%), but older males (55 %) were more common on established singing grounds. Spring burning of commercial-quality blueberry fields increased roosting activity during the summer of the burn. Roosting woodcock also preferred clearcuts adjacent to active summer fields in which the slash had not been treated. Management recommendations are also given.

  3. Habitat Gardening--How Schoolyards Are Being Transformed into Wildlife Sanctuaries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunne, Niall

    2000-01-01

    Students from JFK High School and community gardening clubs in the Bronx cleaned up wetlands adjacent to the school and created various small theme gardens supporting diverse wildlife. Nationally, the schoolyard habitat movement aims to create stimulating outdoor environments where students can learn about local ecology, biodiversity, and…

  4. Breeding habitat associations and predicted distribution of an obligate tundra-breeding bird, Smith's Longspur

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wild, Teri C.; Kendall, Steven J.; Guldager, Nikki; Powell, Abby N.

    2015-01-01

    Smith's Longspur (Calcarius pictus) is a species of conservation concern which breeds in Arctic habitats that are expected to be especially vulnerable to climate change. We used bird presence and habitat data from point-transect surveys conducted at 12 sites across the Brooks Range, Alaska, 2003–2009, to identify breeding areas, describe local habitat associations, and identify suitable habitat using a predictive model of Smith's Longspur distribution. Smith's Longspurs were observed at seven sites, where they were associated with a variety of sedge–shrub habitats composed primarily of mosses, sedges, tussocks, and dwarf shrubs; erect shrubs were common but sparse. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling ordination of ground cover revealed positive associations of Smith's Longspur presence with sedges and mosses and a negative association with high cover of shrubs. To model predicted distribution, we used boosted regression trees to relate landscape variables to occurrence. Our model predicted that Smith's Longspurs may occur in valleys and foothills of the northeastern and southeastern mountains and in upland plateaus of the western mountains, and farther west than currently documented, over a predicted area no larger than 15% of the Brooks Range. With climate change, shrubs are expected to grow larger and denser, while soil moisture and moss cover are predicted to decrease. These changes may reduce Smith's Longspur habitat quality and limit distribution in the Brooks Range to poorly drained lowlands and alpine plateaus where sedge–shrub tundra is likely to persist. Conversely, northward advance of shrubs into sedge tundra may create suitable habitat, thus supporting a northward longspur distribution shift.

  5. Crop structure in a gully catchment and the development of a loess gully (Lublin Upland, E Poland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mędrek, Karolina; Rodzik, Jan

    2015-04-01

    The study was conducted in a loess gully catchment with an area of 1.23 km2 and height differences of less than 50 m (213-165 m above sea level), located in Kolonia Celejów in the Nałęczów Plateau. This is one of mesoregions of Lublin Upland. In the investigated catchment, loess cover with a thickness of 10-20 m, accumulated during the Vistulian Glaciation, is dissected by a gully system with a depth of 5-15 m and total length of 7.5 km. The gully system is forested in 30% of its area. Until recently, the remaining part of the catchment under agricultural use has been dominated by conventional farming of cereals, potatoes, and sugar beets. Today, 15% of the non-forested area of the catchment is occupied by housing premises, dirt roads, and fallow land, and 45% by orchards with maintained turf, including berry plantations. This type of land management contributes to the retention of precipitation, and protects the soil from flushing. Approximately 20% of the agricultural land is occupied by conventional crops (cereals and root crops), protecting the soil to a moderate degree. Water runoff in the area does not occur every year. Approximately 20% of the agricultural land is currently occupied by cruciferous vegetables (broccoli and cauliflower), decorative shrubs, and orchards without turf in the first 2 years of use. Water and soil runoff from these crops occurs even several times per year. The majority of the material is retained in the lower part of the field, and the water flows into the gully. The crops in the fields adjacent to the ravine have a direct impact on the development of the gully. If the field is located on a raised headland, the flowing water dissects the edge of the gully, and the eroded material is accumulated on the gully bottom. If the field is located in a valley above the gullyhead, the flowing water dissects the bottom of the gully, and the eroded material is discharged outside the catchment.

  6. Dynamics of water-table fluctuations in an upland between two prairie-pothole wetlands in North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosenberry, D.O.; Winter, T.C.

    1997-01-01

    Data from a string of instrumented wells located on an upland of 55 m width between two wetlands in central North Dakota, USA, indicated frequent changes in water table configuration following wet and dry periods during 5 years of investigation. A seasonal wetland is situated about 1.5 m higher than a nearby semipermanent wetland, suggesting an average ground water-table gradient of 0.02. However, water had the potential to flow as ground water from the upper to the lower wetland during only a few instances. A water table trough adjacent to the lower semipermanent wetland was the most common water-table configuration during the first 4 years of the study, but it is likely that severe drought during those years contributed to the longevity and extent of the water-table trough. Water-table mounds that formed in response to rainfall events caused reversals of direction of flow that frequently modified the more dominant water-table trough during the severe drought. Rapid and large water-table rise to near land surface in response to intense rainfall was aided by the thick capillary fringe. One of the wettest summers on record ended the severe drought during the last year of the study, and caused a larger-scale water-table mound to form between the two wetlands. The mound was short in duration because it was overwhelmed by rising stage of the higher seasonal wetland which spilled into the lower wetland. Evapotranspiration was responsible for generating the water-table trough that formed between the two wetlands. Estimation of evapotranspiration based on diurnal fluctuations in wells yielded rates that averaged 3-5 mm day-1. On many occasions water levels in wells closer to the semipermanent wetland indicated a direction of flow that was different from the direction indicated by water levels in wells farther from the wetland. Misinterpretation of direction and magnitude of gradients between ground water and wetlands could result from poorly placed or too few observation

  7. Pataha Creek Model Watershed : January 2000-December 2002 Habitat Conservation Projects.

    SciTech Connect

    Bartels, Duane G.

    2003-04-01

    The projects outlined in detail on the attached project reports were implemented from calendar year 2000 through 2002 in the Pataha Creek Watershed. The Pataha Creek Watershed was selected in 1993, along with the Tucannon and Asotin Creeks, as model watersheds by NPPC. In previous years, demonstration sites using riparian fencing, off site watering facilities, tree and shrub plantings and upland conservation practices were used for information and education and were the main focus of the implementation phase of the watershed plan. These practices were the main focus of the watershed plan to reduce the majority of the sediment entering the stream. Prior to 2000, several bank stabilization projects were installed but the installation costs became prohibitive and these types of projects were reduced in numbers over the following years. The years 2000 through 2002 were years where a focused effort was made to work on the upland conservation practices to reduce the sedimentation into Pataha Creek. Over 95% of the sediment entering the stream can be tied directly to the upland and riparian areas of the watershed. The Pataha Creek has steelhead in the upper reaches and native and planted rainbow trout in the mid to upper portion. Suckers, pikeminow and shiners inhabit the lower portion because of the higher water temperatures and lack of vegetation. The improvement of riparian habitat will improve habitat for the desired fish species. The lower portion of the Pataha Creek could eventually develop into spawning and rearing habitat for chinook salmon if some migration barriers are removed and habitat is restored. The upland projects completed during 2000 through 2002 were practices that reduce erosion from the cropland. Three-year continuous no-till projects were finishing up and the monitoring of this particular practice is ongoing. Its direct impact on soil erosion along with the economical aspects is being studied. Other practices such as terrace, waterway, sediment

  8. Ground Fire Effects on Hydrology and Habitat: Implications for Fire Management in Areas with Organic Soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, C. A.; Watts, A.; Mclaughlin, D. L.; Kaplan, D. A.

    2014-12-01

    Fires in wetlands can move into organic soils, where the resulting ground fires can smolder and consume large amounts of soil. These long-duration fires have a number of negative effects including air quality and motorist safety, as well as large-scale implications resulting from their release of large quantities of stored carbon. However, the ecological implications of the frequency and intensity of organic soil combustion occurrence are relatively unexplored. Smoldering fires in organic soils may increase local hydroperiod and wetland storage by lowering elevation, conferring benefits to wildlife (e.g., dry season refugia and feeding grounds). Short-term increases in productivity due to nutrient availability from ash may occur in or adjacent to areas affected by ground fires. Short-term negative feedbacks to fire return period are also likely to occur locally, due to increased hydroperiods; however, adjacent uplands may experience hydrologic changes as well, including factors which may affect fire risk far from areas of organic soil consumption. To explore hydrologic implications of soil-consuming ground fires, we developed a model based on a low-relief region in southern Florida (U.S.A.) that is characterized by seasonal hydrologic fluctuations and areas of organic soil distributed across a landscape that experiences frequent fire (i.e., 2-4 year return interval in uplands adjacent to wetlands). Parameterizing the model with local soil and hydrologic properties, as well as observed effects of fire in the region's organic soils, the model predicts changes to wetland depths, bathymetry, and storage competence as a function of fire severity (i.e., area and depth of burn) that may be ecologically significant. Our findings imply that soil-consuming ground fires—and their prevention—have ecohydrological implications that must be considered when developing ecosystem and fire management protocols.

  9. Habitat degradation affects the summer activity of polar bears.

    PubMed

    Ware, Jasmine V; Rode, Karyn D; Bromaghin, Jeffrey F; Douglas, David C; Wilson, Ryan R; Regehr, Eric V; Amstrup, Steven C; Durner, George M; Pagano, Anthony M; Olson, Jay; Robbins, Charles T; Jansen, Heiko T

    2017-02-28

    Understanding behavioral responses of species to environmental change is critical to forecasting population-level effects. Although climate change is significantly impacting species' distributions, few studies have examined associated changes in behavior. Polar bear (Ursus maritimus) subpopulations have varied in their near-term responses to sea ice decline. We examined behavioral responses of two adjacent subpopulations to changes in habitat availability during the annual sea ice minimum using activity data. Location and activity sensor data collected from 1989 to 2014 for 202 adult female polar bears in the Southern Beaufort Sea (SB) and Chukchi Sea (CS) subpopulations were used to compare activity in three habitat types varying in prey availability: (1) land; (2) ice over shallow, biologically productive waters; and (3) ice over deeper, less productive waters. Bears varied activity across and within habitats with the highest activity at 50-75% sea ice concentration over shallow waters. On land, SB bears exhibited variable but relatively high activity associated with the use of subsistence-harvested bowhead whale carcasses, whereas CS bears exhibited low activity consistent with minimal feeding. Both subpopulations had fewer observations in their preferred shallow-water sea ice habitats in recent years, corresponding with declines in availability of this substrate. The substantially higher use of marginal habitats by SB bears is an additional mechanism potentially explaining why this subpopulation has experienced negative effects of sea ice loss compared to the still-productive CS subpopulation. Variability in activity among, and within, habitats suggests that bears alter their behavior in response to habitat conditions, presumably in an attempt to balance prey availability with energy costs.

  10. Coefficients of productivity for Yellowstone's grizzly bear habitat

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mattson, David John; Barber, Kim; Maw, Ralene; Renkin, Roy

    2004-01-01

    This report describes methods for calculating coefficients used to depict habitat productivity for grizzly bears in the Yellowstone ecosystem. Calculations based on these coefficients are used in the Yellowstone Grizzly Bear Cumulative Effects Model to map the distribution of habitat productivity and account for the impacts of human facilities. The coefficients of habitat productivity incorporate detailed information that was collected over a 20-year period (1977-96) on the foraging behavior of Yellowstone's bears and include records of what bears were feeding on, when and where they fed, the extent of that feeding activity, and relative measures of the quantity consumed. The coefficients also incorporate information, collected primarily from 1986 to 1992, on the nutrient content of foods that were consumed, their digestibility, characteristic bite sizes, and the energy required to extract and handle each food. Coefficients were calculated for different time periods and different habitat types, specific to different parts of the Yellowstone ecosystem. Stratifications included four seasons of bear activity (spring, estrus, early hyperphagia, late hyperphagia), years when ungulate carrion and whitebark pine seed crops were abundant versus not, areas adjacent to (< 100 m) or far away from forest/nonforest edges, and areas inside or outside of ungulate winter ranges. Densities of bear activity in each region, habitat type, and time period were incorporated into calculations, controlling for the effects of proximity to human facilities. The coefficients described in this report and associated estimates of grizzly bear habitat productivity are unique among many efforts to model the conditions of bear habitat because calculations include information on energetics derived from the observed behavior of radio-marked bears.

  11. Coefficients of Productivity for Yellowstone's Grizzly Bear Habitat

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mattson, David John; Barber, Kim; Maw, Ralene; Renkin, Roy

    2004-01-01

    This report describes methods for calculating coefficients used to depict habitat productivity for grizzly bears in the Yellowstone ecosystem. Calculations based on these coefficients are used in the Yellowstone Grizzly Bear Cumulative Effects Model to map the distribution of habitat productivity and account for the impacts of human facilities. The coefficients of habitat productivity incorporate detailed information that was collected over a 20-year period (1977-96) on the foraging behavior of Yellowstone's bears and include records of what bears were feeding on, when and where they fed, the extent of that feeding activity, and relative measures of the quantity consumed. The coefficients also incorporate information, collected primarily from 1986 to 1992, on the nutrient content of foods that were consumed, their digestibility, characteristic bite sizes, and the energy required to extract and handle each food. Coefficients were calculated for different time periods and different habitat types, specific to different parts of the Yellowstone ecosystem. Stratifications included four seasons of bear activity (spring, estrus, early hyperphagia, late hyperphagia), years when ungulate carrion and whitebark pine seed crops were abundant versus not, areas adjacent to (<100 m) or far away from forest/nonforest edges, and areas inside or outside of ungulate winter ranges. Densities of bear activity in each region, habitat type, and time period were incorporated into calculations, controlling for the effects of proximity to human facilities. The coefficients described in this report and associated estimates of grizzly bear habitat productivity are unique among many efforts to model the conditions of bear habitat because calculations include information on energetics derived from the observed behavior of radio-marked bears.

  12. Hedgerow restoration promotes pollinator populations and exports native bees to adjacent fields.

    PubMed

    Morandin, Lora A; Kremen, Claire

    2013-06-01

    In intensive agricultural landscapes, restoration within farms could enhance biodiversity and ecosystem services such as pollination by native pollinators. Although governments and conservation groups are promoting small-scale restoration on working farms, there are few studies that assess whether these practices enhance pollinator communities in restored areas. Further, there is no information on whether floral enhancements will deplete pollinators in adjacent fields by concentrating ambient populations or whether they result in a net increase in abundance in adjacent farm fields. We investigated whether field edges restored with native perennial plants in California's Central Valley agricultural region increased floral abundance and potential bee nesting sites, and native bee and syrphid fly abundance and diversity, in comparison to relatively unmanaged edges. Native bees and syrphid flies collected from flowers were more abundant, species-rich, and diverse at hedgerow sites than in weedy, unmanaged edges. Abundance of bees collected passively in pan traps was negatively correlated with floral abundance, was significantly different from communities captured by net sampling from flowers, and did not distinguish between site types; we therefore focused on the results of net samples and visual observations. Uncommon species of native bees were sevenfold more abundant on hedgerow flowers than on flowers at weedy, unmanaged edges. Of the species on flowers at hedgerows, 40% were exclusive to hedgerow sites, but there were no species exclusively found on flowers at control sites. Hedgerows were especially important for supporting less-common species of native bees in our intensive agricultural landscape. Hedgerows did not concentrate ambient native bee, honey bee, or syphid fly populations, and they acted as net exporters of native bees into adjacent fields. Within-farm habitat restoration such as hedgerow creation may be essential for enhancing native pollinator

  13. Effect of long-term understory prescribed burning on standing and down dead woody material in dry upland oak forests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Polo, John A.; Hallgren, S.W.; Leslie,, David M.

    2013-01-01

    Dead woody material, long ignored or viewed as a nuisance for forest management, has gained appreciation for its many roles in the forest including wildlife habitat, nutrient storage and cycling, energy for trophic webs, protection of soil, fuel for fire and carbon storage. The growing interest in managing dead woody material has created strong demand for greater understanding of factors controlling amounts and turnover. Prescribed burning, an important management tool, may have strong effects of dead woody material given fire’s capacity to create and consume dead woody material. We determined effects of long-term understory prescribed burning on standing and down woody material in upland oak forests in south-central North America. We hypothesized that as frequency of fire increased in these stands the amount of deadwood would decrease and the fine woody material would decrease more rapidly than coarse woody material. The study was conducted in forests dominated by post oak (Quercus stellata) and blackjack oak (Quercus marilandica) in wildlife management areas where understory prescribed burning had been practiced for over 20 years and the range of burn frequencies was 0 (unburned) fires per decade (FPD) to 4.6 FPD. The amount of deadwood was low compared with more productive forests in southeastern North America. The biomass (24.7 Mg ha-1) and carbon stocks (11.7 Mg ha-1) were distributed among standing dead (22%), coarse woody debris (CWD, dia. > 7.5 cm., 12%), fine woody debris (FWD, dia. < 7.5 cm., 23%), and forest floor (43%). There was no evidence that understory prescribed burning influenced the amount and size distribution of standing and down dead woody material. There were two explanations for the lack of a detectable effect. First, a high incidence of severe weather including ice storms and strong winds that produce large amounts of deadwood intermittently in an irregular pattern across the landscape may preclude detecting a strong effect of understory

  14. Stratiform zinc-lead mineralization in Nasina assemblage rocks of the Yukon-Tanana Upland in east-central Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dusel-Bacon, Cynthia; Bressler, Jason R.; Takaoka, Hidetoshi; Mortensen, James K.; Oliver, Douglas H.; Leventhal, Joel S.; Newberry, Rainer J.; Bundtzen, Thomas K.

    1998-01-01

    The Yukon-Tanana Upland of east-central Alaska and Yukon comprises thrust sheets of ductilely deformed metasedimentary and metaigneous rocks of uncertain age and origin that are overlain by klippen of weakly metamorphosed oceanic rocks of the Seventymile-Slide Mountain terrane, and intruded by post-kinematic Early Jurassic, Cretaceous and Tertiary granitoids. Metamorphosed continental margin strata in the Yukon-Tanana Upland of east-central Alaska are thought to be correlative, on the basis of stratigraphic similarities and sparse Mississippian U-Pb zircon and fossil ages (Mortensen, 1992), with middle Paleozoic metasedimentary and metavolcanic rocks in the eastern Alaska Range and in western and southeastern Yukon. Furthermore, rocks in the northern Yukon-Tanana Upland may correlate across the Tintina fault with unmetamorphosed counterparts in the Selwyn Basin (Murphy and Abbott, 1995). Volcanic-hosted (VMS) and sedimentary exhalative (sedex) massive sulfide occurrences are widely reported for these other areas (green-colored unit of fig. 1) but, as yet, have not been documented in the Alaskan part of the Yukon-Tanana Upland. Recent discoveries of VMS deposits in Devono-Mississippian metavolcanic rocks in the Finlayson Lake area of southeastern Yukon (Hunt, 1997) have increased the potential for finding VMS deposits in rocks of similar lithology and age in the Yukon-Tanana Upland of Alaska. Restoration of 450 km of early Tertiary dextral movement along the Tintina fault juxtaposes these two areas.

  15. Polymorphism analysis of multi-parent advanced generation inter-cross (MAGIC) populations of upland cotton developed in China.

    PubMed

    Li, D G; Li, Z X; Hu, J S; Lin, Z X; Li, X F

    2016-12-19

    Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) is an important cash crop that provides renewable natural fiber worldwide. Currently limited genetic base leads to a decrease in upland cotton genetic diversity. Multi-parent advance generation inter-cross (MAGIC) populations can be used to evaluate complex agronomic traits in crops. In this study, we developed an upland cotton MAGIC population. A total of 258 MAGIC population lines and their twelve founder lines were analyzed, using 432 pairs of simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. Gene diversity indices and the polymorphism information content were calculated using polymorphism analyses. Our genotype analysis showed that 258 inbred lines could be divided into 158 genotypes. Among these, we identified 17 pairs of specific SSR primers on the A chromosome subgroups and 24 pairs of specific SSR primers on the B chromosome subgroups of upland cotton. These were related to 77 and 128 genotypes, respectively. Our results suggest that the upland cotton MAGIC population contained abundant genetic diversity and may provide enormous resources for future genetic breeding.

  16. [Response of mineralization of dissolved organic carbon to soil moisture in paddy and upland soils in hilly red soil region].

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiang-Bi; Wang, Ai-Hua; Hu, Le-Ning; Huang, Yuan; Li, Yang; He, Xun-Yang; Su, Yi-Rong

    2014-03-01

    Typical paddy and upland soils were collected from a hilly subtropical red-soil region. 14C-labeled dissolved organic carbon (14C-DOC) was extracted from the paddy and upland soils incorporated with 14C-labeled straw after a 30-day (d) incubation period under simulated field conditions. A 100-d incubation experiment (25 degrees C) with the addition of 14C-DOC to paddy and upland soils was conducted to monitor the dynamics of 14C-DOC mineralization under different soil moisture conditions [45%, 60%, 75%, 90%, and 105% of the field water holding capacity (WHC)]. The results showed that after 100 days, 28.7%-61.4% of the labeled DOC in the two types of soils was mineralized to CO2. The mineralization rates of DOC in the paddy soils were significantly higher than in the upland soils under all soil moisture conditions, owing to the less complex composition of DOC in the paddy soils. The aerobic condition was beneficial for DOC mineralization in both soils, and the anaerobic condition was beneficial for DOC accumulation. The biodegradability and the proportion of the labile fraction of the added DOC increased with the increase of soil moisture (45% -90% WHC). Within 100 days, the labile DOC fraction accounted for 80.5%-91.1% (paddy soil) and 66.3%-72.4% (upland soil) of the cumulative mineralization of DOC, implying that the biodegradation rate of DOC was controlled by the percentage of labile DOC fraction.

  17. Response of Elk to Habitat Modification Near Natural Gas Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Dyke, Fred; Fox, Autumn; Harju, Seth M.; Dzialak, Matthew R.; Hayden-Wing, Larry D.; Winstead, Jeffrey B.

    2012-11-01

    Elk (Cervus elaphus) are known to shift habitat use in response to environmental modifications, including those associated with various forms of energy development. The specific behavioral responses underlying these trends, however, have not been effectively studied. To investigate such effects, we examined elk response to habitat alteration near natural gas wells in Las Animas County, Colorado, USA in 2008-2010. We created 10 1-ha openings in forests adjacent to 10 operating natural gas wells by removing standing timber in 2008, with concomitant establishment of 10 1-ha control sites adjacent to the same wells. On each site, we estimated elk use, indexed by pellet density, before and after timber removal. Concurrently, we measured plant production and cover, nutritional quality, species composition and biomass removed by elk and other large herbivores. Species richness and diversity, graminoid and forb cover, and graminoid and forb biomass increased on cut sites following tree removal. Differences were greater in 2010 than in 2009, and elk and deer removed more plant biomass in 2010 than 2009. Elk use of cut sites was 37 % lower than control sites in 2009, but 46 % higher in 2010. The initially lower use of cut sites may be attributable to lack of winter forage on these sites caused by timber removal and associated surface modification. The increased use of cut sites in 2010 suggested that elk possessed the behavioral capacity, over time, to exploit enhanced forage resources in the proximity of habitat modifications and human activity associated with maintenance of operating natural gas wells.

  18. Variations in soil microbial community structure induced by the conversion from paddy fields to upland fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, X.

    2015-12-01

    Land-use conversion is an important factor influencing the carbon and nitrogen gas exchange between land and atmosphere, and soil microorganisms is main driver of soil carbon and nitrogen gas production. Understanding the effect of land-use conversion on soil microbial communities and its influencing factor is important for greenhouse gas emission reduction and soil organic carbon and nitrogen sequestration and stability. The influence of land use conversion on soil process was undergoing a dynamic change, but little research has been done to understand the effect on soil microbial communities during the initial years after land conversion. In the study, the influences of land-use conversion from double rice cropping (RR) to maize-maize (MM) and soybean-peanut (SP) double cropping systems on soil physical and chemical properties, and microbial community structure was studied after two years of the conversion in southern China. The results showed that land use conversion significantly changed soil properties, microbial communities and biomass. Soil pH significantly decreased by 0.50 and 0.52 after conversion to MM and SP, respectively. Soil TN and NH4-N also significantly decreased by 9%-15% and 60% after conversion to upland fields, respectively. The total PLFAs, bacterial, gram-positive bacterial (G+), gram-negative bacterial (G-) and actinomycetic PLFAs decreased significantly. The ng g-1 soil concentration of monounsaturated chain PLFAs 16:1ω7c and 18:1ω9t were significantly higher at paddy fields than at upland fields. No significant differences in soil properties, microbial communities and biomass were found between conversed MM and SP. Our results indicated that land use conversion, not crop type conversed had a significant effects on soil properties and microbial communities at the initial of land conversion. And soil pH was the key factor regulating the variations in soil microbial community structure after land use conversion from paddy to upland fields.

  19. What functional strategies drive drought survival and recovery of perennial species from upland grassland?

    PubMed Central

    Zwicke, Marine; Picon-Cochard, Catherine; Morvan-Bertrand, Annette; Prud’homme, Marie-Pascale; Volaire, Florence

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Extreme climatic events such as severe droughts are expected to increase with climate change and to limit grassland perennity. The present study aimed to characterize the adaptive responses by which temperate herbaceous grassland species resist, survive and recover from a severe drought and to explore the relationships between plant resource use and drought resistance strategies. Methods Monocultures of six native perennial species from upland grasslands and one Mediterranean drought-resistant cultivar were compared under semi-controlled and non-limiting rooting depth conditions. Above- and below-ground traits were measured under irrigation in spring and during drought in summer (50 d of withholding water) in order to characterize resource use and drought resistance strategies. Plants were then rehydrated and assessed for survival (after 15 d) and recovery (after 1 year). Key Results Dehydration avoidance through water uptake was associated with species that had deep roots (>1·2 m) and high root mass (>4 kg m−3). Cell membrane stability ensuring dehydration tolerance of roots and meristems was positively correlated with fructan content and negatively correlated with sucrose content. Species that survived and recovered best combined high resource acquisition in spring (leaf elongation rate >9 mm d−1 and rooting depth >1·2 m) with both high dehydration avoidance and tolerance strategies. Conclusions Most of the native forage species, dominant in upland grassland, were able to survive and recover from extreme drought, but with various time lags. Overall the results suggest that the wide range of interspecific functional strategies for coping with drought may enhance the resilience of upland grassland plant communities under extreme drought events. PMID:25851134

  20. Long-term forest floor carbon dynamics after fire in upland boreal forests of western Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nalder, Ian A.; Wein, Ross W.

    1999-12-01

    We examined the long-term dynamics of upland boreal forest floors after disturbance by fire. We selected two important and contrasting upland tree species, Pinus banksiana (jack pine) and Populus tremuloides (trembling aspen), in three distinct climatic zones across the boreal forest of western Canada, and sampled 80 fire-originated stands divided into six chronosequences with ages ranging from 14 to 149 years. The forest floor was a large component of carbon storage. Averaged across ages and zones, it was 1.31 and 2.78 kg C m-2 for P. banksiana and P. tremuloides, respectively, compared with 4.03 and 5.56 kg C m-2 in aboveground trees. These data exclude decomposing coarse woody debris, which was a significant component of the forest floor (0.18/0.13 kg C m-2 ) and requires further study. The contributions from shrubs (0.035/0.151 kg C m-2), ground vegetation (0.019/0.026 kg C m-2), and moss-plus-lichen (0.179/0.004 kg C m-2) were relatively small. An analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) model showed that forest floor carbon was positively related to stand age, as well as being affected by species and climatic zone. Much of the variability was explained by species, and species-specific regression models showed that for P. tremuloides forest floor carbon was strongly related to stand age, mean annual temperature, and mean annual precipitation, and for P. banksiana, forest floor carbon was strongly related to an index of moss dominance. The regression models suggest that the forest floor carbon pool in upland forests of the western Canadian boreal will be sensitive to climate change, but this sensitivity would need to be tested with process-based models.

  1. Habitat Projects Completed within the Asotin Creek Watershed, 1998 Completion Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Bradley J.

    1999-11-01

    The Asotin Creek Model Watershed Program (ACMWP) is the primary entity coordinating habitat projects on both private and public lands within the Asotin Creek watershed. The Asotin Creek watershed covers approximately 325 square miles in the Blue Mountains of southeastern Washington. Snake River spring chinook salmon, summer steelhead and bull trout, which are listed under the Endangered Species Act (ESA), are present in the watershed. The ACMWP began coordinating habitat projects in 1995. Approximately two hundred forty-six projects have been implemented through the ACMWP as of 1998. Fifty-nine of these projects were funded in part through Bonneville Power Administration's 1998 Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. These projects used a variety of methods to enhance and protect watershed conditions. In-stream work for fish habitat included construction of hard structures (e.g. vortex rock weirs), meander reconstruction, placement of large woody debris (LWD) and whole trees and improvements to off-channel rearing habitat; one hundred thirty-nine pools were created with these structures. Three miles of stream benefited from riparian improvements such as fencing, vegetative plantings, and noxious weed control. Two alternative water developments were completed, providing off-stream-watering sources for livestock. 20,500 ft of upland terrace construction, seven sediment basin construction, one hundred eighty-seven acres of grass seeding, eight hundred fifty acres of direct seeding and eighteen sediment basin cleanouts were implemented to reduce sediment production and delivery to streams in the watershed.

  2. Fish communities of a disturbed mangrove wetland and an adjacent tidal river in Palmar, Ecuador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shervette, V. R.; Aguirre, W. E.; Blacio, E.; Cevallos, Rodrigo; Gonzalez, Marcelo; Pozo, Francisco; Gelwick, F.

    2007-03-01

    Coastal Ecuador has lost 20-30% of mangrove wetlands over the past 30 years. Such habitat loss can impair the ecological functions of wetlands. A paucity of information exists concerning mangrove fish communities of Ecuador. In this study we identify the fish community of the remaining mangrove wetland in Palmar, Ecuador. Fish were sampled in the dry season of 2003 and the wet season of 2004 by seining in mangrove creeks and Main channel of Rio Palmar. For comparison, an adjacent tidal river without mangroves, Rio Javita, was also sampled. We collected a total of 12,231 individuals comprising 36 species in 16 families from Rios Palmar and Javita. Gobiidae (7 species) was the most diverse family for mangrove sites followed by Gerreidae (5 species) and Engraulidae (4 species). A total of 34 species were collected in the mangrove wetland, 21 of which were exclusive to the mangroves including three species of juvenile snook (Centropomidae), indicating that the mangrove habitat of Palmar may provide nursery habitat for these economically valued species. In Rio Javita, Carangidae (3 species) was the most diverse family followed by Engraulidae and Gerreidae (2 species each). A total of 14 species were collected in the tidal river, only two of which were exclusive to the river. Multivariate analyses of fish community data indicated significant differences in community composition between the mangrove creeks and the tidal river and between seasons in both. Juvenile white mullet, Mugil curema, were collected in high relative abundance in both Rios Palmar and Javita, as was the tropical silverside Atherinella serrivomer an ecologically important species. Although Rios Palmar and Javita are characterized by relatively low fish species richness compared to other tropical estuarine systems, they appear to provide an important habitat for several economically and ecologically valued species.

  3. Relationships of habitat patch size to predator community and survival of duck nests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sovada, M.A.; Zicus, M.C.; Greenwood, R.J.; Rave, D.P.; Newton, W.E.; Woodward, R.O.; Beiser, J.A.

    2000-01-01

    We studied duck nest success and predator community composition in relation to size of discrete patches of nesting cover in the Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) of the United States in 1993-95. We focused on nests in uplands that were seeded to perennial grasses and forbs and enrolled in the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) in Minnesota, North Dakota, and South Dakota. We estimated daily survival rates (DSRs) of upland duck nests and indices of activity for red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), coyotes (Canis latrans), American badgers (Taxidea taxus), striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis), and Franklin's ground squirrels (Spermophilus franklinii), and related these variables to habitat patch size. The effect of patch size (small vs. large) on estimated annual mean DSR was dependent on date of nest initiation (early vs. late) and year. Examination of within-year comparisons for early and late nests suggested that DSR was generally greater in larger habitat patches. Activity indices for the 5 mammalian nest predators were influenced differently by year, location, and patch size. Activity indices of the red fox were greatest in small patches. Coyote indices were the most inconsistent, demonstrating a year X location X patch size interaction. Activity indices of the striped skunk and American badger varied only among years. Franklin's ground squirrel indices were affected by study area location, with higher indices in the southeast than the northwest. Red fox activity was weakly correlated with that of the striped skunk and coyote. Although a positive relationship between habitat patch size and nest success probably exists, we believe the experiment to fully test this hypothesis will continue to be elusive.

  4. Umatilla River Basin Anadromous Fish Habitat Enhancement Project : 1993 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, R. Todd

    1993-04-01

    The Umatilla Basin Anadromous Fish Habitat Enhancement Project is funded under the Northwest Power Planning Council's Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program Measure 704 (d) (1) 34.02 and targets the improvement of water quality and restoration of riparian areas, holding, spawning and rearing habitats of steelhead, spring and fall chinook and coho salmon. The project focused on implementing instream and riparian habitat improvements on private lands on the Umatilla Indian Reservation (hereafter referred to as Reservation) from April 1, 1988 to March 31, 1992. These efforts resulted in enhancement of the lower 1/4 mile of Boston Canyon Creek, the lower 4 river miles of Meacham Creek and 3.2 river miles of the Umatilla River (downstream of the Meacham Creek confluence upstream to the Reservation East Boundary). In 1993, the project shifted emphasis to a comprehensive watershed approach consistent with other basin efforts and began to identify upland and riparian watershed-wide causative factors impacting fisheries habitat and natural fisheries production capabilities throughout the Umatilla River Watershed. Maintenance of existing habitat improvement projects was included under this comprehensive approach. Maintenance of existing gravel traps, instream and bank stabilization structures was required within project areas during the reporting period due to spring flooding damage and high bedload movement. Maintenance activities were completed between river mile (RM) 0.0 and RM 0.25 Boston Canyon Creek, between RM 0.0 and RM 4 Meacham Creek and between RM 78.5 and RM 79 Umatilla River. Habitat enhancement areas were seeded with native grass, legume, shrub and wildflower mixes and planted with willow cuttings to assist in floodplain recovery, stream channel stability and filtering of sediments during high flow periods. Water quality monitoring continued for temperature and turbidity throughout the upper Umatilla River Watershed. Survey of cross sections and photo

  5. Distribution of radiocesium in the soil-plant systems of upland areas of Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Livens, F.R.; Horrill, A.D.; Singleton, D.L. )

    1991-04-01

    The distribution and behavior of Cs in the soil-plant systems at some upland sites in Northeastern Italy, Scotland, and Norway have been investigated. From the limited range of samples taken, there appears to be no dominant physicochemical control on the plant availability of Cs. The presence of micaceous minerals or illitic clays does not significantly inhibit Cs uptake, either because of recycling in the organic surface horizons or because of clay-organic complex formation. Lower plants (bryophytes and lichens) show the highest Cs accumulation. Of the higher plants, ericaceous species take up Cs more than the others.

  6. Earliest conifers of North America: upland and/or paleoclimatic indicators?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lyons, P.C.; Darrah, W.C.

    1989-01-01

    The oldest conifer compressions and permineralized remains from North America, which are assignable to Walchia Sternberg, are found in strata of Westphalian C and D ages in the central Colorado trough of Colorado, the Nemaha highlands of Oklahoma, and the central Appalachian basin. These early conifer occurrences are consistent with dry conditions in Colorado and less dry or wet-dry, better drained, more oxidizing upland conditions in the central Appalachian basin, possibly tectonically controlled, which may have been a prelude to a widespread climatic change in Stephanian or Permian time in North America. -Authors

  7. Wind forcing of upland lake hydrodynamics: implementation and validation of a 3D numerical model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales, L.; French, J.; Burningham, H.; Evans, C.; Battarbee, R.

    2010-12-01

    Upland lakes act as important archives of environmental change, yet inferences based on the analysis of sediment cores are frequently compromised by an incomplete understanding of the hydrodynamic processes controlling the distribution and completeness of lake sediment sequences and their linkages to wider environmental factors. Many upland lakes are characterized by complex vertical and horizontal circulation patterns induced by the action of wind on the water surface. Wind forcing is important not only for the resuspension of bottom sediments in shallow marginal areas, but may also control the broader distribution of sediment accumulation. The work presented here represents the first stage of a project aimed at elucidating the linkages between wind forcing and the distribution of bottom sediments in upland lakes and the extent to which simple 'sediment focusing' models provide an adequate basis for predicting optimal locations for the acquisition of core samples for palaeolimnological analysis. As a first step, a 3D numerical hydrodynamic model is implemented for Llyn Conwy, a small oligotrophic upland lake in North Wales, UK. This utilises the community ocean model, FVCOM, that solves the Navier-Stokes equations in 3D on an unstructured triangular mesh using the finite volume method. A new graphical user interface has been developed for FVCOM to facilitate pre- and post-processing of lake modelling problems. At Llyn Conwy, the model is forced using local meteorological data and validated against vertical temperature profiles recorded by a long-term buoy deployment and short-term observations of vertical current structure measured using an upward-looking acoustic doppler profiler and surface circulation obtained from GPS drifters. Challenges in the application of FVCOM to a small lake include the design of a mesh that ensures numerical stability whilst resolving a complex bathymetry, and the need for careful treatment of model 'spin-up'. Once calibrated, the

  8. Unravelling Younger Dryas glaciation in the Tweedsmuir Hills, Southern Uplands, Scotland.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearce, Danni; Rea, Brice; Barr, Iesytn; Everest, Jeremy; Primmer, Nick; Langdon, Pete; Edwards, Mary; McDougall, Des

    2013-04-01

    In Britain, the glacial geomorphological record has been widely utilised to infer palaeo-glacier geometries and ice dynamics with much of this work focussing on the Scottish Highlands during the Last Glacial Interglacial Transition (LGIT), in particular the Younger Dryas (YD; c. 12.9 - 11.7 ka BP). The Southern Uplands represents the largest upland area south of the Highlands but have received limited research attention over the last century. The Tweedsmuir Hills are located in the central Southern Uplands, which form an area of dissected plateau approximately 320 km2. Early research in the 1800s identified a range of glacial landforms thought to be associated with the YD. The majority of previous work has focussed on isolated valleys and ignored the potential for plateau icefield glaciation, which has significant implications for understanding of the dynamics and geometries of the YD ice masses. Recent numerical modelling experiments covering the period 38 - 10.4 ka BP (Hubbard et al., 2008 cf. E109B8 and E102b2) have predicted a significant body of ice for the Southern Uplands at the onset of and throughout the YD, which cannot be verified at present due to a lack of empirical data. This research aims to provide the first systematic mapping and climate reconstruction for the Tweedsmuir Hills. The results of air-photo interpretation and field mapping, which utilised a morphostratigraphic approach, has demonstrated a more extensive glaciation than previously mapped. This consists of two separate icefields over the southern and northern Tweedsmuir Hills which cover an area c. 45 km2 and 25 km2 respectively with Equilibrium Line Altitudes (ELAs) calculated to have ranged from c. 419 m to 634 m. For both icefields ELAs of individual outlets reflect topographic controls rather than steep precipitation gradients like those derived for other icefields in Scotland (e.g., the Monadhliath Mountains and Beinn Dearg). New radiocarbon dating of basal stratigraphies and

  9. Plant Habitat (PH)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Onate, Bryan

    2016-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) will soon have a platform for conducting fundamental research of Large Plants. Plant Habitat (PH) is designed to be a fully controllable environment for high-quality plant physiological research. PH will control light quality, level, and timing, temperature, CO2, relative humidity, and irrigation, while scrubbing ethylene. Additional capabilities include leaf temperature and root zone moisture and oxygen sensing. The light cap will have red (630 nm), blue (450 nm), green (525 nm), far red (730 nm) and broad spectrum white LEDs. There will be several internal cameras (visible and IR) to monitor and record plant growth and operations.

  10. Vacant habitats in the Universe.

    PubMed

    Cockell, Charles S

    2011-02-01

    The search for life on other planets usually makes the assumption that where there is a habitat, it will contain life. On the present-day Earth, uninhabited habitats (or vacant habitats) are rare, but might occur, for example, in subsurface oils or impact craters that have been thermally sterilized in the past. Beyond Earth, vacant habitats might similarly exist on inhabited planets or on uninhabited planets, for example on a habitable planet where life never originated. The hypothesis that vacant habitats are abundant in the Universe is testable by studying other planets. In this review, I discuss how the study of vacant habitats might ultimately inform an understanding of how life has influenced geochemical conditions on Earth.

  11. Learning Non-Adjacent Regularities at Age 0 ; 7

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gervain, Judit; Werker, Janet F.

    2013-01-01

    One important mechanism suggested to underlie the acquisition of grammar is rule learning. Indeed, infants aged 0 ; 7 are able to learn rules based on simple identity relations (adjacent repetitions, ABB: "wo fe fe" and non-adjacent repetitions, ABA: "wo fe wo", respectively; Marcus et al., 1999). One unexplored issue is…

  12. View of north side from exterior stairs of adjacent building, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of north side from exterior stairs of adjacent building, bottom cut off by fringed buildings, view facing south-southwest - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Industrial X-Ray Building, Off Sixth Street, adjacent to and south of Facility No. 11, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  13. A Study of the Pronunciation of Words Containing Adjacent Vowels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greif, Ivo P.

    To determine the usefulness of the commonly taught phonics rule, "only pronounce the first vowel in words that contain adjacent vowels" (the VV rule, with the first "v" pronounced with the long vowel sound), two new studies applied it to words with adjacent vowels in several lists and dictionaries. The first study analyzed words containing…

  14. 47 CFR 90.221 - Adjacent channel power limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Adjacent channel power limits. 90.221 Section 90.221 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES General Technical Standards § 90.221 Adjacent channel...

  15. 47 CFR 90.221 - Adjacent channel power limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Adjacent channel power limits. 90.221 Section 90.221 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES General Technical Standards § 90.221 Adjacent channel...

  16. 30 CFR 57.14109 - Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways... conveyors with adjacent travelways. Unguarded conveyors next to travelways shall be equipped with— (a) Emergency stop devices which are located so that a person falling on or against the conveyor can...

  17. 30 CFR 56.14109 - Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways... MINES Machinery and Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14109 Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways. Unguarded conveyors next to the travelways shall be equipped with—...

  18. 30 CFR 56.14109 - Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways... MINES Machinery and Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14109 Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways. Unguarded conveyors next to the travelways shall be equipped with—...

  19. 30 CFR 57.14109 - Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways... conveyors with adjacent travelways. Unguarded conveyors next to travelways shall be equipped with— (a) Emergency stop devices which are located so that a person falling on or against the conveyor can...

  20. 30 CFR 56.14109 - Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways... MINES Machinery and Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14109 Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways. Unguarded conveyors next to the travelways shall be equipped with—...

  1. 30 CFR 57.14109 - Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways... conveyors with adjacent travelways. Unguarded conveyors next to travelways shall be equipped with— (a) Emergency stop devices which are located so that a person falling on or against the conveyor can...

  2. 30 CFR 56.14109 - Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways... MINES Machinery and Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14109 Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways. Unguarded conveyors next to the travelways shall be equipped with—...

  3. 30 CFR 56.14109 - Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways... MINES Machinery and Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14109 Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways. Unguarded conveyors next to the travelways shall be equipped with—...

  4. 30 CFR 57.14109 - Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways... conveyors with adjacent travelways. Unguarded conveyors next to travelways shall be equipped with— (a) Emergency stop devices which are located so that a person falling on or against the conveyor can...

  5. 30 CFR 57.14109 - Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Unguarded conveyors with adjacent travelways... conveyors with adjacent travelways. Unguarded conveyors next to travelways shall be equipped with— (a) Emergency stop devices which are located so that a person falling on or against the conveyor can...

  6. Spatiotemporal dynamics of ecological variation of waterbird habitats in Dongtan area of Chongming Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Xuezhong; Zhang, Liquan

    2012-05-01

    Based on Landsat TM images, we explored the pattern of variation of suitable waterbird habitats from 1990 to 2008 in the Dongtan area of Chongming Island at the Changjiang (Yangtze) River mouth. By applying our highly accurate indicator model ( R=0.999, P<0.01), we quantified the variations of fluctuation intensity for local waterbird habitats during 1990-2008, and for the main waterbird groups (Anatidae, Charadriidae, Ardeidae and Laridae) from 2006 to 2008, to evaluate the impact of habitat quantity change on the waterbird habitat status and the population dynamics of the different waterbird groups. The results show that the aquaculture ponds (AP) and the Scirpus mariqueter zone (SMZ) underwent drastic habitat changes during certain periods (AP: 1997-2000, 2000-2003, 2005-2008; SMZ: 1997-2000), and the fluctuation intensity differed among habitat types in the order AP>SMZ>TSH (total suitable habitat)>BSA (bare mud flat and shallow water area). The abandonment of tracts of aquaculture ponds in Dongtan in mid-2006 brought about an intensive population fluctuation, caused by rapidly changing habitat with the population expanding to adjacent areas. At present, Anatidae and Ardeidae are threatened in the Dongtan area with declining populations because of their very "picky" habitat requirements (i.e., high reliance on AP). The Charadriidae experienced enormous population declines in the late 1990s, however, they have since recovered to normal levels as habitat change has stabilized. Our findings suggest that the current challenges for habitat management are the protection and stabilization of AP and SMZ habitats.

  7. Hurricane Sandy 2013 National Wetlands Inventory Habitat Classification (habitat analysis of coastal federal lands located within high impact zones of Hurricane Sandy, October 2012)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, William R.

    2016-01-01

    Hurricane Sandy directly hit the Atlantic shoreline of New Jersey during several astronomical high tide cycles in late October, 2012. The eastern seaboard areas are subject to sea level rise and increased severity and frequency of storm events, prompting habitat and land use planning changes. Wetland Aquatic Research Center (WARC) has conducted detailed mapping of marine and estuarine wetlands and deepwater habitats, including beaches and tide flats, and upland land use/land cover, using specially-acquired aerial imagery flown at 1-meter resolution.These efforts will assist the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) continuing endeavors to map the barrier islands adhering to Coastal Barrier Resources Act (CBRA) guidelines. Mapped areas consist of selected federal lands including, National Park Service areas, USFWS National Wildlife Refuges, and selected CBRA Units, including barrier islands and marshes in New York and New Jersey. These vital wetland areas are important for migratory waterfowl and neotropical bird habitats, wildlife food chain support and nurseries for shellfish and finfish populations. Coastal wetlands also play an important function as storm surge buffers. This project includes mapping of dominant estuarine wetland plant species useful for wetland functional analysis and wildlife evaluation and management concerns. It also aims to integrate with and offer updated databases pertinent to: USFWS NWR and NWI programs, NOAA tide flats and beaches data, FEMA flood zone data, Natural Heritage Endangered and Threated Species, watershed management, and state and local land use planning.

  8. Aquatic habitat change in the Arkansas river after the development of a lock-and-dam commercial navigation system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schramm, H.L.; Minnis, R.B.; Spencer, A.B.; Theel, R.T.

    2008-01-01

    The McClellan-Kerr Arkansas River Navigation System (MKARNS), completed in 1971, required the construction of 17 locks and dams and associated navigation works to make the Arkansas and Verdigris Rivers navigable for barge traffic from the Mississippi River to Catoosa, Oklahoma. We used a Geographic Information System to assess habitat changes in the 477-km portion of this system within Arkansas from 1973 to 1999. Total aquatic area declined by 9% from 42 404 to 38 655 ha. Aquatic habitat losses were 1-17% among pools. Greatest habitat losses occurred in diked secondary channels (former secondary channels with flow reduced by rock dikes) and backwaters adjacent to the main channel. Most of the area of dike pools (aquatic habitat downstream of rock dikes), diked secondary channels and adjacent backwaters were <0.9 m deep. Copyright ?? 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Palaeoglaciology of the Central European Uplands - a link between the former ice masses over the Alps and Scandinavia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauzenberger, B.; Fickert, T.

    2009-04-01

    The Central European Uplands are located northeast of the Alps along the western edge of the Czech border. A horseshoe shaped range of low mountains contains the Bavarian Forest Mountains, the Fichtel Mountains, the Erz Mountains and the Giant Mountains, with highest summit altitudes ranging from 1051 m a.s.l. (Fichtel Mountains) to 1603 m a.s.l. (Giant Mountains). The location north of the Alps makes these mountains highly interesting as a possible link between the Scandinavian ice sheet and the Alps. Although the glacial traces of the Central European Uplands have been investigated for more than 100 years, the glacial history is still elusive. While the highest mountains (the Bavarian Forest and the Giant Mountains) hold evidence of valley glaciers, the lower mountains (the Fichtel and the Erz Mountains) lack unambiguous glacial traces. As a first step towards a palaeoglaciological reconstruction for the Central European Uplands, we present a digital map of glacier termini with elevation data from the SRTM elevation model, compiled from previous investigations of the area. The glacial map of the Central European Uplands presents the pattern of glacial traces over an extensive area in central Europe and forms the basis for reconstructing the extent of former glaciers. We compare the glacial evidence with modern day climate data (from the high resolution WorldClim database), from which we can estimate the climate change needed to produce Central European Upland glaciers. The glacial traces of the Central European Uplands hold information on past climate of the region and this may be a key to link the glacial record of the Alps with the Scandinavian ice sheet.

  10. Interaction between C 4 barnyard grass and C 3 upland rice under elevated CO 2: Impact of mycorrhizae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Jianjun; Xu, Liming; Chen, Xin; Hu, Shuijin

    2009-03-01

    Atmospheric CO 2 enrichment may impact arbuscular mycorrhizae (AM) development and function, which could have subsequent effects on host plant species interactions by differentially affecting plant nutrient acquisition. However, direct evidence illustrating this scenario is limited. We examined how elevated CO 2 affects plant growth and whether mycorrhizae mediate interactions between C 4 barnyard grass ( Echinochloa crusgalli (L.) Beauv.) and C 3 upland rice ( Oryza sativa L.) in a low nutrient soil. The monocultures and combinations with or without mycorrhizal inoculation were grown at ambient (400 ± 20 μmol mol -1) and elevated CO 2 (700 ± 20 μmol mol -1) levels. The 15N isotope tracer was introduced to quantify the mycorrhizally mediated N acquisition of plants. Elevated CO 2 stimulated the growth of C 3 upland rice but not that of C 4 barnyard grass under monoculture. Elevated CO 2 also increased mycorrhizal colonization of C 4 barnyard grass but did not affect mycorrhizal colonization of C 3 upland rice. Mycorrhizal inoculation increased the shoot biomass ratio of C 4 barnyard grass to C 3 upland rice under both CO 2 concentrations but had a greater impact under the elevated than ambient CO 2 level. Mycorrhizae decreased relative interaction index (RII) of C 3 plants under both ambient and elevated CO 2, but mycorrhizae increased RII of C 4 plants only under elevated CO 2. Elevated CO 2 and mycorrhizal inoculation enhanced 15N and total N and P uptake of C 4 barnyard grass in mixture but had no effects on N and P acquisition of C 3 upland rice, thus altering the distribution of N and P between the species in mixture. These results implied that CO 2 stimulation of mycorrhizae and their nutrient acquisition may impact competitive interaction of C 4 barnyard grass and C 3 upland rice under future CO 2 scenarios.

  11. Baseline report - tall upland shrubland at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (Site) is located on the Colorado Piedmont east of the Front Range between Boulder and Golden. At an elevation of approximately 6,000 feet, the Site contains a unique ecotonal mixture of mountain and prairie plant species, resulting from the topography and close proximity to the mountain front. The Buffer Zone surrounding the Industrial Area is one of the largest remaining undeveloped areas of its kind along the Colorado Piedmont. A number of plant communities at the Site have been identified as increasingly rare and unique by Site ecologists and the Colorado Natural Heritage Program (CNHP). These include the xeric tallgrass prairie, tall upland shrubland, wetlands, and Great Plains riparian woodland communities. Many of these communities support populations of increasingly rare animals as well, including the Preble`s meadow jumping mouse, grasshopper sparrow, loggerhead shrike, Merriam`s shrew, black crowned night heron, and Hops blue and Argos skipper butterflies. One of the more interesting and important plant communities at the Site is the tall upland shrubland community. It has been generally overlooked by previous Site ecological studies, probably due to its relatively small size; only 34 acres total. Although mentioned in a plant community ordination study conducted by Clark et al. and also in the Site baseline ecological study, few data were available on this plant community before the present study.

  12. Forest response and recovery following disturbance in upland forests of the Atlantic Coastal Plain

    PubMed Central

    Schäfer, Karina V. R.; Renninger, Heidi J.; Carlo, Nicholas J.; Vanderklein, Dirk W.

    2014-01-01

    Carbon and water cycling of forests contribute significantly to the Earth's overall biogeochemical cycling and may be affected by disturbance and climate change. As a larger body of research becomes available about leaf-level, ecosystem and regional scale effects of disturbances on forest ecosystems, a more mechanistic understanding is developing which can improve modeling efforts. Here, we summarize some of the major effects of physical and biogenic disturbances, such as drought, prescribed fire, and insect defoliation, on leaf and ecosystem-scale physiological responses as well as impacts on carbon and water cycling in an Atlantic Coastal Plain upland oak/pine and upland pine forest. During drought, stomatal conductance and canopy stomatal conductance were reduced, however, defoliation increased conductance on both leaf-level and canopy scale. Furthermore, after prescribed fire, leaf-level stomatal conductance was unchanged for pines but decreased for oaks, while canopy stomatal conductance decreased temporarily, but then rebounded the following growing season, thus exhibiting transient responses. This study suggests that forest response to disturbance varies from the leaf to ecosystem level as well as species level and thus, these differential responses interplay to determine the fate of forest structure and functioning post disturbance. PMID:25018759

  13. Stream-upland connectivity through the riparian zone: lessons learned and future research needs (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidon, P.

    2013-12-01

    Riparian zones act both as a conduit and a buffer for water and solutes as they transit from the upland environment to the stream. However, the traditional view of riparian hydrological functioning whereby the flow of water and solutes is generally from upland to stream has recently been challenged in some settings. For instance, in large outwash floodplains of the US Midwest, streams and rivers can have a dominant influence on riparian water table dynamics and associated biogeochemistry (nitrogen, phosphorus, carbon, mercury). In glacial till settings of the US Northeast, stream meander curvature has been shown to have a large impact on near stream zone hydrology and biogeochemistry. In the US southeast, stream restoration practices have far reaching impacts in the near stream zone. This talk will provide a framework to conceptualize riparian function as a function of stream channel morphology and landscape hydrogeomorphic characteristics. The implications of this work on riparian zone hydrology and biogeochemistry within the context of stream restoration and watershed management will be discussed along with key research needs for years to come.

  14. Challenges and dilemmas: fieldwork with upland minorities in socialist Vietnam, Laos and southwest China.

    PubMed

    Turner, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    The Chinese, Vietnamese and Lao spaces within the upland Southeast Asian massif, sheltering over 80 million people belonging to geographically dispersed and politically fragmented minority populations, have only recently reopened to overseas academic endeavours. Undertaking social sciences research there among ethnic minority groups is underscored by a specific set of challenges, dilemmas, and negotiations. This special issue brings together Western academics and post-fieldwork doctoral students from the realms of social anthropology and human geography, who have conducted in-depth fieldwork among ethnic minorities in upland southwest China, northern Vietnam, and southern Laos. The articles provide insights into the struggles and constraints they faced in the field, set against an understanding of the historical context of field research in these locales. In this unique context that nowadays interweaves economic liberalisation with centralised and authoritarian political structures, the authors explore how they have negotiated and manoeuvred access to ethnic minority voices in complex cultural configurations. The ethical challenges raised and methodological reflections offered will be insightful for others conducting fieldwork in the socialist margins of the Southeast Asian massif and beyond. This specific context is introduced here, followed by a critique of the literature on the core themes that contributors raise.

  15. Two genomic regions associated with fiber quality traits in Chinese upland cotton under apparent breeding selection

    PubMed Central

    Su, Junji; Li, Libei; Pang, Chaoyou; Wei, Hengling; Wang, Caixiang; Song, Meizhen; Wang, Hantao; Zhao, Shuqi; Zhang, Chi; Mao, Guangzhi; Huang, Long; Wang, Chengshe; Fan, Shuli; Yu, Shuxun

    2016-01-01

    Fiber quality is one of the most important agronomic traits of cotton, and understanding the genetic basis of its target traits will accelerate improvements to cotton fiber quality. In this study, a panel comprising 355 upland cotton accessions was used to perform genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of five fiber quality traits in four environments. A total of 16, 10 and 7 SNPs were associated with fiber length (FL), fiber strength (FS) and fiber uniformity (FU), respectively, based on the mixed linear model (MLM). Most importantly, two major genomic regions (MGR1 and MGR2) on chromosome Dt7 and four potential candidate genes for FL were identified. Analyzing the geographical distribution of favorable haplotypes (FHs) among these lines revealed that two favorable haplotype frequencies (FHFs) were higher in accessions from low-latitude regions than in accessions from high-latitude regions. However, the genetic diversity of lines from the low-latitude regions was lower than the diversity of lines from the high-latitude regions in China. Furthermore, the FHFs differed among cultivars developed during different breeding periods. These results indicate that FHs have undergone artificial selection during upland cotton breeding in recent decades in China and provide a foundation for the further improvement of fiber quality traits. PMID:27924947

  16. Forest response and recovery following disturbance in upland forests of the Atlantic Coastal Plain.

    PubMed

    Schäfer, Karina V R; Renninger, Heidi J; Carlo, Nicholas J; Vanderklein, Dirk W

    2014-01-01

    Carbon and water cycling of forests contribute significantly to the Earth's overall biogeochemical cycling and may be affected by disturbance and climate change. As a larger body of research becomes available about leaf-level, ecosystem and regional scale effects of disturbances on forest ecosystems, a more mechanistic understanding is developing which can improve modeling efforts. Here, we summarize some of the major effects of physical and biogenic disturbances, such as drought, prescribed fire, and insect defoliation, on leaf and ecosystem-scale physiological responses as well as impacts on carbon and water cycling in an Atlantic Coastal Plain upland oak/pine and upland pine forest. During drought, stomatal conductance and canopy stomatal conductance were reduced, however, defoliation increased conductance on both leaf-level and canopy scale. Furthermore, after prescribed fire, leaf-level stomatal conductance was unchanged for pines but decreased for oaks, while canopy stomatal conductance decreased temporarily, but then rebounded the following growing season, thus exhibiting transient responses. This study suggests that forest response to disturbance varies from the leaf to ecosystem level as well as species level and thus, these differential responses interplay to determine the fate of forest structure and functioning post disturbance.

  17. Selection and characterization of a novel photoperiod-sensitive male sterile line in upland cotton.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jianhui; Wei, Hengling; Liu, Ji; Song, Meizhen; Pang, Chaoyou; Wang, Long; Zhang, Wenxiang; Fan, Shuli; Yu, Shuxun

    2013-07-01

    Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) shows strong heterosis. However, heterosis is not widely utilized owing to the high cost of hybrid seed production. Creation of a photoperiod-sensitive genetic male sterile line could substantially reduce the cost of hybrid seed production in upland cotton. Such a mutant with virescent marker was found by space mutation in near-earth orbit and its traits had been stable after 4 years of selection in Anyang and Sanya, China. This mutant was fertile with an 11-12.5 h photoperiod when the temperature was higher than 21.5 °C and was sterile with a 13-14.5 h photoperiod. Genetic analysis indicated that both traits were controlled by a single recessive gene or two closely linked genes. Also, the cytological observations and transcriptome profiling analysis showed that the degradation of pollen grain cytoplasm should be the primary reason why the mutant line were male sterile under long-day conditions.

  18. Late Tertiary floral assemblage from upland gravel deposits of the southern Maryland Coastal Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCartan, Lucy; Tiffney, Bruce H.; Wolfe, Jack A.; Ager, Thomas A.; Wing, Scott L.; Sirkin, Leslie A.; Ward, Lauck W.; Brooks, James

    1990-04-01

    A diverse flora has been discovered in a dark clay lens in upland gravel in southern Maryland near Brandywine. More than 49 taxa have been identified in the assemblage, which includes leaves, seeds, fruits, pollen, and a Taxodium (bald cypress) trunk. The vegetation is dominated by deciduous trees and vines. Four taxa are now absent from North America but survive elsewhere; one is extinct. A late Miocene age and warm-temperate climate are inferred from the flora. The clay lens probably represents a cutoff distributary in the extensive braided stream system that covered the area and is unique in Maryland. Similar dark clays have been described from Miocene sands and gravels in New Jersey. The Brandywine flora is the first direct evidence of the Miocene age of part of the fluvial upland deposits of Maryland. On the basis of the age inferred from the flora, the Brandywine deposit is correlated with the St. Marys Formation or the Eastover Formation, which are upper Miocene shelly marine units south and southeast of Brandywine.

  19. Impacts of logging and wildfire on an upland black spruce community in northwestern Ontario.

    PubMed

    Johnston, M H; Elliott, J A

    1996-01-01

    Plant species composition and community structure were compared among four sites in an upland black spruce community in northwestern Ontario. One site had remained undisturbed since the 1930s and three had been disturbed by either logging, fire, or both logging and fire. Canonical correspondence ordination analyses indicated that herbaceous species composition and abundance differed among the disturbance types while differences in the shrub and tree strata were less pronounced. In the herb stratum Pleurozium schreberi, Ptilium crista-castrensis and Dicranum polysetum were in greatest abundance on the undisturbed forest site, while the wildfire and burned cutover sites were dominated by Epilobium angustifolium and Polytrichum juniperinum. The unburned harvested site was dominated by Epilobium angustifolium, Cornus canadensis and Pleurozium schreberi. Species richness was lower on the undisturbed site than on any of the disturbed sites while species diversity (H') and evenness (Hill's E5) were higher on the unburned harvested site than on the other sites. Results suggest that herb re-establishment is different among harvested and burned sites in upland black spruce communities and we hypothesize that differences in the characteristics of the disturbance were responsible, in particular, the impact of burning on nutrient availability. These differences need to be taken into account in determining the effects of these disturbances on biodiversity and long-term ecosystem management.

  20. Structure and dynamics of an upland old- growth forest at Redwood National Park, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    van Mantgem, Philip J.; Stuart, John D.

    2011-01-01

    Many current redwood forest management targets are based on old-growth conditions, so it is critical that we understand the variability and range of conditions that constitute these forests. Here we present information on the structure and dynamics from six one-hectare forest monitoring plots in an upland old-growth forest at Redwood National Park, California. We surveyed all stems =20 cm DBH in 1995 and 2010, allowing us to estimate any systematic changes in these stands. Stem size distributions for all species and for redwood (Sequoia sempervirens (D. Don) Endl.) alone did not appreciably change over the 15 year observation interval. Recruitment and mortality rates were roughly balanced, as were basal area dynamics (gains from recruitment and growth versus losses from mortality). Similar patterns were found for Sequoia alone. The spatial structure of stems at the plots suggested a random distribution of trees, though the pattern for Sequoia alone was found to be significantly clumped at small scales (< 5 m) at three of the six plots. These results suggest that these forests, including populations of Sequoia, have been generally stable over the past 15 years at this site, though it is possible that fire exclusion may be affecting recruitment of smaller Sequoia (< 20 cm DBH). The non-uniform spatial arrangement of stems also suggests that restoration prescriptions for second-growth redwood forests that encourage uniform spatial arrangements do not appear to mimic current upland old-growth conditions.

  1. Patterns and persistence of hydrologic carbon and nutrient export from collapsing upland permafrost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbott, B. W.; Jones, J. B.; Godsey, S. E.; Larouche, J. R.; Bowden, W. B.

    2015-06-01

    As high latitudes warm, vast stocks of carbon and nitrogen stored in permafrost will become available for transport to aquatic ecosystems. While there is a growing understanding of the potential effects of permafrost collapse (thermokarst) on aquatic biogeochemical cycles, neither the spatial extent nor temporal duration of these effects is known. To test hypotheses concerning patterns and persistence of elemental export from upland thermokarst, we sampled hydrologic outflow from 83 thermokarst features in various stages of development across the North Slope of Alaska. We hypothesized that an initial pulse of carbon and nutrients would be followed by a period of elemental retention during feature recovery, and that the duration of these stages would depend on feature morphology. Thermokarst caused substantial increases in dissolved organic carbon and other solute concentrations with a particularly large impact on inorganic nitrogen. Magnitude and duration of thermokarst effects on water chemistry differed by feature type and secondarily by landscape age. Most solutes returned to undisturbed concentrations after feature stabilization, but elevated dissolved carbon, inorganic nitrogen, and sulfate concentrations persisted through stabilization for some feature types, suggesting that aquatic disturbance by thermokarst for these solutes is long-lived. Dissolved methane decreased by 90% for most feature types, potentially due to high concentrations of sulfate and inorganic nitrogen. Spatial patterns of carbon and nutrient export from thermokarst suggest that upland thermokarst may be a dominant linkage transferring carbon and nutrients from terrestrial to aquatic ecosystems as the Arctic warms.

  2. Patterns and persistence of hydrologic carbon and nutrient export from collapsing upland permafrost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbott, B. W.; Jones, J. B.; Godsey, S. E.; Larouche, J. R.; Bowden, W. B.

    2015-02-01

    As high latitudes warm, vast stocks of carbon and nitrogen stored in permafrost will become available for transport to aquatic ecosystems. While there is a growing understanding of the potential effects of permafrost collapse (thermokarst) on aquatic biogeochemical cycles, neither the spatial extent nor temporal duration of these effects are known. To test hypotheses concerning patterns and persistence of elemental export from upland thermokarst, we sampled hydrologic outflow from 83 thermokarst features in various stages of development across the North Slope of Alaska. We hypothesized that an initial pulse of carbon and nutrients would be followed by a period of elemental retention during feature recovery, and that the duration of these stages would depend on feature morphology. Thermokarst caused substantial increases of dissolved organic carbon and other solute concentrations with a particularly large impact on inorganic nitrogen. Magnitude and duration of thermokarst effects on water chemistry differed by feature type and secondarily by landscape age. Most solutes returned to undisturbed concentrations after feature stabilization, but elevated dissolved carbon, inorganic nitrogen, and sulfate concentrations persisted through stabilization for some feature types, suggesting that aquatic disturbance by thermokarst for these solutes is long-lived. Dissolved methane decreased by 90% for most feature types, potentially due to high concentrations of sulfate and inorganic nitrogen. Spatial patterns of carbon and nutrient export from thermokarst suggest that upland thermokarst may be a dominant linkage transferring carbon and nutrients from terrestrial to aquatic ecosystems as the Arctic warms.

  3. Enhanced control of sheep ticks in upland sheep flocks: repercussions for red grouse co-hosts.

    PubMed

    Newborn, D; Baines, D

    2012-03-01

    Sheep ticks Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae) and tick-borne diseases cause major economic losses in both upland sheep farming and moorland shoots of red grouse Lagopus lagopus scoticus. Sheep were treated with acaricide four times between March and October and double-vaccinated against louping ill virus (LIV), instead of the conventional regime of two acaricide treatments and no vaccinations, on two moors in northern England. Enhanced treatment started at Westerdale Moor in 1995 and at Danby Moor in 2000; the latter had previously represented a spatial control site. From 1992 to 2003, grouse chick condition, tick burdens, reproductive success, shooting bags and LIV seroprevalence were measured. A total of 1297 grouse chicks from 398 broods were examined for ticks. Enhanced acaricide treatment reduced tick burdens by 90%, and LIV seroprevalence decreased in relation to the number of years since treatment began. Breeding success and post-breeding densities of grouse in the current sample area remained unrelated to acaricide treatment, tick burdens or LIV seroprevalence, but 25% and 60% more grouse were shot on Westerdale and Danby, respectively, after treatment enhancement than before. By improving shooting bags, tick management schemes help to maintain the economic viability of grouse moors, which, in turn, provide upland landscape and wildlife benefits.

  4. Tropical secondary forests regenerating after shifting cultivation in the Philippines uplands are important carbon sinks

    PubMed Central

    Mukul, Sharif A.; Herbohn, John; Firn, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    In the tropics, shifting cultivation has long been attributed to large scale forest degradation, and remains a major source of uncertainty in forest carbon accounting. In the Philippines, shifting cultivation, locally known as kaingin, is a major land-use in upland areas. We measured the distribution and recovery of aboveground biomass carbon along a fallow gradient in post-kaingin secondary forests in an upland area in the Philippines. We found significantly higher carbon in the aboveground total biomass and living woody biomass in old-growth forest, while coarse dead wood biomass carbon was higher in the new fallow sites. For young through to the oldest fallow secondary forests, there was a progressive recovery of biomass carbon evident. Multivariate analysis indicates patch size as an influential factor in explaining the variation in biomass carbon recovery in secondary forests after shifting cultivation. Our study indicates secondary forests after shifting cultivation are substantial carbon sinks and that this capacity to store carbon increases with abandonment age. Large trees contribute most to aboveground biomass. A better understanding of the relative contribution of different biomass sources in aboveground total forest biomass, however, is necessary to fully capture the value of such landscapes from forest management, restoration and conservation perspectives. PMID:26951761

  5. Young relicts and old relicts: a novel palaeoendemic vertebrate from the Australian Central Uplands

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Climatic change, and in particular aridification, has played a dominant role in shaping Southern Hemisphere biotas since the mid-Neogene. In Australia, ancient and geologically stable ranges within the vast arid zone have functioned as refugia for populations of mesic taxa extirpated from surrounding areas, yet the extent to which relicts may be linked to major aridification events before or after the Pliocene has not been examined in detail. Here we use molecular phylogenetic and morphological data to show that isolated populations of saxicoline geckos in the genus Oedura from the Australian Central Uplands, formerly confounded as a single taxon, actually comprise two divergent species with contrasting histories of isolation. The recently resurrected Oedura cincta has close relatives occurring elsewhere in the Australian arid biomes with estimated divergence dates concentrated in the early Pliocene. A new taxon (described herein) diverged from all extant Oedura much earlier, well before the end of the Miocene. A review of data for Central Uplands endemic vertebrates shows that for most (including Oedura cincta), gene flow with other parts of Australia probably occurred until at least the very late Miocene or Pliocene. There are, however, a small number of palaeoendemic taxa—often ecologically specialized forms—that show evidence of having persisted since earlier intensification of aridity in the late Miocene. PMID:27853534

  6. Relationships between vegetation dynamics and hydroclimatic drivers in the northern high-latitude uplands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, H.; Tetzlaff, D.; Buttle, J. M.; Carey, S. K.; Laudon, H.; McNamara, J. P.; Soulsby, C.; Spence, C.

    2015-12-01

    IPCC projections show that climate warming will be particularly high in northern high-latitude regions, which has profound ecohydrological implications: a small rise of temperature may result in lower water availability in summer due to less rainfall and more evapotranspiration, increase flooding risks by accelerating melting rates in spring, and more rain rather than snow in winter, etc. These impacts will affect vegetation communities by altering timing of the spring "green-up" and fall "senescence". Change in vegetation water use will feedback to atmospheric and hydrological cycles. Here, we report results from the PLATO "Plant-water interlinkages in northern uplands - mediation of climate change?" project where we investigate water uptake by plants and consequent water availability in northern regions along a cross-regional climate gradient to understand future responses to change in high-latitude uplands. Six sites in Sweden (Krycklan), Canada (Wolf Creek; Baker Creek; Dorset), Scotland (Girnock) and the USA (Dry Creek) span moisture and energy gradients found at high-latitudes. We are presenting preliminary results of vegetation phenology changes from 2000 to 2014 by analysing remote sensing vegetation indices. The relationship between vegetation phenology and climatic drivers (temperature and precipitation) is also investigated.

  7. Tropical secondary forests regenerating after shifting cultivation in the Philippines uplands are important carbon sinks.

    PubMed

    Mukul, Sharif A; Herbohn, John; Firn, Jennifer

    2016-03-08

    In the tropics, shifting cultivation has long been attributed to large scale forest degradation, and remains a major source of uncertainty in forest carbon accounting. In the Philippines, shifting cultivation, locally known as kaingin, is a major land-use in upland areas. We measured the distribution and recovery of aboveground biomass carbon along a fallow gradient in post-kaingin secondary forests in an upland area in the Philippines. We found significantly higher carbon in the aboveground total biomass and living woody biomass in old-growth forest, while coarse dead wood biomass carbon was higher in the new fallow sites. For young through to the oldest fallow secondary forests, there was a progressive recovery of biomass carbon evident. Multivariate analysis indicates patch size as an influential factor in explaining the variation in biomass carbon recovery in secondary forests after shifting cultivation. Our study indicates secondary forests after shifting cultivation are substantial carbon sinks and that this capacity to store carbon increases with abandonment age. Large trees contribute most to aboveground biomass. A better understanding of the relative contribution of different biomass sources in aboveground total forest biomass, however, is necessary to fully capture the value of such landscapes from forest management, restoration and conservation perspectives.

  8. Aquatic plant nutrients, moss phosphatase activities and tissue composition in four upland streams in northern England

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellwood, N. T. W.; Haile, S. M.; Whitton, B. A.

    2008-02-01

    SummaryA study was made of the water chemistry, tissue nutrients and surface phosphatase activities of the 2-cm apices of three mosses in four upland streams in northern England, UK. This was part of a project to optimize methods for assessing nutrient fractions in environments with highly variable water chemistry. Aqueous N and P fractions showed the greatest variability followed by moss phosphatase activities, with nutrient composition of the shoot apices the least variable. There was no consistent pattern as to which aqueous N or P fraction was the most variable. The ratio between total inorganic N and total filtrable P ranged over three orders of magnitude in some streams. The interrelations between tissue N and P concentrations, tissue N:P ratio, phosphatase activities and aqueous variables showed: Significant +ve relationship between tissue N and aqueous NO 3-N in some populations, but not between tissue P and aqueous P concentration; Significant +ve relationships between phosphatase activities and aqueous organic N, but none with aqueous organic P; Significant +ve relationships between phosphodiesterase:phosphomonoesterase activities and aqueous organic N; Significant -ve relationships between phosphatase activities and tissue P concentration; Significant +ve relationships between phosphatase activities and tissue N:P. Both types of biological measurement are valuable for monitoring ambient nutrients in upland streams. Neither is clearly better than the other, so both should be included in surveys.

  9. A process-based model of methane consumption by upland soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabrekov, A. F.; Glagolev, M. V.; Alekseychik, P. K.; Smolentsev, B. A.; Terentieva, I. E.; Krivenok, L. A.; Maksyutov, S. S.

    2016-07-01

    This study combines a literature survey and field observation data in an ad initio attempt to construct a process-based model of methane sink in upland soils including both the biological and physical aspects of the process. Comparison is drawn between the predicted sink rates and chamber measurements in several forest and grassland sites in the southern part of West Siberia. CH4 flux, total respiration, air and soil temperature, soil moisture, pH, organic content, bulk density and solid phase density were measured during a field campaign in summer 2014. Two datasets from literature were also used for model validation. The modeled sink rates were found to be in relatively good correspondence with the values obtained in the field. Introduction of the rhizospheric methanotrophy significantly improves the match between the model and the observations. The Q10 values of methane sink observed in the field were 1.2-1.4, which is in good agreement with the experimental results from the other studies. Based on modeling results, we also conclude that soil oxygen concentration is not a limiting factor for methane sink in upland forest and grassland ecosystems.

  10. [Nutrient management strategy of paddy rice-upland crop rotation system].

    PubMed

    Fan, Ming-Sheng; Jiang, Rong-Feng; Zhang, Fu-Suo; Lü, Shi-Hua; Liu, Xue-Jun

    2008-02-01

    Paddy rice-upland crop rotation system is a major cropping system in China, and practiced widely along the Yangtze River basin. A unique feature of this system is the annual conversion of soil from aerobic to anaerobic and then back to aerobic condition, which can result in the changes of soil physical, chemical, and biological prosperities among seasons, making a special agroecosystem. The major challenges faced by this system include declining or stagnating productivity, increasing shortage of irrigation water, improper management of nutrients, low efficiency of resource utilization, and environmental pollution. Based on an overview of the characteristics and problems of paddy rice-upland crop rotation system, this paper put forward a strategy of practicing integrated nutrient management to solve the contradictions between nutrient input, crop production and environmental risk. The key points of this strategy included nutrient management from the whole rotation system perspective, integrated use of nutrients from various sources (chemical fertilizers, organic fertilizers, and nutrients from the environment), synchronization of nutrient supply and crop nutrient demand, application of different management technologies based on the characteristics of different nutrient resources, and integration of nutrient management with other cropping system technologies like water saving and high-yielding cultivation, etc.

  11. Relationships between nesting populations of wading birds and habitat features along the Atlantic Coast

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Erwin, R.M.; Spendelow, J.A.; Geissler, P.H.; Williams, B.K.; Whitman, William R.; Meredith, William H.

    1987-01-01

    Using previously published atlas data for 122 mixed-species wading bird colonies on islands along the Atlantic coast (Maine to Florida, 1976-77), we examined relationships between population sizes of 11 species of egrets, herons, ibises, and wood storks (Mycteria americana) and nine habitat variables. On nautical charts, we measured four island characteristics (area, length, width, shape), three isolation factors (distances to nearest island, mainland, and a water barrier),, and two variables related to potential feeding habitat within 5 km of the center of the colony (wetland area and land-water interface, i.e., the linear distance between the marsh/upland and all water bodies within the same 5-km radius). One univariable and five multivariable .procedures were used to determine which habitat features were best related to population size .(all species combined). Multicollinearity problems among the variables limited interpretation for most procedures. Both univariable and the multivariable procedures indicated that land-water interface was the most important of the nine variables, but for all models, less than 10% of the total variance was explained (rz is less than 0.10). The size of the colony was not related to the amount of wetland area (within 5-km).per se. Colony data showed better 'structure' when examined on the basis of geographic and disturbance gradients. Population sizes of colonies near man-altered habitats were compared with those surrounded by relatively natural habitats in three geographic zones: north, middle, and south. Significant differences were found in colony size among the three zones (south largest) and between disturbance types. Surprisingly, in all three zones, colonies near man-altered areas were larger on average than those near more natural habitats in this region. A possible reason for this difference is suggested.

  12. Genetic effects of landscape, habitat preference and demography on three co-occurring turtle species.

    PubMed

    Reid, Brendan N; Mladenoff, David J; Peery, M Zachariah

    2017-02-01

    Expanding the scope of landscape genetics beyond the level of single species can help to reveal how species traits influence responses to environmental change. Multispecies studies are particularly valuable in highly threatened taxa, such as turtles, in which the impacts of anthropogenic change are strongly influenced by interspecific differences in life history strategies, habitat preferences and mobility. We sampled approximately 1500 individuals of three co-occurring turtle species across a gradient of habitat change (including varying loss of wetlands and agricultural conversion of upland habitats) in the Midwestern USA. We used genetic clustering and multiple regression methods to identify associations between genetic structure and permanent landscape features, past landscape composition and landscape change in each species. Two aquatic generalists (the painted turtle, Chrysemys picta, and the snapping turtle Chelydra serpentina) both exhibited population genetic structure consistent with isolation by distance, modulated by aquatic landscape features. Genetic divergence for the more terrestrial Blanding's turtle (Emydoidea blandingii), on the other hand, was not strongly associated with geographic distance or aquatic features, and Bayesian clustering analysis indicated that many Emydoidea populations were genetically isolated. Despite long generation times, all three species exhibited associations between genetic structure and postsettlement habitat change, indicating that long generation times may not be sufficient to delay genetic drift resulting from recent habitat fragmentation. The concordances in genetic structure observed between aquatic species, as well as isolation in the endangered, long-lived Emydoidea, reinforce the need to consider both landscape composition and demographic factors in assessing differential responses to habitat change in co-occurring species.

  13. Habitat use and movement of the endangered Arroyo Toad (Anaxyrus californicus) in coastal southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gallegos, Elizabeth; Lyren, Lisa M.; Lovich, Robert E.; Mitrovich, Milan J.; Fisher, Robert N.

    2011-01-01

    Information on the habitat use and movement patterns of Arroyo Toads (Anaxyrus californicus) is limited. The temporal and spatial characteristics of terrestrial habitat use, especially as it relates to upland use in coastal areas of the species' range, are poorly understood. We present analyses of radiotelemetry data from 40 individual adult toads tracked at a single site in coastal southern California from March through November of 2004. We quantify adult Arroyo Toad habitat use and movements and interpret results in the context of their life history. We show concentrated activity by both male and female toads along stream terraces during and after breeding, and, although our fall sample size is low, the continued presence of adult toads in the floodplain through the late fall. Adult toads used open sandy flats with sparse vegetation. Home-range size and movement frequency varied as a function of body mass. Observed spatial patterns of movement and habitat use both during and outside of the breeding period as well as available climatological data suggest that overwintering of toads in floodplain habitats of near-coastal areas of southern California may be more common than previously considered. If adult toads are not migrating out of the floodplain at the close of the breeding season but instead overwinter on stream terraces in near-coastal areas, then current management practices that assume toad absence from floodplain habitats may be leaving adult toads over-wintering on stream terraces vulnerable to human disturbance during a time of year when Arroyo Toad mortality is potentially highest.

  14. Bird Communities of the Arctic Shrub Tundra of Yamal: Habitat Specialists and Generalists

    PubMed Central

    Sokolov, Vasiliy; Ehrich, Dorothée; Yoccoz, Nigel G.; Sokolov, Alexander; Lecomte, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    Background The ratio of habitat generalists to specialists in birds has been suggested as a good indicator of ecosystem changes due to e.g. climate change and other anthropogenic perturbations. Most studies focusing on this functional component of biodiversity originate, however, from temperate regions. The Eurasian Arctic tundra is currently experiencing an unprecedented combination of climate change, change in grazing pressure by domestic reindeer and growing human activity. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we monitored bird communities in a tundra landscape harbouring shrub and open habitats in order to analyse bird habitat relationships and quantify habitat specialization. We used ordination methods to analyse habitat associations and estimated the proportions of specialists in each of the main habitats. Correspondence Analysis identified three main bird communities, inhabiting upland, lowland and dense willow shrubs. We documented a stable structure of communities despite large multiannual variations of bird density (from 90 to 175 pairs/km2). Willow shrub thickets were a hotspot for bird density, but not for species richness. The thickets hosted many specialized species whose main distribution area was south of the tundra. Conclusion/Significance If current arctic changes result in a shrubification of the landscape as many studies suggested, we would expect an increase in the overall bird abundance together with an increase of local specialists, since they are associated with willow thickets. The majority of these species have a southern origin and their increase in abundance would represent a strengthening of the boreal component in the southern tundra, perhaps at the expense of species typical of the subarctic zone, which appear to be generalists within this zone. PMID:23239978

  15. Habitat use and movement of the endangered Arroyo Toad (Anaxyrus californicus) in coastal southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mitrovich, M.J.; Gallegos, E.A.; Lyren, L.M.; Lovich, R.E.; Fisher, R.N.

    2011-01-01

    Information on the habitat use and movement patterns of Arroyo Toads (Anaxyrus californicus) is limited. The temporal and spatial characteristics of terrestrial habitat use, especially as it relates to upland use in coastal areas of the species' range, are poorly understood. We present analyses of radiotelemetry data from 40 individual adult toads tracked at a single site in coastal southern California from March through November of 2004. We quantify adult Arroyo Toad habitat use and movements and interpret results in the context of their life history. We show concentrated activity by both male and female toads along stream terraces during and after breeding, and, although our fall sample size is low, the continued presence of adult toads in the floodplain through the late fall. Adult toads used open sandy flats with sparse vegetation. Home-range size and movement frequency varied as a function of body mass. Observed spatial patterns of movement and habitat use both during and outside of the breeding period as well as available climatological data suggest that overwintering of toads in floodplain habitats of near-coastal areas of southern California may be more common than previously considered. If adult toads are not migrating out of the floodplain at the close of the breeding season but instead overwinter on stream terraces in near-coastal areas, then current management practices that assume toad absence from floodplain habitats may be leaving adult toads over-wintering on stream terraces vulnerable to human disturbance during a time of year when Arroyo Toad mortality is potentially highest. ?? 2011 Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles.

  16. Hydrogeology of the Susquehanna River valley-fill aquifer system and adjacent areas in eastern Broome and southeastern Chenango Counties, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heisig, Paul M.

    2012-01-01

    The hydrogeology of the valley-fill aquifer system along a 32-mile reach of the Susquehanna River valley and adjacent areas was evaluated in eastern Broome and southeastern Chenango Counties, New York. The surficial geology, inferred ice-marginal positions, and distribution of stratified-drift aquifers were mapped from existing data. Ice-marginal positions, which represent pauses in the retreat of glacial ice from the region, favored the accumulation of coarse-grained deposits whereas more steady or rapid ice retreat between these positions favored deposition of fine-grained lacustrine deposits with limited coarse-grained deposits at depth. Unconfined aquifers with thick saturated coarse-grained deposits are the most favorable settings for water-resource development, and three several-mile-long sections of valley were identified (mostly in Broome County) as potentially favorable: (1) the southernmost valley section, which extends from the New York–Pennsylvania border to about 1 mile north of South Windsor, (2) the valley section that rounds the west side of the umlaufberg (an isolated bedrock hill within a valley) north of Windsor, and (3) the east–west valley section at the Broome County–Chenango County border from Nineveh to East of Bettsburg (including the lower reach of the Cornell Brook valley). Fine-grained lacustrine deposits form extensive confining units between the unconfined areas, and the water-resource potential of confined aquifers is largely untested. Recharge, or replenishment, of these aquifers is dependent not only on infiltration of precipitation directly on unconfined aquifers, but perhaps more so from precipitation that falls in adjacent upland areas. Surface runoff and shallow groundwater from the valley walls flow downslope and recharge valley aquifers. Tributary streams that drain upland areas lose flow as they enter main valleys on permeable alluvial fans. This infiltrating water also recharges valley aquifers. Current (2012) use of

  17. Genetics correlation and path coefficient analysis of cotton yield with some contributing quantitative and qualitative traits in Upland Cotton (Gosspypium hirsutum L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many quantitative and qualitative traits interact to affect lint yield in upland cotton. Breeders should be aware of these traits and their interactions before embarking on a breeding program to improve lint yield. In this study, twelve diverse germplasm lines of upland cotton were used to investiga...

  18. [Fish resources and their conservation strategies in Hepu Dugong State Nature Reserve and its adjacent waters].

    PubMed

    Wang, Qian; Yang, Guang; Wu, Xiaobing; Xu, Xinrong; Lai, Chunmiao; Ning, Yun; Luo, Jinfu

    2006-09-01

    An investigation was made on the fish resources and fish habitats of Hepu Dugong State Nature Reserve and its adjacent waters from June 2003 to May 2004. The local fish markets were surveyed, and fishermen and fishmongers were interviewed to get fishery information. A total of 57 fish species belonging to 41 families and 14 orders were recorded, among which, 55 were bony fish, and 2 were elasmobranch. There were 41 fish species belonging to warm-water fish, and 37 fish species belonging to benthonic fish. The faunal characteristic was mainly of Northern Pacific and Indo-Pacific fauna. Devastating fishing and environmental pollution were the most serious threats to the local fishery resources, and some countermeasures were proposed for conservation and management of the resources.

  19. Wanaket Wildlife Area Management Plan : Five-Year Plan for Protecting, Enhancing, and Mitigating Wildlife Habitat Losses for the McNary Hydroelectric Facility.

    SciTech Connect

    Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation Wildlife Program

    2001-09-01

    height, shrub cover, or other parameters, which are known to provide life history requisites for mitigation species. Habitat Suitability Indices range from 0 to 1, with an HSI of 1 providing optimum habitat conditions for the selected species. One acre of optimum habitat provides one Habitat Unit. The objective of continued management of the Wanaket Wildlife Mitigation Area, including protection and enhancement of upland and wetland/wetland associated cover types, is to provide and maintain 2,334 HU's of protection credit and generate 2,495 HU's of enhancement credit by the year 2004.

  20. NASA Habitat Demonstration Unit (HDU) Deep Space Habitat Analog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howe, A. Scott; Kennedy, Kriss J.; Gill, Tracy

    2013-01-01

    The NASA Habitat Demonstration Unit (HDU) vertical cylinder habitat was established as a exploration habitat testbed platform for integration and testing of a variety of technologies and subsystems that will be required in a human-occupied planetary surface outpost or Deep Space Habitat (DSH). The HDU functioned as a medium-fidelity habitat prototype from 2010-2012 and allowed teams from all over NASA to collaborate on field analog missions, mission operations tests, and system integration tests to help shake out equipment and provide feedback for technology development cycles and crew training. This paper documents the final 2012 configuration of the HDU, and discusses some of the testing that took place. Though much of the higher-fidelity functionality has 'graduated' into other NASA programs, as of this writing the HDU, renamed Human Exploration Research Analog (HERA), will continue to be available as a volumetric and operational mockup for NASA Human Research Program (HRP) research from 2013 onward.

  1. Migratory bird habitat in relation to tile drainage and poorly drained hydrologic soil groups

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kastner, Brandi; Christensen, Victoria G.; Williamson, Tanja N.; Sanocki, Chris A.

    2016-01-01

    The Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) is home to more than 50% of the migratory waterfowl in North America. Although the PPR provides an abundance of temporary and permanent wetlands for nesting and feeding, increases in commodity prices and agricultural drainage practices have led to a trend of wetland drainage. The Northern Shoveler is a migratory dabbling duck species that uses wetland habitats and cultivated croplands in the PPR. Richland County in North Dakota and Roberts County in South Dakota have an abundance of wetlands and croplands and were chosen as the study areas for this research to assess the wetland size and cultivated cropland in relation to hydrologic soil groups for the Northern Shoveler habitat. This study used geographic information system data to analyze Northern Shoveler habitats in association with Natural Resource Conservation Service soil data. Habitats, which are spatially associated with certain hydrologic soil groups, may be at risk of artificial drainage installations because of their proximity to cultivated croplands and soil lacking in natural drainage that may become wet or inundated. Findings indicate that most wetlands that are part of Northern Shoveler habitats were within or adjacent to cultivated croplands. The results also revealed soil hydrologic groups with high runoff potential and low water transmission rates account for most of the soil within the Northern Shoveler‘s wetland and cropland habitats. Habitats near agriculture with high runoff potential are likely to be drained and this has the potential of reducing Northern Shoveler habitat.

  2. Occupancy in continuous habitat

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Efford, Murray G.; Dawson, Deanna K.

    2012-01-01

    The probability that a site has at least one individual of a species ('occupancy') has come to be widely used as a state variable for animal population monitoring. The available statistical theory for estimation when detection is imperfect applies particularly to habitat patches or islands, although it is also used for arbitrary plots in continuous habitat. The probability that such a plot is occupied depends on plot size and home-range characteristics (size, shape and dispersion) as well as population density. Plot size is critical to the definition of occupancy as a state variable, but clear advice on plot size is missing from the literature on the design of occupancy studies. We describe models for the effects of varying plot size and home-range size on expected occupancy. Temporal, spatial, and species variation in average home-range size is to be expected, but information on home ranges is difficult to retrieve from species presence/absence data collected in occupancy studies. The effect of variable home-range size is negligible when plots are very large (>100 x area of home range), but large plots pose practical problems. At the other extreme, sampling of 'point' plots with cameras or other passive detectors allows the true 'proportion of area occupied' to be estimated. However, this measure equally reflects home-range size and density, and is of doubtful value for population monitoring or cross-species comparisons. Plot size is ill-defined and variable in occupancy studies that detect animals at unknown distances, the commonest example being unlimited-radius point counts of song birds. We also find that plot size is ill-defined in recent treatments of "multi-scale" occupancy; the respective scales are better interpreted as temporal (instantaneous and asymptotic) rather than spatial. Occupancy is an inadequate metric for population monitoring when it is confounded with home-range size or detection distance.

  3. Habitat Complexity Metrics to Guide Restoration of Large Rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobson, R. B.; McElroy, B. J.; Elliott, C.; DeLonay, A.

    2011-12-01

    Restoration strategies on large, channelized rivers typically strive to recover lost habitat complexity, based on the assumption complexity and biophysical capacity are directly related. Although definition of links between complexity and biotic responses can be tenuous, complexity metrics have appeal because of their potential utility in quantifying habitat quality, defining reference conditions and design criteria, and measuring restoration progress. Hydroacoustic instruments provide many ways to measure complexity on large rivers, yet substantive questions remain about variables and scale of complexity that are meaningful to biota, and how complexity can be measured and monitored cost effectively. We explore these issues on the Missouri River, using the example of channel re-engineering projects that are intended to aid in recovery of the pallid sturgeon, an endangered benthic fish. We are refining understanding of what habitat complexity means for adult fish by combining hydroacoustic habitat assessments with acoustic telemetry to map locations during reproductive migrations and spawning. These data indicate that migrating sturgeon select points with relatively low velocity but adjacent to areas of high velocity (that is, with high velocity gradients); the integration of points defines pathways which minimize energy expenditures during upstream migrations of 10's to 100's of km. Complexity metrics that efficiently quantify migration potential at the reach scale are therefore directly relevant to channel restoration strategies. We are also exploring complexity as it relates to larval sturgeon dispersal. Larvae may drift for as many as 17 days (100's of km at mean velocities) before using up their yolk sac, after which they "settle" into habitats where they initiate feeding. An assumption underlying channel re-engineering is that additional channel complexity, specifically increased shallow, slow water, is necessary for early feeding and refugia. Development of

  4. Describing Willow Flycatcher habitats: scale perspectives and gender differences

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sedgwick, James A.; Knopf, Fritz L.

    1992-01-01

    We compared habitat characteristics of nest sites (female-selected sites) and song perch sites (male-selected sites) with those of sites unused by Willow Flycatchers (Empidonax traillii) at three different scales of vegetation measurement: (1) microplot (central willow [Salix spp.] bush and four adjacent bushes); (2) mesoplot (0.07 ha); and, (3) macroplot (flycatcher territory size). Willow Flycatchers exhibited vegetation preferences at all three scales. Nest sites were distinguished by high willow density and low variability in willow patch size and bush height. Song perch sites were characterized by large central shrubs, low central shrub vigor, and high variability in shrub size. Unused sites were characterized by greater distances between willows and willow patches, less willow coverage, and a smaller riparian zone width than either nest or song perch sites. At all scales, nest sites were situated farther from unused sites in multivariate habitat space than were song perch sites, suggesting (1) a correspondence among scales in their ability to describe Willow Flycatcher habitat, and (2) females are more discriminating in habitat selection than males. Microhabitat differences between male-selected (song perch) and female-selected (nest) sites were evident at the two smaller scales; at the finest scale, the segregation in habitat space between male-selected and female-selected sites was greater than that between male-selected and unused sites. Differences between song perch and nest sites were not apparent at the scale of flycatcher territory size, possibly due to inclusion of (1) both nest and song perch sites, (2) defended, but unused habitat, and/or (3) habitat outside of the territory, in larger scale analyses. The differences between nest and song perch sites at the finer scales reflect their different functions (e.g., nest concealment and microclimatic requirements vs. advertising and territorial defense, respectively), and suggest that the exclusive use

  5. Food technology in space habitats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karel, M.

    1979-01-01

    The research required to develop a system that will provide for acceptable, nutritious, and safe diets for man during extended space missions is discussed. The development of a food technology system for space habitats capable of converting raw materials produced in the space habitats into acceptable food is examined.

  6. A Wildlife Habitat Improvement Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, S. Elaine

    The document presents an overview of Stony Acres, a "sanctuary" for wildlife as well as a place for recreation enjoyment and education undertakings. A review of the history of wildlife habitat management at Stony Acres and the need for continued and improved wildlife habitat management for the property are discussed in Chapter I. Chapter…

  7. Clay Animals and Their Habitats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adamson, Kay

    2010-01-01

    Creating clay animals and their habitats with second-grade students has long been one of the author's favorite classroom activities. Students love working with clay and they also enjoy drawing animal homes. In this article, the author describes how the students created a diorama instead of drawing their clay animal's habitat. This gave students…

  8. Longitudinal Changes in Physical Habitat and Macroinvertebrate Assemblages Along a Neotropical Stream Continuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colon-Gaud, C.; Whiles, M. R.

    2005-05-01

    Information on the structure and function of upland Neotropical streams is lacking compared to many other regions. We examined habitat characteristics and macroinvertebrate assemblages along an 8-km stretch of a stream originating on the continental divide in central Panama in order to examine patterns along a stream continuum. Wetted width and discharge ranged from 1 m and 18 L/s, respectively in the uppermost headwaters to 12 m and 1,580 L/s, respectively at the lowest reach examined. Percent substrate composition showed a decrease in fine particle sizes from upper headwater reaches (38%) to the lowest reach (10%). A total of 61 macroinvertebrate taxa were identified along the continuum, with more taxa present in lower reaches (45) compared to headwaters (28), but responses of individual groups varied. Trichoptera, Ephemeroptera, and Diptera richness increased from headwaters to the lowest site, whereas Hemiptera and Coleoptera richness decreased along the gradient. Collector-gatherers and predators were the dominant functional groups (~70% of total abundance) and changed little across sites. Shredder abundance was highest in headwaters (15% of total), while scrapers (20%) and collector/filterers (11%) peaked in the lower reaches. These patterns suggest that upland streams in this region follow basic tenets of the River Continuum Concept.

  9. PIXE analysis of elements in gastric cancer and adjacent mucosa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Qixin; Zhong, Ming; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Yan, Lingnuo; Xu, Yongling; Ye, Simao

    1990-04-01

    The elemental regional distributions in 20 resected human stomach tissues were obtained using PIXE analysis. The samples were pathologically divided into four types: normal, adjacent mucosa A, adjacent mucosa B and cancer. The targets for PIXE analysis were prepared by wet digestion with a pressure bomb system. P, K, Fe, Cu, Zn and Se were measured and statistically analysed. We found significantly higher concentrations of P, K, Cu, Zn and a higher ratio of Cu compared to Zn in cancer tissue as compared with normal tissue, but statistically no significant difference between adjacent mucosa and cancer tissue was found.

  10. Thermoelastic response of thin metal films and their adjacent materials

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, S.; Yoon, Y.; Kim, J.; Kim, W.

    2013-01-14

    A pulsed laser beam applied to a thin metal film is capable of launching an acoustic wave due to thermal expansion. Heat transfer from the thin metal film to adjacent materials can also induce thermal expansion; thus, the properties of these adjacent materials (as well as the thin metal film) should be considered for a complete description of the thermoelastic response. Here, we show that adjacent materials with a small specific heat and large thermal expansion coefficient can generate an enhanced acoustic wave and we demonstrate a three-fold increase in the peak pressure of the generated acoustic wave on substitution of parylene for polydimethylsiloxane.

  11. Habitat Design Optimization and Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    SanSoucie, Michael P.; Hull, Patrick V.; Tinker, Michael L.

    2006-01-01

    Long-duration surface missions to the Moon and Mars will require habitats for the astronauts. The materials chosen for the habitat walls play a direct role in the protection against the harsh environments found on the surface. Choosing the best materials, their configuration, and the amount required is extremely difficult due to the immense size of the design region. Advanced optimization techniques are necessary for habitat wall design. Standard optimization techniques are not suitable for problems with such large search spaces; therefore, a habitat design optimization tool utilizing genetic algorithms has been developed. Genetic algorithms use a "survival of the fittest" philosophy, where the most fit individuals are more likely to survive and reproduce. This habitat design optimization tool is a multi-objective formulation of structural analysis, heat loss, radiation protection, and meteoroid protection. This paper presents the research and development of this tool.

  12. Redhead duck behavior on lower Laguna Madre and adjacent ponds of southern Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mitchell, C.A.; Custer, T.W.; Zwank, P.J.

    1992-01-01

    Behavior of redheads (Aythya americana) during winter was studied on the hypersaline lower Laguna Madre and adjacent freshwater to brackish water ponds of southern Texas. On Laguna Madre, feeding (46%) and sleeping (37%) were the most common behaviors. Redheads fed more during early morning (64%) than during the rest of the day (40%); feeding activity was negatively correlated with temperature. Redheads fed more often by dipping (58%) than by tipping (25%), diving (16%), or gleaning (0.1%). Water depth was least where they fed by dipping (16 cm), greatest where diving (75 cm), and intermediate where tipping (26 cm). Feeding sequences averaged 5.3 s for dipping, 8.1 s for tipping, and 19.2 s for diving. Redheads usually were present on freshwater to brackish water ponds adjacent to Laguna Madre only during daylight hours, and use of those areas declined as winter progressed. Sleeping (75%) was the most frequent behavior at ponds, followed by preening (10%), swimming (10%), and feeding (0.4%). Because redheads fed almost exclusively on shoalgrass while dipping and tipping in shallow water and shoalgrass meadows have declined in the lower Laguna Madre, proper management of the remaining shoalgrass habitat is necessary to ensure that this area remains the major wintering area for redheads.

  13. Garfield County Habitat for Fall Chinook and Steelhead, Annual Report 2006.

    SciTech Connect

    Bartels, Duane

    2007-01-01

    The objectives and tasks outlined in detail in this project report were implemented during calendar year 2006 in all the watersheds of Garfield County. The Pataha Creek Watershed was selected in 1993, along with the Tucannon and Asotin Creeks, as model watersheds by the Northwest Power and Conservation Council (NPCC). In the years since 1993, other watersheds in Garfield County have been designated as salmon bearing streams and have received numerous practices formerly just designated for the Pataha Creek Watershed. The following sections show the individual practices, quantity of practices implemented, total costs, BPA costs and tons of soil saved for all the BPA funds used to protect and enhance the natural resources in the salmon bearing watersheds of Garfield County. In the year 2006, 55% of the funding received from BPA went into cost share practices. Of all the cost share received in the county, 22% came from BPA. This is largely due to other funding programs becoming available to address livestock influenced water quality problems and riparian health improvement. Over 95% of the sediment entering the streams can be tied directly to the upland and riparian areas of the watershed. The Pataha Creek, Deadman Creek, and Alpowa Creek have had steelhead runs in the past. The Pataha Creek has native and planted rainbow trout in the mid to upper portion. Suckers, pikeminow, and shiners inhabit the lower portion of Pataha Creek because of the higher water temperatures and lack of vegetation. The improvement of riparian habitat through the CREP, CCRP, and DOE grants has improved habitat for all the fish species. The lower portion of the Pataha Creek is slowly developing into spawning and rearing habitat for Chinook salmon. With the future removal of some migration barriers on the lower portion of the Deadman and Pataha, more stream miles will become useful spawning and rearing habitat. The upland projects completed during 2006 were practices that significantly reduce

  14. The ecology of riparian habitats of the southern California coastal region: A community profile

    SciTech Connect

    Faber, P.M.; Keller, E.; Sands, A.; Massey, B.M. , Mill Valley, CA; Keller , Santa Barbara, CA; Sands , Mill Valley, CA; Massey , Long Beach, CA )

    1989-09-01

    In the 200 years since California's settlement by Europeans, almost every river in southern California has been channelized or dammed to allow development on the floodplains, causing the loss of a highly productive ecosystem. The riparian zone occurs along streambanks where soils are fertile and water is abundant; amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals all move back and forth across the riparian zone from streams into adjacent wetland and upland areas. Irreversible alterations of the riparian ecosystem result from the diversion or loss of transported water to the system through diking, damming, channelization, levee building, or road construction. Clearing for crops, grazing, or golf courses is potentially reversible as long as the water supply remains unaltered. Successful restoration work requires early agreement on project goals, site-specific restoration design, correct project implementation, enforcement of permit conditions, a maintenance and management program, and long-range monitoring. 288 refs., 54 figs., 13 tabs.

  15. High Potential for Iron Reduction in Upland Soils from Diverse Terrestrial Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, W. H.; Liptzin, D.

    2014-12-01

    Changes in the redox state of iron (Fe) can be coupled to the biogeochemical cycling of carbon (C), nitrogen, and phosphorus. The importance of Fe in catalyzing redox-driven biogeochemical cycling has been underappreciated in terrestrial ecosystems because they are not typically thought of as anaerobic environments. However, upland soils can experience anaerobic conditions following rainfall events or in microsites of high biological oxygen consumption. Measurements of Fe reduction rates in soils are difficult to compare among studies from different ecosystems, so we used the same assay to quantify potential Fe reduction in soils from upland environments (annual grassland, drained peatland pasture, and a rainforest) that varied in poorly crystalline Fe and total C. We slurried the soils and incubated them in a glovebox with a dinitrogen headspace. To evaluate the role of C availability in potential Fe reduction, we added sodium acetate daily at rates up to 0.6 mg C/g soil/d. We measured methane (CH4) production, acid- extractable Fe(II), citrate-ascorbate extractable Fe oxides, and pH over 5 days to determine the timing and magnitude of Fe reduction. In relatively dry soils (< 20 % gravimetric soil moisture), Fe reduction began after one day of anaerobic incubation as slurries, but all of the soils demonstrated high Fe reduction potential. On day 3, Fe reduction rates for the 0.05 mg C/g soil/d treatment were 1535 ± 51 μg Fe(III) g-1 d-1 in the annual grassland soil, 1205 ± 42 μg Fe(III) g-1 d-1 in the drained peatland soil, and 826 ± 54 μg Fe(III) g-1 d-1 in the rainforest soil. This contrasts with the trend in poorly crystalline Fe oxide pools across the sites: 3.87 ± 0.06 μg Fe(III) g-1 in the annual grassland, 7.49 μg Fe(III) g-1 in the drained peatland, and 20.84 ± 0.19 μg Fe(III) g-1 in the rainforest soil. Across all sites, small C additions (< 0.05 mg C/g soil/day) increased Fe reduction rates while larger C additions decreased Fe reduction. Iron

  16. EVALUATION OF ENHANCED VOC REMOVAL WITH SOIL FRACTURING IN THE SRS UPLAND UNIT

    SciTech Connect

    Riha, B

    2005-10-31

    The Environmental Restoration Technology Section (ERTS) of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) conducted pilot scale testing to evaluate the effectiveness of using hydraulic fracturing as a means to improve soil vapor extraction (SVE) system performance. Laboratory and field research has shown that significant amounts of solvents can be entrapped in low permeability zones by capillary forces and removal by SVE can be severely limited due to low flow rates, mass transfer resistance of the hydrophobic compounds by trapped interparticle water, and diffusion resistance. Introducing sand-filled fractures into these tight zones improves the performance of SVE by (1) increasing the overall permeability of the formation and thereby increasing SVE flow rates, (2) shortening diffusion pathways, and (3) increasing air permeability by improving pore water removal. The synergistic effect of the fracture well completion methods, fracture and flow geometry, and pore water removal appears to increase the rate of solvent mass removal over that of increasing flow rate alone. A field test was conducted where a conventional well in the SRS Upland Unit was tested before and after hydraulic fracturing. ERTS teamed with Clemson University through the South Carolina University and Education Foundation (SCUREF) program utilizing their expertise in fracturing and fracture modeling. The goals of the fracturing pilot testing were to evaluate the following: (1) The effect of hydraulic fractures on the performance of a conventional well. This was the most reliable way to remove the effects of spatial variations in permeability and contaminant distribution on relative well performance. It also provided data on the option of improving the performance of existing wells using hydraulic fractures. (2) The relative performance of a conventional SVE well and isolated hydraulic fractures. This was the most reliable indicator of the performance of hydraulic fractures that could be created in a

  17. Groundwater recharge assessment in an upland sandstone aquifer of southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manna, F.; Cherry, J. A.; McWhorter, D. B.; Parker, B. L.

    2016-10-01

    The Chloride Mass Balance (CMB) method was used to obtain long-term recharge values for the Santa Susana Field Laboratory (SSFL) site, which features a groundwater flow system beneath an upland ridge formed of sandstone and shale beds in the Simi Hills, Ventura County, southern California. This application relied on the availability of on-site measurements of bulk atmospheric chloride deposition comprised of dry fallout and wet concentration, a large number of groundwater samples (∼1490) collected over three decades from 206 wells spanning a depth range from 10 to 360 m, and measurements of chloride in surface runoff during rain events. The use of the CMB method is suited to the assessment of recharge for the study area because the mean chloride values in groundwater show minimal spatial trends, indicating no sources other than atmospheric. In addition, the Cl/Br ratio was used to exclude wells with possible anthropogenic chloride. The site-wide average recharge ranges between 1.8 and 9.5% of the mean annual precipitation (455 mm) with a mean value of 4.2%. The measured surface runoff varies from 2.3 to 10.2% with mean value of 6.1% (28 mm) and, therefore, the volume of water lost to evapotranspiration is between 95.9 and 80.3% with a mean value of 89.6% (408 mm). The long-term recharge calculated using the CMB method is consistent with tritium distribution based on a subset of groundwater monitoring wells and with an analysis of steady flow in the groundwater mound beneath the SSFL. Furthermore, the recharge value matches those in the literature for sandstone aquifers in arid and semi-arid climates. This recharge estimate has important relevance for site characterization in terms of constraining the volumetric groundwater flow rates and water balance and understanding the mechanisms of transport towards the water table. Moreover, this is the first application of the CMB in an upland area of California. Hence, the method is demonstrated to be robust and

  18. A multi-scale modelling procedure to quantify hydrological impacts of upland land management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheater, H. S.; Jackson, B.; Bulygina, N.; Ballard, C.; McIntyre, N.; Marshall, M.; Frogbrook, Z.; Solloway, I.; Reynolds, B.

    2008-12-01

    Recent UK floods have focused attention on the effects of agricultural intensification on flood risk. However, quantification of these effects raises important methodological issues. Catchment-scale data have proved inadequate to support analysis of impacts of land management change, due to climate variability, uncertainty in input and output data, spatial heterogeneity in land use and lack of data to quantify historical changes in management practices. Manipulation experiments to quantify the impacts of land management change have necessarily been limited and small scale, and in the UK mainly focused on the lowlands and arable agriculture. There is a need to develop methods to extrapolate from small scale observations to predict catchment-scale response, and to quantify impacts for upland areas. With assistance from a cooperative of Welsh farmers, a multi-scale experimental programme has been established at Pontbren, in mid-Wales, an area of intensive sheep production. The data have been used to support development of a multi-scale modelling methodology to assess impacts of agricultural intensification and the potential for mitigation of flood risk through land use management. Data are available from replicated experimental plots under different land management treatments, from instrumented field and hillslope sites, including tree shelter belts, and from first and second order catchments. Measurements include climate variables, soil water states and hydraulic properties at multiple depths and locations, tree interception, overland flow and drainflow, groundwater levels, and streamflow from multiple locations. Fine resolution physics-based models have been developed to represent soil and runoff processes, conditioned using experimental data. The detailed models are used to calibrate simpler 'meta- models' to represent individual hydrological elements, which are then combined in a semi-distributed catchment-scale model. The methodology is illustrated using field

  19. Whole-island carbon stocks in the tropical Pacific: implications for mangrove conservation and upland restoration.

    PubMed

    Donato, D C; Kauffman, J B; Mackenzie, R A; Ainsworth, A; Pfleeger, A Z

    2012-04-30

    Management of forest carbon (C) stocks is an increasingly prominent land-use issue. Knowledge of carbon storage in tropical forests is improving, but regional variations are still poorly understood, and this constrains forest management and conservation efforts associated with carbon valuation mechanisms (e.g., carbon markets). This deficiency is especially pronounced in tropical islands and low-lying coastal areas where climate change impacts are expected to be among the most severe. This study presents the first field estimate of island-wide carbon storage in ecosystems of Oceania, with special attention to the regional role of coastal mangroves, which occur on islands and coastal zones throughout the tropics. On two island groups of Micronesia (Yap and Palau), we sampled all above- and belowground C pools, including soil and vegetation, in 24 sites distributed evenly among the three major vegetation structural types: mangroves, upland forests, and open savannas (generally on degraded lands formerly forested). Total C stocks were estimated to be 3.9 and 15.2 Tg C on Yap and Palau, respectively. Mangroves contained by far the largest per-hectare C pools (830-1218 Mg C ha(-1)), with deep organic-rich soils alone storing more C (631-754 Mg C ha(-1)) than all pools combined in upland systems. Despite covering just 12-13% of land area, mangroves accounted for 24-34% of total island C stocks. Savannas (156-203 Mg C ha(-1)) contained significantly lower C stocks than upland forests (375-437 Mg C ha(-1)), suggesting that reforesting savannas where appropriate has high potential for carbon-based funding to aid restoration objectives. For mangroves, these results demonstrate the key role of these systems within the broader context of C storage in island and coastal landscapes. Sustainable management of mangrove forests and their large C stocks is of high importance at the regional scale, and climate change mitigation programs such as REDD+ could play a large role in

  20. Will blocking historical drainage ditches increase carbon sequestration in upland blanket mires of Southwest England?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Feuvre, N.; Hartley, I.; Anderson, K.; Luscombe, D.; Grand-Clement, E.; Smith, D.; Brazier, R.

    2012-04-01

    Peat soils in the United Kingdom are estimated to store a minimum of 3,121Mt C (Lindsay, 2010). Despite being such a large carbon store the annual imbalance between uptake and release is small and susceptible to change in response to land management, atmospheric deposition and climate change. The upland blanket mires of Southwest England have been subject to extensive drainage and are particularly vulnerable to climate change as they lie at the lower edge of the peatland climatic envelope. The Mires-on-the-Moors project, funded by South West Water will restore over 2000 hectares of drained mire by April 2015. Herein, we question whether this restoration, which will block historical drainage ditches will allow the blanket bogs of Exmoor and Dartmoor National Parks to recover their ecohydrological functionality. We hypothesise that such mire restoration will increase the resilience of these ecosystems to climate change and will return these upland mires to peat forming/carbon sequestering systems. A method is proposed which aims to understand the processes driving gaseous carbon exchange and peat formation in an upland blanket bog and quantifies the effect restoration has on these processes. We propose to measure the spatial variation in gas fluxes with respect to structural features of the mire; drainage ditches and nanotopes. The role of vegetation; the community composition, phenology and health will be explored as well as environmental variables such as water table depths, temperature and photosynthetically active radiation. Importantly, the experiment will partition below ground respiration to assess the environmental controls and effect of restoration on autotrophic and heterotrophic respiration separately. Unusually, it will be possible to collect both pre- and post-restoration data for two experimental sites with existing intensive hydrological monitoring (baseline monitoring of water table depths at 15 minute timesteps has been in place for > 1 year at ca

  1. Detection, validation and application of genotyping-by-sequencing based single nucleotide polymorphisms in upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.).

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The presence of two closely related sub-genomes in the allotetraploid Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) combined with a narrow genetic base of the cultivated varieties has hindered the identification of polymorphic genetic markers and their utilization in improving this important crop. Genotypi...

  2. SUBSURFACE CHARACTERIZATION OF UPLAND RIPARIAN MEADOWS IN CENTRAL NEVADA USING AN INNOVATIVE DIRECT-PUSH EXPLORATION RIG

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA and the USDA Forest Service are conducting a joint investigation to better understand the interactions between geomorphology, hydrology, and vegetation associated with riparian meadow ecosystems in upland watersheds in central Nevada. Stream incision is a major threa...

  3. AN ECOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT OF LEAD SHOT EXPOSURE IN NON-WATERFOWL AVIAN SPECIES: UPLAND GAME BIRDS AND RAPTORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is increasing concern that birds in terrestrial ecosystems may be exposed to spent lead shot. Evidence exists that upland birds, particularly mourning doves (Zenaida macroura), ingest spent lead shot and that raptors ingest lead shot by consuming wounded game. Mortality, ne...

  4. AN INTEGRATED, SCIENCE-BASED APPROACH TO MANAGING AND RESTORING UPLAND RIPARIAN MEADOWS IN THE GREAT BASIN OF CENTRAL NEVADA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Riparian corridor and meadow ecosystems in upland watersheds are of local and regional importance in the Great Basin. Covering only 1-3% of the total land area, these ecosystems contain a disproportionally large percentage of the region's biodiversity. Stream incision is a major ...

  5. Precision mapping and identification of candidate genes for a QTL affecting Meloidogyne incognita reproduction in Upland cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The resistant line Auburn 623RNR and a number of elite breeding lines derived from it remain the most important source of root-knot nematode (RKN) resistance because they exhibit the highest level of resistance to RKN known to date in Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L). Prior genetic mapping analy...

  6. 7 CFR 1427.25 - Determination of the prevailing world market price and the adjusted world price for upland cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... price quotation is available for each growth quoted for Middling one and three-thirty-second inch (M 13... lowest-priced growths of the growths quoted for M 13/32-inch cotton, CFR Far East. (2) During the period... growths quoted for M 13/32-inch cotton, CFR Far East, the prevailing world market price for upland...

  7. 7 CFR 1427.25 - Determination of the prevailing world market price and the adjusted world price for upland cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... price quotation is available for each growth quoted for Middling one and three-thirty-second inch (M 13... lowest-priced growths of the growths quoted for M 13/32-inch cotton, CFR Far East. (2) During the period... growths quoted for M 13/32-inch cotton, CFR Far East, the prevailing world market price for upland...

  8. Overall view of tower and adjacent aircraft shelters on flight ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Overall view of tower and adjacent aircraft shelters on flight line. View to east. - Plattsburgh Air Force Base, Security Guard Tower, Florida Street at Aircraft Shelters Area, Plattsburgh, Clinton County, NY

  9. Interior building details of Building A, dungeon cell adjacent to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior building details of Building A, dungeon cell adjacent to northwest cell: granite and brick threshold, poured concrete floors, plastered finished walls, vaulted veiling; northwesterly view - San Quentin State Prison, Building 22, Point San Quentin, San Quentin, Marin County, CA

  10. 10. View north from the adjacent B & O railroad ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. View north from the adjacent B & O railroad bridge of portion of the Main truss span over the reservoir of the Augustine Paper Mills, National Register Site. - Augustine Bridge, Brandywine River,Augustine Cutoff, Wilmington, New Castle County, DE

  11. Lock 4 View east of lock wall and adjacent ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Lock 4 - View east of lock wall and adjacent roadway built atop tow path. The gate pocket can be seen at center. - Savannah & Ogeechee Barge Canal, Between Ogeechee & Savannah Rivers, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  12. 1. A BRICK AND CONCRETE FAN HOUSING ADJACENT TO ONE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. A BRICK AND CONCRETE FAN HOUSING ADJACENT TO ONE OF THE ADIT OPENINGS (VIEW TO THE NORTH). - Foster Gulch Mine, Fan Housing, Bear Creek 1 mile Southwest of Town of Bear Creek, Red Lodge, Carbon County, MT

  13. 1. VIEW FROM ROOFTOP OF BUILDING (MOTEL) ADJACENT TO TECHWOOD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW FROM ROOFTOP OF BUILDING (MOTEL) ADJACENT TO TECHWOOD HOMES, LOOKING SOUTH. GARAGE TO EXTREME LEFT, BUILDING 1 TO EXTREME RIGHT. - Techwood Homes (Public Housing), Bounded by North Avenue, Parker Street, William Street & Lovejoy Street, Atlanta, Fulton County, GA

  14. VIEW FROM ROOFTOP OF BUILDING (MOTEL) ADJACENT TO TECHWOOD HOMES, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW FROM ROOFTOP OF BUILDING (MOTEL) ADJACENT TO TECHWOOD HOMES, LOOKING SOUTH. GARAGE TO EXTREME LEFT, BUILDING 1 TO EXTREME RIGHT. - Techwood Homes, Building No. 16, 488-514 Techwood Drive, Atlanta, Fulton County, GA

  15. View from water showing south facade and adjacent boat slips ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View from water showing south facade and adjacent boat slips (Facility Nos. S375 & S376) - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Boat House, Hornet Avenue at Independence Street, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  16. Cement Leakage into Adjacent Vertebral Body Following Percutaneous Vertebroplasty.

    PubMed

    Park, Jae Hoo; Kim, Hyeun Sung; Kim, Seok Won

    2016-06-01

    Percutaneous vertebroplasty (PV) is a minimally invasive procedure for osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures that fail to respond to conventional conservative treatment. It significantly improves intolerable back pain within hours, and has a low complication rate. Although rare, PV is not free of complications, most of which are directly related to cement leakage. Because of its association with new adjacent fracture, the importance of cement leakage into the adjacent disc space is paramount. Here, we report an interesting case of cement leakage into the adjacent upper vertebral body as well as disc space following PV. To the best of our knowledge, there has been no report of cement leakage into the adjacent vertebral body following PV. This rare case is presented along with a review of the literature.

  17. 15. View north from the adjacent B & O railroad ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. View north from the adjacent B & O railroad bridge of Pier No. 5 and portion of the deck and super-structure. - Augustine Bridge, Brandywine River,Augustine Cutoff, Wilmington, New Castle County, DE

  18. 7. View north from the adjacent B & O railroad ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. View north from the adjacent B & O railroad bridge of Pier No. 1 and portions of the deck and super-structure. - Augustine Bridge, Brandywine River,Augustine Cutoff, Wilmington, New Castle County, DE

  19. 8. View north from the adjacent B & O railroad ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. View north from the adjacent B & O railroad bridge of Pier No. 2 and portions of the deck and super-structure. - Augustine Bridge, Brandywine River,Augustine Cutoff, Wilmington, New Castle County, DE

  20. VIEW OF NORTHERN AND EASTERN SIDES FROM PARKING LOT ADJACENT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF NORTHERN AND EASTERN SIDES FROM PARKING LOT ADJACENT TO BUILDING 199 (POLICE STATION) - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Post Office, Avenue A near Eleventh Avenue, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  1. Basement, room 23, looking southwest into two adjacent offices with ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Basement, room 23, looking southwest into two adjacent offices with soundproof walls and pedestal flooring - March Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command, Combat Operations Center, 5220 Riverside Drive, Moreno Valley, Riverside County, CA

  2. 3. View of north side of house facing from adjacent ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. View of north side of house facing from adjacent vacant property. Original wood lap siding and trim is covered by aluminum siding. Recessed side porch is in middle. - 645 South Eighteenth Street (House), Louisville, Jefferson County, KY

  3. View of viaduct, looking SE from roof of adjacent parking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of viaduct, looking SE from roof of adjacent parking garage. - Mulberry Street Viaduct, Spanning Paxton Creek & Cameron Street (State Route 230) at Mulberry Street (State Route 3012), Harrisburg, Dauphin County, PA

  4. 1. Ninth Street (west) facade. Adjacent on the north is ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Ninth Street (west) facade. Adjacent on the north is the 9th Street facade of 816 E Street. Both buildings were originally one property. - Riley Building, Rendezvous Adult Magazines & Films, 437 Ninth Street, Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  5. 6. Detail, vertical guides adjacent to east portal of Tunnel ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Detail, vertical guides adjacent to east portal of Tunnel 28, view to southwest, 135mm lens with electronic flash fill. - Central Pacific Transcontinental Railroad, Tunnel No. 28, Milepost 134.75, Applegate, Placer County, CA

  6. VIEW OF LAMP FIXTURE (EXTERIOR) ADJACENT TO ENTRANCE AT SOUTHWEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF LAMP FIXTURE (EXTERIOR) ADJACENT TO ENTRANCE AT SOUTHWEST CORNER OF BUILDING 23, FACING NORTH - Roosevelt Base, Auditorium-Gymnasium, West Virginia Street between Richardson & Reeves Avenues, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  7. 73. PASSAGE ADJACENT TO ROOM 232, EAST WING, SECOND FLOOR, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    73. PASSAGE ADJACENT TO ROOM 232, EAST WING, SECOND FLOOR, LOOKING WEST BY NORTHWEST, SHOWING EASTERNMOST ARCH OF FORMER GREAT HALL NORTH ARCADE - Smithsonian Institution Building, 1000 Jefferson Drive, between Ninth & Twelfth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  8. Detail exterior view looking north showing piping system adjacent to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail exterior view looking north showing piping system adjacent to engine house. Gas cooling system is on far right. - Burnsville Natural Gas Pumping Station, Saratoga Avenue between Little Kanawha River & C&O Railroad line, Burnsville, Braxton County, WV

  9. 52. EASTSIDE PLANT: GENERAL VIEW OF GOVERNOR ADJACENT TO GENERATOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    52. EASTSIDE PLANT: GENERAL VIEW OF GOVERNOR ADJACENT TO GENERATOR - American Falls Water, Power & Light Company, Island Power Plant, Snake River, below American Falls Dam, American Falls, Power County, ID

  10. OBLIQUE OF SOUTHWEST END AND SOUTHEAST SIDE, WITH ADJACENT FACILITY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE OF SOUTHWEST END AND SOUTHEAST SIDE, WITH ADJACENT FACILITY 391 IN THE FOREGROUND. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Joint Intelligence Center, Makalapa Drive in Makalapa Administration Area, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  11. Brick incinerator structure located adjacent to "motor courts." This example ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Brick incinerator structure located adjacent to "motor courts." This example is located between Buildings 26 and 27. Facing northeast - Harbor Hills Housing Project, 26607 Western Avenue, Lomita, Los Angeles County, CA

  12. 7. August, 1970 9 ORANGE STREET, ADJACENT TO UNITARIAN CHURCH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. August, 1970 9 ORANGE STREET, ADJACENT TO UNITARIAN CHURCH (NOT IN STUDY AREA) - Orange & Union Streets Neighborhood Study, 8-31 Orange Street, 9-21 Union Street & Stone Alley, Nantucket, Nantucket County, MA

  13. VIEW FROM ROOFTOP OF BUILDING (MOTEL) ADJACENT TO TECHWOOD HOME, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW FROM ROOFTOP OF BUILDING (MOTEL) ADJACENT TO TECHWOOD HOME, LOOKING WEST. GEORGIA TECH DORMITORY BUILDING, 581-587 TECHWOOD DRIVE, IN FOREGROUND. - Techwood Homes, Building No. 16, 488-514 Techwood Drive, Atlanta, Fulton County, GA

  14. 72. View of reservoir adjacent to south wall of blowing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    72. View of reservoir adjacent to south wall of blowing engine house where water from furnaces was allowed to cool. - Sloss-Sheffield Steel & Iron, First Avenue North Viaduct at Thirty-second Street, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  15. Soil-atmosphere exchange of methane in adjacent cultivated and floodplain forest soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burke, Roger A.; Meyer, Judith L.; Cruse, Jennifer M.; Birkhead, Karen M.; Paul, Michael J.

    1999-04-01

    The soil-atmosphere exchange of methane was measured in adjacent cultivated (corn) and forest (upper floodplain, mixed hardwood) habitats of the southeastern U.S. piedmont for a period of 3 years using closed chambers. We have evaluated the effect of the following factors on soil-atmosphere methane exchange: (1) interannual variability of climatic conditions, (2) landscape position (i.e., river levee versus terrace), and (3) disturbance ranging from intense (cultivation) through moderate (approximately annual flooding events that last from weeks to months) to subtle (approximately annual flooding of a few days duration). We found that mean methane consumption in the cultivated and forested terrace sites was <0.3 mg CH4 m-2 d-1, whereas the mean consumption rate in forested levee sites was about 1.4 mg CH4 m-2 d-1 over the course of the 3 years. Moisture levels in the upper soil (0-5 cm) appear to exert little control of methane exchange in any of the habitats. We observed little seasonal variation in methane flux in the levee sites, in contrast to results observed by others in higher-latitude and tropical forests. Our results suggest that very subtle differences in landscape position and disturbance impact the strength of the soil methane sink. We cannot conclude that agricultural development destroyed the methane sink capacity of these floodplain terrace soils because it was probably already quite low due to periodic disturbance by flooding. Limited measurements of nitrogen cycling suggest that methane flux differences observed among the different habitats are not obviously related to differences in N mineralization or nitrification as in other ecosystems.

  16. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Downy woodpecker

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schroeder, Richard L.

    1983-01-01

    A review and synthesis of existing information was used to develop a habitat model for the downy woodpecker (Picoides eubescens). The model is scaled to produce an index of habitat suitability between 0 (unsuitable habitat) and 1 (optimally suitable habitat) for areas of the continental United States. Habitat suitability indexes are designed for use with Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  17. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Pileated woodpecker

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schroeder, Richard L.

    1983-01-01

    A review and synthesis of existing information was used to develop a habitat model for the pileated woodpecker (Dryocopus pileatus). The model is scaled to produce an index of habitat suitability between 0 (unsuitable habitat) and 1 (optimally suitable habitat) for areas of the continental United States. Habitat suitability indexes are designed for use.with Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  18. Comparison of shallow-water and marsh-surface habitats associated with pipeline canals and natural channels in Louisiana salt marshes

    SciTech Connect

    Rozas, L.P.

    1992-11-01

    The primary objective of the study was to assess the effects of pipeline canals on the habitat function of inside-levee marshes. The degree to which inside-levee marshes function as nursery habitat for nekton residing in canals was examined by comparing densities of nekton on marshes adjacent to pipeline canals (inside-levee marshes) and natural tidal creeks. In addition, shallow subtidal habitats in the two environments (canals and natural channels) were compared by sampling nekton along the marsh edge at low tide and measuring predator encounter rates in both habitats.

  19. Metal content of biopsies adjacent to dental cast alloys.

    PubMed

    Garhammer, Pauline; Schmalz, G; Hiller, K-A; Reitinger, T

    2003-06-01

    Single case reports indicate that components of dental alloys accumulate in the adjacent soft tissue of the oral cavity. However, data on a wider range of dental alloys and patient groups are scarce. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to examine the metal content of oral tissues adjacent to dental alloys showing persisting signs of inflammation or other discoloration (affected sites) and of healthy control sites with no adjacent metal restoration in 28 patients. The composition of the adjacent alloys was analyzed and compared to the alloy components in the affected sites. Tissue analysis was performed using atomic absorption spectroscopy. Alloy analysis was performed with energy-dispersive X-ray analysis. In the affected sites, the metals Ag, Au, Cu, and Pd prevailed compared to control sites, reflecting the frequency distribution of single metals in the adjacent alloys. In most cases (84%), at least one of the analyzed metals was a component of the alloy and also detected in the tissue. Metal components from almost all dental cast alloys can be detected in adjacent tissue.

  20. An investigation of the thermal comfort adaptive model in a tropical upland climate

    SciTech Connect

    Malama, A.; Jitkhajornwanich, K.; Sharples, S.; Pitts, A.C.

    1998-10-01

    The results of two thermal comfort surveys performed in Zambia, which has a tropical upland climate, are presented and analyzed with special reference to the adaptive model. The main forms of adaptation and adjustment analyzed are: clothing, skin moisture, activity level, and environmental controls. Results show that in the cool season the main methods of adaptation used by the subjects were clothing and environmental controls, while in the warm season only environmental controls were used. It proved difficult to establish the impact of the various levels of adaptivity on thermal comfort standards. It would be useful if the adaptive model could be factored into thermal comfort to produce adaptive thermal comfort standards that would allow for differences in culture and climate across the globe.