NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sardanashvily, G. A.
2014-12-01
We consider a classical gauge theory on a principal fiber bundle P → X in the case where its structure group G is reduced to a subgroup H in the presence of classical Higgs fields described by global sections of the quotient fiber bundle P/H → X. We show that matter fields with the exact symmetry group H in such a theory are described by sections of the composition fiber bundle Y → P/H → X, where Y → P/H is the fiber bundle with the structure group H, and the Lagrangian of these sections is factored by virtue of the vertical covariant differential determined by a connection on the fiber bundle Y → P/H.
Modeling Finite Faults Using the Adjoint Wave Field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hjörleifsdóttir, V.; Liu, Q.; Tromp, J.
2004-12-01
Time-reversal acoustics, a technique in which an acoustic signal is recorded by an array of transducers, time-reversed, and retransmitted, is used, e.g., in medical therapy to locate and destroy gallstones (for a review see Fink, 1997). As discussed by Tromp et al. (2004), time-reversal techniques for locating sources are closely linked to so-called `adjoint methods' (Talagrand and Courtier, 1987), which may be used to evaluate the gradient of a misfit function. Tromp et al. (2004) illustrate how a (finite) source inversion may be implemented based upon the adjoint wave field by writing the change in the misfit function, δ χ, due to a change in the moment-density tensor, δ m, as an integral of the adjoint strain field ɛ x,t) over the fault plane Σ : δ χ = ∫ 0T∫_Σ ɛ x,T-t) :δ m(x,t) d2xdt. We find that if the real fault plane is located at a distance δ h in the direction of the fault normal hat n, then to first order an additional factor of ∫ 0T∫_Σ δ h (x) ∂ n ɛ x,T-t):m(x,t) d2xdt is added to the change in the misfit function. The adjoint strain is computed by using the time-reversed difference between data and synthetics recorded at all receivers as simultaneous sources and recording the resulting strain on the fault plane. In accordance with time-reversal acoustics, all the resulting waves will constructively interfere at the position of the original source in space and time. The level of convergence will be deterimined by factors such as the source-receiver geometry, the frequency of the recorded data and synthetics, and the accuracy of the velocity structure used when back propagating the wave field. The terms ɛ x,T-t) and ∂ n ɛ x,T-t):m(x,t) can be viewed as sensitivity kernels for the moment density and the faultplane location respectively. By looking at these quantities we can make an educated choice of fault parametrization given the data in hand. The process can then be repeated to invert for the best source model, as
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Kerson
We give a critical review of the "triviality" of the λϕ4 theory, i.e., the vanishing of the renormalized self-coupling. Evidence from perturbation theory and Monte-Carlo simulations are cited. It is noted that (a) the theory is "trivial" but not entirely free, for there is spontaneous symmetry breaking; (b) perturbation theory is unreliable. Soluble examples with similar behavior are compared, in particular the Lee model and the 3D δ function potential. The latter case is especially important, for it shows that triviality is a symptom that the interaction is too singular, and suggests a cure. The import for the Higgs sector of the standard model is discussed. It is argued that, like the Fermi pseudopotential, the Higgs field is a long-wavelength approximation that should be used in lowest order perturbation theory only.
Effective field theory with two Higgs doublets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Crivellin, Andreas; Ghezzi, Margherita; Procura, Massimiliano
2016-09-01
In this article we extend the effective field theory framework describing new physics effects to the case where the underlying low-energy theory is a Two-Higgs-Doublet model. We derive a complete set of independent operators up to dimension six assuming a Z 2-invariant CP-conserving Higgs potential. The effects on Higgs and gauge boson masses, mixing angles in the Higgs sector as well as couplings to fermions and gauge bosons are computed. At variance with the case of a single Higgs doublet, we find that pair production of SM-like Higgses, arising through dimension-six operators, is not fixed by fermion-fermion-Higgs couplings and can therefore be sizable.
Introduction to Adjoint Models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Errico, Ronald M.
2015-01-01
In this lecture, some fundamentals of adjoint models will be described. This includes a basic derivation of tangent linear and corresponding adjoint models from a parent nonlinear model, the interpretation of adjoint-derived sensitivity fields, a description of methods of automatic differentiation, and the use of adjoint models to solve various optimization problems, including singular vectors. Concluding remarks will attempt to correct common misconceptions about adjoint models and their utilization.
Adjoint-field errors in high fidelity compressible turbulence simulations for sound control
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vishnampet, Ramanathan; Bodony, Daniel; Freund, Jonathan
2013-11-01
A consistent discrete adjoint for high-fidelity discretization of the three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations is used to quantify the error in the sensitivity gradient predicted by the continuous adjoint method, and examine the aeroacoustic flow-control problem for free-shear-flow turbulence. A particular quadrature scheme for approximating the cost functional makes our discrete adjoint formulation for a fourth-order Runge-Kutta scheme with high-order finite differences practical and efficient. The continuous adjoint-based sensitivity gradient is shown to to be inconsistent due to discretization truncation errors, grid stretching and filtering near boundaries. These errors cannot be eliminated by increasing the spatial or temporal resolution since chaotic interactions lead them to become O (1) at the time of control actuation. Although this is a known behavior for chaotic systems, its effect on noise control is much harder to anticipate, especially given the different resolution needs of different parts of the turbulence and acoustic spectra. A comparison of energy spectra of the adjoint pressure fields shows significant error in the continuous adjoint at all wavenumbers, even though they are well-resolved. The effect of this error on the noise control mechanism is analyzed.
Effective field theory analysis of Higgs naturalness
Bar-Shalom, Shaouly; Soni, Amarjit; Wudka, Jose
2015-07-20
Assuming the presence of physics beyond the Standard Model ( SM) with a characteristic scale M ~ O (10) TeV, we investigate the naturalness of the Higgs sector at scales below M using an effective field theory (EFT) approach. We obtain the leading 1 -loop EFT contributions to the Higgs mass with a Wilsonian-like hard cutoff, and determine t he constraints on the corresponding operator coefficients for these effects to alleviate the little hierarchy problem up to the scale of the effective action Λ < M , a condition we denote by “EFT-naturalness”. We also determine the types of physics that can lead to EFT-naturalness and show that these types of new physics are best probed in vector-boson and multiple-Higgs production. The current experimental constraints on these coefficients are also discussed.
Higgs particles interacting via a scalar Dark Matter field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bhattacharya, Yajnavalkya; Darewych, Jurij
2016-07-01
We study a system of two Higgs particles, interacting via a scalar Dark Matter mediating field. The variational method in the Hamiltonian formalism of QFT is used to derive relativistic wave equations for the two-Higgs system, using a truncated Fock-space trial state. Approximate solutions of the two-body equations are used to examine the existence of Higgs bound states.
On the exotic Higgs decays in effective field theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bélusca-Maïto, Hermès; Falkowski, Adam
2016-09-01
We discuss exotic Higgs decays in an effective field theory where the Standard Model is extended by dimension-6 operators. We review and update the status of two-body lepton- and quark-flavor-violating decays involving the Higgs boson. We also comment on the possibility of observing three-body flavor-violating Higgs decays in this context.
Self-adjointness of the Fourier expansion of quantized interaction field Lagrangians
Paneitz, S. M.; Segal, I. E.
1983-01-01
Regularity properties significantly stronger than were previously known are developed for four-dimensional non-linear conformally invariant quantized fields. The Fourier coefficients of the interaction Lagrangian in the interaction representation—i.e., evaluated after substitution of the associated quantized free field—is a densely defined operator on the associated free field Hilbert space K. These Fourier coefficients are with respect to a natural basis in the universal cosmos ˜M, to which such fields canonically and maximally extend from Minkowski space-time M0, which is covariantly a submanifold of ˜M. However, conformally invariant free fields over M0 and ˜M are canonically identifiable. The kth Fourier coefficient of the interaction Lagrangian has domain inclusive of all vectors in K to which arbitrary powers of the free hamiltonian in ˜M are applicable. Its adjoint in the rigorous Hilbert space sense is a-k in the case of a hermitian Lagrangian. In particular (k = 0) the leading term in the perturbative expansion of the S-matrix for a conformally invariant quantized field in M0 is a self-adjoint operator. Thus, e.g., if ϕ(x) denotes the free massless neutral scalar field in M0, then ∫M0:ϕ(x)4:d4x is a self-adjoint operator. No coupling constant renormalization is involved here. PMID:16593346
Invisible Higgs boson, continuous mass fields, and unparticle Higgs mechanism
Calmet, X.; Deshpande, N. G.; Hsu, S. D. H.; He, X. G.
2009-03-01
We explore the consequences of an electroweak symmetry breaking sector which exhibits approximately scale invariant dynamics, i.e., nontrivial fixed point behavior, as in unparticle models. One can think of an unparticle Higgs as a composite Higgs boson with a continuous mass distribution. We find it convenient to represent the unparticle Higgs in terms of a Kaellen-Lehmann spectral function, from which it is simple to verify the generation of gauge boson and fermion masses, and unitarization of WW scattering. We show that a spectral function with broad support, which corresponds to approximate fixed point behavior over an extended range of energy, can lead to an effectively invisible Higgs particle, whose decays at CERN LEP or LHC could be obscured by background.
Scalar field dark matter and the Higgs field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bertolami, O.; Cosme, Catarina; Rosa, João G.
2016-08-01
We discuss the possibility that dark matter corresponds to an oscillating scalar field coupled to the Higgs boson. We argue that the initial field amplitude should generically be of the order of the Hubble parameter during inflation, as a result of its quasi-de Sitter fluctuations. This implies that such a field may account for the present dark matter abundance for masses in the range 10-6-10-4eV, if the tensor-to-scalar ratio is within the range of planned CMB experiments. We show that such mass values can naturally be obtained through either Planck-suppressed non-renormalizable interactions with the Higgs boson or, alternatively, through renormalizable interactions within the Randall-Sundrum scenario, where the dark matter scalar resides in the bulk of the warped extra-dimension and the Higgs is confined to the infrared brane.
Discrete vacuum superselection rule in Wightman theory with essentially self-adjoint field operators
Voronin, A.V.
1986-07-01
The main results of earlier work by the author, Sushko, and Khoruzhii describing the algebraic structure of quantum-field systems with (discrete) vacuum superselection rules are generalized to the large class of Wightman theories with essentially self-adjoint field operators (a very strong restriction was imposed on the theory, namely, that the polynomial Op algebra of the Wightman fields /rho/ belongs to the class II, i.e., /rho/ /sub s'/ =/rho/ /sub w'/). It is also shown that the field Op algebra of a Wightman theory with discrete vaccum superselection rule possesses a class II extension.
Particlelike distributions of the Higgs field nonminimally coupled to gravity.
Füzfa, André; Rinaldi, Massimiliano; Schlögel, Sandrine
2013-09-20
When the Higgs field is nonminimally coupled to gravity, there exists a family of spherically symmetric particlelike solutions to the field equations. These monopoles are the only globally regular and asymptotically flat distributions with finite energy of the Higgs field around compact objects. Moreover, spontaneous scalarization is strongly amplified for specific values of their mass and compactness.
Higgs fields on spinor gauge-natural bundles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Palese, Marcella; Winterroth, Ekkehart
2013-01-01
We show that the Lie derivative of spinor fields is parametrized by Higgs fields defined by the kernel of a gauge-natural Jacobi morphism associated with the Einstein-Cartan- Dirac Lagrangian. In particular, the generalized Kosmann lift to the total bundle of the theory is constrained by variational Higgs fields on gauge-natural bundles.
Solutions of the coupled Higgs field equations.
Talukdar, Benoy; Ghosh, Swapan K; Saha, Aparna; Pal, Debabrata
2013-07-01
By an appropriate choice for the phase of the complex nucleonic field and going over to the traveling coordinate, we reduce the coupled Higgs equations to the Hamiltonian form and treat the resulting equation using the dynamical system theory. We present a phase-space analysis of its stable points. The results of our study demonstrate that the equation can support both traveling- and standing-wave solutions. The traveling-wave solution appears in the form of a soliton and resides in the midst of doubly periodic standing-wave solutions.
Magnetic Field Separation Around Planets Using an Adjoint-Method Approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nabert, Christian; Glassmeier, Karl-Heinz; Heyner, Daniel; Othmer, Carsten
The two spacecraft of the BepiColombo mission will reach planet Mercury in 2022. The magnetometers on-board these polar orbiting spacecraft will provide a detailed map of the magnetic field in Mercury's environment. Unfortunately, a separation of the magnetic field into internal and external parts using the classical Gauss-algorithm is not possible due to strong electric currents in the orbit region of the spacecraft. These currents are due to the interaction of the solar wind with Mercury's planetary magnetic field. We use an MHD code to simulate this interaction process. This requires a first choice of Mercury's planetary field which is used and modified until the simulation results fit to the actual measurements. This optimization process is carried out most efficiently using an adjoint-method. The adjoint-method is well known for its low computational cost in order to determine sensitivities required for the minimization. In a first step, the validity of our approach to separate magnetic field contributions into internal and external parts is demonstrated using synthetic generated data. Furthermore, we apply our approach to satellite measurements of the Earth's magnetic field. We can compare the results with the well known planetary field of the Earth to prove practical suitability.
Limits on Higgs boson couplings in Effective field theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Belyaev, N.; Reid, T.
2016-02-01
We review the Effective Field Theory (EFT) to make projections on physics beyond the Standard Model in the Higgs sector. We provide relations between the non-Standard Model couplings of the Strongly-Interacting Light Higgs (SILH) effective Lagrangian implemented in the eHDecay package and the corresponding terms of the spin-0 Higgs Characterisation model's effective Lagrangian used with the aMC@NLO Monte Carlo generator. Constraints on BSM couplings are determined on the basis of existing experimental limits on Higgs boson width and branching ratios.
On a Singular Solution in Higgs Field (3) - Relativistical Energy Flow towards Higgs boson
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kitazawa, Kazuyoshi
2012-03-01
The mass of SM Higgs boson (H^0) is re-examined under fluid mechanical consideration of micro (femt-scale) Reynolds number in Higgs boson sea for the process of Higgs mechanism. In this analysis, two gauge particles (W and Z bosons) are adopted as representatives to describe the process through their each mass acquisition. The mass value of fluid mechanical H^0 (f.m.-H^0) is calculated relativistically at 128.6 GeV/c^2, which is a little (6.6 per-cent) larger than our mass value of the asymptotic solution (theoretical mass: 120.611 GeV/c^2) of Higgs field.footnotetextK. Kitazawa, DPF MEETING 2011: 166. This difference of mass value shows that there would be some extent of excess in sectional area's evaluation for f.m.-H^0. Because, in this numerical calculation we assumed that f.m.-H^0 in Higgs boson sea is sphere. While theoretical mass of H^0 had a shape of truncated-Octahedron which inscribes to the sectional circle of f.m.-H^0. So we may reduce this excess of mass since the drag force against the flow, which is proportional to sectional area of f.m.-H^0, corresponds to acquired mass by Higgs mechanism. It is noteworthy that theoretical mass above is almost at center of the most like range of latest LHC's result for SM Higgs boson mass.
Usefulness of effective field theory for boosted Higgs production
Dawson, S.; Lewis, I. M.; Zeng, Mao
2015-04-07
The Higgs + jet channel at the LHC is sensitive to the effects of new physics both in the total rate and in the transverse momentum distribution at high _{pT}. We examine the production process using an effective field theory (EFT) language and discussing the possibility of determining the nature of the underlying high-scale physics from boosted Higgs production. The effects of heavy color triplet scalars and top partner fermions with TeV scale masses are considered as examples and Higgs-gluon couplings of dimension-5 and dimension-7 are included in the EFT. As a byproduct of our study, we examine the region of validity of the EFT. Dimension-7 contributions in realistic new physics models give effects in the high _{pT} tail of the Higgs signal which are so tiny that they are likely to be unobservable.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ito, Shin-Ichi; Nagao, Hiromichi; Yamanaka, Akinori; Tsukada, Yuhki; Koyama, Toshiyuki; Inoue, Junya
Phase field (PF) method, which phenomenologically describes dynamics of microstructure evolutions during solidification and phase transformation, has progressed in the fields of hydromechanics and materials engineering. How to determine, based on observation data, an initial state and model parameters involved in a PF model is one of important issues since previous estimation methods require too much computational cost. We propose data assimilation (DA), which enables us to estimate the parameters and states by integrating the PF model and observation data on the basis of the Bayesian statistics. The adjoint method implemented on DA not only finds an optimum solution by maximizing a posterior distribution but also evaluates the uncertainty in the estimations by utilizing the second order information of the posterior distribution. We carried out an estimation test using synthetic data generated by the two-dimensional Kobayashi's PF model. The proposed method is confirmed to reproduce the true initial state and model parameters we assume in advance, and simultaneously estimate their uncertainties due to quality and quantity of the data. This result indicates that the proposed method is capable of suggesting the experimental design to achieve the required accuracy.
Gavrilov, S.P.; Gitman, D.M.; Smirnov, A.A.
2003-02-01
We study solutions of Dirac equation in the field of Aharonov-Bohm solenoid and a collinear uniform magnetic field. On this base we construct self-adjoint extensions of the Dirac Hamiltonian using von Neumann's theory of deficiency indices. We reduce (3+1)-dimensional problem to (2+1)-dimensional one by a proper choice of spin operator. Then we study the problem doing a finite radius regularization of the solenoid field. We exploit solutions of the latter problem to specify boundary conditions in the singular case.
R{sup 2}-inflation with conformal SM Higgs field
Gorbunov, Dmitry; Tokareva, Anna E-mail: tokareva@ms2.inr.ac.ru
2013-12-01
We introduce conformal coupling of the Standard Model Higgs field to gravity and discuss the subsequent modification of R{sup 2}-inflation. The main observation is a lower temperature of reheating which happens mostly through scalaron decays into gluons due to the conformal (trace) anomaly. This modifies all predictions of the original R{sup 2}-inflation. To the next-to-leading order in slow roll parameters we calculate amplitudes and indices of scalar and tensor perturbations produced at inflation. The results are compared to the next-to-leading order predictions of R{sup 2}-inflation with minimally coupled Higgs field and of Higgs-inflation. We discuss additional features in gravity wave signal that may help to distinguish the proposed variant of R{sup 2}-inflation. Remarkably, the features are expected in the region available for study at future experiments like BBO and DECIGO. Finally, we check that (meta)stability of electroweak vacuum in the cosmological model is consistent with recent results of searches for the Higgs boson at LHC.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ustinov, Eugene A.; Sunseri, Richard F.
2005-01-01
An approach is presented to the inversion of gravity fields based on evaluation of partials of observables with respect to gravity harmonics using the solution of adjoint problem of orbital dynamics of the spacecraft. Corresponding adjoint operator is derived directly from the linear operator of the linearized forward problem of orbital dynamics. The resulting adjoint problem is similar to the forward problem and can be solved by the same methods. For given highest degree N of gravity harmonics desired, this method involves integration of N adjoint solutions as compared to integration of N2 partials of the forward solution with respect to gravity harmonics in the conventional approach. Thus, for higher resolution gravity models, this approach becomes increasingly more effective in terms of computer resources as compared to the approach based on the solution of the forward problem of orbital dynamics.
Higgs and gravitational scalar fields together induce Weyl gauge
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Scholz, Erhard
2015-02-01
A common biquadratic potential for the Higgs field and an additional scalar field , non minimally coupled to gravity, is considered in a locally scale symmetric approach to standard model fields in curved spacetime. A common ground state of the two scalar fields exists and couples both fields to gravity, more precisely to Weyl geometric scalar curvature . In Einstein gauge (, often called "Einstein frame"), also is scaled to a constant. This condition makes perfect sense, even in the general case, in the Weyl geometric approach. There it has been called Weyl gauge, because it was first considered by Weyl in the different context of his original scale geometric theory of gravity of 1918. Now it may get new meaning as a combined effect of electroweak theory and gravity, and their common influence on atomic frequencies.
An exact solution of the Jackiw-Rebbi equations for a fermion-monopole-Higgs system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Din, A. M.; Roy, S. M.
1983-09-01
We present an exact solution for arbitrary partial waves to the Jackiw-Rebbi equations for an isospinor fermion in the background of a non-abelian singular magnetic monopole and a Higgs field. The Higgs coupling produces a centrifugal barrier making the hamiltonian self-adjoint with ordinary boundary conditions at the origin. There are infinitely many bound states, each doubly degenerate. The scattering is charge conserving.
Self-adjointness of deformed unbounded operators
Much, Albert
2015-09-15
We consider deformations of unbounded operators by using the novel construction tool of warped convolutions. By using the Kato-Rellich theorem, we show that unbounded self-adjoint deformed operators are self-adjoint if they satisfy a certain condition. This condition proves itself to be necessary for the oscillatory integral to be well-defined. Moreover, different proofs are given for self-adjointness of deformed unbounded operators in the context of quantum mechanics and quantum field theory.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Galanti, Eli; Kaspi, Yohai
2016-04-01
During 2016-17, the Juno and Cassini spacecraft will both perform close eccentric orbits of Jupiter and Saturn, respectively, obtaining high-precision gravity measurements for these planets. These data will be used to estimate the depth of the observed surface flows on these planets. All models to date, relating the winds to the gravity field, have been in the forward direction, thus only allowing the calculation of the gravity field from given wind models. However, there is a need to do the inverse problem since the new observations will be of the gravity field. Here, an inverse dynamical model is developed to relate the expected measurable gravity field, to perturbations of the density and wind fields, and therefore to the observed cloud-level winds. In order to invert the gravity field into the 3D circulation, an adjoint model is constructed for the dynamical model, thus allowing backward integration. This tool is used for the examination of various scenarios, simulating cases in which the depth of the wind depends on latitude. We show that it is possible to use the gravity measurements to derive the depth of the winds, both on Jupiter and Saturn, also taking into account measurement errors. Calculating the solution uncertainties, we show that the wind depth can be determined more precisely in the low-to-mid-latitudes. In addition, the gravitational moments are found to be particularly sensitive to flows at the equatorial intermediate depths. Therefore, we expect that if deep winds exist on these planets they will have a measurable signature by Juno and Cassini.
Hekmat, Mohamad Hamed; Mirzaei, Masoud
2015-01-01
In the present research, we tried to improve the performance of the lattice Boltzmann (LB) -based adjoint approach by utilizing the mesoscopic inherent of the LB method. In this regard, two macroscopic discrete adjoint (MADA) and microscopic discrete adjoint (MIDA) approaches are used to answer the following two challenging questions. Is it possible to extend the concept of the macroscopic and microscopic variables of the flow field to the corresponding adjoint ones? Further, similar to the conservative laws in the LB method, is it possible to find the comparable conservation equations in the adjoint approach? If so, then a definite framework, similar to that used in the flow solution by the LB method, can be employed in the flow sensitivity analysis by the MIDA approach. This achievement can decrease the implementation cost and coding efforts of the MIDA method in complicated sensitivity analysis problems. First, the MADA and MIDA equations are extracted based on the LB method using the duality viewpoint. Meanwhile, using an elementary case, inverse design of a two-dimensional unsteady Poiseuille flow in a periodic channel with constant body forces, the procedure of analytical evaluation of the adjoint variables is described. The numerical results show that similar correlations between the distribution functions can be seen between the corresponding adjoint ones. Besides, the results are promising, emphasizing the flow field adjoint variables can be evaluated via the adjoint distribution functions. Finally, the adjoint conservative laws are introduced. PMID:25679735
Precision Higgs Physics, Effective Field Theory, and Dark Matter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Henning, Brian Quinn
The recent discovery of the Higgs boson calls for detailed studies of its properties. As precision measurements are indirect probes of new physics, the appropriate theoretical framework is effective field theory. In the first part of this thesis, we present a practical three-step procedure of using the Standard Model effective field theory (SM EFT) to connect ultraviolet (UV) models of new physics with weak scale precision observables. With this procedure, one can interpret precision measurements as constraints on the UV model concerned. We give a detailed explanation for calculating the effective action up to one-loop order in a manifestly gauge covariant fashion. The covariant derivative expansion dramatically simplifies the process of matching a UV model with the SM EFT, and also makes available a universal formalism that is easy to use for a variety of UV models. A few general aspects of renormalization group running effects and choosing operator bases are discussed. Finally, we provide mapping results between the bosonic sector of the SM EFT and a complete set of precision electroweak and Higgs observables to which present and near future experiments are sensitive. With a detailed understanding of how to use the SM EFT, we then turn to applications and study in detail two well-motivated test cases. The first is singlet scalar field that enables the first-order electroweak phase transition for baryogenesis; the second example is due to scalar tops in the MSSM. We find both Higgs and electroweak measurements are sensitive probes of these cases. The second part of this thesis centers around dark matter, and consists of two studies. In the first, we examine the effects of relic dark matter annihilations on big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN). The magnitude of these effects scale simply with the dark matter mass and annihilation cross-section, which we derive. Estimates based on these scaling behaviors indicate that BBN severely constrains hadronic and radiative dark
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gal'Tsov, D. V.; Xanthopoulos, B. C.
1992-01-01
Starting from any solution of the Einstein equations, with cosmological term, coupled to a minimally coupled massless scalar field, a solution of the Einstein equations is constructed, conformally coupled to a massless self-interacting scalar field with the usual Higgs potential. When the cosmological constant vanishes, the Higgs term disappears and the transformation procedure reduces to that obtained by Bekenstein in 1974. As an example, a nonsingular cosmological solution is constructed that describes the restoration of spontaneously broken symmetry.
On the Topology of Configurations of Gauge Fields and Higgs Fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chaves, R.
Starting with the topological classification of gauge fields on the sphere (Dirac monopoles) and of Higgs vacuum configurations (through the second homotopy group of the space of vacuum states), the features of minimum energy solutions to gauge theories with spontaneous symmetry breaking and in the presence of singularities (monopoles) are deduced. For each theory, this analysis reveals whether a monopole can exist isolated or must be attached to a massive string and how its flux must be distributed.
On a Singular Solution in Higgs Field (1)- Basic equation and structure for SM Higgs boson mass
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kitazawa, Kazuyoshi
2011-04-01
A formula for mass of SM Higgs boson (H0) is derived by considering certain asymptotic behavior for singular solution of EOM of Higgs field via Euler-Lagrange equation, in which MH0 is shown as a rest mass of Higgs boson mass of the field, which maintains Lorentz invariance. Where the asymptotic formula extracts a proper information near the singular solution. By modifying the mass formula with H0 production scheme of W/Z-fusion process, the value of MH0 is determined at 120.611 GeV/c2. Then the mass structure of H0 is discussed by top quark decay processes in electroweak and quark sectors with newly enlarged equation of motion (Non-Linear Klein-Gordon), calculating the mass value of top quark as 171.266 GeV/c2. And from the difference between the value by assuming that H0 is a virtual bound state of top quark- pair ((t t)*) itself with the mass formula obtained by requirement of minimal mass production and the theoretical mass value of H0 (120.611 GeV/c2), it is expected that H0 is to be a composite scalar meson after emitting one photon from the (t t)* through radiative decay. Finally, a mass structure of H0 which is composed of all spin 0 mesons' masses, is proposed. Where the truncated-Octahedron mass structure is recursively (doubly) seen.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Veltman, Martinus J. G.
1986-01-01
Reports recent findings related to the particle Higgs boson and examines its possible contribution to the standard mode of elementary processes. Critically explores the strengths and uncertainties of the Higgs boson and proposed Higgs field. (ML)
Leptophobic Z' in models with multiple Higgs doublet fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chiang, Cheng-Wei; Nomura, Takaaki; Yagyu, Kei
2015-05-01
We study the collider phenomenology of the leptophobic Z' boson from an extra U(1)' gauge symmetry in models with N -Higgs doublet fields. We assume that the Z' boson at tree level has (i) no Z- Z' mixing, (ii) no interaction with the charged leptons, and (iii) no flavour-changing neutral current. Under such a setup, it is shown that in the N = 1 case, all the U(1)' charges of left-handed quark doublets and right-handed up- and down- type quarks are required to be the same, while in the N ≥ 3 case one can take different charges for the three types of quarks. The N = 2 case is not well-defined under the above three requirements. We study the processes ( V = γ , Z and W ±) with the leptonic decays of Z and W ± at the LHC. The most promising discovery channel or the most stringent constraint on the U(1)' gauge coupling constant comes from the Z'γ process below the threshold and from the process above the threshold. Assuming the collision energy of 8 TeV and integrated luminosity of 19.6 fb-1, we find that the constraint from the Z'γ search in the lower mass regime can be stronger than that from the UA2 experiment. In the N ≥ 3 case, we consider four benchmark points for the Z' couplings with quarks. If such a Z' is discovered, a careful comparison between the Z'γ and Z' W signals is crucial to reveal the nature of Z' couplings with quarks. We also present the discovery reach of the Z' boson at the 14-TeV LHC in both N = 1 and N ≥ 3 cases.
Scalar-tensor gravity with a non-minimally coupled Higgs field and accelerating universe
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sim, Jonghyun; Lee, Tae Hoon
2016-03-01
We consider general couplings, including non-minimal derivative coupling, of a Higgs boson field to scalar-tensor gravity and calculate their contributions to the energy density and pressure in Friedmann-Robertson-Walker spacetime. In a special case where the kinetic term of the Higgs field is non-minimally coupled to the Einstein tensor, we seek de Sitter solutions for the cosmic scale factor and discuss the possibility that the late-time acceleration and the inflationary era of our universe can be described by means of scalar fields with self-interactions and the Yukawa potential.
Higgs-Yukawa model with higher dimension operators via extended mean field theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Akerlund, Oscar; de Forcrand, Philippe
2016-02-01
Using extended mean field theory (EMFT) on the lattice, we study properties of the Higgs-Yukawa model as an approximation of the standard model Higgs sector, and the effect of higher dimension operators. We remark, as has been noted before, that the discussion of vacuum stability is completely modified in the presence of a ϕ6 term, and that the Higgs mass no longer appears fine tuned. We also study the finite temperature transition. Without higher dimension operators the transition is found to be second order (crossover with gauge fields) for the experimental value of the Higgs mass Mh=125 GeV . By taking a ϕ6 interaction in the Higgs potential as a proxy for a UV completion of the standard model, the transition becomes stronger and turns first order if the scale of new physics, i.e., the mass of the lightest mediator particle, is around 1.5 TeV. This implies that electroweak baryogenesis may be viable in models which introduce new particles around that scale.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Challifour, John L.; Timko, Edward J.
2016-06-01
Using a Krein indefinite metric in Fock space, the Hamiltonian for cut-off models of canonically quantized Higgs-Yang-Mills fields interpolating between the Gupta-Bleuler-Feynman and Landau gauges is shown to be essentially maximal accretive and essentially Krein selfadjoint.
The behavior of the Higgs field in the new inflationary universe
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Guth, Alan H.; Pi, So-Young
1986-01-01
Answers are provided to questions about the standard model of the new inflationary universe (NIU) which have raised concerns about the model's validity. A baby toy problem which consists of the study of a single particle moving in one dimension under the influence of a potential with the form of an upside-down harmonic oscillator is studied, showing that the quantum mechanical wave function at large times is accurately described by classical physics. Then, an exactly soluble toy model for the behavior of the Higgs field in the NIU is described which should provide a reasonable approximation to the behavior of the Higgs field in the NIU. The dynamics of the toy model is described, and calculative results are reviewed which, the authors claim, provide strong evidence that the basic features of the standard picture are correct.
Automodelling solutions of the Higgs-field nonlinear wave equation in the de Sitter space.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dyshko, A. L.; Konyukhova, N. B.; Voronov, N. A.
2000-04-01
The effect of the expansion of the Universe on such classical physical objects as spherical bubbles is studied. The authors look for automodelling solutions to scalar Higgs-field equation in the de Sitter space and compare them with the bubble type solutions in the thin-wall approximation. The automodelling bubbles could be considered as critical or singular ones because they collapse in an infinite time. Multinodal solutions as enclosed bubbles are discovered numerically.
Scalar field pressure in induced gravity with Higgs potential and dark matter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bezares-Roder, Nils M.; Nandan, Hemwati; Dehnen, Heinz
2010-10-01
A model of induced gravity with a Higgs potential is investigated in detail in view of the pressure components related to the scalar-field excitations. The physical consequences emerging as an artifact due to the presence of these pressure terms are analysed in terms of the constraints parting from energy density, solar-relativistic effects and galactic dynamics along with the dark matter halos.
a Geometric Formulation of the Higgs Mechanism via Internal Metric Fields.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Talmadge, Andrew Vansickle, Jr.
1990-01-01
This dissertation is divided into two parts. The first part (chapters 1-3) formulates the Higgs mechanism for the standard model of electroweak interactions in terms of sesquilinear forms that govern the interactions of the leptonic spinors of the theory. It is shown that a geometric choice of a sesquilinear form that links the left- and right-handed components of the spinors reproduces the results of the Higg's mechanism. The mass identifications (for the leptons and the bosons) in this model do not contain any terms arising from the sesquilinear form that is used to model the interactions. The second part (chapter 4) of this work is centered on the geometry of the internal fields in a general U(n) -type gauge theory. It is shown that the Higgs mechanism can be interpreted geometrically as the choice of a generalized metric field on the internal spaces of the theory. Existence and properties of such metric fields are discussed for Minkowski spacetime and a one point compactification of Minkowski spacetime which is diffeomorphic to S ^4.
Adjoint affine fusion and tadpoles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Urichuk, Andrew; Walton, Mark A.
2016-06-01
We study affine fusion with the adjoint representation. For simple Lie algebras, elementary and universal formulas determine the decomposition of a tensor product of an integrable highest-weight representation with the adjoint representation. Using the (refined) affine depth rule, we prove that equally striking results apply to adjoint affine fusion. For diagonal fusion, a coefficient equals the number of nonzero Dynkin labels of the relevant affine highest weight, minus 1. A nice lattice-polytope interpretation follows and allows the straightforward calculation of the genus-1 1-point adjoint Verlinde dimension, the adjoint affine fusion tadpole. Explicit formulas, (piecewise) polynomial in the level, are written for the adjoint tadpoles of all classical Lie algebras. We show that off-diagonal adjoint affine fusion is obtained from the corresponding tensor product by simply dropping non-dominant representations.
Gravitational wave production from the decay of the standard model Higgs field after inflation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Figueroa, Daniel G.; García-Bellido, Juan; Torrentí, Francisco
2016-05-01
During or towards the end of inflation, the Standard Model (SM) Higgs forms a condensate with a large amplitude. Following inflation, the condensate oscillates, decaying nonperturbatively into the rest of the SM species. The resulting out-of-equilibrium dynamics converts a fraction of the energy available into gravitational waves (GWs). We study this process using classical lattice simulations in an expanding box, following the energetically dominant electroweak gauge bosons W± and Z . We characterize the GW spectrum as a function of the running couplings, Higgs initial amplitude, and postinflationary expansion rate. As long as the SM is decoupled from the inflationary sector, the generation of this background is universally expected, independently of the nature of inflation. Our study demonstrates the efficiency of GW emission by gauge fields undergoing parametric resonance. The initial energy of the Higgs condensate represents, however, only a tiny fraction of the inflationary energy. Consequently, the resulting background is highly suppressed, with an amplitude h2ΩGW(o )≲1 0-29 today. The amplitude can be boosted to h2ΩGW(o )≲1 0-16 , if following inflation the universe undergoes a kination-domination stage; however, the background is shifted in this case to high frequencies fp≲1011 Hz . In all cases the signal is out of the range of current or planned GW detectors. This background will therefore remain, most likely, as a curiosity of the SM.
MCNP: Multigroup/adjoint capabilities
Wagner, J.C.; Redmond, E.L. II; Palmtag, S.P.; Hendricks, J.S.
1994-04-01
This report discusses various aspects related to the use and validity of the general purpose Monte Carlo code MCNP for multigroup/adjoint calculations. The increased desire to perform comparisons between Monte Carlo and deterministic codes, along with the ever-present desire to increase the efficiency of large MCNP calculations has produced a greater user demand for the multigroup/adjoint capabilities. To more fully utilize these capabilities, we review the applications of the Monte Carlo multigroup/adjoint method, describe how to generate multigroup cross sections for MCNP with the auxiliary CRSRD code, describe how to use the multigroup/adjoint capability in MCNP, and provide examples and results indicating the effectiveness and validity of the MCNP multigroup/adjoint treatment. This information should assist users in taking advantage of the MCNP multigroup/adjoint capabilities.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nakamura, Y.; Takahashi, J.; Yamanaka, Y.; Ohkubo, S.
2016-07-01
An effective field theory of α -cluster condensation is formulated as a spontaneously broken symmetry in quantum field theory to understand the raison d'être and the nature of the Hoyle and α -cluster states in 12C. The Nambu-Goldstone and Higgs mode operators in infinite systems are replaced with a pair of canonical operators whose Hamiltonian gives rise to discrete energy states in addition to the Bogoliubov-de Gennes excited states. The calculations reproduce well the experimental spectrum of the α -cluster states. The existence of the Nambu-Goldstone-Higgs states is demonstrated and crucial. The γ -decay transitions are also obtained.
Adjoint sensitivity analysis of plasmonic structures using the FDTD method.
Zhang, Yu; Ahmed, Osman S; Bakr, Mohamed H
2014-05-15
We present an adjoint variable method for estimating the sensitivities of arbitrary responses with respect to the parameters of dispersive discontinuities in nanoplasmonic devices. Our theory is formulated in terms of the electric field components at the vicinity of perturbed discontinuities. The adjoint sensitivities are computed using at most one extra finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulation regardless of the number of parameters. Our approach is illustrated through the sensitivity analysis of an add-drop coupler consisting of a square ring resonator between two parallel waveguides. The computed adjoint sensitivities of the scattering parameters are compared with those obtained using the accurate but computationally expensive central finite difference approach.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kanemura, Shinya; Kikuchi, Mariko; Yagyu, Kei
2016-06-01
We calculate renormalized Higgs boson couplings with gauge bosons and fermions at the one-loop level in the model with an additional isospin singlet real scalar field. These coupling constants can deviate from the predictions in the standard model due to tree-level mixing effects and one-loop contributions of the extra neutral scalar boson. We investigate how they can be significant under the theoretical constraints from perturbative unitarity and vacuum stability and also the condition of avoiding the wrong vacuum. Furthermore, comparing with the predictions in the Type I two Higgs doublet model, we numerically demonstrate how the singlet extension model can be distinguished and identified by using precision measurements of the Higgs boson couplings at future collider experiments.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bahl, Henning; Hollik, Wolfgang
2016-09-01
In the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model heavy superparticles introduce large logarithms in the calculation of the lightest {CP}-even Higgs-boson mass. These logarithmic contributions can be resummed using effective field theory techniques. For light superparticles, however, fixed-order calculations are expected to be more accurate. To gain a precise prediction also for intermediate mass scales, the two approaches have to be combined. Here, we report on an improvement of this method in various steps: the inclusion of electroweak contributions, of separate electroweakino and gluino thresholds, as well as resummation at the NNLL level. These improvements can lead to significant numerical effects. In most cases, the lightest {CP}-even Higgs-boson mass is shifted downwards by about 1 GeV. This is mainly caused by higher-order corrections to the {overline{ {MS}}} top-quark mass. We also describe the implementation of the new contributions in the code FeynHiggs.
Z{sub 2} monopoles in SU(n) Yang-Mills-Higgs theories
Kneipp, Marco A. C.; Liebgott, Paulo J.
2010-02-15
Z{sub n} monopoles are important for the understanding of the Goddard-Nuyts-Olive duality when the scalar field is not in the adjoint representation. We analyze the Z{sub 2} monopole solutions in SU(n) Yang-Mills-Higgs theories spontaneously broken to Spin(n)/Z{sub 2} by a scalar in the nxn representation. We construct explicitly Z{sub 2} monopole asymptotic fields solutions for each of the weights of the defining representation of the dual algebra so(n){sup or.}
One-loop effective potential of the Higgs field on the Schwarzschild background
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kazinski, P. O.
2009-12-01
A one-loop effective potential of the Higgs field on the Schwarzschild background is derived in the framework of a toy model: a SO(N) scalar multiplet interacting with the gauge fields, the SO(N) gauge symmetry being broken by the Higgs mechanism. As expected, the potential depends on the space point and results in a mass shift of all massive particles near a black hole. It is shown that the obtained potential is generally covariant, depends on the space point through the metric component g00 in the adapted coordinates, and has the same form for an arbitrary static, spherically symmetric background. Some properties of this potential are investigated. In particular, if the conformal symmetry holds valid for massless particles on the given background, there exist only two possible scenarios depending on the sign of an arbitrary constant arising from the regularization procedure: the masses of all massive particles grow infinitely, when they approach the black hole horizon, or the gauge symmetry is restored at a finite distance from the horizon and all particles become massless. If the conformal symmetry is spoiled, an additional term in the effective potential appears and the intermediate regime arises. Several normalization conditions fixing the undefined constants are proposed, and estimations for the mass shifts are given in these cases. It should be mentioned that the use of the one-loop approximation becomes questionable in the region where the one-loop effective potential acquires large values. So, in that region, we can believe in the obtained results only to a certain extent.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bozdag, Ebru; Lefebvre, Matthieu; Lei, Wenjie; Peter, Daniel; Smith, James; Komatitsch, Dimitri; Tromp, Jeroen
2015-04-01
We will present our initial results of global adjoint tomography based on 3D seismic wave simulations which is one of the most challenging examples in seismology in terms of intense computational requirements and vast amount of high-quality seismic data that can potentially be assimilated in inversions. Using a spectral-element method, we incorporate full 3D wave propagation in seismic tomography by running synthetic seismograms and adjoint simulations to compute exact sensitivity kernels in realistic 3D background models. We run our global simulations on the Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Cray XK7 "Titan" system taking advantage of the GPU version of the SPECFEM3D_GLOBE package. We have started iterations with initially selected 253 earthquakes within the magnitude range of 5.5 < Mw < 7.0 and numerical simulations having resolution down to ~27 s to invert for a transversely isotropic crust and mantle model using a non-linear conjugate gradient algorithm. The measurements are currently based on frequency-dependent traveltime misfits. We use both minor- and major-arc body and surface waves by running 200 min simulations where inversions are performed with more than 2.6 million measurements. Our initial results after 12 iterations already indicate several prominent features such as enhanced slab (e.g., Hellenic, Japan, Bismarck, Sandwich), plume/hotspot (e.g., the Pacific superplume, Caroline, Yellowstone, Hawaii) images, etc. To improve the resolution and ray coverage, particularly in the lower mantle, our aim is to increase the resolution of numerical simulations first going down to ~17 s and then to ~9 s to incorporate high-frequency body waves in inversions. While keeping track of the progress and illumination of features in our models with a limited data set, we work towards to assimilate all available data in inversions from all seismic networks and earthquakes in the global CMT catalogue.
Nonlinear self-adjointness and conservation laws
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ibragimov, N. H.
2011-10-01
The general concept of nonlinear self-adjointness of differential equations is introduced. It includes the linear self-adjointness as a particular case. Moreover, it embraces the strict self-adjointness (definition 1) and quasi-self-adjointness introduced earlier by the author. It is shown that the equations possessing nonlinear self-adjointness can be written equivalently in a strictly self-adjoint form by using appropriate multipliers. All linear equations possess the property of nonlinear self-adjointness, and hence can be rewritten in a nonlinear strictly self-adjoint form. For example, the heat equation ut - Δu = 0 becomes strictly self-adjoint after multiplying by u-1. Conservation laws associated with symmetries are given in an explicit form for all nonlinearly self-adjoint partial differential equations and systems.
A Hilbert Space Setting for Interacting Higher Spin Fields and the Higgs Issue
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schroer, Bert
2015-03-01
Wigner's famous 1939 classification of positive energy representations, combined with the more recent modular localization principle, has led to a significant conceptual and computational extension of renormalized perturbation theory to interactions involving fields of higher spin. Traditionally the clash between pointlike localization and the the Hilbert space was resolved by passing to a Krein space setting which resulted in the well-known BRST gauge formulation. Recently it turned out that maintaining a Hilbert space formulation for interacting higher spin fields requires a weakening of localization from point- to string-like fields for which the d = s + 1 short distance scaling dimension for integer spins is reduced to d = 1 and and renormalizable couplings in the sense of power-counting exist for any spin. This new setting leads to a significant conceptual change of the relation of massless couplings with their massless counterpart. Whereas e.g. the renormalizable interactions of s = 1 massive vectormesons with s 1 matter falls within the standard field-particle setting, their zero mass limits lead to much less understood phenomena as "infraparticles" and gluon/quark confinement. It is not surprising that such drastic conceptual changes in the area of gauge theories also lead to a radical change concerning the Higgs issue.
Towards Global Adjoint Tomography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bozdag, E.; Zhu, H.; Peter, D. B.; Tromp, J.
2012-12-01
Seismic tomography is at a stage where we can harness entire seismograms using the opportunities offered by advances in numerical wave propagation solvers and high-performance computing. Adjoint methods provide an efficient way for incorporating full nonlinearity of wave propagation and 3D Fréchet kernels in iterative seismic inversions which have so far given promising results at continental and regional scales. Our goal is to take adjoint tomography forward to image the entire planet. Using an iterative conjugate gradient scheme, we initially set the aim to obtain a global crustal and mantle model with confined transverse isotropy in the upper mantle. We have started with around 255 global CMT events having moment magnitudes between 5.8 and 7, and used GSN stations as well as some local networks such as USArray, European stations etc. Prior to the structure inversion, we reinvert global CMT solutions by computing Green functions in our 3D reference model to take into account effects of crustal variations on source parameters. Using the advantages of numerical simulations, our strategy is to invert crustal and mantle structure together to avoid any bias introduced into upper-mantle images due to "crustal corrections", which are commonly used in classical tomography. 3D simulations dramatically increase the usable amount of data so that, with the current earthquake-station setup, we perform each iteration with more than two million measurements. Multi-resolution smoothing based on ray density is applied to the gradient to better deal with the imperfect source-station distribution on the globe and extract more information underneath regions with dense ray coverage and vice versa. Similar to frequency domain approach, we reduce nonlinearities by starting from long periods and gradually increase the frequency content of data after successive model updates. To simplify the problem, we primarily focus on the elastic structure and therefore our measurements are based on
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Calmet, Xavier; Kuntz, Iberê
2016-05-01
In this paper we point out that Starobinsky inflation could be induced by quantum effects due to a large non-minimal coupling of the Higgs boson to the Ricci scalar. The Higgs Starobinsky mechanism provides a solution to issues attached to large Higgs field values in the early universe which in a metastable universe would not be a viable option. We verify explicitly that these large quantum corrections do not destabilize Starobinsky's potential.
Constraining the top-Higgs sector of the standard model effective field theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cirigliano, V.; Dekens, W.; de Vries, J.; Mereghetti, E.
2016-08-01
Working in the framework of the Standard Model effective field theory, we study chirality-flipping couplings of the top quark to Higgs and gauge bosons. We discuss in detail the renormalization-group evolution to lower energies and investigate direct and indirect contributions to high- and low-energy C P -conserving and C P -violating observables. Our analysis includes constraints from collider observables, precision electroweak tests, flavor physics, and electric dipole moments. We find that indirect probes are competitive or dominant for both C P -even and C P -odd observables, even after accounting for uncertainties associated with hadronic and nuclear matrix elements, illustrating the importance of including operator mixing in constraining the Standard Model effective field theory. We also study scenarios where multiple anomalous top couplings are generated at the high scale, showing that while the bounds on individual couplings relax, strong correlations among couplings survive. Finally, we find that enforcing minimal flavor violation does not significantly affect the bounds on the top couplings.
Dawson, S.; Haber, H.E.; Rindani, S.D.
1989-05-01
This is the summary report of the Higgs Boson Working Group. We discuss a variety of search techniques for a Higgs boson which is lighter than the Z. The processes K /yields/ /pi/H, /eta//prime/ /yields/ /eta/H,/Upsilon/ /yields/ H/gamma/ and e/sup +/e/sup /minus// /yields/ ZH are examined with particular attention paid to theoretical uncertainties in the calculations. We also briefly examine new features of Higgs phenomenology in a model which contains Higgs triplets as well as the usual doublet of scalar fields. 33 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sourrouille, Lucas
2015-11-01
We consider a generalization of non-relativistic Schrödinger-Higgs Lagrangian by introducing a nonstandard kinetic term. We show that this model is Galilean invariant, we construct the conserved charges associated to the symmetries and realize the algebra of the Galilean group. In addition, we study the model in the presence of a gauge field. We also show that the gauged model is Galilean invariant. Finally, we explore relations between the twin models and their solutions.
GUT scalar potentials for Higgs inflation
Einhorn, Martin B.; Jones, D.R. Timothy E-mail: drtj@liv.ac.uk
2012-11-01
Motivated by the idea that there is new physics beyond the Standard Model (SM), we have investigated a number of models for Grand Unified Theories (GUTS) in four dimensions for the possibility that their Higgs fields might be responsible for inflation in the early universe. In addition to models having an intrinsic Planck mass parameter, we have entertained classically scale invariant models in which the Planck scale itself as well as the GUT scale is induced by spontaneous breaking of the gauge symmetry. We found that in non-supersymmetric SU(5) with the usual Higgs in the adjoint representation but with large non-minimal coupling to the curvature, there appear to be several possible flat directions that might lead to inflation. Interestingly, the one of lowest energy is the breaking into SU(3)SU(2)U(1) that is suggested by gauge coupling unification. Further, we show that this flat direction is stable against small fluctuations in other directions. We attempted to extend this to similar supersymmetric GUTS, both global and supergravity, but did not succeed in finding a phenomenologically acceptable model of this type, with a 'minimal' Kaehler potential augmented only by terms characterised by dimensionless coupling constants. As is often the case, such models suffered either from a negative vacuum energy or from tachyonic modes. We also considered a variant of an 'inverted hierarchy' model in which the GUT scale is set by dimensional transmutation, but were unable to find a phenomenologically acceptable model.
Double-Difference Adjoint Tomography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yuan, Yanhua O.; Simons, Frederik J.; Tromp, Jeroen
2016-04-01
We introduce a double-difference method for the inversion of seismic wavespeed structure by adjoint tomography. Differences between seismic observations and model-based predictions at individual stations may arise from factors other than structural heterogeneity, such as errors in the assumed source-time function, inaccurate timings, and systematic uncertainties. To alleviate the corresponding nonuniqueness in the inverse problem, we construct differential measurements between stations, thereby largely canceling out the source signature and systematic errors. We minimize the discrepancy between observations and simulations in terms of differential measurements made on station pairs. We show how to implement the double-difference concept in adjoint tomography, both theoretically and in practice. We compare the sensitivities of absolute and differential measurements. The former provide absolute information on structure along the ray paths between stations and sources, whereas the latter explain relative (and thus higher-resolution) structural variations in areas close to the stations. Whereas in conventional tomography, a measurement made on a single earthquake-station pair provides very limited structural information, in double-difference tomography, one earthquake can actually resolve significant details of the structure. The double-difference methodology can be incorporated into the usual adjoint tomography workflow by simply pairing up all conventional measurements; the computational cost of the necessary adjoint simulations is largely unaffected. Rather than adding to the computational burden, the inversion of double-difference measurements merely modifies the construction of the adjoint sources for data assimilation.
The discrete adjoint approach to aerodynamic shape optimization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nadarajah, Siva Kumaran
A viscous discrete adjoint approach to automatic aerodynamic shape optimization is developed, and the merits of the viscous discrete and continuous adjoint approaches are discussed. The viscous discrete and continuous adjoint gradients for inverse design and drag minimization cost functions are compared with finite-difference and complex-step gradients. The optimization of airfoils in two-dimensional flow for inverse design and drag minimization is illustrated. Both the discrete and continuous adjoint methods are used to formulate two new design problems. First, the time-dependent optimal design problem is established, and both the time accurate discrete and continuous adjoint equations are derived. An application to the reduction of the time-averaged drag coefficient while maintaining time-averaged lift and thickness distribution of a pitching airfoil in transonic flow is demonstrated. Second, the remote inverse design problem is formulated. The optimization of a three-dimensional biconvex wing in supersonic flow verifies the feasibility to reduce the near field pressure peak. Coupled drag minimization and remote inverse design cases produce wings with a lower drag and a reduced near field peak pressure signature.
Nonradiating sources with connections to the adjoint problem
Marengo, Edwin A.; Devaney, Anthony J.
2004-09-01
A general description of localized nonradiating (NR) sources whose generated fields are confined (nonzero only) within the source's support is developed that is applicable to any linear partial differential equation (PDE) including the usual PDEs of wave theory (e.g., the Helmholtz equation and the vector wave equation) as well as other PDEs arising in other disciplines. This description, which holds for both formally self-adjoint and non-self-adjoint linear partial differential operators (PDOs), is derived in the context of both the governing PDE and the corresponding adjoint PDE of the associated adjoint problem. It is shown that a necessary and sufficient condition for a source to be NR is that it obeys an orthogonality relation with respect to any solution in the source's support of the corresponding homogeneous adjoint PDE. For real linear PDOs, this description takes on a more relaxed form where, in addition to the previous necessary and sufficient condition, the obeying of a complementary orthogonality relation with respect to any solution in the source's support of the homogeneous form of the same governing PDE is also both necessary and sufficient for the source to be NR.
The one and a half monopoles solution of the SU(2) Yang-Mills-Higgs field theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Teh, Rosy; Ng, Ban-Loong; Wong, Khai-Ming
2014-04-01
Recently we have reported on the existence of finite energy SU(2) Yang-Mills-Higgs particle of one-half topological charge. In this paper, we show that this one-half monopole can co-exist with a ’t Hooft-Polyakov monopole. The magnetic charge of the one-half monopole is of opposite sign to the magnetic charge of the ’t Hooft-Polyakov monopole. However the net magnetic charge of the configuration is zero due to the presence of a semi-infinite Dirac string along the positive z-axis that carries the other half of the magnetic monopole charge. The solution possesses gauge potentials that are singular along the z-axis, elsewhere they are regular. The total energy is found to increase with the strength of the Higgs field self-coupling constant λ. However the dipole separation and the magnetic dipole moment decrease with λ. This solution is non-BPS even in the BPS limit when the Higgs self-coupling constant vanishes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Drechsler, Wolfgang; Havas, Peter; Rosenblum, Arnold
1984-02-01
In two recent papers, the general form of the laws of motion for point particles which are multipole sources of the classical coupled Yang-Mills-Higgs fields was determined by Havas, and for the special case of monopole singularities of a Yang-Mills field an iteration procedure was developed by Drechsler and Rosenblum to obtain the equations of motion of mass points, i.e., the laws of motion including the explicit form of the fields of all interacting particles. In this paper we give a detailed derivation of the laws of motion of monopole-dipole singularities of the coupled Yang-Mills-Higgs fields for point particles with mass and spin, following a procedure first applied by Mathisson and developed by Havas. To obtain the equations of motion, a systematic approximation method is developed in the following paper for the solution of the nonlinear field equations and determination of the fields entering the laws of motion found here to any given order in the coupling constant g.
Double-difference Adjoint Tomography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yuan, Y. O.; Simons, F. J.; Tromp, J.
2015-12-01
We introduce the "double-difference" method, hugely popular in source inversion, in adjoint tomography. Differences between seismic observations and simulations may be explained in terms of many factors besides structural heterogeneity, e.g., errors in the source-time function, inaccurate timing, and systematic uncertainties. To alleviate nonuniqueness in the inverse problem, we make a differential measurement between stations, which largely cancels out the source signature and systematic errors. We seek to minimize the difference between differential measurements of observations and simulations at distinct stations. We show how to implement the double-difference concept in adjoint tomography, both theoretically and in practice. In contrast to conventional inversions aiming to maximize absolute agreement between observations and simulations, by differencing pairs of measurements at distinct locations, we obtain gradients of the new differential misfit function with respect to structural perturbations which are relatively insensitive to an incorrect source signature or timing errors. Furthermore, we analyze sensitivities of absolute and differential measurements. The former provide absolute information on structure along the ray paths between stations and sources, whereas the latter explain relative (and thus high-resolution) structural variations in areas close to the stations. In conventional tomography, one earthquake provides very limited structural resolution, as reflected in a misfit gradient consisting of "streaks" between the stations and the source. In double-difference tomography, one earthquake can actually resolve significant details of the structure, i.e., the double-differences provide a hugely powerful constraint on structural variations. Algorithmically, we incorporate the double-difference concept into the conventional adjoint tomography workflow by simply pairing up all regular measurements. Thus, the computational cost of the related adjoint
Weak self-adjoint differential equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gandarias, M. L.
2011-07-01
The concepts of self-adjoint and quasi self-adjoint equations were introduced by Ibragimov (2006 J. Math. Anal. Appl. 318 742-57 2007 Arch. ALGA 4 55-60). In Ibragimov (2007 J. Math. Anal. Appl. 333 311-28), a general theorem on conservation laws was proved. In this paper, we generalize the concept of self-adjoint and quasi self-adjoint equations by introducing the definition of weak self-adjoint equations. We find a class of weak self-adjoint quasi-linear parabolic equations. The property of a differential equation to be weak self-adjoint is important for constructing conservation laws associated with symmetries of the differential equation.
Study on adjoint-based optimization method for multi-stage turbomachinery
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Weiwei; Tian, Yong; Yi, Weilin; Ji, Lucheng; Shao, Weiwei; Xiao, Yunhan
2011-10-01
Adjoint-based optimization method is a hotspot in turbomachinery. First, this paper presents principles of adjoint method from Lagrange multiplier viewpoint. Second, combining a continuous route with thin layer RANS equations, we formulate adjoint equations and anti-physical boundary conditions. Due to the multi-stage environment in turbomachinery, an adjoint interrow mixing method is introduced. Numerical techniques of solving flow equations and adjoint equations are almost the same, and once they are converged respectively, the gradients of an objective function to design variables can be calculated using complex method efficiently. Third, integrating a shape perturbation parameterization and a simple steepest descent method, a frame of adjoint-based aerodynamic shape optimization for multi-stage turbomachinery is constructed. At last, an inverse design of an annular cascade is employed to validate the above approach, and adjoint field of an Aachen 1.5 stage turbine demonstrates the conservation and areflexia of the adjoint interrow mixing method. Then a direct redesign of a 1+1 counter-rotating turbine aiming to increase efficiency and apply constraints to mass flow rate and pressure ratio is taken.
Asymptotically safe Higgs inflation
Xianyu, Zhong-Zhi; He, Hong-Jian E-mail: hjhe@tsinghua.edu.cn
2014-10-01
We construct a new inflation model in which the standard model Higgs boson couples minimally to gravity and acts as the inflaton. Our construction of Higgs inflation incorporates the standard model with Einstein gravity which exhibits asymptotic safety in the ultraviolet region. The slow roll condition is satisfied at large field value due to the asymptotically safe behavior of Higgs self-coupling at high energies. We find that this minimal construction is highly predictive, and is consistent with both cosmological observations and collider experiments.
MS S4.03.002 - Adjoint-Based Design for Configuration Shaping
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nemec, Marian; Aftosmis, Michael J.
2009-01-01
This slide presentation discusses a method of inverse design for low sonic boom using adjoint-based gradient computations. It outlines a method for shaping a configuration in order to match a prescribed near-field signature.
General composite Higgs models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marzocca, David; Serone, Marco; Shu, Jing
2012-08-01
We construct a general class of pseudo-Goldstone composite Higgs models, within the minimal SO(5)/SO(4) coset structure, that are not necessarily of moose-type. We characterize the main properties these models should have in order to give rise to a Higgs mass around 125 GeV. We assume the existence of relatively light and weakly coupled spin 1 and 1/2 resonances. In absence of a symmetry principle, we introduce the Minimal Higgs Potential (MHP) hypothesis: the Higgs potential is assumed to be one-loop dominated by the SM fields and the above resonances, with a contribution that is made calculable by imposing suitable generalizations of the first and second Weinberg sum rules. We show that a 125 GeV Higgs requires light, often sub-TeV, fermion resonances. Their presence can also be important for the models to successfully pass the electroweak precision tests. Interestingly enough, the latter can also be passed by models with a heavy Higgs around 320 GeV. The composite Higgs models of the moose-type considered in the literature can be seen as particular limits of our class of models.
Infrared Issues in Graviton Higgs Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bhattacharjee, Srijit; Majumdar, Parthasarathi
2015-01-01
We investigate the one-loop infrared behaviour of the effective potential in minimally coupled graviton Higgs theory in Minkowski background. The gravitational analogue of one loop Coleman Weinberg effective potential turns out to be complex, the imaginary part indicating an infrared instability. This instability is traced to a tachyonic pole in the graviton propagator for constant Higgs fields. Physical implications of this behaviour are studied. We also discuss physical differences between gauge theories coupled to Higgs fields and graviton Higgs theory.
Electroweak Gauge-Higgs Unification Scenario
Hosotani, Yutaka
2008-11-23
In the gauge-Higgs unification scenario 4D Higgs fields are unified with gauge fields in higher dimensions. The electroweak model is constructed in the Randall-Sundrum warped space. The electroweak symmetry is dynamically broken by the Hosotani mechanism due to the top quark contribution. The Higgs mass is predicted to be around 50 GeV with the vanishing ZZH and WWH couplings so that the LEP2 bound for the Higgs mass is evaded.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vich, M.; Romero, R.; Richard, E.; Arbogast, P.; Maynard, K.
2010-09-01
Heavy precipitation events occur regularly in the western Mediterranean region. These events often have a high impact on the society due to economic and personal losses. The improvement of the mesoscale numerical forecasts of these events can be used to prevent or minimize their impact on the society. In previous studies, two ensemble prediction systems (EPSs) based on perturbing the model initial and boundary conditions were developed and tested for a collection of high-impact MEDEX cyclonic episodes. These EPSs perturb the initial and boundary potential vorticity (PV) field through a PV inversion algorithm. This technique ensures modifications of all the meteorological fields without compromising the mass-wind balance. One EPS introduces the perturbations along the zones of the three-dimensional PV structure presenting the local most intense values and gradients of the field (a semi-objective choice, PV-gradient), while the other perturbs the PV field over the MM5 adjoint model calculated sensitivity zones (an objective method, PV-adjoint). The PV perturbations are set from a PV error climatology (PVEC) that characterizes typical PV errors in the ECMWF forecasts, both in intensity and displacement. This intensity and displacement perturbation of the PV field is chosen randomly, while its location is given by the perturbation zones defined in each ensemble generation method. Encouraged by the good results obtained by these two EPSs that perturb the PV field, a new approach based on a manual perturbation of the PV field has been tested and compared with the previous results. This technique uses the satellite water vapor (WV) observations to guide the correction of initial PV structures. The correction of the PV field intents to improve the match between the PV distribution and the WV image, taking advantage of the relation between dark and bright features of WV images and PV anomalies, under some assumptions. Afterwards, the PV inversion algorithm is applied to run
An Integrated Higgs Force Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Colella, Antonio
2016-03-01
An Integrated Higgs force theory (IHFT) was based on 2 key requirement amplifications: a matter particle/Higgs force was one and inseparable; a matter particle/Higgs force bidirectionally condensed/evaporated from/to super force. These were basis of 5 theories: particle creation, baryogenesis, superpartner/quark decays, spontaneous symmetry breaking, and stellar black holes. Our universe's 129 matter/force particles contained 64 supersymmetric Higgs particles; 9 transient matter particles/Higgs forces decayed to 8 permanent matter particles/Higgs forces; mass was given to a matter particle by its Higgs force and gravitons; and sum of 8 Higgs force energies of 8 permanent matter particles was dark energy. An IHFT's essence is the intimate physical relationships between 8 theories. These theories are independent because physicists in one theory worked independently of physicists in the other seven. An IHFT's premise is without sacrificing their integrities, 8 independent existing theories are replaced by 8 interrelated amplified theories. Requirement amplifications provide interfaces between the 8 theories. Intimate relationships between 8 theories including the above 5 and string, Higgs forces, and Super Universe are described. The sorting category selected was F. PARTICLES AND FIELDS (e.g., F1 Higgs Physics, F10 Alternative Beyond the Standard Model Physics, F11 Dark Sector Theories and Searches, and F12 Particle Cosmology).
Adjoint sensitivity study on idealized explosive cyclogenesis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chu, Kekuan; Zhang, Yi
2016-06-01
The adjoint sensitivity related to explosive cyclogenesis in a conditionally unstable atmosphere is investigated in this study. The PSU/NCAR limited-area, nonhydrostatic primitive equation numerical model MM5 and its adjoint system are employed for numerical simulation and adjoint computation, respectively. To ensure the explosive development of a baroclinic wave, the forecast model is initialized with an idealized condition including an idealized two-dimensional baroclinic jet with a balanced three-dimensional moderate-amplitude disturbance, derived from a potential vorticity inversion technique. Firstly, the validity period of the tangent linear model for this idealized baroclinic wave case is discussed, considering different initial moisture distributions and a dry condition. Secondly, the 48-h forecast surface pressure center and the vertical component of the relative vorticity of the cyclone are selected as the response functions for adjoint computation in a dry and moist environment, respectively. The preliminary results show that the validity of the tangent linear assumption for this idealized baroclinic wave case can extend to 48 h with intense moist convection, and the validity period can last even longer in the dry adjoint integration. Adjoint sensitivity analysis indicates that the rapid development of the idealized baroclinic wave is sensitive to the initial wind and temperature perturbations around the steering level in the upstream. Moreover, the moist adjoint sensitivity can capture a secondary high sensitivity center in the upper troposphere, which cannot be depicted in the dry adjoint run.
Higgs friends and counterfeits at hadron colliders
Fox, Patrick J.; Tucker-Smith, David; Weiner, Neal; /New York U., CCPP /New York U. /Princeton, Inst. Advanced Study
2011-04-01
We consider the possibility of 'Higgs counterfeits' - scalars that can be produced with cross sections comparable to the SM Higgs, and which decay with identical relative observable branching ratios, but which are nonetheless not responsible for electroweak symmetry breaking. We also consider a related scenario involving 'Higgs friends,' fields similarly produced through gg fusion processes, which would be discovered through diboson channels WW,ZZ,{gamma}{gamma}, or even {gamma}Z, potentially with larger cross sections times branching ratios than for the Higgs. The discovery of either a Higgs friend or a Higgs counterfeit, rather than directly pointing towards the origin of the weak scale, would indicate the presence of new colored fields necessary for the sizable production cross section (and possibly new colorless but electroweakly charged states as well, in the case of the diboson decays of a Higgs friend). These particles could easily be confused for an ordinary Higgs, perhaps with an additional generation to explain the different cross section, and we emphasize the importance of vector boson fusion as a channel to distinguish a Higgs counterfeit from a true Higgs. Such fields would naturally be expected in scenarios with 'effective Z's,' where heavy states charged under the SM produce effective charges for SM fields under a new gauge force. We discuss the prospects for discovery of Higgs counterfeits, Higgs friends, and associated charged fields at the LHC.
Adjoint Error Estimation for Linear Advection
Connors, J M; Banks, J W; Hittinger, J A; Woodward, C S
2011-03-30
An a posteriori error formula is described when a statistical measurement of the solution to a hyperbolic conservation law in 1D is estimated by finite volume approximations. This is accomplished using adjoint error estimation. In contrast to previously studied methods, the adjoint problem is divorced from the finite volume method used to approximate the forward solution variables. An exact error formula and computable error estimate are derived based on an abstractly defined approximation of the adjoint solution. This framework allows the error to be computed to an arbitrary accuracy given a sufficiently well resolved approximation of the adjoint solution. The accuracy of the computable error estimate provably satisfies an a priori error bound for sufficiently smooth solutions of the forward and adjoint problems. The theory does not currently account for discontinuities. Computational examples are provided that show support of the theory for smooth solutions. The application to problems with discontinuities is also investigated computationally.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Passarino, Giampiero
2014-05-01
Higgs Computed Axial Tomography, an excerpt. The Higgs boson lineshape ( and the devil hath power to assume a pleasing shape, Hamlet, Act II, scene 2) is analyzed for the process, with special emphasis on the off-shell tail which shows up for large values of the Higgs virtuality. The effect of including background and interference is also discussed. The main focus of this work is on residual theoretical uncertainties, discussing how much-improved constraint on the Higgs intrinsic width can be revealed by an improved approach to analysis.
Accurate adjoint design sensitivities for nano metal optics.
Hansen, Paul; Hesselink, Lambertus
2015-09-01
We present a method for obtaining accurate numerical design sensitivities for metal-optical nanostructures. Adjoint design sensitivity analysis, long used in fluid mechanics and mechanical engineering for both optimization and structural analysis, is beginning to be used for nano-optics design, but it fails for sharp-cornered metal structures because the numerical error in electromagnetic simulations of metal structures is highest at sharp corners. These locations feature strong field enhancement and contribute strongly to design sensitivities. By using high-accuracy FEM calculations and rounding sharp features to a finite radius of curvature we obtain highly-accurate design sensitivities for 3D metal devices. To provide a bridge to the existing literature on adjoint methods in other fields, we derive the sensitivity equations for Maxwell's equations in the PDE framework widely used in fluid mechanics. PMID:26368483
Higgs dynamics during inflation
Enqvist, Kari; Meriniemi, Tuukka; Nurmi, Sami E-mail: tuukka.meriniemi@helsinki.fi
2014-07-01
We investigate inflationary Higgs dynamics and constraints on the Standard Model parameters assuming the Higgs potential, computed to next-to-next leading order precision, is not significantly affected by new physics. For a high inflationary scale H ∼ 10{sup 14} GeV suggested by BICEP2, we show that the Higgs is a light field subject to fluctuations which affect its dynamics in a stochastic way. Starting from its inflationary value the Higgs must be able to relax to the Standard Model vacuum well before the electroweak scale. We find that this is consistent with the high inflationary scale only if the top mass m{sub t} is significantly below the best fit value. The region within 2σ errors of the measured m{sub t}, the Higgs mass m{sub h} and the strong coupling α{sub s} and consistent with inflation covers approximately the interval m{sub t}∼<171.8 GeV+0.538(m{sub h}−125.5 GeV) with 125.4 GeV∼
Bevis, Neil; Hindmarsh, Mark; Kunz, Martin; Urrestilla, Jon
2007-03-15
We present the first field-theoretic calculations of the contribution made by cosmic strings to the temperature power spectrum of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). Unlike previous work, in which strings were modeled as idealized one-dimensional objects, we evolve the simplest example of an underlying field theory containing local U(1) strings, the Abelian Higgs model. Limitations imposed by finite computational volumes are overcome using the scaling property of string networks and a further extrapolation related to the lessening of the string width in comoving coordinates. The strings and their decay products, which are automatically included in the field theory approach, source metric perturbations via their energy-momentum tensor, the unequal-time correlation functions of which are used as input into the CMB calculation phase. These calculations involve the use of a modified version of CMBEASY, with results provided over the full range of relevant scales. We find that the string tension {mu} required to normalize to the WMAP 3-year data at multipole l=10 is G{mu}=[2.04{+-}0.06(stat.){+-}0.12(sys.)]x10{sup -6}, where we have quoted statistical and systematic errors separately, and G is Newton's constant. This is a factor 2-3 higher than values in current circulation.
DAI,YANG; BORISOV,ALEXEY B.; BOYER,KEITH; RHODES,CHARLES K.
2000-08-11
The construction of inverse states in a finite field F{sub P{sub {alpha}}} enables the organization of the mass scale with fundamental octets in an eight-dimensional index space that identifies particle states with residue class designations. Conformance with both CPT invariance and the concept of supersymmetry follows as a direct consequence of this formulation. Based on two parameters (P{sub {alpha}} and g{sub {alpha}}) that are anchored on a concordance of physical data, this treatment leads to (1) a prospective mass for the muon neutrino of {approximately}27.68 meV, (2) a value of the unified strong-electroweak coupling constant {alpha}* = (34.26){sup {minus}1} that is physically defined by the ratio of the electron neutrino and muon neutrino masses, and (3) a see-saw congruence connecting the Higgs, the electron neutrino, and the muon neutrino masses. Specific evaluation of the masses of the corresponding supersymmetric Higgs pair reveals that both particles are superheavy (> 10{sup 18}GeV). No renormalization of the Higgs masses is introduced, since the calculational procedure yielding their magnitudes is intrinsically divergence-free. Further, the Higgs fulfills its conjectured role through the see-saw relation as the particle defining the origin of all particle masses, since the electron and muon neutrino systems, together with their supersymmetric partners, are the generators of the mass scale and establish the corresponding index space. Finally, since the computation of the Higgs masses is entirely determined by the modulus of the field P{sub {alpha}}, which is fully defined by the large-scale parameters of the universe through the value of the universal gravitational constant G and the requirement for perfect flatness ({Omega} = 1.0), the see-saw congruence fuses the concepts of mass and space and creates a new unified archetype.
Cylindrically symmetric Einstein-Yang-Mills-Higgs gauge configurations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mondaini, R. P.
1985-02-01
Two solutions are obtained for coupled Einstein-Yang-Mills-Higgs fields with cylindrical symmetry and rigid rotation. The Higgs fields are responsible for the creation of singularities and infinite energy densities at the cylinder's axis.
On the adjoint operator in photoacoustic tomography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arridge, Simon R.; Betcke, Marta M.; Cox, Ben T.; Lucka, Felix; Treeby, Brad E.
2016-11-01
Photoacoustic tomography (PAT) is an emerging biomedical imaging from coupled physics technique, in which the image contrast is due to optical absorption, but the information is carried to the surface of the tissue as ultrasound pulses. Many algorithms and formulae for PAT image reconstruction have been proposed for the case when a complete data set is available. In many practical imaging scenarios, however, it is not possible to obtain the full data, or the data may be sub-sampled for faster data acquisition. In such cases, image reconstruction algorithms that can incorporate prior knowledge to ameliorate the loss of data are required. Hence, recently there has been an increased interest in using variational image reconstruction. A crucial ingredient for the application of these techniques is the adjoint of the PAT forward operator, which is described in this article from physical, theoretical and numerical perspectives. First, a simple mathematical derivation of the adjoint of the PAT forward operator in the continuous framework is presented. Then, an efficient numerical implementation of the adjoint using a k-space time domain wave propagation model is described and illustrated in the context of variational PAT image reconstruction, on both 2D and 3D examples including inhomogeneous sound speed. The principal advantage of this analytical adjoint over an algebraic adjoint (obtained by taking the direct adjoint of the particular numerical forward scheme used) is that it can be implemented using currently available fast wave propagation solvers.
Pryor, C.
1996-02-01
The phase diagram of an SU(2){sub {ital L}}{times}SU(2){sub {ital R}} lattice Higgs-Yukawa model with finite {lambda} is constructed using mean field theory. The phase diagram bears a superficial resemblance to that for {lambda}={infinity}; however, as {lambda} is decreased the paramagnetic region shrinks in size. For small {lambda} the phase transitions remain second order, and no new first order transitions are seen. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}
Baryogenesis via leptogenesis in adjoint SU(5)
Blanchet, Steve; Fileviez Perez, Pavel E-mail: fileviez@physics.wisc.edu
2008-08-15
The possibility of explaining the baryon asymmetry in the Universe through the leptogenesis mechanism in the context of adjoint SU(5) is investigated. In this model neutrino masses are generated through the type I and type III seesaw mechanisms, and the field responsible for the type III seesaw, called {rho}{sub 3}, generates the B-L asymmetry needed to satisfy the observed value of the baryon asymmetry in the Universe. We find that the CP asymmetry originates only from the vertex correction, since the self-energy contribution is not present. When neutrino masses have a normal hierarchy, successful leptogenesis is possible for 10{sup 11} GeV{approx}
Electroweak Baryogenesis and Higgs Properties
Cohen, Timothy; Morrissey, David E.; Pierce, Aaron; /Michigan U., MCTP
2012-03-13
We explore the connection between the strength of the electroweak phase transition and the properties of the Higgs boson. Our interest is in regions of parameter space that can realize electroweak baryogenesis. We do so in a simplified framework in which a single Higgs field couples to new scalar fields charged under SU(3){sub c} by way of the Higgs portal. Such new scalars can make the electroweak phase transition more strongly first-order, while contributing to the effective Higgs boson couplings to gluons and photons through loop effects. For Higgs boson masses in the range 115 {approx}< m{sub h} {approx}< 130 GeV, whenever the phase transition becomes strong enough for successful electroweak baryogenesis, we find that Higgs boson properties are modified by an amount observable by the LHC. We also discuss the baryogenesis window of the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM), which appears to be under tension. Furthermore, we argue that the discovery of a Higgs boson with standard model-like couplings to gluons and photons will rule out electroweak baryogenesis in the MSSM.
Dimensional reduction of symmetric gauge fields, Higgs models, and spontaneous compactification
Volobuev, I.P.; Kubyshin, Y.A. ); Mourao, J.M. ); Rudolph, G. )
1989-05-01
Questions relating to the dimensional reduction of symmetric gauge fields in multidimensional spaces of the form {ital E}={ital M}{times}{ital G}/{ital H} are discussed. For such fields a general geometrical method of dimensional reduction and a method for calculating the potentials of the scalar fields of the reduced theory in the case of symmetric spaces {ital G}/{ital H} are presented systematically. The connection between dimensional reduction of gauge fields and the theory of spontaneous compactification and the physical interpretation of the solutions of this theory is traced in detail. Much attention is devoted to the application of the method of dimensional reduction to fermion matter fields and to the construction by this method of realistic models of the interactions of elementary particles in Minkowski space.
Double-difference adjoint seismic tomography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yuan, Yanhua O.; Simons, Frederik J.; Tromp, Jeroen
2016-09-01
We introduce a `double-difference' method for the inversion for seismic wave speed structure based on adjoint tomography. Differences between seismic observations and model predictions at individual stations may arise from factors other than structural heterogeneity, such as errors in the assumed source-time function, inaccurate timings and systematic uncertainties. To alleviate the corresponding non-uniqueness in the inverse problem, we construct differential measurements between stations, thereby reducing the influence of the source signature and systematic errors. We minimize the discrepancy between observations and simulations in terms of the differential measurements made on station pairs. We show how to implement the double-difference concept in adjoint tomography, both theoretically and practically. We compare the sensitivities of absolute and differential measurements. The former provide absolute information on structure along the ray paths between stations and sources, whereas the latter explain relative (and thus higher resolution) structural variations in areas close to the stations. Whereas in conventional tomography a measurement made on a single earthquake-station pair provides very limited structural information, in double-difference tomography one earthquake can actually resolve significant details of the structure. The double-difference methodology can be incorporated into the usual adjoint tomography workflow by simply pairing up all conventional measurements; the computational cost of the necessary adjoint simulations is largely unaffected. Rather than adding to the computational burden, the inversion of double-difference measurements merely modifies the construction of the adjoint sources for data assimilation.
Double-difference adjoint seismic tomography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yuan, Yanhua O.; Simons, Frederik J.; Tromp, Jeroen
2016-06-01
We introduce a `double-difference' method for the inversion for seismic wavespeed structure based on adjoint tomography. Differences between seismic observations and model predictions at individual stations may arise from factors other than structural heterogeneity, such as errors in the assumed source-time function, inaccurate timings, and systematic uncertainties. To alleviate the corresponding nonuniqueness in the inverse problem, we construct differential measurements between stations, thereby reducing the influence of the source signature and systematic errors. We minimize the discrepancy between observations and simulations in terms of the differential measurements made on station pairs. We show how to implement the double-difference concept in adjoint tomography, both theoretically and in practice. We compare the sensitivities of absolute and differential measurements. The former provide absolute information on structure along the ray paths between stations and sources, whereas the latter explain relative (and thus higher-resolution) structural variations in areas close to the stations. Whereas in conventional tomography a measurement made on a single earthquake-station pair provides very limited structural information, in double-difference tomography one earthquake can actually resolve significant details of the structure. The double-difference methodology can be incorporated into the usual adjoint tomography workflow by simply pairing up all conventional measurements; the computational cost of the necessary adjoint simulations is largely unaffected. Rather than adding to the computational burden, the inversion of double-difference measurements merely modifies the construction of the adjoint sources for data assimilation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Takeuchi, Shingo
2015-09-01
It is predicted that an accelerating electron performs a Brownian motion in the inertial frame. This Brownian motion in the inertial frame has its roots in the interaction with the thermal excitation given by the Unruh effect in the accelerating frame. If such a prediction is possible, correspondingly we propose a prediction in this study that the thermal radiation is emitted in the inertial frame from an electron heated due to the Unruh effect in the accelerating frame. The point in our prediction is, although the Unruh effect is limited in the accelerating frame, as well as that the Brownian motion rooted in the Unruh effect appears in the inertial frame, the heat of the particle appears in the inertial frame. Based on such a prediction in this paper, we investigate phenomena in the neighborhood of an accelerating electron in the inertial frame. The model we consider is the four-dimensional Klein-Gordon real scalar field model with the Higgs potential term at the finite temperature identified with the Unruh temperature on the de Sitter space-time. We calculate the one-loop effective potential in the inertial frame with the corrections by the thermal radiation rooted in the Unruh effect in the accelerating frame. In this calculation, we take into account that the background space-time is deformed due to the field theory's corrected one-loop effective potential. Based on such an analysis, we illustrate the restoration of the spontaneous symmetry breaking and the dynamical variation of the background space-time, and we examine the accelerating particle's world-line and the amount of the energy corresponding to the change of the acceleration.
On Higgs inflation and naturalness
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Burgess, C. P.; Lee, H. M.; Trott, Michael
2010-07-01
We reexamine recent claims that Einstein-frame scattering in the Higgs inflation model is unitary above the cut-off energy Λ ≃ M p /ξ. We show explicitly how unitarity problems arise in both the Einstein and Jordan frames of the theory. In a covariant gauge they arise from non-minimal Higgs self-couplings, which cannot be removed by field redefinitions because the target space is not flat. In unitary gauge, where there is only a single scalar which can be redefined to achieve canonical kinetic terms, the unitarity problems arise through non-minimal Higgs-gauge couplings.
Higgs inflation and naturalness
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lerner, Rose N.; McDonald, John
2010-04-01
Inflation based on scalar fields which are non-minimally coupled to gravity has been proposed as a way to unify inflation with weak-scale physics, with the inflaton being identified with the Higgs boson or other weak-scale scalar particle. These models require a large non-minimal coupling ξ ~ 104 to have agreement with the observed density perturbations. However, it has been suggested that such models are unnatural, due to an apparent breakdown of the calculation of Higgs-Higgs scattering via graviton exchange in the Jordan frame. Here we argue that Higgs inflation models are in fact natural and that the breakdown does not imply new physics due to strong-coupling effects or unitarity breakdown, but simply a failure of perturbation theory in the Jordan frame as a calculational method. This can be understood by noting that the model is completely consistent when analysed in the Einstein frame and that scattering rates in the two frames are equal by the Equivalence Theorem for non-linear field redefinitions.
Adjoint variational methods in nonconservative stability problems.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Prasad, S. N.; Herrmann, G.
1972-01-01
A general nonself-adjoint eigenvalue problem is examined and it is shown that the commonly employed approximate methods, such as the Galerkin procedure, the method of weighted residuals and the least square technique lack variational descriptions. When used in their previously known forms they do not yield stationary eigenvalues and eigenfunctions. With the help of an adjoint system, however, several analogous variational descriptions may be developed and it is shown in the present study that by properly restating the method of least squares, stationary eigenvalues may be obtained. Several properties of the adjoint eigenvalue problem, known only for a restricted group, are shown to exist for the more general class selected for study.
Nonlinear self-adjointness through differential substitutions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gandarias, M. L.
2014-10-01
It is known (Ibragimov, 2011; Galiakberova and Ibragimov, 2013) [14,18] that the property of nonlinear self-adjointness allows to associate conservation laws of the equations under study, with their symmetries. In this paper we show that, even when the equation is nonlinearly self-adjoint with a non differential substitution, finding the explicit form of the differential substitution can provide new conservation laws associated to its symmetries. By using the general theorem on conservation laws (Ibragimov, 2007) [11] and the property of nonlinear self-adjointness we find some new conservation laws for the modified Harry-Dym equation. By using a differential substitution we construct a conservation law for the Harry-Dym equation, which has not been derived before using Ibragimov method.
Peters, Krisztian
2009-11-01
We present the status and prospects of Higgs searches at the Tevatron and the LHC. Results from the Tevatron are using up to 5 fb{sup -} of data collected with the CDF and D0 detectors. The major contributing processes include associated production (WH {yields} l{nu}bb, ZH {yields} {nu}{nu}bb, ZH {yields} llbb) and gluon fusion (gg {yields} H {yields} WW{sup (*)}). Improvements across the full mass range resulting from the larger data sets, improved analyses techniques and increased signal acceptance are discussed. Recent results exclude the SM Higgs boson in a mass range of 160 < m{sub H} < 170 GeV. Searches for the neutral MSSM Higgs boson in the region 90 < m{sub A} < 200 GeV exclude tan {beta} values down to 30 for several benchmark scenarios.
ADGEN: ADjoint GENerator for computer models
Worley, B.A.; Pin, F.G.; Horwedel, J.E.; Oblow, E.M.
1989-05-01
This paper presents the development of a FORTRAN compiler and an associated supporting software library called ADGEN. ADGEN reads FORTRAN models as input and produces and enhanced version of the input model. The enhanced version reproduces the original model calculations but also has the capability to calculate derivatives of model results of interest with respect to any and all of the model data and input parameters. The method for calculating the derivatives and sensitivities is the adjoint method. Partial derivatives are calculated analytically using computer calculus and saved as elements of an adjoint matrix on direct assess storage. The total derivatives are calculated by solving an appropriate adjoint equation. ADGEN is applied to a major computer model of interest to the Low-Level Waste Community, the PRESTO-II model. PRESTO-II sample problem results reveal that ADGEN correctly calculates derivatives of response of interest with respect to 300 parameters. The execution time to create the adjoint matrix is a factor of 45 times the execution time of the reference sample problem. Once this matrix is determined, the derivatives with respect to 3000 parameters are calculated in a factor of 6.8 that of the reference model for each response of interest. For a single 3000 for determining these derivatives by parameter perturbations. The automation of the implementation of the adjoint technique for calculating derivatives and sensitivities eliminates the costly and manpower-intensive task of direct hand-implementation by reprogramming and thus makes the powerful adjoint technique more amenable for use in sensitivity analysis of existing models. 20 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.
Bardeen, William A.; /Fermilab
2008-05-01
I discuss the Standard Model of Elementary Particle Physics and potential for discoveries of the physics responsible for electroweak symmetry breaking. I review the ideas leading to development of the Brout-Englert-Higgs mechanism that now forms the basis for the conventional Standard Model. I discuss various issues that challenge application of the Standard Model to the known physics of elementary particles. I examine alternatives to the Standard Model that address these issues and may lead to new discoveries at the LHC that go Beyond Higgs.
FAST TRACK COMMUNICATION Quasi self-adjoint nonlinear wave equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ibragimov, N. H.; Torrisi, M.; Tracinà, R.
2010-11-01
In this paper we generalize the classification of self-adjoint second-order linear partial differential equation to a family of nonlinear wave equations with two independent variables. We find a class of quasi self-adjoint nonlinear equations which includes the self-adjoint linear equations as a particular case. The property of a differential equation to be quasi self-adjoint is important, e.g. for constructing conservation laws associated with symmetries of the differential equation.
Adjoint-Based Uncertainty Quantification with MCNP
Seifried, Jeffrey E.
2011-09-01
This work serves to quantify the instantaneous uncertainties in neutron transport simulations born from nuclear data and statistical counting uncertainties. Perturbation and adjoint theories are used to derive implicit sensitivity expressions. These expressions are transformed into forms that are convenient for construction with MCNP6, creating the ability to perform adjoint-based uncertainty quantification with MCNP6. These new tools are exercised on the depleted-uranium hybrid LIFE blanket, quantifying its sensitivities and uncertainties to important figures of merit. Overall, these uncertainty estimates are small (< 2%). Having quantified the sensitivities and uncertainties, physical understanding of the system is gained and some confidence in the simulation is acquired.
Application of adjoint operators to neural learning
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Barhen, J.; Toomarian, N.; Gulati, S.
1990-01-01
A technique for the efficient analytical computation of such parameters of the neural architecture as synaptic weights and neural gain is presented as a single solution of a set of adjoint equations. The learning model discussed concentrates on the adiabatic approximation only. A problem of interest is represented by a system of N coupled equations, and then adjoint operators are introduced. A neural network is formalized as an adaptive dynamical system whose temporal evolution is governed by a set of coupled nonlinear differential equations. An approach based on the minimization of a constrained neuromorphic energylike function is applied, and the complete learning dynamics are obtained as a result of the calculations.
Higgs decays and brane gravi-vectors
Clark, T. E.; Liu Boyang; Love, S. T.; Xiong, C.; Veldhuis, T. ter
2008-10-01
Higgs boson decays in flexible brane world models with stable, massive gravi-vectors are considered. Such vectors couple bilinearly to the standard model fields through either the standard model energy-momentum tensor, the weak hypercharge field strength, or the Higgs scalar. The role of the coupling involving the extrinsic curvature is highlighted. It is found that within the presently allowed parameter space, the decay rate of the Higgs into two gravi-vectors (which would appear as an invisible Higgs decay) can be comparable to the rate for any of the standard model decay modes.
Dirac gauginos, R symmetry and the 125 GeV Higgs
Bertuzzo, Enrico; Frugiuele, Claudia; Gregoire, Thomas; Ponton, Eduardo
2015-04-20
We study a supersymmetric scenario with a quasi exact R-symmetry in light of the discovery of a Higgs resonance with a mass of 125 GeV. In such a framework, the additional adjoint superfields, needed to give Dirac masses to the gauginos, contribute both to the Higgs mass and to electroweak precision observables. We then analyze the interplay between the two aspects, finding regions in parameter space in which the contributions to the precision observables are under control and a 125 GeV Higgs boson can be accommodated. Furthermore, we estimate the fine-tuning of the model finding regions of the parameter space still unexplored by the LHC with a fine-tuning considerably improved with respect to the minimal supersymmetric scenario. In particular, sizable non-holomorphic (non-supersoft) adjoints masses are required to reduce the fine-tuning.
Dirac gauginos, R symmetry and the 125 GeV Higgs
Bertuzzo, Enrico; Frugiuele, Claudia; Gregoire, Thomas; Ponton, Eduardo
2015-04-20
We study a supersymmetric scenario with a quasi exact R-symmetry in light of the discovery of a Higgs resonance with a mass of 125 GeV. In such a framework, the additional adjoint superfields, needed to give Dirac masses to the gauginos, contribute both to the Higgs mass and to electroweak precision observables. We then analyze the interplay between the two aspects, finding regions in parameter space in which the contributions to the precision observables are under control and a 125 GeV Higgs boson can be accommodated. Furthermore, we estimate the fine-tuning of the model finding regions of the parameter spacemore » still unexplored by the LHC with a fine-tuning considerably improved with respect to the minimal supersymmetric scenario. In particular, sizable non-holomorphic (non-supersoft) adjoints masses are required to reduce the fine-tuning.« less
Supersymmetric Higgs bosons and beyond
Carena, Marcela; Kong, Kyoungchul; Ponton, Eduardo; Zurita, Jose
2010-01-01
We consider supersymmetric models that include particles beyond the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM) with masses in the TeV range, and that couple significantly to the MSSM Higgs sector. We perform a model-independent analysis of the spectrum and couplings of the MSSM Higgs fields, based on an effective theory of the MSSM degrees of freedom. The tree-level mass of the lightest CP-even state can easily be above the LEP bound of 114 GeV, thus allowing for a relatively light spectrum of superpartners, restricted only by direct searches. The Higgs spectrum and couplings can be significantly modified compared to the MSSM ones, often allowing for interesting new decay modes. We also observe that the gluon fusion production cross section of the SM-like Higgs can be enhanced with respect to both the standard model and the MSSM.
Supersymmetric Higgs Bosons and Beyond
Carena, Marcela; Kong, Kyoungchul; Ponton, Eduardo; Zurita, Jose; /Fermilab /Buenos Aires U.
2010-08-26
We consider supersymmetric models that include particles beyond the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) with masses in the TeV range, and that couple significantly to the MSSM Higgs sector. We perform a model-independent analysis of the spectrum and couplings of the MSSM Higgs fields, based on an effective theory of the MSSM degrees of freedom. The tree-level mass of the lightest CP-even state can easily be above the LEP bound of 114 GeV, thus allowing for a relatively light spectrum of superpartners, restricted only by direct searches. The Higgs spectrum and couplings can be significantly modified compared to the MSSM ones, often allowing for interesting new decay modes. We also observe that the gluon fusion production cross section of the SM-like Higgs can be enhanced with respect to both the Standard Model and the MSSM.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arraut, Ivan
2015-09-01
The Higgs mechanism at the graviton level formulated as a Vainshtein mechanism in time domains implies that the extra-degrees of freedom become relevant depending on the direction of time (frame of reference) with respect to the preferred time direction (preferred frame) defined by the Stückelberg function T_0(r,t) which contains the information of the extra-degrees of freedom of the theory. In this manuscript, I make the general definition of the Higgs mechanism by analyzing the gauge symmetries of the action and the general form of the vacuum solutions for the graviton field. In general, the symmetry generators depending explicitly on the Stückelberg fields are broken at the vacuum level. These broken generators, define the number of Nambu-Goldstone bosons which will be eating up by the dynamical metric in order to become massive.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koma, Y.; Koma, M.; Ilgenfritz, E.-M.; Suzuki, T.; Polikarpov, M. I.
2003-11-01
The structure of the flux-tube profile in Abelian-projected (AP) SU(2) gauge theory in the maximally Abelian gauge is studied. The connection between the AP flux tube and the classical flux-tube solution of the U(1) dual Abelian Higgs model is clarified in terms of the path-integral duality transformation. This connection suggests that the electric photon and the magnetic monopole parts of the Abelian Wilson loop can act as separate sources creating the Coulombic and the solenoidal electric field inside a flux tube. The conjecture is confirmed by a lattice simulation which shows that the AP flux tube is composed of these two contributions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Christensen, Walter James
2015-08-01
During an interview at the Niels Bohr Institute David Bohm stated, "according to Einstein, particles should eventually emerge as singularities, or very strong regions of stable pulses of (the gravitational) field" [1]. Starting from this premise, we show spacetime, indeed, manifests stable pulses (n-valued gravitons) that decay into the vacuum energy to generate all three boson masses (including Higgs), as well as heavy-quark mass; and all in precise agreement with the 2010 CODATA report on fundamental constants. Furthermore, our relativized quantum physics approach (RQP) answers to the mystery surrounding dark energy, dark matter, accelerated spacetime, and why ordinary matter dominates over antimatter.
Fully automatic adjoints: a robust and efficient mechanism for generating adjoint ocean models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ham, D. A.; Farrell, P. E.; Funke, S. W.; Rognes, M. E.
2012-04-01
The problem of generating and maintaining adjoint models is sufficiently difficult that typically only the most advanced and well-resourced community ocean models achieve it. There are two current technologies which each suffer from their own limitations. Algorithmic differentiation, also called automatic differentiation, is employed by models such as the MITGCM [2] and the Alfred Wegener Institute model FESOM [3]. This technique is very difficult to apply to existing code, and requires a major initial investment to prepare the code for automatic adjoint generation. AD tools may also have difficulty with code employing modern software constructs such as derived data types. An alternative is to formulate the adjoint differential equation and to discretise this separately. This approach, known as the continuous adjoint and employed in ROMS [4], has the disadvantage that two different model code bases must be maintained and manually kept synchronised as the model develops. The discretisation of the continuous adjoint is not automatically consistent with that of the forward model, producing an additional source of error. The alternative presented here is to formulate the flow model in the high level language UFL (Unified Form Language) and to automatically generate the model using the software of the FEniCS project. In this approach it is the high level code specification which is differentiated, a task very similar to the formulation of the continuous adjoint [5]. However since the forward and adjoint models are generated automatically, the difficulty of maintaining them vanishes and the software engineering process is therefore robust. The scheduling and execution of the adjoint model, including the application of an appropriate checkpointing strategy is managed by libadjoint [1]. In contrast to the conventional algorithmic differentiation description of a model as a series of primitive mathematical operations, libadjoint employs a new abstraction of the simulation
Higgs-induced spectroscopic shifts near strong gravity sources
Onofrio, Roberto
2010-09-15
We explore the consequences of the mass generation due to the Higgs field in strong gravity astrophysical environments. The vacuum expectation value of the Higgs field is predicted to depend on the curvature of spacetime, potentially giving rise to peculiar spectroscopic shifts, named hereafter 'Higgs shifts'. Higgs shifts could be searched through dedicated multiwavelength and multispecies surveys with high spatial and spectral resolution near strong gravity sources such as Sagittarius A* or broad searches for signals due to primordial black holes. The possible absence of Higgs shifts in these surveys should provide limits to the coupling between the Higgs particle and the curvature of spacetime, a topic of interest for a recently proposed Higgs-driven inflationary model. We discuss some conceptual issues regarding the coexistence between the Higgs mechanism and gravity, especially for their different handling of fundamental and composite particles.
A new approach for developing adjoint models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Farrell, P. E.; Funke, S. W.
2011-12-01
Many data assimilation algorithms rely on the availability of gradients of misfit functionals, which can be efficiently computed with adjoint models. However, the development of an adjoint model for a complex geophysical code is generally very difficult. Algorithmic differentiation (AD, also called automatic differentiation) offers one strategy for simplifying this task: it takes the abstraction that a model is a sequence of primitive instructions, each of which may be differentiated in turn. While extremely successful, this low-level abstraction runs into time-consuming difficulties when applied to the whole codebase of a model, such as differentiating through linear solves, model I/O, calls to external libraries, language features that are unsupported by the AD tool, and the use of multiple programming languages. While these difficulties can be overcome, it requires a large amount of technical expertise and an intimate familiarity with both the AD tool and the model. An alternative to applying the AD tool to the whole codebase is to assemble the discrete adjoint equations and use these to compute the necessary gradients. With this approach, the AD tool must be applied to the nonlinear assembly operators, which are typically small, self-contained units of the codebase. The disadvantage of this approach is that the assembly of the discrete adjoint equations is still very difficult to perform correctly, especially for complex multiphysics models that perform temporal integration; as it stands, this approach is as difficult and time-consuming as applying AD to the whole model. In this work, we have developed a library which greatly simplifies and automates the alternate approach of assembling the discrete adjoint equations. We propose a complementary, higher-level abstraction to that of AD: that a model is a sequence of linear solves. The developer annotates model source code with library calls that build a 'tape' of the operators involved and their dependencies, and
Examining Tropical Cyclone - Kelvin Wave Interactions using Adjoint Diagnostics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reynolds, C. A.; Doyle, J. D.; Hong, X.
2015-12-01
Adjoint-based tools can provide valuable insight into the mechanisms that influence the evolution and predictability of atmospheric phenomena, as they allow for the efficient and rigorous computation of forecast sensitivity to changes in the initial state. We apply adjoint-based tools from the non-hydrostatic Coupled Atmosphere/Ocean Mesoscale Prediction System (COAMPS) to explore the initial-state sensitivity and interactions between a tropical cyclone and atmospheric equatorial waves associated with the Madden Julian Oscillation (MJO) in the Indian Ocean during the DYNAMO field campaign. The development of Tropical Cyclone 5 (TC05) coincided with the passage of an equatorial Kelvin wave and westerly wind burst associated with an MJO that developed in the Indian Ocean in late November 2011, but it was unclear if and how one affected the other. COAMPS 24-h and 36-h adjoint sensitivities are analyzed for both TC05 and the equatorial waves to understand how the evolution of each system is sensitive to the other. The sensitivity of equatorial westerlies in the western Indian Ocean on 23 November shares characteristics with the classic Gill (1980) Rossby and Kelvin wave response to symmetric heating about the equator, including symmetric cyclonic circulations to the north and south of the westerlies, and enhanced heating in the area of convergence between the equatorial westerlies and easterlies. In addition, there is sensitivity in the Bay of Bengal associated with the cyclonic circulation that eventually develops into TC05. At the same time, the developing TC05 system shows strongest sensitivity to local wind and heating perturbations, but sensitivity to the equatorial westerlies is also clear. On 24 November, when the Kelvin wave is immediately south of the developing tropical cyclone, both phenomena are sensitive to each other. On 25 November TC05 no longer shows sensitivity to the Kelvin wave, while the Kelvin Wave still exhibits some weak sensitivity to TC05. In
Alternatives to an elementary Higgs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Csáki, Csaba; Grojean, Christophe; Terning, John
2016-10-01
Strongly coupled and extra-dimensional models of electroweak symmetry breaking are reviewed. Models examined include warped extra dimensions, bulk Higgs, "little" Higgs, dilaton Higgs, composite Higgs, twin Higgs, quantum critical Higgs, and "fat" SUSY Higgs. Also discussed are current bounds and future LHC searches for this class of models.
Adjoint sensitivity structures of typhoon DIANMU (2010) based on a global model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, S.; Kim, H.; Joo, S.; Shin, H.; Won, D.
2010-12-01
Sung-Min Kim1, Hyun Mee Kim1, Sang-Won Joo2, Hyun-Cheol Shin2, DukJin Won2 Department of Atmospheric Sciences, Yonsei University, Seoul, Korea1 Korea Meteorological Administration2 Submitted to AGU 2010 Fall Meeting 13-17 December 2010, San Francisco, CA The path and intensity forecast of typhoons (TYs) depend on the initial condition of the TY itself and surrounding background fields. Because TYs are evolved on the ocean, there are not many observational data available. In this sense, additional observations on the western North Pacific are necessary to get the proper initial condition of TYs. Due to the limited resource of observing facilities, identifying the sensitive regions for the specific forecast aspect in the forecast region of interest will be very beneficial to decide where to deploy additional observations. The additional observations deployed in those sensitive regions are called as the adaptive observations, and the strategies to decide the sensitive regions are called as the adaptive observation strategies. Among the adaptive observation strategies, the adjoint sensitivity represents the gradient of some forecast aspects with respect to the control variables of the model (i.e., initial conditions, boundary conditions, and parameters) (Errico 1997). According to a recent research on the adjoint sensitivity of a TY based on a regional model, the sensitive regions are located horizontally in the right half circle of the TY, and vertically in the lower and upper troposphere near the TY (Kim and Jung 2006). Because the adjoint sensitivity based on a regional model is calculated in a relatively small domain, the adjoint sensitivity structures may be affected by the size and location of the domain. In this study, the adjoint sensitivity distributions for TY DIANMU (2010) based on a global model are investigated. The adjoint sensitivity based on a global model is calculated by using the perturbation forecast (PF) and adjoint PF model of the Unified Model at
Adjoint sensitivity studies of loop current and eddy shedding in the Gulf of Mexico
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gopalakrishnan, Ganesh; Cornuelle, Bruce D.; Hoteit, Ibrahim
2013-07-01
the current, while sensitivities to SSH generally extend to deeper layers and propagate more slowly. The adjoint sensitivity to relative vorticity deduced from the sensitivities to velocity fields suggests that advection of cyclonic (positive) relative vorticity anomalies from the YC or the LCFEs accelerate the LC eddy separation. Forward model perturbation experiments were performed to complement and check the adjoint sensitivity analysis as well as sampling the predictability and nonlinearity of the LC evolution. The model and its adjoint can be used in four-dimensional variational assimilation (4D-VAR) to produce dynamically consistent ocean state estimates for analysis and forecasts of the circulation of the GoM.
Gauge-Higgs EW and grand unification
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hosotani, Yutaka
2016-07-01
Four-dimensional Higgs field is identified with the extra-dimensional component of gauge potentials in the gauge-Higgs unification scenario. SO(5) × U(1) gauge-Higgs EW unification in the Randall-Sundrum warped space is successful at low energies. The Higgs field appears as an Aharonov-Bohm phase 𝜃H in the fifth dimension. Its mass is generated at the quantum level and is finite. The model yields almost the same phenomenology as the standard model for 𝜃H < 0.1, and predicts Z‧ bosons around 6-10 TeV with very broad widths. The scenario is generalized to SO(11) gauge-Higgs grand unification. Fermions are introduced in the spinor and vector representations of SO(11). Proton decay is naturally forbidden.
Spacetime Curvature and Higgs Stability after Inflation.
Herranen, M; Markkanen, T; Nurmi, S; Rajantie, A
2015-12-11
We investigate the dynamics of the Higgs field at the end of inflation in the minimal scenario consisting of an inflaton field coupled to the standard model only through the nonminimal gravitational coupling ξ of the Higgs field. Such a coupling is required by renormalization of the standard model in curved space, and in the current scenario also by vacuum stability during high-scale inflation. We find that for ξ≳1, rapidly changing spacetime curvature at the end of inflation leads to significant production of Higgs particles, potentially triggering a transition to a negative-energy Planck scale vacuum state and causing an immediate collapse of the Universe.
Spacetime Curvature and Higgs Stability after Inflation.
Herranen, M; Markkanen, T; Nurmi, S; Rajantie, A
2015-12-11
We investigate the dynamics of the Higgs field at the end of inflation in the minimal scenario consisting of an inflaton field coupled to the standard model only through the nonminimal gravitational coupling ξ of the Higgs field. Such a coupling is required by renormalization of the standard model in curved space, and in the current scenario also by vacuum stability during high-scale inflation. We find that for ξ≳1, rapidly changing spacetime curvature at the end of inflation leads to significant production of Higgs particles, potentially triggering a transition to a negative-energy Planck scale vacuum state and causing an immediate collapse of the Universe. PMID:26705621
Schafer-Nameki, Sakura; Tamarit, Carlos; Torroba, Gonzalo; /SLAC /Santa Barbara, KITP
2010-08-26
We construct composite Higgs models admitting a weakly coupled Seiberg dual description. We focus on the possibility that only the up-type Higgs is an elementary field, while the down-type Higgs arises as a composite hadron. The model, based on a confining SQCD theory, breaks supersymmetry and electroweak symmetry dynamically and calculably. This simultaneously solves the {mu}/B{sub {mu}} problem and explains the smallness of the bottom and tau masses compared to the top mass. The proposal is then applied to a class of models where the same confining dynamics is used to generate the Standard Model flavor hierarchy by quark and lepton compositeness. This provides a unified framework for flavor, supersymmetry breaking and electroweak physics. The weakly coupled dual is used to explicitly compute the MSSM parameters in terms of a few microscopic couplings, giving interesting relations between the electroweak and soft parameters. The RG evolution down to the TeV scale is obtained and salient phenomenological predictions of this class of 'single-sector' models are discussed.
Higgs bosons in extra dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Quiros, Mariano
2015-04-01
In this paper, motivated by the recent discovery of a Higgs-like boson at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) with a mass mH≃125 GeV, we review different models where the hierarchy problem is solved by means of a warped extra dimension. In the Randall-Sundrum (RS) model electroweak observables provide very strong bounds on the mass of KK modes which motivates extensions to overcome this problem. Two extensions are briefly discussed. One particular extension is based on the deformation of the metric such that it strongly departs from the AdS5 structure in the IR region while it goes asymptotically to AdS5 in the UV brane. This model has the IR brane close to a naked metric singularity (which is outside the physical interval) characteristic of soft-walls constructions. The proximity of the singularity provides a strong wave function renormalization for the Higgs field which suppresses the T and S parameters. The second class of considered extensions are based on the introduction of an extra gauge group in the bulk such that the custodial SU(2)R symmetry is gauged and protects the T parameter. By further enlarging the bulk gauge symmetry one can find models where the Higgs is identified with the fifth component of gauge fields and for which the Higgs potential along with the Higgs mass can be dynamically determined by the Coleman-Weinberg mechanism.
Automating adjoint wave-equation travel-time tomography using scientific workflow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Xiaofeng; Chen, Po; Pullammanappallil, Satish
2013-10-01
Recent advances in commodity high-performance computing technology have dramatically reduced the computational cost for solving the seismic wave equation in complex earth structure models. As a consequence, wave-equation-based seismic tomography techniques are being actively developed and gradually adopted in routine subsurface seismic imaging practices. Wave-equation travel-time tomography is a seismic tomography technique that inverts cross-correlation travel-time misfits using full-wave Fréchet kernels computed by solving the wave equation. This technique can be implemented very efficiently using the adjoint method, in which the misfits are back-propagated from the receivers (i.e., seismometers) to produce the adjoint wave-field and the interaction between the adjoint wave-field and the forward wave-field from the seismic source gives the gradient of the objective function. Once the gradient is available, a gradient-based optimization algorithm can then be adopted to produce an optimal earth structure model that minimizes the objective function. This methodology is conceptually straightforward, but its implementation in practical situations is highly complex, error-prone and computationally demanding. In this study, we demonstrate the feasibility of automating wave-equation travel-time tomography based on the adjoint method using Kepler, an open-source software package for designing, managing and executing scientific workflows. The workflow technology allows us to abstract away much of the complexity involved in the implementation in a manner that is both robust and scalable. Our automated adjoint wave-equation travel-time tomography package has been successfully applied on a real active-source seismic dataset.
Generalized uncertainty principle and self-adjoint operators
Balasubramanian, Venkat; Das, Saurya; Vagenas, Elias C.
2015-09-15
In this work we explore the self-adjointness of the GUP-modified momentum and Hamiltonian operators over different domains. In particular, we utilize the theorem by von-Neumann for symmetric operators in order to determine whether the momentum and Hamiltonian operators are self-adjoint or not, or they have self-adjoint extensions over the given domain. In addition, a simple example of the Hamiltonian operator describing a particle in a box is given. The solutions of the boundary conditions that describe the self-adjoint extensions of the specific Hamiltonian operator are obtained.
The Higgs of the Higgs and the diphoton channel
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kannike, Kristjan; Pelaggi, Giulio Maria; Salvio, Alberto; Strumia, Alessandro
2016-07-01
LHC results do not confirm conventional natural solutions to the Higgs mass hierarchy problem, motivating alternative interpretations where a hierarchically small weak scale is generated from a dimension-less quantum dynamics. We propose weakly and strongly-coupled models where the field that breaks classical scale invariance giving mass to itself and to the Higgs is identified with a possible new resonance within the LHC reach. As an example, we identify such resonance with the 750 GeV diphoton excess recently reported by ATLAS and CMS. Such models can be extrapolated up to the Planck scale, provide Dark Matter candidates and eliminate the SM vacuum instability.
Coupling of Monte Carlo adjoint leakages with three-dimensional discrete ordinates forward fluences
Slater, C.O.; Lillie, R.A.; Johnson, J.O.; Simpson, D.B.
1998-04-01
A computer code, DRC3, has been developed for coupling Monte Carlo adjoint leakages with three-dimensional discrete ordinates forward fluences in order to solve a special category of geometrically-complex deep penetration shielding problems. The code extends the capabilities of earlier methods that coupled Monte Carlo adjoint leakages with two-dimensional discrete ordinates forward fluences. The problems involve the calculation of fluences and responses in a perturbation to an otherwise simple two- or three-dimensional radiation field. In general, the perturbation complicates the geometry such that it cannot be modeled exactly using any of the discrete ordinates geometry options and thus a direct discrete ordinates solution is not possible. Also, the calculation of radiation transport from the source to the perturbation involves deep penetration. One approach to solving such problems is to perform the calculations in three steps: (1) a forward discrete ordinates calculation, (2) a localized adjoint Monte Carlo calculation, and (3) a coupling of forward fluences from the first calculation with adjoint leakages from the second calculation to obtain the response of interest (fluence, dose, etc.). A description of this approach is presented along with results from test problems used to verify the method. The test problems that were selected could also be solved directly by the discrete ordinates method. The good agreement between the DRC3 results and the direct-solution results verify the correctness of DRC3.
Development of CO2 inversion system based on the adjoint of the global coupled transport model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Belikov, Dmitry; Maksyutov, Shamil; Chevallier, Frederic; Kaminski, Thomas; Ganshin, Alexander; Blessing, Simon
2014-05-01
We present the development of an inverse modeling system employing an adjoint of the global coupled transport model consisting of the National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES) Eulerian transport model (TM) and the Lagrangian plume diffusion model (LPDM) FLEXPART. NIES TM is a three-dimensional atmospheric transport model, which solves the continuity equation for a number of atmospheric tracers on a grid spanning the entire globe. Spatial discretization is based on a reduced latitude-longitude grid and a hybrid sigma-isentropic coordinate in the vertical. NIES TM uses a horizontal resolution of 2.5°×2.5°. However, to resolve synoptic-scale tracer distributions and to have the ability to optimize fluxes at resolutions of 0.5° and higher we coupled NIES TM with the Lagrangian model FLEXPART. The Lagrangian component of the forward and adjoint models uses precalculated responses of the observed concentration to the surface fluxes and 3-D concentrations field simulated with the FLEXPART model. NIES TM and FLEXPART are driven by JRA-25/JCDAS reanalysis dataset. Construction of the adjoint of the Lagrangian part is less complicated, as LPDMs calculate the sensitivity of measurements to the surrounding emissions field by tracking a large number of "particles" backwards in time. Developing of the adjoint to Eulerian part was performed with automatic differentiation tool the Transformation of Algorithms in Fortran (TAF) software (http://www.FastOpt.com). This method leads to the discrete adjoint of NIES TM. The main advantage of the discrete adjoint is that the resulting gradients of the numerical cost function are exact, even for nonlinear algorithms. The overall advantages of our method are that: 1. No code modification of Lagrangian model is required, making it applicable to combination of global NIES TM and any Lagrangian model; 2. Once run, the Lagrangian output can be applied to any chemically neutral gas; 3. High-resolution results can be obtained over
Standard model Higgs boson-inflaton and dark matter
Clark, T. E.; Liu Boyang; Love, S. T.; Veldhuis, T. ter
2009-10-01
The standard model Higgs boson can serve as the inflaton field of slow roll inflationary models provided it exhibits a large nonminimal coupling with the gravitational scalar curvature. The Higgs boson self interactions and its couplings with a standard model singlet scalar serving as the source of dark matter are then subject to cosmological constraints. These bounds, which can be more stringent than those arising from vacuum stability and perturbative triviality alone, still allow values for the Higgs boson mass which should be accessible at the LHC. As the Higgs boson coupling to the dark matter strengthens, lower values of the Higgs boson mass consistent with the cosmological data are allowed.
The problem with false vacuum Higgs inflation
Fairbairn, Malcolm; Grothaus, Philipp; Hogan, Robert E-mail: philipp.grothaus@kcl.ac.uk
2014-06-01
We investigate the possibility of using the only known fundamental scalar, the Higgs, as an inflaton with minimal coupling to gravity. The peculiar appearance of a plateau or a false vacuum in the renormalised effective scalar potential suggests that the Higgs might drive inflation. For the case of a false vacuum we use an additional singlet scalar field, motivated by the strong CP problem, and its coupling to the Higgs to lift the barrier allowing for a graceful exit from inflation by mimicking hybrid inflation. We find that this scenario is incompatible with current measurements of the Higgs mass and the QCD coupling constant and conclude that the Higgs can only be the inflaton in more complicated scenarios.
Alchemical inflation: inflaton turns into Higgs
Nakayama, Kazunori; Takahashi, Fuminobu E-mail: fumi@tuhep.phys.tohoku.ac.jp
2012-11-01
We propose a new inflation model in which a gauge singlet inflaton turns into the Higgs condensate after inflation. The inflationary path is characterized by a moduli space of supersymmetric vacua spanned by the inflaton and Higgs field. The inflation energy scale is related to the soft supersymmetry breaking, and the Hubble parameter during inflation is smaller than the gravitino mass. The initial condition for the successful inflation is naturally realized by the pre-inflation in which the Higgs plays a role of the waterfall field.
Higgs boson masses in supersymmetric models
Berger, M.S.
1991-04-01
Imposing supersymmetry on a Higgs potential constrains the parameters that define the potential. In supersymmetric extensions to the stranded model containing only Higgs SU(2){sub L} doublets there exist Higgs boson mass sum rules and bounds on the Higgs masses at tree level. The prescription for renormalizing these sum rules is derived. An explicit calculation is performed in the minimal supersymmetric extension to the standard model (MSSM). In this model at tree level the mass sum rule is M{sub H}{sup 2} + M{sub h}{sup 2} = M{sub A}{sup 2} + M{sub Z}{sup 2}. The results indicate that large corrections to the sum rules may arise from heavy matter fields, e.g. a heavy top quark. Squarks significantly heavier than their fermionic partners contribute large contributions when mixing occurs in the squark sector. These large corrections result from squark-Higgs couplings that become large in this limit. Contributions to individual Higgs boson masses that are quadratic in the squark masses cancel in the sum rule. Thus the naturalness constraint on Higgs boson masses is hidden in the combination of Higgs boson masses that comprise the sum rule. 39 refs., 13 figs.
Adjoint sensitivity analysis of an ultrawideband antenna
Stephanson, M B; White, D A
2011-07-28
The frequency domain finite element method using H(curl)-conforming finite elements is a robust technique for full-wave analysis of antennas. As computers become more powerful, it is becoming feasible to not only predict antenna performance, but also to compute sensitivity of antenna performance with respect to multiple parameters. This sensitivity information can then be used for optimization of the design or specification of manufacturing tolerances. In this paper we review the Adjoint Method for sensitivity calculation, and apply it to the problem of optimizing a Ultrawideband antenna.
Elementary operators on self-adjoint operators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Molnar, Lajos; Semrl, Peter
2007-03-01
Let H be a Hilbert space and let and be standard *-operator algebras on H. Denote by and the set of all self-adjoint operators in and , respectively. Assume that and are surjective maps such that M(AM*(B)A)=M(A)BM(A) and M*(BM(A)B)=M*(B)AM*(B) for every pair , . Then there exist an invertible bounded linear or conjugate-linear operator and a constant c[set membership, variant]{-1,1} such that M(A)=cTAT*, , and M*(B)=cT*BT, .
Shaposhnikov, Mikhail
2015-01-01
I will discuss how the Higgs field of the Standard Model may have played an important role in cosmology, leading to the homogeneity, isotropy and flatness of the Universe; producing the quantum fluctuations that seed structure formation; triggering the radiation-dominated era of the hot Big Bang; and contributing to the processes of baryogenesis and dark matter production.
The Higgs boson and cosmology.
Shaposhnikov, Mikhail
2015-01-13
I will discuss how the Higgs field of the Standard Model may have played an important role in cosmology, leading to the homogeneity, isotropy and flatness of the Universe; producing the quantum fluctuations that seed structure formation; triggering the radiation-dominated era of the hot Big Bang; and contributing to the processes of baryogenesis and dark matter production. PMID:26949807
The Higgs boson and cosmology.
Shaposhnikov, Mikhail
2015-01-13
I will discuss how the Higgs field of the Standard Model may have played an important role in cosmology, leading to the homogeneity, isotropy and flatness of the Universe; producing the quantum fluctuations that seed structure formation; triggering the radiation-dominated era of the hot Big Bang; and contributing to the processes of baryogenesis and dark matter production.
The adjoint sensitivity method of global electromagnetic induction for CHAMP magnetic data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Martinec, Zdeněk; Velímský, Jakub
2009-12-01
An existing time-domain spectral-finite element approach for the forward modelling of electromagnetic induction vector data as measured by the CHAMP satellite is, in this paper, supplemented by a new method of computing the sensitivity of the CHAMP electromagnetic induction data to the Earth's mantle electrical conductivity, which we term the adjoint sensitivity method. The forward and adjoint initial boundary-value problems, both solved in the time domain, are identical, except for the specification of prescribed boundary conditions. The respective boundary-value data at the satellite's altitude are the X magnetic component measured by the CHAMP vector magnetometer along the satellite track for the forward method and the difference between the measured and predicted Z magnetic component for the adjoint method. The squares of these differences summed up over all CHAMP tracks determine the misfit. The sensitivities of the CHAMP data, that is the partial derivatives of the misfit with respect to mantle conductivity parameters, are then obtained by the scalar product of the forward and adjoint solutions, multiplied by the gradient of the conductivity and integrated over all CHAMP tracks. Such exactly determined sensitivities are checked against numerical differentiation of the misfit, and good agreement is obtained. The attractiveness of the adjoint method lies in the fact that the adjoint sensitivities are calculated for the price of only an additional forward calculation, regardless of the number of conductivity parameters. However, since the adjoint solution proceeds backwards in time, the forward solution must be stored at each time step, leading to memory requirements that are linear with respect to the number of steps undertaken. Having determined the sensitivities, we apply the conjugate gradient method to infer 1-D and 2-D conductivity structures of the Earth based on the CHAMP residual time series (after the subtraction of static field and secular variations
Supersymmetric descendants of self-adjointly extended quantum mechanical Hamiltonians
Al-Hashimi, M.H.; Salman, M.; Shalaby, A.; Wiese, U.-J.
2013-10-15
We consider the descendants of self-adjointly extended Hamiltonians in supersymmetric quantum mechanics on a half-line, on an interval, and on a punctured line or interval. While there is a 4-parameter family of self-adjointly extended Hamiltonians on a punctured line, only a 3-parameter sub-family has supersymmetric descendants that are themselves self-adjoint. We also address the self-adjointness of an operator related to the supercharge, and point out that only a sub-class of its most general self-adjoint extensions is physical. Besides a general characterization of self-adjoint extensions and their supersymmetric descendants, we explicitly consider concrete examples, including a particle in a box with general boundary conditions, with and without an additional point interaction. We also discuss bulk-boundary resonances and their manifestation in the supersymmetric descendant. -- Highlights: •Self-adjoint extension theory and contact interactions. •Application of self-adjoint extensions to supersymmetry. •Contact interactions in finite volume with Robin boundary condition.
The compressible adjoint equations in geodynamics: equations and numerical assessment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ghelichkhan, Siavash; Bunge, Hans-Peter
2016-04-01
The adjoint method is a powerful means to obtain gradient information in a mantle convection model relative to past flow structure. While the adjoint equations in geodynamics have been derived for the conservation equations of mantle flow in their incompressible form, the applicability of this approximation to Earth is limited, because density increases by almost a factor of two from the surface to the Core Mantle Boundary. Here we introduce the compressible adjoint equations for the conservation equations in the anelastic-liquid approximation. Our derivation applies an operator formulation in Hilbert spaces, to connect to recent work in seismology (Fichtner et al (2006)) and geodynamics (Horbach et al (2014)), where the approach was used to derive the adjoint equations for the wave equation and incompressible mantle flow. We present numerical tests of the newly derived equations based on twin experiments, focusing on three simulations. A first, termed Compressible, assumes the compressible forward and adjoint equations, and represents the consistent means of including compressibility effects. A second, termed Mixed, applies the compressible forward equation, but ignores compressibility effects in the adjoint equations, where the incompressible equations are used instead. A third simulation, termed Incompressible, neglects compressibility effects entirely in the forward and adjoint equations relative to the reference twin. The compressible and mixed formulations successfully restore earlier mantle flow structure, while the incompressible formulation yields noticeable artifacts. Our results suggest the use of a compressible formulation, when applying the adjoint method to seismically derived mantle heterogeneity structure.
Improved Adjoint-Operator Learning For A Neural Network
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Toomarian, Nikzad; Barhen, Jacob
1995-01-01
Improved method of adjoint-operator learning reduces amount of computation and associated computational memory needed to make electronic neural network learn temporally varying pattern (e.g., to recognize moving object in image) in real time. Method extension of method described in "Adjoint-Operator Learning for a Neural Network" (NPO-18352).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roberts, Alex
class of scenarios at the LHC. Comparing limits, we find that current LHC results only exclude regions in parameter space which were already disfavored by precision electroweak data.. Recent LHC data, together with the electroweak naturalness argument, suggest that the top squarks may be significantly lighter than the other sfermions. We present supersymmetric models in which such a split spectrum is obtained through ''geometries'': being ''close to'' electroweak symmetry breaking implies being ''away from'' supersymmetry breaking, and vice versa. In particular, we present models in 5D warped spacetime, in which supersymmetry breaking and Higgs fields are located on the ultraviolet and infrared branes, respectively, and the top multiplets are localized to the infrared brane. The hierarchy of the Yukawa matrices can be obtained while keeping near flavor degeneracy between the first two generation sfermions, avoiding stringent constraints from flavor and CP violation. Through the AdS/CFT correspondence, the models can be interpreted as purely 4D theories in which the top and Higgs multiplets are composites of some strongly interacting sector exhibiting nontrivial dynamics at a low energy. Because of the compositeness of the Higgs and top multiplets, Landau pole constraints for the Higgs and top couplings apply only up to the dynamical scale, allowing for a relatively heavy Higgs boson, including mh = 125 GeV as suggested by the recent LHC data. We analyze electroweak symmetry breaking for a well-motivated subset of these models, and find that fine-tuning in electroweak symmetry breaking is indeed ameliorated. We also discuss a flat space realization of the scenario in which supersymmetry is broken by boundary conditions, with the top multiplets localized to a brane while other matter multiplets delocalized in the bulk.
Tsunami waveform inversion by adjoint methods
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pires, Carlos; Miranda, Pedro M. A.
2001-09-01
An adjoint method for tsunami waveform inversion is proposed, as an alternative to the technique based on Green's functions of the linear long wave model. The method has the advantage of being able to use the nonlinear shallow water equations, or other appropriate equation sets, and to optimize an initial state given as a linear or nonlinear function of any set of free parameters. This last facility is used to perform explicit optimization of the focal fault parameters, characterizing the initial sea surface displacement of tsunamigenic earthquakes. The proposed methodology is validated with experiments using synthetic data, showing the possibility of recovering all relevant details of a tsunami source from tide gauge observations, providing that the adjoint method is constrained in an appropriate manner. It is found, as in other methods, that the inversion skill of tsunami sources increases with the azimuthal and temporal coverage of assimilated tide gauge stations; furthermore, it is shown that the eigenvalue analysis of the Hessian matrix of the cost function provides a consistent and useful methodology to choose the subset of independent parameters that can be inverted with a given dataset of observations and to evaluate the error of the inversion process. The method is also applied to real tide gauge series, from the tsunami of the February 28, 1969, Gorringe Bank earthquake, suggesting some reasonable changes to the assumed focal parameters of that event. It is suggested that the method proposed may be able to deal with transient tsunami sources such as those generated by submarine landslides.
Maxwell-Higgs equation on higher dimensional static curved spacetimes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mulyanto, Akbar, Fiki Taufik; Gunara, Bobby Eka
2015-09-01
In this paper we consider a class of solutions of Maxwell-Higgs equation in higher dimensional static curved spacetimes called Schwarzchild de-Sitter spacetimes. We obtain the general form of the electric fields and magnetic fields in background Schwarzchild de-Sitter spacetimes. However, determining the interaction between photons with the Higgs scalar fields is needed further studies.
Maxwell-Higgs equation on higher dimensional static curved spacetimes
Mulyanto; Akbar, Fiki Taufik Gunara, Bobby Eka
2015-09-30
In this paper we consider a class of solutions of Maxwell-Higgs equation in higher dimensional static curved spacetimes called Schwarzchild de-Sitter spacetimes. We obtain the general form of the electric fields and magnetic fields in background Schwarzchild de-Sitter spacetimes. However, determining the interaction between photons with the Higgs scalar fields is needed further studies.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Drechsler, Wolfgang; Havas, Peter; Rosenblum, Arnold
1984-02-01
In the preceding paper, the laws of motion were established for classical particles with spin which are monopole-dipole singularities of Yang-Mills-Higgs fields. In this paper, a systematic approximation scheme is developed for solving the coupled nonlinear field equations in any order and for determining the corresponding equations of motion. In zeroth order the potentials are taken as the usual Liénard-Wiechert and Bhabha-Harish-Chandra potentials (generalized to isospace); in this order the solutions are necessarily Abelian, since the isovector describing the charge is constant. The regularization necessary to obtain expressions finite on the world lines of the particles is achieved by the method of Riesz potentials. All fields are taken as retarded and are expressed in integral form. Omitting dipole interactions, the integrals for the various terms are carried out as far as possible for general motions, including radiation-reaction terms. In first order, the charge isovectors are no longer necessarily constant; thus the solutions are not necessarily Abelian, and it is possible for charge to be radiated away. The cases of time-symmetric field theory and of an action-at-a-distance formulation of the theory are discussed in an appendix.
Higgs-radion mixing in stabilized brane world models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boos, Edward E.; Bunichev, Viacheslav E.; Perfilov, Maxim A.; Smolyakov, Mikhail N.; Volobuev, Igor P.
2015-11-01
We consider a quartic interaction of the Higgs and Goldberger-Wise fields, which connects the mechanism of the extra dimension size stabilization with spontaneous symmetry breaking on our brane and gives rise to a coupling of the Higgs field to the radion and its KK tower. We estimate a possible influence of this coupling on the Higgs-radion mixing and study restrictions on model parameters from the LHC data.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guerrette, J. J.; Henze, D. K.
2015-02-01
Here we present the online meteorology and chemistry adjoint and tangent linear model, WRFPLUS-Chem, which incorporates modules to treat boundary layer mixing, emission, aging, dry deposition, and advection of black carbon aerosol. We also develop land surface and surface layer adjoints to account for coupling between radiation and vertical mixing. Model performance is verified against finite difference derivative approximations. A second order checkpointing scheme is created to reduce computational costs and enable simulations longer than six hours. The adjoint is coupled to WRFDA-Chem, in order to conduct a sensitivity study of anthropogenic and biomass burning sources throughout California during the 2008 Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS) field campaign. A cost function weighting scheme was devised to increase adjoint sensitivity robustness in future inverse modeling studies. Results of the sensitivity study show that, for this domain and time period, anthropogenic emissions are over predicted, while wildfire emissions are under predicted. We consider the diurnal variation in emission sensitivities to determine at what time sources should be scaled up or down. Also, adjoint sensitivities for two choices of land surface model indicate that emission inversion results would be sensitive to forward model configuration. The tools described here are the first step in conducting four-dimensional variational data assimilation in a coupled meteorology-chemistry model, which will potentially provide new constraints on aerosol precursor emissions and their distributions. Such analyses will be invaluable to assessments of particulate matter health and climate impacts.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chagoya, Javier; Tasinato, Gianmassimo
2016-02-01
Vortex solutions are topologically stable field configurations that can play an important role in condensed matter, field theory, and cosmology. We investigate vortex configuration in a 2+1 dimensional Abelian Higgs theory supplemented by higher order derivative self-interactions, related with Galileons. Our vortex solutions have features that make them qualitatively different from well-known Abrikosov-Nielsen-Olesen configurations, since the derivative interactions turn on gauge invariant field profiles that break axial symmetry. By promoting the system to a 3+1 dimensional string configuration, we study its gravitational backreaction. Our results are all derived within a specific, analytically manageable system, and might offer indications for understanding Galileonic interactions and screening mechanisms around configurations that are not spherically symmetric, but only at most cylindrically symmetric.
Higgs instability in gapless superfluidity/superconductivity
Giannakis, Ioannis; Hou Defu; Huang Mei; Ren Haicang
2007-01-01
In this letter we explore the Higgs instability in the gapless superfluid/superconducting phase. This is in addition to the (chromo)magnetic instability that is related to the fluctuations of the Nambu-Goldstone bosonic fields. While the latter may induce a single-plane-wave Larkin-Ovchinnikov-Fulde-Ferrel state, the Higgs instability favors spatial inhomogeneity. In the case of the 2-flavor color superconductivity state the Higgs instability can only be partially removed by the electric Coulomb energy. But this does not exclude the possibility that it can be completely removed in other exotic states such as the gapless color-flavor locked state.
Focus point gauge mediation with incomplete adjoint messengers and gauge coupling unification
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bhattacharyya, Gautam; Yanagida, Tsutomu T.; Yokozaki, Norimi
2015-10-01
As the mass limits on supersymmetric particles are gradually pushed to higher values due to their continuing non-observation at the CERN LHC, looking for focus point regions in the supersymmetric parameter space, which shows considerably reduced fine-tuning, is increasingly more important than ever. We explore this in the context of gauge mediated supersymmetry breaking with messengers transforming in the adjoint representation of the gauge group, namely, octet of color SU(3) and triplet of weak SU(2). A distinctive feature of this scenario is that the focus point is achieved by fixing a single combination of parameters in the messenger sector, which is invariant under the renormalization group evolution. Because of this invariance, the focus point behavior is well under control once the relevant parameters are fixed by a more fundamental theory. The observed Higgs boson mass is explained with a relatively mild fine-tuning Δ = 60- 150. Interestingly, even in the presence of incomplete messenger multiplets of the SU(5) GUT group, the gauge couplings still unify perfectly, but at a scale which is one or two orders of magnitude above the conventional GUT scale. Because of this larger unification scale, the colored Higgs multiplets become too heavy to trigger proton decay at a rate larger than the experimentally allowed limit.
Aerodynamic design optimization by using a continuous adjoint method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Luo, JiaQi; Xiong, JunTao; Liu, Feng
2014-07-01
This paper presents the fundamentals of a continuous adjoint method and the applications of this method to the aerodynamic design optimization of both external and internal flows. General formulation of the continuous adjoint equations and the corresponding boundary conditions are derived. With the adjoint method, the complete gradient information needed in the design optimization can be obtained by solving the governing flow equations and the corresponding adjoint equations only once for each cost function, regardless of the number of design parameters. An inverse design of airfoil is firstly performed to study the accuracy of the adjoint gradient and the effectiveness of the adjoint method as an inverse design method. Then the method is used to perform a series of single and multiple point design optimization problems involving the drag reduction of airfoil, wing, and wing-body configuration, and the aerodynamic performance improvement of turbine and compressor blade rows. The results demonstrate that the continuous adjoint method can efficiently and significantly improve the aerodynamic performance of the design in a shape optimization problem.
Photon collider Higgs factories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Telnov, V. I.
2014-09-01
The discovery of the Higgs boson (and still nothing else) have triggered appearance of many proposals of Higgs factories for precision measurement of the Higgs properties. Among them there are several projects of photon colliders (PC) without e+e- in addition to PLC based on e+e- linear colliders ILC and CLIC. In this paper, following a brief discussion of Higgs factories physics program I give an overview of photon colliders based on linear colliders ILC and CLIC, and of the recently proposed photon-collider Higgs factories with no e+e- collision option based on recirculation linacs in ring tunnels.
Geller, Michael; Telem, Ofri
2015-05-15
We present the first realization of a "twin Higgs" model as a holographic composite Higgs model. Uniquely among composite Higgs models, the Higgs potential is protected by a new standard model (SM) singlet elementary "mirror" sector at the sigma model scale f and not by the composite states at m_{KK}, naturally allowing for m_{KK} beyond the LHC reach. As a result, naturalness in our model cannot be constrained by the LHC, but may be probed by precision Higgs measurements at future lepton colliders, and by direct searches for Kaluza-Klein excitations at a 100 TeV collider.
Geller, Michael; Telem, Ofri
2015-05-15
We present the first realization of a "twin Higgs" model as a holographic composite Higgs model. Uniquely among composite Higgs models, the Higgs potential is protected by a new standard model (SM) singlet elementary "mirror" sector at the sigma model scale f and not by the composite states at m_{KK}, naturally allowing for m_{KK} beyond the LHC reach. As a result, naturalness in our model cannot be constrained by the LHC, but may be probed by precision Higgs measurements at future lepton colliders, and by direct searches for Kaluza-Klein excitations at a 100 TeV collider. PMID:26024160
Gauge-Higgs Unification in Orbifold Models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Scrucca, C. A.; Serone, M.; Silvestrini, L.; Wulzer, A.
2004-02-01
Six-dimensional orbifold models where the Higgs field is identified with some internal component of a gauge field are considered. We classify all possible T 2/Bbb Z N orbifold constructions based on a SU(3) electroweak gauge symmetry. Depending on the orbifold twist, models with two, one or zero Higgs doublets can be obtained. Models with one Higgs doublet are particularly interesting, as they lead to a prediction for the Higgs mass that is twice the W boson mass at leading order: m H = 2 m W . The electroweak scale is quadratically sensitive to the cut-off, but only through very specific localized operators. We study in detail the structure of these operators at one loop, and identify a class of models where they do not destabilize the electroweak scale at the leading order. This provides a very promising framework to construct realistic and predictive models of electroweak symmetry breaking.
Adjoints and Low-rank Covariance Representation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tippett, Michael K.; Cohn, Stephen E.
2000-01-01
Quantitative measures of the uncertainty of Earth System estimates can be as important as the estimates themselves. Second moments of estimation errors are described by the covariance matrix, whose direct calculation is impractical when the number of degrees of freedom of the system state is large. Ensemble and reduced-state approaches to prediction and data assimilation replace full estimation error covariance matrices by low-rank approximations. The appropriateness of such approximations depends on the spectrum of the full error covariance matrix, whose calculation is also often impractical. Here we examine the situation where the error covariance is a linear transformation of a forcing error covariance. We use operator norms and adjoints to relate the appropriateness of low-rank representations to the conditioning of this transformation. The analysis is used to investigate low-rank representations of the steady-state response to random forcing of an idealized discrete-time dynamical system.
GPU-Accelerated Adjoint Algorithmic Differentiation
Gremse, Felix; Höfter, Andreas; Razik, Lukas; Kiessling, Fabian; Naumann, Uwe
2015-01-01
Many scientific problems such as classifier training or medical image reconstruction can be expressed as minimization of differentiable real-valued cost functions and solved with iterative gradient-based methods. Adjoint algorithmic differentiation (AAD) enables automated computation of gradients of such cost functions implemented as computer programs. To backpropagate adjoint derivatives, excessive memory is potentially required to store the intermediate partial derivatives on a dedicated data structure, referred to as the “tape”. Parallelization is difficult because threads need to synchronize their accesses during taping and backpropagation. This situation is aggravated for many-core architectures, such as Graphics Processing Units (GPUs), because of the large number of light-weight threads and the limited memory size in general as well as per thread. We show how these limitations can be mediated if the cost function is expressed using GPU-accelerated vector and matrix operations which are recognized as intrinsic functions by our AAD software. We compare this approach with naive and vectorized implementations for CPUs. We use four increasingly complex cost functions to evaluate the performance with respect to memory consumption and gradient computation times. Using vectorization, CPU and GPU memory consumption could be substantially reduced compared to the naive reference implementation, in some cases even by an order of complexity. The vectorization allowed usage of optimized parallel libraries during forward and reverse passes which resulted in high speedups for the vectorized CPU version compared to the naive reference implementation. The GPU version achieved an additional speedup of 7.5 ± 4.4, showing that the processing power of GPUs can be utilized for AAD using this concept. Furthermore, we show how this software can be systematically extended for more complex problems such as nonlinear absorption reconstruction for fluorescence-mediated tomography
GPU-accelerated adjoint algorithmic differentiation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gremse, Felix; Höfter, Andreas; Razik, Lukas; Kiessling, Fabian; Naumann, Uwe
2016-03-01
Many scientific problems such as classifier training or medical image reconstruction can be expressed as minimization of differentiable real-valued cost functions and solved with iterative gradient-based methods. Adjoint algorithmic differentiation (AAD) enables automated computation of gradients of such cost functions implemented as computer programs. To backpropagate adjoint derivatives, excessive memory is potentially required to store the intermediate partial derivatives on a dedicated data structure, referred to as the "tape". Parallelization is difficult because threads need to synchronize their accesses during taping and backpropagation. This situation is aggravated for many-core architectures, such as Graphics Processing Units (GPUs), because of the large number of light-weight threads and the limited memory size in general as well as per thread. We show how these limitations can be mediated if the cost function is expressed using GPU-accelerated vector and matrix operations which are recognized as intrinsic functions by our AAD software. We compare this approach with naive and vectorized implementations for CPUs. We use four increasingly complex cost functions to evaluate the performance with respect to memory consumption and gradient computation times. Using vectorization, CPU and GPU memory consumption could be substantially reduced compared to the naive reference implementation, in some cases even by an order of complexity. The vectorization allowed usage of optimized parallel libraries during forward and reverse passes which resulted in high speedups for the vectorized CPU version compared to the naive reference implementation. The GPU version achieved an additional speedup of 7.5 ± 4.4, showing that the processing power of GPUs can be utilized for AAD using this concept. Furthermore, we show how this software can be systematically extended for more complex problems such as nonlinear absorption reconstruction for fluorescence-mediated tomography.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Giardino, Pier Paolo; Kannike, Kristjan; Masina, Isabella; Raidal, Martti; Strumia, Alessandro
2014-05-01
We perform a state-of-the-art global fit to all Higgs data. We synthesise them into a `universal' form, which allows to easily test any desired model. We apply the proposed methodology to extract from data the Higgs branching ratios, production cross sections, couplings and to analyse composite Higgs models, models with extra Higgs doublets, supersymmetry, extra particles in the loops, anomalous top couplings, and invisible Higgs decays into Dark Matter. Best fit regions lie around the Standard Model predictions and are well approximated by our `universal' fit. Latest data exclude the dilaton as an alternative to the Higgs, and disfavour fits with negative Yukawa couplings. We derive for the first time the SM Higgs boson mass from the measured rates, rather than from the peak positions, obtaining M h = 124 .4 ± 1 .6 GeV.
Probing the Higgs vacuum with general relativity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mannheim, Philip D.; Kazanas, Demosthenes
1991-01-01
It is shown that the structure of the Higgs vacuum can be revealed in gravitational experiments which probe the Schwarzschild geometry to only one order in MG/r beyond that needed for the classical tests of general relativity. The possibility that deviations from the conventional geometry are at least theoretically conceivable is explored. The deviations obtained provide a diagnostic test for searching for the existence of macroscopic scalar fields and open up the possiblity for further exploring the Higgs mechanism.
Weak self-adjointness and conservation laws for a porous medium equation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gandarias, M. L.
2012-06-01
The concepts of self-adjoint and quasi self-adjoint equations were introduced by Ibragimov (2006, 2007) [4,7]. In Ibragimov (2007) [6] a general theorem on conservation laws was proved. In Gandarias (2011) [3] we generalized the concept of self-adjoint and quasi self-adjoint equations by introducing the definition of weak self-adjoint equations. In this paper we find the subclasses of weak self-adjoint porous medium equations. By using the property of weak self-adjointness we construct some conservation laws associated with symmetries of the differential equation.
Sensitivity of Lumped Constraints Using the Adjoint Method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Akgun, Mehmet A.; Haftka, Raphael T.; Wu, K. Chauncey; Walsh, Joanne L.
1999-01-01
Adjoint sensitivity calculation of stress, buckling and displacement constraints may be much less expensive than direct sensitivity calculation when the number of load cases is large. Adjoint stress and displacement sensitivities are available in the literature. Expressions for local buckling sensitivity of isotropic plate elements are derived in this study. Computational efficiency of the adjoint method is sensitive to the number of constraints and, therefore, the method benefits from constraint lumping. A continuum version of the Kreisselmeier-Steinhauser (KS) function is chosen to lump constraints. The adjoint and direct methods are compared for three examples: a truss structure, a simple HSCT wing model, and a large HSCT model. These sensitivity derivatives are then used in optimization.
Reheating with a composite Higgs boson
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Croon, Djuna; Sanz, Verónica; Tarrant, Ewan R. M.
2016-08-01
The flatness of the inflaton potential and lightness of the Higgs boson could have the common origin of the breaking of a global symmetry. This scenario provides a unified framework of Goldstone inflation and composite Higgs models, where the inflaton and the Higgs particle both have a pseudo-Goldstone boson nature. The inflaton reheats the Universe via decays to the Higgs and subsequent secondzary production of other SM particles via the top and massive vector bosons. We find that inflationary predictions and perturbative reheating conditions are consistent with cosmic microwave background data for sub-Planckian values of the fields, as well as opening up the possibility of inflation at the TeV scale. We explore this exciting possibility, leading to an interplay between collider data cosmological constraints.
A fat Higgs with a magnetic personality
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Craig, Nathaniel; Stolarski, Daniel; Thaler, Jesse
2011-11-01
We introduce a novel composite Higgs theory based on confining supersymmetric QCD. Supersymmetric duality plays a key role in this construction, with a "fat" Higgs boson emerging as a dual magnetic degree of freedom charged under the dual magnetic gauge group. Due to spontaneous color-flavor locking in the infrared, the electroweak gauge symmetry is aligned with the dual magnetic gauge group, allowing large Yukawa couplings between elementary matter fields and the composite Higgs. At the same time, this theory exhibits metastable supersymmetry breaking, leading to low-scale gauge mediation via composite messengers. The Higgs boson is heavier than in minimal supersymmetric theories, due to a large F -term quartic coupling as well as small non-decoupling D-terms. This theory predicts quasi-stable TeV-scale pseudo-modulini, some of which are charged under standard model color, possibly giving rise to long-lived R-hadrons at the LHC.
Adjoint Function: Physical Basis of Variational & Perturbation Theory in Transport
2009-07-27
Version 00 Dr. J.D. Lewins has now released the following legacy book for free distribution: Importance: The Adjoint Function: The Physical Basis of Variational and Perturbation Theory in Transport and Diffusion Problems, North-Holland Publishing Company - Amsterdam, 582 pages, 1966 Introduction: Continuous Systems and the Variational Principle 1. The Fundamental Variational Principle 2. The Importance Function 3. Adjoint Equations 4. Variational Methods 5. Perturbation and Iterative Methods 6. Non-Linear Theory
Electroweak baryogenesis with anomalous Higgs couplings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kobakhidze, Archil; Wu, Lei; Yue, Jason
2016-04-01
We investigate feasibility of efficient baryogenesis at the electroweak scale within the effective field theory framework based on a non-linear realisation of the electroweak gauge symmetry. In this framework the LHC Higgs boson is described by a singlet scalar field, which, therefore, admits new interactions. Assuming that Higgs couplings with the eletroweak gauge bosons are as in the Standard Model, we demonstrate that the Higgs cubic coupling and the CP-violating Higgs-top quark anomalous couplings alone may drive the a strongly first-order phase transition. The distinguished feature of this transition is that the anomalous Higgs vacuum expectation value is generally non-zero in both phases. We identify a range of anomalous couplings, consistent with current experimental data, where sphaleron rates are sufficiently fast in the `symmetric' phase and are suppressed in the `broken' phase and demonstrate that the desired baryon asymmetry can indeed be generated in this framework. This range of the Higgs anomalous couplings can be further constrained from the LHC Run 2 data and be probed at high luminosity LHC and beyond.
Alignment limit of the NMSSM Higgs sector
Carena, Marcela; Haber, Howard E.; Low, Ian; Shah, Nausheen R.; Wagner, Carlos E. M.
2016-02-17
The Next-to-Minimal Supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model (NMSSM) with a Higgs boson of mass 125 GeV can be compatible with stop masses of order of the electroweak scale, thereby reducing the degree of fine-tuning necessary to achieve electroweak symmetry breaking. Moreover, in an attractive region of the NMSSM parameter space, corresponding to the \\alignment limit" in which one of the neutral Higgs fields lies approximately in the same direction in field space as the doublet Higgs vacuum expectation value, the observed Higgs boson is predicted to have Standard- Model-like properties. We derive analytical expressions for the alignment conditions andmore » show that they point toward a more natural region of parameter space for electroweak symmetry breaking, while allowing for perturbativity of the theory up to the Planck scale. Additionally, the alignment limit in the NMSSM leads to a well defined spectrum in the Higgs and Higgsino sectors, and yields a rich and interesting Higgs boson phenomenology that can be tested at the LHC. Here, we discuss the most promising channels for discovery and present several benchmark points for further study.« less
Global Adjoint Tomography: First-Generation Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bozdağ, Ebru; Peter, Daniel; Lefebvre, Matthieu; Komatitsch, Dimitri; Tromp, Jeroen; Hill, Judith; Podhorszki, Norbert; Pugmire, David
2016-09-01
We present the first-generation global tomographic model constructed based on adjoint tomography, an iterative full-waveform inversion technique. Synthetic seismograms were calculated using GPU-accelerated spectral-element simulations of global seismic wave propagation, accommodating effects due to 3D anelastic crust & mantle structure, topography & bathymetry, the ocean load, ellipticity, rotation, and self-gravitation. Fréchet derivatives were calculated in 3D anelastic models based on an adjoint-state method. The simulations were performed on the Cray XK7 named `Titan', a computer with 18,688 GPU accelerators housed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The transversely isotropic global model is the result of 15 tomographic iterations, which systematically reduced differences between observed and simulated three-component seismograms. Our starting model combined 3D mantle model S362ANI (Kustowski et al. 2008) with 3D crustal model Crust2.0 (Bassin et al. 2000). We simultaneously inverted for structure in the crust and mantle, thereby eliminating the need for widely used `crustal corrections'. We used data from 253 earthquakes in the magnitude range 5.8~ ≤ ~Mw~ ≤ ~7.0. For the first 12 iterations, we combined ˜30 s body-wave data with ˜60 s surface-wave data. The shortest period of the surface waves was gradually decreased, and in the last three iterations we combined ˜17 s body waves with ˜45 s surface waves. We started using 180 min-long seismograms after the 12th iteration and assimilated minor- and major-arc body and surface waves. The 15th iteration model features enhancements of well-known slabs, an enhanced image of the Samoa/Tahiti plume, as well as various other plumes and hotspots, such as Caroline, Galapagos, Yellowstone, and Erebus. Furthermore, we see clear improvements in slab resolution along the Hellenic and Japan Arcs, as well as subduction along the East of Scotia Plate, which does not exist in the starting model. Point-spread function
Leptogenesis, radiative neutrino masses and inert Higgs triplet dark matter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lu, Wen-Bin; Gu, Pei-Hong
2016-05-01
We extend the standard model by three types of inert fields including Majorana fermion singlets/triplets, real Higgs singlets/triplets and leptonic Higgs doublets. In the presence of a softly broken lepton number and an exactly conserved Z2 discrete symmetry, these inert fields together can mediate a one-loop diagram for a Majorana neutrino mass generation. The heavier inert fields can decay to realize a successful leptogenesis while the lightest inert field can provide a stable dark matter candidate. As an example, we demonstrate the leptogenesis by the inert Higgs doublet decays. We also perform a systematic study on the inert Higgs triplet dark matter scenario where the interference between the gauge and Higgs portal interactions can significantly affect the dark matter properties.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Heimbach, P.; Bugnion, V.
2008-12-01
We present a new and original approach to understanding the sensitivity of the Greenland ice sheet to key model parameters and environmental conditions. At the heart of this approach is the use of an adjoint ice sheet model. MacAyeal (1992) introduced adjoints in the context of applying control theory to estimate basal sliding parameters (basal shear stress, basal friction) of an ice stream model which minimize a least-squares model vs. observation misfit. Since then, this method has become widespread to fit ice stream models to the increasing number and diversity of satellite observations, and to estimate uncertain model parameters. However, no attempt has been made to extend this method to comprehensive ice sheet models. Here, we present a first step toward moving beyond limiting the use of control theory to ice stream models. We have generated an adjoint of the three-dimensional thermo-mechanical ice sheet model SICOPOLIS of Greve (1997). The adjoint was generated using the automatic differentiation (AD) tool TAF. TAF generates exact source code representing the tangent linear and adjoint model of the parent model provided. Model sensitivities are given by the partial derivatives of a scalar-valued model diagnostic or "cost function" with respect to the controls, and can be efficiently calculated via the adjoint. An effort to generate an efficient adjoint with the newly developed open-source AD tool OpenAD is also under way. To gain insight into the adjoint solutions, we explore various cost functions, such as local and domain-integrated ice temperature, total ice volume or the velocity of ice at the margins of the ice sheet. Elements of our control space include initial cold ice temperatures, surface mass balance, as well as parameters such as appear in Glen's flow law, or in the surface degree-day or basal sliding parameterizations. Sensitivity maps provide a comprehensive view, and allow a quantification of where and to which variables the ice sheet model is
Adjoint-based deviational Monte Carlo methods for phonon transport calculations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Péraud, Jean-Philippe M.; Hadjiconstantinou, Nicolas G.
2015-06-01
In the field of linear transport, adjoint formulations exploit linearity to derive powerful reciprocity relations between a variety of quantities of interest. In this paper, we develop an adjoint formulation of the linearized Boltzmann transport equation for phonon transport. We use this formulation for accelerating deviational Monte Carlo simulations of complex, multiscale problems. Benefits include significant computational savings via direct variance reduction, or by enabling formulations which allow more efficient use of computational resources, such as formulations which provide high resolution in a particular phase-space dimension (e.g., spectral). We show that the proposed adjoint-based methods are particularly well suited to problems involving a wide range of length scales (e.g., nanometers to hundreds of microns) and lead to computational methods that can calculate quantities of interest with a cost that is independent of the system characteristic length scale, thus removing the traditional stiffness of kinetic descriptions. Applications to problems of current interest, such as simulation of transient thermoreflectance experiments or spectrally resolved calculation of the effective thermal conductivity of nanostructured materials, are presented and discussed in detail.
Adjoint estimation of ozone climate penalties
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Shunliu; Pappin, Amanda J.; Morteza Mesbah, S.; Joyce Zhang, J. Y.; MacDonald, Nicole L.; Hakami, Amir
2013-10-01
adjoint of a regional chemical transport model is used to calculate location-specific temperature influences (climate penalties) on two policy-relevant ozone metrics: concentrations in polluted regions (>65 ppb) and short-term mortality in Canada and the U.S. Temperature influences through changes in chemical reaction rates, atmospheric moisture content, and biogenic emissions exhibit significant spatial variability. In particular, high-NOx, polluted regions are prominently distinguished by substantial climate penalties (up to 6.2 ppb/K in major urban areas) as a result of large temperature influences through increased biogenic emissions and nonnegative water vapor sensitivities. Temperature influences on ozone mortality, when integrated across the domain, result in 369 excess deaths/K in Canada and the U.S. over a summer season—an impact comparable to a 5% change in anthropogenic NOx emissions. As such, we suggest that NOx control can be also regarded as a climate change adaptation strategy with regard to ozone air quality.
Adjoint methods for aerodynamic wing design
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Grossman, Bernard
1993-01-01
A model inverse design problem is used to investigate the effect of flow discontinuities on the optimization process. The optimization involves finding the cross-sectional area distribution of a duct that produces velocities that closely match a targeted velocity distribution. Quasi-one-dimensional flow theory is used, and the target is chosen to have a shock wave in its distribution. The objective function which quantifies the difference between the targeted and calculated velocity distributions may become non-smooth due to the interaction between the shock and the discretization of the flowfield. This paper offers two techniques to resolve the resulting problems for the optimization algorithms. The first, shock-fitting, involves careful integration of the objective function through the shock wave. The second, coordinate straining with shock penalty, uses a coordinate transformation to align the calculated shock with the target and then adds a penalty proportional to the square of the distance between the shocks. The techniques are tested using several popular sensitivity and optimization methods, including finite-differences, and direct and adjoint discrete sensitivity methods. Two optimization strategies, Gauss-Newton and sequential quadratic programming (SQP), are used to drive the objective function to a minimum.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ohanian, Hans
2015-04-01
It seems desirable that Einstein's gravitational theory with the Lagrangian (mPlanck)2 (- g)1/2 R should arise by symmetry breaking from an underlying conformally symmetric theory. A simple way to achieve this goal is to start with a conformally invariant version of Brans-Dicke theory with a complex massless scalar field χ coupled to the curvature by a term χχ * (- g)1/2 R , and also coupled to a massless gauge-vector field φμ for which the complex scalar acts as source. The vector field can be interpreted geometrically as the Weyl gauge-vector for transport of lengths in the conformal geometry. By the Coleman-Weinberg mechanism, the scalar field generates an effective potential with a stable minimum at < χ > ≠ 0 . By the Higgs mechanism, this leads to conformal symmetry breaking, and both the scalar and gauge-vector fields acquire masses of the order of mPlanck , so they become practically undetectable, while the value of χχ* becomes equal to (mPlanck)2 .
Enhanced Higgs mass in Compact Supersymmetry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tobioka, Kohsaku; Kitano, Ryuichiro; Murayama, Hitoshi
2016-04-01
The current LHC results make weak scale supersymmetry difficult due to relatively heavy mass of the discovered Higgs boson and the null results of new particle searches. Geometrical supersymmetry breaking from extra dimensions, Scherk-Schwarz mechanism, is possible to accommodate such situations. A concrete example, the Compact Supersymmetry model, has a compressed spectrum ameliorating the LHC bounds and large mixing in the top and scalar top quark sector with |{A}_t|˜ 2{m}_{tilde{t}} which radiatively raises the Higgs mass. While the zero mode contribution of the model has been considered, in this paper we calculate the Kaluza-Klein tower effect to the Higgs mass. Although such contributions are naively expected to be as small as a percent level for 10 TeV Kaluza-Klein modes, we find the effect significantly enhances the radiative correction to the Higgs quartic coupling by from 10 to 50%. This is mainly because the top quark wave function is pushed out from the brane, which makes the top mass depend on higher powers in the Higgs field. As a result the Higgs mass is enhanced up to 15 GeV from the previous calculation. We also show the whole parameter space is testable at the LHC run II.
Periodic differential equations with self-adjoint monodromy operator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yudovich, V. I.
2001-04-01
A linear differential equation \\dot u=A(t)u with p-periodic (generally speaking, unbounded) operator coefficient in a Euclidean or a Hilbert space \\mathbb H is considered. It is proved under natural constraints that the monodromy operator U_p is self-adjoint and strictly positive if A^*(-t)=A(t) for all t\\in\\mathbb R.It is shown that Hamiltonian systems in the class under consideration are usually unstable and, if they are stable, then the operator U_p reduces to the identity and all solutions are p-periodic.For higher frequencies averaged equations are derived. Remarkably, high-frequency modulation may double the number of critical values.General results are applied to rotational flows with cylindrical components of the velocity a_r=a_z=0, a_\\theta=\\lambda c(t)r^\\beta, \\beta<-1, c(t) is an even p-periodic function, and also to several problems of free gravitational convection of fluids in periodic fields.
LHC diphoton Higgs signal predicted by little Higgs models
Wang Lei; Yang Jinmin
2011-10-01
Little Higgs theory naturally predicts a light Higgs boson whose most important discovery channel at the LHC is the diphoton signal pp{yields}h{yields}{gamma}{gamma}. In this work, we perform a comparative study for this signal in some typical little Higgs models, namely, the littlest Higgs model, two littlest Higgs models with T-parity (named LHT-I and LHT-II), and the simplest little Higgs models. We find that compared with the standard model prediction, the diphoton signal rate is always suppressed and the suppression extent can be quite different for different models. The suppression is mild (< or approx. 10%) in the littlest Higgs model but can be quite severe ({approx_equal}90%) in other three models. This means that discovering the light Higgs boson predicted by the little Higgs theory through the diphoton channel at the LHC will be more difficult than discovering the standard model Higgs boson.
Receptivity in parallel flows: An adjoint approach
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hill, D. Christopher
1993-01-01
Linear receptivity studies in parallel flows are aimed at understanding how external forcing couples to the natural unstable motions which a flow can support. The vibrating ribbon problem models the original Schubauer and Skramstad boundary layer experiment and represents the classic boundary layer receptivity problem. The process by which disturbances are initiated in convectively-unstable jets and shear layers has also received attention. Gaster was the first to handle the boundary layer analysis with the recognition that spatial modes, rather than temporal modes, were relevant when studying convectively-unstable flows that are driven by a time-harmonic source. The amplitude of the least stable spatial mode, far downstream of the source, is related to the source strength by a coupling coefficient. The determination of this coefficient is at the heart of this type of linear receptivity study. The first objective of the present study was to determine whether the various wave number derivative factors, appearing in the coupling coefficients for linear receptivity problems, could be reexpressed in a simpler form involving adjoint eigensolutions. Secondly, it was hoped that the general nature of this simplification could be shown; indeed, a rather elegant characterization of the receptivity properties of spatial instabilities does emerge. The analysis is quite distinct from the usual Fourier-inversion procedures, although a detailed knowledge of the spectrum of the Orr-Sommerfeld equation is still required. Since the cylinder wake analysis proved very useful in addressing control considerations, the final objective was to provide a foundation upon which boundary layer control theory may be developed.
Super-Higgs mechanism in string theory
Bagger, Jonathan; Giannakis, Ioannis
2006-05-15
We exhibit the super-Higgs effect in heterotic string theory by turning on a background antisymmetric tensor B field and deforming the Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin operator consistent with superconformal invariance. The B field spontaneously breaks spacetime supersymmetry. We show how the gravitini and the physical dilatini gain mass by eating the would-be Goldstone fermions.
Adjoint simulation of stream depletion due to aquifer pumping.
Neupauer, Roseanna M; Griebling, Scott A
2012-01-01
If an aquifer is hydraulically connected to an adjacent stream, a pumping well operating in the aquifer will draw some water from aquifer storage and some water from the stream, causing stream depletion. Several analytical, semi-analytical, and numerical approaches have been developed to estimate stream depletion due to pumping. These approaches are effective if the well location is known. If a new well is to be installed, it may be desirable to install the well at a location where stream depletion is minimal. If several possible locations are considered for the location of a new well, stream depletion would have to be estimated for all possible well locations, which can be computationally inefficient. The adjoint approach for estimating stream depletion is a more efficient alternative because with one simulation of the adjoint model, stream depletion can be estimated for pumping at a well at any location. We derive the adjoint equations for a coupled system with a confined aquifer, an overlying unconfined aquifer, and a river that is hydraulically connected to the unconfined aquifer. We assume that the stage in the river is known, and is independent of the stream depletion, consistent with the assumptions of the MODFLOW river package. We describe how the adjoint equations can be solved using MODFLOW. In an illustrative example, we show that for this scenario, the adjoint approach is as accurate as standard forward numerical simulation methods, and requires substantially less computational effort.
Mesh-free adjoint methods for nonlinear filters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Daum, Fred
2005-09-01
We apply a new industrial strength numerical approximation, called the "mesh-free adjoint method", to solve the nonlinear filtering problem. This algorithm exploits the smoothness of the problem, unlike particle filters, and hence we expect that mesh-free adjoints are superior to particle filters for many practical applications. The nonlinear filter problem is equivalent to solving the Fokker-Planck equation in real time. The key idea is to use a good adaptive non-uniform quantization of state space to approximate the solution of the Fokker-Planck equation. In particular, the adjoint method computes the location of the nodes in state space to minimize errors in the final answer. This use of an adjoint is analogous to optimal control algorithms, but it is more interesting. The adjoint method is also analogous to importance sampling in particle filters, but it is better for four reasons: (1) it exploits the smoothness of the problem; (2) it explicitly minimizes the errors in the relevant functional; (3) it explicitly models the dynamics in state space; and (4) it can be used to compute a corrected value for the desired functional using the residuals. We will attempt to make this paper accessible to normal engineers who do not have PDEs for breakfast.
Collider constraints and prospects of a scalar singlet extension to Higgs portal dark matter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dupuis, Grace
2016-07-01
This work considers an extension of the Standard Model (SM) Higgs sector by a real, scalar singlet field, including applicability to a dark matter (DM) model with the addition of a Yukawa coupling to a fermionic dark matter candidate. The collider signatures and constraints on the mixed two-Higgs scenario are determined, including limits from Higgs production signals and exclusion searches, as well as constraints arising from the Higgs total and invisible widths. As there is overwhelming Higgs data which is consistent with a SM scenario, the case in which an additional scalar has evaded detection is further explored in the context of Higgs precision measurement. The discovery reach and prospective signatures of the model at a proposed linear collider are investigated, with particular focus on the Higgs triple coupling, and di-Higgs production processes.
Sonic Boom Mitigation Through Aircraft Design and Adjoint Methodology
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rallabhandi, Siriam K.; Diskin, Boris; Nielsen, Eric J.
2012-01-01
This paper presents a novel approach to design of the supersonic aircraft outer mold line (OML) by optimizing the A-weighted loudness of sonic boom signature predicted on the ground. The optimization process uses the sensitivity information obtained by coupling the discrete adjoint formulations for the augmented Burgers Equation and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) equations. This coupled formulation links the loudness of the ground boom signature to the aircraft geometry thus allowing efficient shape optimization for the purpose of minimizing the impact of loudness. The accuracy of the adjoint-based sensitivities is verified against sensitivities obtained using an independent complex-variable approach. The adjoint based optimization methodology is applied to a configuration previously optimized using alternative state of the art optimization methods and produces additional loudness reduction. The results of the optimizations are reported and discussed.
A Posteriori Analysis for Hydrodynamic Simulations Using Adjoint Methodologies
Woodward, C S; Estep, D; Sandelin, J; Wang, H
2009-02-26
This report contains results of analysis done during an FY08 feasibility study investigating the use of adjoint methodologies for a posteriori error estimation for hydrodynamics simulations. We developed an approach to adjoint analysis for these systems through use of modified equations and viscosity solutions. Targeting first the 1D Burgers equation, we include a verification of the adjoint operator for the modified equation for the Lax-Friedrichs scheme, then derivations of an a posteriori error analysis for a finite difference scheme and a discontinuous Galerkin scheme applied to this problem. We include some numerical results showing the use of the error estimate. Lastly, we develop a computable a posteriori error estimate for the MAC scheme applied to stationary Navier-Stokes.
Learning a trajectory using adjoint functions and teacher forcing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Toomarian, Nikzad B.; Barhen, Jacob
1992-01-01
A new methodology for faster supervised temporal learning in nonlinear neural networks is presented which builds upon the concept of adjoint operators to allow fast computation of the gradients of an error functional with respect to all parameters of the neural architecture, and exploits the concept of teacher forcing to incorporate information on the desired output into the activation dynamics. The importance of the initial or final time conditions for the adjoint equations is discussed. A new algorithm is presented in which the adjoint equations are solved simultaneously (i.e., forward in time) with the activation dynamics of the neural network. We also indicate how teacher forcing can be modulated in time as learning proceeds. The results obtained show that the learning time is reduced by one to two orders of magnitude with respect to previously published results, while trajectory tracking is significantly improved. The proposed methodology makes hardware implementation of temporal learning attractive for real-time applications.
Supersonic biplane design via adjoint method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hu, Rui
In developing the next generation supersonic transport airplane, two major challenges must be resolved. The fuel efficiency must be significantly improved, and the sonic boom propagating to the ground must be dramatically reduced. Both of these objectives can be achieved by reducing the shockwaves formed in supersonic flight. The Busemann biplane is famous for using favorable shockwave interaction to achieve nearly shock-free supersonic flight at its design Mach number. Its performance at off-design Mach numbers, however, can be very poor. This dissertation studies the performance of supersonic biplane airfoils at design and off-design conditions. The choked flow and flow-hysteresis phenomena of these biplanes are studied. These effects are due to finite thickness of the airfoils and non-uniqueness of the solution to the Euler equations, creating over an order of magnitude more wave drag than that predicted by supersonic thin airfoil theory. As a result, the off-design performance is the major barrier to the practical use of supersonic biplanes. The main contribution of this work is to drastically improve the off-design performance of supersonic biplanes by using an adjoint based aerodynamic optimization technique. The Busemann biplane is used as the baseline design, and its shape is altered to achieve optimal wave drags in series of Mach numbers ranging from 1.1 to 1.7, during both acceleration and deceleration conditions. The optimized biplane airfoils dramatically reduces the effects of the choked flow and flow-hysteresis phenomena, while maintaining a certain degree of favorable shockwave interaction effects at the design Mach number. Compared to a diamond shaped single airfoil of the same total thickness, the wave drag of our optimized biplane is lower at almost all Mach numbers, and is significantly lower at the design Mach number. In addition, by performing a Navier-Stokes solution for the optimized airfoil, it is verified that the optimized biplane improves
Supersymmetric leptophilic Higgs model
Marshall, Gardner; Sher, Marc
2011-01-01
In the leptophilic model, one Higgs doublet couples to quarks and another couples to leptons. We study the supersymmetric version of this model, concentrating on the tightly constrained Higgs sector, which has four doublets. Constraints from perturbativity, unitarity, and LEP bounds are considered. It is found that the lightest Higgs, h, can have a mass well below 114 GeV, and for masses below 100 GeV will have a substantially enhanced branching ratio into {tau} pairs. For this region of parameter space, traditional production mechanisms (Higgs-strahlung, W fusion, and gluon fusion) are suppressed, but it may be produced in the decay of heavier particles. The second lightest Higgs has a mass of approximately 110 GeV for virtually all of parameter space, with standard model couplings, and thus an increase of a few GeV in the current lower bound on the standard model Higgs mass would rule out the model. The two heavier Higgs are both gauge phobic, one decays almost entirely into bb and can be produced via gluon fusion while the other decays almost entirely into {tau}{sup +}{tau}{sup -} but cannot be easily produced.
Higgs Bosons in Particle Physics and in Condensed Matter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Volovik, G. E.; Zubkov, M. A.
2014-04-01
Higgs bosons—the amplitude modes—have been experimentally investigated in condensed matter for many years. An example is superfluid 3He-B, where the broken symmetry leads to 4 Goldstone modes and at least 14 Higgs modes, which are characterized by angular momentum quantum number J and parity (Zeeman splitting of Higgs modes with J=2+ and J=2- in magnetic field has been observed in 80's). Based on the relation for the energy spectrum of these modes, Yoichiro Nambu proposed the general sum rule, which relates masses of Higgs bosons and masses of fermions. If this rule is applicable to Standard Model, one may expect that the observed Higgs boson with mass M H1=125 GeV has a Nambu partner—the second Higgs boson with mass M H2=325 GeV. Together they satisfy the Nambu relation , where M top is the top quark mass. Also the properties of the Higgs modes in superfluid 3He-A, where the symmetry breaking is similar to that of the Standard Model, suggest the possible existence of two electrically charged Higgs particles with masses M H+= M H-˜245 GeV, which together obey the Nambu rule . A certain excess of events at 325 GeV and at 245 GeV has been reported in 2011, though not confirmed in 2012 experiments. Besides, we consider the particular relativistic model of top—quark condensation that suggests the possibility that two twice degenerated Higgs bosons contribute to the Nambu sum rule. This gives the mass around 210 GeV for the Nambu partner of the 125 GeV Higgs boson. We also discuss the other possible lessons from the condensed matter to Standard Model, such as hidden symmetry, where light Higgs emerges as quasi Nambu-Goldstone mode, and the role of broken time reversal symmetry.
Dynamical restoration of ZN symmetry in SU(N) + Higgs theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Biswal, Minati; Digal, Sanatan; Saumia, P. S.
2016-09-01
We study the ZN symmetry in SU (N) + Higgs theories with the Higgs field in the fundamental representation. The distributions of the Polyakov loop show that the ZN symmetry is explicitly broken in the Higgs phase. On the other hand inside the Higgs symmetric phase the Polyakov loop distributions and other physical observables exhibit the ZN symmetry. This effective realization of the ZN symmetry in the theory changes the nature of the confinement-deconfinement transition. We argue that the ZN symmetry will lead to time independent topological defect solutions in the Higgs symmetric deconfined phase which will play important role at high temperatures.
Late and early time phenomenology of Higgs-dependent cutoff
Bezrukov, F.; Gorbunov, D.; Shaposhnikov, M. E-mail: gorby@ms2.inr.ac.ru
2011-10-01
The analysis of theories with non-minimal coupling of Higgs field to gravity revealed that they enter into strong coupling regime above certain Higgs-dependent cutoff, which may be considerably below the Planck scale. Assuming that the effective theory, complementing the Standard Model or its minimal extension — the νMSM — contains a set of higher dimensional operators suppressed by the Higgs-dependent cutoff, we analyse the reheating of the Universe after the Higgs inflation. We show that extra terms do not spoil the Higgs inflation, but can lead to baryogenesis and to warm sterile neutrino dark matter production at the reheating stage of the Universe expansion. They can also result in neutrino mass generation and proton decay.
Evidence for Higgs boson decays to τ leptons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bachtis, Michail; Kroseberg, Jürgen
2016-10-01
The Higgs boson discovery in 2012 was based primarily on the analyses of Higgs boson decays to vector bosons. In the Standard Model (SM) the fermions acquire their masses via Yukawa couplings to the Higgs field, and therefore it was of fundamental importance to also confirm Higgs boson decays to fermions. In spite of significant experimental challenges, this was eventually achieved in the analyses of ττ final states. Using the full LHC Run 1 data set, ATLAS and CMS established H → ττ signals with local significances above three standard deviations and with properties consistent with SM predictions. These results provided the first evidence for a direct coupling of the 125 GeV Higgs boson to fermions.
Ultra-weak sector, Higgs boson mass, and the dilaton
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Allison, Kyle; Hill, Christopher T.; Ross, Graham G.
2014-11-01
The Higgs boson mass may arise from a portal coupling to a singlet field σ which has a very large VEV f ≫mHiggs. This requires a sector of "ultra-weak" couplings ζi, where ζi ≲ mHiggs2 /f2. Ultra-weak couplings are technically naturally small due to a custodial shift symmetry of σ in the ζi → 0 limit. The singlet field σ has properties similar to a pseudo-dilaton. We engineer explicit breaking of scale invariance in the ultra-weak sector via a Coleman-Weinberg potential, which requires hierarchies amongst the ultra-weak couplings.
Ocean acoustic tomography from different receiver geometries using the adjoint method.
Zhao, Xiaofeng; Wang, Dongxiao
2015-12-01
In this paper, an ocean acoustic tomography inversion using the adjoint method in a shallow water environment is presented. The propagation model used is an implicit Crank-Nicolson finite difference parabolic equation solver with a non-local boundary condition. Unlike previous matched-field processing works using the complex pressure fields as the observations, here, the observed signals are the transmission losses. Based on the code tests of the tangent linear model, the adjoint model, and the gradient, the optimization problem is solved by a gradient-based minimization algorithm. The inversions are performed in numerical simulations for two geometries: one in which hydrophones are sparsely distributed in the horizontal direction, and another in which the hydrophones are distributed vertically. The spacing in both cases is well beyond the half-wavelength threshold at which beamforming could be used. To deal with the ill-posedness of the inverse problem, a linear differential regularization operator of the sound-speed profile is used to smooth the inversion results. The L-curve criterion is adopted to select the regularization parameter, and the optimal value can be easily determined at the elbow of the logarithms of the residual norm of the measured-predicted fields and the norm of the penalty function.
Non-self-adjoint hamiltonians defined by Riesz bases
Bagarello, F.; Inoue, A.; Trapani, C.
2014-03-15
We discuss some features of non-self-adjoint Hamiltonians with real discrete simple spectrum under the assumption that the eigenvectors form a Riesz basis of Hilbert space. Among other things, we give conditions under which these Hamiltonians can be factorized in terms of generalized lowering and raising operators.
Adjoint electron-photon transport Monte Carlo calculations with ITS
Lorence, L.J.; Kensek, R.P.; Halbleib, J.A.; Morel, J.E.
1995-02-01
A general adjoint coupled electron-photon Monte Carlo code for solving the Boltzmann-Fokker-Planck equation has recently been created. It is a modified version of ITS 3.0, a coupled electronphoton Monte Carlo code that has world-wide distribution. The applicability of the new code to radiation-interaction problems of the type found in space environments is demonstrated.
Assimilating Remote Ammonia Observations with a Refined Aerosol Thermodynamics Adjoint"
Ammonia emissions parameters in North America can be refined in order to improve the evaluation of modeled concentrations against observations. Here, we seek to do so by developing and applying the GEOS-Chem adjoint nested over North America to conductassimilation of observations...
Holographic dark matter and Higgs models.
Díaz-Cruz, J Lorenzo
2008-06-01
We propose a dark matter candidate within the class of models where electroweak symmetry breaking is triggered by a light composite Higgs boson. In these dual anti-de Sitter/conformal field theory models, the Higgs boson emerges as a holographic pseudo-Goldstone boson, while dark matter can be identified with a stable composite fermion X0. The effective Lagrangian description of the Higgs and X0-multiplets, including higher-dimensional operators, can be tested at future colliders (LHC, ILC) and through astrophysical signals (ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays). The expected mass of X0, mX0 < or approximately 4pif approximately O (TeV), satisfies the bounds extracted from the cosmological relic density, while the experimental searches for dark matter further constrains the possible models.
Taming the off-shell Higgs boson
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Azatov, A.; Grojean, C.; Paul, A.; Salvioni, E.
2015-03-01
We study the off-shell Higgs data in the process pp → h (*) → Z (*) Z (*) → 4 l, to constrain deviations of the Higgs couplings. We point out that this channel can be used to resolve the long- and short-distance contributions to Higgs production by gluon fusion and can thus be complementary to in measuring the top Yukawa coupling. Our analysis, performed in the context of effective field theory, shows that current data do not allow drawing any model-independent conclusions. We study the prospects at future hadron colliders, including the high-luminosity LHC and accelerators with higher energy, up to 100 TeV. The available QCD calculations and the theoretical uncertainties affecting our analysis are also briefly discussed.
Neutrino Oscillations, the Higgs Boson, and the Private Higgs Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
BenTov, Jonathan
"CESR, PEP, PETRA, ISABELLE, p-bar p colliders, LEP, the tevatron, and ep machines are at various levels of design or construction. They will study the properties of b-matter, see weak intermediaries, and perhaps find the t-quark and the Higgs boson. Never before was there such a bestiary waiting to be discovered; and what surprises will be found!" - S. L. Glashow ("The Future of Elementary Particle Physics," Quarks and Leptons, NATO Advanced Study Institutes Series Volume 61, 1980, pp 687-713) The situation in 1980 was clearly different from the present situation in 2013, in which we face the very real possibilty that no new degrees of freedom will ever again be within reach of a collider. In an intriguing twist of fate, this very fact results in a sharp paradox for fundamental physics: the Higgs mass should be MP/m h ˜ 1017 times larger than it actually is, and the vacuum energy density of the universe should be (M P/A)4 ˜ (1031)4 times larger than it actually is, and apparently nature refuses to give us any more clues as to why. These together are what I would call the main problem of 21st century physics: despite all of the predictive success of particle physics so far, we must find a way to suitably modify the rules of quantum field theory, lest we accept the unproductive defeatist attitude that our universe is simply fine-tuned. In the meantime, there is much interesting work to be done in more "traditional" particle physics: we have learned that neutrinos actually have tiny but nonzero masses, which is clear and unambiguous evidence for physics beyond the Standard Model. I will allocate the first third of this document to phenomena related to neutrino oscillations. In particular, I would like to argue that some of the apparent differences between neutrino mixing and quark mixing are to an extent illusory, and actually many aspects of the two sectors can be understood in a coherent framework for extending the Standard Model. The remaining two-thirds of this
Analysis of Seasonal Chlorophyll-a Using An Adjoint Three-Dimensional Ocean Carbon Cycle Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tjiputra, J.; Winguth, A.; Polzin, D.
2004-12-01
The misfit between numerical ocean model and observations can be reduced using data assimilation. This can be achieved by optimizing the model parameter values using adjoint model. The adjoint model minimizes the model-data misfit by estimating the sensitivity or gradient of the cost function with respect to initial condition, boundary condition, or parameters. The adjoint technique was used to assimilate seasonal chlorophyll-a data from the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) satellite to a marine biogeochemical model HAMOCC5.1. An Identical Twin Experiment (ITE) was conducted to test the robustness of the model and the non-linearity level of the forward model. The ITE experiment successfully recovered most of the perturbed parameter to their initial values, and identified the most sensitive ecosystem parameters, which contribute significantly to model-data bias. The regional assimilations of SeaWiFS chlorophyll-a data into the model were able to reduce the model-data misfit (i.e. the cost function) significantly. The cost function reduction mostly occurred in the high latitudes (e.g. the model-data misfit in the northern region during summer season was reduced by 54%). On the other hand, the equatorial regions appear to be relatively stable with no strong reduction in cost function. The optimized parameter set is used to forecast the carbon fluxes between marine ecosystem compartments (e.g. Phytoplankton, Zooplankton, Nutrients, Particulate Organic Carbon, and Dissolved Organic Carbon). The a posteriori model run using the regional best-fit parameterization yields approximately 36 PgC/yr of global net primary productions in the euphotic zone.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maina, Ezio
2015-06-01
The measurements of the properties of the Higgs boson still leave room for a non minimal scalar sector. Extensions of the Standard Model typically involve multiple neutral Higgs fields which can interfere among themselves. We show that these interference effects can be substantial taking as example the one Higgs Singlet Model, the simplest renormalizable addition to the SM.
Coupling of MASH-MORSE Adjoint Leakages with Space- and Time-Dependent Plume Radiation Sources
Slater, C.O.
2001-04-20
In the past, forward-adjoint coupling procedures in air-over-ground geometry have typically involved forward fluences arising from a point source a great distance from a target or vehicle system. Various processing codes were used to create localized forward fluence files that could be used to couple with the MASH-MORSE adjoint leakages. In recent years, radiation plumes that result from reactor accidents or similar incidents have been modeled by others, and the source space and energy distributions as a function of time have been calculated. Additionally, with the point kernel method, they were able to calculate in relatively quick fashion free-field radiation doses for targets moving within the fluence field or for stationary targets within the field, the time dependence for the latter case coming from the changes in position, shape, source strength, and spectra of the plume with time. The work described herein applies the plume source to the MASH-MORSE coupling procedure. The plume source replaces the point source for generating the forward fluences that are folded with MASH-MORSE adjoint leakages. Two types of source calculations are described. The first is a ''rigorous'' calculation using the TORT code and a spatially large air-over-ground geometry. For each time step desired, directional fluences are calculated and are saved over a predetermined region that encompasses a structure within which it is desired to calculate dose rates. Processing codes then create the surface fluences (which may include contributions from radiation sources that deposit on the roof or plateout) that will be coupled with the MASH-MORSE adjoint leakages. Unlike the point kernel calculations of the free-field dose rates, the TORT calculations in practice include the effects of ground scatter on dose rates and directional fluences, although the effects may be underestimated or overestimated because of the use of necessarily coarse mesh and quadrature in order to reduce computational
Scale-Setting Without the Higgs Mechanism:. Non-Abelian Symmetry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anderson, J. T.
For the non-Abelian Higgs model it is shown that the coupled equations of motion for Aμ, ϕ and ϕ* have nonanalytic singularities which must be removed if the equations are integrable. Current conservation is found to remove the singularities in the vector-field equation and give a mass scale independent of V and the Higgs mechanism. The self-consistent field solutions for Aμ and the ϕ fields give either (1) the Higgs mechanism, zero current and the pure-gauge solution, or (2) nonzero current, a gauge-covariant solution and the mass scale independent of V and the Higgs mechanism.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Han, Shuzong; Yang, Hua; Xue, Wenhu; Wang, Xingchi
2016-10-01
This paper introduces the assimilation technology in an ocean dynamics model and discusses the feasibility of inverting the sea surface current in the detection zone by assimilating the sea current radial velocity detected by single station HF ground wave radar in ocean dynamics model. Based on the adjoint assimilation and POM model, the paper successfully inverts the sea surface current through single station HF ground wave radar in the Zhoushan sea area. The single station HF radar inversion results are also compared with the bistatic HF radar composite results and the fixed point measured results by Annderaa current meter. The error analysis shows that acquisition of flow velocity and flow direction data from the single station HF radar based on adjoint assimilation and POM model is viable and the data obtained have a high correlation and consistency with the flow field observed by HF radar.
Time-resolved study of Higgs mode in superconductors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shimano, Ryo
The behavior of superconductors far from equilibrium has been intensively studied over decades. Goals of these studies are the elucidation of bosonic fluctuations essential for the pairing mechanisms, the manifestation of competing orders or hidden phases, and the optical manipulation of superconductivity. The study of collective modes is crucially important for these perspectives as it provides the information on the dynamics of order parameters in non-equilibirium states. Generally, collective modes in ordered phases associated with spontaneous symmetry breaking are classified into 1) gapless phase modes and 2) gapped amplitude modes. In superconductors, the phase mode is eaten by gauge field, according to the Anderson-Higgs mechanism. The remaining amplitude mode is recently termed as Higgs mode from its analogy to the Higgs boson in particle physics. Despite its long history of investigation, unambiguous observation of Higgs mode has remained elusive. This is because the Higgs mode does not have a charge nor electric dipole and therefore it does not couple directly to the electromagnetic field. Here we report on our recent observation of Higgs mode in s-wave superconductors by using THz-pump and THz-probe spectroscopy technique. After nonadiabatic excitation near the superconducting gap energy with monocycle THz pulses, Higgs mode was observed as oscillations in the transmission of THz probe pulse. The resonant nonlinear coupling between the Higgs mode and coherent radiation field was also discovered, resulting in an efficient third order harmonic generation of the incident THz radiation. The extension of experiments to multiband superconductors and unconventional superconductors will be discussed. Time-resolved study of Higgs mode in superconductors.
Inhomogeneity driven by Higgs instability in a gapless superconductor
Giannakis, Ioannis; Hou Defu; Huang Mei; Ren Haicang
2007-01-01
The fluctuations of the Higgs and pseudo Nambu-Goldstone fields in the 2-flavor color superconductivity (2SC) phase with mismatched pairing are described in the nonlinear realization framework of the gauged Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model. In the gapless 2SC phase, not only Nambu-Goldstone currents can be spontaneously generated, but also the Higgs field exhibits instablity. The Nambu-Goldstone currents generation indicates the formation of the single plane wave Larkin-Ovchinnikov-Fulde-Ferrel state and breaks rotation symmetry, while the Higgs instability favors spatial inhomogeneity and breaks translation invariance. In this paper, we focus on the Higgs instability which has not drawn much attention yet. The Higgs instability cannot be removed without a long range force, thus it persists in the gapless superfluidity and induces phase separation. In the case of gapless 2-flavor color superconductivity state, the Higgs instability can only be partially removed by the electric Coulomb energy. However, it is not excluded that the Higgs instability might be completely removed in the charge neutral gapless color-flavor locked phase by the color Coulomb energy.
Towards adjoint-based inversion for rheological parameters in nonlinear viscous mantle flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Worthen, Jennifer; Stadler, Georg; Petra, Noemi; Gurnis, Michael; Ghattas, Omar
2014-09-01
We address the problem of inferring mantle rheological parameter fields from surface velocity observations and instantaneous nonlinear mantle flow models. We formulate this inverse problem as an infinite-dimensional nonlinear least squares optimization problem governed by nonlinear Stokes equations. We provide expressions for the gradient of the cost functional of this optimization problem with respect to two spatially-varying rheological parameter fields: the viscosity prefactor and the exponent of the second invariant of the strain rate tensor. Adjoint (linearized) Stokes equations, which are characterized by a 4th order anisotropic viscosity tensor, facilitates efficient computation of the gradient. A quasi-Newton method for the solution of this optimization problem is presented, which requires the repeated solution of both nonlinear forward Stokes and linearized adjoint Stokes equations. For the solution of the nonlinear Stokes equations, we find that Newton’s method is significantly more efficient than a Picard fixed point method. Spectral analysis of the inverse operator given by the Hessian of the optimization problem reveals that the numerical eigenvalues collapse rapidly to zero, suggesting a high degree of ill-posedness of the inverse problem. To overcome this ill-posedness, we employ Tikhonov regularization (favoring smooth parameter fields) or total variation (TV) regularization (favoring piecewise-smooth parameter fields). Solution of two- and three-dimensional finite element-based model inverse problems show that a constant parameter in the constitutive law can be recovered well from surface velocity observations. Inverting for a spatially-varying parameter field leads to its reasonable recovery, in particular close to the surface. When inferring two spatially varying parameter fields, only an effective viscosity field and the total viscous dissipation are recoverable. Finally, a model of a subducting plate shows that a localized weak zone at the
Basis-independent methods for the two-Higgs-doublet model
Davidson, Sacha; Haber, Howard E.
2005-08-01
In the most general two-Higgs-doublet model (2HDM), unitary transformations between the two Higgs fields do not change the functional form of the Lagrangian. All physical observables of the model must therefore be independent of such transformations (i.e., independent of the Lagrangian basis choice for the Higgs fields). We exhibit a set of basis-independent quantities that determine all tree-level Higgs couplings and masses. Some examples of the basis-independent treatment of 2HDM discrete symmetries are presented. We also note that the ratio of the neutral Higgs field vacuum expectation values, tan{beta}, is not a meaningful parameter in general, as it is basis dependent. Implications for the more specialized 2HDMs (e.g., the Higgs sector of the minimal supersymmetric extension of the standard model and the so-called type-I and type-II 2HDMs) are explored.
Higgs combination and properties of the Higgs boson
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Duehrssen, Michael; Petrucciani, Giovanni
2016-10-01
The combination of different Higgs boson searches was instrumental for the discovery of the Higgs boson in summer 2012. After the discovery the ATLAS and CMS collaborations have used the LHC Run 1 data to determine the properties of the Higgs boson. The mass of the Higgs boson is 125.09 ± 0.21(stat.) ± 0.11(syst.) GeV. Measurements of kinematic properties of Higgs boson production and decay as well as measurements of signal yields and the coupling strengths to other particles show very good consistency with the predictions of the Standard Model.
A theorem on the Higgs sector of the Standard Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Frasca, Marco
2016-06-01
We provide the solution of the classical theory for the Higgs sector of the Standard Model obtaining the exact Green's function for the broken phase. Solving the Dyson-Schwinger equations for the Higgs field we show that the propagator coincides with that of the classical theory confirming the spectrum also at the quantum level. In this way we obtain a proof of triviality using the Källen-Lehman representation. This has as a consequence that higher excited states must exist for the Higgs particle, representing an internal spectrum for it. Higher excited states have exponentially smaller amplitudes and, so, their production rates are significantly depressed.
Renormalization group improved Higgs inflation with a running kinetic term
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Takahashi, Fuminobu; Takahashi, Ryo
2016-09-01
We study a Higgs inflation model with a running kinetic term, taking account of the renormalization group evolution of relevant coupling constants. Specifically we study two types of the running kinetic Higgs inflation, where the inflaton potential is given by the quadratic or linear term potential in a frame where the Higgs field is canonically normalized. We solve the renormalization group equations at two-loop level and calculate the scalar spectral index and the tensor-to-scalar ratio. We find that, even if the renormalization group effects are included, the quadratic inflation is ruled out by the CMB observations, while the linear one is still allowed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Heimbach, P.; Losch, M.; Menemenlis, D.; Campin, J.; Hill, C.
2008-12-01
The sensitivity of sea-ice export through the Canadian Arctic Archipelago (CAA), measured in terms of its solid freshwater export through Lancaster Sound, to changes in various elements of the ocean and sea-ice state, and to elements of the atmospheric forcing fields through time and space is assessed by means of a coupled ocean/sea-ice adjoint model. The adjoint model furnishes full spatial sensitivity maps (also known as Lagrange multipliers) of the export metric to a variety of model variables at any chosen point in time, providing the unique capability to quantify major drivers of sea-ice export variability. The underlying model is the MIT ocean general circulation model (MITgcm), which is coupled to a Hibler-type dynamic/thermodynamic sea-ice model. The configuration is based on the Arctic face of the ECCO3 high-resolution cubed-sphere model, but coarsened to 36-km horizontal grid spacing. The adjoint of the coupled system has been derived by means of automatic differentiation using the software tool TAF. Finite perturbation simulations are performed to check the information provided by the adjoint. The sea-ice model's performance in the presence of narrow straits is assessed with different sea-ice lateral boundary conditions. The adjoint sensitivity clearly exposes the role of the model trajectory and the transient nature of the problem. The complex interplay between forcing, dynamics, and boundary condition is demonstrated in the comparison between the different calculations. The study is a step towards fully coupled adjoint-based ocean/sea-ice state estimation at basin to global scales as part of the ECCO efforts.
Modularity and 4D-2D spectral equivalences for large- N gauge theories with adjoint matter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Basar, Gökçe; Cherman, Aleksey; Dienes, Keith R.; McGady, David A.
2016-06-01
In recent work, we demonstrated that the confined-phase spectrum of non-supersymmetric pure Yang-Mills theory coincides with the spectrum of the chiral sector of a two-dimensional conformal field theory in the large- N limit. This was done within the tractable setting in which the gauge theory is compactified on a three-sphere whose radius is small compared to the strong length scale. In this paper, we generalize these observations by demonstrating that similar results continue to hold even when massless adjoint matter fields are introduced. These results hold for both thermal and (-1) F -twisted partition functions, and collectively suggest that the spectra of large- N confining gauge theories are organized by the symmetries of two-dimensional conformal field theories.
Adjoint S U (5 ) GUT model with T7 flavor symmetry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arbeláez, Carolina; Cárcamo Hernández, A. E.; Kovalenko, Sergey; Schmidt, Iván
2015-12-01
We propose an adjoint S U (5 ) GUT model with a T7 family symmetry and an extra Z2⊗Z3⊗Z4⊗Z4'⊗Z12 discrete group that successfully describes the prevailing Standard Model fermion mass and mixing pattern. The observed hierarchy of the charged fermion masses and the quark mixing angles arises from the Z3⊗Z4⊗Z12 symmetry breaking, which occurs near the GUT scale. The light active neutrino masses are generated by type-I and type-III seesaw mechanisms mediated by the fermionic S U (5 ) singlet and the adjoint 24 -plet. The model predicts the effective Majorana neutrino mass parameter of neutrinoless double beta decay to be mβ β=4 and 50 meV for the normal and the inverted neutrino spectra, respectively. We construct several benchmark scenarios, which lead to S U (5 ) gauge coupling unification and are compatible with the known phenomenological constraints originating from the lightness of neutrinos, proton decay, dark matter, etc. These scenarios contain TeV-scale colored fields, which could give rise to a visible signal or be stringently constrained at the LHC.
Three-Dimensional Turbulent RANS Adjoint-Based Error Correction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Park, Michael A.
2003-01-01
Engineering problems commonly require functional outputs of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations with specified accuracy. These simulations are performed with limited computational resources. Computable error estimates offer the possibility of quantifying accuracy on a given mesh and predicting a fine grid functional on a coarser mesh. Such an estimate can be computed by solving the flow equations and the associated adjoint problem for the functional of interest. An adjoint-based error correction procedure is demonstrated for transonic inviscid and subsonic laminar and turbulent flow. A mesh adaptation procedure is formulated to target uncertainty in the corrected functional and terminate when error remaining in the calculation is less than a user-specified error tolerance. This adaptation scheme is shown to yield anisotropic meshes with corrected functionals that are more accurate for a given number of grid points then isotropic adapted and uniformly refined grids.
On improving storm surge forecasting using an adjoint optimal technique
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Yineng; Peng, Shiqiu; Yan, Jing; Xie, Lian
2013-12-01
A three-dimensional ocean model and its adjoint model are used to simultaneously optimize the initial conditions (IC) and the wind stress drag coefficient (Cd) for improving storm surge forecasting. To demonstrate the effect of this proposed method, a number of identical twin experiments (ITEs) with a prescription of different error sources and two real data assimilation experiments are performed. Results from both the idealized and real data assimilation experiments show that adjusting IC and Cd simultaneously can achieve much more improvements in storm surge forecasting than adjusting IC or Cd only. A diagnosis on the dynamical balance indicates that adjusting IC only may introduce unrealistic oscillations out of the assimilation window, which can be suppressed by the adjustment of the wind stress when simultaneously adjusting IC and Cd. Therefore, it is recommended to simultaneously adjust IC and Cd to improve storm surge forecasting using an adjoint technique.
Topological vortices in generalized Born-Infeld-Higgs electrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Casana, R.; Hora, E. da; Rubiera-Garcia, D.; Santos, C. dos
2015-08-01
A consistent BPS formalism to study the existence of topological axially symmetric vortices in generalized versions of the Born-Infeld-Higgs electrodynamics is implemented. Such a generalization modifies the field dynamics via the introduction of three nonnegative functions depending only in the Higgs field, namely, , , and . A set of first-order differential equations is attained when these functions satisfy a constraint related to the Ampère law. Such a constraint allows one to minimize the system's energy in such way that it becomes proportional to the magnetic flux. Our results provides an enhancement of the role of topological vortex solutions in Born-Infeld-Higgs electrodynamics. Finally, we analyze a set of models entailing the recovery of a generalized version of Maxwell-Higgs electrodynamics in a certain limit of the theory.
Using Adjoint Methods to Improve 3-D Velocity Models of Southern California
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Q.; Tape, C.; Maggi, A.; Tromp, J.
2006-12-01
We use adjoint methods popular in climate and ocean dynamics to calculate Fréchet derivatives for tomographic inversions in southern California. The Fréchet derivative of an objective function χ(m), where m denotes the Earth model, may be written in the generic form δχ=int Km(x) δln m(x) d3x, where δln m=δ m/m denotes the relative model perturbation. For illustrative purposes, we construct the 3-D finite-frequency banana-doughnut kernel Km, corresponding to the misfit of a single traveltime measurement, by simultaneously computing the 'adjoint' wave field s† forward in time and reconstructing the regular wave field s backward in time. The adjoint wave field is produced by using the time-reversed velocity at the receiver as a fictitious source, while the regular wave field is reconstructed on the fly by propagating the last frame of the wave field saved by a previous forward simulation backward in time. The approach is based upon the spectral-element method, and only two simulations are needed to produce density, shear-wave, and compressional-wave sensitivity kernels. This method is applied to the SCEC southern California velocity model. Various density, shear-wave, and compressional-wave sensitivity kernels are presented for different phases in the seismograms. We also generate 'event' kernels for Pnl, S and surface waves, which are the Fréchet kernels of misfit functions that measure the P, S or surface wave traveltime residuals at all the receivers simultaneously for one particular event. Effectively, an event kernel is a sum of weighted Fréchet kernels, with weights determined by the associated traveltime anomalies. By the nature of the 3-D simulation, every event kernel is also computed based upon just two simulations, i.e., its construction costs the same amount of computation time as an individual banana-doughnut kernel. One can think of the sum of the event kernels for all available earthquakes, called the 'misfit' kernel, as a graphical
A comparison of adjoint and data-centric verification techniques.
Wildey, Timothy Michael; Cyr, Eric C; Shadid, John N; Pawlowski, Roger P; Smith, Thomas Michael
2013-03-01
This document summarizes the results from a level 3 milestone study within the CASL VUQ effort. We compare the adjoint-based a posteriori error estimation approach with a recent variant of a data-centric verification technique. We provide a brief overview of each technique and then we discuss their relative advantages and disadvantages. We use Drekar::CFD to produce numerical results for steady-state Navier Stokes and SARANS approximations. 3
Forward and adjoint sensitivity computation of chaotic dynamical systems
Wang, Qiqi
2013-02-15
This paper describes a forward algorithm and an adjoint algorithm for computing sensitivity derivatives in chaotic dynamical systems, such as the Lorenz attractor. The algorithms compute the derivative of long time averaged “statistical” quantities to infinitesimal perturbations of the system parameters. The algorithms are demonstrated on the Lorenz attractor. We show that sensitivity derivatives of statistical quantities can be accurately estimated using a single, short trajectory (over a time interval of 20) on the Lorenz attractor.
Seismic Window Selection and Misfit Measurements for Global Adjoint Tomography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lei, W.; Bozdag, E.; Lefebvre, M.; Podhorszki, N.; Smith, J. A.; Tromp, J.
2013-12-01
Global Adjoint Tomography requires fast parallel processing of large datasets. After obtaing the preprocessed observed and synthetic seismograms, we use the open source software packages FLEXWIN (Maggi et al. 2007) to select time windows and MEASURE_ADJ to make measurements. These measurements define adjoint sources for data assimilation. Previous versions of these tools work on a pair of SAC files---observed and synthetic seismic data for the same component and station, and loop over all seismic records associated with one earthquake. Given the large number of stations and earthquakes, the frequent read and write operations create severe I/O bottlenecks on modern computing platforms. We present new versions of these tools utilizing a new seismic data format, namely the Adaptive Seismic Data Format(ASDF). This new format shows superior scalability for applications on high-performance computers and accommodates various types of data, including earthquake, industry and seismic interferometry datasets. ASDF also provides user-friendly APIs, which can be easily integrated into the adjoint tomography workflow and combined with other data processing tools. In addition to solving the I/O bottleneck, we are making several improvements to these tools. For example, FLEXWIN is tuned to select windows for different types of earthquakes. To capture their distinct features, we categorize earthquakes by their depths and frequency bands. Moreover, instead of only picking phases between the first P arrival and the surface-wave arrivals, our aim is to select and assimilate many other later prominent phases in adjoint tomography. For example, in the body-wave band (17 s - 60 s), we include SKS, sSKS and their multiple, while in the surface-wave band (60 s - 120 s) we incorporate major-arc surface waves.
Adjoint method for estimating Jiles-Atherton hysteresis model parameters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zaman, Mohammad Asif; Hansen, Paul C.; Neustock, Lars T.; Padhy, Punnag; Hesselink, Lambertus
2016-09-01
A computationally efficient method for identifying the parameters of the Jiles-Atherton hysteresis model is presented. Adjoint analysis is used in conjecture with an accelerated gradient descent optimization algorithm. The proposed method is used to estimate the Jiles-Atherton model parameters of two different materials. The obtained results are found to be in good agreement with the reported values. By comparing with existing methods of model parameter estimation, the proposed method is found to be computationally efficient and fast converging.
Harnik, Roni
2004-10-27
Supersymmetric models have traditionally been assumed to be perturbative up to high scales due to the requirement of calculable unification. In this note I review the recently proposed `Fat Higgs' model which relaxes the requirement of perturbativity. In this framework, an NMSSM-like trilinear coupling becomes strong at some intermediate scale. The NMSSM Higgses are meson composites of an asymptotically-free gauge theory. This allows us to raise the mass of the Higgs, thus alleviating the MSSM of its fine tuning problem. Despite the strong coupling at an intermediate scale, the UV completion allows us to maintain gauge coupling unification.
Unsteady Adjoint Approach for Design Optimization of Flapping Airfoils
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lee, Byung Joon; Liou, Meng-Sing
2012-01-01
This paper describes the work for optimizing the propulsive efficiency of flapping airfoils, i.e., improving the thrust under constraining aerodynamic work during the flapping flights by changing their shape and trajectory of motion with the unsteady discrete adjoint approach. For unsteady problems, it is essential to properly resolving time scales of motion under consideration and it must be compatible with the objective sought after. We include both the instantaneous and time-averaged (periodic) formulations in this study. For the design optimization with shape parameters or motion parameters, the time-averaged objective function is found to be more useful, while the instantaneous one is more suitable for flow control. The instantaneous objective function is operationally straightforward. On the other hand, the time-averaged objective function requires additional steps in the adjoint approach; the unsteady discrete adjoint equations for a periodic flow must be reformulated and the corresponding system of equations solved iteratively. We compare the design results from shape and trajectory optimizations and investigate the physical relevance of design variables to the flapping motion at on- and off-design conditions.
Spectral monodromy of non-self-adjoint operators
Phan, Quang Sang
2014-01-15
In the present paper, we build a combinatorial invariant, called the “spectral monodromy” from the spectrum of a single (non-self-adjoint) h-pseudodifferential operator with two degrees of freedom in the semi-classical limit. Our inspiration comes from the quantum monodromy defined for the joint spectrum of an integrable system of n commuting self-adjoint h-pseudodifferential operators, given by S. Vu Ngoc [“Quantum monodromy in integrable systems,” Commun. Math. Phys. 203(2), 465–479 (1999)]. The first simple case that we treat in this work is a normal operator. In this case, the discrete spectrum can be identified with the joint spectrum of an integrable quantum system. The second more complex case we propose is a small perturbation of a self-adjoint operator with a classical integrability property. We show that the discrete spectrum (in a small band around the real axis) also has a combinatorial monodromy. The main difficulty in this case is that we do not know the description of the spectrum everywhere, but only in a Cantor type set. In addition, we also show that the corresponding monodromy can be identified with the classical monodromy, defined by J. Duistermaat [“On global action-angle coordinates,” Commun. Pure Appl. Math. 33(6), 687–706 (1980)].
Consistent Adjoint Driven Importance Sampling using Space, Energy and Angle
Peplow, Douglas E.; Mosher, Scott W; Evans, Thomas M
2012-08-01
For challenging radiation transport problems, hybrid methods combine the accuracy of Monte Carlo methods with the global information present in deterministic methods. One of the most successful hybrid methods is CADIS Consistent Adjoint Driven Importance Sampling. This method uses a deterministic adjoint solution to construct a biased source distribution and consistent weight windows to optimize a specific tally in a Monte Carlo calculation. The method has been implemented into transport codes using just the spatial and energy information from the deterministic adjoint and has been used in many applications to compute tallies with much higher figures-of-merit than analog calculations. CADIS also outperforms user-supplied importance values, which usually take long periods of user time to develop. This work extends CADIS to develop weight windows that are a function of the position, energy, and direction of the Monte Carlo particle. Two types of consistent source biasing are presented: one method that biases the source in space and energy while preserving the original directional distribution and one method that biases the source in space, energy, and direction. Seven simple example problems are presented which compare the use of the standard space/energy CADIS with the new space/energy/angle treatments.
Optimization of a neutron detector design using adjoint transport simulation
Yi, C.; Manalo, K.; Huang, M.; Chin, M.; Edgar, C.; Applegate, S.; Sjoden, G.
2012-07-01
A synthetic aperture approach has been developed and investigated for Special Nuclear Materials (SNM) detection in vehicles passing a checkpoint at highway speeds. SNM is postulated to be stored in a moving vehicle and detector assemblies are placed on the road-side or in chambers embedded below the road surface. Neutron and gamma spectral awareness is important for the detector assembly design besides high efficiencies, so that different SNMs can be detected and identified with various possible shielding settings. The detector assembly design is composed of a CsI gamma-ray detector block and five neutron detector blocks, with peak efficiencies targeting different energy ranges determined by adjoint simulations. In this study, formulations are derived using adjoint transport simulations to estimate detector efficiencies. The formulations is applied to investigate several neutron detector designs for Block IV, which has its peak efficiency in the thermal range, and Block V, designed to maximize the total neutron counts over the entire energy spectrum. Other Blocks detect different neutron energies. All five neutron detector blocks and the gamma-ray block are assembled in both MCNP and deterministic simulation models, with detector responses calculated to validate the fully assembled design using a 30-group library. The simulation results show that the 30-group library, collapsed from an 80-group library using an adjoint-weighting approach with the YGROUP code, significantly reduced the computational cost while maintaining accuracy. (authors)
Search for Higgs portal DM at the ILC
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ko, P.; Yokoya, Hiroshi
2016-08-01
Higgs portal dark matter (DM) models are simple interesting and viable DM models. There are three types of the models depending on the DM spin: scalar, fermion and vector DM models. In this paper, we consider renormalizable, unitary and gauge invariant Higgs portal DM models, and study how large parameter regions can be surveyed at the International Linear Collider (ILC) experiment at √{s}=500 GeV. For the Higgs portal singlet fermion and vector DM cases, the force mediator involves two scalar propagators, the SM-like Higgs boson and the dark Higgs boson. We show that their interference generates interesting and important patterns in the mono- Z plus missing E T signatures at the ILC, and the results are completely different from those obtained from the Higgs portal DM models within the effective field theories. In addition, we show that it would be possible to distinguish the spin of DM in the Higgs portal scenarios, if the shape of the recoil-mass distribution is observed. We emphasize that the interplay between these collider observations and those in the direct detection experiments has to be performed in the model with renomalizability and unitarity to combine the model analyses in different scales.
Signatures of a nonstandard Higgs boson from flavor physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Catà, Oscar; Jung, Martin
2015-09-01
We examine the constraints coming from incorporating the full Standard Model gauge symmetry into the effective field theory description of flavor processes, using semileptonic decays as paradigmatic examples. Depending on the dynamics triggering electroweak symmetry breaking, different patterns of correlations between the Wilson coefficients arise. Interestingly, this implies that flavor experiments are capable of shedding light upon the nature of the Higgs boson without actually requiring Higgs final states. Furthermore, the observed correlations can simplify model-independent analyses of these decays.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guerrette, J. J.; Henze, D. K.
2015-06-01
Here we present the online meteorology and chemistry adjoint and tangent linear model, WRFPLUS-Chem (Weather Research and Forecasting plus chemistry), which incorporates modules to treat boundary layer mixing, emission, aging, dry deposition, and advection of black carbon aerosol. We also develop land surface and surface layer adjoints to account for coupling between radiation and vertical mixing. Model performance is verified against finite difference derivative approximations. A second-order checkpointing scheme is created to reduce computational costs and enable simulations longer than 6 h. The adjoint is coupled to WRFDA-Chem, in order to conduct a sensitivity study of anthropogenic and biomass burning sources throughout California during the 2008 Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS) field campaign. A cost-function weighting scheme was devised to reduce the impact of statistically insignificant residual errors in future inverse modeling studies. Results of the sensitivity study show that, for this domain and time period, anthropogenic emissions are overpredicted, while wildfire emission error signs vary spatially. We consider the diurnal variation in emission sensitivities to determine at what time sources should be scaled up or down. Also, adjoint sensitivities for two choices of land surface model (LSM) indicate that emission inversion results would be sensitive to forward model configuration. The tools described here are the first step in conducting four-dimensional variational data assimilation in a coupled meteorology-chemistry model, which will potentially provide new constraints on aerosol precursor emissions and their distributions. Such analyses will be invaluable to assessments of particulate matter health and climate impacts.
Kasamatsu, Kenichi; Ichinose, Ikuo; Matsui, Tetsuo
2013-09-13
Recently, the possibility of quantum simulation of dynamical gauge fields was pointed out by using a system of cold atoms trapped on each link in an optical lattice. However, to implement exact local gauge invariance, fine-tuning the interaction parameters among atoms is necessary. In the present Letter, we study the effect of violation of the U(1) local gauge invariance by relaxing the fine-tuning of the parameters and showing that a wide variety of cold atoms is still a faithful quantum simulator for a U(1) gauge-Higgs model containing a Higgs field sitting on sites. The clarification of the dynamics of this gauge-Higgs model sheds some light upon various unsolved problems, including the inflation process of the early Universe. We study the phase structure of this model by Monte Carlo simulation and also discuss the atomic characteristics of the Higgs phase in each simulator.
Ren, Jing; Xianyu, Zhong-Zhi; He, Hong-Jian E-mail: xianyuzhongzhi@gmail.com
2014-06-01
We study gravitational interaction of Higgs boson through the unique dimension-4 operator ξH{sup †}HR, with H the Higgs doublet and R the Ricci scalar curvature. We analyze the effect of this dimensionless nonminimal coupling ξ on weak gauge boson scattering in both Jordan and Einstein frames. We explicitly establish the longitudinal-Goldstone equivalence theorem with nonzero ξ coupling in both frames, and analyze the unitarity constraints. We study the ξ-induced weak boson scattering cross sections at O(1−30) TeV scales, and propose to probe the Higgs-gravity coupling via weak boson scattering experiments at the LHC (14 TeV) and the next generation pp colliders (50-100 TeV). We further extend our study to Higgs inflation, and quantitatively derive the perturbative unitarity bounds via coupled channel analysis, under large field background at the inflation scale. We analyze the unitarity constraints on the parameter space in both the conventional Higgs inflation and the improved models in light of the recent BICEP2 data.
Postinflationary Higgs relaxation and the origin of matter-antimatter asymmetry.
Kusenko, Alexander; Pearce, Lauren; Yang, Louis
2015-02-13
The recent measurement of the Higgs boson mass implies a relatively slow rise of the standard model Higgs potential at large scales, and a possible second minimum at even larger scales. Consequently, the Higgs field may develop a large vacuum expectation value during inflation. The relaxation of the Higgs field from its large postinflationary value to the minimum of the effective potential represents an important stage in the evolution of the Universe. During this epoch, the time-dependent Higgs condensate can create an effective chemical potential for the lepton number, leading to a generation of the lepton asymmetry in the presence of some large right-handed Majorana neutrino masses. The electroweak sphalerons redistribute this asymmetry between leptons and baryons. This Higgs relaxation leptogenesis can explain the observed matter-antimatter asymmetry of the Universe even if the standard model is valid up to the scale of inflation, and any new physics is suppressed by that high scale.
A new mathematical adjoint for the modified SAAF_{-SN} equations
Schunert, Sebastian; Wang, Yaqi; Martineau, Richard; DeHart, Mark D.
2015-01-01
We present a new adjoint FEM weak form, which can be directly used for evaluating the mathematical adjoint, suitable for perturbation calculations, of the self-adjoint angular flux SN equations (SAAF_{-SN}) without construction and transposition of the underlying coefficient matrix. Stabilization schemes incorporated in the described SAAF_{-SN} method make the mathematical adjoint distinct from the physical adjoint, i.e. the solution of the continuous adjoint equation with SAAF_{-SN} . This weak form is implemented into RattleSnake, the MOOSE (Multiphysics Object-Oriented Simulation Environment) based transport solver. Numerical results verify the correctness of the implementation and show its utility both for fixed source and eigenvalue problems.
Nonlinear self-adjointness and conservation laws of Klein-Gordon-Fock equation with central symmetry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abdulwahhab, Muhammad Alim
2015-05-01
The concept of nonlinear self-adjointness, introduced by Ibragimov, has significantly extends approaches to constructing conservation laws associated with symmetries since it incorporates the strict self-adjointness, the quasi self-adjointness as well as the usual linear self-adjointness. Using this concept, the nonlinear self-adjointness condition for the Klein-Gordon-Fock equation was established and subsequently used to construct simplified but infinitely many nontrivial and independent conserved vectors. The Noether's theorem was further applied to the Klein-Gordon-Fock equation to explore more distinct first integrals, result shows that conservation laws constructed through this approach are exactly the same as those obtained under strict self-adjointness of Ibragimov's method.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kanemura, Shinya; Kaneta, Kunio; Machida, Naoki; Odori, Shinya; Shindou, Tetsuo
2016-07-01
In the composite Higgs models, originally proposed by Georgi and Kaplan, the Higgs boson is a pseudo Nambu-Goldstone boson (pNGB) of spontaneous breaking of a global symmetry. In the minimal version of such models, global SO(5) symmetry is spontaneously broken to SO(4), and the pNGBs form an isospin doublet field, which corresponds to the Higgs doublet in the Standard Model (SM). Predicted coupling constants of the Higgs boson can in general deviate from the SM predictions, depending on the compositeness parameter. The deviation pattern is determined also by the detail of the matter sector. We comprehensively study how the model can be tested via measuring single and double production processes of the Higgs boson at the LHC and future electron-positron colliders. The possibility to distinguish the matter sector among the minimal composite Higgs models is also discussed. In addition, we point out differences in the cross section of double Higgs boson production from the prediction in other new physics models.
Adjoint-Based Sensitivity Maps for the Nearshore
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Orzech, Mark; Veeramony, Jay; Ngodock, Hans
2013-04-01
The wave model SWAN (Booij et al., 1999) solves the spectral action balance equation to produce nearshore wave forecasts and climatologies. It is widely used by the coastal modeling community and is part of a variety of coupled ocean-wave-atmosphere model systems. A variational data assimilation system (Orzech et al., 2013) has recently been developed for SWAN and is presently being transitioned to operational use by the U.S. Naval Oceanographic Office. This system is built around a numerical adjoint to the fully nonlinear, nonstationary SWAN code. When provided with measured or artificial "observed" spectral wave data at a location of interest on a given nearshore bathymetry, the adjoint can compute the degree to which spectral energy levels at other locations are correlated with - or "sensitive" to - variations in the observed spectrum. Adjoint output may be used to construct a sensitivity map for the entire domain, tracking correlations of spectral energy throughout the grid. When access is denied to the actual locations of interest, sensitivity maps can be used to determine optimal alternate locations for data collection by identifying regions of greatest sensitivity in the mapped domain. The present study investigates the properties of adjoint-generated sensitivity maps for nearshore wave spectra. The adjoint and forward SWAN models are first used in an idealized test case at Duck, NC, USA, to demonstrate the system's effectiveness at optimizing forecasts of shallow water wave spectra for an inaccessible surf-zone location. Then a series of simulations is conducted for a variety of different initializing conditions, to examine the effects of seasonal changes in wave climate, errors in bathymetry, and variations in size and shape of the inaccessible region of interest. Model skill is quantified using two methods: (1) a more traditional correlation of observed and modeled spectral statistics such as significant wave height, and (2) a recently developed RMS
Searching for composite Higgs models at the LHC
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Flacke, Thomas
2016-07-01
Composite Higgs models have the potential to provide a solution to the hierarchy problem and a dynamical explanation for the generation of the Higgs potential. They can be tested at the LHC as the new sector which underlies electroweak symmetry breaking must become strong in the TeV regime, which implies additional bound states beyond the Higgs. In this paper, we first discuss prospects and search strategies for top partners (and other quark partners) in the strongly coupled sector, which we study in an effective field theory setup. In the second part of the proceedings, we go beyond the effective field theory approach. We discuss potential UV embeddings for composite Higgs models which contain a Higgs as well as top partners. We show that in all of these models, additional pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone bosons beyond the Higgs are present. In particular, all of the models contain a pseudoscalar which couples to the Standard Model gauge fields through Wess-Zumino-Witten terms, providing a prime candidate for a di-boson (including a di-photon) resonance. The models also contain colored pNGBs which can be searched for at the LHC.
Higgs potential and hidden light Higgs scenario in two Higgs doublet models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chang, Sanghyeon; Kang, Sin Kyu; Lee, Jong-Phil; Song, Jeonghyeon
2015-10-01
In two Higgs doublet models, there exists an interesting possibility, the hidden light Higgs scenario, that the discovered SM-like Higgs boson is the heavier C P -even Higgs boson H0 and the lighter C P -even h0 has not been observed yet in any experiment. We study the current status of this scenario in Types I, II, X, and Y, through the scans of the parameters with all relevant theoretical and experimental constraints. We employ not only the most up-to-date Higgs signal strength measurements with the feed-down effects, but also all the available LHC exclusion limits from heavy Higgs searches. Adjusting the heavier H0 to the 125 GeV state while hiding the lighter h0 from the LEP Higgs search prohibits the extreme decoupling limit: there exist upper bounds on the masses of the pseudoscalar A0 and the charged Higgs H± below about 600 GeV. In addition, the Z2 symmetry is shown to be a good approximate symmetry since the soft Z2 symmetry breaking parameter m122 should be less than about (45 GeV )2 . Most interestingly, a few parameters in the Higgs potential and the related Higgs triple and quartic couplings are shown to be meaningfully constrained by the current data. The double Higgs-strahlung process at an e+e- collider is also studied.
CDF's Higgs sensitivity status
Junk, Tom; /Illinois U., Urbana
2005-10-01
The combined sensitivity of CDF's current Standard Model Higgs boson searches is presented. The expected 95% CL limits on the production cross section times the relevant Higgs boson branching ratios are computed for the W{sup {+-}}H {yields} {ell}{sup {+-}}{nu}b{bar b}, ZH {yields} {nu}{bar {nu}}b{bar b}, gg {yields} H {yields} W{sup +}W{sup -} W{sup {+-}}H {yields} W{sup {+-}}W{sup +}W{sup -} channels as they stand as of the October 2005, using results which were prepared for Summer 2005 conferences and a newer result form the gg {yields} H {yields} W{sup +}W{sup -} channel. Correlated and uncorrelated systematic uncertainties are taken into account, and the luminosity requirements for 95% CL exclusion, 3{sigma} evidence, and 5{sigma} discovery are computed for median experimental outcomes. A list of improvements required to achieve the sensitivity to a SM Higgs boson as quantified in the Higgs Sensitivity Working Group's report is provided.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
von Gersdorff, Gero; Pontón, Eduardo; Rosenfeld, Rogerio
2015-06-01
We present a simple microscopic realization of a pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone (pNGB) boson Higgs scenario arising from the breaking of SO(5) → SO(4). The Higgs constituents are explicitly identified as well as the interactions responsible for forming the bound state and breaking the electroweak symmetry. This outcome follows from the presence of four-fermion interactions with a super-critical coupling, and uses the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio mechanism to break the global SO(5) symmetry. The Higgs potential is found to be insensitive to high energy scales due to the existence of an approximate infrared fixed point. The appearance of vector resonances is described and the correspondence with other proposals in the literature established. The model described here is significantly simpler than other recent ultraviolet completions of pNGB scenarios. The observed Higgs mass can be accommodated, and agreement with electroweak precision tests achieved in certain regions of parameter space. There are also new vector-like fermions, some of which may lie within reach of the LHC. In addition, we predict a heavy standard model singlet scalar in the multi-TeV range. The amount of fine-tuning required in the model is studied. Finally, we show that such a scheme can be completed in the ultraviolet by a renormalizable theory.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lee-Rausch, E. M.; Park, M. A.; Jones, W. T.; Hammond, D. P.; Nielsen, E. J.
2005-01-01
This paper demonstrates the extension of error estimation and adaptation methods to parallel computations enabling larger, more realistic aerospace applications and the quantification of discretization errors for complex 3-D solutions. Results were shown for an inviscid sonic-boom prediction about a double-cone configuration and a wing/body segmented leading edge (SLE) configuration where the output function of the adjoint was pressure integrated over a part of the cylinder in the near field. After multiple cycles of error estimation and surface/field adaptation, a significant improvement in the inviscid solution for the sonic boom signature of the double cone was observed. Although the double-cone adaptation was initiated from a very coarse mesh, the near-field pressure signature from the final adapted mesh compared very well with the wind-tunnel data which illustrates that the adjoint-based error estimation and adaptation process requires no a priori refinement of the mesh. Similarly, the near-field pressure signature for the SLE wing/body sonic boom configuration showed a significant improvement from the initial coarse mesh to the final adapted mesh in comparison with the wind tunnel results. Error estimation and field adaptation results were also presented for the viscous transonic drag prediction of the DLR-F6 wing/body configuration, and results were compared to a series of globally refined meshes. Two of these globally refined meshes were used as a starting point for the error estimation and field-adaptation process where the output function for the adjoint was the total drag. The field-adapted results showed an improvement in the prediction of the drag in comparison with the finest globally refined mesh and a reduction in the estimate of the remaining drag error. The adjoint-based adaptation parameter showed a need for increased resolution in the surface of the wing/body as well as a need for wake resolution downstream of the fuselage and wing trailing edge
Unitarity check in gravitational Higgs mechanism
Berezhiani, Lasha; Mirbabayi, Mehrdad
2011-03-15
The effective field theory of massive gravity has long been formulated in a generally covariant way [N. Arkani-Hamed, H. Georgi, and M. D. Schwartz, Ann. Phys. (N.Y.) 305, 96 (2003).]. Using this formalism, it has been found recently that there exists a class of massive nonlinear theories that are free of the Boulware-Deser ghosts, at least in the decoupling limit [C. de Rham and G. Gabadadze, Phys. Rev. D 82, 044020 (2010).]. In this work we study other recently proposed models that go under the name of 'gravitational Higgs theories' [A. H. Chamseddine and V. Mukhanov, J. High Energy Phys. 08 (2010) 011.]. We show that these models, although seemingly different from the effective field theories of massive gravity, are in fact equivalent to them. Furthermore, based on the results obtained in the effective field theory approach, we conclude that the gravitational Higgs theories need the same adjustment of the Lagrangian to avoid the ghosts. We also show the equivalence between the noncovariant mode decomposition used in the Higgs theories, and the covariant Stueckelberg parametrization adopted in the effective field theories, thus proving that the presence or absence of the ghost is independent of the parametrization used in either theory.
Gauge turbulence, topological defect dynamics, and condensation in Higgs models
Gasenzer, Thomas; McLerran, Larry; Pawlowski, Jan M.; Sexty, Dénes
2014-07-28
The real-time dynamics of topological defects and turbulent configurations of gauge fields for electric and magnetic confinement are studied numerically within a 2+1D Abelian Higgs model. It is shown that confinement is appearing in such systems equilibrating after a strong initial quench such as the overpopulation of the infrared modes. While the final equilibrium state does not support confinement, metastable vortex defect configurations appearing in the gauge field are found to be closely related to the appearance of physically observable confined electric and magnetic charges. These phenomena are seen to be intimately related to the approach of a non-thermal fixed point of the far-from-equilibrium dynamical evolution, signaled by universal scaling in the gauge-invariant correlation function of the Higgs field. Even when the parameters of the Higgs action do not support condensate formation in the vacuum, during this approach, transient Higgs condensation is observed. We discuss implications of these results for the far-from-equilibrium dynamics of Yang–Mills fields and potential mechanisms of how confinement and condensation in non-Abelian gauge fields can be understood in terms of the dynamics of Higgs models. These suggest that there is an interesting new class of dynamics of strong coherent turbulent gauge fields with condensates.
Gauge turbulence, topological defect dynamics, and condensation in Higgs models
Gasenzer, Thomas; McLerran, Larry; Pawlowski, Jan M.; Sexty, Dénes
2014-07-28
The real-time dynamics of topological defects and turbulent configurations of gauge fields for electric and magnetic confinement are studied numerically within a 2+1D Abelian Higgs model. It is shown that confinement is appearing in such systems equilibrating after a strong initial quench such as the overpopulation of the infrared modes. While the final equilibrium state does not support confinement, metastable vortex defect configurations appearing in the gauge field are found to be closely related to the appearance of physically observable confined electric and magnetic charges. These phenomena are seen to be intimately related to the approach of a non-thermal fixedmore » point of the far-from-equilibrium dynamical evolution, signaled by universal scaling in the gauge-invariant correlation function of the Higgs field. Even when the parameters of the Higgs action do not support condensate formation in the vacuum, during this approach, transient Higgs condensation is observed. We discuss implications of these results for the far-from-equilibrium dynamics of Yang–Mills fields and potential mechanisms of how confinement and condensation in non-Abelian gauge fields can be understood in terms of the dynamics of Higgs models. These suggest that there is an interesting new class of dynamics of strong coherent turbulent gauge fields with condensates.« less
Phenomenology of SU(5) low-energy realizations: The diphoton excess and Higgs flavor violation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Di Iura, Andrea; Herrero-Garcia, Juan; Meloni, Davide
2016-10-01
We discuss different SU(5) low-energy realizations and illustrate their use with the diphoton excess and Higgs flavor violation, which require new physics at the TeV scale. In particular, we study two scenarios for a 750 GeV resonance: in the first one the resonance belongs to the adjoint of SU(5), being either an SU (2)L singlet or a triplet, while in the second case the signal is due to the CP-even and CP-odd states of a new SU (2)L Higgs doublet belonging to a 45H or a 70H representations, giving rise to a two-Higgs doublet model at low energies. We study the fine-tuning needed for the desired members of the multiplets to be light enough, while having the rest at the GUT scale. In these scenarios, the production and decay into photons of the new resonance are mediated by the leptoquarks (LQ) present in these large SU(5) representations. We analyze the phenomenology of such scenarios, focusing on the most relevant predictions that can help to disentangle the different models, like decays into gauge bosons, Standard Model (SM) fermions and LQs pair production. In the case of the 45H (the Georgi-Jarlskog model), we also study the possibility to have Higgs flavor violation. We find that Bs mixing limits (in addition to τ → μγ) always imply that Br (h → τμ , bs) ≲10-5.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Andrews, Arlyn; Kawa, Randy; Zhu, Zhengxin; Burris, John; Abshire, Jim
2004-01-01
A detailed mechanistic understanding of the sources and sinks of CO2 will be required to reliably predict future CO2 levels and climate. A commonly used technique for deriving information about CO2 exchange with surface reservoirs is to solve an 'inverse problem', where CO2 observations are used with an atmospheric transport model to find the optimal distribution of sources and sinks. Synthesis inversion methods are powerful tools for addressing this question, but the results are disturbingly sensitive to the details of the calculation. Studies done using different atmospheric transport models and combinations of surface station data have produced substantially different distributions of surface fluxes. Adjoint methods are now being developed that will more effectively incorporate diverse datasets in estimates of surface fluxes of CO2. In an adjoint framework, it will be possible to combine CO2 concentration data from longterm surface and aircraft monitoring stations with data from intensive field campaigns and with proposed future satellite observations. We have recently developed an adjoint for the GSFC 3-D Parameterized Chemistry and Transport Model (PCTM). Here, we will present results from a PCTM Adjoint study comparing the sampling footprints of tall tower, aircraft and potential future lidar observations of CO2. The vertical resolution and extent of the profiles and the observation frequency will be considered for several sites in North America.
Goh, Hock-Seng; Goh, Hock-Seng; Krenke, Christopher A.
2007-07-25
We present a twin Higgs model based on left-right symmetry with a tree level quartic. This is made possible by extending the symmetry of the model to include two Z_2 parities, each of which is sufficient to protect the Higgs from getting a quadratically divergent mass squared. Although both parities are brokenexplicitly, the symmetries that protect the Higgs from getting a quadratically divergent mass are broken only collectively. The quadratic divergences of the Higgs mass are thus still protected at one loop. We find that the fine-tuning in this model is reduced substantially compared to the original left-right twin Higgs model. This mechanism can also be applied to the mirror twin Higgs model to get a significant reduction of the fine-tuning, while keeping the mirror photon massless.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lemke, Mathias; Reiss, Julius; Sesterhenn, Jörn
2016-06-01
Particle image velocimetry (PIV) is one of the major tools to measure velocity fields in experiments. However, other flow properties like density or pressure are often of vital interest, but usually cannot be measured non-intrusively. There are many approaches to overcome this problem, but none is fully satisfactory. Here the computational method of an adjoint based data assimilation for this purpose is discussed. A numerical simulation of a flow is adapted to given velocity data. After successful adaption, previously unknown quantities can be taken from the - necessarily complete - simulation data. The main focus of this work is the efficient implementation of this approach by boundary driven optimisation. Synthetic test cases are presented to allow an assessment of the method.
Adjoint-based optimization for understanding and suppressing jet noise
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Freund, Jonathan B.
2011-08-01
Advanced simulation tools, particularly large-eddy simulation techniques, are becoming capable of making quality predictions of jet noise for realistic nozzle geometries and at engineering relevant flow conditions. Increasing computer resources will be a key factor in improving these predictions still further. Quality prediction, however, is only a necessary condition for the use of such simulations in design optimization. Predictions do not themselves lead to quieter designs. They must be interpreted or harnessed in some way that leads to design improvements. As yet, such simulations have not yielded any simplifying principals that offer general design guidance. The turbulence mechanisms leading to jet noise remain poorly described in their complexity. In this light, we have implemented and demonstrated an aeroacoustic adjoint-based optimization technique that automatically calculates gradients that point the direction in which to adjust controls in order to improve designs. This is done with only a single flow solutions and a solution of an adjoint system, which is solved at computational cost comparable to that for the flow. Optimization requires iterations, but having the gradient information provided via the adjoint accelerates convergence in a manner that is insensitive to the number of parameters to be optimized. This paper, which follows from a presentation at the 2010 IUTAM Symposium on Computational Aero-Acoustics for Aircraft Noise Prediction, reviews recent and ongoing efforts by the author and co-workers. It provides a new formulation of the basic approach and demonstrates the approach on a series of model flows, culminating with a preliminary result for a turbulent jet.
Adjoint optimization of natural convection problems: differentially heated cavity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saglietti, Clio; Schlatter, Philipp; Monokrousos, Antonios; Henningson, Dan S.
2016-06-01
Optimization of natural convection-driven flows may provide significant improvements to the performance of cooling devices, but a theoretical investigation of such flows has been rarely done. The present paper illustrates an efficient gradient-based optimization method for analyzing such systems. We consider numerically the natural convection-driven flow in a differentially heated cavity with three Prandtl numbers (Pr=0.15{-}7 ) at super-critical conditions. All results and implementations were done with the spectral element code Nek5000. The flow is analyzed using linear direct and adjoint computations about a nonlinear base flow, extracting in particular optimal initial conditions using power iteration and the solution of the full adjoint direct eigenproblem. The cost function for both temperature and velocity is based on the kinetic energy and the concept of entransy, which yields a quadratic functional. Results are presented as a function of Prandtl number, time horizons and weights between kinetic energy and entransy. In particular, it is shown that the maximum transient growth is achieved at time horizons on the order of 5 time units for all cases, whereas for larger time horizons the adjoint mode is recovered as optimal initial condition. For smaller time horizons, the influence of the weights leads either to a concentric temperature distribution or to an initial condition pattern that opposes the mean shear and grows according to the Orr mechanism. For specific cases, it could also been shown that the computation of optimal initial conditions leads to a degenerate problem, with a potential loss of symmetry. In these situations, it turns out that any initial condition lying in a specific span of the eigenfunctions will yield exactly the same transient amplification. As a consequence, the power iteration converges very slowly and fails to extract all possible optimal initial conditions. According to the authors' knowledge, this behavior is illustrated here
A self-adjoint decomposition of the radial momentum operator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Q. H.; Xiao, S. F.
2015-12-01
With acceptance of the Dirac's observation that the canonical quantization entails using Cartesian coordinates, we examine the operator erPr rather than Pr itself and demonstrate that there is a decomposition of erPr into a difference of two self-adjoint but noncommutative operators, in which one is the total momentum and another is the transverse one. This study renders the operator Pr indirectly measurable and physically meaningful, offering an explanation of why the mean value of Pr over a quantum mechanical state makes sense and supporting Dirac's claim that Pr "is real and is the true momentum conjugate to r".
Adjoint Techniques for Topology Optimization of Structures Under Damage Conditions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Akgun, Mehmet A.; Haftka, Raphael T.
2000-01-01
The objective of this cooperative agreement was to seek computationally efficient ways to optimize aerospace structures subject to damage tolerance criteria. Optimization was to involve sizing as well as topology optimization. The work was done in collaboration with Steve Scotti, Chauncey Wu and Joanne Walsh at the NASA Langley Research Center. Computation of constraint sensitivity is normally the most time-consuming step of an optimization procedure. The cooperative work first focused on this issue and implemented the adjoint method of sensitivity computation (Haftka and Gurdal, 1992) in an optimization code (runstream) written in Engineering Analysis Language (EAL). The method was implemented both for bar and plate elements including buckling sensitivity for the latter. Lumping of constraints was investigated as a means to reduce the computational cost. Adjoint sensitivity computation was developed and implemented for lumped stress and buckling constraints. Cost of the direct method and the adjoint method was compared for various structures with and without lumping. The results were reported in two papers (Akgun et al., 1998a and 1999). It is desirable to optimize topology of an aerospace structure subject to a large number of damage scenarios so that a damage tolerant structure is obtained. Including damage scenarios in the design procedure is critical in order to avoid large mass penalties at later stages (Haftka et al., 1983). A common method for topology optimization is that of compliance minimization (Bendsoe, 1995) which has not been used for damage tolerant design. In the present work, topology optimization is treated as a conventional problem aiming to minimize the weight subject to stress constraints. Multiple damage configurations (scenarios) are considered. Each configuration has its own structural stiffness matrix and, normally, requires factoring of the matrix and solution of the system of equations. Damage that is expected to be tolerated is local
Advances in Global Adjoint Tomography -- Massive Data Assimilation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ruan, Y.; Lei, W.; Bozdag, E.; Lefebvre, M. P.; Smith, J. A.; Krischer, L.; Tromp, J.
2015-12-01
Azimuthal anisotropy and anelasticity are key to understanding a myriad of processes in Earth's interior. Resolving these properties requires accurate simulations of seismic wave propagation in complex 3-D Earth models and an iterative inversion strategy. In the wake of successes in regional studies(e.g., Chen et al., 2007; Tape et al., 2009, 2010; Fichtner et al., 2009, 2010; Chen et al.,2010; Zhu et al., 2012, 2013; Chen et al., 2015), we are employing adjoint tomography based on a spectral-element method (Komatitsch & Tromp 1999, 2002) on a global scale using the supercomputer ''Titan'' at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. After 15 iterations, we have obtained a high-resolution transversely isotropic Earth model (M15) using traveltime data from 253 earthquakes. To obtain higher resolution images of the emerging new features and to prepare the inversion for azimuthal anisotropy and anelasticity, we expanded the original dataset with approximately 4,220 additional global earthquakes (Mw5.5-7.0) --occurring between 1995 and 2014-- and downloaded 300-minute-long time series for all available data archived at the IRIS Data Management Center, ORFEUS, and F-net. Ocean Bottom Seismograph data from the last decade are also included to maximize data coverage. In order to handle the huge dataset and solve the I/O bottleneck in global adjoint tomography, we implemented a python-based parallel data processing workflow based on the newly developed Adaptable Seismic Data Format (ASDF). With the help of the data selection tool MUSTANG developed by IRIS, we cleaned our dataset and assembled event-based ASDF files for parallel processing. We have started Centroid Moment Tensors (CMT) inversions for all 4,220 earthquakes with the latest model M15, and selected high-quality data for measurement. We will statistically investigate each channel using synthetic seismograms calculated in M15 for updated CMTs and identify problematic channels. In addition to data screening, we also modified
Global flow of the Higgs potential in a Yukawa model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Borchardt, Julia; Gies, Holger; Sondenheimer, René
2016-08-01
We study the renormalization flow of the Higgs potential as a function of both field amplitude and energy scale. This overcomes limitations of conventional techniques that rely, e.g., on an identification of field amplitude and RG scale, or on local field expansions. Using a Higgs-Yukawa model with discrete chiral symmetry as an example, our global flows in field space clarify the origin of possible metastabilities, the fate of the pseudo-stable phase, and provide new information as regards the renormalization of the tunnel barrier. Our results confirm the relaxation of the lower bound for the Higgs mass in the presence of more general microscopic interactions (higher-dimensional operators) to a high quantitative accuracy.
Draper, P.; Liu, T.; Wagner, C. E. M.; Wang, L.-T.; Zhang, H.
2011-03-24
We study a limit of the nearly Peccei-Quinn-symmetric next-to-minimal supersymmetric standard model possessing novel Higgs and dark matter (DM) properties. In this scenario, there naturally coexist three light singletlike particles: a scalar, a pseudoscalar, and a singlinolike DM candidate, all with masses of order 0.1-10 GeV. The decay of a standard model-like Higgs boson to pairs of the light scalars or pseudoscalars is generically suppressed, avoiding constraints from collider searches for these channels. For a certain parameter window annihilation into the light pseudoscalar and exchange of the light scalar with nucleons allow the singlino to achieve the correct relic density and a large direct-detection cross section consistent with the DM direct-detection experiments, CoGeNT and DAMA/LIBRA, preferred region simultaneously. This parameter space is consistent with experimental constraints from LEP, the Tevatron, ?, and flavor physics.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
David, André Dührssen, Michael
2016-10-01
This chapter presents an overview of the measured properties of the Higgs boson discovered in 2012 by the ATLAS and CMS collaborations at the CERN LHC. Searches for deviations from the properties predicted by the standard theory are also summarised. The present status corresponds to the combined analysis of the full Run 1 data sets of collisions collected at centre-of-mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV.
Quantum dissipative Higgs model
Amooghorban, Ehsan Mahdifar, Ali
2015-09-15
By using a continuum of oscillators as a reservoir, we present a classical and a quantum-mechanical treatment for the Higgs model in the presence of dissipation. In this base, a fully canonical approach is used to quantize the damped particle on a spherical surface under the action of a conservative central force, the conjugate momentum is defined and the Hamiltonian is derived. The equations of motion for the canonical variables and in turn the Langevin equation are obtained. It is shown that the dynamics of the dissipative Higgs model is not only determined by a projected susceptibility tensor that obeys the Kramers–Kronig relations and a noise operator but also the curvature of the spherical space. Due to the gnomonic projection from the spherical space to the tangent plane, the projected susceptibility displays anisotropic character in the tangent plane. To illuminate the effect of dissipation on the Higgs model, the transition rate between energy levels of the particle on the sphere is calculated. It is seen that appreciable probabilities for transition are possible only if the transition and reservoir’s oscillators frequencies to be nearly on resonance.
On rational R-matrices with adjoint SU(n) symmetry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stronks, Laurens; van de Leur, Johan; Schuricht, Dirk
2016-11-01
Using the representation theory of Yangians we construct the rational R-matrix which takes values in the adjoint representation of SU(n). From this we derive an integrable SU(n) spin chain with lattice spins transforming under the adjoint representation. However, the resulting Hamiltonian is found to be non-Hermitian. Dedicated to the memory of Petr Petrovich Kulish.
Comparison of the Monte Carlo adjoint-weighted and differential operator perturbation methods
Kiedrowski, Brian C; Brown, Forrest B
2010-01-01
Two perturbation theory methodologies are implemented for k-eigenvalue calculations in the continuous-energy Monte Carlo code, MCNP6. A comparison of the accuracy of these techniques, the differential operator and adjoint-weighted methods, is performed numerically and analytically. Typically, the adjoint-weighted method shows better performance over a larger range; however, there are exceptions.
Nonlinear self-adjointness and conservation laws for a porous medium equation with absorption
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gandarias, M. L.; Bruzón, M. S.
2013-10-01
We give conditions for a general porous medium equation to be nonlinear self-adjoint. By using the property of nonlinear self-adjointness we construct some conservation laws associated with classical and nonclassical generators of a porous medium equation with absorption.
Generation of the Higgs condensate and its decay after inflation
Enqvist, Kari; Meriniemi, Tuukka; Nurmi, Sami E-mail: tuukka.meriniemi@helsinki.fi
2013-10-01
We investigate the dynamics of the Standard Model higgs with a minimal coupling to gravity during and after inflation. In the regime where the Standard Model vacuum is stable, we find that the higgs becomes a light spectator field after about 30 efolds of inflation, irrespectively of its initial value. Once the higgs has become light, its root-mean-square value h{sub *} relaxes to equilibrium in about 85 efolds for the inflationary scale of H{sub *} = 10{sup 4} GeV and in 20 efolds for H{sub *} = 10{sup 10} GeV. The equilibrium value is given by h{sub *} ∼ 0.36λ{sub *}{sup −1/4}H{sub *}, where λ{sub *} = 0.09...0.0005 is the higgs self coupling at the scales H{sub *} = 10{sup 4}...10{sup 10} GeV. We show that the main decay channel of the higgs condensate after inflation is the resonant production of Standard Model gauge bosons. For a set of parameters we find that a significant part of the condensate has decayed in between 340 and 630 Hubble times after the onset of higgs oscillations, depending on H{sub *} in a non-trivial way. The higgs perturbations correspond to isocurvature modes during inflation but they could generate significant adiabatic perturbations at a later stage for example through a modulation of the reheating stage. However, this requires that the inflaton(s) decay no later than a few hundred Hubble times after the onset of higgs oscillations.
Beyond the MSSM Higgs bosons at 125 GeV
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boudjema, F.; Drieu La Rochelle, G.
2012-07-01
Beyond the MSSM framework is an effective theory approach that encapsulates a variety of extensions beyond the MSSM with which it shares the same field content. The lightest Higgs mass can be much heavier than in the MSSM without creating a tension with naturalness or requiring superheavy stops. The phenomenology of the Higgs sector is at the same time much richer. We critically review the properties of a Higgs with mass around 125 GeV in this model. In particular, we investigate how the rates in the important inclusive 2γ channel, the 2γ+2 jets and the ZZ→4l (and/or WW) can be enhanced or reduced compared to the standard model and what kind of correlations between these rates are possible. We consider both a vanilla model where stops have moderate masses with no trilinear stop mixing term and a model having a large stop mixing with a light stop. We show that in both cases there are scenarios that lead to enhancements in these rates at a mass of 125 GeV corresponding to either the lightest Higgs or the heaviest CP-even Higgs of the model. In all of these scenarios we study the prospects of finding other signatures of either the 125 GeV Higgs or those of the heavier Higgses. In most cases the τ¯τ channels are the most promising. Exclusion limits from the recent LHC Higgs searches are folded in our analyses while the tantalizing hints for a Higgs signal at 125 GeV are used as an example of how to constrain beyond the MSSM and/or direct future searches.
Possibility of early Higgs boson discovery in nonminimal Higgs sectors
Chang, Spencer; Evans, Jared A.; Luty, Markus A.
2011-11-01
Particle physics models with more than one Higgs boson occur in many frameworks for physics beyond the standard model, including supersymmetry, technicolor, composite Higgs, and ''little Higgs'' models. If the Higgs sector contains couplings stronger than electroweak gauge couplings, there will be heavy Higgs particles that decay to lighter Higgs particles plus heavy particles such as W, Z, and t. This motivates searches for final states involving multiple W, Z, t, and bb pairs. A two Higgs doublet model with custodial symmetry is a useful simplified model to describe many of these signals. The model can be parameterized by the physical Higgs masses and the mixing angles {alpha} and {beta}, so discovery or exclusion in this parameter space has a straightforward physical interpretation. We illustrate this with a detailed analysis of the process gg{yields}A followed by A{yields}hZ and h{yields}WW. For m{sub A}{approx_equal}330 GeV, m{sub h}{approx_equal}200 GeV we can get a 4.5{sigma} signal with 1 fb{sup -1} of integrated luminosity at the Large Hadron Collider.
Probability density adjoint for sensitivity analysis of the Mean of Chaos
Blonigan, Patrick J. Wang, Qiqi
2014-08-01
Sensitivity analysis, especially adjoint based sensitivity analysis, is a powerful tool for engineering design which allows for the efficient computation of sensitivities with respect to many parameters. However, these methods break down when used to compute sensitivities of long-time averaged quantities in chaotic dynamical systems. This paper presents a new method for sensitivity analysis of ergodic chaotic dynamical systems, the density adjoint method. The method involves solving the governing equations for the system's invariant measure and its adjoint on the system's attractor manifold rather than in phase-space. This new approach is derived for and demonstrated on one-dimensional chaotic maps and the three-dimensional Lorenz system. It is found that the density adjoint computes very finely detailed adjoint distributions and accurate sensitivities, but suffers from large computational costs.
Virtual Seismometer and Adjoint Methods for Induced Seismicity Monitoring
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Morency, C.; Matzel, E.
2014-12-01
Induced seismicity is associated with subsurface fluid injection, and puts at risk efforts to develop geologic carbon sequestration and enhanced geothermal systems. We are developing methods to monitor the microseismically active zone so that we can identify faults at risk of slipping. We are using the Virtual Seismometer Method (VSM), which is an interferometric technique that is very sensitive to the source parameters (location, mechanism and magnitude) and to the earth structure in the source region. Given an ideal geometry, that is, when two quakes are roughly in line with a recording station, the correlation of their waveforms provide a precise estimate of the Green's function between them, modified by their source mechanisms. When measuring microseismicity, this geometry is rarely ideal and we need to account for variations in the geometry as well. In addition, we also investigate the adjoint method to calculate sensitivity kernels, which define the sensitivity of an observable to model parameters. Classically, adjoint tomography relies on the interaction between a forward waveform, from the source to the recording station, and a backpropagated waveform, from the recorded station to the source. By combining the two approaches we can focus on properties directly between induced micro events, and doing so, monitor the evolution of the seismicity and precisely image potential fault zones. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.
Essential self-adjointness of the graph-Laplacian
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jorgensen, Palle E. T.
2008-07-01
We study the operator theory associated with such infinite graphs G as occur in electrical networks, in fractals, in statistical mechanics, and even in internet search engines. Our emphasis is on the determination of spectral data for a natural Laplace operator associated with the graph in question. This operator Δ will depend not only on G but also on a prescribed positive real valued function c defined on the edges in G. In electrical network models, this function c will determine a conductance number for each edge. We show that the corresponding Laplace operator Δ is automatically essential self-adjoint. By this we mean that Δ is defined on the dense subspace D (of all the real valued functions on the set of vertices G0 with finite support) in the Hilbert space l2(G0). The conclusion is that the closure of the operator Δ is self-adjoint in l2(G0), and so, in particular, that it has a unique spectral resolution, determined by a projection valued measure on the Borel subsets of the infinite half-line. We prove that generically our graph Laplace operator Δ =Δc will have continuous spectrum. For a given infinite graph G with conductance function c, we set up a system of finite graphs with periodic boundary conditions such the finite spectra, for an ascending family of finite graphs, will have the Laplace operator for G as its limit.
Flavor mixing in gauge-Higgs unification
Adachi, Y.; Kurahashi, N.; Lim, C. S.; Maru, N.; Tanabe, K.
2012-07-27
Gauge-Higgs unification is the fascinating scenario solving the hierarchy problem without supersymmetry. In this scenario, the Standard Model (SM) Higgs doublet is identified with extra component of the gauge field in higher dimensions and its mass becomes finite and stable under quantum corrections due to the higher dimensional gauge symmetry. On the other hand, Yukawa coupling is provided by the gauge coupling, which seems to mean that the flavor mixing and CP violation do not arise at it stands. In this talk, we discuss that the flavor mixing is originated from simultaneously non-diagonalizable bulk and brane mass matrices. Then, this mechanism is applied to various flavor changing neutral current (FCNC) processes via Kaluza-Klein (KK) gauge boson exchange at tree level and constraints for compactification scale are obtained.
UV (in)sensitivity of Higgs inflation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fumagalli, Jacopo; Postma, Marieke
2016-05-01
The predictions of Standard Model Higgs inflation are in excellent agreement with the Planck data, without the need for new fields. However, consistency of the theory requires the presence of (unknown) threshold corrections. These modify the running of the couplings, and thereby change the shape of the inflationary potential. This raises the question how sensitive the CMB parameters are to the UV completion. We show that, due to a precise cancellation, the inflationary predictions are almost unaffected. This implies in general that one cannot relate the spectral index and tensor-to-scalar ratio to the precise top and Higgs mass measurements at the LHC, nor can one probe effects of UV physics on the running.
Tachyons on Dp-branes from abelian Higgs sphalerons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brihaye, Yves; Hartmann, Betti
2005-11-01
We consider the abelian Higgs model in a (p+2)-dimensional space time with topology Bbb Mp+1 × S1 as a field theoretical toy model for tachyon condensation on Dp-branes. The theory has periodic sphaleron solutions with the normal mode equations resembling Lamé-type equations. These equations are quasi-exactly solvable (QES) for specific choices of the Higgs- to gauge boson mass ratio and hence a finite number of algebraic normal modes can be computed explicitely. We calculate the tachyon potential for two different values of the Higgs- to gauge boson mass ratio and show that in comparison to previously studied pure scalar field models an exact cancellation between the negative energy contribution at the minimum of the tachyon potential and the brane tension is possible for the simplest truncation in the expansion about the field around the sphaleron. This gives further evidence for the correctness of Sen's conjecture.
Top, Higgs and Electroweak Physics
Tipton, Paul L.
2006-11-17
Hadron colliders are, and will continue to be, an excellent venue for testing the standard model of particle physics. We describe the status of top-quark physics and the direct search for a standard model Higgs boson. We briefly describe the use of Tevatron and LEP data to indirectly infer the standard model Higgs mass through precision electroweak measurements.
Improving the Higgs Mass Resolution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hanzlik, Jessica
2007-10-01
The search for the Higgs boson is of great interest, with a variety of searches ongoing at the CDF and D0 experiments at the Tevatron at Fermilab, as well as planned searches in the upcoming LHC detectors ATLAS and CMS. At Fermilab, one primary mode for a low mass Higgs is via ZH production. In this channel, the Z boson decays into a neutrino pair, and the Higgs boson decays into a bottom quark and an anti-bottom quark pair. In these events, there are two jets (from the two quarks) ass well as a large energy imbalance from the undetected neutrinos. This analysis investigates the use of the energy imbalance to improve the measurement of the individual jets and thus the determination of the resulting Higgs mass. The method we investigate involves the use of Artificial Neural Networks. We present expected improvements in Higgs mass resolution.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barbone, Paul E.; Oberai, Assad A.; Harari, Isaac
2007-12-01
We consider the direct (i.e. non-iterative) solution of the inverse problem of heat conduction for which at least two interior temperature fields are available. The strong form of the problem for the single, unknown, thermal conductivity field is governed by two partial differential equations of pure advective transport. The given temperature fields must satisfy a compatibility condition for the problem to have a solution. We introduce a novel variational formulation, the adjoint-weighted equation (AWE), for solving the two-field problem. In this case, the gradients of two given temperature fields must be linearly independent in the entire domain, a weaker condition than the compatibility required by the strong form. We show that the solution of the AWE formulation is equivalent to that of the strong form when both are well posed. We prove that the Galerkin discretization of the AWE formulation leads to a stable, convergent numerical method that has optimal rates of convergence. We show computational examples that confirm these optimal rates. The AWE formulation shows good numerical performance on problems with both smooth and rough coefficients and solutions.
Higgs boson spectra in supersymmetric left-right models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Babu, K. S.; Patra, Ayon
2016-03-01
We present a comprehensive analysis of the Higgs boson spectra in several versions of the supersymmetric left-right model based on the gauge symmetry S U (3 )c×S U (2 )L×S U (2 )R×U (1 )B-L. A variety of symmetry breaking sectors are studied, with a focus on the constraints placed on model parameters by the lightest neutral C P even Higgs boson mass Mh. The breaking of S U (2 )R symmetry is achieved by Higgs fields transforming either as triplets or doublets, and the electroweak symmetry breaking is triggered by either bi-doublets or doublets. The Higgs potential is analyzed with or without a gauge singlet Higgs field present. Seesaw models of Type I and Type II, inverse seesaw models, universal seesaw models and an E6 inspired alternate left-right model are included in our analysis. Several of these models lead to the tree-level relation Mh≤√{2 }mW (rather than Mh≤mZ that arises in the MSSM), realized when the S U (2 )R symmetry breaking scale is of order TeV. With such an enhanced upper limit, it becomes possible to accommodate a Higgs boson of mass 126 GeV with relatively light stops that mix negligibly. In models with Higgs triplets, a doubly charged scalar remains light below a TeV with its mass arising entirely from radiative corrections. We carry out the complete one-loop calculation for its mass induced by the Majorana Yukawa couplings and show the consistency of the framework. We argue that these models prefer a low S U (2 )R breaking scale. Other theoretical and phenomenological implications of these models are briefly discussed.
Low scale Higgs inflation with Gauss-Bonnet coupling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mathew, Jose; Shankaranarayanan, S.
2016-11-01
Recent LHC data provides precise values of coupling constants of the Higgs field, however, these measurements do not determine its coupling with gravity. We explore this freedom to see whether Higgs field non-minimally coupled to Gauss-Bonnet term in 4-dimensions can lead to inflation generating the observed density fluctuations. We obtain analytical solution for this model and that the exit of inflation (with a finite number of e-folding) demands that the energy scale of inflation is close to Electro-weak scale. We compare the scalar and tensor power spectrum of our model with PLANCK data and discuss its implications.
Five-dimensional Gauge-Higgs Unification: a Standard Model-like Spectrum
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alberti, Maurizio; Irges, Nikos; Knechtli, Francesco; Moir, Graham
2015-09-01
We study the viability of five-dimensional gauge theories as candidates for the origin of the Higgs field and its mechanism for spontaneous symmetry breaking. Within the framework of lattice field theory, we consider the simplest model of an SU(2) gauge theory. We construct this theory on a five-dimensional orbifold which explicitly breaks the gauge symmetry to U(1) at the fixed points of the orbifold. Using anisotropic gauge couplings, we find that this theory exhibits three distinct phases which we label as confined, Higgs and hybrid. Within the Higgs phase, close to the Higgs-hybrid phase transition, we find that the ratio of the Higgs to gauge boson masses takes Standard Model-like values. Precisely in this region of the phase diagram, we find dimensional reduction via localisation.
Higgs phenomenology in the minimal S U (3 )L×U (1 )X model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Okada, Hiroshi; Okada, Nobuchika; Orikasa, Yuta; Yagyu, Kei
2016-07-01
We investigate the phenomenology of a model based on the S U (3 )c×S U (3 )L×U (1 )X gauge theory, the so-called 331 model. In particular, we focus on the Higgs sector of the model which is composed of three S U (3 )L triplet Higgs fields and is the minimal form for realizing a phenomenologically acceptable scenario. After the spontaneous symmetry breaking S U (3 )L×U (1 )X→S U (2 )L×U (1 )Y , our Higgs sector effectively becomes that with two S U (2 )L doublet scalar fields, in which the first- and the second-generation quarks couple to a different Higgs doublet from that which couples to the third-generation quarks. This structure causes the flavor-changing neutral current mediated by Higgs bosons at the tree level. By taking an alignment limit of the mass matrix for the C P -even Higgs bosons, which is naturally realized in the case with the breaking scale of S U (3 )L×U (1 )X much larger than that of S U (2 )L×U (1 )Y, we can avoid current constraints from flavor experiments such as the B0-B¯ 0 mixing even for the Higgs bosons masses that are O (100 ) GeV . In this allowed parameter space, we clarify that a characteristic deviation in quark Yukawa couplings of the Standard Model-like Higgs boson is predicted, which has a different pattern from that seen in two Higgs doublet models with a softly broken Z2 symmetry. We also find that the flavor-violating decay modes of the extra Higgs boson, e.g., H /A →t c and H±→t s , can be dominant, and they yield the important signature to distinguish our model from the two Higgs doublet models.
Search for Higgs shifts in white dwarfs
Onofrio, Roberto; Wegner, Gary A. E-mail: gary.a.wegner@dartmouth.edu
2014-08-20
We report on a search for differential shifts between electronic and vibronic transitions in carbon-rich white dwarfs BPM 27606 and Procyon B. The absence of differential shifts within the spectral resolution and taking into account systematic effects such as space motion and pressure shifts allows us to set the first upper bound of astrophysical origin on the coupling between the Higgs field and the Kreschmann curvature invariant. Our analysis provides the basis for a more general methodology to derive bounds to the coupling of long-range scalar fields to curvature invariants in an astrophysical setting complementary to the ones available from high-energy physics or table-top experiments.
Some Comments on the String Singularity of the Yang-Mills-Higgs Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lim, Kok-Geng; Teh, Rosy
2010-07-01
We are going to make use of the regulated polar angle which had been introduced by Boulware et al.. to show that in the SU(2) Yang-Mills-Higgs theory when the magnetic monopole is carried by the gauge field, the Higgs field does not carry the monopole and vice versa. In the Yang-Mills-Higgs theory, our solution shows that when the parameter ɛ ≠ 0, the monopole is carried by the gauge field and there is a string singularity in the gauge field. When the parameter ɛ → 0, the monopole is transferred from the gauge field to the Higgs field and the string singularity disappeared. The solution is only singular at the origin, that is at r = 0 as it becomes the Wu-Yang monopole.
Toward realistic gauge-Higgs grand unification
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Furui, Atsushi; Hosotani, Yutaka; Yamatsu, Naoki
2016-09-01
The SO(11) gauge-Higgs grand unification in the Randall-Sundrum warped space is presented. The 4D Higgs field is identified as the zero mode of the fifth-dimensional component of the gauge potentials, or as the fluctuation mode of the Aharonov-Bohm phase θ along the fifth dimension. Fermions are introduced in the bulk in the spinor and vector representations of SO(11). SO(11) is broken to SO(4)×SO(6) by the orbifold boundary conditions, which is broken to SU2×U1×SU3 by a brane scalar. Evaluating the effective potential V(θ), we show that the electroweak symmetry is dynamically broken to U1. The quark-lepton masses are generated by the Hosotani mechanism and brane interactions, with which the observed mass spectrum is reproduced. Proton decay is forbidden thanks to the new fermion number conservation. It is pointed out that there appear light exotic fermions. The Higgs boson mass is determined with the quark-lepton masses given; however, it turns out to be smaller than the observed value.
Adjoint ITS calculations using the CEPXS electron-photon cross sections
Lorence, L.J.; Kensek, R.P.; Halbleib, J.A.
1995-12-31
Continuous-energy Monte Carlo Codes are not generally suited for adjoint coupled electron-photon transport. Line radiation (e.g., fluorescence) is especially difficult to implement in adjoint mode with continuous-energy codes. The only published work on adjoint electron Monte Carlo transport is Jordan. The adjoint capability of his NOVICE code is expedited by a multigroup approximation. More recently, a Boltzmann-Fokker-Planck (BFP) Monte Carlo technique has been developed for adjoint electron transport. As in NOVICE, particle transport with BFP Monte Carlo is neither entirely continuous energy nor entirely multigroup. The BFP method has been tested in the multigroup version of MCNP and is being integrated into the ITS code package. Multigroup data produced by the CEPXS cross-section-generating code is needed to operate the BFP codes in adjoint electron-photon mode. In this paper, we present adjoint electron-photon transport results obtained with a new version of CEPXS and a new multigroup version of ITS.
Combined preheating on the lattice with applications to Higgs inflation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Repond, Joël; Rubio, Javier
2016-07-01
We use classical lattice simulations in 3+1 dimensions to study the interplay between the resonant production of particles during preheating and the subsequent decay of these into a set of secondary species. We choose to work in a simplified version of Higgs inflation in which the Higgs field non-minimally coupled to gravity plays the role of the inflaton. Our numerical results extend the analytical estimates in the literature beyond the linear regime and shed some light on the limitations of the analytical techniques. The inclusion of fast and inefficient decays postpones the onset of parametric resonance by depleting the particles produced at the bottom of the potential. In spite of this delay, fermions are shown to play an important role on the destruction of the inflaton field. The limitations of our approach and its applications to a realistic Higgs inflation scenario are also discussed.
Top quark and Higgs boson masses from wormhole physics
Harris, B.A.; Joshi, G.C. )
1994-11-01
We bring together quantum field theory on [ital S][sub 4] with the Coleman wormhole hypothesis, which imposes constraints on terms in the gravitational Lagrangian. In particular, we investigate the effect of matter fields on the trace anomaly, which is related to the (curvature)[sup 2] terms, by the use of the renormalization group equations. We consider a toy model of a nonconformally coupled Higgs boson to a single top'' quark. By numerically solving the renormalization group equations for the couplings of the model, we can find preferred values of the particle masses for various values of the bare nonconformal coupling. By making the [ital ad] [ital hoc] assumption that the tree-level, Higgs boson treace anomaly vanishes on shell, a unique prediction can be made within this model for the masses of both the Higgs boson and the top quark.
Ultra-weak sector, Higgs boson mass, and the dilaton
Allison, Kyle; Hill, Christopher T.; Ross, Graham G.
2014-09-26
The Higgs boson mass may arise from a portal coupling to a singlet field $\\sigma$ which has a very large VEV $f \\gg m_\\text{Higgs}$. This requires a sector of "ultra-weak" couplings $\\zeta_i$, where $\\zeta_i \\lesssim m_\\text{Higgs}^2 / f^2$. Ultra-weak couplings are technically naturally small due to a custodial shift symmetry of $\\sigma$ in the $\\zeta_i \\rightarrow 0$ limit. The singlet field $\\sigma$ has properties similar to a pseudo-dilaton. We engineer explicit breaking of scale invariance in the ultra-weak sector via a Coleman-Weinberg potential, which requires hierarchies amongst the ultra-weak couplings.
Exotic quarks in Twin Higgs models
Cheng, Hsin -Chia; Jung, Sunghoon; Salvioni, Ennio; Tsai, Yuhsin
2016-03-14
The Twin Higgs model provides a natural theory for the electroweak symmetry breaking without the need of new particles carrying the standard model gauge charges below a few TeV. In the low energy theory, the only probe comes from the mixing of the Higgs fields in the standard model and twin sectors. However, an ultraviolet completion is required below ~ 10 TeV to remove residual logarithmic divergences. In non-supersymmetric completions, new exotic fermions charged under both the standard model and twin gauge symmetries have to be present to accompany the top quark, thus providing a high energy probe of themore » model. Some of them carry standard model color, and may therefore be copiously produced at current or future hadron colliders. Once produced, these exotic quarks can decay into a top together with twin sector particles. If the twin sector particles escape the detection, we have the irreducible stop-like signals. On the other hand, some twin sector particles may decay back into the standard model particles with long lifetimes, giving spectacular displaced vertex signals in combination with the prompt top quarks. This happens in the Fraternal Twin Higgs scenario with typical parameters, and sometimes is even necessary for cosmological reasons. We study the potential displaced vertex signals from the decays of the twin bottomonia, twin glueballs, and twin leptons in the Fraternal Twin Higgs scenario. As a result, depending on the details of the twin sector, the exotic quarks may be probed up to ~ 2.5 TeV at the LHC and beyond 10 TeV at a future 100 TeV collider, providing a strong test of this class of ultraviolet completions.« less
Mass anomalous dimension in SU(2) with two adjoint fermions
Bursa, Francis; Del Debbio, Luigi; Keegan, Liam; Pica, Claudio; Pickup, Thomas
2010-01-01
We study SU(2) lattice gauge theory with two flavors of Dirac fermions in the adjoint representation. We measure the running of the coupling in the Schroedinger functional scheme and find it is consistent with existing results. We discuss how systematic errors affect the evidence for an infrared fixed point (IRFP). We present the first measurement of the running of the mass in the Schroedinger functional scheme. The anomalous dimension of the chiral condensate, which is relevant for phenomenological applications, can be easily extracted from the running of the mass, under the assumption that the theory has an IRFP. At the current level of accuracy, we can estimate 0.05<{gamma}<0.56 at the IRFP.
On the origins and the historical roots of the Higgs boson research from a bibliometric perspective
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barth, A.; Marx, W.; Bornmann, L.; Mutz, R.
2014-06-01
The subject of our present paper is the analysis of the origins or historical roots of the Higgs boson research from a bibliometric perspective, using a segmented regression analysis in combination with a method named reference publication year spectroscopy (RPYS). Our analysis is based on the references cited in the Higgs boson publications published since 1974. The objective of our analysis consists of identifying specific individual publications in the Higgs boson research context to which the scientific community frequently had referred to. We are interested in seminal works which contributed to a high extent to the discovery of the Higgs boson. Our results show that researchers in the Higgs boson field preferably refer to more recently published papers —particularly papers published since the beginning of the sixties. For example, our analysis reveals seven major contributions which appeared within the sixties: Englert and Brout (1964), Higgs (1964, 2 papers), and Guralnik et al. (1964) on the Higgs mechanism as well as Glashow (1961), Weinberg (1967), and Salam (1968) on the unification of weak and electromagnetic interaction. Even if the Nobel Prize award highlights the outstanding importance of the work of Peter Higgs and Francois Englert, bibliometrics offer the additional possibility of getting hints to other publications in this research field (especially to historical publications), which are of vital importance from the expert point of view.
Optimizing spectral wave estimates with adjoint-based sensitivity maps
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Orzech, Mark; Veeramony, Jay; Flampouris, Stylianos
2014-04-01
A discrete numerical adjoint has recently been developed for the stochastic wave model SWAN. In the present study, this adjoint code is used to construct spectral sensitivity maps for two nearshore domains. The maps display the correlations of spectral energy levels throughout the domain with the observed energy levels at a selected location or region of interest (LOI/ROI), providing a full spectrum of values at all locations in the domain. We investigate the effectiveness of sensitivity maps based on significant wave height ( H s ) in determining alternate offshore instrument deployment sites when a chosen nearshore location or region is inaccessible. Wave and bathymetry datasets are employed from one shallower, small-scale domain (Duck, NC) and one deeper, larger-scale domain (San Diego, CA). The effects of seasonal changes in wave climate, errors in bathymetry, and multiple assimilation points on sensitivity map shapes and model performance are investigated. Model accuracy is evaluated by comparing spectral statistics as well as with an RMS skill score, which estimates a mean model-data error across all spectral bins. Results indicate that data assimilation from identified high-sensitivity alternate locations consistently improves model performance at nearshore LOIs, while assimilation from low-sensitivity locations results in lesser or no improvement. Use of sub-sampled or alongshore-averaged bathymetry has a domain-specific effect on model performance when assimilating from a high-sensitivity alternate location. When multiple alternate assimilation locations are used from areas of lower sensitivity, model performance may be worse than with a single, high-sensitivity assimilation point.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Arian, Eyal; Salas, Manuel D.
1997-01-01
We derive the adjoint equations for problems in aerodynamic optimization which are improperly considered as "inadmissible." For example, a cost functional which depends on the density, rather than on the pressure, is considered "inadmissible" for an optimization problem governed by the Euler equations. We show that for such problems additional terms should be included in the Lagrangian functional when deriving the adjoint equations. These terms are obtained from the restriction of the interior PDE to the control surface. Demonstrations of the explicit derivation of the adjoint equations for "inadmissible" cost functionals are given for the potential, Euler, and Navier-Stokes equations.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nguyen, Nhan T.; Hornby, Gregory; Ishihara, Abe
2013-01-01
This paper describes two methods of trajectory optimization to obtain an optimal trajectory of minimum-fuel- to-climb for an aircraft. The first method is based on the adjoint method, and the second method is based on a direct trajectory optimization method using a Chebyshev polynomial approximation and cubic spine approximation. The approximate optimal trajectory will be compared with the adjoint-based optimal trajectory which is considered as the true optimal solution of the trajectory optimization problem. The adjoint-based optimization problem leads to a singular optimal control solution which results in a bang-singular-bang optimal control.
Adjoint-Based Methods for Estimating CO2 Sources and Sinks from Atmospheric Concentration Data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Andrews, Arlyn E.
2003-01-01
Work to develop adjoint-based methods for estimating CO2 sources and sinks from atmospheric concentration data was initiated in preparation for last year's summer institute on Carbon Data Assimilation (CDAS) at the National Center for Atmospheric Research in Boulder, CO. The workshop exercises used the GSFC Parameterized Chemistry and Transport Model and its adjoint. Since the workshop, a number of simulations have been run to evaluate the performance of the model adjoint. Results from these simulations will be presented, along with an outline of challenges associated with incorporating a variety of disparate data sources, from sparse, but highly precise, surface in situ observations to less accurate, global future satellite observations.
Jackson, C. B.; Servant, G.; Shaughnessy, G.; Tait, T. M. P.; Taoso, M.; High Energy Physics; Northwestern Univ; Univ. of California at Irvine; CERN; Univ. de Valencia
2010-04-01
We consider the possibility that the Higgs can be produced in dark matter annihilations, appearing as a line in the spectrum of gamma rays at an energy determined by the masses of the WIMP and the Higgs itself. We argue that this phenomenon occurs generally in models in which the the dark sector has large couplings to the most massive states of the SM and provide a simple example inspired by the Randall-Sundrum vision of dark matter, whose 4d dual corresponds to electroweak symmetry-breaking by strong dynamics which respect global symmetries that guarantee a stable WIMP. The dark matter is a Dirac fermion that couples to a Z{prime} acting as a portal to the Standard Model through its strong coupling to top quarks. Annihilation into light standard model degrees of freedom is suppressed and generates a feeble continuum spectrum of gamma rays. Loops of top quarks mediate annihilation into {gamma}Z, {gamma}h, and {gamma}Z{prime}, providing a forest of lines in the spectrum. Such models can be probed by the Fermi/GLAST satellite and ground-based Air Cherenkov telescopes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fernández-López, Sheila; Carrera, Jesús; Ledo, Juanjo; Queralt, Pilar; Luquot, Linda; Martínez, Laura; Bellmunt, Fabián
2016-04-01
Seawater intrusion in aquifers is a complex phenomenon that can be characterized with the help of electric resistivity tomography (ERT) because of the low resistivity of seawater, which underlies the freshwater floating on top. The problem is complex because of the need for joint inversion of electrical and hydraulic (density dependent flow) data. Here we present an adjoint-state algorithm to treat electrical data. This method is a common technique to obtain derivatives of an objective function, depending on potentials with respect to model parameters. The main advantages of it are its simplicity in stationary problems and the reduction of computational cost respect others methodologies. The relationship between the concentration of chlorides and the resistivity values of the field is well known. Also, these resistivities are related to the values of potentials measured using ERT. Taking this into account, it will be possible to define the different resistivities zones from the field data of potential distribution using the basis of inverse problem. In this case, the studied zone is situated in Argentona (Baix Maresme, Catalonia), where the values of chlorides obtained in some wells of the zone are too high. The adjoint-state method will be used to invert the measured data using a new finite element code in C ++ language developed in an open-source framework called Kratos. Finally, the information obtained numerically with our code will be checked with the information obtained with other codes.
Derivative interactions and perturbative UV contributions in N Higgs doublet models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kikuta, Yohei; Yamamoto, Yasuhiro
2016-05-01
We study the Higgs derivative interactions on models including arbitrary number of the Higgs doublets. These interactions are generated by two ways. One is higher order corrections of composite Higgs models, and the other is integration of heavy scalars and vectors. In the latter case, three point couplings between the Higgs doublets and these heavy states are the sources of the derivative interactions. Their representations are constrained to couple with the doublets. We explicitly calculate all derivative interactions generated by integrating out. Their degrees of freedom and conditions to impose the custodial symmetry are discussed. We also study the vector boson scattering processes with a couple of two Higgs doublet models to see experimental signals of the derivative interactions. They are differently affected by each heavy field.
Phenomenology in the Higgs triplet model with the A{sub 4} symmetry
Fukuyama, Takeshi; Sugiyama, Hiroaki; Tsumura, Koji
2010-08-01
We discuss the phenomenology of doubly and singly charged Higgs bosons [of SU(2){sub L}-triplet fields] in the simplest A{sub 4}-symmetric version of the Higgs triplet model. Mass eigenstates of these Higgs bosons are obtained explicitly from the Higgs potential. It is shown that their decays into a pair of leptons have unique flavor structures which can be tested at the LHC if some of their masses are below the TeV scale. Sizable decay rates for {tau}{yields}{mu}ee and {tau}{yields}e{mu}{mu} can be obtained naturally, while other {tau}{yields}ll{sup '}l{sup ''}, {mu}{yields}eee, and l{yields}l{sup '{gamma}}, are almost forbidden in this model. Contributions of these Higgs bosons to the nonstandard interactions of neutrinos are also considered.
Lincoln, Don
2011-07-07
Fermilab scientist Don Lincoln describes the nature of the Higgs boson. Several large experimental groups are hot on the trail of this elusive subatomic particle which is thought to explain the origins of particle mass.
Lincoln, Don
2016-07-12
Fermilab scientist Don Lincoln describes the nature of the Higgs boson. Several large experimental groups are hot on the trail of this elusive subatomic particle which is thought to explain the origins of particle mass.
Confining strings in supersymmetric theories with Higgs branches
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shifman, M.; Tallarita, Gianni; Yung, Alexei
2015-03-01
We study flux tubes (strings) on the Higgs branches in supersymmetric gauge theories. In generic vacua on the Higgs branches, strings were shown to develop long-range "tails" associated with massless fields, a characteristic feature of the Higgs branch (the only exception is the vacuum at the base of the Higgs branch). A natural infrared regularization for the above tails is provided by a finite string length L . We perform a numerical study of these strings in generic vacua. We focus on the simplest example of strings in N =1 supersymmetric QED with the Fayet-Iliopoulos term. In particular, we examine the accuracy of a logarithmic approximation (proposed earlier by Evlampiev and Yung) for the tension of such string solutions. In the Evlampiev-Yung formula, the dependence of tension on the string length is logarithmic, and the dependence on the geodesic length from the base of the Higgs branch is quadratic. We observe a remarkable agreement of our numerical results for the string tension with the Evlampiev-Yung analytic expression.
Radiative PQ breaking and the Higgs boson mass
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
D'Eramo, Francesco; Hall, Lawrence J.; Pappadopulo, Duccio
2015-06-01
The small and negative value of the Standard Model Higgs quartic coupling at high scales can be understood in terms of anthropic selection on a landscape where large and negative values are favored: most universes have a very short-lived electroweak vacuum and typical observers are in universes close to the corresponding metastability boundary. We provide a simple example of such a landscape with a Peccei-Quinn symmetry breaking scale generated through dimensional transmutation and supersymmetry softly broken at an intermediate scale. Large and negative contributions to the Higgs quartic are typically generated on integrating out the saxion field. Cancellations among these contributions are forced by the anthropic requirement of a sufficiently long-lived electroweak vacuum, determining the multiverse distribution for the Higgs quartic in a similar way to that of the cosmological constant. This leads to a statistical prediction of the Higgs boson mass that, for a wide range of parameters, yields the observed value within the 1σ statistical uncertainty of ˜ 5 GeV originating from the multiverse distribution. The strong CP problem is solved and single-component axion dark matter is predicted, with an abundance that can be understood from environmental selection. A more general setting for the Higgs mass prediction is discussed.
Discrete Adjoint-Based Design Optimization of Unsteady Turbulent Flows on Dynamic Unstructured Grids
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nielsen, Eric J.; Diskin, Boris; Yamaleev, Nail K.
2009-01-01
An adjoint-based methodology for design optimization of unsteady turbulent flows on dynamic unstructured grids is described. The implementation relies on an existing unsteady three-dimensional unstructured grid solver capable of dynamic mesh simulations and discrete adjoint capabilities previously developed for steady flows. The discrete equations for the primal and adjoint systems are presented for the backward-difference family of time-integration schemes on both static and dynamic grids. The consistency of sensitivity derivatives is established via comparisons with complex-variable computations. The current work is believed to be the first verified implementation of an adjoint-based optimization methodology for the true time-dependent formulation of the Navier-Stokes equations in a practical computational code. Large-scale shape optimizations are demonstrated for turbulent flows over a tiltrotor geometry and a simulated aeroelastic motion of a fighter jet.
Adjoint-Based Algorithms for Adaptation and Design Optimizations on Unstructured Grids
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nielsen, Eric J.
2006-01-01
Schemes based on discrete adjoint algorithms present several exciting opportunities for significantly advancing the current state of the art in computational fluid dynamics. Such methods provide an extremely efficient means for obtaining discretely consistent sensitivity information for hundreds of design variables, opening the door to rigorous, automated design optimization of complex aerospace configuration using the Navier-Stokes equation. Moreover, the discrete adjoint formulation provides a mathematically rigorous foundation for mesh adaptation and systematic reduction of spatial discretization error. Error estimates are also an inherent by-product of an adjoint-based approach, valuable information that is virtually non-existent in today's large-scale CFD simulations. An overview of the adjoint-based algorithm work at NASA Langley Research Center is presented, with examples demonstrating the potential impact on complex computational problems related to design optimization as well as mesh adaptation.
An adjoint method for the calculation of remote sensitivities in supersonic flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nadarajah, Siva K.; Jameson, Antony; Alonso, Juan
2006-02-01
This paper presents an adjoint method for the calculation of remote sensitivities in supersonic flow. The goal is to develop a set of discrete adjoint equations and their corresponding boundary conditions in order to quantify the influence of geometry modifications on the pressure distribution at an arbitrary location within the domain of interest. First, this paper presents the complete formulation and discretization of the discrete adjoint equations. The special treatment of the adjoint boundary condition to obtain remote sensitivities or sensitivities of pressure distributions at points remotely located from the wing surface are discussed. Secondly, we present results that demonstrate the application of the theory to a three-dimensional remote inverse design problem using a low sweep biconvex wing and a highly swept blunt leading edge wing. Lastly, we present results that establish the added benefit of using an objective function that contains the sum of the remote inverse and drag minimization cost functions.
Application of Adjoint Methodology in Various Aspects of Sonic Boom Design
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rallabhandi, Sriram K.
2014-01-01
One of the advances in computational design has been the development of adjoint methods allowing efficient calculation of sensitivities in gradient-based shape optimization. This paper discusses two new applications of adjoint methodology that have been developed to aid in sonic boom mitigation exercises. In the first, equivalent area targets are generated using adjoint sensitivities of selected boom metrics. These targets may then be used to drive the vehicle shape during optimization. The second application is the computation of adjoint sensitivities of boom metrics on the ground with respect to parameters such as flight conditions, propagation sampling rate, and selected inputs to the propagation algorithms. These sensitivities enable the designer to make more informed selections of flight conditions at which the chosen cost functionals are less sensitive.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yaremchuk, Max; Martin, Paul; Koch, Andrey; Beattie, Christopher
2016-01-01
Performance of the adjoint and adjoint-free 4-dimensional variational (4dVar) data assimilation techniques is compared in application to the hydrographic surveys and velocity observations collected in the Adriatic Sea in 2006. Assimilating the data into the Navy Coastal Ocean Model (NCOM) has shown that both methods deliver similar reduction of the cost function and demonstrate comparable forecast skill at approximately the same computational expense. The obtained optimal states were, however, significantly different in terms of distance from the background state: application of the adjoint method resulted in a 30-40% larger departure, mostly due to the excessive level of ageostrophic motions in the southern basin of the Sea that was not covered by observations.
Higgs Boson Signatures of MSSM Electroweak Baryogenesis
Menon, Arjun; Morrissey, David
2010-02-10
Electroweak baryogenesis in the MSSM can account for the cosmological baryon asymmetry, but only with a very light scalar top and a SM-like Higgs boson. We investigate the effects of this light scalar top on Higgs boson production and decay. Relative to the standard model Higgs boson, we find a large enhancement of the Higgs production rate through gluon fusion and a suppression of the Higgs branching fraction into photon pairs. These modifications in the properties of the Higgs boson are large enough that they can potentially be tested at the Tevatron and the LHC.
Higgs mechanism and the added-mass effect
Krishnaswami, Govind S.; Phatak, Sachin S.
2015-01-01
In the Higgs mechanism, mediators of the weak force acquire masses by interacting with the Higgs condensate, leading to a vector boson mass matrix. On the other hand, a rigid body accelerated through an inviscid, incompressible and irrotational fluid feels an opposing force linearly related to its acceleration, via an added-mass tensor. We uncover a striking physical analogy between the two effects and propose a dictionary relating them. The correspondence turns the gauge Lie algebra into the space of directions in which the body can move, encodes the pattern of gauge symmetry breaking in the shape of an associated body and relates symmetries of the body to those of the scalar vacuum manifold. The new viewpoint is illustrated with numerous examples, and raises interesting questions, notably on the fluid analogues of the broken symmetry and Higgs particle, and the field-theoretic analogue of the added mass of a composite body. PMID:27547077
Probing the fermionic Higgs portal at lepton colliders
Fedderke, Michael A.; Lin, Tongyan; Wang, Lian -Tao
2016-04-26
Here, we study the sensitivity of future electron-positron colliders to UV completions of the fermionic Higgs portal operator H†Hχ¯χ. Measurements of precision electroweak S and T parameters and the e+e– → Zh cross-section at the CEPC, FCC-ee, and ILC are considered. The scalar completion of the fermionic Higgs portal is closely related to the scalar Higgs portal, and we summarize existing results. We devote the bulk of our analysis to a singlet-doublet fermion completion. Assuming the doublet is sufficiently heavy, we construct the effective field theory (EFT) at dimension-6 in order to compute contributions to the observables. We also providemore » full one-loop results for S and T in the general mass parameter space. In both completions, future precision measurements can probe the new states at the (multi-)TeV scale, beyond the direct reach of the LHC.« less
Ultra-weak sector, Higgs boson mass, and the dilaton
Allison, Kyle; Hill, Christopher T.; Ross, Graham G.
2014-09-26
The Higgs boson mass may arise from a portal coupling to a singlet fieldmore » $$\\sigma$$ which has a very large VEV $$f \\gg m_\\text{Higgs}$$. This requires a sector of "ultra-weak" couplings $$\\zeta_i$$, where $$\\zeta_i \\lesssim m_\\text{Higgs}^2 / f^2$$. Ultra-weak couplings are technically naturally small due to a custodial shift symmetry of $$\\sigma$$ in the $$\\zeta_i \\rightarrow 0$$ limit. The singlet field $$\\sigma$$ has properties similar to a pseudo-dilaton. We engineer explicit breaking of scale invariance in the ultra-weak sector via a Coleman-Weinberg potential, which requires hierarchies amongst the ultra-weak couplings.« less
Symmetry breaking patterns for little Higgs models from strong dynamics
Batra, Puneet; Chacko, Z.
2008-03-01
We show how the symmetry breaking pattern of the simplest little Higgs model, and that of the smallest moose model that incorporates an approximate custodial SU(2), can be realized through the condensation of strongly coupled fermions. In each case a custodial SU(2) symmetry of the new strong dynamics limits the sizes of corrections to precision electroweak observables. In the case of the simplest little Higgs, there are no new light states beyond those present in the original model. However, our realization of the symmetry breaking pattern of the moose model predicts an additional scalar field with mass of order a TeV or higher that has exactly the same quantum numbers as the standard model Higgs and which decays primarily to third generation quarks.
Unitarity-violation in generalized Higgs inflation models
Lerner, Rose N.; McDonald, John E-mail: j.mcdonald@lancaster.ac.uk
2012-11-01
Unitarity-violation presents a challenge for non-minimally coupled models of inflation based on weak-scale particle physics. We examine the energy scale of tree-level unitarity-violation in scattering processes for generalized models with multiple scalar fields where the inflaton is either a singlet scalar or the Higgs. In the limit that the non-minimal couplings are all equal (e.g. in the case of Higgs or other complex inflaton), the scale of tree-level unitarity-violation matches the existing result. However if the inflaton is a singlet, and if it has a larger non-minimal coupling than other scalars in the model, then this hierarchy increases the scale of tree-level unitarity-violation. A sufficiently strong hierarchy pushes the scale of tree-level unitarity-violation above the Planck scale. We also discuss models which attempt to resolve the issue of unitarity-violation in Higgs Inflation.
Higgs boson production and decay in 5D warped models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Frank, Mariana; Pourtolami, Nima; Toharia, Manuel
2016-03-01
We calculate the production and decay rates of the Higgs boson at the LHC in the context of general five-dimensional warped scenarios with a spacetime background modified from the usual AdS5 , with Standard Model (SM) fields propagating in the bulk. We extend previous work by considering the full flavor structure of the SM, and thus including all possible flavor effects coming from mixings with heavy fermions. We proceed in three different ways, first by only including two complete Kaluza-Klein (KK) levels (15 ×15 fermion mass matrices), then including three complete KK levels (21 ×21 fermion mass matrices) and finally we compare with the effect of including the infinite (full) KK towers. We present numerical results for the Higgs production cross section via gluon fusion and Higgs decay branching fractions in both the modified metric scenario and in the usual Randall-Sundrum metric scenario.
Preliminary Results from the Application of Automated Adjoint Code Generation to CFL3D
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Carle, Alan; Fagan, Mike; Green, Lawrence L.
1998-01-01
This report describes preliminary results obtained using an automated adjoint code generator for Fortran to augment a widely-used computational fluid dynamics flow solver to compute derivatives. These preliminary results with this augmented code suggest that, even in its infancy, the automated adjoint code generator can accurately and efficiently deliver derivatives for use in transonic Euler-based aerodynamic shape optimization problems with hundreds to thousands of independent design variables.
Can We Tell Students where the Higgs Boson Lies?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Chu, Z. Kwang-Hua
2010-01-01
We pedagogically introduce the search for the Higgs boson and the measurement of its properties which will be one of the primary goals of the Large Hadron Collider. Our presentation will be useful to the relevant graduate and senior undergraduate students studying physics, as well as researchers in this field. (Contains 1 figure.)
Higgs dark matter from a warped extra dimension — the truncated-inert-doublet model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ahmed, Aqeel; Grzadkowski, Bohdan; Gunion, John F.; Jiang, Yun
2015-10-01
We construct a 5D {{Z}}_2 -symmetric model with three D3-branes: two IR ones with negative tension located at the ends of an extra-dimensional interval and a UV-brane with positive tension placed in the middle of the interval — IR-UV-IR model. The background solutions for this geometric setup are found without and with taking into account the backreaction of the matter fields. A 5D SU(2) Higgs doublet is employed as the Goldberger-Wise stabilizing field in this geometry and solutions of the 5D coupled scalar-gravity equations are found by using the superpotential method. Within this setup we investigate the low-energy (zero-mode) effective theory for the bulk Standard Model (SM) bosonic sector. The {{Z}}_2 -even zero-modes correspond to known standard degrees of freedom, whereas the {{Z}}_2 -odd zero modes might serve as a dark sector. The effective low-energy scalar sector contains a scalar which mimics the SM Higgs boson and a second stable scalar particle (dark-Higgs) is a dark matter candidate; the latter is a component of the zero-mode of the {{Z}}_2 -odd Higgs doublet. The model that results from the {{Z}}_2 -symmetric background geometry resembles the Inert Two Higgs Doublet Model. The effective theory turns out to have an extra residual SU(2) × U(1) global symmetry that is reminiscent of an underlying 5D gauge transformation for the odd degrees of freedom. At tree level the SM Higgs and the dark-Higgs have the same mass; however, when leading radiative corrections are taken into account the dark-Higgs turns out to be heavier than the SM Higgs. Implications for dark matter are discussed; it is found that the dark-Higgs can provide only a small fraction of the observed dark matter abundance.
The Higgs portal above threshold
Craig, Nathaniel; Lou, Hou Keong; McCullough, Matthew; Thalapillil, Arun
2016-02-18
The discovery of the Higgs boson opens the door to new physics interacting via the Higgs Portal, including motivated scenarios relating to baryogenesis, dark matter, and electroweak naturalness. In this study, we systematically explore the collider signatures of singlet scalars produced via the Higgs Portal at the 14TeV LHC and a prospective 100TeV hadron collider. We focus on the challenging regime where the scalars are too heavy to be produced in the decays of an on-shell Higgs boson, and instead are produced primarily via an o ff-shell Higgs. Assuming these scalars escape the detector, promising channels include missing energy inmore » association with vector boson fusion, monojets, and top pairs. In addition, we forecast the sensitivity of searches in these channels at √s = 14 & 100 TeV and compare collider reach to the motivated parameter space of singlet-assisted electroweak baryogenesis, Higgs Portal dark matter, and neutral naturalness.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smith, J. A.; Peter, D. B.; Tromp, J.; Komatitsch, D.; Lefebvre, M. P.
2015-12-01
We present both SPECFEM3D_Cartesian and SPECFEM3D_GLOBE open-source codes, representing high-performance numerical wave solvers simulating seismic wave propagation for local-, regional-, and global-scale application. These codes are suitable for both forward propagation in complex media and tomographic imaging. Both solvers compute highly accurate seismic wave fields using the continuous Galerkin spectral-element method on unstructured meshes. Lateral variations in compressional- and shear-wave speeds, density, as well as 3D attenuation Q models, topography and fluid-solid coupling are all readily included in both codes. For global simulations, effects due to rotation, ellipticity, the oceans, 3D crustal models, and self-gravitation are additionally included. Both packages provide forward and adjoint functionality suitable for adjoint tomography on high-performance computing architectures. We highlight the most recent release of the global version which includes improved performance, simultaneous MPI runs, OpenCL and CUDA support via an automatic source-to-source transformation library (BOAST), parallel I/O readers and writers for databases using ADIOS and seismograms using the recently developed Adaptable Seismic Data Format (ASDF) with built-in provenance. This makes our spectral-element solvers current state-of-the-art, open-source community codes for high-performance seismic wave propagation on arbitrarily complex 3D models. Together with these solvers, we provide full-waveform inversion tools to image the Earth's interior at unprecedented resolution.
A Generalized Adjoint Approach for Quantifying Reflector Assembly Discontinuity Factor Uncertainties
Yankov, Artem; Collins, Benjamin; Jessee, Matthew Anderson; Downar, Thomas
2012-01-01
Sensitivity-based uncertainty analysis of assembly discontinuity factors (ADFs) can be readily performed using adjoint methods for infinite lattice models. However, there is currently no adjoint-based methodology to obtain uncertainties for ADFs along an interface between a fuel and reflector region. To accommodate leakage effects in a reflector region, a 1D approximation is usually made in order to obtain the homogeneous interface flux required to calculate the ADF. Within this 1D framework an adjoint-based method is proposed that is capable of efficiently calculating ADF uncertainties. In the proposed method the sandwich rule is utilized to relate the covariance of the input parameters of 1D diffusion theory in the reflector region to the covariance of the interface ADFs. The input parameters covariance matrix can be readily obtained using sampling-based codes such as XSUSA or adjoint-based codes such as TSUNAMI. The sensitivity matrix is constructed using a fixed-source adjoint approach for inputs characterizing the reflector region. An analytic approach is then used to determine the sensitivity of the ADFs to fuel parameters using the neutron balance equation. A stochastic approach is used to validate the proposed adjoint-based method.
Optimal Control for Coupled Near-Field/Far-Field Domains
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Guoquan; Collis, S. Scott; Ghayour, Kaveh; Heinkenschloss, Matthias
2002-11-01
A new multidomain/multiphysics computational framework for optimal control of aeroacoustic noise has been developed based on a near-field compressible Navier--Stokes solver coupled with a far-field wave equation using a discontinuous Galerkin formulation. In this approach, the coupling of near-field and far-field domains is achieved by weakly enforcing continuity of normal fluxes across a coupling surface that encloses all nonlinear flow effects and noise sources. For optimal control, gradient formation is obtained by the solution of an appropriate adjoint problem that involves the propagation of adjoint information from the far-field to the near-field. The formulation and implementation of the state and adjoint problems will be presented along with preliminary results. This computational framework will be applied in the future to study optimal boundary control of blade-vortex interaction, which is a significant noise source for helicopters on approach to landing.
Plumes, Hotspot & Slabs Imaged by Global Adjoint Tomography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bozdag, E.; Lefebvre, M. P.; Lei, W.; Peter, D. B.; Smith, J. A.; Komatitsch, D.; Tromp, J.
2015-12-01
We present the "first generation" global adjoint tomography model based on 3D wave simulations, which is the result of 15 conjugate-gradient iterations with confined transverse isotropy to the upper mantle. Our starting model is the 3D mantle and crustal models S362ANI (Kustowski et al. 2008) and Crust2.0 (Bassin et al. 2000), respectively. We take into account the full nonlinearity of wave propagation in numerical simulations including attenuation (both in forward and adjoint simulations), topography/bathymetry, etc., using the GPU version of the SPECFEM3D_GLOBE package. We invert for crust and mantle together without crustal corrections to avoid any bias in mantle structure. We started with an initial selection of 253 global CMT events within the magnitude range 5.8 ≤ Mw ≤ 7.0 with numerical simulations having resolution down to 27 s combining 30-s body and 60-s surface waves. After the 12th iteration we increased the resolution to 17 s, including higher-frequency body waves as well as going down to 45 s in surface-wave measurements. We run 180-min seismograms and assimilate all minor- and major-arc body and surface waves. Our 15th iteration model update shows a tantalisingly enhanced image of the Tahiti plume as well as various other plumes and hotspots, such as Caroline, Galapagos, Yellowstone, Erebus, etc. Furthermore, we see clear improvements in slab resolution along the Hellenic and Japan Arcs, as well as subduction along the East of Scotia Plate, which does not exist in the initial model. Point-spread function tests (Fichtner & Trampert 2011) suggest that we are close to the resolution of continental-scale studies in our global inversions and able to confidently map features, for instance, at the scale of the Yellowstone hotspot. This is a clear consequence of our multi-scale smoothing strategy, in which we define our smoothing operator as a function of the approximate Hessian kernel and smooth our gradients less wherever we have good ray coverage
Big Data Challenges in Global Seismic 'Adjoint Tomography' (Invited)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tromp, J.; Bozdag, E.; Krischer, L.; Lefebvre, M.; Lei, W.; Smith, J.
2013-12-01
The challenge of imaging Earth's interior on a global scale is closely linked to the challenge of handling large data sets. The related iterative workflow involves five distinct phases, namely, 1) data gathering and culling, 2) synthetic seismogram calculations, 3) pre-processing (time-series analysis and time-window selection), 4) data assimilation and adjoint calculations, 5) post-processing (pre-conditioning, regularization, model update). In order to implement this workflow on modern high-performance computing systems, a new seismic data format is being developed. The Adaptable Seismic Data Format (ASDF) is designed to replace currently used data formats with a more flexible format that allows for fast parallel I/O. The metadata is divided into abstract categories, such as "source" and "receiver", along with provenance information for complete reproducibility. The structure of ASDF is designed keeping in mind three distinct applications: earthquake seismology, seismic interferometry, and exploration seismology. Existing time-series analysis tool kits, such as SAC and ObsPy, can be easily interfaced with ASDF so that seismologists can use robust, previously developed software packages. ASDF accommodates an automated, efficient workflow for global adjoint tomography. Manually managing the large number of simulations associated with the workflow can rapidly become a burden, especially with increasing numbers of earthquakes and stations. Therefore, it is of importance to investigate the possibility of automating the entire workflow. Scientific Workflow Management Software (SWfMS) allows users to execute workflows almost routinely. SWfMS provides additional advantages. In particular, it is possible to group independent simulations in a single job to fit the available computational resources. They also give a basic level of fault resilience as the workflow can be resumed at the correct state preceding a failure. Some of the best candidates for our particular workflow
Towards magnetic sounding of the Earth's core by an adjoint method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, K.; Jackson, A.; Livermore, P. W.
2012-12-01
Earth's magnetic field is generated and sustained by the so called geodynamo system in the core. Measurements of the geomagnetic field taken at the surface, downwards continued through the electrically insulating mantle to the core-mantle boundary (CMB), provide important constraints on the time evolution of the velocity, magnetic field and temperature anomaly in the fluid outer core. The aim of any study in data assimilation applied to the Earth's core is to produce a time-dependent model consistent with these observations [1]. Snapshots of these ``tuned" models provide a window through which the inner workings of the Earth's core, usually hidden from view, can be probed. We apply a variational data assimilation framework to an inertia-free magnetohydrodynamic system (MHD) [2]. Such a model is close to magnetostrophic balance [4], to which we have added viscosity to the dominant forces of Coriolis, pressure, Lorentz and buoyancy, believed to be a good approximation of the Earth's dynamo. As a starting point, we have chosen to neglect the buoyancy force, this being another unknown and, at this stage, an unnecessary complication. At the heart of the models is a time-dependent magnetic field which is interacting with the core flow (itself slaved to the magnetic field). Based on the methodology developed in Li et al. (2011) [3], we show further developments in which we apply the adjoint technique to our version of the Navier-Stokes equation in continuous form. In this talk, we present the initial results using perfect synthetic data without any observation error, performing closed-loop tests to demonstrate the ability of our model for retrieving the 3D structure of the velocity and the magnetic fields at the same time.
Finn, John M.
2015-03-01
Properties of integration schemes for solenoidal fields in three dimensions are studied, with a focus on integrating magnetic field lines in a plasma using adaptive time stepping. It is shown that implicit midpoint (IM) and a scheme we call three-dimensional leapfrog (LF) can do a good job (in the sense of preserving KAM tori) of integrating fields that are reversible, or (for LF) have a 'special divergence-free' property. We review the notion of a self-adjoint scheme, showing that such schemes are at least second order accurate and can always be formed by composing an arbitrary scheme with its adjoint. We also review the concept of reversibility, showing that a reversible but not exactly volume-preserving scheme can lead to a fractal invariant measure in a chaotic region, although this property may not often be observable. We also show numerical results indicating that the IM and LF schemes can fail to preserve KAM tori when the reversibility property (and the SDF property for LF) of the field is broken. We discuss extensions to measure preserving flows, the integration of magnetic field lines in a plasma and the integration of rays for several plasma waves. The main new result of this paper relates to non-uniform time stepping for volume-preserving flows. We investigate two potential schemes, both based on the general method of Ref. [11], in which the flow is integrated in split time steps, each Hamiltonian in two dimensions. The first scheme is an extension of the method of extended phase space, a well-proven method of symplectic integration with non-uniform time steps. This method is found not to work, and an explanation is given. The second method investigated is a method based on transformation to canonical variables for the two split-step Hamiltonian systems. This method, which is related to the method of non-canonical generating functions of Ref. [35], appears to work very well.
T-Parity in Little Higgs Models
Krohn, David
2008-11-23
We examine quantum anomalies in the context of little Higgs theories. In particular, we investigate the restrictions imposed upon little Higgs models when one requires an exact T-parity. Applications to LHC phenomenology are briefly discussed.
Twin Higgs mechanism and a composite Higgs boson
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Low, Matthew; Tesi, Andrea; Wang, Lian-Tao
2015-05-01
We combine the twin Higgs mechanism with the paradigm of composite Higgs models. In this class of models the Higgs is a pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone boson from a strongly coupled sector near the TeV scale, and it is additionally protected by a discrete symmetry due to the twin mechanism. We discuss the model-building issues associated with this setup and quantify the tuning needed to achieve the correct electroweak vacuum and the Higgs mass. In contrast to standard composite Higgs models, the lightest resonance associated with the top sector is the uncolored mirror top, while the colored top partners can be made parameterically heavier without extra tuning. In some cases, the vector resonances are predicted to lie in the multi-TeV range. We present models where the resonances—both fermions and vectors—being heavier alleviates the pressure on naturalness coming from direct searches demonstrating that theories with low tuning may survive constraints from the Large Hadron Collider.
Multigrid methods for bifurcation problems: The self adjoint case
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Taasan, Shlomo
1987-01-01
This paper deals with multigrid methods for computational problems that arise in the theory of bifurcation and is restricted to the self adjoint case. The basic problem is to solve for arcs of solutions, a task that is done successfully with an arc length continuation method. Other important issues are, for example, detecting and locating singular points as part of the continuation process, switching branches at bifurcation points, etc. Multigrid methods have been applied to continuation problems. These methods work well at regular points and at limit points, while they may encounter difficulties in the vicinity of bifurcation points. A new continuation method that is very efficient also near bifurcation points is presented here. The other issues mentioned above are also treated very efficiently with appropriate multigrid algorithms. For example, it is shown that limit points and bifurcation points can be solved for directly by a multigrid algorithm. Moreover, the algorithms presented here solve the corresponding problems in just a few work units (about 10 or less), where a work unit is the work involved in one local relaxation on the finest grid.
Skyrmions in Yang-Mills theories with massless adjoint quarks
Auzzi, R.; Bolognesi, S.; Shifman, M.
2008-06-15
Dynamics of SU(N{sub c}) Yang-Mills theories with N{sub f} adjoint Weyl fermions is quite different from that of SU(N{sub c}) gauge theories with fundamental quarks. The symmetry breaking pattern is SU(N{sub f}){yields}SO(N{sub f}). The corresponding sigma model supports Skyrmions whose microscopic identification is not immediately clear. We address this issue as well as the issue of the Skyrmion stability. The case of N{sub f}=2 had been considered previously. Here we discuss N{sub f}{>=}3. We discuss the coupling between the massless Goldstone bosons and massive composite fermions [with mass O(N{sub c}{sup 0})] from the standpoint of the low-energy chiral sigma model. We derive the Wess-Zumino-Novikov-Witten term and then determine Skyrmion statistics. We also determine their fermion number (mod 2) and observe an abnormal relation between the statistics and the fermion number. This explains the Skyrmion stability. In addition, we consider another microscopic theory--SO(N{sub c}) Yang-Mills with N{sub f} Weyl fermions in the vectorial representation--which has the same chiral symmetry breaking pattern and the same chiral Lagrangian. We discuss distinctive features of these two scenarios.
A practical discrete-adjoint method for high-fidelity compressible turbulence simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vishnampet, Ramanathan; Bodony, Daniel J.; Freund, Jonathan B.
2015-03-01
Methods and computing hardware advances have enabled accurate predictions of complex compressible turbulence phenomena, such as the generation of jet noise that motivates the present effort. However, limited understanding of underlying physical mechanisms restricts the utility of such predictions since they do not, by themselves, indicate a route to design improvements. Gradient-based optimization using adjoints can circumvent the flow complexity to guide designs, though this is predicated on the availability of a sufficiently accurate solution of the forward and adjoint systems. These are challenging to obtain, since both the chaotic character of the turbulence and the typical use of discretizations near their resolution limits in order to efficiently represent its smaller scales will amplify any approximation errors made in the adjoint formulation. Formulating a practical exact adjoint that avoids such errors is especially challenging if it is to be compatible with state-of-the-art simulation methods used for the turbulent flow itself. Automatic differentiation (AD) can provide code to calculate a nominally exact adjoint, but existing general-purpose AD codes are inefficient to the point of being prohibitive for large-scale turbulence simulations. Here, we analyze the compressible flow equations as discretized using the same high-order workhorse methods used for many high-fidelity compressible turbulence simulations, and formulate a practical space-time discrete-adjoint method without changing the basic discretization. A key step is the definition of a particular discrete analog of the continuous norm that defines our cost functional; our selection leads directly to an efficient Runge-Kutta-like scheme, though it would be just first-order accurate if used outside the adjoint formulation for time integration, with finite-difference spatial operators for the adjoint system. Its computational cost only modestly exceeds that of the flow equations. We confirm that its
A practical discrete-adjoint method for high-fidelity compressible turbulence simulations
Vishnampet, Ramanathan; Bodony, Daniel J.; Freund, Jonathan B.
2015-03-15
Methods and computing hardware advances have enabled accurate predictions of complex compressible turbulence phenomena, such as the generation of jet noise that motivates the present effort. However, limited understanding of underlying physical mechanisms restricts the utility of such predictions since they do not, by themselves, indicate a route to design improvements. Gradient-based optimization using adjoints can circumvent the flow complexity to guide designs, though this is predicated on the availability of a sufficiently accurate solution of the forward and adjoint systems. These are challenging to obtain, since both the chaotic character of the turbulence and the typical use of discretizations near their resolution limits in order to efficiently represent its smaller scales will amplify any approximation errors made in the adjoint formulation. Formulating a practical exact adjoint that avoids such errors is especially challenging if it is to be compatible with state-of-the-art simulation methods used for the turbulent flow itself. Automatic differentiation (AD) can provide code to calculate a nominally exact adjoint, but existing general-purpose AD codes are inefficient to the point of being prohibitive for large-scale turbulence simulations. Here, we analyze the compressible flow equations as discretized using the same high-order workhorse methods used for many high-fidelity compressible turbulence simulations, and formulate a practical space–time discrete-adjoint method without changing the basic discretization. A key step is the definition of a particular discrete analog of the continuous norm that defines our cost functional; our selection leads directly to an efficient Runge–Kutta-like scheme, though it would be just first-order accurate if used outside the adjoint formulation for time integration, with finite-difference spatial operators for the adjoint system. Its computational cost only modestly exceeds that of the flow equations. We confirm that
Dirac lattices, zero-range potentials, and self-adjoint extension
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bordag, M.; Muñoz-Castañeda, J. M.
2015-03-01
We consider the electromagnetic field in the presence of polarizable point dipoles. In the corresponding effective Maxwell equation these dipoles are described by three dimensional delta function potentials. We review the approaches handling these: the self-adjoint extension, regularization/renormalization and the zero range potential methods. Their close interrelations are discussed in detail and compared with the electrostatic approach which drops the contributions from the self fields. For a homogeneous two dimensional lattice of dipoles we write down the complete solutions, which allow, for example, for an easy numerical treatment of the scattering of the electromagnetic field on the lattice or for investigating plasmons. Using these formulas, we consider the limiting case of vanishing lattice spacing, i.e., the transition to a continuous sheet. For a scalar field and for the TE polarization of the electromagnetic field this transition is smooth and results in the results known from the continuous sheet. Especially for the TE polarization, we reproduce the results known from the hydrodynamic model describing a two dimensional electron gas. For the TM polarization, for polarizability parallel and perpendicular to the lattice, in both cases, the transition is singular. For the parallel polarizability this is surprising and different from the hydrodynamic model. For perpendicular polarizability this is what was known in literature. We also investigate the case when the transition is done with dipoles described by smeared delta function, i.e., keeping a regularization. Here, for TM polarization for parallel polarizability, when subsequently doing the limit of vanishing lattice spacing, we reproduce the result known from the hydrodynamic model. In case of perpendicular polarizability we need an additional renormalization to reproduce the result obtained previously by stepping back from the dipole approximation.
Criticality in the (2+1)-dimensional compact Higgs model and fractionalized insulators.
Sudbø, A; Smørgrav, E; Smiseth, J; Nogueira, F S; Hove, J
2002-11-25
We use a novel method of computing the third moment M3 of the action of the (2+1)-dimensional compact Higgs model in the adjoint representation with q=2 to extract correlation length and specific heat exponents nu and alpha without invoking hyperscaling. Finite-size scaling analysis of M3 yields the ratios (1+alpha)/nu and 1/nu separately. We find that alpha and nu vary along the critical line of the theory, which however exhibits a remarkable resilience of Z2 criticality. We propose this novel universality class to be that of the quantum phase transition from a Mott-Hubbard insulator to a charge-fractionalized insulator in two spatial dimensions. PMID:12485087
Measuring Higgs couplings from LHC data.
Klute, Markus; Lafaye, Rémi; Plehn, Tilman; Rauch, Michael; Zerwas, Dirk
2012-09-01
Following recent ATLAS and CMS publications we interpret the results of their Higgs searches in terms of standard model operators. For a Higgs boson mass of 125 GeV we determine several Higgs couplings from published 2011 data and extrapolate the results towards different scenarios of LHC running. Even though our analysis is limited by low statistics we already derive meaningful constraints on modified Higgs sectors.
THE HIGGS WORKING GROUP: SUMMARY REPORT.
DAWSON, S.; ET AL.
2005-08-01
This working group has investigated Higgs boson searches at the Tevatron and the LHC. Once Higgs bosons are found their properties have to be determined. The prospects of Higgs coupling measurements at the LHC and a high-energy linear e{sup +}e{sup -} collider are discussed in detail within the Standard Model and its minimal supersymmetric extension (MSSM). Recent improvements in the theoretical knowledge of the signal and background processes are presented and taken into account. The residual uncertainties are analyzed in detail. Theoretical progress is discussed in particular for the gluon-fusion processes gg {yields} H(+j), Higgs-bremsstrahlung off bottom quarks and the weak vector-boson-fusion (VBF) processes. Following the list of open questions of the last Les Houches workshop in 2001 several background processes have been calculated at next-to-leading order, resulting in a significant reduction of the theoretical uncertainties. Further improvements have been achieved for the Higgs sectors of the MSSM and NMSSM. This report summarizes our work performed before and after the workshop in Les Houches. Part A describes the theoretical developments for signal and background processes. Part B presents recent progress in Higgs boson searches at the Tevatron collider. Part C addresses the determination of Higgs boson couplings, part D the measurement of tan {beta} and part E Higgs boson searches in the VBF processes at the LHC. Part F summarizes Higgs searches in supersymmetric Higgs decays, part G photonic Higgs decays in Higgs-strahlung processes at the LHC, while part H concentrates on MSSM Higgs bosons in the intense-coupling regime at the LHC. Part I presents progress in charged Higgs studies and part J the Higgs discovery potential in the NMSSM at the LHC. The last part K describes Higgs coupling measurements at a 1 TeV linear e{sup +}e{sup -} collider.
Is the Higgs boson composed of neutrinos?
Krog, Jens; Hill, Christopher T.
2015-11-09
We show that conventional Higgs compositeness conditions can be achieved by the running of large Higgs-Yukawa couplings involving right-handed neutrinos that become active at ~1013–1014 GeV. Together with a somewhat enhanced quartic coupling arising by a Higgs portal interaction to a dark matter sector, we can obtain a Higgs boson composed of neutrinos. Furthermore, this is a “next-to-minimal” dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking scheme.
Is the Higgs boson composed of neutrinos?
Krog, Jens; Hill, Christopher T.
2015-11-09
We show that conventional Higgs compositeness conditions can be achieved by the running of large Higgs-Yukawa couplings involving right-handed neutrinos that become active at ~10^{13}–10^{14} GeV. Together with a somewhat enhanced quartic coupling arising by a Higgs portal interaction to a dark matter sector, we can obtain a Higgs boson composed of neutrinos. Furthermore, this is a “next-to-minimal” dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking scheme.
Bound states in the Higgs model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
di Leo, Leo; Darewych, Jurij W.
1994-02-01
We derive relativistic wave equations for the bound states of two Higgs bosons within the Higgs sector of the minimal standard model. The variational method and the Hamiltonian formalism of QFT are used to obtain the equations using a simple ||hh>+||hhh> Fock-space ansatz. We present approximate solutions of these equations for a range of Higgs boson masses, and explore the parameter space which corresponds to the existence of two-Higgs-boson bound states.
Fat Jets for a Light Higgs Boson
Plehn, Tilman; Salam, Gavin P.; Spannowsky, Michael
2010-03-19
At the LHC associated top quark and Higgs boson production with a Higgs boson decay to bottom quarks has long been a heavily disputed search channel. Recently, it has been found not to be viable. We show how it can be observed by tagging massive Higgs bosons and top jets. For this purpose we construct boosted top and Higgs taggers for standard-model processes in a complex QCD environment.
HiggsSignals: Confronting arbitrary Higgs sectors with measurements at the Tevatron and the LHC
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bechtle, Philip; Heinemeyer, Sven; Stål, Oscar; Stefaniak, Tim; Weiglein, Georg
2014-02-01
HiggsSignals is a Fortran90 computer code that allows to test the compatibility of Higgs sector predictions against Higgs rates and masses measured at the LHC or the Tevatron. Arbitrary models with any number of Higgs bosons can be investigated using a model-independent input scheme based on HiggsBounds. The test is based on the calculation of a measure from the predictions and the measured Higgs rates and masses, with the ability of fully taking into account systematics and correlations for the signal rate predictions, luminosity and Higgs mass predictions. It features two complementary methods for the test. First, the peak-centered method, in which each observable is defined by a Higgs signal rate measured at a specific hypothetical Higgs mass, corresponding to a tentative Higgs signal. Second, the mass-centered method, where the test is evaluated by comparing the signal rate measurement to the theory prediction at the Higgs mass predicted by the model. The program allows for the simultaneous use of both methods, which is useful in testing models with multiple Higgs bosons. The code automatically combines the signal rates of multiple Higgs bosons if their signals cannot be resolved by the experimental analysis. We compare results obtained with HiggsSignals to official ATLAS and CMS results for various examples of Higgs property determinations and find very good agreement. A few examples of HiggsSignals applications are provided, going beyond the scenarios investigated by the LHC collaborations. For models with more than one Higgs boson we recommend to use HiggsSignals and HiggsBounds in parallel to exploit the full constraining power of Higgs search exclusion limits and the measurements of the signal seen at GeV.
Higgs boson production with heavy quarks at hadron colliders
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jackson, Christopher B.
2005-11-01
One of the remaining puzzles in particle physics is the origin of electroweak symmetry breaking. In the Standard Model (SM), a single doublet of complex scalar fields is responsible for breaking the SU(2) L x U(1)Y gauge symmetry thus giving mass to the electroweak gauge bosons via the Higgs mechanism and to the fermions via Yukawa couplings. The remnant of the process is a vet to he discovered scalar particle, the Higgs boson (h). However, current and future experiments at hadron colliders hold great promise. Of particular interest at hadron colliders is the production of a Higgs boson in association with a pair of heavy quarks, pp¯(pp) → QQ¯h, where Q can be either a top or a bottom quark. Indeed, the production of a Higgs boson with a pair of top quarks provides a very distinctive signal in hadronic collisions where background processes are formidable, and it will be instrumental in the discovery of a Higgs boson below about 130 GeV at the LHC. On the other hand, the production of a Higgs boson with bottom quarks can be strongly enhanced in models of new physics beyond the SM, e.g. supersymmetric models. If this is the case, bb¯h production will play a crucial role at the Tevatron where it could provide the first signal of new physics. Given the prominent role that Higgs production with heavy quarks can play at hadron colliders, it becomes imperative to have precise theoretical predictions for total and differential cross sections. In this dissertation, we outline and present detailed results for the next-to-leading order (NLO) calculation of the Quantum Chromodynamic (QCD) corrections to QQ¯h production at both the Tevatron and the LHC. This calculation involves several difficult issues due to the three massive particles in the final state, a situation which is at the frontier of radiative correction calculations in quantum field theory. We detail the novel techniques developed to deal with these challenges. The calculation of pp¯(pp) → bb¯h at NLO in
Automated divertor target design by adjoint shape sensitivity analysis and a one-shot method
Dekeyser, W.; Reiter, D.; Baelmans, M.
2014-12-01
As magnetic confinement fusion progresses towards the development of first reactor-scale devices, computational tokamak divertor design is a topic of high priority. Presently, edge plasma codes are used in a forward approach, where magnetic field and divertor geometry are manually adjusted to meet design requirements. Due to the complex edge plasma flows and large number of design variables, this method is computationally very demanding. On the other hand, efficient optimization-based design strategies have been developed in computational aerodynamics and fluid mechanics. Such an optimization approach to divertor target shape design is elaborated in the present paper. A general formulation of the design problems is given, and conditions characterizing the optimal designs are formulated. Using a continuous adjoint framework, design sensitivities can be computed at a cost of only two edge plasma simulations, independent of the number of design variables. Furthermore, by using a one-shot method the entire optimization problem can be solved at an equivalent cost of only a few forward simulations. The methodology is applied to target shape design for uniform power load, in simplified edge plasma geometry.
Discrete SLn-connections and self-adjoint difference operators on 2-dimensional manifolds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grinevich, P. G.; Novikov, S. P.
2013-10-01
The programme of discretization of famous completely integrable systems and associated linear operators was launched in the 1990s. In particular, the properties of second-order difference operators on triangulated manifolds and equilateral triangular lattices have been studied by Novikov and Dynnikov since 1996. This study included Laplace transformations, new discretizations of complex analysis, and new discretizations of GLn-connections on triangulated n-dimensional manifolds. A general theory of discrete GLn-connections 'of rank one' has been developed (see the Introduction for definitions). The problem of distinguishing the subclass of SLn-connections (and unimodular SLn+/- -connections, which satisfy detA = +/-1) has not been solved. In the present paper it is shown that these connections play an important role (which is similar to the role of magnetic fields in the continuous case) in the theory of self-adjoint Schrödinger difference operators on equilateral triangular lattices in ℝ2. In Appendix 1 a complete characterization is given of unimodular SLn+/- -connections of rank 1 for all n > 1, thus correcting a mistake (it was wrongly claimed that they reduce to a canonical connection for n > 2). With the help of a communication from Korepanov, a complete clarification is provided of how the classical theory of electrical circuits and star-triangle transformations is connected with the discrete Laplace transformations on triangular lattices. Bibliography: 29 titles.
Properties of the Higgs particle in a model involving a single unified fermion generation
Libanov, M. V. Nugaev, E. Ya.
2007-05-15
The properties of the Higgs boson are studied within a model where three generations of Standard Model fermions emerge from one generation in a theory featuring two extra spatial dimensions. It is shown that, despite a nontrivial external field forming a brane, the interactions of the Higgs particle in the effective four-dimensional theory are virtually identical to the interactions of this particle in the Standard Model. Arguments in favor of the statement that the Higgs boson must be rather light in the model being considered are also presented.
Dark Matter constraints on composite Higgs models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fonseca, Nayara; Funchal, Renata Zukanovich; Lessa, Andre; Lopez-Honorez, Laura
2015-06-01
In composite Higgs models the pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone Boson (pNGB) nature of the Higgs field is an interesting alternative for explaining the smallness of the electroweak scale with respect to the beyond the Standard Model scale. In non-minimal models additional pNGB states are present and can be a Dark Matter (DM) candidate, if there is an approximate symmetry suppressing their decay. Here we assume that the low energy effective theory (for scales much below the compositeness scale) corresponds to the Standard Model with a pNGB Higgs doublet and a pNGB DM multiplet. We derive general effective DM Lagrangians for several possible DM representations (under the SM gauge group), including the singlet, doublet and triplet cases. Within this framework we discuss how the DM observables (relic abundance, direct and indirect detection) constrain the dimension-6 operators induced by the strong sector assuming that DM behaves as a Weakly Interacting Particle (WIMP) and that the relic abundance is settled through the freeze-out mechanism. We also apply our general results to two specific cosets: SO(6)/SO(5) and SO(6)/SO(4)×SO(2), which contain a singlet and doublet DM candidate, respectively. In particular we show that if compositeness is a solution to the little hierarchy problem, representations larger than the triplet are strongly disfavored. Furthermore, we find that composite models can have viable DM candidates with much smaller direct detection cross-sections than their non-composite counterparts, making DM detection much more challenging.
Conformal Gravity rotation curves with a conformal Higgs halo
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Horne, Keith
2016-06-01
We discuss the effect of a conformally coupled Higgs field on conformal gravity (CG) predictions for the rotation curves of galaxies. The Mannheim-Kazanas (MK) metric is a valid vacuum solution of CG's fourth-order Poisson equation if and only if the Higgs field has a particular radial profile, S(r) = S0 a/(r + a), decreasing from S0 at r = 0 with radial scalelength a. Since particle rest masses scale with S(r)/S0, their world lines do not follow time-like geodesics of the MK metric gμν, as previously assumed, but rather those of the Higgs-frame MK metric tilde{g}_{μ ν }=Ω ^2 g_{μ ν }, with the conformal factor Ω(r) = S(r)/S0. We show that the required stretching of the MK metric exactly cancels the linear potential that has been invoked to fit galaxy rotation curves without dark matter. We also formulate, for spherical structures with a Higgs halo S(r), the CG equations that must be solved for viable astrophysical tests of CG using galaxy and cluster dynamics and lensing.
Non-minimal Higgs inflation and frame dependence in cosmology
Steinwachs, Christian F.; Kamenshchik, Alexander Yu.
2013-02-21
We investigate a very general class of cosmological models with scalar fields non-minimally coupled to gravity. A particular representative in this class is given by the non-minimal Higgs inflation model in which the Standard Model Higgs boson and the inflaton are described by one and the same scalar particle. While the predictions of the non-minimal Higgs inflation scenario come numerically remarkably close to the recently discovered mass of the Higgs boson, there remains a conceptual problem in this model that is associated with the choice of the cosmological frame. While the classical theory is independent of this choice, we find by an explicit calculation that already the first quantum corrections induce a frame dependence. We give a geometrical explanation of this frame dependence by embedding it into a more general field theoretical context. From this analysis, some conceptional points in the long lasting cosmological debate: 'Jordan frame vs. Einstein frame' become more transparent and in principle can be resolved in a natural way.
Margaroli, Fabrizio
2014-09-15
We show the latest results from the CDF and D0 collaborations on the study of the Higgs boson, stemming from the analysis of the entire Tevatron Run\\,II dataset. Combining the results of many individual analyses, most of which use the full data set available, an excess with a significance of approximately three standard deviations with respect to the Standard Model hypothesis is observed at a Higgs boson mass of 125\\,GeV/$c^2$. The Tevatron unique environment allows in addition to study for the first time the spin-parity hypothesis of the Higgs boson in events where it decays to quarks. Within the current experimental uncertainties, the newly discovered boson behaves as expected by the SM in the fermionic sector.
Towards magnetic sounding of the Earth's core by an adjoint method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, K.; Jackson, A.; Livermore, P. W.
2013-12-01
Earth's magnetic field is generated and sustained by the so called geodynamo system in the core. Measurements of the geomagnetic field taken at the surface, downwards continued through the electrically insulating mantle to the core-mantle boundary (CMB), provide important constraints on the time evolution of the velocity, magnetic field and temperature anomaly in the fluid outer core. The aim of any study in data assimilation applied to the Earth's core is to produce a time-dependent model consistent with these observations [1]. Snapshots of these ``tuned" models provide a window through which the inner workings of the Earth's core, usually hidden from view, can be probed. We apply a variational data assimilation framework to an inertia-free magnetohydrodynamic system (MHD) [2]. Such a model is close to magnetostrophic balance [3], to which we have added viscosity to the dominant forces of Coriolis, pressure, Lorentz and buoyancy, believed to be a good approximation of the Earth's dynamo in the convective time scale. We chose to study the MHD system driven by a static temperature anomaly to mimic the actual inner working of Earth's dynamo system, avoiding at this stage the further complication of solving for the time dependent temperature field. At the heart of the models is a time-dependent magnetic field to which the core-flow is enslaved. In previous work we laid the foundation of the adjoint methodology, applied to a subset of the full equations [4]. As an intermediate step towards our ultimate vision of applying the techniques to a fully dynamic mode of the Earth's core tuned to geomagnetic observations, we present the intermediate step of applying the adjoint technique to the inertia-free Navier-Stokes equation in continuous form. We use synthetic observations derived from evolving a geophysically-reasonable magnetic field profile as the initial condition of our MHD system. Based on our study, we also propose several different strategies for accurately
Higgs triplets and limits from precision measurements
Chen, Mu-Chun; Dawson, Sally; Krupovnickas, Tadas; /Brookhaven
2006-04-01
In this letter, they present the results on a global fit to precision electroweak data in a Higgs triplet model. In models with a triplet Higgs boson, a consistent renormalization scheme differs from that of the Standard Model and the global fit shows that a light Higgs boson with mass of 100-200 GeV is preferred. Triplet Higgs bosons arise in many extensions of the Standard Model, including the left-right model and the Little Higgs models. The result demonstrates the importance of the scalar loops when there is a large mass splitting between the heavy scalars. It also indicates the significance of the global fit.
On the renormalization of the electroweak chiral Lagrangian with a Higgs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gavela, M. B.; Kanshin, K.; Machado, P. A. N.; Saa, S.
2015-03-01
We consider the scalar sector of the effective non-linear electroweak Lagrangian with a light "Higgs" particle. For a leading order Lagrangian, the complete one-loop off-shell renormalization procedure is performed, including the effects of a finite Higgs mass. This determines the complete set of independent chiral invariant scalar counterterms required for consistency; these include bosonic operators often disregarded. A novel general parametrization of the Goldstone boson matrix is proposed, which reduces to the various usual ones for specific values of its parameter. Furthermore, new counterterms involving the Higgs field which are apparently chiral non-invariant are identified in the perturbative analysis. A redefinition of the Goldstone boson fields which absorbs all chiral non-invariant counterterms is then explicitly determined. The physical results translate into renormalization group equations which may be useful when comparing future Higgs data at different energies.
Three phases in the three-dimensional Abelian-Higgs model with nonlocal gauge interactions
Takashima, Shunsuke; Ichinose, Ikuo; Matsui, Tetsuo; Sakakibara, Kazuhiko
2006-08-15
We study the phase structure of the three-dimensional (3D) nonlocal compact U(1) lattice gauge theory coupled with a Higgs field by Monte Carlo simulations. The nonlocal interactions among gauge variables are along the temporal direction and mimic the effect of local coupling to massless particles. In contrast to the 3D local Abelian-Higgs model having only the confinement phase, the present model exhibits the confinement, Higgs, and Coulomb phases separated by three second-order transition lines emanating from a triple point. This result is relevant not only to the 3D massless QED coupled with a Higgs field but also to electron fractionalization phenomena in strongly correlated electron systems like the high-T{sub c} superconductors and the fractional quantum Hall effect.
Adjoint-based airfoil shape optimization in transonic flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gramanzini, Joe-Ray
The primary focus of this work is efficient aerodynamic shape optimization in transonic flow. Adjoint-based optimization techniques are employed on airfoil sections and evaluated in terms of computational accuracy as well as efficiency. This study examines two test cases proposed by the AIAA Aerodynamic Design Optimization Discussion Group. The first is a two-dimensional, transonic, inviscid, non-lifting optimization of a Modified-NACA 0012 airfoil. The second is a two-dimensional, transonic, viscous optimization problem using a RAE 2822 airfoil. The FUN3D CFD code of NASA Langley Research Center is used as the ow solver for the gradient-based optimization cases. Two shape parameterization techniques are employed to study their effect and the number of design variables on the final optimized shape: Multidisciplinary Aerodynamic-Structural Shape Optimization Using Deformation (MASSOUD) and the BandAids free-form deformation technique. For the two airfoil cases, angle of attack is treated as a global design variable. The thickness and camber distributions are the local design variables for MASSOUD, and selected airfoil surface grid points are the local design variables for BandAids. Using the MASSOUD technique, a drag reduction of 72.14% is achieved for the NACA 0012 case, reducing the total number of drag counts from 473.91 to 130.59. Employing the BandAids technique yields a 78.67% drag reduction, from 473.91 to 99.98. The RAE 2822 case exhibited a drag reduction from 217.79 to 132.79 counts, a 39.05% decrease using BandAids.
Generalized adjoint consistent treatment of wall boundary conditions for compressible flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hartmann, Ralf; Leicht, Tobias
2015-11-01
In this article, we revisit the adjoint consistency analysis of Discontinuous Galerkin discretizations of the compressible Euler and Navier-Stokes equations with application to the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes and k- ω turbulence equations. Here, particular emphasis is laid on the discretization of wall boundary conditions. While previously only one specific combination of discretizations of wall boundary conditions and of aerodynamic force coefficients has been shown to give an adjoint consistent discretization, in this article we generalize this analysis and provide a discretization of the force coefficients for any consistent discretization of wall boundary conditions. Furthermore, we demonstrate that a related evaluation of the cp- and cf-distributions is required. The freedom gained in choosing the discretization of boundary conditions without loosing adjoint consistency is used to devise a new adjoint consistent discretization including numerical fluxes on the wall boundary which is more robust than the adjoint consistent discretization known up to now. While this work is presented in the framework of Discontinuous Galerkin discretizations, the insight gained is also applicable to (and thus valuable for) other discretization schemes. In particular, the discretization of integral quantities, like the drag, lift and moment coefficients, as well as the discretization of local quantities at the wall like surface pressure and skin friction should follow as closely as possible the discretization of the flow equations and boundary conditions at the wall boundary.
Assessing the Impact of Observations on Numerical Weather Forecasts Using the Adjoint Method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gelaro, Ronald
2012-01-01
The adjoint of a data assimilation system provides a flexible and efficient tool for estimating observation impacts on short-range weather forecasts. The impacts of any or all observations can be estimated simultaneously based on a single execution of the adjoint system. The results can be easily aggregated according to data type, location, channel, etc., making this technique especially attractive for examining the impacts of new hyper-spectral satellite instruments and for conducting regular, even near-real time, monitoring of the entire observing system. This talk provides a general overview of the adjoint method, including the theoretical basis and practical implementation of the technique. Results are presented from the adjoint-based observation impact monitoring tool in NASA's GEOS-5 global atmospheric data assimilation and forecast system. When performed in conjunction with standard observing system experiments (OSEs), the adjoint results reveal both redundancies and dependencies between observing system impacts as observations are added or removed from the assimilation system. Understanding these dependencies may be important for optimizing the use of the current observational network and defining requirements for future observing systems
Ryskin, M. G.; Shuvaev, A. G.
2010-06-15
We study possible phenomenological consequences of the recently proposed new approach to the Weinberg-Salam model. The electroweak theory is considered as a gravity and the Higgs particle is interpreted in it as a dilaton, without the usual potential of interaction in the Higgs sector. We have taken as a test the process of photon pair production, e{sup +} + e{sup -} {sup {yields}}Z + {gamma} + {gamma}. In the framework of new formulation this reaction is mediated in the lowest order by the dilaton. The cross section is found to be rather small.
Higgs bosons in warped space, from the bulk to the brane
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Frank, Mariana; Pourtolami, Nima; Toharia, Manuel
2013-05-01
In the context of warped extra dimensional models with all fields propagating in the bulk, we address the phenomenology of a bulk scalar Higgs boson, and calculate its production cross section at the LHC as well as its tree-level effects on mediating flavor changing neutral currents. We perform the calculations based on two different approaches. First, we compute our predictions analytically by considering all the degrees of freedom emerging from the dimensional reduction [the infinite tower of Kaluza Klein modes (KK)]. In the second approach, we perform our calculations numerically by considering only the effects caused by the first few KK modes, present in the 4-dimensional effective theory. In the case of a Higgs leaking far from the brane, both approaches give the same predictions as the effects of the heavier KK modes decouple. However, as the Higgs boson is pushed toward the TeV brane, the two approaches seem to be equivalent only when one includes heavier and heavier degrees of freedom (which do not seem to decouple). To reconcile these results it is necessary to introduce higher dimension operators which essentially encode the effects of integrating out the heavy KK modes and dress the brane Higgs so that it looks just like a bulk Higgs. However, in the brane Higgs limit, it is not possible to predict if there will be enhancement or suppression in the Higgs production rate since the corrections depend on the phases of higher dimension operators.
Phenomenology of the Higgs effective Lagrangian via F eynR ules
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alloul, Adam; Fuks, Benjamin; Sanz, Verónica
2014-04-01
The Higgs discovery and the lack of any other hint for new physics favor a description of non-standard Higgs physics in terms of an effective field theory. We present an implementation of a general Higgs effective Lagrangian containing operators up to dimension six in the framework of F eynR ules and provide details on the translation between the mass and interaction bases, in particular for three- and four-point interaction vertices involving Higgs and gauge bosons. We illustrate the strengths of this implementation by using the UFO interface of F eynR ules capable to generate model files that can be understood by the M adG raph 5 event generator and that have the specificity to contain all interaction vertices, without any restriction on the number of external legs or on the complexity of the Lorentz structures. We then investigate several new physics effects in total rates and differential distributions for different Higgs production modes, including gluon fusion, associated production with a gauge boson and di-Higgs production. We finally study contact interactions of gauge and Higgs bosons to fermions.
Effective multi-Higgs couplings to gluons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Spira, Michael
2016-10-01
Standard-Model Higgs bosons are dominantly produced via the gluon-fusion mechanism gg → H at the LHC, i.e. in a loop-mediated process with top loops providing the dominant contribution. For the measured Higgs boson mass of ˜ 125 GeV the limit of heavy top quarks provides a reliable approximation as long as the relative QCD corrections are scaled with the full mass-dependent LO cross section. In this limit the Higgs coupling to gluons can be described by an effective Lagrangian. The same approach can also be applied to the coupling of more than one Higgs boson to gluons. We will derive the effective Lagrangian for multi-Higgs couplings to gluons up to N4LO thus extending previous results for more than one Higgs boson. Moreover we discuss gluonic Higgs couplings up to NNLO, if several heavy quarks contribute.
Static cosmological solutions of the Einstein-Yang-Mills-Higgs equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Breitenlohner, P.; Forgács, P.; Maison, D.
2000-09-01
Numerical evidence is presented for the existence of a new family of static, globally regular `cosmological' solutions of the spherically symmetric Einstein-Yang-Mills-Higgs equations. These solutions are characterized by two natural numbers (/m>=1, /n>=0), the number of nodes of the Yang-Mills and Higgs field respectively. The corresponding spacetimes are static with spatially compact sections with 3-sphere topology.
Radius stabilization and dark matter with a bulk Higgs in warped extra dimension
Ahmed, A.; Grzadkowski, B.; Gunion, J. F.; Jiang, Y.
2015-01-01
In this study, we employ an SU(2) bulk Higgs doublet as the stabilization field in the Randall–Sundrum model with appropriate bulk and brane-localized potentials. The gauge hierarchy problem can be solved for an exponentially IR-localized Higgs background field with mild values of fundamental parameters of the 5D theory. We consider an IR–UV–IR background geometry with the 5D SM fields in the bulk such that all the fields have even and odd towers of KK-modes. The zero-mode 4D effective theory contains all the SM fields plus a stable scalar, which serves as a dark matter candidate.
Double Higgs production in the Two Higgs Doublet Model at the linear collider
Arhrib, Abdesslam; Benbrik, Rachid; Chiang, C.-W.
2008-04-21
We study double Higgs-strahlung production at the future Linear Collider in the framework of the Two Higgs Doublet Models through the following channels: e{sup +}e{sup -}{yields}{phi}{sub i}{phi}{sub j}Z, {phi}{sub i} = h deg., H deg., A deg. All these processes are sensitive to triple Higgs couplings. Hence observations of them provide information on the triple Higgs couplings that help reconstructing the scalar potential. We discuss also the double Higgs-strahlung e{sup +}e{sup -}{yields}h deg. h deg. Z in the decoupling limit where h deg. mimics the SM Higgs boson.
Horizon-less Spherically Symmetric Vacuum-Solutions in a Higgs Scalar-Tensor Theory of Gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bezares-Roder, Nils M.; Nandan, Hemwati; Dehnen, Heinz
2007-10-01
The exact static and spherically symmetric solutions of the vacuum field equations for a Higgs Scalar-Tensor theory (HSTT) are derived in Schwarzschild coordinates. It is shown that in general there exists no Schwarzschild horizon and that the fields are only singular (as naked singularity) at the center (i.e. for the case of a point-particle). However, the Schwarzschild solution as in usual general relativity (GR) is obtained for the vanishing limit of Higgs field excitations.
Time dependent adjoint-based optimization for coupled fluid-structure problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mishra, Asitav; Mani, Karthik; Mavriplis, Dimitri; Sitaraman, Jay
2015-07-01
A formulation for sensitivity analysis of fully coupled time-dependent aeroelastic problems is given in this paper. Both forward sensitivity and adjoint sensitivity formulations are derived that correspond to analogues of the fully coupled non-linear aeroelastic analysis problem. Both sensitivity analysis formulations make use of the same iterative disciplinary solution techniques used for analysis, and make use of an analogous coupling strategy. The information passed between fluid and structural solvers is dimensionally equivalent in all cases, enabling the use of the same data structures for analysis, forward and adjoint problems. The fully coupled adjoint formulation is then used to perform rotor blade design optimization for a four bladed HART2 rotor in hover conditions started impulsively from rest. The effect of time step size and mesh resolution on optimization results is investigated.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Subramanian, Ramanathan Vishnampet Ganapathi
Methods and computing hardware advances have enabled accurate predictions of complex compressible turbulence phenomena, such as the generation of jet noise that motivates the present effort. However, limited understanding of underlying physical mechanisms restricts the utility of such predictions since they do not, by themselves, indicate a route to design improvement. Gradient-based optimization using adjoints can circumvent the flow complexity to guide designs. Such methods have enabled sensitivity analysis and active control of turbulence at engineering flow conditions by providing gradient information at computational cost comparable to that of simulating the flow. They accelerate convergence of numerical design optimization algorithms, though this is predicated on the availability of an accurate gradient of the discretized flow equations. This is challenging to obtain, since both the chaotic character of the turbulence and the typical use of discretizations near their resolution limits in order to efficiently represent its smaller scales will amplify any approximation errors made in the adjoint formulation. Formulating a practical exact adjoint that avoids such errors is especially challenging if it is to be compatible with state-of-the-art simulation methods used for the turbulent flow itself. Automatic differentiation (AD) can provide code to calculate a nominally exact adjoint, but existing general-purpose AD codes are inefficient to the point of being prohibitive for large-scale turbulence simulations. We analyze the compressible flow equations as discretized using the same high-order workhorse methods used for many high-fidelity compressible turbulence simulations, and formulate a practical space--time discrete-adjoint method without changing the basic discretization. A key step is the definition of a particular discrete analog of the continuous norm that defines our cost functional; our selection leads directly to an efficient Runge--Kutta-like scheme
Using an Adjoint Approach to Eliminate Mesh Sensitivities in Computational Design
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.
2005-01-01
An algorithm for efficiently incorporating the effects of mesh sensitivities in a computational design framework is introduced. The method is based on an adjoint approach and eliminates the need for explicit linearizations of the mesh movement scheme with respect to the geometric parameterization variables, an expense that has hindered practical large-scale design optimization using discrete adjoint methods. The effects of the mesh sensitivities can be accounted for through the solution of an adjoint problem equivalent in cost to a single mesh movement computation, followed by an explicit matrix-vector product scaling with the number of design variables and the resolution of the parameterized surface grid. The accuracy of the implementation is established and dramatic computational savings obtained using the new approach are demonstrated using several test cases. Sample design optimizations are also shown.
Using an Adjoint Approach to Eliminate Mesh Sensitivities in Computational Design
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nielsen, Eric J.; Park, Michael A.
2006-01-01
An algorithm for efficiently incorporating the effects of mesh sensitivities in a computational design framework is introduced. The method is based on an adjoint approach and eliminates the need for explicit linearizations of the mesh movement scheme with respect to the geometric parameterization variables, an expense that has hindered practical large-scale design optimization using discrete adjoint methods. The effects of the mesh sensitivities can be accounted for through the solution of an adjoint problem equivalent in cost to a single mesh movement computation, followed by an explicit matrix-vector product scaling with the number of design variables and the resolution of the parameterized surface grid. The accuracy of the implementation is established and dramatic computational savings obtained using the new approach are demonstrated using several test cases. Sample design optimizations are also shown.
Neutron electric dipole moment in the gauge-Higgs unification
Adachi, Yuki; Lim, C. S.; Maru, Nobuhito
2009-09-01
We study the neutron electric dipole moment (EDM) in a five-dimensional SU(3) gauge-Higgs unification compactified on M{sup 4}xS{sup 1}/Z{sub 2} space-time including a massive fermion. We point out that to realize the CP violation is a nontrivial task in the gauge-Higgs unification scenario and argue how the CP symmetry is broken spontaneously by the vacuum expectation value of the Higgs, the extra space component of the gauge field. We emphasize the importance of the interplay between the vacuum expectation value of the Higgs and the Z{sub 2}-odd bulk mass term to get physically the CP violation. We then calculate the one-loop contributions to the neutron EDM as the typical example of the CP violating observable and find that the EDM appears already at the one-loop level, without invoking the three-generation scheme. We then derive a lower bound for the compactification scale, which is around 2.6 TeV, by comparing the contribution due to the nonzero Kaluza-Klein modes with the experimental data.
Cyclic cosmology, conformal symmetry and the metastability of the Higgs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bars, Itzhak; Steinhardt, Paul J.; Turok, Neil
2013-10-01
Recent measurements at the LHC suggest that the current Higgs vacuum could be metastable with a modest barrier (height ( GeV)4) separating it from a ground state with negative vacuum density of order the Planck scale. We note that metastability is problematic for standard bang cosmology but is essential for cyclic cosmology in order to end one cycle, bounce, and begin the next. In this Letter, motivated by the approximate scaling symmetry of the standard model of particle physics and the primordial large-scale structure of the universe, we use our recent formulation of the Weyl-invariant version of the standard model coupled to gravity to track the evolution of the Higgs in a regularly bouncing cosmology. We find a band of solutions in which the Higgs field escapes from the metastable phase during each big crunch, passes through the bang into an expanding phase, and returns to the metastable vacuum, cycle after cycle after cycle. We show that, due to the effect of the Higgs, the infinitely cycling universe is geodesically complete, in contrast to inflation.
Quantum corrections in Higgs inflation: the real scalar case
George, Damien P.; Mooij, Sander; Postma, Marieke E-mail: sander.mooij@ing.uchile.cl
2014-02-01
We present a critical discussion of quantum corrections, renormalisation, and the computation of the beta functions and the effective potential in Higgs inflation. In contrast with claims in the literature, we find no evidence for a disagreement between the Jordan and Einstein frames, even at the quantum level. For clarity of discussion we concentrate on the case of a real scalar Higgs. We first review the classical calculation and then discuss the back reaction of gravity. We compute the beta functions for the Higgs quartic coupling and non-minimal coupling constant. Here, the mid-field regime is non-renormalisable, but we are able to give an upper bound on the 1-loop corrections to the effective potential. We show that, in computing the effective potential, the Jordan and Einstein frames are compatible if all mass scales are transformed between the two frames. As such, it is consistent to take a constant cutoff in either the Jordan or Einstein frame, and both prescriptions yield the same result for the effective potential. Our results are extended to the case of a complex scalar Higgs.
A Twin Higgs Model from Left-Right Symmetry
Chacko, Z.; Goh, Hock-Seng; Harnik, Roni; /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.
2005-12-14
We present twin Higgs models based on the extension of the Standard Model to left-right symmetry that protect the weak scale against radiative corrections up to scales of order 5 TeV. In the ultraviolet the Higgs sector of these theories respects an approximate global symmetry, in addition to the discrete parity symmetry characteristic of left-right symmetric models. The Standard Model Higgs field emerges as the pseudo-Goldstone boson associated with the breaking of the global symmetry. The parity symmetry tightly constrains the form of radiative corrections to the Higgs potential, allowing natural electroweak breaking. The minimal model predicts a rich spectrum of exotic particles that will be accessible to upcoming experiments, and which are necessary for the cancellation of one-loop quadratic divergences. These include right-handed gauge bosons with masses not to exceed a few TeV and a pair of vector-like quarks with masses of order several hundred GeV.
Adjoint Sensitivity Analysis of a Coupled Groundwater-Surface Water Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kelley, V. A.
2013-12-01
Derivation of the exact equations of Adjoint Sensitivity Analysis for a coupled Groundwater-Surface water model is presented here, with reference to the Stream package in MODFLOW-2005. MODFLOW-2005 offers two distinct packages to simulate river boundary conditions in an aquifer model. They are the RIV (RIVer) Package and the STR (STReam) Package. The STR package simulates a coupled Groundwater and Surface Water flow model. As a result of coupling between the Groundwater and the Surface Water flows, the flows to/from the aquifer depend not just on the river stage and aquifer head at that location (as would happen in the RIV package); but on the river stages and aquifer heads at all upstream locations, in the complex network of streams with all its distributaries and diversions. This requires a substantial modification of the adjoint state equations (not required in RIV Package). The necessary equations for the STR Package have now been developed and implemented the MODFLOW-ADJOINT Code. The exact STR Adjoint code has been validated by comparing with the results from the parameter perturbation method, for the case of San Pedro Model (USGS) and Northern Arizona Regional Aquifer Model (USGS). When the RIV package is used for the same models, the sensitivity analysis results are incorrect for some nodes, indicating the advantage of using the exact methods of the STR Package in MODFLOW-Adjoint code. This exact analysis has been used for deriving the capture functions in the management of groundwater, subject to the constraints on the depletion of surface water supplies. Capture maps are used for optimal location of the pumping wells, their rates of withdrawals, and their timing. Because of the immense savings in computational times, with this Adjoint strategy, it is feasible to embed the groundwater management problem in a stochastic framework (probabilistic approach) to address the uncertainties in the groundwater model.
Tracking influential haze source areas in North China using an adjoint model, GRAPES-CUACE
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
An, X. Q.; Zhai, S. X.; Jin, M.; Gong, S. L.; Wang, Y.
2015-08-01
Based upon the adjoint theory, the adjoint of the aerosol module in the atmospheric chemical modeling system GRAPES-CUACE (Global/Regional Assimilation and PrEdiction System coupled with the CMA Unified Atmospheric Chemistry Environment) was developed and tested for its correctness. Through statistic comparison, BC (black carbon aerosol) concentrations simulated by GRAPES-CUACE were generally consistent with observations from Nanjiao (one urban observation station) and Shangdianzi (one rural observation station) stations. To track the most influential emission-sources regions and the most influential time intervals for the high BC concentration during the simulation period, the adjoint model was adopted to simulate the sensitivity of average BC concentration over Beijing at the highest concentration time point (referred to as the Objective Function) with respect to BC emission amount over Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region. Four types of regions were selected based on administrative division and sensitivity coefficient distribution. The adjoint model was used to quantify the effects of emission-sources reduction in different time intervals over different regions by one independent simulation. Effects of different emission reduction strategies based on adjoint sensitivity information show that the more influential regions (regions with relatively larger sensitivity coefficients) do not necessarily correspond to the administrative regions, and the influence effectiveness of sensitivity-oriented regions was greater than the administrative divisions. The influence of emissions on the objective function decreases sharply approximately for the pollutants emitted 17-18 h ago in this episode. Therefore, controlling critical emission regions during critical time intervals on the basis of adjoint sensitivity analysis is much more efficient than controlling administrative specified regions during an experiential time period.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eto, Minoru; Isozumi, Youichi; Nitta, Muneto; Ohashi, Keisuke; Sakai, Norisuke
2005-07-01
When instantons are put into the Higgs phase, vortices are attached to instantons. We construct such composite solitons as 1/4 BPS states in five-dimensional supersymmetric U(NC) gauge theory with NF(≥NC) fundamental hypermultiplets. We solve the hypermultiplet BPS equation and show that all 1/4 BPS solutions are generated by an NC×NF matrix which is holomorphic in two complex variables, assuming the vector multiplet BPS equation does not give additional moduli. We determine the total moduli space formed by topological sectors patched together and work out the multi-instanton solution inside a single vortex with complete moduli. Small instanton singularities are interpreted as small sigma-model lump singularities inside the vortex. The relation between monopoles and instantons in the Higgs phase is also clarified as limits of calorons in the Higgs phase. Another type of instantons stuck at an intersection of two vortices and dyonic instantons in the Higgs phase are also discussed.
Lee, Hye Sung; Sher, Marc
2013-06-01
We perform a detailed study of a specific Two Higgs Doublet Model (2HDM) with a U(1) gauge symmetry, instead of a typical Z{sub 2} discrete symmetry, containing a very light gauge boson Z' (GeV scale or below). The Standard Model (SM) fermions do not carry U(1) charges, but induced couplings to the Z' (called the dark Z) are generated through mixing with the SM neutral gauge bosons. Such a light Z' could explain some astrophysical anomalies as well as the muon g-2 deviation, and has been the subject of great experimental interest. We consider the scenario in which the 125 GeV SM-like Higgs (H) is the heavier scalar state, and focus on the lighter neutral state (h) as well as charged Higgs. We analyze the constraints on the model from various experiments and predict novel channels to search for these Higgs scalars at the LHC. In particular, experiments looking for lepton-jets are among potentially important searches.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yamaleev, N. K.; Diskin, B.; Nielsen, E. J.
2009-01-01
.We study local-in-time adjoint-based methods for minimization of ow matching functionals subject to the 2-D unsteady compressible Euler equations. The key idea of the local-in-time method is to construct a very accurate approximation of the global-in-time adjoint equations and the corresponding sensitivity derivative by using only local information available on each time subinterval. In contrast to conventional time-dependent adjoint-based optimization methods which require backward-in-time integration of the adjoint equations over the entire time interval, the local-in-time method solves local adjoint equations sequentially over each time subinterval. Since each subinterval contains relatively few time steps, the storage cost of the local-in-time method is much lower than that of the global adjoint formulation, thus making the time-dependent optimization feasible for practical applications. The paper presents a detailed comparison of the local- and global-in-time adjoint-based methods for minimization of a tracking functional governed by the Euler equations describing the ow around a circular bump. Our numerical results show that the local-in-time method converges to the same optimal solution obtained with the global counterpart, while drastically reducing the memory cost as compared to the global-in-time adjoint formulation.
Adaptive mesh refinement and adjoint methods in geophysics simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Burstedde, Carsten
2013-04-01
required by human intervention and analysis. Specifying an objective functional that quantifies the misfit between the simulation outcome and known constraints and then minimizing it through numerical optimization can serve as an automated technique for parameter identification. As suggested by the similarity in formulation, the numerical algorithm is closely related to the one used for goal-oriented error estimation. One common point is that the so-called adjoint equation needs to be solved numerically. We will outline the derivation and implementation of these methods and discuss some of their pros and cons, supported by numerical results.
Global Adjoint Tomography: Combining Big Data with HPC Simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bozdag, E.; Lefebvre, M. P.; Lei, W.; Peter, D. B.; Smith, J. A.; Komatitsch, D.; Tromp, J.
2014-12-01
The steady increase in data quality and the number of global seismographic stations have substantially grown the amount of data available for construction of Earth models. Meanwhile, developments in the theory of wave propagation, numerical methods and HPC systems have enabled unprecedented simulations of seismic wave propagation in realistic 3D Earth models which lead the extraction of more information from data, ultimately culminating in the use of entire three-component seismograms.Our aim is to take adjoint tomography further to image the entire planet which is one of the extreme cases in seismology due to its intense computational requirements and vast amount of high-quality seismic data that can potentially be assimilated in inversions. We have started low resolution (T > 27 s, soon will be > 17 s) global inversions with 253 earthquakes for a transversely isotropic crust and mantle model on Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Cray XK7 "Titan" system. Recent improvements in our 3D solvers, such as the GPU version of the SPECFEM3D_GLOBE package, will allow us perform higher-resolution (T > 9 s) and longer-duration (~180 m) simulations to take the advantage of high-frequency body waves and major-arc surface waves to improve imbalanced ray coverage as a result of uneven distribution of sources and receivers on the globe. Our initial results after 10 iterations already indicate several prominent features reported in high-resolution continental studies, such as major slabs (Hellenic, Japan, Bismarck, Sandwich, etc.) and enhancement in plume structures (the Pacific superplume, the Hawaii hot spot, etc.). Our ultimate goal is to assimilate seismic data from more than 6,000 earthquakes within the magnitude range 5.5 ≤ Mw ≤ 7.0. To take full advantage of this data set on ORNL's computational resources, we need a solid framework for managing big data sets during pre-processing (e.g., data requests and quality checks), gradient calculations, and post-processing (e
Millett, I.; Vance, W.; Ross, J.
1999-10-14
The authors present the first experiments that use the phase response method to determine components of the adjoint eigenvector (of the Jacobian matrix of the linearized system) of an oscillating reaction system. The Briggs-Rauscher reaction was studied near a supercritical Hopf bifurcation. Phase response curves for I{sup {minus}} and Mn{sup 2+} have been determined, and from them corresponding components of the adjoint eigenvector have been deduced. The relative magnitudes and difference in arguments of these components agree reasonably well with those from a reduced model of the Briggs-Rauscher reaction, whereas agreement with results from quenching experiments is mixed.
NEMOTAM: tangent and adjoint models for the ocean modelling platform NEMO
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vidard, A.; Bouttier, P.-A.; Vigilant, F.
2014-10-01
The tangent linear and adjoint model (TAM) are efficient tools to analyse and to control dynamical systems such as NEMO. They can be involved in a large range of applications such as sensitivity analysis, parameter estimation or the computation of characteristics vectors. TAM is also required by the 4-D-VAR algorithm which is one of the major method in Data Assimilation. This paper describes the development and the validation of the Tangent linear and Adjoint Model for the NEMO ocean modelling platform (NEMOTAM). The diagnostic tools that are available alongside NEMOTAM are detailed and discussed and several applications are also presented.
NEMOTAM: tangent and adjoint models for the ocean modelling platform NEMO
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vidard, A.; Bouttier, P.-A.; Vigilant, F.
2015-04-01
Tangent linear and adjoint models (TAMs) are efficient tools to analyse and to control dynamical systems such as NEMO. They can be involved in a large range of applications such as sensitivity analysis, parameter estimation or the computation of characteristic vectors. A TAM is also required by the 4D-Var algorithm, which is one of the major methods in data assimilation. This paper describes the development and the validation of the tangent linear and adjoint model for the NEMO ocean modelling platform (NEMOTAM). The diagnostic tools that are available alongside NEMOTAM are detailed and discussed, and several applications are also presented.
Higgs in bosonic channels (CMS)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gori, Valentina
2015-05-01
The main Higgs boson decays into bosonic channels will be considered, presenting and discussing results from the latest reprocessing of data collected by the CMS experiment at the LHC, using the full dataset recorded at centre-of-mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV. For this purpose, results from the final Run-I papers for the H → ZZ → 4ℓ, H → γγ and H → WW analyses are presented, focusing on the Higgs boson properties, like the mass, the signal strenght, the couplings to fermions and vector bosons, the spin and parity properties. Furthermore, the Higgs boson width measurement exploiting the on-shell versus the off-shell cross section (in the H → ZZ → 4ℓ and H → ZZ → 2ℓ2ν decay channels) will be shown. All the investigated properties result to be fully consistent with the SM predictions: the signal strength and the signal strength modifiers are consistent with unity in all the bosonic channels considered; the hypothesis of a scalar particle is strongly favored, against the pseudoscalar or the vector/pseudovector or the spin-2 boson hypotheses (all excluded at 99% CL or higher in the H → ZZ → 4ℓ channel). The Higgs boson mass measurement from the combination of H → ZZ → 4ℓ and H → γγ channels gives a value mH = 125.03+0.26-0.27 (stat.) +0.13-0.15 (syst.). An upper limit ΓH < 22 MeV can be put on the Higgs boson width thanks to the new indirect method.
Non-Abelian dynamics in the resonant decay of the Higgs after inflation
Enqvist, Kari; Nurmi, Sami; Rusak, Stanislav E-mail: sami.nurmi@helsinki.fi
2014-10-01
We study the resonant decay of the Higgs condensate into weak gauge bosons after inflation and estimate the corrections arising from the non-Abelian self-interactions of the gauge fields. We find that non-Abelian interaction terms induce an effective mass which tends to shut down the resonance. For the broad resonance relevant for the Standard Model Higgs the produced gauge particles backreact on the dynamics of the Higgs condensate before the non-Abelian terms grow large. The non-Abelian terms can however significantly affect the final stages of the resonance after the backreaction. In the narrow resonance regime, which may be important for extensions of the Standard Model, the non-Abelian terms affect already the linear stage and terminate the resonance before the Higgs condensate is affected by the backreaction of decay products.
Impact of the Higgs boson on the production of exotic particles at the LHC
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hessler, A. G.; Ibarra, A.; Molinaro, E.; Vogl, S.
2015-06-01
Many new physics models contain new particles that interact with the Higgs boson. These particles could be produced at the LHC via gluon-gluon fusion with an off-shell Higgs and, if charged under a gauge group, also via gluon-gluon fusion with an off-shell Z boson and the Drell-Yan process. We consider in this paper simplified scenarios where the Standard Model is extended by one scalar or fermionic field that interacts with the Higgs boson, and we evaluate the impact of the Higgs interaction on the production of the exotic particles at the LHC. This analysis applies, in particular, to TeV-scale seesaw scenarios of neutrino mass generation.
Theory of Anderson pseudospin resonance with Higgs mode in superconductors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tsuji, Naoto; Aoki, Hideo
2015-08-01
A superconductor illuminated by an ac electric field with frequency Ω is theoretically found to generate a collective precession of Anderson's pseudospins, and hence a coherent amplitude oscillation of the order parameter, with a doubled frequency 2 Ω through a nonlinear light-matter coupling. We provide a fundamental theory, based on the mean-field formalism, to show that the induced pseudospin precession resonates with the Higgs amplitude mode of the superconductor at 2 Ω =2 Δ with 2 Δ being the superconducting gap. The resonant precession is accompanied by a divergent enhancement of the third-harmonic generation (THG). By decomposing the THG susceptibility into the bare one and vertex correction, we find that the enhancement of the THG cannot be explained by individual quasiparticle excitations (pair breaking), so that the THG serves as a smoking gun for an identification of the collective Higgs mode. We further explore the effect of electron-electron scattering on the pseudospin resonance by applying the nonequilibrium dynamical mean-field theory to the attractive Hubbard model driven by ac electric fields. The result indicates that the pseudospin resonance is robust against electron correlations, although the resonance width is broadened due to electron scattering, which determines the lifetime of the Higgs mode.
Two-photon decay of the Higgs bosons in a supersymmetric model with a C P -violating potential
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oshimo, Noriyuki
2016-05-01
In the supersymmetric standard model which is not minimal, the Higgs potential does not conserve C P symmetry generally. Assuming that there exists an SU(2)-triplet Higgs field, we discuss resultant C P -violating effects on the Higgs bosons. The experimentally observed Higgs boson, which should be C P even in the standard model, could decay into two photons of C P -odd polarization state non-negligibly. For the second lightest Higgs boson, in a sizable region of parameter space, the dominant decay modes are different from those expected by the standard model. The two-photon decay could yield both even and odd C P final states at a ratio of the order of unity.
Proton decay prediction from a gauge-Higgs unification scenario in five dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haba, Naoyuki; Okada, Nobuchika; Yamada, Toshifumi
2016-10-01
The Higgs boson mass and top quark mass imply that the Higgs quartic coupling vanishes around the scale of 109- 1013 GeV , depending on the precise value of the top quark mass. The vanishing quartic coupling can be naturally addressed if the Higgs field originates from a five-dimensional gauge field and the fifth dimension is compactified at the scale of the vanishing Higgs quartic coupling, which is a scenario based on gauge-Higgs unification. We present a general prediction of the scenario on the proton decay process p →π0e+. In many gauge-Higgs unification models, the first-generation fermions are localized towards an orbifold fixed point in order to realize the realistic Yukawa couplings. Hence, four-fermion operators responsible for the proton decay can appear with a suppression of the five-dimensional Planck scale (not the four-dimensional Planck scale). Since the five-dimensional Planck scale is connected to the compactification scale, we have a correlation between the proton partial decay width and the top quark mass. We show that the future Hyper-Kamiokande experiment may discover the proton decay if the top quark pole mass is larger than about 172.5 GeV.
Light Higgs channel of the resonant decay of magnon condensate in superfluid (3)He-B.
Zavjalov, V V; Autti, S; Eltsov, V B; Heikkinen, P J; Volovik, G E
2016-01-08
In superfluids the order parameter, which describes spontaneous symmetry breaking, is an analogue of the Higgs field in the Standard Model of particle physics. Oscillations of the field amplitude are massive Higgs bosons, while oscillations of the orientation are massless Nambu-Goldstone bosons. The 125 GeV Higgs boson, discovered at Large Hadron Collider, is light compared with electroweak energy scale. Here, we show that such light Higgs exists in superfluid (3)He-B, where one of three Nambu-Goldstone spin-wave modes acquires small mass due to the spin-orbit interaction. Other modes become optical and acoustic magnons. We observe parametric decay of Bose-Einstein condensate of optical magnons to light Higgs modes and decay of optical to acoustic magnons. Formation of a light Higgs from a Nambu-Goldstone mode observed in (3)He-B opens a possibility that such scenario can be realized in other systems, where violation of some hidden symmetry is possible, including the Standard Model.
Light Higgs channel of the resonant decay of magnon condensate in superfluid 3He-B
Zavjalov, V. V.; Autti, S.; Eltsov, V. B.; Heikkinen, P. J.; Volovik, G. E.
2016-01-01
In superfluids the order parameter, which describes spontaneous symmetry breaking, is an analogue of the Higgs field in the Standard Model of particle physics. Oscillations of the field amplitude are massive Higgs bosons, while oscillations of the orientation are massless Nambu-Goldstone bosons. The 125 GeV Higgs boson, discovered at Large Hadron Collider, is light compared with electroweak energy scale. Here, we show that such light Higgs exists in superfluid 3He-B, where one of three Nambu-Goldstone spin-wave modes acquires small mass due to the spin–orbit interaction. Other modes become optical and acoustic magnons. We observe parametric decay of Bose-Einstein condensate of optical magnons to light Higgs modes and decay of optical to acoustic magnons. Formation of a light Higgs from a Nambu-Goldstone mode observed in 3He-B opens a possibility that such scenario can be realized in other systems, where violation of some hidden symmetry is possible, including the Standard Model. PMID:26743951
Light Higgs channel of the resonant decay of magnon condensate in superfluid (3)He-B.
Zavjalov, V V; Autti, S; Eltsov, V B; Heikkinen, P J; Volovik, G E
2016-01-01
In superfluids the order parameter, which describes spontaneous symmetry breaking, is an analogue of the Higgs field in the Standard Model of particle physics. Oscillations of the field amplitude are massive Higgs bosons, while oscillations of the orientation are massless Nambu-Goldstone bosons. The 125 GeV Higgs boson, discovered at Large Hadron Collider, is light compared with electroweak energy scale. Here, we show that such light Higgs exists in superfluid (3)He-B, where one of three Nambu-Goldstone spin-wave modes acquires small mass due to the spin-orbit interaction. Other modes become optical and acoustic magnons. We observe parametric decay of Bose-Einstein condensate of optical magnons to light Higgs modes and decay of optical to acoustic magnons. Formation of a light Higgs from a Nambu-Goldstone mode observed in (3)He-B opens a possibility that such scenario can be realized in other systems, where violation of some hidden symmetry is possible, including the Standard Model. PMID:26743951
Quantum corrections in Higgs inflation: the Standard Model case
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
George, Damien P.; Mooij, Sander; Postma, Marieke
2016-04-01
We compute the one-loop renormalization group equations for Standard Model Higgs inflation. The calculation is done in the Einstein frame, using a covariant formalism for the multi-field system. All counterterms, and thus the betafunctions, can be extracted from the radiative corrections to the two-point functions; the calculation of higher n-point functions then serves as a consistency check of the approach. We find that the theory is renormalizable in the effective field theory sense in the small, mid and large field regime. In the large field regime our results differ slightly from those found in the literature, due to a different treatment of the Goldstone bosons.
Higgs potential in the type II seesaw model
Arhrib, A.; Benbrik, R.; Chabab, M.; Rahili, L.; Ramadan, J.; Moultaka, G.; Peyranere, M. C.
2011-11-01
The standard model Higgs sector, extended by one weak gauge triplet of scalar fields with a very small vacuum expectation value, is a very promising setting to account for neutrino masses through the so-called type II seesaw mechanism. In this paper we consider the general renormalizable doublet/triplet Higgs potential of this model. We perform a detailed study of its main dynamical features that depend on five dimensionless couplings and two mass parameters after spontaneous symmetry breaking, and highlight the implications for the Higgs phenomenology. In particular, we determine (i) the complete set of tree-level unitarity constraints on the couplings of the potential and (ii) the exact tree-level boundedness from below constraints on these couplings, valid for all directions. When combined, these constraints delineate precisely the theoretically allowed parameter space domain within our perturbative approximation. Among the seven physical Higgs states of this model, the mass of the lighter (heavier) CP{sub even} state h{sup 0} (H{sup 0}) will always satisfy a theoretical upper (lower) bound that is reached for a critical value {mu}{sub c} of {mu} (the mass parameter controlling triple couplings among the doublet/triplet Higgses). Saturating the unitarity bounds, we find an upper bound m{sub h}{sup 0}
Higgs boson signatures of MSSM electroweak baryogenesis
Menon, Arjun; Morrissey, David E.
2009-06-01
Electroweak baryogenesis in the minimal supersymmetric standard model can account for the cosmological baryon asymmetry, but only within a restricted region of the parameter space. In particular, minimal supersymmetric standard model electroweak baryogenesis requires a mostly right-handed stop that is lighter than the top quark and a standard model-like light Higgs boson. In the present work we investigate the effects of the light stop on Higgs boson production and decay. Relative to the standard model Higgs boson, we find a large enhancement of the Higgs production rate through gluon fusion and a suppression of the Higgs branching fraction into photon pairs. These modifications in the properties of the Higgs boson are directly related to the effect of the light stop on the electroweak phase transition, and are large enough that they can potentially be tested at the Tevatron and the LHC.
A Historical Profile of the Higgs Boson
Ellis, John; Gaillard, Mary K.; Nanopoulos, Dimitri V.
2012-01-31
The Higgs boson was postulated in 1964, and phenomenological studies of its possible production and decays started in the early 1970s, followed by studies of its possible productionin e{sup +} e{sup -}, {anti p}p and pp collisions, in particular. Until recently, the most sensitive searches for the Higgs boson were at LEP between 1989 and 2000, which have been complemented bysearches at the Fermilab Tevatron. The LHC has recently entered the hunt, excluding a Higgs boson over a large range of masses and revealing a tantalizing hint in the range 119 to125 GeV, and there are good prospects that the existence or otherwise of the Higgs boson will soon be established. One of the most attractive possibilities is that the Higgs bosonis accompanied by supersymmetry, though composite options have yet to be excluded. This article reviews some of the key historical developments in Higgs physics over the past half-century.
Electroweak Baryogenesis with Anomalous Higgs Couplings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kobakhidze, Archil; Wu, Lei; Yue, Jason
2016-07-01
In non-linear realisation of the electroweak gauge symmetry, the LHC Higgs boson can be assumed to be a singlet under SU(2)L ⊗ U(1)Y. In such scenario, the Standard Model particle content can be kept but new sets of couplings are allowed. We identify a range of anomalous Higgs cubic and the 𝒞𝒫-violating Higgs-top quark couplings that leads to first order phase transition and successful baryogenesis at the electroweak scale.
The Higgs Boson for the Masses?
Quigg, Chris
2012-04-04
The Higgs boson is the object of one of the greatest campaigns in the history of particle physics and a pop-culture icon. But what is a Higgs boson, and what would we like it to do for us? What will we understand after a discovery that we don't understand before? How would the world be different if nothing did the job of the Higgs boson? We will explore all these questions and more through demonstration, simulation, and audience participation.
Emergent two-Higgs doublet models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abe, Tomohiro; Omura, Yuji
2016-08-01
We investigate origin of three features that are often assumed in analysis of two-Higgs doublet models: (i) softly broken Z 2 symmetry, (ii) CP invariant Higgs potential, and (iii) degenerated mass spectra. We extend electroweak gauge symmetry, introducing extra gauge symmetry and extra scalars, and we show that our models effectively derive two-Higgs doublet models at low energy which naturally hold the three features. We also find that the models can solve the strong CP problem.
Recent Higgs results from the ATLAS experiment
Brendlinger, Kurt; Collaboration: ATLAS Collaboration
2014-06-24
This paper presents recent results on the Higgs boson from the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider. The Collaboration reports on measurements of the signal strength, couplings, and spin of the Higgs in several decay channels. We find all measurements to be consistent with Standard Model predictions. The Higgs branching fraction to invisible particles is constrained and no evidence of physics beyond the Standard Model is found.
Analysis of Correlated Coupling of Monte Carlo Forward and Adjoint Histories
Ueki, Taro; Hoogenboom, J.E.; Kloosterman, J. L.
2001-02-15
In Monte Carlo correlated coupling, forward and adjoint particle histories are initiated in exactly opposite directions at an arbitrarily placed surface between a physical source and a physical detector. It is shown that this coupling calculation can become more efficient than standard forward calculations. In many cases, the basic form of correlated coupling is less efficient than standard forward calculations. This inherent inefficiency can be overcome by applying a black absorber perturbation to either the forward or the adjoint problem and by processing the product of batch averages as one statistical entity. The usage of the black absorber is based on the invariance of the response flow integral with a material perturbation in either the physical detector side volume in the forward problem or the physical source side volume in the adjoint problem. The batch-average product processing makes use of a quadratic increase of the nonzero coupled-score probability. All the developments have been done in such a way that improved efficiency schemes available in widely distributed Monte Carlo codes can be applied to both the forward and adjoint simulations. Also, the physical meaning of the black absorber perturbation is interpreted based on surface crossing and is numerically validated. In addition, the immediate reflection at the intermediate surface with a controlled direction change is investigated within the invariance framework. This approach can be advantageous for a void streaming problem.
Using adjoint-based optimization to study wing flexibility in flapping flight
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wei, Mingjun; Xu, Min; Dong, Haibo
2014-11-01
In the study of flapping-wing flight of birds and insects, it is important to understand the impact of wing flexibility/deformation on aerodynamic performance. However, the large control space from the complexity of wing deformation and kinematics makes usual parametric study very difficult or sometimes impossible. Since the adjoint-based approach for sensitivity study and optimization strategy is a process with its cost independent of the number of input parameters, it becomes an attractive approach in our study. Traditionally, adjoint equation and sensitivity are derived in a fluid domain with fixed solid boundaries. Moving boundary is only allowed when its motion is not part of control effort. Otherwise, the derivation becomes either problematic or too complex to be feasible. Using non-cylindrical calculus to deal with boundary deformation solves this problem in a very simple and still mathematically rigorous manner. Thus, it allows to apply adjoint-based optimization in the study of flapping wing flexibility. We applied the ``improved'' adjoint-based method to study the flexibility of both two-dimensional and three-dimensional flapping wings, where the flapping trajectory and deformation are described by either model functions or real data from the flight of dragonflies. Supported by AFOSR.
Sensitivity analysis of a model of CO2 exchange in tundra ecosystems by the adjoint method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Waelbroek, C.; Louis, J.-F.
1995-01-01
A model of net primary production (NPP), decomposition, and nitrogen cycling in tundra ecosystems has been developed. The adjoint technique is used to study the sensitivity of the computed annual net CO2 flux to perturbation in initial conditions, climatic inputs, and model's main parameters describing current seasonal CO2 exchange in wet sedge tundra at Barrow, Alaska. The results show that net CO2 flux is most sensitive to parameters characterizing litter chemical composition and more sensitive to decomposition parameters than to NPP parameters. This underlines the fact that in nutrient-limited ecosystems, decomposition drives net CO2 exchange by controlling mineralization of main nutrients. The results also indicate that the short-term (1 year) response of wet sedge tundra to CO2-induced warming is a significant increase in CO2 emission, creating a positive feedback to atmosphreic CO2 accumulation. However, a cloudiness increase during the same year can severely alter this response and lead to either a slight decrease or a strong increase in emitted CO2, depending on its exact timing. These results demonstrate that the adjoint method is well suited to study systems encountering regime changes, as a single run of the adjoint model provides sensitivities of the net CO2 flux to perturbations in all parameters and variables at any time of the year. Moreover, it is shown that large errors due to the presence of thresholds can be avoided by first delimiting the range of applicability of the adjoint results.
Sensitivity analysis of a model of CO2 exchange in tundra ecosystems by the adjoint method
Waelbroek, C.; Louis, J.F. |
1995-02-01
A model of net primary production (NPP), decomposition, and nitrogen cycling in tundra ecosystems has been developed. The adjoint technique is used to study the sensitivity of the computed annual net CO2 flux to perturbation in initial conditions, climatic inputs, and model`s main parameters describing current seasonal CO2 exchange in wet sedge tundra at Barrow, Alaska. The results show that net CO2 flux is most sensitive to parameters characterizing litter chemical composition and more sensitive to decomposition parameters than to NPP parameters. This underlines the fact that in nutrient-limited ecosystems, decomposition drives net CO2 exchange by controlling mineralization of main nutrients. The results also indicate that the short-term (1 year) response of wet sedge tundra to CO2-induced warming is a significant increase in CO2 emission, creating a positive feedback to atmosphreic CO2 accumulation. However, a cloudiness increase during the same year can severely alter this response and lead to either a slight decrease or a strong increase in emitted CO2, depending on its exact timing. These results demonstrate that the adjoint method is well suited to study systems encountering regime changes, as a single run of the adjoint model provides sensitivities of the net CO2 flux to perturbations in all parameters and variables at any time of the year. Moreover, it is shown that large errors due to the presence of thresholds can be avoided by first delimiting the range of applicability of the adjoint results.
The MASH 1.0 code system: Utilization of morse in the adjoint mode
Johnson, J.O.; Santoro, R.T.
1993-06-01
The Monte Carlo Adjoint Shielding Code System -- MASH 1.0, principally developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), represents an advanced method of calculating neutron and gamma-ray environments and radiation protection factors for complex shielding configurations by coupling a forward discrete ordinates radiation environment (i.e. air-over-ground) transport calculation with an adjoint Monte Carlo treatment of the shielding geometry. The primary application to date has been to determine the radiation shielding characteristics of armored vehicles exposed to prompt radiation from a nuclear weapon detonation. Other potential applications include analyses of the mission equipment associated with space exploration, the civilian airline industry, and other problems associated with an external neutron and gamma-ray radiation environment. This paper will provide an overview of the MASH 1.0 code system, including the verification, validation, and application to {open_quotes}benchmark{close_quotes} experimental data. Attention will be given to the adjoint Monte Carlo calculation, the use of {open_quotes}in-group{close_quotes} biasing to control the weights of the adjoint particles, and the coupling of a new graphics package for the diagnosis of combinatorial geometry descriptions and visualization of radiation transport results.
CP violation in heavy MSSM Higgs scenarios
Carena, M.; Ellis, J.; Lee, J. S.; Pilaftsis, A.; Wagner, C. E. M.
2016-02-18
We introduce and explore new heavy Higgs scenarios in the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) with explicit CP violation, which have important phenomenological implications that may be testable at the LHC. For soft supersymmetry-breaking scales MS above a few TeV and a charged Higgs boson mass MH+ above a few hundred GeV, new physics effects including those from explicit CP violation decouple from the light Higgs boson sector. However, such effects can significantly alter the phenomenology of the heavy Higgs bosons while still being consistent with constraints from low-energy observables, for instance electric dipole moments. To consider scenarios with amore » charged Higgs boson much heavier than the Standard Model (SM) particles but much lighter than the supersymmetric particles, we revisit previous calculations of the MSSM Higgs sector. We compute the Higgs boson masses in the presence of CP violating phases, implementing improved matching and renormalization-group (RG) effects, as well as two-loop RG effects from the effective two-Higgs Doublet Model (2HDM) scale MH± to the scale MS. Here, we illustrate the possibility of non-decoupling CP-violating effects in the heavy Higgs sector using new benchmark scenarios named.« less
Draper, Patrick; Liu, Tao; Wagner, Carlos E M; Wang, Lian-Tao; Zhang, Hao
2011-03-25
We study a limit of the nearly Peccei-Quinn-symmetric next-to-minimal supersymmetric standard model possessing novel Higgs and dark matter (DM) properties. In this scenario, there naturally coexist three light singletlike particles: a scalar, a pseudoscalar, and a singlinolike DM candidate, all with masses of order 0.1-10 GeV. The decay of a standard model-like Higgs boson to pairs of the light scalars or pseudoscalars is generically suppressed, avoiding constraints from collider searches for these channels. For a certain parameter window annihilation into the light pseudoscalar and exchange of the light scalar with nucleons allow the singlino to achieve the correct relic density and a large direct-detection cross section consistent with the DM direct-detection experiments, CoGeNT and DAMA/LIBRA, preferred region simultaneously. This parameter space is consistent with experimental constraints from LEP, the Tevatron, Υ, and flavor physics. PMID:21517303
The Higgs Machine Learning Challenge
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adam-Bourdarios, C.; Cowan, G.; Germain-Renaud, C.; Guyon, I.; Kégl, B.; Rousseau, D.
2015-12-01
The Higgs Machine Learning Challenge was an open data analysis competition that took place between May and September 2014. Samples of simulated data from the ATLAS Experiment at the LHC corresponding to signal events with Higgs bosons decaying to τ+τ- together with background events were made available to the public through the website of the data science organization Kaggle (kaggle.com). Participants attempted to identify the search region in a space of 30 kinematic variables that would maximize the expected discovery significance of the signal process. One of the primary goals of the Challenge was to promote communication of new ideas between the Machine Learning (ML) and HEP communities. In this regard it was a resounding success, with almost 2,000 participants from HEP, ML and other areas. The process of understanding and integrating the new ideas, particularly from ML into HEP, is currently underway.
Lincoln, Don
2016-07-12
With the discovery of what looks to be the Higgs boson, LHC researchers are turning their attention to the next big question, which is the predicted mass of the newly discovered particles. When the effects of quantum mechanics is taken into account, the mass of the Higgs boson should be incredibly high...perhaps upwards of a quadrillion times higher than what was observed. In this video, Fermilab's Dr. Don Lincoln explains how it is that the theory predicts that the mass is so large and gives at least one possible theoretical idea that might solve the problem. Whether the proposed idea is the answer or not, this question must be answered by experiments at the LHC or today's entire theoretical paradigm could be in jeopardy.
Lincoln, Don
2014-04-28
With the discovery of what looks to be the Higgs boson, LHC researchers are turning their attention to the next big question, which is the predicted mass of the newly discovered particles. When the effects of quantum mechanics is taken into account, the mass of the Higgs boson should be incredibly high...perhaps upwards of a quadrillion times higher than what was observed. In this video, Fermilab's Dr. Don Lincoln explains how it is that the theory predicts that the mass is so large and gives at least one possible theoretical idea that might solve the problem. Whether the proposed idea is the answer or not, this question must be answered by experiments at the LHC or today's entire theoretical paradigm could be in jeopardy.
Draper, Patrick; Liu Tao; Wagner, Carlos E. M.; Wang, Lian-Tao; Zhang Hao
2011-03-25
We study a limit of the nearly Peccei-Quinn-symmetric next-to-minimal supersymmetric standard model possessing novel Higgs and dark matter (DM) properties. In this scenario, there naturally coexist three light singletlike particles: a scalar, a pseudoscalar, and a singlinolike DM candidate, all with masses of order 0.1-10 GeV. The decay of a standard model-like Higgs boson to pairs of the light scalars or pseudoscalars is generically suppressed, avoiding constraints from collider searches for these channels. For a certain parameter window annihilation into the light pseudoscalar and exchange of the light scalar with nucleons allow the singlino to achieve the correct relic density and a large direct-detection cross section consistent with the DM direct-detection experiments, CoGeNT and DAMA/LIBRA, preferred region simultaneously. This parameter space is consistent with experimental constraints from LEP, the Tevatron, {Upsilon}, and flavor physics.
Finn, John M.
2015-03-01
Properties of integration schemes for solenoidal fields in three dimensions are studied, with a focus on integrating magnetic field lines in a plasma using adaptive time stepping. It is shown that implicit midpoint (IM) and a scheme we call three-dimensional leapfrog (LF) can do a good job (in the sense of preserving KAM tori) of integrating fields that are reversible, or (for LF) have a 'special divergence-free' property. We review the notion of a self-adjoint scheme, showing that such schemes are at least second order accurate and can always be formed by composing an arbitrary scheme with its adjoint. Wemore » also review the concept of reversibility, showing that a reversible but not exactly volume-preserving scheme can lead to a fractal invariant measure in a chaotic region, although this property may not often be observable. We also show numerical results indicating that the IM and LF schemes can fail to preserve KAM tori when the reversibility property (and the SDF property for LF) of the field is broken. We discuss extensions to measure preserving flows, the integration of magnetic field lines in a plasma and the integration of rays for several plasma waves. The main new result of this paper relates to non-uniform time stepping for volume-preserving flows. We investigate two potential schemes, both based on the general method of Ref. [11], in which the flow is integrated in split time steps, each Hamiltonian in two dimensions. The first scheme is an extension of the method of extended phase space, a well-proven method of symplectic integration with non-uniform time steps. This method is found not to work, and an explanation is given. The second method investigated is a method based on transformation to canonical variables for the two split-step Hamiltonian systems. This method, which is related to the method of non-canonical generating functions of Ref. [35], appears to work very well.« less
Finn, John M.
2015-03-15
Properties of integration schemes for solenoidal fields in three dimensions are studied, with a focus on integrating magnetic field lines in a plasma using adaptive time stepping. It is shown that implicit midpoint (IM) and a scheme we call three-dimensional leapfrog (LF) can do a good job (in the sense of preserving KAM tori) of integrating fields that are reversible, or (for LF) have a “special divergence-free” (SDF) property. We review the notion of a self-adjoint scheme, showing that such schemes are at least second order accurate and can always be formed by composing an arbitrary scheme with its adjoint. We also review the concept of reversibility, showing that a reversible but not exactly volume-preserving scheme can lead to a fractal invariant measure in a chaotic region, although this property may not often be observable. We also show numerical results indicating that the IM and LF schemes can fail to preserve KAM tori when the reversibility property (and the SDF property for LF) of the field is broken. We discuss extensions to measure preserving flows, the integration of magnetic field lines in a plasma and the integration of rays for several plasma waves. The main new result of this paper relates to non-uniform time stepping for volume-preserving flows. We investigate two potential schemes, both based on the general method of Feng and Shang [Numer. Math. 71, 451 (1995)], in which the flow is integrated in split time steps, each Hamiltonian in two dimensions. The first scheme is an extension of the method of extended phase space, a well-proven method of symplectic integration with non-uniform time steps. This method is found not to work, and an explanation is given. The second method investigated is a method based on transformation to canonical variables for the two split-step Hamiltonian systems. This method, which is related to the method of non-canonical generating functions of Richardson and Finn [Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 54, 014004 (2012
G2HDM: Gauged Two Higgs Doublet Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Wei-Chih; Tsai, Yue-Lin Sming; Yuan, Tzu-Chiang
2016-04-01
A novel model embedding the two Higgs doublets in the popular two Higgs doublet models into a doublet of a non-abelian gauge group SU(2) H is presented. The Standard Model SU(2) L right-handed fermion singlets are paired up with new heavy fermions to form SU(2) H doublets, while SU(2) L left-handed fermion doublets are singlets under SU(2) H . Distinctive features of this anomaly-free model are: (1) Electroweak symmetry breaking is induced from spontaneous symmetry breaking of SU(2) H via its triplet vacuum expectation value; (2) One of the Higgs doublet can be inert, with its neutral component being a dark matter candidate as protected by the SU(2) H gauge symmetry instead of a discrete Z 2 symmetry in the usual case; (3) Unlike Left-Right Symmetric Models, the complex gauge fields ( W 1 ' ∓ W 2 ' ) (along with other complex scalar fields) associated with the SU(2) H do not carry electric charges, while the third component W 3 ' can mix with the hypercharge U(1) Y gauge field and the third component of SU(2) L ; (4) Absence of tree level flavour changing neutral current is guaranteed by gauge symmetry; and etc. In this work, we concentrate on the mass spectra of scalar and gauge bosons in the model. Constraints from previous Z' data at LEP and the Large Hadron Collider measurements of the Standard Model Higgs mass, its partial widths of γγ and Zγ modes are discussed.
Exploring holographic Composite Higgs models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Croon, Djuna; Dillon, Barry M.; Huber, Stephan J.; Sanz, Veronica
2016-07-01
Simple Composite Higgs models predict new vector-like fermions not too far from the electroweak scale, yet LHC limits are now sensitive to the TeV scale. Motivated by this tension, we explore the holographic dual of the minimal model, MCHM5, to try and alleviate this tension without increasing the fine-tuning in the Higgs potential. Interestingly, we find that lowering the UV cutoff in the 5D picture allows for heavier top partners and less fine-tuning. In the 4D dual this corresponds to increasing the number of "colours" N , thus increasing the decay constant of the Goldstone Higgs. This is essentially a `Little Randall-Sundrum Model', which are known to reduce some flavour and electroweak constraints. Furthermore, in anticipation of the ongoing efforts at the LHC to put bounds on the top Yukawa, we demonstrate that deviations from the SM can be suppressed or enhanced with respect to what is expected from mere symmetry arguments in 4D. We conclude that the 5D holographic realisation of the MCHM5 with a small UV cutoff is not in tension with the current experimental data.
Seesaw majoron model of neutrino mass and novel signals in Higgs boson production at LEP
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Díaz, Marco A.; García-Jareño, M. A.; Restrepo, Diego A.; Valle, José W. F.
1998-08-01
We perform a careful study of the neutral scalar sector of a model which includes a singlet, a doublet, and a triplet scalar field under SU(2). This model is motivated by neutrino physics, since it is simply the most general version of the seesaw model of neutrino mass generation through spontaneous violation of lepton number. The neutral Higgs sector contains three CP-even and one massive CP-odd Higgs boson A, in addition to the massless CP-odd mojoron J. The weakly interacting majoron remains massless if the breaking of lepton number symmetry is purely spontaneous. We show that the massive CP-odd Higgs boson may invisibly decay to three majorons, as well as to a CP-even Higgs H boson plus a majoron. We consider the associated Higgs production e+e- → Z → HA followed by invisible decays A → JJJ and H → JJ and derive the corresponding limits on masses and coupling that follow from LEP I precision measurements of the invisible Z width. We also study a novel b overlinebb overlinebp T signal predicted by the model, analyze the background and perform a Monte Carlo simulation of the signal in order to illustrate the limits on Higgs boson mass, couplings and branching ratios that follow from that.
Scrutinizing the alignment limit in two-Higgs-doublet models. II. mH=125 GeV
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bernon, Jérémy; Gunion, John F.; Haber, Howard E.; Jiang, Yun; Kraml, Sabine
2016-02-01
In the alignment limit of a multidoublet Higgs sector, one of the Higgs mass eigenstates aligns in field space with the direction of the scalar field vacuum expectation values, and its couplings approach those of the Standard Model (SM) Higgs boson. We consider C P -conserving two-Higgs-doublet models (2HDMs) of type I and type II near the alignment limit in which the heavier of the two C P -even Higgs bosons, H , is the SM-like state observed with a mass of 125 GeV, and the couplings of H to gauge bosons approach those of the SM. We review the theoretical structure and analyze the phenomenological implications of this particular realization of the alignment limit, where decoupling of the extra states cannot occur given that the lighter C P -even state h must, by definition, have a mass below 125 GeV. For the numerical analysis, we perform scans of the 2HDM parameter space employing the software packages 2hdmc and lilith, taking into account all relevant pre-LHC constraints, constraints from the measurements of the 125 GeV Higgs signal at the LHC, as well as the most recent limits coming from searches for other Higgs-like states. Implications for Run 2 at the LHC, including expectations for observing the other scalar states, are also discussed.
Neutral Supersymmetric Higgs Boson Searches
Robinson, Stephen Luke
2008-07-01
In some Supersymmetric extensions of the Standard Model, including the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM), the coupling of Higgs bosons to b-quarks is enhanced. This enhancement makes the associated production of the Higgs with b-quarks an interesting search channel for the Higgs and Supersymmetry at D0. The identification of b-quarks, both online and offline, is essential to this search effort. This thesis describes the author's involvement in the development of both types of b-tagging and in the application of these techniques to the MSSM Higgs search. Work was carried out on the Level-3 trigger b-tagging algorithms. The impact parameter (IP) b-tagger was retuned and the effects of increased instantaneous luminosity on the tagger were studied. An extension of the IP-tagger to use the z-tracking information was developed. A new b-tagger using secondary vertices was developed and commissioned. A tool was developed to allow the use of large multi-run samples for trigger studies involving b-quarks. Offline, a neural network (NN) b-tagger was trained combining the existing offline lifetime based b-tagging tools. The efficiency and fake rate of the NN b-tagger were measured in data and MC. This b-tagger was internally reviewed and certified by the Collaboration and now provides the official b-tagging for all analyses using the Run IIa dataset at D0. A search was performed for neutral MSSM Higgs bosons decaying to a b{bar b} pair and produced in association with one or more b-quarks. Limits are set on the cross-section times the branching ratio for such a process. The limits were interpreted in various MSSM scenarios. This analysis uses the NN b-tagger and was the first to use this tool. The analysis also relies on triggers using the Level-3 IP b-tagging tool described previously. A likelihood discriminant was used to improve the analysis and a neural network was developed to cross-check this technique. The result of the analysis has been submitted to PRL and
Higgs stability and the 750 GeV diphoton excess
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Salvio, Alberto; Mazumdar, Anupam
2016-04-01
We study the implications of a possible unstable particle with mass MX
A Three Higgs Doublet Model for Fermion Masses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chao, Wei
2016-09-01
In this paper we propose a possible explanation to the Fermion mass hierarchy problem by fitting the type-II seesaw mechanism into the Higgs doublet sector, such that their vacuum expectation values are hierarchal. We extend the Standard Model with two extra Higgs doublets as well as a spontaneously broken UX (1) gauge symmetry. All the fermion Yukawa couplings except that of the top quark are of O}(10-2) in our model. Constraints on the parameter space of the model from low energy processes are studied. Besides, the lightest one of the neutral fermion fields, which is introduced to cancel the anomalies of the U(1)X gauge symmetry can be the cold dark matter candidate. We investigate its signature in the dark matter direct detection. Supported in part by the Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation
Yukawa alignment in the two-Higgs-doublet model
Pich, Antonio; Tuzon, Paula
2009-11-01
In multi-Higgs-doublet models the alignment in flavor space of the relevant Yukawa matrices guarantees the absence of tree-level flavor-changing couplings of the neutral scalar fields. We analyze the consequences of this condition within the two-Higgs-doublet model and show that it leads to a generic Yukawa structure which contains as particular cases all known specific implementations of the model based on Z{sub 2} symmetries. All possible freedom in the Yukawa sector gets parametrized in terms of three complex couplings {sigma}{sub f}. In spite of having flavor conservation in the neutral scalar couplings, the phases of these three parameters represent potential new sources of CP violation.
Higgs decay into two photons in a warped extra dimension
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hahn, Juliane; Hörner, Clara; Malm, Raoul; Neubert, Matthias; Novotny, Kristiane; Schmell, Christoph
2014-05-01
A detailed five-dimensional calculation of the Higgs-boson decay into two photons is performed in both the minimal and the custodially protected Randall-Sundrum (RS) model, where the Standard Model (SM) fields propagate in the bulk and the scalar sector lives on or near the IR brane. It is explicitly shown that the gauge invariance of the sum of diagrams involving bosonic fields in the SM also applies to the case of these RS scenarios. An exact expression for the amplitude in terms of the five-dimensional (5D) gauge-boson and fermion propagators is presented, which includes the full dependence on the Higgs-boson mass. Closed expressions for the 5D -boson propagators in the minimal and the custodial RS model are derived, which are valid to all orders in . In contrast to the fermion case, the result for the bosonic contributions to the amplitude is insensitive to the details of the localization of the Higgs profile on or near the IR brane. The various RS predictions for the rate of the process are compared with the latest LHC data, and exclusion regions for the RS model parameters are derived.
SU(2/1) gauge-Higgs unification
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Loginov, E. K.
2016-06-01
We discuss a question whether the observed Weinberg angle and Higgs mass are calculable in the formalism based on a construction in which the electroweak gauge group SU(2) × U(1)Y is embedded in the graded Lie group SU(2/1). Here, we follow original works of Ne’eman and Fairlie believing that bosonic fields take their values in the Lie superalgebra and fermionic fields take their values in its representation space. At the same time, our approach differs significantly. The main one is that while for them the gauge symmetry group is SU(2/1), here we consider only symmetries generated by its even subgroup, i.e. symmetries of the standard electroweak model. The reason is that such formalism fixes the quartic Higgs coupling and at the same time removes the sign and statistics problems. The main result is that the presented model predicts values of the Weinberg angle and the Higgs mass correctly up to the two-loop level. Moreover, the model sets the unification scale coinciding with the electroweak scale and automatically describes the fermions correctly with the correct quark and lepton charges.
Renormalization of the Higgs sector in the triplet model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aoki, Mayumi; Kanemura, Shinya; Kikuchi, Mariko; Yagyu, Kei
2012-08-01
We study radiative corrections to the mass spectrum and the triple Higgs boson coupling in the model with an additional Y = 1 triplet field. In this model, the vacuum expectation value for the triplet field is strongly constrained from the electroweak precision data, under which characteristic mass spectrum appear at the tree level; i.e., mH++2 - mH+2 ≃ mH+2 - mA2 and mA2 ≃ mH2, where the CP-even (H), the CP-odd (A) and the doubly-charged (H±±) as well as the singly-charged (H±) Higgs bosons are the triplet-like. We evaluate how the tree-level formulae are modified at the one-loop level. The hhh coupling for the standard model-like Higgs boson (h) is also calculated at the one-loop level. One-loop corrections to these quantities can be large enough for identification of the model by future precision data at the LHC or the International Linear Collider.
Production of light Higgs pairs in 2-Higgs doublet models via the Higgs-strahlung process at the LHC
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moretti, M.; Moretti, S.; Piccinini, F.; Pittau, R.; Rathsman, J.
2010-11-01
At the Large Hadron Collider, we prove the feasibility to detect pair production of the lightest CP -even Higgs boson h of a Type II 2-Higgs Doublet Model through the process q{overline q^{left( ' right)}} to Vhh (Higgs-strahlung, V = W ± ,Z), in presence of two h to boverline b decays. We also show that, through such production and decay channels, one has direct access to the following Higgs self-couplings, thus enabling one to distinguish between a standard and the Supersymmetric version of the above model: λ Hhh — which constrains the form of the Higgs potential — as well as λ W ± H ∓ h and λ Z Ah — which are required by gauge invariance. Unfortunately, such claims cannot be extended to the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model, where the extraction of the same signals is impossible.
Bounding the Higgs boson width through interferometry.
Dixon, Lance J; Li, Ye
2013-09-13
We study the change in the diphoton-invariant-mass distribution for Higgs boson decays to two photons, due to interference between the Higgs resonance in gluon fusion and the continuum background amplitude for gg→γγ. Previously, the apparent Higgs mass was found to shift by around 100 MeV in the standard model in the leading-order approximation, which may potentially be experimentally observable. We compute the next-to-leading-order QCD corrections to the apparent mass shift, which reduce it by about 40%. The apparent mass shift may provide a way to measure, or at least bound, the Higgs boson width at the Large Hadron Collider through "interferometry." We investigate how the shift depends on the Higgs width, in a model that maintains constant Higgs boson signal yields. At Higgs widths above 30 MeV, the mass shift is over 200 MeV and increases with the square root of the width. The apparent mass shift could be measured by comparing with the ZZ* channel, where the shift is much smaller. It might be possible to measure the shift more accurately by exploiting its strong dependence on the Higgs transverse momentum.
(SUSY) Higgs Search at the LHC
Muehlleitner, M. Margarete
2008-11-23
The discovery of the Standard Model (SM) or supersymmetric (SUSY) Higgs bosons belongs to the main endeavors of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). In this article the status of the signal and background calculations for Higgs boson production at the LHC is reviewed.
Higgs Boson Mass, Neutrino Oscillations and Inflation
Shafi, Qaisar
2008-11-23
Finding the Standard Model scalar (Higgs) boson is arguably the single most important mission of the LHC. I review predictions for the Higgs boson mass based on stability and perturbativity arguments, taking into account neutrino oscillations. Primordial inflation based on the Coleman-Weinberg potential is briefly discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bandyopadhyay, Priyotosh; Costantini, Antonio; Corianò, Claudio
2016-09-01
We investigate the extended Higgs sectors, specially the charged Higgs sector, in a supersymmetric Y =0 S U (2 ) triplet and a Standard Model (SM) gauge singlet extension of the SM. We show that, in this model, the allowed data for the Higgs boson interaction eigenstates tend to group into separate blocks for a S U (2 ) triplet, doublet, and singlet. A typical mass spectrum has a doublet-type Standard Model like a Higgs of 125 GeV, a tripletlike light charged Higgs boson, and a very light singletlike pseudoscalar, with the rest relatively decoupled. Later, we investigate the different decay processes allowed in a charged Higgs boson of this model. Specifically, we search for new decay modes of the charged Higgs bosons in order to distinguish between Higgs fields belonging to S U (2 ) doublet and triplet representations, and also to show the existence of a light pseudoscalar which belong to the singlet representation. The different production modes for the light charged Higgs boson have been discussed, including the limiting case of |λT|≃0 . We also propose a few final state modes carrying the distinctive signatures of this model which could be investigated at the LHC and future colliders. The signatures of the singlet and/or the triplet can be explored with an earlier reach of 120 fb-1 for some final states at the LHC with 14 TeV of center of mass energy.
The Higgs Portal and AN Unified Model for Dark Energy and Dark Matter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bertolami, O.; Rosenfeld, R.
We examine a scenario where the Higgs boson is coupled to an additional Standard Model singlet scalar field from a hidden sector. We show that, in the case where this field is very light and has already relaxed to its nonzero vacuum expectation value, one gets a very stringent limit on the mixing angle between the hidden sector scalar and the Higgs field from fifth force experiments. However, this limit does not imply in a small coupling due to the large difference of vacuum expectation values. In the case that the hidden sector scalar is identified with the quintessence field, responsible for the recent acceleration of the universe, the most natural potential describing the interaction is disfavored since it results in a time-variation of the Fermi scale. We show that an ad hoc modification of the potential describing the Higgs interaction with the quintessence field may result in an unified picture of dark matter and dark energy, where dark energy is the zero-mode classical field rolling the usual quintessence potential and the dark matter candidate is the quantum excitation (particle) of the field, which is produced in the universe due to its coupling to the Higgs boson. This coupling also generates a mass for the new particle that, contrary to usual quintessence models, does not have to be small, since it does not affect the evolution of classical field. In this scenario, a feasible dark matter density can be, under conditions, obtained.
Higgs coupling measurements at the LHC
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Englert, Christoph; Kogler, Roman; Schulz, Holger; Spannowsky, Michael
2016-07-01
Due to the absence of tantalising hints for new physics during the LHC's Run 1, the extension of the Higgs sector by dimension-six operators will provide the new phenomenological standard for searches of non-resonant extensions of the Standard Model. Using all dominant and subdominant Higgs production mechanisms at the LHC, we compute the constraints on Higgs physics-relevant dimension-six operators in a global and correlated fit. We show in how far these constraints can be improved by new Higgs channels becoming accessible at higher energy and luminosity, both through inclusive cross sections as well as through highly sensitive differential distributions. This allows us to discuss the sensitivity to new effects in the Higgs sector that can be reached at the LHC if direct hints for physics beyond the SM remain elusive. We discuss the impact of these constraints on well-motivated BSM scenarios.
The Minimal Supersymmetric Fat Higgs Model
Harnik, Roni; Kribs, Graham D.; Larson, Daniel T.; Murayama, Hitoshi
2003-11-26
We present a calculable supersymmetric theory of a composite"fat'" Higgs boson. Electroweak symmetry is broken dynamically through a new gauge interaction that becomes strong at an intermediate scale. The Higgs mass can easily be 200-450 GeV along with the superpartner masses, solving the supersymmetric little hierarchy problem. We explicitly verify that the model is consistent with precision electroweak data without fine-tuning. Gauge coupling unification can be maintained despite the inherently strong dynamics involved in electroweak symmetry breaking. Supersymmetrizing the Standard Model therefore does not imply a light Higgs mass, contrary to the lore in the literature. The Higgs sector of the minimal Fat Higgs model has a mass spectrum that is distinctly different from the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model.
Minimal Composite Higgs Models at the LHC
Carena, Marcela; Da Rold, Leandro; Pontón, Eduardo
2014-06-26
We consider composite Higgs models where the Higgs is a pseudo-Nambu Goldstone boson arising from the spontaneous breaking of an approximate global symmetry by some underlying strong dynamics. We focus on the SO(5) → SO(4) symmetry breaking pattern, assuming the “partial compositeness” paradigm. We study the consequences on Higgs physics of the fermionic representations produced by the strong dynamics, that mix with the Standard Model (SM) degrees of freedom. We consider models based on the lowest-dimensional representations of SO(5) that allow for the custodial protection of the Z b ¯ b coupling, i.e. the 5, 10 and 14. We find a generic suppression of the gluon fusion process, while the Higgs branching fractions can be enhanced or suppressed compared to the SM. Interestingly, a precise measurement of the Higgs boson couplings can distinguish between different realizations in the fermionic sector, thus providing crucial information about the nature of the UV dynamics.
New HiggsBounds from LEP and the Tevatron
Bechtle, P.; Brein, O.; Heinemeyer, S.; Weiglein, G.; Williams, K.
2010-02-10
We review the program HiggsBounds that tests theoretical predictions of models with arbitrary Higgs sectors against the exclusion bounds obtained from the Higgs searches at LEP and the Tevatron. We explicitly list the bounds that have been added after the first release of HiggsBounds.
Demonstration of Automatically-Generated Adjoint Code for Use in Aerodynamic Shape Optimization
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Green, Lawrence; Carle, Alan; Fagan, Mike
1999-01-01
Gradient-based optimization requires accurate derivatives of the objective function and constraints. These gradients may have previously been obtained by manual differentiation of analysis codes, symbolic manipulators, finite-difference approximations, or existing automatic differentiation (AD) tools such as ADIFOR (Automatic Differentiation in FORTRAN). Each of these methods has certain deficiencies, particularly when applied to complex, coupled analyses with many design variables. Recently, a new AD tool called ADJIFOR (Automatic Adjoint Generation in FORTRAN), based upon ADIFOR, was developed and demonstrated. Whereas ADIFOR implements forward-mode (direct) differentiation throughout an analysis program to obtain exact derivatives via the chain rule of calculus, ADJIFOR implements the reverse-mode counterpart of the chain rule to obtain exact adjoint form derivatives from FORTRAN code. Automatically-generated adjoint versions of the widely-used CFL3D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code and an algebraic wing grid generation code were obtained with just a few hours processing time using the ADJIFOR tool. The codes were verified for accuracy and were shown to compute the exact gradient of the wing lift-to-drag ratio, with respect to any number of shape parameters, in about the time required for 7 to 20 function evaluations. The codes have now been executed on various computers with typical memory and disk space for problems with up to 129 x 65 x 33 grid points, and for hundreds to thousands of independent variables. These adjoint codes are now used in a gradient-based aerodynamic shape optimization problem for a swept, tapered wing. For each design iteration, the optimization package constructs an approximate, linear optimization problem, based upon the current objective function, constraints, and gradient values. The optimizer subroutines are called within a design loop employing the approximate linear problem until an optimum shape is found, the design loop
Standard electroweak interactions and Higgs bosons
Cox, B.; Gilman, F.J.
1984-09-01
In the standard model, only one basic component remains to be found: the Higgs boson. The specifics of Higgs boson production and detection, with decay to t anti t and a particular t quark mass range in mind, have not been examined in detail. As such, the working group on Standard Electroweak Interactions and Higgs Bosons at this meeting decided to concentrate on Higgs boson production and detection at SSC energies in the particular case where the Higgs mass is in the range so as to make t anti t quark-antiquark pairs the dominant decay mode. The study of this case, that of the so-called intermediate mass Higgs, had already been launched in the Berkeley PSSC Workshop on Electroweak Symmetry Breaking, and was continued and extended here. The problems of t quark jet identification and detection efficiency and the manner of rejection of background (especially from b quark jets) with realistic detectors then occupied much of the attention of the group. The subject of making precise measurements of parameters in the standard model at SSC energies is briefly examined. Then we delve into the Higgs sector, with an introduction to the neutral Higgs of the standard model together with its production cross-sections in various processes and the corresponding potential backgrounds. A similar, though briefer, discussion for a charged Higgs boson (outside the Standard Model) follows. The heart of the work on identifying and reconstructing the t and then the Higgs boson in the face of backgrounds is discussed. The problems with semileptonic decays, low energy jet fragments, mass resolution, and b-t discrimination all come to the fore. We have tried to make a serious step here towards a realistic assessment of the problems entailed in pulling a signal out of the background, including a rough simulation of calorimeter-detector properties. 25 references.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kavvadias, I. S.; Papoutsis-Kiachagias, E. M.; Dimitrakopoulos, G.; Giannakoglou, K. C.
2015-11-01
In this article, the gradient of aerodynamic objective functions with respect to design variables, in problems governed by the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations coupled with the k-ω SST turbulence model, is computed using the continuous adjoint method, for the first time. Shape optimization problems for minimizing drag, in external aerodynamics (flows around isolated airfoils), or viscous losses in internal aerodynamics (duct flows) are considered. Sensitivity derivatives computed with the proposed adjoint method are compared to those computed with finite differences or a continuous adjoint variant based on the frequently used assumption of frozen turbulence; the latter proves the need for differentiating the turbulence model. Geometries produced by optimization runs performed with sensitivities computed by the proposed method and the 'frozen turbulence' assumption are also compared to quantify the gain from formulating and solving the adjoint to the turbulence model equations.
Mass variation formulae for Einstein-Yang-Mills-Higgs and Einstein-dilaton black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Heusler, Markus; Straumann, Norbert
1993-09-01
We consider the ``first law'' of black hole physics for stationary Einstein-Yang-Mills-Higgs and Einstein-dilaton theories. It is shown that the mass variation formula involves only global quantities and surface terms. Our results hold for arbitrary gauge groups and any structure of the Higgs field multiplets. For purely magnetic field configurations, the extra horizon integrals vanish and the variation of the mass can be expressed in terms of the usual vacuum contributions and additional surface integrals at spacelike infinity.
Higgs pair productions in the CP-violating two-Higgs-doublet model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bian, Ligong; Chen, Ning
2016-09-01
In this work, we study the SM-like Higgs pair productions in the framework of the general CP-violating two-Higgs-doublet model. Several constraints are imposed to the model sequentially, including the SM-like Higgs boson signal fits, the precise measurements of the electric dipole moments, the perturbative unitarity and stability bounds to the Higgs potential, and the most recent LHC searches for the heavy Higgs bosons. We show how the CP-violating mixing angles are related to the Higgs cubic self couplings in this setup. Based on these constraints, we suggest benchmark models for the future high-energy collider searches for the Higgs pair productions. The e + e - colliders operating at √{s} = (500 GeV, 1 TeV) are capable of measuring the Higgs cubic self couplings of the benchmark models directly. Afterwards, we estimate the cross sections of the resonance contributions to the Higgs pair productions for the benchmark models at the future LHC and SppC/Fcc-hh runs. Other possible decay modes for the heavy Higgs bosons are also discussed.
Generation of the Higgs Mass through Radiative Effects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hanif, Tanvir
We consider the effective potential V in the Standard Model with a single Higgs doublet in the limit that the only mass scale mu present is radiatively generated. Using a technique that has been shown to determine V completely in terms of the renormalization group (RG) functions when using the Coleman-Weinberg (CW) renormalization scheme, we first sum leading-log (LL) contributions to V using the one loop RG functions, associated with five couplings (the top quark Yukawa coupling x, the quartic coupling of the Higgs field y, the SU(3) gauge coupling z, and the SU(2) ⊗U(1) couplings r and s). We then employ the two loop RG functions with the three couplings x, y, z to sum the next-to-leading-log (NLL) contributions to V and then the three to five loop RG functions with one coupling y to sum all the N2LL ... N 4LL contributions to V. In order to compute these sums, it is necessary to convert those RG functions that have been originally computed explicitly in the minimal subtraction (MS) scheme to their form in the CW scheme. The Higgs mass can then be determined from the effective potential: the LL result is m H = 219 GeV/c2 decreases to mH = 188 GeV/c2 at N2LL order and mH = 163 GeV/c2 at N 4LL order. No reasonable estimate of m H can be made at orders VNLL or VN3LL, since the method employed gives either negative or imaginary values for the quartic scalar coupling. The fact that we get reasonable values for m H from the LL, N2LL and N4LL approximations is taken to be an indication that this mechanism for spontaneous symmetry breaking is in fact viable, though one in which there is slow convergence towards the actual value of mH. If the decrease in the values of mH observed when we get from the LL to the N4 LL estimate were to continue, then mH = 163 GeV/c2 would be an upper bound on the mass of the Higgs. Keywords: lagrangian; action; field; standard model; effective action; effective potential; abelian; gauge transformation; gauge field; gauge-fixing; self
Black holes and Higgs stability
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tetradis, Nikolaos
2016-09-01
We study the effect of primordial black holes on the classical rate of nucleation of AdS regions within the standard electroweak vacuum. We find that the energy barrier for transitions to the new vacuum, which characterizes the exponential suppression of the nucleation rate, can be reduced significantly in the black-hole background. A precise analysis is required in order to determine whether the the existence of primordial black holes is compatible with the form of the Higgs potential at high temperature or density in the Standard Model or its extensions.
Application of Adjoint Methodology to Supersonic Aircraft Design Using Reversed Equivalent Areas
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rallabhandi, Sriram K.
2013-01-01
This paper presents an approach to shape an aircraft to equivalent area based objectives using the discrete adjoint approach. Equivalent areas can be obtained either using reversed augmented Burgers equation or direct conversion of off-body pressures into equivalent area. Formal coupling with CFD allows computation of sensitivities of equivalent area objectives with respect to aircraft shape parameters. The exactness of the adjoint sensitivities is verified against derivatives obtained using the complex step approach. This methodology has the benefit of using designer-friendly equivalent areas in the shape design of low-boom aircraft. Shape optimization results with equivalent area cost functionals are discussed and further refined using ground loudness based objectives.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Morimoto, Kenichi; Suzuki, Yuji; Kasagi, Nobuhide
An adjoint-based shape optimization method of heat exchangers, which takes into account the heat transfer performance with the pressure loss penalty, is proposed, and its effectiveness is examined through a series of numerical simulation. Undulated heat transfer surface is optimized under an isothermal heated condition based on the variational method with the first derivative of the cost function, which is determined by an adjoint analysis of momentum and heat transfer. When applied to a modeled heat-exchanger passage with a pair of oblique wavy walls, the present optimization method refines the duct shape so as to enhance the heat transfer while suppressing the flow separation. It is shown that the j/f factor is further increased by 4% from the best value of the initial obliquely wavy duct. The effects of the initial wave amplitude upon the shape evolution process are also investigated.
Adjoint equations and analysis of complex systems: Application to virus infection modelling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marchuk, G. I.; Shutyaev, V.; Bocharov, G.
2005-12-01
Recent development of applied mathematics is characterized by ever increasing attempts to apply the modelling and computational approaches across various areas of the life sciences. The need for a rigorous analysis of the complex system dynamics in immunology has been recognized since more than three decades ago. The aim of the present paper is to draw attention to the method of adjoint equations. The methodology enables to obtain information about physical processes and examine the sensitivity of complex dynamical systems. This provides a basis for a better understanding of the causal relationships between the immune system's performance and its parameters and helps to improve the experimental design in the solution of applied problems. We show how the adjoint equations can be used to explain the changes in hepatitis B virus infection dynamics between individual patients.
An Exact Dual Adjoint Solution Method for Turbulent Flows on Unstructured Grids
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nielsen, Eric J.; Lu, James; Park, Michael A.; Darmofal, David L.
2003-01-01
An algorithm for solving the discrete adjoint system based on an unstructured-grid discretization of the Navier-Stokes equations is presented. The method is constructed such that an adjoint solution exactly dual to a direct differentiation approach is recovered at each time step, yielding a convergence rate which is asymptotically equivalent to that of the primal system. The new approach is implemented within a three-dimensional unstructured-grid framework and results are presented for inviscid, laminar, and turbulent flows. Improvements to the baseline solution algorithm, such as line-implicit relaxation and a tight coupling of the turbulence model, are also presented. By storing nearest-neighbor terms in the residual computation, the dual scheme is computationally efficient, while requiring twice the memory of the flow solution. The scheme is expected to have a broad impact on computational problems related to design optimization as well as error estimation and grid adaptation efforts.
Efficient Construction of Discrete Adjoint Operators on Unstructured Grids Using Complex Variables
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nielsen, Eric J.; Kleb, William L.
2005-01-01
A methodology is developed and implemented to mitigate the lengthy software development cycle typically associated with constructing a discrete adjoint solver for aerodynamic simulations. The approach is based on a complex-variable formulation that enables straightforward differentiation of complicated real-valued functions. An automated scripting process is used to create the complex-variable form of the set of discrete equations. An efficient method for assembling the residual and cost function linearizations is developed. The accuracy of the implementation is verified through comparisons with a discrete direct method as well as a previously developed handcoded discrete adjoint approach. Comparisons are also shown for a large-scale configuration to establish the computational efficiency of the present scheme. To ultimately demonstrate the power of the approach, the implementation is extended to high temperature gas flows in chemical nonequilibrium. Finally, several fruitful research and development avenues enabled by the current work are suggested.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nielsen, Eric J.; Kleb, William L.
2005-01-01
A methodology is developed and implemented to mitigate the lengthy software development cycle typically associated with constructing a discrete adjoint solver for aerodynamic simulations. The approach is based on a complex-variable formulation that enables straightforward differentiation of complicated real-valued functions. An automated scripting process is used to create the complex-variable form of the set of discrete equations. An efficient method for assembling the residual and cost function linearizations is developed. The accuracy of the implementation is verified through comparisons with a discrete direct method as well as a previously developed handcoded discrete adjoint approach. Comparisons are also shown for a large-scale configuration to establish the computational efficiency of the present scheme. To ultimately demonstrate the power of the approach, the implementation is extended to high temperature gas flows in chemical nonequilibrium. Finally, several fruitful research and development avenues enabled by the current work are suggested.
Self-adjoint elliptic operators with boundary conditions on not closed hypersurfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mantile, Andrea; Posilicano, Andrea; Sini, Mourad
2016-07-01
The theory of self-adjoint extensions of symmetric operators is used to construct self-adjoint realizations of a second-order elliptic differential operator on Rn with linear boundary conditions on (a relatively open part of) a compact hypersurface. Our approach allows to obtain Kreĭn-like resolvent formulae where the reference operator coincides with the "free" operator with domain H2 (Rn); this provides an useful tool for the scattering problem from a hypersurface. Concrete examples of this construction are developed in connection with the standard boundary conditions, Dirichlet, Neumann, Robin, δ and δ‧-type, assigned either on a (n - 1) dimensional compact boundary Γ = ∂ Ω or on a relatively open part Σ ⊂ Γ. Schatten-von Neumann estimates for the difference of the powers of resolvents of the free and the perturbed operators are also proven; these give existence and completeness of the wave operators of the associated scattering systems.
Naturalness and Higgs Decays in the MSSM with a Singlet
Chang, Spencer; Fox, Patrick J.; Weiner, Neal
2005-11-21
The simplest extension of the supersymmetric standard model--the addition of one singlet superfield--can have a profound impact on the Higgs and its decays. We perform a general operator analysis of this scenario, focusing on the phenomenologically distinct scenarios that can arise, and not restricting the scope to the narrow framework of the NMSSM. We reexamine decays to four b quarks and four {tau}'s, finding that they are still generally viable, but at the edge of LEP limits. We find a broad set of Higgs decay modes, some new, including those with four gluon final states, as well as more general six and eight parton final states. We find the phenomenology of these scenarios is dramatically impacted by operators typically ignored, specifically those arising from D-terms in the hidden sector, and those arising from weak-scale colored fields. In addition to sensitivity of m{sub z}, there are potential tunings of other aspects of the spectrum. In spite of this, these models can be very natural, with light stops and a Higgs as light as 82 GeV. These scenarios motivate further analyses of LEP data as well as studies of the detection capabilities of future colliders to the new decay channels presented.
Prospects for a low-mass Higgs boson
Junk, Thomas R.; /Illinois U., Urbana
2007-01-01
The SU(2){sub L} x U(1){sub Y} gauge theory of the electroweak interactions has enjoyed tremendous success over the past four decades, accurately predicting, or at least accommodating, all high-energy collider data. The gauge group must be broken somehow to U(1){sub EM}, because the unbroken theory predicts massless gauge bosons and massless fermions. The Standard Model incorporates a minimal Higgs sector with a single complex doublet field, to break the symmetry spontaneously, but it is not the only possibility. SUSY Higgses, general two-Higgs-doublet models, and other ideas may prove to model nature better than the minimal model. Many of these models, and even the SM, prefer a light Higgs boson, with a mass between the LEP limit of 114.4 GeV and 200 GeV. The Constrained MSSM favors masses under 120 GeV. A survey of the experimental work so far at LEP and the Tevatron, with estimations of the sensitivity of the upcoming LHC experiments is provided.
Non-decoupling effects in supersymmetric Higgs sectors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kanemura, Shinya; Shindou, Tetsuo; Yagyu, Kei
2011-05-01
A wide class of Higgs sectors is investigated in supersymmetric standard models. When the lightest Higgs boson (h) looks the standard model one, the mass (mh) and the triple Higgs boson coupling (the hhh coupling) are evaluated at the one-loop level in each model. While mh is at most 120-130 GeV in the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM), that in models with an additional neutral singlet or triplet fields can be much larger. The hhh coupling can also be sensitive to the models: while in the MSSM the deviation from the standard model prediction is not significant, that can be 30-60% in some models such as the MSSM with the additional singlet or with extra doublets and charged singlets. These models are motivated by specific physics problems like the μ-problem, the neutrino mass, the scalar dark matter and so on. Therefore, when h is found at the CERN Large Hadron Collider, we can classify supersymmetric models by measuring mh and the hhh coupling accurately at future collider experiments.
Constraints on gauge-Higgs unification models at the LHC
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kitazawa, Noriaki; Sakai, Yuki
2016-02-01
We examine the possibility of observing the Kaluza-Klein (KK) gluons in gauge-Higgs unification models at the LHC with the energy s=14 TeV. We consider a benchmark model with the gauge symmetry SU(3)C×SU(3)W in five-dimensional spacetime, where SU(3)C is the gauge symmetry of the strong interaction and SU(3)W is that for the electroweak interaction and a Higgs doublet field. It is natural in general to introduce SU(3)C gauge symmetry in five-dimensional spacetime as well as SU(3)W gauge symmetry in gauge-Higgs unification (GHU) models. Since the fifth dimension is compactified to S1/Z 2 orbifold, there are KK modes of gluons in low-energy effective theory in four-dimensional spacetime. We investigate the resonance contribution of the first KK gluon to dijet invariant mass distribution at the LHC, and provide signal-to-noise ratios in various cases of KK gluon masses and kinematical cuts. Although the results are given in a specific benchmark model, we discuss their application to general GHU models with KK gluons. GHU models can be verified or constrained through the physics of the strong interaction, though they are proposed to solve the naturalness problem in electroweak symmetry breaking.
Higgs-gluon coupling in warped extra dimensional models with brane kinetic terms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dey, Ujjal Kumar; Ray, Tirtha Sankar
2016-01-01
Warped models with the Higgs confined to the weak brane and the gauge and matter fields accessing the AdS5 bulk provide a viable setting to address the gauge hierarchy problem. Brane kinetic terms for the bulk fields are known to ease some of the tensions of these models with precision electroweak observables and flavor constraints. We study the loop-driven Higgs coupling to the gluons that are relevant to the Higgs program at the LHC, in this scenario. We demonstrate a partial cancellation in the contribution of the fermionic Kaluza-Klein (KK) towers within such framework relatively independent of the 5D parameters. The entire dependence of this coupling on the new physics arises from the mixing between the Standard Model states and the KK excitations. We find that the present precision in measurement of these couplings can lead to a constraint on the KK scale up to 1.2 TeV at 95% confidence level.
a Generalized Albedo Option for Forward and Adjoint Monte Carlo Calculations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gomes, Itacil Chiari
1991-02-01
The advisability of using the albedo procedure for the Monte Carlo solution of deep penetration shielding problems which have ducts and other penetrations is investigated. It is generally accepted that the use of albedo data can dramatically improve the computational efficiency of certain Monte Carlo calculations--however the accuracy of these results may be unacceptable because of lost information during the albedo event and serious errors in the available differential albedo data. This study has been done to evaluate and appropriately modify the MORSE/BREESE package, to develop new methods for generating the required albedo data, and to extend the adjoint capability to the albedo-modified calculations. The major modifications include an option to save for further use information that would be lost at the albedo event, an option to displace the emergent point during an albedo event, and an option to read spatially -dependent albedo data for both forward and adjoint calculations --which includes the emergent point as a new random variable to be selected during an albedo reflection event. The theoretical basis for using TORT-generated forward albedo information to produce adjuncton-albedos is derived. The MORSE/STORM code was developed to perform both forward and adjoint modes of analysis using spatially-dependent albedo data. The results obtained using the MORSE/STORM code package for both forward and adjoint modes were compared with benchmark solutions--excellent agreements along with improved computational efficiencies were achieved demonstrating the full utilization of the albedo option in the MORSE code.
Some results on the dynamics and transition probabilities for non self-adjoint hamiltonians
Bagarello, F.
2015-05-15
We discuss systematically several possible inequivalent ways to describe the dynamics and the transition probabilities of a quantum system when its hamiltonian is not self-adjoint. In order to simplify the treatment, we mainly restrict our analysis to finite dimensional Hilbert spaces. In particular, we propose some experiments which could discriminate between the various possibilities considered in the paper. An example taken from the literature is discussed in detail.
Inequivalence of unitarity and self-adjointness: An example in quantum cosmology
Lemos, N.A. )
1990-02-15
An example of a quantum cosmological model is presented whose dynamics is unitary although the time-dependent Hamiltonian operator fails to be self-adjoint (because it is not defined) for a particular value of {ital t}. The model is shown to be singular, and this disproves a conjecture put forward by Gotay and Demaret to the effect that unitary quantum dynamics in a slow-time'' gauge is always nonsingular.
NMSSM interpretations of the observed Higgs signal
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Domingo, Florian; Weiglein, Georg
2016-04-01
While the properties of the signal that was discovered in the Higgs searches at the LHC are consistent so far with the Higgs boson of the Standard Model (SM), it is crucial to investigate to what extent other interpretations that may correspond to very different underlying physics are compatible with the current results. We use the Next-to-Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (NMSSM) as a well-motivated theoretical framework with a sufficiently rich Higgs phenomenology to address this question, making use of the public tools HiggsBounds and HiggsSignals in order to take into account comprehensive experimental information on both the observed signal and on the existing limits from Higgs searches at LEP, the TeVatron and the LHC. We find that besides the decoupling limit resulting in a single light state with SM-like properties, several other configurations involving states lighter or quasi-degenerate with the one at about 125 GeV turn out to give a competitive fit to the Higgs data and other existing constraints. We discuss the phenomenology and possible future experimental tests of those scenarios, and compare the features of specific scenarios chosen as examples with those arising from a more global fit.
Towards efficient backward-in-time adjoint computations using data compression techniques
Cyr, E. C.; Shadid, J. N.; Wildey, T.
2014-12-16
In the context of a posteriori error estimation for nonlinear time-dependent partial differential equations, the state-of-the-practice is to use adjoint approaches which require the solution of a backward-in-time problem defined by a linearization of the forward problem. One of the major obstacles in the practical application of these approaches, we found, is the need to store, or recompute, the forward solution to define the adjoint problem and to evaluate the error representation. Our study considers the use of data compression techniques to approximate forward solutions employed in the backward-in-time integration. The development derives an error representation that accounts for the difference between the standard-approach and the compressed approximation of the forward solution. This representation is algorithmically similar to the standard representation and only requires the computation of the quantity of interest for the forward solution and the data-compressed reconstructed solution (i.e. scalar quantities that can be evaluated as the forward problem is integrated). This approach is then compared with existing techniques, such as checkpointing and time-averaged adjoints. Lastly, we provide numerical results indicating the potential efficiency of our approach on a transient diffusion–reaction equation and on the Navier–Stokes equations. These results demonstrate memory compression ratios up to 450×450× while maintaining reasonable accuracy in the error-estimates.
Towards efficient backward-in-time adjoint computations using data compression techniques
Cyr, E. C.; Shadid, J. N.; Wildey, T.
2014-12-16
In the context of a posteriori error estimation for nonlinear time-dependent partial differential equations, the state-of-the-practice is to use adjoint approaches which require the solution of a backward-in-time problem defined by a linearization of the forward problem. One of the major obstacles in the practical application of these approaches, we found, is the need to store, or recompute, the forward solution to define the adjoint problem and to evaluate the error representation. Our study considers the use of data compression techniques to approximate forward solutions employed in the backward-in-time integration. The development derives an error representation that accounts for themore » difference between the standard-approach and the compressed approximation of the forward solution. This representation is algorithmically similar to the standard representation and only requires the computation of the quantity of interest for the forward solution and the data-compressed reconstructed solution (i.e. scalar quantities that can be evaluated as the forward problem is integrated). This approach is then compared with existing techniques, such as checkpointing and time-averaged adjoints. Lastly, we provide numerical results indicating the potential efficiency of our approach on a transient diffusion–reaction equation and on the Navier–Stokes equations. These results demonstrate memory compression ratios up to 450×450× while maintaining reasonable accuracy in the error-estimates.« less
A level-set adjoint-state method for crosswell transmission-reflection traveltime tomography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Wenbin; Leung, Shingyu; Qian, Jianliang
2014-10-01
We propose a level-set adjoint-state method for crosswell traveltime tomography using both first-arrival transmission and reflection traveltime data. Since our entire formulation is based on solving eikonal and advection equations on finite-difference meshes, our traveltime tomography strategy is carried out without computing rays explicitly. We incorporate reflection traveltime data into the formulation so that possible reflectors (slowness interfaces) in the targeted subsurface model can be recovered as well as the slowness distribution itself. Since a reflector may assume a variety of irregular geometries, we propose to use a level-set function to implicitly parametrize the shape of a reflector. Therefore, a mismatch functional is established to minimize the traveltime data misfit with respect to both the slowness distribution and the level-set function, and the minimization is achieved by using a gradient descent method with gradients computed by solving adjoint state equations. To assess uncertainty or reliability of reconstructed slowness models, we introduce a labelling function to characterize first-arrival ray coverage of the computational domain, and this labelling function satisfies an advection equation. We apply fast-sweeping type methods to solve eikonal, adjoint-state and advection equations arising in our formulation. Numerical examples demonstrate that the proposed algorithm is robust to noise in the measurements, and can recover complicated structure even with little information on the reflector.
Neural Network Training by Integration of Adjoint Systems of Equations Forward in Time
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Toomarian, Nikzad (Inventor); Barhen, Jacob (Inventor)
1999-01-01
A method and apparatus for supervised neural learning of time dependent trajectories exploits the concepts of adjoint operators to enable computation of the gradient of an objective functional with respect to the various parameters of the network architecture in a highly efficient manner. Specifically. it combines the advantage of dramatic reductions in computational complexity inherent in adjoint methods with the ability to solve two adjoint systems of equations together forward in time. Not only is a large amount of computation and storage saved. but the handling of real-time applications becomes also possible. The invention has been applied it to two examples of representative complexity which have recently been analyzed in the open literature and demonstrated that a circular trajectory can be learned in approximately 200 iterations compared to the 12000 reported in the literature. A figure eight trajectory was achieved in under 500 iterations compared to 20000 previously required. Tbc trajectories computed using our new method are much closer to the target trajectories than was reported in previous studies.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shi, Lei; Wang, Z. J.
2015-08-01
Adjoint-based mesh adaptive methods are capable of distributing computational resources to areas which are important for predicting an engineering output. In this paper, we develop an adjoint-based h-adaptation approach based on the high-order correction procedure via reconstruction formulation (CPR) to minimize the output or functional error. A dual-consistent CPR formulation of hyperbolic conservation laws is developed and its dual consistency is analyzed. Super-convergent functional and error estimate for the output with the CPR method are obtained. Factors affecting the dual consistency, such as the solution point distribution, correction functions, boundary conditions and the discretization approach for the non-linear flux divergence term, are studied. The presented method is then used to perform simulations for the 2D Euler and Navier-Stokes equations with mesh adaptation driven by the adjoint-based error estimate. Several numerical examples demonstrate the ability of the presented method to dramatically reduce the computational cost comparing with uniform grid refinement.
Neural network training by integration of adjoint systems of equations forward in time
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Toomarian, Nikzad (Inventor); Barhen, Jacob (Inventor)
1992-01-01
A method and apparatus for supervised neural learning of time dependent trajectories exploits the concepts of adjoint operators to enable computation of the gradient of an objective functional with respect to the various parameters of the network architecture in a highly efficient manner. Specifically, it combines the advantage of dramatic reductions in computational complexity inherent in adjoint methods with the ability to solve two adjoint systems of equations together forward in time. Not only is a large amount of computation and storage saved, but the handling of real-time applications becomes also possible. The invention has been applied it to two examples of representative complexity which have recently been analyzed in the open literature and demonstrated that a circular trajectory can be learned in approximately 200 iterations compared to the 12000 reported in the literature. A figure eight trajectory was achieved in under 500 iterations compared to 20000 previously required. The trajectories computed using our new method are much closer to the target trajectories than was reported in previous studies.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Michalak, Anna M.; Kitanidis, Peter K.
2004-08-01
As the incidence of groundwater contamination continues to grow, a number of inverse modeling methods have been developed to address forensic groundwater problems. In this work the geostatistical approach to inverse modeling is extended to allow for the recovery of the antecedent distribution of a contaminant at a given point back in time, which is critical to the assessment of historical exposure to contamination. Such problems are typically strongly underdetermined, with a large number of points at which the distribution is to be estimated. To address this challenge, the computational efficiency of the new method is increased through the application of the adjoint state method. In addition, the adjoint problem is presented in a format that allows for the reuse of existing groundwater flow and transport codes as modules in the inverse modeling algorithm. As demonstrated in the presented applications, the geostatistical approach combined with the adjoint state method allow for a historical multidimensional contaminant distribution to be recovered even in heterogeneous media, where a numerical solution is required for the forward problem.
Twin Higgs Asymmetric Dark Matter.
García García, Isabel; Lasenby, Robert; March-Russell, John
2015-09-18
We study asymmetric dark matter (ADM) in the context of the minimal (fraternal) twin Higgs solution to the little hierarchy problem, with a twin sector with gauged SU(3)^{'}×SU(2)^{'}, a twin Higgs doublet, and only third-generation twin fermions. Naturalness requires the QCD^{'} scale Λ_{QCD}^{'}≃0.5-20 GeV, and that t^{'} is heavy. We focus on the light b^{'} quark regime, m_{b^{'}}≲Λ_{QCD}^{'}, where QCD^{'} is characterized by a single scale Λ_{QCD}^{'} with no light pions. A twin baryon number asymmetry leads to a successful dark matter (DM) candidate: the spin-3/2 twin baryon, Δ^{'}∼b^{'}b^{'}b^{'}, with a dynamically determined mass (∼5Λ_{QCD}^{'}) in the preferred range for the DM-to-baryon ratio Ω_{DM}/Ω_{baryon}≃5. Gauging the U(1)^{'} group leads to twin atoms (Δ^{'}-τ^{'}[over ¯] bound states) that are successful ADM candidates in significant regions of parameter space, sometimes with observable changes to DM halo properties. Direct detection signatures satisfy current bounds, at times modified by dark form factors. PMID:26430985
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Denis, Richard St.
2015-03-01
The discovery of a new boson with the ATLAS detector at the LHC proton-proton collider is confirmed using the full data set collected at centre-of-mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV. The spin and parity properties of the boson are consistent with that of a scalar particle with positive parity. Comparison of the JP = 0+ hypothesis to alternatives JP = 0-, 1+, 1-, 2+ result in exclusion of these other choices at 97.8%, 99.97%, 99.7%, and 99.3% CL. The Higgs boson mass is m_H = 125.5 pm 0.2l( {stat. right)_{ - 0.5}^{ + 0.5} l( {syst.} right)GeV. Evidence for production of the Higgs boson by vector boson fusion is obtained in a model-independent approach by comparing the signal strengths μ of vector boson fusion and production associated with a vector boson to that for gluon fusion including associated production of top quark pairs: μ _{VBF + VH /μ _{gg F + ttH = 1.4_{ - 0.3}^{ + 0.4} l( {stat.} right)_{ - 0.4}^{ + 0.6} l( {syst.} right) which is 3.3 Gaussian standard deviations from zero.
Phenomenology of neutrinophilic Higgs GUT
Haba, Naoyuki; Kaneta, Kunio; Shimizu, Yasuhiro
2012-07-27
Among three typical energy scales, a neutrino mass scale (m{sub {nu}}{approx}0.1eV), a GUT scale (M{sub GUT}{approx}10{sup 16}GeV), and a TeV-scale (M{sub NP}{approx}1TeV), there is a fascinating relation of M{sub NP} Asymptotically-Equal-To {radical}(m{sub {nu}} Dot-Operator M{sub GUT}) The TeV-scale, M{sub NP}, is a new physics scale beyond the standard model which is regarded as 'supersymmetry' (SUSY) in this letter. We investigate phenomenology of SUSY SU(5) GUT with neutrinophilic Higgs, which realizes the above relation dynamically as well as the suitable magnitude of Dirac mass, m{sub {nu}}, through a tiny vacuum expectation value of neutrinophilic Higgs. As a remarkable feature of this model, accurate gauge coupling unification can be achieved as keeping with a proton stability. We also evaluate flavor changing processes in quark/lepton sectors.
Twin Higgs Asymmetric Dark Matter.
García García, Isabel; Lasenby, Robert; March-Russell, John
2015-09-18
We study asymmetric dark matter (ADM) in the context of the minimal (fraternal) twin Higgs solution to the little hierarchy problem, with a twin sector with gauged SU(3)^{'}×SU(2)^{'}, a twin Higgs doublet, and only third-generation twin fermions. Naturalness requires the QCD^{'} scale Λ_{QCD}^{'}≃0.5-20 GeV, and that t^{'} is heavy. We focus on the light b^{'} quark regime, m_{b^{'}}≲Λ_{QCD}^{'}, where QCD^{'} is characterized by a single scale Λ_{QCD}^{'} with no light pions. A twin baryon number asymmetry leads to a successful dark matter (DM) candidate: the spin-3/2 twin baryon, Δ^{'}∼b^{'}b^{'}b^{'}, with a dynamically determined mass (∼5Λ_{QCD}^{'}) in the preferred range for the DM-to-baryon ratio Ω_{DM}/Ω_{baryon}≃5. Gauging the U(1)^{'} group leads to twin atoms (Δ^{'}-τ^{'}[over ¯] bound states) that are successful ADM candidates in significant regions of parameter space, sometimes with observable changes to DM halo properties. Direct detection signatures satisfy current bounds, at times modified by dark form factors.
Neutral naturalness from orbifold Higgs models.
Craig, Nathaniel; Knapen, Simon; Longhi, Pietro
2015-02-13
We present a general class of natural theories in which the Higgs boson is a pseudo-Goldstone boson in an orbifolded gauge theory. The symmetry protecting the Higgs boson at low energies is an accidental global symmetry of the quadratic action, rather than a full continuous symmetry. The lightest degrees of freedom protecting the weak scale carry no standard model (SM) quantum numbers and interact with visible matter principally through the Higgs portal. This opens the door to the systematic study of "neutral naturalness": natural theories with SM-neutral states that are as yet untested by the LHC.
Higgs boson at LHC: a diffractive opportunity
Ducati, M. B. Gay; Silveira, G. G.
2009-03-23
An alternative process is presented for diffractive Higgs boson production in peripheral pp collisions, where the particles interact through the Double Pomeron Exchange. The event rate is computed as a central-rapidity distribution for Tevatron and LHC energies leading to a result around 0.6 pb, higher than the predictions from previous approaches. Therefore, this result arises as an enhanced signal for the detection of the Higgs boson in hadron colliders. The predictions for the Higgs boson photoproduction are compared to the ones obtained from a similar approach proposed by the Durham group, enabling an analysis of the future developments of its application to pp and AA collisions.
SM Higgs properties measurement at ATLAS
Murray, William
2010-02-10
The discovery of a new particle in the Higgs searches being prepared for LHC will not guarantee that the Standard Model Higgs boson has been seen. This paper discusses the possibilities for measuring the spin, parity and couplings of the particle, under the assumption that it does in fact behave like the Standard Model Higgs. The key question, which cannot alas be answered, is: if it looks like a dog, and barks like a dog, how much of the DNA must we analyse to be sure that it is a dog?
Craig, Nathaniel; Knapen, Simon; Longhi, Pietro; Strassler, Matthew
2016-07-01
Here, we present a version of the twin Higgs mechanism with vector-like top partners. In this setup all gauge anomalies automatically cancel, even without twin leptons. The matter content of the most minimal twin sector is therefore just two twin tops and one twin bottom. The LHC phenomenology, illustrated with two example models, is dominated by twin glueball decays, possibly in association with Higgs bosons. We further construct an explicit four-dimensional UV completion and discuss a variety of UV completions relevant for both vector-like and fraternal twin Higgs models.
Extending the limits of Higgs effective theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Biekötter, Anke; Brehmer, Johann; Plehn, Tilman
2016-09-01
Based on a vector triplet model, we study a possible failure of dimension-6 operators in describing LHC Higgs kinematics. First, we illustrate that including dimension-6 contributions squared can significantly improve the agreement between the full model and the dimension-6 approximation, both in associated Higgs production and in weak-boson-fusion Higgs production. Second, we test how a simplified model with an additional heavy scalar could improve the agreement in critical LHC observables. In weak boson fusion, we find an improvement for virtuality related observables at large energies, but at the cost of sizeable deviations in interference patterns and angular correlations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Craig, Nathaniel; Knapen, Simon; Longhi, Pietro; Strassler, Matthew
2016-07-01
We present a version of the twin Higgs mechanism with vector-like top partners. In this setup all gauge anomalies automatically cancel, even without twin leptons. The matter content of the most minimal twin sector is therefore just two twin tops and one twin bottom. The LHC phenomenology, illustrated with two example models, is dominated by twin glueball decays, possibly in association with Higgs bosons. We further construct an explicit four-dimensional UV completion and discuss a variety of UV completions relevant for both vector-like and fraternal twin Higgs models.
Some properties of dark matter field in the complex octonion space
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Weng, Zi-Hua
2015-12-01
The paper aims to consider the electromagnetic adjoint-field in the complex octonion space as the dark matter field, describing some properties of the dark matter, especially the origin, particle category, existence region, force and so forth. Since Maxwell applied the algebra of quaternions to depict the electromagnetic theory, some scholars adopt the complex quaternion and octonion to study the physics property of electromagnetic and gravitational fields. In the paper, by means of the octonion operator, it is found that the gravitational field accompanies with one adjoint-field, whose property is partly similar to that of electromagnetic field. The electromagnetic field accompanies with another adjoint-field, whose feature is partly similar to that of gravitational field. As a result, the electromagnetic adjoint-field can be chosen as one candidate of the dark matter field. According to the electromagnetic adjoint-field, it is able to predict a few properties of the dark matter, for instance, the particle category, interaction intensity, interaction distance, existence region and so forth. The study reveals that the dark matter particle and the gravitational resource will be influenced by the gravitational strength and force. The dark matter field is capable of making a contribution to physics quantities of gravitational field, including the angular momentum, torque, energy, force and so on. Further, there may be comparatively more chances to discover the dark matter in some regions with the ultrastrong field strength, surrounding the neutral star, white dwarf, galactic nucleus, black hole, astrophysical jet and so on.
Vector-boson production of light Higgs pairs in 2-Higgs doublet models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moretti, M.; Moretti, S.; Piccinini, F.; Pittau, R.; Rathsman, J.
2007-12-01
At the Large Hadron Collider, we prove the feasibility to detect pair production of the lightest CP-even Higgs boson h of Type II 2-Higgs Doublet Models through qq(') → qq(')hh (vector-boson fusion). We also show that, through the hh → 4b decay channel in presence of heavy-flavour tagging, further exploiting forward/backward jet sampling, one has direct access to the λHhh triple Higgs coupling—which constrains the form of the Higgs potential.
Searching heavier Higgs boson via di-Higgs production at LHC Run-2
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lü, Lan-Chun; Du, Chun; Fang, Yaquan; He, Hong-Jian; Zhang, Huijun
2016-04-01
The discovery of a light Higgs particle h0 (125 GeV) opens up new prospect for searching heavier Higgs boson(s) at the LHC Run-2, which will unambiguously point to new physics beyond the standard model (SM). We study the detection of a heavier neutral Higgs boson H0 via di-Higgs production channel at the LHC (14 TeV), H0 →h0h0 → WW* γγ. This directly probes the Hhh cubic Higgs interaction, which exists in most extensions of the SM Higgs sector. For the decay products of final states WW*, we include both pure leptonic mode WW* → ℓ ν bar ℓ bar ν and semi-leptonic mode WW* → qqbar‧ ℓν. We analyze signals and backgrounds by performing fast detector simulation for the full process pp → H → hh → WW* γγ → ℓ ν bar ℓ bar νγγ and pp → H → hh → WW* γγ → ℓνqqbar‧ γγ, over the mass range MH = 250- 600 GeV. For generic two-Higgs-doublet models (2HDM), we present the discovery reach of the heavier Higgs boson at the LHC Run-2, and compare it with the current Higgs global fit of the 2HDM parameter space.
Investigating Sensitivity to Saharan Dust in Tropical Cyclone Formation Using Nasa's Adjoint Model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Holdaway, Daniel
2015-01-01
As tropical cyclones develop from easterly waves coming of the coast of Africa they interact with dust from the Sahara desert. There is a long standing debate over whether this dust inhibits or advances the developing storm and how much influence it has. Dust can surround the storm and absorb incoming solar radiation, cooling the air below. As a result an energy source for the system is potentially diminished, inhibiting growth of the storm. Alternatively dust may interact with clouds through micro-physical processes, for example by causing more moisture to condense, potentially increasing the strength. As a result of climate change, concentrations and amount of dust in the atmosphere will likely change. It it is important to properly understand its effect on tropical storm formation. The adjoint of an atmospheric general circulation model provides a very powerful tool for investigating sensitivity to initial conditions. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has recently developed an adjoint version of the Goddard Earth Observing System version 5 (GEOS-5) dynamical core, convection scheme, cloud model and radiation schemes. This is extended so that the interaction between dust and radiation is also accounted for in the adjoint model. This provides a framework for examining the sensitivity to dust in the initial conditions. Specifically the set up allows for an investigation into the extent to which dust affects cyclone strength through absorption of radiation. In this work we investigate the validity of using an adjoint model for examining sensitivity to dust in hurricane formation. We present sensitivity results for a number of systems that developed during the Atlantic hurricane season of 2006. During this period there was a significant outbreak of Saharan dust and it is has been argued that this outbreak was responsible for the relatively calm season. This period was also covered by an extensive observation campaign. It is shown that the
Investigating sensitivity to Saharan dust in tropical cyclone formation using NASA's adjoint model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Holdaway, Daniel
2015-04-01
As tropical cyclones develop from easterly waves coming off the coast of Africa they interact with dust from the Sahara desert. There is a long standing debate over whether this dust inhibits or advances the developing storm and how much influence it has. Dust can surround the storm and absorb incoming solar radiation, cooling the air below. As a result an energy source for the system is potentially diminished, inhibiting growth of the storm. Alternatively dust may interact with clouds through micro-physical processes, for example by causing more moisture to condense, potentially increasing the strength. As a result of climate change, concentrations and amount of dust in the atmosphere will likely change. It it is important to properly understand its effect on tropical storm formation. The adjoint of an atmospheric general circulation model provides a very powerful tool for investigating sensitivity to initial conditions. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has recently developed an adjoint version of the Goddard Earth Observing System version 5 (GEOS-5) dynamical core, convection scheme, cloud model and radiation schemes. This is extended so that the interaction between dust and radiation is also accounted for in the adjoint model. This provides a framework for examining the sensitivity to dust in the initial conditions. Specifically the set up allows for an investigation into the extent to which dust affects cyclone strength through absorption of radiation. In this work we investigate the validity of using an adjoint model for examining sensitivity to dust in hurricane formation. We present sensitivity results for a number of systems that developed during the Atlantic hurricane season of 2006. During this period there was a significant outbreak of Saharan dust and it is has been argued that this outbreak was responsible for the relatively calm season. This period was also covered by an extensive observation campaign. It is shown that the
Reentry-Vehicle Shape Optimization Using a Cartesian Adjoint Method and CAD Geometry
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nemec, Marian; Aftosmis, Michael J.
2006-01-01
A DJOINT solutions of the governing flow equations are becoming increasingly important for the development of efficient analysis and optimization algorithms. A well-known use of the adjoint method is gradient-based shape. Given an objective function that defines some measure of performance, such as the lift and drag functionals, its gradient is computed at a cost that is essentially independent of the number of design variables (e.g., geometric parameters that control the shape). Classic aerodynamic applications of gradient-based optimization include the design of cruise configurations for transonic and supersonic flow, as well as the design of high-lift systems. are perhaps the most promising approach for addressing the issues of flow solution automation for aerodynamic design problems. In these methods, the discretization of the wetted surface is decoupled from that of the volume mesh. This not only enables fast and robust mesh generation for geometry of arbitrary complexity, but also facilitates access to geometry modeling and manipulation using parametric computer-aided design (CAD). In previous work on Cartesian adjoint solvers, Melvin et al. developed an adjoint formulation for the TRANAIR code, which is based on the full-potential equation with viscous corrections. More recently, Dadone and Grossman presented an adjoint formulation for the two-dimensional Euler equations using a ghost-cell method to enforce the wall boundary conditions. In Refs. 18 and 19, we presented an accurate and efficient algorithm for the solution of the adjoint Euler equations discretized on Cartesian meshes with embedded, cut-cell boundaries. Novel aspects of the algorithm were the computation of surface shape sensitivities for triangulations based on parametric-CAD models and the linearization of the coupling between the surface triangulation and the cut-cells. The accuracy of the gradient computation was verified using several three-dimensional test cases, which included design
Heberton, C.I.; Russell, T.F.; Konikow, L.F.; Hornberger, G.Z.
2000-01-01
This report documents the U.S. Geological Survey Eulerian-Lagrangian Localized Adjoint Method (ELLAM) algorithm that solves an integral form of the solute-transport equation, incorporating an implicit-in-time difference approximation for the dispersive and sink terms. Like the algorithm in the original version of the U.S. Geological Survey MOC3D transport model, ELLAM uses a method of characteristics approach to solve the transport equation on the basis of the velocity field. The ELLAM algorithm, however, is based on an integral formulation of conservation of mass and uses appropriate numerical techniques to obtain global conservation of mass. The implicit procedure eliminates several stability criteria required for an explicit formulation. Consequently, ELLAM allows large transport time increments to be used. ELLAM can produce qualitatively good results using a small number of transport time steps. A description of the ELLAM numerical method, the data-input requirements and output options, and the results of simulator testing and evaluation are presented. The ELLAM algorithm was evaluated for the same set of problems used to test and evaluate Version 1 and Version 2 of MOC3D. These test results indicate that ELLAM offers a viable alternative to the explicit and implicit solvers in MOC3D. Its use is desirable when mass balance is imperative or a fast, qualitative model result is needed. Although accurate solutions can be generated using ELLAM, its efficiency relative to the two previously documented solution algorithms is problem dependent.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Asorey, M.; Ibort, A.; Marmo, G.
2015-06-01
The theory of self-adjoint extensions of first- and second-order elliptic differential operators on manifolds with boundary is studied via its most representative instances: Dirac and Laplace operators. The theory is developed by exploiting the geometrical structures attached to them and, by using an adapted Cayley transform on each case, the space {M} of such extensions is shown to have a canonical group composition law structure. The obtained results are compared with von Neumann's theorem characterizing the self-adjoint extensions of densely defined symmetric operators on Hilbert spaces. The 1D case is thoroughly investigated. The geometry of the submanifold of elliptic self-adjoint extensions {M}ellip is studied and it is shown that it is a Lagrangian submanifold of the universal Grassmannian Gr. The topology of {M}ellip is also explored and it is shown that there is a canonical cycle whose dual is the Maslov class of the manifold. Such cycle, called the Cayley surface, plays a relevant role in the study of the phenomena of topology change. Self-adjoint extensions of Laplace operators are discussed in the path integral formalism, identifying a class of them for which both treatments leads to the same results. A theory of dissipative quantum systems is proposed based on this theory and a unitarization theorem for such class of dissipative systems is proved. The theory of self-adjoint extensions with symmetry of Dirac operators is also discussed and a reduction theorem for the self-adjoint elliptic Grassmannian is obtained. Finally, an interpretation of spontaneous symmetry breaking is offered from the point of view of the theory of self-adjoint extensions.
Top and higgs physics at the Tevatron
Pierre Savard
2002-12-23
We present a summary of our experimental understanding of the top quark and discuss the significant improvements expected in Run II at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider. We also discuss prospects for a Higgs boson discovery at the Tevatron.
Partially natural Two Higgs Doublet Models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Draper, Patrick; Haber, Howard E.; Ruderman, Joshua T.
2016-06-01
It is possible that the electroweak scale is low due to the fine-tuning of microscopic parameters, which can result from selection effects. The experimental discovery of new light fundamental scalars other than the Standard Model Higgs boson would seem to disfavor this possibility, since generically such states imply parametrically worse fine-tuning with no compelling connection to selection effects. We discuss counterexamples where the Higgs boson is light because of fine-tuning, and a second scalar doublet is light because a discrete symmetry relates its mass to the mass of the Standard Model Higgs boson. Our examples require new vectorlike fermions at the electroweak scale, and the models possess a rich electroweak vacuum structure. The mechanism that we discuss does not protect a small CP-odd Higgs mass in split or high-scale supersymmetry-breaking scenarios of the MSSM due to an incompatibility between the discrete symmetries and holomorphy.
Lykken, Joseph; Spiropulu, Maria
2013-12-15
Experimentalists and theorists are still celebrating the Nobel-worthy discovery of the Higgs boson that was announced in July 2012 at CERN’s Large Hadron Collider. Now they are working on the profound implications of that discovery.
Has a Higgs-flavon with a 750 GeV mass been detected at the LHC13?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bolaños, A.; Diaz-Cruz, J. L.; Hernández-Tomé, G.; Tavares-Velasco, G.
2016-10-01
Higgs-flavon fields appear as a part of the Froggatt-Nielsen (FN) mechanism, which attempts to explain the hierarchy of Yukawa couplings. We explore the possibility that the 750 GeV diphoton resonance recently reported at the LHC13 could be identified with a low-scale Higgs-flavon field HF and find the region of the parameter space consistent with CMS and ATLAS data. It is found that the extra vector-like fermions of the ultraviolet completion of the FN mechanism are necessary in order to reproduce the observed signal. We consider a standard model (SM) extension that contains two Higgs doublets (a standard one and an inert one) and one complex FN singlet. The inert doublet includes a stable neutral boson, which provides a viable dark matter candidate, while the mixing of the standard doublet and the FN singlet induces flavor violation in the Higgs sector at the tree-level. Constraints on the parameters of the model are derived from the LHC Higgs data, which include the search for the lepton flavor violating decay of the SM Higgs boson h → μ bar τ. It is also found that in some region of the parameter space the model may give rise to a large branching ratio for the HF → hh decay, of the order of 0.1, which could be searched for at the LHC.
TeV scale universal seesaw, vacuum stability and heavy Higgs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mohapatra, Rabindra N.; Zhang, Yongchao
2014-06-01
We discuss the issue of vacuum stability of standard model by embedding it within the TeV scale left-right universal seesaw model (called SLRM in the text). This model has only two coupling parameters (λ1, λ2) in the Higgs potential and only two physical neutral Higgs bosons ( h, H). We explore the range of values for (λ1 , λ2) for which the light Higgs boson mass M h = 126 GeV and the vacuum is stable for all values of the Higgs fields. Combining with the further requirement that the scalar self couplings remain perturbative till typical GUT scales of order 1016 GeV, we find (i) an upper and lower limit on the second Higgs ( H) mass to be within the range: 0 .4 ≤ ≤ 0 .7, where the v R is the parity breaking scale and (ii) that the heavy vector-like top, bottom and τ partner fermions ( P 3 , N 3 , E 3) mass have an upper bound . We discuss some phenomenological aspects of the model pertaining to LHC.
Chern-Simons-Higgs theory with visible and hidden sectors and its N = 2 SUSY extension
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arias, Paola; Ireson, Edwin; Schaposnik, Fidel A.; Tallarita, Gianni
2015-10-01
We study vortex solutions in Abelian Chern-Simons-Higgs theories with visible and hidden sectors. We first consider the case in which the two sectors are connected through a BF-like gauge mixing term with no explicit interaction between the two scalars. Since first order Bogomolny equations do not exist in this case, we derive the second order field equations. We then proceed to an N = 2 supersymmetric extension including a Higgs portal mixing among the visible and hidden charged scalars. As expected, Bogomolny equations do exist in this case and we study their string-like solutions numerically.
A Chern-Simons-Yang-Mills-Higgs system in 3+1 dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Navarro-Lérida, Francisco; Radu, Eugen; Tchrakian, D. H.
2014-10-01
We study spherically symmetric solutions of an SO(5) Chern-Simons-Yang-Mills-Higgs system in 3+1 dimensions. The Chern-Simons densities are defined in terms of both Yang-Mills fields and a five-component isomultiplet Higgs. The SO(3) × SO(2) solutions are analyzed in a systematic way, by employing numerical methods. These finite energy configurations possess both electric and magnetic global charges, differing radically, however, from Julia-Zee dyons. When two or more of these Chern-Simons densities are present in the Lagrangian, solutions with vanishing electric charge but nonvanishing electrostatic potential may exist.
Top-Higgs and top-pion phenomenology in the top triangle moose model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chivukula, R. Sekhar; Simmons, Elizabeth H.; Coleppa, Baradhwaj; Logan, Heather E.; Martin, Adam
2011-03-01
We discuss the deconstructed version of a topcolor-assisted technicolor model wherein the mechanism of top quark mass generation is separated from the rest of electroweak symmetry breaking. The minimal deconstructed version of this scenario is a “triangle moose” model, where the top quark gets its mass from coupling to a top-Higgs field, while the gauge boson masses are generated from a Higgsless sector. The spectrum of the model includes scalar (top-Higgs) and pseudoscalar (top-pion) states. In this paper, we study the properties of these particles, discuss their production mechanisms and decay modes, and suggest how best to search for them at the LHC.
Top-Higgs and top-pion phenomenology in the top triangle moose model
Chivukula, R. Sekhar; Simmons, Elizabeth H.; Coleppa, Baradhwaj; Logan, Heather E.; Martin, Adam
2011-03-01
We discuss the deconstructed version of a topcolor-assisted technicolor model wherein the mechanism of top quark mass generation is separated from the rest of electroweak symmetry breaking. The minimal deconstructed version of this scenario is a ''triangle moose'' model, where the top quark gets its mass from coupling to a top-Higgs field, while the gauge boson masses are generated from a Higgsless sector. The spectrum of the model includes scalar (top-Higgs) and pseudoscalar (top-pion) states. In this paper, we study the properties of these particles, discuss their production mechanisms and decay modes, and suggest how best to search for them at the LHC.
Discovering uncolored naturalness in exotic Higgs decays
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Curtin, David; Verhaaren, Christopher B.
2015-12-01
Solutions to the hierarchy problem usually require top partners. In standard SUSY or composite Higgs theories, the partners carry SM color and are becoming increasingly constrained by LHC searches. However, theories like Folded SUSY (FS), Twin Higgs (TH) and Quirky Little Higgs (QLH) introduce uncolored top partners, which can be SM singlets or carry electroweak charge. Their small production cross section left doubt as to whether the LHC can effectively probe such scenarios. Typically, these partners are charged under their own mirror color gauge group. In FS and QLH, the absence of light mirror matter allows glueballs to form at the bottom of the mirror spectrum. This is also the case in some TH realizations. The Higgs can decay to these mirror glueballs, with the glueballs decaying into SM particles with potentially observable lifetimes. We undertake the first detailed study of this glueball signature and quantitatively demonstrate the discovery potential of uncolored naturalness via exotic Higgs decays at the LHC and a potential future 100TeV collider. Our findings indicate that mirror glueballs are the smoking gun signature of natural FS and QLH type theories, in analogy to tree-level Higgs coupling shifts for the TH. We show that glueball masses in the ˜ 10-60 GeV mass range are theoretically preferred. Careful treatment of lifetime, mirror-hadronization and non-perturbative uncertainties is required to perform meaningful collider studies. We outline several new search strategies for exotic Higgs decays of the form h → XX → 4 f at the LHC, with X having lifetimes in the 10 μm to km range. We find that FS stops can be probed with masses up to 600 (1100) GeV at the LHC with 300 (3000) fb-1 of data, and TH top partners could be accessible with masses up to 900 (1500) GeV. This makes exotic Higgs decays the prime discovery channel for uncolored naturalness at the LHC.
Fox-Wolfram moments in Higgs physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bernaciak, Catherine; Buschmann, Malte Seán Andreas; Butter, Anja; Plehn, Tilman
2013-04-01
Geometric correlations between jets as part of hard processes or in addition to hard processes are key ingredients to many LHC analyses. Fox-Wolfram moments systematically describe these correlations in terms of spherical harmonics. These moments, computed either from the tagging jets or from all jets in each event, can significantly improve Higgs searches in weak boson fusion. Applications of Fox-Wolfram moments in LHC analyses obviously surpass jets as analysis objects, as well as Higgs searches in terms of analyses.
Perspectives for Higgs and new physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Djouadi, Abdelhak
2016-07-01
The implications of the discovery of a Higgs boson at the LHC with a mass of 125GeV are summarised in the context of the Standard Model of particle physics and in new physics scenarios beyond it, taking the example of the minimal supersymmetric Standard Model extension, the MSSM. The perspectives for Higgs and new physics searches at the next LHC upgrades as well as at future hadron and lepton colliders are then briefly summarized.
A Search for Dark Higgs Bosons
Lees, J.P.
2012-06-08
Recent astrophysical and terrestrial experiments have motivated the proposal of a dark sector with GeV-scale gauge boson force carriers and new Higgs bosons. We present a search for a dark Higgs boson using 516 fb{sup -1} of data collected with the BABAR detector. We do not observe a significant signal and we set 90% confidence level upper limits on the product of the Standard Model-dark sector mixing angle and the dark sector coupling constant.
The Higgs boson in the Standard Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Djouadi, Abdelhak; Grazzini, Massimiliano
2016-10-01
The major goal of the Large Hadron Collider is to probe the electroweak symmetry breaking mechanism and the generation of the elementary particle masses. In the Standard Model this mechanism leads to the existence of a scalar Higgs boson with unique properties. We review the physics of the Standard Model Higgs boson, discuss its main search channels at hadron colliders and the corresponding theoretical predictions. We also summarize the strategies to study its basic properties.
Improving acceptance for Higgs events at CDF
Sforza, Federico; /INFN, Pisa
2008-03-01
The Standard Model of elementary particles predicts the existence of the Higgs boson as the responsable of the electroweak symmetry breaking, the process by which fermions and vector bosons acquire mass. The Higgs existence is one of the most important questions in the present high energy physics research. This work concerns the search of W H associate production at the CDF II experiment (Collider Detector at Fermilab).
Higgs results from the Tevatron Run II
Tuchming, B.; /DAPNIA, Saclay
2005-01-01
The data taken at the Tevatron experiments have been analyzed to search for Higgs bosons. For the Standard Model Higgs searches, no excess is observed, the data are in good agreement with the expectations, so that limits are set on the production rates. For various theoretical models beyond the Standard Model, there is no excess either, which allows to derive constraints in their respective parameter spaces.
Non-self-dual static gauge fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oh, C. H.; Teh, Rosy
1980-01-01
We exhibit exact non-self-dual static solutions to the SU(2) Yang-Mills field equations by solving the equation ∇2V+λV3=0 using cylindrical and spherical coordinates. The resulting gauge fields are complex and have singularities. For the cylindrically symmetric solution, we convert it into a real gauge field coupled to the Higgs field in the limit in which the self-interaction potential of the Higgs field vanishes.
Standard model and supersymmetric Higgs searches at CDF
Kilminster, Ben; /Ohio State U.
2005-10-01
We present the results on the searches for the SM and the MSSM Higgs boson production in proton-antiproton collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 GeV with the CDF detector. The Higgs bosons are searched for in various production and decay channels, with data samples corresponding to 400 pb{sup -1}. Using these measurements, we set an upper limit on the production cross section times branching fraction for the Standard Model Higgs as a function of the Higgs mass, and we obtain exclusion regions in the tan{beta} vs mass for the neutral MSSM Higgs, and branching fraction vs mass for the charged Higgs.
On Higgs branch localization of Seiberg-Witten theories on an ellipsoid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Heng-Yu; Tsai, Tsung-Hsuan
2016-01-01
In this note, we consider so-called "Higgs branch localization" for four-dimensional N=2 field theories on a 4D ellipsoid. We find a new set of saddle point equations arising from the additional Higgs branch deformation term, whose solutions include both Higgs branch and BPS instanton-vortex mixed configurations. By evaluating the contour integral, we also demonstrate that the ellipsoid partition almost factorizes into purely b- and b^{-1}-dependent parts, using SQCD as an explicit example. We identify various factorized parts with the ellipsoid partition function of two-dimensional N=(2,2) SQCDA, which is precisely the vortex world volume theory. We also give a physical interpretation for the non-factorizable parts and discuss future directions.
Cosmological Higgs-Axion Interplay for a Naturally Small Electroweak Scale.
Espinosa, J R; Grojean, C; Panico, G; Pomarol, A; Pujolàs, O; Servant, G
2015-12-18
Recently, a new mechanism to generate a naturally small electroweak scale has been proposed. It exploits the coupling of the Higgs boson to an axionlike field and a long era in the early Universe where the axion unchains a dynamical screening of the Higgs mass. We present a new realization of this idea with the new feature that it leaves no sign of new physics at the electroweak scale, and up to a rather large scale, 10^{9} GeV, except for two very light and weakly coupled axionlike states. One of the scalars can be a viable dark matter candidate. Such a cosmological Higgs-axion interplay could be tested with a number of experimental strategies.
Coupling of Higgs and Leggett modes in non-equilibrium superconductors.
Krull, H; Bittner, N; Uhrig, G S; Manske, D; Schnyder, A P
2016-06-21
In equilibrium systems amplitude and phase collective modes are decoupled, as they are mutually orthogonal excitations. The direct detection of these Higgs and Leggett collective modes by linear-response measurements is not possible, because they do not couple directly to the electromagnetic field. In this work, using numerical exact simulations we show for the case of two-gap superconductors, that optical pump-probe experiments excite both Higgs and Leggett modes out of equilibrium. We find that this non-adiabatic excitation process introduces a strong interaction between the collective modes, which is absent in equilibrium. Moreover, we propose a type of pump-probe experiment, which allows to probe and coherently control the Higgs and Leggett modes, and thus the order parameter directly. These findings go beyond two-band superconductors and apply to general collective modes in quantum materials.
Coupling of Higgs and Leggett modes in non-equilibrium superconductors.
Krull, H; Bittner, N; Uhrig, G S; Manske, D; Schnyder, A P
2016-01-01
In equilibrium systems amplitude and phase collective modes are decoupled, as they are mutually orthogonal excitations. The direct detection of these Higgs and Leggett collective modes by linear-response measurements is not possible, because they do not couple directly to the electromagnetic field. In this work, using numerical exact simulations we show for the case of two-gap superconductors, that optical pump-probe experiments excite both Higgs and Leggett modes out of equilibrium. We find that this non-adiabatic excitation process introduces a strong interaction between the collective modes, which is absent in equilibrium. Moreover, we propose a type of pump-probe experiment, which allows to probe and coherently control the Higgs and Leggett modes, and thus the order parameter directly. These findings go beyond two-band superconductors and apply to general collective modes in quantum materials. PMID:27323887
Higgs mass from compositeness at a multi-TeV scale
Cheng, Hsin -Chia; Dobrescu, Bogdan A.; Gu, Jiayin
2014-08-18
Within composite Higgs models based on the top seesaw mechanism, we show that the Higgs field can arise as the pseudo Nambu-Goldstone boson of the broken U(3)more » $$_{L}$$ chiral symmetry associated with a vector-like quark and the t-b doublet. As a result, the lightest CP-even neutral state of the composite scalar sector is lighter than the top quark, and can be identified as the newly discovered Higgs boson. As a result, constraints on weak-isospin violation push the chiral symmetry breaking scale above a few TeV, implying that other composite scalars are probably too heavy to be probed at the LHC, but may be within reach at a future hadron collider with center-of-mass energy of about 100 TeV.« less