Science.gov

Sample records for adjust final route

  1. Final RQ adjustments rule issued

    SciTech Connect

    Bergeson, L.L.

    1995-08-01

    On June 12, 1995, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued its long awaited final rule adjusting certain reportable quantities (RQs) for hazardous substances under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). The rule: revises the table of hazardous substances to add 47 individual Clean Air Act (CAA) hazardous air pollutants (HAPs); adjustments their statutory one-pound RQs; adds five other CAA HAPs that are categories of substances and assigns no RQ to the categories; and adjusts RQs for 11 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) listed hazardous wastes. EPA made conforming changes to the Clean Water Act table of hazardous substances and the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA) table of extremely hazardous substances. The rule became effective July 12, 1995.

  2. Railroad routing and costing. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bronzini, M.S.; Sherman, D.M.

    1986-08-01

    This research has the objective of providing reliable tools for forecasting the costs of transporting coal from the coal supply regions to the coal demand regions of the United States. The present work was devoted primarily to improving and updating the Railroad Routing Model (RRM) and related data base developed earlier. The railroad network data were modified to incorporate the extensive structural changes which occurred during the period 1980 to 1982. All of the rail time, energy, and cost functions were completely reestimated, taking advantage of improved railrod operations and cost simulators and recent research on railroad costs. After a review of the latest research on railroad routing in large networks, the RRM was refined and tailored to the problem of finding likely routes and estimating fully allocated carrier costs for coal shipments. A new RRM routing algorithm finds routes which satisfy the dual railroad objectives of maximizing the carrier's share of total shipment revenue and minimizing cost. Five utilities tested and demonstrated the new RRM and data base in a series of case studies. These utilities provided data on 38 coal moves with haul distances of 200 to 1700 miles, including a mixture of both existing and prospective movements. The RRM was found to produce credible results. Full and effective use of these improved tools for railroad routing and costing has been facilitated through additional work to develop an interactive system with improved data base management capabilities and expanded cost estimating features.

  3. Security in MANETs using reputation-adjusted routing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ondi, Attila; Hoffman, Katherine; Perez, Carlos; Ford, Richard; Carvalho, Marco; Allen, William

    2009-04-01

    Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks enable communication in various dynamic environments, including military combat operations. Their open and shared communication medium enables new forms of attack that are not applicable for traditional wired networks. Traditional security mechanisms and defense techniques are not prepared to cope with the new attacks and the lack of central authorities make identity verifications difficult. This work extends our previous work in the Biologically Inspired Tactical Security Infrastructure to provide a reputation-based weighing mechanism for linkstate routing protocols to protect the network from attackers that are corrupting legitimate network traffic. Our results indicate that the approach is successful in routing network traffic around compromised computers.

  4. Method and apparatus for routing data in an inter-nodal communications lattice of a massively parallel computer system by dynamically adjusting local routing strategies

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles Jens; Musselman, Roy Glenn; Peters, Amanda; Pinnow, Kurt Walter; Swartz, Brent Allen; Wallenfelt, Brian Paul

    2010-03-16

    A massively parallel computer system contains an inter-nodal communications network of node-to-node links. Each node implements a respective routing strategy for routing data through the network, the routing strategies not necessarily being the same in every node. The routing strategies implemented in the nodes are dynamically adjusted during application execution to shift network workload as required. Preferably, adjustment of routing policies in selective nodes is performed at synchronization points. The network may be dynamically monitored, and routing strategies adjusted according to detected network conditions.

  5. Penalty Inflation Adjustments for Civil Money Penalties. Interim Final Rule.

    PubMed

    2016-06-27

    In accordance with the Federal Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act of 1990, as amended by the Debt Collection Improvement Act of 1996, and further amended by the Bipartisan Budget Act of 2015, section 701: Federal Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act Improvements Act of 2015, this interim final rule incorporates the penalty inflation adjustments for the civil money penalties contained in the Social Security Act PMID:27373014

  6. Final adjustments in payload bay prior to door closure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Final adjustments in payload bay prior to door closure KSC-01PD-1732 KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. - A worker makes a final adjustment in the payload bay of Space Shuttle Endeavour before door closure. Inside the bay is the Multi-Purpose Logistics Module Raffaello (foreground), carrying supplies, equipment and experiments for the International Space Station. Sharing the payload bay are several carriers with varying experiment packages, such as Starshine-2, a Get-Away Special. Endeavour is scheduled to launch Nov. 29 on this first Utilization Flight to the International Space Station. Endeavour will also carry the replacement Expedition 4 crew to the Station and return to Earth with the Expedition 3 crew.

  7. Expanded bicycling route system for Denver. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Maltempo, M.M.

    1983-11-01

    This final report describes the results of a study of the potential energy savings associated with increased utilitarian bicycle transportation in the Denver metropolitan area. The project has included computer modeling of the carrying capacity of the present bicycle route system, future route systems, as well as outreach activities to convey the results to public officials and the general public. A key feature of the project has been a consideration of the benefits associated with an expanded bikeway system which includes ''bike boulevards''. Data from the west coast cities and other sources, have been used to generate quantitative estimates of the benefits associated with a Denver bikeway system which includes bike boulevards. The development of a network of bike boulevards in Denver should result in energy savings of about 20.2 million gallons of gasoline per year, as well as a 3.4% reduction in vehicular carbon monoxide emissions. These benefits are in addition to those accruing from current levels of bicycling.

  8. 26 CFR 301.6223(f)-1 - Duplicate copy of final partnership administrative adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Duplicate copy of final partnership... In General § 301.6223(f)-1 Duplicate copy of final partnership administrative adjustment. (a) In... the notice of final partnership administrative adjustment (for example, in the event the...

  9. 26 CFR 301.6223(f)-1 - Duplicate copy of final partnership administrative adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Duplicate copy of final partnership... In General § 301.6223(f)-1 Duplicate copy of final partnership administrative adjustment. (a) In... the notice of final partnership administrative adjustment (for example, in the event the...

  10. Final development report H1632 Adjustable Caster Assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Kibalo, E.F.

    1994-03-01

    The H1632 Adjustable Caster Assembly was developed for use on the H1501B Transportation Accident Resistant Container (TARC). The caster can be raised and lowered via its attached leveling jack or, by removing a locking pin, can be aligned horizontally or removed for transportational purposes. The H1632 is packaged as a single kit that contains two left and two right adjustable caster assemblies along with the required support plates and hardware.

  11. The School Adjustment of Post-Meningitic Children. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pate, John E.

    To study the school adjustment of children known to have had prolonged high fevers, 25 elementary school students who had had acute bacterial meningitis were matched by age, sex, and socioeconomic levels with peers from their same classroom. The nature and extent of school problems and educational handicaps of the post-meningitic children examined…

  12. Maglev guideway and route integrity requirements. Comprehensive report. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Carlton, S.; Whinnery, R.

    1992-04-01

    New modes of travel imply new hazards and increased risk from old hazards. Lightweight magnetic levitation (maglev) vehicles, operated at high speed, may be subject to increased collision consequences, compared to conventional rail. This suggests examination of sensor systems and automation. The final reports summarizes potential safety risks in proposed high-speed maglev transportation systems, examines the prospect for sensor-based mitigation of these risks, and describes a communications architecture to integrate sensor data for control actions. The identified hazards, and their associated risk assessments, are useful for risk mitigation strategy definition and will support analyses during the early phases of system development. The information provided will also support the development of system safety requirements and performance and design specifications. The report is a summary of three interim reports.

  13. 78 FR 48193 - Final Adjusted Aggregate Production Quotas for Schedule I and II Controlled Substances and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-07

    ...This notice establishes final adjusted 2013 aggregate production quotas for controlled substances in Schedules I and II of the Controlled Substances Act (CSA) and assessment of annual needs for the List I chemicals ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, and phenylpropanolamine, as well as the 2013 aggregate production quotas for three recently temporarily controlled...

  14. Maglev guideway route alignment and right-of-way requirements. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Carlton, S.; Andriola, T.

    1992-12-01

    The use of existing rights-of-way (ROW) is assessed for maglev systems by estimating trip times and land acquisition requirements for potential maglev corridors while meeting passenger comfort limits. Right-of-way excursions improve trip time but incur a cost for purchasing land. The final report documents findings of the eight tasks in establishing right-of-way feasibility by examining three city-pair corridors in detail and developing an approximation method for estimating route length and travel times in 20 additional city-pair corridor portions and 21 new corridors. The use of routes independent of existing railroad or highway rights-of-way have trip time advantages and significantly reduce the need for aggressive guideway geometries on intercity corridors. Selection of the appropriate alignment is determined by many corridor specific issues. Use of existing intercity rights-of-way may be appropriate for parts of routes on a corridor-specific basis and for urban penetration where vehicle speeds are likely to be reduced by policy due to noise and safety considerations, and where land acquisition costs are high. Detailed aspects of available rights-of-way, land acquisition costs, geotechnical issues, land use, and population centers must be examined in more detail on a specific corridor basis before the proper or best maglev alignment can be chosen.

  15. An Evaluation of Teachers Trained through Different Routes to Certification. Final Report. NCEE 2009-4043

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Constantine, Jill; Player, Daniel; Silva, Tim; Hallgren, Kristin; Grider, Mary; Deke, John

    2009-01-01

    This study addresses two questions related to teacher preparation and certification: (1) What are the relative effects on student achievement of teachers who chose to be trained through different routes to certification and how do observed teacher practices vary by chosen route to certification?; and (2) What aspects of certification programs…

  16. Medicare determinations and income-related monthly adjustment amounts to Medicare Part B premiums; conforming changes to regulations. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2014-03-01

    This final rule adopts, without change, the interim final rule with request for comments we published in the Federal Register on September 18, 2013. The interim final rule modified our rules regarding Medicare Part B income-related monthly adjustment amounts to conform to changes made to the Social Security Act (Act) and Internal Revenue Code by the Affordable Care Act. We also removed provisions that phased in income-related monthly adjustment amounts between 2007 and 2009 and updated a citation to reflect the transfer of authority for hearing appeals under title XVIII of the Act from the Social Security Administration to the Department of Health and Human Services. PMID:24611211

  17. Development of decision support systems for real-time freeway traffic routing: Volume 2. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sadek, A.W.; Smith, B.L.; McGhee, C.C.; Demetsky, M.J.

    1998-10-01

    Real-time traffic flow routing is a promising approach to alleviating congestion. Existing approaches to developing real-time routing strategies, however, have limitations. The study explored the potential for using case-based reasoning (CBR), an emerging artificial intelligence paradigm, to overcome such limitations. CBR solves new problems by reusing solutions of similar past problems. To illustrate the feasibility of the approach, the research team developed and evaluated a prototype CBR routing system for the interstate network in Hampton Roads, Virginia. They generated cases for building the system`s case-base using a heuristic dynamic traffic assignment (DTA) model designed for the region. Using a second set of cases, the research team evaluated the performance of the prototype system by comparing its solutions with those of the DTA model. The research team found that CBR has the potential to overcome many of the limitations to existing approaches to real-time routing and a CBR routing system is capable of producing high-quality solutions with reasonable a case-base size. In addition, the research team found that real-time traffic flow routing will likely lead to significant user cost savings.

  18. "Recalculating Route".

    PubMed

    Baum, Neil

    2015-01-01

    Can you imagine going to a doctor who uses a paper chart, sends you a bill on a ledger card, and handwrites a prescription? You wouldn't have a great deal of confidence that the clinical skills of the doctor were up to date. This would be an example of a doctor who did not "recalculate his or her route." This article provides 10 examples of adjustments that have been made in medicine where the route has been recalculated. PMID:26399043

  19. 2007 Wholesale Power Rate Adjustment Proceeding (WP-07) : Administrator's Final Record of Decision.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    2006-07-01

    This Record of Decision (ROD) contains the decisions of the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), based on the record compiled in this rate proceeding, with respect to the adoption of power rates for the three-year rate period commencing October 1, 2006, through September 30, 2009. This ''2007 Wholesale Power Rate Adjustment Proceeding'' is designed to establish replacement rate schedules and General Rate Schedule Provisions (GRSPs) for those that expire on September 30, 2006. This power rate case also establishes the General Transfer Agreement (GTA) Delivery Charge for the period of October 1, 2007, through September 30, 2009. BPA's Power Subscription Strategy and Record of Decision (Subscription Strategy), as well as other Agency processes, provide much of the policy context for this rate case and are described in Section 2. This ROD follows a full evidentiary hearing and briefing, including an Oral Argument before the BPA Administrator. Sections 3 through 18, including any appendices or attachments, present the issues raised by parties in this proceeding, the parties positions, BPA staff positions on the issues, BPA's evaluations of the positions, and the Administrator's decisions. Parties had the opportunity to file briefs on exceptions to the Draft ROD, before issuance of this Final Record of Decision.

  20. Adjustment of Civil Monetary Penalties for Inflation. Final Regulations. Federal Register, Department of Education, 34 CFR Part 36

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Archives and Records Administration, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The Department of Education (Department) issued these final regulations to adjust the Department's civil monetary penalties (CMPs) for inflation. A CMP is defined in the statute as any penalty, fine, or other sanction that is: (1) for a specific monetary amount as provided by Federal law, or has a maximum amount provided for by Federal law; (2)…

  1. HM-164: radioactive materials; routing and driver training requirements. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Mullen, S.A.; Welch, M.J.; Welles, B.W.

    1986-03-01

    This report summarizes the history and comments on HM-164 from January 1976 to January 1986. HM-164 was created by the US Department of Transportation in response to proliferating state and local laws prohibiting or restricting highway movement of radioactive materials and establishes a nationally consistent highway routing system for radioactive materials. Upheld by the US Supreme Court in February, 1984, HM-164 has formed the basis for a number of state and local laws to be held inconsistent with federal laws.

  2. EXPOSURES AND INTERNAL DOSES OF TRIHALOMETHANES IN HUMANS: MULTI-ROUTE CONTRIBUTIONS FROM DRINKING WATER (FINAL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Center for Environmental Assessment (NCEA) has released a final report that presents and applies a method to estimate distributions of internal concentrations of trihalomethanes (THMs) in humans resulting from a residential drinking water exposure. The report presen...

  3. New molecular precursors for low-temperature routes to new oxide materials. Final progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Tilley, T.D.

    1997-10-01

    In this grant period, the authors have explored the single-source precursor route to silicate materials containing various main group and transition metals. They have also explored the development of polymeric precursors to zinc silicate materials. In addition, they have begun to examine precursors for phosphate materials, based on the di(tert-butyl)phosphate ligand, {minus}O{sub 2}P(O{sup t}Bu){sub 2}. A primary focus of these studies is the development of molecular precursors to homogeneous, ultrapure metal silicates and phosphates. More recently, the authors have attempted to develop template-assisted network-forming reactions that could lead to micro- or mesoporous materials. Findings are summarized below for Zr and HF systems, Al systems, Cr systems, Cu systems, metal phosphate precursors, zinc silicate luminescent materials, and syntheses of inorganic materials using dendrimeric polymers as templates.

  4. 76 FR 77019 - Final Adjusted Assessment of Annual Needs for the List I Chemicals: Ephedrine, Pseudoephedrine...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-09

    ... published in the Federal Register (76 FR 56807). That notice proposed to adjust the 2011 assessment of... calculation methodology previously described in the 2010 and 2011 assessment of annual needs (74 FR 60294 and 75 FR 79407 respectively). DEA considered changes in demand, changes in the national rate of...

  5. 77 FR 55503 - Final Adjusted Assessment of Annual Needs for the List I Chemicals Ephedrine, Pseudoephedrine...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-10

    ... Phenylpropanolamine for 2012'' was published in the Federal Register (77 FR 42333). That notice proposed to adjust the... annual needs (74 FR 60294 and 75 FR 79407 respectively). DEA considered changes in demand, changes in the... determining the proposed 2012 assessment of annual needs, as published on September 14, 2011, at 76 FR...

  6. Occupational Preparation for the Handicapped: Occupational Adjustment Training. Occupational Education Research Project Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkes County Board of Education, Wilkesboro, NC.

    From 1973 to 1975, the school systems of North Wilkesboro and Wilkes County, North Carolina engaged in a mutual venture to adjust the focus of special educational services from one of academic orientation to one of academic and occupational preparation. The special educational services provided to mentally retarded pupils in seven elementary…

  7. 76 FR 77016 - Controlled Substances: Final Adjusted Aggregate Production Quotas for 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-09

    ... aggregate production quotas for controlled substances in Schedules I and II (75 FR 79404). That notice... 1303 of Title 21 of the Code of Federal Regulations.'' 76 FR 11077. Aggregate production quotas for... adjusted 2011 aggregate production quotas for these substances as published on September 14, 2011, at 76...

  8. 77 FR 55500 - Controlled Substances: Final Adjusted Aggregate Production Quotas for 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-10

    ... aggregate production quotas for these substances as published on July 5, 2012, at 77 FR 39737 are sufficient... substances in Schedules I and II (76 FR 78044). That notice stated that the Administrator would adjust, as..., 2012 (77 FR 39737) in consideration of the outlined criteria. All interested persons were invited...

  9. Final environmental assessment: Los Reales 115 kV transmission line alternative routes

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-10-01

    The Central Arizona Project (CAP) was authorized as a part of the Colorado River Basin Project Act (Public Law 90-537) on September 30, 1968. The primary purpose of the CAP is to furnish water for agricultural, municipal, and industrial uses in central and southern Arizona, and western New Mexico. Due to its magnitude, the CAP is divided into several major features serving separate but interrelated functions. The Tucson Aqueduct Phase B pumping plants were designed and constructed to operate on a looped power system. The entire looped power system, including two switching stations and connecting 115-kv transmission lines, was identified in the FEIS and approved for construction in the Secretary of Interior's Record of Decision dated September 24, 1985. The loop begins in the vicinity of the Twin Peaks Pumping Plant -- the northernmost Phase B pumping station, at the Rattlesnake Switching Station. All of the looped power system has been constructed with the exception of the switching station and portion of transmission line proposed to be constructed in this project. Without construction of this final portion of the looped power system, the Phase B pumping plants will not be able to operate normally without negatively affecting nearby power sources. The CAP will also not be able to provide the reliability necessary for municipal water systems dependent upon CAP water. The purpose of this EA is to describe impacts that would result from relocating the Los Reales 115-kV transmission line, and possibly the switching station, originally identified in the FEIS. It should be mentioned the Department of Energy will complete a separate NEPA review.

  10. Summary of the EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) workshop on carcinogenesis bioassay via the dermal route. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-04-29

    Traditionally, the oral route has been the most common route of administration in bioassays which tested the potential carcinogenicity of chemicals. Regulatory agencies, however, prefer to have test chemicals applied by the same route as expected human exposure, whenever possible. Since human exposure to industrial chemicals is frequently via the dermal route, this has become a route of choice for animal testing of certain chemicals. However, protocol design for dermal bioassays presents many unique problems which must be addressed before guidelines for bioassays by the dermal route can be formulated. Furthermore, it may be feasible to develop a limited dermal protocol to screen certain classes of chemicals such as acrylates/methacrylates. Recognizing the need for this workshop, it was designed in two distinct parts; to address the problems inherent in the development of a generic protocol for dermal bioassays and, a specific limited dermal bioassay protocol for acrylates/methacrylates.

  11. 75 FR 62919 - Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on the Route 250 Bypass Interchange at McIntire Road...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-13

    ... at McIntire Road Project in Virginia AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), DOT. ACTION... the Route 250 Bypass Interchange at McIntire Road project in the City of Charlottesville, Virginia... approvals for the following project in the State of Virginia: Route 250 Bypass Interchange at McIntire...

  12. State alternative route designations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-07-01

    Pursuant to the Hazardous Materials Transportation Act (HMTA), the Department of Transportation (DOT) has promulgated a comprehensive set of regulations regarding the highway transportation of high-level radioactive materials. These regulations, under HM-164 and HM-164A, establish interstate highways as the preferred routes for the transportation of radioactive materials within and through the states. The regulations also provide a methodology by which a state may select alternative routes. First,the state must establish a state routing agency,'' defined as an entity authorized to use the state legal process to impose routing requirements on carriers of radioactive material (49 CFR 171.8). Once identified, the state routing agency must select routes in accordance with Large Quantity Shipments of Radioactive Materials or an equivalent routing analysis. Adjoining states and localities should be consulted on the impact of proposed alternative routes as a prerequisite of final route selection. Lastly, the states must provide written notice of DOT of any alternative route designation before the routes are deemed effective.

  13. State alternative route designations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-07-01

    Pursuant to the Hazardous Materials Transportation Act (HMTA), the Department of Transportation (DOT) has promulgated a comprehensive set of regulations regarding the highway transportation of high-level radioactive materials. These regulations, under HM-164 and HM-164A, establish interstate highways as the preferred routes for the transportation of radioactive materials within and through the states. The regulations also provide a methodology by which a state may select alternative routes. First,the state must establish a ``state routing agency,`` defined as an entity authorized to use the state legal process to impose routing requirements on carriers of radioactive material (49 CFR 171.8). Once identified, the state routing agency must select routes in accordance with Large Quantity Shipments of Radioactive Materials or an equivalent routing analysis. Adjoining states and localities should be consulted on the impact of proposed alternative routes as a prerequisite of final route selection. Lastly, the states must provide written notice of DOT of any alternative route designation before the routes are deemed effective.

  14. Vocational Evaluation and Work Adjustment Bulletin; Vol. 8, Special Edition: Vocational Evaluation Project Final Report Part 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vocational Evaluation and Work Adjustment Association, Washington, DC.

    The first of three parts of the Vocational Evaluation Project final report contains an editorial, two task force reports, and brief summaries of the seven task force reports which comprise the final report. The editorial summarizes the project's purpose, its activities for the three years of its existence, and its results, and describes the task…

  15. Effect of personal and situational variables on noise annoyance: With special reference to implications for en route noise. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-08-01

    Over 680 publications from 282 social surveys of residents' reactions to environmental noise have been examined to locate 495 published findings on 26 topics concerning non-noise explanations for residents' reactions to environmental noise. This report (1) tabulates the evidence on the 26 response topics, (2) identifies the 495 findings, and (3) discusses the implications for en route noise assessment. After controlling for noise level, over half of the social survey evidence indicates that noise annoyance is not strongly affected by any of the nine demographic variables examined (age, sex, social status, income, education, homeownership, type of dwelling, length of residence, or receipt of benefits from the noise source), but is positively associated with each of the five attitudinal variables examined (a fear of danger from the noise source, a sensitivity towards noise generally, the belief that the authorities can control the noise, the awareness of non-noise impacts of the source, and the belief that the noise source is not important).

  16. Route-Specific Passage and Survival of Steelhead Kelts at The Dalles and Bonneville Dams, 2012 - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Rayamajhi, Bishes; Ploskey, Gene R.; Woodley, Christa M.; Weiland, Mark A.; Faber, Derek M.; Kim, Jin A.; Colotelo, Alison HA; Deng, Zhiqun; Fu, Tao

    2013-07-31

    This study was mainly focused on evaluating the route-specific passage and migration success of steelhead kelts passing downstream through The Dalles Dam (TDA) and Bonneville Dam (BON) at Columbia River (CR) river kilometers 309 and 234 respectively. Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) personnel collected, tagged and released out-migrating steelhead kelts in the tributaries of the Deschutes River, 15 Mile Creek and Hood River between April 14 and June 4, 2012. A PIT tag was injected into each kelt’s dorsal sinus whereas a Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS) acoustic micro-transmitter was attached to an external FLoy T-bar tag and inserted into the dorsal back musculature using a Floy tagging gun. JSATS cabled arrays were deployed at TDA and BON and autonomous node arrays were deployed near Celilo, Oregon (CR325); the BON forebay (CR236); the BON tailrace (CR233); near Knapp, Washington (CR156); and near Kalama, Washington (CR113) to monitor the kelts movement while passing through the dams and above mentioned river cross-sections.

  17. ADJUSTABLE DOUBLE PULSE GENERATOR

    DOEpatents

    Gratian, J.W.; Gratian, A.C.

    1961-08-01

    >A modulator pulse source having adjustable pulse width and adjustable pulse spacing is described. The generator consists of a cross coupled multivibrator having adjustable time constant circuitry in each leg, an adjustable differentiating circuit in the output of each leg, a mixing and rectifying circuit for combining the differentiated pulses and generating in its output a resultant sequence of negative pulses, and a final amplifying circuit for inverting and square-topping the pulses. (AEC)

  18. Routing Vehicles with Ants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Wen Fang; Lee, Lai Soon; Majid, Zanariah Abdul; Seow, Hsin Vonn

    Routing vehicles involve the design of an optimal set of routes for a fleet of vehicles to serve a number of customers with known demands. This research develops an Ant Colony Optimization for the vehicle routing with one central depot and identical vehicles. The procedure simulates the behavior of real ants that always find the shortest path between their nest and a food source through a form of communication, pheromone trail. Finally, preliminary results on the learning of the algorithm testing on benchmark data set will be presented in this paper.

  19. Evaluation of oil tanker routing per section 4111(b)(7) Oil Pollution Act of 1990. Part 2. Atlantic and Florida Gulf coasts. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate oil tanker routing along the east coast and Florida Gulf Coast. It discusses whether areas of navigable waters and the Exclusive Economic Zone should be restricted to oil tankers.

  20. Regulations regarding income-related monthly adjustment amounts to Medicare beneficiaries' prescription drug coverage premiums. Interim final rule with request for comments.

    PubMed

    2010-12-01

    We are adding a new subpart to our regulations, which contains the rules we will apply to determine the income-related monthly adjustment amount for Medicare prescription drug coverage premiums. This new subpart implements changes made to the Social Security Act (Act) by the Affordable Care Act. These rules parallel the rules in subpart B of this part, which describes the rules we apply when we determine the income-related monthly adjustment amount for certain Medicare Part B (medical insurance) beneficiaries. These rules describe the new subpart; what information we will use to determine whether you will pay an income-related monthly adjustment amount and the amount of the adjustment when applicable; when we will consider a major life-changing event that results in a significant reduction in your modified adjusted gross income; and how you can appeal our determination about your income-related monthly adjustment amount. These rules will allow us to implement the provisions of the Affordable Care Act on time that relate to the income-related monthly adjustment amount for Medicare prescription drug coverage premiums, when they go into effect on January 1, 2011. PMID:21137594

  1. Route based forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuurendonk, I. W.; Wokke, M. J. J.

    2009-09-01

    Road surface temperatures can differ several degrees on a very short distance due to local effects. In order to get more insight in the local temperature differences and to develop safer gritting routes, Meteogroup has developed a system for route based temperature forecasting. The standard version of the road model is addressed to forecast road surface temperature and condition for a specific location. This model consists of two parts. First a physical part, based on the energy balance equations. The second part of the model performs a statistical correction on the calculated physical road surface temperature. The road model is able to create a forecast for one specific location. From infrared measurements, we know that large local differences in road surface temperature exist on a route. Differences can be up to 5 degrees Celsius over a distance of several hundreds of meters. Based on those measurements, the idea came up to develop a system that forecasts road surface temperature and condition for an entire route: route based forecasting. The route is split up in sections with equal properties. For each section a temperature and condition will be calculated. The main factors that influence the road surface temperature are modelled in this forecasting system: •The local weather conditions: temperature, dew point temperature, wind, precipitation, weather type, cloudiness. •The sky view: A very sheltered place will receive less radiation during daytime and emit less radiation during nighttime. For a very open spot, the effects are reversed. •The solar view: A road section with trees on the southern side, will receive less solar radiation during daytime than a section with tress on the southern side. The route based forecast shows by means of a clear Google Maps presentation which sections will be slippery at what time of the coming night. The final goal of this type of forecast, is to make dynamical gritting possible: a variable salt amount and a different

  2. Adjustment disorder

    MedlinePlus

    American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. 5th ed. Arlington, Va: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013. Powell AD. Grief, bereavement, and adjustment disorders. In: Stern TA, Rosenbaum ...

  3. An Analysis of the Occupational Adjustment of Spanish-Surname Youth from the Rural Southwest. Volume 3 of a Four Volume Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, William F.; Miles, Guy H.

    A 1972 follow-up study of 282 Spanish-surname and 176 Anglo youths who grew up in the rural Southwest analyzed data (results to be used to develop future Federal programs) on occupational and social adjustment. Surveyed 7 years after 8th grade graduation, each subject represented 1 of 14 rural counties with 10 percent or more Spanish-surname…

  4. Adjustable microforceps.

    PubMed

    Bao, J Y

    1991-04-01

    The commonly used microforceps have a much greater opening distance and spring resistance than needed. A piece of plastic ring or rubber band can be used to adjust the opening distance and reduce most of the spring resistance, making the user feel more comfortable and less fatigued. PMID:2051437

  5. Masked Proportional Routing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolpert, David

    2004-01-01

    Masked proportional routing is an improved procedure for choosing links between adjacent nodes of a network for the purpose of transporting an entity from a source node ("A") to a destination node ("B"). The entity could be, for example, a physical object to be shipped, in which case the nodes would represent waypoints and the links would represent roads or other paths between waypoints. For another example, the entity could be a message or packet of data to be transmitted from A to B, in which case the nodes could be computer-controlled switching stations and the links could be communication channels between the stations. In yet another example, an entity could represent a workpiece while links and nodes could represent, respectively, manufacturing processes and stages in the progress of the workpiece towards a finished product. More generally, the nodes could represent states of an entity and the links could represent allowed transitions of the entity. The purpose of masked proportional routing and of related prior routing procedures is to schedule transitions of entities from their initial states ("A") to their final states ("B") in such a manner as to minimize a cost or to attain some other measure of optimality or efficiency. Masked proportional routing follows a distributed (in the sense of decentralized) approach to probabilistically or deterministically choosing the links. It was developed to satisfy a need for a routing procedure that 1. Does not always choose the same link(s), even for two instances characterized by identical estimated values of associated cost functions; 2. Enables a graceful transition from one set of links to another set of links as the circumstances of operation of the network change over time; 3. Is preferably amenable to separate optimization of different portions of the network; 4. Is preferably usable in a network in which some of the routing decisions are made by one or more other procedure(s); 5. Preferably does not cause an

  6. Weighted triangulation adjustment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, Walter L.

    1969-01-01

    The variation of coordinates method is employed to perform a weighted least squares adjustment of horizontal survey networks. Geodetic coordinates are required for each fixed and adjustable station. A preliminary inverse geodetic position computation is made for each observed line. Weights associated with each observed equation for direction, azimuth, and distance are applied in the formation of the normal equations in-the least squares adjustment. The number of normal equations that may be solved is twice the number of new stations and less than 150. When the normal equations are solved, shifts are produced at adjustable stations. Previously computed correction factors are applied to the shifts and a most probable geodetic position is found for each adjustable station. Pinal azimuths and distances are computed. These may be written onto magnetic tape for subsequent computation of state plane or grid coordinates. Input consists of punch cards containing project identification, program options, and position and observation information. Results listed include preliminary and final positions, residuals, observation equations, solution of the normal equations showing magnitudes of shifts, and a plot of each adjusted and fixed station. During processing, data sets containing irrecoverable errors are rejected and the type of error is listed. The computer resumes processing of additional data sets.. Other conditions cause warning-errors to be issued, and processing continues with the current data set.

  7. Medicare determinations and income-related monthly adjustment amounts to Medicare Part B premiums; conforming changes to regulations. Interim final rule with request for comments.

    PubMed

    2013-09-18

    We are modifying our regulations regarding Medicare Part B income-related monthly adjustment amounts (IRMAA) in order to conform to changes made to the Social Security Act (Act) by the Affordable Care Act. This rule freezes the modified adjusted gross income threshold and ranges from 2011 through 2019 and removes the requirement that beneficiaries consent to our release of Internal Revenue Service (IRS) information to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) for the purpose of adjudicating any appeal of an IRMAA to the Part B premium subsidy. We are also removing provisions that phased in IRMAA between 2007 and 2009 and updating a citation to reflect the transfer of authority for hearing appeals under Title XVIII of the Act from the Social Security Administration to HHS. PMID:24046882

  8. Shaft adjuster

    DOEpatents

    Harry, Herbert H.

    1989-01-01

    Apparatus and method for the adjustment and alignment of shafts in high power devices. A plurality of adjacent rotatable angled cylinders are positioned between a base and the shaft to be aligned which when rotated introduce an axial offset. The apparatus is electrically conductive and constructed of a structurally rigid material. The angled cylinders allow the shaft such as the center conductor in a pulse line machine to be offset in any desired alignment position within the range of the apparatus.

  9. Reverse flood routing with the inverted Muskingum storage routing scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koussis, A. D.; Mazi, K.; Lykoudis, S.; Argiriou, A. A.

    2012-01-01

    This work treats reverse flood routing aiming at signal identification: inflows are inferred from observed outflows by orienting the Muskingum scheme against the wave propagation direction. Routing against the wave propagation is an ill-posed, inverse problem (small errors amplify, leading to large spurious responses); therefore, the reverse solution must be smoothness-constrained towards stability and uniqueness (regularised). Theoretical constrains on the coefficients of the reverse routing scheme assist in error control, but optimal grids are derived by numerical experimentation. Exact solutions of the convection-diffusion equation, for a single and a composite wave, are reverse-routed and in both instances the wave is backtracked well for a range of grid parameters. In the arduous test of a square pulse, the result is comparable to those of more complex methods. Seeding outflow data with random errors enhances instability; to cope with the spurious oscillations, the reversed solution is conditioned by smoothing via low-pass filtering or optimisation. Good-quality inflow hydrographs are recovered with either smoothing treatment, yet the computationally demanding optimisation is superior. Finally, the reverse Muskingum routing method is compared to a reverse-solution method of the St. Venant equations of flood wave motion and is found to perform equally well, at a fraction of the computing effort. This study leads us to conclude that the efficiently attained good inflow identification rests on the simplicity of the Muskingum reverse routing scheme that endows it with numerical robustness.

  10. Final Assessment of Preindustrial Solid-State Route for High-Performance Mg-System Alloys Production: Concluding the EU Green Metallurgy Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Errico, Fabrizio; Plaza, Gerardo Garces; Giger, Franz; Kim, Shae K.

    2013-10-01

    The Green Metallurgy Project, a LIFE+ project co-financed by the European Union Commission, has now been completed. The purpose of the Green Metallurgy Project was to establish and assess a preindustrial process capable of using nanostructured-based high-performance Mg-Zn(Y) magnesium alloys and fully recycled eco-magnesium alloys. In this work, the Consortium presents the final outcome and verification of the completed prototype construction. To compare upstream cradle-to-grave footprints when ternary nanostructured Mg-Y-Zn alloys or recycled eco-magnesium chips are produced during the process cycle using the same equipment, a life cycle analysis was completed following the ISO 14040 methodology. During tests to fine tune the prototype machinery and compare the quality of semifinished bars produced using the scaled up system, the Buhler team produced interesting and significant results. Their tests showed the ternary Mg-Y-Zn magnesium alloys to have a highest specific strength over 6000 series wrought aluminum alloys usually employed in automotive components.

  11. Reverse flood routing with the inverted Muskingum storage routing scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koussis, A. D.; Mazi, K.; Lykoudis, S.; Argyriou, A.

    2010-09-01

    -resolve composite hydrographs, also generated analytically. In a range of grid parameters, the reverse routing scheme backtracks the wave propagation in both instances very well, regaining accurately the inflow signals. Seeding the generated field data with random error causes instability in the calculation. To cope with spurious oscillations, the reversed solutions are conditioned via smoothing, applying two methods of smoothing: (i) simple low-pass filtering and (ii) optimisation (second derivative control vs. minimum shape errors). The recovered inflow hydrographs are again of good quality. Finally, we compare our method to that of Bruen & Dooge (2007), who back-routed flow hydrographs in a prismatic channel using a scheme for the reverse solution of the St. Venant equations of flood wave motion. The reversed Muskingum routing scheme is shown to at least match the accuracy of the box-scheme for reverse routing with the St. Venant equations. This study leads us to conclude that the good fidelity of the inflow recovery rests on the simplicity of the Muskingum storage reverse routing scheme, which endows it with numerical robustness and computational efficiency.

  12. Variable-speed, portable routing skate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pesch, W. A.

    1967-01-01

    Lightweight, portable, variable-speed routing skate is used on heavy metal subassemblies which are impractical to move to a stationary machine. The assembly, consisting of the housing with rollers, router, and driving mechanism with transmission, weighs about forty pounds. Both speed and depth of cut are adjustable.

  13. RECOVERY ACT: DYNAMIC ENERGY CONSUMPTION MANAGEMENT OF ROUTING TELECOM AND DATA CENTERS THROUGH REAL-TIME OPTIMAL CONTROL (RTOC): Final Scientific/Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Ron Moon

    2011-06-30

    This final scientific report documents the Industrial Technology Program (ITP) Stage 2 Concept Development effort on Data Center Energy Reduction and Management Through Real-Time Optimal Control (RTOC). Society is becoming increasingly dependent on information technology systems, driving exponential growth in demand for data center processing and an insatiable appetite for energy. David Raths noted, 'A 50,000-square-foot data center uses approximately 4 megawatts of power, or the equivalent of 57 barrels of oil a day1.' The problem has become so severe that in some cases, users are giving up raw performance for a better balance between performance and energy efficiency. Historically, power systems for data centers were crudely sized to meet maximum demand. Since many servers operate at 60%-90% of maximum power while only utilizing an average of 5% to 15% of their capability, there are huge inefficiencies in the consumption and delivery of power in these data centers. The goal of the 'Recovery Act: Decreasing Data Center Energy Use through Network and Infrastructure Control' is to develop a state of the art approach for autonomously and intelligently reducing and managing data center power through real-time optimal control. Advances in microelectronics and software are enabling the opportunity to realize significant data center power savings through the implementation of autonomous power management control algorithms. The first step to realizing these savings was addressed in this study through the successful creation of a flexible and scalable mathematical model (equation) for data center behavior and the formulation of an acceptable low technical risk market introduction strategy leveraging commercial hardware and software familiar to the data center market. Follow-on Stage 3 Concept Development efforts include predictive modeling and simulation of algorithm performance, prototype demonstrations with representative data center equipment to verify requisite

  14. Paleomagnetism of the Cantabria-Asturias Arc: Kinematics of arc formation and implications for final collisional adjustments within the Pangea supercontinent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weil, Arlo Brandon

    The Cantabria-Asturias Arc (CAA) of SW Europe is a highly curved Variscan belt that formed along the ancient plate boundary between Gondwana and Laurussia during the assembly of Pangea. To construct a viable kinematic and tectonic model for CAA formation, a paleomagnetic, rock magnetic, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and structural study of two Devonian carbonate formations was undertaken to distinguish the discrete stages of deformation that the are experienced. The combination of these approaches provides a method for dating the complex deformation history experienced by the CAA and sheds new light on the mechanism of orogen-related remagnetizations and, and particularly, arc formation. The Devonian carbonates acquired three late Paleozoic remagnetizations during the Variscan orogeny of northern Spain. Rock magnetic data and SEM analyses reveal that the three late Paleozoic remagnetizations are chemical remanent magnetizations, likely facilitated by the presence of fluids. The fluids, whether externally or internally derived, were activated as a response to orogeny based on the acquisition of remagnetizations subsequent to local Variscan deformation phases. The protracted deformation history increased fluid mobility as a product of tectonic thickening, tectonically induced permeability, and/or gravity-driven flow. The paleomagnetic and structural data show that the CAA experienced true (˜100%) oroclinal bending of an originally linear belt in a two-stage tectonic history. This history represents two regional compression phases: (1) east-west compression in the Late Carboniferous and (2) north-south compression in the Permian (both in present-day coordinates). The later compression phase reflects the northward movement of Gondwana and its final collision with Laurussia. The new paleomagnetic data and this tectonic scenario argue against previously proposed syn-thrusting rotation, wrenching and indentor models for the formation of the CAA, because rotation

  15. Defining Dynamic Route Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zelinski, Shannon; Jastrzebski, Michael

    2011-01-01

    This poster describes a method for defining route structure from flight tracks. Dynamically generated route structures could be useful in guiding dynamic airspace configuration and helping controllers retain situational awareness under dynamically changing traffic conditions. Individual merge and diverge intersections between pairs of flights are identified, clustered, and grouped into nodes of a route structure network. Links are placed between nodes to represent major traffic flows. A parametric analysis determined the algorithm input parameters producing route structures of current day flight plans that are closest to todays airway structure. These parameters are then used to define and analyze the dynamic route structure over the course of a day for current day flight paths. Route structures are also compared between current day flight paths and more user preferred paths such as great circle and weather avoidance routing.

  16. A parallel algorithm for global routing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brouwer, Randall J.; Banerjee, Prithviraj

    1990-01-01

    A Parallel Hierarchical algorithm for Global Routing (PHIGURE) is presented. The router is based on the work of Burstein and Pelavin, but has many extensions for general global routing and parallel execution. Main features of the algorithm include structured hierarchical decomposition into separate independent tasks which are suitable for parallel execution and adaptive simplex solution for adding feedthroughs and adjusting channel heights for row-based layout. Alternative decomposition methods and the various levels of parallelism available in the algorithm are examined closely. The algorithm is described and results are presented for a shared-memory multiprocessor implementation.

  17. D0 Silicon Upgrade: Cryogenic Line Routing: Refrigerator to VLPC Cryostats & Solenoid

    SciTech Connect

    Rucinski, Russ; /Fermilab

    1994-10-04

    This engineering note documents the proposed cryogenic line routing from the liquid helium (LHe) refrigeration plant to the detector solenoid and VLPC cryostats. Many figures are included to aid in understanding the route. As an appendix, I include some general comments relevant to the topic. Also listed are a number of routing options that were considered before the proposed route was finalized.

  18. View southwest along Route Canterbury Road (Route 169) showing commercial ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View southwest along Route Canterbury Road (Route 169) showing commercial and residential buildings on the east and west sides of the road - Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts of Brown Road, Canterbury Road (Route 169), Hartford Road (Route 6), Hyde Road, Pomfret Road (Route 169), Prince Hill Road, Providence Road (Route 6), Wauregan Road (Routes 169 & 205), & Wolf Den Road, Brooklyn, Windham County, CT

  19. Contact Graph Routing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burleigh, Scott C.

    2011-01-01

    Contact Graph Routing (CGR) is a dynamic routing system that computes routes through a time-varying topology of scheduled communication contacts in a network based on the DTN (Delay-Tolerant Networking) architecture. It is designed to enable dynamic selection of data transmission routes in a space network based on DTN. This dynamic responsiveness in route computation should be significantly more effective and less expensive than static routing, increasing total data return while at the same time reducing mission operations cost and risk. The basic strategy of CGR is to take advantage of the fact that, since flight mission communication operations are planned in detail, the communication routes between any pair of bundle agents in a population of nodes that have all been informed of one another's plans can be inferred from those plans rather than discovered via dialogue (which is impractical over long one-way-light-time space links). Messages that convey this planning information are used to construct contact graphs (time-varying models of network connectivity) from which CGR automatically computes efficient routes for bundles. Automatic route selection increases the flexibility and resilience of the space network, simplifying cross-support and reducing mission management costs. Note that there are no routing tables in Contact Graph Routing. The best route for a bundle destined for a given node may routinely be different from the best route for a different bundle destined for the same node, depending on bundle priority, bundle expiration time, and changes in the current lengths of transmission queues for neighboring nodes; routes must be computed individually for each bundle, from the Bundle Protocol agent's current network connectivity model for the bundle s destination node (the contact graph). Clearly this places a premium on optimizing the implementation of the route computation algorithm. The scalability of CGR to very large networks remains a research topic

  20. 12 CFR 235.4 - Fraud-prevention adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fraud-prevention adjustment. 235.4 Section 235... SYSTEM (CONTINUED) DEBIT CARD INTERCHANGE FEES AND ROUTING § 235.4 Fraud-prevention adjustment. (a) In... receives or charges in accordance with § 235.3. (b) Issuer standards. To be eligible to receive the...

  1. 12 CFR 235.4 - Fraud-prevention adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fraud-prevention adjustment. 235.4 Section 235... SYSTEM (CONTINUED) DEBIT CARD INTERCHANGE FEES AND ROUTING § 235.4 Fraud-prevention adjustment. (a) In... accordance with § 235.3. (b) Issuer standards. (1) To be eligible to receive or charge the...

  2. 12 CFR 235.4 - Fraud-prevention adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fraud-prevention adjustment. 235.4 Section 235... SYSTEM (CONTINUED) DEBIT CARD INTERCHANGE FEES AND ROUTING § 235.4 Fraud-prevention adjustment. (a) In... accordance with § 235.3. (b) Issuer standards. (1) To be eligible to receive or charge the...

  3. ROUTE-SPECIFIC DOSIMETRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The capacity to perform route-to-route extrapolation of toxicity data is becoming increasingly crucial to the Agency, with a number of strategies suggested and demonstrated. One strategy involves using a combination of existing data and modeling approaches. This strategy propos...

  4. Automatic routing module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, Janice A.

    1987-01-01

    Automatic Routing Module (ARM) is a tool to partially automate Air Launched Cruise Missile (ALCM) routing. For any accessible launch point or target pair, ARM creates flyable routes that, within the fidelity of the models, are optimal in terms of threat avoidance, clobber avoidance, and adherence to vehicle and planning constraints. Although highly algorithmic, ARM is an expert system. Because of the heuristics applied, ARM generated routes closely resemble manually generated routes in routine cases. In more complex cases, ARM's ability to accumulate and assess threat danger in three dimensions and trade that danger off with the probability of ground clobber results in the safest path around or through difficult areas. The tools available prior to ARM did not provide the planner with enough information or present it in such a way that ensured he would select the safest path.

  5. 78 FR 44419 - Civil Monetary Penalties Inflation Adjustments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-24

    ... Final Rules on Civil Monetary Penalties Inflation Adjustments, 74 FR 31345 (July 1, 2009), amended by..., 74 FR 37161 (July 28, 2009) (collectively, ``2009 Adjustment''), Explanation and Justification for Final Rules on Inflation Adjustments for Civil Monetary Penalties, 70 FR 34633 (June 15, 2005)...

  6. A Survey on Clustering Routing Protocols in Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xuxun

    2012-01-01

    The past few years have witnessed increased interest in the potential use of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) in a wide range of applications and it has become a hot research area. Based on network structure, routing protocols in WSNs can be divided into two categories: flat routing and hierarchical or clustering routing. Owing to a variety of advantages, clustering is becoming an active branch of routing technology in WSNs. In this paper, we present a comprehensive and fine grained survey on clustering routing protocols proposed in the literature for WSNs. We outline the advantages and objectives of clustering for WSNs, and develop a novel taxonomy of WSN clustering routing methods based on complete and detailed clustering attributes. In particular, we systematically analyze a few prominent WSN clustering routing protocols and compare these different approaches according to our taxonomy and several significant metrics. Finally, we summarize and conclude the paper with some future directions. PMID:23112649

  7. Understanding individual routing behaviour.

    PubMed

    Lima, Antonio; Stanojevic, Rade; Papagiannaki, Dina; Rodriguez, Pablo; González, Marta C

    2016-03-01

    Knowing how individuals move between places is fundamental to advance our understanding of human mobility (González et al. 2008 Nature 453, 779-782. (doi:10.1038/nature06958)), improve our urban infrastructure (Prato 2009 J. Choice Model. 2, 65-100. (doi:10.1016/S1755-5345(13)70005-8)) and drive the development of transportation systems. Current route-choice models that are used in transportation planning are based on the widely accepted assumption that people follow the minimum cost path (Wardrop 1952 Proc. Inst. Civ. Eng. 1, 325-362. (doi:10.1680/ipeds.1952.11362)), despite little empirical support. Fine-grained location traces collected by smart devices give us today an unprecedented opportunity to learn how citizens organize their travel plans into a set of routes, and how similar behaviour patterns emerge among distinct individual choices. Here we study 92 419 anonymized GPS trajectories describing the movement of personal cars over an 18-month period. We group user trips by origin-destination and we find that most drivers use a small number of routes for their routine journeys, and tend to have a preferred route for frequent trips. In contrast to the cost minimization assumption, we also find that a significant fraction of drivers' routes are not optimal. We present a spatial probability distribution that bounds the route selection space within an ellipse, having the origin and the destination as focal points, characterized by high eccentricity independent of the scale. While individual routing choices are not captured by path optimization, their spatial bounds are similar, even for trips performed by distinct individuals and at various scales. These basic discoveries can inform realistic route-choice models that are not based on optimization, having an impact on several applications, such as infrastructure planning, routing recommendation systems and new mobility solutions. PMID:26962031

  8. The Balanced Billing Cycle Vehicle Routing Problem

    SciTech Connect

    Groer, Christopher S; Golden, Bruce; Edward, Wasil

    2009-01-01

    Utility companies typically send their meter readers out each day of the billing cycle in order to determine each customer s usage for the period. Customer churn requires the utility company to periodically remove some customer locations from its meter-reading routes. On the other hand, the addition of new customers and locations requires the utility company to add newstops to the existing routes. A utility that does not adjust its meter-reading routes over time can find itself with inefficient routes and, subsequently, higher meter-reading costs. Furthermore, the utility can end up with certain billing days that require substantially larger meter-reading resources than others. However, remedying this problem is not as simple as it may initially seem. Certain regulatory and customer service considerations can prevent the utility from shifting a customer s billing day by more than a few days in either direction. Thus, the problem of reducing the meterreading costs and balancing the workload can become quite difficult. We describe this Balanced Billing Cycle Vehicle Routing Problem in more detail and develop an algorithm for providing solutions to a slightly simplified version of the problem. Our algorithm uses a combination of heuristics and integer programming via a three-stage algorithm. We discuss the performance of our procedure on a real-world data set.

  9. Issues of Simulation-Based Route Assignment

    SciTech Connect

    Nagel, K.; Rickert, M.

    1999-07-20

    The authors use an iterative re-planning scheme with simulation feedback to generate a self-consistent route-set for a given street network and origin-destination matrix. The iteration process is defined by three parameters. They found that they have influence on the speed of the relaxation, but not necessarily on its final state.

  10. MCCB warm adjustment testing concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdei, Z.; Horgos, M.; Grib, A.; Preradović, D. M.; Rodic, V.

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents an experimental investigation in to operating of thermal protection device behavior from an MCCB (Molded Case Circuit Breaker). One of the main functions of the circuit breaker is to assure protection for the circuits where mounted in for possible overloads of the circuit. The tripping mechanism for the overload protection is based on a bimetal movement during a specific time frame. This movement needs to be controlled and as a solution to control this movement we choose the warm adjustment concept. This concept is meant to improve process capability control and final output. The warm adjustment device design will create a unique adjustment of the bimetal position for each individual breaker, determined when the testing current will flow thru a phase which needs to trip in a certain amount of time. This time is predetermined due to scientific calculation for all standard types of amperages and complies with the IEC 60497 standard requirements.

  11. Class network routing

    DOEpatents

    Bhanot, Gyan; Blumrich, Matthias A.; Chen, Dong; Coteus, Paul W.; Gara, Alan G.; Giampapa, Mark E.; Heidelberger, Philip; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard D.; Takken, Todd E.; Vranas, Pavlos M.

    2009-09-08

    Class network routing is implemented in a network such as a computer network comprising a plurality of parallel compute processors at nodes thereof. Class network routing allows a compute processor to broadcast a message to a range (one or more) of other compute processors in the computer network, such as processors in a column or a row. Normally this type of operation requires a separate message to be sent to each processor. With class network routing pursuant to the invention, a single message is sufficient, which generally reduces the total number of messages in the network as well as the latency to do a broadcast. Class network routing is also applied to dense matrix inversion algorithms on distributed memory parallel supercomputers with hardware class function (multicast) capability. This is achieved by exploiting the fact that the communication patterns of dense matrix inversion can be served by hardware class functions, which results in faster execution times.

  12. Improved efficient static weighted routing strategy on two-layer complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shuai; Liang, Man-Gui; Jiang, Zhong-Yuan; Li, Hui-Jia

    2015-05-01

    Global static routing is one kind of important routing algorithms for complex networks, especially in large communication networks. In this paper, we propose a heuristic global static routing algorithm to mitigate traffic congestion on two-layer complex networks. The proposed routing algorithm extends the relevant static weighted routing algorithm in the literature [Y. Zhou, Y. F. Peng, X. L. Yang and K. P. Long, Phys. Sci. 84, 055802 (2011)]. Our routing path is constructed from a proper assignment of edge weights by considering the static information of both layers and an adjustable parameter α. When this routing algorithm is adopted on BA-BA two-layer networks with an appropriate parameter α, it can achieve the maximum network traffic capacity compared with the shortest path (SP) routing algorithm and the static weighted routing algorithm.

  13. Railroad Routing Model

    1995-01-05

    INTERLINE/PC is an interactive program designed to simulate the routing practices of the United States rail system. The rail industry is divided into a large number of independent competing companies. The INTERLINE data base represents these rail companies as 94 separate subnetworks. An additional two subnetworks represent navigable inland/intracoastal and deep draft marine routes. Interchange points between individual rail systems and waterway systems are also identified.

  14. Grid data extraction algorithm for ship routing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yuankui; Zhang, Yingjun; Yue, Xingwang; Gao, Zongjiang

    2015-05-01

    With the aim of extracting environmental data around routes, as the basis of ship routing optimization and other related studies, this paper, taking wind grid data as an example, proposes an algorithm that can effectively extract the grid data around rhumb lines. According to different ship courses, the algorithm calculates the wind grid index values in eight different situations, and a common computational formula is summarised. The wind grids around a ship route can be classified into `best-fitting' grids and `additional' grids, which are stored in such a way that, for example, when the data has a high-spacing resolution, only the `best-fitting' grids around ship routes are extracted. Finally, the algorithm was implemented and simulated with MATLAB programming. As the simulation results indicate, the algorithm designed in this paper achieved wind grid data extraction in different situations and further resolved the extraction problem of meteorological and hydrogeological field grids around ship routes efficiently. Thus, it can provide a great support for optimal ship routing related to meteorological factors.

  15. Adjustable sutures in children.

    PubMed

    Engel, J Mark; Guyton, David L; Hunter, David G

    2014-06-01

    Although adjustable sutures are considered a standard technique in adult strabismus surgery, most surgeons are hesitant to attempt the technique in children, who are believed to be unlikely to cooperate for postoperative assessment and adjustment. Interest in using adjustable sutures in pediatric patients has increased with the development of surgical techniques specific to infants and children. This workshop briefly reviews the literature supporting the use of adjustable sutures in children and presents the approaches currently used by three experienced strabismus surgeons. PMID:24924284

  16. Collective network routing

    DOEpatents

    Hoenicke, Dirk

    2014-12-02

    Disclosed are a unified method and apparatus to classify, route, and process injected data packets into a network so as to belong to a plurality of logical networks, each implementing a specific flow of data on top of a common physical network. The method allows to locally identify collectives of packets for local processing, such as the computation of the sum, difference, maximum, minimum, or other logical operations among the identified packet collective. Packets are injected together with a class-attribute and an opcode attribute. Network routers, employing the described method, use the packet attributes to look-up the class-specific route information from a local route table, which contains the local incoming and outgoing directions as part of the specifically implemented global data flow of the particular virtual network.

  17. Pathogens at the livestock-wildlife interface in Western Alberta: does transmission route matter?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In southwestern Alberta, interactions between beef cattle and free-ranging elk (Cervus elaphus) may provide opportunities for pathogen transmission. To assess the importance of the transmission route on the potential for interspecies transmission, we conducted a cross-sectional study on four endemic livestock pathogens with three different transmission routes: Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus and Bovine Herpesvirus 1 (predominantly direct transmission), Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) (indirect fecal-oral transmission), Neospora caninum (indirect transmission with definitive host). We assessed the occurrence of these pathogens in 28 cow-calf operations exposed or non-exposed to elk, and in 10 elk herds exposed or not to cattle. We characterized the effect of species commingling as a risk factor of pathogen exposure and documented the perceived risk of pathogen transmission at this wildlife-livestock interface in the rural community. Herpesviruses found in elk were elk-specific gamma-herpesviruses unrelated to cattle viruses. Pestivirus exposure in elk could not be ascertained to be of livestock origin. Evidence of MAP circulation was found in both elk and cattle, but there was no statistical effect of the species commingling. Finally, N. caninum was more frequently detected in elk exposed to cattle and this association was still significant after adjustment for herd and sampling year clustering, and individual elk age and sex. Only indirectly transmitted pathogens co-occurred in cattle and elk, indicating the potential importance of the transmission route in assessing the risk of pathogen transmission in multi-species grazing systems. PMID:24517283

  18. New route for hollow materials

    PubMed Central

    Rivaldo-Gómez, C. M.; Ferreira, F. F.; Landi, G. T.; Souza, J. A.

    2016-01-01

    Hollow micro/nano structures form an important family of functional materials. We have used the thermal oxidation process combined with the passage of electric current during a structural phase transition to disclose a colossal mass diffusion transfer of Ti ions. This combination points to a new route for fabrication of hollow materials. A structural phase transition at high temperature prepares the stage by giving mobility to Ti ions and releasing vacancies to the system. The electric current then drives an inward delocalization of vacancies, condensing into voids, and finally turning into a big hollow. This strong physical phenomenon leading to a colossal mass transfer through ionic diffusion is suggested to be driven by a combination of phase transition and electrical current followed by chemical reaction. We show this phenomenon for Ti leading to TiO2 microtube formation, but we believe that it can be used to other metals undergoing structural phase transition at high temperatures. PMID:27554448

  19. New route for hollow materials.

    PubMed

    Rivaldo-Gómez, C M; Ferreira, F F; Landi, G T; Souza, J A

    2016-01-01

    Hollow micro/nano structures form an important family of functional materials. We have used the thermal oxidation process combined with the passage of electric current during a structural phase transition to disclose a colossal mass diffusion transfer of Ti ions. This combination points to a new route for fabrication of hollow materials. A structural phase transition at high temperature prepares the stage by giving mobility to Ti ions and releasing vacancies to the system. The electric current then drives an inward delocalization of vacancies, condensing into voids, and finally turning into a big hollow. This strong physical phenomenon leading to a colossal mass transfer through ionic diffusion is suggested to be driven by a combination of phase transition and electrical current followed by chemical reaction. We show this phenomenon for Ti leading to TiO2 microtube formation, but we believe that it can be used to other metals undergoing structural phase transition at high temperatures. PMID:27554448

  20. Hydrologic Flood Routing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heggen, Richard J.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses a short classroom-based BASIC program which routes stream flow through a system of channels and reservoirs. The program is suitable for analyses of open channel conveyance systems, flood detention reservoirs, and combinations of the two. (Author/JN)

  1. Submarine cable route survey

    SciTech Connect

    Herrouin, G.; Scuiller, T.

    1995-12-31

    The growth of telecommunication market is very significant. From the beginning of the nineties, more and more the use of optical fiber submarine cables is privileged to that of satellites. These submarine telecommunication highways require accurate surveys in order to select the optimum route and determine the cable characteristics. Advanced technology tools used for these surveys are presented along with their implementation.

  2. Service discovery with routing protocols for MANETs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Xuemai; Shi, Shuo

    2005-11-01

    Service discovery is becoming an important topic as its use throughout the Internet becomes more widespread. In Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs), the routing protocol is very important because it is special network. To find a path for data, and destination nodes, nodes send packets to each node, creating substantial overhead traffic and consuming much time. Even though a variety of routing protocols have been developed for use in MANETs, they are insufficient for reducing overhead traffic and time. In this paper, we propose SDRP: a new service discovery protocol combined with routing policies in MANETs. The protocol is performed upon a distributed network. We describe a service by a unique ID number and use a group-cast routing policy in advertisement and request. The group-cast routing policy decreases the traffic in networks, and it is efficient to find destination node. In addition, the nodes included in the reply path also cache the advertisement information, and it means when each node finds a node next time, they can know where it is as soon as possible, so they minimize the time. Finally, we compare SDRP with both Flood and MAODV in terms of overload, and average delay. Simulation results show SDRP can spend less response time and accommodate even high mobility network environments.

  3. 77 FR 72915 - Civil Monetary Penalties; Adjustment for Inflation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-07

    ...This final rule is being issued to adjust each civil monetary penalty provided by law within the jurisdiction of the Department of Commerce (the Department). The Federal Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act of 1990, as amended by the Debt Collection Improvement Act of 1996, required the head of each agency to adjust its civil monetary penalties (CMP) for inflation no later than October 23,......

  4. 77 FR 46258 - Debit Card Interchange Fees and Routing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-03

    ...The Board has amended the provisions in Regulation II (Debit Card Interchange Fees and Routing) that govern adjustments to debit card interchange transaction fees to make an allowance for fraud- prevention costs incurred by issuers. The amendments permit an issuer to receive or charge an amount of no more than 1 cent per transaction (the same amount currently permitted) in addition to its......

  5. Weather routing in long-distance Mediterranean routes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delitala, A. M. S.; Gallino, S.; Villa, L.; Lagouvardos, K.; Drago, A.

    2010-10-01

    The selection of ship routes based on modern weather forecasting is a mean of computing optimum shipping routes thereby increasing safety and comfort at sea, cutting down on transit time, and reducing fuel consumption. Further empirical research in the effectiveness of modern weather routing applications is required especially in applications concerning shorter routes in enclosed seas of limited geographical extent such as the Mediterranean Sea. The present study used two climatological simulations to test this state-of-the-art approach to ship routing. Simulations represented two theoretical routes: (1) a route between Italy and Greece and (2) a route between Cyprus and Italy. Both routes were analyzed across varying simulated climatic conditions and the results were compared with those of control routes. Furthermore, results were analyzed in terms of passenger and crew comfort, bunker consumption by ships, and time of crossing. The first simulation showed that weather routing would improve ship performance on 37% of days while the second simulation revealed that weather routing would support ship captains virtually all the time.

  6. Adjusting the Chain Gear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koloc, Z.; Korf, J.; Kavan, P.

    The adjustment (modification) deals with gear chains intermediating (transmitting) motion transfer between the sprocket wheels on parallel shafts. The purpose of the adjustments of chain gear is to remove the unwanted effects by using the chain guide on the links (sliding guide rail) ensuring a smooth fit of the chain rollers into the wheel tooth gap.

  7. Adjustment to Recruit Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Betty S.

    The thesis examines problems of adjustment encountered by new recruits entering the military services. Factors affecting adjustment are discussed: the recruit training staff and environment, recruit background characteristics, the military's image, the changing values and motivations of today's youth, and the recruiting process. Sources of…

  8. Project Hand-Up. Helping Adolescents Needing Direction-Unlimited Partnership (HAND-UP): Stimulating Coordination and Linkage between Occupational Work Adjustment Programs and the Job Training Partnership Act (JTPA). Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus. Div. of Vocational and Career Education.

    Project HAND-UP (Helping Adolescents Needing Direction-Unlimited Partnership) was a 2-year program to enhance dropout prevention services to at-risk youth by establishing a closer linkage between Job Training Partnership (JTPA)-Ohio and the Ohio Department of Education's Occupational Work Adjustment (OWA) programs. The project's major activities…

  9. Network-wide BGP route prediction for traffic engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feamster, Nick; Rexford, Jennifer

    2002-07-01

    The Internet consists of about 13,000 Autonomous Systems (AS's) that exchange routing information using the Border Gateway Protocol (BGP). The operators of each AS must have control over the flow of traffic through their network and between neighboring AS's. However, BGP is a complicated, policy-based protocol that does not include any direct support for traffic engineering. In previous work, we have demonstrated that network operators can adapt the flow of traffic in an efficient and predictable fashion through careful adjustments to the BGP policies running on their edge routers. Nevertheless, many details of the BGP protocol and decision process make predicting the effects of these policy changes difficult. In this paper, we describe a tool that predicts traffic flow at network exit points based on the network topology, the import policy associated with each BGP session, and the routing advertisements received from neighboring AS's. We present a linear-time algorithm that computes a network-wide view of the best BGP routes for each destination prefix given a static snapshot of the network state, without simulating the complex details of BGP message passing. We describe how to construct this snapshot using the BGP routing tables and router configuration files available from operational routers. We verify the accuracy of our algorithm by applying our tool to routing and configuration data from AT&T's commercial IP network. Our route prediction techniques help support the operation of large IP backbone networks, where interdomain routing is an important aspect of traffic engineering.

  10. Robustness of airline route networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lordan, Oriol; Sallan, Jose M.; Escorihuela, Nuria; Gonzalez-Prieto, David

    2016-03-01

    Airlines shape their route network by defining their routes through supply and demand considerations, paying little attention to network performance indicators, such as network robustness. However, the collapse of an airline network can produce high financial costs for the airline and all its geographical area of influence. The aim of this study is to analyze the topology and robustness of the network route of airlines following Low Cost Carriers (LCCs) and Full Service Carriers (FSCs) business models. Results show that FSC hubs are more central than LCC bases in their route network. As a result, LCC route networks are more robust than FSC networks.

  11. SLIT ADJUSTMENT CLAMP

    DOEpatents

    McKenzie, K.R.

    1959-07-01

    An electrode support which permits accurate alignment and adjustment of the electrode in a plurality of planes and about a plurality of axes in a calutron is described. The support will align the slits in the electrode with the slits of an ionizing chamber so as to provide for the egress of ions. The support comprises an insulator, a leveling plate carried by the insulator and having diametrically opposed attaching screws screwed to the plate and the insulator and diametrically opposed adjusting screws for bearing against the insulator, and an electrode associated with the plate for adjustment therewith.

  12. CMS Frailty Adjustment Model

    PubMed Central

    Kautter, John; Pope, Gregory C.

    2004-01-01

    The authors document the development of the CMS frailty adjustment model, a Medicare payment approach that adjusts payments to a Medicare managed care organization (MCO) according to the functional impairment of its community-residing enrollees. Beginning in 2004, this approach is being applied to certain organizations, such as Program of All-Inclusive Care for the Elderly (PACE), that specialize in providing care to the community-residing frail elderly. In the future, frailty adjustment could be extended to more Medicare managed care organizations. PMID:25372243

  13. VHDL Control Routing Simulator

    SciTech Connect

    Venard, J.

    1995-07-10

    The control router simulates a backplane consisting of up to 16 slot. Slot 0, reserved for a control module (cr-ctrl), generates the system clocks and provides the serial interface to the Gating Logic. The remaining 15 slots (1-15) contain routing modules (cr mod), each having up to 64 serial inputs and outputs with FIFOs. Messages to be transmitted to the Control Router are taken from text files. There are currently 17 such source files. In the model, the serial output of each source is connected to multiple receivers, so that there are 8 identical messages transmitted to the router for each message file entry.

  14. Remotely Adjustable Hydraulic Pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kouns, H. H.; Gardner, L. D.

    1987-01-01

    Outlet pressure adjusted to match varying loads. Electrohydraulic servo has positioned sleeve in leftmost position, adjusting outlet pressure to maximum value. Sleeve in equilibrium position, with control land covering control port. For lowest pressure setting, sleeve shifted toward right by increased pressure on sleeve shoulder from servovalve. Pump used in aircraft and robots, where hydraulic actuators repeatedly turned on and off, changing pump load frequently and over wide range.

  15. Osm-Oriented Method of Multimodal Route Planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, X.; Wu, Q.; Chen, L.; Xiong, W.; Jing, N.

    2015-07-01

    With the increasing pervasiveness of basic facilitate of transportation and information, the need of multimodal route planning is becoming more essential in the fields of communication and transportation, urban planning, logistics management, etc. This article mainly described an OSM-oriented method of multimodal route planning. Firstly, it introduced how to extract the information we need from OSM data and build proper network model and storage model; then it analysed the accustomed cost standard adopted by most travellers; finally, we used shortest path algorithm to calculate the best route with multiple traffic means.

  16. New Routing Metrics for ADHOC Network Routing Protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, P. C.

    2014-12-01

    The performance and reliability of Internet is measured using different quantities. When the quantities measured are essential and have wide range of acceptance then they are called metrics. Performance metrics enable comparison and selection among the alternatives. In computer networks, metrics are used to evaluate an application, protocol etc. Routing in adhoc networks is nontrivial. Routing protocols for adhoc networks are still evolving and there is need for continuous evaluation of them. In the literature existing, several routing protocols are evaluated using standard metrics under different conditions. This paper proposes new metrics for evaluation of routing protocols and uses them to evaluate the adhoc network routing protocols AODV, DSR, DSDV and TORA. Simulation environment is created using NS-2 simulator. Typical range of speeds, pause times and data rates are used. The results provide new insights in to the working of the routing protocols.

  17. Intelligent route surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoemaker, Robin; Sandbrink, Rody; van Voorthuijsen, Graeme

    2009-05-01

    Intelligence on abnormal and suspicious behaviour along roads in operational domains is extremely valuable for countering the IED (Improvised Explosive Device) threat. Local sensor networks at strategic spots can gather data for continuous monitoring of daily vehicle activity. Unattended intelligent ground sensor networks use simple sensing nodes, e.g. seismic, magnetic, radar, or acoustic, or combinations of these in one housing. The nodes deliver rudimentary data at any time to be processed with software that filters out the required information. At TNO (Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research) research has started on how to equip a sensor network with data analysis software to determine whether behaviour is suspicious or not. Furthermore, the nodes should be expendable, if necessary, and be small in size such that they are hard to detect by adversaries. The network should be self-configuring and self-sustaining and should be reliable, efficient, and effective during operational tasks - especially route surveillance - as well as robust in time and space. If data from these networks are combined with data from other remote sensing devices (e.g. UAVs (Unmanned Aerial Vehicles)/aerostats), an even more accurate assessment of the tactical situation is possible. This paper shall focus on the concepts of operation towards a working intelligent route surveillance (IRS) research demonstrator network for monitoring suspicious behaviour in IED sensitive domains.

  18. Experimental Transmission of Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) from Elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) and White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) to Fallow Deer (Dama dama) by Intracerebral Route: Final Report

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this communication we report final observations on experimental transmission of chronic wasting disease (CWD) from elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) and white tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) to fallow deer (Dama dama). The study was terminated 5 years after it was initiated. Thirteen fawns were i...

  19. Route Generation for a Synthetic Character (BOT) Using a Partial or Incomplete Knowledge Route Generation Algorithm in UT2004 Virtual Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanold, Gregg T.; Hanold, David T.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a new Route Generation Algorithm that accurately and realistically represents human route planning and navigation for Military Operations in Urban Terrain (MOUT). The accuracy of this algorithm in representing human behavior is measured using the Unreal Tournament(Trademark) 2004 (UT2004) Game Engine to provide the simulation environment in which the differences between the routes taken by the human player and those of a Synthetic Agent (BOT) executing the A-star algorithm and the new Route Generation Algorithm can be compared. The new Route Generation Algorithm computes the BOT route based on partial or incomplete knowledge received from the UT2004 game engine during game play. To allow BOT navigation to occur continuously throughout the game play with incomplete knowledge of the terrain, a spatial network model of the UT2004 MOUT terrain is captured and stored in an Oracle 11 9 Spatial Data Object (SOO). The SOO allows a partial data query to be executed to generate continuous route updates based on the terrain knowledge, and stored dynamic BOT, Player and environmental parameters returned by the query. The partial data query permits the dynamic adjustment of the planned routes by the Route Generation Algorithm based on the current state of the environment during a simulation. The dynamic nature of this algorithm more accurately allows the BOT to mimic the routes taken by the human executing under the same conditions thereby improving the realism of the BOT in a MOUT simulation environment.

  20. Partial covariate adjusted regression

    PubMed Central

    Şentürk, Damla; Nguyen, Danh V.

    2008-01-01

    Covariate adjusted regression (CAR) is a recently proposed adjustment method for regression analysis where both the response and predictors are not directly observed (Şentürk and Müller, 2005). The available data has been distorted by unknown functions of an observable confounding covariate. CAR provides consistent estimators for the coefficients of the regression between the variables of interest, adjusted for the confounder. We develop a broader class of partial covariate adjusted regression (PCAR) models to accommodate both distorted and undistorted (adjusted/unadjusted) predictors. The PCAR model allows for unadjusted predictors, such as age, gender and demographic variables, which are common in the analysis of biomedical and epidemiological data. The available estimation and inference procedures for CAR are shown to be invalid for the proposed PCAR model. We propose new estimators and develop new inference tools for the more general PCAR setting. In particular, we establish the asymptotic normality of the proposed estimators and propose consistent estimators of their asymptotic variances. Finite sample properties of the proposed estimators are investigated using simulation studies and the method is also illustrated with a Pima Indians diabetes data set. PMID:20126296

  1. VHDL Control Routing Simulator

    1995-07-10

    The control router simulates a backplane consisting of up to 16 slot. Slot 0, reserved for a control module (cr-ctrl), generates the system clocks and provides the serial interface to the Gating Logic. The remaining 15 slots (1-15) contain routing modules (cr mod), each having up to 64 serial inputs and outputs with FIFOs. Messages to be transmitted to the Control Router are taken from text files. There are currently 17 such source files. Inmore » the model, the serial output of each source is connected to multiple receivers, so that there are 8 identical messages transmitted to the router for each message file entry.« less

  2. Rural to Urban Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abramson, Jane A.

    Personal interviews with 100 former farm operators living in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, were conducted in an attempt to understand the nature of the adjustment process caused by migration from rural to urban surroundings. Requirements for inclusion in the study were that respondents had owned or operated a farm for at least 3 years, had left their…

  3. Self adjusting inclinometer

    DOEpatents

    Hunter, Steven L.

    2002-01-01

    An inclinometer utilizing synchronous demodulation for high resolution and electronic offset adjustment provides a wide dynamic range without any moving components. A device encompassing a tiltmeter and accompanying electronic circuitry provides quasi-leveled tilt sensors that detect highly resolved tilt change without signal saturation.

  4. Self Adjusting Sunglasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Corning Glass Works' Serengeti Driver sunglasses are unique in that their lenses self-adjust and filter light while suppressing glare. They eliminate more than 99% of the ultraviolet rays in sunlight. The frames are based on the NASA Anthropometric Source Book.

  5. Dynamic Congestion Control using MDB-Routing Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anuradha, S.; Raghu Ram, G.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents high through put routing algorithm. Modified depth Breadth routing algorithm takes a decision in moving forward packet in the next node which will visit to reach its final destination. Load balancing to improve the performance of distributed by processing power of the entire system to smooth out process of very high congestion at individual nodes, by transferring some of the load of heavily loaded nodes to the other nodes for processing. This achieves a 306.53 average time for packet, compared with the DB routing which achieves 316.13 average time for packet. Results shows that the proposed Modified depth Breadth achieves 348 average time when compared to DB routing which gives 548 for 3500 packets on 5 × 5 grid. Further results show that no of dead packets significantly reduced in the case of MDB. This focuses on Routing Network and Tables. These Network tables includes the information used by a routing algorithm to take a decision in moving forward the packet in the next node which will visit to reach its final destination. Load balancing try to improve the performance of a distributed system by processing power of the entire system to smooth out periods of very high congestion at individual nodes, which is done by transferring some of the load of heavily loaded nodes to other nodes for processing.

  6. Producing gestures facilitates route learning.

    PubMed

    So, Wing Chee; Ching, Terence Han-Wei; Lim, Phoebe Elizabeth; Cheng, Xiaoqin; Ip, Kit Yee

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigates whether producing gestures would facilitate route learning in a navigation task and whether its facilitation effect is comparable to that of hand movements that leave physical visible traces. In two experiments, we focused on gestures produced without accompanying speech, i.e., co-thought gestures (e.g., an index finger traces the spatial sequence of a route in the air). Adult participants were asked to study routes shown in four diagrams, one at a time. Participants reproduced the routes (verbally in Experiment 1 and non-verbally in Experiment 2) without rehearsal or after rehearsal by mentally simulating the route, by drawing it, or by gesturing (either in the air or on paper). Participants who moved their hands (either in the form of gestures or drawing) recalled better than those who mentally simulated the routes and those who did not rehearse, suggesting that hand movements produced during rehearsal facilitate route learning. Interestingly, participants who gestured the routes in the air or on paper recalled better than those who drew them on paper in both experiments, suggesting that the facilitation effect of co-thought gesture holds for both verbal and nonverbal recall modalities. It is possibly because, co-thought gesture, as a kind of representational action, consolidates spatial sequence better than drawing and thus exerting more powerful influence on spatial representation. PMID:25426624

  7. Modelling Routes towards Learning Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tattersall, Colin; Janssen, Jose; van den Berg, Bert; Koper, Rob

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to define the need for a route modelling language in e-learning, identifying requirements and candidate languages, before providing a recommended approach. Design/methodology/approach: Several sources of requirements are drawn from the literature then used to review available approaches to route modelling. The best…

  8. Dynamic Message Routing Using Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheibler, Thorsten; Karastoyanova, Dimka; Leymann, Frank

    The Enterprise Service Bus (ESB) is composable middleware that provides applications with services such as message routing and transformation, service composition, dynamic discovery, transactional support, coordination, security features, and others. In an ESB supporting SOAP message exchange, routing algorithms typically follow the sequential SOAP message processing model, where SOAP headers are the main artefacts used to specify the message route and the processing of the payload by intermediaries along that route. This model supports neither alternative nor parallel message routes. In the case of a failing intermediary node this leads to a failure in the message delivery. Moreover, the execution order of services on SOAP message payloads at the intermediaries cannot be prescribed. In this paper, we demonstrate how these deficiencies of the SOAP message processing model can be addressed. We introduce an approach that allows for specifying SOAP message routing logic in terms of BPEL processes. We show that parallel and alternative routes for SOAP messages can be modelled and executed, and the order of services that process a message at intermediaries can be predefined to accommodate the correct processing sequence as required by the concrete application domain. Features like dynamic discovery of services and flexible service composition are leveraged to enable flexible SOAP message routing.

  9. 76 FR 18990 - Revision of Patent Term Extension and Adjustment Provisions Relating to Appellate Review and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-06

    ... and Provisional Applications, 60 FR 20195 (Apr. 25, 1995) (twenty-year patent term final rule). The... Term, 65 FR 56365 (Sept. 18, 2000) (patent term adjustment final rule). The patent term adjustment... May 29, 2000. See Changes to Implement Patent Term Adjustment Under Twenty-Year Patent Term, 65 FR...

  10. [Alternative routes for insulin administration].

    PubMed

    Lassmann-Vague, V

    1994-01-01

    Ideally, insulin administration should be done through portal route, with a precise kinetic. It should also lead to a reproducible biologic effect, with minimal side-effects and be acceptable for the majority of diabetic patients. Many alternative routes of insulin administration try to fulfill one or more of these criteria. Intraperitoneal route is already used with implantable pumps. It has proven safety and metabolic efficacy, particularly upon the reduction of severe hypoglycaemia. Nasal route could provide a rapid kinetic, but its long-term utilisation depends on improvement of bioavailability and studies of local toxicity. Results concerning intrabronchic insulin seem promising, but are still preliminary. In the future, the choice among these alternative routes of insulin administration will be guided by the development of a closed-loop system. PMID:8001707

  11. Some pyridine derivatives as "route-specific markers" in 4-methoxyamphetamine (PMA) prepared by the Leuckart Method Studies on the role of the aminating agent in their distribution in the final product.

    PubMed

    Błachut, Dariusz; Wojtasiewicz, Krystyna; Czarnocki, Zbigniew

    2005-09-10

    The two previously unknown isomeric aryl-methylpyridines were prepared and analysed. Both 2,6-dimethyl-3,5-(4'-methoxyphenyl)pyridine and 2,4-dimethyl-3,5-di-(4'-methoxyphenyl)pyridine have been identified as a new by-product in the crude 4-methoxyamphetamine (PMA) obtained via the Leuckart method. The synthesis of 2,6-dimethyl-3,5-diphenylpyridine, which is connected to amphetamine chemistry, is also reported. It was also found that different reagents (formamide, formamide/HCOOH, ammonium formate) used in the course of the Leuckart synthesis of PMA significantly affected the impurity content. The presented results point out on the "high-boiling pyridines" as compounds especially useful in the comparative analysis, since their profile seems to be independent on the purification procedure and may be conveyed from the crude reaction mixture even into a carefully purified final product. PMID:15978341

  12. Detection of navigation route in greenhouse environment with machine vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Haiqing; Ji, Changying; An, Qiu; Ding, Qishuo

    2011-12-01

    A route detecting algorithm was proposed for the cucumber picking robot navigation in greenhouse environment. Possible navigation route was determined from the additive value of the column scanning results. Color difference between cucumber plants and the mid row soil was analyzed through combining the RGB elements segregations with extra-green (ExG) value and extra-red (ExR) value. The obtained gray image was segmented with OTSU threshold method, which made the gray-color abruptly changed pixels along the two sides of the central line identified. Mean value of these selected pixels in each line was calculated to provide the discrete points along the navigation route. Finally least square method was used to fit these discrete points to provide the navigation lines, from which, the route for current navigation scheme can be determined. The proposed algorithm was applied to multiple images for its high speed and anti-noise verification.

  13. Detection of navigation route in greenhouse environment with machine vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Haiqing; Ji, Changying; An, Qiu; Ding, Qishuo

    2012-01-01

    A route detecting algorithm was proposed for the cucumber picking robot navigation in greenhouse environment. Possible navigation route was determined from the additive value of the column scanning results. Color difference between cucumber plants and the mid row soil was analyzed through combining the RGB elements segregations with extra-green (ExG) value and extra-red (ExR) value. The obtained gray image was segmented with OTSU threshold method, which made the gray-color abruptly changed pixels along the two sides of the central line identified. Mean value of these selected pixels in each line was calculated to provide the discrete points along the navigation route. Finally least square method was used to fit these discrete points to provide the navigation lines, from which, the route for current navigation scheme can be determined. The proposed algorithm was applied to multiple images for its high speed and anti-noise verification.

  14. Past tense route priming.

    PubMed

    Cohen-Shikora, Emily R; Balota, David A

    2013-03-01

    The present research examined whether lexical (whole word) or more rule-based (morphological constituent) processes can be locally biased by experimental list context in past tense verb inflection. In Experiment 1, younger and older adults completed a past tense inflection task in which list context was manipulated across blocks containing regular past tense verbs (e.g. REACH-REACHED) or irregular past tense verbs (TEACH-TAUGHT). Critical targets, consisting of half regular and half irregular verbs, were embedded within blocks and participants' inflection response latency and accuracy were assessed. The results yielded a cross-over interaction in response latencies for both young and older adults. In the regular context there was a robust regularity effect: regular target verbs were conjugated faster than irregular target verbs. In contrast, in the irregular context, irregular target verbs were conjugated faster than regular target verbs. Experiment 2 used the same targets but in the context of either standard nonwords or nonwords ending in "-ED" to test the possibility of a phonological basis for the effect. The effect of context was eliminated. The results support the notion that distinct processes in past tense verb production can be locally biased by list context and, as shown in Experiment 2, this route priming effect was not due to phonological priming. PMID:23291293

  15. Precision adjustable stage

    DOEpatents

    Cutburth, Ronald W.; Silva, Leonard L.

    1988-01-01

    An improved mounting stage of the type used for the detection of laser beams is disclosed. A stage center block is mounted on each of two opposite sides by a pair of spaced ball bearing tracks which provide stability as well as simplicity. The use of the spaced ball bearing pairs in conjunction with an adjustment screw which also provides support eliminates extraneous stabilization components and permits maximization of the area of the center block laser transmission hole.

  16. Adjustable Autonomy Testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, Jane T.; Schrenkenghost, Debra K.

    2001-01-01

    The Adjustable Autonomy Testbed (AAT) is a simulation-based testbed located in the Intelligent Systems Laboratory in the Automation, Robotics and Simulation Division at NASA Johnson Space Center. The purpose of the testbed is to support evaluation and validation of prototypes of adjustable autonomous agent software for control and fault management for complex systems. The AA T project has developed prototype adjustable autonomous agent software and human interfaces for cooperative fault management. This software builds on current autonomous agent technology by altering the architecture, components and interfaces for effective teamwork between autonomous systems and human experts. Autonomous agents include a planner, flexible executive, low level control and deductive model-based fault isolation. Adjustable autonomy is intended to increase the flexibility and effectiveness of fault management with an autonomous system. The test domain for this work is control of advanced life support systems for habitats for planetary exploration. The CONFIG hybrid discrete event simulation environment provides flexible and dynamically reconfigurable models of the behavior of components and fluids in the life support systems. Both discrete event and continuous (discrete time) simulation are supported, and flows and pressures are computed globally. This provides fast dynamic simulations of interacting hardware systems in closed loops that can be reconfigured during operations scenarios, producing complex cascading effects of operations and failures. Current object-oriented model libraries support modeling of fluid systems, and models have been developed of physico-chemical and biological subsystems for processing advanced life support gases. In FY01, water recovery system models will be developed.

  17. 78 FR 4057 - Inflation Adjustment of Civil Money Penalty Amounts

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-18

    ....90 On December 17, 2008, HUD published a final rule (73 FR 76832) to amend its regulations governing... URBAN DEVELOPMENT 24 CFR Parts 28, 30, and 180 RIN 2501-AD59 Inflation Adjustment of Civil Money Penalty... civil money penalty and civil penalty regulations by making inflation adjustments that are required...

  18. 21 CFR 1303.13 - Adjustments of aggregate production quotas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Federal Register his final order determining the aggregate production for the basic class of controlled... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adjustments of aggregate production quotas. 1303... Aggregate Production and Procurement Quotas § 1303.13 Adjustments of aggregate production quotas. (a)...

  19. 29 CFR 101.19 - Consent adjustments before formal hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... which the parties agree that all pre- and postelection disputes will be resolved with finality by the... adjustment of representation cases. (1) Under these terms the parties agree that if they are unable...

  20. Alternative routes for highway shipments of radioactive materials and lessons learned from state designations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-01

    Pursuant to the Hazardous Materials Transportation Act (HMTA), the Department of Transportation (DOT) has promulgated a comprehensive set of regulations regarding the highway transportation of high-level radioactive materials. These regulations, under docket numbers HM-164 and HM-164A, establish interstate highways as the preferred routes for the transportation of radioactive materials within and through the states. The regulations also provide a methodology by which a state may select altemative routes. First, the state must establish a ``state routing agency``, defined as an entity authorized to use the state legal process to impose routing requirements on carriers of radioactive material (49 CFR 171.8). Once identified, the state routing agency must select routes in accordance with DOTs Guidelines for Selecting Preferred Highway Routes for Large Quantity Shipments of Radioactive Materials or an equivalent routing analysis. Adjoining states and localities should be consulted on the impact of proposed alternative routes as a prerequisite of final route selection. Lastly, the states must provide written notice to DOT of any alternative route designation before the routes are deemed effective. The purpose of this report is to discuss the ``lessons learned`` by the five states within the southern region that have designated alternative or preferred routes under the regulations of the Department of Transportation (DOT) established for the transportation of radioactive materials. The document was prepared by reviewing applicable federal laws and regulations, examining state reports and documents and contacting state officials and routing agencies involved in making routing decisions. In undertaking this project, the Southern States Energy Board hopes to reveal the process used by states that have designated alternative routes and thereby share their experiences (i.e., lessons learned) with other southern states that have yet to make designations.

  1. Alternative routes for highway shipments of radioactive materials and lessons learned from state designations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-01

    Pursuant to the Hazardous Materials Transportation Act (HMTA), the Department of Transportation (DOT) has promulgated a comprehensive set of regulations regarding the highway transportation of high-level radioactive materials. These regulations, under docket numbers HM-164 and HM-164A, establish interstate highways as the preferred routes for the transportation of radioactive materials within and through the states. The regulations also provide a methodology by which a state may select altemative routes. First, the state must establish a state routing agency'', defined as an entity authorized to use the state legal process to impose routing requirements on carriers of radioactive material (49 CFR 171.8). Once identified, the state routing agency must select routes in accordance with DOTs Guidelines for Selecting Preferred Highway Routes for Large Quantity Shipments of Radioactive Materials or an equivalent routing analysis. Adjoining states and localities should be consulted on the impact of proposed alternative routes as a prerequisite of final route selection. Lastly, the states must provide written notice to DOT of any alternative route designation before the routes are deemed effective. The purpose of this report is to discuss the lessons learned'' by the five states within the southern region that have designated alternative or preferred routes under the regulations of the Department of Transportation (DOT) established for the transportation of radioactive materials. The document was prepared by reviewing applicable federal laws and regulations, examining state reports and documents and contacting state officials and routing agencies involved in making routing decisions. In undertaking this project, the Southern States Energy Board hopes to reveal the process used by states that have designated alternative routes and thereby share their experiences (i.e., lessons learned) with other southern states that have yet to make designations.

  2. A new fabrication route for SFR fuel using (U, Pu)O2 powder obtained by oxalic co-conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaudez, Stéphane; Belin, Renaud C.; Aufore, Laurence; Sornay, Philippe; Grandjean, Stéphane

    2013-11-01

    The standard powder metallurgy preparation of SFR (Sodium Fast Reactor) oxide fuel involves UO2 and PuO2 co-milling. An alternative route, using a solid-solution of mixed oxide obtained by oxalic co-conversion as the starting material, is presented. It was used to manufacture nuclear fuels for the "COPIX" irradiation conducted in the Phenix SFR. Two processes using co-converted powders were tested to elaborate fuel pellets: (1) the Direct Process that consists in pressing and sintering the mixed oxide with the final Pu content and (2) the Dilution Process, which involves the dilution of a high Pu content mixed oxide with UO2. After studying the structural and microstructural evolution with temperature of these innovative raw materials, the elaboration parameters were adjusted to obtain final pellets in accordance with the Phenix fuel specifications. This study demonstrates the feasibility of such new fabrication route at laboratory scale and, from a more fundamental prospect, allows a better understanding of the underlying phenomena involved during sintering.

  3. 14 CFR 121.95 - Route width.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Approval of Routes: Domestic and Flag Operations § 121.95 Route width... routes in the case of certificate holders conducting flag operations) have a width equal to...

  4. The variance of the adjusted Rand index.

    PubMed

    Steinley, Douglas; Brusco, Michael J; Hubert, Lawrence

    2016-06-01

    For 30 years, the adjusted Rand index has been the preferred method for comparing 2 partitions (e.g., clusterings) of a set of observations. Although the index is widely used, little is known about its variability. Herein, the variance of the adjusted Rand index (Hubert & Arabie, 1985) is provided and its properties are explored. It is shown that a normal approximation is appropriate across a wide range of sample sizes and varying numbers of clusters. Further, it is shown that confidence intervals based on the normal distribution have desirable levels of coverage and accuracy. Finally, the first power analysis evaluating the ability to detect differences between 2, different adjusted Rand indices is provided. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26881693

  5. Multipath routing in wireless sensor networks: survey and research challenges.

    PubMed

    Radi, Marjan; Dezfouli, Behnam; Abu Bakar, Kamalrulnizam; Lee, Malrey

    2012-01-01

    A wireless sensor network is a large collection of sensor nodes with limited power supply and constrained computational capability. Due to the restricted communication range and high density of sensor nodes, packet forwarding in sensor networks is usually performed through multi-hop data transmission. Therefore, routing in wireless sensor networks has been considered an important field of research over the past decade. Nowadays, multipath routing approach is widely used in wireless sensor networks to improve network performance through efficient utilization of available network resources. Accordingly, the main aim of this survey is to present the concept of the multipath routing approach and its fundamental challenges, as well as the basic motivations for utilizing this technique in wireless sensor networks. In addition, we present a comprehensive taxonomy on the existing multipath routing protocols, which are especially designed for wireless sensor networks. We highlight the primary motivation behind the development of each protocol category and explain the operation of different protocols in detail, with emphasis on their advantages and disadvantages. Furthermore, this paper compares and summarizes the state-of-the-art multipath routing techniques from the network application point of view. Finally, we identify open issues for further research in the development of multipath routing protocols for wireless sensor networks. PMID:22368490

  6. Interconnection networks: improved routing methods for Clos and Benes networks

    SciTech Connect

    Carpinelli, J.D.

    1987-01-01

    Interconnection networks for use by multiprocessor systems are optimal in terms of area, but the routing algorithms used to set up these networks are suboptimal. This work improves routing on these networks using a four-fold approach. First, routing is examined in the matrix-decomposition domain; the new characteristic of partitioning is used to improve current algorithms in this class and to develop an algorithm that does not require backtracking. Second, edge coloring and matching on bipartite multigraphs are applied to routing on Clos networks. The regularity of the bipartite multigraph for routing applications is exploited to optimize a more-general edge-coloring algorithm. Third, double-coset decomposition is used to identify new properties of Benes networks and speed up routing for some permutations. Finally, the Tree-Connected Computer is used to parallelize the Looping Algorithm and reduce the setup time for Benes networks by a factor of O(lgN). It is also used to reduce the bandwidth requirements for the fastest current setup algorithm for the Complementary Benes network.

  7. Continuously adjustable Pulfrich spectacles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, Ken; Karpf, Ron

    2011-03-01

    A number of Pulfrich 3-D movies and TV shows have been produced, but the standard implementation has inherent drawbacks. The movie and TV industries have correctly concluded that the standard Pulfrich 3-D implementation is not a useful 3-D technique. Continuously Adjustable Pulfrich Spectacles (CAPS) is a new implementation of the Pulfrich effect that allows any scene containing movement in a standard 2-D movie, which are most scenes, to be optionally viewed in 3-D using inexpensive viewing specs. Recent scientific results in the fields of human perception, optoelectronics, video compression and video format conversion are translated into a new implementation of Pulfrich 3- D. CAPS uses these results to continuously adjust to the movie so that the viewing spectacles always conform to the optical density that optimizes the Pulfrich stereoscopic illusion. CAPS instantly provides 3-D immersion to any moving scene in any 2-D movie. Without the glasses, the movie will appear as a normal 2-D image. CAPS work on any viewing device, and with any distribution medium. CAPS is appropriate for viewing Internet streamed movies in 3-D.

  8. Subsea adjustable choke valves

    SciTech Connect

    Cyvas, M.K. )

    1989-08-01

    With emphasis on deepwater wells and marginal offshore fields growing, the search for reliable subsea production systems has become a high priority. A reliable subsea adjustable choke is essential to the realization of such a system, and recent advances are producing the degree of reliability required. Technological developments have been primarily in (1) trim material (including polycrystalline diamond), (2) trim configuration, (3) computer programs for trim sizing, (4) component materials, and (5) diver/remote-operated-vehicle (ROV) interfaces. These five facets are overviewed and progress to date is reported. A 15- to 20-year service life for adjustable subsea chokes is now a reality. Another factor vital to efficient use of these technological developments is to involve the choke manufacturer and ROV/diver personnel in initial system conceptualization. In this manner, maximum benefit can be derived from the latest technology. Major areas of development still required and under way are listed, and the paper closes with a tabulation of successful subsea choke installations in recent years.

  9. Protocol independent adaptive route update for VANET.

    PubMed

    Rasheed, Asim; Ajmal, Sana; Qayyum, Amir

    2014-01-01

    High relative node velocity and high active node density have presented challenges to existing routing approaches within highly scaled ad hoc wireless networks, such as Vehicular Ad hoc Networks (VANET). Efficient routing requires finding optimum route with minimum delay, updating it on availability of a better one, and repairing it on link breakages. Current routing protocols are generally focused on finding and maintaining an efficient route, with very less emphasis on route update. Adaptive route update usually becomes impractical for dense networks due to large routing overheads. This paper presents an adaptive route update approach which can provide solution for any baseline routing protocol. The proposed adaptation eliminates the classification of reactive and proactive by categorizing them as logical conditions to find and update the route. PMID:24723807

  10. Protocol Independent Adaptive Route Update for VANET

    PubMed Central

    Rasheed, Asim; Qayyum, Amir

    2014-01-01

    High relative node velocity and high active node density have presented challenges to existing routing approaches within highly scaled ad hoc wireless networks, such as Vehicular Ad hoc Networks (VANET). Efficient routing requires finding optimum route with minimum delay, updating it on availability of a better one, and repairing it on link breakages. Current routing protocols are generally focused on finding and maintaining an efficient route, with very less emphasis on route update. Adaptive route update usually becomes impractical for dense networks due to large routing overheads. This paper presents an adaptive route update approach which can provide solution for any baseline routing protocol. The proposed adaptation eliminates the classification of reactive and proactive by categorizing them as logical conditions to find and update the route. PMID:24723807

  11. 77 FR 40387 - Price Adjustment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-09

    ... Price Adjustment AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a recently filed Postal Service request to adjust prices for several market dominant products... announcing its intent to adjust prices for several market dominant products within First-Class Mail...

  12. Connectivity-enhanced route selection and adaptive control for the Chevrolet Volt

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Gonder, Jeffrey; Wood, Eric; Rajagopalan, Sai

    2016-01-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory and General Motors evaluated connectivity-enabled efficiency enhancements for the Chevrolet Volt. A high-level model was developed to predict vehicle fuel and electricity consumption based on driving characteristics and vehicle state inputs. These techniques were leveraged to optimize energy efficiency via green routing and intelligent control mode scheduling, which were evaluated using prospective driving routes between tens of thousands of real-world origin/destination pairs. The overall energy savings potential of green routing and intelligent mode scheduling was estimated at 5% and 3%, respectively. Furthermore, these represent substantial opportunities considering that they only require software adjustments to implement.

  13. Connectivity-Enhanced Route Selection and Adaptive Control for the Chevrolet Volt: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Gonder, J.; Wood, E.; Rajagopalan, S.

    2014-09-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory and General Motors evaluated connectivity-enabled efficiency enhancements for the Chevrolet Volt. A high-level model was developed to predict vehicle fuel and electricity consumption based on driving characteristics and vehicle state inputs. These techniques were leveraged to optimize energy efficiency via green routing and intelligent control mode scheduling, which were evaluated using prospective driving routes between tens of thousands of real-world origin/destination pairs. The overall energy savings potential of green routing and intelligent mode scheduling was estimated at 5% and 3% respectively. These represent substantial opportunities considering that they only require software adjustments to implement.

  14. Route Infrastructure and the Risk of Injuries to Bicyclists: A Case-Crossover Study

    PubMed Central

    Harris, M. Anne; Reynolds, Conor C. O.; Winters, Meghan; Babul, Shelina; Chipman, Mary; Cusimano, Michael D.; Brubacher, Jeff R.; Hunte, Garth; Friedman, Steven M.; Monro, Melody; Shen, Hui; Vernich, Lee; Cripton, Peter A.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We compared cycling injury risks of 14 route types and other route infrastructure features. Methods. We recruited 690 city residents injured while cycling in Toronto or Vancouver, Canada. A case-crossover design compared route infrastructure at each injury site to that of a randomly selected control site from the same trip. Results. Of 14 route types, cycle tracks had the lowest risk (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 0.11; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.02, 0.54), about one ninth the risk of the reference: major streets with parked cars and no bike infrastructure. Risks on major streets were lower without parked cars (adjusted OR = 0.63; 95% CI = 0.41, 0.96) and with bike lanes (adjusted OR = 0.54; 95% CI = 0.29, 1.01). Local streets also had lower risks (adjusted OR = 0.51; 95% CI = 0.31, 0.84). Other infrastructure characteristics were associated with increased risks: streetcar or train tracks (adjusted OR = 3.0; 95% CI = 1.8, 5.1), downhill grades (adjusted OR = 2.3; 95% CI = 1.7, 3.1), and construction (adjusted OR = 1.9; 95% CI = 1.3, 2.9). Conclusions. The lower risks on quiet streets and with bike-specific infrastructure along busy streets support the route-design approach used in many northern European countries. Transportation infrastructure with lower bicycling injury risks merits public health support to reduce injuries and promote cycling. PMID:23078480

  15. Investigations of the use of bioavailability data to adjust occupational exposure limits for active pharmaceutical ingredients.

    PubMed

    Naumann, Bruce D; Weideman, Patricia A; Sarangapani, Ramesh; Hu, Shu-Cheih; Dixit, Rakesh; Sargent, Edward V

    2009-11-01

    Occupational exposure limits (OELs) for active pharmaceutical ingredients have traditionally been established using no-observed-adverse-effect levels derived from clinical studies employing po and iv routes of administration and by applying default uncertainty factors or chemical-specific adjustment factors. However, exposure by the inhalation or dermal route is more relevant in terms of occupational safety. In this investigation, to explore new methods for route-to-route extrapolation, the bioavailability of MK-0679, a leukotriene D(4) receptor antagonist, was compared following iv, po, intranasal (in), or intratracheal (it) administration. The relative bioavailability of MK-0679 was iv congruent with it > po congruent with in. Bioavailability correction factors (BCFs) of 2.0 and 0.6 were derived from these data to adjust a hypothetical OEL of 0.1 mg/m(3) for MK-0679 with particle sizes of 10 and 50 mum, respectively. These BCFs were used to adjust the OEL established using po clinical data, to reflect the differences in bioavailability following deposition in different regions of the respiratory tract. To further investigate how bioavailability data could be used in setting OELs, a preliminary pharmacokinetic (PK) model was developed to describe the time course of plasma concentrations using the data from the route comparison study. An inhalation study was then performed to test the validity of using either empirical data or modeling approaches to derive BCFs when setting OELs. These investigations demonstrated how the use of route-specific PK data could reduce some of the uncertainties associated with route-to-route extrapolation and allow for improved precision and quantitative adjustments when establishing OELs. Further investigations are needed to better understand the factors responsible for differences in systemic uptake following deposition in different regions of the respiratory tract and how these can be generalized across different classes of soluble

  16. The Consistent Vehicle Routing Problem

    SciTech Connect

    Groer, Christopher S; Golden, Bruce; Edward, Wasil

    2009-01-01

    In the small package shipping industry (as in other industries), companies try to differentiate themselves by providing high levels of customer service. This can be accomplished in several ways, including online tracking of packages, ensuring on-time delivery, and offering residential pickups. Some companies want their drivers to develop relationships with customers on a route and have the same drivers visit the same customers at roughly the same time on each day that the customers need service. These service requirements, together with traditional constraints on vehicle capacity and route length, define a variant of the classical capacitated vehicle routing problem, which we call the consistent VRP (ConVRP). In this paper, we formulate the problem as a mixed-integer program and develop an algorithm to solve the ConVRP that is based on the record-to-record travel algorithm. We compare the performance of our algorithm to the optimal mixed-integer program solutions for a set of small problems and then apply our algorithm to five simulated data sets with 1,000 customers and a real-world data set with more than 3,700 customers. We provide a technique for generating ConVRP benchmark problems from vehicle routing problem instances given in the literature and provide our solutions to these instances. The solutions produced by our algorithm on all problems do a very good job of meeting customer service objectives with routes that have a low total travel time.

  17. Central East Pacific Flight Routing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grabbe, Shon; Sridhar, Banavar; Kopardekar, Parimal; Cheng, Nadia

    2006-01-01

    With the introduction of the Federal Aviation Administration s Advanced Technology and Oceanic Procedures system at the Oakland Oceanic Center, a level of automation now exists in the oceanic environment to potentially begin accommodating increased user preferred routing requests. This paper presents the results of an initial feasibility assessment which examines the potential benefits of transitioning from the fixed Central East Pacific routes to user preferred routes. As a surrogate for the actual user-provided routing requests, a minimum-travel-time, wind-optimal dynamic programming algorithm was developed and utilized in this paper. After first describing the characteristics (e.g., origin airport, destination airport, vertical distribution and temporal distribution) of the westbound flights utilizing the Central East Pacific routes on Dec. 14-16 and 19-20, the results of both a flight-plan-based simulation and a wind-optimal-based simulation are presented. Whereas the lateral and longitudinal distribution of the aircraft trajectories in these two simulations varied dramatically, the number of simulated first-loss-of-separation events remained relatively constant. One area of concern that was uncovered in this initial analysis was a potential workload issue associated with the redistribution of traffic in the oceanic sectors due to thc prevailing wind patterns.

  18. An Evaluation of Controller and Pilot Performance, Workload and Acceptability under a NextGen Concept for Dynamic Weather Adapted Arrival Routing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Walter W.; Lachter, Joel; Brandt, Summer; Koteskey, Robert; Dao, Arik-Quang; Kraut, Josh; Ligda, Sarah; Battiste, Vernol

    2012-01-01

    In todays terminal operations, controller workload increases and throughput decreases when fixed standard terminal arrival routes (STARs) are impacted by storms. To circumvent this operational constraint, Prete, Krozel, Mitchell, Kim and Zou (2008) proposed to use automation to dynamically adapt arrival and departure routing based on weather predictions. The present study examined this proposal in the context of a NextGen trajectory-based operation concept, focusing on the acceptability and its effect on the controllers ability to manage traffic flows. Six controllers and twelve transport pilots participated in a human-in-the-loop simulation of arrival operations into Louisville International Airport with interval management requirements. Three types of routing structures were used: Static STARs (similar to current routing, which require the trajectories of individual aircraft to be modified to avoid the weather), Dynamic routing (automated adaptive routing around weather), and Dynamic Adjusted routing (automated adaptive routing around weather with aircraft entry time adjusted to account for differences in route length). Spacing Responsibility, whether responsibility for interval management resided with the controllers (as today), or resided with the pilot (who used a flight deck based automated spacing algorithm), was also manipulated. Dynamic routing as a whole was rated superior to static routing, especially by pilots, both in terms of workload reduction and flight path safety. A downside of using dynamic routing was that the paths flown in the dynamic conditions tended to be somewhat longer than the paths flown in the static condition.

  19. Impact of wire topology on channel routing

    SciTech Connect

    Blair, J.R.S.

    1986-01-01

    Channel routing is a method that has been widely used to overcome the inherent difficulties in the routing stage of automated VLSI chip and printed circuit board design. Almost all previous work on channel routing has restricted the wires to paths that are strictly monotonic (i.e., paths that do not backtrack in either the horizontal or vertical direction). The impact on single layer channel routing of wire topologies that provide considerably more wire routing flexibility than has previously been allowed is addressed here. A hierarchy of routing classes stemming from these generalized wire topologies is defined. It is shown that each of the routing classes is applicable to both the two row routing scenario (river routing) and the single row routing scenario. The routing classes are examined to see if the flexibility provided by the new wire types is useful for single row routing. Global routing under the channel routing scenario is briefly examined. In particular, a simplistic two layer global channel routing problem is shown to be NP-complete using two separate optimization criteria.

  20. Routing Algorithm Exploits Spatial Relations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Okino, Clayton; Jennings, Esther

    2004-01-01

    A recently developed routing algorithm for broadcasting in an ad hoc wireless communication network takes account of, and exploits, the spatial relationships among the locations of nodes, in addition to transmission power levels and distances between the nodes. In contrast, most prior algorithms for discovering routes through ad hoc networks rely heavily on transmission power levels and utilize limited graph-topology techniques that do not involve consideration of the aforesaid spatial relationships. The present algorithm extracts the relevant spatial-relationship information by use of a construct denoted the relative-neighborhood graph (RNG).

  1. Seeded Growth Route to Noble Calcium Carbonate Nanocrystal.

    PubMed

    Islam, Aminul; Teo, Siow Hwa; Rahman, M Aminur; Taufiq-Yap, Yun Hin

    2015-01-01

    A solution-phase route has been considered as the most promising route to synthesize noble nanostructures. A majority of their synthesis approaches of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) are based on either using fungi or the CO2 bubbling methods. Here, we approached the preparation of nano-precipitated calcium carbonate single crystal from salmacis sphaeroides in the presence of zwitterionic or cationic biosurfactants without external source of CO2. The calcium carbonate crystals were rhombohedron structure and regularly shaped with side dimension ranging from 33-41 nm. The high degree of morphological control of CaCO3 nanocrystals suggested that surfactants are capable of strongly interacting with the CaCO3 surface and control the nucleation and growth direction of calcium carbonate nanocrystals. Finally, the mechanism of formation of nanocrystals in light of proposed routes was also discussed. PMID:26700479

  2. Seeded Growth Route to Noble Calcium Carbonate Nanocrystal

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Aminul; Teo, Siow Hwa; Rahman, M. Aminur; Taufiq-Yap, Yun Hin

    2015-01-01

    A solution-phase route has been considered as the most promising route to synthesize noble nanostructures. A majority of their synthesis approaches of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) are based on either using fungi or the CO2 bubbling methods. Here, we approached the preparation of nano-precipitated calcium carbonate single crystal from salmacis sphaeroides in the presence of zwitterionic or cationic biosurfactants without external source of CO2. The calcium carbonate crystals were rhombohedron structure and regularly shaped with side dimension ranging from 33–41 nm. The high degree of morphological control of CaCO3 nanocrystals suggested that surfactants are capable of strongly interacting with the CaCO3 surface and control the nucleation and growth direction of calcium carbonate nanocrystals. Finally, the mechanism of formation of nanocrystals in light of proposed routes was also discussed. PMID:26700479

  3. Social survey findings on en route noise annoyance issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fields, James M.

    1990-01-01

    Most surveys of residents' reactions to aircraft noise were conducted in the vicinity of airports. The findings in those surveys have supported planning and regulatory actions for the airport noise environment. Now, however, aircraft noise planning and regulations are being considered for a new environment, the en route environment. As policy makers search for bases for public policy in these new noise environments, it is appropriate to ask whether the same scientific evidence which supports airport noise policy can also support en route noise policy. Several aspects of that question are considered. An introduction establishes the scope of the present study and examines alternative study methodologies. Next, the selected study methodology is described and important assumptions are listed. The body of the paper then consists of the findings on en route issues. The final section presents findings on relevant research methods and considers priorities for further research.

  4. Delay Adjusted Incidence Infographic

    Cancer.gov

    This Infographic shows the National Cancer Institute SEER Incidence Trends. The graphs show the Average Annual Percent Change (AAPC) 2002-2011. For Men, Thyroid: 5.3*,Liver & IBD: 3.6*, Melanoma: 2.3*, Kidney: 2.0*, Myeloma: 1.9*, Pancreas: 1.2*, Leukemia: 0.9*, Oral Cavity: 0.5, Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma: 0.3*, Esophagus: -0.1, Brain & ONS: -0.2*, Bladder: -0.6*, All Sites: -1.1*, Stomach: -1.7*, Larynx: -1.9*, Prostate: -2.1*, Lung & Bronchus: -2.4*, and Colon & Rectum: -3/0*. For Women, Thyroid: 5.8*, Liver & IBD: 2.9*, Myeloma: 1.8*, Kidney: 1.6*, Melanoma: 1.5, Corpus & Uterus: 1.3*, Pancreas: 1.1*, Leukemia: 0.6*, Brain & ONS: 0, Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma: -0.1, All Sites: -0.1, Breast: -0.3, Stomach: -0.7*, Oral Cavity: -0.7*, Bladder: -0.9*, Ovary: -0.9*, Lung & Bronchus: -1.0*, Cervix: -2.4*, and Colon & Rectum: -2.7*. * AAPC is significantly different from zero (p<.05). Rates were adjusted for reporting delay in the registry. www.cancer.gov Source: Special section of the Annual Report to the Nation on the Status of Cancer, 1975-2011.

  5. Robustness of airline alliance route networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lordan, Oriol; Sallan, Jose M.; Simo, Pep; Gonzalez-Prieto, David

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the robustness of the three major airline alliances' (i.e., Star Alliance, oneworld and SkyTeam) route networks. Firstly, the normalization of a multi-scale measure of vulnerability is proposed in order to perform the analysis in networks with different sizes, i.e., number of nodes. An alternative node selection criterion is also proposed in order to study robustness and vulnerability of such complex networks, based on network efficiency. And lastly, a new procedure - the inverted adaptive strategy - is presented to sort the nodes in order to anticipate network breakdown. Finally, the robustness of the three alliance networks are analyzed with (1) a normalized multi-scale measure of vulnerability, (2) an adaptive strategy based on four different criteria and (3) an inverted adaptive strategy based on the efficiency criterion. The results show that Star Alliance has the most resilient route network, followed by SkyTeam and then oneworld. It was also shown that the inverted adaptive strategy based on the efficiency criterion - inverted efficiency - shows a great success in quickly breaking networks similar to that found with betweenness criterion but with even better results.

  6. Reconfigurable routing protocol for free space optical sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Xie, Rong; Yang, Won-Hyuk; Kim, Young-Chon

    2012-01-01

    Recently, free space optical sensor networks (FSOSNs), which are based on free space optics (FSO) instead of radio frequency (RF), have gained increasing visibility over traditional wireless sensor networks (WSNs) due to their advantages such as larger capacity, higher security, and lower cost. However, the performance of FSOSNs is restricted to the requirement of a direct line-of-sight (LOS) path between a sender and a receiver pair. Once a node dies of energy depletion, the network would probably suffer from a dramatic decrease of connectivity, resulting in a huge loss of data packets. Thus, this paper proposes a reconfigurable routing protocol (RRP) to overcome this problem by dynamically reconfiguring the network virtual topology. The RRP works in three phases: (1) virtual topology construction, (2) routing establishment, and (3) reconfigurable routing. When data transmission begins, the data packets are first routed through the shortest hop paths. Then a reconfiguration is initiated by the node whose residual energy falls below a threshold. Nodes affected by this dying node are classified into two types, namely maintenance nodes and adjustment nodes, and they are reconfigured according to the types. An energy model is designed to evaluate the performance of RRP through OPNET simulation. Our simulation results indicate that the RRP achieves better performance compared with the simple-link protocol and a direct reconfiguration scheme in terms of connectivity, network lifetime, packet delivery ratio and the number of living nodes. PMID:22666061

  7. Linearly Adjustable International Portfolios

    SciTech Connect

    Fonseca, R. J.; Kuhn, D.; Rustem, B.

    2010-09-30

    We present an approach to multi-stage international portfolio optimization based on the imposition of a linear structure on the recourse decisions. Multiperiod decision problems are traditionally formulated as stochastic programs. Scenario tree based solutions however can become intractable as the number of stages increases. By restricting the space of decision policies to linear rules, we obtain a conservative tractable approximation to the original problem. Local asset prices and foreign exchange rates are modelled separately, which allows for a direct measure of their impact on the final portfolio value.

  8. Dynamic Weather Routes Architecture Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eslami, Hassan; Eshow, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic Weather Routes Architecture Overview, presents the high level software architecture of DWR, based on the CTAS software framework and the Direct-To automation tool. The document also covers external and internal data flows, required dataset, changes to the Direct-To software for DWR, collection of software statistics, and the code structure.

  9. Roots/Routes: Part II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Dalene M.

    2009-01-01

    This narrative acts as an articulation of a journey of many routes. Following Part I of the same research journey of rootedness/routedness, it debates the nature of transformation and transcendence beyond personal and political paradoxes informed by neoliberalism and related repressive globalizing discourses. Through a more personal, descriptive,…

  10. Roots/Routes: Part I

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Dalene M.

    2009-01-01

    This narrative and poetic rendering acts as an articulation of a journey of many routes. It is a storying of critical research issues and events as performances of lived experience. It is a metissage of hybrid, but interrelated, themes that find cohesion through fragmentation and coalescence, severance, and regrowth. These themes are invoked by…

  11. Judaism and the Silk Route.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foltz, Richard

    1998-01-01

    Demonstrates that the Judeans traveled along the Ancient Silk Route. Discusses the Iranian influence on the formation of Jewish religious ideas. Considers the development of Jewish trade networks, focusing on the Radanites (Jewish traders), the Jewish presence in the Far East, and the survival of Judaism in central Asia. (CMK)

  12. 38 CFR 11.109 - Settlement of unmatured adjusted service certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... adjusted service certificates. 11.109 Section 11.109 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF....) § 11.109 Settlement of unmatured adjusted service certificates. Where an application for final... unpaid loans with interest through September 30, 1931, in adjusted service bonds. These bonds will...

  13. 38 CFR 11.109 - Settlement of unmatured adjusted service certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... adjusted service certificates. 11.109 Section 11.109 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF....) § 11.109 Settlement of unmatured adjusted service certificates. Where an application for final... unpaid loans with interest through September 30, 1931, in adjusted service bonds. These bonds will...

  14. 38 CFR 11.109 - Settlement of unmatured adjusted service certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... adjusted service certificates. 11.109 Section 11.109 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF....) § 11.109 Settlement of unmatured adjusted service certificates. Where an application for final... unpaid loans with interest through September 30, 1931, in adjusted service bonds. These bonds will...

  15. 38 CFR 11.109 - Settlement of unmatured adjusted service certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... adjusted service certificates. 11.109 Section 11.109 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF....) § 11.109 Settlement of unmatured adjusted service certificates. Where an application for final... unpaid loans with interest through September 30, 1931, in adjusted service bonds. These bonds will...

  16. 38 CFR 11.109 - Settlement of unmatured adjusted service certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... adjusted service certificates. 11.109 Section 11.109 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF....) § 11.109 Settlement of unmatured adjusted service certificates. Where an application for final... unpaid loans with interest through September 30, 1931, in adjusted service bonds. These bonds will...

  17. Access routes for nutritional therapy.

    PubMed

    Waitzberg, D L; Plopper, C; Terra, R M

    2000-12-01

    Enteral nutrition (EN) and total parenteral nutrition (TPN) may provide life-sustaining therapy for surgical patients. The duration of nutritional therapy (enteral or parenteral) implies distinct access routes. We review the main aspects related to access routes for nutrient delivery. The enteral route, whenever feasible, is preferred. For EN lasting less than 6 weeks, nasoenteric tubes are the route of choice. Conversely, enterostomy tubes should be used for longer-term enteral feeding and can be placed surgically or with fluoroscopic and endoscopic assistance. The first choice for patients who will not be submitted to laparotomy is percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy. Postpyloric access, although not consensual, must be considered when there is a high risk of aspiration. For intravenous delivery of nutrients lasting less than 10 days, the peripheral route can be used. However, because of frequent infusion phlebitis, its role is still in discussion. Central venous catheters (CVCs) for TPN delivery may be (1) nonimplantable, percutaneous, nontunneled-used for a few days to 3 to 4 weeks; (2) partially implantable, percutaneous, tunneled-used for longer periods and permanent access; or (3) totally implantable subcutaneous ports-also used for long-term or permanent access. The subclavian vein is usually the insertion site of choice for central venous catheters. Implantable ports are associated with lower rates of septic complications than percutaneous CVCs. The catheter with the least number of necessary lumens should be applied. Central venous nutrient delivery can also be accomplished through peripherally inserted central catheters, which avoid insertion-related risks. PMID:11193710

  18. Reflections on societal change, adjustments, and responses.

    PubMed

    Friedlander, D; Okun, B

    2009-04-01

    Building on Davis (1963) and subsequent work, we propose a conceptual framework that provides a guide for the organization of empirical demographic research. Our approach is based on the notion that changes in nuptiality, fertility, and migration are not objectives in and of themselves, but means for reducing welfare gaps - defined as the gaps between actual welfare and that which could be attained with altered demographic and/or other behavior. We clarify theoretical issues concerning three levels of analysis. At the highest level, societal change leads to welfare gaps for families and/or individuals. In turn, behavioral adjustments are made to reduce these gaps. Finally, demographic responses at the community level result when large numbers of families and/or individuals adjust behavior in a particular manner. We consider and exemplify relationships among demographic and other responses in historical, agricultural contexts. PMID:19618558

  19. An embedded route finder and tracing system for a stepped robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiangjun; Li, Zhi; Zhou, Xinling

    2003-09-01

    The paper presents a new embedded sensor method of non-contact automatic route-finding and route-tracing for stepped robot. The final system is designed and integrated into a single hardware PCB with size of 30x30x15 mm3. A line scanning charge couple device (CCD) with 1024 pixels is used to obtain the plane scene of route, and a pair of infrared LED is employed to provide the illumination of the route-finder. Moreover, this route-finder still includes a micro lens, CCD driver, instrumentation pre-amplifier, edge extracting circuit, FPGA circuit for position measure and logic control, direction and state display of the route-finder by LED, moving direction control pins output and power manage circuits. The router-finder for stepped robot has the advantages of simple and fast operation, easy assembly with robot, small volume, high sensitivity and precision for route-finding and tracing. The paper outlines in detail the principle of the route-finding and tracing by edge extraction and edge position measure using a CCD image sensor with a micro lens assisted by infrared illumination and a FPGA circuit. Some relational edge extraction and measure algorithms suitable for embedded system with FPGA are introduced in the paper too. Finally, the actual experiment results are given.

  20. 78 FR 62712 - Rate Adjustment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ... Rate Adjustment AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a recent Postal Service filing seeking postal rate adjustments based on exigent circumstances... On September 26, 2013, the Postal Service filed an exigent rate request with the Commission...

  1. Adjustable holder for transducer mounting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deotsch, R. C.

    1980-01-01

    Positioning of acoustic sensor, strain gage, or similar transducer is facilitated by adjustable holder. Developed for installation on Space Shuttle, it includes springs for maintaining uniform load on transducer with adjustable threaded cap for precisely controlling position of sensor with respect to surrounding structure.

  2. Spousal Adjustment to Myocardial Infarction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziglar, Elisa J.

    This paper reviews the literature on the stresses and coping strategies of spouses of patients with myocardial infarction (MI). It attempts to identify specific problem areas of adjustment for the spouse and to explore the effects of spousal adjustment on patient recovery. Chapter one provides an overview of the importance in examining the…

  3. Mood Adjustment via Mass Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knobloch, Silvia

    2003-01-01

    Proposes and experimentally tests mood adjustment approach, complementing mood management theory. Discusses how results regarding self-exposure across time show that patterns of popular music listening among a group of undergraduate students differ with initial mood and anticipation, lending support to mood adjustment hypotheses. Describes how…

  4. 75 FR 55286 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Northeast Multispecies Fishery; Adjustment to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-10

    ... April 9, 2010 (75 FR 18356) as part of the Framework Adjustment 44 (FW 44) final rule. That action... constitute the sector sub-ACL for FY 2010 were initially published on April 9, 2010 (75 FR 18113), in the... published on May 26, 2010 (75 FR 29459), to adjust for final sector membership rosters. The...

  5. Computerized Bus Routing in San Francisco.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caswell, Peter J.; Jungherr, J. Anton

    1979-01-01

    A computerized routing and scheduling system for the San Francisco Public Schools includes the batch processing of bus route assignments and schedules for all schools and the online terminal processing of daily changes. (Author/MLF)

  6. Daisy Found on 'Route 66'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This composite image from the panoramic camera on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit gives an approximately true-color rendering of a daisy-like pattern of brushed circles that Spirit produced on a rock called 'Route 66.' Spirit used the rock abrasion tool to complete this 6-position 'RAT daisy' on sol 99. It took this image on sol 100, April 14, 2004.

    The purpose for these large brushings is to create a large enough patch of treated surface area for the miniature thermal emission spectrometer to analyze. Scientists had previously conducted a brushing like this one on the rock 'Mazatzal.' The brushed area of Route 66 looks very different from the brushed area of Mazatzal, leading scientists to think that the rocks although both light in tone actually have different coating types.

  7. Multicast Routing of Hierarchical Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shacham, Nachum

    1992-01-01

    The issue of multicast of broadband, real-time data in a heterogeneous environment, in which the data recipients differ in their reception abilities, is considered. Traditional multicast schemes, which are designed to deliver all the source data to all recipients, offer limited performance in such an environment, since they must either force the source to overcompress its signal or restrict the destination population to those who can receive the full signal. We present an approach for resolving this issue by combining hierarchical source coding techniques, which allow recipients to trade off reception bandwidth for signal quality, and sophisticated routing algorithms that deliver to each destination the maximum possible signal quality. The field of hierarchical coding is briefly surveyed and new multicast routing algorithms are presented. The algorithms are compared in terms of network utilization efficiency, lengths of paths, and the required mechanisms for forwarding packets on the resulting paths.

  8. Blind Alley Aware ACO Routing Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshikawa, Masaya; Otani, Kazuo

    2010-10-01

    The routing problem is applied to various engineering fields. Many researchers study this problem. In this paper, we propose a new routing algorithm which is based on Ant Colony Optimization. The proposed algorithm introduces the tabu search mechanism to escape the blind alley. Thus, the proposed algorithm enables to find the shortest route, even if the map data contains the blind alley. Experiments using map data prove the effectiveness in comparison with Dijkstra algorithm which is the most popular conventional routing algorithm.

  9. An Energy-Aware Multipath Routing Algorithm in Wireless Sensor Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Moonseong; Jeong, Euihoon; Bang, Young-Cheol; Hwang, Soyoung; Shin, Changsub; Jin, Gwang-Ja; Kim, Bongsoo

    One of the major challenges facing the design of a routing protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) is to find the most reliable path between the source and sink node. Furthermore, a routing protocol for WSN should be well aware of sensor limitations. In this paper, we present an energy efficient, scalable, and distributed node disjoint multipath routing algorithm. The proposed algorithm, the Energy-aware Multipath Routing Algorithm (EMRA), adjusts traffic flows via a novel load balancing scheme. EMRA has a higher average node energy efficiency, lower control overhead, and a shorter average delay than those of well-known previous works. Moreover, since EMRA takes into consideration network reliability, it is useful for delivering data in unreliable environments.

  10. 46 CFR 45.175 - Applicable routes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Applicable routes. 45.175 Section 45.175 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES GREAT LAKES LOAD LINES Unmanned River Barges on Lake Michigan Routes § 45.175 Applicable routes. This subpart applies to the following...

  11. 46 CFR 45.175 - Applicable routes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Applicable routes. 45.175 Section 45.175 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES GREAT LAKES LOAD LINES Unmanned River Barges on Lake Michigan Routes § 45.175 Applicable routes. This subpart applies to the following...

  12. 46 CFR 45.175 - Applicable routes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Applicable routes. 45.175 Section 45.175 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES GREAT LAKES LOAD LINES Unmanned River Barges on Lake Michigan Routes § 45.175 Applicable routes. This subpart applies to the following...

  13. 46 CFR 45.175 - Applicable routes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Applicable routes. 45.175 Section 45.175 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES GREAT LAKES LOAD LINES Unmanned River Barges on Lake Michigan Routes § 45.175 Applicable routes. This subpart applies to the following...

  14. 46 CFR 45.175 - Applicable routes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Applicable routes. 45.175 Section 45.175 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES GREAT LAKES LOAD LINES Unmanned River Barges on Lake Michigan Routes § 45.175 Applicable routes. This subpart applies to the following...

  15. Valiant load-balanced robust routing under hose model for WDM mesh networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaoning; Li, Lemin; Wang, Sheng

    2006-09-01

    In this paper, we propose Valiant Load-Balanced robust routing scheme for WDM mesh networks under the model of polyhedral uncertainty (i.e., hose model), and the proposed routing scheme is implemented with traffic grooming approach. Our Objective is to maximize the hose model throughput. A mathematic formulation of Valiant Load-Balanced robust routing is presented and three fast heuristic algorithms are also proposed. When implementing Valiant Load-Balanced robust routing scheme to WDM mesh networks, a novel traffic-grooming algorithm called MHF (minimizing hop first) is proposed. We compare the three heuristic algorithms with the VPN tree under the hose model. Finally we demonstrate in the simulation results that MHF with Valiant Load-Balanced robust routing scheme outperforms the traditional traffic-grooming algorithm in terms of the throughput for the uniform/non-uniform traffic matrix under the hose model.

  16. Adjustable Induction-Heating Coil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, Rod; Bartolotta, Paul

    1990-01-01

    Improved design for induction-heating work coil facilitates optimization of heating in different metal specimens. Three segments adjusted independently to obtain desired distribution of temperature. Reduces time needed to achieve required temperature profiles.

  17. Dynamic information routing in complex networks

    PubMed Central

    Kirst, Christoph; Timme, Marc; Battaglia, Demian

    2016-01-01

    Flexible information routing fundamentally underlies the function of many biological and artificial networks. Yet, how such systems may specifically communicate and dynamically route information is not well understood. Here we identify a generic mechanism to route information on top of collective dynamical reference states in complex networks. Switching between collective dynamics induces flexible reorganization of information sharing and routing patterns, as quantified by delayed mutual information and transfer entropy measures between activities of a network's units. We demonstrate the power of this mechanism specifically for oscillatory dynamics and analyse how individual unit properties, the network topology and external inputs co-act to systematically organize information routing. For multi-scale, modular architectures, we resolve routing patterns at all levels. Interestingly, local interventions within one sub-network may remotely determine nonlocal network-wide communication. These results help understanding and designing information routing patterns across systems where collective dynamics co-occurs with a communication function. PMID:27067257

  18. Dynamic information routing in complex networks.

    PubMed

    Kirst, Christoph; Timme, Marc; Battaglia, Demian

    2016-01-01

    Flexible information routing fundamentally underlies the function of many biological and artificial networks. Yet, how such systems may specifically communicate and dynamically route information is not well understood. Here we identify a generic mechanism to route information on top of collective dynamical reference states in complex networks. Switching between collective dynamics induces flexible reorganization of information sharing and routing patterns, as quantified by delayed mutual information and transfer entropy measures between activities of a network's units. We demonstrate the power of this mechanism specifically for oscillatory dynamics and analyse how individual unit properties, the network topology and external inputs co-act to systematically organize information routing. For multi-scale, modular architectures, we resolve routing patterns at all levels. Interestingly, local interventions within one sub-network may remotely determine nonlocal network-wide communication. These results help understanding and designing information routing patterns across systems where collective dynamics co-occurs with a communication function. PMID:27067257

  19. Dynamic information routing in complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirst, Christoph; Timme, Marc; Battaglia, Demian

    2016-04-01

    Flexible information routing fundamentally underlies the function of many biological and artificial networks. Yet, how such systems may specifically communicate and dynamically route information is not well understood. Here we identify a generic mechanism to route information on top of collective dynamical reference states in complex networks. Switching between collective dynamics induces flexible reorganization of information sharing and routing patterns, as quantified by delayed mutual information and transfer entropy measures between activities of a network's units. We demonstrate the power of this mechanism specifically for oscillatory dynamics and analyse how individual unit properties, the network topology and external inputs co-act to systematically organize information routing. For multi-scale, modular architectures, we resolve routing patterns at all levels. Interestingly, local interventions within one sub-network may remotely determine nonlocal network-wide communication. These results help understanding and designing information routing patterns across systems where collective dynamics co-occurs with a communication function.

  20. Alternative Fabrication Routes toward Oxide-Dispersion-Strengthened Steels and Model Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergner, Frank; Hilger, Isabell; Virta, Jouko; Lagerbom, Juha; Gerbeth, Gunter; Connolly, Sarah; Hong, Zuliang; Grant, Patrick S.; Weissgärber, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    The standard powder metallurgy (PM) route for the fabrication of oxide-dispersion-strengthened (ODS) steels involves gas atomization to produce a prealloyed powder, mechanical alloying (MA) with fine oxide powders, consolidation, and finally thermal/thermomechanical treatment (TMT). It is well established that ODS steels with superior property combinations, for example, creep and tensile strength, can be produced by this PM/MA route. However, the fabrication process is complex and expensive, and the fitness for scaling up to the industrial scale is limited. At the laboratory scale, production of small amounts of well-controlled model systems continues to be desirable for specific purposes, such as modeling-oriented experiments. Thus, from the laboratory to industrial application, there is growing interest in complementary or alternative fabrication routes for ODS steels and related model systems, which offer a different balance of cost, convenience, properties, and scalability. This article reviews the state of the art in ODS alloy fabrication and identifies promising new routes toward ODS steels. The PM/AM route for the fabrication of ODS steels is also described, as it is the current default process. Hybrid routes that comprise aspects of both the PM route and more radical liquid metal (LM) routes are suggested to be promising approaches for larger volumes and higher throughput of fabricated material. Although similar uniformity and refinement of the critical nanometer-sized oxide particles has not yet been demonstrated, ongoing innovations in the LM route are described, along with recent encouraging preliminary results for both extrinsic nano-oxide additions and intrinsic nano-oxide formation in variants of the LM route. Finally, physicochemical methods such as ion beam synthesis are shown to offer interesting perspectives for the fabrication of model systems. As well as literature sources, examples of progress in the authors' groups are also highlighted.

  1. Neighboring and Connectivity-Aware Routing in VANETs

    PubMed Central

    Koo, Insoo

    2014-01-01

    A novel position-based routing protocol anchor-based connectivity-aware routing (ACAR) for vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) is proposed in this paper to ensure connectivity of routes with more successfully delivered packets. Both buses and cars are considered as vehicular nodes running in both clockwise and anticlockwise directions in a city scenario. Both directions are taken into account for faster communication. ACAR is a hybrid protocol, using both the greedy forwarding approach and the store-carry-and-forward approach to minimize the packet drop rate on the basis of certain assumptions. Our solution to situations that occur when the network is sparse and when any (source or intermediate) node has left its initial position makes this protocol different from those existing in the literature. We consider only vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communication in which both the source and destination nodes are moving vehicles. Also, no road-side units are considered. Finally, we compare our protocol with A-STAR (a plausible connectivity-aware routing protocol for city environments), and simulation results in NS-2 show improvement in the number of packets delivered to the destination using fewer hops. Also, we show that ACAR has more successfully-delivered long-distance packets with reasonable packet delay than A-STAR. PMID:24982996

  2. Neighboring and connectivity-aware routing in VANETs.

    PubMed

    Ghafoor, Huma; Koo, Insoo; Gohar, Nasir-ud-Din

    2014-01-01

    A novel position-based routing protocol anchor-based connectivity-aware routing (ACAR) for vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) is proposed in this paper to ensure connectivity of routes with more successfully delivered packets. Both buses and cars are considered as vehicular nodes running in both clockwise and anticlockwise directions in a city scenario. Both directions are taken into account for faster communication. ACAR is a hybrid protocol, using both the greedy forwarding approach and the store-carry-and-forward approach to minimize the packet drop rate on the basis of certain assumptions. Our solution to situations that occur when the network is sparse and when any (source or intermediate) node has left its initial position makes this protocol different from those existing in the literature. We consider only vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communication in which both the source and destination nodes are moving vehicles. Also, no road-side units are considered. Finally, we compare our protocol with A-STAR (a plausible connectivity-aware routing protocol for city environments), and simulation results in NS-2 show improvement in the number of packets delivered to the destination using fewer hops. Also, we show that ACAR has more successfully-delivered long-distance packets with reasonable packet delay than A-STAR. PMID:24982996

  3. Route to Attosecond Nonlinear Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Reiter, F.; Kienberger, R.; Graf, U.; Schweinberger, W.; Fiess, M.; Goulielmakis, E.; Serebryannikov, E. E.; Zheltikov, A. M.; Schultze, M.; Krausz, F.; Azzeer, A. M.

    2010-12-10

    We demonstrate generation of coherent microjoule-scale, low-order harmonic supercontinua in the deep and vacuum ultraviolet (4-9 eV), resulting from the nonlinear transformations of near-single-cycle laser pulses in a gas cell. We show theoretically that their formation is connected to a novel nonlinear regime, holding promise for the generation of powerful deep-UV and vacuum ultraviolet subfemtosecond pulses. Our work opens the route to pump-probe spectroscopy of subfemtosecond-scale valence-shell phenomena in atoms, molecules, and condensed matter.

  4. Improving Operational Acceptability of Dynamic Weather Routes Through Analysis of Commonly Use Routings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Antony D.; Sridhar, Banavar; McNally, David

    2016-01-01

    The Dynamic Weather Routes (DWR) tool is a ground-based trajectory automation system that continuously and automatically analyzes active in-flight aircraft in en route airspace to find simple modifications to flight plan routes that can save significant flying time, while avoiding weather and considering traffic conflicts, airspace sector congestion, special use airspace, and FAA routing restrictions. Trials of the DWR system have shown that significant delay savings are possible. However, some DWR advised routes are also rejected by dispatchers or modified before being accepted. Similarly, of those sent by dispatchers to flight crews as proposed route change requests, many are not accepted by air traffic control, or are modified before implementation as Center route amendments. Such actions suggest that the operational acceptability of DWR advised route corrections could be improved, which may reduce workload and increase delay savings. This paper analyzes the historical usage of different flight routings, varying from simple waypoint pairs to lengthy strings of waypoints incorporating jet routes, in order to improve DWR route acceptability. An approach is developed that can be incorporated into DWR, advising routings with high historical usage and savings potential similar to that of the nominal DWR advisory. It is hypothesized that modifying a nominal DWR routing to one that is commonly used, and nearby, will result in more actual savings since common routings are generally familiar and operationally acceptable to air traffic control. The approach allows routing segments with high historical usage to be concatenated to form routes that meet all DWR constraints. The relevance of a route's historical usage to its acceptance by dispatchers and air traffic control is quantified by analyzing historical DWR data. Results indicate that while historical usage may be less of a concern to flight dispatchers accepting or rejecting DWR advised route corrections, it may be

  5. 7 CFR 251.7 - Formula adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Formula adjustments. 251.7 Section 251.7 Agriculture... GENERAL REGULATIONS AND POLICIES-FOOD DISTRIBUTION THE EMERGENCY FOOD ASSISTANCE PROGRAM § 251.7 Formula adjustments. Formula adjustments. (a) Commodity adjustments. The Department will make annual adjustments...

  6. 12 CFR 1209.80 - Inflation adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Inflation adjustments. 1209.80 Section 1209.80... PROCEDURE Civil Money Penalty Inflation Adjustments § 1209.80 Inflation adjustments. The maximum amount of... thereafter adjusted in accordance with the Inflation Adjustment Act, on a recurring four-year cycle, is...

  7. 12 CFR 1209.80 - Inflation adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Inflation adjustments. 1209.80 Section 1209.80... PROCEDURE Civil Money Penalty Inflation Adjustments § 1209.80 Inflation adjustments. The maximum amount of... thereafter adjusted in accordance with the Inflation Adjustment Act, on a recurring four-year cycle, is...

  8. 12 CFR 1209.80 - Inflation adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Inflation adjustments. 1209.80 Section 1209.80... PROCEDURE Civil Money Penalty Inflation Adjustments § 1209.80 Inflation adjustments. The maximum amount of... thereafter adjusted in accordance with the Inflation Adjustment Act, on a recurring four-year cycle, is...

  9. View southeast along Pomfret Road (Route 169) showing residence on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View southeast along Pomfret Road (Route 169) showing residence on the east side of the road - Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts of Brown Road, Canterbury Road (Route 169), Hartford Road (Route 6), Hyde Road, Pomfret Road (Route 169), Prince Hill Road, Providence Road (Route 6), Wauregan Road (Routes 169 & 205), & Wolf Den Road, Brooklyn, Windham County, CT

  10. View southeast to Canterbury Road (Route 169) showing the Israel ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View southeast to Canterbury Road (Route 169) showing the Israel Putnam Memorial - Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts of Brown Road, Canterbury Road (Route 169), Hartford Road (Route 6), Hyde Road, Pomfret Road (Route 169), Prince Hill Road, Providence Road (Route 6), Wauregan Road (Routes 169 & 205), & Wolf Den Road, Brooklyn, Windham County, CT

  11. View north along Canterbury Road (Route 169) showing residences on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View north along Canterbury Road (Route 169) showing residences on the east side of the road - Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts of Brown Road, Canterbury Road (Route 169), Hartford Road (Route 6), Hyde Road, Pomfret Road (Route 169), Prince Hill Road, Providence Road (Route 6), Wauregan Road (Routes 169 & 205), & Wolf Den Road, Brooklyn, Windham County, CT

  12. View northwest along Canterbury Road (Route 169) showing the Unitarian ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View northwest along Canterbury Road (Route 169) showing the Unitarian Church and the Federated Church of Christ - Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts of Brown Road, Canterbury Road (Route 169), Hartford Road (Route 6), Hyde Road, Pomfret Road (Route 169), Prince Hill Road, Providence Road (Route 6), Wauregan Road (Routes 169 & 205), & Wolf Den Road, Brooklyn, Windham County, CT

  13. View north along Canterbury Road (Route 169) showing residences on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View north along Canterbury Road (Route 169) showing residences on west side of the road - Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts of Brown Road, Canterbury Road (Route 169), Hartford Road (Route 6), Hyde Road, Pomfret Road (Route 169), Prince Hill Road, Providence Road (Route 6), Wauregan Road (Routes 169 & 205), & Wolf Den Road, Brooklyn, Windham County, CT

  14. View southeast across Providence Road (Route 6) showing a residence ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View southeast across Providence Road (Route 6) showing a residence on the south side of the road - Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts of Brown Road, Canterbury Road (Route 169), Hartford Road (Route 6), Hyde Road, Pomfret Road (Route 169), Prince Hill Road, Providence Road (Route 6), Wauregan Road (Routes 169 & 205), & Wolf Den Road, Brooklyn, Windham County, CT

  15. View northeast along Pomfret Road (Route 169) showing rersidences on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View northeast along Pomfret Road (Route 169) showing rersidences on the east side of the road - Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts of Brown Road, Canterbury Road (Route 169), Hartford Road (Route 6), Hyde Road, Pomfret Road (Route 169), Prince Hill Road, Providence Road (Route 6), Wauregan Road (Routes 169 & 205), & Wolf Den Road, Brooklyn, Windham County, CT

  16. View southwest along Hartford Road (Route 6) showing residences on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View southwest along Hartford Road (Route 6) showing residences on the north side of the road - Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts of Brown Road, Canterbury Road (Route 169), Hartford Road (Route 6), Hyde Road, Pomfret Road (Route 169), Prince Hill Road, Providence Road (Route 6), Wauregan Road (Routes 169 & 205), & Wolf Den Road, Brooklyn, Windham County, CT

  17. Examining the relationship between autistic traits and college adjustment.

    PubMed

    Trevisan, Dominic; Birmingham, Elina

    2016-08-01

    We examined the relationship between characteristics associated with autism spectrum disorder and college adjustment in a sample of neurotypical college students. Using the Broad Autism Phenotype Questionnaire and the Student Adaptation to College Questionnaire, we found that higher levels of autism spectrum disorder characteristics were associated with poorer adjustment to college. One subscale of the Broad Autism Phenotype Questionnaire, pragmatic language difficulties, explained the most variance in adjustment. In addition, students who met the previously established cut-off scores for possessing the broad autism phenotype scored significantly lower on all Student Adaptation to College Questionnaire subscales. Finally, pragmatic language difficulties mediated the relationship between college major and academic adjustment. These findings underscore the need for future research to examine how pragmatic language difficulties may impede college success in students with autism spectrum disorder and in the typical population. PMID:26471426

  18. Shaving Ceramic Tiles To Final Dimensions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaw, Ernest

    1992-01-01

    Combination of template and routing tool cuts ceramic tiles to final dimensions. Template guides router along precisely defined planes to accurately and uniformly shave chamfers on edge of tiles. Legs of template temporarily bonded to workpiece by double-backed adhesive tape. Adaptable to in-situ final machining of other nominally flat, narrow surfaces.

  19. 77 FR 64431 - Civil Monetary Penalty Inflation Adjustment Rule

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-22

    ... Surface Transportation Board 49 CFR Part 1022 Civil Monetary Penalty Inflation Adjustment Rule AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Surface Transportation Board (Board) is... reference Docket No. EP 716 and be in writing addressed to: Office of Proceedings, Surface...

  20. 78 FR 14179 - Adjustments to Civil Monetary Penalty Amounts

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-05

    ... Monetary Penalty Amounts, Release No. 33-8530 (Feb. 4, 2005) [70 FR 7606 (Feb. 14, 2005)]. The DCIA... Commission. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This rule implements the Federal Civil Penalties Inflation... a rule adjusting for inflation the maximum amount of civil monetary penalties under the...

  1. 77 FR 60047 - Adjustment of Civil Monetary Penalties for Inflation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-02

    ... most recent cost adjustment to each CMP in the Federal Register on January 4, 2005 (70 FR 297), and... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION 34... Education. ACTION: Final regulations. SUMMARY: The Department of Education (Department) issues these...

  2. 78 FR 17102 - Setting and Adjusting Patent Fees; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-20

    .... See Setting and Adjusting Patent Fees, 78 FR 4212 (Jan. 18, 2013) (``Fee Setting final rule''). This...''); Changes to Implement Micro Entity Status for Paying Patent Fees, 77 FR 75019 (Dec. 19, 2012) (``Micro... regulations that were published in the Federal Register on January 18, 2013 (78 FR 4212) (``Fee Setting...

  3. 75 FR 29577 - Rate Adjustments for Indian Irrigation Projects

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-26

    ... rates for the 2011 season for the San Carlos Irrigation Project (74 FR 40227).) Final Project name Rate... published in the Federal Register on October 23, 2009 (74 FR 54846) to propose adjustments to the irrigation... rates for the 2011 season in the Federal Register on October 23, 2009 (74 FR 54848), and we will...

  4. Cascade defense via routing in complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiao-Lan; Du, Wen-Bo; Hong, Chen

    2015-05-01

    As the cascading failures in networked traffic systems are becoming more and more serious, research on cascade defense in complex networks has become a hotspot in recent years. In this paper, we propose a traffic-based cascading failure model, in which each packet in the network has its own source and destination. When cascade is triggered, packets will be redistributed according to a given routing strategy. Here, a global hybrid (GH) routing strategy, which uses the dynamic information of the queue length and the static information of nodes' degree, is proposed to defense the network cascade. Comparing GH strategy with the shortest path (SP) routing, efficient routing (ER) and global dynamic (GD) routing strategies, we found that GH strategy is more effective than other routing strategies in improving the network robustness against cascading failures. Our work provides insight into the robustness of networked traffic systems.

  5. Isomorphic routing on a toroidal mesh

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mao, Weizhen; Nicol, David M.

    1993-01-01

    We study a routing problem that arises on SIMD parallel architectures whose communication network forms a toroidal mesh. We assume there exists a set of k message descriptors (xi, yi), where (xi, yi) indicates that the ith message's recipient is offset from its sender by xi hops in one mesh dimension, and yi hops in the other. Every processor has k messages to send, and all processors use the same set of message routing descriptors. The SIMD constraint implies that at any routing step, every processor is actively routing messages with the same descriptors as any other processor. We call this isomorphic routing. Our objective is to find the isomorphic routing schedule with least makespan. We consider a number of variations on the problem, yielding complexity results from O(k) to NP-complete. Most of our results follow after we transform the problem into a scheduling problem, where it is related to other well-known scheduling problems.

  6. Near real-time traffic routing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Chaowei (Inventor); Cao, Ying (Inventor); Xie, Jibo (Inventor); Zhou, Bin (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A near real-time physical transportation network routing system comprising: a traffic simulation computing grid and a dynamic traffic routing service computing grid. The traffic simulator produces traffic network travel time predictions for a physical transportation network using a traffic simulation model and common input data. The physical transportation network is divided into a multiple sections. Each section has a primary zone and a buffer zone. The traffic simulation computing grid includes multiple of traffic simulation computing nodes. The common input data includes static network characteristics, an origin-destination data table, dynamic traffic information data and historical traffic data. The dynamic traffic routing service computing grid includes multiple dynamic traffic routing computing nodes and generates traffic route(s) using the traffic network travel time predictions.

  7. Vehicle routing problem in investment fund allocation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamat, Nur Jumaadzan Zaleha; Jaaman, Saiful Hafizah; Ahmad, Rokiah Rozita; Mohd, Ismail

    2013-04-01

    Since its introduction by Dantzig and Ramser in 1959, vehicle routing problem keeps evolving in theories, applications and variability. The evolution in computing and technology are also important contributors to research in solving vehicle routing problem. The main sectors of interests among researchers and practitioners for vehicle routing problem are transportation, distribution and logistics. However, literature found that concept and benefits of vehicle routing problem are not taken advantages of by researchers in the field of investment. Other methods found used in investment include multi-objective programming, linear programming, goal programming and integer programming. Yet the application of vehicle routing problem is not fully explored. A proposal on a framework of the fund allocation optimization using vehicle routing problem is presented here. Preliminary results using FTSE Bursa Malaysia data testing the framework are also given.

  8. Zone routing in a torus network

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Dong; Heidelberger, Philip; Kumar, Sameer

    2013-01-29

    A system for routing data in a network comprising a network logic device at a sending node for determining a path between the sending node and a receiving node, wherein the network logic device sets one or more selection bits and one or more hint bits within the data packet, a control register for storing one or more masks, wherein the network logic device uses the one or more selection bits to select a mask from the control register and the network logic device applies the selected mask to the hint bits to restrict routing of the data packet to one or more routing directions for the data packet within the network and selects one of the restricted routing directions from the one or more routing directions and sends the data packet along a link in the selected routing direction toward the receiving node.

  9. Interface Supports Lightweight Subsystem Routing for Flight Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lux, James P.; Block, Gary L.; Ahmad, Mohammad; Whitaker, William D.; Dillon, James W.

    2010-01-01

    A wireless avionics interface exploits the constrained nature of data networks in flight systems to use a lightweight routing method. This simplified routing means that a processor is not required, and the logic can be implemented as an intellectual property (IP) core in a field-programmable gate array (FPGA). The FPGA can be shared with the flight subsystem application. In addition, the router is aware of redundant subsystems, and can be configured to provide hot standby support as part of the interface. This simplifies implementation of flight applications requiring hot stand - by support. When a valid inbound packet is received from the network, the destination node address is inspected to determine whether the packet is to be processed by this node. Each node has routing tables for the next neighbor node to guide the packet to the destination node. If it is to be processed, the final packet destination is inspected to determine whether the packet is to be forwarded to another node, or routed locally. If the packet is local, it is sent to an Applications Data Interface (ADI), which is attached to a local flight application. Under this scheme, an interface can support many applications in a subsystem supporting a high level of subsystem integration. If the packet is to be forwarded to another node, it is sent to the outbound packet router. The outbound packet router receives packets from an ADI or a packet to be forwarded. It then uses a lookup table to determine the next destination for the packet. Upon detecting a remote subsystem failure, the routing table can be updated to autonomously bypass the failed subsystem.

  10. Advances in optimal routing through computer networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paz, I. M.

    1977-01-01

    The optimal routing problem is defined. Progress in solving the problem during the previous decade is reviewed, with special emphasis on technical developments made during the last few years. The relationships between the routing, the throughput, and the switching technology used are discussed and their future trends are reviewed. Economic aspects are also briefly considered. Modern technical approaches for handling the routing problems and, more generally, the flow control problems are reviewed.

  11. Adjustable spacer with rotational lock

    SciTech Connect

    Bowyer, M.L.

    1984-02-28

    A spacing apparatus for tubing conduit in a subterranean well, normally for use with an electric component with a longitudinally extending external electrical cable, permits irrotational adjustment of the length of the tubing conduit. The spacing apparatus comprises telescoping members which are keyed to prevent rotation therebetween. A threaded member, longitudinally fixed relative to one longitudinal member, normally engages threads extending substantially along the entire length of the other telescoping member. Movement of a retaining sleeve permits disengagement of the threaded segments which ratchet along the threads during telescoping movement. The length of the conduit can thus be irrotationally adjusted to remove slack from the electrical cable.

  12. Convective adjustment in baroclinic atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emanuel, Kerry A.

    1986-01-01

    Local convection in planetary atmospheres is generally considered to result from the action of gravity on small regions of anomalous density. That in rotating baroclinic fluids the total potential energy for small scale convection contains a centrifugal as well as a gravitational contribution is shown. Convective adjustment in such an atmosphere results in the establishment of near adiabatic lapse rates of temperature along suitably defined surfaces of constant angular momentum, rather than in the vertical. This leads in general to sub-adiabatic vertical lapse rates. That such an adjustment actually occurs in the earth's atmosphere is shown by example and the magnitude of the effect for several other planetary atmospheres is estimated.

  13. 75 FR 33379 - Railroad Cost Recovery Procedures-Productivity Adjustment; Quarterly Rail Cost Adjustment Factor

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-11

    ... Surface Transportation Board Railroad Cost Recovery Procedures--Productivity Adjustment; Quarterly Rail... Railroads that the Board restate the previously published productivity adjustment for the 2003-2007 averaging period (2007 productivity adjustment) so that it tracks the 2007 productivity adjustment...

  14. Unified structural approach to linear flood routing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kundzewicz, Zbigniew W.; Dooge, James C. I.

    The structural theory of linear systems, which allows the non-homogeneous initial and boundary conditions to be expressed as part of a generalised system input, is applied to the problem of linear flood routing. The standardising functions needed to accomplish this are derived for three methods of lumped hydrologic flood routing (lag and route, Muskingum and Kalinin-Milyukov) and to three methods of distributed hydraulic flood routing (kinematic wave and two simplified forms of the linear St. Venant model). The appropriate Green's functions needed to complete the solution for these six cases are also presented.

  15. Topics in route-regression analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Geissler, P.H.; Sauer, J.R.

    1990-01-01

    The route-regression method has been used in recent years to analyze data from roadside surveys. With this method, a population trend is estimated for each route in a region, then regional trends are estimated as a weighted mean of the individual route trends. This method can accurately incorporate data that is unbalanced by changes in years surveyed and observer differences. We suggest that route-regression methodology is most efficient in the estimation of long-term (>5 year) trends, and tends to provide conservative results for low-density species.

  16. Practicing more retrieval routes leads to greater memory retention.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jun; Zhang, Wei; Li, Tongtong; Liu, Zhaomin; Luo, Liang

    2016-09-01

    A wealth of research has shown that retrieval practice plays a significant role in improving memory retention. The current study focused on one simple yet rarely examined question: would repeated retrieval using two different retrieval routes or using the same retrieval route twice lead to greater long-term memory retention? Participants elaborately learned 22 Japanese-Chinese translation word pairs using two different mediators. Half an hour after the initial study phase, the participants completed two retrieval sessions using either one mediator (Tm1Tm1) or two different mediators (Tm1Tm2). On the final test, which was performed 1week after the retrieval practice phase, the participants received only the cue with a request to report the mediator (M1 or M2) followed by the target (Experiment 1) or only the mediator (M1 or M2) with a request to report the target (Experiment 2). The results of Experiment 1 indicated that the participants who practiced under the Tm1Tm2 condition exhibited greater target retention than those who practiced under the Tm1Tm1 condition. This difference in performance was due to the significant disadvantage in mediator retrieval and decoding of the unpracticed mediator under the Tm1Tm1 condition. Although mediators were provided to participants on the final test in Experiment 2, decoding of the unpracticed mediators remained less effective than decoding of the practiced mediators. We conclude that practicing multiple retrieval routes leads to greater memory retention than focusing on a single retrieval route. Thus, increasing retrieval variability during repeated retrieval practice indeed significantly improves long-term retention in a delay test. PMID:27270228

  17. Routing Issues in Opportunistic Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conti, Marco; Crowcroft, Jon; Giordano, Silvia; Hui, Pan; Nguyen, Hoang Anh; Passarella, Andrea

    The opportunistic networking idea stems from the critical review of the research field on Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANET). After more than ten years of research in the MANET field, this promising technology still has not massively entered the mass market. One of the main reasons of this is nowadays seen in the lack of a practical approach to the design of infrastructure-less multi-hop ad hoc networks [186, 185]. One of the main approaches of conventional MANET research is to design protocols that mask the features of mobile networks via the routing (and transport) layer, so as to expose to higher layers an Internet-like network abstraction. Wireless networks’ peculiarities, such as mobility of users, disconnection of nodes, network partitions, links’ instability, are seen—as in the legacy Internet—as exceptions. This often results in the design of MANET network stacks that are significantly complex and unstable [107].

  18. PTA en route noise measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willshire, William L., Jr.; Garber, Donald P.

    1990-01-01

    A long-range advanced turboprop en route noise database was obtained with weather, tracking, and onboard measurements. In-flight noise directivity measurements were made. Data repeatability within a test day was excellent. Day-to-day variability existed and is not completely understood and therefore not predicted. Comparison of a two-dimensional ray-tracing propagation model with the ensemble average ground-measured data was good; however, as stated above, the day-to-day data variability was not completely predicted. Future research will include looking at alternative propagation models. Three-dimensional ray tracing, fast field program, and the parabolic equation are possibilities. The effect of turbulence needs to be accessed.

  19. Routing and Allocation of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles with Communication Considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabo, Chelsea

    solution. The algorithm is a cluster-first, route-second approach, but differs from conventional Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP) solutions in that the number of clusters is not necessarily equal to the number of vehicles. Because of this, a unique approach to clustering is adopted to form clusters using hierarchical agglomerative clustering and fuzzy logic. Based on a detailed Monte Carlo analysis, the heuristic algorithm showed near-optimal (within ˜5%) results calculable in real-time (allowing it to be used in dynamic scenarios too) and scaled to much larger problem sizes. Furthermore, the performance was analyzed under varying degrees of dynamism and arrival rates. Results showed good performance, and found the boundaries for the regions of light and heavy load cases for a single vehicle to be about 0.3 and 4 requests an hour, respectively. Finally, both static and dynamic cases were validated in flight testing, highlighting the usability of this approach.

  20. Medicare Program; Hospital Inpatient Prospective Payment Systems for Acute Care Hospitals and the Long-Term Care Hospital Prospective Payment System Policy Changes and Fiscal Year 2016 Rates; Revisions of Quality Reporting Requirements for Specific Providers, Including Changes Related to the Electronic Health Record Incentive Program; Extensions of the Medicare-Dependent, Small Rural Hospital Program and the Low-Volume Payment Adjustment for Hospitals. Final rule; interim final rule with comment period.

    PubMed

    2015-08-17

    We are revising the Medicare hospital inpatient prospective payment systems (IPPS) for operating and capital related costs of acute care hospitals to implement changes arising from our continuing experience with these systems for FY 2016. Some of these changes implement certain statutory provisions contained in the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010 (collectively known as the Affordable Care Act), the Pathway for Sustainable Growth Reform(SGR) Act of 2013, the Protecting Access to Medicare Act of 2014, the Improving Medicare Post-Acute Care Transformation Act of 2014, the Medicare Access and CHIP Reauthorization Act of 2015, and other legislation. We also are addressing the update of the rate-of-increase limits for certain hospitals excluded from the IPPS that are paid on a reasonable cost basis subject to these limits for FY 2016.As an interim final rule with comment period, we are implementing the statutory extensions of the Medicare dependent,small rural hospital (MDH)Program and changes to the payment adjustment for low-volume hospitals under the IPPS.We also are updating the payment policies and the annual payment rates for the Medicare prospective payment system (PPS) for inpatient hospital services provided by long-term care hospitals (LTCHs) for FY 2016 and implementing certain statutory changes to the LTCH PPS under the Affordable Care Act and the Pathway for Sustainable Growth Rate (SGR) Reform Act of 2013 and the Protecting Access to Medicare Act of 2014.In addition, we are establishing new requirements or revising existing requirements for quality reporting by specific providers (acute care hospitals,PPS-exempt cancer hospitals, and LTCHs) that are participating in Medicare, including related provisions for eligible hospitals and critical access hospitals participating in the Medicare Electronic Health Record (EHR)Incentive Program. We also are updating policies relating to the

  1. Transportation Routing Analysis Geographic Information System -- TRAGIS, progress on improving a routing tool

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, P.E.; Lester, P.B.

    1998-05-01

    The Transportation Routing Analysis Geographic Information System (TRAGIS) model provides a useful tool to calculate and analyze transportation routes for radioactive materials within the continental US. This paper outlines some of the features available in this model.

  2. Visual adjustments to temporal blur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilson, Aaron C.; Mizokami, Yoko; Webster, Michael A.

    2005-10-01

    After observers have adapted to an edge that is spatially blurred or sharpened, a focused edge appears too sharp or blurred, respectively. These adjustments to blur may play an important role in calibrating spatial sensitivity. We examined whether similar adjustments influence the perception of temporal edges, by measuring the appearance of a step change in the luminance of a uniform field after adapting to blurred or sharpened transitions. Stimuli were square-wave alternations (at 1 to 8 Hz) filtered by changing the slope of the amplitude spectrum. A two-alternative-forced-choice task was used to adjust the slope until it appeared as a step change, or until it matched the perceived transitions in a reference stimulus. Observers could accurately set the waveform to a square wave, but only at the slower alternation rates. However, these settings were strongly biased by prior adaptation to filtered stimuli, or when the stimuli were viewed within temporally filtered surrounds. Control experiments suggest that the latter induction effects result directly from the temporal blur and are not simply a consequence of brightness induction in the fields. These results suggest that adaptation and induction adjust visual coding so that images are focused not only in space but also in time.

  3. Self-Adjusting Fluency Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Phillip

    1998-01-01

    Presents a rationale and methodology for a self-adjusting "fluency sensitive" approach to working with children who exhibit overt speech-fluency interruptions and a minimal amount of avoidance behavior. The approach emphasizes repeated experiences of volitional increases and decreases in loudness and pauses. Case examples demonstrate how several…

  4. Adjustable Walker for the Handicapped

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kitts, R. G.

    1984-01-01

    Front legs adjust at touch of lever for use on stairs or ramps. Spring loaded legs extend when lever is depressed by user. Legs lock in position when lever is released. Lever mounted on either side of walker or on both sides, so legs operated independently.

  5. Adjustable Optical-Fiber Attenuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buzzetti, Mike F.

    1994-01-01

    Adjustable fiber-optic attenuator utilizes bending loss to reduce strength of light transmitted along it. Attenuator functions without introducing measurable back-reflection or insertion loss. Relatively insensitive to vibration and changes in temperature. Potential applications include cable television, telephone networks, other signal-distribution networks, and laboratory instrumentation.

  6. Adjustable-Angle Drill Block

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallimore, F. H.

    1986-01-01

    Adjustable angular drill block accurately transfers hole patterns from mating surfaces not normal to each other. Block applicable to transfer of nonperpendicular holes in mating contoured assemblies in aircraft industry. Also useful in general manufacturing to transfer mating installation holes to irregular and angular surfaces.

  7. Economic Pressures and Family Adjustment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haccoun, Dorothy Markiewicz; Ledingham, Jane E.

    The relationships between economic stress on the family and child and parental adjustment were examined for a sample of 199 girls and boys in grades one, four, and seven. These associations were examined separately for families in which both parents were present and in which mothers only were at home. Economic stress was associated with boys'…

  8. View northeast along Wauregan Road (Route 205) showing a residence ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View northeast along Wauregan Road (Route 205) showing a residence on east side of the road from just south of the intersection of Routes 205 and 169 - Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts of Brown Road, Canterbury Road (Route 169), Hartford Road (Route 6), Hyde Road, Pomfret Road (Route 169), Prince Hill Road, Providence Road (Route 6), Wauregan Road (Routes 169 & 205), & Wolf Den Road, Brooklyn, Windham County, CT

  9. What Is the Best Route? Route-Finding Strategies of Middle School Students Using GIS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wigglesivorth, John C.

    2003-01-01

    This paper summarizes a research project conducted to investigate the strategies developed by middle school students to solve a route-finding problem using Arc View GIS software. Three different types of route-finding strategies were identified. Some students were visual route-finders and used a highly visual strategy; others were logical route…

  10. 7 CFR 1001.3 - Route disposition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Route disposition. 1001.3 Section 1001.3 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Definitions § 1001.3 Route disposition. See § 1000.3....

  11. 46 CFR 176.110 - Routes permitted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Routes permitted. 176.110 Section 176.110 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION General Provisions; Certificate of Inspection § 176.110 Routes permitted....

  12. 46 CFR 176.110 - Routes permitted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Routes permitted. 176.110 Section 176.110 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Certificate of Inspection § 176.110 Routes permitted. (a) The area of...

  13. 46 CFR 176.110 - Routes permitted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Routes permitted. 176.110 Section 176.110 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION General Provisions; Certificate of Inspection § 176.110 Routes permitted....

  14. 46 CFR 176.110 - Routes permitted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Routes permitted. 176.110 Section 176.110 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION General Provisions; Certificate of Inspection § 176.110 Routes permitted....

  15. 46 CFR 176.110 - Routes permitted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Routes permitted. 176.110 Section 176.110 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Certificate of Inspection § 176.110 Routes permitted. (a) The area of...

  16. PC - POLLUTANT ROUTING MODEL (PC-PROUTE)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The PC - Pollutant Routing Model (PC-Proute) is a simple first order decay routing model that estimates aqueous pollutant concentrations on a reach by reach stream flow basis. PC-Proute is similar to the RGDS model; however it utilizes an improved method of estimating average rea...

  17. Express Routing Transportation Surveys. Research Department Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Peter D.

    Express routing, under consideration by San Diego (California) Public Schools, is a form of bus transportation that picks up and drops off students at centralized points instead of driving through residential neighborhoods. This report examines other, similar districts' experiences in applying express routing in integration and other school…

  18. Mental Effort in Mobility Route Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinsen, Harald; Tellevik, Jon Magne; Elmerskog, Bengt; Storlilokken, Magnar

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the mental effort required to monitor landmarks and the effect of the type of route on mobility-route training. The results revealed that the features of landmarks and competence in travel were significantly related, indicating that some environmental factors related to height and width are more easily learned when people can…

  19. 46 CFR 169.209 - Routes permitted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Routes permitted. 169.209 Section 169.209 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Inspection and Certification Certificate of Inspection § 169.209 Routes permitted. (a) The area of operation...

  20. 46 CFR 169.209 - Routes permitted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Routes permitted. 169.209 Section 169.209 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Inspection and Certification Certificate of Inspection § 169.209 Routes permitted. (a) The area of operation...

  1. 46 CFR 169.209 - Routes permitted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Routes permitted. 169.209 Section 169.209 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Inspection and Certification Certificate of Inspection § 169.209 Routes permitted. (a) The area of operation...

  2. 46 CFR 169.209 - Routes permitted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Routes permitted. 169.209 Section 169.209 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Inspection and Certification Certificate of Inspection § 169.209 Routes permitted. (a) The area of operation...

  3. 46 CFR 169.209 - Routes permitted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Routes permitted. 169.209 Section 169.209 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Inspection and Certification Certificate of Inspection § 169.209 Routes permitted. (a) The area of operation...

  4. Using Collective Intelligence to Route Internet Traffic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolpert, David H.; Tumer, Kagan; Frank, Jeremy

    1998-01-01

    A Collective Intelligence (COIN) is a community of interacting reinforcement learning (RL) algorithms designed so that their collective behavior maximizes a global utility function. We introduce the theory of COINs, then present experiments using that theory to design COINs to control internet traffic routing. These experiments indicate that COINs outperform previous RL-based systems for such routing that have previously been investigated.

  5. Parallel algorithms for placement and routing in VLSI design. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brouwer, Randall Jay

    1991-01-01

    The computational requirements for high quality synthesis, analysis, and verification of very large scale integration (VLSI) designs have rapidly increased with the fast growing complexity of these designs. Research in the past has focused on the development of heuristic algorithms, special purpose hardware accelerators, or parallel algorithms for the numerous design tasks to decrease the time required for solution. Two new parallel algorithms are proposed for two VLSI synthesis tasks, standard cell placement and global routing. The first algorithm, a parallel algorithm for global routing, uses hierarchical techniques to decompose the routing problem into independent routing subproblems that are solved in parallel. Results are then presented which compare the routing quality to the results of other published global routers and which evaluate the speedups attained. The second algorithm, a parallel algorithm for cell placement and global routing, hierarchically integrates a quadrisection placement algorithm, a bisection placement algorithm, and the previous global routing algorithm. Unique partitioning techniques are used to decompose the various stages of the algorithm into independent tasks which can be evaluated in parallel. Finally, results are presented which evaluate the various algorithm alternatives and compare the algorithm performance to other placement programs. Measurements are presented on the parallel speedups available.

  6. Routing and Scheduling Algorithms for WirelessHART Networks: A Survey

    PubMed Central

    Nobre, Marcelo; Silva, Ivanovitch; Guedes, Luiz Affonso

    2015-01-01

    Wireless communication is a trend nowadays for the industrial environment. A number of different technologies have emerged as solutions satisfying strict industrial requirements (e.g., WirelessHART, ISA100.11a, WIA-PA). As the industrial environment presents a vast range of applications, adopting an adequate solution for each case is vital to obtain good performance of the system. In this context, the routing and scheduling schemes associated with these technologies have a direct impact on important features, like latency and energy consumption. This situation has led to the development of a vast number of routing and scheduling schemes. In the present paper, we focus on the WirelessHART technology, emphasizing its most important routing and scheduling aspects in order to guide both end users and the developers of new algorithms. Furthermore, we provide a detailed literature review of the newest routing and scheduling techniques for WirelessHART, discussing each of their features. These routing algorithms have been evaluated in terms of their objectives, metrics, the usage of the WirelessHART structures and validation method. In addition, the scheduling algorithms were also evaluated by metrics, validation, objectives and, in addition, by multiple superframe support, as well as by the redundancy method used. Moreover, this paper briefly presents some insights into the main WirelessHART simulation modules available, in order to provide viable test platforms for the routing and scheduling algorithms. Finally, some open issues in WirelessHART routing and scheduling algorithms are discussed. PMID:25919371

  7. 12 CFR 19.240 - Inflation adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inflation adjustments. 19.240 Section 19.240... PROCEDURE Civil Money Penalty Inflation Adjustments § 19.240 Inflation adjustments. (a) The maximum amount... Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act of 1990 (28 U.S.C. 2461 note) as follows: ER10NO08.001 (b)...

  8. 12 CFR 19.240 - Inflation adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Inflation adjustments. 19.240 Section 19.240... PROCEDURE Civil Money Penalty Inflation Adjustments § 19.240 Inflation adjustments. (a) The maximum amount... Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act of 1990 (28 U.S.C. 2461 note) as follows: ER10NO08.001 (b)...

  9. 12 CFR 19.240 - Inflation adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Inflation adjustments. 19.240 Section 19.240... PROCEDURE Civil Money Penalty Inflation Adjustments § 19.240 Inflation adjustments. (a) The maximum amount... Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act of 1990 (28 U.S.C. 2461 note) as follows: ER10NO08.001 (b)...

  10. Cultural Adjustment and the Puerto Rican.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prewitt-Diaz, Joseph O.

    This review of the literature on cultural adjustment is divided into four sections: the nature of cultural adjustment; acculturation as a model of cultural adjustment; psychological responses to acculturation; and a model of cultural adjustment developed by the author as a result of his immigration from Puerto Rico to the United States mainland.…

  11. Adjusting to University: The Hong Kong Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yau, Hon Keung; Sun, Hongyi; Cheng, Alison Lai Fong

    2012-01-01

    Students' adjustment to the university environment is an important factor in predicting university outcomes and is crucial to their future achievements. University support to students' transition to university life can be divided into three dimensions: academic adjustment, social adjustment and psychological adjustment. However, these…

  12. Routing Protocols in Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Villalba, Luis Javier García; Orozco, Ana Lucila Sandoval; Cabrera, Alicia Triviño; Abbas, Cláudia Jacy Barenco

    2009-01-01

    The applications of wireless sensor networks comprise a wide variety of scenarios. In most of them, the network is composed of a significant number of nodes deployed in an extensive area in which not all nodes are directly connected. Then, the data exchange is supported by multihop communications. Routing protocols are in charge of discovering and maintaining the routes in the network. However, the appropriateness of a particular routing protocol mainly depends on the capabilities of the nodes and on the application requirements. This paper presents a review of the main routing protocols proposed for wireless sensor networks. Additionally, the paper includes the efforts carried out by Spanish universities on developing optimization techniques in the area of routing protocols for wireless sensor networks. PMID:22291515

  13. Highway and interline transportation routing models

    SciTech Connect

    Joy, D.S.; Johnson, P.E.

    1994-06-01

    The potential impacts associated with the transportation of hazardous materials are important issues to shippers, carriers, and the general public. Since transportation routes are a central characteristic in most of these issues, the prediction of likely routes is the first step toward the resolution of these issues. In addition, US Department of Transportation requirements (HM-164) mandate specific routes for shipments of highway controlled quantities of radioactive materials. In response to these needs, two routing models have been developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). These models have been designated by DOE`s Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, Transportation Management Division (DOE/EM) as the official DOE routing models. Both models, HIGHWAY and INTERLINE, are described.

  14. Individuality in bird migration: routes and timing.

    PubMed

    Vardanis, Yannis; Klaassen, Raymond H G; Strandberg, Roine; Alerstam, Thomas

    2011-08-23

    The exploration of animal migration has entered a new era with individual-based tracking during multiple years. Here, we investigated repeated migratory journeys of a long-distance migrating bird, the marsh harrier Circus aeruginosus, in order to analyse the variation within and between individuals with respect to routes and timing. We found that there was a stronger individual repeatability in time than in space. Thus, the annual timing of migration varied much less between repeated journeys of the same individual than between different individuals, while there was considerable variation in the routes of the same individual on repeated journeys. The overall contrast in repeatability between time and space was unexpected and may be owing to strong endogenous control of timing, while short-term variation in environmental conditions (weather and habitat) might promote route flexibility. The individual variation in migration routes indicates that the birds navigate mainly by other means than detailed route recapitulation based on landmark recognition. PMID:21307045

  15. Study on Posture Adjusting System of Spacecraft Based on Stewart Mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Feng; Feng, Wei; Dai, Wei-Bing; Yi, Wang-Min; Liu, Guang-Tong; Zheng, Sheng-Yu

    In this paper, the design principles of adjusting parallel mechanisms is introduced, including mechanical subsystem, control sub-system and software sub-system. According to the design principles, key technologies for system of adjusting parallel mechanisms are analyzed. Finally, design specifications for system of adjusting parallel mechanisms are proposed based on requirement of spacecraft integration and it can apply to cabin docking, solar array panel docking and camera docking.

  16. Method and System For an Automated Tool for En Route Traffic Controllers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erzberger, Heinz (Inventor); McNally, B. David (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A method and system for a new automation tool for en route air traffic controllers first finds all aircraft flying on inefficient routes, then determines whether it is possible to save time by bypassing some route segments, and finally whether the improved route is free of conflicts with other aircraft. The method displays all direct-to eligible aircraft to an air traffic controller in a list sorted by highest time savings. By allowing the air traffic controller to easily identify and work with the highest pay-off aircraft, the method of the present invention contributes to a significant increase in both air traffic controller and aircraft productivity. A graphical computer interface (GUI) is used to enable the air traffic controller to send the aircraft direct to a waypoint or fix closer to the destination airport by a simple point and click action.

  17. Method and system for an automated tool for en route traffic controllers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erzberger, Heinz (Inventor); McNally, B. David (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A method and system for a new automation tool for en route air traffic controllers first finds all aircraft flying on inefficient routes, then determines whether it is possible to save time by bypassing some route segments, and finally whether the improved route is free of conflicts with other aircraft. The method displays all direct-to eligible aircraft to an air traffic controller in a list sorted by highest time savings. By allowing the air traffic controller to easily identify and work with the highest pay-off aircraft, the method of the present invention contributes to a significant increase in both air traffic controller and aircraft productivity. A graphical computer interface (GUI) is used to enable the air traffic controller to send the aircraft direct to a waypoint or fix closer to the destination airport by a simple point and click action.

  18. A Comparative Study of Wireless Sensor Networks and Their Routing Protocols

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharyya, Debnath; Kim, Tai-hoon; Pal, Subhajit

    2010-01-01

    Recent developments in the area of micro-sensor devices have accelerated advances in the sensor networks field leading to many new protocols specifically designed for wireless sensor networks (WSNs). Wireless sensor networks with hundreds to thousands of sensor nodes can gather information from an unattended location and transmit the gathered data to a particular user, depending on the application. These sensor nodes have some constraints due to their limited energy, storage capacity and computing power. Data are routed from one node to other using different routing protocols. There are a number of routing protocols for wireless sensor networks. In this review article, we discuss the architecture of wireless sensor networks. Further, we categorize the routing protocols according to some key factors and summarize their mode of operation. Finally, we provide a comparative study on these various protocols. PMID:22163483

  19. Optimization for Service Routes of Pallet Service Center Based on the Pallet Pool Mode

    PubMed Central

    He, Shiwei; Song, Rui

    2016-01-01

    Service routes optimization (SRO) of pallet service center should meet customers' demand firstly and then, through the reasonable method of lines organization, realize the shortest path of vehicle driving. The routes optimization of pallet service center is similar to the distribution problems of vehicle routing problem (VRP) and Chinese postman problem (CPP), but it has its own characteristics. Based on the relevant research results, the conditions of determining the number of vehicles, the one way of the route, the constraints of loading, and time windows are fully considered, and a chance constrained programming model with stochastic constraints is constructed taking the shortest path of all vehicles for a delivering (recycling) operation as an objective. For the characteristics of the model, a hybrid intelligent algorithm including stochastic simulation, neural network, and immune clonal algorithm is designed to solve the model. Finally, the validity and rationality of the optimization model and algorithm are verified by the case. PMID:27528865

  20. Fuzzy Multiple Metrics Link Assessment for Routing in Mobile Ad-Hoc Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soo, Ai Luang; Tan, Chong Eng; Tay, Kai Meng

    2011-06-01

    In this work, we investigate on the use of Sugeno fuzzy inference system (FIS) in route selection for mobile Ad-Hoc networks (MANETs). Sugeno FIS is introduced into Ad-Hoc On Demand Multipath Distance Vector (AOMDV) routing protocol, which is derived from its predecessor, Ad-Hoc On Demand Distance Vector (AODV). Instead of using the conventional way that considering only a single metric to choose the best route, our proposed fuzzy decision making model considers up to three metrics. In the model, the crisp inputs of the three parameters are fed into an FIS and being processed in stages, i.e., fuzzification, inference, and defuzzification. Finally, after experiencing all the stages, a single value score is generated from the combination metrics, which will be used to measure all the discovered routes credibility. Results obtained from simulations show a promising improvement as compared to AOMDV and AODV.

  1. Optimization for Service Routes of Pallet Service Center Based on the Pallet Pool Mode.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Kang; He, Shiwei; Song, Rui

    2016-01-01

    Service routes optimization (SRO) of pallet service center should meet customers' demand firstly and then, through the reasonable method of lines organization, realize the shortest path of vehicle driving. The routes optimization of pallet service center is similar to the distribution problems of vehicle routing problem (VRP) and Chinese postman problem (CPP), but it has its own characteristics. Based on the relevant research results, the conditions of determining the number of vehicles, the one way of the route, the constraints of loading, and time windows are fully considered, and a chance constrained programming model with stochastic constraints is constructed taking the shortest path of all vehicles for a delivering (recycling) operation as an objective. For the characteristics of the model, a hybrid intelligent algorithm including stochastic simulation, neural network, and immune clonal algorithm is designed to solve the model. Finally, the validity and rationality of the optimization model and algorithm are verified by the case. PMID:27528865

  2. Mining machine with adjustable jib

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, D.

    1987-05-26

    A mining machine is described having a pair of crawler tracks, a means for individually driving each of the crawler tracks, a frame mounted on the crawler tracks, an elongated jib carrying a sprocket at each end, an endless cutting chain supported on the sprockets, cutters and loading flights mounted on the endless cutting chain, and means on the frame supporting the elongated jib. The means support the elongated jib consisting of a bridge on the frame, at least one scissors linkage pivotally mounted on the bridge, and arm having a first end attached to the scissors linkage, a front plate mounted on the second end of the arm and means adjustably mounting the elongated jib on the front plate. The means adjustably mount the elongated jib on the front plate including a first means for rotating the elongated jib between a vertical position and a horizontal position.

  3. Drug targeting through pilosebaceous route.

    PubMed

    Chourasia, Rashmi; Jain, Sanjay K

    2009-10-01

    Local skin targeting is of interest for the pharmaceutical and the cosmetic industry. A topically applied substance has basically three possibilities to penetrate into the skin: transcellular, intercellular, and follicular. The transfollicular path has been largely ignored because hair follicles constitute only 0.1% of the total skin. The hair follicle is a skin appendage with a complex structure containing many cell types that produce highly specialised proteins. The hair follicle is in a continuous cycle: anagen is the hair growth phase, catagen the involution phase and telogen is the resting phase. Nonetheless, the hair follicle has great potential for skin treatment, owing to its deep extension into the dermis and thus provides much deeper penetration and absorption of compounds beneath the skin than seen with the transdermal route. In the case of skin diseases and of cosmetic products, delivery to sweat glands or to the pilosebaceous unit is essential for the effectiveness of the drug. Increased accumulation in the pilosebaceous unit could treat alopecia, acne and skin cancer more efficiently and improve the effect of cosmetic substances and nutrients. Therefore, we review herein various drug delivery systems, including liposomes, niosomes, microspheres, nanoparticles, nanoemulsions, lipid nanocarriers, gene therapy and discuss the results of recent researches. We also review the drugs which have been investigated for pilosebaceous delivery. PMID:19663765

  4. New routes for allergen immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Johansen, Pål; von Moos, Seraina; Mohanan, Deepa; Kündig, Thomas M; Senti, Gabriela

    2012-10-01

    IgE-mediated allergy is a highly prevalent disease in the industrialized world. Allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT) should be the preferred treatment, as it has long lasting protective effects and can stop the progression of the disease. However, few allergic patients choose to undergo SIT, due to the long treatment time and potential allergic adverse events. Since the beneficial effects of SIT are mediated by antigen presenting cells inducing Th1, Treg and antibody responses, whereas the adverse events are caused by mast cells and basophils, the therapeutic window of SIT may be widened by targeting tissues rich in antigen presenting cells. Lymph nodes and the epidermis contain high density of dendritic cells and low numbers of mast cells and basophils. The epidermis has the added benefit of not being vascularised thereby reducing the chances of anaphylactic shock due to leakage of allergen. Hence, both these tissues represent highly promising routes for SIT and are the focus of discussion in this review. PMID:23095873

  5. Evolutionary routes to stable ownership.

    PubMed

    Hare, D; Reeve, H K; Blossey, B

    2016-06-01

    Ownership can evolve in potentially any species. Drawing on insights from across disciplines, we distinguish between possession and ownership and present species-neutral criteria for ownership, defined as respect for possession. We use a variant of the tug-of-war evolutionary game to demonstrate how ownership can evolve in the form of a new, biologically realistic strategy, Restraint With Retaliation (RWR). In our game, resource holding potential (RHP) is assumed to be equal between interactants, and resource holding asymmetry determines whether ownership is adaptive. RWR will be evolutionarily stable when the ratio of resource holdings between interactants is relatively low, but not when this ratio is sufficiently high. We offer RWR as one evolutionary route to ownership among many, and discuss how ownership unites previously described behavioural phenomena across taxa. We propose that some but not all mechanisms of territory formation and maintenance can be considered ownership, and show that territories are not the only resources that can be owned. We argue that ownership can be a powerful cooperative solution to tragedies of the commons and problems of collective action throughout the biological world. We advance recent scholarship that has begun to investigate the biological importance of ownership, and we call for a comprehensive account of its evolutionary logic and taxonomic distribution. We propose that ownership should be considered a fundamental, unifying biological phenomenon. PMID:26991035

  6. Coverage-adjusted entropy estimation.

    PubMed

    Vu, Vincent Q; Yu, Bin; Kass, Robert E

    2007-09-20

    Data on 'neural coding' have frequently been analyzed using information-theoretic measures. These formulations involve the fundamental and generally difficult statistical problem of estimating entropy. We review briefly several methods that have been advanced to estimate entropy and highlight a method, the coverage-adjusted entropy estimator (CAE), due to Chao and Shen that appeared recently in the environmental statistics literature. This method begins with the elementary Horvitz-Thompson estimator, developed for sampling from a finite population, and adjusts for the potential new species that have not yet been observed in the sample-these become the new patterns or 'words' in a spike train that have not yet been observed. The adjustment is due to I. J. Good, and is called the Good-Turing coverage estimate. We provide a new empirical regularization derivation of the coverage-adjusted probability estimator, which shrinks the maximum likelihood estimate. We prove that the CAE is consistent and first-order optimal, with rate O(P)(1/log n), in the class of distributions with finite entropy variance and that, within the class of distributions with finite qth moment of the log-likelihood, the Good-Turing coverage estimate and the total probability of unobserved words converge at rate O(P)(1/(log n)(q)). We then provide a simulation study of the estimator with standard distributions and examples from neuronal data, where observations are dependent. The results show that, with a minor modification, the CAE performs much better than the MLE and is better than the best upper bound estimator, due to Paninski, when the number of possible words m is unknown or infinite. PMID:17567838

  7. Maternal Differential Treatment and Child Adjustment: A Multi-Informant Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coldwell, Joanne; Pike, Alison; Dunn, Judy

    2008-01-01

    The study aimed to replicate previous links with children's adjustment as well as using children's reports of maternal differential treatment (MDT) to test whether difference scores or favouritism scores demonstrate stronger links with child outcome. Finally, it tested for a unique prediction of children's adjustment from distinct aspects and…

  8. 78 FR 20004 - Protection of Stratospheric Ozone: Adjustments to the Allowance System for Controlling HCFC...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-03

    ...EPA is adjusting the allowance system controlling U.S. consumption and production of hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) as a result of a 2010 Court decision vacating a portion of the 2009 final rule titled ``Protection of Stratospheric Ozone: Adjustments to the Allowance System for Controlling HCFC Production, Import, and Export.'' EPA interprets the Court's vacatur as applying to the part of......

  9. 78 FR 24336 - Rules of Practice and Procedure; Adjusting Civil Money Penalties for Inflation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-25

    ... Inflation AGENCY: Farm Credit Administration. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This regulation implements inflation adjustments to civil money penalties (CMPs) that the Farm Credit Administration (FCA) may impose... Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act of 1990, as amended by the Debt Collection Improvement Act...

  10. 75 FR 44720 - Trade Adjustment Assistance; Merit Staffing of State Administration and Allocation of Training...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-29

    ... FR 16988) promulgating Trade Adjustment Assistance (TAA) regulations requiring States to use merit... was inadvertently omitted from the final rule in the Federal Register on April 2, 2010 (75 FR 16988) promulgating Trade Adjustment Assistance (TAA) regulations requiring States to use merit personnel systems...

  11. 38 CFR 11.125 - Settlement of matured adjusted service certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... adjusted service certificates. 11.125 Section 11.125 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF... Cong.) § 11.125 Settlement of matured adjusted service certificates. Where an application for final... the loans subsequent to September 30, 1931, and unpaid will be canceled insofar as the veteran...

  12. 38 CFR 11.125 - Settlement of matured adjusted service certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... adjusted service certificates. 11.125 Section 11.125 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF... Cong.) § 11.125 Settlement of matured adjusted service certificates. Where an application for final... the loans subsequent to September 30, 1931, and unpaid will be canceled insofar as the veteran...

  13. 38 CFR 11.125 - Settlement of matured adjusted service certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... adjusted service certificates. 11.125 Section 11.125 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF... Cong.) § 11.125 Settlement of matured adjusted service certificates. Where an application for final... the loans subsequent to September 30, 1931, and unpaid will be canceled insofar as the veteran...

  14. 38 CFR 11.125 - Settlement of matured adjusted service certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... adjusted service certificates. 11.125 Section 11.125 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF... Cong.) § 11.125 Settlement of matured adjusted service certificates. Where an application for final... the loans subsequent to September 30, 1931, and unpaid will be canceled insofar as the veteran...

  15. 38 CFR 11.125 - Settlement of matured adjusted service certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... adjusted service certificates. 11.125 Section 11.125 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF... Cong.) § 11.125 Settlement of matured adjusted service certificates. Where an application for final... the loans subsequent to September 30, 1931, and unpaid will be canceled insofar as the veteran...

  16. Synthetic Routes to Methylerythritol Phosphate Pathway Intermediates and Downstream Isoprenoids

    PubMed Central

    Jarchow-Choy, Sarah K; Koppisch, Andrew T; Fox, David T

    2014-01-01

    Isoprenoids constitute the largest class of natural products with greater than 55,000 identified members. They play essential roles in maintaining proper cellular function leading to maintenance of human health, plant defense mechanisms against predators, and are often exploited for their beneficial properties in the pharmaceutical and nutraceutical industries. Most impressively, all known isoprenoids are derived from one of two C5-precursors, isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) or dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP). In order to study the enzyme transformations leading to the extensive structural diversity found within this class of compounds there must be access to the substrates. Sometimes, intermediates within a biological pathway can be isolated and used directly to study enzyme/pathway function. However, the primary route to most of the isoprenoid intermediates is through chemical catalysis. As such, this review provides the first exhaustive examination of synthetic routes to isoprenoid and isoprenoid precursors with particular emphasis on the syntheses of intermediates found as part of the 2C-methylerythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway. In addition, representative syntheses are presented for the monoterpenes (C10), sesquiterpenes (C15), diterpenes (C20), triterpenes (C30) and tetraterpenes (C40). Finally, in some instances, the synthetic routes to substrate analogs found both within the MEP pathway and downstream isoprenoids are examined. PMID:25009443

  17. A green vehicle routing problem with customer satisfaction criteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afshar-Bakeshloo, M.; Mehrabi, A.; Safari, H.; Maleki, M.; Jolai, F.

    2016-08-01

    This paper develops an MILP model, named Satisfactory-Green Vehicle Routing Problem. It consists of routing a heterogeneous fleet of vehicles in order to serve a set of customers within predefined time windows. In this model in addition to the traditional objective of the VRP, both the pollution and customers' satisfaction have been taken into account. Meanwhile, the introduced model prepares an effective dashboard for decision-makers that determines appropriate routes, the best mixed fleet, speed and idle time of vehicles. Additionally, some new factors evaluate the greening of each decision based on three criteria. This model applies piecewise linear functions (PLFs) to linearize a nonlinear fuzzy interval for incorporating customers' satisfaction into other linear objectives. We have presented a mixed integer linear programming formulation for the S-GVRP. This model enriches managerial insights by providing trade-offs between customers' satisfaction, total costs and emission levels. Finally, we have provided a numerical study for showing the applicability of the model.

  18. Prediction of Links and Weights in Networks by Reliable Routes

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jing; Miao, Lili; Yang, Jian; Fang, Haiyang; Zhang, Qian-Ming; Nie, Min; Holme, Petter; Zhou, Tao

    2015-01-01

    Link prediction aims to uncover missing links or predict the emergence of future relationships from the current network structure. Plenty of algorithms have been developed for link prediction in unweighted networks, but only a few have been extended to weighted networks. In this paper, we present what we call a “reliable-route method” to extend unweighted local similarity indices to weighted ones. Using these indices, we can predict both the existence of links and their weights. Experiments on various real-world networks suggest that our reliable-route weighted resource-allocation index performs noticeably better than others with respect to weight prediction. For existence prediction it is either the highest or very close to the highest. Further analysis shows a strong positive correlation between the clustering coefficient and prediction accuracy. Finally, we apply our method to the prediction of missing protein-protein interactions and their confidence scores from known PPI networks. Once again, our reliable-route method shows the highest accuracy. PMID:26198206

  19. Next-Generation WDM Network Design and Routing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsang, Danny H. K.; Bensaou, Brahim

    2003-08-01

    Call for Papers The Editors of JON are soliciting papers on WDM Network Design and Routing. The aim in this focus issue is to publish original research on topics including - but not limited to - the following: - WDM network architectures and protocols - GMPLS network architectures - Wavelength converter placement in WDM networks - Routing and wavelength assignment (RWA) in WDM networks - Protection and restoration strategies and algorithms in WDM networks - Traffic grooming in WDM networks - Dynamic routing strategies and algorithms - Optical Burst Switching - Support of Multicast - Protection and restoration in WDM networks - Performance analysis and optimization in WDM networks Manuscript Submission To submit to this special issue, follow the normal procedure for submission to JON, indicating "WDM Network Design" in the "Comments" field of the online submission form. For all other questions relating to this focus issue, please send an e-mail to jon@osa.org, subject line "WDM Network Design." Additional information can be found on the JON website: http://www.osa-jon.org/submission/. Schedule Paper Submission Deadline: November 1, 2003 Notification to Authors: January 15, 2004 Final Manuscripts to Publisher: February 15, 2004 Publication of Focus Issue: February/March 2004

  20. Next-Generation WDM Network Design and Routing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsang, Danny H. K.; Bensaou, Brahim

    2003-10-01

    Call for Papers The Editors of JON are soliciting papers on WDM Network Design and Routing. The aim in this focus issue is to publish original research on topics including - but not limited to - the following: - WDM network architectures and protocols - GMPLS network architectures - Wavelength converter placement in WDM networks - Routing and wavelength assignment (RWA) in WDM networks - Protection and restoration strategies and algorithms in WDM networks - Traffic grooming in WDM networks - Dynamic routing strategies and algorithms - Optical burst switching - Support of multicast - Protection and restoration in WDM networks - Performance analysis and optimization in WDM networks Manuscript Submission To submit to this special issue, follow the normal procedure for submission to JON, indicating "WDM Network Design" in the "Comments" field of the online submission form. For all other questions relating to this focus issue, please send an e-mail to jon@osa.org, subject line "WDM Network Design." Additional information can be found on the JON website: http://www.osa-jon.org/submission/. Schedule - Paper Submission Deadline: November 1, 2003 - Notification to Authors: January 15, 2004 - Final Manuscripts to Publisher: February 15, 2004 - Publication of Focus Issue: February/March 2004

  1. Next-Generation WDM Network Design and Routing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsang, Danny H. K.; Bensaou, Brahim

    2003-09-01

    Call for Papers The Editors of JON are soliciting papers on WDM Network Design and Routing. The aim in this focus issue is to publish original research on topics including - but not limited to - the following: - WDM network architectures and protocols - GMPLS network architectures - Wavelength converter placement in WDM networks - Routing and wavelength assignment (RWA) in WDM networks - Protection and restoration strategies and algorithms in WDM networks - Traffic grooming in WDM networks - Dynamic routing strategies and algorithms - Optical burst switching - Support of multicast - Protection and restoration in WDM networks - Performance analysis and optimization in WDM networks Manuscript Submission To submit to this special issue, follow the normal procedure for submission to JON, indicating "WDM Network Design" in the "Comments" field of the online submission form. For all other questions relating to this focus issue, please send an e-mail to jon@osa.org, subject line "WDM Network Design." Additional information can be found on the JON website: http://www.osa-jon.org/submission/. Schedule - Paper Submission Deadline: November 1, 2003 - Notification to Authors: January 15, 2004 - Final Manuscripts to Publisher: February 15, 2004 - Publication of Focus Issue: February/March 2004

  2. Multicast Routing in Structured Overlays and Hybrid Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wählisch, Matthias; Schmidt, Thomas C.

    Key-based routing has enabled efficient group communication on the application or service middleware layer, stimulated by the need of applications to access multicast. These developments follow a continuous debate about network layer multicast that had lasted for about 30 years history of the Internet. The IP host group model today still faces a strongly divergent state of deployment. In this chapter, we first review the key concepts of multicast and broadcast data distribution on structured overlays. Second, we perform a comprehensive theoretical analysis examining the different distribution trees constructed on top of a key-based routing layer. Characteristic performance measures of the multicast approaches are compared in detail and major structural differences are identified. Overlay multicast overcomes deployment problems on the price of a performance penalty. Hybrid approaches, which dynamically combine multicast in overlay and underlay, adaptively optimize group communication. We discuss current schemes along with its integration in common multicast routing protocols in the third part of this chapter. Finally, we reconsider and enhance approaches to a common API for group communication, which serves the requirements of data distribution and maintenance for multicast and broadcast on a middleware abstraction layer, and in particular facilitates hybrid multicast schemes.

  3. Hybrid Ant Algorithm and Applications for Vehicle Routing Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Zhang; Jiang-qing, Wang

    Ant colony optimization (ACO) is a metaheuristic method that inspired by the behavior of real ant colonies. ACO has been successfully applied to several combinatorial optimization problems, but it has some short-comings like its slow computing speed and local-convergence. For solving Vehicle Routing Problem, we proposed Hybrid Ant Algorithm (HAA) in order to improve both the performance of the algorithm and the quality of solutions. The proposed algorithm took the advantages of Nearest Neighbor (NN) heuristic and ACO for solving VRP, it also expanded the scope of solution space and improves the global ability of the algorithm through importing mutation operation, combining 2-opt heuristics and adjusting the configuration of parameters dynamically. Computational results indicate that the hybrid ant algorithm can get optimal resolution of VRP effectively.

  4. 22. VIEW SOUTH, INTERIOR OF SOUTH PIT, SHOWING FINAL STEP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. VIEW SOUTH, INTERIOR OF SOUTH PIT, SHOWING FINAL STEP IN GEARING THAT DRIVES OPERATING WHEEL, WITH HYDRAULIC SHAFT BRAKE - Mystic River Bridge, Spanning Mystic River at U.S. Route 1, Groton, New London County, CT

  5. Routes for fructose utilization by Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Kornberg, H L

    2001-07-01

    There are three main routes for the utilization of fructose by Escherichia coli. One (Route A) predominates in the growth of wild-type strains. It involves the functioning of the phosphoenolpyruvate:glycose phosphotransferase system (PTS) and a fructose operon, mapping at min. 48.7, containing genes for a membrane-spanning protein (fruA), a 1-phosphofructose kinase (fruK) and a diphosphoryl transfer protein (fruB), under negative regulation by a fruR gene mapping at min. 1.9. A second route (Route B) also involves the PTS and membrane-spanning proteins that recognize a variety of sugars possessing the 3,4,5-D-arabino-hexoseconfiguration but with primary specificity for mannose(manXYZ), mannitol (mtlA) and glucitol (gutA) and which, if over-produced, can transport also fructose. A third route (Route C), functioning in mutants devoid of Routes A and B, does not involve the PTS: fructose diffuses into the cell via an isoform (PtsG-F) of the major glucose permease of the PTS and is then phosphorylated by ATP and a manno(fructo)kinase (Mak+) specified by a normally cryptic 1032 bp ORF (yajF) of hitherto unknown function (Mak-o), mapping at min. 8.8 and corresponding to a peptide of 344 amino acids. Conversion of the Mak-o to the Mak+ phenotypeinvolves an A24D mutation in a putative regulatory region. PMID:11361065

  6. Human Poisoning Through Atypical Routes of Exposure.

    PubMed

    Behal, Niharika; Wong, Alan; Mantara, Ruzly; Cantrell, F Lee

    2016-02-01

    There are over 2 million human exposure cases reported to United States poison centers annually. Much of the data involves exposure through ingestion, dermal contact, inhalation, ocular, or parenteral routes. There is limited data characterizing exposure via atypical routes. We conducted a retrospective review of the California Poison Control System Database for a 24-month period from January 2012 to December 2013 for poison exposure that occurred through the otic, vaginal, or rectal route. There were a total of 634 cases involving single-route and single-substance atypical poison exposure. There were 287 (45%) cases of otic exposure, 190 (30.0%) cases of vaginal exposure, and 157 (25%) cases of rectal exposure. Five hundred forty (85%) of the cases were unintentional. Gasoline exposure through the otic route occurred in 83 (13.1%) cases, followed by hydrogen peroxide (4.7%), acetaminophen (3.8%), and miconazole (2.7%). Adverse effects occurred in 336 (53%) cases. No deaths were reported. The most common treatment was observation only, occurring in 396 (62.4%) cases. The majority of the cases did not warrant hospital evaluation (73.5%). This is the first retrospective characterization study of atypical routes of poison exposure. These results may provide education to providers and the public regarding risks of exposure to substances through atypical routes. PMID:26250476

  7. 48 CFR 49.303-5 - Final settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ....303-5 Final settlement. (a) The TCO shall proceed with the settlement and execution of a settlement... vouchered costs. (b) The TCO shall adjust the fee as provided in 49.305. (c) The final settlement...

  8. 48 CFR 49.303-5 - Final settlement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ....303-5 Final settlement. (a) The TCO shall proceed with the settlement and execution of a settlement... vouchered costs. (b) The TCO shall adjust the fee as provided in 49.305. (c) The final settlement...

  9. Adjustable link for kinematic mounting systems

    DOEpatents

    Hale, L.C.

    1997-07-01

    An adjustable link for kinematic mounting systems is disclosed. The adjustable link is a low-cost, passive device that provides backlash-free adjustment along its single constraint direction and flexural freedom in all other directions. The adjustable link comprises two spheres, two sockets in which the spheres are adjustable retain, and a connection link threadly connected at each end to the spheres, to provide a single direction of restraint and to adjust the length or distance between the sockets. Six such adjustable links provide for six degrees of freedom for mounting an instrument on a support. The adjustable link has applications in any machine or instrument requiring precision adjustment in six degrees of freedom, isolation from deformations of the supporting platform, and/or additional structural damping. The damping is accomplished by using a hollow connection link that contains an inner rod and a viscoelastic separation layer between the two. 3 figs.

  10. Adjustable link for kinematic mounting systems

    DOEpatents

    Hale, Layton C.

    1997-01-01

    An adjustable link for kinematic mounting systems. The adjustable link is a low-cost, passive device that provides backlash-free adjustment along its single constraint direction and flexural freedom in all other directions. The adjustable link comprises two spheres, two sockets in which the spheres are adjustable retain, and a connection link threadly connected at each end to the spheres, to provide a single direction of restraint and to adjust the length or distance between the sockets. Six such adjustable links provide for six degrees of freedom for mounting an instrument on a support. The adjustable link has applications in any machine or instrument requiring precision adjustment in six degrees of freedom, isolation from deformations of the supporting platform, and/or additional structural damping. The damping is accomplished by using a hollow connection link that contains an inner rod and a viscoelastic separation layer between the two.

  11. Agent routing algorithm in wireless sensor networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yuqing; Yang, Shuqun

    2013-03-01

    Wireless sensor networks are a new technology of information acquisition and processing, so they are widely used in all kinds of fields. In the paper we introduce Agent technology into the wireless sensor network, conduct a in-depth research on the four routing schemes, and propose a new improved routing scheme, which considers the energy consumption of both nodes and path. Furthermore, The scheme we proposed has efficient routing function, can balance the energy consumption of nodes and extends the lifetime of the network in a more efficient way.

  12. Application of an off-road mobility model to autonomous cross-country routing of unmanned ground vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cummins, Christopher L.; Jones, Randolph A.; Gates, Burhman Q., Jr.

    2006-05-01

    This paper describes the application of an Army-standard legacy off-road mobility model to cross-country route planning and negotiation by unmanned ground vehicles. A planned route is created from a movement map generated from existing terrain data. An unmanned ground vehicle negotiates the planned route and makes local routing adjustments based on a trafficability assessment of terrain features which are observed from the platform. This research leverages results from other work investigating the scalability of the existing legacy off-road mobility model to small vehicles (<500 kg). The legacy mobility model is the NATO Reference Mobility Model II (NRMM II), a standard for combat mobility modeling and procurement since the mid-90's.

  13. 10. Looking southeast, detail of mileage marker along State Route ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Looking southeast, detail of mileage marker along State Route 100 (Montchanin Road), J. Chandler farm complex in distance. - Winterthur Farms, Intersection State Routes 92 & 100, Intersection State Routes 92 & 100, Winterthur, New Castle County, DE

  14. 7. View southeast, bridge 71 along State Route 100 (Montchanin ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. View southeast, bridge 71 along State Route 100 (Montchanin Road) center, J. Chandler farm complex in center background. - Winterthur Farms, Intersection State Routes 92 & 100, Intersection State Routes 92 & 100, Winterthur, New Castle County, DE

  15. History-based route selection for reactive ad hoc routing protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medidi, Sirisha; Cappetto, Peter

    2007-04-01

    Ad hoc networks rely on cooperation in order to operate, but in a resource constrained environment not all nodes behave altruistically. Selfish nodes preserve their own resources and do not forward packets not in their own self interest. These nodes degrade the performance of the network, but judicious route selection can help maintain performance despite this behavior. Many route selection algorithms place importance on shortness of the route rather than its reliability. We introduce a light-weight route selection algorithm that uses past behavior to judge the quality of a route rather than solely on the length of the route. It draws information from the underlying routing layer at no extra cost and selects routes with a simple algorithm. This technique maintains this data in a small table, which does not place a high cost on memory. History-based route selection's minimalism suits the needs the portable wireless devices and is easy to implement. We implemented our algorithm and tested it in the ns2 environment. Our simulation results show that history-based route selection achieves higher packet delivery and improved stability than its length-based counterpart.

  16. Are GIS-modelled routes a useful proxy for the actual routes followed by commuters?

    PubMed Central

    Dalton, Alice M; Jones, Andrew P; Panter, Jenna; Ogilvie, David

    2015-01-01

    Active commuting offers the potential to increase physical activity among adults by being built into daily routines. Characteristics of the route to work may influence propensity to walk or cycle. Geographic information system (GIS) software is often used to explore this by modelling routes between home and work. However, if the validity of modelled routes depends on the mode of travel used, studies of environmental determinants of travel may be biased. We aimed to understand how well modelled routes reflect those actually taken, and what characteristics explain these differences. We compared modelled GIS shortest path routes with actual routes measured using QStarz BT-Q1000X Global Positioning System (GPS) devices in a free-living sample of adults working in Cambridge and using varying travel modes. Predictors of differences, according to length and percentage overlap, between the two route sets were assessed using multilevel regression models and concordance coefficients. The 276 trips, made by 51 participants, were on average 27% further than modelled routes, with an average geographical overlap of 39%. However, predictability of the route depended on travel mode. For route length, there was moderate-to-substantial agreement for journeys made on foot and by bicycle. Route overlap was lowest for trips made by car plus walk (22%). The magnitude of difference depended on other journey characteristics, including travelling via intermediate destinations, distance, and use of busy roads. In conclusion, GIS routes may be acceptable for distance estimation and to explore potential routes, particularly active commuting. However, GPS should be used to obtain accurate estimates of environmental contexts in which commuting behaviour actually occurs. Public health researchers should bear these considerations in mind when studying the geographical determinants and health implications of commuting behaviour, and when recommending policy changes to encourage active travel. PMID

  17. Design and Evaluation of a Dynamic Programming Flight Routing Algorithm Using the Convective Weather Avoidance Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ng, Hok K.; Grabbe, Shon; Mukherjee, Avijit

    2010-01-01

    The optimization of traffic flows in congested airspace with varying convective weather is a challenging problem. One approach is to generate shortest routes between origins and destinations while meeting airspace capacity constraint in the presence of uncertainties, such as weather and airspace demand. This study focuses on development of an optimal flight path search algorithm that optimizes national airspace system throughput and efficiency in the presence of uncertainties. The algorithm is based on dynamic programming and utilizes the predicted probability that an aircraft will deviate around convective weather. It is shown that the running time of the algorithm increases linearly with the total number of links between all stages. The optimal routes minimize a combination of fuel cost and expected cost of route deviation due to convective weather. They are considered as alternatives to the set of coded departure routes which are predefined by FAA to reroute pre-departure flights around weather or air traffic constraints. A formula, which calculates predicted probability of deviation from a given flight path, is also derived. The predicted probability of deviation is calculated for all path candidates. Routes with the best probability are selected as optimal. The predicted probability of deviation serves as a computable measure of reliability in pre-departure rerouting. The algorithm can also be extended to automatically adjust its design parameters to satisfy the desired level of reliability.

  18. Modelling of the optimal vehicle route in terrain in emergency situations using GIS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rybansky, M.

    2014-02-01

    Most navigation systems in transport are oriented towards the search for optimal paths (shortest or fastest), using vector GIS data. At the time of natural disasters and emergency situations is necessary to consider roads and terrain for transport. This article is focused on finding optimal routes in terrain, which contains a number of point, line and area obstacles. The most frequent point obstacles are trees in the forest. The paper analyzes the typical structure of tree stands in the forest, their characteristics in GIS databases, as well as dimensional parameters of vehicles moving in the forest. The quality of these data is a prerequisite for finding routes between point obstacles. Searching for the fastest or shortest route of the vehicle described in this article is based on the use of the relationship between the Delaunay triangulation and Voronoi graph, the application of Dijkstra's algorithm and the optimization of fractional line. The above-mentioned methods are also exploitable for searching for the shortest route of movement among line obstructions and area obstructions, such route can be apprehended as the joining of points defining impassable terrain. In such a case, the condition must be met that the distance of terminal points of joins has to be adjusted to the extent that it will be shorter than a vehicle width increased by safe margin.

  19. Correlates of household seismic hazard adjustment adoption.

    PubMed

    Lindell, M K; Whitney, D J

    2000-02-01

    This study examined the relationships of self-reported adoption of 12 seismic hazard adjustments (pre-impact actions to reduce danger to persons and property) with respondents' demographic characteristics, perceived risk, perceived hazard knowledge, perceived protection responsibility, and perceived attributes of the hazard adjustments. Consistent with theoretical predictions, perceived attributes of the hazard adjustments differentiated among the adjustments and had stronger correlations with adoption than any of the other predictors. These results identify the adjustments and attributes that emergency managers should address to have the greatest impact on improving household adjustment to earthquake hazard. PMID:10795335

  20. View southwest showing the intersection of Routes 6 and 169 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View southwest showing the intersection of Routes 6 and 169 and the Brooklyn Town Hall with the Unitarian Church to the south - Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts of Brown Road, Canterbury Road (Route 169), Hartford Road (Route 6), Hyde Road, Pomfret Road (Route 169), Prince Hill Road, Providence Road (Route 6), Wauregan Road (Routes 169 & 205), & Wolf Den Road, Brooklyn, Windham County, CT

  1. Adjustable extender for instrument module

    DOEpatents

    Sevec, J.B.; Stein, A.D.

    1975-11-01

    A blank extender module used to mount an instrument module in front of its console for repair or test purposes has been equipped with a rotatable mount and means for locking the mount at various angles of rotation for easy accessibility. The rotatable mount includes a horizontal conduit supported by bearings within the blank module. The conduit is spring-biased in a retracted position within the blank module and in this position a small gear mounted on the conduit periphery is locked by a fixed pawl. The conduit and instrument mount can be pulled into an extended position with the gear clearing the pawl to permit rotation and adjustment of the instrument.

  2. 75 FR 39149 - Establishment of Low Altitude Area Navigation Route (T-284); Houston, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-08

    ... Federal Register a final rule to establish RNAV route T-284 for the Houston, TX, terminal area (75 FR... Federal Register April 1, 2010 (75 FR 16336) . Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Issued in Washington, DC, on June 29, 2010....

  3. Synthesis of Monodispersed Tantalum(V) oxide Nanospheres by an Ethylene Glycol Mediated Route

    EPA Science Inventory

    Tantalum(V) oxide (Ta2O5) nanospheres have been synthesized by a very simple ethylene glycol mediated route. The two-step process involves the formation of glycolate nanoparticles and their subsequent hydrolysis and calcination to generate the final Ta2O5 nanospheres. The synthes...

  4. 78 FR 76189 - Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement for the Route 460 Location Study, Prince George...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-16

    ... Location Study, Prince George County to Suffolk, Virginia AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration, DOT... Study Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) and a Department of the Army Individual Permit (IP... continue processing the permit application. An FEIS for the Route 460 Location Study was approved by...

  5. 77 FR 65461 - Amendment of Area Navigation Route Q-1; CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-29

    ... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of a.... 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation by reference in 14... Area Navigation Route Q-1; CA AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final...

  6. ROUTEMAP model for predicting noise exposure from aircraft operations on Military Training Routes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucas, Michael J.; Plotkin, Kenneth J.

    1988-09-01

    Low altitude, high speed training operations are routinely conducted along specially designated Military Training Routes (MTRs). The location of these routes is continually changed for a variety of reasons. Each new route requires an environmental assessment to determine the community noise impact. A computer program, ROUTEMAP, is described which calculates the noise level on the ground along an MTR corridor. Program ROUTEMAP is a menu-driven program that runs on any IBM PC or PC-compatible computer. ROUTEMAP requires MS DOS Version 2.0 or later, with at least one megabyte of available disk space, 640 K of random access memory, and an 8087/80287 math coprocessor. The model requires the Air Force planner to specify the nature of the flight activity for the segment of the route in question. The information needed for each aircraft type are the number of day and night operations during a month, and nominal values for the airspeed, engine power setting, and altitude. In addition, the user must input whether the activity is usually under visual or instrument flying rules and if there are single or multiple flight tracks within the route corridor. With this input data, the program computes the onset rate-adjusted monthly day-night average A-weighted sound level, L sub dnmr in dB for ground positions located within 13 miles of the route centerline. For comparison purposes, the program also computes the monthly average A-weighted noise exposure level without the penalty for high onset rates and without the penalty for operations during the night. The program also computes the probability of being highly annoyed as a function of the L sub dnmr values. This information, along with the noise-compatible land-use guides normally associated with planning around airbases, can be used to interpret the noise resulting from military training route operations.

  7. Quantum chemistry-assisted synthesis route development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hori, Kenji; Sumimoto, Michinori; Murafuji, Toshihiro

    2015-12-01

    We have been investigating "quantum chemistry-assisted synthesis route development" using in silico screenings and applied the method to several targets. Another example was conducted to develop synthesis routes for a urea derivative, namely 1-(4-(trifluoromethyl)-2-oxo-2H-chromen-7-yl)urea. While five synthesis routes were examined, only three routes passed the second in silico screening. Among them, the reaction of 7-amino-4-(trifluoromethyl)-2H-chromen-2-one and O-methyl carbamate with BF3 as an additive was ranked as the first choice for synthetic work. We were able to experimentally obtain the target compound even though its yield was as low as 21 %. The theoretical result was thus consistent with that observed. The summary of transition state data base (TSDB) is also provided. TSDB is the key to reducing time of in silico screenings.

  8. A Multistage Method for Multiobjective Route Selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Feng; Gen, Mitsuo

    The multiobjective route selection problem (m-RSP) is a key research topic in the car navigation system (CNS) for ITS (Intelligent Transportation System). In this paper, we propose an interactive multistage weight-based Dijkstra genetic algorithm (mwD-GA) to solve it. The purpose of the proposed approach is to create enough Pareto-optimal routes with good distribution for the car driver depending on his/her preference. At the same time, the routes can be recalculated according to the driver's preferences by the multistage framework proposed. In the solution approach proposed, the accurate route searching ability of the Dijkstra algorithm and the exploration ability of the Genetic algorithm (GA) are effectively combined together for solving the m-RSP problems. Solutions provided by the proposed approach are compared with the current research to show the effectiveness and practicability of the solution approach proposed.

  9. Quantum chemistry-assisted synthesis route development

    SciTech Connect

    Hori, Kenji; Sumimoto, Michinori; Murafuji, Toshihiro

    2015-12-31

    We have been investigating “quantum chemistry-assisted synthesis route development” using in silico screenings and applied the method to several targets. Another example was conducted to develop synthesis routes for a urea derivative, namely 1-(4-(trifluoromethyl)-2-oxo-2H-chromen-7-yl)urea. While five synthesis routes were examined, only three routes passed the second in silico screening. Among them, the reaction of 7-amino-4-(trifluoromethyl)-2H-chromen-2-one and O-methyl carbamate with BF{sub 3} as an additive was ranked as the first choice for synthetic work. We were able to experimentally obtain the target compound even though its yield was as low as 21 %. The theoretical result was thus consistent with that observed. The summary of transition state data base (TSDB) is also provided. TSDB is the key to reducing time of in silico screenings.

  10. Statistical Analysis to Select Evacuation Route

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musyarof, Z.; Sutarto, D. Y.; Atika, D. R.; Fajriya Hakim, R. B.

    2015-06-01

    Each country should be responsible for the safety of people, especially responsible for the safety of people living in disaster-prone areas. One of those services is provides evacuation route for them. But all this time, the selection of evacuation route is seem does not well organized, it could be seen that when a disaster happen, there will be many accumulation of people on the steps of evacuation route. That condition is dangerous to people because hampers evacuation process. By some methods in Statistical analysis, author tries to give a suggestion how to prepare evacuation route which is organized and based on people habit. Those methods are association rules, sequential pattern mining, hierarchical cluster analysis and fuzzy logic.

  11. 14 CFR 121.93 - Route requirements: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Approval of Routes: Domestic and Flag Operations § 121.93 Route requirements: General. (a) Each certificate holder conducting domestic or flag...

  12. 14 CFR 121.93 - Route requirements: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Approval of Routes: Domestic and Flag Operations § 121.93 Route requirements: General. (a) Each certificate holder conducting domestic or flag...

  13. 14 CFR 121.93 - Route requirements: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Approval of Routes: Domestic and Flag Operations § 121.93 Route requirements: General. (a) Each certificate holder conducting domestic or flag...

  14. Evaluation of global stream flow routing based on gridded run-off fluxes of Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrestha, R. K.; Xia, Y.; Meng, J.; Dirmeyer, P.; Ek, M. B.

    2014-12-01

    The current Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) project provides detailed estimates of energy fluxes and water budget, with currently planned upgrades including improved Land Surface Model (LSM) physics, enhanced global meteorological forcing data sets, more robust soil moisture initialization, updated model specific parameter sets and an advanced snow data assimilation scheme. Because of these advancements made in the GLDAS experiment, the spatio-temporal variability of hydrologic fluxes is expected to be as good as other key land-surface fluxes. Gridded surface runoff from GLDAS experiment provides a unique opportunity to implement flow routing along the network of river system. In this experiment, we add stream flow routing in the GLDAS and investigate the stream flow variability using a computationally expensive cell-to-cell (C2C) routing scheme and a simpler source-to-sink (S2S) routing scheme. Appropriate parameterization of C2C is difficult, but it can use a detailed set of parameters, which provide an opportunity to develop a robust and realistic flow routing. On the other hand, the S2S offers simplified and computationally efficient routing solution but it needs periodic adjustments to its parameters. We will present a comparative analysis of these routing experiments, which may be useful for hydrologic estimations in data scarce regions as well as to establish an operational global stream flow prediction system.

  15. Metric-Adjusted Skew Information: Convexity and Restricted Forms of Superadditivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Liang; Hansen, Frank

    2010-07-01

    We give a truly elementary proof of the convexity of metric-adjusted skew information following an idea of Effros. We extend earlier results of weak forms of superadditivity to general metric-adjusted skew information. Recently, Luo and Zhang introduced the notion of semi-quantum states on a bipartite system and proved superadditivity of the Wigner-Yanase-Dyson skew informations for such states. We extend this result to the general metric-adjusted skew information. We finally show that a recently introduced extension to parameter values 1 < p ≤ 2 of the WYD-information is a special case of (unbounded) metric-adjusted skew information.

  16. User preference and reliability of bilateral hearing aid gain adjustments.

    PubMed

    Hornsby, Benjamin W Y; Mueller, H Gustav

    2008-02-01

    The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the consistency and reliability of user adjustments to hearing aid gain and the resulting effects on speech understanding. Sixteen bilaterally aided individuals with hearing loss adjusted their hearing aid gain to optimize listening comfort and speech clarity while listening to speech in quiet and noisy backgrounds. Following these adjustments, participants readjusted their aids to optimize clarity and comfort while listening to speech in quiet. These final gain settings were recorded and compared to those provided by NAL-NL1 prescriptive targets. In addition, speech understanding was tested with the hearing aids set at target and user gain settings. Performance differences between the gain settings were then assessed. Study results revealed that although some listeners preferred more or less gain than prescribed, on average, user and prescribed gain settings were similar in both ears. Some individuals, however, made gain adjustments between ears resulting in "gain mismatches." These "mismatches" were often inconsistent across trials suggesting that these adjustments were unreliable. Speech testing results, however, showed no significant difference across the different gain settings suggesting that the gain deviations introduced in this study were not large enough to significantly affect speech understanding. PMID:18669129

  17. MRF with adjustable pH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, Stephen D.

    2011-10-01

    Deterministic final polishing of high precision optics using sub-aperture processing with magnetorheological finishing (MRF) is an accepted practice throughout the world. A wide variety of materials can be successfully worked with aqueous (pH 10), magnetorheological (MR) fluids, using magnetic carbonyl iron (CI) and either ceria or nanodiamond nonmagnetic abrasives. Polycrystalline materials like zinc sulfide (ZnS) and zinc selenide (ZnSe) are difficult to polish at pH 10 with MRF, due to their grain size and the relatively low stiffness of the MR fluid lap. If microns of material are removed, the grain structure of the material begins to appear. In 2005, Kozhinova et al. (Appl. Opt. 44 4671-4677) demonstrated that lowering pH could improve MRF of ZnS. However, magnetic CI particle corrosion rendered their low pH approach unstable and unsuitable for commercial implementation. In 2009, Shafrir et al. described a sol-gel coating process for manufacturing a zirconia-coated CI particle that protects the magnetic core from aqueous corrosion (Appl. Opt .48 6797-6810). The coating process produces free nanozirconia polishing abrasives during the coating procedure, thereby creating an MR polishing powder that is "self-charged" with the polishing abrasive. By simply adding water, it was possible to polish optical glasses and ceramics with good stability at pH 8 for three weeks. The development of a corrosion resistant, MR polishing powder, opens up the possibility for polishing additional materials, wherein the pH may be adjusted to optimize effectiveness. In this paper we describe the CI coating process, the characterization of the coated powder, and procedures for making stable MR fluids with adjustable pH, giving polishing results for a variety of optical glasses and crystalline ceramics.

  18. Postcomplexation synthetic routes to dipyrrin complexes.

    PubMed

    Perl, David; Bisset, Sean W; Telfer, Shane G

    2016-02-14

    We report a postfunctionalization synthetic route to dipyrrin complexes that gives access to a broad range of new complexes. This route involves the coordination of a 5-methylthiodipyrrinato ligand to a metal centre followed by displacement of the thiomethyl moiety by a nucleophile. Using rhenium(I) as a platform and amine nucleophiles, we show how complexes that would be difficult or impossible to synthesize via traditional methods can now be accessed. PMID:26792392

  19. Annoyance caused by aircraft en route noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccurdy, David A.

    1992-01-01

    A laboratory experiment was conducted to quantify the annoyance response of people on the ground to enroute noise generated by aircraft at cruise conditions. The en route noises were ground level recordings of eight advanced turboprop aircraft flyovers and six conventional turbofan flyovers. The eight advanced turboprop enroute noises represented the NASA Propfan Test Assessment aircraft operating at different combinations of altitude, aircraft Mach number, and propeller tip speed. The conventional turbofan en route noises represented six different commercial airliners. The overall durations of the en route noises varied from approximately 40 to 160 sec. In the experiment, 32 subjects judged the annoyance of the en route noises as well as recordings of the takeoff and landing noises of each of 5 conventional turboprop and 5 conventional turbofan aircraft. Each of the noises was presented at three sound pressure levels to the subjects in an anechoic listening room. Analysis of the judgments found small differences in annoyance between three combinations of aircraft type and operation. Current tone and corrections did not significantly improve en route annoyance prediction. The optimum duration-correction magnitude for en route noise was approximately 1 dB per doubling of effective duration.

  20. The Route Analysis Based On Flight Plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feriyanto, Nur; Saleh, Chairul; Fauzi, Achmad; Rachman Dzakiyullah, Nur; Riza Iwaputra, Kahfi

    2016-02-01

    Economic development effects use of air transportation since the business process in every aspect was increased. Many people these days was prefer using airplane because it can save time and money. This situation also effects flight routes, many airlines offer new routes to deal with competition. Managing flight routes is one of the problems that must be faced in order to find the efficient and effective routes. This paper investigates the best routes based on flight performance by determining the amount of block fuel for the Jakarta-Denpasar flight route. Moreover, in this work compares a two kinds of aircraft and tracks by calculating flight distance, flight time and block fuel. The result shows Jakarta-Denpasar in the Track II has effective and efficient block fuel that can be performed by Airbus 320-200 aircraft. This study can contribute to practice in making an effective decision, especially helping executive management of company due to selecting appropriate aircraft and the track in the flight plan based on the block fuel consumption for business operation.

  1. Route selection issues for NWPA shipments

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, C.V.; Harrison, I.G.

    1993-06-01

    Questions surrounding the designation of routes for the movement of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste (HLW) by the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) have broad implications. Federal regulations prescribe rules to be applied in the selection of highway routes. In most cases, these rules will lead to a clear selection of one route between an origin and destination point. However, in other cases, strict application of the regulations does not result in a clear choice of a preferred route. The regulations also provide discretion to State governments and carriers to select alternative routes to enhance the safety of the shipment. Railroad shipments of radioactive materials are not subject to Federal routing regulations. Since the railroads operate on private property, it has been assumed that they know the best way to move freight on their system. This discretion, while desirable for addressing unique local safety concerns or for responding to temporary safety concerns such as road problems, weather conditions, or construction areas, leads to significant opportunity for misunderstandings and uneasiness on the part of local residents.

  2. A Simple Chaotic Flow with a Continuously Adjustable Attractor Dimension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munmuangsaen, Buncha; Sprott, Julien Clinton; Thio, Wesley Joo-Chen; Buscarino, Arturo; Fortuna, Luigi

    This paper describes two simple three-dimensional autonomous chaotic flows whose attractor dimensions can be adjusted continuously from 2.0 to 3.0 by a single control parameter. Such a parameter provides a means to explore the route through limit cycles, period-doubling, dissipative chaos, and eventually conservative chaos. With an absolute-value nonlinearity and certain choices of parameters, the systems have a vast and smooth continual transition path from dissipative chaos to conservative chaos. One system is analyzed in detail by means of the largest Lyapunov exponent, Kaplan-Yorke dimension, bifurcations, coexisting attractors and eigenvalues of the Jacobian matrix. An electronic version of the system has been constructed and shown to perform in accordance with expectations.

  3. Adjusting the Contour of Reflector Panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, W. B.; Giebler, M. M.

    1984-01-01

    Postfabrication adjustment of contour of panels for reflector, such as parabolic reflector for radio antennas, possible with simple mechanism consisting of threaded stud, two nuts, and flexure. Contours adjusted manually.

  4. 48 CFR 1450.103 - Contract adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract adjustments. 1450.103 Section 1450.103 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR CONTRACT... Contract adjustments....

  5. Dealing with the white death: avalanche risk management for traffic routes.

    PubMed

    Rheinberger, Christoph M; Bründl, Michael; Rhyner, Jakob

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses mitigation strategies to protect traffic routes from snow avalanches. Up to now, mitigation of snow avalanches on many roads and railways in the Alps has relied on avalanche sheds, which require large initial investments resulting in high opportunity costs. Therefore, avalanche risk managers have increasingly adopted organizational mitigation measures such as warning systems and closure policies instead. The effectiveness of these measures is, however, greatly dependent on human decisions. In this article, we present a method for optimizing avalanche mitigation for traffic routes in terms of both their risk reduction impact and their net benefit to society. First, we introduce a generic framework for assessing avalanche risk and for quantifying the impact of mitigation. This allows for sound cost-benefit comparisons between alternative mitigation strategies. Second, we illustrate the framework with a case study from Switzerland. Our findings suggest that site-specific characteristics of avalanche paths, as well as the economic importance of a traffic route, are decisive for the choice of optimal mitigation strategies. On routes endangered by few avalanche paths with frequent avalanche occurrences, structural measures are most efficient, whereas reliance on organizational mitigation is often the most appropriate strategy on routes endangered by many paths with infrequent or fuzzy avalanche risk. Finally, keeping a traffic route open may be very important for tourism or the transport industry. Hence, local economic value may promote the use of a hybrid strategy that combines organizational and structural measures to optimize the resource allocation of avalanche risk mitigation. PMID:18808393

  6. Using GRACE Total Water Storage Changes to constrain River Routing Models in the Amazon River basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Linage, C.; Lo, M.; Famiglietti, J. S.; Ray, R. L.; Beighley, R. E.

    2010-12-01

    The GRACE mission provides monthly to 10-day maps of Total Water Storage Anomalies corresponding to the vertically integrated land water storage (soil moisture and groundwater) as well as storage in river channels and floodplains (surface waters). The surface water component is an important contributor to total water storage in the Amazon River basin as shown by improved agreement between GRACE observations and model simulations when runoff is routed through the river network as compared to no river routing. We use the Community Land Model version 3.5 to model land water storage along with runoff by accounting for a simple ground water model. Surface and subsurface runoff predictions are then routed using two different routing models: a simple cell-to-cell routing scheme (e.g. Branstetter and Famiglietti, 1999) and the Hillslope River Routing (Beighley et al. 2010). We evaluate model performances against the spatio-temporal variations of GRACE data by carrying out a Singular Value Decomposition of the cross-covariance matrix. We also compare the two models in the light of their respective intrinsic capabilities. We finally investigate the impact of the precipitation data on model outputs by using TRMM products instead of GLDAS (CMAP) products.

  7. Covariate Adjusted Correlation Analysis with Application to FMR1 Premutation Female Carrier Data

    PubMed Central

    Şentürk, Damla; Nguyen, Danh V.; Tassone, Flora; Hagerman, Randi J.; Carroll, Raymond J.; Hagerman, Paul J.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Motivated by molecular data on female premutation carriers of the fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) gene, we present a new method of covariate adjusted correlation analysis to examine the association of messenger RNA (mRNA) and number of CGG repeat expansion in the FMR1 gene. The association between the molecular variables in female carriers needs to adjust for activation ratio (ActRatio), a measure which accounts for the protective effects of one normal X chromosome in females carriers. However, there are inherent uncertainties in the exact effects of ActRatio on the molecular measures of interest. To account for these uncertainties, we develop a flexible adjustment that accommodates both additive and multiplicative effects of ActRatio nonparametrically. The proposed adjusted correlation uses local conditional correlations, which are local method of moments estimators, to estimate the Pearson correlation between two variables adjusted for a third observable covariate. The local method of moments estimators are averaged to arrive at the final covariate adjusted correlation estimator, which is shown to be consistent. We also develop a test to check the nonparametric joint additive and multiplicative adjustment form. Simulation studies illustrate the efficacy of the proposed method. (Application to FMR1 premutation data on 165 female carriers indicates that the association between mRNA and CGG repeat after adjusting for ActRatio is stronger.) Finally, the results provide independent support for a specific jointly additive and multiplicative adjustment form for ActRatio previously proposed in the literature. PMID:19173699

  8. Transportation routing analysis geographic information system -- TRAGIS, a multimodal transportation routing tool

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, P.E.

    1995-12-31

    Over 15 years ago, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) developed two transportation routing models: HIGHWAY, which predicts truck transportation routes, and INTERLINE, which predicts rail transportation routes. Subsequent modifications have been made to enhance each of these models. Some of these changes include population density information for routes, HM-164 routing regulations for highway route controlled quantities of radioactive materials (RAM) truck shipments, and inclusion of waterway routing into INTERLINE. The AIRPORT model, developed 2 years after the HIGHWAY and INTERLINE models, serves as an emergency response tool. This model identifies the nearest airports from a designated location. Currently, the AIRPORT model is inactive. The Transportation Management Division of the US Department of Energy held a Baseline Requirements Assessment Session on the HIGHWAY, INTERLINE, and AIRPORT models in April 1994 to bring together many users of these models and other experts in the transportation routing field to discuss these models and to decide on the capabilities that needed to be added. Of the many needs discussed, the primary one was to have the network databases within a geographic information system (GIS). As a result of the Baseline Requirements Session, the development of a new GIS model has been initiated. This paper will discuss the development of the new Transportation Routing Analysis GIS (TRAGIS) model at ORNL.

  9. 76 FR 4395 - Postal Service Price Adjustment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-25

    ... Postal Service Price Adjustment AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a recently-filed Postal Service request to establish price adjustments for all market... with the Commission announcing price adjustments, effective April 17, 2011, affecting all...

  10. 12 CFR 1780.80 - Inflation adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inflation adjustments. 1780.80 Section 1780.80... DEVELOPMENT RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Civil Money Penalty Inflation Adjustments § 1780.80 Inflation adjustments. The maximum amount of each civil money penalty within...

  11. 34 CFR 36.2 - Penalty adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Penalty adjustment. 36.2 Section 36.2 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education ADJUSTMENT OF CIVIL MONETARY PENALTIES FOR INFLATION § 36.2..., Section 36.2—Civil Monetary Penalty Inflation Adjustments Statute Description New maximum (and minimum,...

  12. 19 CFR 201.205 - Salary adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Salary adjustments. 201.205 Section 201.205 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION GENERAL RULES OF GENERAL APPLICATION Debt Collection § 201.205 Salary adjustments. Any negative adjustment to pay arising out of an employee's...

  13. 19 CFR 201.205 - Salary adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Salary adjustments. 201.205 Section 201.205 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION GENERAL RULES OF GENERAL APPLICATION Debt Collection § 201.205 Salary adjustments. Any negative adjustment to pay arising out of an employee's...

  14. 34 CFR 36.2 - Penalty adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Penalty adjustment. 36.2 Section 36.2 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education ADJUSTMENT OF CIVIL MONETARY PENALTIES FOR INFLATION § 36.2..., Section 36.2—Civil Monetary Penalty Inflation Adjustments Statute Description New maximum (and minimum,...

  15. 34 CFR 36.2 - Penalty adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Penalty adjustment. 36.2 Section 36.2 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education ADJUSTMENT OF CIVIL MONETARY PENALTIES FOR INFLATION § 36.2..., Section 36.2—Civil Monetary Penalty Inflation Adjustments Statute Description New maximum (and minimum,...

  16. 34 CFR 36.2 - Penalty adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Penalty adjustment. 36.2 Section 36.2 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education ADJUSTMENT OF CIVIL MONETARY PENALTIES FOR INFLATION § 36.2..., Section 36.2—Civil Monetary Penalty Inflation Adjustments Statute Description New maximum (and minimum,...

  17. 34 CFR 36.2 - Penalty adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Penalty adjustment. 36.2 Section 36.2 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education ADJUSTMENT OF CIVIL MONETARY PENALTIES FOR INFLATION § 36.2..., Section 36.2—Civil Monetary Penalty Inflation Adjustments Statute Description New maximum (and minimum,...

  18. 12 CFR 1780.80 - Inflation adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Inflation adjustments. 1780.80 Section 1780.80... DEVELOPMENT RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Civil Money Penalty Inflation Adjustments § 1780.80 Inflation adjustments. The maximum amount of each civil money penalty within...

  19. Adjustment to College in Students with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabiner, David L.; Anastopoulos, Arthur D.; Costello, Jane; Hoyle, Rick H.; Swartzwelder, H. Scott

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To examine college adjustment in students reporting an ADHD diagnosis and the effect of medication treatment on students' adjustment. Method: 1,648 first-semester freshmen attending a public and a private university completed a Web-based survey to examine their adjustment to college. Results: Compared with 200 randomly selected control…

  20. Dimensions of Adjustment among College Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomlinson-Clarke, Saundra

    1998-01-01

    Examines academic, social, and personal-emotional adjustment, as well as institutional attachment for women (N=198) attending a predominantly white coeducational research university. Significant main effects were found on academic achievement for year in college. Students differed on personal-emotional adjustment by race. Academic adjustment and…

  1. A PERSONAL ADJUSTMENT AND PRE-VOCATIONAL CENTER FOR NON-FEASIBLE DEAF ADULTS AND RESEARCH TO DISCOVER AND ESTABLISH--(1) THE EXTENT TO WHICH VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION CAN BE ACHIEVED, (2) THE TIME REQUIRED, AND (3) THE COST. FINAL PROJECT REPORT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    RETHERFORD, ROBERT M.

    DEAF MEN WHOSE HANDICAPS WERE BEYOND THE SCOPE OF AVAILABLE STATE SERVICES WERE ENROLLED IN A PROGRAM TO DEVELOP READINESS FOR VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION. THE 33 TRAINEES WERE GIVEN INSTRUCTION IN COMMUNICATION, READING, SOCIAL STUDIES, ARITHMETIC, SOCIAL ADJUSTMENT, OCCUPATIONAL TRAINING, DRIVER EDUCATION, AND PREEMPLOYMENT TRAINING. TRADITIONAL…

  2. Why people do what they do to protect against earthquake risk: perceptions of hazard adjustment attributes.

    PubMed

    Lindell, Michael K; Arlikatti, Sudha; Prater, Carla S

    2009-08-01

    This study examined respondents' self-reported adoption of 16 hazard adjustments (preimpact actions to reduce danger to persons and property), their perceptions of those adjustments' attributes, and the correlations of those perceived attributes with respondents' demographic characteristics. The sample comprised 561 randomly selected residents from three cities in Southern California prone to high seismic risk and three cities from Western Washington prone to moderate seismic risks. The results show that the hazard adjustment perceptions were defined by hazard-related attributes and resource-related attributes. More significantly, the respondents had a significant degree of consensus in their ratings of those attributes and used them to differentiate among the hazard adjustments, as indicated by statistically significant differences among the hazard adjustment profiles. Finally, there were many significant correlations between respondents' demographic characteristics and the perceived characteristics of hazard adjustments, but there were few consistent patterns among these correlations. PMID:19508448

  3. Routing and wavelength assignment based on normalized resource and constraints for all-optical network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joo, Seong-Soon; Nam, Hyun-Soon; Lim, Chang-Kyu

    2003-08-01

    With the rapid growth of the Optical Internet, high capacity pipes is finally destined to support end-to-end IP on the WDM optical network. Newly launched 2D MEMS optical switching module in the market supports that expectations of upcoming a transparent optical cross-connect in the network have encouraged the field applicable research on establishing real all-optical transparent network. To open up a customer-driven bandwidth services, design of the optical transport network becomes more challenging task in terms of optimal network resource usage. This paper presents a practical approach to finding a route and wavelength assignment for wavelength routed all-optical network, which has λ-plane OXC switches and wavelength converters, and supports that optical paths are randomly set up and released by dynamic wavelength provisioning to create bandwidth between end users with timescales on the order of seconds or milliseconds. We suggest three constraints to make the RWA problem become more practical one on deployment for wavelength routed all-optical network in network view: limitation on maximum hop of a route within bearable optical network impairments, limitation on minimum hops to travel before converting a wavelength, and limitation on calculation time to find all routes for connections requested at once. We design the NRCD (Normalized Resource and Constraints for All-Optical Network RWA Design) algorithm for the Tera OXC: network resource for a route is calculated by the number of internal switching paths established in each OXC nodes on the route, and is normalized by ratio of number of paths established and number of paths equipped in a node. We show that it fits for the RWA algorithm of the wavelength routed all-optical network through real experiments on the distributed objects platform.

  4. COOPERATION MAINTAINED BY FITNESS ADJUSTMENT

    PubMed Central

    TAYLOR, CHRISTINE; CHEN, JANET; IWASA, YOH

    2008-01-01

    Questions Whether or not cooperation can be enhanced if players with a performance higher than the mean are forced to pay an additional cost in each generation? Mathematical Methods Analysis of replicator dynamics with mutation. The ESS distribution of cooperation level is obtained. Key Assumptions Players engage in cooperative dilemma game, and at the end of each generation, those with higher performance than the mean are forced to pay additional cost. Conclusions Without mutation, the entire population eventually conforms to a single cooperation level determined by the initial composition of the population. With mutation, there is an equilibrium distribution of cooperation level, which has a peak at an intermediate level of cooperation. Whether it is institutionalized such as tax or just a social custom, fitness adjustment based ultimately on people’s emtion of “envy” is able to maintain cooperation. PMID:19079742

  5. External Verification of the Bundle Adjustment in Photogrammetric Software Using the Damped Bundle Adjustment Toolbox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Börlin, Niclas; Grussenmeyer, Pierre

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate whether the Matlab-based Damped Bundle Adjustment Toolbox (DBAT) can be used to provide independent verification of the BA computation of two popular software—PhotoModeler (PM) and PhotoScan (PS). For frame camera data sets with lens distortion, DBAT is able to reprocess and replicate subsets of PM results with high accuracy. For lens-distortion-free data sets, DBAT can furthermore provide comparative results between PM and PS. Data sets for the discussed projects are available from the authors. The use of an external verification tool such as DBAT will enable users to get an independent verification of the computations of their software. In addition, DBAT can provide computation of quality parameters such as estimated standard deviations, correlation between parameters, etc., something that should be part of best practice for any photogrammetric software. Finally, as the code is free and open-source, users can add computations of their own.

  6. Method and apparatus for routing data in an inter-nodal communications lattice of a massively parallel computer system by employing bandwidth shells at areas of overutilization

    SciTech Connect

    Archer, Charles Jens; Musselman, Roy Glenn; Peters, Amanda; Pinnow, Kurt Walter; Swartz, Brent Allen; Wallenfelt, Brian Paul

    2010-04-27

    A massively parallel computer system contains an inter-nodal communications network of node-to-node links. An automated routing strategy routes packets through one or more intermediate nodes of the network to reach a final destination. The default routing strategy is altered responsive to detection of overutilization of a particular path of one or more links, and at least some traffic is re-routed by distributing the traffic among multiple paths (which may include the default path). An alternative path may require a greater number of link traversals to reach the destination node.

  7. 21 CFR 1303.37 - Final order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Final order. 1303.37 Section 1303.37 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE QUOTAS Hearings § 1303.37 Final order. As... Administrator shall issue his order on the determination or adjustment of the aggregate production quota or...

  8. The Deployment of Routing Protocols in Distributed Control Plane of SDN

    PubMed Central

    Jingjing, Zhou; Di, Cheng; Weiming, Wang; Rong, Jin; Xiaochun, Wu

    2014-01-01

    Software defined network (SDN) provides a programmable network through decoupling the data plane, control plane, and application plane from the original closed system, thus revolutionizing the existing network architecture to improve the performance and scalability. In this paper, we learned about the distributed characteristics of Kandoo architecture and, meanwhile, improved and optimized Kandoo's two levels of controllers based on ideological inspiration of RCP (routing control platform). Finally, we analyzed the deployment strategies of BGP and OSPF protocol in a distributed control plane of SDN. The simulation results show that our deployment strategies are superior to the traditional routing strategies. PMID:25250395

  9. The deployment of routing protocols in distributed control plane of SDN.

    PubMed

    Jingjing, Zhou; Di, Cheng; Weiming, Wang; Rong, Jin; Xiaochun, Wu

    2014-01-01

    Software defined network (SDN) provides a programmable network through decoupling the data plane, control plane, and application plane from the original closed system, thus revolutionizing the existing network architecture to improve the performance and scalability. In this paper, we learned about the distributed characteristics of Kandoo architecture and, meanwhile, improved and optimized Kandoo's two levels of controllers based on ideological inspiration of RCP (routing control platform). Finally, we analyzed the deployment strategies of BGP and OSPF protocol in a distributed control plane of SDN. The simulation results show that our deployment strategies are superior to the traditional routing strategies. PMID:25250395

  10. 2. Aerial view northeast, State Route 92 bottom left and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Aerial view northeast, State Route 92 bottom left and State Route 100 center, Brandywine Creek State Park center right, duck pond and reservoir center bottom. - Winterthur Farms, Intersection State Routes 92 & 100, Intersection State Routes 92 & 100, Winterthur, New Castle County, DE

  11. 1. Aerial view northnortheast, State Route 92 center left and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Aerial view north-northeast, State Route 92 center left and State Route 100 on right, duck pond, reservoir and farm complex buildings center bottom. - Winterthur Farms, Intersection State Routes 92 & 100, Intersection State Routes 92 & 100, Winterthur, New Castle County, DE

  12. 6. Aerial view northwest, State Route 100 bottom left and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Aerial view northwest, State Route 100 bottom left and center, Winterthur Train Station center left, Winterthur Farms dairy barns upper center , duck pond and reservoir center, State Route 92 center right, and Brandywine Creek State Park bottom right. - Winterthur Farms, Intersection State Routes 92 & 100, Intersection State Routes 92 & 100, Winterthur, New Castle County, DE

  13. The NOVA-2 postlaunch orbit adjustment process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heyler, Gene A.

    The NOVA-2 satellite was the last of three `drag free' spacecraft to be placed into the Transit Navigation Systems's constellation of satellites. After its launch from Vandenburg Air Force Base into an initial 510 x 170 nmi near poar orbit, an intensive two-week operations schedule was implemented to : raise the orbit approximately 450 nmi to within .015 sec of desired period, trim eccentricity to within .003, trim inclination to within .006 degrees of requirement, freeze the phase of the spacecraft in orbit relative to the other two `drag free' satellites, dump extra fuel by deliberately fual wasting burns, and transition the spacecraft from a slow spin mode to gravity gradient. This paper will briefly discuss the concept of a `drag free' satellite, the selection of the orbit plane in the constellations, and the derivation of the required final orbit parameters. The paper will also discuss peripheral support needed to assist the OATS (Orbit Adjust and Transfer System) ground software, including attitude determination and maneuvers, orbit determination, and orbit prediction through the burns. However, the specific focus of this paper is on the design and execution of the nine OATS burns that accomplished the orbital maneuvers.

  14. An Indirect Route for Ethanol Production

    SciTech Connect

    Eggeman, T.; Verser, D.; Weber, E.

    2005-04-29

    The ZeaChem indirect method is a radically new approach to producing fuel ethanol from renewable resources. Sugar and syngas processing platforms are combined in a novel way that allows all fractions of biomass feedstocks (e.g. carbohydrates, lignins, etc.) to contribute their energy directly into the ethanol product via fermentation and hydrogen based chemical process technologies. The goals of this project were: (1) Collect engineering data necessary for scale-up of the indirect route for ethanol production, and (2) Produce process and economic models to guide the development effort. Both goals were successfully accomplished. The projected economics of the Base Case developed in this work are comparable to today's corn based ethanol technology. Sensitivity analysis shows that significant improvements in economics for the indirect route would result if a biomass feedstock rather that starch hydrolyzate were used as the carbohydrate source. The energy ratio, defined as the ratio of green energy produced divided by the amount of fossil energy consumed, is projected to be 3.11 to 12.32 for the indirect route depending upon the details of implementation. Conventional technology has an energy ratio of 1.34, thus the indirect route will have a significant environmental advantage over today's technology. Energy savings of 7.48 trillion Btu/yr will result when 100 MMgal/yr (neat) of ethanol capacity via the indirect route is placed on-line by the year 2010.

  15. Minimum risk route model for hazardous materials

    SciTech Connect

    Ashtakala, B.; Eno, L.A.

    1996-09-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the minimum risk route for transporting a specific hazardous material (HM) between a point of origin and a point of destination (O-D pair) in the study area which minimizes risk to population and environment. The southern part of Quebec is chosen as the study area and major cities are identified as points of origin and destination on the highway network. Three classes of HM, namely chlorine gas, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), and sulfuric acid, are chosen. A minimum risk route model has been developed to determine minimum risk routes between an O-D pair by using population or environment risk units as link impedances. The risk units for each link are computed by taking into consideration the probability of an accident and its consequences on that link. The results show that between the same O-D pair, the minimum risk routes are different for various HM. The concept of risk dissipation from origin to destination on the minimum risk route has been developed and dissipation curves are included.

  16. A digital model for streamflow routing by convolution methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Doyle, W.H., Jr.; Shearman, H.O.; Stiltner, G.J.; Krug, W.O.

    1984-01-01

    U.S. Geological Survey computer model, CONROUT, for routing streamflow by unit-response convolution flow-routing techniques from an upstream channel location to a downstream channel location has been developed and documented. Calibration and verification of the flow-routing model and subsequent use of the model for simulation is also documented. Three hypothetical examples and two field applications are presented to illustrate basic flow-routing concepts. Most of the discussion is limited to daily flow routing since, to date, all completed and current studies of this nature involve daily flow routing. However, the model is programmed to accept hourly flow-routing data. (USGS)

  17. A Hybrid Routing Algorithm Based on Ant Colony and ZHLS Routing Protocol for MANET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafsanjani, Marjan Kuchaki; Asadinia, Sanaz; Pakzad, Farzaneh

    Mobile Ad hoc networks (MANETs) require dynamic routing schemes for adequate performance. This paper, presents a new routing algorithm for MANETs, which combines the idea of ant colony optimization with Zone-based Hierarchical Link State (ZHLS) protocol. Ant colony optimization (ACO) is a class of Swarm Intelligence (SI) algorithms. SI is the local interaction of many simple agents to achieve a global goal. SI is based on social insect for solving different types of problems. ACO algorithm uses mobile agents called ants to explore network. Ants help to find paths between two nodes in the network. Our algorithm is based on ants jump from one zone to the next zones which contains of the proactive routing within a zone and reactive routing between the zones. Our proposed algorithm improves the performance of the network such as delay, packet delivery ratio and overhead than traditional routing algorithms.

  18. Impact of bicycle route type on exposure to traffic-related air pollution.

    PubMed

    MacNaughton, Piers; Melly, Steven; Vallarino, Jose; Adamkiewicz, Gary; Spengler, John D

    2014-08-15

    Cyclists are exposed to traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) during their commutes due to their proximity to vehicular traffic. Two of the main components of TRAP are black carbon (BC) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2), which have both been causally associated with increased mortality. To assess the impact of cyclists' exposure to TRAP, a battery-powered mobile monitoring station was designed to sample air pollutants along five bike routes in Boston, Massachusetts. The bike routes were categorized into three types: bike paths, which are separated from vehicle traffic; bike lanes, which are adjacent to traffic; and designated bike lanes, which are shared traffic lanes for buses and cyclists. Bike lanes were found to have significantly higher concentrations of BC and NO2 than bike paths in both adjusted and unadjusted generalized linear models. Higher concentrations were observed in designated bike lanes than bike paths; however, this association was only significant for NO2. After adjusting for traffic density, background concentration, and proximity to intersections, bike lanes were found to have concentrations of BC and NO2 that were approximately 33% higher than bike paths. Distance from the road, vegetation barriers, and reduced intersection density appear to influence these variations. These findings suggest that cyclists can reduce their exposure to TRAP during their commute by using bike paths preferentially over bike lanes regardless of the potential increase of traffic near these routes. PMID:24840278

  19. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 2): Woodland Township, Route 72 and Route 532 dump sites, Burlington County, Chatsworth, NJ, September 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    This decision document presents the selected remedial action for subsurface soils at the Woodland Township Route 72 site. This is the second and final operable unit for the site. A previous Record of Decision (PB91-921402), signed on May 16, 1990, addressed the remediation of contaminated surface materials, sediments and ground water at the site. This decision document addresses the subsurface soils. The New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection and Energy has selected no further action for the second operable unit.

  20. Research on secure routing algorithm in wireless sensor network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Bo

    2013-03-01

    Through the research on the existing wireless sensor network (WSN) and its security technologies, this paper presents a design of the WSN-based secure routing algorithm. This design uses the existing routing algorithm as chief source, adding the security guidance strategy, introducing the location key information, to enhance the security performance of WSN routing. The improved routing algorithm makes the WSN routing achieve better anti-attack in the case of little overhead increase, therefore has high practical value.

  1. APPLICATION AND USE OF DOSE ESTIMATING EXPOSURE MODEL (DEEM) FOR ROUTE TO ROUTE DOSE COMPARISONS AFTER EXPOSURE TO TRICHLOROETHYLENE (TCE)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Route-to-route extrapolations are a crucial step in many risk assessments. Often the doses which result In toxicological end points in one route must be compared with doses resulting from typical environmental exposures by another route. In this case we used EPA's Dose Estimati...

  2. Pheromone Static Routing Strategy for Complex Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Mao-Bin; Henry, Y. K. Lau; Ling, Xiang; Jiang, Rui

    2012-12-01

    We adopt the concept of using pheromones to generate a set of static paths that can reach the performance of global dynamic routing strategy [Phys. Rev. E 81 (2010) 016113]. The path generation method consists of two stages. In the first stage, a pheromone is dropped to the nodes by packets forwarded according to the global dynamic routing strategy. In the second stage, pheromone static paths are generated according to the pheromone density. The output paths can greatly improve traffic systems' overall capacity on different network structures, including scale-free networks, small-world networks and random graphs. Because the paths are static, the system needs much less computational resources than the global dynamic routing strategy.

  3. Genetic algorithms for the vehicle routing problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volna, Eva

    2016-06-01

    The Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP) is one of the most challenging combinatorial optimization tasks. This problem consists in designing the optimal set of routes for fleet of vehicles in order to serve a given set of customers. Evolutionary algorithms are general iterative algorithms for combinatorial optimization. These algorithms have been found to be very effective and robust in solving numerous problems from a wide range of application domains. This problem is known to be NP-hard; hence many heuristic procedures for its solution have been suggested. For such problems it is often desirable to obtain approximate solutions, so they can be found fast enough and are sufficiently accurate for the purpose. In this paper we have performed an experimental study that indicates the suitable use of genetic algorithms for the vehicle routing problem.

  4. Pulmonary administration of small interfering RNA: The route to go?

    PubMed

    Ruigrok, M J R; Frijlink, H W; Hinrichs, W L J

    2016-08-10

    Ever since the discovery of RNA interference (RNAi), which is a post-transcriptional gene silencing mechanism, researchers have been studying the therapeutic potential of using small interfering RNA (siRNA) to treat diseases that are characterized by excessive gene expression. Excessive gene expression can be particularly harmful if it occurs in a vulnerable organ such as the lungs as they are essential for physiological respiration. Consequently, RNAi could offer an approach to treat such lung diseases. Parenteral administration of siRNA has been shown to be difficult due to degradation by nucleases in the systemic circulation and excretion by the kidneys. To avoid these issues and to achieve local delivery and local effects, pulmonary administration has been proposed as an alternative administration route. Regarding this application, various animal studies have been conducted over the past few years. Therefore, this review presents a critical analysis of publications where pulmonary administration of siRNA in animals has been reported. Such an analysis is necessary to determine the feasibility of this administration route and to define directions for future research. First, we provide background information on lungs, pulmonary administration, and delivery vectors. Thereafter, we present and discuss relevant animal studies. Though nearly all publications reported positive outcomes, several reoccurring challenges were identified. They relate to 1) the necessity, efficacy, and safety of delivery vectors, 2) the biodistribution of siRNA in tissues other than the lungs, 3) the poor correlation between in vitro and in vivo models, and 4) the long-term effects upon (repeated) administration of siRNA. Finally, we present recommendations for future research to define the route to go: towards safer and more effective pulmonary administration of siRNA. PMID:27235976

  5. Intelligent emission-sensitive routing for plugin hybrid electric vehicles.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhonghao; Zhou, Xingshe

    2016-01-01

    The existing transportation sector creates heavily environmental impacts and is a prime cause for the current climate change. The need to reduce emissions from this sector has stimulated efforts to speed up the application of electric vehicles (EVs). A subset of EVs, called plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), backup batteries with combustion engine, which makes PHEVs have a comparable driving range to conventional vehicles. However, this hybridization comes at a cost of higher emissions than all-electric vehicles. This paper studies the routing problem for PHEVs to minimize emissions. The existing shortest-path based algorithms cannot be applied to solving this problem, because of the several new challenges: (1) an optimal route may contain circles caused by detour for recharging; (2) emissions of PHEVs not only depend on the driving distance, but also depend on the terrain and the state of charge (SOC) of batteries; (3) batteries can harvest energy by regenerative braking, which makes some road segments have negative energy consumption. To address these challenges, this paper proposes a green navigation algorithm (GNA) which finds the optimal strategies: where to go and where to recharge. GNA discretizes the SOC, then makes the PHEV routing problem to satisfy the principle of optimality. Finally, GNA adopts dynamic programming to solve the problem. We evaluate GNA using synthetic maps generated by the delaunay triangulation. The results show that GNA can save more than 10 % energy and reduce 10 % emissions when compared to the shortest path algorithm. We also observe that PHEVs with the battery capacity of 10-15 KWh detour most and nearly no detour when larger than 30 KWh. This observation gives some insights when developing PHEVs. PMID:27026933

  6. Exploration adjustment by ant colonies

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    How do animals in groups organize their work? Division of labour, i.e. the process by which individuals within a group choose which tasks to perform, has been extensively studied in social insects. Variability among individuals within a colony seems to underpin both the decision over which tasks to perform and the amount of effort to invest in a task. Studies have focused mainly on discrete tasks, i.e. tasks with a recognizable end. Here, we study the distribution of effort in nest seeking, in the absence of new nest sites. Hence, this task is open-ended and individuals have to decide when to stop searching, even though the task has not been completed. We show that collective search effort declines when colonies inhabit better homes, as a consequence of a reduction in the number of bouts (exploratory events). Furthermore, we show an increase in bout exploration time and a decrease in bout instantaneous speed for colonies inhabiting better homes. The effect of treatment on bout effort is very small; however, we suggest that the organization of work performed within nest searching is achieved both by a process of self-selection of the most hard-working ants and individual effort adjustment. PMID:26909180

  7. Exploration adjustment by ant colonies.

    PubMed

    Doran, Carolina; Stumpe, Martin C; Sendova-Franks, Ana; Franks, Nigel R

    2016-01-01

    How do animals in groups organize their work? Division of labour, i.e. the process by which individuals within a group choose which tasks to perform, has been extensively studied in social insects. Variability among individuals within a colony seems to underpin both the decision over which tasks to perform and the amount of effort to invest in a task. Studies have focused mainly on discrete tasks, i.e. tasks with a recognizable end. Here, we study the distribution of effort in nest seeking, in the absence of new nest sites. Hence, this task is open-ended and individuals have to decide when to stop searching, even though the task has not been completed. We show that collective search effort declines when colonies inhabit better homes, as a consequence of a reduction in the number of bouts (exploratory events). Furthermore, we show an increase in bout exploration time and a decrease in bout instantaneous speed for colonies inhabiting better homes. The effect of treatment on bout effort is very small; however, we suggest that the organization of work performed within nest searching is achieved both by a process of self-selection of the most hard-working ants and individual effort adjustment. PMID:26909180

  8. Policy route certification: Requirements and techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Nessett, D. ); Solo, D. )

    1991-01-01

    The interconnection of separately administrated, autonomous communications networks into a large internetwork of global extent raises significant technical, managerial and security issues. Individual networks, or collections of networks, may exhibit different characteristics with respect to usage rules, cost, performance, and security services. In a large internetwork of autonomously administered constituent networks, clients of routing services may wish to obtain security and other service guarantees for their internetwork traffic. This paper analyzes requirements for these guarantees and suggests techniques to meet these requirements based on policy routing mechanisms.

  9. Technologies for user-preferred routing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNally, B. D.; Sridhar, Banavar

    1996-05-01

    The 1995 report of the RTCA Board of Directors' Select Committee on Free Flight states that 'insufficient capacity, limited access, and excessive operating restrictions have escalated operating costs, increase delays, and decreased efficiency for all users' of the national airspace system. The Air Transport Association estimates the annual loss to be 3.5 billion dollars. The goal of the user preferred routing research is to develop integrated airborne and ground technologies that enable the highest possible level of unconstrained, user-preferred routing in enroute airspace.

  10. Reconfigurable Robust Routing for Mobile Outreach Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Ching-Fang

    2010-01-01

    The Reconfigurable Robust Routing for Mobile Outreach Network (R3MOO N) provides advanced communications networking technologies suitable for the lunar surface environment and applications. The R3MOON techn ology is based on a detailed concept of operations tailored for luna r surface networks, and includes intelligent routing algorithms and wireless mesh network implementation on AGNC's Coremicro Robots. The product's features include an integrated communication solution inco rporating energy efficiency and disruption-tolerance in a mobile ad h oc network, and a real-time control module to provide researchers an d engineers a convenient tool for reconfiguration, investigation, an d management.

  11. Jigsaw: the ISIS3 Bundle Adjustment for Extraterrestrial Photogrammetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edmundson, K. L.; Cook, D. A.; Thomas, O. H.; Archinal, B. A.; Kirk, R. L.

    2012-07-01

    The Integrated Software for Imagers and Spectrometers (ISIS) package was developed by the Astrogeology Science Center of the U.S. Geological Survey in the late 1980s for the cartographic and scientific processing of planetary image data. Initial support was implemented for the Galileo NIMS instrument. Constantly evolving, ISIS has since added support for numerous missions, including most recently the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, MESSENGER, and Dawn missions, plus support for the Metric Cameras flown onboard Apollo 15, 16, and 17. To address the challenges posed by extraterrestrial photogrammetry, the ISIS3 bundle adjustment module, jigsaw, is evolving as well. Here, we report on the current state of jigsaw including improvements such as the implementation of sparse matrix methods, parameter weighting, error propagation, and automated robust outlier detection. Details from the recent processing of Apollo Metric Camera images and from recent missions such as LRO and MESSENGER are given. Finally, we outline future plans for jigsaw, including the implementation of sequential estimation; free network adjustment; augmentation of the functional model of the bundle adjustment to solve for camera interior orientation parameters and target body parameters of shape, spin axis position, and spin rate; the modeling of jitter in line scan sensors; and the combined adjustment of images from a variety of platforms.

  12. Sonde Adjust Value-Added Product Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Troyan, D

    2012-01-09

    The Sonde Adjust (SONDEADJUST) value-added product (VAP) creates a file that includes all fields from original Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility (ARM Facility) radiosonde files and contains several value-added fields that provide adjustments related to well-known humidity issues. SONDEADJUST produces data that correct documented biases in radiosonde humidity measurements. Previous efforts towards applying some of these corrections are available via the discontinued PI product sgpsondecorr1miloC1. Unique fields contained within this datastream include smoothed original relative humidity, dry bias corrected relative humidity, and final corrected relative humidity. The smoothed RH field refines the relative humidity from integers-the resolution of the instrument-to fractions of a percent. This profile is then used to calculate the dry bias corrected field. The final correction fixes the time-lag problem and uses the dry-bias field as input into the algorithm. In addition to dry bias, solar heating is another correction that is encompassed in the final corrected RH field. Output from SONDEADJUST differs from the previous RH-corrected datastreams in important ways. First, all three types of ARM radiosondes-Vaisala RS-80, RS-90, and RS-92-are corrected using dedicated procedures and/or parameters. Second, the output variables include all of those found in the original radiosonde file: dry bulb temperature, dewpoint temperature, wind speed, wind direction, eastward wind component, northward wind component, wind status (a Vaisala-produced field used in conjunction with the Loran system), ascent rate, and original relative humidity. Additional humidity fields are smoothed relative humidity, dry biased corrected relative humidity, final ambient relative humidity, and scaled adjusted relative humidity. Third, quality control (QC) flags of the fields from the original radiosonde datastream are brought into the SONDEADJUST output file. Additional QC

  13. European policymaking on the tobacco advertising ban: the importance of escape routes.

    PubMed

    Adamini, Sandra; Versluis, Esther; Maarse, Hans

    2011-01-01

    This article analyses the European Union policymaking process regarding tobacco advertising. While others already highlighted the importance of intergovernmental bargaining between member states to explain the outcome of the tobacco advertising case, the main aim of this article is to identify the use of escape routes by the Commission, the European Parliament, the Council and interest groups that played an important role in overcoming the deadlock. When looking at the different institutions that structure policymaking, we argue that indeed focusing on escape routes provides a clear insight in the process and in what strategies were necessary to 'make Europe work'. In the end, it appears to be a combination of escape routes that resulted in the final decision. PMID:20199714

  14. Branch-pipe-routing approach for ships using improved genetic algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sui, Haiteng; Niu, Wentie

    2016-05-01

    Branch-pipe routing plays fundamental and critical roles in ship-pipe design. The branch-pipe-routing problem is a complex combinatorial optimization problem and is thus difficult to solve when depending only on human experts. A modified genetic-algorithm-based approach is proposed in this paper to solve this problem. The simplified layout space is first divided into threedimensional (3D) grids to build its mathematical model. Branch pipes in layout space are regarded as a combination of several two-point pipes, and the pipe route between two connection points is generated using an improved maze algorithm. The coding of branch pipes is then defined, and the genetic operators are devised, especially the complete crossover strategy that greatly accelerates the convergence speed. Finally, simulation tests demonstrate the performance of proposed method.

  15. A Distance-based Energy Aware Routing algorithm for wireless sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jin; Kim, Jeong-Uk; Shu, Lei; Niu, Yu; Lee, Sungyoung

    2010-01-01

    Energy efficiency and balancing is one of the primary challenges for wireless sensor networks (WSNs) since the tiny sensor nodes cannot be easily recharged once they are deployed. Up to now, many energy efficient routing algorithms or protocols have been proposed with techniques like clustering, data aggregation and location tracking etc. However, many of them aim to minimize parameters like total energy consumption, latency etc., which cause hotspot nodes and partitioned network due to the overuse of certain nodes. In this paper, a Distance-based Energy Aware Routing (DEAR) algorithm is proposed to ensure energy efficiency and energy balancing based on theoretical analysis of different energy and traffic models. During the routing process, we consider individual distance as the primary parameter in order to adjust and equalize the energy consumption among involved sensors. The residual energy is also considered as a secondary factor. In this way, all the intermediate nodes will consume their energy at similar rate, which maximizes network lifetime. Simulation results show that the DEAR algorithm can reduce and balance the energy consumption for all sensor nodes so network lifetime is greatly prolonged compared to other routing algorithms. PMID:22163422

  16. Multiple routes of drug administration and HIV risk among injecting drug users

    PubMed Central

    Vorobjov, Sigrid; Uusküla, Anneli; Des Jarlais, Don C.; Abel-Ollo, Katri; Talu, Ave; Rüütel, Kristi

    2011-01-01

    This study assesses relationships between drug administration routes and HIV serostatus, drug-use and sexual behaviors among current injecting drug users (IDUs) in Tallinn, Estonia. We recruited 350 IDUs for a cross-sectional risk behavior survey. Adjusted odds ratios (AORs) were calculated to explore injection risk behavior, sexual behavior and HIV serostatus associated with multiple route use. Focus groups explored reasons why injectors might use non-injecting routes of administration. Those reporting multiple drug administration routes were less likely to be HIV seropositive (AOR 0.49; 95%CI 0.25-0.97), had almost twice the odds of having more than one sexual partner (AOR 1.90; 95%CI 1.01-3.60) and of reporting having sexually transmitted diseases (AOR 2.38; 95%CI 1.02-5.59). IDUs who engage in non-injecting drug use may be reducing their risk of acquiring HIV though sharing injection equipment, but if infected may be a critical group for sexual transmission of HIV to people who do not inject drugs. PMID:22116012

  17. Ergonomic evaluation of the Apple Adjustable Keyboard

    SciTech Connect

    Tittiranonda, P.; Burastero, S.; Shih, M.; Rempel, D.

    1994-05-01

    This study presents an evaluation of the Apple Adjustable Keyboard based on subjective preference and observed joint angles during typing. Thirty five keyboard users were asked to use the Apple adjustable keyboard for 7--14 days and rate the various characteristics of the keyboard. Our findings suggest that the most preferred opening angles range from 11--20{degree}. The mean ulnar deviation on the Apple Adjustable keyboard is 11{degree}, compared to 16{degree} on the standard keyboard. The mean extension was decreased from 24{degree} to 16{degree} when using the adjustable keyboard. When asked to subjectively rate the adjustable keyboard in comparison to the standard, the average subject felt that the Apple Adjustable Keyboard was more comfortable and easier to use than the standard flat keyboard.

  18. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    DeTar, Carleton

    2012-12-10

    This document constitutes the Final Report for award DE-FC02-06ER41446 as required by the Office of Science. It summarizes accomplishments and provides copies of scientific publications with significant contribution from this award.

  19. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Gurney, Kevin R

    2015-01-12

    This document constitutes the final report under DOE grant DE-FG-08ER64649. The organization of this document is as follows: first, I will review the original scope of the proposed research. Second, I will present the current draft of a paper nearing submission to Nature Climate Change on the initial results of this funded effort. Finally, I will present the last phase of the research under this grant which has supported a Ph.D. student. To that end, I will present the graduate student’s proposed research, a portion of which is completed and reflected in the paper nearing submission. This final work phase will be completed in the next 12 months. This final workphase will likely result in 1-2 additional publications and we consider the results (as exemplified by the current paper) high quality. The continuing results will acknowledge the funding provided by DOE grant DE-FG-08ER64649.

  20. Efficient Adjustable Reflectivity Smart Window

    SciTech Connect

    D. Morgan Tench

    2005-12-01

    This project addressed the key technical issues for development of an efficient smart window based on reversible electrochemical transfer of silver between a mirror electrode and a localized counter electrode. Effort to provide uniform switching over large areas focused on use of a resistive transparent electrode innerlayer to increase the interelectrode resistance. An effective edge seal was developed in collaboration with adhesive suppliers and an electrochromic device manufacturer. Work to provide a manufacturable counter electrode focused on fabricating a dot matrix electrode without photolithography by electrodeposition of Pt nuclei on inherent active sites on a transparent oxide conductor. An alternative counter electrode based on a conducting polymer and an ionic liquid electrolyte was also investigated. Work in all of these areas was successful. Sputtered large-bandgap oxide innerlayers sandwiched between conductive indium tin oxide (ITO) layers were shown to provide sufficient cross-layer resistance (>300 ohm/cm{sup 2}) without significantly affecting the electrochemical properties of the ITO overlayer. Two edge seal epoxies, one procured from an epoxy manufacturer and one provided by an electrochromic device manufacturer in finished seals, were shown to be effective barriers against oxygen intrusion up to 80 C. The optimum density of nuclei for the dot matrix counter electrode was attained without use of photolithography by electrodeposition from a commercial alkaline platinum plating bath. Silver loss issues for cells with dot matrix electrodes were successfully addressed by purifying the electrolyte and adjusting the cell cycling parameters. More than 30K cycles were demonstrated for a REM cell (30-cm square) with a dot matrix counter electrode. Larger cells (30-cm square) were successfully fabricated but could not be cycled since the nucleation layers (provided by an outside supplier) were defective so that mirror deposits could not be produced.

  1. Three-dimensional adjustment of trilateration data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sung, L.-Y.; Jackson, D. D.

    1985-01-01

    The three-dimensional locations of the monuments in the USGS Hollister trilateration network were adjusted to fit line length observations observed in 1977, using a Bayesian approach, and incorporating prior elevation estimates as data in the adjustment procedure. No significant discrepancies in the measured line lengths were found, but significant elevation adjustments (up to 1.85 m) were needed to fit the length data.

  2. Asian immigrant settlement and adjustment in Australia.

    PubMed

    Khoo, S; Kee, P; Dang, T; Shu, J

    1994-01-01

    "This article provides a broad assessment of the settlement and adjustment of people born in the many countries of Asia who are resident in Australia, based on recently available data from the 1991 Census of Population and Housing. It examines some indicators of economic adjustment such as performance in the labor market, and some indicators of social adjustment, such as acquisition of English language proficiency." PMID:12289777

  3. DataBus-based hybrid routing approach for orbit access networks in lunar exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Hui; Meng, Ke; Deng, Julia

    2012-06-01

    One of the major challenges for lunar exploration missions is how to achieve dynamic and robust routing. To reduce the development cost, it is desirable to leverage existing technologies, such as routing in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) and delay tolerant networks (DTN). However, these technologies are developed for the Earth environment and hence need further investigation for the lunar environment. To support robust access and dynamic mission operations, we propose a DataBus-based Hybrid Routing (DBHR) approach that combines MANET reactive routing protocol (such as AODV) and DTN-based bundle delivery. Our DBHR approach is designed for a tiered architecture where remote nodes communicate with upper-tier gateways through data carriers (DataBus) using short-range radio interfaces. Our scheme explores the (non)availability of the end-to-end path between two peers using MANET routing and provides diverse route options based upon different parameters. This interaction between hop-by-hop DTN technologies and end-to-end MANET protocol will result in a reliable and robust routing protocol for orbit access and improve the overall communication capabilities. To evaluate its performance, we implemented our proposed scheme on commercial-off-theshelf (COTS) routers with the custom OpenWRT and tailored IBR-DTN bundle protocol distribution. The on-demand service request and grant mechanisms are also developed in our implementation to allow certain DTN nodes to reserve the future access opportunities. Finally, we demonstrate the achieved capabilities and performance gains through experiments on a hardware test bed that consists of several COTS routers with our implementation.

  4. A survey on routing protocols for large-scale wireless sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Li, Changle; Zhang, Hanxiao; Hao, Binbin; Li, Jiandong

    2011-01-01

    other metrics. Finally some open issues in routing protocol design in large-scale wireless sensor networks and conclusions are proposed. PMID:22163808

  5. A Survey on Routing Protocols for Large-Scale Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Li, Changle; Zhang, Hanxiao; Hao, Binbin; Li, Jiandong

    2011-01-01

    and other metrics. Finally some open issues in routing protocol design in large-scale wireless sensor networks and conclusions are proposed. PMID:22163808

  6. Rate adjusters for Medicare under capitation

    PubMed Central

    Newhouse, Joseph P.

    1986-01-01

    This article addresses three issues related to capitation. First, the average adjusted per capita cost (AAPCC) fluctuates with the mix of risks in the fee-for-service system. More sensitive adjusters in the AAPCC are needed. Second, the AAPCC, as now estimated, exhibits large geographic variance; so-called shrinkage estimators may help. Third, the AAPCC requires new adjusters to yield more homogeneous risk classes. Otherwise, the portion of the Medicare population under capitation may experience access problems at alternative delivery systems: Until such adjusters are developed, it seems better to rely upon a blend of capitation and fee-for-service than the present AAPCC. PMID:10311926

  7. Techniques and applications of adjustable sutures.

    PubMed

    Fells, P

    1987-02-01

    The 'rediscovery' of adjustable sutures some 10 years ago has given the ophthalmic surgeon much more confidence in his ability to correct strabismus. Three methods of use are described: during surgery under general anaesthesia with adjustment during the operation using the 'springback' test to centralise the eye; during surgery under general anaesthesia and subsequent adjustment under local anaesthesia using the patient's subjective responses to obtain optimal positioning; and performance of the operation and adjustment under topical local anaesthesia in one procedure. Full details are given of each technique and the indications for their application to particular problems are discussed. PMID:3297111

  8. Applying green chemistry to the photochemical route to artemisinin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amara, Zacharias; Bellamy, Jessica F. B.; Horvath, Raphael; Miller, Samuel J.; Beeby, Andrew; Burgard, Andreas; Rossen, Kai; Poliakoff, Martyn; George, Michael W.

    2015-06-01

    Artemisinin is an important antimalarial drug, but, at present, the environmental and economic costs of its semi-synthetic production are relatively high. Most of these costs lie in the final chemical steps, which follow a complex acid- and photo-catalysed route with oxygenation by both singlet and triplet oxygen. We demonstrate that applying the principles of green chemistry can lead to innovative strategies that avoid many of the problems in current photochemical processes. The first strategy combines the use of liquid CO2 as solvent and a dual-function solid acid/photocatalyst. The second strategy is an ambient-temperature reaction in aqueous mixtures of organic solvents, where the only inputs are dihydroartemisinic acid, O2 and light, and the output is pure, crystalline artemisinin. Everything else—solvents, photocatalyst and aqueous acid—can be recycled. Some aspects developed here through green chemistry are likely to have wider application in photochemistry and other reactions.

  9. Confined linear carbon chains as a route to bulk carbyne

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Lei; Rohringer, Philip; Suenaga, Kazu; Niimi, Yoshiko; Kotakoski, Jani; Meyer, Jannik C.; Peterlik, Herwig; Wanko, Marius; Cahangirov, Seymur; Rubio, Angel; Lapin, Zachary J.; Novotny, Lukas; Ayala, Paola; Pichler, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    Strong chemical activity and extreme instability in ambient conditions characterize carbyne, an infinite sp1 hybridized carbon chain. As a result, much less has been explored about carbyne as compared to other carbon allotropes such as fullerenes, nanotubes and graphene. Although end-capping groups can be used to stabilize carbon chains, length limitations are still a barrier for production, and even more so for application. We report a method for the bulk production of long acetylenic linear carbon chains protected by thin double-walled carbon nanotubes. The synthesis of very long arrangements is confirmed by a combination of transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and (near-field) resonance Raman spectroscopy. Our results establish a route for the bulk production of exceptionally long and stable chains composed of more than 6,000 carbon atoms, representing an elegant forerunner towards the final goal of carbyne’s bulk production.

  10. Applying green chemistry to the photochemical route to artemisinin.

    PubMed

    Amara, Zacharias; Bellamy, Jessica F B; Horvath, Raphael; Miller, Samuel J; Beeby, Andrew; Burgard, Andreas; Rossen, Kai; Poliakoff, Martyn; George, Michael W

    2015-06-01

    Artemisinin is an important antimalarial drug, but, at present, the environmental and economic costs of its semi-synthetic production are relatively high. Most of these costs lie in the final chemical steps, which follow a complex acid- and photo-catalysed route with oxygenation by both singlet and triplet oxygen. We demonstrate that applying the principles of green chemistry can lead to innovative strategies that avoid many of the problems in current photochemical processes. The first strategy combines the use of liquid CO2 as solvent and a dual-function solid acid/photocatalyst. The second strategy is an ambient-temperature reaction in aqueous mixtures of organic solvents, where the only inputs are dihydroartemisinic acid, O2 and light, and the output is pure, crystalline artemisinin. Everything else-solvents, photocatalyst and aqueous acid-can be recycled. Some aspects developed here through green chemistry are likely to have wider application in photochemistry and other reactions. PMID:25991527

  11. Attachment styles, emotion regulation, and adjustment in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Cooper, M L; Shaver, P R; Collins, N L

    1998-05-01

    Attachment style differences in psychological symptomatology, self-concept, and risky or problem behaviors were examined in a community sample (N = 1,989) of Black and White adolescents, 13 to 19 years old. Overall, secure adolescents were the best-adjusted group, though not necessarily the least likely to engage in risky behaviors. Anxious adolescents were the worst-adjusted group, reporting the poorest self-concepts and the highest levels of symptomatology and risk behaviors. In contrast, avoidant adolescents reported generally high levels of symptomatology and poor self-concepts but similar levels of risk behaviors to those found among secures. Mediation analyses suggested that the observed differences in problem behaviors were at least partially accounted for by the differential experience of distress symptoms (primarily hostility and depression) and by social competence. Finally, patterns of attachment effects were similar across age, gender, and racial groups, with some important exceptions. PMID:9599450

  12. 46 CFR 115.110 - Routes permitted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Routes permitted. 115.110 Section 115.110 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE THAN 150 PASSENGERS OR WITH OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION...

  13. 46 CFR 115.110 - Routes permitted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Routes permitted. 115.110 Section 115.110 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE THAN 150 PASSENGERS OR WITH OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS INSPECTION AND...

  14. 46 CFR 115.110 - Routes permitted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Routes permitted. 115.110 Section 115.110 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE THAN 150 PASSENGERS OR WITH OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION...

  15. 46 CFR 115.110 - Routes permitted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Routes permitted. 115.110 Section 115.110 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE THAN 150 PASSENGERS OR WITH OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS INSPECTION AND...

  16. 46 CFR 115.110 - Routes permitted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Routes permitted. 115.110 Section 115.110 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE THAN 150 PASSENGERS OR WITH OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION...

  17. Obsidian trade routes in the mayan area.

    PubMed

    Hammond, N

    1972-12-01

    Obsidian from two sources in highland Guatemala has been found at 23 sites of the Classic Mayan civilization, mainly in the nonvolcanic lowlands to the north. The distribution, together with trade routes suggested by topography and documentary sources, suggests efficient waterborne transport and competition between sources for the lowland market. PMID:17741982

  18. 7 CFR 1000.3 - Route disposition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Route disposition. 1000.3 Section 1000.3 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL PROVISIONS OF FEDERAL MILK MARKETING...

  19. An alternative route to the arylvinyltriazole nucleosides.

    PubMed

    Chudinov, Mikhail V; Prutkov, Alexander N; Matveev, Andrey V; Grebenkina, Lyubov E; Konstantinova, Irina D; Berezovskaya, Yulia V

    2016-07-15

    A new pathway to synthesis of arylvinyl ribavirin analogues is developed which makes it possible to obtain not only trans- but also cis-isomers at vinyl bond. By this route eight ribavirin 5-arylvinyl analogues are synthesized and their antiviral activity is evaluated. PMID:27262598

  20. 76 FR 766 - Amtrak Emergency Routing Orders

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-06

    ... Surface Transportation Board 49 CFR Parts 1011, 1034, 1102, 1104, and 1115 Amtrak Emergency Routing Orders AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board, DOT. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY: The Surface Transportation Board (Board or STB) proposes to establish regulations governing the issuance of emergency...

  1. Automated Flight Routing Using Stochastic Dynamic Programming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ng, Hok K.; Morando, Alex; Grabbe, Shon

    2010-01-01

    Airspace capacity reduction due to convective weather impedes air traffic flows and causes traffic congestion. This study presents an algorithm that reroutes flights in the presence of winds, enroute convective weather, and congested airspace based on stochastic dynamic programming. A stochastic disturbance model incorporates into the reroute design process the capacity uncertainty. A trajectory-based airspace demand model is employed for calculating current and future airspace demand. The optimal routes minimize the total expected traveling time, weather incursion, and induced congestion costs. They are compared to weather-avoidance routes calculated using deterministic dynamic programming. The stochastic reroutes have smaller deviation probability than the deterministic counterpart when both reroutes have similar total flight distance. The stochastic rerouting algorithm takes into account all convective weather fields with all severity levels while the deterministic algorithm only accounts for convective weather systems exceeding a specified level of severity. When the stochastic reroutes are compared to the actual flight routes, they have similar total flight time, and both have about 1% of travel time crossing congested enroute sectors on average. The actual flight routes induce slightly less traffic congestion than the stochastic reroutes but intercept more severe convective weather.

  2. Myxozoa + Polypodium: A Common Route to Endoparasitism.

    PubMed

    Okamura, Beth; Gruhl, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    Recent evidence places the problematic Polypodium, a parasite of fish eggs, firmly as sister taxon to Myxozoa within the Cnidaria. This resolution suggests a single route to endoparasitism in Cnidaria, with larval stages of a common ancestor exploiting fish as first hosts. It also enables new interpretations and insights regarding evolutionary transitions associated with endoparasitism. PMID:26830727

  3. Online PBL: A Route to Sustainability Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomkinson, Bland; Hutt, Ian

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate online problem-based learning (PBL) as a route to achieving sustainability education using sponsored projects. Design/methodology/approach: The Royal Academy of Engineering sponsored project at Manchester; to foster education in sustainability through inter-disciplinary problem-based approaches,…

  4. 7 CFR 1005.3 - Route disposition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Route disposition. 1005.3 Section 1005.3 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE APPALACHIAN MARKETING AREA Order...

  5. 7 CFR 1005.3 - Route disposition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Route disposition. 1005.3 Section 1005.3 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE APPALACHIAN MARKETING AREA Order...

  6. 7 CFR 1005.3 - Route disposition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Route disposition. 1005.3 Section 1005.3 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE APPALACHIAN MARKETING AREA Order...

  7. 7 CFR 1005.3 - Route disposition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Route disposition. 1005.3 Section 1005.3 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE APPALACHIAN MARKETING AREA Order...

  8. 7 CFR 1005.3 - Route disposition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Route disposition. 1005.3 Section 1005.3 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE APPALACHIAN MARKETING AREA Order...

  9. Retrieval enhances route knowledge acquisition, but only when movement errors are prevented.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Jonathan W; Carpenter, Shana K; Sjolund, Lori A

    2015-09-01

    Studies of the testing effect have shown that retrieval significantly improves learning. However, most of these studies have been restricted to simple types of declarative verbal knowledge. Five experiments were designed to explore whether testing improves acquisition of route knowledge, which has a procedural component consisting of actions to be performed at decision points (Golledge, 1991). Participants learned a route through a series of connected rooms in a virtual building. Each room contained multiple doors, only one of which led to the next room. During encoding, participants were shown the correct sequence of doors in a manner similar to global positioning system (GPS) navigation guidance. During subsequent exposures to the route, participants were either shown the correct sequence again or had to recall the sequence from memory. Participants later completed a final test in which they traversed the route without guidance or feedback. Testing improved route memory compared to studying, but only when participants were given feedback about the correct door prior to moving through the room. When feedback occurred after moving to an incorrect door, testing resulted in worse performance compared to studying. These findings parallel work on errorless learning, in which procedural skills are acquired more quickly when errors are minimized during learning. PMID:25581223

  10. Using Grey Wolf Algorithm to Solve the Capacitated Vehicle Routing Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korayem, L.; Khorsid, M.; Kassem, S. S.

    2015-05-01

    The capacitated vehicle routing problem (CVRP) is a class of the vehicle routing problems (VRPs). In CVRP a set of identical vehicles having fixed capacities are required to fulfill customers' demands for a single commodity. The main objective is to minimize the total cost or distance traveled by the vehicles while satisfying a number of constraints, such as: the capacity constraint of each vehicle, logical flow constraints, etc. One of the methods employed in solving the CVRP is the cluster-first route-second method. It is a technique based on grouping of customers into a number of clusters, where each cluster is served by one vehicle. Once clusters are formed, a route determining the best sequence to visit customers is established within each cluster. The recently bio-inspired grey wolf optimizer (GWO), introduced in 2014, has proven to be efficient in solving unconstrained, as well as, constrained optimization problems. In the current research, our main contributions are: combining GWO with the traditional K-means clustering algorithm to generate the ‘K-GWO’ algorithm, deriving a capacitated version of the K-GWO algorithm by incorporating a capacity constraint into the aforementioned algorithm, and finally, developing 2 new clustering heuristics. The resulting algorithm is used in the clustering phase of the cluster-first route-second method to solve the CVR problem. The algorithm is tested on a number of benchmark problems with encouraging results.

  11. A Physically Based Runoff Routing Model for Land Surface and Earth System Models

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Hongyi; Wigmosta, Mark S.; Wu, Huan; Huang, Maoyi; Ke, Yinghai; Coleman, Andre M.; Leung, Lai-Yung R.

    2013-06-13

    A new physically based runoff routing model, called the Model for Scale Adaptive River Transport (MOSART), has been developed to be applicable across local, regional, and global scales. Within each spatial unit, surface runoff is first routed across hillslopes and then discharged along with subsurface runoff into a ‘‘tributary subnetwork’’ before entering the main channel. The spatial units are thus linked via routing through the main channel network, which is constructed in a scale-consistent way across different spatial resolutions. All model parameters are physically based, and only a small subset requires calibration.MOSART has been applied to the Columbia River basin at 1/ 168, 1/ 88, 1/ 48, and 1/ 28 spatial resolutions and was evaluated using naturalized or observed streamflow at a number of gauge stations. MOSART is compared to two other routing models widely used with land surface models, the River Transport Model (RTM) in the Community Land Model (CLM) and the Lohmann routing model, included as a postprocessor in the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model package, yielding consistent performance at multiple resolutions. MOSART is further evaluated using the channel velocities derived from field measurements or a hydraulic model at various locations and is shown to be capable of producing the seasonal variation and magnitude of channel velocities reasonably well at different resolutions. Moreover, the impacts of spatial resolution on model simulations are systematically examined at local and regional scales. Finally, the limitations ofMOSART and future directions for improvements are discussed.

  12. Risk for Exposure to Alcohol, Tobacco, and Other Drugs on the Route to and from School: The Role of Alcohol Outlets

    PubMed Central

    Milam, AJ; Furr-Holden, CDM; Cooley-Strickland, MC; Bradshaw, CP; Leaf, PJ

    2013-01-01

    Despite the national push encouraging children to walk to school, little work has been done to examine what hazards children encounter on the route to school. This study examined the association between the presence of alcohol outlets on children’s route to school and perceived safety on the route to school as well as exposure to alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs (ATOD). Data come from a community-based epidemiological study of 394 urban elementary school students. Participants’ residential address, school location, and alcohol outlet data were geocoded and the route to school was mapped. The route to school layer and the geocoded alcohol outlet data were joined to determine the number of alcohol outlets children pass on the route to school. Logistic regression models estimated the association between the presence of alcohol outlets on the route to school, alcohol and drug exposure, and self-reported safety. Children with an alcohol outlet on the route to school were more likely to be offered ATOD (OR= 2.20, p=.02) as well as be exposed to drug selling (OR=1.72, p=.02) and seeing people using drugs (OR=1.93, p=.02). After adjusting for individual-level variables the relationship between presence of alcohol outlets and being offered ATOD and seeing people using drugs remained significant. However, after adjusting for individual-level control variables and a proxy for the larger neighborhood context, the association between the presence of alcohol outlets and exposure to ATOD was no longer significant. As national campaigns are encouraging children to walk to school it is essential to consider what children are exposed to on the route to school. PMID:23408286

  13. Ratios as a size adjustment in morphometrics.

    PubMed

    Albrecht, G H; Gelvin, B R; Hartman, S E

    1993-08-01

    Simple ratios in which a measurement variable is divided by a size variable are commonly used but known to be inadequate for eliminating size correlations from morphometric data. Deficiencies in the simple ratio can be alleviated by incorporating regression coefficients describing the bivariate relationship between the measurement and size variables. Recommendations have included: 1) subtracting the regression intercept to force the bivariate relationship through the origin (intercept-adjusted ratios); 2) exponentiating either the measurement or the size variable using an allometry coefficient to achieve linearity (allometrically adjusted ratios); or 3) both subtracting the intercept and exponentiating (fully adjusted ratios). These three strategies for deriving size-adjusted ratios imply different data models for describing the bivariate relationship between the measurement and size variables (i.e., the linear, simple allometric, and full allometric models, respectively). Algebraic rearrangement of the equation associated with each data model leads to a correctly formulated adjusted ratio whose expected value is constant (i.e., size correlation is eliminated). Alternatively, simple algebra can be used to derive an expected value function for assessing whether any proposed ratio formula is effective in eliminating size correlations. Some published ratio adjustments were incorrectly formulated as indicated by expected values that remain a function of size after ratio transformation. Regression coefficients incorporated into adjusted ratios must be estimated using least-squares regression of the measurement variable on the size variable. Use of parameters estimated by any other regression technique (e.g., major axis or reduced major axis) results in residual correlations between size and the adjusted measurement variable. Correctly formulated adjusted ratios, whose parameters are estimated by least-squares methods, do control for size correlations. The size-adjusted

  14. A Survey of Routing Protocols in Wireless Body Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Bangash, Javed Iqbal; Abdullah, Abdul Hanan; Anisi, Mohammad Hossein; Khan, Abdul Waheed

    2014-01-01

    Wireless Body Sensor Networks (WBSNs) constitute a subset of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) responsible for monitoring vital sign-related data of patients and accordingly route this data towards a sink. In routing sensed data towards sinks, WBSNs face some of the same routing challenges as general WSNs, but the unique requirements of WBSNs impose some more constraints that need to be addressed by the routing mechanisms. This paper identifies various issues and challenges in pursuit of effective routing in WBSNs. Furthermore, it provides a detailed literature review of the various existing routing protocols used in the WBSN domain by discussing their strengths and weaknesses. PMID:24419163

  15. Intelligent routing protocol for ad hoc wireless network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Chaorong; Chen, Chang Wen

    2006-05-01

    A novel routing scheme for mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs), which combines hybrid and multi-inter-routing path properties with a distributed topology discovery route mechanism using control agents is proposed in this paper. In recent years, a variety of hybrid routing protocols for Mobile Ad hoc wireless networks (MANETs) have been developed. Which is proactively maintains routing information for a local neighborhood, while reactively acquiring routes to destinations beyond the global. The hybrid protocol reduces routing discovery latency and the end-to-end delay by providing high connectivity without requiring much of the scarce network capacity. On the other side the hybrid routing protocols in MANETs likes Zone Routing Protocol still need route "re-discover" time when a route between zones link break. Sine the topology update information needs to be broadcast routing request on local zone. Due to this delay, the routing protocol may not be applicable for real-time data and multimedia communication. We utilize the advantages of a clustering organization and multi-routing path in routing protocol to achieve several goals at the same time. Firstly, IRP efficiently saves network bandwidth and reduces route reconstruction time when a routing path fails. The IRP protocol does not require global periodic routing advertisements, local control agents will automatically monitor and repair broke links. Secondly, it efficiently reduces congestion and traffic "bottlenecks" for ClusterHeads in clustering network. Thirdly, it reduces significant overheads associated with maintaining clusters. Fourthly, it improves clusters stability due to dynamic topology changing frequently. In this paper, we present the Intelligent Routing Protocol. First, we discuss the problem of routing in ad hoc networks and the motivation of IRP. We describe the hierarchical architecture of IRP. We describe the routing process and illustrate it with an example. Further, we describe the control manage

  16. Route guidance strategies revisited: Comparison and evaluation in an asymmetric two-route traffic network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Zhengbing; Chen, Bokui; Jia, Ning; Guan, Wei; Lin, Benchuan; Wang, Binghong

    2014-12-01

    To alleviate traffic congestion, a variety of route guidance strategies have been proposed for intelligent transportation systems. A number of strategies are introduced and investigated on a symmetric two-route traffic network over the past decade. To evaluate the strategies in a more general scenario, this paper conducts eight prevalent strategies on an asymmetric two-route traffic network with different slowdown behaviors on alternative routes. The results show that only mean velocity feedback strategy (MVFS) is able to equalize travel time, i.e. approximate user optimality (UO); while the others fail due to incapability of establishing relations between the feedback parameters and travel time. The paper helps better understand these strategies, and suggests MVFS if the authority intends to achieve user optimality.

  17. Aerosol immunisation for TB: matching route of vaccination to route of infection

    PubMed Central

    Manjaly Thomas, Zita-Rose; McShane, Helen

    2015-01-01

    TB remains a very significant global health burden. There is an urgent need for better tools for TB control, which include an effective vaccine. Bacillus Calmette–Guérin (BCG), the currently licensed vaccine, confers highly variable protection against pulmonary TB, the main source of TB transmission. Replacing BCG completely or boosting BCG with another vaccine are the two current strategies for TB vaccine development. Delivering a vaccine by aerosol represents a way to match the route of vaccination to the route of infection. This route of immunisation offers not only the scientific advantage of delivering the vaccine directly to the respiratory mucosa, but also practical and logistical advantages. This review summarises the state of current TB vaccine candidates in the pipeline, reviews current progress in aerosol administration of vaccines in general and evaluates the potential for TB vaccine candidates to be administered by the aerosol route. PMID:25636950

  18. 15 CFR 6.5 - Effective date of adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... INFLATION ADJUSTMENTS § 6.5 Effective date of adjustments. The adjustments made by § 6.4 of this part, of... December 11, 2008, and before the effective date of any future inflation adjustment thereto made...

  19. 15 CFR 6.5 - Effective date of adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... INFLATION ADJUSTMENTS § 6.5 Effective date of adjustments. The adjustments made by § 6.4 of this part, of... December 7, 2012, and before the effective date of any future inflation adjustment thereto made...

  20. 15 CFR 6.5 - Effective date of adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... INFLATION ADJUSTMENTS § 6.5 Effective date of adjustments. The adjustments made by § 6.4 of this part, of... December 11, 2008, and before the effective date of any future inflation adjustment thereto made...

  1. 15 CFR 6.5 - Effective date of adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... INFLATION ADJUSTMENTS § 6.5 Effective date of adjustments. The adjustments made by § 6.4 of this part, of... December 11, 2008, and before the effective date of any future inflation adjustment thereto made...

  2. 15 CFR 6.5 - Effective date of adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... INFLATION ADJUSTMENTS § 6.5 Effective date of adjustments. The adjustments made by § 6.4 of this part, of... December 7, 2012, and before the effective date of any future inflation adjustment thereto made...

  3. 7 CFR 718.110 - Adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adjustments. 718.110 Section 718.110 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FARM... Determination of Acreage and Compliance § 718.110 Adjustments. (a) The farm operator or other...

  4. 7 CFR 718.110 - Adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Adjustments. 718.110 Section 718.110 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FARM... Determination of Acreage and Compliance § 718.110 Adjustments. (a) The farm operator or other...

  5. 7 CFR 718.110 - Adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Adjustments. 718.110 Section 718.110 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FARM... Determination of Acreage and Compliance § 718.110 Adjustments. (a) The farm operator or other...

  6. 45 CFR 84.44 - Academic adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Academic adjustments. 84.44 Section 84.44 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Postsecondary Education § 84.44 Academic adjustments. (a)...

  7. 22 CFR 142.44 - Academic adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Academic adjustments. 142.44 Section 142.44 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE CIVIL RIGHTS NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Postsecondary Education § 142.44 Academic adjustments. (a) Academic requirements. A...

  8. Family Adjustment Measure: Scale Construction and Validation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daire, Andrew P.; Dominguez, Vanessa N.; Carlson, Ryan G.; Case-Pease, Jenene

    2014-01-01

    We administered the Family Adjustment Measure to 368 parents of children with special needs to identify positive adjustment. We randomly split the sample to conduct exploratory factor analysis ("n" = 194) and confirmatory factor analysis ("n" = 174). Results indicated four possible subscales and that explain 51% of the variance.

  9. Marital Adjustment among Housestaff and New Attorneys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spendlove, David C.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    This study, involving 116 housestaff physicians, 106 new attorneys, and the spouses of both groups, identified the factors that significantly affected their marital adjustments. No differences were found. The most important factor associated with adjustment was perceived level of emotional support from one's spouse. (Author/MLW)

  10. 15 CFR 6.6 - Subsequent adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Subsequent adjustments. 6.6 Section 6.6 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce CIVIL MONETARY PENALTY INFLATION... once every four years after October 23, 1996, make the inflation adjustment, described in Section...

  11. Religiousity, Spirituality and Adolescents' Self-Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Japar, Muhammad; Purwati

    2014-01-01

    Religiuosity, spirituality, and adolescents' self-adjustment. The objective of this study is to test the correlation among religiosity, spirituality and adolescents' self-adjustment. A quantitative approach was employed in this study. Data were collected from 476 junior high schools students of 13 State Junior High Schools and one Junior High…

  12. Adjustable Optical Mount Is More Rigid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asbury, Bill G.; Coombs, David S.; Jones, Irby W.; Moore, Alvah S., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Improved mount for lens or mirror in laser offers rigidity similar to that of nonadjustable optical mount. In comparison with older adjustable optical mounts, this one less susceptible to movements and distortions caused by vibrations and by thermal expansions and contractions. Mount contains neither adjustment rods (which grow or shrink as temperature varies) nor springs (which transmit vibrations to mounted optic).

  13. 24 CFR 9.155 - Housing adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Housing adjustments. 9.155 Section 9.155 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban... THE DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT § 9.155 Housing adjustments. (a) The agency...

  14. 15 CFR 6.6 - Subsequent adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Subsequent adjustments. 6.6 Section 6.6 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce CIVIL MONETARY PENALTY INFLATION... once every four years after October 23, 1996, make the inflation adjustment, described in Section...

  15. 15 CFR 6.6 - Subsequent adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Subsequent adjustments. 6.6 Section 6.6 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce CIVIL MONETARY PENALTY INFLATION... once every four years after October 23, 1996, make the inflation adjustment, described in Section...

  16. 15 CFR 6.6 - Subsequent adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Subsequent adjustments. 6.6 Section 6.6 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce CIVIL MONETARY PENALTY INFLATION... once every four years after October 23, 1996, make the inflation adjustment, described in Section...

  17. 15 CFR 6.6 - Subsequent adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Subsequent adjustments. 6.6 Section 6.6 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce CIVIL MONETARY PENALTY INFLATION... once every four years after October 23, 1996, make the inflation adjustment, described in Section...

  18. 14 CFR 254.6 - Periodic adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Periodic adjustments. 254.6 Section 254.6 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS DOMESTIC BAGGAGE LIABILITY § 254.6 Periodic adjustments. The Department of Transportation...

  19. Affect and Status Dimensions of Marital Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fineberg, Beth L.; Joseph Lowman

    1975-01-01

    The interactions of 10 maritally adjusted and 10 maladjusted couples were compared using a coding system based on the Leary circumplex. Major findings are (1) adjusted couples communicated more affection and submission than did maladjusted ones, (2) all couples were more likely to show complementary sequencing patterns with some interesting…

  20. 24 CFR 902.24 - Database adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Database adjustment. 902.24 Section 902.24 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (CONTINUED... PUBLIC HOUSING ASSESSMENT SYSTEM Physical Condition Indicator § 902.24 Database adjustment....

  1. 49 CFR 630.11 - Data adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Data adjustments. 630.11 Section 630.11 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION NATIONAL TRANSIT DATABASE § 630.11 Data adjustments. Errors in the data used...

  2. 24 CFR 902.24 - Database adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Database adjustment. 902.24 Section 902.24 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (CONTINUED... PUBLIC HOUSING ASSESSMENT SYSTEM Physical Condition Indicator § 902.24 Database adjustment....

  3. 49 CFR 630.11 - Data adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Data adjustments. 630.11 Section 630.11 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION NATIONAL TRANSIT DATABASE § 630.11 Data adjustments. Errors in the data used...

  4. 49 CFR 630.11 - Data adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Data adjustments. 630.11 Section 630.11 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION NATIONAL TRANSIT DATABASE § 630.11 Data adjustments. Errors in the data used...

  5. 24 CFR 902.24 - Database adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Database adjustment. 902.24 Section 902.24 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (CONTINUED... PUBLIC HOUSING ASSESSMENT SYSTEM Physical Condition Indicator § 902.24 Database adjustment....

  6. 49 CFR 630.11 - Data adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Data adjustments. 630.11 Section 630.11 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION NATIONAL TRANSIT DATABASE § 630.11 Data adjustments. Errors in the data used...

  7. 49 CFR 630.11 - Data adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Data adjustments. 630.11 Section 630.11 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION NATIONAL TRANSIT DATABASE § 630.11 Data adjustments. Errors in the data used...

  8. 24 CFR 902.24 - Database adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Database adjustment. 902.24 Section 902.24 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (CONTINUED... PUBLIC HOUSING ASSESSMENT SYSTEM Physical Condition Indicator § 902.24 Database adjustment....

  9. 10 CFR 905.34 - Adjustment provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adjustment provisions. 905.34 Section 905.34 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT PROGRAM Power Marketing Initiative § 905.34 Adjustment... continue to take place based on existing contract/marketing criteria principles....

  10. 10 CFR 905.34 - Adjustment provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Adjustment provisions. 905.34 Section 905.34 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT PROGRAM Power Marketing Initiative § 905.34 Adjustment... continue to take place based on existing contract/marketing criteria principles....

  11. 10 CFR 905.34 - Adjustment provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Adjustment provisions. 905.34 Section 905.34 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT PROGRAM Power Marketing Initiative § 905.34 Adjustment... continue to take place based on existing contract/marketing criteria principles....

  12. 10 CFR 905.34 - Adjustment provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Adjustment provisions. 905.34 Section 905.34 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT PROGRAM Power Marketing Initiative § 905.34 Adjustment... continue to take place based on existing contract/marketing criteria principles....

  13. 10 CFR 905.34 - Adjustment provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Adjustment provisions. 905.34 Section 905.34 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT PROGRAM Power Marketing Initiative § 905.34 Adjustment... continue to take place based on existing contract/marketing criteria principles....

  14. Ergonomically Adjustable School Furniture for Male Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Saleh, Khalid S.; Ramadan, Mohamed Z.; Al-Ashaikh, Riyad A.

    2013-01-01

    The need for adjustability in school furniture, in order to accommodate the variation in anthropometric measures of different genders, cultures and ages is becoming increasingly important. Four chair-table combinations, different in dimensions, with adjustable chair seating heights and table heights were designed, manufactured and distributed to…

  15. 7 CFR 1744.64 - Budget adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... for a contract that otherwise would be approved by RUS. See 7 CFR part 1753. ... 7 Agriculture 11 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Budget adjustment. 1744.64 Section 1744.64... Disbursement of Funds § 1744.64 Budget adjustment. (a) If more funds are required than are available in...

  16. 7 CFR 1744.64 - Budget adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... for a contract that otherwise would be approved by RUS. See 7 CFR part 1753. ... 7 Agriculture 11 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Budget adjustment. 1744.64 Section 1744.64... Disbursement of Funds § 1744.64 Budget adjustment. (a) If more funds are required than are available in...

  17. 7 CFR 1744.64 - Budget adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... for a contract that otherwise would be approved by RUS. See 7 CFR part 1753. ... 7 Agriculture 11 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Budget adjustment. 1744.64 Section 1744.64... Disbursement of Funds § 1744.64 Budget adjustment. (a) If more funds are required than are available in...

  18. 7 CFR 1744.64 - Budget adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... for a contract that otherwise would be approved by RUS. See 7 CFR part 1753. ... 7 Agriculture 11 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Budget adjustment. 1744.64 Section 1744.64... Disbursement of Funds § 1744.64 Budget adjustment. (a) If more funds are required than are available in...

  19. 7 CFR 1744.64 - Budget adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... for a contract that otherwise would be approved by RUS. See 7 CFR part 1753. ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Budget adjustment. 1744.64 Section 1744.64... Disbursement of Funds § 1744.64 Budget adjustment. (a) If more funds are required than are available in...

  20. 7 CFR 15b.32 - Academic adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Academic adjustments. 15b.32 Section 15b.32 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Postsecondary Education § 15b.32 Academic adjustments. (a) Academic requirements. A recipient...

  1. A Digital Game for International Students' Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bisadi, Maryam; Chua, Alton Y. K; Keong, Lee Chu

    2013-01-01

    Although digital games have been developed for various subject areas, little attention has been focused on using digital games to address international students' adjustment issues. For this reason, this paper endeavors to explore the use of a digital game in facilitating international students acquire adjustment-related information. Specifically,…

  2. Marital Adjustment Correlates in Young Couples.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haskell, Samuel D.

    The Locke-Wallace Marital Adjustment Scale was administered to 35 Caucasian, Protestant couples who were married an average of nine years, largely middle class, and lived in Knoxville, Tennessee. Significant correlates of marital adjustment were organized into groups of similar variables. Correlate groups that were the same for the husband and…

  3. 24 CFR 886.112 - Rent adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Adjustment Factor most recently published by HUD in the Federal Register in accordance with 24 CFR part 888... unassisted housing in the area to ensure that adjustments in the Contract Rents shall not result in material differences between the rents charged for assisted and comparable unassisted units. Contract Rents may...

  4. 24 CFR 886.112 - Rent adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Adjustment Factor most recently published by HUD in the Federal Register in accordance with 24 CFR part 888... unassisted housing in the area to ensure that adjustments in the Contract Rents shall not result in material differences between the rents charged for assisted and comparable unassisted units. Contract Rents may...

  5. 24 CFR 886.112 - Rent adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Adjustment Factor most recently published by HUD in the Federal Register in accordance with 24 CFR part 888... unassisted housing in the area to ensure that adjustments in the Contract Rents shall not result in material differences between the rents charged for assisted and comparable unassisted units. Contract Rents may...

  6. 24 CFR 886.112 - Rent adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Adjustment Factor most recently published by HUD in the Federal Register in accordance with 24 CFR part 888... unassisted housing in the area to ensure that adjustments in the Contract Rents shall not result in material differences between the rents charged for assisted and comparable unassisted units. Contract Rents may...

  7. 24 CFR 886.112 - Rent adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Adjustment Factor most recently published by HUD in the Federal Register in accordance with 24 CFR part 888... unassisted housing in the area to ensure that adjustments in the Contract Rents shall not result in material differences between the rents charged for assisted and comparable unassisted units. Contract Rents may...

  8. 24 CFR 9.155 - Housing adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Housing adjustments. 9.155 Section 9.155 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban... THE DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT § 9.155 Housing adjustments. (a) The agency...

  9. 34 CFR 104.44 - Academic adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Academic adjustments. 104.44 Section 104.44 Education... Postsecondary Education § 104.44 Academic adjustments. (a) Academic requirements. A recipient to which this subpart applies shall make such modifications to its academic requirements as are necessary to ensure...

  10. 45 CFR 84.44 - Academic adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Academic adjustments. 84.44 Section 84.44 Public... Academic adjustments. (a) Academic requirements. A recipient to which this subpart applies shall make such modifications to its academic requirements as are necessary to ensure that such requirements do not...

  11. 45 CFR 605.44 - Academic adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Academic adjustments. 605.44 Section 605.44 Public... Postsecondary Education § 605.44 Academic adjustments. (a) Academic requirements. A recipient to which this subpart applies shall make such modifications to its academic requirements as are necessary to ensure...

  12. 7 CFR 15b.32 - Academic adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Academic adjustments. 15b.32 Section 15b.32... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Postsecondary Education § 15b.32 Academic adjustments. (a) Academic requirements. A recipient to which this subpart applies shall make such modifications to...

  13. 34 CFR 104.44 - Academic adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Academic adjustments. 104.44 Section 104.44 Education... Postsecondary Education § 104.44 Academic adjustments. (a) Academic requirements. A recipient to which this subpart applies shall make such modifications to its academic requirements as are necessary to ensure...

  14. 7 CFR 15b.32 - Academic adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Academic adjustments. 15b.32 Section 15b.32... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Postsecondary Education § 15b.32 Academic adjustments. (a) Academic requirements. A recipient to which this subpart applies shall make such modifications to...

  15. 45 CFR 605.44 - Academic adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Academic adjustments. 605.44 Section 605.44 Public... Postsecondary Education § 605.44 Academic adjustments. (a) Academic requirements. A recipient to which this subpart applies shall make such modifications to its academic requirements as are necessary to ensure...

  16. 22 CFR 142.44 - Academic adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Academic adjustments. 142.44 Section 142.44... OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Postsecondary Education § 142.44 Academic adjustments. (a) Academic requirements. A recipient to which this subpart applies shall make...

  17. 38 CFR 18.444 - Academic adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Academic adjustments. 18....444 Academic adjustments. (a) Academic requirements. A recipient shall make necessary modifications to its academic requirements to ensure that these requirements do not discriminate or have the effect...

  18. 45 CFR 1170.44 - Academic adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Academic adjustments. 1170.44 Section 1170.44... ASSISTED PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES Postsecondary Education § 1170.44 Academic adjustments. (a) Academic requirements. A recipient to which this subpart applies shall make such modifications to its...

  19. 15 CFR 8b.22 - Academic adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Academic adjustments. 8b.22 Section 8b... Secondary Education § 8b.22 Academic adjustments. (a) Academic requirements. A recipient to which this subpart applies shall make such modifications to its academic requirements as are necessary to ensure...

  20. 15 CFR 8b.22 - Academic adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Academic adjustments. 8b.22 Section 8b... Secondary Education § 8b.22 Academic adjustments. (a) Academic requirements. A recipient to which this subpart applies shall make such modifications to its academic requirements as are necessary to ensure...

  1. 22 CFR 217.44 - Academic adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Academic adjustments. 217.44 Section 217.44... PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Postsecondary Education § 217.44 Academic adjustments. (a) Academic requirements. A recipient to which this subpart applies shall make...

  2. 22 CFR 142.44 - Academic adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Academic adjustments. 142.44 Section 142.44... OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Postsecondary Education § 142.44 Academic adjustments. (a) Academic requirements. A recipient to which this subpart applies shall make...

  3. 45 CFR 1170.44 - Academic adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Academic adjustments. 1170.44 Section 1170.44... ASSISTED PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES Postsecondary Education § 1170.44 Academic adjustments. (a) Academic requirements. A recipient to which this subpart applies shall make such modifications to its...

  4. 38 CFR 18.444 - Academic adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Academic adjustments. 18....444 Academic adjustments. (a) Academic requirements. A recipient shall make necessary modifications to its academic requirements to ensure that these requirements do not discriminate or have the effect...

  5. 45 CFR 84.44 - Academic adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Academic adjustments. 84.44 Section 84.44 Public... Academic adjustments. (a) Academic requirements. A recipient to which this subpart applies shall make such modifications to its academic requirements as are necessary to ensure that such requirements do not...

  6. 22 CFR 217.44 - Academic adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Academic adjustments. 217.44 Section 217.44... PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Postsecondary Education § 217.44 Academic adjustments. (a) Academic requirements. A recipient to which this subpart applies shall make...

  7. Applications of the Theory of Work Adjustment to Rehabilitation and Counseling. Minnesota Studies in Vocational Rehabilitation: XXX.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lofquist, Lloyd H.; Dawis, Rene V.

    This is one of a series of 30 monographs documenting the progress and accomplishments of the Minnesota Work Adjustment Project. Presented in this, the final report, is an overview of the project as well as detailed explanations of outcomes and activities. The conceptualized Work Adjustment Theory is the foremost accomplishment of the research…

  8. Properties of Air Traffic Conflicts for Free and Structured Routing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bilimoria, Karl D.; Lee, Hilda Q.

    2001-01-01

    This paper analyzes the properties of air traffic conflicts in a future free routing system against those in the current structured routing system. Simulation of en route air traffic operations (above 18,000 ft) over the contiguous United States for a 24-hour period, constructed with initial conditions from actual air traffic data, were conducted using the Future ATM Concepts Evaluation Tool (FACET). Free routes were modeled as great circle (direct) routes from origin to destination, and structured routes were derived from actual flight plans along the current system of air routes. The conflict properties analyzed in this study include: (1) Total number of conflicts; (2) Distributions of key conflict parameters; and, (3) Categorization of conflicts into independent conflicts and two types of interacting conflicts. Preliminary results (for Denver Center traffic) indicate that conflict properties in a free routing system are different from those in the current structured routing system. In particular, a free routing system has significantly fewer conflicts, involving a correspondingly smaller number of aircraft, compared to the current structured routing system. Additionally, the conflict parameter distributions indicate that free routing conflicts are less intrusive than structured routing conflicts, and would therefore require small trajectory deviations for resolution.

  9. Synthesis of cycloalkyl substituted purine nucleosides via a metal-free radical route.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dong-Chao; Xia, Ran; Xie, Ming-Sheng; Qu, Gui-Rong; Guo, Hai-Ming

    2016-05-01

    An efficient route to synthesize cycloalkyl substituted purine nucleosides was developed. This metal-free C-H activation was accomplished by a tBuOOtBu initiated radical reaction. By adjusting the amount of tBuOOtBu and reaction time, the selective synthesis of C6-monocycloalkyl or C6,C8-dicycloalkyl substituted purine nucleosides could be realized. Furthermore, uracil and related nucleosides were also suitable substrates, giving the C5-cyclohexyl substituted uracil derivatives in good yields with excellent regioselectivities. PMID:27101306

  10. Route-to-route extrapolation of the toxic potency of MTBE.

    PubMed

    Dourson, M L; Felter, S P

    1997-12-01

    MTBE is a volatile organic compound used as an oxygenating agent in gasoline. Inhalation from fumes while refueling automobiles is the principle route of exposure for humans, and toxicity by this route has been well studied. Oral exposures to MTBE exist as well, primarily due to groundwater contamination from leaking stationary sources, such as underground storage tanks. Assessing the potential public health impacts of oral exposures to MTBE is problematic because drinking water studies do not exist for MTBE, and the few oil-gavage studies from which a risk assessment could be derived are limited. This paper evaluates the suitability of the MTBE database for conducting an inhalation route-to-oral route extrapolation of toxicity. This includes evaluating the similarity of critical effect between these two routes, quantifiable differences in absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion, and sufficiency of toxicity data by the inhalation route. We conclude that such an extrapolation is appropriate and have validated the extrapolation by finding comparable toxicity between a subchronic gavage oral bioassay and oral doses we extrapolate from a subchronic inhalation bioassay. Our results are extended to the 2-year inhalation toxicity study by Chun et al. (1992) in which rats were exposed to 0, 400, 3000, or 8000 ppm MTBE for 6 hr/d, 5 d/wk. We have estimated the equivalent oral doses to be 0, 130, 940, or 2700 mg/kg/d. These equivalent doses may be useful in conducting noncancer and cancer risk assessments. PMID:9463928

  11. Route Recapitulation and Route Loyalty in Homing Pigeons: Pilotage From 25 km?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biro, Dora; Meade, Jessica; Guilford, Tim

    2006-01-01

    We utilised precision Global Positioning System (GPS) tracking to examine the homing paths of pigeons (Columba livia) released 20 times consecutively 25 km from the loft. By the end of the training phase, birds had developed highly stereotyped yet individually distinct routes home, with detailed recapitulation evident at each stage of the journey. Following training, birds also participated in a series of releases from novel sites at perpendicular distances of up to 3 km from their established routes. Results showed that subjects were attracted back to their established routes and recapitulated them from the point of contact. Naïve conspecifics (yoked controls) released from the same off-route sites confirmed that the experienced birds' route choices were not influenced by constraints exerted by terrain features, but that increased experience with the general area conferred a homing advantage in the form of more efficient flight tracks, even from these novel sites. Patterns in the paths taken by experienced birds to rejoin their established routes are discussed with reference to navigational mechanisms employed by homing pigeons in their familiar area.

  12. Congestion control and routing over satellite networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Jinhua

    Satellite networks and transmissions find their application in fields of computer communications, telephone communications, television broadcasting, transportation, space situational awareness systems and so on. This thesis mainly focuses on two networking issues affecting satellite networking: network congestion control and network routing optimization. Congestion, which leads to long queueing delays, packet losses or both, is a networking problem that has drawn the attention of many researchers. The goal of congestion control mechanisms is to ensure high bandwidth utilization while avoiding network congestion by regulating the rate at which traffic sources inject packets into a network. In this thesis, we propose a stable congestion controller using data-driven, safe switching control theory to improve the dynamic performance of satellite Transmission Control Protocol/Active Queue Management (TCP/AQM) networks. First, the stable region of the Proportional-Integral (PI) parameters for a nominal model is explored. Then, a PI controller, whose parameters are adaptively tuned by switching among members of a given candidate set, using observed plant data, is presented and compared with some classical AQM policy examples, such as Random Early Detection (RED) and fixed PI control. A new cost detectable switching law with an interval cost function switching algorithm, which improves the performance and also saves the computational cost, is developed and compared with a law commonly used in the switching control literature. Finite-gain stability of the system is proved. A fuzzy logic PI controller is incorporated as a special candidate to achieve good performance at all nominal points with the available set of candidate controllers. Simulations are presented to validate the theory. An effocient routing algorithm plays a key role in optimizing network resources. In this thesis, we briefly analyze Low Earth Orbit (LEO) satellite networks, review the Cross Entropy (CE

  13. Route Monopolie and Optimal Nonlinear Pricing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tournut, Jacques

    2003-01-01

    To cope with air traffic growth and congested airports, two solutions are apparent on the supply side: 1) use larger aircraft in the hub and spoke system; or 2) develop new routes through secondary airports. An enlarged route system through secondary airports may increase the proportion of route monopolies in the air transport market.The monopoly optimal non linear pricing policy is well known in the case of one dimension (one instrument, one characteristic) but not in the case of several dimensions. This paper explores the robustness of the one dimensional screening model with respect to increasing the number of instruments and the number of characteristics. The objective of this paper is then to link and fill the gap in both literatures. One of the merits of the screening model has been to show that a great varieD" of economic questions (non linear pricing, product line choice, auction design, income taxation, regulation...) could be handled within the same framework.VCe study a case of non linear pricing (2 instruments (2 routes on which the airline pro_ddes customers with services), 2 characteristics (demand of services on these routes) and two values per characteristic (low and high demand of services on these routes)) and we show that none of the conclusions of the one dimensional analysis remain valid. In particular, upward incentive compatibility constraint may be binding at the optimum. As a consequence, they may be distortion at the top of the distribution. In addition to this, we show that the optimal solution often requires a kind of form of bundling, we explain explicitly distortions and show that it is sometimes optimal for the monopolist to only produce one good (instead of two) or to exclude some buyers from the market. Actually, this means that the monopolist cannot fully apply his monopoly power and is better off selling both goods independently.We then define all the possible solutions in the case of a quadratic cost function for a uniform

  14. En route noise: NASA propfan test aircraft (calculated source noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rickley, E. J.

    1990-01-01

    The second phase of a joint National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) program to study the high-altitude, low-frequency acoustic noise propagation characteristics of the Advanced Turboprop (propfan) Aircraft was conducted on April 3-13, 1989 at the White Sands Missile Range (WSMR), New Mexico. The first phase was conducted on October 26-31, 1987 in Huntsville, Alabama. NASA (Lewis) measured the source noise of the test aircraft during both phases while NASA (Langley) measured surface noise only during the second phase. FAA/NASA designed a program to obtain noise level data from the propfan test bed aircraft, both in the near field and at ground level, during simulated en route flights (35,000 and 20,000 feet ASL), and to test low frequency atmospheric absorption algorithms and prediction technology to provide insight into the necessity for regulatory measures. The curves of calculated source noise versus emission angle are based on a second order best-fit curve of the peak envelope of the adjusted ground data. Centerline and sideline derived source noise levels are shown to be in good agreement. A comparison of the Alabama chase plane source data and the calculated source noise at centerline for both the Alabama and New Mexico data shows good agreement for the 35,000 and the 20,000 feet (ASL) overflights. With the availability of the New Mexico in-flight data, further in depth comparisons will be made.

  15. Final Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bers, Trudy

    2012-01-01

    This final chapter provides observations about institutional research in community colleges derived from the preceding chapters and the issue editors' own experiences. Taken as a whole, the chapters in this issue, as well as the editors' experiences, suggest several observations about institutional research in community colleges. These include the…

  16. Cross-Cultural Adjustment of Chinese Students in Japan: School Adjustment and Educational Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Yuan Xiang; Sano, Hideki; Ahn, Ruth

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates Chinese immigrant students' cross-cultural and school adjustment issues in Japanese schools. Using a quantitative method, a survey which collected students' demographic information, cross-cultural adjustment, and school adjustment questions was administered to 143 Chinese junior high and high school students in…

  17. 5 CFR 536.305 - Adjusting an employee's retained rate when a pay schedule is adjusted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Adjusting an employee's retained rate when a pay schedule is adjusted. 536.305 Section 536.305 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS GRADE AND PAY RETENTION Pay Retention § 536.305 Adjusting an employee's retained rate when a pay schedule...

  18. Adaptive routing in wireless communication networks using swarm intelligence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arabshahi, P.; Gray, A.; Kassabalidis, I.; Das, A.; Narayanan, S.; Sharkawi, M. El; Marks, R. J.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we focus on the network routing problem, and survey swarm intelligent approaches for its efficient solution, after a brief overview of power-aware routing schemes, which are important in the network examples outlined above.

  19. On effectiveness of routing algorithms for satellite communication networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Wei; Wei, Sixiao; Xu, Guobin; Chen, Genshe; Pham, Khanh; Blasch, Erik P.; Lu, Chao

    2013-05-01

    For worldwide, a satellite communication network is an integral component of the global networking infrastructure. In this paper, we focus on developing effective routing techniques that consider both user preferences and network dynamic conditions. In particular, we develop a weighted-based route selection scheme for the core satellite communication network. Unlike the shortest path routing scheme, our scheme chooses the route from multiple matched entries based on the assigned weights that reflect the dynamic condition of networks. We also discuss how to derive the optimal weights for route assignment. To further meet user's preference, we implement the multiple path routing scheme to achieve the high rate of data transmission and the preemption based routing scheme to guarantee the data transmission for high priority users. Through extensive simulation studies, our data validates the effectiveness of our proposed routing schemes.

  20. 1. GENERAL VIEW OF ROUTE 209 LOOKING NORTH SHOWING SLEEPING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. GENERAL VIEW OF ROUTE 209 LOOKING NORTH SHOWING SLEEPING BEAR INN, SLEEPING BEAR INN GARAGE AND DORMITORY, D.H. DAY STORE, RESTROOM, AND GARAGE - Glen Haven Historic District, Route 209, Glen Arbor, Leelanau County, MI