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Sample records for adjust final route

  1. Penalty Inflation Adjustments for Civil Money Penalties. Interim Final Rule.

    PubMed

    2016-06-27

    In accordance with the Federal Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act of 1990, as amended by the Debt Collection Improvement Act of 1996, and further amended by the Bipartisan Budget Act of 2015, section 701: Federal Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act Improvements Act of 2015, this interim final rule incorporates the penalty inflation adjustments for the civil money penalties contained in the Social Security Act

  2. Method and apparatus for routing data in an inter-nodal communications lattice of a massively parallel computer system by dynamically adjusting local routing strategies

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles Jens; Musselman, Roy Glenn; Peters, Amanda; Pinnow, Kurt Walter; Swartz, Brent Allen; Wallenfelt, Brian Paul

    2010-03-16

    A massively parallel computer system contains an inter-nodal communications network of node-to-node links. Each node implements a respective routing strategy for routing data through the network, the routing strategies not necessarily being the same in every node. The routing strategies implemented in the nodes are dynamically adjusted during application execution to shift network workload as required. Preferably, adjustment of routing policies in selective nodes is performed at synchronization points. The network may be dynamically monitored, and routing strategies adjusted according to detected network conditions.

  3. Nonlinear relative-proportion-based route adjustment process for day-to-day traffic dynamics: modeling, equilibrium and stability analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Wenlong; Ma, Shoufeng; Tian, Junfang; Li, Geng

    2016-11-01

    Travelers' route adjustment behaviors in a congested road traffic network are acknowledged as a dynamic game process between them. Existing Proportional-Switch Adjustment Process (PSAP) models have been extensively investigated to characterize travelers' route choice behaviors; PSAP has concise structure and intuitive behavior rule. Unfortunately most of which have some limitations, i.e., the flow over adjustment problem for the discrete PSAP model, the absolute cost differences route adjustment problem, etc. This paper proposes a relative-Proportion-based Route Adjustment Process (rePRAP) maintains the advantages of PSAP and overcomes these limitations. The rePRAP describes the situation that travelers on higher cost route switch to those with lower cost at the rate that is unilaterally depended on the relative cost differences between higher cost route and its alternatives. It is verified to be consistent with the principle of the rational behavior adjustment process. The equivalence among user equilibrium, stationary path flow pattern and stationary link flow pattern is established, which can be applied to judge whether a given network traffic flow has reached UE or not by detecting the stationary or non-stationary state of link flow pattern. The stability theorem is proved by the Lyapunov function approach. A simple example is tested to demonstrate the effectiveness of the rePRAP model.

  4. Developing a Computer Program for Bus Routing. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newton, Rita M.; Thomas, Warren H.

    A computer-based method was developed that can translate available data about schools, students, and bus facilities into a set of bus routes and schedules prior to the start of the school year. Each route can be so designed via the computer model that student riding time and bus capacity constraints are satisfied at the same time that total bus…

  5. 26 CFR 301.6223(f)-1 - Duplicate copy of final partnership administrative adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Duplicate copy of final partnership... In General § 301.6223(f)-1 Duplicate copy of final partnership administrative adjustment. (a) In... the notice of final partnership administrative adjustment (for example, in the event the...

  6. 26 CFR 301.6223(f)-1 - Duplicate copy of final partnership administrative adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Duplicate copy of final partnership... In General § 301.6223(f)-1 Duplicate copy of final partnership administrative adjustment. (a) In... the notice of final partnership administrative adjustment (for example, in the event the...

  7. 26 CFR 301.6223(f)-1 - Duplicate copy of final partnership administrative adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Duplicate copy of final partnership... In General § 301.6223(f)-1 Duplicate copy of final partnership administrative adjustment. (a) In... the notice of final partnership administrative adjustment (for example, in the event the...

  8. 26 CFR 301.6223(f)-1 - Duplicate copy of final partnership administrative adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Duplicate copy of final partnership... In General § 301.6223(f)-1 Duplicate copy of final partnership administrative adjustment. (a) In... the notice of final partnership administrative adjustment (for example, in the event the...

  9. 26 CFR 301.6223(f)-1 - Duplicate copy of final partnership administrative adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Duplicate copy of final partnership... In General § 301.6223(f)-1 Duplicate copy of final partnership administrative adjustment. (a) In... the notice of final partnership administrative adjustment (for example, in the event the...

  10. The School Adjustment of Post-Meningitic Children. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pate, John E.

    To study the school adjustment of children known to have had prolonged high fevers, 25 elementary school students who had had acute bacterial meningitis were matched by age, sex, and socioeconomic levels with peers from their same classroom. The nature and extent of school problems and educational handicaps of the post-meningitic children examined…

  11. 77 FR 55503 - Final Adjusted Assessment of Annual Needs for the List I Chemicals Ephedrine, Pseudoephedrine...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-10

    ... Enforcement Administration Final Adjusted Assessment of Annual Needs for the List I Chemicals Ephedrine... Needs for the list I chemicals ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, and phenylpropanolamine. DATES: Effective...) 307-4654. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The 2012 Assessment of Annual Needs represents those...

  12. 76 FR 77019 - Final Adjusted Assessment of Annual Needs for the List I Chemicals: Ephedrine, Pseudoephedrine...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-09

    ... Enforcement Administration Final Adjusted Assessment of Annual Needs for the List I Chemicals: Ephedrine... needs for the List I chemicals ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, and phenylpropanolamine. DATES: Effective... States in 2011 to provide adequate supplies of each chemical for the estimated medical,...

  13. Preliminary access routes and cost study analyses for seven potentially acceptable salt sites: Final report, October 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-02-01

    This report analyzes highway and railroad access to seven potentially acceptable salt repository sites: Richton Dome and Cypress Creek Dome in Mississippi, Vacherie Dome in Louisiana, Swisher County and Deaf Smith County in Texas, and Davis Canyon and Lavender Canyon in utah. The objectives of the study were to investigate the routing of reasonable access corridors to the sites, describe major characteristics of each route, and estimate the costs for constructing or upgrading highways and railroads. The routes used in the analysis are not necessarily recommended or preferred over other routes, nor do they represent an implied final selection. Detailed engineering studies must be performed for the Davis Canyon and Lavender Canyon highway access before the analyzed routes can be considered to be viable. 20 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Medicare determinations and income-related monthly adjustment amounts to Medicare Part B premiums; conforming changes to regulations. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2014-03-03

    This final rule adopts, without change, the interim final rule with request for comments we published in the Federal Register on September 18, 2013. The interim final rule modified our rules regarding Medicare Part B income-related monthly adjustment amounts to conform to changes made to the Social Security Act (Act) and Internal Revenue Code by the Affordable Care Act. We also removed provisions that phased in income-related monthly adjustment amounts between 2007 and 2009 and updated a citation to reflect the transfer of authority for hearing appeals under title XVIII of the Act from the Social Security Administration to the Department of Health and Human Services.

  15. 2007 Wholesale Power Rate Adjustment Proceeding (WP-07) : Administrator's Final Record of Decision.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    2006-07-01

    This Record of Decision (ROD) contains the decisions of the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), based on the record compiled in this rate proceeding, with respect to the adoption of power rates for the three-year rate period commencing October 1, 2006, through September 30, 2009. This ''2007 Wholesale Power Rate Adjustment Proceeding'' is designed to establish replacement rate schedules and General Rate Schedule Provisions (GRSPs) for those that expire on September 30, 2006. This power rate case also establishes the General Transfer Agreement (GTA) Delivery Charge for the period of October 1, 2007, through September 30, 2009. BPA's Power Subscription Strategy and Record of Decision (Subscription Strategy), as well as other Agency processes, provide much of the policy context for this rate case and are described in Section 2. This ROD follows a full evidentiary hearing and briefing, including an Oral Argument before the BPA Administrator. Sections 3 through 18, including any appendices or attachments, present the issues raised by parties in this proceeding, the parties positions, BPA staff positions on the issues, BPA's evaluations of the positions, and the Administrator's decisions. Parties had the opportunity to file briefs on exceptions to the Draft ROD, before issuance of this Final Record of Decision.

  16. Adjustment of Civil Monetary Penalties for Inflation. Final Regulations. Federal Register, Department of Education, 34 CFR Part 36

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Archives and Records Administration, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The Department of Education (Department) issued these final regulations to adjust the Department's civil monetary penalties (CMPs) for inflation. A CMP is defined in the statute as any penalty, fine, or other sanction that is: (1) for a specific monetary amount as provided by Federal law, or has a maximum amount provided for by Federal law; (2)…

  17. EXPOSURES AND INTERNAL DOSES OF TRIHALOMETHANES IN HUMANS: MULTI-ROUTE CONTRIBUTIONS FROM DRINKING WATER (FINAL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Center for Environmental Assessment (NCEA) has released a final report that presents and applies a method to estimate distributions of internal concentrations of trihalomethanes (THMs) in humans resulting from a residential drinking water exposure. The report presen...

  18. New molecular precursors for low-temperature routes to new oxide materials. Final progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Tilley, T.D.

    1997-10-01

    In this grant period, the authors have explored the single-source precursor route to silicate materials containing various main group and transition metals. They have also explored the development of polymeric precursors to zinc silicate materials. In addition, they have begun to examine precursors for phosphate materials, based on the di(tert-butyl)phosphate ligand, {minus}O{sub 2}P(O{sup t}Bu){sub 2}. A primary focus of these studies is the development of molecular precursors to homogeneous, ultrapure metal silicates and phosphates. More recently, the authors have attempted to develop template-assisted network-forming reactions that could lead to micro- or mesoporous materials. Findings are summarized below for Zr and HF systems, Al systems, Cr systems, Cu systems, metal phosphate precursors, zinc silicate luminescent materials, and syntheses of inorganic materials using dendrimeric polymers as templates.

  19. "Recalculating Route".

    PubMed

    Baum, Neil

    2015-01-01

    Can you imagine going to a doctor who uses a paper chart, sends you a bill on a ledger card, and handwrites a prescription? You wouldn't have a great deal of confidence that the clinical skills of the doctor were up to date. This would be an example of a doctor who did not "recalculate his or her route." This article provides 10 examples of adjustments that have been made in medicine where the route has been recalculated.

  20. Impact of OBD II catalyst cutpoint adjustment on in-use emissions. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Rykowski, R.

    1996-06-21

    The interaction between motor vehicle emission control systems and fuels is of particular concern for vehicles equipped with on-board diagnostic (OBD) systems sold outside California and operated on non-California fuels. The purpose of this study is to estimate the effect of adjusting the California OBD catalyst monitoring cutpoint to accommodate the range of commercial fuel sulfur levels expected outside of California and particularly in the Northeast by analyzing existing in-use databases.

  1. Development of a test set for adjustment of residential furnaces and boilers. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    A program was undertaken to design and develop a portable test set for simplified field adjustment of residential furnaces and boilers to achieve peak operating efficiency. Advanced technology was applied to provide continuous analysis of flue gases and the display of temperature, oxygen concentrations, smoke value and furnace efficiency. Prototype models were constructed and delivered to Brookhaven National Laboratory for further testing. A survey of furnace dealers was conducted, and a commercialization plan was developed based on survey responses and the status of the equipment developed under the program. Goals for a marketable test set and development steps to achieve a projected energy savings were determined and recommended. Recommendations for specific areas of further development are included.

  2. Medicaid program; liens, adjustments, and recoveries--HCFA. Final rule with comment period.

    PubMed

    1982-10-01

    We are revising Medicaid regulations to provide the conditions under which States may impose liens against the real property of certain individuals receiving Medicaid benefits in intermediate care and skilled nursing facilities. These individuals are those who the State determines, after notice to the individual and opportunity for a hearing, are unlikely to be discharged from the facility and return to their homes. These regulations also specify the conditions under which States may recover the amount of Medicaid payments made on behalf of individuals through foreclosure on liens on an individual's property, or adjustments or recoveries from their estate. These regulations implement Section 132 of Pub. L. 97-248, the Tax Equity and Fiscal Responsibility Act of 1982. The purpose of this provision is to permit States to recover the cost of Medicaid payments from an individual's property, and thereby reduce the public cost of supporting that individual in a long term care facility.

  3. Test facility for advanced electric adjustable frequency drives and generators of typical industrial ratings. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-01

    A test facility has been developed, for electric adjustable-speed motors and variable-speed generators, that is unique in US universities in terms of its range (5 to 300 hp currently with 0.1 to 1,000 hp final capability) and flexibility (standard NEMA frame and novel geometry machines can be accommodated). The basic facility was constructed with funding from the Electric Power Research Institute. The instrumentation obtained under this DOE grant has been integrated into the facility which was completed in Fall 1997. The facility has already provided useful studies for DOE, EPRI, as well as several West Coast industries and electric energy utilities.

  4. 76 FR 43477 - Debit Card Interchange Fees and Routing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-20

    ...The Board is adopting an interim final rule and requesting comment on provisions in Regulation II (Debit Card Interchange Fees and Routing) adopted in accordance with Section 920(a)(5) of the Electronic Fund Transfer Act, which governs adjustments to debit interchange transaction fees for fraud-prevention costs. The provisions allow an issuer to receive an adjustment of 1 cent to its......

  5. Final environmental assessment: Los Reales 115 kV transmission line alternative routes

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-10-01

    The Central Arizona Project (CAP) was authorized as a part of the Colorado River Basin Project Act (Public Law 90-537) on September 30, 1968. The primary purpose of the CAP is to furnish water for agricultural, municipal, and industrial uses in central and southern Arizona, and western New Mexico. Due to its magnitude, the CAP is divided into several major features serving separate but interrelated functions. The Tucson Aqueduct Phase B pumping plants were designed and constructed to operate on a looped power system. The entire looped power system, including two switching stations and connecting 115-kv transmission lines, was identified in the FEIS and approved for construction in the Secretary of Interior's Record of Decision dated September 24, 1985. The loop begins in the vicinity of the Twin Peaks Pumping Plant -- the northernmost Phase B pumping station, at the Rattlesnake Switching Station. All of the looped power system has been constructed with the exception of the switching station and portion of transmission line proposed to be constructed in this project. Without construction of this final portion of the looped power system, the Phase B pumping plants will not be able to operate normally without negatively affecting nearby power sources. The CAP will also not be able to provide the reliability necessary for municipal water systems dependent upon CAP water. The purpose of this EA is to describe impacts that would result from relocating the Los Reales 115-kV transmission line, and possibly the switching station, originally identified in the FEIS. It should be mentioned the Department of Energy will complete a separate NEPA review.

  6. 75 FR 62919 - Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on the Route 250 Bypass Interchange at McIntire Road...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-13

    ... at McIntire Road Project in Virginia AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), DOT. ACTION... the Route 250 Bypass Interchange at McIntire Road project in the City of Charlottesville, Virginia... approvals for the following project in the State of Virginia: Route 250 Bypass Interchange at McIntire...

  7. Mammoth Lakes Route 203 transportation project: a case study in air-quality modeling and mitigation. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, P.; Nokes, W.; Cramer, R.

    1985-06-01

    An evaluation is made of the effects on carbon monoxide concentrations of transportation improvements incorporated in the Route 203 highway project. This includes a comparison of preconstruction and postconstruction field-sampling studies. The performance of the CALINE4 air-quality model is evaluated for use in complex terrain. The report describes the problems encountered in applying the model to mountainous locations, the tracer-release study used for assessing model performance, and the model-verification analysis.

  8. Effect of personal and situational variables on noise annoyance: With special reference to implications for en route noise. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-08-01

    Over 680 publications from 282 social surveys of residents' reactions to environmental noise have been examined to locate 495 published findings on 26 topics concerning non-noise explanations for residents' reactions to environmental noise. This report (1) tabulates the evidence on the 26 response topics, (2) identifies the 495 findings, and (3) discusses the implications for en route noise assessment. After controlling for noise level, over half of the social survey evidence indicates that noise annoyance is not strongly affected by any of the nine demographic variables examined (age, sex, social status, income, education, homeownership, type of dwelling, length of residence, or receipt of benefits from the noise source), but is positively associated with each of the five attitudinal variables examined (a fear of danger from the noise source, a sensitivity towards noise generally, the belief that the authorities can control the noise, the awareness of non-noise impacts of the source, and the belief that the noise source is not important).

  9. Route-Specific Passage and Survival of Steelhead Kelts at The Dalles and Bonneville Dams, 2012 - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Rayamajhi, Bishes; Ploskey, Gene R.; Woodley, Christa M.; Weiland, Mark A.; Faber, Derek M.; Kim, Jin A.; Colotelo, Alison HA; Deng, Zhiqun; Fu, Tao

    2013-07-31

    This study was mainly focused on evaluating the route-specific passage and migration success of steelhead kelts passing downstream through The Dalles Dam (TDA) and Bonneville Dam (BON) at Columbia River (CR) river kilometers 309 and 234 respectively. Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) personnel collected, tagged and released out-migrating steelhead kelts in the tributaries of the Deschutes River, 15 Mile Creek and Hood River between April 14 and June 4, 2012. A PIT tag was injected into each kelt’s dorsal sinus whereas a Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS) acoustic micro-transmitter was attached to an external FLoy T-bar tag and inserted into the dorsal back musculature using a Floy tagging gun. JSATS cabled arrays were deployed at TDA and BON and autonomous node arrays were deployed near Celilo, Oregon (CR325); the BON forebay (CR236); the BON tailrace (CR233); near Knapp, Washington (CR156); and near Kalama, Washington (CR113) to monitor the kelts movement while passing through the dams and above mentioned river cross-sections.

  10. State alternative route designations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-07-01

    Pursuant to the Hazardous Materials Transportation Act (HMTA), the Department of Transportation (DOT) has promulgated a comprehensive set of regulations regarding the highway transportation of high-level radioactive materials. These regulations, under HM-164 and HM-164A, establish interstate highways as the preferred routes for the transportation of radioactive materials within and through the states. The regulations also provide a methodology by which a state may select alternative routes. First,the state must establish a ``state routing agency,`` defined as an entity authorized to use the state legal process to impose routing requirements on carriers of radioactive material (49 CFR 171.8). Once identified, the state routing agency must select routes in accordance with Large Quantity Shipments of Radioactive Materials or an equivalent routing analysis. Adjoining states and localities should be consulted on the impact of proposed alternative routes as a prerequisite of final route selection. Lastly, the states must provide written notice of DOT of any alternative route designation before the routes are deemed effective.

  11. State alternative route designations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-07-01

    Pursuant to the Hazardous Materials Transportation Act (HMTA), the Department of Transportation (DOT) has promulgated a comprehensive set of regulations regarding the highway transportation of high-level radioactive materials. These regulations, under HM-164 and HM-164A, establish interstate highways as the preferred routes for the transportation of radioactive materials within and through the states. The regulations also provide a methodology by which a state may select alternative routes. First,the state must establish a state routing agency,'' defined as an entity authorized to use the state legal process to impose routing requirements on carriers of radioactive material (49 CFR 171.8). Once identified, the state routing agency must select routes in accordance with Large Quantity Shipments of Radioactive Materials or an equivalent routing analysis. Adjoining states and localities should be consulted on the impact of proposed alternative routes as a prerequisite of final route selection. Lastly, the states must provide written notice of DOT of any alternative route designation before the routes are deemed effective.

  12. Routing Vehicles with Ants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Wen Fang; Lee, Lai Soon; Majid, Zanariah Abdul; Seow, Hsin Vonn

    Routing vehicles involve the design of an optimal set of routes for a fleet of vehicles to serve a number of customers with known demands. This research develops an Ant Colony Optimization for the vehicle routing with one central depot and identical vehicles. The procedure simulates the behavior of real ants that always find the shortest path between their nest and a food source through a form of communication, pheromone trail. Finally, preliminary results on the learning of the algorithm testing on benchmark data set will be presented in this paper.

  13. Evaluation of oil tanker routing per section 4111(b)(7) Oil Pollution Act of 1990. Part 2. Atlantic and Florida Gulf coasts. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate oil tanker routing along the east coast and Florida Gulf Coast. It discusses whether areas of navigable waters and the Exclusive Economic Zone should be restricted to oil tankers.

  14. Regulations regarding income-related monthly adjustment amounts to Medicare beneficiaries' prescription drug coverage premiums. Interim final rule with request for comments.

    PubMed

    2010-12-07

    We are adding a new subpart to our regulations, which contains the rules we will apply to determine the income-related monthly adjustment amount for Medicare prescription drug coverage premiums. This new subpart implements changes made to the Social Security Act (Act) by the Affordable Care Act. These rules parallel the rules in subpart B of this part, which describes the rules we apply when we determine the income-related monthly adjustment amount for certain Medicare Part B (medical insurance) beneficiaries. These rules describe the new subpart; what information we will use to determine whether you will pay an income-related monthly adjustment amount and the amount of the adjustment when applicable; when we will consider a major life-changing event that results in a significant reduction in your modified adjusted gross income; and how you can appeal our determination about your income-related monthly adjustment amount. These rules will allow us to implement the provisions of the Affordable Care Act on time that relate to the income-related monthly adjustment amount for Medicare prescription drug coverage premiums, when they go into effect on January 1, 2011.

  15. Chiropractic Adjustment

    MedlinePlus

    ... structural alignment and improve your body's physical function. Low back pain, neck pain and headache are the most common ... treated. Chiropractic adjustment can be effective in treating low back pain, although much of the research done shows only ...

  16. Adjustment disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... from other people Skipped heartbeats and other physical complaints Trembling or twitching To have adjustment disorder, you ... ADAM Health Solutions. About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Get email updates Subscribe to RSS Follow ...

  17. An adjustable short-focal length, high-gradient PMQ electron-beam final-focus system for the PLEIADES ultra-fast x-ray Thomson source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Jae-Ku

    In the span of a 100 year since the discovery of first x-rays by Roentgen that won him the first Nobel prize in physics, several types of radiation sources have been developed. Currently, radiations at extremely short wavelengths have only been accessed at synchrotron radiation sources. However, the current 3rd generation synchrotron sources can only produce x-rays of energy up to 60 keV and pulse lengths of several picoseconds long. But needs for shorter wavelength and shorter pulse duration radiations demanded by scientists to understand the nature of matter at atomic/molecular scale initiated the new scientific research for the production of sub-picosecond, hard x-rays. At the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, a Thomson x-ray source in the backscattering mode---a head-on collision between a high intensity Ti:Sapphire Chirped Pulse Amplification laser and a relativistic electron beam---called the PLEIADES (Picosecond Laser-Electron Inter-Action for the Dynamical Evaluation of Structures) laboratory has been developed. Early works demonstrated the production of quasi-monochromatic, femto-second long, hard x-rays. Initially reported x-ray flux was in the low range of 105--10 6 photons per shot. During the early stage of PLEIADES experiments, 15 T/m electromagnet final focusing quadrupoles (in a triplet lattice configuration) were employed to focus the beam to a 40-50 mum spot-size. A larger focal spot-size beam has a low-density of electron particles available at the interaction with incident photons, which leads to a low scattering probability. The current dissertation shows that by employing a 560 T/m PMQ (Permanent-Magnet Quadrupole) final focus system, an electron beam as small as 10-20 mum can be achieved. The implementation of this final focus system demonstrated the improvement of the total x-ray flux by two orders of magnitude. The PMQ final focus system also produced small electron beams consistently over 30-100 MeV electron beam energy, which

  18. Route visualization using detail lenses.

    PubMed

    Karnick, Pushpak; Cline, David; Jeschke, Stefan; Razdan, Anshuman; Wonka, Peter

    2010-01-01

    We present a method designed to address some limitations of typical route map displays of driving directions. The main goal of our system is to generate a printable version of a route map that shows the overview and detail views of the route within a single, consistent visual frame. Our proposed visualization provides a more intuitive spatial context than a simple list of turns. We present a novel multifocus technique to achieve this goal, where the foci are defined by points of interest (POI) along the route. A detail lens that encapsulates the POI at a finer geospatial scale is created for each focus. The lenses are laid out on the map to avoid occlusion with the route and each other, and to optimally utilize the free space around the route. We define a set of layout metrics to evaluate the quality of a lens layout for a given route map visualization. We compare standard lens layout methods to our proposed method and demonstrate the effectiveness of our method in generating aesthetically pleasing layouts. Finally, we perform a user study to evaluate the effectiveness of our layout choices.

  19. Weighted triangulation adjustment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, Walter L.

    1969-01-01

    The variation of coordinates method is employed to perform a weighted least squares adjustment of horizontal survey networks. Geodetic coordinates are required for each fixed and adjustable station. A preliminary inverse geodetic position computation is made for each observed line. Weights associated with each observed equation for direction, azimuth, and distance are applied in the formation of the normal equations in-the least squares adjustment. The number of normal equations that may be solved is twice the number of new stations and less than 150. When the normal equations are solved, shifts are produced at adjustable stations. Previously computed correction factors are applied to the shifts and a most probable geodetic position is found for each adjustable station. Pinal azimuths and distances are computed. These may be written onto magnetic tape for subsequent computation of state plane or grid coordinates. Input consists of punch cards containing project identification, program options, and position and observation information. Results listed include preliminary and final positions, residuals, observation equations, solution of the normal equations showing magnitudes of shifts, and a plot of each adjusted and fixed station. During processing, data sets containing irrecoverable errors are rejected and the type of error is listed. The computer resumes processing of additional data sets.. Other conditions cause warning-errors to be issued, and processing continues with the current data set.

  20. Shaft adjuster

    DOEpatents

    Harry, H.H.

    1988-03-11

    Abstract and method for the adjustment and alignment of shafts in high power devices. A plurality of adjacent rotatable angled cylinders are positioned between a base and the shaft to be aligned which when rotated introduce an axial offset. The apparatus is electrically conductive and constructed of a structurally rigid material. The angled cylinders allow the shaft such as the center conductor in a pulse line machine to be offset in any desired alignment position within the range of the apparatus. 3 figs.

  1. Shaft adjuster

    DOEpatents

    Harry, Herbert H.

    1989-01-01

    Apparatus and method for the adjustment and alignment of shafts in high power devices. A plurality of adjacent rotatable angled cylinders are positioned between a base and the shaft to be aligned which when rotated introduce an axial offset. The apparatus is electrically conductive and constructed of a structurally rigid material. The angled cylinders allow the shaft such as the center conductor in a pulse line machine to be offset in any desired alignment position within the range of the apparatus.

  2. Final Assessment of Preindustrial Solid-State Route for High-Performance Mg-System Alloys Production: Concluding the EU Green Metallurgy Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Errico, Fabrizio; Plaza, Gerardo Garces; Giger, Franz; Kim, Shae K.

    2013-10-01

    The Green Metallurgy Project, a LIFE+ project co-financed by the European Union Commission, has now been completed. The purpose of the Green Metallurgy Project was to establish and assess a preindustrial process capable of using nanostructured-based high-performance Mg-Zn(Y) magnesium alloys and fully recycled eco-magnesium alloys. In this work, the Consortium presents the final outcome and verification of the completed prototype construction. To compare upstream cradle-to-grave footprints when ternary nanostructured Mg-Y-Zn alloys or recycled eco-magnesium chips are produced during the process cycle using the same equipment, a life cycle analysis was completed following the ISO 14040 methodology. During tests to fine tune the prototype machinery and compare the quality of semifinished bars produced using the scaled up system, the Buhler team produced interesting and significant results. Their tests showed the ternary Mg-Y-Zn magnesium alloys to have a highest specific strength over 6000 series wrought aluminum alloys usually employed in automotive components.

  3. RECOVERY ACT: DYNAMIC ENERGY CONSUMPTION MANAGEMENT OF ROUTING TELECOM AND DATA CENTERS THROUGH REAL-TIME OPTIMAL CONTROL (RTOC): Final Scientific/Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Ron Moon

    2011-06-30

    This final scientific report documents the Industrial Technology Program (ITP) Stage 2 Concept Development effort on Data Center Energy Reduction and Management Through Real-Time Optimal Control (RTOC). Society is becoming increasingly dependent on information technology systems, driving exponential growth in demand for data center processing and an insatiable appetite for energy. David Raths noted, 'A 50,000-square-foot data center uses approximately 4 megawatts of power, or the equivalent of 57 barrels of oil a day1.' The problem has become so severe that in some cases, users are giving up raw performance for a better balance between performance and energy efficiency. Historically, power systems for data centers were crudely sized to meet maximum demand. Since many servers operate at 60%-90% of maximum power while only utilizing an average of 5% to 15% of their capability, there are huge inefficiencies in the consumption and delivery of power in these data centers. The goal of the 'Recovery Act: Decreasing Data Center Energy Use through Network and Infrastructure Control' is to develop a state of the art approach for autonomously and intelligently reducing and managing data center power through real-time optimal control. Advances in microelectronics and software are enabling the opportunity to realize significant data center power savings through the implementation of autonomous power management control algorithms. The first step to realizing these savings was addressed in this study through the successful creation of a flexible and scalable mathematical model (equation) for data center behavior and the formulation of an acceptable low technical risk market introduction strategy leveraging commercial hardware and software familiar to the data center market. Follow-on Stage 3 Concept Development efforts include predictive modeling and simulation of algorithm performance, prototype demonstrations with representative data center equipment to verify requisite

  4. 75 FR 27427 - Amendment of Jet Route J-120; Alaska

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-17

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Jet Route J-120; Alaska AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action amends Jet Route J-120, in... published in the Federal Register a notice of proposed rulemaking to amend Jet Route J-120, in Alaska (75...

  5. Variable-speed, portable routing skate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pesch, W. A.

    1967-01-01

    Lightweight, portable, variable-speed routing skate is used on heavy metal subassemblies which are impractical to move to a stationary machine. The assembly, consisting of the housing with rollers, router, and driving mechanism with transmission, weighs about forty pounds. Both speed and depth of cut are adjustable.

  6. Go the Yeshiva Route?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, Leland

    1981-01-01

    The Supreme Court's decision in the National Labor Relations Board v. Yeshiva University court case is discussed. National reactions to the case, arguments in favor of the Yeshiva route, arguments against the Yeshiva route, and financial considerations are discussed. (MLW)

  7. Defining Dynamic Route Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zelinski, Shannon; Jastrzebski, Michael

    2011-01-01

    This poster describes a method for defining route structure from flight tracks. Dynamically generated route structures could be useful in guiding dynamic airspace configuration and helping controllers retain situational awareness under dynamically changing traffic conditions. Individual merge and diverge intersections between pairs of flights are identified, clustered, and grouped into nodes of a route structure network. Links are placed between nodes to represent major traffic flows. A parametric analysis determined the algorithm input parameters producing route structures of current day flight plans that are closest to todays airway structure. These parameters are then used to define and analyze the dynamic route structure over the course of a day for current day flight paths. Route structures are also compared between current day flight paths and more user preferred paths such as great circle and weather avoidance routing.

  8. A parallel algorithm for global routing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brouwer, Randall J.; Banerjee, Prithviraj

    1990-01-01

    A Parallel Hierarchical algorithm for Global Routing (PHIGURE) is presented. The router is based on the work of Burstein and Pelavin, but has many extensions for general global routing and parallel execution. Main features of the algorithm include structured hierarchical decomposition into separate independent tasks which are suitable for parallel execution and adaptive simplex solution for adding feedthroughs and adjusting channel heights for row-based layout. Alternative decomposition methods and the various levels of parallelism available in the algorithm are examined closely. The algorithm is described and results are presented for a shared-memory multiprocessor implementation.

  9. 12 CFR 235.4 - Fraud-prevention adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fraud-prevention adjustment. 235.4 Section 235... SYSTEM (CONTINUED) DEBIT CARD INTERCHANGE FEES AND ROUTING § 235.4 Fraud-prevention adjustment. (a) In... receives or charges in accordance with § 235.3. (b) Issuer standards. To be eligible to receive the...

  10. 12 CFR 235.4 - Fraud-prevention adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fraud-prevention adjustment. 235.4 Section 235... SYSTEM (CONTINUED) DEBIT CARD INTERCHANGE FEES AND ROUTING § 235.4 Fraud-prevention adjustment. (a) In... accordance with § 235.3. (b) Issuer standards. (1) To be eligible to receive or charge the...

  11. 12 CFR 235.4 - Fraud-prevention adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fraud-prevention adjustment. 235.4 Section 235... SYSTEM (CONTINUED) DEBIT CARD INTERCHANGE FEES AND ROUTING § 235.4 Fraud-prevention adjustment. (a) In... accordance with § 235.3. (b) Issuer standards. (1) To be eligible to receive or charge the...

  12. View southwest along Route Canterbury Road (Route 169) showing commercial ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View southwest along Route Canterbury Road (Route 169) showing commercial and residential buildings on the east and west sides of the road - Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts of Brown Road, Canterbury Road (Route 169), Hartford Road (Route 6), Hyde Road, Pomfret Road (Route 169), Prince Hill Road, Providence Road (Route 6), Wauregan Road (Routes 169 & 205), & Wolf Den Road, Brooklyn, Windham County, CT

  13. Proxies for Anonymous Routing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-01-01

    Michael G. Reed, Paul F. Syverson, and David M. Goldschlag. Proxies for Anonymous Routing, 12th Annual Computer Security Applications Conference...San Diego, CA, December 9-13, 1996. Proxies for Anonymous Routing Michael G. Reed, Paul F. Syverson, and David M. Goldschlag Naval Research Laboratory...implemented. Onion routing provides application independent, real-time, and bi-directional anonymous connections that are resistant to both

  14. Contact Graph Routing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burleigh, Scott C.

    2011-01-01

    Contact Graph Routing (CGR) is a dynamic routing system that computes routes through a time-varying topology of scheduled communication contacts in a network based on the DTN (Delay-Tolerant Networking) architecture. It is designed to enable dynamic selection of data transmission routes in a space network based on DTN. This dynamic responsiveness in route computation should be significantly more effective and less expensive than static routing, increasing total data return while at the same time reducing mission operations cost and risk. The basic strategy of CGR is to take advantage of the fact that, since flight mission communication operations are planned in detail, the communication routes between any pair of bundle agents in a population of nodes that have all been informed of one another's plans can be inferred from those plans rather than discovered via dialogue (which is impractical over long one-way-light-time space links). Messages that convey this planning information are used to construct contact graphs (time-varying models of network connectivity) from which CGR automatically computes efficient routes for bundles. Automatic route selection increases the flexibility and resilience of the space network, simplifying cross-support and reducing mission management costs. Note that there are no routing tables in Contact Graph Routing. The best route for a bundle destined for a given node may routinely be different from the best route for a different bundle destined for the same node, depending on bundle priority, bundle expiration time, and changes in the current lengths of transmission queues for neighboring nodes; routes must be computed individually for each bundle, from the Bundle Protocol agent's current network connectivity model for the bundle s destination node (the contact graph). Clearly this places a premium on optimizing the implementation of the route computation algorithm. The scalability of CGR to very large networks remains a research topic

  15. 75 FR 39149 - Establishment of Low Altitude Area Navigation Route (T-284); Houston, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-08

    ... Route (T-284); Houston, TX AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule... area navigation (RNAV) route T-284 for the Houston, TX, terminal area, is being withdrawn. As a result... Federal Register a final rule to establish RNAV route T-284 for the Houston, TX, terminal area (75...

  16. Automatic routing module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, Janice A.

    1987-01-01

    Automatic Routing Module (ARM) is a tool to partially automate Air Launched Cruise Missile (ALCM) routing. For any accessible launch point or target pair, ARM creates flyable routes that, within the fidelity of the models, are optimal in terms of threat avoidance, clobber avoidance, and adherence to vehicle and planning constraints. Although highly algorithmic, ARM is an expert system. Because of the heuristics applied, ARM generated routes closely resemble manually generated routes in routine cases. In more complex cases, ARM's ability to accumulate and assess threat danger in three dimensions and trade that danger off with the probability of ground clobber results in the safest path around or through difficult areas. The tools available prior to ARM did not provide the planner with enough information or present it in such a way that ensured he would select the safest path.

  17. Convenient synthesis of silver nanowires with adjustable diameters via a solvothermal method.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dapeng; Qiao, Xueliang; Qiu, Xiaolin; Chen, Jianguo; Jiang, Renzhi

    2010-04-15

    Silver nanowires have been successfully synthesized via a simple solvothermal method by adding sodium sulfide (Na(2)S) into the solution. The Ag(2)S colloids produced in the initial stage help reduce the concentration of free Ag(+) ions in the initial formation of silver seeds and subsequently release Ag(+) ions to the solution. Otherwise, there is no oxidative etching owing to the absence of oxygen. In these cases, silver nanowires are grown preferentially. Furthermore, silver nanowires with adjustable diameters can be obtained by adjusting the concentration of Na(2)S. Electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and absorption spectra have been used to investigate the products, and a mechanism is proposed to interpret the controlled synthesis of silver nanowires. Finally, our results indicate that this approach provides a versatile route to prepare silver nanowires with controllable diameters.

  18. Mobile close combat tactical trainer location and routing model

    SciTech Connect

    Djang, P.; Scott, M.

    1994-12-31

    In the short term future, the Army will purchase 21 Mobile Close Combat Tactical Trainers (MCCTTs) for the Reserve Component. The Army plans to buy 11 Armor and 10 Infantry versions of these trainers. The trainers are high fidelity simulators that teach tactical operations at the company and platoon level. The simulators are mounted on 3 tractor-trailers and are capable of traveling to the cities, towns and villages (known as home stations) where the Reserve Component platoons reside. The TRADOC System Manager - Combined Arms Tactical Trainer requested that TRAC-WSMR conduct a stationing analysis to determine where these devices should be located. We have created location and routing models for both Armor and Infantry MCCTTs. We developed a p-median model to determine the locations that minimize the distance between the MCCTTs and a number of home stations. Once we know where to locate the MCCTTs, we developed transportation, set covering and traveling salesperson models to decide the routing strategy that minimizes the distance the MCCTTs must travel, thereby prolonging their life. Our models insure that all platoons receive a minimum of three MCCTT training sessions per year and that the units do not have to travel more than 60 miles away from their home. If the Army uses the same routing strategy for the MCCTTs as they have done for a predecessor system, then our efforts have estimated annual savings of 700, 000 or 10 Million over the system life. Finally, given the current training requirement, our work demonstrates that the Army`s procurement strategy needs to be adjusted; we show that the Army needs to buy fewer Infantry MCCTTs than planned; we show that if the excess is converted to Armor MCCTTs, then a less expensive overall solution can be computed.

  19. A Survey on Clustering Routing Protocols in Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xuxun

    2012-01-01

    The past few years have witnessed increased interest in the potential use of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) in a wide range of applications and it has become a hot research area. Based on network structure, routing protocols in WSNs can be divided into two categories: flat routing and hierarchical or clustering routing. Owing to a variety of advantages, clustering is becoming an active branch of routing technology in WSNs. In this paper, we present a comprehensive and fine grained survey on clustering routing protocols proposed in the literature for WSNs. We outline the advantages and objectives of clustering for WSNs, and develop a novel taxonomy of WSN clustering routing methods based on complete and detailed clustering attributes. In particular, we systematically analyze a few prominent WSN clustering routing protocols and compare these different approaches according to our taxonomy and several significant metrics. Finally, we summarize and conclude the paper with some future directions. PMID:23112649

  20. 78 FR 37104 - Establishment of Area Navigation (RNAV) Routes; Washington, DC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-20

    ...) Routes; Washington, DC AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule; correction..., that establishes five RNAV routes in support of the Washington, DC, Optimization of Airspace and..., Federal Aviation Administration, 800 Independence Avenue SW., Washington, DC 20591; telephone: (202)...

  1. MCCB warm adjustment testing concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdei, Z.; Horgos, M.; Grib, A.; Preradović, D. M.; Rodic, V.

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents an experimental investigation in to operating of thermal protection device behavior from an MCCB (Molded Case Circuit Breaker). One of the main functions of the circuit breaker is to assure protection for the circuits where mounted in for possible overloads of the circuit. The tripping mechanism for the overload protection is based on a bimetal movement during a specific time frame. This movement needs to be controlled and as a solution to control this movement we choose the warm adjustment concept. This concept is meant to improve process capability control and final output. The warm adjustment device design will create a unique adjustment of the bimetal position for each individual breaker, determined when the testing current will flow thru a phase which needs to trip in a certain amount of time. This time is predetermined due to scientific calculation for all standard types of amperages and complies with the IEC 60497 standard requirements.

  2. Understanding individual routing behaviour.

    PubMed

    Lima, Antonio; Stanojevic, Rade; Papagiannaki, Dina; Rodriguez, Pablo; González, Marta C

    2016-03-01

    Knowing how individuals move between places is fundamental to advance our understanding of human mobility (González et al. 2008 Nature 453, 779-782. (doi:10.1038/nature06958)), improve our urban infrastructure (Prato 2009 J. Choice Model. 2, 65-100. (doi:10.1016/S1755-5345(13)70005-8)) and drive the development of transportation systems. Current route-choice models that are used in transportation planning are based on the widely accepted assumption that people follow the minimum cost path (Wardrop 1952 Proc. Inst. Civ. Eng. 1, 325-362. (doi:10.1680/ipeds.1952.11362)), despite little empirical support. Fine-grained location traces collected by smart devices give us today an unprecedented opportunity to learn how citizens organize their travel plans into a set of routes, and how similar behaviour patterns emerge among distinct individual choices. Here we study 92 419 anonymized GPS trajectories describing the movement of personal cars over an 18-month period. We group user trips by origin-destination and we find that most drivers use a small number of routes for their routine journeys, and tend to have a preferred route for frequent trips. In contrast to the cost minimization assumption, we also find that a significant fraction of drivers' routes are not optimal. We present a spatial probability distribution that bounds the route selection space within an ellipse, having the origin and the destination as focal points, characterized by high eccentricity independent of the scale. While individual routing choices are not captured by path optimization, their spatial bounds are similar, even for trips performed by distinct individuals and at various scales. These basic discoveries can inform realistic route-choice models that are not based on optimization, having an impact on several applications, such as infrastructure planning, routing recommendation systems and new mobility solutions.

  3. Understanding individual routing behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Stanojevic, Rade; Papagiannaki, Dina; Rodriguez, Pablo; González, Marta C.

    2016-01-01

    Knowing how individuals move between places is fundamental to advance our understanding of human mobility (González et al. 2008 Nature 453, 779–782. (doi:10.1038/nature06958)), improve our urban infrastructure (Prato 2009 J. Choice Model. 2, 65–100. (doi:10.1016/S1755-5345(13)70005-8)) and drive the development of transportation systems. Current route-choice models that are used in transportation planning are based on the widely accepted assumption that people follow the minimum cost path (Wardrop 1952 Proc. Inst. Civ. Eng. 1, 325–362. (doi:10.1680/ipeds.1952.11362)), despite little empirical support. Fine-grained location traces collected by smart devices give us today an unprecedented opportunity to learn how citizens organize their travel plans into a set of routes, and how similar behaviour patterns emerge among distinct individual choices. Here we study 92 419 anonymized GPS trajectories describing the movement of personal cars over an 18-month period. We group user trips by origin–destination and we find that most drivers use a small number of routes for their routine journeys, and tend to have a preferred route for frequent trips. In contrast to the cost minimization assumption, we also find that a significant fraction of drivers' routes are not optimal. We present a spatial probability distribution that bounds the route selection space within an ellipse, having the origin and the destination as focal points, characterized by high eccentricity independent of the scale. While individual routing choices are not captured by path optimization, their spatial bounds are similar, even for trips performed by distinct individuals and at various scales. These basic discoveries can inform realistic route-choice models that are not based on optimization, having an impact on several applications, such as infrastructure planning, routing recommendation systems and new mobility solutions. PMID:26962031

  4. Learning multiple routes in homing pigeons.

    PubMed

    Flack, Andrea; Guilford, Tim; Biro, Dora

    2014-01-01

    The aerial lifestyle of central-place foraging birds allows wide-ranging movements, raising fundamental questions about their remarkable navigation and memory systems. For example, we know that pigeons (Columba livia), long-standing models for avian navigation, rely on individually distinct routes when homing from familiar sites. But it remains unknown how they cope with the task of learning several routes in parallel. Here, we examined how learning multiple routes influences homing in pigeons. We subjected groups of pigeons to different training protocols, defined by the sequence in which they were repeatedly released from three different sites, either sequentially, in rotation or randomly. We observed that pigeons from all groups successfully developed and applied memories of the different release sites (RSs), irrespective of the training protocol, and that learning several routes in parallel did not impair their capacity to quickly improve their homing efficiency over multiple releases. Our data also indicated that they coped with increasing RS uncertainty by adjusting both their initial behaviour upon release and subsequent homing efficiency. The results of our study broaden our understanding of avian route following and open new possibilities for studying learning and memory in free-flying animals.

  5. The Balanced Billing Cycle Vehicle Routing Problem

    SciTech Connect

    Groer, Christopher S; Golden, Bruce; Edward, Wasil

    2009-01-01

    Utility companies typically send their meter readers out each day of the billing cycle in order to determine each customer s usage for the period. Customer churn requires the utility company to periodically remove some customer locations from its meter-reading routes. On the other hand, the addition of new customers and locations requires the utility company to add newstops to the existing routes. A utility that does not adjust its meter-reading routes over time can find itself with inefficient routes and, subsequently, higher meter-reading costs. Furthermore, the utility can end up with certain billing days that require substantially larger meter-reading resources than others. However, remedying this problem is not as simple as it may initially seem. Certain regulatory and customer service considerations can prevent the utility from shifting a customer s billing day by more than a few days in either direction. Thus, the problem of reducing the meterreading costs and balancing the workload can become quite difficult. We describe this Balanced Billing Cycle Vehicle Routing Problem in more detail and develop an algorithm for providing solutions to a slightly simplified version of the problem. Our algorithm uses a combination of heuristics and integer programming via a three-stage algorithm. We discuss the performance of our procedure on a real-world data set.

  6. Issues of Simulation-Based Route Assignment

    SciTech Connect

    Nagel, K.; Rickert, M.

    1999-07-20

    The authors use an iterative re-planning scheme with simulation feedback to generate a self-consistent route-set for a given street network and origin-destination matrix. The iteration process is defined by three parameters. They found that they have influence on the speed of the relaxation, but not necessarily on its final state.

  7. Adjusting to Chronic Health Conditions.

    PubMed

    Helgeson, Vicki S; Zajdel, Melissa

    2017-01-03

    Research on adjustment to chronic disease is critical in today's world, in which people are living longer lives, but lives are increasingly likely to be characterized by one or more chronic illnesses. Chronic illnesses may deteriorate, enter remission, or fluctuate, but their defining characteristic is that they persist. In this review, we first examine the effects of chronic disease on one's sense of self. Then we review categories of factors that influence how one adjusts to chronic illness, with particular emphasis on the impact of these factors on functional status and psychosocial adjustment. We begin with contextual factors, including demographic variables such as sex and race, as well as illness dimensions such as stigma and illness identity. We then examine a set of dispositional factors that influence chronic illness adjustment, organizing these into resilience and vulnerability factors. Resilience factors include cognitive adaptation indicators, personality variables, and benefit-finding. Vulnerability factors include a pessimistic attributional style, negative gender-related traits, and rumination. We then turn to social environmental variables, including both supportive and unsupportive interactions. Finally, we review chronic illness adjustment within the context of dyadic coping. We conclude by examining potential interactions among these classes of variables and outlining a set of directions for future research.

  8. A versatile low temperature solid-state synthesis of vanadium nitride (VN) via a "guanidinium-route": experimental and theoretical studies from the key-intermediate to the final product.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Eugenio Furtado; Chagas, Carlos Alberto; Ramalho, Teodorico C; de Alencastro, Ricardo Bicca

    2012-12-21

    An easy and efficient method ("guanidinium route") to synthesize vanadium nitride (VN) is evaluated in this paper. Initially, ammonium m-vanadate was mixed with guanidinium carbonate, producing an important intermediate, ammonium m-vanadate (GmV), through a solid-state reaction. GmV was decomposed as a function of the temperature and studied with TGA, DRX, FT-Infrared, Temperature-Programmed Surface Reaction (TPSR) and DFT. We show that GmV is transformed into bulk crystalline VN below 800 °C. XPS, periodic DFT calculations, and elemental analyses show that the surface is not carbon-free.

  9. Class network routing

    DOEpatents

    Bhanot, Gyan; Blumrich, Matthias A.; Chen, Dong; Coteus, Paul W.; Gara, Alan G.; Giampapa, Mark E.; Heidelberger, Philip; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard D.; Takken, Todd E.; Vranas, Pavlos M.

    2009-09-08

    Class network routing is implemented in a network such as a computer network comprising a plurality of parallel compute processors at nodes thereof. Class network routing allows a compute processor to broadcast a message to a range (one or more) of other compute processors in the computer network, such as processors in a column or a row. Normally this type of operation requires a separate message to be sent to each processor. With class network routing pursuant to the invention, a single message is sufficient, which generally reduces the total number of messages in the network as well as the latency to do a broadcast. Class network routing is also applied to dense matrix inversion algorithms on distributed memory parallel supercomputers with hardware class function (multicast) capability. This is achieved by exploiting the fact that the communication patterns of dense matrix inversion can be served by hardware class functions, which results in faster execution times.

  10. Reliable Internet Routing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    constraints [38]), and the destination of the packet (as needed for blackholing , motivated by security or politics). In particular, we admit as “typical...reducing convergence time, or adding mech- anisms to detect transient loops and blackholes , we avoid dynamic routing protocols entirely [18]. Our...solution can significantly reduce the occurrence of route blackholing and data interception caused either by malicious attacks or accidental

  11. Project Hand-Up. Helping Adolescents Needing Direction-Unlimited Partnership (HAND-UP): Stimulating Coordination and Linkage between Occupational Work Adjustment Programs and the Job Training Partnership Act (JTPA). Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus. Div. of Vocational and Career Education.

    Project HAND-UP (Helping Adolescents Needing Direction-Unlimited Partnership) was a 2-year program to enhance dropout prevention services to at-risk youth by establishing a closer linkage between Job Training Partnership (JTPA)-Ohio and the Ohio Department of Education's Occupational Work Adjustment (OWA) programs. The project's major activities…

  12. Nonlinear Hydrostatic Adjustment.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bannon, Peter R.

    1996-12-01

    The final equilibrium state of Lamb's hydrostatic adjustment problem is found for finite amplitude heating. Lamb's problem consists of the response of a compressible atmosphere to an instantaneous, horizontally homogeneous heating. Results are presented for both isothermal and nonisothermal atmospheres.As in the linear problem, the fluid displacements are confined to the heated layer and to the region aloft with no displacement of the fluid below the heating. The region above the heating is displaced uniformly upward for heating and downward for cooling. The amplitudes of the displacements are larger for cooling than for warming.Examination of the energetics reveals that the fraction of the heat deposited into the acoustic modes increases linearly with the amplitude of the heating. This fraction is typically small (e.g., 0.06% for a uniform warming of 1 K) and is essentially independent of the lapse rate of the base-state atmosphere. In contrast a fixed fraction of the available energy generated by the heating goes into the acoustic modes. This fraction (e.g., 12% for a standard tropospheric lapse rate) agrees with the linear result and increases with increasing stability of the base-state atmosphere.The compressible results are compared to solutions using various forms of the soundproof equations. None of the soundproof equations predict the finite amplitude solutions accurately. However, in the small amplitude limit, only the equations for deep convection advanced by Dutton and Fichtl predict the thermodynamic state variables accurately for a nonisothermal base-state atmosphere.

  13. Collective network routing

    DOEpatents

    Hoenicke, Dirk

    2014-12-02

    Disclosed are a unified method and apparatus to classify, route, and process injected data packets into a network so as to belong to a plurality of logical networks, each implementing a specific flow of data on top of a common physical network. The method allows to locally identify collectives of packets for local processing, such as the computation of the sum, difference, maximum, minimum, or other logical operations among the identified packet collective. Packets are injected together with a class-attribute and an opcode attribute. Network routers, employing the described method, use the packet attributes to look-up the class-specific route information from a local route table, which contains the local incoming and outgoing directions as part of the specifically implemented global data flow of the particular virtual network.

  14. Pathogens at the livestock-wildlife interface in Western Alberta: does transmission route matter?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In southwestern Alberta, interactions between beef cattle and free-ranging elk (Cervus elaphus) may provide opportunities for pathogen transmission. To assess the importance of the transmission route on the potential for interspecies transmission, we conducted a cross-sectional study on four endemic livestock pathogens with three different transmission routes: Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus and Bovine Herpesvirus 1 (predominantly direct transmission), Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) (indirect fecal-oral transmission), Neospora caninum (indirect transmission with definitive host). We assessed the occurrence of these pathogens in 28 cow-calf operations exposed or non-exposed to elk, and in 10 elk herds exposed or not to cattle. We characterized the effect of species commingling as a risk factor of pathogen exposure and documented the perceived risk of pathogen transmission at this wildlife-livestock interface in the rural community. Herpesviruses found in elk were elk-specific gamma-herpesviruses unrelated to cattle viruses. Pestivirus exposure in elk could not be ascertained to be of livestock origin. Evidence of MAP circulation was found in both elk and cattle, but there was no statistical effect of the species commingling. Finally, N. caninum was more frequently detected in elk exposed to cattle and this association was still significant after adjustment for herd and sampling year clustering, and individual elk age and sex. Only indirectly transmitted pathogens co-occurred in cattle and elk, indicating the potential importance of the transmission route in assessing the risk of pathogen transmission in multi-species grazing systems. PMID:24517283

  15. Understanding Route Aggregation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-09

    routing anomalies, and is fingered to be the cause of many reported loops and blackholes . In this paper, we posit that the problem arises from a lack of...Route aggre- gation can also result in blackholes [18], which are surprisingly prevalent in the Internet [11]. We illustrate these known anomalies with...advertisement Forwarding paths A B C 10.1.30.0/24 10.1.16.0/22 10.1.16.0/2010.1.16.0/20 Figure 4: Illustration of a blackhole . forwards the packet to Y

  16. 75 FR 33164 - Modification of Jet Routes J-32, J-38, and J-538; Minnesota

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-11

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 RIN 2120-AA66 Modification of Jet Routes J-32, J-38, and J-538; Minnesota AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action modifies Jet Routes J-32 and J-38 by terminating portions of the routes that are no...

  17. New route for hollow materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivaldo-Gómez, C. M.; Ferreira, F. F.; Landi, G. T.; Souza, J. A.

    2016-08-01

    Hollow micro/nano structures form an important family of functional materials. We have used the thermal oxidation process combined with the passage of electric current during a structural phase transition to disclose a colossal mass diffusion transfer of Ti ions. This combination points to a new route for fabrication of hollow materials. A structural phase transition at high temperature prepares the stage by giving mobility to Ti ions and releasing vacancies to the system. The electric current then drives an inward delocalization of vacancies, condensing into voids, and finally turning into a big hollow. This strong physical phenomenon leading to a colossal mass transfer through ionic diffusion is suggested to be driven by a combination of phase transition and electrical current followed by chemical reaction. We show this phenomenon for Ti leading to TiO2 microtube formation, but we believe that it can be used to other metals undergoing structural phase transition at high temperatures.

  18. New route for hollow materials

    PubMed Central

    Rivaldo-Gómez, C. M.; Ferreira, F. F.; Landi, G. T.; Souza, J. A.

    2016-01-01

    Hollow micro/nano structures form an important family of functional materials. We have used the thermal oxidation process combined with the passage of electric current during a structural phase transition to disclose a colossal mass diffusion transfer of Ti ions. This combination points to a new route for fabrication of hollow materials. A structural phase transition at high temperature prepares the stage by giving mobility to Ti ions and releasing vacancies to the system. The electric current then drives an inward delocalization of vacancies, condensing into voids, and finally turning into a big hollow. This strong physical phenomenon leading to a colossal mass transfer through ionic diffusion is suggested to be driven by a combination of phase transition and electrical current followed by chemical reaction. We show this phenomenon for Ti leading to TiO2 microtube formation, but we believe that it can be used to other metals undergoing structural phase transition at high temperatures. PMID:27554448

  19. Experimental Transmission of Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) from Elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) and White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) to Fallow Deer (Dama dama) by Intracerebral Route: Final Report

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this communication we report final observations on experimental transmission of chronic wasting disease (CWD) from elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) and white tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) to fallow deer (Dama dama). The study was terminated 5 years after it was initiated. Thirteen fawns were i...

  20. Hydrologic Flood Routing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heggen, Richard J.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses a short classroom-based BASIC program which routes stream flow through a system of channels and reservoirs. The program is suitable for analyses of open channel conveyance systems, flood detention reservoirs, and combinations of the two. (Author/JN)

  1. Submarine cable route survey

    SciTech Connect

    Herrouin, G.; Scuiller, T.

    1995-12-31

    The growth of telecommunication market is very significant. From the beginning of the nineties, more and more the use of optical fiber submarine cables is privileged to that of satellites. These submarine telecommunication highways require accurate surveys in order to select the optimum route and determine the cable characteristics. Advanced technology tools used for these surveys are presented along with their implementation.

  2. Route repetition and route retracing: effects of cognitive aging.

    PubMed

    Wiener, Jan M; Kmecova, Hana; de Condappa, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    Retracing a recently traveled route is a frequent navigation task when learning novel routes or exploring unfamiliar environments. In the present study we utilized virtual environments technology to investigate age-related differences in repeating and retracing a learned route. In the training phase of the experiment participants were guided along a route consisting of multiple intersections each featuring one unique landmark. In the subsequent test phase, they were guided along short sections of the route and asked to indicate overall travel direction (repetition or retracing), the direction required to continue along the route, and the next landmark they would encounter. Results demonstrate age-related deficits in all three tasks. More specifically, in contrast to younger participants, the older participants had greater problems during route retracing than during route repetition. While route repetition can be solved with egocentric response or route strategies, successfully retracing a route requires allocentric processing. The age-related deficits in route retracing are discussed in the context of impaired allocentric processing and shift from allocentric to egocentric navigation strategies as a consequence of age-related hippocampal degeneration.

  3. Increasingly minimal bias routing

    DOEpatents

    Bataineh, Abdulla; Court, Thomas; Roweth, Duncan

    2017-02-21

    A system and algorithm configured to generate diversity at the traffic source so that packets are uniformly distributed over all of the available paths, but to increase the likelihood of taking a minimal path with each hop the packet takes. This is achieved by configuring routing biases so as to prefer non-minimal paths at the injection point, but increasingly prefer minimal paths as the packet proceeds, referred to herein as Increasing Minimal Bias (IMB).

  4. ARPANET Routing Algorithm Improvements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-10-01

    IMPROVEMENTS . .PFOnINI ORG. REPORT MUNDER -- ) _ .. .... 3940 7, AUT񓂏(c) .. .. .. CONTRACT Of GRANT NUMSlet e) SJ. M. /Mc~uillan E. C./Rosen I...8217), this problem may persist for a very long time, causing extremely bad performance throughout the whole network (for instance, if w’ reports that one of...algorithm may naturally tend to oscillate between bad routing paths and become itself a major contributor to network congestion. These examples show

  5. Onion Routing Access Configurations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-01-01

    eavesdropping and trac analysis. Thus it hides not only the data being sent, but who is talking to whom. Onion Routing’s anonymous connections are bidirec...Keywords: Security, privacy, anonymity , trac analysis. 1 Introduction Preserving privacy means not only hiding the con- tent of messages, but also...communication over a public network. It pro- vides anonymous connections that are strongly resis- tant to both eavesdropping and trac analysis. The

  6. The effect of accuracy motivation on anchoring and adjustment: do people adjust from provided anchors?

    PubMed

    Simmons, Joseph P; LeBoeuf, Robyn A; Nelson, Leif D

    2010-12-01

    Increasing accuracy motivation (e.g., by providing monetary incentives for accuracy) often fails to increase adjustment away from provided anchors, a result that has led researchers to conclude that people do not effortfully adjust away from such anchors. We challenge this conclusion. First, we show that people are typically uncertain about which way to adjust from provided anchors and that this uncertainty often causes people to believe that they have initially adjusted too far away from such anchors (Studies 1a and 1b). Then, we show that although accuracy motivation fails to increase the gap between anchors and final estimates when people are uncertain about the direction of adjustment, accuracy motivation does increase anchor-estimate gaps when people are certain about the direction of adjustment, and that this is true regardless of whether the anchors are provided or self-generated (Studies 2, 3a, 3b, and 5). These results suggest that people do effortfully adjust away from provided anchors but that uncertainty about the direction of adjustment makes that adjustment harder to detect than previously assumed. This conclusion has important theoretical implications, suggesting that currently emphasized distinctions between anchor types (self-generated vs. provided) are not fundamental and that ostensibly competing theories of anchoring (selective accessibility and anchoring-and-adjustment) are complementary.

  7. Remotely Adjustable Hydraulic Pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kouns, H. H.; Gardner, L. D.

    1987-01-01

    Outlet pressure adjusted to match varying loads. Electrohydraulic servo has positioned sleeve in leftmost position, adjusting outlet pressure to maximum value. Sleeve in equilibrium position, with control land covering control port. For lowest pressure setting, sleeve shifted toward right by increased pressure on sleeve shoulder from servovalve. Pump used in aircraft and robots, where hydraulic actuators repeatedly turned on and off, changing pump load frequently and over wide range.

  8. Adjustable Pitot Probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashby, George C., Jr.; Robbins, W. Eugene; Horsley, Lewis A.

    1991-01-01

    Probe readily positionable in core of uniform flow in hypersonic wind tunnel. Formed of pair of mating cylindrical housings: transducer housing and pitot-tube housing. Pitot tube supported by adjustable wedge fairing attached to top of pitot-tube housing with semicircular foot. Probe adjusted both radially and circumferentially. In addition, pressure-sensing transducer cooled internally by water or other cooling fluid passing through annulus of cooling system.

  9. Network-wide BGP route prediction for traffic engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feamster, Nick; Rexford, Jennifer

    2002-07-01

    The Internet consists of about 13,000 Autonomous Systems (AS's) that exchange routing information using the Border Gateway Protocol (BGP). The operators of each AS must have control over the flow of traffic through their network and between neighboring AS's. However, BGP is a complicated, policy-based protocol that does not include any direct support for traffic engineering. In previous work, we have demonstrated that network operators can adapt the flow of traffic in an efficient and predictable fashion through careful adjustments to the BGP policies running on their edge routers. Nevertheless, many details of the BGP protocol and decision process make predicting the effects of these policy changes difficult. In this paper, we describe a tool that predicts traffic flow at network exit points based on the network topology, the import policy associated with each BGP session, and the routing advertisements received from neighboring AS's. We present a linear-time algorithm that computes a network-wide view of the best BGP routes for each destination prefix given a static snapshot of the network state, without simulating the complex details of BGP message passing. We describe how to construct this snapshot using the BGP routing tables and router configuration files available from operational routers. We verify the accuracy of our algorithm by applying our tool to routing and configuration data from AT&T's commercial IP network. Our route prediction techniques help support the operation of large IP backbone networks, where interdomain routing is an important aspect of traffic engineering.

  10. Robustness of airline route networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lordan, Oriol; Sallan, Jose M.; Escorihuela, Nuria; Gonzalez-Prieto, David

    2016-03-01

    Airlines shape their route network by defining their routes through supply and demand considerations, paying little attention to network performance indicators, such as network robustness. However, the collapse of an airline network can produce high financial costs for the airline and all its geographical area of influence. The aim of this study is to analyze the topology and robustness of the network route of airlines following Low Cost Carriers (LCCs) and Full Service Carriers (FSCs) business models. Results show that FSC hubs are more central than LCC bases in their route network. As a result, LCC route networks are more robust than FSC networks.

  11. Medicare program; revisions to payment policies and five-year review of and adjustments to the relative value units under the physician fee schedule for calendar year 2002. Final rule with comment period.

    PubMed

    2001-11-01

    This final rule with comment period makes several changes affecting Medicare Part B payment. The changes affect: refinement of resource-based practice expense relative value units (RVUs); services and supplies incident to a physician's professional service;anesthesia base unit variations;recognition of CPT tracking codes; and nurse practitioners, physician assistants, and clinical nurse specialists performing screening sigmoidoscopies. It also addresses comments received on the June 8, 2001 proposed notice for the 5-year review of work RVUs and finalizes these work RVUs. In addition,we acknowledge comments received on our request for information on our policy for CPT modifier 62 that is used to report the work of co-surgeons. The rule also updates the list of certain services subject to the physician self-referral prohibitions to reflect changes to CPT codes and Healthcare Common Procedure Coding System codes effective January 1, 2002. These refinements and changes will ensure that our payment systems are updated to reflect changes in medical practice and the relative value of services. The Medicare, Medicaid, and SCHIP Benefits Improvement and Protection Act of 2000 modernizes the mammography screening benefit and authorizes payment under the physician fee schedule effective January 1, 2002; provides for biennial screening pelvic examinations for certain beneficiaries effective July 1, 2001; provides for annual glaucoma screenings for high-risk beneficiaries effective January 1,2002; expands coverage for screening colonoscopies to all beneficiaries effective July 1, 2001; establishes coverage for medical nutrition therapy services for certain beneficiaries effective January 1, 2002; expands payment for telehealth services effective October 1, 2001; requires certain Indian Health Service providers to be paid for some services under the physician fee schedule effective July 1, 2001; and revises the payment for certain physician pathology services effective January 1

  12. Exploiting Elementary Landscapes for TSP, Vehicle Routing and Scheduling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-03

    AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2015-0320 EXPLOITING ELEMENTARY LANDSCAPES FOR TSP, VEHICLE ROUTING AND SCHEDULING Darrell Whitley COLORADO STATE UNIVERSITY Final...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Exploiting Elementary Landscapes for TSP, Vehicle Routing and Scheduling 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER FA9550-11-1-0088...There are a number of NP-hard optimization problems where the search space can be characterized as an elementary landscape. For these search spaces the

  13. Osm-Oriented Method of Multimodal Route Planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, X.; Wu, Q.; Chen, L.; Xiong, W.; Jing, N.

    2015-07-01

    With the increasing pervasiveness of basic facilitate of transportation and information, the need of multimodal route planning is becoming more essential in the fields of communication and transportation, urban planning, logistics management, etc. This article mainly described an OSM-oriented method of multimodal route planning. Firstly, it introduced how to extract the information we need from OSM data and build proper network model and storage model; then it analysed the accustomed cost standard adopted by most travellers; finally, we used shortest path algorithm to calculate the best route with multiple traffic means.

  14. Instability Free Routing: Beyond One Protocol Instance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    assigned a Rout- ing Information Base (RIB) [13]. This database is used to store the routing information related to the routing process (e.g., routes...presents routing anomalies that can derive from route selection by itself, i.e., without any route redis - tribution configured between the routing... redis - tributed into the RIP protocol, all RIP messages received from the neighbors are in fact discarded independently of the AD values. This

  15. Recirculating valve lash adjuster

    SciTech Connect

    Stoody, R.R.

    1987-02-24

    This patent describes an internal combustion engine with a valve assembly of the type including overhead valves supported by a cylinder head for opening and closing movements in a substantially vertical direction and a rotatable overhead camshaft thereabove lubricated by engine oil pumped by an engine oil pump. A hydraulic lash adjuster with an internal reservoir therein is solely supplied with run-off lubricating oil from the camshaft which oil is pumped into the internal reservoir of the lash adjuster by self-pumping operation of the lash adjuster produced by lateral forces thereon by the rotative operation of the camshaft comprising: a housing of the lash adjuster including an axially extending bore therethrough with a lower wall means of the housing closing the lower end thereof; a first plunger member being closely slidably received in the bore of the housing and having wall means defining a fluid filled power chamber with the lower wall means of the housing; and a second plunger member of the lash adjuster having a portion being loosely slidably received and extending into the bore of the housing for reciprocation therein. Another portion extends upwardly from the housing to operatively receive alternating side-to-side force inputs from operation of the camshaft.

  16. Storage and flood routing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carter, R.W.; Godfrey, R.G.

    1960-01-01

    The basic equations used in flood routing are developed from the law of continuity. In each method the assumptions are discussed to enable the user to select an appropriate technique. In the stage-storage method the storage is related to the mean gage height in the reach under consideration. In the discharge-storage method the storage is determined, from weighted values of inflow and outflow discharge. In the reservoir-storage method the storage is considered as a function of outflow discharge alone. A detailed example is given for each method to illustrate that particular technique.

  17. New Routing Metrics for ADHOC Network Routing Protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, P. C.

    2014-12-01

    The performance and reliability of Internet is measured using different quantities. When the quantities measured are essential and have wide range of acceptance then they are called metrics. Performance metrics enable comparison and selection among the alternatives. In computer networks, metrics are used to evaluate an application, protocol etc. Routing in adhoc networks is nontrivial. Routing protocols for adhoc networks are still evolving and there is need for continuous evaluation of them. In the literature existing, several routing protocols are evaluated using standard metrics under different conditions. This paper proposes new metrics for evaluation of routing protocols and uses them to evaluate the adhoc network routing protocols AODV, DSR, DSDV and TORA. Simulation environment is created using NS-2 simulator. Typical range of speeds, pause times and data rates are used. The results provide new insights in to the working of the routing protocols.

  18. Capping risk adjustment?

    PubMed

    Eugster, Patrick; Sennhauser, Michèle; Zweifel, Peter

    2010-07-01

    When premiums are community-rated, risk adjustment (RA) serves to mitigate competitive insurers' incentive to select favorable risks. However, unless fully prospective, it also undermines their incentives for efficiency. By capping its volume, one may try to counteract this tendency, exposing insurers to some financial risk. This in term runs counter the quest to refine the RA formula, which would increase RA volume. Specifically, the adjuster, "Hospitalization or living in a nursing home during the previous year" will be added in Switzerland starting 2012. This paper investigates how to minimize the opportunity cost of capping RA in terms of increased incentives for risk selection.

  19. Route Generation for a Synthetic Character (BOT) Using a Partial or Incomplete Knowledge Route Generation Algorithm in UT2004 Virtual Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanold, Gregg T.; Hanold, David T.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a new Route Generation Algorithm that accurately and realistically represents human route planning and navigation for Military Operations in Urban Terrain (MOUT). The accuracy of this algorithm in representing human behavior is measured using the Unreal Tournament(Trademark) 2004 (UT2004) Game Engine to provide the simulation environment in which the differences between the routes taken by the human player and those of a Synthetic Agent (BOT) executing the A-star algorithm and the new Route Generation Algorithm can be compared. The new Route Generation Algorithm computes the BOT route based on partial or incomplete knowledge received from the UT2004 game engine during game play. To allow BOT navigation to occur continuously throughout the game play with incomplete knowledge of the terrain, a spatial network model of the UT2004 MOUT terrain is captured and stored in an Oracle 11 9 Spatial Data Object (SOO). The SOO allows a partial data query to be executed to generate continuous route updates based on the terrain knowledge, and stored dynamic BOT, Player and environmental parameters returned by the query. The partial data query permits the dynamic adjustment of the planned routes by the Route Generation Algorithm based on the current state of the environment during a simulation. The dynamic nature of this algorithm more accurately allows the BOT to mimic the routes taken by the human executing under the same conditions thereby improving the realism of the BOT in a MOUT simulation environment.

  20. An adaptive routing scheme in scale-free networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Haddou, Nora; Ez-Zahraouy, Hamid; Benyoussef, Abdelilah

    2015-05-01

    We suggest an optimal form of traffic awareness already introduced as a routing protocol which combines structural and local dynamic properties of the network to determine the followed path between source and destination of the packet. Instead of using the shortest path, we incorporate the "efficient path" in the protocol and we propose a new parameter α that controls the contribution of the queue in the routing process. Compared to the original model, the capacity of the network can be improved more than twice when using the optimal conditions of our model. Moreover, the adjustment of the proposed parameter allows the minimization of the travel time.

  1. Psychological Adjustment and Homosexuality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonsiorek, John C.

    In this paper, the diverse literature bearing on the topic of homosexuality and psychological adjustment is critically reviewed and synthesized. The first chapter discusses the most crucial methodological issue in this area, the problem of sampling. The kinds of samples used to date are critically examined, and some suggestions for improved…

  2. Self Adjusting Sunglasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Corning Glass Works' Serengeti Driver sunglasses are unique in that their lenses self-adjust and filter light while suppressing glare. They eliminate more than 99% of the ultraviolet rays in sunlight. The frames are based on the NASA Anthropometric Source Book.

  3. Self adjusting inclinometer

    DOEpatents

    Hunter, Steven L.

    2002-01-01

    An inclinometer utilizing synchronous demodulation for high resolution and electronic offset adjustment provides a wide dynamic range without any moving components. A device encompassing a tiltmeter and accompanying electronic circuitry provides quasi-leveled tilt sensors that detect highly resolved tilt change without signal saturation.

  4. 75 FR 11468 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-11

    ...: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: Base (1% annual-chance) Flood... of U.S. +316 City of Ridgeland. Route 51. 400 feet upstream of +323 Planters Grove. Brashear Creek 1... Road. Purple Creek 2,000 feet downstream of +314 U.S. Route 51. 1,500 feet downstream of +332...

  5. Anonymous Connections and Onion Routing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-01-01

    Anonymous Connections and Onion Routing Michael G. Reed, Paul F. Syverson, and David M. Goldschlag Naval Research Laboratory Abstract Onion Routing...eavesdropping and trac analysis. Onion routing’s anonymous connections are bidirectional and near real- time, and can be used anywhere a socket connection...can be used. Any identifying information must be in the data stream carried over an anonymous connec- tion. An onion is a data structure that is

  6. Adjustable Autonomy Testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, Jane T.; Schrenkenghost, Debra K.

    2001-01-01

    The Adjustable Autonomy Testbed (AAT) is a simulation-based testbed located in the Intelligent Systems Laboratory in the Automation, Robotics and Simulation Division at NASA Johnson Space Center. The purpose of the testbed is to support evaluation and validation of prototypes of adjustable autonomous agent software for control and fault management for complex systems. The AA T project has developed prototype adjustable autonomous agent software and human interfaces for cooperative fault management. This software builds on current autonomous agent technology by altering the architecture, components and interfaces for effective teamwork between autonomous systems and human experts. Autonomous agents include a planner, flexible executive, low level control and deductive model-based fault isolation. Adjustable autonomy is intended to increase the flexibility and effectiveness of fault management with an autonomous system. The test domain for this work is control of advanced life support systems for habitats for planetary exploration. The CONFIG hybrid discrete event simulation environment provides flexible and dynamically reconfigurable models of the behavior of components and fluids in the life support systems. Both discrete event and continuous (discrete time) simulation are supported, and flows and pressures are computed globally. This provides fast dynamic simulations of interacting hardware systems in closed loops that can be reconfigured during operations scenarios, producing complex cascading effects of operations and failures. Current object-oriented model libraries support modeling of fluid systems, and models have been developed of physico-chemical and biological subsystems for processing advanced life support gases. In FY01, water recovery system models will be developed.

  7. Precision adjustable stage

    DOEpatents

    Cutburth, Ronald W.; Silva, Leonard L.

    1988-01-01

    An improved mounting stage of the type used for the detection of laser beams is disclosed. A stage center block is mounted on each of two opposite sides by a pair of spaced ball bearing tracks which provide stability as well as simplicity. The use of the spaced ball bearing pairs in conjunction with an adjustment screw which also provides support eliminates extraneous stabilization components and permits maximization of the area of the center block laser transmission hole.

  8. Cellular cardiomyoplasty: routes of cell delivery and retention.

    PubMed

    Al Kindi, Adil; Ge, Yin; Shum-Tim, Dominique; Chiu, Ray C-J

    2008-01-01

    Experimental and clinical studies have proven the feasibility of cellular cardiomyoplasty in treating the damaged myocardium following ischemic injury. Over the years, this field has exploded with different investigators trying different routes of cell delivery ranging from direct cell injection into the heart to peripheral intravenous delivery utilizing the various signaling mechanisms known. These different routes have resulted in a wide range of retention and engraftment of cells in the target tissues. In this review, we will explore the different modalities of cell delivery, the pros and cons of each route and the cellular retention and therapeutic efficacy of these routes. We will then look into the different theories that try to explain the observed retention and engraftment of cells in the target tissues. Finally, we will discuss various methods that can improve cellular retention and engraftment and hence better improvement in myocardial function.

  9. Study on model and algorithm of inventory routing problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Fengjiao

    Vehicle routing problem(VRP) is one of important research in the logistics system. Nowadays, there are many researches on the VRP, but their don't consider the cost of inventory. Thus, the conclusion doesn't meet reality. This paper studies on the inventory routing problem (IRP)and uses one target function to describe these two conflicting problems, which are very important in the logistics optimization. The paper establishes the model of single client and many clients' inventory routing problem. An optimizing iterative algorithm is presented to solve the model. According to the model we can confirm the best quantity, efficiency and route of delivery. Finally, an example is given to illustrate the efficiency of model and algorithm.

  10. 78 FR 14179 - Adjustments to Civil Monetary Penalty Amounts

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-05

    ... Commission. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This rule implements the Federal Civil Penalties Inflation... a rule adjusting for inflation the maximum amount of civil monetary penalties under the Securities... Improvement Act of 1996 (``DCIA'').\\1\\ The DCIA amended the Federal Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment...

  11. 48 CFR 852.228-70 - Bond premium adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Adjustment (JAN 2008) When net changes in original contract price affect the premium of a Corporate Surety Bond by $5 or more, the Government, in determining the basis for final settlement, will provide...

  12. Alternative routes for highway shipments of radioactive materials and lessons learned from state designations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-01

    Pursuant to the Hazardous Materials Transportation Act (HMTA), the Department of Transportation (DOT) has promulgated a comprehensive set of regulations regarding the highway transportation of high-level radioactive materials. These regulations, under docket numbers HM-164 and HM-164A, establish interstate highways as the preferred routes for the transportation of radioactive materials within and through the states. The regulations also provide a methodology by which a state may select altemative routes. First, the state must establish a ``state routing agency``, defined as an entity authorized to use the state legal process to impose routing requirements on carriers of radioactive material (49 CFR 171.8). Once identified, the state routing agency must select routes in accordance with DOTs Guidelines for Selecting Preferred Highway Routes for Large Quantity Shipments of Radioactive Materials or an equivalent routing analysis. Adjoining states and localities should be consulted on the impact of proposed alternative routes as a prerequisite of final route selection. Lastly, the states must provide written notice to DOT of any alternative route designation before the routes are deemed effective. The purpose of this report is to discuss the ``lessons learned`` by the five states within the southern region that have designated alternative or preferred routes under the regulations of the Department of Transportation (DOT) established for the transportation of radioactive materials. The document was prepared by reviewing applicable federal laws and regulations, examining state reports and documents and contacting state officials and routing agencies involved in making routing decisions. In undertaking this project, the Southern States Energy Board hopes to reveal the process used by states that have designated alternative routes and thereby share their experiences (i.e., lessons learned) with other southern states that have yet to make designations.

  13. Alternative routes for highway shipments of radioactive materials and lessons learned from state designations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-01

    Pursuant to the Hazardous Materials Transportation Act (HMTA), the Department of Transportation (DOT) has promulgated a comprehensive set of regulations regarding the highway transportation of high-level radioactive materials. These regulations, under docket numbers HM-164 and HM-164A, establish interstate highways as the preferred routes for the transportation of radioactive materials within and through the states. The regulations also provide a methodology by which a state may select altemative routes. First, the state must establish a state routing agency'', defined as an entity authorized to use the state legal process to impose routing requirements on carriers of radioactive material (49 CFR 171.8). Once identified, the state routing agency must select routes in accordance with DOTs Guidelines for Selecting Preferred Highway Routes for Large Quantity Shipments of Radioactive Materials or an equivalent routing analysis. Adjoining states and localities should be consulted on the impact of proposed alternative routes as a prerequisite of final route selection. Lastly, the states must provide written notice to DOT of any alternative route designation before the routes are deemed effective. The purpose of this report is to discuss the lessons learned'' by the five states within the southern region that have designated alternative or preferred routes under the regulations of the Department of Transportation (DOT) established for the transportation of radioactive materials. The document was prepared by reviewing applicable federal laws and regulations, examining state reports and documents and contacting state officials and routing agencies involved in making routing decisions. In undertaking this project, the Southern States Energy Board hopes to reveal the process used by states that have designated alternative routes and thereby share their experiences (i.e., lessons learned) with other southern states that have yet to make designations.

  14. Route choice in pedestrians: determinants for initial choices and revising decisions.

    PubMed

    Liao, Weichen; Kemloh Wagoum, Armel U; Bode, Nikolai W F

    2017-02-01

    In moving pedestrian crowds, the distribution of individuals over different available routes emerges from the decisions of individuals that may be influenced by the actions of others. Understanding this phenomenon not only is important for research into collective behaviour, but also has practical applications for building safety and event management. Here, we study the mechanisms underlying pedestrian route choice, focusing on how time-independent information, such as path lengths, and time-dependent information, such as queue lengths, affect both initial decisions and subsequent changes in route choices. We address these questions using experiments with nearly 140 volunteers and an individual-based model for route choice. Crucially, we consider a wide range of route choice scenarios. We find that initial route choices of pedestrians achieve a balanced usage of available routes. Our model suggests that pedestrians performing trade-offs between exit widths and predicted exit crowdedness can explain this emergent distribution in many contexts. Few pedestrians adjust their route choice in our experiments. Simulations suggest that these decisions could be explained by pedestrians comparing estimates of the time it would take them to reach their target using different routes. Route choice is complex, but our findings suggest that conceptually simple behaviours may explain many movement decisions.

  15. Adjustable Reeds For Weaving

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farley, Gary L.

    1994-01-01

    Local characteristics of fabrics varied to suit special applications. Adjustable reed machinery proposed for use in weaving fabrics in various net shapes, widths, yarn spacings, and yarn angles. Locations of edges of fabric and configuration of warp and filling yarns varied along fabric to obtain specified properties. In machinery, reed wires mounted in groups on sliders, mounted on lengthwise rails in reed frame. Mechanisms incorporated to move sliders lengthwise, parallel to warp yarns, by sliding them along rails; move sliders crosswise by translating reed frame rails perpendicular to warp yarns; and crosswise by spreading reed rails within group. Profile of reed wires in group on each slider changed.

  16. Continuously adjustable Pulfrich spectacles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, Ken; Karpf, Ron

    2011-03-01

    A number of Pulfrich 3-D movies and TV shows have been produced, but the standard implementation has inherent drawbacks. The movie and TV industries have correctly concluded that the standard Pulfrich 3-D implementation is not a useful 3-D technique. Continuously Adjustable Pulfrich Spectacles (CAPS) is a new implementation of the Pulfrich effect that allows any scene containing movement in a standard 2-D movie, which are most scenes, to be optionally viewed in 3-D using inexpensive viewing specs. Recent scientific results in the fields of human perception, optoelectronics, video compression and video format conversion are translated into a new implementation of Pulfrich 3- D. CAPS uses these results to continuously adjust to the movie so that the viewing spectacles always conform to the optical density that optimizes the Pulfrich stereoscopic illusion. CAPS instantly provides 3-D immersion to any moving scene in any 2-D movie. Without the glasses, the movie will appear as a normal 2-D image. CAPS work on any viewing device, and with any distribution medium. CAPS is appropriate for viewing Internet streamed movies in 3-D.

  17. 76 FR 72836 - Amendment and Establishment of Air Traffic Service Routes; Northeast United States

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-28

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 RIN 2120-AA66 Amendment and Establishment of Air Traffic Service Routes; Northeast United States AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final... Register on September 19, 2011, that amends and establishes nine Air Traffic Service Routes (ATS) in...

  18. 78 FR 53237 - Establishment of Area Navigation (RNAV) Routes; Washington, DC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-29

    ...) Routes; Washington, DC AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY... Services, Federal Aviation Administration, 800 Independence Avenue SW., Washington, DC 20591; telephone... Register a notice of ] proposed rulemaking (NPRM) to establish two new RNAV routes in the Washington,...

  19. 78 FR 29615 - Establishment of Area Navigation (RNAV) Routes; Washington, DC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-21

    ... (RNAV) Routes; Washington, DC AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action establishes five new RNAV routes in support of the Washington, DC, Optimization of..., DC Metropolitan area airports. DATES: Effective date 0901 UTC, August 22, 2013. The Director of...

  20. 77 FR 65461 - Amendment of Area Navigation Route Q-1; CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-29

    ... Area Navigation Route Q-1; CA AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule; technical amendment. SUMMARY: This action amends the legal description of area navigation (RNAV) route Q-1... Reyes, CA, navigation aid, and listing of the points in the proper order. DATES: Effective Date:...

  1. 75 FR 24789 - Modification of Jet Route J-3; Spokane, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-06

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Modification of Jet Route J-3; Spokane, WA AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action modifies Jet Route J-3 by... a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) to modify J-3 Spokane, WA. (75 FR 5703). Interested...

  2. 75 FR 18047 - Amendment of Low Altitude Area Navigation Route T-254; Houston, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-09

    ... Route T-254; Houston, TX AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action amends low altitude Area Navigation (RNAV) route T-254 in the Houston, TX, terminal area by... the College Station, TX, VORTAC. The FAA is taking this action to eliminate a portion of T-254 that...

  3. A novel wavelength availability advertisement based ASON routing protocol implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jian; Liu, Juan; Zhang, Jie; Gu, Wanyi

    2005-11-01

    operator can make a good trade off between the wavelength availability advertisement Protocol Average Overhead and Blocking Probability by adopting and adjusting the routing update triggers; and the last is that wavelength availability advertisement throughout the optical network is applicable and our ASON routing protocol implementation could be applied in ASON when its scale is not too large and if the calls do not arrive and leave the network in a too frequent pace.

  4. Multipath Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks: Survey and Research Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Radi, Marjan; Dezfouli, Behnam; Bakar, Kamalrulnizam Abu; Lee, Malrey

    2012-01-01

    A wireless sensor network is a large collection of sensor nodes with limited power supply and constrained computational capability. Due to the restricted communication range and high density of sensor nodes, packet forwarding in sensor networks is usually performed through multi-hop data transmission. Therefore, routing in wireless sensor networks has been considered an important field of research over the past decade. Nowadays, multipath routing approach is widely used in wireless sensor networks to improve network performance through efficient utilization of available network resources. Accordingly, the main aim of this survey is to present the concept of the multipath routing approach and its fundamental challenges, as well as the basic motivations for utilizing this technique in wireless sensor networks. In addition, we present a comprehensive taxonomy on the existing multipath routing protocols, which are especially designed for wireless sensor networks. We highlight the primary motivation behind the development of each protocol category and explain the operation of different protocols in detail, with emphasis on their advantages and disadvantages. Furthermore, this paper compares and summarizes the state-of-the-art multipath routing techniques from the network application point of view. Finally, we identify open issues for further research in the development of multipath routing protocols for wireless sensor networks. PMID:22368490

  5. Multipath routing in wireless sensor networks: survey and research challenges.

    PubMed

    Radi, Marjan; Dezfouli, Behnam; Abu Bakar, Kamalrulnizam; Lee, Malrey

    2012-01-01

    A wireless sensor network is a large collection of sensor nodes with limited power supply and constrained computational capability. Due to the restricted communication range and high density of sensor nodes, packet forwarding in sensor networks is usually performed through multi-hop data transmission. Therefore, routing in wireless sensor networks has been considered an important field of research over the past decade. Nowadays, multipath routing approach is widely used in wireless sensor networks to improve network performance through efficient utilization of available network resources. Accordingly, the main aim of this survey is to present the concept of the multipath routing approach and its fundamental challenges, as well as the basic motivations for utilizing this technique in wireless sensor networks. In addition, we present a comprehensive taxonomy on the existing multipath routing protocols, which are especially designed for wireless sensor networks. We highlight the primary motivation behind the development of each protocol category and explain the operation of different protocols in detail, with emphasis on their advantages and disadvantages. Furthermore, this paper compares and summarizes the state-of-the-art multipath routing techniques from the network application point of view. Finally, we identify open issues for further research in the development of multipath routing protocols for wireless sensor networks.

  6. Protocol independent adaptive route update for VANET.

    PubMed

    Rasheed, Asim; Ajmal, Sana; Qayyum, Amir

    2014-01-01

    High relative node velocity and high active node density have presented challenges to existing routing approaches within highly scaled ad hoc wireless networks, such as Vehicular Ad hoc Networks (VANET). Efficient routing requires finding optimum route with minimum delay, updating it on availability of a better one, and repairing it on link breakages. Current routing protocols are generally focused on finding and maintaining an efficient route, with very less emphasis on route update. Adaptive route update usually becomes impractical for dense networks due to large routing overheads. This paper presents an adaptive route update approach which can provide solution for any baseline routing protocol. The proposed adaptation eliminates the classification of reactive and proactive by categorizing them as logical conditions to find and update the route.

  7. Protocol Independent Adaptive Route Update for VANET

    PubMed Central

    Rasheed, Asim; Qayyum, Amir

    2014-01-01

    High relative node velocity and high active node density have presented challenges to existing routing approaches within highly scaled ad hoc wireless networks, such as Vehicular Ad hoc Networks (VANET). Efficient routing requires finding optimum route with minimum delay, updating it on availability of a better one, and repairing it on link breakages. Current routing protocols are generally focused on finding and maintaining an efficient route, with very less emphasis on route update. Adaptive route update usually becomes impractical for dense networks due to large routing overheads. This paper presents an adaptive route update approach which can provide solution for any baseline routing protocol. The proposed adaptation eliminates the classification of reactive and proactive by categorizing them as logical conditions to find and update the route. PMID:24723807

  8. Connectivity-Enhanced Route Selection and Adaptive Control for the Chevrolet Volt: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Gonder, J.; Wood, E.; Rajagopalan, S.

    2014-09-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory and General Motors evaluated connectivity-enabled efficiency enhancements for the Chevrolet Volt. A high-level model was developed to predict vehicle fuel and electricity consumption based on driving characteristics and vehicle state inputs. These techniques were leveraged to optimize energy efficiency via green routing and intelligent control mode scheduling, which were evaluated using prospective driving routes between tens of thousands of real-world origin/destination pairs. The overall energy savings potential of green routing and intelligent mode scheduling was estimated at 5% and 3% respectively. These represent substantial opportunities considering that they only require software adjustments to implement.

  9. Connectivity-enhanced route selection and adaptive control for the Chevrolet Volt

    DOE PAGES

    Gonder, Jeffrey; Wood, Eric; Rajagopalan, Sai

    2016-01-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory and General Motors evaluated connectivity-enabled efficiency enhancements for the Chevrolet Volt. A high-level model was developed to predict vehicle fuel and electricity consumption based on driving characteristics and vehicle state inputs. These techniques were leveraged to optimize energy efficiency via green routing and intelligent control mode scheduling, which were evaluated using prospective driving routes between tens of thousands of real-world origin/destination pairs. The overall energy savings potential of green routing and intelligent mode scheduling was estimated at 5% and 3%, respectively. Furthermore, these represent substantial opportunities considering that they only require software adjustments to implement.

  10. 77 FR 55420 - Minerals Management: Adjustment of Cost Recovery Fees

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-10

    ... Bureau of Land Management 43 CFR Part 3000 RIN 1004-AE29 Minerals Management: Adjustment of Cost Recovery Fees AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This final rule amends the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) mineral resources regulations to update some fees that cover...

  11. The research of a new adaptive on-demand routing protocol in WSN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Dongjie; Cui, Gang; Huang, Junheng; Zhang, Zhaoxing

    2013-03-01

    As an important part of the Internet of Things, WSN also has routing strategies which plays a critical role as well as it does in Ad hoc. After the introduction of some distinct traits of WSN, a detailed analysis is performed for a typical ondemand routing protocol in Ad hoc AODV, which then is transplanted into WSN. Furthermore, a transition method of adaptive clustering routing is proposed, based on which, a new adaptive hierarchical routing transition protocol (BCRP) is put forward. Finally, simulations and comparisons of BCRP are performed which lead to a conclusion that BCRP has been greatly improved concerning adaptability and extensibility.

  12. Route Infrastructure and the Risk of Injuries to Bicyclists: A Case-Crossover Study

    PubMed Central

    Harris, M. Anne; Reynolds, Conor C. O.; Winters, Meghan; Babul, Shelina; Chipman, Mary; Cusimano, Michael D.; Brubacher, Jeff R.; Hunte, Garth; Friedman, Steven M.; Monro, Melody; Shen, Hui; Vernich, Lee; Cripton, Peter A.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We compared cycling injury risks of 14 route types and other route infrastructure features. Methods. We recruited 690 city residents injured while cycling in Toronto or Vancouver, Canada. A case-crossover design compared route infrastructure at each injury site to that of a randomly selected control site from the same trip. Results. Of 14 route types, cycle tracks had the lowest risk (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 0.11; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.02, 0.54), about one ninth the risk of the reference: major streets with parked cars and no bike infrastructure. Risks on major streets were lower without parked cars (adjusted OR = 0.63; 95% CI = 0.41, 0.96) and with bike lanes (adjusted OR = 0.54; 95% CI = 0.29, 1.01). Local streets also had lower risks (adjusted OR = 0.51; 95% CI = 0.31, 0.84). Other infrastructure characteristics were associated with increased risks: streetcar or train tracks (adjusted OR = 3.0; 95% CI = 1.8, 5.1), downhill grades (adjusted OR = 2.3; 95% CI = 1.7, 3.1), and construction (adjusted OR = 1.9; 95% CI = 1.3, 2.9). Conclusions. The lower risks on quiet streets and with bike-specific infrastructure along busy streets support the route-design approach used in many northern European countries. Transportation infrastructure with lower bicycling injury risks merits public health support to reduce injuries and promote cycling. PMID:23078480

  13. Delay Adjusted Incidence

    Cancer.gov

    This Infographic shows the National Cancer Institute SEER Incidence Trends. The graphs show the Average Annual Percent Change (AAPC) 2002-2011. For Men, Thyroid: 5.3*,Liver & IBD: 3.6*, Melanoma: 2.3*, Kidney: 2.0*, Myeloma: 1.9*, Pancreas: 1.2*, Leukemia: 0.9*, Oral Cavity: 0.5, Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma: 0.3*, Esophagus: -0.1, Brain & ONS: -0.2*, Bladder: -0.6*, All Sites: -1.1*, Stomach: -1.7*, Larynx: -1.9*, Prostate: -2.1*, Lung & Bronchus: -2.4*, and Colon & Rectum: -3/0*. For Women, Thyroid: 5.8*, Liver & IBD: 2.9*, Myeloma: 1.8*, Kidney: 1.6*, Melanoma: 1.5, Corpus & Uterus: 1.3*, Pancreas: 1.1*, Leukemia: 0.6*, Brain & ONS: 0, Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma: -0.1, All Sites: -0.1, Breast: -0.3, Stomach: -0.7*, Oral Cavity: -0.7*, Bladder: -0.9*, Ovary: -0.9*, Lung & Bronchus: -1.0*, Cervix: -2.4*, and Colon & Rectum: -2.7*. * AAPC is significantly different from zero (p<.05). Rates were adjusted for reporting delay in the registry. www.cancer.gov Source: Special section of the Annual Report to the Nation on the Status of Cancer, 1975-2011.

  14. An Evaluation of Controller and Pilot Performance, Workload and Acceptability under a NextGen Concept for Dynamic Weather Adapted Arrival Routing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Walter W.; Lachter, Joel; Brandt, Summer; Koteskey, Robert; Dao, Arik-Quang; Kraut, Josh; Ligda, Sarah; Battiste, Vernol

    2012-01-01

    In todays terminal operations, controller workload increases and throughput decreases when fixed standard terminal arrival routes (STARs) are impacted by storms. To circumvent this operational constraint, Prete, Krozel, Mitchell, Kim and Zou (2008) proposed to use automation to dynamically adapt arrival and departure routing based on weather predictions. The present study examined this proposal in the context of a NextGen trajectory-based operation concept, focusing on the acceptability and its effect on the controllers ability to manage traffic flows. Six controllers and twelve transport pilots participated in a human-in-the-loop simulation of arrival operations into Louisville International Airport with interval management requirements. Three types of routing structures were used: Static STARs (similar to current routing, which require the trajectories of individual aircraft to be modified to avoid the weather), Dynamic routing (automated adaptive routing around weather), and Dynamic Adjusted routing (automated adaptive routing around weather with aircraft entry time adjusted to account for differences in route length). Spacing Responsibility, whether responsibility for interval management resided with the controllers (as today), or resided with the pilot (who used a flight deck based automated spacing algorithm), was also manipulated. Dynamic routing as a whole was rated superior to static routing, especially by pilots, both in terms of workload reduction and flight path safety. A downside of using dynamic routing was that the paths flown in the dynamic conditions tended to be somewhat longer than the paths flown in the static condition.

  15. Channel routing for VLSI layout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schory, Michael

    1988-12-01

    Channel routing for VLSI layout is reviewed and a set of features required of an industrial channel router is defined. A channel router, CAR, was implemented, based on the Greedy and Detour routers. Integrated circuit design is discussed, with attention to the various channel routing problems and models. The major requirements for an industrial channel router to be integrated within general cells and standard cells routing environments are discussed and their fulfillment in CAR is considered. CAR comprises: the Greedy router functionality; the Detour router's obstacle, obstruction and switch box extensions; rectilinear channels; ports located not on standard and immediately surrounding layers; middle ports within the channel; jog on conflict-only to reduce jog use; single layer jogs; and partial pre-routing and dynamic layer optimization. Special features of CAR include: extension of the net definition with a short range tendency; definition of net preferred track; net visibility range in rectilinear channels; an extended area mechanism to deal with obstacles, rectilinear edges, pre-routing and ports on unusual layers; unified jog cost evaluation functions; unified, efficient jog selection; a general evaluation function for track worth; and a net connectivity part to control and handle split nets. Examples are presented of CAR operations.

  16. The Consistent Vehicle Routing Problem

    SciTech Connect

    Groer, Christopher S; Golden, Bruce; Edward, Wasil

    2009-01-01

    In the small package shipping industry (as in other industries), companies try to differentiate themselves by providing high levels of customer service. This can be accomplished in several ways, including online tracking of packages, ensuring on-time delivery, and offering residential pickups. Some companies want their drivers to develop relationships with customers on a route and have the same drivers visit the same customers at roughly the same time on each day that the customers need service. These service requirements, together with traditional constraints on vehicle capacity and route length, define a variant of the classical capacitated vehicle routing problem, which we call the consistent VRP (ConVRP). In this paper, we formulate the problem as a mixed-integer program and develop an algorithm to solve the ConVRP that is based on the record-to-record travel algorithm. We compare the performance of our algorithm to the optimal mixed-integer program solutions for a set of small problems and then apply our algorithm to five simulated data sets with 1,000 customers and a real-world data set with more than 3,700 customers. We provide a technique for generating ConVRP benchmark problems from vehicle routing problem instances given in the literature and provide our solutions to these instances. The solutions produced by our algorithm on all problems do a very good job of meeting customer service objectives with routes that have a low total travel time.

  17. Central East Pacific Flight Routing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grabbe, Shon; Sridhar, Banavar; Kopardekar, Parimal; Cheng, Nadia

    2006-01-01

    With the introduction of the Federal Aviation Administration s Advanced Technology and Oceanic Procedures system at the Oakland Oceanic Center, a level of automation now exists in the oceanic environment to potentially begin accommodating increased user preferred routing requests. This paper presents the results of an initial feasibility assessment which examines the potential benefits of transitioning from the fixed Central East Pacific routes to user preferred routes. As a surrogate for the actual user-provided routing requests, a minimum-travel-time, wind-optimal dynamic programming algorithm was developed and utilized in this paper. After first describing the characteristics (e.g., origin airport, destination airport, vertical distribution and temporal distribution) of the westbound flights utilizing the Central East Pacific routes on Dec. 14-16 and 19-20, the results of both a flight-plan-based simulation and a wind-optimal-based simulation are presented. Whereas the lateral and longitudinal distribution of the aircraft trajectories in these two simulations varied dramatically, the number of simulated first-loss-of-separation events remained relatively constant. One area of concern that was uncovered in this initial analysis was a potential workload issue associated with the redistribution of traffic in the oceanic sectors due to thc prevailing wind patterns.

  18. Rectus muscle plication using an adjustable technique

    PubMed Central

    Velez, Federico G.; Demer, Joseph L.; Pihlblad, Matthew S.; Pineles, Stacy L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Rectus muscle plication is an alternative muscle-strengthening procedure to rectus muscle resection. Possible advantages of rectus muscle plication include a lower risk of “lost” muscles and anterior segment ischemia. Methods This was a retrospective case series describing a surgical procedure for rectus muscle plication using an adjustable suture technique that can be employed on any of the four rectus muscles. Results A total of 5 adult patients underwent adjustable suture plication procedures. Of these, 2 patients required suture adjustment postoperatively. At the final follow-up visit, all of the patients maintained satisfactory ocular alignment within 6Δ of orthotropia for horizontal deviations and 2Δ of orthotropia for vertical deviations. Diplopia was eliminated in all cases with preoperative diplopia. There were no postoperative complications or unexpected shifts in ocular alignment. Conclusions Rectus muscle plication using this adjustable suture technique may serve as an alternative to rectus muscle resection and may be particularly useful in patients who are at risk for anterior segment ischemia or those in whom a shorter anesthesia time is recommended. PMID:24160967

  19. Seeded Growth Route to Noble Calcium Carbonate Nanocrystal

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Aminul; Teo, Siow Hwa; Rahman, M. Aminur; Taufiq-Yap, Yun Hin

    2015-01-01

    A solution-phase route has been considered as the most promising route to synthesize noble nanostructures. A majority of their synthesis approaches of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) are based on either using fungi or the CO2 bubbling methods. Here, we approached the preparation of nano-precipitated calcium carbonate single crystal from salmacis sphaeroides in the presence of zwitterionic or cationic biosurfactants without external source of CO2. The calcium carbonate crystals were rhombohedron structure and regularly shaped with side dimension ranging from 33–41 nm. The high degree of morphological control of CaCO3 nanocrystals suggested that surfactants are capable of strongly interacting with the CaCO3 surface and control the nucleation and growth direction of calcium carbonate nanocrystals. Finally, the mechanism of formation of nanocrystals in light of proposed routes was also discussed. PMID:26700479

  20. Social survey findings on en route noise annoyance issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fields, James M.

    1990-01-01

    Most surveys of residents' reactions to aircraft noise were conducted in the vicinity of airports. The findings in those surveys have supported planning and regulatory actions for the airport noise environment. Now, however, aircraft noise planning and regulations are being considered for a new environment, the en route environment. As policy makers search for bases for public policy in these new noise environments, it is appropriate to ask whether the same scientific evidence which supports airport noise policy can also support en route noise policy. Several aspects of that question are considered. An introduction establishes the scope of the present study and examines alternative study methodologies. Next, the selected study methodology is described and important assumptions are listed. The body of the paper then consists of the findings on en route issues. The final section presents findings on relevant research methods and considers priorities for further research.

  1. Seeded Growth Route to Noble Calcium Carbonate Nanocrystal.

    PubMed

    Islam, Aminul; Teo, Siow Hwa; Rahman, M Aminur; Taufiq-Yap, Yun Hin

    2015-01-01

    A solution-phase route has been considered as the most promising route to synthesize noble nanostructures. A majority of their synthesis approaches of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) are based on either using fungi or the CO2 bubbling methods. Here, we approached the preparation of nano-precipitated calcium carbonate single crystal from salmacis sphaeroides in the presence of zwitterionic or cationic biosurfactants without external source of CO2. The calcium carbonate crystals were rhombohedron structure and regularly shaped with side dimension ranging from 33-41 nm. The high degree of morphological control of CaCO3 nanocrystals suggested that surfactants are capable of strongly interacting with the CaCO3 surface and control the nucleation and growth direction of calcium carbonate nanocrystals. Finally, the mechanism of formation of nanocrystals in light of proposed routes was also discussed.

  2. Supracervical hysterectomy - the vaginal route.

    PubMed

    Wilczyński, Miłosz; Cieślak, Jarosław; Malinowski, Andrzej

    2014-06-01

    Removal of the cervix during hysterectomy is not mandatory. There has been no irrefutable evidence so far that total hysterectomy is more beneficial to patients in terms of pelvic organ function. The procedure that leaves the cervix intact is called a subtotal hysterectomy. Traditional approaches to this surgery include laparoscopic and abdominal routes. Vaginal total hysterectomy has been proven to present many advantages over the other approaches. Therefore, it seems that this route should also be applied in the case of subtotal hysterectomy. We present 9 cases of patients who underwent subtotal hysterectomy performed through the vagina for benign gynecological diseases.

  3. Routing Algorithm Exploits Spatial Relations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Okino, Clayton; Jennings, Esther

    2004-01-01

    A recently developed routing algorithm for broadcasting in an ad hoc wireless communication network takes account of, and exploits, the spatial relationships among the locations of nodes, in addition to transmission power levels and distances between the nodes. In contrast, most prior algorithms for discovering routes through ad hoc networks rely heavily on transmission power levels and utilize limited graph-topology techniques that do not involve consideration of the aforesaid spatial relationships. The present algorithm extracts the relevant spatial-relationship information by use of a construct denoted the relative-neighborhood graph (RNG).

  4. Reconfigurable Routing Protocol for Free Space Optical Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Rong; Yang, Won-Hyuk; Kim, Young-Chon

    2012-01-01

    Recently, free space optical sensor networks (FSOSNs), which are based on free space optics (FSO) instead of radio frequency (RF), have gained increasing visibility over traditional wireless sensor networks (WSNs) due to their advantages such as larger capacity, higher security, and lower cost. However, the performance of FSOSNs is restricted to the requirement of a direct line-of-sight (LOS) path between a sender and a receiver pair. Once a node dies of energy depletion, the network would probably suffer from a dramatic decrease of connectivity, resulting in a huge loss of data packets. Thus, this paper proposes a reconfigurable routing protocol (RRP) to overcome this problem by dynamically reconfiguring the network virtual topology. The RRP works in three phases: (1) virtual topology construction, (2) routing establishment, and (3) reconfigurable routing. When data transmission begins, the data packets are first routed through the shortest hop paths. Then a reconfiguration is initiated by the node whose residual energy falls below a threshold. Nodes affected by this dying node are classified into two types, namely maintenance nodes and adjustment nodes, and they are reconfigured according to the types. An energy model is designed to evaluate the performance of RRP through OPNET simulation. Our simulation results indicate that the RRP achieves better performance compared with the simple-link protocol and a direct reconfiguration scheme in terms of connectivity, network lifetime, packet delivery ratio and the number of living nodes. PMID:22666061

  5. Reconfigurable routing protocol for free space optical sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Xie, Rong; Yang, Won-Hyuk; Kim, Young-Chon

    2012-01-01

    Recently, free space optical sensor networks (FSOSNs), which are based on free space optics (FSO) instead of radio frequency (RF), have gained increasing visibility over traditional wireless sensor networks (WSNs) due to their advantages such as larger capacity, higher security, and lower cost. However, the performance of FSOSNs is restricted to the requirement of a direct line-of-sight (LOS) path between a sender and a receiver pair. Once a node dies of energy depletion, the network would probably suffer from a dramatic decrease of connectivity, resulting in a huge loss of data packets. Thus, this paper proposes a reconfigurable routing protocol (RRP) to overcome this problem by dynamically reconfiguring the network virtual topology. The RRP works in three phases: (1) virtual topology construction, (2) routing establishment, and (3) reconfigurable routing. When data transmission begins, the data packets are first routed through the shortest hop paths. Then a reconfiguration is initiated by the node whose residual energy falls below a threshold. Nodes affected by this dying node are classified into two types, namely maintenance nodes and adjustment nodes, and they are reconfigured according to the types. An energy model is designed to evaluate the performance of RRP through OPNET simulation. Our simulation results indicate that the RRP achieves better performance compared with the simple-link protocol and a direct reconfiguration scheme in terms of connectivity, network lifetime, packet delivery ratio and the number of living nodes.

  6. 77 FR 76406 - Criteria and Procedures for Proposed Assessment of Civil Penalties; Inflation Adjustment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-28

    ...; Inflation Adjustment AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health Administration, Labor. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The... for inflation. The Federal Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act of 1990, (Inflation Adjustment Act... penalties for inflation at least once every four years according to the formula specified in the...

  7. Computationally-Efficient Minimum-Time Aircraft Routes in the Presence of Winds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jardin, Matthew R.

    2004-01-01

    A computationally efficient algorithm for minimizing the flight time of an aircraft in a variable wind field has been invented. The algorithm, referred to as Neighboring Optimal Wind Routing (NOWR), is based upon neighboring-optimal-control (NOC) concepts and achieves minimum-time paths by adjusting aircraft heading according to wind conditions at an arbitrary number of wind measurement points along the flight route. The NOWR algorithm may either be used in a fast-time mode to compute minimum- time routes prior to flight, or may be used in a feedback mode to adjust aircraft heading in real-time. By traveling minimum-time routes instead of direct great-circle (direct) routes, flights across the United States can save an average of about 7 minutes, and as much as one hour of flight time during periods of strong jet-stream winds. The neighboring optimal routes computed via the NOWR technique have been shown to be within 1.5 percent of the absolute minimum-time routes for flights across the continental United States. On a typical 450-MHz Sun Ultra workstation, the NOWR algorithm produces complete minimum-time routes in less than 40 milliseconds. This corresponds to a rate of 25 optimal routes per second. The closest comparable optimization technique runs approximately 10 times slower. Airlines currently use various trial-and-error search techniques to determine which of a set of commonly traveled routes will minimize flight time. These algorithms are too computationally expensive for use in real-time systems, or in systems where many optimal routes need to be computed in a short amount of time. Instead of operating in real-time, airlines will typically plan a trajectory several hours in advance using wind forecasts. If winds change significantly from forecasts, the resulting flights will no longer be minimum-time. The need for a computationally efficient wind-optimal routing algorithm is even greater in the case of new air-traffic-control automation concepts. For air

  8. Fatigue mitigation effects of en-route napping on commercial airline pilots flying international routes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldwin, Jarret Taylor

    previous 24 hour period, fatigue state at report time, circadian rhythm disruptions, assigned rest periods in an onboard crew rest facility, experiencing spontaneous sleep episodes, and napping metrics. The study also reports on some common en-route fatigue mitigation strategy themes, as reported by the study participants and how these relate to the survey question responses of survey participants. Study results suggest that there are significant relationships between fatigue states prior to napping and augmentation, fatigue states when reporting for duty, assignment to en-route rest in an onboard crew rest facility, and having experienced spontaneous sleep episodes. The study results also suggest that there is not a significant relationship between being assigned scheduled rest periods in an onboard crew rest facility and the usage of en-route napping as part of an individual pilot's fatigue mitigation stategy. Finally, the study results suggest that short duration naps, averaging less than 30 minutes, are most commonly being employed by the subject population to beneficial effect.

  9. A tool for debugging internet multicast routing

    SciTech Connect

    Agarwal, D.; Floyd, S.

    1994-03-01

    In this paper the authors describe a debugging tool that is an effective means of analyzing problems with multicast packet routing in a network. Multicast packet routing is a source-driven distributed calculation performed by the routers in a multicast network. The routes taken by multicast packets are difficult to predict manually due to the large number of variables that must be considered. The multicast route debugging tool allows off-line investigation of the route taken by a multicast packet and the effects of network modifications on that route. The tool has already proved useful in debugging the problems that have occurred in the experimental Internet Multicast Backbone. The multicast route debugging tool currently predicts multicast routes of packets using the distance-vector truncated-broadcast algorithm implemented for Internet multicast traffic. They will be upgrading the tool to allow the user to choose other multicast routing algorithms.

  10. Adjusting FGS2r's AMA for Optimal Interferometric Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelan, Edmund

    1999-07-01

    FGS2R S-curves will be obtained at selected locations within the FGS2R FOV. These data will be will be used to adjust the AMA so as to align the HST pupil onto the interferometer's Koesters prisms. The final AMA position will be set to produce an acceptable set of s-curves across the FGS2r FOV. The AMA will be adjusted using CCL/instructions from the ground.

  11. Judaism and the Silk Route.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foltz, Richard

    1998-01-01

    Demonstrates that the Judeans traveled along the Ancient Silk Route. Discusses the Iranian influence on the formation of Jewish religious ideas. Considers the development of Jewish trade networks, focusing on the Radanites (Jewish traders), the Jewish presence in the Far East, and the survival of Judaism in central Asia. (CMK)

  12. Dynamic Weather Routes Architecture Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eslami, Hassan; Eshow, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic Weather Routes Architecture Overview, presents the high level software architecture of DWR, based on the CTAS software framework and the Direct-To automation tool. The document also covers external and internal data flows, required dataset, changes to the Direct-To software for DWR, collection of software statistics, and the code structure.

  13. Roots/Routes: Part II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Dalene M.

    2009-01-01

    This narrative acts as an articulation of a journey of many routes. Following Part I of the same research journey of rootedness/routedness, it debates the nature of transformation and transcendence beyond personal and political paradoxes informed by neoliberalism and related repressive globalizing discourses. Through a more personal, descriptive,…

  14. Genetic algorithms for route discovery.

    PubMed

    Gelenbe, Erol; Liu, Peixiang; Lainé, Jeremy

    2006-12-01

    Packet routing in networks requires knowledge about available paths, which can be either acquired dynamically while the traffic is being forwarded, or statically (in advance) based on prior information of a network's topology. This paper describes an experimental investigation of path discovery using genetic algorithms (GAs). We start with the quality-of-service (QoS)-driven routing protocol called "cognitive packet network" (CPN), which uses smart packets (SPs) to dynamically select routes in a distributed autonomic manner based on a user's QoS requirements. We extend it by introducing a GA at the source routers, which modifies and filters the paths discovered by the CPN. The GA can combine the paths that were previously discovered to create new untested but valid source-to-destination paths, which are then selected on the basis of their "fitness." We present an implementation of this approach, where the GA runs in background mode so as not to overload the ingress routers. Measurements conducted on a network test bed indicate that when the background-traffic load of the network is light to medium, the GA can result in improved QoS. When the background-traffic load is high, it appears that the use of the GA may be detrimental to the QoS experienced by users as compared to CPN routing because the GA uses less timely state information in its decision making.

  15. Planning Safe Routes to School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appleyard, Bruce S.

    2003-01-01

    Describes "Safe Routes to School" efforts in the United States and other countries to make walking and biking to school the transportation of choice. Offers a plan of action for formulating and carrying out such a program and information on funding sources. (EV)

  16. Roots/Routes: Part I

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Dalene M.

    2009-01-01

    This narrative and poetic rendering acts as an articulation of a journey of many routes. It is a storying of critical research issues and events as performances of lived experience. It is a metissage of hybrid, but interrelated, themes that find cohesion through fragmentation and coalescence, severance, and regrowth. These themes are invoked by…

  17. Alternative Routes for Teacher Certification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Commission of the States, Denver, CO.

    This publication presents a series of charts, designed for quick reference, which describe the status of alternative teacher certification routes in each of the 50 states. The charts were prepared in response to an increasing number of inquiries from educators, policy makers, and the public. Information was gathered by telephone surveys of state…

  18. Spousal Adjustment to Myocardial Infarction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziglar, Elisa J.

    This paper reviews the literature on the stresses and coping strategies of spouses of patients with myocardial infarction (MI). It attempts to identify specific problem areas of adjustment for the spouse and to explore the effects of spousal adjustment on patient recovery. Chapter one provides an overview of the importance in examining the…

  19. Medicare Program; Hospital Inpatient Prospective Payment Systems for Acute Care Hospitals and the Long-Term Care Hospital Prospective Payment System Policy Changes and Fiscal Year 2016 Rates; Revisions of Quality Reporting Requirements for Specific Providers, Including Changes Related to the Electronic Health Record Incentive Program; Extensions of the Medicare-Dependent, Small Rural Hospital Program and the Low-Volume Payment Adjustment for Hospitals. Final rule; interim final rule with comment period.

    PubMed

    2015-08-17

    We are revising the Medicare hospital inpatient prospective payment systems (IPPS) for operating and capital related costs of acute care hospitals to implement changes arising from our continuing experience with these systems for FY 2016. Some of these changes implement certain statutory provisions contained in the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010 (collectively known as the Affordable Care Act), the Pathway for Sustainable Growth Reform(SGR) Act of 2013, the Protecting Access to Medicare Act of 2014, the Improving Medicare Post-Acute Care Transformation Act of 2014, the Medicare Access and CHIP Reauthorization Act of 2015, and other legislation. We also are addressing the update of the rate-of-increase limits for certain hospitals excluded from the IPPS that are paid on a reasonable cost basis subject to these limits for FY 2016.As an interim final rule with comment period, we are implementing the statutory extensions of the Medicare dependent,small rural hospital (MDH)Program and changes to the payment adjustment for low-volume hospitals under the IPPS.We also are updating the payment policies and the annual payment rates for the Medicare prospective payment system (PPS) for inpatient hospital services provided by long-term care hospitals (LTCHs) for FY 2016 and implementing certain statutory changes to the LTCH PPS under the Affordable Care Act and the Pathway for Sustainable Growth Rate (SGR) Reform Act of 2013 and the Protecting Access to Medicare Act of 2014.In addition, we are establishing new requirements or revising existing requirements for quality reporting by specific providers (acute care hospitals,PPS-exempt cancer hospitals, and LTCHs) that are participating in Medicare, including related provisions for eligible hospitals and critical access hospitals participating in the Medicare Electronic Health Record (EHR)Incentive Program. We also are updating policies relating to the

  20. Implementation of direct routing mobile IP for solving triangular routing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Jongwook; Jang, SeongHo; Park, Miri; Lee, Dae-bong

    2001-10-01

    Mobility support on the network layer is of special importance, as the network layer holds together the huge Internet with common protocol IP. Although based on possibility different wireless or wired technologies, all nodes of the network should be able to communicate. Therefore, mobile IP(an extension of the classical IP) has been designed which enablemobility in the Internet without changing existing wired systems. However, mobile IP leaves some points unsolved. Especially, if it comes to security, efficiency of the packet flow that is called triangular routing. Especially triangular routing can cause unnecessary overhead for the network. Furthermore latency can increase dramatically. This is particularly unfortunate if two communicating hosts are separated by transatlantic links. In order to this problem, many methods like IPv6 and ROMIP are proposed. But these methods have limitation. In other words, they have not compatibility because of needing modification of original IP scheme. Especially ROMIP is very complex and the overhead of control message and processing are serious. The problem of inconsistency of Binding caches may occur too. We therefore propose and analyze the performance of the DRMIP (Direct Routing Mobile IP) which do not modify IP source needed in the sender, is compatible with IP and Mobile IP.

  1. New routes to food gels and glasses.

    PubMed

    Gibaud, Thomas; Mahmoudi, Najet; Oberdisse, Julian; Lindner, Peter; Pedersen, Jan Skov; Oliveira, Cristiano L P; Stradner, Anna; Schurtenberger, Peter

    2012-01-01

    We describe the possibility to create solid-like protein samples whose structural and mechanical properties can be varied and tailored over an extremely large range in a very controlled way through an arrested spinodal decomposition process. We use aqueous lysozyme solutions as a model globular protein system. A combination of video microscopy, small-angle neutron and X-ray scattering and reverse Monte Carlo modeling is used to characterize the structure of the bicontinuous network with two coexisting phases of a dilute protein solution and a glassy or arrested dense protein backbone at all relevant length scales. Rheological measurements are then used to determine the complex mechanical response of these protein gels as a function of protein concentration and quench temperature. While in particular the origin of the dependence of the mechanical properties on quench depth and concentration is not well understood currently, it seems ultimately connected to the particular bicontinuous structure of the arrested spinodal network created by the interplay between the early stage of a spinodal decomposition and the position of the glass line. We then generalize this behavior and discuss how this could open up new routes to prepare gel-like food systems with adjustable structural and mechanical properties. We present results from a first feasibility study where we use a depletion interaction caused by the addition of small non-adsorbing polymers to suspensions of casein micelles in order to create food gels with tunable structural and mechanical properties through an arrested spinodal decomposition process.

  2. 7 CFR 1000.3 - Route disposition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Definitions § 1000.3 Route disposition. Route disposition means a delivery to a retail or wholesale outlet... store, vendor, or vending machine) of a fluid milk product in consumer-type packages or dispenser...

  3. 14 CFR 221.41 - Routing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) Individually stated routings—Method of publication. The routing required by paragraph (a) of this section shall... with their respective explanations of the applicable routings shall be arranged in numerical order...

  4. The improvement and simulation for LEACH clustering routing protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Ai-guo; Zhao, Jun-xiang

    2017-01-01

    An energy-balanced unequal multi-hop clustering routing protocol LEACH-EUMC is proposed in this paper. The candidate cluster head nodes are elected firstly, then they compete to be formal cluster head nodes by adding energy and distance factors, finally the date are transferred to sink through multi-hop. The results of simulation show that the improved algorithm is better than LEACH in network lifetime, energy consumption and the amount of data transmission.

  5. Analysis of Routing Worm Infection Rates on an IPV4

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    effort. The help of Major David M. Kaziska during the final weeks of my thesis writing was a Godsend and I owe him a large debt of gratitude. All...ANALYSIS OF ROUTING WORM INFECTION RATES ON AN IPV4 NETWORK THESIS James E. Gorsuch, First Lieutenant, USAF AFIT/GCS/ENG/07-04...DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED The views expressed in this thesis are those of the author and do not reflect the official policy or

  6. Automated Alerting for Black Hole Routing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-01

    BGP Blackhole Routing Performance.” Kleffman used simulation as the evaluation technique for his research. A simulation software package, Opnet...stated: Second, we concluded that, of the three basic BGP Blackhole routing methods, the customer-triggered method has the worst performance. Neither...trigger router or the ‘Black Hole Route Server’ in the network. This router will be pushing out BGP blackhole route announcements (both addition

  7. Daisy Found on 'Route 66'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This composite image from the panoramic camera on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit gives an approximately true-color rendering of a daisy-like pattern of brushed circles that Spirit produced on a rock called 'Route 66.' Spirit used the rock abrasion tool to complete this 6-position 'RAT daisy' on sol 99. It took this image on sol 100, April 14, 2004.

    The purpose for these large brushings is to create a large enough patch of treated surface area for the miniature thermal emission spectrometer to analyze. Scientists had previously conducted a brushing like this one on the rock 'Mazatzal.' The brushed area of Route 66 looks very different from the brushed area of Mazatzal, leading scientists to think that the rocks although both light in tone actually have different coating types.

  8. Multicast Routing of Hierarchical Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shacham, Nachum

    1992-01-01

    The issue of multicast of broadband, real-time data in a heterogeneous environment, in which the data recipients differ in their reception abilities, is considered. Traditional multicast schemes, which are designed to deliver all the source data to all recipients, offer limited performance in such an environment, since they must either force the source to overcompress its signal or restrict the destination population to those who can receive the full signal. We present an approach for resolving this issue by combining hierarchical source coding techniques, which allow recipients to trade off reception bandwidth for signal quality, and sophisticated routing algorithms that deliver to each destination the maximum possible signal quality. The field of hierarchical coding is briefly surveyed and new multicast routing algorithms are presented. The algorithms are compared in terms of network utilization efficiency, lengths of paths, and the required mechanisms for forwarding packets on the resulting paths.

  9. Single-Layer Wire Routing.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-08-01

    Theorem: (Ascoli’s Theorem) Let f be an equicontinuous family of functions from a separable space X to a metric space Y. Let (f,) be a sequence in 4o... separable : A separable space is one that has a countable dense subset. settle: Section 8A defines for each suitably restricted sketch a family of...a four-year study on the general problem of wire routing under separation and homotopy constraints. Originally intended as a master’s thesis, the

  10. A New Distributed Routing Protocol.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-01-01

    Kindm ’[t., BMnclh CntMU Consider a attuatJion in %, Adhd them am n n es0 ndh lidkd to at least ne &her node sudh that all moe a wwmwted. either...distributed Itn r that is cpable, of failsafe distributed routing. 37 ~L MANHATAN %SQ.ARE GP :,!: NETWORK, - CONNECTTVY S . .. . I ip p- t 0 4 Figure 4-3

  11. 76 FR 766 - Amtrak Emergency Routing Orders

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-06

    ... Surface Transportation Board 49 CFR Parts 1011, 1034, 1102, 1104, and 1115 Amtrak Emergency Routing Orders... Transportation Board (Board or STB) proposes to establish regulations governing the issuance of emergency routing... routings due to rail line closures or other emergencies. DATES: Comments are due by February 7, 2011....

  12. 14 CFR 121.95 - Route width.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Route width. 121.95 Section 121.95 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Approval of Routes: Domestic and Flag Operations § 121.95 Route...

  13. 49 CFR 236.379 - Route locking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Route locking. 236.379 Section 236.379 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... and Tests § 236.379 Route locking. Route locking or other type of switch locking shall be tested...

  14. 49 CFR 236.379 - Route locking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Route locking. 236.379 Section 236.379 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... and Tests § 236.379 Route locking. Route locking or other type of switch locking shall be tested...

  15. Adjustable Induction-Heating Coil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, Rod; Bartolotta, Paul

    1990-01-01

    Improved design for induction-heating work coil facilitates optimization of heating in different metal specimens. Three segments adjusted independently to obtain desired distribution of temperature. Reduces time needed to achieve required temperature profiles.

  16. Precision Adjustable Liquid Regulator (ALR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meinhold, R.; Parker, M.

    2004-10-01

    A passive mechanical regulator has been developed for the control of fuel or oxidizer flow to a 450N class bipropellant engine for use on commercial and interplanetary spacecraft. There are several potential benefits to the propulsion system, depending on mission requirements and spacecraft design. This system design enables more precise control of main engine mixture ratio and inlet pressure, and simplifies the pressurization system by transferring the function of main engine flow rate control from the pressurization/propellant tank assemblies, to a single component, the ALR. This design can also reduce the thermal control requirements on the propellant tanks, avoid costly Qualification testing of biprop engines for missions with more stringent requirements, and reduce the overall propulsion system mass and power usage. In order to realize these benefits, the ALR must meet stringent design requirements. The main advantage of this regulator over other units available in the market is that it can regulate about its nominal set point to within +/-0.85%, and change its regulation set point in flight +/-4% about that nominal point. The set point change is handled actively via a stepper motor driven actuator, which converts rotary into linear motion to affect the spring preload acting on the regulator. Once adjusted to a particular set point, the actuator remains in its final position unpowered, and the regulator passively maintains outlet pressure. The very precise outlet regulation pressure is possible due to new technology developed by Moog, Inc. which reduces typical regulator mechanical hysteresis to near zero. The ALR requirements specified an outlet pressure set point range from 225 to 255 psi, and equivalent water flow rates required were in the 0.17 lb/sec range. The regulation output pressure is maintained at +/-2 psi about the set point from a P (delta or differential pressure) of 20 to over 100 psid. Maximum upstream system pressure was specified at 320 psi

  17. Medicare program; changes to the hospital inpatient prospective payment systems and fiscal year 2007 rates; fiscal year 2007 occupational mix adjustment to wage index; health care infrastructure improvement program; selection criteria of loan program for qualifying hospitals engaged in cancer-related health care and forgiveness of indebtedness; and exclusion of vendor purchases made under the competitive acquisition program (CAP) for outpatient drugs and biologicals under part B for the purpose of calculating the average sales price (ASP). Final rules and interim final rule with comment period.

    PubMed

    2006-08-18

    We are revising the Medicare hospital inpatient prospective payment systems (IPPS) for operating and capital-related costs to implement changes arising from our continuing experience with these systems, and to implement a number of changes made by the Deficit Reduction Act of 2005 (Pub. L. 109-171). In addition, in the Addendum to this final rule, we describe the changes to the amounts and factors used to determine the rates for Medicare hospital inpatient services for operating costs and capital-related costs. We also are setting forth rate-of-increase limits as well as policy changes for hospitals and hospital units excluded from the IPPS that are paid in full or in part on a reasonable cost basis subject to these limits. These changes are applicable to discharges occurring on or after October 1, 2006. In this final rule, we discuss public comments we received on our proposals to refine the diagnosis-related group (DRG) system under the IPPS to better recognize severity of illness among patients--to use a hospital-specific relative value (HSRV) cost center weighting methodology to adjust DRG relative weights; and to implement consolidated severity-adjusted DRGs or alternative severity adjustment methods. Among the other policy changes that we are making are those changes related to: limited revisions of the reclassification of cases to DRGs; the long-term care (LTC)-DRGs and relative weights; the wage data, including the occupational mix data, used to compute the wage index; applications for new technologies and medical services add-on payments; payments to hospitals for the direct and indirect costs of graduate medical education; submission of hospital quality data; payments to sole community hospitals and Medicare-dependent, small rural hospitals; and provisions governing emergency services under the Emergency Medical Treatment and Labor Act of 1986 (EMTALA). We are responding to requested public comments on a number of other issues that include performance

  18. 49 CFR 356.9 - Elimination of routing restrictions-regular route carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Elimination of routing restrictions-regular route...) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS MOTOR CARRIER ROUTING REGULATIONS § 356.9 Elimination of routing restrictions—regular...

  19. Valiant load-balanced robust routing under hose model for WDM mesh networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaoning; Li, Lemin; Wang, Sheng

    2006-09-01

    In this paper, we propose Valiant Load-Balanced robust routing scheme for WDM mesh networks under the model of polyhedral uncertainty (i.e., hose model), and the proposed routing scheme is implemented with traffic grooming approach. Our Objective is to maximize the hose model throughput. A mathematic formulation of Valiant Load-Balanced robust routing is presented and three fast heuristic algorithms are also proposed. When implementing Valiant Load-Balanced robust routing scheme to WDM mesh networks, a novel traffic-grooming algorithm called MHF (minimizing hop first) is proposed. We compare the three heuristic algorithms with the VPN tree under the hose model. Finally we demonstrate in the simulation results that MHF with Valiant Load-Balanced robust routing scheme outperforms the traditional traffic-grooming algorithm in terms of the throughput for the uniform/non-uniform traffic matrix under the hose model.

  20. A study of driver's route choice behavior based on evolutionary game theory.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xiaowei; Ji, Yanjie; Du, Muqing; Deng, Wei

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a route choice analytic method that embeds cumulative prospect theory in evolutionary game theory to analyze how the drivers adjust their route choice behaviors under the influence of the traffic information. A simulated network with two alternative routes and one variable message sign is built to illustrate the analytic method. We assume that the drivers in the transportation system are bounded rational, and the traffic information they receive is incomplete. An evolutionary game model is constructed to describe the evolutionary process of the drivers' route choice decision-making behaviors. Here we conclude that the traffic information plays an important role in the route choice behavior. The driver's route decision-making process develops towards different evolutionary stable states in accordance with different transportation situations. The analysis results also demonstrate that employing cumulative prospect theory and evolutionary game theory to study the driver's route choice behavior is effective. This analytic method provides an academic support and suggestion for the traffic guidance system, and may optimize the travel efficiency to a certain extent.

  1. 22. VIEW SOUTH, INTERIOR OF SOUTH PIT, SHOWING FINAL STEP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. VIEW SOUTH, INTERIOR OF SOUTH PIT, SHOWING FINAL STEP IN GEARING THAT DRIVES OPERATING WHEEL, WITH HYDRAULIC SHAFT BRAKE - Mystic River Bridge, Spanning Mystic River at U.S. Route 1, Groton, New London County, CT

  2. 75 FR 12674 - Amendment of Jet Routes and VOR Federal Airways in the Vicinity of Gage, OK

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-17

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 RIN 2120-AA66 Amendment of Jet Routes and VOR Federal Airways in the Vicinity of Gage, OK AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action amends the legal description of two Jet Routes and seven VHF Omnidirectional...

  3. Alternative Fabrication Routes toward Oxide-Dispersion-Strengthened Steels and Model Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergner, Frank; Hilger, Isabell; Virta, Jouko; Lagerbom, Juha; Gerbeth, Gunter; Connolly, Sarah; Hong, Zuliang; Grant, Patrick S.; Weissgärber, Thomas

    2016-11-01

    The standard powder metallurgy (PM) route for the fabrication of oxide-dispersion-strengthened (ODS) steels involves gas atomization to produce a prealloyed powder, mechanical alloying (MA) with fine oxide powders, consolidation, and finally thermal/thermomechanical treatment (TMT). It is well established that ODS steels with superior property combinations, for example, creep and tensile strength, can be produced by this PM/MA route. However, the fabrication process is complex and expensive, and the fitness for scaling up to the industrial scale is limited. At the laboratory scale, production of small amounts of well-controlled model systems continues to be desirable for specific purposes, such as modeling-oriented experiments. Thus, from the laboratory to industrial application, there is growing interest in complementary or alternative fabrication routes for ODS steels and related model systems, which offer a different balance of cost, convenience, properties, and scalability. This article reviews the state of the art in ODS alloy fabrication and identifies promising new routes toward ODS steels. The PM/AM route for the fabrication of ODS steels is also described, as it is the current default process. Hybrid routes that comprise aspects of both the PM route and more radical liquid metal (LM) routes are suggested to be promising approaches for larger volumes and higher throughput of fabricated material. Although similar uniformity and refinement of the critical nanometer-sized oxide particles has not yet been demonstrated, ongoing innovations in the LM route are described, along with recent encouraging preliminary results for both extrinsic nano-oxide additions and intrinsic nano-oxide formation in variants of the LM route. Finally, physicochemical methods such as ion beam synthesis are shown to offer interesting perspectives for the fabrication of model systems. As well as literature sources, examples of progress in the authors' groups are also highlighted.

  4. City public service learns to speed read. [Computerized routing system for meter reading

    SciTech Connect

    Aitken, E.L.

    1994-02-01

    City Public Service (CPS) of San Antonio, TX is a municipally owned utility that serves a densely populated 1,566 square miles in and around San Antonio. CPS's service area is divided into 21 meter reading districts, each of which is broken down into no more than 99 regular routes. Every day, a CPS employee reads one of the districts, following one or more routes. In 1991, CPS began using handheld computers to record reads for regular routes, which are stored on the devices themselves. In contrast, rereads and final reads occur at random throughout the service area. Because they change every day, the process of creating routes that can be loaded onto a handheld device is difficult. Until recently, rereads and final reads were printed on paper orders, and route schedulers would spend close to two hours sorting the paper orders into routes. Meter readers would then hand-sequence the orders on their routes, often using a city map, before taking them into the field in stacks. When the meter readers returned, their completed orders had to be separated by type of reread, and then keyed into the mainframe computer before bill processing could begin. CPS's data processing department developed a computerized routing system of its own that saves time and labor, as well as paper. The system eliminates paper orders entirely, enabling schedulers to create reread and final read routes graphically on a PC. Information no longer needs to be keyed from hard copy, reducing the margin of error and streamlining bill processing by incorporating automated data transfer between systems.

  5. Dynamic information routing in complex networks

    PubMed Central

    Kirst, Christoph; Timme, Marc; Battaglia, Demian

    2016-01-01

    Flexible information routing fundamentally underlies the function of many biological and artificial networks. Yet, how such systems may specifically communicate and dynamically route information is not well understood. Here we identify a generic mechanism to route information on top of collective dynamical reference states in complex networks. Switching between collective dynamics induces flexible reorganization of information sharing and routing patterns, as quantified by delayed mutual information and transfer entropy measures between activities of a network's units. We demonstrate the power of this mechanism specifically for oscillatory dynamics and analyse how individual unit properties, the network topology and external inputs co-act to systematically organize information routing. For multi-scale, modular architectures, we resolve routing patterns at all levels. Interestingly, local interventions within one sub-network may remotely determine nonlocal network-wide communication. These results help understanding and designing information routing patterns across systems where collective dynamics co-occurs with a communication function. PMID:27067257

  6. Dynamic information routing in complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirst, Christoph; Timme, Marc; Battaglia, Demian

    2016-04-01

    Flexible information routing fundamentally underlies the function of many biological and artificial networks. Yet, how such systems may specifically communicate and dynamically route information is not well understood. Here we identify a generic mechanism to route information on top of collective dynamical reference states in complex networks. Switching between collective dynamics induces flexible reorganization of information sharing and routing patterns, as quantified by delayed mutual information and transfer entropy measures between activities of a network's units. We demonstrate the power of this mechanism specifically for oscillatory dynamics and analyse how individual unit properties, the network topology and external inputs co-act to systematically organize information routing. For multi-scale, modular architectures, we resolve routing patterns at all levels. Interestingly, local interventions within one sub-network may remotely determine nonlocal network-wide communication. These results help understanding and designing information routing patterns across systems where collective dynamics co-occurs with a communication function.

  7. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Gurney, Kevin R.

    2015-01-12

    This document constitutes the final report under DOE grant DE-FG-08ER64649. The organization of this document is as follows: first, I will review the original scope of the proposed research. Second, I will present the current draft of a paper nearing submission to Nature Climate Change on the initial results of this funded effort. Finally, I will present the last phase of the research under this grant which has supported a Ph.D. student. To that end, I will present the graduate student’s proposed research, a portion of which is completed and reflected in the paper nearing submission. This final work phase will be completed in the next 12 months. This final workphase will likely result in 1-2 additional publications and we consider the results (as exemplified by the current paper) high quality. The continuing results will acknowledge the funding provided by DOE grant DE-FG-08ER64649.

  8. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    DeTar, Carleton

    2012-12-10

    This document constitutes the Final Report for award DE-FC02-06ER41446 as required by the Office of Science. It summarizes accomplishments and provides copies of scientific publications with significant contribution from this award.

  9. Neighboring and Connectivity-Aware Routing in VANETs

    PubMed Central

    Koo, Insoo

    2014-01-01

    A novel position-based routing protocol anchor-based connectivity-aware routing (ACAR) for vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) is proposed in this paper to ensure connectivity of routes with more successfully delivered packets. Both buses and cars are considered as vehicular nodes running in both clockwise and anticlockwise directions in a city scenario. Both directions are taken into account for faster communication. ACAR is a hybrid protocol, using both the greedy forwarding approach and the store-carry-and-forward approach to minimize the packet drop rate on the basis of certain assumptions. Our solution to situations that occur when the network is sparse and when any (source or intermediate) node has left its initial position makes this protocol different from those existing in the literature. We consider only vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communication in which both the source and destination nodes are moving vehicles. Also, no road-side units are considered. Finally, we compare our protocol with A-STAR (a plausible connectivity-aware routing protocol for city environments), and simulation results in NS-2 show improvement in the number of packets delivered to the destination using fewer hops. Also, we show that ACAR has more successfully-delivered long-distance packets with reasonable packet delay than A-STAR. PMID:24982996

  10. Neighboring and connectivity-aware routing in VANETs.

    PubMed

    Ghafoor, Huma; Koo, Insoo; Gohar, Nasir-ud-Din

    2014-01-01

    A novel position-based routing protocol anchor-based connectivity-aware routing (ACAR) for vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) is proposed in this paper to ensure connectivity of routes with more successfully delivered packets. Both buses and cars are considered as vehicular nodes running in both clockwise and anticlockwise directions in a city scenario. Both directions are taken into account for faster communication. ACAR is a hybrid protocol, using both the greedy forwarding approach and the store-carry-and-forward approach to minimize the packet drop rate on the basis of certain assumptions. Our solution to situations that occur when the network is sparse and when any (source or intermediate) node has left its initial position makes this protocol different from those existing in the literature. We consider only vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communication in which both the source and destination nodes are moving vehicles. Also, no road-side units are considered. Finally, we compare our protocol with A-STAR (a plausible connectivity-aware routing protocol for city environments), and simulation results in NS-2 show improvement in the number of packets delivered to the destination using fewer hops. Also, we show that ACAR has more successfully-delivered long-distance packets with reasonable packet delay than A-STAR.

  11. Routing System for Building Block Layout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Nang-Ping

    With the advent VLSI, layout techniques become more and more crucial to IC design. An automatic building block layout system is a useful tool to deal with the increasing complexity of custom chip layout problem. An approach to the routing part of this layout system is proposed. This routing system can handle arbitrarily shaped rectilinear blocks with pins on the boundary. A feature of this system is its ability to shift blocks at any moment so that better placement and hence better routing can be achieved. The system minimizes layout area and assures 100% routing completion. A relative placement is the input to this routing system. The prerouting analysis will calculate the expected routing density around each block and the routing space is allocated accordingly. The "bottleneck" idea is introduced to represent the critical regions of the layout plane where the congestion of routing is most likely to occur. It also serves as a link between blocks whereby all information are easily updated when some blocks have to move their positions. A weighted "global routing graph" is constructed to reflect the current routing situation associated with bottlenecks. The global routing of each signal is done by a "Steiner-Tree-on-Graphs" (STOG) algorithm. The basic element of STOG is a three-point Steiner-Tree-on-Graphs algorithm. Some theoretical results are derived and an efficient algorithm is developed based on them. STOG has reasonable computational complexities and yields very good results from experimental tests. In the detailed routing phase, an existing channel router and a switch-box router are called for track assignment. Special emphasis has been put on terminal position alignment between two neighboring channels to avoid unnecessary jogs. The power and ground will be allowed different wire width and routed on the metal layer. Several examples have been tested against this routing system. It has achieved very compact layout in short running time.

  12. 76 FR 59058 - Minerals Management: Adjustment of Cost Recovery Fees

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-23

    ... Bureau of Land Management 43 CFR Part 3000 RIN 1004-AE22 Minerals Management: Adjustment of Cost Recovery... Management Act of 1976 (FLPMA), 43 U.S.C. 1734. In 2005, the BLM published a final cost recovery rule (70 FR... comment period on the original cost recovery rule, and this new rule simply administers the procedure...

  13. Improving Operational Acceptability of Dynamic Weather Routes Through Analysis of Commonly Use Routings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Antony D.; Sridhar, Banavar; McNally, David

    2016-01-01

    The Dynamic Weather Routes (DWR) tool is a ground-based trajectory automation system that continuously and automatically analyzes active in-flight aircraft in en route airspace to find simple modifications to flight plan routes that can save significant flying time, while avoiding weather and considering traffic conflicts, airspace sector congestion, special use airspace, and FAA routing restrictions. Trials of the DWR system have shown that significant delay savings are possible. However, some DWR advised routes are also rejected by dispatchers or modified before being accepted. Similarly, of those sent by dispatchers to flight crews as proposed route change requests, many are not accepted by air traffic control, or are modified before implementation as Center route amendments. Such actions suggest that the operational acceptability of DWR advised route corrections could be improved, which may reduce workload and increase delay savings. This paper analyzes the historical usage of different flight routings, varying from simple waypoint pairs to lengthy strings of waypoints incorporating jet routes, in order to improve DWR route acceptability. An approach is developed that can be incorporated into DWR, advising routings with high historical usage and savings potential similar to that of the nominal DWR advisory. It is hypothesized that modifying a nominal DWR routing to one that is commonly used, and nearby, will result in more actual savings since common routings are generally familiar and operationally acceptable to air traffic control. The approach allows routing segments with high historical usage to be concatenated to form routes that meet all DWR constraints. The relevance of a route's historical usage to its acceptance by dispatchers and air traffic control is quantified by analyzing historical DWR data. Results indicate that while historical usage may be less of a concern to flight dispatchers accepting or rejecting DWR advised route corrections, it may be

  14. Nonmedical use of prescription stimulants and depressed mood among college students: frequency and routes of administration.

    PubMed

    Teter, Christian J; Falone, Anthony E; Cranford, James A; Boyd, Carol J; McCabe, Sean Esteban

    2010-04-01

    Studies demonstrate associations between nonmedical use of prescription stimulants (NMUPS) and depressed mood; however, relevance of NMUPS route of administration and frequency of use have not been examined. We hypothesized frequent NMUPS and nonoral routes would be significantly associated with depressed mood. A Web survey was self-administered by a probability sample of 3,639 undergraduate students at a large U.S. university. The survey contained substance use (e.g., frequency, route of administration) and depressed mood measurement. Past-year prevalence of NMUPS was 6.0% (n = 212). Approximately 50% of frequent or nonoral NMUPS reported depressed mood. Adjusted odds of depressed mood were over two times greater among frequent monthly NMUPS (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.3, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.01-5.15) and nonoral routes of administration (AOR = 2.2, 95% CI = 1.36-3.70), after controlling for other variables. Nonmedical users of prescription stimulants should be screened for depressed mood, especially those who report frequent and nonoral routes of administration.

  15. Route to Attosecond Nonlinear Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Reiter, F.; Kienberger, R.; Graf, U.; Schweinberger, W.; Fiess, M.; Goulielmakis, E.; Serebryannikov, E. E.; Zheltikov, A. M.; Schultze, M.; Krausz, F.; Azzeer, A. M.

    2010-12-10

    We demonstrate generation of coherent microjoule-scale, low-order harmonic supercontinua in the deep and vacuum ultraviolet (4-9 eV), resulting from the nonlinear transformations of near-single-cycle laser pulses in a gas cell. We show theoretically that their formation is connected to a novel nonlinear regime, holding promise for the generation of powerful deep-UV and vacuum ultraviolet subfemtosecond pulses. Our work opens the route to pump-probe spectroscopy of subfemtosecond-scale valence-shell phenomena in atoms, molecules, and condensed matter.

  16. Comparable-Worth Adjustments: Yes--Comparable-Worth Adjustments: No.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galloway, Sue; O'Neill, June

    1985-01-01

    Two essays address the issue of pay equity and present opinions favoring and opposing comparable-worth adjustments. Movement of women out of traditionally female jobs, the limits of "equal pay," fairness of comparable worth and market-based wages, implementation and efficiency of comparable worth system, and alternatives to comparable…

  17. View southeast to Canterbury Road (Route 169) showing the Israel ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View southeast to Canterbury Road (Route 169) showing the Israel Putnam Memorial - Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts of Brown Road, Canterbury Road (Route 169), Hartford Road (Route 6), Hyde Road, Pomfret Road (Route 169), Prince Hill Road, Providence Road (Route 6), Wauregan Road (Routes 169 & 205), & Wolf Den Road, Brooklyn, Windham County, CT

  18. A novel load-balanced fixed routing (LBFR) algorithm for wavelength routed optical networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Gangxiang; Li, Yongcheng; Peng, Limei

    2011-11-01

    In the wavelength-routed optical transport networks, fixed shortest path routing is one of major lightpath service provisioning strategies, which shows simplicity in network control and operation. Specifically, once a shortest route is found for a node pair, the route is always used for any future lightpath service provisioning, which therefore does not require network control and management system to maintain any active network-wide link state database. On the other hand, the fixed shortest path routing strategy suffers from the disadvantage of unbalanced network traffic load distribution and network congestion because it keeps on employing the same fixed shortest route between each pair of nodes. To avoid the network congestion and meanwhile retain the operational simplicity, in this study we develop a Load-Balanced Fixed Routing (LBFR) algorithm. Through a training process based on a forecasted network traffic load matrix, the proposed algorithm finds a fixed (or few) route(s) for each node pair and employs the fixed route(s) for lightpath service provisioning. Different from the fixed shortest path routes between node pairs, these routes can well balance traffic load within the network when they are used for lightpath service provisioning. Compared to the traditional fixed shortest path routing algorithm, the LBFR algorithm can achieve much better lightpath blocking performance according to our simulation and analytical studies. Moreover, the performance improvement is more significant with the increase of network nodal degree.

  19. 75 FR 33379 - Railroad Cost Recovery Procedures-Productivity Adjustment; Quarterly Rail Cost Adjustment Factor

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-11

    ... Surface Transportation Board Railroad Cost Recovery Procedures--Productivity Adjustment; Quarterly Rail... Railroads that the Board restate the previously published productivity adjustment for the 2003-2007 averaging period (2007 productivity adjustment) so that it tracks the 2007 productivity adjustment...

  20. Adjustable Optical-Fiber Attenuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buzzetti, Mike F.

    1994-01-01

    Adjustable fiber-optic attenuator utilizes bending loss to reduce strength of light transmitted along it. Attenuator functions without introducing measurable back-reflection or insertion loss. Relatively insensitive to vibration and changes in temperature. Potential applications include cable television, telephone networks, other signal-distribution networks, and laboratory instrumentation.

  1. Dyadic Adjustment: An Ecosystemic Examination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Stephan M.; Larson, Jeffry H.; McCulloch, B. Jan; Stone, Katherine L.

    1997-01-01

    Examines the relationship of background, individual, and family influences on dyadic adjustment, using an ecological perspective. Data from 102 married couples were used. Age at marriage for husbands, emotional health for wives, and number of marriage and family problems as well as family life satisfaction for both were related to dyadic…

  2. Problems of Adjustment to School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartolini, Leandro A.

    This paper, one of several written for a comprehensive policy study of early childhood education in Illinois, examines and summarizes the literature on the problems of young children in adjusting to starting school full-time and describes the nature and extent of their difficulties in relation to statewide educational policy. The review of studies…

  3. Economic Pressures and Family Adjustment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haccoun, Dorothy Markiewicz; Ledingham, Jane E.

    The relationships between economic stress on the family and child and parental adjustment were examined for a sample of 199 girls and boys in grades one, four, and seven. These associations were examined separately for families in which both parents were present and in which mothers only were at home. Economic stress was associated with boys'…

  4. Interface Supports Lightweight Subsystem Routing for Flight Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lux, James P.; Block, Gary L.; Ahmad, Mohammad; Whitaker, William D.; Dillon, James W.

    2010-01-01

    A wireless avionics interface exploits the constrained nature of data networks in flight systems to use a lightweight routing method. This simplified routing means that a processor is not required, and the logic can be implemented as an intellectual property (IP) core in a field-programmable gate array (FPGA). The FPGA can be shared with the flight subsystem application. In addition, the router is aware of redundant subsystems, and can be configured to provide hot standby support as part of the interface. This simplifies implementation of flight applications requiring hot stand - by support. When a valid inbound packet is received from the network, the destination node address is inspected to determine whether the packet is to be processed by this node. Each node has routing tables for the next neighbor node to guide the packet to the destination node. If it is to be processed, the final packet destination is inspected to determine whether the packet is to be forwarded to another node, or routed locally. If the packet is local, it is sent to an Applications Data Interface (ADI), which is attached to a local flight application. Under this scheme, an interface can support many applications in a subsystem supporting a high level of subsystem integration. If the packet is to be forwarded to another node, it is sent to the outbound packet router. The outbound packet router receives packets from an ADI or a packet to be forwarded. It then uses a lookup table to determine the next destination for the packet. Upon detecting a remote subsystem failure, the routing table can be updated to autonomously bypass the failed subsystem.

  5. Dynamic vehicle routing with time windows in theory and practice.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhiwei; van Osta, Jan-Paul; van Veen, Barry; van Krevelen, Rick; van Klaveren, Richard; Stam, Andries; Kok, Joost; Bäck, Thomas; Emmerich, Michael

    2017-01-01

    The vehicle routing problem is a classical combinatorial optimization problem. This work is about a variant of the vehicle routing problem with dynamically changing orders and time windows. In real-world applications often the demands change during operation time. New orders occur and others are canceled. In this case new schedules need to be generated on-the-fly. Online optimization algorithms for dynamical vehicle routing address this problem but so far they do not consider time windows. Moreover, to match the scenarios found in real-world problems adaptations of benchmarks are required. In this paper, a practical problem is modeled based on the procedure of daily routing of a delivery company. New orders by customers are introduced dynamically during the working day and need to be integrated into the schedule. A multiple ant colony algorithm combined with powerful local search procedures is proposed to solve the dynamic vehicle routing problem with time windows. The performance is tested on a new benchmark based on simulations of a working day. The problems are taken from Solomon's benchmarks but a certain percentage of the orders are only revealed to the algorithm during operation time. Different versions of the MACS algorithm are tested and a high performing variant is identified. Finally, the algorithm is tested in situ: In a field study, the algorithm schedules a fleet of cars for a surveillance company. We compare the performance of the algorithm to that of the procedure used by the company and we summarize insights gained from the implementation of the real-world study. The results show that the multiple ant colony algorithm can get a much better solution on the academic benchmark problem and also can be integrated in a real-world environment.

  6. Near real-time traffic routing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Chaowei (Inventor); Cao, Ying (Inventor); Xie, Jibo (Inventor); Zhou, Bin (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A near real-time physical transportation network routing system comprising: a traffic simulation computing grid and a dynamic traffic routing service computing grid. The traffic simulator produces traffic network travel time predictions for a physical transportation network using a traffic simulation model and common input data. The physical transportation network is divided into a multiple sections. Each section has a primary zone and a buffer zone. The traffic simulation computing grid includes multiple of traffic simulation computing nodes. The common input data includes static network characteristics, an origin-destination data table, dynamic traffic information data and historical traffic data. The dynamic traffic routing service computing grid includes multiple dynamic traffic routing computing nodes and generates traffic route(s) using the traffic network travel time predictions.

  7. Distributed multiple path routing in complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Guang; Wang, San-Xiu; Wu, Ling-Wei; Mei, Pan; Yang, Xu-Hua; Wen, Guang-Hui

    2016-12-01

    Routing in complex transmission networks is an important problem that has garnered extensive research interest in the recent years. In this paper, we propose a novel routing strategy called the distributed multiple path (DMP) routing strategy. For each of the O-D node pairs in a given network, the DMP routing strategy computes and stores multiple short-length paths that overlap less with each other in advance. And during the transmission stage, it rapidly selects an actual routing path which provides low transmission cost from the pre-computed paths for each transmission task, according to the real-time network transmission status information. Computer simulation results obtained for the lattice, ER random, and scale-free networks indicate that the strategy can significantly improve the anti-congestion ability of transmission networks, as well as provide favorable routing robustness against partial network failures.

  8. Isomorphic routing on a toroidal mesh

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mao, Weizhen; Nicol, David M.

    1993-01-01

    We study a routing problem that arises on SIMD parallel architectures whose communication network forms a toroidal mesh. We assume there exists a set of k message descriptors (xi, yi), where (xi, yi) indicates that the ith message's recipient is offset from its sender by xi hops in one mesh dimension, and yi hops in the other. Every processor has k messages to send, and all processors use the same set of message routing descriptors. The SIMD constraint implies that at any routing step, every processor is actively routing messages with the same descriptors as any other processor. We call this isomorphic routing. Our objective is to find the isomorphic routing schedule with least makespan. We consider a number of variations on the problem, yielding complexity results from O(k) to NP-complete. Most of our results follow after we transform the problem into a scheduling problem, where it is related to other well-known scheduling problems.

  9. Zone routing in a torus network

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Dong; Heidelberger, Philip; Kumar, Sameer

    2013-01-29

    A system for routing data in a network comprising a network logic device at a sending node for determining a path between the sending node and a receiving node, wherein the network logic device sets one or more selection bits and one or more hint bits within the data packet, a control register for storing one or more masks, wherein the network logic device uses the one or more selection bits to select a mask from the control register and the network logic device applies the selected mask to the hint bits to restrict routing of the data packet to one or more routing directions for the data packet within the network and selects one of the restricted routing directions from the one or more routing directions and sends the data packet along a link in the selected routing direction toward the receiving node.

  10. Vehicle routing problem in investment fund allocation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamat, Nur Jumaadzan Zaleha; Jaaman, Saiful Hafizah; Ahmad, Rokiah Rozita; Mohd, Ismail

    2013-04-01

    Since its introduction by Dantzig and Ramser in 1959, vehicle routing problem keeps evolving in theories, applications and variability. The evolution in computing and technology are also important contributors to research in solving vehicle routing problem. The main sectors of interests among researchers and practitioners for vehicle routing problem are transportation, distribution and logistics. However, literature found that concept and benefits of vehicle routing problem are not taken advantages of by researchers in the field of investment. Other methods found used in investment include multi-objective programming, linear programming, goal programming and integer programming. Yet the application of vehicle routing problem is not fully explored. A proposal on a framework of the fund allocation optimization using vehicle routing problem is presented here. Preliminary results using FTSE Bursa Malaysia data testing the framework are also given.

  11. Advances in optimal routing through computer networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paz, I. M.

    1977-01-01

    The optimal routing problem is defined. Progress in solving the problem during the previous decade is reviewed, with special emphasis on technical developments made during the last few years. The relationships between the routing, the throughput, and the switching technology used are discussed and their future trends are reviewed. Economic aspects are also briefly considered. Modern technical approaches for handling the routing problems and, more generally, the flow control problems are reviewed.

  12. Automated Routing of Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-01

    environments than manned aircraft. Weather effects thus become a crucial part of both operational planning and execution of UAS missions. The U.S. Army...and observed and predicted meteorological (Met) parameters to plan routes through weather and other hazards to carry out missions with maximum...4  4.  Route Planning : Avoiding Adverse Weather Impacts 5  4.1  Manual Routing

  13. Practicing more retrieval routes leads to greater memory retention.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jun; Zhang, Wei; Li, Tongtong; Liu, Zhaomin; Luo, Liang

    2016-09-01

    A wealth of research has shown that retrieval practice plays a significant role in improving memory retention. The current study focused on one simple yet rarely examined question: would repeated retrieval using two different retrieval routes or using the same retrieval route twice lead to greater long-term memory retention? Participants elaborately learned 22 Japanese-Chinese translation word pairs using two different mediators. Half an hour after the initial study phase, the participants completed two retrieval sessions using either one mediator (Tm1Tm1) or two different mediators (Tm1Tm2). On the final test, which was performed 1week after the retrieval practice phase, the participants received only the cue with a request to report the mediator (M1 or M2) followed by the target (Experiment 1) or only the mediator (M1 or M2) with a request to report the target (Experiment 2). The results of Experiment 1 indicated that the participants who practiced under the Tm1Tm2 condition exhibited greater target retention than those who practiced under the Tm1Tm1 condition. This difference in performance was due to the significant disadvantage in mediator retrieval and decoding of the unpracticed mediator under the Tm1Tm1 condition. Although mediators were provided to participants on the final test in Experiment 2, decoding of the unpracticed mediators remained less effective than decoding of the practiced mediators. We conclude that practicing multiple retrieval routes leads to greater memory retention than focusing on a single retrieval route. Thus, increasing retrieval variability during repeated retrieval practice indeed significantly improves long-term retention in a delay test.

  14. Spring migration routes and chronology of surf scoters (Melanitta perspicillata): a synthesis of Pacific coast studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    de la Cruz, S.E.W.; Takekawa, J.Y.; Wilson, M.T.; Nysewander, D.R.; Evenson, J.R.; Esler, Daniel; Boyd, W.S.; Ward, D.H.

    2009-01-01

    Understanding interconnectivity among wintering, stopover, and breeding areas of migratory birds is pivotal to discerning how events occurring in each might have a cross-seasonal effect on another. Such information can guide the location and timing of conservation efforts. Thus, we examined spring migration routes, chronology, and stopover use of 85 surf scoters (Melanitta perspicillata (L., 1758)) marked with satellite transmitters at four Pacific Flyway wintering sites: San Quintin Bay, Baja California; San Francisco Bay, California; Puget Sound, Washington; and Strait of Georgia, British Columbia. Eighty-three percent of marked scoters followed two main routes to the breeding area: a Southern Inland route involving staging in Puget Sound and Strait of Georgia and protracted inland migration, or a Northern Coastal route characterized by short movements along the Pacific coast of British Columbia and southeast Alaska with inland migration initiating from Lynn Canal and surrounding areas. Route choice was related to nesting site latitude in the Canadian Northern Boreal Forest. Data from birds tracked over 2 years indicated strong migration route fidelity, but altered chronology and stopover locations between years. Departure date varied by wintering site, but arrival and apparent settling dates were synchronous, suggesting individuals adjusted migration timing to meet an optimized reproductive schedule.

  15. Routing and Allocation of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles with Communication Considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabo, Chelsea

    solution. The algorithm is a cluster-first, route-second approach, but differs from conventional Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP) solutions in that the number of clusters is not necessarily equal to the number of vehicles. Because of this, a unique approach to clustering is adopted to form clusters using hierarchical agglomerative clustering and fuzzy logic. Based on a detailed Monte Carlo analysis, the heuristic algorithm showed near-optimal (within ˜5%) results calculable in real-time (allowing it to be used in dynamic scenarios too) and scaled to much larger problem sizes. Furthermore, the performance was analyzed under varying degrees of dynamism and arrival rates. Results showed good performance, and found the boundaries for the regions of light and heavy load cases for a single vehicle to be about 0.3 and 4 requests an hour, respectively. Finally, both static and dynamic cases were validated in flight testing, highlighting the usability of this approach.

  16. Utilities availability report for seven candidate salt sites: Final draft

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-12-01

    Stearns Catalytic Corporation (SC) conducted a study of availability and accessibility of electric power and natural gas supplies for each of the seven candidate sites in salt for a nuclear waste repository. The objective of this study is to indicate the existing or potential availability of adequate electric power and natural gas supplies, together with representative routing of reasonable access corridors for utility lines, for the candidate sites at Richton and Cypress Creek Domes in Mississippi, Vacherie Dome in Louisiana, Swisher and Deaf Smith Counties in Texas, and Davis and Lavender Canyons in Utah. The report describes the major characteristics of each supply and the representative routes by which each supply could be connected to the assumed respective repository site. Included are a brief narrative, maps showing representative utilities access routes, and a summary tabulation of relevant data. The supply routes used in this study are not necessarily the recommended, preferred, or selected routes. No decision affecting the final location of the preferred route has been made, therefore the routes used in this study are not to be construed as an implied decision. The routes and supply sources used in this study are for comparative purposes only, as no final selections will be made prior to site characterization.

  17. 12 CFR 19.240 - Inflation adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Inflation adjustments. 19.240 Section 19.240... PROCEDURE Civil Money Penalty Inflation Adjustments § 19.240 Inflation adjustments. (a) The maximum amount of each civil money penalty within the OCC's jurisdiction is adjusted in accordance with the...

  18. 12 CFR 19.240 - Inflation adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inflation adjustments. 19.240 Section 19.240... PROCEDURE Civil Money Penalty Inflation Adjustments § 19.240 Inflation adjustments. (a) The maximum amount... Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act of 1990 (28 U.S.C. 2461 note) as follows: ER10NO08.001 (b)...

  19. 12 CFR 19.240 - Inflation adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Inflation adjustments. 19.240 Section 19.240... PROCEDURE Civil Money Penalty Inflation Adjustments § 19.240 Inflation adjustments. (a) The maximum amount... Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act of 1990 (28 U.S.C. 2461 note) as follows: ER10NO08.001 (b)...

  20. Adjusting to University: The Hong Kong Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yau, Hon Keung; Sun, Hongyi; Cheng, Alison Lai Fong

    2012-01-01

    Students' adjustment to the university environment is an important factor in predicting university outcomes and is crucial to their future achievements. University support to students' transition to university life can be divided into three dimensions: academic adjustment, social adjustment and psychological adjustment. However, these…

  1. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Marchant, Gary E.

    2013-04-23

    This is the final report of a two year project entitled "Governing Nanotechnology Risks and Benefits in the Transition to Regulation: Innovative Public and Private Approaches." This project examined the role of new governance or "soft law" mechanisms such as codes of conduct, voluntary programs and partnership agreements to manage the risks of emerging technologies such as nanotechnology. A series of published or in publication papers and book chapters are attached.

  2. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    R. Paul Drake

    2001-11-30

    This final report describes work involving 22 investigators from 11 institutions to explore the dynamics present in supernova explosions by means of experiments on the Omega laser. The specific experiments emphasized involved the unstable expansion of a spherical capsule and the coupling of perturbations at a first interface to a second interface by means of a strong shock. Both effects are present in supernovae. The experiments were performed at Omega and the computer simulations were undertaken at several institutions. B139

  3. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Stinis, Panos

    2016-08-07

    This is the final report for the work conducted at the University of Minnesota (during the period 12/01/12-09/18/14) by PI Panos Stinis as part of the "Collaboratory on Mathematics for Mesoscopic Modeling of Materials" (CM4). CM4 is a multi-institution DOE-funded project whose aim is to conduct basic and applied research in the emerging field of mesoscopic modeling of materials.

  4. Study on Posture Adjusting System of Spacecraft Based on Stewart Mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Feng; Feng, Wei; Dai, Wei-Bing; Yi, Wang-Min; Liu, Guang-Tong; Zheng, Sheng-Yu

    In this paper, the design principles of adjusting parallel mechanisms is introduced, including mechanical subsystem, control sub-system and software sub-system. According to the design principles, key technologies for system of adjusting parallel mechanisms are analyzed. Finally, design specifications for system of adjusting parallel mechanisms are proposed based on requirement of spacecraft integration and it can apply to cabin docking, solar array panel docking and camera docking.

  5. Coverage-adjusted entropy estimation.

    PubMed

    Vu, Vincent Q; Yu, Bin; Kass, Robert E

    2007-09-20

    Data on 'neural coding' have frequently been analyzed using information-theoretic measures. These formulations involve the fundamental and generally difficult statistical problem of estimating entropy. We review briefly several methods that have been advanced to estimate entropy and highlight a method, the coverage-adjusted entropy estimator (CAE), due to Chao and Shen that appeared recently in the environmental statistics literature. This method begins with the elementary Horvitz-Thompson estimator, developed for sampling from a finite population, and adjusts for the potential new species that have not yet been observed in the sample-these become the new patterns or 'words' in a spike train that have not yet been observed. The adjustment is due to I. J. Good, and is called the Good-Turing coverage estimate. We provide a new empirical regularization derivation of the coverage-adjusted probability estimator, which shrinks the maximum likelihood estimate. We prove that the CAE is consistent and first-order optimal, with rate O(P)(1/log n), in the class of distributions with finite entropy variance and that, within the class of distributions with finite qth moment of the log-likelihood, the Good-Turing coverage estimate and the total probability of unobserved words converge at rate O(P)(1/(log n)(q)). We then provide a simulation study of the estimator with standard distributions and examples from neuronal data, where observations are dependent. The results show that, with a minor modification, the CAE performs much better than the MLE and is better than the best upper bound estimator, due to Paninski, when the number of possible words m is unknown or infinite.

  6. What Is the Best Route? Route-Finding Strategies of Middle School Students Using GIS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wigglesivorth, John C.

    2003-01-01

    This paper summarizes a research project conducted to investigate the strategies developed by middle school students to solve a route-finding problem using Arc View GIS software. Three different types of route-finding strategies were identified. Some students were visual route-finders and used a highly visual strategy; others were logical route…

  7. Routing and Scheduling Algorithms for WirelessHART Networks: A Survey

    PubMed Central

    Nobre, Marcelo; Silva, Ivanovitch; Guedes, Luiz Affonso

    2015-01-01

    Wireless communication is a trend nowadays for the industrial environment. A number of different technologies have emerged as solutions satisfying strict industrial requirements (e.g., WirelessHART, ISA100.11a, WIA-PA). As the industrial environment presents a vast range of applications, adopting an adequate solution for each case is vital to obtain good performance of the system. In this context, the routing and scheduling schemes associated with these technologies have a direct impact on important features, like latency and energy consumption. This situation has led to the development of a vast number of routing and scheduling schemes. In the present paper, we focus on the WirelessHART technology, emphasizing its most important routing and scheduling aspects in order to guide both end users and the developers of new algorithms. Furthermore, we provide a detailed literature review of the newest routing and scheduling techniques for WirelessHART, discussing each of their features. These routing algorithms have been evaluated in terms of their objectives, metrics, the usage of the WirelessHART structures and validation method. In addition, the scheduling algorithms were also evaluated by metrics, validation, objectives and, in addition, by multiple superframe support, as well as by the redundancy method used. Moreover, this paper briefly presents some insights into the main WirelessHART simulation modules available, in order to provide viable test platforms for the routing and scheduling algorithms. Finally, some open issues in WirelessHART routing and scheduling algorithms are discussed. PMID:25919371

  8. Reconstructing routes of invasion using genetic data: why, how and so what?

    PubMed

    Estoup, Arnaud; Guillemaud, Thomas

    2010-10-01

    Detailed knowledge about the geographical pathways followed by propagules from their source to the invading populations--referred to here as routes of invasion-provides information about the history of the invasion process and the origin and genetic composition of the invading populations. The reconstruction of invasion routes is required for defining and testing different hypotheses concerning the environmental and evolutionary factors responsible for biological invasions. In practical terms, it facilitates the design of strategies for controlling or preventing invasions. Most of our knowledge about the introduction routes of invasive species is derived from historical and observational data, which are often sparse, incomplete and, sometimes, misleading. In this context, population genetics has proved a useful approach for reconstructing routes of introduction, highlighting the complexity and the often counterintuitive nature of the true story. This approach has proved particularly useful since the recent development of new model-based methods, such as approximate Bayesian computation, making it possible to make quantitative inferences in the complex evolutionary scenarios typically encountered in invasive species. In this review, we summarize some of the fundamental aspects of routes of invasion, explain why the reconstruction of these routes is useful for addressing both practical and theoretical questions, and comment on the various reconstruction methods available. Finally, we consider the main insights obtained to date from studies of invasion routes.

  9. Parallel algorithms for placement and routing in VLSI design. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brouwer, Randall Jay

    1991-01-01

    The computational requirements for high quality synthesis, analysis, and verification of very large scale integration (VLSI) designs have rapidly increased with the fast growing complexity of these designs. Research in the past has focused on the development of heuristic algorithms, special purpose hardware accelerators, or parallel algorithms for the numerous design tasks to decrease the time required for solution. Two new parallel algorithms are proposed for two VLSI synthesis tasks, standard cell placement and global routing. The first algorithm, a parallel algorithm for global routing, uses hierarchical techniques to decompose the routing problem into independent routing subproblems that are solved in parallel. Results are then presented which compare the routing quality to the results of other published global routers and which evaluate the speedups attained. The second algorithm, a parallel algorithm for cell placement and global routing, hierarchically integrates a quadrisection placement algorithm, a bisection placement algorithm, and the previous global routing algorithm. Unique partitioning techniques are used to decompose the various stages of the algorithm into independent tasks which can be evaluated in parallel. Finally, results are presented which evaluate the various algorithm alternatives and compare the algorithm performance to other placement programs. Measurements are presented on the parallel speedups available.

  10. Laying Out of a Practical Air Route

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miner, V S; Carroll, T

    1922-01-01

    Unfortunately the problem of laying out an air route has been approached by all who give it consideration as one of the hardest tasks in the world. Whereas, as a matter of fact, a very serviceable air route can be laid out with an absolute minimum of ground work.

  11. Mental Effort in Mobility Route Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinsen, Harald; Tellevik, Jon Magne; Elmerskog, Bengt; Storlilokken, Magnar

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the mental effort required to monitor landmarks and the effect of the type of route on mobility-route training. The results revealed that the features of landmarks and competence in travel were significantly related, indicating that some environmental factors related to height and width are more easily learned when people can…

  12. Using Collective Intelligence to Route Internet Traffic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolpert, David H.; Tumer, Kagan; Frank, Jeremy

    1998-01-01

    A Collective Intelligence (COIN) is a community of interacting reinforcement learning (RL) algorithms designed so that their collective behavior maximizes a global utility function. We introduce the theory of COINs, then present experiments using that theory to design COINs to control internet traffic routing. These experiments indicate that COINs outperform previous RL-based systems for such routing that have previously been investigated.

  13. 7 CFR 1032.3 - Route disposition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Route disposition. 1032.3 Section 1032.3 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Definitions § 1032.3 Route disposition. See § 1000.3....

  14. 7 CFR 1032.3 - Route disposition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Route disposition. 1032.3 Section 1032.3 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Handling Definitions § 1032.3 Route disposition. See § 1000.3....

  15. 7 CFR 1032.3 - Route disposition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Route disposition. 1032.3 Section 1032.3 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Definitions § 1032.3 Route disposition. See § 1000.3....

  16. 7 CFR 1032.3 - Route disposition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Route disposition. 1032.3 Section 1032.3 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Handling Definitions § 1032.3 Route disposition. See § 1000.3....

  17. 7 CFR 1032.3 - Route disposition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Route disposition. 1032.3 Section 1032.3 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Definitions § 1032.3 Route disposition. See § 1000.3....

  18. 14 CFR 121.115 - Route width.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Route width. 121.115 Section 121.115 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Approval of Areas and Routes for Supplemental Operations §...

  19. 78 FR 39551 - Cotton Board Rules and Regulations: Adjusting Supplemental Assessment on Imports (2013 Amendment)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-02

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 1205 Cotton Board Rules and Regulations: Adjusting Supplemental Assessment on Imports (2013 Amendment) AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Direct Final Rule. SUMMARY: The Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS) is amending the Cotton Board Rules...

  20. The feasibility and application of gray scale adjustment method in high temperature digital image correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shen; Yao, Xue Feng; Su, Yun Quan; Liu, Wei

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, the basic principle and application of linear gray scale adjustment method are investigated in high temperature digital image correlation (DIC) technology. First, the simple linear gray scale adjustment method is proposed, which can adjust the gray scale value of the saturated pixels and diminish the correlation error caused by the saturated pixels. Then, both the simulated high temperature images and DIC correlation results before and after the gray scale adjustment are provided and analyzed to verify its effectiveness, in which the displacement error decreased from 0.1 pixels to 0.04 pixels after the linear gray scale adjustment for high temperature images. Finally, the linear gray scale adjustment method is used to extract the displacement with high accuracy in high temperature experiment of SiC specimen, and the displacement error decreased from 0.5 pixels to 0.1 pixels after the linear gray scale adjustment.

  1. 78 FR 1 - Soybean Promotion and Research: Amend the Order To Adjust Representation on the United Soybean Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-02

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 1220 Soybean Promotion and Research: Amend the Order To Adjust Representation on the United Soybean Board AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This final rule adjusts the number of members on the United Soybean Board (Board) to...

  2. Optimization for Service Routes of Pallet Service Center Based on the Pallet Pool Mode

    PubMed Central

    He, Shiwei; Song, Rui

    2016-01-01

    Service routes optimization (SRO) of pallet service center should meet customers' demand firstly and then, through the reasonable method of lines organization, realize the shortest path of vehicle driving. The routes optimization of pallet service center is similar to the distribution problems of vehicle routing problem (VRP) and Chinese postman problem (CPP), but it has its own characteristics. Based on the relevant research results, the conditions of determining the number of vehicles, the one way of the route, the constraints of loading, and time windows are fully considered, and a chance constrained programming model with stochastic constraints is constructed taking the shortest path of all vehicles for a delivering (recycling) operation as an objective. For the characteristics of the model, a hybrid intelligent algorithm including stochastic simulation, neural network, and immune clonal algorithm is designed to solve the model. Finally, the validity and rationality of the optimization model and algorithm are verified by the case. PMID:27528865

  3. Optimization for Service Routes of Pallet Service Center Based on the Pallet Pool Mode.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Kang; He, Shiwei; Song, Rui

    2016-01-01

    Service routes optimization (SRO) of pallet service center should meet customers' demand firstly and then, through the reasonable method of lines organization, realize the shortest path of vehicle driving. The routes optimization of pallet service center is similar to the distribution problems of vehicle routing problem (VRP) and Chinese postman problem (CPP), but it has its own characteristics. Based on the relevant research results, the conditions of determining the number of vehicles, the one way of the route, the constraints of loading, and time windows are fully considered, and a chance constrained programming model with stochastic constraints is constructed taking the shortest path of all vehicles for a delivering (recycling) operation as an objective. For the characteristics of the model, a hybrid intelligent algorithm including stochastic simulation, neural network, and immune clonal algorithm is designed to solve the model. Finally, the validity and rationality of the optimization model and algorithm are verified by the case.

  4. Fuzzy Multiple Metrics Link Assessment for Routing in Mobile Ad-Hoc Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soo, Ai Luang; Tan, Chong Eng; Tay, Kai Meng

    2011-06-01

    In this work, we investigate on the use of Sugeno fuzzy inference system (FIS) in route selection for mobile Ad-Hoc networks (MANETs). Sugeno FIS is introduced into Ad-Hoc On Demand Multipath Distance Vector (AOMDV) routing protocol, which is derived from its predecessor, Ad-Hoc On Demand Distance Vector (AODV). Instead of using the conventional way that considering only a single metric to choose the best route, our proposed fuzzy decision making model considers up to three metrics. In the model, the crisp inputs of the three parameters are fed into an FIS and being processed in stages, i.e., fuzzification, inference, and defuzzification. Finally, after experiencing all the stages, a single value score is generated from the combination metrics, which will be used to measure all the discovered routes credibility. Results obtained from simulations show a promising improvement as compared to AOMDV and AODV.

  5. Method and system for an automated tool for en route traffic controllers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erzberger, Heinz (Inventor); McNally, B. David (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A method and system for a new automation tool for en route air traffic controllers first finds all aircraft flying on inefficient routes, then determines whether it is possible to save time by bypassing some route segments, and finally whether the improved route is free of conflicts with other aircraft. The method displays all direct-to eligible aircraft to an air traffic controller in a list sorted by highest time savings. By allowing the air traffic controller to easily identify and work with the highest pay-off aircraft, the method of the present invention contributes to a significant increase in both air traffic controller and aircraft productivity. A graphical computer interface (GUI) is used to enable the air traffic controller to send the aircraft direct to a waypoint or fix closer to the destination airport by a simple point and click action.

  6. A comparative study of wireless sensor networks and their routing protocols.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharyya, Debnath; Kim, Tai-hoon; Pal, Subhajit

    2010-01-01

    Recent developments in the area of micro-sensor devices have accelerated advances in the sensor networks field leading to many new protocols specifically designed for wireless sensor networks (WSNs). Wireless sensor networks with hundreds to thousands of sensor nodes can gather information from an unattended location and transmit the gathered data to a particular user, depending on the application. These sensor nodes have some constraints due to their limited energy, storage capacity and computing power. Data are routed from one node to other using different routing protocols. There are a number of routing protocols for wireless sensor networks. In this review article, we discuss the architecture of wireless sensor networks. Further, we categorize the routing protocols according to some key factors and summarize their mode of operation. Finally, we provide a comparative study on these various protocols.

  7. A Comparative Study of Wireless Sensor Networks and Their Routing Protocols

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharyya, Debnath; Kim, Tai-hoon; Pal, Subhajit

    2010-01-01

    Recent developments in the area of micro-sensor devices have accelerated advances in the sensor networks field leading to many new protocols specifically designed for wireless sensor networks (WSNs). Wireless sensor networks with hundreds to thousands of sensor nodes can gather information from an unattended location and transmit the gathered data to a particular user, depending on the application. These sensor nodes have some constraints due to their limited energy, storage capacity and computing power. Data are routed from one node to other using different routing protocols. There are a number of routing protocols for wireless sensor networks. In this review article, we discuss the architecture of wireless sensor networks. Further, we categorize the routing protocols according to some key factors and summarize their mode of operation. Finally, we provide a comparative study on these various protocols. PMID:22163483

  8. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    R Paul Drake

    2004-01-12

    OAK-B135 This is the final report from the project Hydrodynamics by High-Energy-Density Plasma Flow and Hydrodynamics and Radiation Hydrodynamics with Astrophysical Applications. This project supported a group at the University of Michigan in the invention, design, performance, and analysis of experiments using high-energy-density research facilities. The experiments explored compressible nonlinear hydrodynamics, in particular at decelerating interfaces, and the radiation hydrodynamics of strong shock waves. It has application to supernovae, astrophysical jets, shock-cloud interactions, and radiative shock waves.

  9. Highway and interline transportation routing models

    SciTech Connect

    Joy, D.S.; Johnson, P.E.

    1994-06-01

    The potential impacts associated with the transportation of hazardous materials are important issues to shippers, carriers, and the general public. Since transportation routes are a central characteristic in most of these issues, the prediction of likely routes is the first step toward the resolution of these issues. In addition, US Department of Transportation requirements (HM-164) mandate specific routes for shipments of highway controlled quantities of radioactive materials. In response to these needs, two routing models have been developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). These models have been designated by DOE`s Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, Transportation Management Division (DOE/EM) as the official DOE routing models. Both models, HIGHWAY and INTERLINE, are described.

  10. Routing architecture and security for airborne networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Hongmei; Xie, Peng; Li, Jason; Xu, Roger; Levy, Renato

    2009-05-01

    Airborne networks are envisioned to provide interconnectivity for terrestial and space networks by interconnecting highly mobile airborne platforms. A number of military applications are expected to be used by the operator, and all these applications require proper routing security support to establish correct route between communicating platforms in a timely manner. As airborne networks somewhat different from traditional wired and wireless networks (e.g., Internet, LAN, WLAN, MANET, etc), security aspects valid in these networks are not fully applicable to airborne networks. Designing an efficient security scheme to protect airborne networks is confronted with new requirements. In this paper, we first identify a candidate routing architecture, which works as an underlying structure for our proposed security scheme. And then we investigate the vulnerabilities and attack models against routing protocols in airborne networks. Based on these studies, we propose an integrated security solution to address routing security issues in airborne networks.

  11. Routing Protocols in Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Villalba, Luis Javier García; Orozco, Ana Lucila Sandoval; Cabrera, Alicia Triviño; Abbas, Cláudia Jacy Barenco

    2009-01-01

    The applications of wireless sensor networks comprise a wide variety of scenarios. In most of them, the network is composed of a significant number of nodes deployed in an extensive area in which not all nodes are directly connected. Then, the data exchange is supported by multihop communications. Routing protocols are in charge of discovering and maintaining the routes in the network. However, the appropriateness of a particular routing protocol mainly depends on the capabilities of the nodes and on the application requirements. This paper presents a review of the main routing protocols proposed for wireless sensor networks. Additionally, the paper includes the efforts carried out by Spanish universities on developing optimization techniques in the area of routing protocols for wireless sensor networks. PMID:22291515

  12. Dynamic information routing in complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirst, Christoph; Timme, Marc; Battaglia, Demian

    2015-03-01

    Flexible information routing fundamentally underlies the function of many biological and artificial networks. Yet, how information may be specifically communicated and dynamically routed in these systems is not well understood. Here we demonstrate that collective dynamical states systematically control patterns of information sharing and transfer in networks, as measured by delayed mutual information and transfer entropies between activities of a network's units. For oscillatory networks we analyze how individual unit properties, the connectivity structure and external inputs all provide means to flexibly control information routing. For multi-scale, modular architectures, we resolve communication patterns at all levels and show how local interventions within one sub-network may remotely control the non-local network-wide routing of information. This theory helps understanding information routing patterns across systems where collective dynamics co-occurs with a communication function.

  13. Biocatalytic routes to chiral amines and amino acids.

    PubMed

    Gotor-Fernández, Vicente; Gotor, Vicente

    2009-11-01

    Biocatalysis is a well-known and well-established technology that allows clean and straightforward stereoselective transformations to be conducted under mild reaction conditions. Traditionally, hydrolases, oxidoreductases and lyases have been used for these transformations to give the final products in excellent yields and with a high level of enantiopurity. Particular attention has been focused on biocatalytic routes because of the increasing demand for economic and environmentally friendly processes for the manufacture of single enantiomer drugs and high added-value compounds by the industrial sector. Recent advances in the field of biotransformations applied to the production of chiral amines and amino acids are reviewed.

  14. Wavelength routing beyond the standard graph coloring approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blankenhorn, Thomas

    2004-04-01

    When lightpaths are routed in the planning stage of transparent optical networks, the textbook approach is to use algorithms that try to minimize the overall number of wavelengths used in the . We demonstrate that this method cannot be expected to minimize actual costs when the marginal cost of instlling more wavelengths is a declining function of the number of wavelengths already installed, as is frequently the case. We further demonstrate how cost optimization can theoretically be improved with algorithms based on Prim"s algorithm. Finally, we test this theory with simulaion on a series of actual network topologies, which confirm the theoretical analysis.

  15. Risk-Hedged Approach for Re-Routing Air Traffic Under Weather Uncertainty

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadovsky, Alexander V.; Bilimoria, Karl D.

    2016-01-01

    This presentation corresponds to: our paper explores a new risk-hedged approach for re-routing air traffic around forecast convective weather. In this work, flying through a more likely weather instantiation is considered to pose a higher level of risk. Current operational practice strategically plans re-routes to avoid only the most likely (highest risk) weather instantiation, and then tactically makes any necessary adjustments as the weather evolves. The risk-hedged approach strategically plans re-routes by minimizing the risk-adjusted path length, incorporating multiple possible weather instantiations with associated likelihoods (risks). The resulting model is transparent and is readily analyzed for realism and treated with well-understood shortest-path algorithms. Risk-hedged re-routes are computed for some example weather instantiations. The main result is that in some scenarios, relative to an operational-practice proxy solution, the risk-hedged solution provides the benefits of lower risk as well as shorter path length. In other scenarios, the benefits of the risk-hedged solution are ambiguous, because the solution is characterized by a tradeoff between risk and path length. The risk-hedged solution can be executed in those scenarios where it provides a clear benefit over current operational practice.

  16. Prediction of Links and Weights in Networks by Reliable Routes

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jing; Miao, Lili; Yang, Jian; Fang, Haiyang; Zhang, Qian-Ming; Nie, Min; Holme, Petter; Zhou, Tao

    2015-01-01

    Link prediction aims to uncover missing links or predict the emergence of future relationships from the current network structure. Plenty of algorithms have been developed for link prediction in unweighted networks, but only a few have been extended to weighted networks. In this paper, we present what we call a “reliable-route method” to extend unweighted local similarity indices to weighted ones. Using these indices, we can predict both the existence of links and their weights. Experiments on various real-world networks suggest that our reliable-route weighted resource-allocation index performs noticeably better than others with respect to weight prediction. For existence prediction it is either the highest or very close to the highest. Further analysis shows a strong positive correlation between the clustering coefficient and prediction accuracy. Finally, we apply our method to the prediction of missing protein-protein interactions and their confidence scores from known PPI networks. Once again, our reliable-route method shows the highest accuracy. PMID:26198206

  17. Synthetic Routes to Methylerythritol Phosphate Pathway Intermediates and Downstream Isoprenoids

    PubMed Central

    Jarchow-Choy, Sarah K; Koppisch, Andrew T; Fox, David T

    2014-01-01

    Isoprenoids constitute the largest class of natural products with greater than 55,000 identified members. They play essential roles in maintaining proper cellular function leading to maintenance of human health, plant defense mechanisms against predators, and are often exploited for their beneficial properties in the pharmaceutical and nutraceutical industries. Most impressively, all known isoprenoids are derived from one of two C5-precursors, isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) or dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP). In order to study the enzyme transformations leading to the extensive structural diversity found within this class of compounds there must be access to the substrates. Sometimes, intermediates within a biological pathway can be isolated and used directly to study enzyme/pathway function. However, the primary route to most of the isoprenoid intermediates is through chemical catalysis. As such, this review provides the first exhaustive examination of synthetic routes to isoprenoid and isoprenoid precursors with particular emphasis on the syntheses of intermediates found as part of the 2C-methylerythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway. In addition, representative syntheses are presented for the monoterpenes (C10), sesquiterpenes (C15), diterpenes (C20), triterpenes (C30) and tetraterpenes (C40). Finally, in some instances, the synthetic routes to substrate analogs found both within the MEP pathway and downstream isoprenoids are examined. PMID:25009443

  18. A green vehicle routing problem with customer satisfaction criteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afshar-Bakeshloo, M.; Mehrabi, A.; Safari, H.; Maleki, M.; Jolai, F.

    2016-08-01

    This paper develops an MILP model, named Satisfactory-Green Vehicle Routing Problem. It consists of routing a heterogeneous fleet of vehicles in order to serve a set of customers within predefined time windows. In this model in addition to the traditional objective of the VRP, both the pollution and customers' satisfaction have been taken into account. Meanwhile, the introduced model prepares an effective dashboard for decision-makers that determines appropriate routes, the best mixed fleet, speed and idle time of vehicles. Additionally, some new factors evaluate the greening of each decision based on three criteria. This model applies piecewise linear functions (PLFs) to linearize a nonlinear fuzzy interval for incorporating customers' satisfaction into other linear objectives. We have presented a mixed integer linear programming formulation for the S-GVRP. This model enriches managerial insights by providing trade-offs between customers' satisfaction, total costs and emission levels. Finally, we have provided a numerical study for showing the applicability of the model.

  19. Syngas route to adipic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Kealing, H.S.

    1986-03-01

    In an era of escalating hydrocarbon prices, the development of new technology to synthesize large volume chemical intermediates from the least expensive sources of carbon and hydrogen has been a research area of increasing intensity. Adipic acid is prepared commercially by oxidative processes using either benzene or phenol as the raw material base. Since both benzene and phenol prices track with the price of crude oil, future adipic acid price will increase as the oil reserve decreases. Thus, there is a need for a new process to produce adipic acid from cheap, and readily available, raw materials such as butadiene obtained as a by-product from world scale olefin plants. One such process that capitalizes on the use of butadiene as a raw material is BASF's two-step carbonylation route to adipic acid. The butadiene in the C/sub 4/ cut from a steam cracker is transformed by a two-stage carbonylation with carbon monoxide and methanol into adipic acid dimethyl ester. Hydrolysis converts the ester into adipic acid. BASF is now engineering a 130 mm pound per year commercial plant based on this technology.

  20. Drug targeting through pilosebaceous route.

    PubMed

    Chourasia, Rashmi; Jain, Sanjay K

    2009-10-01

    Local skin targeting is of interest for the pharmaceutical and the cosmetic industry. A topically applied substance has basically three possibilities to penetrate into the skin: transcellular, intercellular, and follicular. The transfollicular path has been largely ignored because hair follicles constitute only 0.1% of the total skin. The hair follicle is a skin appendage with a complex structure containing many cell types that produce highly specialised proteins. The hair follicle is in a continuous cycle: anagen is the hair growth phase, catagen the involution phase and telogen is the resting phase. Nonetheless, the hair follicle has great potential for skin treatment, owing to its deep extension into the dermis and thus provides much deeper penetration and absorption of compounds beneath the skin than seen with the transdermal route. In the case of skin diseases and of cosmetic products, delivery to sweat glands or to the pilosebaceous unit is essential for the effectiveness of the drug. Increased accumulation in the pilosebaceous unit could treat alopecia, acne and skin cancer more efficiently and improve the effect of cosmetic substances and nutrients. Therefore, we review herein various drug delivery systems, including liposomes, niosomes, microspheres, nanoparticles, nanoemulsions, lipid nanocarriers, gene therapy and discuss the results of recent researches. We also review the drugs which have been investigated for pilosebaceous delivery.

  1. Composite polymer nanoarchitectures from a one-pot hydrothermal route

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Shirong; Chang, Ying; Yuan, Conghui; Wang, Shuang; Mao, Jie; Chen, Guorong; Luo, Weiang; Xu, Yiting; Dai, Lizong

    2015-11-01

    Exploitation of facile and versatile synthetic approaches to polymeric nanoarchitectures is of great interest in polymer science and engineering. Herein, we show that a simple hydrothermal route using double-solvents as reaction media has the ability to generate polymer nanospheres with tunable morphologies and components. In this one-pot approach, condensation polymerization of a resol precursor and radical polymerization of styrene are allowed to occur simultaneously under hydrothermal treatment. The synergistic self-organization of phenol-formaldehyde crosslinked networks and polystyrene chains leads to the formation of well-defined hollow nanospheres with adjustable shell thickness or even Janus particles comprising a solid hemisphere and a hollow hemisphere. Furthermore, control over the composition of the hollow polymer nanospheres can be easily achieved by introducing a third monomer into the hydrothermal system.

  2. Hybrid Ant Algorithm and Applications for Vehicle Routing Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Zhang; Jiang-qing, Wang

    Ant colony optimization (ACO) is a metaheuristic method that inspired by the behavior of real ant colonies. ACO has been successfully applied to several combinatorial optimization problems, but it has some short-comings like its slow computing speed and local-convergence. For solving Vehicle Routing Problem, we proposed Hybrid Ant Algorithm (HAA) in order to improve both the performance of the algorithm and the quality of solutions. The proposed algorithm took the advantages of Nearest Neighbor (NN) heuristic and ACO for solving VRP, it also expanded the scope of solution space and improves the global ability of the algorithm through importing mutation operation, combining 2-opt heuristics and adjusting the configuration of parameters dynamically. Computational results indicate that the hybrid ant algorithm can get optimal resolution of VRP effectively.

  3. Security-Oriented and Load-Balancing Wireless Data Routing Game in the Integration of Advanced Metering Infrastructure Network in Smart Grid

    SciTech Connect

    He, Fulin; Cao, Yang; Zhang, Jun Jason; Wei, Jiaolong; Zhang, Yingchen; Muljadi, Eduard; Gao, Wenzhong

    2016-11-21

    Ensuring flexible and reliable data routing is indispensable for the integration of Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) networks, we propose a secure-oriented and load-balancing wireless data routing scheme. A novel utility function is designed based on security routing scheme. Then, we model the interactive security-oriented routing strategy among meter data concentrators or smart grid meters as a mixed-strategy network formation game. Finally, such problem results in a stable probabilistic routing scheme with proposed distributed learning algorithm. One contributions is that we studied that different types of applications affect the routing selection strategy and the strategy tendency. Another contributions is that the chosen strategy of our mixed routing can adaptively to converge to a new mixed strategy Nash equilibrium (MSNE) during the learning process in the smart grid.

  4. Inflation Adjustments for Defense Acquisition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    Harmon Daniel B. Levine Stanley A. Horowitz, Project Leader INSTITUTE FOR DEFENSE ANALYSES 4850 Mark Center Drive Alexandria, Virginia 22311-1882 Approved...T U T E F O R D E F E N S E A N A L Y S E S IDA Document D-5112 Inflation Adjustments for Defense Acquisition Bruce R. Harmon Daniel B. Levine...might do a better job? The focus of the study is on aircraft procurement. By way of terminology , “cost index,” “price index,” and “deflator” are used

  5. Adjustable extender for instrument module

    DOEpatents

    Sevec, J.B.; Stein, A.D.

    1975-11-01

    A blank extender module used to mount an instrument module in front of its console for repair or test purposes has been equipped with a rotatable mount and means for locking the mount at various angles of rotation for easy accessibility. The rotatable mount includes a horizontal conduit supported by bearings within the blank module. The conduit is spring-biased in a retracted position within the blank module and in this position a small gear mounted on the conduit periphery is locked by a fixed pawl. The conduit and instrument mount can be pulled into an extended position with the gear clearing the pawl to permit rotation and adjustment of the instrument.

  6. Human Poisoning Through Atypical Routes of Exposure.

    PubMed

    Behal, Niharika; Wong, Alan; Mantara, Ruzly; Cantrell, F Lee

    2016-02-01

    There are over 2 million human exposure cases reported to United States poison centers annually. Much of the data involves exposure through ingestion, dermal contact, inhalation, ocular, or parenteral routes. There is limited data characterizing exposure via atypical routes. We conducted a retrospective review of the California Poison Control System Database for a 24-month period from January 2012 to December 2013 for poison exposure that occurred through the otic, vaginal, or rectal route. There were a total of 634 cases involving single-route and single-substance atypical poison exposure. There were 287 (45%) cases of otic exposure, 190 (30.0%) cases of vaginal exposure, and 157 (25%) cases of rectal exposure. Five hundred forty (85%) of the cases were unintentional. Gasoline exposure through the otic route occurred in 83 (13.1%) cases, followed by hydrogen peroxide (4.7%), acetaminophen (3.8%), and miconazole (2.7%). Adverse effects occurred in 336 (53%) cases. No deaths were reported. The most common treatment was observation only, occurring in 396 (62.4%) cases. The majority of the cases did not warrant hospital evaluation (73.5%). This is the first retrospective characterization study of atypical routes of poison exposure. These results may provide education to providers and the public regarding risks of exposure to substances through atypical routes.

  7. The fully nonlinear stratified geostrophic adjustment problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coutino, Aaron; Stastna, Marek

    2017-01-01

    The study of the adjustment to equilibrium by a stratified fluid in a rotating reference frame is a classical problem in geophysical fluid dynamics. We consider the fully nonlinear, stratified adjustment problem from a numerical point of view. We present results of smoothed dam break simulations based on experiments in the published literature, with a focus on both the wave trains that propagate away from the nascent geostrophic state and the geostrophic state itself. We demonstrate that for Rossby numbers in excess of roughly 2 the wave train cannot be interpreted in terms of linear theory. This wave train consists of a leading solitary-like packet and a trailing tail of dispersive waves. However, it is found that the leading wave packet never completely separates from the trailing tail. Somewhat surprisingly, the inertial oscillations associated with the geostrophic state exhibit evidence of nonlinearity even when the Rossby number falls below 1. We vary the width of the initial disturbance and the rotation rate so as to keep the Rossby number fixed, and find that while the qualitative response remains consistent, the Froude number varies, and these variations are manifested in the form of the emanating wave train. For wider initial disturbances we find clear evidence of a wave train that initially propagates toward the near wall, reflects, and propagates away from the geostrophic state behind the leading wave train. We compare kinetic energy inside and outside of the geostrophic state, finding that for long times a Rossby number of around one-quarter yields an equal split between the two, with lower (higher) Rossby numbers yielding more energy in the geostrophic state (wave train). Finally we compare the energetics of the geostrophic state as the Rossby number varies, finding long-lived inertial oscillations in the majority of the cases and a general agreement with the past literature that employed either hydrostatic, shallow-water equation-based theory or

  8. Effective Mobile Routing Through Dynamic Addressing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    WIRELESS BATTLEFIELD NETWORKS USING UAVS,” 2001. [7] Elizabeth . M. Royer, Chai-Keong Toh, “A Review of Current Routing Protocols for Ad-Hoc Mobile...Wireless Networks,” IEEE personal Communications, April 1999. [8] S. Corson , J. Macker, “Mobile Ad-hoc Networking (MANET) : Routing Protocol...Charles E. Perkins, Elizabeth M. Royer, “Ad-hoc On-Demand Distance Vector Routing,”wmcsa, p.90, Second IEEE Workshop on Mobile Computer System and

  9. Design and Evaluation of a Dynamic Programming Flight Routing Algorithm Using the Convective Weather Avoidance Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ng, Hok K.; Grabbe, Shon; Mukherjee, Avijit

    2010-01-01

    The optimization of traffic flows in congested airspace with varying convective weather is a challenging problem. One approach is to generate shortest routes between origins and destinations while meeting airspace capacity constraint in the presence of uncertainties, such as weather and airspace demand. This study focuses on development of an optimal flight path search algorithm that optimizes national airspace system throughput and efficiency in the presence of uncertainties. The algorithm is based on dynamic programming and utilizes the predicted probability that an aircraft will deviate around convective weather. It is shown that the running time of the algorithm increases linearly with the total number of links between all stages. The optimal routes minimize a combination of fuel cost and expected cost of route deviation due to convective weather. They are considered as alternatives to the set of coded departure routes which are predefined by FAA to reroute pre-departure flights around weather or air traffic constraints. A formula, which calculates predicted probability of deviation from a given flight path, is also derived. The predicted probability of deviation is calculated for all path candidates. Routes with the best probability are selected as optimal. The predicted probability of deviation serves as a computable measure of reliability in pre-departure rerouting. The algorithm can also be extended to automatically adjust its design parameters to satisfy the desired level of reliability.

  10. Adjusting the Contour of Reflector Panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, W. B.; Giebler, M. M.

    1984-01-01

    Postfabrication adjustment of contour of panels for reflector, such as parabolic reflector for radio antennas, possible with simple mechanism consisting of threaded stud, two nuts, and flexure. Contours adjusted manually.

  11. 48 CFR 1450.103 - Contract adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract adjustments. 1450.103 Section 1450.103 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR CONTRACT... Contract adjustments....

  12. First Year Adjustment in the Secondary School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loosemore, Jean Ann

    1978-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between adjustment to secondary school and 17 cognitive and noncognitive variables, including intelligence (verbal and nonverbal reasoning), academic achievement, extraversion-introversion, stable/unstable, social adjustment, endeavor, age, sex, and school form. (CP)

  13. Synthesis of Monodispersed Tantalum(V) oxide Nanospheres by an Ethylene Glycol Mediated Route

    EPA Science Inventory

    Tantalum(V) oxide (Ta2O5) nanospheres have been synthesized by a very simple ethylene glycol mediated route. The two-step process involves the formation of glycolate nanoparticles and their subsequent hydrolysis and calcination to generate the final Ta2O5 nanospheres. The synthes...

  14. 77 FR 42428 - Amendment of Jet Routes and VOR Federal Airways; Northeastern United States

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-19

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Docket No. FAA-2012-0622; Airspace Docket No. 12-ANE-11 RIN 2120-AA66 Amendment of Jet Routes and VOR Federal Airways; Northeastern United States AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule; technical amendment. SUMMARY: This action...

  15. 78 FR 22190 - Modification of Area Navigation (RNAV) Route T-266; AK

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-15

    ... T-266; AK AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action modifies low-altitude RNAV route T-266 in the state of Alaska by removing two non-directional... the Federal Register a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) to modify T-266 in the state of Alaska...

  16. Are GIS-modelled routes a useful proxy for the actual routes followed by commuters?

    PubMed

    Dalton, Alice M; Jones, Andrew P; Panter, Jenna; Ogilvie, David

    2015-06-01

    Active commuting offers the potential to increase physical activity among adults by being built into daily routines. Characteristics of the route to work may influence propensity to walk or cycle. Geographic information system (GIS) software is often used to explore this by modelling routes between home and work. However, if the validity of modelled routes depends on the mode of travel used, studies of environmental determinants of travel may be biased. We aimed to understand how well modelled routes reflect those actually taken, and what characteristics explain these differences. We compared modelled GIS shortest path routes with actual routes measured using QStarz BT-Q1000X Global Positioning System (GPS) devices in a free-living sample of adults working in Cambridge and using varying travel modes. Predictors of differences, according to length and percentage overlap, between the two route sets were assessed using multilevel regression models and concordance coefficients. The 276 trips, made by 51 participants, were on average 27% further than modelled routes, with an average geographical overlap of 39%. However, predictability of the route depended on travel mode. For route length, there was moderate-to-substantial agreement for journeys made on foot and by bicycle. Route overlap was lowest for trips made by car plus walk (22%). The magnitude of difference depended on other journey characteristics, including travelling via intermediate destinations, distance, and use of busy roads. In conclusion, GIS routes may be acceptable for distance estimation and to explore potential routes, particularly active commuting. However, GPS should be used to obtain accurate estimates of environmental contexts in which commuting behaviour actually occurs. Public health researchers should bear these considerations in mind when studying the geographical determinants and health implications of commuting behaviour, and when recommending policy changes to encourage active travel.

  17. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, Robert C.; Kamon, Teruki; Toback, David; Safonov, Alexei; Dutta, Bhaskar; Dimitri, Nanopoulos; Pope, Christopher; White, James

    2013-11-18

    Overview The High Energy Physics Group at Texas A&M University is submitting this final report for our grant number DE-FG02-95ER40917. This grant has supported our wide range of research activities for over a decade. The reports contained here summarize the latest work done by our research team. Task A (Collider Physics Program): CMS & CDF Profs. T. Kamon, A. Safonov, and D. Toback co-lead the Texas A&M (TAMU) collider program focusing on CDF and CMS experiments. Task D: Particle Physics Theory Our particle physics theory task is the combined effort of Profs. B. Dutta, D. Nanopoulos, and C. Pope. Task E (Underground Physics): LUX & NEXT Profs. R. Webb and J. White(deceased) lead the Xenon-based underground research program consisting of two main thrusts: the first, participation in the LUX two-phase xenon dark matter search experiment and the second, detector R&D primarily aimed at developing future detectors for underground physics (e.g. NEXT and LZ).

  18. Generalized adjustment by least squares ( GALS).

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elassal, A.A.

    1983-01-01

    The least-squares principle is universally accepted as the basis for adjustment procedures in the allied fields of geodesy, photogrammetry and surveying. A prototype software package for Generalized Adjustment by Least Squares (GALS) is described. The package is designed to perform all least-squares-related functions in a typical adjustment program. GALS is capable of supporting development of adjustment programs of any size or degree of complexity. -Author

  19. 49 CFR 393.53 - Automatic brake adjusters and brake adjustment indicators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... brake adjustment indicators. (a) Automatic brake adjusters (hydraulic brake systems). Each commercial motor vehicle manufactured on or after October 20, 1993, and equipped with a hydraulic brake...

  20. 7 CFR 1744.64 - Budget adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Budget adjustment. 1744.64 Section 1744.64... Disbursement of Funds § 1744.64 Budget adjustment. (a) If more funds are required than are available in a budget account, the borrower may request RUS's approval of a budget adjustment to use funds from...

  1. 7 CFR 1744.64 - Budget adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Budget adjustment. 1744.64 Section 1744.64... Disbursement of Funds § 1744.64 Budget adjustment. (a) If more funds are required than are available in a budget account, the borrower may request RUS's approval of a budget adjustment to use funds from...

  2. 7 CFR 1744.64 - Budget adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Budget adjustment. 1744.64 Section 1744.64... Disbursement of Funds § 1744.64 Budget adjustment. (a) If more funds are required than are available in a budget account, the borrower may request RUS's approval of a budget adjustment to use funds from...

  3. 7 CFR 1744.64 - Budget adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Budget adjustment. 1744.64 Section 1744.64... Disbursement of Funds § 1744.64 Budget adjustment. (a) If more funds are required than are available in a budget account, the borrower may request RUS's approval of a budget adjustment to use funds from...

  4. 7 CFR 1744.64 - Budget adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Budget adjustment. 1744.64 Section 1744.64... Disbursement of Funds § 1744.64 Budget adjustment. (a) If more funds are required than are available in a budget account, the borrower may request RUS's approval of a budget adjustment to use funds from...

  5. 24 CFR 5.611 - Adjusted income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Adjusted income. 5.611 Section 5... Serving Persons with Disabilities: Family Income and Family Payment; Occupancy Requirements for Section 8 Project-Based Assistance Family Income § 5.611 Adjusted income. Adjusted income means annual income...

  6. 24 CFR 5.611 - Adjusted income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adjusted income. 5.611 Section 5... Serving Persons with Disabilities: Family Income and Family Payment; Occupancy Requirements for Section 8 Project-Based Assistance Family Income § 5.611 Adjusted income. Adjusted income means annual income...

  7. 19 CFR 201.205 - Salary adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Salary adjustments. 201.205 Section 201.205 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION GENERAL RULES OF GENERAL APPLICATION Debt Collection § 201.205 Salary adjustments. Any negative adjustment to pay arising out of an employee's...

  8. 19 CFR 201.205 - Salary adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Salary adjustments. 201.205 Section 201.205 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION GENERAL RULES OF GENERAL APPLICATION Debt Collection § 201.205 Salary adjustments. Any negative adjustment to pay arising out of an employee's...

  9. 12 CFR 313.55 - Salary adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Salary adjustments. 313.55 Section 313.55 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION PROCEDURE AND RULES OF PRACTICE PROCEDURES FOR CORPORATE DEBT COLLECTION Salary Offset § 313.55 Salary adjustments. Any negative adjustment to pay...

  10. 12 CFR 313.55 - Salary adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Salary adjustments. 313.55 Section 313.55 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION PROCEDURE AND RULES OF PRACTICE PROCEDURES FOR CORPORATE DEBT COLLECTION Salary Offset § 313.55 Salary adjustments. Any negative adjustment to pay...

  11. 12 CFR 313.55 - Salary adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Salary adjustments. 313.55 Section 313.55 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION PROCEDURE AND RULES OF PRACTICE PROCEDURES FOR CORPORATE DEBT COLLECTION Salary Offset § 313.55 Salary adjustments. Any negative adjustment to pay...

  12. 12 CFR 313.55 - Salary adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Salary adjustments. 313.55 Section 313.55 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION PROCEDURE AND RULES OF PRACTICE PROCEDURES FOR CORPORATE DEBT COLLECTION Salary Offset § 313.55 Salary adjustments. Any negative adjustment to pay...

  13. 19 CFR 201.205 - Salary adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Salary adjustments. 201.205 Section 201.205 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION GENERAL RULES OF GENERAL APPLICATION Debt Collection § 201.205 Salary adjustments. Any negative adjustment to pay arising out of an employee's...

  14. 19 CFR 201.205 - Salary adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Salary adjustments. 201.205 Section 201.205 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION GENERAL RULES OF GENERAL APPLICATION Debt Collection § 201.205 Salary adjustments. Any negative adjustment to pay arising out of an employee's...

  15. 19 CFR 201.205 - Salary adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Salary adjustments. 201.205 Section 201.205 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION GENERAL RULES OF GENERAL APPLICATION Debt Collection § 201.205 Salary adjustments. Any negative adjustment to pay arising out of an employee's...

  16. 12 CFR 313.55 - Salary adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Salary adjustments. 313.55 Section 313.55 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION PROCEDURE AND RULES OF PRACTICE PROCEDURES FOR CORPORATE DEBT COLLECTION Salary Offset § 313.55 Salary adjustments. Any negative adjustment to pay...

  17. 12 CFR 1780.80 - Inflation adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Inflation adjustments. 1780.80 Section 1780.80... DEVELOPMENT RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Civil Money Penalty Inflation Adjustments § 1780.80 Inflation adjustments. The maximum amount of each civil money penalty within...

  18. 12 CFR 1780.80 - Inflation adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inflation adjustments. 1780.80 Section 1780.80... DEVELOPMENT RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Civil Money Penalty Inflation Adjustments § 1780.80 Inflation adjustments. The maximum amount of each civil money penalty within...

  19. 34 CFR 36.2 - Penalty adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Penalty adjustment. 36.2 Section 36.2 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education ADJUSTMENT OF CIVIL MONETARY PENALTIES FOR INFLATION § 36.2..., Section 36.2—Civil Monetary Penalty Inflation Adjustments Statute Description New maximum (and minimum,...

  20. 34 CFR 36.2 - Penalty adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Penalty adjustment. 36.2 Section 36.2 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education ADJUSTMENT OF CIVIL MONETARY PENALTIES FOR INFLATION § 36.2..., Section 36.2—Civil Monetary Penalty Inflation Adjustments Statute Description New maximum (and minimum,...

  1. Quantum chemistry-assisted synthesis route development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hori, Kenji; Sumimoto, Michinori; Murafuji, Toshihiro

    2015-12-01

    We have been investigating "quantum chemistry-assisted synthesis route development" using in silico screenings and applied the method to several targets. Another example was conducted to develop synthesis routes for a urea derivative, namely 1-(4-(trifluoromethyl)-2-oxo-2H-chromen-7-yl)urea. While five synthesis routes were examined, only three routes passed the second in silico screening. Among them, the reaction of 7-amino-4-(trifluoromethyl)-2H-chromen-2-one and O-methyl carbamate with BF3 as an additive was ranked as the first choice for synthetic work. We were able to experimentally obtain the target compound even though its yield was as low as 21 %. The theoretical result was thus consistent with that observed. The summary of transition state data base (TSDB) is also provided. TSDB is the key to reducing time of in silico screenings.

  2. 49 CFR 236.767 - Locking, route.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.767 Locking, route. Electric locking, effective when a train passes a signal displaying an aspect for it...

  3. Quantum chemistry-assisted synthesis route development

    SciTech Connect

    Hori, Kenji; Sumimoto, Michinori; Murafuji, Toshihiro

    2015-12-31

    We have been investigating “quantum chemistry-assisted synthesis route development” using in silico screenings and applied the method to several targets. Another example was conducted to develop synthesis routes for a urea derivative, namely 1-(4-(trifluoromethyl)-2-oxo-2H-chromen-7-yl)urea. While five synthesis routes were examined, only three routes passed the second in silico screening. Among them, the reaction of 7-amino-4-(trifluoromethyl)-2H-chromen-2-one and O-methyl carbamate with BF{sub 3} as an additive was ranked as the first choice for synthetic work. We were able to experimentally obtain the target compound even though its yield was as low as 21 %. The theoretical result was thus consistent with that observed. The summary of transition state data base (TSDB) is also provided. TSDB is the key to reducing time of in silico screenings.

  4. Routing to preserve energy in wireless networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Block, Frederick J., IV

    Many applications for wireless radio networks require that some or all radios in the network rely on batteries as energy sources. In many cases, battery replacement is infeasible, expensive, or impossible. Communication protocols for such networks should be designed to preserve limited energy supplies. Because the choice of a route to a traffic sink influences how often radios must transmit and receive, poor route selection can quickly deplete the batteries of certain nodes. Previous work has shown that a network's lifetime can be extended by assigning higher routing costs to nodes with little remaining energy and nodes that must use high transmitter power to reach neighbor radios. Although using remaining energy levels in routing metrics can increase network lifetime, in practice, there may be significant error in a node's estimate of its battery level. The effect of battery level uncertainty on routing is examined. Routing metrics are presented that are designed to explicitly account for uncertainty in remaining energy. Simulation results using several statistical models for this uncertainty show that the proposed metrics perform well. In addition to knowledge of current battery levels, estimates of how quickly radios are consuming energy may be helpful in extending network lifetime. We present a family of routing metrics that incorporate a radio's rate of energy consumption. Simulation results show that the proposed family of metrics performs well under a variety of traffic models and network topologies. Route selection can also be complicated by time-varying link conditions. Radios may be subject to interference from other nearby communication systems, hostile jammers, and other, non-communication sources of noise. A route that first appears to have only a small cost may later require much greater energy expenditure when transmitting packets. Frequent route selection can help radios avoid using links with interference, but additional routing control messages

  5. Dealing with the white death: avalanche risk management for traffic routes.

    PubMed

    Rheinberger, Christoph M; Bründl, Michael; Rhyner, Jakob

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses mitigation strategies to protect traffic routes from snow avalanches. Up to now, mitigation of snow avalanches on many roads and railways in the Alps has relied on avalanche sheds, which require large initial investments resulting in high opportunity costs. Therefore, avalanche risk managers have increasingly adopted organizational mitigation measures such as warning systems and closure policies instead. The effectiveness of these measures is, however, greatly dependent on human decisions. In this article, we present a method for optimizing avalanche mitigation for traffic routes in terms of both their risk reduction impact and their net benefit to society. First, we introduce a generic framework for assessing avalanche risk and for quantifying the impact of mitigation. This allows for sound cost-benefit comparisons between alternative mitigation strategies. Second, we illustrate the framework with a case study from Switzerland. Our findings suggest that site-specific characteristics of avalanche paths, as well as the economic importance of a traffic route, are decisive for the choice of optimal mitigation strategies. On routes endangered by few avalanche paths with frequent avalanche occurrences, structural measures are most efficient, whereas reliance on organizational mitigation is often the most appropriate strategy on routes endangered by many paths with infrequent or fuzzy avalanche risk. Finally, keeping a traffic route open may be very important for tourism or the transport industry. Hence, local economic value may promote the use of a hybrid strategy that combines organizational and structural measures to optimize the resource allocation of avalanche risk mitigation.

  6. Route selection issues for NWPA shipments

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, C.V.; Harrison, I.G.

    1993-06-01

    Questions surrounding the designation of routes for the movement of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste (HLW) by the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) have broad implications. Federal regulations prescribe rules to be applied in the selection of highway routes. In most cases, these rules will lead to a clear selection of one route between an origin and destination point. However, in other cases, strict application of the regulations does not result in a clear choice of a preferred route. The regulations also provide discretion to State governments and carriers to select alternative routes to enhance the safety of the shipment. Railroad shipments of radioactive materials are not subject to Federal routing regulations. Since the railroads operate on private property, it has been assumed that they know the best way to move freight on their system. This discretion, while desirable for addressing unique local safety concerns or for responding to temporary safety concerns such as road problems, weather conditions, or construction areas, leads to significant opportunity for misunderstandings and uneasiness on the part of local residents.

  7. The Route Analysis Based On Flight Plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feriyanto, Nur; Saleh, Chairul; Fauzi, Achmad; Rachman Dzakiyullah, Nur; Riza Iwaputra, Kahfi

    2016-02-01

    Economic development effects use of air transportation since the business process in every aspect was increased. Many people these days was prefer using airplane because it can save time and money. This situation also effects flight routes, many airlines offer new routes to deal with competition. Managing flight routes is one of the problems that must be faced in order to find the efficient and effective routes. This paper investigates the best routes based on flight performance by determining the amount of block fuel for the Jakarta-Denpasar flight route. Moreover, in this work compares a two kinds of aircraft and tracks by calculating flight distance, flight time and block fuel. The result shows Jakarta-Denpasar in the Track II has effective and efficient block fuel that can be performed by Airbus 320-200 aircraft. This study can contribute to practice in making an effective decision, especially helping executive management of company due to selecting appropriate aircraft and the track in the flight plan based on the block fuel consumption for business operation.

  8. Annoyance caused by aircraft en route noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccurdy, David A.

    1992-01-01

    A laboratory experiment was conducted to quantify the annoyance response of people on the ground to enroute noise generated by aircraft at cruise conditions. The en route noises were ground level recordings of eight advanced turboprop aircraft flyovers and six conventional turbofan flyovers. The eight advanced turboprop enroute noises represented the NASA Propfan Test Assessment aircraft operating at different combinations of altitude, aircraft Mach number, and propeller tip speed. The conventional turbofan en route noises represented six different commercial airliners. The overall durations of the en route noises varied from approximately 40 to 160 sec. In the experiment, 32 subjects judged the annoyance of the en route noises as well as recordings of the takeoff and landing noises of each of 5 conventional turboprop and 5 conventional turbofan aircraft. Each of the noises was presented at three sound pressure levels to the subjects in an anechoic listening room. Analysis of the judgments found small differences in annoyance between three combinations of aircraft type and operation. Current tone and corrections did not significantly improve en route annoyance prediction. The optimum duration-correction magnitude for en route noise was approximately 1 dB per doubling of effective duration.

  9. External Verification of the Bundle Adjustment in Photogrammetric Software Using the Damped Bundle Adjustment Toolbox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Börlin, Niclas; Grussenmeyer, Pierre

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate whether the Matlab-based Damped Bundle Adjustment Toolbox (DBAT) can be used to provide independent verification of the BA computation of two popular software—PhotoModeler (PM) and PhotoScan (PS). For frame camera data sets with lens distortion, DBAT is able to reprocess and replicate subsets of PM results with high accuracy. For lens-distortion-free data sets, DBAT can furthermore provide comparative results between PM and PS. Data sets for the discussed projects are available from the authors. The use of an external verification tool such as DBAT will enable users to get an independent verification of the computations of their software. In addition, DBAT can provide computation of quality parameters such as estimated standard deviations, correlation between parameters, etc., something that should be part of best practice for any photogrammetric software. Finally, as the code is free and open-source, users can add computations of their own.

  10. 18 CFR 385.1011 - Final order (Rule 1011).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Final order (Rule 1011). 385.1011 Section 385.1011 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY... Adjustment Request Denials § 385.1011 Final order (Rule 1011). The Commission will issue a final...

  11. 18 CFR 385.1011 - Final order (Rule 1011).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Final order (Rule 1011). 385.1011 Section 385.1011 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY... Adjustment Request Denials § 385.1011 Final order (Rule 1011). The Commission will issue a final...

  12. FINAL REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    Lettenmaier, Dennis

    2012-05-26

    We proposed to extend Maurer’s data sets through at least 2005 (to include extreme drought years in the Colorado basin). We updated and verified the forcings for tmin, tmax, and precipitation over the Colorado River basin at 1/8-deg spatial resolution through November 2008, with the potential to alter the resolution as needed (we subsequently extended the Maurer et al data set over the entire continental U.S. at 1/16 degree spatial resolution; see Livneh et al., 2013). We proposed to use either MODIS-based land cover data for recent years, or modification of the existing fixed seasonal cycle used in VIC (based on University of Maryland land cover data) to represent interannual variations in vegetation characteristics such as leaf area index (LAI) particularly in drought years. We assessed model performance with respect to evapotranspiration estimation through comparison of the model predictions with ground observations and in experiments that use time-varying and fixed seasonal LAI cycles (based on University of Maryland land cover data) in a test region of northwestern Mexico where the ground ET observations from eddy covariance tower sites are available for the period from 2001 to 2008 (Tang et al., 2011). We also proposed to implement statistical downscaling with an adjustment to constrain precipitation changes at the GCM level. These simulations were performed, using 20 IPCC AR4 GCMs over the Colorado River basin with two global emissions scenarios, and are reported in Vano et al., 2014. Task 2: Coupled model implementation We proposed to implement the “standard” climate version of WRF, as used by collaborator Ruby Leung in NARCCAP simulations (see Section 5.4), and perform tests to assure that model output for runs equivalent to NARCCAP Phase 1 (reanalysis boundary conditions) are consistent. We proposed do test sensitivity to higher spatial resolution. We made a run of 11 years’ length with the “standard” version of WRF, forced by NCEP/DOE with

  13. Routing and wavelength assignment based on normalized resource and constraints for all-optical network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joo, Seong-Soon; Nam, Hyun-Soon; Lim, Chang-Kyu

    2003-08-01

    With the rapid growth of the Optical Internet, high capacity pipes is finally destined to support end-to-end IP on the WDM optical network. Newly launched 2D MEMS optical switching module in the market supports that expectations of upcoming a transparent optical cross-connect in the network have encouraged the field applicable research on establishing real all-optical transparent network. To open up a customer-driven bandwidth services, design of the optical transport network becomes more challenging task in terms of optimal network resource usage. This paper presents a practical approach to finding a route and wavelength assignment for wavelength routed all-optical network, which has λ-plane OXC switches and wavelength converters, and supports that optical paths are randomly set up and released by dynamic wavelength provisioning to create bandwidth between end users with timescales on the order of seconds or milliseconds. We suggest three constraints to make the RWA problem become more practical one on deployment for wavelength routed all-optical network in network view: limitation on maximum hop of a route within bearable optical network impairments, limitation on minimum hops to travel before converting a wavelength, and limitation on calculation time to find all routes for connections requested at once. We design the NRCD (Normalized Resource and Constraints for All-Optical Network RWA Design) algorithm for the Tera OXC: network resource for a route is calculated by the number of internal switching paths established in each OXC nodes on the route, and is normalized by ratio of number of paths established and number of paths equipped in a node. We show that it fits for the RWA algorithm of the wavelength routed all-optical network through real experiments on the distributed objects platform.

  14. A review of known and hypothetical transmission routes for noroviruses.

    PubMed

    Mathijs, Elisabeth; Stals, Ambroos; Baert, Leen; Botteldoorn, Nadine; Denayer, Sarah; Mauroy, Axel; Scipioni, Alexandra; Daube, Georges; Dierick, Katelijne; Herman, Lieve; Van Coillie, Els; Uyttendaele, Mieke; Thiry, Etienne

    2012-12-01

    Human noroviruses (NoVs) are considered a worldwide leading cause of acute non-bacterial gastroenteritis. Due to a combination of prolonged shedding of high virus levels in feces, virus particle shedding during asymptomatic infections, and a high environmental persistence, NoVs are easily transmitted pathogens. Norovirus (NoV) outbreaks have often been reported and tend to affect a lot of people. NoV is spread via feces and vomit, but this NoV spread can occur through several transmission routes. While person-to-person transmission is without a doubt the dominant transmission route, human infective NoV outbreaks are often initiated by contaminated food or water. Zoonotic transmission of NoV has been investigated, but has thus far not been demonstrated. The presented review aims to give an overview of these NoV transmission routes. Regarding NoV person-to-person transmission, the NoV GII.4 genotype is discussed in the current review as it has been very successful for several decades but reasons for its success have only recently been suggested. Both pre-harvest and post-harvest contamination of food products can lead to NoV food borne illness. Pre-harvest contamination of food products mainly occurs via contact with polluted irrigation water in case of fresh produce or with contaminated harvesting water in case of bivalve molluscan shellfish. On the other hand, an infected food handler is considered as a major cause of post-harvest contamination of food products. Both transmission routes are reviewed by a summary of described NoV food borne outbreaks between 2000 and 2010. A third NoV transmission route occurs via water and the spread of NoV via river water, ground water, and surface water is reviewed. Finally, although zoonotic transmission remains hypothetical, a summary on the bovine and porcine NoV presence observed in animals is given and the presence of human infective NoV in animals is discussed.

  15. 76 FR 43773 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Sea Scallop Fishery; Framework Adjustment 22

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-21

    ... Adjustment 22; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 76 , No. 140 / Thursday, July 21, 2011 / Rules and... Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: NMFS is implementing measures specified in... access general category (LAGC) fleets; open area days-at-sea (DAS) and Sea Scallop Access Area...

  16. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Dobbs, Fred C.

    2003-01-15

    species of flagellates, Spumella sp. and Bodo sp. (identifications are tentative) were isolated from South Oyster sediments by repetitive serial dilution/extinction method. Protistan cells were cultured with Cereal leaf Prescott medium and pelleted by centrifugation. Protistan DNAs were extracted with a DNA extraction kit (Sigma Co.) and the sequencing of their SSrDNA is underway. Finally, to follow up on our collaboration of Dr. Bill Johnson (Univ. of Utah), one of the co-PIs under the same NABIR umbrella, we are pleased to report we have successfully tested antibody-ferrographic capture of protists (See previous year's report for more background). Polyclonal FITC-conjugated antibody specific for a flagellate, Spumella sp., was produced by Rockland Inc., and we now are able to enumerate that species using ferrographic capture. There are, however, some issues of non-specific staining that remain to be resolved.

  17. Method and apparatus for routing data in an inter-nodal communications lattice of a massively parallel computer system by employing bandwidth shells at areas of overutilization

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles Jens; Musselman, Roy Glenn; Peters, Amanda; Pinnow, Kurt Walter; Swartz, Brent Allen; Wallenfelt, Brian Paul

    2010-04-27

    A massively parallel computer system contains an inter-nodal communications network of node-to-node links. An automated routing strategy routes packets through one or more intermediate nodes of the network to reach a final destination. The default routing strategy is altered responsive to detection of overutilization of a particular path of one or more links, and at least some traffic is re-routed by distributing the traffic among multiple paths (which may include the default path). An alternative path may require a greater number of link traversals to reach the destination node.

  18. The deployment of routing protocols in distributed control plane of SDN.

    PubMed

    Jingjing, Zhou; Di, Cheng; Weiming, Wang; Rong, Jin; Xiaochun, Wu

    2014-01-01

    Software defined network (SDN) provides a programmable network through decoupling the data plane, control plane, and application plane from the original closed system, thus revolutionizing the existing network architecture to improve the performance and scalability. In this paper, we learned about the distributed characteristics of Kandoo architecture and, meanwhile, improved and optimized Kandoo's two levels of controllers based on ideological inspiration of RCP (routing control platform). Finally, we analyzed the deployment strategies of BGP and OSPF protocol in a distributed control plane of SDN. The simulation results show that our deployment strategies are superior to the traditional routing strategies.

  19. The Deployment of Routing Protocols in Distributed Control Plane of SDN

    PubMed Central

    Jingjing, Zhou; Di, Cheng; Weiming, Wang; Rong, Jin; Xiaochun, Wu

    2014-01-01

    Software defined network (SDN) provides a programmable network through decoupling the data plane, control plane, and application plane from the original closed system, thus revolutionizing the existing network architecture to improve the performance and scalability. In this paper, we learned about the distributed characteristics of Kandoo architecture and, meanwhile, improved and optimized Kandoo's two levels of controllers based on ideological inspiration of RCP (routing control platform). Finally, we analyzed the deployment strategies of BGP and OSPF protocol in a distributed control plane of SDN. The simulation results show that our deployment strategies are superior to the traditional routing strategies. PMID:25250395

  20. Exploration adjustment by ant colonies

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    How do animals in groups organize their work? Division of labour, i.e. the process by which individuals within a group choose which tasks to perform, has been extensively studied in social insects. Variability among individuals within a colony seems to underpin both the decision over which tasks to perform and the amount of effort to invest in a task. Studies have focused mainly on discrete tasks, i.e. tasks with a recognizable end. Here, we study the distribution of effort in nest seeking, in the absence of new nest sites. Hence, this task is open-ended and individuals have to decide when to stop searching, even though the task has not been completed. We show that collective search effort declines when colonies inhabit better homes, as a consequence of a reduction in the number of bouts (exploratory events). Furthermore, we show an increase in bout exploration time and a decrease in bout instantaneous speed for colonies inhabiting better homes. The effect of treatment on bout effort is very small; however, we suggest that the organization of work performed within nest searching is achieved both by a process of self-selection of the most hard-working ants and individual effort adjustment. PMID:26909180

  1. Bikeability and methodological issues using the active commuting route environment scale (ACRES) in a metropolitan setting

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Route environments can positively influence people's active commuting and thereby contribute to public health. The Active Commuting Route Environment Scale (ACRES) was developed to study active commuters' perceptions of their route environments. However, bicycle commuters represent a small portion of the population in many cities and thus are difficult to study using population-based material. Therefore, the aim of this study is to expand the state of knowledge concerning the criterion-related validity of the ACRES and the representativity using an advertisement-recruited sample. Furthermore, by comparing commuting route environment profiles of inner urban and suburban areas, we provide a novel basis for understanding the relationship between environment and bikeability. Methods Bicycle commuters from Greater Stockholm, Sweden, advertisement- (n = 1379) and street-recruited (n = 93), responded to the ACRES. Traffic planning and environmental experts from the Municipality of Stockholm (n = 24) responded to a modified version of the ACRES. The criterion-related validity assessments were based on whether or not differences between the inner urban and the suburban route environments, as indicated by the experts and by four existing objective measurements, were reflected by differences in perceptions of these environments. Comparisons of ratings between advertisement- and street-recruited participants were used for the assessments of representativity. Finally, ratings of inner urban and suburban route environments were used to evaluate commuting route environment profiles. Results Differences in ratings of the inner urban and suburban route environments by the advertisement-recruited participants were in accord with the existing objective measurements and corresponded reasonably well with those of the experts. Overall, there was a reasonably good correspondence between the advertisement- and street-recruited participants' ratings. Distinct differences in

  2. 1. Aerial view northnortheast, State Route 92 center left and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Aerial view north-northeast, State Route 92 center left and State Route 100 on right, duck pond, reservoir and farm complex buildings center bottom. - Winterthur Farms, Intersection State Routes 92 & 100, Intersection State Routes 92 & 100, Winterthur, New Castle County, DE

  3. 2. Aerial view northeast, State Route 92 bottom left and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Aerial view northeast, State Route 92 bottom left and State Route 100 center, Brandywine Creek State Park center right, duck pond and reservoir center bottom. - Winterthur Farms, Intersection State Routes 92 & 100, Intersection State Routes 92 & 100, Winterthur, New Castle County, DE

  4. 6. Aerial view northwest, State Route 100 bottom left and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Aerial view northwest, State Route 100 bottom left and center, Winterthur Train Station center left, Winterthur Farms dairy barns upper center , duck pond and reservoir center, State Route 92 center right, and Brandywine Creek State Park bottom right. - Winterthur Farms, Intersection State Routes 92 & 100, Intersection State Routes 92 & 100, Winterthur, New Castle County, DE

  5. Sonde Adjust Value-Added Product Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Troyan, D

    2012-01-09

    The Sonde Adjust (SONDEADJUST) value-added product (VAP) creates a file that includes all fields from original Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility (ARM Facility) radiosonde files and contains several value-added fields that provide adjustments related to well-known humidity issues. SONDEADJUST produces data that correct documented biases in radiosonde humidity measurements. Previous efforts towards applying some of these corrections are available via the discontinued PI product sgpsondecorr1miloC1. Unique fields contained within this datastream include smoothed original relative humidity, dry bias corrected relative humidity, and final corrected relative humidity. The smoothed RH field refines the relative humidity from integers-the resolution of the instrument-to fractions of a percent. This profile is then used to calculate the dry bias corrected field. The final correction fixes the time-lag problem and uses the dry-bias field as input into the algorithm. In addition to dry bias, solar heating is another correction that is encompassed in the final corrected RH field. Output from SONDEADJUST differs from the previous RH-corrected datastreams in important ways. First, all three types of ARM radiosondes-Vaisala RS-80, RS-90, and RS-92-are corrected using dedicated procedures and/or parameters. Second, the output variables include all of those found in the original radiosonde file: dry bulb temperature, dewpoint temperature, wind speed, wind direction, eastward wind component, northward wind component, wind status (a Vaisala-produced field used in conjunction with the Loran system), ascent rate, and original relative humidity. Additional humidity fields are smoothed relative humidity, dry biased corrected relative humidity, final ambient relative humidity, and scaled adjusted relative humidity. Third, quality control (QC) flags of the fields from the original radiosonde datastream are brought into the SONDEADJUST output file. Additional QC

  6. Automatic Extraction of Destinations, Origins and Route Parts from Human Generated Route Directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiao; Mitra, Prasenjit; Klippel, Alexander; Maceachren, Alan

    Researchers from the cognitive and spatial sciences are studying text descriptions of movement patterns in order to examine how humans communicate and understand spatial information. In particular, route directions offer a rich source of information on how cognitive systems conceptualize movement patterns by segmenting them into meaningful parts. Route directions are composed using a plethora of cognitive spatial organization principles: changing levels of granularity, hierarchical organization, incorporation of cognitively and perceptually salient elements, and so forth. Identifying such information in text documents automatically is crucial for enabling machine-understanding of human spatial language. The benefits are: a) creating opportunities for large-scale studies of human linguistic behavior; b) extracting and georeferencing salient entities (landmarks) that are used by human route direction providers; c) developing methods to translate route directions to sketches and maps; and d) enabling queries on large corpora of crawled/analyzed movement data. In this paper, we introduce our approach and implementations that bring us closer to the goal of automatically processing linguistic route directions. We report on research directed at one part of the larger problem, that is, extracting the three most critical parts of route directions and movement patterns in general: origin, destination, and route parts. We use machine-learning based algorithms to extract these parts of routes, including, for example, destination names and types. We prove the effectiveness of our approach in several experiments using hand-tagged corpora.

  7. Routes to Reading and Spelling: Testing the Predictions of Dual-Route Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheriston, Lee; Critten, Sarah; Jones, Emily

    2016-01-01

    Dual-route theory, which emphasizes the importance of lexical and nonlexical routes, makes specific predictions about the kinds of strategies that young students might adopt when attempting to correctly read and spell regular and irregular words. The current study tests these predictions by assessing strategy choice on regular, irregular, and…

  8. An Indirect Route for Ethanol Production

    SciTech Connect

    Eggeman, T.; Verser, D.; Weber, E.

    2005-04-29

    The ZeaChem indirect method is a radically new approach to producing fuel ethanol from renewable resources. Sugar and syngas processing platforms are combined in a novel way that allows all fractions of biomass feedstocks (e.g. carbohydrates, lignins, etc.) to contribute their energy directly into the ethanol product via fermentation and hydrogen based chemical process technologies. The goals of this project were: (1) Collect engineering data necessary for scale-up of the indirect route for ethanol production, and (2) Produce process and economic models to guide the development effort. Both goals were successfully accomplished. The projected economics of the Base Case developed in this work are comparable to today's corn based ethanol technology. Sensitivity analysis shows that significant improvements in economics for the indirect route would result if a biomass feedstock rather that starch hydrolyzate were used as the carbohydrate source. The energy ratio, defined as the ratio of green energy produced divided by the amount of fossil energy consumed, is projected to be 3.11 to 12.32 for the indirect route depending upon the details of implementation. Conventional technology has an energy ratio of 1.34, thus the indirect route will have a significant environmental advantage over today's technology. Energy savings of 7.48 trillion Btu/yr will result when 100 MMgal/yr (neat) of ethanol capacity via the indirect route is placed on-line by the year 2010.

  9. Impact of bicycle route type on exposure to traffic-related air pollution.

    PubMed

    MacNaughton, Piers; Melly, Steven; Vallarino, Jose; Adamkiewicz, Gary; Spengler, John D

    2014-08-15

    Cyclists are exposed to traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) during their commutes due to their proximity to vehicular traffic. Two of the main components of TRAP are black carbon (BC) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2), which have both been causally associated with increased mortality. To assess the impact of cyclists' exposure to TRAP, a battery-powered mobile monitoring station was designed to sample air pollutants along five bike routes in Boston, Massachusetts. The bike routes were categorized into three types: bike paths, which are separated from vehicle traffic; bike lanes, which are adjacent to traffic; and designated bike lanes, which are shared traffic lanes for buses and cyclists. Bike lanes were found to have significantly higher concentrations of BC and NO2 than bike paths in both adjusted and unadjusted generalized linear models. Higher concentrations were observed in designated bike lanes than bike paths; however, this association was only significant for NO2. After adjusting for traffic density, background concentration, and proximity to intersections, bike lanes were found to have concentrations of BC and NO2 that were approximately 33% higher than bike paths. Distance from the road, vegetation barriers, and reduced intersection density appear to influence these variations. These findings suggest that cyclists can reduce their exposure to TRAP during their commute by using bike paths preferentially over bike lanes regardless of the potential increase of traffic near these routes.

  10. Geologic and seismic investigations for relocation of Route 128 near Route 28 in Quincy, Mass.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    May, James E.

    1954-01-01

    In order to obtain information that would aid in locating a base line for the proposed relocation of Route 128 near Route 28 in Quincy, Mass., exploratory geologic and seismic studies were made of an area along a line between a point on present Route 128 approximately 800 feet east of the Milton-Quincy town line to a point on Route 28 approximately 600 feet to the north of the intersection of Route 28 and 128. This work was performed in September 1953 as part of a cooperative program of the Massachusetts Department of Public Works and the United States Department of the Interior, Geological Survey. Mr. M. E. Chandler and Mr. W. L. Carney, of the Mass. Dept. of Public Works, did the survey for the project and prepared the plans and profiles. Mr. handler also operated the seismic equipment and assisted in the preparation of the seismic velocity data.

  11. Ergonomic evaluation of the Apple Adjustable Keyboard

    SciTech Connect

    Tittiranonda, P.; Burastero, S.; Shih, M.; Rempel, D.

    1994-05-01

    This study presents an evaluation of the Apple Adjustable Keyboard based on subjective preference and observed joint angles during typing. Thirty five keyboard users were asked to use the Apple adjustable keyboard for 7--14 days and rate the various characteristics of the keyboard. Our findings suggest that the most preferred opening angles range from 11--20{degree}. The mean ulnar deviation on the Apple Adjustable keyboard is 11{degree}, compared to 16{degree} on the standard keyboard. The mean extension was decreased from 24{degree} to 16{degree} when using the adjustable keyboard. When asked to subjectively rate the adjustable keyboard in comparison to the standard, the average subject felt that the Apple Adjustable Keyboard was more comfortable and easier to use than the standard flat keyboard.

  12. Efficient Adjustable Reflectivity Smart Window

    SciTech Connect

    D. Morgan Tench

    2005-12-01

    This project addressed the key technical issues for development of an efficient smart window based on reversible electrochemical transfer of silver between a mirror electrode and a localized counter electrode. Effort to provide uniform switching over large areas focused on use of a resistive transparent electrode innerlayer to increase the interelectrode resistance. An effective edge seal was developed in collaboration with adhesive suppliers and an electrochromic device manufacturer. Work to provide a manufacturable counter electrode focused on fabricating a dot matrix electrode without photolithography by electrodeposition of Pt nuclei on inherent active sites on a transparent oxide conductor. An alternative counter electrode based on a conducting polymer and an ionic liquid electrolyte was also investigated. Work in all of these areas was successful. Sputtered large-bandgap oxide innerlayers sandwiched between conductive indium tin oxide (ITO) layers were shown to provide sufficient cross-layer resistance (>300 ohm/cm{sup 2}) without significantly affecting the electrochemical properties of the ITO overlayer. Two edge seal epoxies, one procured from an epoxy manufacturer and one provided by an electrochromic device manufacturer in finished seals, were shown to be effective barriers against oxygen intrusion up to 80 C. The optimum density of nuclei for the dot matrix counter electrode was attained without use of photolithography by electrodeposition from a commercial alkaline platinum plating bath. Silver loss issues for cells with dot matrix electrodes were successfully addressed by purifying the electrolyte and adjusting the cell cycling parameters. More than 30K cycles were demonstrated for a REM cell (30-cm square) with a dot matrix counter electrode. Larger cells (30-cm square) were successfully fabricated but could not be cycled since the nucleation layers (provided by an outside supplier) were defective so that mirror deposits could not be produced.

  13. Special Education Research; Napa County. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. John, Wesley V.; Young, Robert

    The final report provides information on a followup study of the post-school adjustment of former (1964-1975) special education secondary students in Napa Valley, California. A review of statistics (job related information, community contacts information, school information, and personal information) is presented for the following target groups:…

  14. APPLICATION AND USE OF DOSE ESTIMATING EXPOSURE MODEL (DEEM) FOR ROUTE TO ROUTE DOSE COMPARISONS AFTER EXPOSURE TO TRICHLOROETHYLENE (TCE)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Route-to-route extrapolations are a crucial step in many risk assessments. Often the doses which result In toxicological end points in one route must be compared with doses resulting from typical environmental exposures by another route. In this case we used EPA's Dose Estimati...

  15. Theory and New Primitives for Safely Connecting Routing Protocol Instances

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-08-01

    reliability, and load. The current route redistribution procedure handles this incompatibility in a crude fashion. It resets the metric of a redis ...routing instances can also be performed in a link-state manner whereby one routing instance passes on its entire link state database to another...routers B and A, respectively. However, route redis - tribution at multiple points can easily result in routing anomalies [8]. Hence, to support

  16. Intelligent emission-sensitive routing for plugin hybrid electric vehicles.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhonghao; Zhou, Xingshe

    2016-01-01

    The existing transportation sector creates heavily environmental impacts and is a prime cause for the current climate change. The need to reduce emissions from this sector has stimulated efforts to speed up the application of electric vehicles (EVs). A subset of EVs, called plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), backup batteries with combustion engine, which makes PHEVs have a comparable driving range to conventional vehicles. However, this hybridization comes at a cost of higher emissions than all-electric vehicles. This paper studies the routing problem for PHEVs to minimize emissions. The existing shortest-path based algorithms cannot be applied to solving this problem, because of the several new challenges: (1) an optimal route may contain circles caused by detour for recharging; (2) emissions of PHEVs not only depend on the driving distance, but also depend on the terrain and the state of charge (SOC) of batteries; (3) batteries can harvest energy by regenerative braking, which makes some road segments have negative energy consumption. To address these challenges, this paper proposes a green navigation algorithm (GNA) which finds the optimal strategies: where to go and where to recharge. GNA discretizes the SOC, then makes the PHEV routing problem to satisfy the principle of optimality. Finally, GNA adopts dynamic programming to solve the problem. We evaluate GNA using synthetic maps generated by the delaunay triangulation. The results show that GNA can save more than 10 % energy and reduce 10 % emissions when compared to the shortest path algorithm. We also observe that PHEVs with the battery capacity of 10-15 KWh detour most and nearly no detour when larger than 30 KWh. This observation gives some insights when developing PHEVs.

  17. Three-dimensional adjustment of trilateration data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sung, L.-Y.; Jackson, D. D.

    1985-01-01

    The three-dimensional locations of the monuments in the USGS Hollister trilateration network were adjusted to fit line length observations observed in 1977, using a Bayesian approach, and incorporating prior elevation estimates as data in the adjustment procedure. No significant discrepancies in the measured line lengths were found, but significant elevation adjustments (up to 1.85 m) were needed to fit the length data.

  18. Alternative Route Graphs in Road Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bader, Roland; Dees, Jonathan; Geisberger, Robert; Sanders, Peter

    Every human likes choices. But today's fast route planning algorithms usually compute just a single route between source and target. There are beginnings to compute alternative routes, but there is a gap between the intuition of humans what makes a good alternative and mathematical definitions needed for grasping these concepts algorithmically. In this paper we make several steps towards closing this gap: Based on the concept of an alternative graph that can compactly encode many alternatives, we define and motivate several attributes quantifying the quality of the alternative graph. We show that it is already NP-hard to optimize a simple objective function combining two of these attributes and therefore turn to heuristics. The combination of the refined penalty based iterative shortest path routine and the previously proposed Plateau heuristics yields best results. A user study confirms these results.

  19. Pheromone Static Routing Strategy for Complex Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Mao-Bin; Henry, Y. K. Lau; Ling, Xiang; Jiang, Rui

    2012-12-01

    We adopt the concept of using pheromones to generate a set of static paths that can reach the performance of global dynamic routing strategy [Phys. Rev. E 81 (2010) 016113]. The path generation method consists of two stages. In the first stage, a pheromone is dropped to the nodes by packets forwarded according to the global dynamic routing strategy. In the second stage, pheromone static paths are generated according to the pheromone density. The output paths can greatly improve traffic systems' overall capacity on different network structures, including scale-free networks, small-world networks and random graphs. Because the paths are static, the system needs much less computational resources than the global dynamic routing strategy.

  20. Genetic algorithms for the vehicle routing problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volna, Eva

    2016-06-01

    The Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP) is one of the most challenging combinatorial optimization tasks. This problem consists in designing the optimal set of routes for fleet of vehicles in order to serve a given set of customers. Evolutionary algorithms are general iterative algorithms for combinatorial optimization. These algorithms have been found to be very effective and robust in solving numerous problems from a wide range of application domains. This problem is known to be NP-hard; hence many heuristic procedures for its solution have been suggested. For such problems it is often desirable to obtain approximate solutions, so they can be found fast enough and are sufficiently accurate for the purpose. In this paper we have performed an experimental study that indicates the suitable use of genetic algorithms for the vehicle routing problem.

  1. Multi-adjustable headband. [for headsets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toole, Pierce C. (Inventor); Chalson, Howard E. (Inventor); Bussey, Walter S. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    This invention relates to a headband for a headset having separate coarse and fine adjustment features. The adjustments may be to the axial distance between at least one earpiece element and a side support. Such adjustment to the axial distance varies the pressure exerted on the head of the user. The present fine adjustment feature may be used while the headset is being worn, thereby permitting a user to optimize the amount of pressure between the contending criteria of comfort and keeping the headset in place on the user's head.

  2. Standardization of age-adjusted mortality rates

    SciTech Connect

    Selvin, S.; Sacks, S.T.; Merrill, D.W.

    1980-02-01

    Because age is a significant variable in the occurrence and frequency of human disease, any comparison of disease or mortality rates, to be useful, must be age-specific or age-adjusted. Age-specific comparisons are not always appropriate or possible, however. A common method of eliminating the influence of age in comparing mortality rates from one community to another is to employ statistical methods of age-adjustment. While a variety of methods will accomplish this task, most are weighted averages of the age-specific rates. Two widely used adjustment procedures are direct and indirect age-adjustment.

  3. Branch-pipe-routing approach for ships using improved genetic algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sui, Haiteng; Niu, Wentie

    2016-09-01

    Branch-pipe routing plays fundamental and critical roles in ship-pipe design. The branch-pipe-routing problem is a complex combinatorial optimization problem and is thus difficult to solve when depending only on human experts. A modified genetic-algorithm-based approach is proposed in this paper to solve this problem. The simplified layout space is first divided into threedimensional (3D) grids to build its mathematical model. Branch pipes in layout space are regarded as a combination of several two-point pipes, and the pipe route between two connection points is generated using an improved maze algorithm. The coding of branch pipes is then defined, and the genetic operators are devised, especially the complete crossover strategy that greatly accelerates the convergence speed. Finally, simulation tests demonstrate the performance of proposed method.

  4. Internet worms and global routing instabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowie, James; Ogielski, Andy T.; Premore, B. J.; Yuan, Yougu

    2002-07-01

    We analyze the global BGP routing instabilities observed during the Code Red II and Nimda worm attacks in July and September 2001, respectively. Compelling analysis is shown on the correlation between the observed instabilities and the worm attacks. We analyze router failure modes that can be triggered by the abnormal traffic during the worm attack and how they can lead to global routing instability. Independent research has partially confirmed that such failure modes can and likely do occur in practice. Highly detailed large-scale simulations help close the loop, indicating that such failure modes do in fact trigger the kind of widespread BGP instabilities that were observed empirically.

  5. Reconfigurable Robust Routing for Mobile Outreach Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Ching-Fang

    2010-01-01

    The Reconfigurable Robust Routing for Mobile Outreach Network (R3MOO N) provides advanced communications networking technologies suitable for the lunar surface environment and applications. The R3MOON techn ology is based on a detailed concept of operations tailored for luna r surface networks, and includes intelligent routing algorithms and wireless mesh network implementation on AGNC's Coremicro Robots. The product's features include an integrated communication solution inco rporating energy efficiency and disruption-tolerance in a mobile ad h oc network, and a real-time control module to provide researchers an d engineers a convenient tool for reconfiguration, investigation, an d management.

  6. Multiple routes of drug administration and HIV risk among injecting drug users.

    PubMed

    Vorobjov, Sigrid; Uusküla, Anneli; Des Jarlais, Don C; Abel-Ollo, Katri; Talu, Ave; Rüütel, Kristi

    2012-06-01

    This study assesses relationships between drug administration routes and HIV serostatus, drug use, and sexual behaviors among current injecting drug users (IDUs) in Tallinn, Estonia. We recruited 350 IDUs for a cross-sectional risk behavior survey. Adjusted odds ratios (AORs) were calculated to explore injection risk behavior, sexual behavior, and HIV serostatus associated with multiple route use. Focus groups explored reasons why injectors might use non-injecting routes of administration. Those reporting multiple drug administration routes were less likely to be HIV seropositive (AOR = 0.49, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.25-0.97) and had almost twice the odds of having more than one sexual partner (AOR = 1.90, 95% CI = 1.01-3.60) and of reporting having sexually transmitted diseases (AOR = 2.38, 95% CI = 1.02-5.59). IDUs who engage in noninjecting drug use may be reducing their risk of acquiring HIV though sharing injection equipment, but if infected may be a critical group for sexual transmission of HIV to people who do not inject drugs.

  7. A Survey on Routing Protocols for Large-Scale Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Li, Changle; Zhang, Hanxiao; Hao, Binbin; Li, Jiandong

    2011-01-01

    and other metrics. Finally some open issues in routing protocol design in large-scale wireless sensor networks and conclusions are proposed. PMID:22163808

  8. Would you follow your own route description? Cognitive strategies in urban route planning.

    PubMed

    Hölscher, Christoph; Tenbrink, Thora; Wiener, Jan M

    2011-11-01

    This paper disentangles cognitive and communicative factors influencing planning strategies in the everyday task of choosing a route to a familiar location. Describing the way for a stranger in town calls for fundamentally different cognitive processes and strategies than actually walking to a destination. In a series of experiments, this paper addresses route choices, planning processes, and description strategies in a familiar urban environment when asked to walk to a goal location, to describe a route for oneself, or to describe a route for an addressee. Results show systematic differences in the chosen routes with respect to efficiency, number of turns and streets, and street size. The analysis of verbal data provides consistent further insights concerning the nature of the underlying cognitive processes. Actual route navigation is predominantly direction-based and characterized by incremental perception-based optimization processes. In contrast, in-advance route descriptions draw on memory resources to a higher degree and accordingly rely more on salient graph-based structures, and they are affected by concerns of communicability. The results are consistent with the assumption that strategy choice follows a principle of cognitive economy that is highly adaptive to the degree of perceptual information available for the task.

  9. Coherent Risk-Adjusted Decisions Over Time: a Bilevel Programming Approach

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-23

    AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2015-0310 Coherent Risk -Adjusted Decisions Over Time: a Bilevel Programming Approach Jonathan Eckstein RUTGERS THE STATE UNIVERSITY...14/2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Final Project Report: Coherent Risk -Adjusted Decisions over Time: a Bilevel Programming Approach 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...tested two techniques for approximating a time-inconsistent risk -averse objective function with a time-consistent one. We also investigated rolling

  10. A Physically Based Runoff Routing Model for Land Surface and Earth System Models

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Hongyi; Wigmosta, Mark S.; Wu, Huan; Huang, Maoyi; Ke, Yinghai; Coleman, Andre M.; Leung, Lai-Yung R.

    2013-06-13

    A new physically based runoff routing model, called the Model for Scale Adaptive River Transport (MOSART), has been developed to be applicable across local, regional, and global scales. Within each spatial unit, surface runoff is first routed across hillslopes and then discharged along with subsurface runoff into a ‘‘tributary subnetwork’’ before entering the main channel. The spatial units are thus linked via routing through the main channel network, which is constructed in a scale-consistent way across different spatial resolutions. All model parameters are physically based, and only a small subset requires calibration.MOSART has been applied to the Columbia River basin at 1/ 168, 1/ 88, 1/ 48, and 1/ 28 spatial resolutions and was evaluated using naturalized or observed streamflow at a number of gauge stations. MOSART is compared to two other routing models widely used with land surface models, the River Transport Model (RTM) in the Community Land Model (CLM) and the Lohmann routing model, included as a postprocessor in the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model package, yielding consistent performance at multiple resolutions. MOSART is further evaluated using the channel velocities derived from field measurements or a hydraulic model at various locations and is shown to be capable of producing the seasonal variation and magnitude of channel velocities reasonably well at different resolutions. Moreover, the impacts of spatial resolution on model simulations are systematically examined at local and regional scales. Finally, the limitations ofMOSART and future directions for improvements are discussed.

  11. Using Grey Wolf Algorithm to Solve the Capacitated Vehicle Routing Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korayem, L.; Khorsid, M.; Kassem, S. S.

    2015-05-01

    The capacitated vehicle routing problem (CVRP) is a class of the vehicle routing problems (VRPs). In CVRP a set of identical vehicles having fixed capacities are required to fulfill customers' demands for a single commodity. The main objective is to minimize the total cost or distance traveled by the vehicles while satisfying a number of constraints, such as: the capacity constraint of each vehicle, logical flow constraints, etc. One of the methods employed in solving the CVRP is the cluster-first route-second method. It is a technique based on grouping of customers into a number of clusters, where each cluster is served by one vehicle. Once clusters are formed, a route determining the best sequence to visit customers is established within each cluster. The recently bio-inspired grey wolf optimizer (GWO), introduced in 2014, has proven to be efficient in solving unconstrained, as well as, constrained optimization problems. In the current research, our main contributions are: combining GWO with the traditional K-means clustering algorithm to generate the ‘K-GWO’ algorithm, deriving a capacitated version of the K-GWO algorithm by incorporating a capacity constraint into the aforementioned algorithm, and finally, developing 2 new clustering heuristics. The resulting algorithm is used in the clustering phase of the cluster-first route-second method to solve the CVR problem. The algorithm is tested on a number of benchmark problems with encouraging results.

  12. Confined linear carbon chains as a route to bulk carbyne

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Lei; Rohringer, Philip; Suenaga, Kazu; Niimi, Yoshiko; Kotakoski, Jani; Meyer, Jannik C.; Peterlik, Herwig; Wanko, Marius; Cahangirov, Seymur; Rubio, Angel; Lapin, Zachary J.; Novotny, Lukas; Ayala, Paola; Pichler, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    Strong chemical activity and extreme instability in ambient conditions characterize carbyne, an infinite sp1 hybridized carbon chain. As a result, much less has been explored about carbyne as compared to other carbon allotropes such as fullerenes, nanotubes and graphene. Although end-capping groups can be used to stabilize carbon chains, length limitations are still a barrier for production, and even more so for application. We report a method for the bulk production of long acetylenic linear carbon chains protected by thin double-walled carbon nanotubes. The synthesis of very long arrangements is confirmed by a combination of transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and (near-field) resonance Raman spectroscopy. Our results establish a route for the bulk production of exceptionally long and stable chains composed of more than 6,000 carbon atoms, representing an elegant forerunner towards the final goal of carbyne’s bulk production.

  13. Applying green chemistry to the photochemical route to artemisinin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amara, Zacharias; Bellamy, Jessica F. B.; Horvath, Raphael; Miller, Samuel J.; Beeby, Andrew; Burgard, Andreas; Rossen, Kai; Poliakoff, Martyn; George, Michael W.

    2015-06-01

    Artemisinin is an important antimalarial drug, but, at present, the environmental and economic costs of its semi-synthetic production are relatively high. Most of these costs lie in the final chemical steps, which follow a complex acid- and photo-catalysed route with oxygenation by both singlet and triplet oxygen. We demonstrate that applying the principles of green chemistry can lead to innovative strategies that avoid many of the problems in current photochemical processes. The first strategy combines the use of liquid CO2 as solvent and a dual-function solid acid/photocatalyst. The second strategy is an ambient-temperature reaction in aqueous mixtures of organic solvents, where the only inputs are dihydroartemisinic acid, O2 and light, and the output is pure, crystalline artemisinin. Everything else—solvents, photocatalyst and aqueous acid—can be recycled. Some aspects developed here through green chemistry are likely to have wider application in photochemistry and other reactions.

  14. Applying green chemistry to the photochemical route to artemisinin.

    PubMed

    Amara, Zacharias; Bellamy, Jessica F B; Horvath, Raphael; Miller, Samuel J; Beeby, Andrew; Burgard, Andreas; Rossen, Kai; Poliakoff, Martyn; George, Michael W

    2015-06-01

    Artemisinin is an important antimalarial drug, but, at present, the environmental and economic costs of its semi-synthetic production are relatively high. Most of these costs lie in the final chemical steps, which follow a complex acid- and photo-catalysed route with oxygenation by both singlet and triplet oxygen. We demonstrate that applying the principles of green chemistry can lead to innovative strategies that avoid many of the problems in current photochemical processes. The first strategy combines the use of liquid CO2 as solvent and a dual-function solid acid/photocatalyst. The second strategy is an ambient-temperature reaction in aqueous mixtures of organic solvents, where the only inputs are dihydroartemisinic acid, O2 and light, and the output is pure, crystalline artemisinin. Everything else-solvents, photocatalyst and aqueous acid-can be recycled. Some aspects developed here through green chemistry are likely to have wider application in photochemistry and other reactions.

  15. A reduction nitridation route to boron nitride nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, X.; Wang, X.; Liu, J.; Wang, Z.; Qian, Y.

    2005-10-01

    Multiwalled boron nitride nanotubes were synthesized through a simple reduction nitridation route, in which boron trifluoride etherate ((C2H5)2OBF3) and sodium azide (NaN3) were used as reactants in the presence of Fe-Ni powder at 600 °C for 12 h. The obtained BN nanotubes have an average outer diameter of 60 nm, an average inner diameter of 30 nm, and an average length up to 300 nm. Some nanobamboo structured BN were found coexisting with the BN nanotubes. The experimental results show that the reaction temperature and Fe-Ni powder play important roles in the formation of BN nanotubes. Finally, a possible formation mechanism is also discussed.

  16. [Anatomophysiological bases of drug administration. Dosage forms and routes of administration].

    PubMed

    Carillo Norte, Juan Antonio; Gañán Presmanes, Yolanda

    2010-12-01

    The administration of the right dose to the right patient is of paramount importance to obtain an optimal drug response within the scope of clinical pharmacology and tailored medicine. The marketing of safer and more efficient drug entities, along with the development of new drug administration devices provide a major boost for the diagnosis and treatment of diseases, beyond our imagination. However dose adjustment is not enough to produced the desired effect, and drug therapy should include an appropriate route of drug administration. Currently, there are many different and sophisticated methods to incorporate drugs into the patients that nurses should be familiar with. When there is no contraindication, oral route of drug administration is of choice and most frequently used as a physiological pathway of drug intake.

  17. Solution‐Processed Vertically Stacked Complementary Organic Circuits with Inkjet‐Printed Routing

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Jimin; Kyung, Sujeong; Yoon, Sejung

    2016-01-01

    The fabrication and measurements of solution‐processed vertically stacked complementary organic field‐effect transistors (FETs) with a high static noise margin (SNM) are reported. In the device structure, a bottom‐gate p‐type organic FET (PFET) is vertically integrated on a top‐gate n‐type organic FET (NFET) with the gate shared in‐between. A new strategy has been proposed to maximize the SNM by matching the driving strengths of the PFET and the NFET by independently adjusting the dielectric capacitance of each type of transistor. Using ideally balanced inverters with the transistor‐on‐transistor structure, the first examples of universal logic gates by inkjet‐printed routing are demonstrated. It is believed that this work can be extended to large‐scale complementary integrated circuits with a high transistor density, simpler routing path, and high yield. PMID:27812468

  18. Routing Based on Length of Time of Available Connection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anandappan, Thanga (Inventor); Roy, Aloke (Inventor); Malve, Sharath Babu (Inventor); Toth, Louis T. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    In an embodiment, a method of routing packets at a first node in an ad-hoc network is provided. The method includes receiving, at the first node, a plurality of route-alive messages corresponding to a destination, each of the plurality of route-alive messages including a route time indicating a length of time in which a communicative connection is available between the second node that sent the respective route-alive message and the destination. The method also includes determining an updated route time for each second node. The updated route time corresponds to a length of time in which a communication connection is available between the first node and the destination through the respective second node. A second node is selected for sending a packet to based on the updated route time for each of the second nodes, wherein a node having a longer updated route time is given higher priority for selection.

  19. Family Adjustment Measure: Scale Construction and Validation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daire, Andrew P.; Dominguez, Vanessa N.; Carlson, Ryan G.; Case-Pease, Jenene

    2014-01-01

    We administered the Family Adjustment Measure to 368 parents of children with special needs to identify positive adjustment. We randomly split the sample to conduct exploratory factor analysis ("n" = 194) and confirmatory factor analysis ("n" = 174). Results indicated four possible subscales and that explain 51% of the variance.

  20. 49 CFR 630.11 - Data adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Data adjustments. 630.11 Section 630.11 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION NATIONAL TRANSIT DATABASE § 630.11 Data adjustments. Errors in the data used...

  1. 49 CFR 630.11 - Data adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Data adjustments. 630.11 Section 630.11 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION NATIONAL TRANSIT DATABASE § 630.11 Data adjustments. Errors in the data used...

  2. 49 CFR 630.11 - Data adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Data adjustments. 630.11 Section 630.11 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION NATIONAL TRANSIT DATABASE § 630.11 Data adjustments. Errors in the data used...

  3. 49 CFR 630.11 - Data adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Data adjustments. 630.11 Section 630.11 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION NATIONAL TRANSIT DATABASE § 630.11 Data adjustments. Errors in the data used...

  4. 49 CFR 630.11 - Data adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Data adjustments. 630.11 Section 630.11 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION NATIONAL TRANSIT DATABASE § 630.11 Data adjustments. Errors in the data used...

  5. Parenting Styles and Adjustment in Gifted Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pilarinos, Vassiliki; Solomon, C. R.

    2017-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship between parenting styles and the psychosocial adjustment of 48 children aged 7 to 11 years, each of whom had been identified as gifted on the basis of a score of 130 or above on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children--Fourth Edition. Parenting styles and child psychosocial adjustment were measured…

  6. Ergonomically Adjustable School Furniture for Male Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Saleh, Khalid S.; Ramadan, Mohamed Z.; Al-Ashaikh, Riyad A.

    2013-01-01

    The need for adjustability in school furniture, in order to accommodate the variation in anthropometric measures of different genders, cultures and ages is becoming increasingly important. Four chair-table combinations, different in dimensions, with adjustable chair seating heights and table heights were designed, manufactured and distributed to…

  7. Adjustable, Audible Continuity Tester For Delicate Circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcalister, William B.

    1988-01-01

    Unit adjustable to resistances up to 35 ohms. Adjustable, audible electrical-continuity tester gives audible indication. Used safely on circuit boards in which semiconductor components installed, and on complementary metal oxide/semiconductor integrated circuits. Tester compact and circuit simple. Built from inexpensive standard components.

  8. Adjustably Preloaded Quick-Release Pin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reimers, Harold W.

    1992-01-01

    Modified adjustable-grip-length quick-release pin holds two bodies together. Threaded shaft of pin threaded in floating nut to pretension fastener. Pin connects and disconnects rapidly and adjusted to accommodate small differences between thicknesses of nominally identical sets of parts to be attached to each other.

  9. 78 FR 70080 - Market Dominant Price Adjustment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-22

    ... Market Dominant Price Adjustment AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The... market dominant products. The adjustments are scheduled to take effect January 26, 2014. This notice.... Ordering Paragraphs I. Overview A. Index-Based Price Changes for Market Dominant Classes of Mail...

  10. College Student Adjustment and Health Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Lisa Anne

    2010-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between student adjustment theory and college student health behaviors. Specifically, this research examined first-year freshmen college student physical activity and nutrition behaviors and impact on adjustment to college (N = 37,564). The design for this study was a non-experimental "ex post facto"…

  11. 34 CFR 36.2 - Penalty adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Title IV of the HEA, which authorizes the Federal Family Education Loan Program $35,000. 20 U.S.C. 1094... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Penalty adjustment. 36.2 Section 36.2 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education ADJUSTMENT OF CIVIL MONETARY PENALTIES FOR INFLATION §...

  12. 28 CFR 11.7 - Salary adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Salary adjustments. 11.7 Section 11.7 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE DEBT COLLECTION Administration of Debt Collection § 11.7 Salary adjustments. The following debts shall not be subject to the salary offset procedures of §...

  13. 28 CFR 11.7 - Salary adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Salary adjustments. 11.7 Section 11.7 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE DEBT COLLECTION Administration of Debt Collection § 11.7 Salary adjustments. The following debts shall not be subject to the salary offset procedures of §...

  14. 28 CFR 11.7 - Salary adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Salary adjustments. 11.7 Section 11.7 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE DEBT COLLECTION Administration of Debt Collection § 11.7 Salary adjustments. The following debts shall not be subject to the salary offset procedures of §...

  15. 28 CFR 11.7 - Salary adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Salary adjustments. 11.7 Section 11.7 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE DEBT COLLECTION Administration of Debt Collection § 11.7 Salary adjustments. The following debts shall not be subject to the salary offset procedures of §...

  16. 28 CFR 11.7 - Salary adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Salary adjustments. 11.7 Section 11.7 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE DEBT COLLECTION Administration of Debt Collection § 11.7 Salary adjustments. The following debts shall not be subject to the salary offset procedures of §...

  17. 24 CFR 9.155 - Housing adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Housing adjustments. 9.155 Section 9.155 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban... THE DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT § 9.155 Housing adjustments. (a) The agency...

  18. 24 CFR 9.155 - Housing adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Housing adjustments. 9.155 Section 9.155 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban... THE DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT § 9.155 Housing adjustments. (a) The agency...

  19. 24 CFR 9.155 - Housing adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Housing adjustments. 9.155 Section 9.155 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban... THE DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT § 9.155 Housing adjustments. (a) The agency...

  20. 24 CFR 9.155 - Housing adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Housing adjustments. 9.155 Section 9.155 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban... THE DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT § 9.155 Housing adjustments. (a) The agency...

  1. 24 CFR 9.155 - Housing adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Housing adjustments. 9.155 Section 9.155 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban... THE DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT § 9.155 Housing adjustments. (a) The agency...

  2. Fuel injection pump with adjustable timing

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamura, H.; Abe, N.

    1987-04-28

    A fuel injection pump is described comprising: a pump body; a plunger disposed in the pump body for reciprocating within the pump body; and a pre-stroke adjusting mechanism disposed in the pump body and operatively connected with the plunger for adjusting an effective pre-stroke of the plunger.

  3. 10 CFR 905.34 - Adjustment provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Adjustment provisions. 905.34 Section 905.34 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT PROGRAM Power Marketing Initiative § 905.34 Adjustment...-term firm power contracts only as required to respond to changes in hydrology and river...

  4. 10 CFR 905.34 - Adjustment provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Adjustment provisions. 905.34 Section 905.34 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT PROGRAM Power Marketing Initiative § 905.34 Adjustment...-term firm power contracts only as required to respond to changes in hydrology and river...

  5. 10 CFR 905.34 - Adjustment provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Adjustment provisions. 905.34 Section 905.34 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT PROGRAM Power Marketing Initiative § 905.34 Adjustment...-term firm power contracts only as required to respond to changes in hydrology and river...

  6. 10 CFR 905.34 - Adjustment provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Adjustment provisions. 905.34 Section 905.34 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT PROGRAM Power Marketing Initiative § 905.34 Adjustment...-term firm power contracts only as required to respond to changes in hydrology and river...

  7. Psychological Separation and Adjustment to College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapsley, Daniel K.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Examined relationship between psychological separation and adjustment to college in freshmen (N=130) and upperclassmen (N=123). Found freshmen showed more psychological dependencies on parents than upperclassmen; separation appeared more strongly related to personal/emotional adjustment, particularly functional and emotional independence from…

  8. Divorcing Parents: Guidelines for Promoting Children's Adjustment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Kurt A.; Adams, Christina D; Drabman, Ronald S.

    1998-01-01

    There are measures that parents can take to help their children through the often distressing process of parental divorce. Describes the empirical literature regarding issues and factors relevant to children's adjustment to divorce. Provides practical guidelines and suggestions likely to help parents enhance their children's adjustment.…

  9. 7 CFR 2201.30 - Adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Adjustments. 2201.30 Section 2201.30 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) LOCAL TELEVISION LOAN GUARANTEE BOARD LOCAL TELEVISION LOAN GUARANTEE PROGRAM-PROGRAM REGULATIONS Loan Guarantees § 2201.30 Adjustments. (a) The...

  10. 7 CFR 2201.30 - Adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Adjustments. 2201.30 Section 2201.30 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) LOCAL TELEVISION LOAN GUARANTEE BOARD LOCAL TELEVISION LOAN GUARANTEE PROGRAM-PROGRAM REGULATIONS Loan Guarantees § 2201.30 Adjustments. (a) The...

  11. Does Fall History Influence Residential Adjustments?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leland, Natalie; Porell, Frank; Murphy, Susan L.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose of the study: To determine whether reported falls at baseline are associated with an older adult's decision to make a residential adjustment (RA) and the type of adjustment made in the subsequent 2 years. Design and Methods: Observations (n = 25,036) were from the Health and Retirement Study, a nationally representative sample of…

  12. 15 CFR 6.6 - Subsequent adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Subsequent adjustments. 6.6 Section 6.6 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce CIVIL MONETARY PENALTY INFLATION... once every four years after October 23, 1996, make the inflation adjustment, described in Section...

  13. 15 CFR 6.6 - Subsequent adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Subsequent adjustments. 6.6 Section 6.6 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce CIVIL MONETARY PENALTY INFLATION... once every four years after October 23, 1996, make the inflation adjustment, described in Section...

  14. 24 CFR 902.24 - Database adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Database adjustment. 902.24 Section 902.24 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (CONTINUED... PUBLIC HOUSING ASSESSMENT SYSTEM Physical Condition Indicator § 902.24 Database adjustment....

  15. 24 CFR 902.24 - Database adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Database adjustment. 902.24 Section 902.24 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (CONTINUED... PUBLIC HOUSING ASSESSMENT SYSTEM Physical Condition Indicator § 902.24 Database adjustment....

  16. 24 CFR 902.24 - Database adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Database adjustment. 902.24 Section 902.24 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (CONTINUED... PUBLIC HOUSING ASSESSMENT SYSTEM Physical Condition Indicator § 902.24 Database adjustment....

  17. 24 CFR 902.24 - Database adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Database adjustment. 902.24 Section 902.24 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (CONTINUED... PUBLIC HOUSING ASSESSMENT SYSTEM Physical Condition Indicator § 902.24 Database adjustment....

  18. A Digital Game for International Students' Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bisadi, Maryam; Chua, Alton Y. K; Keong, Lee Chu

    2013-01-01

    Although digital games have been developed for various subject areas, little attention has been focused on using digital games to address international students' adjustment issues. For this reason, this paper endeavors to explore the use of a digital game in facilitating international students acquire adjustment-related information. Specifically,…

  19. Adjustable Optical Mount Is More Rigid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asbury, Bill G.; Coombs, David S.; Jones, Irby W.; Moore, Alvah S., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Improved mount for lens or mirror in laser offers rigidity similar to that of nonadjustable optical mount. In comparison with older adjustable optical mounts, this one less susceptible to movements and distortions caused by vibrations and by thermal expansions and contractions. Mount contains neither adjustment rods (which grow or shrink as temperature varies) nor springs (which transmit vibrations to mounted optic).

  20. Religiousity, Spirituality and Adolescents' Self-Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Japar, Muhammad; Purwati

    2014-01-01

    Religiuosity, spirituality, and adolescents' self-adjustment. The objective of this study is to test the correlation among religiosity, spirituality and adolescents' self-adjustment. A quantitative approach was employed in this study. Data were collected from 476 junior high schools students of 13 State Junior High Schools and one Junior High…

  1. Generation Of Manufacturing Routing And Operations Using Structured Knowledge As Basis To Application Of Computer Aided In Process Planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oswaldo, Luiz Agostinho

    2011-01-01

    The development of computer aided resources in automation of generation of manufacturing routings and operations is being mainly accomplished through the search of similarities between existent ones, resulting standard process routings that are grouped by analysis of similarities between parts or routings. This article proposes the development of manufacturing routings and operations detailment using a methodology which steps will define the initial, intermediate and final operations, starting from the rough piece and going up to the final specifications, that must have binunivocal relationship with the part design specifications. Each step will use the so called rules of precedence to link and chain the routing operations. The rules of precedence order and prioritize the knowledge of various manufacturing processes, taking in account the theories of machining, forging, assembly, and heat treatments; also, utilizes the theories of accumulation of tolerances and process capabilities, between others. It is also reinforced the availability of manufacturing databases related to process tolerances, deviations of machine tool- cutting tool- fixturing devices—workpiece, and process capabilities. The statement and application of rules of precedence, linking and joining manufacturing concepts in a logical and structured way, and their application in the methodology steps will make viable the utilization of structured knowledge instead of tacit one currently available in the manufacturing engineering departments, in the generation of manufacturing routing and operations. Consequently, the development of Computer Aided in Process Planning will be facilitated, due to the structured knowledge applied with this methodology.

  2. 15 CFR 6.5 - Effective date of adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... INFLATION ADJUSTMENTS § 6.5 Effective date of adjustments. The adjustments made by § 6.4 of this part, of... December 11, 2008, and before the effective date of any future inflation adjustment thereto made...

  3. 15 CFR 6.5 - Effective date of adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... INFLATION ADJUSTMENTS § 6.5 Effective date of adjustments. The adjustments made by § 6.4 of this part, of... December 11, 2008, and before the effective date of any future inflation adjustment thereto made...

  4. Risk for Exposure to Alcohol, Tobacco, and Other Drugs on the Route to and from School: The Role of Alcohol Outlets

    PubMed Central

    Milam, AJ; Furr-Holden, CDM; Cooley-Strickland, MC; Bradshaw, CP; Leaf, PJ

    2013-01-01

    Despite the national push encouraging children to walk to school, little work has been done to examine what hazards children encounter on the route to school. This study examined the association between the presence of alcohol outlets on children’s route to school and perceived safety on the route to school as well as exposure to alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs (ATOD). Data come from a community-based epidemiological study of 394 urban elementary school students. Participants’ residential address, school location, and alcohol outlet data were geocoded and the route to school was mapped. The route to school layer and the geocoded alcohol outlet data were joined to determine the number of alcohol outlets children pass on the route to school. Logistic regression models estimated the association between the presence of alcohol outlets on the route to school, alcohol and drug exposure, and self-reported safety. Children with an alcohol outlet on the route to school were more likely to be offered ATOD (OR= 2.20, p=.02) as well as be exposed to drug selling (OR=1.72, p=.02) and seeing people using drugs (OR=1.93, p=.02). After adjusting for individual-level variables the relationship between presence of alcohol outlets and being offered ATOD and seeing people using drugs remained significant. However, after adjusting for individual-level control variables and a proxy for the larger neighborhood context, the association between the presence of alcohol outlets and exposure to ATOD was no longer significant. As national campaigns are encouraging children to walk to school it is essential to consider what children are exposed to on the route to school. PMID:23408286

  5. Online PBL: A Route to Sustainability Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomkinson, Bland; Hutt, Ian

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate online problem-based learning (PBL) as a route to achieving sustainability education using sponsored projects. Design/methodology/approach: The Royal Academy of Engineering sponsored project at Manchester; to foster education in sustainability through inter-disciplinary problem-based approaches,…

  6. Routing in Networks with Random Topologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bambos, Nicholas

    1997-01-01

    We examine the problems of routing and server assignment in networks with random connectivities. In such a network the basic topology is fixed, but during each time slot and for each of tis input queues, each server (node) is either connected to or disconnected from each of its queues with some probability.

  7. A Geographical Heuristic Routing Protocol for VANETs

    PubMed Central

    Urquiza-Aguiar, Luis; Tripp-Barba, Carolina; Aguilar Igartua, Mónica

    2016-01-01

    Vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) leverage the communication system of Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS). Recently, Delay-Tolerant Network (DTN) routing protocols have increased their popularity among the research community for being used in non-safety VANET applications and services like traffic reporting. Vehicular DTN protocols use geographical and local information to make forwarding decisions. However, current proposals only consider the selection of the best candidate based on a local-search. In this paper, we propose a generic Geographical Heuristic Routing (GHR) protocol that can be applied to any DTN geographical routing protocol that makes forwarding decisions hop by hop. GHR includes in its operation adaptations simulated annealing and Tabu-search meta-heuristics, which have largely been used to improve local-search results in discrete optimization. We include a complete performance evaluation of GHR in a multi-hop VANET simulation scenario for a reporting service. Our study analyzes all of the meaningful configurations of GHR and offers a statistical analysis of our findings by means of MANOVA tests. Our results indicate that the use of a Tabu list contributes to improving the packet delivery ratio by around 5% to 10%. Moreover, if Tabu is used, then the simulated annealing routing strategy gets a better performance than the selection of the best node used with carry and forwarding (default operation). PMID:27669254

  8. Automated Flight Routing Using Stochastic Dynamic Programming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ng, Hok K.; Morando, Alex; Grabbe, Shon

    2010-01-01

    Airspace capacity reduction due to convective weather impedes air traffic flows and causes traffic congestion. This study presents an algorithm that reroutes flights in the presence of winds, enroute convective weather, and congested airspace based on stochastic dynamic programming. A stochastic disturbance model incorporates into the reroute design process the capacity uncertainty. A trajectory-based airspace demand model is employed for calculating current and future airspace demand. The optimal routes minimize the total expected traveling time, weather incursion, and induced congestion costs. They are compared to weather-avoidance routes calculated using deterministic dynamic programming. The stochastic reroutes have smaller deviation probability than the deterministic counterpart when both reroutes have similar total flight distance. The stochastic rerouting algorithm takes into account all convective weather fields with all severity levels while the deterministic algorithm only accounts for convective weather systems exceeding a specified level of severity. When the stochastic reroutes are compared to the actual flight routes, they have similar total flight time, and both have about 1% of travel time crossing congested enroute sectors on average. The actual flight routes induce slightly less traffic congestion than the stochastic reroutes but intercept more severe convective weather.

  9. Neurosimulation modeling of a scheduled bus route

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.G.; Khoo, L.P.

    1997-05-01

    In a densely built-up urban society, operators of public bus services are faced with the recurrent problem of providing timely and reliable service. Wile they have no control over dynamically changing extraneous factors (such as passenger loads or road conditions) that may suddenly degrade the quality of the service provided, it is nonetheless desirable for management to study the extent to which these factors affect their business, and what measures, if any, can be adopted to neutralize them. This paper discusses how a simulation model of a bus route, embellished by a neural network, was created to model the historical pattern of the inputs (namely, passenger loads and road conditions) that affect the overall scheduled terminus-to-terminus time. Thus, in a case study of a bus route running from a suburb to the city center, it was found that the neurosimulation model could predict the cumulative terminus-to-terminus times better than a conventional simulation model could. A software module, embedded into the neurosimulation model for the purposes of speed regulation, was able to minimize the deviation of the bus service from schedule. When intentional delays were further introduced into the bus route, it was discovered that the speed regulator was more effective the longer the delay, and the further the bus traveled into the bus route. There is potential in applying neural computing in a dynamic bus scheduling problem such as the one discussed here.

  10. Obsidian trade routes in the mayan area.

    PubMed

    Hammond, N

    1972-12-08

    Obsidian from two sources in highland Guatemala has been found at 23 sites of the Classic Mayan civilization, mainly in the nonvolcanic lowlands to the north. The distribution, together with trade routes suggested by topography and documentary sources, suggests efficient waterborne transport and competition between sources for the lowland market.

  11. A Geographical Heuristic Routing Protocol for VANETs.

    PubMed

    Urquiza-Aguiar, Luis; Tripp-Barba, Carolina; Aguilar Igartua, Mónica

    2016-09-23

    Vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) leverage the communication system of Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS). Recently, Delay-Tolerant Network (DTN) routing protocols have increased their popularity among the research community for being used in non-safety VANET applications and services like traffic reporting. Vehicular DTN protocols use geographical and local information to make forwarding decisions. However, current proposals only consider the selection of the best candidate based on a local-search. In this paper, we propose a generic Geographical Heuristic Routing (GHR) protocol that can be applied to any DTN geographical routing protocol that makes forwarding decisions hop by hop. GHR includes in its operation adaptations simulated annealing and Tabu-search meta-heuristics, which have largely been used to improve local-search results in discrete optimization. We include a complete performance evaluation of GHR in a multi-hop VANET simulation scenario for a reporting service. Our study analyzes all of the meaningful configurations of GHR and offers a statistical analysis of our findings by means of MANOVA tests. Our results indicate that the use of a Tabu list contributes to improving the packet delivery ratio by around 5% to 10%. Moreover, if Tabu is used, then the simulated annealing routing strategy gets a better performance than the selection of the best node used with carry and forwarding (default operation).

  12. 45 CFR 1310.20 - Trip routing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Trip routing. 1310.20 Section 1310.20 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, HEAD...

  13. 45 CFR 1310.20 - Trip routing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Trip routing. 1310.20 Section 1310.20 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, HEAD...

  14. 30 CFR 57.11051 - Escape routes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Escape routes. 57.11051 Section 57.11051 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... read direction signs that clearly indicate the ways of escape....

  15. 30 CFR 57.11051 - Escape routes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Escape routes. 57.11051 Section 57.11051 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... read direction signs that clearly indicate the ways of escape....

  16. Applications of the Theory of Work Adjustment to Rehabilitation and Counseling. Minnesota Studies in Vocational Rehabilitation: XXX.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lofquist, Lloyd H.; Dawis, Rene V.

    This is one of a series of 30 monographs documenting the progress and accomplishments of the Minnesota Work Adjustment Project. Presented in this, the final report, is an overview of the project as well as detailed explanations of outcomes and activities. The conceptualized Work Adjustment Theory is the foremost accomplishment of the research…

  17. 77 FR 26703 - Inflation Adjustment of the Aggravated Maximum Civil Monetary Penalty for a Violation of a...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Railroad Administration 49 CFR Parts 228 and 231 RIN 2130-AB94 Inflation Adjustment of the..., FRA published a final rule, pursuant to the Federal Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act of...

  18. Rational-spline approximation with automatic tension adjustment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schiess, J. R.; Kerr, P. A.

    1984-01-01

    An algorithm for weighted least-squares approximation with rational splines is presented. A rational spline is a cubic function containing a distinct tension parameter for each interval defined by two consecutive knots. For zero tension, the rational spline is identical to a cubic spline; for very large tension, the rational spline is a linear function. The approximation algorithm incorporates an algorithm which automatically adjusts the tension on each interval to fulfill a user-specified criterion. Finally, an example is presented comparing results of the rational spline with those of the cubic spline.

  19. Determination of spallation neutron flux through spectral adjustment techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Mosby, Michelle A.; Engle, Jonathan Ward; Jackman, Kevin Richard; Nortier, Francois Meiring; Birnbaum, Eva R.

    2016-05-30

    The Los Alamos Isotope Production Facility (IPF) creates medical isotopes using a proton beam impinged on a target stack. Spallation neutrons are created in the interaction of the beam with target. The use of these spallation neutrons to produce additional radionuclides has been proposed in this paper. However, the energy distribution and magnitude of the flux is not well understood. Finally, a modified SAND-II spectral adjustment routine has been used with radioactivation foils to determine the differential neutron fluence for these spallation neutrons during a standard IPF production run.

  20. A Survey of Routing Protocols in Wireless Body Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Bangash, Javed Iqbal; Abdullah, Abdul Hanan; Anisi, Mohammad Hossein; Khan, Abdul Waheed

    2014-01-01

    Wireless Body Sensor Networks (WBSNs) constitute a subset of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) responsible for monitoring vital sign-related data of patients and accordingly route this data towards a sink. In routing sensed data towards sinks, WBSNs face some of the same routing challenges as general WSNs, but the unique requirements of WBSNs impose some more constraints that need to be addressed by the routing mechanisms. This paper identifies various issues and challenges in pursuit of effective routing in WBSNs. Furthermore, it provides a detailed literature review of the various existing routing protocols used in the WBSN domain by discussing their strengths and weaknesses. PMID:24419163

  1. Intelligent routing protocol for ad hoc wireless network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Chaorong; Chen, Chang Wen

    2006-05-01

    A novel routing scheme for mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs), which combines hybrid and multi-inter-routing path properties with a distributed topology discovery route mechanism using control agents is proposed in this paper. In recent years, a variety of hybrid routing protocols for Mobile Ad hoc wireless networks (MANETs) have been developed. Which is proactively maintains routing information for a local neighborhood, while reactively acquiring routes to destinations beyond the global. The hybrid protocol reduces routing discovery latency and the end-to-end delay by providing high connectivity without requiring much of the scarce network capacity. On the other side the hybrid routing protocols in MANETs likes Zone Routing Protocol still need route "re-discover" time when a route between zones link break. Sine the topology update information needs to be broadcast routing request on local zone. Due to this delay, the routing protocol may not be applicable for real-time data and multimedia communication. We utilize the advantages of a clustering organization and multi-routing path in routing protocol to achieve several goals at the same time. Firstly, IRP efficiently saves network bandwidth and reduces route reconstruction time when a routing path fails. The IRP protocol does not require global periodic routing advertisements, local control agents will automatically monitor and repair broke links. Secondly, it efficiently reduces congestion and traffic "bottlenecks" for ClusterHeads in clustering network. Thirdly, it reduces significant overheads associated with maintaining clusters. Fourthly, it improves clusters stability due to dynamic topology changing frequently. In this paper, we present the Intelligent Routing Protocol. First, we discuss the problem of routing in ad hoc networks and the motivation of IRP. We describe the hierarchical architecture of IRP. We describe the routing process and illustrate it with an example. Further, we describe the control manage

  2. Cross-Cultural Adjustment of Chinese Students in Japan: School Adjustment and Educational Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Yuan Xiang; Sano, Hideki; Ahn, Ruth

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates Chinese immigrant students' cross-cultural and school adjustment issues in Japanese schools. Using a quantitative method, a survey which collected students' demographic information, cross-cultural adjustment, and school adjustment questions was administered to 143 Chinese junior high and high school students in Tokyo and…

  3. 49 CFR 393.53 - Automatic brake adjusters and brake adjustment indicators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... indicators. 393.53 Section 393.53 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued... brake adjustment indicators. (a) Automatic brake adjusters (hydraulic brake systems). Each commercial... vehicle at the time it was manufactured. (c) Brake adjustment indicator (air brake systems). On...

  4. 49 CFR 393.53 - Automatic brake adjusters and brake adjustment indicators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... brake adjustment indicators. (a) Automatic brake adjusters (hydraulic brake systems). Each commercial motor vehicle manufactured on or after October 20, 1993, and equipped with a hydraulic brake system, shall meet the automatic brake adjustment system requirements of Federal Motor Vehicle Safety...

  5. Aerosol immunisation for TB: matching route of vaccination to route of infection.

    PubMed

    Manjaly Thomas, Zita-Rose; McShane, Helen

    2015-03-01

    TB remains a very significant global health burden. There is an urgent need for better tools for TB control, which include an effective vaccine. Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG), the currently licensed vaccine, confers highly variable protection against pulmonary TB, the main source of TB transmission. Replacing BCG completely or boosting BCG with another vaccine are the two current strategies for TB vaccine development. Delivering a vaccine by aerosol represents a way to match the route of vaccination to the route of infection. This route of immunisation offers not only the scientific advantage of delivering the vaccine directly to the respiratory mucosa, but also practical and logistical advantages. This review summarises the state of current TB vaccine candidates in the pipeline, reviews current progress in aerosol administration of vaccines in general and evaluates the potential for TB vaccine candidates to be administered by the aerosol route.

  6. Properties of Air Traffic Conflicts for Free and Structured Routing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bilimoria, Karl D.; Lee, Hilda Q.

    2001-01-01

    This paper analyzes the properties of air traffic conflicts in a future free routing system against those in the current structured routing system. Simulation of en route air traffic operations (above 18,000 ft) over the contiguous United States for a 24-hour period, constructed with initial conditions from actual air traffic data, were conducted using the Future ATM Concepts Evaluation Tool (FACET). Free routes were modeled as great circle (direct) routes from origin to destination, and structured routes were derived from actual flight plans along the current system of air routes. The conflict properties analyzed in this study include: (1) Total number of conflicts; (2) Distributions of key conflict parameters; and, (3) Categorization of conflicts into independent conflicts and two types of interacting conflicts. Preliminary results (for Denver Center traffic) indicate that conflict properties in a free routing system are different from those in the current structured routing system. In particular, a free routing system has significantly fewer conflicts, involving a correspondingly smaller number of aircraft, compared to the current structured routing system. Additionally, the conflict parameter distributions indicate that free routing conflicts are less intrusive than structured routing conflicts, and would therefore require small trajectory deviations for resolution.

  7. Role of Osmotic Adjustment in Plant Productivity

    SciTech Connect

    Gebre, G.M.

    2001-01-11

    Successful implementation of short rotation woody crops requires that the selected species and clones be productive, drought tolerant, and pest resistant. Since water is one of the major limiting factors in poplar (Populus sp.) growth, there is little debate for the need of drought tolerant clones, except on the wettest of sites (e.g., lower Columbia River delta). Whether drought tolerance is compatible with productivity remains a debatable issue. Among the many mechanisms of drought tolerance, dehydration postponement involves the maintenance of high leaf water potential due to, for example, an adequate root system. This trait is compatible with productivity, but requires available soil moisture. When the plant leaf water potential and soil water content decline, the plant must be able to survive drought through dehydration tolerance mechanisms, such as low osmotic potential or osmotic adjustment. Osmotic adjustment and low osmotic potential are considered compatible with growth and yield because they aid in the maintenance of leaf turgor. However, it has been shown that turgor alone does not regulate cell expansion or stomatal conductance and, therefore, the role of osmotic adjustment is debated. Despite this finding, osmotic adjustment has been correlated with grain yield in agronomic crop species, and gene markers responsible for osmotic adjustment are being investigated to improve drought tolerance in productive progenies. Although osmotic adjustment and low osmotic potentials have been investigated in several forest tree species, few studies have investigated the relationship between osmotic adjustment and growth. Most of these studies have been limited to greenhouse or container-grown plants. Osmotic adjustment and rapid growth have been specifically associated in Populus and black spruce (Picea mariuna (Mill.) B.S.P.) progenies. We tested whether these relationships held under field conditions using several poplar clones. In a study of two hybrid poplar

  8. Vehicle routing problem and capacitated vehicle routing problem frameworks in fund allocation problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamat, Nur Jumaadzan Zaleha; Jaaman, Saiful Hafizah; Ahmad, Rokiah@Rozita

    2016-11-01

    Two new methods adopted from methods commonly used in the field of transportation and logistics are proposed to solve a specific issue of investment allocation problem. Vehicle routing problem and capacitated vehicle routing methods are applied to optimize the fund allocation of a portfolio of investment assets. This is done by determining the sequence of the assets. As a result, total investment risk is minimized by this sequence.

  9. Synthesis of cycloalkyl substituted purine nucleosides via a metal-free radical route.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dong-Chao; Xia, Ran; Xie, Ming-Sheng; Qu, Gui-Rong; Guo, Hai-Ming

    2016-05-04

    An efficient route to synthesize cycloalkyl substituted purine nucleosides was developed. This metal-free C-H activation was accomplished by a tBuOOtBu initiated radical reaction. By adjusting the amount of tBuOOtBu and reaction time, the selective synthesis of C6-monocycloalkyl or C6,C8-dicycloalkyl substituted purine nucleosides could be realized. Furthermore, uracil and related nucleosides were also suitable substrates, giving the C5-cyclohexyl substituted uracil derivatives in good yields with excellent regioselectivities.

  10. Experiment on performance of adjustable jet pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, J. M.; Long, X. P.; Zhang, S. B.; Lu, X.

    2012-11-01

    When the water level of upper or lower reaches of hydraulic power station changes, the adjustable jet pump which is different from traditional fixed jet pump can maintain stable pressure and flow rate for the system of technical water supply of hydraulic power plant. The model test indicates that the efficiency of the adjustable jet pump is slightly lower than fixed jet pump near rating operation point. With the decrease of opening degree, both efficiencies are more and more close to each other. The fundamental performance of I-type adjustable jet pump is better than II-type and the cavitation performance of I-type adjustable jet pump is worse than II-type. Test data also indicate that the performance of adjustable jet pump is very different from fixed jet pump, so the theory of fixed jet pump is not able to be copied to adjustable jet pump. It is necessary to farther study on the performance of the adjustable jet pump. This paper has reference value for analogous design of system of circulation water supply to turbine units in hydraulic power station.

  11. Development of Adjustable Grazing Incidence Optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, Paul B.; Davis, W.; Schwartz, D. A.; Trolier-McKinstry, S.; Wilke, R. H. T.

    2010-03-01

    We report on the development of adjustable grazing incidence optics. We are developing bimorph mirrors for high resolution (sub-arc second) imaging. Bimorph mirrors consist of a thin layer of piezo-electric material deposited on the back surface of a thin (< 0.4 mm) thermally formed glass or electroplated metal segmented mirror. Voltage applied across the thickness of the piezo produces a strain in the plane of the mirror surface. The strain produces bending of the mirror similar to the bi-metallic effect. No reaction structure is necessary, which allows one to densely nest mirror shells for large effective area. A pixilated array of outer electrodes on the piezo material localizes the strain to the particular piezo "pixel.” Mirror figure errors are corrected (on-orbit) via induced localized deformations. We have successfully deposited a 1-micrometer thick layer of the piezo-electric material lead-zirconate-titanate (PZT) on thin glass mirrors. We report on the electrical and mechanical properties of the bimorph mirrors, and mirror requirements. We discuss finite element modeling of bimorph mirrors. In particular, we focus on how a difference in mirror mounting affects the influence functions ( the induced deformations). We are also developing the use of electrostrictive adjusters for moderate resolution (a few arc second) imaging. Electroplated nickel/cobalt full shells are mounted together using the adjusters. The adjusters are arrayed axially and tangentially between shells, with their adjustable dimension in the radial direction. Each shell is adjusted and fixed in place during mirror assembly, starting with the innermost shell. We review finite element modeling of the adjustable optics and the application of the adjustment system to correct manufacturing errors. We discuss initial tests using electrostrictive adjusters to change the shape of flat mirror segments. This work is supported by NASA Contract NNX09AE87G and a grant from the Gordon and Betty Moore

  12. Route-to-route extrapolation of the toxic potency of MTBE.

    PubMed

    Dourson, M L; Felter, S P

    1997-12-01

    MTBE is a volatile organic compound used as an oxygenating agent in gasoline. Inhalation from fumes while refueling automobiles is the principle route of exposure for humans, and toxicity by this route has been well studied. Oral exposures to MTBE exist as well, primarily due to groundwater contamination from leaking stationary sources, such as underground storage tanks. Assessing the potential public health impacts of oral exposures to MTBE is problematic because drinking water studies do not exist for MTBE, and the few oil-gavage studies from which a risk assessment could be derived are limited. This paper evaluates the suitability of the MTBE database for conducting an inhalation route-to-oral route extrapolation of toxicity. This includes evaluating the similarity of critical effect between these two routes, quantifiable differences in absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion, and sufficiency of toxicity data by the inhalation route. We conclude that such an extrapolation is appropriate and have validated the extrapolation by finding comparable toxicity between a subchronic gavage oral bioassay and oral doses we extrapolate from a subchronic inhalation bioassay. Our results are extended to the 2-year inhalation toxicity study by Chun et al. (1992) in which rats were exposed to 0, 400, 3000, or 8000 ppm MTBE for 6 hr/d, 5 d/wk. We have estimated the equivalent oral doses to be 0, 130, 940, or 2700 mg/kg/d. These equivalent doses may be useful in conducting noncancer and cancer risk assessments.

  13. Route Recapitulation and Route Loyalty in Homing Pigeons: Pilotage From 25 km?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biro, Dora; Meade, Jessica; Guilford, Tim

    2006-01-01

    We utilised precision Global Positioning System (GPS) tracking to examine the homing paths of pigeons (Columba livia) released 20 times consecutively 25 km from the loft. By the end of the training phase, birds had developed highly stereotyped yet individually distinct routes home, with detailed recapitulation evident at each stage of the journey. Following training, birds also participated in a series of releases from novel sites at perpendicular distances of up to 3 km from their established routes. Results showed that subjects were attracted back to their established routes and recapitulated them from the point of contact. Naïve conspecifics (yoked controls) released from the same off-route sites confirmed that the experienced birds' route choices were not influenced by constraints exerted by terrain features, but that increased experience with the general area conferred a homing advantage in the form of more efficient flight tracks, even from these novel sites. Patterns in the paths taken by experienced birds to rejoin their established routes are discussed with reference to navigational mechanisms employed by homing pigeons in their familiar area.

  14. Route Monopolie and Optimal Nonlinear Pricing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tournut, Jacques

    2003-01-01

    To cope with air traffic growth and congested airports, two solutions are apparent on the supply side: 1) use larger aircraft in the hub and spoke system; or 2) develop new routes through secondary airports. An enlarged route system through secondary airports may increase the proportion of route monopolies in the air transport market.The monopoly optimal non linear pricing policy is well known in the case of one dimension (one instrument, one characteristic) but not in the case of several dimensions. This paper explores the robustness of the one dimensional screening model with respect to increasing the number of instruments and the number of characteristics. The objective of this paper is then to link and fill the gap in both literatures. One of the merits of the screening model has been to show that a great varieD" of economic questions (non linear pricing, product line choice, auction design, income taxation, regulation...) could be handled within the same framework.VCe study a case of non linear pricing (2 instruments (2 routes on which the airline pro_ddes customers with services), 2 characteristics (demand of services on these routes) and two values per characteristic (low and high demand of services on these routes)) and we show that none of the conclusions of the one dimensional analysis remain valid. In particular, upward incentive compatibility constraint may be binding at the optimum. As a consequence, they may be distortion at the top of the distribution. In addition to this, we show that the optimal solution often requires a kind of form of bundling, we explain explicitly distortions and show that it is sometimes optimal for the monopolist to only produce one good (instead of two) or to exclude some buyers from the market. Actually, this means that the monopolist cannot fully apply his monopoly power and is better off selling both goods independently.We then define all the possible solutions in the case of a quadratic cost function for a uniform

  15. Congestion control and routing over satellite networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Jinhua

    Satellite networks and transmissions find their application in fields of computer communications, telephone communications, television broadcasting, transportation, space situational awareness systems and so on. This thesis mainly focuses on two networking issues affecting satellite networking: network congestion control and network routing optimization. Congestion, which leads to long queueing delays, packet losses or both, is a networking problem that has drawn the attention of many researchers. The goal of congestion control mechanisms is to ensure high bandwidth utilization while avoiding network congestion by regulating the rate at which traffic sources inject packets into a network. In this thesis, we propose a stable congestion controller using data-driven, safe switching control theory to improve the dynamic performance of satellite Transmission Control Protocol/Active Queue Management (TCP/AQM) networks. First, the stable region of the Proportional-Integral (PI) parameters for a nominal model is explored. Then, a PI controller, whose parameters are adaptively tuned by switching among members of a given candidate set, using observed plant data, is presented and compared with some classical AQM policy examples, such as Random Early Detection (RED) and fixed PI control. A new cost detectable switching law with an interval cost function switching algorithm, which improves the performance and also saves the computational cost, is developed and compared with a law commonly used in the switching control literature. Finite-gain stability of the system is proved. A fuzzy logic PI controller is incorporated as a special candidate to achieve good performance at all nominal points with the available set of candidate controllers. Simulations are presented to validate the theory. An effocient routing algorithm plays a key role in optimizing network resources. In this thesis, we briefly analyze Low Earth Orbit (LEO) satellite networks, review the Cross Entropy (CE

  16. 76 FR 4395 - Postal Service Price Adjustment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-25

    ... High Density/Saturation Letters 0.615 High Density/Saturation Flats & Parcels 0.403 Carrier Route... cost coverage. Id. at 18. The Notice also states that the Postal Service recently filed a... ``challenged'' cost coverage status, and states that the new prices are designed to balance the effect...

  17. An all-dielectric route for terahertz cloaking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaillot, D. P.; Croënne, C.; Lippens, Didier

    2008-04-01

    An original all-dielectric design that performs cloaking at terahertz frequencies is demonstrated. The cloak consists of radially positioned discretized micrometer-sized cylindrical elements. Based on Mie theory and under adequate excitation conditions (H along the rod axis), high-κ cylinders exhibit a strong magnetic resonance dependent on the cylinder radii and material properties. Full-wave simulations coupled with a field-summation retrieval technique were employed to adjust the electromagnetic response of individual ferroelectrics rods (Ba 0.5Sr 0.5TiO 3; ɛ = 200 - tan δ = 2.10 -2). The rods magnetic plasma frequency was engineered such that the full cloak displays a progressive variation in its permeability radial component; hence satisfying, for this polarization, the reduced equations derived from the conformal transformation theory. The cloaking performance was assessed by modelling the complete micro-structured device. Results unambiguously show that cloaking of any wavelength scaled objects located inside the cloak is achieved above the Mie resonance frequency at 0.58 THz for the present device. In particular, the phase fronts of the electric field behind the device are well reconstructed with a high value in transmission of the incident plane wave. This also means that the absorption losses are small within the cloak in comparison with the metallic systems originally proposed. Although cloaking is observed in a narrow band, this all-dielectric configuration provides an attractive route for designing cloaking devices at microwave and terahertz frequencies.

  18. En route noise: NASA propfan test aircraft (calculated source noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rickley, E. J.

    1990-01-01

    The second phase of a joint National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) program to study the high-altitude, low-frequency acoustic noise propagation characteristics of the Advanced Turboprop (propfan) Aircraft was conducted on April 3-13, 1989 at the White Sands Missile Range (WSMR), New Mexico. The first phase was conducted on October 26-31, 1987 in Huntsville, Alabama. NASA (Lewis) measured the source noise of the test aircraft during both phases while NASA (Langley) measured surface noise only during the second phase. FAA/NASA designed a program to obtain noise level data from the propfan test bed aircraft, both in the near field and at ground level, during simulated en route flights (35,000 and 20,000 feet ASL), and to test low frequency atmospheric absorption algorithms and prediction technology to provide insight into the necessity for regulatory measures. The curves of calculated source noise versus emission angle are based on a second order best-fit curve of the peak envelope of the adjusted ground data. Centerline and sideline derived source noise levels are shown to be in good agreement. A comparison of the Alabama chase plane source data and the calculated source noise at centerline for both the Alabama and New Mexico data shows good agreement for the 35,000 and the 20,000 feet (ASL) overflights. With the availability of the New Mexico in-flight data, further in depth comparisons will be made.

  19. Does religiosity help Muslims adjust to death?: a research note.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Mohammad Samir; Siddique, Mohammad Zakaria

    2008-01-01

    Death is the end of life. But Muslims believe death is an event between two lives, not an absolute cessation of life. Thus religiosity may influence Muslims differently about death. To explore the impact of religious perception, thus religiosity, a cross-sectional, descriptive, analytic and correlational study was conducted on 150 Muslims. Self-declared healthy Muslims equally from both sexes (N = 150, Age range--20 to 50 years, Minimum education--Bachelor) were selected by stratified sampling and randomly under each stratum. Subjects, divided in five levels of religiosity, were assessed and scored for the presence of maladjustment symptoms and stage of adjustment with death. ANOVA and correlation coefficient was applied on the sets of data collected. All statistical tests were done at the level of 95% confidence (P < 0.05). Final results were higher than the table values used for ANOVA and correlation coefficient yielded P values of < 0.05, < 0.01, and < 0.001. Religiosity as a criterion of Muslims influenced the quality of adjustment with death positively. So we hypothesized that religiosity may help Muslims adjust to death.

  20. Age effects on voluntary and automatic adjustments in anti-pointing tasks.

    PubMed

    Verneau, Marion; van der Kamp, John; de Looze, Michiel P; Savelsbergh, Geert J P

    2016-02-01

    We examined the effects of age on automatic and voluntary motor adjustments in pointing tasks. To this end, young (20-25 years) and middle-aged adults (48-62 years) were instructed to point at a target that could unexpectedly change its location (to the left or right) or its color (to green or red) during the movement. In the location change conditions, participants were asked to either adjust their pointing movement toward the new location (i.e., normal pointing) or in the opposite direction (i.e., anti-pointing). In the color change conditions, participants were instructed to adjust their movement to the left or right depending on the change in color. The results showed that in a large proportion of the anti-pointing trials, participants made two adjustments: an early initial automatic adjustment in the direction of the target shift followed by a late voluntary adjustment toward the opposite direction. It was found that the late voluntary adjustments were delayed for the middle-aged participants relative to the young participants. There were no age differences for the fast automatic adjustment in normal pointing, but the early adjustment in anti-pointing tended to be later in the middle-aged adults. Finally, the difference in the onset of early and late adjustments in anti-pointing adjustments was greater among the middle-aged adults. Hence, this study is the first to show that aging slows down voluntary goal-directed movement control processes to greater extent than the automatic stimulus-driven processes.

  1. Aircraft Route Optimization using the A-Star Algorithm

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-27

    16 Obstacle Avoidance... 16 Figure 9. Route Optimization Distance Matrix...29 Figure 15. Route between Key West and Brownsville using the TMA-Star model ........ 30 Figure 16 . Obstacle Avoidance model using

  2. 1. GENERAL VIEW OF ROUTE 209 LOOKING NORTH SHOWING SLEEPING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. GENERAL VIEW OF ROUTE 209 LOOKING NORTH SHOWING SLEEPING BEAR INN, SLEEPING BEAR INN GARAGE AND DORMITORY, D.H. DAY STORE, RESTROOM, AND GARAGE - Glen Haven Historic District, Route 209, Glen Arbor, Leelanau County, MI

  3. 21. ROUTE OF THE SHELF LINE, LOOKING NORTHWEST. IN AREAS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. ROUTE OF THE SHELF LINE, LOOKING NORTHWEST. IN AREAS WHERE THE ROUTE CROSSED PARTICULARLY STEEP TERRAIN, THE COMPANY USED EXTENSIVE ROCK RIPRAP TO SUPPORT THE TRAM GRADE. - Independent Coal & Coke Company, Kenilworth, Carbon County, UT

  4. Use of Interactive Computer Graphics to Solve Routing Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillett, B. E.; Lawrence, J. L.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses vehicle routing problems and solutions. Describes testing of an interactive computer graphics package combining several types of solutions that allows users with little or no experience to work out routing problems. (Author/RW)

  5. VIEW LOOKING SOUTHEAST AT ROUTE 133, SHOWING A CORNER DETAIL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW LOOKING SOUTHEAST AT ROUTE 133, SHOWING A CORNER DETAIL OF THE POWERHOUSE AND A SECTION OF THE SWITCHYARD. - Wilson Dam & Hydroelectric Plant, Spanning Tennessee River at Wilson Dam Road (Route 133), Muscle Shoals, Colbert County, AL

  6. Adaptive routing in wireless communication networks using swarm intelligence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arabshahi, P.; Gray, A.; Kassabalidis, I.; Das, A.; Narayanan, S.; Sharkawi, M. El; Marks, R. J.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we focus on the network routing problem, and survey swarm intelligent approaches for its efficient solution, after a brief overview of power-aware routing schemes, which are important in the network examples outlined above.

  7. Routing in circuit and Packet Switched Networks: An Annotated Bibliography.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-14

    papers. These reviews focus on parts of the papers relevant to the DSN. 2. INDEX TO SELECTED TOPICS 2.1 Circuit-Switched Networks 2.1.1 Routing Bernas and...engineering - Bell System. 2.1.3 Event-by-Event Simulations Bernas and Grieco (1978) POLYGRID vs. adaptive vs. flood search routing - AUTOVON simula- tion...Enhance Survivability Bernas and Grieco (1978) POLYGRID, adaptive and flood search routing. Gafni and Bertsekas (1981) Distributed routing for packet radio

  8. Magnetic routing of light-induced waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izdebskaya, Yana; Shvedov, Vladlen; Assanto, Gaetano; Krolikowski, Wieslaw

    2017-02-01

    Among photofunctional materials that can be employed to control the propagation of light by modifying their properties, soft dielectrics such as nematic liquid crystals (NLCs) stand out for their large all-optical response. Through reorientation, the molecular distribution of NLCs can be modified by the electric field of light, permitting functional operations and supporting self-localized light beams or spatial optical solitons. To date, the generation and routing of such solitons have been limited by the boundary conditions employed to tailor the properties of NLCs in planar cells or capillaries. Here we report on spatial solitons in bulk NLCs with no lateral anchoring, where the application of an external magnetic field effectively controls the direction of propagation and the angular steering of the self-trapped wavepackets. Our results entail a completely new approach to the routing of self-localized beams and light-induced waveguides in three dimensions, without the usual limitations imposed by transverse boundary conditions.

  9. NIST cooperative laboratory for OSI routing technology

    SciTech Connect

    Montgomery, D.

    1994-05-23

    This document is one of two reports on the Integrated ISIS protocol. Required by the IAB/IESG in order for an Internet routing protocol to advance to Draft Standard Status. Integrated ISIS is an Interior Gateway Protocol and is designed to carry both IP and ISO CLNP routing information. Integrated ISIS is currently designated as a Proposed Standard. The protocol was first published in RFC 1195. Internet Draft was published subsequently to RFC 1195 and documents the current version of the protocol. This report documents experience with Integrated ISIS. This includes reports on interoperability testing, field experience and the current state of Integrated ISIS implementations. It also presents a summary of the Integrated ISIS Management Information Base (MIB), and a summary of the Integrated ISIS authentication mechanism.

  10. Magnetic routing of light-induced waveguides

    PubMed Central

    Izdebskaya, Yana; Shvedov, Vladlen; Assanto, Gaetano; Krolikowski, Wieslaw

    2017-01-01

    Among photofunctional materials that can be employed to control the propagation of light by modifying their properties, soft dielectrics such as nematic liquid crystals (NLCs) stand out for their large all-optical response. Through reorientation, the molecular distribution of NLCs can be modified by the electric field of light, permitting functional operations and supporting self-localized light beams or spatial optical solitons. To date, the generation and routing of such solitons have been limited by the boundary conditions employed to tailor the properties of NLCs in planar cells or capillaries. Here we report on spatial solitons in bulk NLCs with no lateral anchoring, where the application of an external magnetic field effectively controls the direction of propagation and the angular steering of the self-trapped wavepackets. Our results entail a completely new approach to the routing of self-localized beams and light-induced waveguides in three dimensions, without the usual limitations imposed by transverse boundary conditions. PMID:28198374

  11. Fund allocation using capacitated vehicle routing problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamat, Nur Jumaadzan Zaleha; Jaaman, Saiful Hafizah; Ahmad, Rokiah Rozita; Darus, Maslina

    2014-09-01

    In investment fund allocation, it is unwise for an investor to distribute his fund into several assets simultaneously due to economic reasons. One solution is to allocate the fund into a particular asset at a time in a sequence that will either maximize returns or minimize risks depending on the investor's objective. The vehicle routing problem (VRP) provides an avenue to this issue. VRP answers the question on how to efficiently use the available fleet of vehicles to meet a given service demand, subjected to a set of operational requirements. This paper proposes an idea of using capacitated vehicle routing problem (CVRP) to optimize investment fund allocation by employing data of selected stocks in the FTSE Bursa Malaysia. Results suggest that CRVP can be applied to solve the issue of investment fund allocation and increase the investor's profit.

  12. Chemical Routes to Colloidal Chalcogenide Nanosheets

    SciTech Connect

    Schaak, Raymond E.

    2014-11-25

    This project began with an emphasis on developing new low-­temperature synthetic routes to intermetallic alloys in order to advance the synthesis and processing science of superconducting materials, as well as to potentially discover new materials that would be inaccessible using more traditional higher-­temperature methods. Our initial target materials, chosen as model systems for developing new low-­temperature solution-­based synthetic platforms, were based on well known superconducting alloys, including Nb3M (M = Ga, Ge, Sn), Bi-­M (M = In, Cu), and MgCNi3. Several key, fundamental synthetic challenges that underpinned the formation of these materials using solution chemistry routes were identified and investigated.

  13. Dissociable Neural Routes to Successful Prospective Memory

    PubMed Central

    McDaniel, Mark A.; LaMontagne, Pamela; Beck, Stefanie M.; Scullin, Michael K.; Braver, Todd S.

    2015-01-01

    Identifying the processes by which people remember to execute an intention at an appropriate moment (prospective memory) remains a fundamental theoretical challenge. One account is that top-down attentional control is required to maintain activation of the intention, self-initiate intention retrieval, or support monitoring. A diverging account suggests bottom-up spontaneous retrieval can be triggered by cues that have been associated with the intention; sustained attentional processes are not required. We used a specialized experimental design and fMRI methods to selectively marshal and identify each process. Results revealed a clear dissociation. One prospective memory task recruited sustained activity in attentional control areas, such as anterior prefrontal cortex; the other engaged purely transient activity in parietal and ventral brain regions associated with attentional capture, target detection, and episodic retrieval. These patterns provide critical evidence that there are two neural routes to prospective memory, with each route emerging under different circumstances. PMID:23907544

  14. Routing of individual polymers in designed patterns.

    PubMed

    Knudsen, Jakob Bach; Liu, Lei; Bank Kodal, Anne Louise; Madsen, Mikael; Li, Qiang; Song, Jie; Woehrstein, Johannes B; Wickham, Shelley F J; Strauss, Maximilian T; Schueder, Florian; Vinther, Jesper; Krissanaprasit, Abhichart; Gudnason, Daniel; Smith, Anton Allen Abbotsford; Ogaki, Ryosuke; Zelikin, Alexander N; Besenbacher, Flemming; Birkedal, Victoria; Yin, Peng; Shih, William M; Jungmann, Ralf; Dong, Mingdong; Gothelf, Kurt V

    2015-10-01

    Synthetic polymers are ubiquitous in the modern world, but our ability to exert control over the molecular conformation of individual polymers is very limited. In particular, although the programmable self-assembly of oligonucleotides and proteins into artificial nanostructures has been demonstrated, we currently lack the tools to handle other types of synthetic polymers individually and thus the ability to utilize and study their single-molecule properties. Here we show that synthetic polymer wires containing short oligonucleotides that extend from each repeat can be made to assemble into arbitrary routings. The wires, which can be more than 200 nm in length, are soft and bendable, and the DNA strands allow individual polymers to self-assemble into predesigned routings on both two- and three-dimensional DNA origami templates. The polymers are conjugated and potentially conducting, and could therefore be used to create molecular-scale electronic or optical wires in arbitrary geometries.

  15. VISCOPLASTIC FLUID MODEL FOR DEBRIS FLOW ROUTING.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chen, Cheng-lung

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes how a generalized viscoplastic fluid model, which was developed based on non-Newtonian fluid mechanics, can be successfully applied to routing a debris flow down a channel. The one-dimensional dynamic equations developed for unsteady clear-water flow can be used for debris flow routing if the flow parameters, such as the momentum (or energy) correction factor and the resistance coefficient, can be accurately evaluated. The writer's generalized viscoplastic fluid model can be used to express such flow parameters in terms of the rheological parameters for debris flow in wide channels. A preliminary analysis of the theoretical solutions reveals the importance of the flow behavior index and the so-called modified Froude number for uniformly progressive flow in snout profile modeling.

  16. 76 FR 67500 - Postal Service Price Adjustment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-01

    ... Adjustment Notice states that the overall average for Special Services is a result of large price reductions...; Address Management Services; Caller Service; Change-of-Address Credit Card Authentication; Confirm... Periodicals, Nonprofit and Classroom Periodicals, Science of Agriculture Periodicals advertising...

  17. Adjustable throttle linkage for outboard motors

    SciTech Connect

    Dunham, W.D.; Miller, G.L.

    1986-02-17

    An adjustable throttle linkage is described for use in controlling operation of an internal combustion engine having a carburetor including a pivotable throttle valve, a throttle valve position control member operably connected to the throttle valve and movable so as to control the position of the throttle valve, and a throttle lever for controlling the position of the throttle valve. The adjustable throttle linkage comprises a connecting link having one end connected to one of the throttle lever and the control member, and having a threaded portion, means for adjustably connecting the threaded portion to the other of the throttle lever and the control member. The adjustable connecting means includes a slot in the other of the throttle lever and the control member, and a rotatable member threaded onto the threaded portion and receive in the slot such that rotation of the rotatable member causes relative movement between the link and the other of the throttle lever and the control member.

  18. Multi-Scale 7DOF View Adjustment.

    PubMed

    Cho, Isaac; Li, Jialei; Wartell, Zachary

    2017-02-13

    Multi-scale virtual environments contain geometric details ranging over several orders of magnitude and typically employ out-of-core rendering techniques. When displayed in virtual reality systems this entails using a 7 degree-of-freedom (DOF) view model where view scale is a separate 7th DOF in addition to 6DOF view pose. Dynamic adjustment of this and other view parameters become very important to usability. In this paper, we evaluate how two adjustment techniques interact with uni- and bi-manual 7 degree-of-freedom navigation in DesktopVR and a CAVE. The travel task has two stages, an initial targeted zoom and a detailed geometric inspection. The results show benefits of the auto-adjustments on completion time and stereo fusion issues, but only in certain circumstances. Peculiar view configuration examples show the difficulty of creating robust adjustment rules.

  19. Floating-diffusion electrometer with adjustable sensitivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tower, John R. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    The effective capacitance of the floating diffusion in a floating-diffusion electrometer is modified to adjust electrometer sensitivity. This is done by changing the direct potential applied to a gate electrode proximate to the floating diffusion.

  20. 49 CFR 1135.1 - Quarterly adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... railroad productivity as prescribed in Railroad Cost Recovery Procedures, 1 I.C.C.2d 207 (1984), and any subsequent amendments thereto. In addition, the AAR shall calculate the productivity-adjusted RCAF...

  1. 49 CFR 1135.1 - Quarterly adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... railroad productivity as prescribed in Railroad Cost Recovery Procedures, 1 I.C.C.2d 207 (1984), and any subsequent amendments thereto. In addition, the AAR shall calculate the productivity-adjusted RCAF...

  2. Adjustment to Divorce Through Transactional Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, James D.; Prescott, Mary R.

    1976-01-01

    Transactional Analysis in a group facilitates adjustment to divorce. Two case histories highlight the value of TA in conceptualizing the problem areas of each individual and the changes during group therapy. (Author)

  3. Marital Adjustment and Psychological Distress in Japan.

    PubMed

    Li, Angela; Robustelli, Briana L; Whisman, Mark A

    2016-11-01

    This study was conducted to examine the association between marital adjustment and psychological distress in a large, probability sample of married adults in Japan (N = 710) from the Midlife Development in Japan (MIDJA) study. Results indicate that positive and negative dimensions of marital adjustment were significantly associated with dimensional and categorical measures of psychological distress. Furthermore, the associations between marital adjustment and psychological distress remained significant when statistically controlling for neuroticism, quality of friend and family relationships, and demographic variables. These results demonstrate that the well-established association between marital adjustment and psychological distress found in European-American countries is also found in Japan. Findings support continued research on marital functioning and psychological distress in East Asian countries.

  4. ARPANET Routing Algorithm Improvements. Volume 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-08-01

    engineers , and can be tuned tn be any desired frequency. However, the frequency of updating wculd be related to the performance of the routing scheme...be more complex than any simulator. Congestion control procedures are designed by engineers and tested on simulators but they must - 24g - I Report No...Advanced Research Projects Agency 1400 Wilson Boulevardt Arlington, VA 22209 Attention: Program Management and to: Defense Communicatlons Engineering

  5. AutoRoute Rapid Flood Inundation Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    extent results from AutoRoute. A file containing all of the cross sections with cross-section profiles, water elevation, and flow velocity is created...2008, a heavy rain event occurred over central and southern Indiana and southern Wisconsin. The rain event resulted in extreme flooding, culminating in...loss of life and millions of dollars in damages. In response to these flooding events, the USGS determined high- water marks in several communities

  6. Deterministic nanoassembly: Neutral or plasma route?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levchenko, I.; Ostrikov, K.; Keidar, M.; Xu, S.

    2006-07-01

    It is shown that, owing to selective delivery of ionic and neutral building blocks directly from the ionized gas phase and via surface migration, plasma environments offer a better deal of deterministic synthesis of ordered nanoassemblies compared to thermal chemical vapor deposition. The results of hybrid Monte Carlo (gas phase) and adatom self-organization (surface) simulation suggest that higher aspect ratios and better size and pattern uniformity of carbon nanotip microemitters can be achieved via the plasma route.

  7. Dynamic Escape Routes for Naval Ships

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-01

    3 o Increase the likelihood of successfully salvaging the ship, and o Increase the likelihood that the crew is rescued safely. It will be possible...spans the period before the event that triggers ship abandonment. Escape routes can be configured based on two factors: 6 o “Crew distribution...crewmembers but the guards are resting in cabins and berthing rooms. This is a plausible scenario at night when the ship is in a non-home port. o

  8. An independent, empirical route to nonconceptual content.

    PubMed

    Chadha, Monima

    2009-06-01

    The overall goal of this paper is to offer an independent, empirical route to characterize the content on nonconceptual content. I pursue a recent move by Pylyshyn, a leading cognitive scientist and philosopher of mental representation, who focuses on empirical considerations in favor of nonconceptual representations. Pylyshyn proposes a minimalist view of nonconceptual representations. I offer empirical reasons that force us to go beyond minimalist account and reinstate empirically defensible richer nonconceptual representations into a theory of content.

  9. More Anonymous Onion Routing Through Trust

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-07-01

    attempt to compromise his anonymity . How should he take this trust into account when he selects his paths? 2.1. The model To make this question concrete...It also does not take into account the total effect of an adversary’s actions on a user’s anonymity , such as the analysis performed in [24]. The...More Anonymous Onion Routing Through Trust Aaron Johnson Computer Science Department Yale University New Haven, CT 06520 USA aaron.johnson@yale.edu

  10. Synchronous Batching: From Cascades to Free Routes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-05-01

    freehaven.net) 2 SRI International (shmat@csl.sri.com) 3 Naval Research Lab (syverson@itd.nrl.navy.mil) Abstract. The variety of possible anonymity network...topologies can provide better anonymity as well as better message reliability in the event of partial network failure. 1 Introduction Modern deployed...and find that the free-route network provides the highest expected anonymity as well as the best robustness to node failure. In Section 2 we describe

  11. LIRA: Lightweight Incentivized Routing for Anonymity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-02-01

    accountability that plagues PAR and XPAY, wherein anonymity inherently de- creases as the ability to detect cheaters improves. Ngan et al. propose a...LIRA: Lightweight Incentivized Routing for Anonymity Rob Jansen Aaron Johnson U.S. Naval Research Laboratory {rob.g.jansen, aaron.m.johnson...prob- lems stemming from a lack of incentives for volunteers to contribute. Insufficient capacity limits scalability and harms the anonymity of its

  12. En route spacing system and method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erzberger, Heinz (Inventor); Green, Steven M. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A method of and computer software for minimizing aircraft deviations needed to comply with an en route miles-in-trail spacing requirement imposed during air traffic control operations via establishing a spacing reference geometry, predicting spatial locations of a plurality of aircraft at a predicted time of intersection of a path of a first of said plurality of aircraft with the spacing reference geometry, and determining spacing of each of the plurality of aircraft based on the predicted spatial locations.

  13. Routing and advanced display technologies within STOMPM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mittu, Ranjeev; Uhlmann, Jeffrey K.; McCune, Justin

    1998-08-01

    This paper will discuss research conducted at the Naval Research Laboratory in the area of automated routing, advanced 3D displays and novel interface techniques for interacting with those displays. This research has culminated in the development of the strike optimized mission planing module (STOMPM). The STOMPM testbed incorporates new technologies/results in the aforementioned areas to address the deficiencies in current systems and advance the state of the art in military planing systems.

  14. 9. UNDERSIDE, SHOWING NORTH ROCK OUTCROP ON WHICH ROUTE 31 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. UNDERSIDE, SHOWING NORTH ROCK OUTCROP ON WHICH ROUTE 31 RESTS, NORTH PIER AGAINST ROCK, AND SOUTH PIER. LOOKING SOUTHEAST. - Route 31 Bridge, New Jersey Route 31, crossing disused main line of Central Railroad of New Jersey (C.R.R.N.J.) (New Jersey Transit's Raritan Valley Line), Hampton, Hunterdon County, NJ

  15. 14 CFR 25.123 - En route flight paths.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... provides adequate cooling in the hot-day condition. (b) The one-engine-inoperative net flight path data...) In non-icing conditions; and (2) In icing conditions with the en route ice accretion defined in appendix C, if: (i) A speed of 1.18 “VSR0 with the en route ice accretion exceeds the en route...

  16. 14 CFR 25.123 - En route flight paths.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... provides adequate cooling in the hot-day condition. (b) The one-engine-inoperative net flight path data...) In non-icing conditions; and (2) In icing conditions with the en route ice accretion defined in appendix C, if: (i) A speed of 1.18 “VSR0 with the en route ice accretion exceeds the en route...

  17. 14 CFR 25.123 - En route flight paths.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... provides adequate cooling in the hot-day condition. (b) The one-engine-inoperative net flight path data...) In non-icing conditions; and (2) In icing conditions with the en route ice accretion defined in appendix C, if: (i) A speed of 1.18 “VSR0 with the en route ice accretion exceeds the en route...

  18. 14 CFR 25.123 - En route flight paths.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... provides adequate cooling in the hot-day condition. (b) The one-engine-inoperative net flight path data...) In non-icing conditions; and (2) In icing conditions with the en route ice accretion defined in appendix C, if: (i) A speed of 1.18 “VSR0 with the en route ice accretion exceeds the en route...

  19. 14 CFR 25.123 - En route flight paths.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... provides adequate cooling in the hot-day condition. (b) The one-engine-inoperative net flight path data...) In non-icing conditions; and (2) In icing conditions with the en route ice accretion defined in appendix C, if: (i) A speed of 1.18 “VSR0 with the en route ice accretion exceeds the en route...

  20. A Survey on Underwater Acoustic Sensor Network Routing Protocols

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ning; Martínez, José-Fernán; Meneses Chaus, Juan Manuel; Eckert, Martina

    2016-01-01

    Underwater acoustic sensor networks (UASNs) have become more and more important in ocean exploration applications, such as ocean monitoring, pollution detection, ocean resource management, underwater device maintenance, etc. In underwater acoustic sensor networks, since the routing protocol guarantees reliable and effective data transmission from the source node to the destination node, routing protocol design is an attractive topic for researchers. There are many routing algorithms have been proposed in recent years. To present the current state of development of UASN routing protocols, we review herein the UASN routing protocol designs reported in recent years. In this paper, all the routing protocols have been classified into different groups according to their characteristics and routing algorithms, such as the non-cross-layer design routing protocol, the traditional cross-layer design routing protocol, and the intelligent algorithm based routing protocol. This is also the first paper that introduces intelligent algorithm-based UASN routing protocols. In addition, in this paper, we investigate the development trends of UASN routing protocols, which can provide researchers with clear and direct insights for further research. PMID:27011193

  1. Identification of Robust Terminal-Area Routes in Convective Weather

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfeil, Diana Michalek; Balakrishnan, Hamsa

    2012-01-01

    Convective weather is responsible for large delays and widespread disruptions in the U.S. National Airspace System, especially during summer. Traffic flow management algorithms require reliable forecasts of route blockage to schedule and route traffic. This paper demonstrates how raw convective weather forecasts, which provide deterministic predictions of the vertically integrated liquid (the precipitation content in a column of airspace) can be translated into probabilistic forecasts of whether or not a terminal area route will be blocked. Given a flight route through the terminal area, we apply techniques from machine learning to determine the likelihood that the route will be open in actual weather. The likelihood is then used to optimize terminalarea operations by dynamically moving arrival and departure routes to maximize the expected capacity of the terminal area. Experiments using real weather scenarios on stormy days show that our algorithms recommend that a terminal-area route be modified 30% of the time, opening up 13% more available routes that were forecast to be blocked during these scenarios. The error rate is low, with only 5% of cases corresponding to a modified route being blocked in reality, whereas the original route is in fact open. In addition, for routes predicted to be open with probability 0.95 or greater by our method, 96% of these routes (on average over time horizon) are indeed open in the weather that materializes

  2. Adaptive Routing Algorithm for Priority Flows in a Network

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-14

    ADAPTIVE ROUTING ALGORITHM FOR PRIORITY FLOWS IN A NETWORK THESIS Timothy J. Carbino, Captain...ADAPTIVE ROUTING ALGORITHM FOR PRIORITY FLOWS IN A NETWORK THESIS Presented to the Faculty Department of Electrical and Computer... Thesis 20 Aug 10 – 14 Jun 12 Adaptive Routing Algorithm for Priority Flows in a Network 12629PCarbino, Timothy J, Captain, USAF Air Force Institute of

  3. School Bus Crash Rates on Routine and Nonroutine Routes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neal, Elizabeth; Ramirez, Marizen; Hamann, Cara; Young, Tracy; Stahlhut, Mary; Peek-Asa, Corinne

    2014-01-01

    Background: Although prior research has established that school buses are a safe form of transportation, crashes can produce catastrophic consequences. School buses have 2 types of routes: predictable, routine routes that take children to and from school and less predictable, nonroutine routes for school events. No studies have examined school bus…

  4. 49 CFR 236.302 - Track circuits and route locking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Track circuits and route locking. 236.302 Section 236.302 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD... Standards § 236.302 Track circuits and route locking. Track circuits and route locking shall be provided...

  5. 14 CFR 71.11 - Air Traffic Service (ATS) routes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Air Traffic Service (ATS) routes. 71.11... (CONTINUED) AIRSPACE DESIGNATION OF CLASS A, B, C, D, AND E AIRSPACE AREAS; AIR TRAFFIC SERVICE ROUTES; AND REPORTING POINTS § 71.11 Air Traffic Service (ATS) routes. Unless otherwise specified, the following...

  6. 14 CFR 71.11 - Air Traffic Service (ATS) routes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Air Traffic Service (ATS) routes. 71.11... (CONTINUED) AIRSPACE DESIGNATION OF CLASS A, B, C, D, AND E AIRSPACE AREAS; AIR TRAFFIC SERVICE ROUTES; AND REPORTING POINTS § 71.11 Air Traffic Service (ATS) routes. Unless otherwise specified, the following...

  7. 14 CFR 71.11 - Air Traffic Service (ATS) routes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Air Traffic Service (ATS) routes. 71.11... (CONTINUED) AIRSPACE DESIGNATION OF CLASS A, B, C, D, AND E AIRSPACE AREAS; AIR TRAFFIC SERVICE ROUTES; AND REPORTING POINTS § 71.11 Air Traffic Service (ATS) routes. Unless otherwise specified, the following...

  8. 14 CFR 71.11 - Air Traffic Service (ATS) routes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Air Traffic Service (ATS) routes. 71.11... (CONTINUED) AIRSPACE DESIGNATION OF CLASS A, B, C, D, AND E AIRSPACE AREAS; AIR TRAFFIC SERVICE ROUTES; AND REPORTING POINTS § 71.11 Air Traffic Service (ATS) routes. Unless otherwise specified, the following...

  9. 14 CFR 71.11 - Air Traffic Service (ATS) routes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Air Traffic Service (ATS) routes. 71.11... (CONTINUED) AIRSPACE DESIGNATION OF CLASS A, B, C, D, AND E AIRSPACE AREAS; AIR TRAFFIC SERVICE ROUTES; AND REPORTING POINTS § 71.11 Air Traffic Service (ATS) routes. Unless otherwise specified, the following...

  10. 3. Aerial view southeast, State Route 92 bottom left, Adams ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Aerial view southeast, State Route 92 bottom left, Adams Dam Road center, Brandywine Creek State Park and J. Chandler Farm in center left, duck pond bottom right and reservoir bottom left. - Winterthur Farms, Intersection State Routes 92 & 100, Intersection State Routes 92 & 100, Winterthur, New Castle County, DE

  11. 8. View southeast, Route 100 (Montchanin Road) to left duck ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. View southeast, Route 100 (Montchanin Road) to left duck and large stand of old growth oak trees at back entrance to Winterthur center right. - Winterthur Farms, Intersection State Routes 92 & 100, Intersection State Routes 92 & 100, Winterthur, New Castle County, DE

  12. A Survey on Underwater Acoustic Sensor Network Routing Protocols.

    PubMed

    Li, Ning; Martínez, José-Fernán; Meneses Chaus, Juan Manuel; Eckert, Martina

    2016-03-22

    Underwater acoustic sensor networks (UASNs) have become more and more important in ocean exploration applications, such as ocean monitoring, pollution detection, ocean resource management, underwater device maintenance, etc. In underwater acoustic sensor networks, since the routing protocol guarantees reliable and effective data transmission from the source node to the destination node, routing protocol design is an attractive topic for researchers. There are many routing algorithms have been proposed in recent years. To present the current state of development of UASN routing protocols, we review herein the UASN routing protocol designs reported in recent years. In this paper, all the routing protocols have been classified into different groups according to their characteristics and routing algorithms, such as the non-cross-layer design routing protocol, the traditional cross-layer design routing protocol, and the intelligent algorithm based routing protocol. This is also the first paper that introduces intelligent algorithm-based UASN routing protocols. In addition, in this paper, we investigate the development trends of UASN routing protocols, which can provide researchers with clear and direct insights for further research.

  13. Advanced routing in interplanetary backbone network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Ge; Sheng, Min; Wu, Chengke

    2007-11-01

    Interplanetary (IPN) Internet is a communication infrastructure providing communication services for scientific data delivery and navigation services for the explorer spacecrafts and orbiters of the future deep space missions. The interplanetary backbone network has the unique characteristics hence routing through the backbone network present many challenges that are not presented in traditional networks. Some routing algorithms have been proposed, in which, LPDB integrates the shortest path algorithm and the directional broadcast method to guarantee fast and reliable message delivery. Through this mutipath routing strategy, unpredictable link failures is addressed, but additional network overhead is introduced. In this paper, we propose an improvement of the LPDB named ALPDB in which the source could adaptively decide the next-hop nodes according to the link condition, hence reduce the network overhead. We model this algorithm on the network simulation platform of OPNET and compare it with other applicable algorithms in data passing ratio, data delay and network overhead. The result indicates that the ALPDB algorithm could not only guarantee reliable message delivery, but also decrease the cost significantly.

  14. Terrain-based routing of distribution cables

    SciTech Connect

    West, N.A.; Dwolatzky, B.; Meyer, A.S.

    1997-01-01

    Specifying the actual layout of all overhead lines and underground cables is one of the key tasks to be carried out in the design of electrical distribution networks. Voltage drop and other network calculations can be performed only after the length of each cable segment is determined. Although automatic cable routers are currently available, they are mainly for formally planned urban areas. These routers are not always appropriate for use in designing rural distribution networks, because they fail to account for some of the special circumstances found in rural areas. A more practical approach bases automatic cable routing on the terrain of a given area rather than on the layout of roads. The automatic Distribution Network Router (DNR) finds the least-cost path (not merely the shortest one) connecting two nodes. This article briefly discusses methods currently used to determine cable routes for distribution networks, the unsuitability of these methods for routing cables in rural and informal urban areas, the proposed approach that relies on dividing the terrain into cost regions, and the benefits gained in its application. Emphasis is on the practical application of the new approach.

  15. Method and System for Dynamic Automated Corrections to Weather Avoidance Routes for Aircraft in En Route Airspace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McNally, B. David (Inventor); Erzberger, Heinz (Inventor); Sheth, Kapil (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A dynamic weather route system automatically analyzes routes for in-flight aircraft flying in convective weather regions and attempts to find more time and fuel efficient reroutes around current and predicted weather cells. The dynamic weather route system continuously analyzes all flights and provides reroute advisories that are dynamically updated in real time while the aircraft are in flight. The dynamic weather route system includes a graphical user interface that allows users to visualize, evaluate, modify if necessary, and implement proposed reroutes.

  16. Smart aircraft routing - a possibility for mitigation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mannstein, H.; Gierens, K.; Graf, K.; Waibel, A.; Meilinger, S.; Seifert, A.; Köhler, C.

    2009-12-01

    Air traffic affects the energy balance of the earth in various ways. Emission of CO2 with atmospheric residence times measured in decades contributes to the greenhouse effect as well as emission of nitrous oxides, with their impact on ozone and methane chemistry. Soot has a direct effect on the net radiation and, much more important, is involved in the production of contrails and the triggering of contrail cirrus, which can be visible for several hours. These artificial clouds are initiated when flying in sufficiently cold and moist air. In total, their net radiative forcing is of the same order of magnitude as the forcing by the emitted CO2. The impact of contrail cirrus on net radiation results from the conversion of ambient moisture in ice super-saturated regions into ice crystals and depends strongly on the conditions of the ambient radiation field. It ranges from a warming at night or over bright low clouds to cooling during daytime over dark surfaces like the ocean. For the time being these effects are not at all taken into consideration in aircraft routing: the production of contrails and contrail cirrus happens by chance. The dependency of the radiative forcing by contrail cirrus clouds on the weather conditions opens the possibility for mitigation: Avoiding warming (and perhaps also producing cooling) contrails and contrail cirrus by changes of the flight routes has the potential to reduce the man-made imbalance in radiative forcing. As contrails are produced only in 10%- 20% of the flown distances and only the warming contrails should be avoided, the impact on the traffic system is likely to be limited. The basic idea of the project ’Environmentally compatible flight route optimisation’, funded by the German Ministry for Research and Education is, to predict the time integrated radiative forcing of a potential contrail cirrus based on the information given by a weather forecast model. This information is used in relation to total forcing of the

  17. Smart aircraft routing - a possibility for mitigation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mannstein, H.; Gierens, K.; Waibel, A.; Meilinger, S.; Seifert, A.; Köhler, C.; Kühne, H.

    2009-04-01

    Air traffic affects the energy balance of the earth in various ways. Emission of CO2 with atmospheric residence times measured in decades contributes to the greenhouse effect as well as emission of nitrous oxides, with their impact on ozone and methane chemistry. Soot has a direct effect on the net radiation and, much more important, is involved the production of contrails and the triggering of contrail cirrus, which can be visible for several hours. These artificial clouds are initiated when flying in sufficiently cold and moist air. In total their net radiative forcing is of the same order of magnitude as the forcing by the emitted CO2. The impact of contrail cirrus on net radiation results from the conversion of ambient moisture in ice super-saturated regions into ice crystals and depends strongly on the conditions of the ambient radiation field. It ranges from a warming at night or over bright low clouds to cooling during daytime over dark surfaces like the ocean. For the time being these effects are not at all taken into consideration in aircraft routing: the production of contrails and contrail cirrus happens by chance. in. The dependency of the radiative forcing by contrail cirrus clouds on the weather conditions opens the possibility for a soft version of geo-engineering: Avoiding warming (and perhaps also producing cooling) contrails and contrail cirrus by small changes of the flight routes has the potential to reduce the man-made imbalance in radiative forcing by a few percent - not much compared to other geo-engineering strategies, but without any adverse consequences. With the exception of a small amount of additional fuel usage no other substances have to be brought into the atmosphere. As contrails are produced only in 10%-20% of the flown distances and only the warming contrails should be avoided, the impact on the traffic system is limited. The basic idea of the project 'Environmentally compatible flight route optimisation', funded by the German

  18. Energy-efficient routing control algorithm in large-scale WSN for water environment monitoring with application to Three Gorges Reservoir area.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Yuanchang; Cheng, Lin; Zhang, Liang; Song, Yongduan; Karimi, Hamid Reza

    2014-01-01

    The typical application backgrounds of large-scale WSN (wireless sensor networks) for the water environment monitoring in the Three Gorges Reservoir are large coverage area and wide distribution. To maximally prolong lifetime of large-scale WSN, a new energy-saving routing algorithm has been proposed, using the method of maximum energy-welfare optimization clustering. Firstly, temporary clusters are formed based on two main parameters, the remaining energy of nodes and the distance between a node and the base station. Secondly, the algorithm adjusts cluster heads and optimizes the clustering according to the maximum energy-welfare of the cluster by the cluster head shifting mechanism. Finally, in order to save node energy efficiently, cluster heads transmit data to the base station in single-hop and multihop way. Theoretical analysis and simulation results show that the proposed algorithm is feasible and advanced. It can efficiently save the node energy, balance the energy dissipation of all nodes, and prolong the network lifetime.

  19. Testing a theoretical model for examining the relationship between family adjustment and expatriates' work adjustment.

    PubMed

    Caligiuri, P M; Hyland, M M; Joshi, A; Bross, A S

    1998-08-01

    Based on theoretical perspectives from the work/family literature, this study tested a model for examining expatriate families' adjustment while on global assignments as an antecedent to expatriates' adjustment to working in a host country. Data were collected from 110 families that had been relocated for global assignments. Longitudinal data, assessing family characteristics before the assignment and cross-cultural adjustment approximately 6 months into the assignment, were coded. This study found that family characteristics (family support, family communication, family adaptability) were related to expatriates' adjustment to working in the host country. As hypothesized, the families' cross-cultural adjustment mediated the effect of family characteristics on expatriates' host-country work adjustment.

  20. Predicting Eating Disorder Continuum Groups: Hardiness and College Adjustment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon-Boyd, Gail D.; Bieschke, Kathleen J.

    This study examined relationships between hardiness, college adjustment (academic adjustment, social adjustment, personal-emotional adjustment, institutional attachment) and eating disorder (ED) continuum categories in 122 female and 20 male college students. Students who exhibited a higher level of personal-emotional adjustment (PEA) to college…