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Sample records for adjustable effective properties

  1. A membrane-type acoustic metamaterial with adjustable acoustic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langfeldt, F.; Riecken, J.; Gleine, W.; von Estorff, O.

    2016-07-01

    A new realization of a membrane-type acoustic metamaterial (MAM) with adjustable sound transmission properties is presented. The proposed design distinguishes itself from other realizations by a stacked arrangement of two MAMs which is inflated using pressurized air. The static pressurization leads to large nonlinear deformations and, consequently, geometrical stiffening of the MAMs which is exploited to adjust the eigenmodes and sound transmission loss of the structure. A theoretical analysis of the proposed inflatable MAM design using numerical and analytical models is performed in order to identify two important mechanisms, namely the shifting of the eigenfrequencies and modal residuals due to the pressurization, responsible for the transmission loss adjustment. Analytical formulas are provided for predicting the eigenmode shifting and normal incidence sound transmission loss of inflated single and double MAMs using the concept of effective mass. The investigations are concluded with results from a test sample measurement inside an impedance tube, which confirm the theoretical predictions.

  2. Influence of intraocular pressure on geometrical properties of a linear model of the eyeball: Effect of optical self-adjustment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asejczyk-Widlicka, M.; Srodka, D. W.; Kasprzak, H.; Iskander, D. R.

    In general, visual acuity does not change with variations in intraocular pressure. Experiments in vitro as well as our clinical findings lead us to hypothesise that the eyeball could possess certain mechanical properties enabling it to automatically produce a sharp image on the retina despite variations in intraocular pressure. Previously reported simple biomechanical models of the eye did not confirm this hypothesis. Here, we propose a generalised mechanical model of the eyeball in which we include an appropriate limbus ring that mimics the ciliary body and the iris. The Finite Element Method is used to model the eyeball and to test its behaviour. A set of geometrical and material parameters has been determined for the model so that the postulated function of the eye is preserved. Numerical simulations have confirmed the hypothesis. The anatomically justified inclusion of the limbus ring in the proposed model of the eyeball makes it more realistic than those previously reported.

  3. Hydrogel blends with adjustable properties as patches for transdermal delivery.

    PubMed

    Mazzitelli, Stefania; Pagano, Cinzia; Giusepponi, Danilo; Nastruzzi, Claudio; Perioli, Luana

    2013-09-15

    The effect of different preparation parameters were analyzed with respect to the rheological and pharmaceutical characteristics of hydrogel blend patches, as transdermal delivery formulation. Mixtures of pectin and gelatin were employed for the production of patches, with adjustable properties, following a two-step gelation procedure. The first gelation, a thermal one, is trigged by the presence of gelatin, whereas, the second gelation, an ionic one, is due to the formation of the typical egg box structure of pectin. In particular, the patch structural properties were assessed by oscillation stress sweep measurements which provided information concerning their viscolelastic properties. In addition, different modalities for drug loading were analyzed with respect to drug homogeneous distribution; testosterone was employed as model drug for transdermal administration. Finally, the performances of the produced transdermal patches were studied, in term of reproducibility and reliability, by determination of in vitro drug release profiles. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Psychometric properties of the index of relocation adjustment.

    PubMed

    Bekhet, Abir K; Zauszniewski, Jaclene A

    2014-06-01

    More and more American older adults are relocating to retirement communities, and they experience challenges in adjusting to new surroundings that may increase their depression and mortality. An instrument not previously tested in the United States, the Index of Relocation Adjustment (IRA), may help in early identification of poor relocation adjustment. This study examined the psychometric properties of the IRA using secondary data from a convenience sample of 104 older adults who relocated to 6 retirement communities in Northeast Ohio. Cronbach's alpha was .86. The IRA was correlated with measures of positive cognitions (r = .48, p < .01) and relocation controllability (r = -.62, p < .01), suggesting construct validity. Results indicated a single factor reflecting relocation adjustment with loadings for all items ranging from .62 to .83. The IRA is potentially useful as a screening measure for early detection of poor adjustment among relocated older adults.

  5. 15 CFR 6.5 - Effective date of adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... INFLATION ADJUSTMENTS § 6.5 Effective date of adjustments. The adjustments made by § 6.4 of this part, of... December 11, 2008, and before the effective date of any future inflation adjustment thereto made...

  6. 15 CFR 6.5 - Effective date of adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... INFLATION ADJUSTMENTS § 6.5 Effective date of adjustments. The adjustments made by § 6.4 of this part, of... December 11, 2008, and before the effective date of any future inflation adjustment thereto made...

  7. 26 CFR 1.743-1 - Optional adjustment to basis of partnership property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... a result of the transfer of an interest in a partnership by sale or exchange or on the death of a... partnership property) is in effect with respect to the partnership. Whether or not the election provided in section 754 is in effect, the basis of partnership property is not adjusted as the result of...

  8. Bayesian effect estimation accounting for adjustment uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chi; Parmigiani, Giovanni; Dominici, Francesca

    2012-09-01

    Model-based estimation of the effect of an exposure on an outcome is generally sensitive to the choice of which confounding factors are included in the model. We propose a new approach, which we call Bayesian adjustment for confounding (BAC), to estimate the effect of an exposure of interest on the outcome, while accounting for the uncertainty in the choice of confounders. Our approach is based on specifying two models: (1) the outcome as a function of the exposure and the potential confounders (the outcome model); and (2) the exposure as a function of the potential confounders (the exposure model). We consider Bayesian variable selection on both models and link the two by introducing a dependence parameter, ω, denoting the prior odds of including a predictor in the outcome model, given that the same predictor is in the exposure model. In the absence of dependence (ω= 1), BAC reduces to traditional Bayesian model averaging (BMA). In simulation studies, we show that BAC, with ω > 1, estimates the exposure effect with smaller bias than traditional BMA, and improved coverage. We, then, compare BAC, a recent approach of Crainiceanu, Dominici, and Parmigiani (2008, Biometrika 95, 635-651), and traditional BMA in a time series data set of hospital admissions, air pollution levels, and weather variables in Nassau, NY for the period 1999-2005. Using each approach, we estimate the short-term effects of on emergency admissions for cardiovascular diseases, accounting for confounding. This application illustrates the potentially significant pitfalls of misusing variable selection methods in the context of adjustment uncertainty. © 2012, The International Biometric Society.

  9. Are Effective Properties Effective?

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Ru; Ingber, Marc S.; Hsiao, S.-C.

    2008-02-15

    The effective moduli (effective Young's modulus, effective Poisson's ratio, effective shear modulus, and effective bulk modulus) of dispersed-phase-reinforced composite materials are determined at the mesoscopic level using three-dimensional parallel boundary element simulations. By comparing the mesoscopic BEM results and the macroscopic results based on effective properties, limitations in the effective property approach have been examined.

  10. Properties of the Hubert-Arable Adjusted Rand Index

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinley, Douglas

    2004-01-01

    This article provides an investigation of cluster validation indices that relates 4 of the indices to the L. Hubert and P. Arable (1985) adjusted Rand index--the cluster validation measure of choice (G. W. Milligan & M. C. Cooper, 1986). It is shown how these other indices can be "roughly" transformed into the same scale as the adjusted Rand…

  11. 26 CFR 1.734-1 - Optional adjustment to basis of undistributed partnership property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .... The partnership balance sheet before the distribution shows the following: Assets Adjusted basis Value... the distribution less D's basis for property X after distribution) is added to the basis of property Y... distribution shows the following: Assets Adjusted basis Value Cash $5,000 $5,000 Property X 10,000 10,000...

  12. Material variability and repetitive member allowable property adjustments in forest products engineering

    Treesearch

    Steve Verrill; David Kretschmann

    2008-01-01

    It has been argued that repetitive member allowable property adjustments should be larger for high-variability material than for low-variability material. We report analytic calculations and simulations that suggest that the order of such adjustments should be reversed. That is, given the manner in which allowable properties are currently calculated, as the coefficient...

  13. 26 CFR 1.743-1 - Optional adjustment to basis of partnership property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Optional adjustment to basis of partnership... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Transfers of Interests in A Partnership § 1.743-1 Optional adjustment to basis of partnership property. (a) Generally. The basis of partnership property...

  14. 26 CFR 1.743-1 - Optional adjustment to basis of partnership property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Optional adjustment to basis of partnership... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Transfers of Interests in A Partnership § 1.743-1 Optional adjustment to basis of partnership property. (a) Generally. The basis of partnership property...

  15. Tuning the properties of polymer bulk heterojunction solar cells by adjusting fullerene size to control intercalation

    SciTech Connect

    Cates, N.C.

    2010-02-24

    We demonstrate that intercalation of fullerene derivatives between the side chains of conjugated polymers can be controlled by adjusting the fullerene size and compare the properties of intercalated and nonintercalated poly(2,5-bis(3-hexadecylthiophen-2-yl)thieno[3,2-b]thiophene) (pBTTT):fullerene blends. The intercalated blends, which exhibit optimal solar-cell performance at 1:4 polymer:fullerene by weight, have better photoluminescence quenching and lower absorption than the nonintercalated blends, which optimize at 1:1. Understanding how intercalation affects performance will enable more effective design of polymer:fullerene solar cells.

  16. Tuning the properties of polymer bulk heterojunction solar cells by adjusting fullerene size to control intercalation.

    PubMed

    Cates, Nichole C; Gysel, Roman; Beiley, Zach; Miller, Chad E; Toney, Michael F; Heeney, Martin; McCulloch, Iain; McGehee, Michael D

    2009-12-01

    We demonstrate that intercalation of fullerene derivatives between the side chains of conjugated polymers can be controlled by adjusting the fullerene size and compare the properties of intercalated and nonintercalated poly(2,5-bis(3-hexadecylthiophen-2-yl)thieno[3,2-b]thiophene (pBTTT):fullerene blends. The intercalated blends, which exhibit optimal solar-cell performance at 1:4 polymer:fullerene by weight, have better photoluminescence quenching and lower absorption than the nonintercalated blends, which optimize at 1:1. Understanding how intercalation affects performance will enable more effective design of polymer:fullerene solar cells.

  17. The acoustic effect of vocal tract adjustments in zebra finches

    PubMed Central

    Riede, Tobias; Schilling, Nadja; Goller, Franz

    2012-01-01

    Vocal production in songbirds requires the control of the respiratory system, the syrinx as sound source and the vocal tract as acoustic filter. Vocal tract movements consist of beak, tongue and hyoid movements which change the volume of the oropharyngeal-esophageal cavity (OEC), glottal movements and tracheal length changes. The respective contributions of each movement to filter properties are not completely understood, but the effects of this filtering are thought to be very important for acoustic communication in birds. One of the most striking movements of the upper vocal tract during vocal behavior in songbirds involves the OEC. This study measured the acoustic effect of OEC adjustments in zebra finches by comparing resonance acoustics between an utterance with OEC expansion (calls) and a similar utterance without OEC expansion (respiratory sounds induced by a bilateral syringeal denervation). X-ray cineradiography confirmed the presence of an OEC motor pattern during song and call production, and a custom-built Hall-effect collar system confirmed that OEC expansion movements were not present during respiratory sounds. The spectral emphasis during zebra finch call production ranging between 2.5 and 5 kHz was not present during respiratory sounds, indicating strongly that it can be attributed to the OEC expansion. PMID:23085986

  18. The acoustic effect of vocal tract adjustments in zebra finches.

    PubMed

    Riede, Tobias; Schilling, Nadja; Goller, Franz

    2013-01-01

    Vocal production in songbirds requires the control of the respiratory system, the syrinx as sound source and the vocal tract as acoustic filter. Vocal tract movements consist of beak, tongue and hyoid movements, which change the volume of the oropharyngeal-esophageal cavity (OEC), glottal movements and tracheal length changes. The respective contributions of each movement to filter properties are not completely understood, but the effects of this filtering are thought to be very important for acoustic communication in birds. One of the most striking movements of the upper vocal tract during vocal behavior in songbirds involves the OEC. This study measured the acoustic effect of OEC adjustments in zebra finches by comparing resonance acoustics between an utterance with OEC expansion (calls) and a similar utterance without OEC expansion (respiratory sounds induced by a bilateral syringeal denervation). X-ray cineradiography confirmed the presence of an OEC motor pattern during song and call production, and a custom-built Hall-effect collar system confirmed that OEC expansion movements were not present during respiratory sounds. The spectral emphasis during zebra finch call production ranging between 2.5 and 5 kHz was not present during respiratory sounds, indicating strongly that it can be attributed to the OEC expansion.

  19. Adjustment of the human arm viscoelastic properties to the direction of reaching.

    PubMed

    Frolov, A A; Prokopenko, R A; Dufossè, M; Ouezdou, F B

    2006-02-01

    The viscoelastic properties of the human arm were measured by means of short force perturbations during fast reaching movements in two orthogonal directions. A linear spring model with time delay described the neuromuscular system of the human arm. The obtained viscoelastic parameters ensured movement stability in spite of the time delay of 50 ms. The stiffness and viscosity ellipses appeared to be predominantly orthogonal to the movement direction, which reduced the effect of force perturbation in the direction orthogonal to the reaching movement. Thus, it can be argued that the viscoelastic properties of the neuromuscular system of the human arm are adjusted to the direction of movement according to a "path preserving" strategy, which minimizes the deviation of the movement path from a straight line, when exposed to an unexpected external force.

  20. Adjustment of Sensor Locations During Thermal Property Parameter Estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milos, Frank S.; Marschall, Jochen; Rasky, Daniel J. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    The temperature dependent thermal properties of a material may be evaluated from transient temperature histories using nonlinear parameter estimation techniques. The usual approach is to minimize the sum of the squared errors between measured and calculated temperatures at specific locations in the body. Temperature measurements are usually made with thermocouples and it is customary to take thermocouple locations as known and fixed during parameter estimation computations. In fact, thermocouple locations are never known exactly. Location errors on the order of the thermocouple wire diameter are intrinsic to most common instrumentation procedures (e.g., inserting a thermocouple into a drilled hole) and additional errors can be expected for delicate materials, difficult installations, large thermocouple beads, etc.. Thermocouple location errors are especially significant when estimating thermal properties of low diffusively materials which can sustain large temperature gradients during testing. In the present work, a parameter estimation formulation is presented which allows for the direct inclusion of thermocouple positions into the primary parameter estimation procedure. It is straightforward to set bounds on thermocouple locations which exclude non-physical locations and are consistent with installation tolerances. Furthermore, bounds may be tightened to an extent consistent with any independent verification of thermocouple location, such as x-raying, and so the procedure is entirely consonant with experimental information. A mathematical outline of the procedure is given and its implementation is illustrated through numerical examples characteristic of light-weight, high-temperature ceramic insulation during transient heating. The efficacy and the errors associated with the procedure are discussed.

  1. Interactive effects of traits on adjustment to a life transition.

    PubMed

    Bardi, Anat; Ryff, Carol D

    2007-10-01

    A longitudinal design was used to test theoretically derived interactive effects of traits on adjustment to relocation 1, 8, and 15 months after relocation of elderly women. Openness interacted with Neuroticism and with Extraversion in affecting changes in distress after relocation by amplifying the basic emotional tendencies of Neuroticism and Extraversion. These were delayed effects, occurring only 15 months after relocation. Openness also interacted with Neuroticism in predicting changes in psychological well-being with the effects occurring primarily early in postmove adjustment. In addition, Extraversion interacted with Conscientiousness and with Agreeableness in predicting changes in distress, such that the beneficial effects of Conscientiousness and Agreeableness were evident only for individuals low on Extraversion. These effects were consistent across time, showing long-term effects. Overall, the findings demonstrate the multiplicity of ways in which trait interactions predict dynamic adjustment to a life transition.

  2. Covariate-Adjusted Linear Mixed Effects Model with an Application to Longitudinal Data

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Danh V.; Şentürk, Damla; Carroll, Raymond J.

    2009-01-01

    Linear mixed effects (LME) models are useful for longitudinal data/repeated measurements. We propose a new class of covariate-adjusted LME models for longitudinal data that nonparametrically adjusts for a normalizing covariate. The proposed approach involves fitting a parametric LME model to the data after adjusting for the nonparametric effects of a baseline confounding covariate. In particular, the effect of the observable covariate on the response and predictors of the LME model is modeled nonparametrically via smooth unknown functions. In addition to covariate-adjusted estimation of fixed/population parameters and random effects, an estimation procedure for the variance components is also developed. Numerical properties of the proposed estimators are investigated with simulation studies. The consistency and convergence rates of the proposed estimators are also established. An application to a longitudinal data set on calcium absorption, accounting for baseline distortion from body mass index, illustrates the proposed methodology. PMID:19266053

  3. 26 CFR 1.743-1 - Optional adjustment to basis of partnership property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... a result of the hypothetical transaction. (3) Examples. The provisions of this paragraph (d) are..., relating to the optional adjustment to the basis of partnership property. A sells its interest to T for $22... partnership's property. Under section 742, the basis of T's interest is $25,333 (the cash paid for A's...

  4. Evolution of standardized procedures for adjusting lumber properties for change in moisture content

    Treesearch

    David W. Green; James W. Evans

    2001-01-01

    This paper documents the development of procedures in American Society for Testing and Materials standards for adjusting the allowable properties of lumber for changes in moisture content. The paper discusses the historical context of efforts to establish allowable properties on a consensus basis, beginning in the 19th century. Where possible, the reasons for proposed...

  5. 26 CFR 1.734-1 - Optional adjustment to basis of undistributed partnership property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... partnership property. 1.734-1 Section 1.734-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Distributions by A Partnership § 1.734-1 Optional adjustment to basis of undistributed partnership property. (a) General rule....

  6. 26 CFR 1.734-1 - Optional adjustment to basis of undistributed partnership property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... partnership property. 1.734-1 Section 1.734-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Distributions by A Partnership § 1.734-1 Optional adjustment to basis of undistributed partnership property. (a) General rule....

  7. Petersen estimator, Chapman adjustment, list effects, and heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Mao, Chang Xuan; Huang, Ruochen; Zhang, Sijia

    2017-03-01

    We use a nonparametric mixture model for the purpose of estimating the size of a population from multiple lists in which both the individual effects and list effects are allowed to vary. We propose a lower bound of the population size that admits an analytic expression. The lower bound can be estimated without the necessity of model-fitting. The asymptotical normality of the estimator is established. Both the estimator itself and that for the estimable bound of its variance are adjusted. These adjusted versions are shown to be unbiased in the limit. Simulation experiments are performed to assess the proposed approach and real applications are studied.

  8. The Bivalency Effect: Evidence for Flexible Adjustment of Cognitive Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rey-Mermet, Alodie; Meier, Beat

    2012-01-01

    When bivalent stimuli (i.e., stimuli with features for two different tasks) appear occasionally, performance is slower on subsequent univalent stimuli. This "bivalency effect" reflects an adjustment of cognitive control arising from the more demanding context created by bivalent stimuli. So far, it has been investigated only on task…

  9. The effect of accuracy motivation on anchoring and adjustment: do people adjust from provided anchors?

    PubMed

    Simmons, Joseph P; LeBoeuf, Robyn A; Nelson, Leif D

    2010-12-01

    Increasing accuracy motivation (e.g., by providing monetary incentives for accuracy) often fails to increase adjustment away from provided anchors, a result that has led researchers to conclude that people do not effortfully adjust away from such anchors. We challenge this conclusion. First, we show that people are typically uncertain about which way to adjust from provided anchors and that this uncertainty often causes people to believe that they have initially adjusted too far away from such anchors (Studies 1a and 1b). Then, we show that although accuracy motivation fails to increase the gap between anchors and final estimates when people are uncertain about the direction of adjustment, accuracy motivation does increase anchor-estimate gaps when people are certain about the direction of adjustment, and that this is true regardless of whether the anchors are provided or self-generated (Studies 2, 3a, 3b, and 5). These results suggest that people do effortfully adjust away from provided anchors but that uncertainty about the direction of adjustment makes that adjustment harder to detect than previously assumed. This conclusion has important theoretical implications, suggesting that currently emphasized distinctions between anchor types (self-generated vs. provided) are not fundamental and that ostensibly competing theories of anchoring (selective accessibility and anchoring-and-adjustment) are complementary.

  10. 18 CFR 367.4114 - Account 411.4, Investment tax credit adjustments, service company property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 2005, FEDERAL POWER ACT AND NATURAL GAS ACT UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR CENTRALIZED SERVICE COMPANIES SUBJECT TO THE PROVISIONS OF THE PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY..., Investment tax credit adjustments, service company property. 367.4114 Section 367.4114 Conservation of Power...

  11. 18 CFR 367.4114 - Account 411.4, Investment tax credit adjustments, service company property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 2005, FEDERAL POWER ACT AND NATURAL GAS ACT UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR CENTRALIZED SERVICE COMPANIES SUBJECT TO THE PROVISIONS OF THE PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY..., Investment tax credit adjustments, service company property. 367.4114 Section 367.4114 Conservation of Power...

  12. 18 CFR 367.4114 - Account 411.4, Investment tax credit adjustments, service company property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 2005, FEDERAL POWER ACT AND NATURAL GAS ACT UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR CENTRALIZED SERVICE COMPANIES SUBJECT TO THE PROVISIONS OF THE PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY..., Investment tax credit adjustments, service company property. 367.4114 Section 367.4114 Conservation of Power...

  13. Effectivity of intraoperative adjustable suture technique in horizontal strabismus

    PubMed Central

    Altintas, Ayse Gul Kocak; Arifoglu, Hasan Basri; Midillioglu, Inci Kocak; Gungor, Elif Damar; Simsek, Saban

    2013-01-01

    AIM To compare the long-term effectivity of intraoperative adjustable suture technique with traditional non-adjustable strabismus surgery. METHODS Two hundred and thirty-three patients, who underwent strabismus surgery either with traditional procedures or one-stage intraoperative adjustable suture technique, were included in our long-term follow-up study. One hundred and eighteen patients were evaluated in traditional surgery group (TSG) and 115 who underwent adjustable suture were in the one-stage intraoperative adjustable surgery group (ASG). In this group 9 patients had paralytic strabismus and 16 had reoperations, 2 patients had restrictive strabismus related to thyroid eye disease. The mean follow up in the TSG was 26.2 months and it was 24.8 months in the ASG group. RESULTS In patients with exotropia (XT) the mean correction of deviation for near fixation in ASG (32.4±13.2PD) and in TSG (26.4±8.2PD) were similar (P=0.112). The correction for distant fixation in ASG (33.2±11.4PD) and TSG (30.9±7.2PD) were not significantly different (P=0.321). In patients with esotropia (ET) even the mean correction of deviation for both near (31±12PD) and distant (30.6±12.8PD) fixations were higher in ASG than in TSG, for both near (28.27±14.2PD) and distant (28.9±12.9PD) fixations, the differences were not significant (P=0.346, 0.824 respectively). The overall success rate of XT patient was 78.9% in TSG and 78.78% in ASG, the difference was not significant (P=0.629). The success rates were 78.75% in TSG and 75.51% in ASG in ET patient, which was also not significantly different (P=0.821). CONCLUSION Although patients in ASG had more complex deviation such as paralysis, reoperations and restrictive strabismus, success rates of this tecnique was as high as TSG which did not contain complicated deviation. One-stage intraoperative adjustable suture technique is a safe and effective method for cooperative patient who has complex deviation. PMID:23991385

  14. The effect of asymmetry of posture on anticipatory postural adjustments.

    PubMed

    Aruin, Alexander S

    2006-06-19

    The study investigates the effect of body asymmetry on anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs). Subjects performed a task involving a standard load release induced by a shoulder abduction movement while standing symmetrically or in an asymmetrical stance with either their right or left leg in 45 degrees of external rotation. EMG activities of trunk and leg muscles were recorded during the postural perturbation and were quantified within the time intervals typical of APAs. Anticipatory postural adjustments were observed in all experimental conditions. It was found that asymmetrical body positioning was associated with significant asymmetrical patterns of APAs seen in the right and left distal muscles. These APA asymmetries were dependant upon the side in which the body asymmetry was induced: reduced APAs were observed in the leg muscles on the side of leg rotation, while increased APAs were seen in the muscles on the contralateral side. These findings stress the important role that body asymmetries play in the control of upright posture.

  15. Combined expectancies: electrophysiological evidence for the adjustment of expectancy effects

    PubMed Central

    Mattler, Uwe; van der Lugt, Arie; Münte, Thomas F

    2006-01-01

    Background When subjects use cues to prepare for a likely stimulus or a likely response, reaction times are facilitated by valid cues but prolonged by invalid cues. In studies on combined expectancy effects, two cues can independently give information regarding two dimensions of the forthcoming task. In certain situations, cueing effects on one dimension are reduced when the cue on the other dimension is invalid. According to the Adjusted Expectancy Model, cues affect different processing levels and a mechanism is presumed which is sensitive to the validity of early level cues and leads to online adjustment of expectancy effects at later levels. To examine the predictions of this model cueing of stimulus modality was combined with response cueing. Results Behavioral measures showed the interaction of cueing effects. Electrophysiological measures of the lateralized readiness potential (LRP) and the N200 amplitude confirmed the predictions of the model. The LRP showed larger effects of response cues on response activation when modality cues were valid rather than invalid. N200 amplitude was largest with valid modality cues and invalid response cues, medium with invalid modality cues, and smallest with two valid cues. Conclusion Findings support the view that the validity of early level expectancies modulates the effects of late level expectancies, which included response activation and response conflict in the present study. PMID:16674805

  16. Fabrication of dopamine modified polylactide-poly(ethylene glycol) scaffolds with adjustable properties.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jiali; Shi, Dongjian; Shi, Chang; Li, Xiaojie; Chen, Mingqing

    2017-12-01

    Bio-based polymers have been widely used to be as scaffolds for repairing the bone defects. However, the polymer scaffolds are generally lack of bioactivity and cell recognition site. Seeking effective ways to improve the bioactivity and interaction between materials and tissue or cells is clinically important for long-term performance of bone repair materials. In this work, polylactide-b-poly(ethylene glycol)-b-polylactide (PLA-PEG-PLA, PLEL) tri-block copolymers were firstly synthesized by ring-opening polymerization of lactide using PEG with various molecular weights. Inspired by excellent adhesion of dopamine (DA), a facile and effective method was developed to fabricate polydopamine (PDA) and polydopamine/nano-hydroxyapatite (PDA/n-HA) modified PLEL scaffolds by deposition of PDA and PDA/n-HA coating. The surface structure, degradation rates and mineralization of the modified PLEL scaffolds were investigated, and obviously improved after immobilization of PDA and PDA/n-HA coatings. Moreover, the biocompatible results showed a significant increase in cells viability and adhesion. Therefore, the surface modification with PDA and PDA/n-HA could not only adjust the properties of scaffolds, but also reinforce the interfacial adhesion between the PLEL and cells.

  17. Adjusting for covariate effects on classification accuracy using the covariate-adjusted receiver operating characteristic curve.

    PubMed

    Janes, Holly; Pepe, Margaret S

    2009-06-01

    Recent scientific and technological innovations have produced an abundance of potential markers that are being investigated for their use in disease screening and diagnosis. In evaluating these markers, it is often necessary to account for covariates associated with the marker of interest. Covariates may include subject characteristics, expertise of the test operator, test procedures or aspects of specimen handling. In this paper, we propose the covariate-adjusted receiver operating characteristic curve, a measure of covariate-adjusted classification accuracy. Nonparametric and semiparametric estimators are proposed, asymptotic distribution theory is provided and finite sample performance is investigated. For illustration we characterize the age-adjusted discriminatory accuracy of prostate-specific antigen as a biomarker for prostate cancer.

  18. The effect of childhood trauma on later psychological adjustment.

    PubMed

    Browne, Caroline; Winkelman, Cecelia

    2007-06-01

    This study examined whether adult attachment and cognitive distortion mediate the relationship between childhood trauma and psychological adjustment. The participants were 219 students (40 men and 117 women) enrolled in a university degree. Participants completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, which assessed retrospective accounts of childhood trauma; the Relationships Scales Questionnaire, which measured two dimensions of adult attachment (model-of-self and model-of-other); the Cognitive Distortions Scale, which measured internal attributions and perceptions of controllability; and the Trauma Symptom Inventory, which assessed posttraumatic symptoms and was used in this study to measure psychological adjustment. Results supported the hypothesis that model-of-self and cognitive distortion are related constructs. The influence of model-of-self on psychological adjustment however was only via its effect on cognitive processes. In other words, a negative model-of-self influenced cognitive distortion, which in turn influenced the expression of symptoms in adults reporting a history of childhood trauma. The implications for therapy were considered.

  19. Computer programs for adjusting the mechanical properties of 2-inch dimension lumber for changes in moisture content

    Treesearch

    James W. Evans; Jane K. Evans; David W. Green

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents computer programs for adjusting the mechanical properties of 2-in. dimension lumber for changes in moisture content. Mechanical properties adjusted are modulus of rupture, ultimate tensile stress parallel to the grain, ultimate compressive stress parallel to the gain, and flexural modulus of elasticity. The models are valid for moisture contents...

  20. Lasso adjustments of treatment effect estimates in randomized experiments

    PubMed Central

    Bloniarz, Adam; Liu, Hanzhong; Zhang, Cun-Hui; Sekhon, Jasjeet S.; Yu, Bin

    2016-01-01

    We provide a principled way for investigators to analyze randomized experiments when the number of covariates is large. Investigators often use linear multivariate regression to analyze randomized experiments instead of simply reporting the difference of means between treatment and control groups. Their aim is to reduce the variance of the estimated treatment effect by adjusting for covariates. If there are a large number of covariates relative to the number of observations, regression may perform poorly because of overfitting. In such cases, the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (Lasso) may be helpful. We study the resulting Lasso-based treatment effect estimator under the Neyman–Rubin model of randomized experiments. We present theoretical conditions that guarantee that the estimator is more efficient than the simple difference-of-means estimator, and we provide a conservative estimator of the asymptotic variance, which can yield tighter confidence intervals than the difference-of-means estimator. Simulation and data examples show that Lasso-based adjustment can be advantageous even when the number of covariates is less than the number of observations. Specifically, a variant using Lasso for selection and ordinary least squares (OLS) for estimation performs particularly well, and it chooses a smoothing parameter based on combined performance of Lasso and OLS. PMID:27382153

  1. Property-process relations in simulated clinical abrasive adjusting of dental ceramics.

    PubMed

    Yin, Ling

    2012-12-01

    This paper reports on property-process correlations in simulated clinical abrasive adjusting of a wide range of dental restorative ceramics using a dental handpiece and diamond burs. The seven materials studied included four mica-containing glass ceramics, a feldspathic porcelain, a glass-infiltrated alumina, and a yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia. The abrasive adjusting process was conducted under simulated clinical conditions using diamond burs and a clinical dental handpiece. An attempt was made to establish correlations between process characteristics in terms of removal rate, chipping damage, and surface finish and material mechanical properties of hardness, fracture toughness and Young's modulus. The results show that the removal rate is mainly a function of hardness, which decreases nonlinearly with hardness. No correlations were noted between the removal rates and the complex relations of hardness, Young's modulus and fracture toughness. Surface roughness was primarily a linear function of diamond grit size and was relatively independent of materials. Chipping damage in terms of the average chipping width decreased with fracture toughness except for glass-infiltrated alumina. It also had higher linear correlations with critical strain energy release rates (R²=0.66) and brittleness (R²=0.62) and a lower linear correlation with indices of brittleness (R²=0.32). Implications of these results can provide guidance for the microstructural design of dental ceramics, optimize performance, and guide the proper selection of technical parameters in clinical abrasive adjusting conducted by dental practitioners.

  2. Effect of Flux Adjustments on Temperature Variability in Climate Models

    SciTech Connect

    Duffy, P.; Bell, J.; Covey, C.; Sloan, L.

    1999-12-27

    It has been suggested that ''flux adjustments'' in climate models suppress simulated temperature variability. If true, this might invalidate the conclusion that at least some of observed temperature increases since 1860 are anthropogenic, since this conclusion is based in part on estimates of natural temperature variability derived from flux-adjusted models. We assess variability of surface air temperatures in 17 simulations of internal temperature variability submitted to the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project. By comparing variability in flux-adjusted vs. non-flux adjusted simulations, we find no evidence that flux adjustments suppress temperature variability in climate models; other, largely unknown, factors are much more important in determining simulated temperature variability. Therefore the conclusion that at least some of observed temperature increases are anthropogenic cannot be questioned on the grounds that it is based in part on results of flux-adjusted models. Also, reducing or eliminating flux adjustments would probably do little to improve simulations of temperature variability.

  3. Effect of flux adjustments on temperature variability in climate models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    CMIP investigators; Duffy, P. B.; Bell, J.; Covey, C.; Sloan, L.

    2000-03-01

    It has been suggested that “flux adjustments” in climate models suppress simulated temperature variability. If true, this might invalidate the conclusion that at least some of observed temperature increases since 1860 are anthropogenic, since this conclusion is based in part on estimates of natural temperature variability derived from flux-adjusted models. We assess variability of surface air temperatures in 17 simulations of internal temperature variability submitted to the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project. By comparing variability in flux-adjusted vs. non-flux adjusted simulations, we find no evidence that flux adjustments suppress temperature variability in climate models; other, largely unknown, factors are much more important in determining simulated temperature variability. Therefore the conclusion that at least some of observed temperature increases are anthropogenic cannot be questioned on the grounds that it is based in part on results of flux-adjusted models. Also, reducing or eliminating flux adjustments would probably do little to improve simulations of temperature variability.

  4. Adjustment of design parameters for improved feedback properties in the linear quadratic regulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McEwen, R. S.

    1982-03-01

    Classical analysis and design methods for single input-single output (SISO) systems, such as gain and phase margins, do not generalize easily to MIMO systems. Recently, the singular values of the return difference and inverse Nyquist matrices have proven useful in analyzing multiple input-multiple output (MIMO) systems. The linear quadratic formulation is useful for the design of MIMO controllers. A disadvantage of this design method is that all the design specifications must be incorporated into a quadratic cost functional. This thesis contains a systematic method for adjusting the quadratic cost to manipulate the singular value functionals and the feedback properties and thus achieve the design requirements.

  5. Effects of Systematic Group Counseling on Work Adjustment Clients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roessler, Richard; And Others

    1977-01-01

    When compared with a group of clients who had received work adjustment services and a placebo treatment (personal hygiene training), experimental clients given Personal Achievement Skills (PAS) and work adjustment services reported greater gains on self-ratings of life perspective (optimism), work-related attitudes, and goal attainment. (Author)

  6. The Effect of Articulatory Adjustment on Reducing Hypernasality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rong, Panying; Kuehn, David

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: With the goal of using articulatory adjustments to reduce hypernasality, this study utilized an articulatory synthesis model (Childers, 2000) to simulate the adjustment of articulatory configurations with an open velopharynx to achieve the same acoustic goal as normal speech simulated with a closed velopharynx. Method: To examine the…

  7. The Effect of Family Communication Patterns on Adopted Adolescent Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rueter, Martha A.; Koerner, Ascan F.

    2008-01-01

    Adoption and family communication both affect adolescent adjustment. We proposed that adoption status and family communication interact such that adopted adolescents in families with certain communication patterns are at greater risk for adjustment problems. We tested this hypothesis using a community-based sample of 384 adoptive and 208…

  8. Hydration during exercise. Effects on thermal and cardiovascular adjustments.

    PubMed

    Candas, V; Libert, J P; Brandenberger, G; Sagot, J C; Amoros, C; Kahn, J M

    1986-01-01

    Five young unacclimatised subjects were exposed for 4 h at 34 degrees C (10 degrees C dew-point temperature and 0.6 m X s-1 air velocity), while exercising on a bicycle ergometer: 25 min work--5 min rest cycles for 2 hours followed by 20 min work--10 min rest cycles for two further hours. 5 experimental sessions were carried out: one without rehydration (NO FLUID) resulting in 3.1% mean loss of body weight (delta Mb), and four sessions with 20 degrees C fluid ingestion of spring water (WATER), hypotonic (HYPO), isotonic (ISO) and hypertonic (HYPER) solutions to study the effects of fluid osmolarity on rehydration. Mean final rehydration (+/- SE) after fluid intake was 82.2% (+/- 1.2). Heart rate was higher in NO FLUID while no difference among conditions was found in either delta Mb or hourly sweat rates. Sweating sensitivity was lowest in the dehydration condition, and highest in the WATER one. Modifications in plasma volume and osmolarity demonstrated that NO FLUID induced hyperosmotic hypovolemia, ISO rehydration rapidly led to plasma isoosmotic hypervolemia, while WATER led to slightly hypoosmotic normovolemia. It is concluded that adequate rehydration through ingestion of isotonic electrolyte-sucrose solution, although in quantities much smaller than evaporative heat loss, rapidly restored and expanded plasma volume. While osmolarity influenced sweating sensitivity, the plasma volume changes (delta PV) within the range -6% less than or equal to delta PV + 4% had little effect on temperature adjustments in our conditions.

  9. The Effect of Family Communication Patterns on Adopted Adolescent Adjustment

    PubMed Central

    Rueter, Martha A.

    2008-01-01

    Adoption and family communication both affect adolescent adjustment. We proposed that adoption status and family communication interact such that adopted adolescents in families with certain communication patterns are at greater risk for adjustment problems. We tested this hypothesis using a community-based sample of 384 adoptive and 208 nonadoptive families. Adolescents in these families were, on average, 16 years of age. The results supported our hypothesis. Adopted adolescents were at significantly greater risk for adjustment problems compared to nonadopted adolescents in families that emphasized conformity orientation without conversation orientation and in families that emphasized neither conformity nor conversation orientation. Adolescents in families emphasizing conversation orientation were at lower risk for adjustment problems, regardless of adoption status. PMID:19649145

  10. Effects of inflammatory bowel disease on students' adjustment to college.

    PubMed

    Almadani, S Bashar; Adler, Jeremy; Browning, Jeff; Green, Elan H; Helvie, Karla; Rizk, Rafat S; Zimmermann, Ellen M

    2014-12-01

    Successful adjustment to college is required for academic success. We investigated whether inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) activity affects this adjustment process. We created an online survey that included a Student Adaptation to College Questionnaire (SACQ), a general quality of life survey (SF-12), a disease-specific short IBD quality of life survey (SIBDQ), and disease activity indices. Undergraduate students across the United States were recruited via social media. Surveys were completed by 65 students with Crohn's disease (CD), 28 with ulcerative colitis, and 214 healthy students (controls). Disease-specific quality of life (SIBDQ results) correlated with IBD disease activity (rho = -0.79; P < .0001). High college adjustment scores (SACQ results) were associated with high SIBDQ scores. Students with IBD had lower mean SACQ scores than controls (307 vs 290; P < .0001). There was a modest inverse correlation between CD activity and SACQ (rho = -0.24; P < .04). Disease activity in students with CD was associated strongly with their self-reported ability to keep up with academic work (P < .0089) and confidence in their ability to meet future academic challenges (P < .0015). Students with active IBD reported feeling as if they were not academically successful (P < .018), and students with ulcerative colitis reported irregular class attendance (P < .043). Students with IBD do not adjust to college as well as healthy students. Disease activity affects their adjustment and attitudes about academics-especially among students with CD. Successful adjustment is important for academic success, affecting graduation rates and future economic success. Strategies to increase disease control and provide social and emotional support during college could improve adjustment to college and academic performance, and increase patients' potential. Copyright © 2014 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Chiropractic Adjustment

    MedlinePlus

    ... t seek chiropractic adjustment if you have: Severe osteoporosis Numbness, tingling or loss of strength in an ... treated. Chiropractic adjustment can be effective in treating low back pain, although much of the research done shows only ...

  12. The Effects of Gender and Attendance Period on Children's Adjustment to Nursery Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Julie; Brember, Ivy

    1991-01-01

    Analyzes the effects of gender and time of attendance on children's adjustment to English nursery classes attached to primary schools. Results show boys were perceived as less well adjusted to school than are girls. Afternoon attendees were found to be less well adjusted than morning attendees. Discusses strategies to help those who are less well…

  13. Adolescent Leisure Dimensions, Psychosocial Adjustment, and Gender Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Graham L.; Inglis, Brad C.

    2012-01-01

    Leisure provides the context for much of adolescent behaviour and development. While both theory and research point to the benefits of participation in leisure activities that are highly structured, the association between structured leisure and psychosocial adjustment is not uniformly high. This paper presents a model of adolescent leisure…

  14. Effects of Relational Authenticity on Adjustment to College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenz, A. Stephen; Holman, Rachel L.; Lancaster, Chloe; Gotay, Stephanie G.

    2016-01-01

    The authors examined the association between relational health and student adjustment to college. Data were collected from 138 undergraduate students completing their 1st semester at a large university in the mid-southern United States. Regression analysis indicated that higher levels of relational authenticity were a predictor of success during…

  15. Adolescent Leisure Dimensions, Psychosocial Adjustment, and Gender Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Graham L.; Inglis, Brad C.

    2012-01-01

    Leisure provides the context for much of adolescent behaviour and development. While both theory and research point to the benefits of participation in leisure activities that are highly structured, the association between structured leisure and psychosocial adjustment is not uniformly high. This paper presents a model of adolescent leisure…

  16. Effects of Relational Authenticity on Adjustment to College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenz, A. Stephen; Holman, Rachel L.; Lancaster, Chloe; Gotay, Stephanie G.

    2016-01-01

    The authors examined the association between relational health and student adjustment to college. Data were collected from 138 undergraduate students completing their 1st semester at a large university in the mid-southern United States. Regression analysis indicated that higher levels of relational authenticity were a predictor of success during…

  17. Mediating Effects of Relationships with Mentors on College Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenz, A. Stephen

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between student adjustment to college and relational health with peers, mentors, and the community. Data were collected from 80 undergraduate students completing their first semester of course work at a large university in the mid-South. A series of simultaneous multiple regression analyses indicated that…

  18. The Moderating Effect of Sense of Coherence on Work Adjustment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strauser, David R.; Lustig, Daniel C.

    2003-01-01

    Examines the relationship between sense of coherence and a model of work adjustment, specifically, the individual domains of work personality and work competencies. Results indicated a medium relationship between sense of coherence and the Work Personality Profile Self-Report, with sense of coherence accounting for 18% of the variance. (Contains…

  19. Effects of Domestic Violence on Children's Adjustment in School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawud, Samia; And Others

    This study examined the relationship between children's experiences of domestic violence and their adjustment at school. Sixty-three children (28 girls), in Israel, their classmates and teachers took part in the study. Children were divided into four groups: (1) those who were victims of physical abuse; (2) those who witnessed abuse; (3) those who…

  20. The Effect of Childhood Trauma on Later Psychological Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browne, Caroline; Winkelman, Cecelia

    2007-01-01

    This study examined whether adult attachment and cognitive distortion mediate the relationship between childhood trauma and psychological adjustment. The participants were 219 students (40 men and 117 women) enrolled in a university degree. Participants completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, which assessed retrospective accounts of…

  1. The Moderating Effect of Sense of Coherence on Work Adjustment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strauser, David R.; Lustig, Daniel C.

    2003-01-01

    Examines the relationship between sense of coherence and a model of work adjustment, specifically, the individual domains of work personality and work competencies. Results indicated a medium relationship between sense of coherence and the Work Personality Profile Self-Report, with sense of coherence accounting for 18% of the variance. (Contains…

  2. The Effect of Childhood Trauma on Later Psychological Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browne, Caroline; Winkelman, Cecelia

    2007-01-01

    This study examined whether adult attachment and cognitive distortion mediate the relationship between childhood trauma and psychological adjustment. The participants were 219 students (40 men and 117 women) enrolled in a university degree. Participants completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, which assessed retrospective accounts of…

  3. Moderators and mediators of the effects of interparental conflict on children's adjustment.

    PubMed

    Kerig, P K

    1998-06-01

    Moderational and mediational models of the relationships among appraisals, interparental conflict, and children's adjustment were tested in a sample of 174 families with a school-age child. Parents rated children's exposure to interparental conflict and internalizing, externalizing, and total behavior problems. Children completed questionnaires regarding their appraisals of their parents' conflicts, including frequency and intensity, perceived threat, control, and self-blame, as well as measures of anxiety and depression. Results overall demonstrated more consistent support for the moderational than mediational hypotheses. Appraisals of conflict properties, threat, self-blame, and perceived control moderated the effects of interparental conflict on externalizing, total problems, and anxiety in boys. Conflict properties, threat, self-blame, perceived control, and self-calming acted as moderators of internalizing in girls.

  4. Focus adjustment effects on visual acuity and oculomotor balance with aviator night vision displays.

    PubMed

    Kotulak, J C; Morse, S E

    1994-04-01

    Sixteen U.S. Army aviators, who were given training on focus adjustment technique with aviator night vision goggles (NVG), showed an improvement in visual acuity with focus adjustment compared to a fixed infinity focus control. The long-term effect of focus adjustment on vision was not measured; however, adjustment accuracy was found to be generally within acceptable limits based on computer modeling and available physiologic data. Fixed focus eyepieces that are set to a low minus power may partially compensate for instrument myopia, but they may not optimize visual acuity to the extent that adjustable focus eyepieces do. Eyepiece adjustment proficiency with present night vision devices can be improved through training that emphasizes focusing to the least possible minus dioptric power. Future night vision displays can minimize focus misadjustment by providing a tactile zero marking, a limited dioptric adjustment range, and a focusing knob capable of finer adjustment than is available with current NVG's.

  5. Individual and Contextual Effects of School Adjustment on Adolescent Alcohol Use

    PubMed Central

    Stanley, Linda R.; Edwards, Ruth W.; Harkabus, Lindsey C.; Chapin, Laurie A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of a student’s own school adjustment as well as the contextual level of school adjustment (the normative level of school adjustment among students in a school) on student's self-reported use of alcohol. Using a dataset of 43,465 male and female 8th grade students from 349 schools across the contiguous United States who participated in a national study of substance use in rural communities between 1996 and 2000, multilevel latent covariate models were utilized to disentangle the individual-level and contextual effects of three school adjustment variables (i.e., school bonding, behavior at school, and friend’s school bonding) on alcohol use. All three school adjustment factors were significant predictors of alcohol use both within and between schools. Furthermore, this study demonstrated a strong contextual effect; students who attended schools where the overall level of school adjustment was higher reported lower levels of alcohol use even after taking their own school adjustment into account. The results demonstrate the importance of both a student’s own level of school adjustment and the normative level of school adjustment among students in the school on an adolescent’s use of alcohol. Differences in school adjustment across schools were quite strongly related to an adolescent's own alcohol use, indicating that school adjustment is an important aspect of school climate. Initiatives aimed at improving school climate may have beneficial effects on students’ alcohol use. PMID:19242802

  6. Wild capuchin monkeys adjust stone tools according to changing nut properties.

    PubMed

    Luncz, Lydia V; Falótico, Tiago; Pascual-Garrido, Alejandra; Corat, Clara; Mosley, Hannah; Haslam, Michael

    2016-09-14

    Animals foraging in their natural environments need to be proficient at recognizing and responding to changes in food targets that affect accessibility or pose a risk. Wild bearded capuchin monkeys (Sapajus libidinosus) use stone tools to access a variety of nut species, including otherwise inaccessible foods. This study tests whether wild capuchins from Serra da Capivara National Park in Brazil adjust their tool selection when processing cashew (Anacardium spp.) nuts. During the ripening process of cashew nuts, the amount of caustic defensive substance in the nut mesocarp decreases. We conducted field experiments to test whether capuchins adapt their stone hammer selection to changing properties of the target nut, using stones of different weights and two maturation stages of cashew nuts. The results show that although fresh nuts are easier to crack, capuchin monkeys used larger stone tools to open them, which may help the monkeys avoid contact with the caustic hazard in fresh nuts. We demonstrate that capuchin monkeys are actively able to distinguish between the maturation stages within one nut species, and to adapt their foraging behaviour accordingly.

  7. Wild capuchin monkeys adjust stone tools according to changing nut properties

    PubMed Central

    Luncz, Lydia V.; Falótico, Tiago; Pascual-Garrido, Alejandra; Corat, Clara; Mosley, Hannah; Haslam, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Animals foraging in their natural environments need to be proficient at recognizing and responding to changes in food targets that affect accessibility or pose a risk. Wild bearded capuchin monkeys (Sapajus libidinosus) use stone tools to access a variety of nut species, including otherwise inaccessible foods. This study tests whether wild capuchins from Serra da Capivara National Park in Brazil adjust their tool selection when processing cashew (Anacardium spp.) nuts. During the ripening process of cashew nuts, the amount of caustic defensive substance in the nut mesocarp decreases. We conducted field experiments to test whether capuchins adapt their stone hammer selection to changing properties of the target nut, using stones of different weights and two maturation stages of cashew nuts. The results show that although fresh nuts are easier to crack, capuchin monkeys used larger stone tools to open them, which may help the monkeys avoid contact with the caustic hazard in fresh nuts. We demonstrate that capuchin monkeys are actively able to distinguish between the maturation stages within one nut species, and to adapt their foraging behaviour accordingly. PMID:27624672

  8. Effective Transport Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauri, Roberto

    In this chapter we study a particular case of multiphase systems, namely two-phase materials in which one of the phases is randomly dispersed in the other, so that the composite can be viewed on a macroscale as an effective continuum, with well defined properties. In general, the theoretical determination of the parameter for an effective medium requires, as a rule, the solution of a corresponding transport problem at the microscale, which takes into account the morphology of the system and its evolution. As the mathematical problem is well-posed on a microscale, this can be accomplished using, for example, the multiple scale approach shown in Chap. 11 ; however, the task requires massive computations and is therefore difficult to implement from the practical standpoint. Here, instead, we focus on a deterministic approach to the problem, where the geometry and spatial configuration of the particles comprising the included phase are given and the solution to the microscale problem is therefore sought analytically. As examples, we study the effective thermal conductivity of solid reinforced materials (Sect. 10.1), the effective viscosity of non-colloidal suspensions (Sect. 10.2), the effective permeability of porous materials (10.3) and the effective self- and gradient diffusivities of colloidal suspensions (Sect. 10.4). Then, in Sect. 10.5, an alternative dynamic definition of the transport coefficients is considered, which can also serve as a basis to determine the effective properties of complex systems.

  9. 26 CFR 1.734-1 - Optional adjustment to basis of undistributed partnership property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... of the partner's entire interest in the partnership, the adjusted basis of the remaining partnership... distributee partner, or (ii) The excess of the adjusted basis to the partnership immediately before the... the distributee partner. See § 1.460-4(k)(2)(iv)(D) for a rule determining the partnership's basis...

  10. 26 CFR 1.743-1 - Optional adjustment to basis of partnership property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... gift to T3 of fifty percent of T2's interest in PRS. At the time of the transfer, T2 has a $200 basis adjustment under section 743(b). T2 is treated as transferring $100 of the basis adjustment to T3 with...

  11. Melt-processable hydrophobic acrylonitrile-based copolymer systems with adjustable elastic properties designed for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Cui, J; Trescher, K; Kratz, K; Jung, F; Hiebl, B; Lendlein, A

    2010-01-01

    (AN-co-nBA) biomaterials were sterilized with ethylene oxide and tested for cytotoxicity in direct contact tests with L929 cells according to the EN DIN ISO standard 10993-5. All tested samples exhibited non-toxic effects on the functional integrity of the cell membrane and the mitochondrial activity. However, the morphology of the cells on the samples was different from that observed on polystyrene as control, indicating slightly cytotoxic effects according to the evaluation guide of the US Pharmacopeial Convention. Thus, the melt-processable, hydrophobic P(AN-co-nBA) copolymers with adjustable mechanical properties are promising candidates for in vitro investigations of tissue growth kinetics.

  12. Effect of the childhood trauma on the adjustment to cancer in the patients with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Guveli, Hulya; Guveli, Murat Emin; Sen, Fatma; Oflaz, Serap; Gurdal, Necla; Tambas, Makbule; Kucucuk, Seden; Aydıner, Adnan; Ozkan, Mine

    2017-07-01

    Early identification of patients coping poorly is important for compliance with treatment and control of distress. This study aims to investigate the effect of the childhood trauma experience on the type of reaction and adjustment that the person exhibits to the cancer among the patients with breast cancer. This cross-sectional study enrolled 310 patients with breast cancer. The effect of the childhood trauma and the psychological condition on the adjustment to cancer was investigated by assessing the adjustment to cancer, the experiences of childhood trauma and psychological status of the subjects using mental adjustment to cancer scale (MAC), childhood trauma questionnaire (CTQ28), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Beck anxiety inventory (BAI). Majority of the subjects (77.4%) showed positive adjustment to cancer. Fighting spirit (63.9%) was the most commonly seen mechanism of adjustment to cancer. Of the subjects, 54.5% suffered at least one of the childhood trauma types. Among the patients, 47.1% had depression and 58.4% had anxiety. In the multivariate logistic regression analysis, emotional neglect and depression, respectively, have an effect on both positive and negative adjustment to cancer. Our study demonstrated that childhood trauma, especially emotional neglect, affects coping and adjustment among the patients with breast cancer. It is necessary to determine the childhood experiences to ensure the development of psychosocial interventions that will increase the adjustment and quality of life after the diagnosis of the cancer.

  13. Effects of Timing of Adversity on Adolescent and Young Adult Adjustment.

    PubMed

    Kiff, Cara J; Cortes, Rebecca; Lengua, Lilana; Kosterman, Rick; Hawkins, J David; Mason, W Alex

    2012-06-01

    Effects of Timing of Adversity on Adolescent and Young Adult Adjustment Abstract Exposure to adversity during childhood and adolescence predicts adjustment across development. Further, adolescent adjustment problems persist into young adulthood. This study examined relations of contextual adversity with concurrent adolescent adjustment and prospective mental health and health outcomes in young adulthood. A longitudinal sample (N = 808) was followed from age 10 through 27. Perceptions of neighborhood in childhood predicted depression, alcohol use disorders, and HIV risk in young adulthood. Further, the timing of adversity was important in determining the type of problem experienced in adulthood. Youth adjustment predicted adult outcomes, and in some cases, mediated the relation between adversity and outcomes. These findings support the importance of adversity in predicting adjustment and elucidate factors that affect outcomes into young adulthood.

  14. Regulatory properties of ADP glucose pyrophosphorylase are required for adjustment of leaf starch synthesis in different photoperiods.

    PubMed

    Mugford, Sam T; Fernandez, Olivier; Brinton, Jemima; Flis, Anna; Krohn, Nicole; Encke, Beatrice; Feil, Regina; Sulpice, Ronan; Lunn, John E; Stitt, Mark; Smith, Alison M

    2014-12-01

    Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) leaves synthesize starch faster in short days than in long days, but the mechanism that adjusts the rate of starch synthesis to daylength is unknown. To understand this mechanism, we first investigated whether adjustment occurs in mutants lacking components of the circadian clock or clock output pathways. Most mutants adjusted starch synthesis to daylength, but adjustment was compromised in plants lacking the GIGANTEA or FLAVIN-BINDING, KELCH REPEAT, F BOX1 components of the photoperiod-signaling pathway involved in flowering. We then examined whether the properties of the starch synthesis enzyme adenosine 5'-diphosphate-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase) are important for adjustment of starch synthesis to daylength. Modulation of AGPase activity is known to bring about short-term adjustments of photosynthate partitioning between starch and sucrose (Suc) synthesis. We found that adjustment of starch synthesis to daylength was compromised in plants expressing a deregulated bacterial AGPase in place of the endogenous AGPase and in plants containing mutant forms of the endogenous AGPase with altered allosteric regulatory properties. We suggest that the rate of starch synthesis is in part determined by growth rate at the end of the preceding night. If growth at night is low, as in short days, there is a delay before growth recovers during the next day, leading to accumulation of Suc and stimulation of starch synthesis via activation of AGPase. If growth at night is fast, photosynthate is used for growth at the start of the day, Suc does not accumulate, and starch synthesis is not up-regulated.

  15. The stress-buffering effects of hope on changes in adjustment to caregiving in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Madan, Sindia; Pakenham, Kenneth I

    2015-09-01

    This study examined the direct and stress-buffering effects of global hope and its components (agency and pathways) on changes in adjustment to multiple sclerosis caregiving over 12 months. A total of 140 carers and their care-recipients completed questionnaires at Time 1 and 12 months later, Time 2. Focal predictors were stress, hope, agency and pathways, and the adjustment outcomes were anxiety, depression, positive affect, positive states of mind and life satisfaction. Results showed that as predicted, greater hope was associated with better adjustment after controlling for the effects of initial adjustment and caregiving and care-recipient illness variables. No stress-buffering effects of hope emerged. Regarding hope components, only the agency dimension emerged as a significant predictor of adjustment. Findings highlight hope as an important protective resource for coping with multiple sclerosis caregiving and underscore the role of agency thinking in this process.

  16. The Moderating Effects of Parenting Stress on Children's Adjustment in Woman-Abusing Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levendosky, Alytia A.; Graham-Bermann, Sandra A.

    1998-01-01

    Utilizes sheltered battered women (n=60) and their 7- to 12-year-old children and nonsheltered women (n=61) and their children, to examine the potential moderating effects of maternal parenting stress on children's adjustment in homes with varying levels of domestic violence. Results indicate that children's adjustment was predicted by parenting…

  17. Effects of Peer Victimization on Psychological and Academic Adjustment in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rueger, Sandra Yu; Jenkins, Lyndsay N.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the current study is to investigate the effects of frequency of peer victimization experiences on psychological and academic adjustment during early adolescence, with a focus on testing psychological adjustment as a mediator, as well as differences based on gender and type of victimization. The sample in this short-term longitudinal…

  18. Fabrication of drug-loaded anti-infective guided tissue regeneration membrane with adjustable biodegradation property.

    PubMed

    Xue, Jiajia; Shi, Rui; Niu, Yuzhao; Gong, Min; Coates, Phil; Crawford, Aileen; Chen, Dafu; Tian, Wei; Zhang, Liqun

    2015-11-01

    For guided tissue regeneration (GTR) membrane, synchronization of the membrane biodegradation rate and tissue regeneration rate is important. Besides, the major reason for GTR membrane failure in clinical application is infection which can be prevented by loading anti-bacterial drug. To realize the consistency in membrane degradation rate and tissue regeneration rate of the anti-infective membrane, we developed metronidazole-loaded electrospun poly(ɛ-caprolactone)-gelatin nanofiber membranes with different poly(ɛ-caprolactone)/gelatin ratios (95:5, 90:10, 80:20, 70:30, 60:40, and 50:50). Homogeneous nanofibers were successfully fabricated. The mechanical strength of the membranes increased with the poly(ɛ-caprolactone) content, while the hydrophilicity decreased. The controlled and sustained release of metronidazole from all the membranes prevented the colonization of anaerobic bacteria. At all poly(ɛ-caprolactone)/gelatin ratios, all the membranes presented good biocompatibility while the increase of gelatin content resulted in enhanced cell adhesion and proliferation. Subcutaneous implantation in rabbits for 8 months demonstrated that all the membranes showed good biocompatibility without infection. Both in vitro and in vivo results showed that the biodegradation rate of the membranes was accelerated with the increase of gelatin content. The biodegradation rate and biocompatibility of the membranes can be adjusted by changing the PCL/gelatin ratio. The optimal membrane can be chosen based on the patient and tissue type to realize the synchronization of membrane degradation with tissue regeneration for the best treatment effect.

  19. Child effects and child care: Implications for risk and adjustment.

    PubMed

    Snell, Emily K; Hindman, Annemarie H; Belsky, Jay

    2015-11-01

    Evocative effects of child characteristics on the quality and quantity of child care were assessed in two studies using longitudinal data from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care. We focus on the influence of child characteristics on two important aspects of the child care experience: language stimulation provided by caregivers and quantity of care. In Study 1, associations between the developmental status of children aged 15 to 54 months and the language stimulation provided by their caregivers were examined using path models, and longitudinal child effects were detected across the earliest time points of the study. In Study 2, the associations among child behavior, temperament, development, and time in care were examined. Little evidence was found for such child effects on time in care. The results are discussed in terms of the effects of child care on child development and implications for developmental processes, particularly for children at greatest risk for developmental delay or psychopathology.

  20. Using Hierarchical Rater Model to Adjust Effect Size

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luo, Long

    2012-01-01

    The topic of this research is inference for effect size of a curriculum intervention, which is an important research topic in education. The linear relationship between the outcomes of an intervention and teachers' fidelity, the extent to which the intervention was actually delivered by teachers as intended, is an important component for…

  1. Using Hierarchical Rater Model to Adjust Effect Size

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luo, Long

    2012-01-01

    The topic of this research is inference for effect size of a curriculum intervention, which is an important research topic in education. The linear relationship between the outcomes of an intervention and teachers' fidelity, the extent to which the intervention was actually delivered by teachers as intended, is an important component for…

  2. Assessing Longitudinal Change: Adjustment for Regression to the Mean Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rocconi, Louis M.; Ethington, Corinna A.

    2009-01-01

    Pascarella (J Coll Stud Dev 47:508-520, 2006) has called for an increase in use of longitudinal data with pretest-posttest design when studying effects on college students. However, such designs that use multiple measures to document change are vulnerable to an important threat to internal validity, regression to the mean. Herein, we discuss a…

  3. Alcoholism and intimate partner violence: effects on children's psychosocial adjustment.

    PubMed

    Klostermann, Keith; Kelley, Michelle L

    2009-12-01

    It is widely recognized that alcoholism and relationship violence often have serious consequences for adults; however, children living with alcoholic parents are susceptible to the deleterious familial environments these caregivers frequently create. Given the prevalence of IPV among patients entering substance abuse treatment, coupled with the negative familial consequences associated with these types of behavior, this review explores what have been, to this point, two divergent lines of research: (a) the effects of parental alcoholism on children, and (b) the effects of children's exposure to intimate partner violence. In this article, the interrelationship between alcoholism and IPV is examined, with an emphasis on the developmental impact of these behaviors (individually and together) on children living in the home and offers recommendations for future research directions.

  4. The effects of expressive writing on adjustment to HIV.

    PubMed

    Rivkin, Inna D; Gustafson, Julie; Weingarten, Ilene; Chin, Dorothy

    2006-01-01

    Previous research suggests that writing about stressful experiences results in better health and psychological well-being. In the present study, a multi-ethnic sample of 79 HIV-positive women and men participated in a structured interview, and wrote about either their deepest thoughts and feelings about living with HIV (expressive writing) or their activities in the last 24 hr (control). Sixty-two participants returned for the 2-month follow-up and 50 returned for the 6-month follow-up interview. Oral fluid samples of beta2-microglobulin were taken at the baseline and follow-up assessments to examine the immunological effects of writing. No effects of writing condition were found, but expressive writing participants who included increasing insight/causation and social words in their writing had better immune function and reported more positive changes at follow-up. Results suggest that cognitive processing and changes in social interactions may be critical to the benefits of writing.

  5. BEclear: Batch Effect Detection and Adjustment in DNA Methylation Data.

    PubMed

    Akulenko, Ruslan; Merl, Markus; Helms, Volkhard

    2016-01-01

    Batch effects describe non-natural variations of, for example, large-scale genomic data sets. If not corrected by suitable numerical algorithms, batch effects may seriously affect the analysis of these datasets. The novel array platform independent software tool BEclear enables researchers to identify those portions of the data that deviate statistically significant from the remaining data and to replace these portions by typical values reconstructed from neighboring data entries based on latent factor models. In contrast to other comparable methods that often use some sort of global normalization of the data, BEclear avoids changing the apparently unaffected parts of the data. We tested the performance of this approach on DNA methylation data for various tumor data sets taken from The Cancer Genome Atlas and compared the results to those obtained with the existing algorithms ComBat, Surrogate Variable Analysis, RUVm and Functional normalization. BEclear constantly performed at par with or better than these methods. BEclear is available as an R package at the Bioconductor project http://bioconductor.org/packages/release/bioc/html/BEclear.html.

  6. BEclear: Batch Effect Detection and Adjustment in DNA Methylation Data

    PubMed Central

    Akulenko, Ruslan; Merl, Markus; Helms, Volkhard

    2016-01-01

    Batch effects describe non-natural variations of, for example, large-scale genomic data sets. If not corrected by suitable numerical algorithms, batch effects may seriously affect the analysis of these datasets. The novel array platform independent software tool BEclear enables researchers to identify those portions of the data that deviate statistically significant from the remaining data and to replace these portions by typical values reconstructed from neighboring data entries based on latent factor models. In contrast to other comparable methods that often use some sort of global normalization of the data, BEclear avoids changing the apparently unaffected parts of the data. We tested the performance of this approach on DNA methylation data for various tumor data sets taken from The Cancer Genome Atlas and compared the results to those obtained with the existing algorithms ComBat, Surrogate Variable Analysis, RUVm and Functional normalization. BEclear constantly performed at par with or better than these methods. BEclear is available as an R package at the Bioconductor project http://bioconductor.org/packages/release/bioc/html/BEclear.html. PMID:27559732

  7. Age effects on voluntary and automatic adjustments in anti-pointing tasks.

    PubMed

    Verneau, Marion; van der Kamp, John; de Looze, Michiel P; Savelsbergh, Geert J P

    2016-02-01

    We examined the effects of age on automatic and voluntary motor adjustments in pointing tasks. To this end, young (20-25 years) and middle-aged adults (48-62 years) were instructed to point at a target that could unexpectedly change its location (to the left or right) or its color (to green or red) during the movement. In the location change conditions, participants were asked to either adjust their pointing movement toward the new location (i.e., normal pointing) or in the opposite direction (i.e., anti-pointing). In the color change conditions, participants were instructed to adjust their movement to the left or right depending on the change in color. The results showed that in a large proportion of the anti-pointing trials, participants made two adjustments: an early initial automatic adjustment in the direction of the target shift followed by a late voluntary adjustment toward the opposite direction. It was found that the late voluntary adjustments were delayed for the middle-aged participants relative to the young participants. There were no age differences for the fast automatic adjustment in normal pointing, but the early adjustment in anti-pointing tended to be later in the middle-aged adults. Finally, the difference in the onset of early and late adjustments in anti-pointing adjustments was greater among the middle-aged adults. Hence, this study is the first to show that aging slows down voluntary goal-directed movement control processes to greater extent than the automatic stimulus-driven processes.

  8. Movement Sonification: Effects on Motor Learning beyond Rhythmic Adjustments.

    PubMed

    Effenberg, Alfred O; Fehse, Ursula; Schmitz, Gerd; Krueger, Bjoern; Mechling, Heinz

    2016-01-01

    Motor learning is based on motor perception and emergent perceptual-motor representations. A lot of behavioral research is related to single perceptual modalities but during last two decades the contribution of multimodal perception on motor behavior was discovered more and more. A growing number of studies indicates an enhanced impact of multimodal stimuli on motor perception, motor control and motor learning in terms of better precision and higher reliability of the related actions. Behavioral research is supported by neurophysiological data, revealing that multisensory integration supports motor control and learning. But the overwhelming part of both research lines is dedicated to basic research. Besides research in the domains of music, dance and motor rehabilitation, there is almost no evidence for enhanced effectiveness of multisensory information on learning of gross motor skills. To reduce this gap, movement sonification is used here in applied research on motor learning in sports. Based on the current knowledge on the multimodal organization of the perceptual system, we generate additional real-time movement information being suitable for integration with perceptual feedback streams of visual and proprioceptive modality. With ongoing training, synchronously processed auditory information should be initially integrated into the emerging internal models, enhancing the efficacy of motor learning. This is achieved by a direct mapping of kinematic and dynamic motion parameters to electronic sounds, resulting in continuous auditory and convergent audiovisual or audio-proprioceptive stimulus arrays. In sharp contrast to other approaches using acoustic information as error-feedback in motor learning settings, we try to generate additional movement information suitable for acceleration and enhancement of adequate sensorimotor representations and processible below the level of consciousness. In the experimental setting, participants were asked to learn a closed

  9. Movement Sonification: Effects on Motor Learning beyond Rhythmic Adjustments

    PubMed Central

    Effenberg, Alfred O.; Fehse, Ursula; Schmitz, Gerd; Krueger, Bjoern; Mechling, Heinz

    2016-01-01

    Motor learning is based on motor perception and emergent perceptual-motor representations. A lot of behavioral research is related to single perceptual modalities but during last two decades the contribution of multimodal perception on motor behavior was discovered more and more. A growing number of studies indicates an enhanced impact of multimodal stimuli on motor perception, motor control and motor learning in terms of better precision and higher reliability of the related actions. Behavioral research is supported by neurophysiological data, revealing that multisensory integration supports motor control and learning. But the overwhelming part of both research lines is dedicated to basic research. Besides research in the domains of music, dance and motor rehabilitation, there is almost no evidence for enhanced effectiveness of multisensory information on learning of gross motor skills. To reduce this gap, movement sonification is used here in applied research on motor learning in sports. Based on the current knowledge on the multimodal organization of the perceptual system, we generate additional real-time movement information being suitable for integration with perceptual feedback streams of visual and proprioceptive modality. With ongoing training, synchronously processed auditory information should be initially integrated into the emerging internal models, enhancing the efficacy of motor learning. This is achieved by a direct mapping of kinematic and dynamic motion parameters to electronic sounds, resulting in continuous auditory and convergent audiovisual or audio-proprioceptive stimulus arrays. In sharp contrast to other approaches using acoustic information as error-feedback in motor learning settings, we try to generate additional movement information suitable for acceleration and enhancement of adequate sensorimotor representations and processible below the level of consciousness. In the experimental setting, participants were asked to learn a closed

  10. Comparison of the Properties of Regression and Categorical Risk-Adjustment Models

    PubMed Central

    Averill, Richard F.; Muldoon, John H.; Hughes, John S.

    2016-01-01

    Clinical risk-adjustment, the ability to standardize the comparison of individuals with different health needs, is based upon 2 main alternative approaches: regression models and clinical categorical models. In this article, we examine the impact of the differences in the way these models are constructed on end user applications. PMID:26945302

  11. The social adjustment scale-self-report: psychometric properties for older adults.

    PubMed

    Zweig, Richard A; Turkel, Elihu

    2007-12-01

    To assess the reliability and validity of the Social Adjustment Scale-Self-Report for older adults, 129 community dwelling elderly ranging in age from 63 to 87 years (M=72.3 yr., SD=5.0) were surveyed using a modified version of the scale. The average internal consistency of subscales was satisfactory (mean coefficient alpha=.62). Overall social functioning impairment (total score) was associated with measures of depression (Beck Depression Inventory, r =.58) and global psychiatric symptoms (Brief Symptom Inventory, r = .55). Older adults scored higher on Marital role, Family Unit role, and overall social functioning impairment compared to mixed-age adults assessed in previous research, and higher on marital role impairment but similarly on overall social functioning when compared with a mixed-age sample from primary care. The modified Social Adjustment Scale-Self-Report has acceptable psychometric characteristics for research use with older adults, and select subscales may account for findings of age-related differences.

  12. Appraisal and coping as mediators of the effects of cumulative risk on preadolescent adjustment.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Stephanie F; Lengua, Liliana J; Garcia, Connie Meza

    2016-05-01

    This study examined the concurrent and longitudinal relations among cumulative risk, appraisal, coping, and adjustment. Longitudinal path models were tested in a community sample of 316 children in preadolescence to examine hypotheses that threat appraisal and avoidant coping mediate the effects of cumulative risk on child adjustment, whereas positive appraisal and active coping were hypothesized to predict better adjustment independently. Children and their mothers were assessed during in-home interviews at three time points at one-year intervals. Children reported on appraisal and coping strategies. Mothers and children reported on child adjustment problems and positive adjustment. Rank-order changes in appraisal and coping predicted rank-order changes in adjustment. Cumulative risk was concurrently related to higher threat appraisal and avoidant coping at each time point. Threat appraisal and avoidant coping mediated the relations of cumulative risk to rank-order changes in adjustment. There is specificity in the relations of cumulative risk to threat appraisal and avoidant coping, whereas positive appraisal and active coping are independent of risk and operate as individual resource factors.

  13. Appraisal and coping as mediators of the effects of cumulative risk on preadolescent adjustment

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Stephanie F.; Lengua, Liliana J.; Garcia, Connie Meza

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the concurrent and longitudinal relations among cumulative risk, appraisal, coping, and adjustment. Longitudinal path models were tested in a community sample of 316 children in preadolescence to examine hypotheses that threat appraisal and avoidant coping mediate the effects of cumulative risk on child adjustment, whereas positive appraisal and active coping were hypothesized to predict better adjustment independently. Children and their mothers were assessed during in-home interviews at three time points at one-year intervals. Children reported on appraisal and coping strategies. Mothers and children reported on child adjustment problems and positive adjustment. Rank-order changes in appraisal and coping predicted rank-order changes in adjustment. Cumulative risk was concurrently related to higher threat appraisal and avoidant coping at each time point. Threat appraisal and avoidant coping mediated the relations of cumulative risk to rank-order changes in adjustment. There is specificity in the relations of cumulative risk to threat appraisal and avoidant coping, whereas positive appraisal and active coping are independent of risk and operate as individual resource factors. PMID:27110087

  14. Optimization of Material Properties of High Strength Multiphase Steels via Microstructure and Phase Transformation Adjustment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bäumer, Annette; Zimmermann, Eva

    For high strength multiphase steels for structural components in automotive applications many different material properties are required. Consequently, a diverse range of tests are performed to characterize the material properties during development as well as optimization of multiphase steels. These tests include classical tensile tests as well as formability tests which characterize bendability, edge crack sensitivity and deep drawability. All these properties are greatly dependent on the microstructure of the material. In the case of high strength multiphase steels, microstructure characterization involves evaluation of the volume fraction, stability, grain size as well as the distribution of the different phases present. Microstructural modifications — with the aim of obtaining the required material properties — may be achieved by variation of annealing parameters. In this paper it is shown how microstructural modification for high strength TRIP and Dual Phase steels resulted in better formability properties and different strength levels.

  15. Adjusted adaptive Lasso for covariate model-building in nonlinear mixed-effect pharmacokinetic models.

    PubMed

    Haem, Elham; Harling, Kajsa; Ayatollahi, Seyyed Mohammad Taghi; Zare, Najaf; Karlsson, Mats O

    2017-02-01

    One important aim in population pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics is identification and quantification of the relationships between the parameters and covariates. Lasso has been suggested as a technique for simultaneous estimation and covariate selection. In linear regression, it has been shown that Lasso possesses no oracle properties, which means it asymptotically performs as though the true underlying model was given in advance. Adaptive Lasso (ALasso) with appropriate initial weights is claimed to possess oracle properties; however, it can lead to poor predictive performance when there is multicollinearity between covariates. This simulation study implemented a new version of ALasso, called adjusted ALasso (AALasso), to take into account the ratio of the standard error of the maximum likelihood (ML) estimator to the ML coefficient as the initial weight in ALasso to deal with multicollinearity in non-linear mixed-effect models. The performance of AALasso was compared with that of ALasso and Lasso. PK data was simulated in four set-ups from a one-compartment bolus input model. Covariates were created by sampling from a multivariate standard normal distribution with no, low (0.2), moderate (0.5) or high (0.7) correlation. The true covariates influenced only clearance at different magnitudes. AALasso, ALasso and Lasso were compared in terms of mean absolute prediction error and error of the estimated covariate coefficient. The results show that AALasso performed better in small data sets, even in those in which a high correlation existed between covariates. This makes AALasso a promising method for covariate selection in nonlinear mixed-effect models.

  16. Evaluation of the Effect of the Luers-Eskridge Radiation Adjustments on Radiosonde Temperature Homogeneity.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durre, Imke; Peterson, Thomas C.; Vose, Russell S.

    2002-06-01

    The effect of the Luers-Eskridge adjustments on the homogeneity of archived radiosonde temperature observations is evaluated. Using unadjusted and adjusted radiosonde data from the Comprehensive Aerological Reference Dataset (CARDS) as well as microwave sounding unit (MSU) version-d monthly temperature anomalies, the discontinuities in differences between radiosonde and MSU temperature anomalies across times of documented changes in radiosonde are computed for the lower to midtroposphere, mid- to upper troposphere, and lower stratosphere. For this purpose, a discontinuity is defined as a statistically significant difference between means of radiosonde-MSU differences for the 30-month periods immediately prior to and following a documented change in radiosonde type. The magnitude and number of discontinuities based on unadjusted and adjusted radiosonde data are then compared. Since the Luers-Eskridge adjustments have been designed to remove radiation and lag errors from radiosonde temperature measurements, the homogeneity of the data should improve whenever these types of errors dominate.It is found that even though stratospheric radiosonde temperatures appear to be somewhat more homogeneous after the Luers-Eskridge adjustments have been applied, transition-related discontinuities in the troposphere are frequently amplified by the adjustments. Significant discontinuities remain in the adjusted data in all three atmospheric layers. Based on the findings of this study, it appears that the Luers-Eskridge adjustments do not render upper-air temperature records sufficiently homogeneous for climate change analyses. Given that the method was designed to adjust only for radiation and lag errors in radiosonde temperature measurements, its relative ineffectiveness at producing homogeneous time series is likely to be caused by 1) an inaccurate calculation of the radiation or lag errors and/or 2) the presence of other errors in the data that contribute significantly to observed

  17. The effectiveness of ski bindings and their professional adjustment for preventing alpine skiing injuries.

    PubMed

    Finch, C F; Kelsall, H L

    1998-06-01

    This article presents a critical review of the extent to which alpine ski bindings and their adjustment have been formally demonstrated to prevent injuries. It considers a range of evidence, from anecdotal evidence and informed opinion to biomechanical studies, testing of equipment, epidemiological studies and controlled field evaluations. A total of 15 published studies examining the effectiveness of bindings and their adjustment were identified. All of these included anecdotal or informed opinion, and all but one focused on equipment design. Seven studies involved the testing of bindings or binding prototypes, 2 studies presented biomechanical models of the forces involved in binding operation, 6 reported an epidemiological evaluation of ski bindings and 2 considered skiers' behaviours towards binding adjustment. Some of the reviewed articles relate to the study of the biomechanics of ski bindings and their release in response to various loads and loading patterns. Other studies examined the contribution of bindings and binding-release to lower extremity, equipment-related injuries, the effect of various methods of binding adjustment on injury risk and the determinants of skiers' behaviour relating to professional binding adjustment. Most of the evidence suggests that currently used bindings are insufficient for the multidirectional release required to reduce the risk of injury to the lower limb, especially at the knee. This evidence suggests that further technical developments and innovations are required. The standard of the manufacture of bindings and boots also needs to be considered. The optimal adjustment of bindings using a testing device has been shown to be associated with a reduced risk of lower extremity injury. Generally, however, the adjustment of bindings has been shown to be inadequate, especially for children's bindings. Recommendations for further research, development and implementation with respect to ski binding and their adjustment are given

  18. The effects of mild and severe traumatic brain injury on the auditory and visual versions of the Adjusting-Paced Serial Addition Test (Adjusting-PSAT).

    PubMed

    Tombaugh, Tom N; Stormer, Peter; Rees, Laura; Irving, Susan; Francis, Margaret

    2006-10-01

    Auditory and visual versions of the Adjusting-PSAT [Tombaugh, T. N. (1999). Administrative manual for the adjusting-paced serial addition test (Adjusting-PSAT). Ottawa, Ontario: Carleton University] were used to examine the effects of mild and severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) on information processing. The Adjusting-PSAT, a computerized modification of the original PASAT [Gronwall, D., & Sampson, H. (1974). The psychological effects of concussion. Auckland, New Zealand: Auckland University Press], systematically varied the inter-stimulus interval (ISI) by making the duration of the ISI contingent on the correctness of the response. This procedure permitted calculation of a temporal threshold measure that represented the fastest speed of digit presentation at which a person was able to process the information and provide the correct answer. Threshold values progressively declined as a function of the severity of TBI with visual thresholds significantly lower than auditory thresholds. The major importance of the current study is that the threshold measure offers a potentially more precise way of evaluating how TBI affects cognitive functioning than is achieved using the traditional PASAT and the number of correct responses. The Adjusting-PSAT offers the additional clinical advantages of eliminating the need to make a priori decisions about what ISI should be used in different clinical applications, and avoiding spuriously high levels of performance that occur when an "alternate answer" or chunking strategy is used. Unfortunately, the Adjusting-PSAT did not reduce the high level of frustration previously associated with the traditional PASAT.

  19. Does exposure prediction bias health-effect estimation?: The relationship between confounding adjustment and exposure prediction.

    PubMed

    Cefalu, Matthew; Dominici, Francesca

    2014-07-01

    In environmental epidemiology, we are often faced with 2 challenges. First, an exposure prediction model is needed to estimate the exposure to an agent of interest, ideally at the individual level. Second, when estimating the health effect associated with the exposure, confounding adjustment is needed in the health-effects regression model. The current literature addresses these 2 challenges separately. That is, methods that account for measurement error in the predicted exposure often fail to acknowledge the possibility of confounding, whereas methods designed to control confounding often fail to acknowledge that the exposure has been predicted. In this article, we consider exposure prediction and confounding adjustment in a health-effects regression model simultaneously. Using theoretical arguments and simulation studies, we show that the bias of a health-effect estimate is influenced by the exposure prediction model, the type of confounding adjustment used in the health-effects regression model, and the relationship between these 2. Moreover, we argue that even with a health-effects regression model that properly adjusts for confounding, the use of a predicted exposure can bias the health-effect estimate unless all confounders included in the health-effects regression model are also included in the exposure prediction model. While these results of this article were motivated by studies of environmental contaminants, they apply more broadly to any context where an exposure needs to be predicted.

  20. Bicultural Effectiveness Training: A Treatment Intervention for Enhancing Intercultural Adjustment in Cuban American Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szapocznik, Jose; And Others

    1984-01-01

    By reducing culture conflict and acculturative stress, the Bicultural Effectiveness Training (BET) enhances adjustment in Cuban American families and reduces conduct disorders in adolescents. BET teaches family members that skills for effective functioning in different value contexts (cultural or otherwise) can be viewed as complementary and…

  1. Adjoint methods for adjusting three-dimensional atmosphere and surface properties to fit multi-angle/multi-pixel polarimetric measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, William; Cairns, Brian; Bal, Guillaume

    2014-09-01

    This paper derives an efficient procedure for using the three-dimensional (3D) vector radiative transfer equation (VRTE) to adjust atmosphere and surface properties and improve their fit with multi-angle/multi-pixel radiometric and polarimetric measurements of scattered sunlight. The proposed adjoint method uses the 3D VRTE to compute the measurement misfit function and the adjoint 3D VRTE to compute its gradient with respect to all unknown parameters. In the remote sensing problems of interest, the scalar-valued misfit function quantifies agreement with data as a function of atmosphere and surface properties, and its gradient guides the search through this parameter space. Remote sensing of the atmosphere and surface in a three-dimensional region may require thousands of unknown parameters and millions of data points. Many approaches would require calls to the 3D VRTE solver in proportion to the number of unknown parameters or measurements. To avoid this issue of scale, we focus on computing the gradient of the misfit function as an alternative to the Jacobian of the measurement operator. The resulting adjoint method provides a way to adjust 3D atmosphere and surface properties with only two calls to the 3D VRTE solver for each spectral channel, regardless of the number of retrieval parameters, measurement view angles or pixels. This gives a procedure for adjusting atmosphere and surface parameters that will scale to the large problems of 3D remote sensing. For certain types of multi-angle/multi-pixel polarimetric measurements, this encourages the development of a new class of three-dimensional retrieval algorithms with more flexible parametrizations of spatial heterogeneity, less reliance on data screening procedures, and improved coverage in terms of the resolved physical processes in the Earth's atmosphere.

  2. COMPARATIVE EFFECTIVENESS OF AN ADJUSTABLE TRANSFEMORAL PROSTHETIC INTERFACE ACCOMMODATING VOLUME FLUCTUATION: CASE STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Kahle, Jason T.; Klenow, Tyler D.; Highsmith, M. Jason

    2016-01-01

    The socket-limb interface is vital for functionality and provides stability and mobility for the amputee. Volume fluctuation can lead to compromised fit and function. Current socket technology does not accommodate for volume fluctuation. An adjustable interface may improve function and comfort by filling this technology gap. The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of the standard of care (SOC) ischial ramus containment to an adjustable transfemoral prosthetic interface socket in the accommodation of volume fluctuation. A prospective experimental case study using repeated measures of subjective and performance outcome measures between socket conditions was employed. In the baseline volume condition, the adjustable socket improved subjective and performance measures 19% to 37% over SOC, whereas the two-minute walk test demonstrated equivalence. In the volume loss condition, the adjustable socket improved all subjective and performance measures 22% to 93%. All aggregated data improved 16% to 50% compared with the SOC. In simulated volume gain, the SOC socket failed, while the subject was able to complete the protocol using the adjustable socket. In this case study, the SOC socket was inferior to the comparative adjustable transfemoral amputation interface in subjective and performance outcomes. There is a lack of clinical trials and evidence comparing socket functional outcomes related to volume fluctuation. PMID:28066526

  3. COMPARATIVE EFFECTIVENESS OF AN ADJUSTABLE TRANSFEMORAL PROSTHETIC INTERFACE ACCOMMODATING VOLUME FLUCTUATION: CASE STUDY.

    PubMed

    Kahle, Jason T; Klenow, Tyler D; Highsmith, M Jason

    2016-09-01

    The socket-limb interface is vital for functionality and provides stability and mobility for the amputee. Volume fluctuation can lead to compromised fit and function. Current socket technology does not accommodate for volume fluctuation. An adjustable interface may improve function and comfort by filling this technology gap. The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of the standard of care (SOC) ischial ramus containment to an adjustable transfemoral prosthetic interface socket in the accommodation of volume fluctuation. A prospective experimental case study using repeated measures of subjective and performance outcome measures between socket conditions was employed. In the baseline volume condition, the adjustable socket improved subjective and performance measures 19% to 37% over SOC, whereas the two-minute walk test demonstrated equivalence. In the volume loss condition, the adjustable socket improved all subjective and performance measures 22% to 93%. All aggregated data improved 16% to 50% compared with the SOC. In simulated volume gain, the SOC socket failed, while the subject was able to complete the protocol using the adjustable socket. In this case study, the SOC socket was inferior to the comparative adjustable transfemoral amputation interface in subjective and performance outcomes. There is a lack of clinical trials and evidence comparing socket functional outcomes related to volume fluctuation.

  4. Appraisal and coping styles account for the effects of temperament on preadolescent adjustment.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Stephanie F; Zalewski, Maureen; Lengua, Liliana J

    2014-06-01

    Temperament, appraisal, and coping are known to underlie emotion regulation, yet less is known about how these processes relate to each other across time. We examined temperamental fear, frustration, effortful control, and impulsivity, positive and threat appraisals, and active and avoidant coping as processes underpinning the emotion regulation of pre-adolescent children managing stressful events. Appraisal and coping styles were tested as mediators of the longitudinal effects of temperamental emotionality and self-regulation on adjustment using a community sample (N=316) of preadolescent children (8-12 years at T1) studied across one year. High threat appraisals were concurrently related to high fear and impulsivity, whereas effortful control predicted relative decreases in threat appraisal. High fear was concurrently related to high positive appraisal, and impulsivity predicted increases in positive appraisal. Fear was concurrently related to greater avoidant coping, and impulsivity predicted increases in avoidance. Frustration predicted decreases in active coping. These findings suggest temperament, or dispositional aspects of reactivity and regulation, relates to concurrent appraisal and coping processes and additionally predicts change in these processes. Significant indirect effects indicated that appraisal and coping mediated the effects of temperament on adjustment. Threat appraisal mediated the effects of fear and effortful control on internalizing and externalizing problems, and avoidant coping mediated the effect of impulsivity on internalizing problems. These mediated effects suggest that one pathway through which temperament influences adjustment is pre-adolescents' appraisal and coping. Findings highlight temperament, appraisal and coping as emotion regulation processes relevant to children's adjustment in response to stress.

  5. The effect of acquiring life skills through humor on social adjustment rate of the female students.

    PubMed

    Maghsoudi, Jahangir; Sabour, Nazanin Hashemi; Yazdani, Mohsen; Mehrabi, Tayebeh

    2010-01-01

    Life skills have different effects on various aspects of the mental health. Social adjustment prepares adolescents for entering to the adulthood. On the other hand, humor and joking in the education is considered as a stress reducer and learning increaser. Therefore, the present study conducted aimed to determine the effect of acquiring life skills through humor on the social adjustment rate of the high school girls. This was a two-group semi-experimental study including three phases. The study population included 69 first year high school female students of Isfahan Department of Education district 3 who were selected in simple random sampling. First of all, the social adjustment rate was measured using California Personality Inventory. Thereafter, life skills education was conducted using humor during five sessions. Finally, a test was taken in order to assess the acquisition of the life skills in which passing score was required for re-completing the questionnaire. The data were analyzed using software SPSS(10) and independent and paired t-tests. The findings of the study indicated that the mean score of the social adjustment statistically had a significant difference in the intervention group before and after the intervention. Furthermore, statistically, there was a significant difference between mean score of the social adjustment in the control group and test group after conducting the intervention. The findings of the study indicated that life skills education has been increased through humor on the social adjustment rate of the high school girl students. Considering the efficacy of learning life skills on the social adjustment and results of the other studies which were in accordance with the present study, implementing such trainings with a new method comprehensively is recommended in the schools.

  6. Motivating drivers to correctly adjust head restraints: assessing effectiveness of three different interventions.

    PubMed

    Fockler, S K; Vavrik, J; Kristiansen, L

    1998-11-01

    Three types of driver educational strategies were tested to determine the most effective approach for motivating drivers to adjust their head restraints to the correct vertical position: (1) a human interactive personal contact with a member of an ICBC-trained head restraint adjustment team, (2) a passive video presentation of the consequences of correct and incorrect head restraint adjustment, and (3) an interactive three-dimensional kinetic model showing the consequences of correct and incorrect head restraint adjustment. An experimental pretest-posttest control group design was used. A different educational treatment was used in each of three lanes of a vehicle emissions testing facility, with a fourth lane with no intervention serving as a control group. Observational and self-reported data were obtained from a total of 1,974 vehicles entering and exiting the facility. The human intervention led to significantly more drivers actually adjusting their head restraints immediately after the intervention than the passive video or interactive kinetic model approaches, which were both no different from the control group. The human intervention was recommended as the most effective and was implemented successfully on a limited basis during 3 months of 1995 and again during 3 months of 1996.

  7. Effect of Fixed Versus Adjusted Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation Amplitude on Chronic Mechanical Low Back Pain.

    PubMed

    Elserty, Noha; Kattabei, Omaima; Elhafez, Hytham

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of adjusting pulse amplitude of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation versus fixed pulse amplitude in treatment of chronic mechanical low back pain. Randomized clinical trial. El-sahel Teaching Hospital, Egypt. Forty-five patients with chronic low back pain assigned to three equal groups. Their ages ranged from 20 to 50 years. The three groups received the same exercise program. Group A received transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation with fixed pulse amplitude for 40 minutes. Group B received transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation with adjusted pulse amplitude for 40 minutes, with the pulse amplitude adjusted every 5 minutes. Group C received exercises only. Treatment sessions were applied three times per week for 4 weeks for the three groups. A visual analogue scale was used to assess pain severity, the Oswestry Disability Index was used to assess functional level, and a dual inclinometer was used to measure lumbar range of motion. Evaluations were performed before and after treatment. Visual analogue scale, Oswestry Disability Index, and back range of motion significantly differed between the two groups that received transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation and the control group and did not significantly differ between fixed and adjusted pulse amplitude of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation. Adjusting pulse amplitude of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation does not produce a difference in the effect of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation used to treat chronic low back pain.

  8. Development of a Fiber Laser with Independently Adjustable Properties for Optical Resolution Photoacoustic Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aytac-Kipergil, Esra; Demirkiran, Aytac; Uluc, Nasire; Yavas, Seydi; Kayikcioglu, Tunc; Salman, Sarper; Karamuk, Sohret Gorkem; Ilday, Fatih Omer; Unlu, Mehmet Burcin

    2016-12-01

    Photoacoustic imaging is based on the detection of generated acoustic waves through thermal expansion of tissue illuminated by short laser pulses. Fiber lasers as an excitation source for photoacoustic imaging have recently been preferred for their high repetition frequencies. Here, we report a unique fiber laser developed specifically for multiwavelength photoacoustic microscopy system. The laser is custom-made for maximum flexibility in adjustment of its parameters; pulse duration (5–10 ns), pulse energy (up to 10 μJ) and repetition frequency (up to 1 MHz) independently from each other and covers a broad spectral region from 450 to 1100 nm and also can emit wavelengths of 532, 355, and 266 nm. The laser system consists of a master oscillator power amplifier, seeding two stages; supercontinuum and harmonic generation units. The laser is outstanding since the oscillator, amplifier and supercontinuum generation parts are all-fiber integrated with custom-developed electronics and software. To demonstrate the feasibility of the system, the images of several elements of standardized resolution test chart are acquired at multiple wavelengths. The lateral resolution of optical resolution photoacoustic microscopy system is determined as 2.68 μm. The developed system may pave the way for spectroscopic photoacoustic microscopy applications via widely tunable fiber laser technologies.

  9. Development of a Fiber Laser with Independently Adjustable Properties for Optical Resolution Photoacoustic Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Aytac-Kipergil, Esra; Demirkiran, Aytac; Uluc, Nasire; Yavas, Seydi; Kayikcioglu, Tunc; Salman, Sarper; Karamuk, Sohret Gorkem; Ilday, Fatih Omer; Unlu, Mehmet Burcin

    2016-12-08

    Photoacoustic imaging is based on the detection of generated acoustic waves through thermal expansion of tissue illuminated by short laser pulses. Fiber lasers as an excitation source for photoacoustic imaging have recently been preferred for their high repetition frequencies. Here, we report a unique fiber laser developed specifically for multiwavelength photoacoustic microscopy system. The laser is custom-made for maximum flexibility in adjustment of its parameters; pulse duration (5-10 ns), pulse energy (up to 10 μJ) and repetition frequency (up to 1 MHz) independently from each other and covers a broad spectral region from 450 to 1100 nm and also can emit wavelengths of 532, 355, and 266 nm. The laser system consists of a master oscillator power amplifier, seeding two stages; supercontinuum and harmonic generation units. The laser is outstanding since the oscillator, amplifier and supercontinuum generation parts are all-fiber integrated with custom-developed electronics and software. To demonstrate the feasibility of the system, the images of several elements of standardized resolution test chart are acquired at multiple wavelengths. The lateral resolution of optical resolution photoacoustic microscopy system is determined as 2.68 μm. The developed system may pave the way for spectroscopic photoacoustic microscopy applications via widely tunable fiber laser technologies.

  10. Development of a Fiber Laser with Independently Adjustable Properties for Optical Resolution Photoacoustic Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Aytac-Kipergil, Esra; Demirkiran, Aytac; Uluc, Nasire; Yavas, Seydi; Kayikcioglu, Tunc; Salman, Sarper; Karamuk, Sohret Gorkem; Ilday, Fatih Omer; Unlu, Mehmet Burcin

    2016-01-01

    Photoacoustic imaging is based on the detection of generated acoustic waves through thermal expansion of tissue illuminated by short laser pulses. Fiber lasers as an excitation source for photoacoustic imaging have recently been preferred for their high repetition frequencies. Here, we report a unique fiber laser developed specifically for multiwavelength photoacoustic microscopy system. The laser is custom-made for maximum flexibility in adjustment of its parameters; pulse duration (5–10 ns), pulse energy (up to 10 μJ) and repetition frequency (up to 1 MHz) independently from each other and covers a broad spectral region from 450 to 1100 nm and also can emit wavelengths of 532, 355, and 266 nm. The laser system consists of a master oscillator power amplifier, seeding two stages; supercontinuum and harmonic generation units. The laser is outstanding since the oscillator, amplifier and supercontinuum generation parts are all-fiber integrated with custom-developed electronics and software. To demonstrate the feasibility of the system, the images of several elements of standardized resolution test chart are acquired at multiple wavelengths. The lateral resolution of optical resolution photoacoustic microscopy system is determined as 2.68 μm. The developed system may pave the way for spectroscopic photoacoustic microscopy applications via widely tunable fiber laser technologies. PMID:27929049

  11. Effects of Adjusting for Instrumental Variables on Bias and Precision of Effect Estimates

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Jessica A.; Rassen, Jeremy A.; Gagne, Joshua J.; Huybrechts, Krista F.; Schneeweiss, Sebastian; Rothman, Kenneth J.; Joffe, Marshall M.; Glynn, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    Recent theoretical studies have shown that conditioning on an instrumental variable (IV), a variable that is associated with exposure but not associated with outcome except through exposure, can increase both bias and variance of exposure effect estimates. Although these findings have obvious implications in cases of known IVs, their meaning remains unclear in the more common scenario where investigators are uncertain whether a measured covariate meets the criteria for an IV or rather a confounder. The authors present results from two simulation studies designed to provide insight into the problem of conditioning on potential IVs in routine epidemiologic practice. The simulations explored the effects of conditioning on IVs, near-IVs (predictors of exposure that are weakly associated with outcome), and confounders on the bias and variance of a binary exposure effect estimate. The results indicate that effect estimates which are conditional on a perfect IV or near-IV may have larger bias and variance than the unconditional estimate. However, in most scenarios considered, the increases in error due to conditioning were small compared with the total estimation error. In these cases, minimizing unmeasured confounding should be the priority when selecting variables for adjustment, even at the risk of conditioning on IVs. PMID:22025356

  12. Effective fiber for lactating dairy cows: a physically adjusted NDF (paNDF) system

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Multiplying dietary NDF by particle size (PS) has been used as an estimate of physically effective fiber (peNDF). Our objectives were to: 1) compare the use of peNDF as dietary NDF × PS vs. use of individual NDF and PS descriptors in a physically adjusted NDF (paNDF) system when used with other fact...

  13. Effects of pH adjustment and sodium ions on sour taste intensity of organic acids

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Protonated organic acid species have been shown to be the primary stimuli responsible for sour taste of organic acids. However, we have observed that sour taste may be modulated when the pH of acid solutions is raised using sodium hydroxide. Objectives were to evaluate the effect of pH adjustment on...

  14. Parenting and Late Adolescent Emotional Adjustment: Mediating Effects of Discipline and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinney, Cliff; Milone, Mary Catherine; Renk, Kimberly

    2011-01-01

    Research suggests that parenting styles are related to the types of discipline parents utilize and that the coupling of parenting styles and discipline techniques are related to child outcomes. Although extant research examines the effects of parenting styles and discipline on child and early adolescent adjustment, less is known about adjustment…

  15. Parenting and Late Adolescent Emotional Adjustment: Mediating Effects of Discipline and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinney, Cliff; Milone, Mary Catherine; Renk, Kimberly

    2011-01-01

    Research suggests that parenting styles are related to the types of discipline parents utilize and that the coupling of parenting styles and discipline techniques are related to child outcomes. Although extant research examines the effects of parenting styles and discipline on child and early adolescent adjustment, less is known about adjustment…

  16. The Effects of Marital Conflict on Korean Children's Appraisal of Conflict and Psychological Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oh, Kyung Ja; Lee, Soojin; Park, Soo Hyun

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the effects of marital conflict on Korean children's psychological adjustment and appraisal of hypothetical marital conflict situations. Children between the ages of 10 and 12 were divided into "high-conflict" (n = 58) and "low-conflict" (n = 58) groups based on their self-reported degree of perceived…

  17. Adjusting site index and age to account for genetic effects in yield equations for loblolly pine

    Treesearch

    Steven A. Knowe; G. Sam Foster

    2010-01-01

    Nine combinations of site index curves and age adjustments methods were evaluated for incorporating genetic effects for open-pollinated loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) families. An explicit yield system consisting of dominant height, basal area, and merchantable green weight functions was used to compare the accuracy of predictions associated with...

  18. Premarital Cohabitation vs. Traditional Courtship: Their Effects on Subsequent Marital Adjustment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Roy E. L.

    1983-01-01

    Assessed the effects of cohabitation on subsequent marital adjustment. A comparison of couples (N=54) who had lived together before marriage with couples (N=30) who had not, showed significant differences. Unexpectedly, noncohabiters obtained higher marital satisfaction scores. Possible explanations in terms of test items are suggested.…

  19. The Effects of the Family Foundations Prevention Program on Coparenting and Child Adjustment: A Mediation Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Solmeyer, Anna R.; Feinberg, Mark E.; Coffman, Donna L.; Jones, Damon E.

    2013-01-01

    Behavioral and emotional problems are common in early childhood and put children at risk for developing more serious problems. This study tested the mediating mechanisms through which a universal coparenting intervention implemented during the transition to parenthood led to reduced child adjustment problems at age 3, and explored child gender as a potential moderator. 169 heterosexual couples expecting their first child were randomly assigned to a control condition or Family Foundations, a series of eight classes that targeted the coparenting relationship. Data were collected through videotaped triadic mother-father-child interaction tasks when the child was 1 and 3 years of age. Separate longitudinal path analyses for mothers and fathers tested coparenting competition and positivity as mediators of program effects on child adjustment problems. Significant mediated effects for coparenting competition were found for fathers with both sons and daughters and for mothers with sons, but not for mothers with daughters. These effects accounted for between 39 and 55% of the intervention’s impact on child adjustment problems. Coparenting positivity did not mediate program effects. These results support the use of a prevention approach to reduce coparenting competition and enhance child adjustment, and provide information that can be used to refine theory. PMID:23404669

  20. The Effects of Marital Conflict on Korean Children's Appraisal of Conflict and Psychological Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oh, Kyung Ja; Lee, Soojin; Park, Soo Hyun

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the effects of marital conflict on Korean children's psychological adjustment and appraisal of hypothetical marital conflict situations. Children between the ages of 10 and 12 were divided into "high-conflict" (n = 58) and "low-conflict" (n = 58) groups based on their self-reported degree of perceived…

  1. The Effects Behavior Problems in Preschool Children Have on Their School Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoleri, Sibel

    2013-01-01

    This research is conducted to examine the predictor effects the behavior problem level has on the school adjustment variable. With this objective, the sample research group consists of 136 children (having normal growth) between 5-6 years old attending preschools affiliated with the Ministry of National Education, and located in the city centre of…

  2. The Effect of Gender and Attachment Styles on the Relationship between Marital Adjustment and Psychological Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koruk, Serdar

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the moderating effects of attachment styles and gender on the predictive strength of marital adjustment on psychological symptoms among Turkish married individuals. Correlational model was used and the sample consisted of 178 married individuals. The data was gathered through online survey. The Turkish form…

  3. Mexican American Adolescents’ Family Caregiving: Selection Effects and Longitudinal Associations With Adjustment

    PubMed Central

    East, Patricia L.; Weisner, Thomas S.

    2013-01-01

    One hundred ten Mexican American adolescents (12 – 17 years) who provide infant care for their older sisters were studied to determine the effects of family caregiving responsibilities on adolescents’ adjustment. Controlling for prior adjustment and family context factors, providing many hours of caregiving predicted an increase in youths’ school absences and disciplinary problems. Frequent conflict surrounding caregiving was associated with increased stress and depression and lower school grades. Older girls appear to select into caregiving and experience the most problematic outcomes. Strong family obligations were not protective against caregiving stress but, rather, further compromised youths’ well-being for those who were highly involved in their family’s care. PMID:24000269

  4. Parenting and late adolescent emotional adjustment: mediating effects of discipline and gender.

    PubMed

    McKinney, Cliff; Milone, Mary Catherine; Renk, Kimberly

    2011-08-01

    Research suggests that parenting styles are related to the types of discipline parents utilize and that the coupling of parenting styles and discipline techniques are related to child outcomes. Although extant research examines the effects of parenting styles and discipline on child and early adolescent adjustment, less is known about adjustment in late adolescents, also described as emerging adults. Thus, the current study investigated the relationships among parenting styles (e.g., authoritative, authoritarian, permissive), discipline strategies (e.g., non-violent discipline, psychological aggression, physical assault), and emerging adult emotional adjustment (e.g., self-esteem, depression, and anxiety). The sample consisted of 526 participants ranging in age from 18 to 22 years. Results were analyzed with structural equation modeling and suggest that, although perceived parenting styles and discipline are both correlated with emerging adult emotional adjustment, perceived parenting is associated with emerging adult emotional adjustment for females but not males when examined simultaneously with perceived discipline. This finding demonstrates the importance of examining the direct and indirect relationships in the context of gender dyads.

  5. Axially adjustable magnetic properties in arrays of multilayered Ni/Cu nanowires with variable segment sizes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirazi Tehrani, A.; Almasi Kashi, M.; Ramazani, A.; Montazer, A. H.

    2016-07-01

    Arrays of multilayered Ni/Cu nanowires (NWs) with variable segment sizes were fabricated into anodic aluminum oxide templates using a pulsed electrodeposition method in a single bath for designated potential pulse times. Increasing the pulse time between 0.125 and 2 s in the electrodeposition of Ni enabled the formation of segments with thicknesses ranging from 25 to 280 nm and 10-110 nm in 42 and 65 nm diameter NWs, respectively, leading to disk-shaped, rod-shaped and/or near wire-shaped geometries. Using hysteresis loop measurements at room temperature, the axial and perpendicular magnetic properties were investigated. Regardless of the segment geometry, the axial coercivity and squareness significantly increased with increasing Ni segment thickness, in agreement with a decrease in calculated demagnetizing factors along the NW length. On the contrary, the perpendicular magnetic properties were found to be independent of the pulse times, indicating a competition between the intrawire interactions and the shape demagnetizing field.

  6. 3D printed auxetic forms on knitted fabrics for adjustable permeability and mechanical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimmelsmann, N.; Meissner, H.; Ehrmann, A.

    2016-07-01

    The 3D printing technology can be applied into manufacturing primary shaping diverse products, from models dealing as examples for future products that will be produced with another technique, to useful objects. Since 3D printing is nowadays significantly slower than other possibilities to manufacture items, such as die casting, it is often used for small parts that are produced in small numbers or for products that cannot be created in another way. Combinations of 3D printing with other objects, adding novel functionalities to them, are thus favourable to a complete primary shaping process. Textile fabrics belong to the objects whose mechanical and other properties can notably be modified by adding 3D printed forms. This article mainly reports on a new possibility to change the permeability of textile fabrics by 3D printing auxetic forms, e.g. for utilising them in textile filters. In addition, auxetic forms 3D printed on knitted fabrics can bring about mechanical properties that are conducive to tensile constructions.

  7. Effect of gender on psychosocial adjustment of colorectal cancer survivors with ostomy

    PubMed Central

    Poudel, Anju

    2016-01-01

    Background Stoma can pose extensive challenges for colorectal cancer survivors. Identifying the psychological and social adjustment among them and how it differs by gender will aid in identifying those particularly at risk of having poor adjustment and in planning programs to improve their adjustment. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of gender on psychosocial adjustment of colorectal cancer survivors with ostomy. Methods A descriptive cross sectional study was carried out in the stoma clinic of B.P. Koirala Memorial Cancer Hospital, Bharatpur, Nepal. A purposive sample of 122 patients with ostomy was taken from the above mentioned setting. Selection criteria included colorectal cancer survivors having ostomy for at least 6 months. Data on socio-demographic and clinical variables were collected. Psychosocial adjustment was measured using Ostomy Adjustment Inventory-23 (OAI-23). Results A total of 122 patients were included in the study. Mean time since ostomy surgery was 2.53 and 1.98 years for men and women respectively. Both men and women had significant impairment in the psychosocial adjustment, however, men had significantly lower psychosocial adjustment score (37.68±12.96 vs. 43.45±12.81, t=−2.47, P=0.015) at 95% CI as compared to women and they reported more negative emotions. Furthermore, men significantly predicted low acceptance {β=−3.078, P=0.023, ΔR2=0.036, F [4,117] =7.90, P<0.001} and social engagement score {β=−2.501, P<0.001, ΔR2=0.098, F [4,117] =6.03, P<0.001}. Conclusions Colorectal cancer survivors with ostomy should be monitored for psychosocial concerns in regular basis and health care providers should tailor care based on their need. Approaches of survivorship care and psychosocial interventions in colorectal cancer survivors with ostomy should take into account gender specific concerns and requirements to aid adjustment. PMID:28078117

  8. Elucidation of a Physiological Adjustment Effect in a Forest Environment: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Song, Chorong; Ikei, Harumi; Miyazaki, Yoshifumi

    2015-01-01

    There is a significant positive relationship between exposure to forest environments and physical and mental health. However, there are individual differences within these responses, and this phenomenon has posed questions in various fields. Here, we show that the physiological effect of a forest environment can differ depending on a subject’s initial values and that forests have a physiological adjustment effect close to an appropriate level. Subjects with high initial blood pressure and pulse rate showed a decrease in these values after walking in a forested area, whereas those with low initial values showed an increase. There was no physiological adjustment effect observed in an urban area; thus, these effects are specific to a forest environment. PMID:25898404

  9. Impact of adjustable cryogel properties on the performance of prostate cancer cells in 3D.

    PubMed

    Bäcker, A; Göppert, B; Sturm, S; Abaffy, P; Sollich, T; Gruhl, F J

    2016-01-01

    Biochemical and physical characteristics of extracellular environment play a key role in assisting cell behavior over different molecular pathways. In this study, we investigated how the presence of chemical binding sites, the pore network and the stiffness of designed scaffolds affected prostate cancer cells. A blend of poly hydroxyethyl methacrylate-alginate-gelatin scaffold was synthesized by cryogelation process using polyethyleneglycol diacrylate (PEGda) and glutaraldehyde as cross linkers. The chemical and mechanical scaffold properties were varied by concentration of gelatin and PEGda, respectively. The pore network was modified by applying different 'freezing time'. Growth, spheroid formation and localization of androgen receptor (AR) were measured to evaluate cell response within various cryogel types. Insufficient porosity in combination with a brittle nature affects cell growth negatively. Spheroid size was reduced by porosity, elasticity as well as by the absence of the cell adhesive motif composed of arginine, glycine und aspartic acid (RGD). Localization of AR indicates its activity and should be under normal culture conditions in the nucleus. But in this study, we could investigate for the first time that AR remains in the cytoplasm when AR positive prostate cancer cells are cultured in scaffolds without RGD as well as in case of an insufficient pore network (total porosity under 10 %) and a too less stiffness of around 10 kPa. The results indicate that for getting a reliable preclinical drug screening a three-dimensional prostate model system with appropriate biochemical and physical surrounding is needed.

  10. Social desirability effects on measures of adjustment to university, independence from parents, and self-efficacy.

    PubMed

    Silverthorn, N A; Gekoski, W L

    1995-03-01

    Results of regression analyses on data from 96 first-year undergraduates indicated that social desirability (Jackson and Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scales), particularly scores on the Jackson scale, is related strongly to scores on measures of adjustment (Student Adaptation to College Questionnaire), self-efficacy (Hale-Fibel Generalized Expectation for Success Scale), and independence (Psychological Separation Inventory) from mother, but not from father. In addition, both the Jackson and Marlowe-Crowne scales were correlated highly. Independence from parents and self-efficacy each continued to show a relationship with adjustment to university after social desirability effects were removed. Failure to remove the effect(s) of social desirability from the present measures is likely to lead to inflated estimates of their relation to each other or to other measures.

  11. Appraisal and coping styles account for the effects of temperament on preadolescent adjustment

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Stephanie F.; Zalewski, Maureen; Lengua, Liliana J.

    2014-01-01

    Temperament, appraisal, and coping are known to underlie emotion regulation, yet less is known about how these processes relate to each other across time. We examined temperamental fear, frustration, effortful control, and impulsivity, positive and threat appraisals, and active and avoidant coping as processes underpinning the emotion regulation of pre-adolescent children managing stressful events. Appraisal and coping styles were tested as mediators of the longitudinal effects of temperamental emotionality and self-regulation on adjustment using a community sample (N=316) of preadolescent children (8–12 years at T1) studied across one year. High threat appraisals were concurrently related to high fear and impulsivity, whereas effortful control predicted relative decreases in threat appraisal. High fear was concurrently related to high positive appraisal, and impulsivity predicted increases in positive appraisal. Fear was concurrently related to greater avoidant coping, and impulsivity predicted increases in avoidance. Frustration predicted decreases in active coping. These findings suggest temperament, or dispositional aspects of reactivity and regulation, relates to concurrent appraisal and coping processes and additionally predicts change in these processes. Significant indirect effects indicated that appraisal and coping mediated the effects of temperament on adjustment. Threat appraisal mediated the effects of fear and effortful control on internalizing and externalizing problems, and avoidant coping mediated the effect of impulsivity on internalizing problems. These mediated effects suggest that one pathway through which temperament influences adjustment is pre-adolescents’ appraisal and coping. Findings highlight temperament, appraisal and coping as emotion regulation processes relevant to children’s adjustment in response to stress. PMID:25821237

  12. Effects of early exposure and lifetime exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV) on child adjustment.

    PubMed

    Graham-Bermann, Sandra A; Perkins, Suzanne

    2010-01-01

    Children exposed to overwhelming and potentially traumatic events early in their lives are considered at-risk for problems in adjustment. Yet it is not known whether it is the age of first exposure (AFE) to violence or the amount of violence that the child witnessed in their lifetime that has the greatest impact on adjustment. For a sample of 190 children ages 6 to 12 exposed to intimate partner violence, their mothers reported that the average length of their abusive relationship was 10 years. The majority of children were first exposed to family violence as infants (64%), with only 12% first exposed when school-aged. Both the AFE and an estimate of the cumulative amount of violence were significantly and negatively related to children's behavioral problems. However, in regression analyses controlling for child sex, ethnicity, age, and family environment variables, cumulative violence exposure accounted for greater variance in adjustment than did AFE. Furthermore, cumulative violence exposure mediated the relationship between AFE and externalizing behavior problems, indicating that the cumulative exposure to IPV outweighed the AFE in its effect on child adjustment.

  13. The combined effects of teacher-child and peer relationships on children's social-emotional adjustment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Cen; Hatzigianni, Maria; Shahaeian, Ameneh; Murray, Elizabeth; Harrison, Linda J

    2016-12-01

    Teachers and peers represent two important dimensions of the classroom social ecology that have important implications for children's social-emotional adjustment. This study examined the combined effects of teacher-child relationships (TCR) and peer relationships for 6-7year-old children on their social-emotional adjustment at 8-9years. The sample was comprised of children and their teachers participating in the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (n=2857). Teachers reported on TCR, peer relationships, and children's emotional well-being, and children provided self-reported self-concept and school liking during a face-to-face interview. The analytic approach extends previous research by modeling TCR and peer relationships in combination, using cluster analysis to understand the nature of 6-7year-old children's social relationships in the classroom. Five distinct profiles of children were identified: adaptive, teacher-oriented, teacher-child conflict prominent, non-adaptive, and invisible. The adaptive profile had the best outcomes on all three aspects of social-emotional adjustment at age 8-9; the non-adaptive profile had the poorest outcomes, and the invisible group was mid-range. The teacher-oriented and teacher-child conflict prominent groups had mixed outcomes for social-emotional adjustment. Implications for school psychologists and teachers are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. [Effect of economic structure adjustment on pollution emission: a case study of COD].

    PubMed

    Li, Ming-Sheng; Zhou, Lei; Chen, Yuan-Hang; Li, Qian; Zhang, Jian-Hui

    2014-08-01

    Economic structure adjustment is an important means to reduce the emissions of pollutants. For quantitative analysis of the effect of economic structure adjustment on the reduction of pollution emission, the country was divided into four sub-regions, eastern, northeastern, central and western, and the industry was divided into 39 sectors. Taking chemical oxygen demand (COD) as an example, the influences of regional structure and industry structure adjustment on total emission reduction and emission intensity were analyzed through building a model. The results showed that, in 2000-2010: (1) COD emissions in China were reduced from 1 445 x 10(4) t to 1 238 x 10(4) t, with a total emission of 14 950 x 10(4) t in 11 years, among which the emissions from eastern area occupied the largest proportion, accounting for 35.6%. (2) In the industrial COD emissions, emission from paper and paper products was the largest, accounting for 35.8% of the industrial COD emissions. (3) The economic structure changes in the four areas reduced the COD emissions by 420 x 10(4) t, resulting in a decrease of 1.29% in COD emission intensity. (4) Industrial internal structure changes reduced the COD emissions by 533 x 10(4) t, leading to a decrease of 3.1% in COD emission intensity. The research results have certain reference value in guiding the Chinese economic structure adjustment and achieving the targets of energy-saving and emission reduction.

  15. [The effect of permanent ostomy on body image, self-esteem, marital adjustment, and sexual functioning].

    PubMed

    Kiliç, Esra; Taycan, Okan; Belli, Ahmet Korkut; Ozmen, Mine

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of permanent ostomy on body image, sexual functioning, self-esteem, and marital adjustment. SCID-I outpatient forms were administered to 52 subsequent patients that underwent permanent colostomy or ileostomy operations, and 40 of them that did not fit any of the diagnostic criteria for psychiatric disorders were then administered a sociodemographic data questionnaire, and the Body Image Scale, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Dyadic Adjustment Scale, and Golombok Rust Sexual Functions scale. The control group consisted of 20 age- and gender-matched healthy volunteers. Body Image, Rosenberg Self-Esteem, and Dyadic Adjustment Scale scores were higher in permanent ostomy patients compared to controls, indicating more ostomy-related disturbance. Sexual functions were found to be impaired as well, except impotence and rapid ejaculation parameters. Complaints of anorgasmia were more frequent among female colostomy patients. Body image, and the touch, communication, and frequency parameters of sexual functioning were less disturbed in male patients than in females. Female patients with a psychiatric history experienced vaginismus problems more frequently. Patients with a history early childhood separation from parents had lower self-esteem scores and more frequently avoided sexual activity. Following ostomy surgery, the frequency of male impotence decreased over time. Permanent ostomy causes impairment in perceived body image, dyadic adjustment, and sexual functioning.

  16. Quality of sexual life and its effect on marital adjustment of Turkish women in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Kisa, Sezer; Zeyneloğlu, Simge; Yilmaz, Duygu; Güner, Tuba

    2014-01-01

    Pregnancy is an important period of a woman's life that can affect marital relationships because of decrease in the sexual function. This study aimed to examine the effect of sexual life on the marital adjustment of 607 healthy, pregnant women using the self-administered Sexual Quality of Life Questionnaire-Female and the Marital Adjustment Scale. Results showed that 30% of the pregnant women experienced problems during sexual intercourse and 50% had painful intercourse. The median total score of the Sexual Quality of Life Questionnaire-Female for pregnant women was 35.5, and the median total score of the Marital Adjustment Scale was 41.0. The authors found a positive moderate level correlation between the sexual quality of life for women and their marital adjustment for being pregnant (r = 0.468, p =.001). The results imply that the variance in the sexual activity during the childbearing period does occur and pregnant women need to be assessed regularly with regards to their sexuality by health care providers in a professional atmosphere.

  17. Blood donation and blood donor mortality after adjustment for a healthy donor effect.

    PubMed

    Ullum, Henrik; Rostgaard, Klaus; Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads; Reilly, Marie; Melbye, Mads; Nyrén, Olof; Norda, Rut; Edgren, Gustaf; Hjalgrim, Henrik

    2015-10-01

    Studies have repeatedly demonstrated that blood donors experience lower mortality than the general population. While this may suggest a beneficial effect of blood donation, it may also reflect the selection of healthy persons into the donor population. To overcome this bias, we investigated the relation between blood donation frequency and mortality within a large cohort of blood donors. In addition, our analyses also took into consideration the effects of presumed health differences linked to donation behavior. Using the Scandinavian Donation and Transfusion database (SCANDAT), we assessed the association between annual number of donations in 5-year windows and donor mortality by means of Poisson regression analysis. The analyses included adjustment for demographic characteristics and for an internal healthy donor effect, estimated among elderly donors exempted from continued donation because of age criteria. Statistical analyses included 1,182,495 donors of whom 15,401 died during 9,526,627 person-years of follow-up. Analyses adjusted only for demographic characteristics showed a 18.6% reduction in mortality per additional annual donation (95% confidence interval [CI], 16.8%-20.4%). After additional adjustment for the internal healthy donor effect, each additional annual donation was associated with a 7.5% decreased mortality risk 7.5% (95% CI, 5.7%-9.4%). We observed an inverse relationship between donation frequency and mortality. The magnitude of the association was reduced after adjustment for an estimate of self-selection in the donor population. Our observations indicate that repeated blood donation is not associated with premature death, but cannot be interpreted as conclusive evidence of a beneficial health effect. © 2015 AABB.

  18. Alcohol effects on performance monitoring and adjustment: affect modulation and impairment of evaluative cognitive control.

    PubMed

    Bartholow, Bruce D; Henry, Erika A; Lust, Sarah A; Saults, J Scott; Wood, Phillip K

    2012-02-01

    Alcohol is known to impair self-regulatory control of behavior, though mechanisms for this effect remain unclear. Here, we tested the hypothesis that alcohol's reduction of negative affect (NA) is a key mechanism for such impairment. This hypothesis was tested by measuring the amplitude of the error-related negativity (ERN), a component of the event-related brain potential (ERP) posited to reflect the extent to which behavioral control failures are experienced as distressing, while participants completed a laboratory task requiring self-regulatory control. Alcohol reduced both the ERN and error positivity (Pe) components of the ERP following errors and impaired typical posterror behavioral adjustment. Structural equation modeling indicated that effects of alcohol on both the ERN and posterror adjustment were significantly mediated by reductions in NA. Effects of alcohol on Pe amplitude were unrelated to posterror adjustment, however. These findings indicate a role for affect modulation in understanding alcohol's effects on self-regulatory impairment and more generally support theories linking the ERN with a distress-related response to control failures.

  19. Light-adjustable lens.

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Daniel M

    2003-01-01

    PURPOSE: First, to determine whether a silicone light-adjustable intraocular lens (IOL) can be fabricated and adjusted precisely with a light delivery device (LDD). Second, to determine the biocompatibility of an adjustable IOL and whether the lens can be adjusted precisely in vivo. METHODS: After fabrication of a light-adjustable silicone formulation, IOLs were made and tested in vitro for cytotoxicity, leaching, precision of adjustment, optical quality after adjustment, and mechanical properties. Light-adjustable IOLs were then tested in vivo for biocompatibility and precision of adjustment in a rabbit model. In collaboration with Zeiss-Meditec, a digital LDD was developed and tested to correct for higher-order aberrations in light-adjustable IOLs. RESULTS: The results establish that a biocompatible silicone IOL can be fabricated and adjusted using safe levels of light. There was no evidence of cytotoxicity or leaching. Testing of mechanical properties revealed no significant differences from commercial controls. Implantation of light-adjustable lenses in rabbits demonstrated- excellent biocompatibility after 6 months, comparable to a commercially available IOL. In vivo spherical (hyperopic and myopic) adjustment in rabbits was achieved using an analog light delivery system. The digital light delivery system was tested and achieved correction of higher-order aberrations. CONCLUSION: A silicone light-adjustable IOL and LDD have been developed to enable postoperative, noninvasive adjustment of lens power. The ability to correct higher-order aberrations in these materials has broad potential applicability for optimization of vision in patients undergoing cataract and refractive surgery. PMID:14971588

  20. Styles of conflict resolution and cooperation between divorced parents: effects on child behavior and adjustment.

    PubMed

    Camara, K A; Resnick, G

    1989-10-01

    Findings from a study of family functioning following divorce suggest ways in which the parents' ongoing relationship-both as former spouse and as coparent-may moderate the effects of divorce on their children. Level of conflict in the "spouse" role was found to be less predictive of children's adjustment than were degree of cooperation and style of conflict resolution in the "coparent" role. Implications for intervention are considered.

  1. Anticipatory postural adjustments in reach-to-grasp: effect of object mass predictability.

    PubMed

    Aimola, Ettore; Santello, Marco; La Grua, Giovanni; Casabona, Antonino

    2011-09-15

    Anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) are thought to compensate for upcoming and predictable perturbations before they occur, e.g., a backward shift of the body center of pressure (COP) before raising the arm. When the goal of arm movements is to reach, grasp, and manipulate an object, predicting the effect of raising the arm on body COP before reach onset could incorporate the properties of the object to be lifted, as both will affect postural control during reaching and object manipulation. Alternatively, the central nervous system (CNS) might use separate APAs to compensate for the effect of arm raising from raising the arm and object. To distinguish between these two scenarios, we asked subjects to reach, grasp, and lift an object whose mass (100g, 750g, or 1400g) was either constant across trials or variable from trial to trial ('predictable' and 'unpredictable' condition, respectively). We hypothesized that object mass would affect the magnitude of APAs in the predictable condition before the onset of object lift but not before the initial arm onset. We also expected COP variability following object lift to be reduced as a result of APAs. For the unpredictable condition, we expected 'default' APAs that would minimize postural perturbation following object lift. We found that both magnitude and timing of APAs were modulated as a function of predictable object mass prior to contact, rather than at the onset of the reaching movement. Specifically, COP position moved forward with increasing object load (p<0.05) and peak COP velocity related to object contact occurred significantly early for heavier loads (p<0.05). For the random condition, the COP position and timing at all loads resembled that associated with larger predictable loads. These findings suggest that modulating COP to a future event might be more accurate when timed to temporally close events, thus potentially reducing the computational load as well as risks of prediction errors. Additionally, our

  2. The effects of nationality differences and work stressors on work adjustment for foreign nurse aides.

    PubMed

    Huang, Fen Fen; Yang, Hsieh Hua

    2011-08-17

    The main purpose of this study was to discuss the nationality differences of foreign nurse aides and the effect of work stressors influencing work adjustment. And of helping them adapt to Taiwanese society, we summarized the difficulties that foreign nurse aides face in Taiwan. The subjects included 80 foreign nurse aides from the Philippines, Indonesia, and Vietnam who worked in long-term care facilities in Tao Yuan County. We recruited volunteers at the participating facilities to complete the anonymous questionnaires. The return rate of the questionnaire was 88.75%. The validated instruments of Hershenson's (1981) and Schaefer and Moos (1993) were adopted to measure work stressors and work adjustment, respectively. A forward-backward translation process was used in this study. Indonesian foreign nurse aides respect their work, and are better workers than Vietnamese and Filipino nurse aids in many respects, which shows how the nationality of the foreign nurse aides might affect work adjustment. The stress created from patient care tasks influenced the foreign nurse aides' personal relationships at work and also affected their attitude when they performed their tasks. In addition, pressure from their supervisors might have affected their work skills, work habits, personal relationships, self-concepts or work attitudes. Moreover, a heavy workload and improper scheduling might have affected the personal relationships and work attitudes of the foreign nurse aides. It was found that work stressors had a significant correlation with work adjustment. The results of the present study indicate that training programs are important factors for work adjustment among foreign nurse aides. Furthermore, celebration and leisure activities could be provided to release them from work stressors. More effort should be put into improving the working environment, namely providing a more supportive and enriching atmosphere. Based on these findings, we have a better understanding of how

  3. Relativistic Effects on Chemical Properties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKelvey, Donald R.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses how anomalous chemical properties may be explained by considering relativistic effects. Traces development of the relativistic wave equation (Dirac equation) starting with the Borh treatment of the hydrogen atom and discusses major consequences of the Dirac equation. Suggests that these topics receive greater attention in the…

  4. Relativistic Effects on Chemical Properties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKelvey, Donald R.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses how anomalous chemical properties may be explained by considering relativistic effects. Traces development of the relativistic wave equation (Dirac equation) starting with the Borh treatment of the hydrogen atom and discusses major consequences of the Dirac equation. Suggests that these topics receive greater attention in the…

  5. Effect of adjusted pH prior to ultrafiltration of skim milk on membrane performance and physical functionality of milk protein concentrate.

    PubMed

    Luo, X; Vasiljevic, T; Ramchandran, L

    2016-02-01

    Processing conditions during ultrafiltration of skim milk influence properties of the casein micelle and thereby the physical properties of milk protein concentrate (MPC). The aim of the study was to establish the effects of pH adjustment of skim milk feed to obtain MPC with desired emulsification properties. The ultrafiltration was conducted using commercially pasteurized skim milk with the pH adjusted to 6.7 (control), 6.3, 5.9, or 5.5 at 15°C until a volume concentration factor of 5 was reached. Effects of pH adjustment on selected physico-chemical properties (Ca content, particle size, ζ-potential) and functionalities (solubility, heat stability, emulsification capacity, and stability) of MPC were determined. Lowering the feed pH solubilized colloidal calcium phosphate that substantially contributed to modifying the properties of casein. This caused a reduction in the particle size while increasing the net negative charge. The structural modifications in proteins were manifested in the Fourier transform infrared spectra. Subsequent concentration did not induce any further protein structural changes. Such modifications to the casein micelles and colloidal calcium phosphate negatively affected the solubility and heat stability of the corresponding MPC powders. However, the emulsion activity index improved only until the pH of the feed was lowered to 5.9 and declined when pH was dropped to 5.5, followed with the loss of stability. Readjusting the pH of MPC powder dispersions to 6.7 restored their surface properties and thereby their functionality. Lowering the feed pH also negatively affected the membrane performance by clogging the membrane pores and lowering the flux, particularly at pH 5.5. Adjusting pH to 5.9 produced MPC with optimum emulsifying properties with minimal influence on membrane performance.

  6. Effects of tonicity-adjusting and surfactant agents on the antimicrobial activity of alexidine.

    PubMed

    Yanai, Ryoji; Ueda, Kiichi; Nishida, Teruo; Toyohara, Megumi; Mori, Osamu

    2011-03-01

    Alexidine is a bis-biguanide disinfectant with two cationic active sites and hydrophobic ethylhexyl end groups, both of which are believed to support its association with microbial cell membranes through electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions. We evaluated the effects of tonicity-adjusting and surfactant agents on the antimicrobial activity of alexidine to assess its suitability as a disinfectant in multipurpose solutions for contact lenses. The antimicrobial activity of alexidine (4.5 ppm) against various bacteria and fungi was measured with the stand-alone procedure (ISO 14729, 2001). The effect of NaCl as an ionic tonicity-adjusting agent on such activity was determined in comparison with that of propylene glycol as a nonionic tonicity-adjusting agent. The effect of the nonionic surfactant Poloxamer 407 (Px407) was similarly examined in the absence or presence of NaCl. Alexidine showed robust antimicrobial activity, with no organisms surviving after 1 hr. Antifungal activity was inhibited by NaCl in a concentration-dependent manner, whereas neither antibacterial nor antifungal activity was affected by propylene glycol. The activity of alexidine was not affected by Px407 (4%) alone but was attenuated by the combination of NaCl and Px407 with all microorganisms tested. The antifungal activity of alexidine was inhibited by adjustment of osmolality with the ionic agent NaCl but not by that with the nonionic agent propylene glycol. The surfactant Px407 reduced antimicrobial activity only in the presence of NaCl. These findings indicate that electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions with the microbial cell membrane are a key factor in the antimicrobial activity of alexidine.

  7. Effect of time-activity adjustment on exposure assessment for traffic-related ultrafine particles.

    PubMed

    Lane, Kevin J; Levy, Jonathan I; Scammell, Madeleine Kangsen; Patton, Allison P; Durant, John L; Mwamburi, Mkaya; Zamore, Wig; Brugge, Doug

    2015-01-01

    Exposures to ultrafine particles (<100 nm, estimated as particle number concentration, PNC) differ from ambient concentrations because of the spatial and temporal variability of both PNC and people. Our goal was to evaluate the influence of time-activity adjustment on exposure assignment and associations with blood biomarkers for a near-highway population. A regression model based on mobile monitoring and spatial and temporal variables was used to generate hourly ambient residential PNC for a full year for a subset of participants (n=140) in the Community Assessment of Freeway Exposure and Health study. We modified the ambient estimates for each hour using personal estimates of hourly time spent in five micro-environments (inside home, outside home, at work, commuting, other) as well as particle infiltration. Time-activity adjusted (TAA)-PNC values differed from residential ambient annual average (RAA)-PNC, with lower exposures predicted for participants who spent more time away from home. Employment status and distance to highway had a differential effect on TAA-PNC. We found associations of RAA-PNC with high sensitivity C-reactive protein and Interleukin-6, although exposure-response functions were non-monotonic. TAA-PNC associations had larger effect estimates and linear exposure-response functions. Our findings suggest that time-activity adjustment improves exposure assessment for air pollutants that vary greatly in space and time.

  8. A comparison of confounding adjustment methods for assessment of asthma controller medication effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Li, Lingling; Vollmer, William M; Butler, Melissa G; Wu, Pingsheng; Kharbanda, Elyse O; Wu, Ann Chen

    2014-03-01

    We compared the impact of 3 confounding adjustment procedures-covariate-adjusted regression, propensity score regression, and high-dimensional propensity score regression-to assess the effects of selected asthma controller medication use (leukotriene antagonists and inhaled corticosteroids) on the following 4 asthma-related adverse outcomes: emergency department visits, hospitalizations, oral corticosteroid use, and the composite outcome of these. We examined a cohort of 24,680 new users who were 4-17 years of age at the incident dispensing from the Population-Based Effectiveness in Asthma and Lung Diseases (PEAL) Network of 5 commercial health plans and TennCare, the Tennessee Medicaid program, during the period January 1, 2004, to December 31, 2010. The 3 methods yielded similar results, indicating that pediatric patients treated with leukotriene antagonists were no more likely than those treated with inhaled corticosteroids to experience adverse outcomes. Children in the TennCare population who had a diagnosis of allergic rhinitis and who then initiated the use of leukotriene antagonists were less likely to experience an asthma-related emergency department visit. A plausible explanation is that our data set is large enough that the 2 advanced propensity score-based analyses do not have advantages over the traditional covariate-adjusted regression approach. We provide important observations on how to correctly apply the methods in observational data analysis and suggest statistical research areas that need more work to guide implementation.

  9. Effect of time-activity adjustment on exposure assessment for traffic-related ultrafine particles

    PubMed Central

    Lane, Kevin J; Levy, Jonathan I; Scammell, Madeleine Kangsen; Patton, Allison P; Durant, John L; Mwamburi, Mkaya; Zamore, Wig; Brugge, Doug

    2015-01-01

    Exposures to ultrafine particles (<100 nm, estimated as particle number concentration, PNC) differ from ambient concentrations because of the spatial and temporal variability of both PNC and people. Our goal was to evaluate the influence of time-activity adjustment on exposure assignment and associations with blood biomarkers for a near-highway population. A regression model based on mobile monitoring and spatial and temporal variables was used to generate hourly ambient residential PNC for a full year for a subset of participants (n=140) in the Community Assessment of Freeway Exposure and Health study. We modified the ambient estimates for each hour using personal estimates of hourly time spent in five micro-environments (inside home, outside home, at work, commuting, other) as well as particle infiltration. Time-activity adjusted (TAA)-PNC values differed from residential ambient annual average (RAA)-PNC, with lower exposures predicted for participants who spent more time away from home. Employment status and distance to highway had a differential effect on TAA-PNC. We found associations of RAA-PNC with high sensitivity C-reactive protein and Interleukin-6, although exposure-response functions were non-monotonic. TAA-PNC associations had larger effect estimates and linear exposure-response functions. Our findings suggest that time-activity adjustment improves exposure assessment for air pollutants that vary greatly in space and time. PMID:25827314

  10. Effects of peer victimization on psychological and academic adjustment in early adolescence.

    PubMed

    Rueger, Sandra Yu; Jenkins, Lyndsay N

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of the current study is to investigate the effects of frequency of peer victimization experiences on psychological and academic adjustment during early adolescence, with a focus on testing psychological adjustment as a mediator, as well as differences based on gender and type of victimization. The sample in this short-term longitudinal design study consists of 7th and 8th graders (n = 670, 50% male) from an ethnically and socioeconomically diverse middle school. Victimization was measured using 10 items that assessed frequency of verbal, physical, and relational victimization experiences, and outcomes were assessed with the Behavior Assessment System for Children (2nd ed.) and school records. There was support for gender differences in frequency of peer victimization experiences based on type of victimization. More specifically, boys reported higher levels of physical and verbal victimization, and girls reported higher levels of relational victimization. In addition, there were statistically significant differences between boys and girls on the relation between victimization and anxiety, attendance, and grades, with girls experiencing more maladjustment than boys in response to peer victimization. Finally, results demonstrated no gender differences in indirect effects of psychological adjustment on the relation between peer victimization and academic outcomes, whether victimization was physical, verbal, and relational. These findings highlight the importance of addressing social-emotional functioning as well as peer victimization in the schools for both boys and girls, as both affect students' academic functioning. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  11. Illness cognitions and family adjustment: psychometric properties of the Illness Cognition Questionnaire for parents of a child with cancer.

    PubMed

    Sint Nicolaas, Simone M; Schepers, Sasja A; van den Bergh, Esther M M; Evers, Andrea W M; Hoogerbrugge, Peter M; Grootenhuis, Martha A; Verhaak, Christianne M

    2016-02-01

    Illness cognitions are an important mediator between disease and psychological adjustment. This study assessed the psychometric properties of the Illness Cognition Questionnaire (ICQ), adjusted for the parents of an ill child. Participants were recruited from two multicenter studies: sample 1 included 128 parents of a child diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) (response rate 82 %) and sample 2 included 114 parents of a child diagnosed with cancer (response rate 74 %). Parents completed an adapted version of the ICQ (Illness Cognition Questionnaire-Parent version (ICQ-P)), together with the Profile of Mood States (POMS; sample 1) or the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS; sample 2). The factor structure of the ICQ-P was examined by means of principal component analysis. Cronbach's alpha for each subscale and correlations between the ICQ-P scales and the HADS and POMS were calculated. The illness cognitions of parents with and without psychological distress were compared. Factor analysis confirmed the hypothesized structure of the ICQ-P in our sample (n = 242). The three scales Helplessness, Acceptance, and Perceived Benefits explained 9.8, 31.4, and 17.9 % of the variance, respectively. Cronbach's alpha showed adequate internal consistency (.80-.88). Concurrent and criterion-related validity were appropriate. The results confirm that the ICQ-P reliably assesses the illness cognitions of the parents of a child with cancer. Psychologically distressed parents showed less acceptance and more helplessness. The availability of a short and valid illness cognition questionnaire will help clinicians gain insight into parental cognitions regarding the illness of their child, information that might be helpful for targeting interventions.

  12. Effects of a Brief Psychoeducational Intervention for Family Conflict: Constructive Conflict, Emotional Insecurity and Child Adjustment.

    PubMed

    Miller-Graff, Laura E; Cummings, E Mark; Bergman, Kathleen N

    2016-10-01

    The role of emotional security in promoting positive adjustment following exposure to marital conflict has been identified in a large number of empirical investigations, yet to date, no interventions have explicitly addressed the processes that predict child adjustment after marital conflict. The current study evaluated a randomized controlled trial of a family intervention program aimed at promoting constructive marital conflict behaviors thereby increasing adolescent emotional security and adjustment. Families (n = 225) were randomized into 1 of 4 conditions: Parent-Adolescent (n = 75), Parent-Only (n = 75), Self-Study (n = 38) and No Treatment (n = 37). Multi-informant and multi-method assessments were conducted at baseline, post-treatment and 6-month follow-up. Effects of treatment on destructive and constructive conflict behaviors were evaluated using multilevel models where observations were nested within individuals over time. Process models assessing the impact of constructive and destructive conflict behaviors on emotional insecurity and adolescent adjustment were evaluated using path modeling. Results indicated that the treatment was effective in increasing constructive conflict behaviors (d = 0.89) and decreasing destructive conflict behaviors (d = -0.30). For the Parent-Only Group, post-test constructive conflict behaviors directly predicted lower levels of adolescent externalizing behaviors at 6-month follow-up. Post-test constructive conflict skills also indirectly affected adolescent internalizing behaviors through adolescent emotional security. These findings support the use of a brief psychoeducational intervention in improving post-treatment conflict and emotional security about interparental relationships.

  13. Academic self-concept in high school: predictors and effects on adjustment in higher education.

    PubMed

    Wouters, Sofie; Germeijs, Veerle; Colpin, Hilde; Verschueren, Karine

    2011-12-01

    Academic self-concept is considered a relevant psychological construct influencing many educational outcomes directly or indirectly. Therefore, the major focus of the current study is on the predictors and effects of academic self-concept in late adolescence. First, we studied the simultaneous effects of individual, class-average and school-average achievement (i.e., assessed by school grades) on academic self-concept in the final year of high school, thereby replicating and extending previous research on the big-fish-little-pond effect model. Second, the predictive value of high school academic self-concept for academic adjustment and success in the first year of higher education was examined. The sample comprised 536 twelfth grade students (44% boys) recruited from 24 schools (67 classes) that were representative with regard to geographical region and educational network in Flanders. Structural equation modeling showed that, when examining the joint contribution of school- and class-average achievement, only class-average achievement was significantly and negatively associated with academic self-concept. Furthermore, a significant effect of academic self-concept in high school on academic adjustment and success in higher education (in addition to any effects of high school academic achievement) was found. These results highlight the importance of considering academic self-concept in educational research and policy. © 2011 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology © 2011 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.

  14. What is the effect of adjusting epirubicin doses for body surface area?

    PubMed Central

    Dobbs, N. A.; Twelves, C. J.

    1998-01-01

    Doses of cytotoxic drugs are routinely adjusted according to body surface area. We have evaluated this practice in 32 women with advanced breast cancer treated with single-agent epirubicin 12.5-120 mg m(-2). Epirubicin and its metabolites were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Unadjusted plasma clearance was calculated from dose in mg, and adjusted clearance from dose in mg m(-2). Unadjusted clearance did not correlate with surface area, height, weight, per cent ideal body weight or body mass index. There was no difference in the coefficient of variation (CV) of adjusted and unadjusted clearance (39.4% and 37.7% respectively). The AUC that would have resulted from giving an unadjusted dose was calculated. This predicted AUC was accurate, unbiased and had the same CV as the actual AUC. Similarly, in 11 patients an analysis of actual and predicted neutropenia confirmed that unadjusted dosing would have had no significant effect on the pattern of myelosuppression. Normalization of epirubicin dosage according to surface area appears not to reduce either pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic variability. PMID:9744507

  15. Assessing the effect of fuel adjustment clauses on electric utility efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Mahrenholz, G.J.

    1984-01-01

    Fuel adjustment clauses (FACs) have been adopted by state and federal regulatory authorities on a widespread basis to help preserve electric utility revenues during times of rapid, unexpected fuel price inflation. Economic theory suggests, however, that FAC use may generate several inefficiencies. These include a factor bias where fuel is favored relative to other productive inputs, managerial inefficiency, and a disincentive to bargain or search effectively for the lowest price fuel of a given quality. This analysis employs an econometric model of electric utility production cost. Using observations of 70 privately owned electric utilities for the year 1978, an index of FAC value to each firm is constructed for both retail and wholesale clauses. The results suggest retail FAC use encourages a fuel factor bias. The major finding is the sensitivity of this assessment to a change in the regulatory lag component of the FAC index. Regulatory lag measures the time it takes to process a rate case. If this measure is adjusted to consider the type of test a regulatory commission uses, greater inefficiency from FAC use may be inferred. Moreover, a move to this test period adjusted measure suggests both wholesale and retail FACs generate managerial inefficiency in addition to the fuel factor bias linked to retail FAC use.

  16. Link between Monitoring Behavior and Adolescent Adjustment: An Analysis of Direct and Indirect Effects

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Tammy K.; Morris, Amanda Sheffield; Cui, Lixian; Bosler, Cara D.; Shreffler, Karina M.; Silk, Jennifer S.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the current investigation was to explore whether monitoring behavior (i.e., parental solicitation, child disclosure, and parental involvement) was directly and indirectly (via parental knowledge and parent-youth openness) related to adolescent adjustment (i.e., antisocial behavior, substance use, and school grades). The sample consisted of 206 families with adolescents (ages 10–18 years) from predominantly low-income, high-risk neighborhoods. Monitoring behavior (parent reports), parental knowledge and parent-youth openness (youth reports), and adolescent adjustment (parent and youth reports) were all based on questionnaire data collected during a laboratory assessment. Results showed that when the monitoring behavior factors were examined simultaneously, only child disclosure was significantly and inversely related to youth antisocial behavior. In contrast, only parental involvement was significantly associated with less substance use. Moreover, school grades were significantly and incrementally predicted by both child disclosure and parental involvement. Parental solicitation was not significantly related to any of the adolescent outcomes. The findings also demonstrated evidence of indirect effects (via parental knowledge) in the link between monitoring behavior and adolescent adjustment. Implications regarding the socialization process during adolescence are discussed. PMID:25750505

  17. Internet for the internationals: effects of internet use motivations on international students' college adjustment.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun-Ju; Lee, Lu; Jang, Jeongwoo

    2011-01-01

    Drawing upon the uses and gratifications approach, the current study examined how international students' Internet use motivations affect their academic, social, and emotional adjustments in the new environment. A total of 166 Chinese students studying in Korea participated in a web-based survey. First, a factor analysis identified four distinct motivations for Internet use: homeland orientation (to stay connected to the home country), local information seeking (to learn about the host society), local social interaction (to form interpersonal relationships locally), and entertainment. After controlling for the effects of sociodemographic variables (i.e., gender, year at school, length of residence, Korean language proficiency) and personality traits (i.e., extraversion, openness to experience, neuroticism), Internet use motivations were found to be significant predictors of international students' social and emotional adjustments. Specifically, those seeking to build a local social network through the Internet reported greater satisfaction with their social life, whereas homeland orientation was associated with poorer emotional adaptation. Various Internet activities, such as e-mail, blogging, and instant messaging, were not significantly related to college adjustments, suggesting the multi-functionality of Internet-based communication channels.

  18. Effective System for Automatic Bundle Block Adjustment and Ortho Image Generation from Multi Sensor Satellite Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akilan, A.; Nagasubramanian, V.; Chaudhry, A.; Reddy, D. Rajesh; Sudheer Reddy, D.; Usha Devi, R.; Tirupati, T.; Radhadevi, P. V.; Varadan, G.

    2014-11-01

    Block Adjustment is a technique for large area mapping for images obtained from different remote sensingsatellites.The challenge in this process is to handle huge number of satellite imageries from different sources with different resolution and accuracies at the system level. This paper explains a system with various tools and techniques to effectively handle the end-to-end chain in large area mapping and production with good level of automation and the provisions for intuitive analysis of final results in 3D and 2D environment. In addition, the interface for using open source ortho and DEM references viz., ETM, SRTM etc. and displaying ESRI shapes for the image foot-prints are explained. Rigorous theory, mathematical modelling, workflow automation and sophisticated software engineering tools are included to ensure high photogrammetric accuracy and productivity. Major building blocks like Georeferencing, Geo-capturing and Geo-Modelling tools included in the block adjustment solution are explained in this paper. To provide optimal bundle block adjustment solution with high precision results, the system has been optimized in many stages to exploit the full utilization of hardware resources. The robustness of the system is ensured by handling failure in automatic procedure and saving the process state in every stage for subsequent restoration from the point of interruption. The results obtained from various stages of the system are presented in the paper.

  19. Adolescent adjustment and well-being: effects of parental divorce and distress.

    PubMed

    Størksen, Ingunn; Røysamb, Espen; Holmen, Turid L; Tambs, Kristian

    2006-02-01

    This study investigates the long-term effects of parental divorce on adolescent psychological adjustment and well-being, and to what extent the effects are accounted for by parental psychological distress. Data were collected among 8,984 Norwegian adolescents (13-19 years) and their parents. Outcome variables were symptoms of anxiety and depression, subjective well-being, and three areas of school problems. Parental divorce was found to be associated with both higher mean levels and larger variances in adolescent problems. Divorce and parental distress contributed independently to adolescent distress, supporting the notion of "double exposure" effects. The prevalence of adolescents with substantial distress symptoms was 14% among those with non-distressed non-divorced parents and 30% among those with divorced and distressed parents. In general effects remained when controlling for demographic factors. Long-term effects of divorce on symptoms of anxiety and depression were stronger among girls than among boys.

  20. The portion size effect on food intake. An anchoring and adjustment process?

    PubMed

    Marchiori, David; Papies, Esther K; Klein, Olivier

    2014-10-01

    People consistently over-eat when served a large compared with a small (appropriate) portion of food. However, the mechanism underlying this so-called portion size effect is not well understood. We argue that the process of anchoring and adjustment naturally describes this effect, such that the size of a presented portion works as an anchor that strongly influences consumption. The classical anchoring and adjustment paradigm was applied to six hypothetical eating situations. Participants were asked to imagine being served either a small or a large portion of food (i.e., low and high anchor) and to indicate whether they would consume more or less than this amount. Then, they indicated how much they would eat. These estimates were compared with a no-anchor condition where participants did not imagine a specific portion size but only indicated how much they would eat. In addition, half of participants in the anchoring conditions received a discounting instruction stating that the portion size they had been asked to imagine was randomly selected and thus not informative for their consumption estimate. As expected, participants who imagined to be served larger portions estimated to consume significantly more food than participants in the no-anchor condition, and participants who imagined to be served smaller portions estimated to consume significantly less food than participants in the no-anchor condition. The discounting manipulation did not reduce this effect of the anchors. We suggest that the process of anchoring and adjustment may provide a useful framework to understand the portion size effect and we discuss implications of this perspective. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Lower-order effects adjustment in quantitative traits model-based multifactor dimensionality reduction.

    PubMed

    Mahachie John, Jestinah M; Cattaert, Tom; Lishout, François Van; Gusareva, Elena S; Steen, Kristel Van

    2012-01-01

    Identifying gene-gene interactions or gene-environment interactions in studies of human complex diseases remains a big challenge in genetic epidemiology. An additional challenge, often forgotten, is to account for important lower-order genetic effects. These may hamper the identification of genuine epistasis. If lower-order genetic effects contribute to the genetic variance of a trait, identified statistical interactions may simply be due to a signal boost of these effects. In this study, we restrict attention to quantitative traits and bi-allelic SNPs as genetic markers. Moreover, our interaction study focuses on 2-way SNP-SNP interactions. Via simulations, we assess the performance of different corrective measures for lower-order genetic effects in Model-Based Multifactor Dimensionality Reduction epistasis detection, using additive and co-dominant coding schemes. Performance is evaluated in terms of power and familywise error rate. Our simulations indicate that empirical power estimates are reduced with correction of lower-order effects, likewise familywise error rates. Easy-to-use automatic SNP selection procedures, SNP selection based on "top" findings, or SNP selection based on p-value criterion for interesting main effects result in reduced power but also almost zero false positive rates. Always accounting for main effects in the SNP-SNP pair under investigation during Model-Based Multifactor Dimensionality Reduction analysis adequately controls false positive epistasis findings. This is particularly true when adopting a co-dominant corrective coding scheme. In conclusion, automatic search procedures to identify lower-order effects to correct for during epistasis screening should be avoided. The same is true for procedures that adjust for lower-order effects prior to Model-Based Multifactor Dimensionality Reduction and involve using residuals as the new trait. We advocate using "on-the-fly" lower-order effects adjusting when screening for SNP-SNP interactions

  2. Crystal growth and electronic properties of a 3D Rashba material, BiTeI, with adjusted carrier concentrations.

    PubMed

    Kanou, Manabu; Sasagawa, Takao

    2013-04-03

    3D Rashba materials can be a leading player in spin-related novel phenomena, ranging from the metallic extreme (unconventional superconductivity) to the transport intermediate (spin Hall effects) to the novel insulating variant (3D topological insulating states). As the essential backbone for both fundamental and applied research of such a 3D Rashba material, this study established the growth of sizeable single crystals of a candidate compound BiTeI with adjusted carrier concentrations. Three techniques (standard vertical Bridgman, modified horizontal Bridgman, and vapour transport) were employed, and BiTeI crystals (>1 × 1 × 0.2 mm(3)) with fundamentally different electronic states from metallic to insulating were successfully grown by the chosen technique. The 3D Rashba electronic states, including the Fermi surface topology, for the corresponding carrier concentrations of the obtained BiTeI crystals were revealed by relativistic first-principles calculations.

  3. Teachers and Their International Relocation: The Effect of Self-Esteem and Pay Satisfaction on Adjustment and Outcome Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Warnie; von Kirchenheim, Clement; Richardson, Carole

    2006-01-01

    This is the second of two papers investigating the adjustment process in a designated group of expatriates, (teachers), who have severed ties with their home country and employer. In the first paper we examined the effect of self-efficacy and flexibility within this adjustment process, revealing the significance of self-efficacy but failing to…

  4. The Effects of Husbands' and Wives' Social Cognition on Their Marital Adjustment, Conjugal Power, and Self-Esteem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    deTurck, Mark A.; Miller, Gerald R.

    1986-01-01

    Examined effects of husbands' and wives' (N=85 couples) social cognitive processes toward one another on their marital adjustment and conjugal power. Results confirmed that spouses who perceived each other as unique individuals rather than undifferentiated role occupants experienced significantly greater marital adjustment than did spouses who…

  5. Peer Victimization and Rejection: Investigation of an Integrative Model of Effects on Emotional, Behavioral, and Academic Adjustment in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Cristy; DuBois, David L.

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated an integrative model of the effects of peer victimization (PV) and peer rejection (PR) on youth adjustment using data from 508 middle-school students. In the proposed model, PV and PR each contribute independently to problems in emotional, behavioral, and academic adjustment. The adverse consequences of PV and PR are each…

  6. Siblings' Perceptions of Differential Treatment, Fairness, and Jealousy and Adolescent Adjustment: A Moderated Indirect Effects Model.

    PubMed

    Loeser, Meghan K; Whiteman, Shawn D; McHale, Susan M

    2016-08-01

    Youth's perception of parents' differential treatment (PDT) are associated with maladjustment during adolescence. Although the direct relations between PDT and youth's maladjustment have been well established, the mechanisms underlying these associations remain unclear. We addressed this gap by examining whether sibling jealousy accounted for the links between PDT and youth's depressive symptoms, self-worth, and risky behaviors. Additionally, we examined whether youth's perceptions of fairness regarding their treatment as well as the gender constellation of the dyad moderated these indirect relations (i.e., moderated-indirect effects). Participants were first- and second-born adolescent siblings (M = 15.96, SD = .72 years for older siblings, M = 13.48, SD = 1.02 years for younger siblings) and their parents from 197 working and middle class European American families. Data were collected via home interviews. A series of Conditional Process Analyses revealed significant indirect effects of PDT through sibling jealousy to all three adjustment outcomes. Furthermore, perceptions of fairness moderated the relations between PDT and jealousy, such that the indirect effects were only significant at low (-1 SD) and average levels of fairness. At high levels of fairness (+1 SD) there was no association between PDT, jealousy, and youth adjustment. Taken together, results indicate that youth and parents would benefit from engaging in clear communication regarding the reasoning for the occurrence of differential treatment, likely maximizing youth and parent perceptions of that treatment as being fair, and in turn mitigating sibling jealousy and maladjustment.

  7. Siblings’ Perceptions of Differential Treatment, Fairness, and Jealousy and Adolescent Adjustment: A Moderated Indirect Effects Model

    PubMed Central

    Loeser, Meghan K.; Whiteman, Shawn D.; McHale, Susan M.

    2016-01-01

    Youth's perception of parents’ differential treatment (PDT) are associated with maladjustment during adolescence. Although the direct relations between PDT and youth's maladjustment have been well established, the mechanisms underlying these associations remain unclear. We addressed this gap by examining whether sibling jealousy accounted for the links between PDT and youth's depressive symptoms, self-worth, and risky behaviors. Additionally, we examined whether youth's perceptions of fairness regarding their treatment as well as the gender constellation of the dyad moderated these indirect relations (i.e., moderated-indirect effects). Participants were first- and second-born adolescent siblings (M = 15.96, SD = .72 years for older siblings, M = 13.48, SD = 1.02 years for younger siblings) and their parents from 197 working and middle class European American families. Data were collected via home interviews. A series of Conditional Process Analyses revealed significant indirect effects of PDT through sibling jealousy to all three adjustment outcomes. Furthermore, perceptions of fairness moderated the relations between PDT and jealousy, such that the indirect effects were only significant at low (−1 SD) and average levels of fairness. At high levels of fairness (+1 SD) there was no association between PDT, jealousy, and youth adjustment. Taken together, results indicate that youth and parents would benefit from engaging in clear communication regarding the reasoning for the occurrence of differential treatment, likely maximizing youth and parent perceptions of that treatment as being fair, and in turn mitigating sibling jealousy and maladjustment. PMID:27867295

  8. A little adjustment of synthetic strategy led to a new highly repeated heteropolyblue: Structure, characterizations and photocatalytic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wu-Hua; Zhang, Zhu-Sen; Zhao, Jin-Hua; Qiu, Ze-Hai; Yuan, Qiu-Lan; Huang, Tian-Fu; Lin, Xue-Yu; Hu, Zhi-Biao

    2017-06-01

    Hydrothermal synthesis is known as the most efficient method to prepare novel structural polyoxometalate (POM)-based materials, but controlled synthesis of a structure-directing POM is always challenging task. The experimental repeatability is usually one of the key topics. To explore a reliable hydrothermal synthesis approach for new POMs will be a meaningful work. Our previous work, which we have hydrothermally synthesized the first Cr-complexes-capped Keggin-type POM, [Hdma]3[H2phen]{[Cr(phen)]2[MoV8MoVI4O36(PO4)]}·nH2O (n ≈ 2) (Chen et al., polyhedron, 2015, 85, 117), afford us some commendable synthetic experiences, arouse us some introspections as well for its tricky preparation conditions and low experimental repeatability. Based on the aforementioned work, a new high-repetition-rate and more steady heteropolyblue, [H3O]0.5(Hdma)2.5(dma)0.25{[Cr(phen)]2[MoV6MoVI6O8(PO4)]}·2H2O (1) (dma = dimethylamine (C2H7N), phen = 1,10-phenanthroline (C12H8N2)), has been successfully obtained by virtue of reasonably adjusting synthetic strategy. The adjustment of synthetic strategy includes controlling ratio of reactants and aging time, reasonably using redoxes and stepwise self-assembly plans. Compound 1 is the second POM with Keggin-type polyanion capped by Cr-complexes. Experiments demonstrate that compound 1 has good catalytic activity in the both degradation reactions of rhodamine B (RHB) and methyl orange (MO) under ultraviolet (UV)-light and oxidant H2O2 conditions. Detailed structural characterizations include single-crystal X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses, energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS) analyses, elemental analyses, cerate oxidimetry, powder XRD, fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible-near-infrared (UV-Vis-NIR) solid diffuse reflection spectrum and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses. The electrochemical property (cyclic voltammetry (CV)) of compound 1 has also been studied.

  9. Bending the Doming Effect in Structure from Motion Reconstructions Through Bundle Adjustment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magri, L.; Toldo, R.

    2017-08-01

    Structure from Motion techniques provides low-cost and flexible methods that can be adopted in arial surveying to collect topographic data with accurate results. Nevertheless, the so-called "doming effect", due to unfortunate acquisition conditions or unreliable modeling of radial distortion, has been recognized as a critical issue that disrupts the quality of the attained 3D reconstruction. In this paper we propose a novel method, that works effectively in the presence of a nearly flat soil, to tackle a posteriori the doming effect: an automatic ground detection method is used to capture the doming deformation flawing the reconstruction, which in turn is wrapped to the correct geometry by iteratively enforcing a planarity constraint through a Bundle Adjustment framework. Experiments on real word datasets demonstrate promising results.

  10. Changes in social adjustment with cognitive processing therapy: effects of treatment and association with PTSD symptom change.

    PubMed

    Monson, Candice M; Macdonald, Alexandra; Vorstenbosch, Valerie; Shnaider, Philippe; Goldstein, Elizabeth S R; Ferrier-Auerbach, Amanda G; Mocciola, Katharine E

    2012-10-01

    The current study sought to determine if different spheres of social adjustment, social and leisure, family, and work and income improved immediately following a course of cognitive processing therapy (CPT) when compared with those on a waiting list in a sample of 46 U.S. veterans diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). We also sought to determine whether changes in different PTSD symptom clusters were associated with changes in these spheres of social adjustment. Overall social adjustment, extended family relationships, and housework completion significantly improved in the CPT versus waiting-list condition, η(2) = .08 to .11. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses revealed that improvements in total clinician-rated PTSD symptoms were associated with improvements in overall social and housework adjustment. When changes in reexperiencing, avoidance, emotional numbing, and hyperarousal were all in the model accounting for changes in total social adjustment, improvements in emotional numbing symptoms were associated with improvements in overall social, extended family, and housework adjustment (β = .38 to .55). In addition, improvements in avoidance symptoms were associated with improvements in housework adjustment (β = .30), but associated with declines in extended family adjustment (β = -.34). Results suggest that it is important to consider the extent to which PTSD treatments effectively reduce specific types of symptoms, particularly emotional numbing and avoidance, to generally improve social adjustment.

  11. The effect of tooth age on colour adjustment potential of resin composite restorations.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, A; Nakajima, M; Seki, N; Foxton, R M; Tagami, J

    2015-02-01

    teeth groups (p<0.05). The ΔE*area2-3/1-4 (mis-match rate in colour shifting at the border) of the older teeth groups was larger than that of the younger teeth groups (p<0.05). ΔE*area3-4/1-4 (colour shifting rate of resin composite side) was significantly larger in older teeth than younger teeth (p<0.05), while ΔE*area1-2/1-4 (colour shifting rate of tooth side), was significantly smaller in older teeth than younger teeth (p<0.05). In each tooth group, there were no significant differences in ΔE*area2-3, ΔE*area1-4, ΔE*area2-3/1-4, ΔE*area3-4/1-4 and ΔE*area1-2/1-4 between the materials (p>0.05). Analysis of the light transmission properties indicated that older dentine transmitted more light, while younger dentine exhibited greater light diffusion and transmitted less light. The colour shifting effects at the border of the resin composite restorations were influenced by the age of the tooth. This behaviour might be influenced by the light transmission characteristics of dentine in restored teeth. The potential for colour adjustment of resin composite restorations may be less in older teeth than younger teeth. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Systematic adjustment of charge densities and size of polyglycerol amines reduces cytotoxic effects and enhances cellular uptake.

    PubMed

    Hellmund, Markus; Achazi, Katharina; Neumann, Falko; Thota, Bala N S; Ma, Nan; Haag, Rainer

    2015-11-01

    Excessive cationic charge density of polyplexes during cellular uptake is still a major hurdle in the field of non-viral gene delivery. The most efficient cationic vectors such as polyethylene imine (PEI) or polyamidoamine (PAMAM) can be highly toxic and may induce strong side effects due to their high cationic charge densities. Alternatives like polyethylene glycol (PEG) are used to 'shield' these charges and thus to reduce the cytotoxic effects known for PEI/PEG-core-shell architectures. In this study, we compared the ability of hyperbranched polyglycerol amines (hPG amines) with different amine densities and molecular weights as non-viral cationic vectors for DNA delivery. By adjusting the hydroxyl to amine group ratio on varying molecular weights, we were able to perform a systematic study on the cytotoxic effects caused by the effective charge density in correlation to size. We could demonstrate that carriers with moderate charge density have a higher potential for effective DNA delivery as compared to high/low charged ones independent of their size, but the final efficiency can be optimized by the molecular weight. We analyzed the physicochemical properties and cellular uptake capacity as well as the cytotoxicity and transfection efficiency of these new vector systems.

  13. 26 CFR 1.754-1 - Time and manner of making election to adjust basis of partnership property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Time and manner of making election to adjust..., Subchapter K, Chapter 1 of the Code § 1.754-1 Time and manner of making election to adjust basis of... sections 734(b) and 743(b) if it files an election in accordance with the rules set forth in paragraph...

  14. Effects of Timing of Adversity on Adolescent and Young Adult Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiff, Cara J.; Cortes, Rebecca C.; Lengua, Liliana J.; Kosterman, Rick; Hawkins, J. David; Mason, W. Alex

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to adversity during childhood and adolescence predicts adjustment across development. Furthermore, adolescent adjustment problems persist into young adulthood. This study examined relations of contextual adversity with concurrent adolescent adjustment and prospective mental health and health outcomes in young adulthood. A longitudinal…

  15. Effects of Timing of Adversity on Adolescent and Young Adult Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiff, Cara J.; Cortes, Rebecca C.; Lengua, Liliana J.; Kosterman, Rick; Hawkins, J. David; Mason, W. Alex

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to adversity during childhood and adolescence predicts adjustment across development. Furthermore, adolescent adjustment problems persist into young adulthood. This study examined relations of contextual adversity with concurrent adolescent adjustment and prospective mental health and health outcomes in young adulthood. A longitudinal…

  16. Hydrothermal-hydrolysis synthesis and photocatalytic properties of nano-TiO2 with an adjustable crystalline structure.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jinghuan; Xiao, Xin; Nan, Junmin

    2010-04-15

    Tri-phase (anatase, rutile, and brookite), bi-phase (anatase and rutile), and mono-phase (rutile) TiO(2) nanomaterials with different morphologies were successively synthesized using a hydrothermal-hydrolysis method and adjusting the Ti(4+)/Ti(3+) molar ratio in a precursor solution. The properties of the fabricated nanomaterials were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), photocatalytic reaction, and other techniques. It has been shown that TiO(2) nanorods can be obtained by increasing the Ti(4+)/Ti(3+) molar ratio in a precursor solution from 1:0 to 0.3:0.7. TiO(2) nanoparticles are formed if the Ti(3+) fraction in the solution is further increased. The selective synthesis of TiO(2) nanomaterials is explained by a decrease in the reaction rate and by changes in acidity with increasing Ti(3+) content. The tri-phase nanorods and bi-phase nanoparticles synthesized with Ti(4+)/Ti(3+) molar ratios from 1:0 to 0.8:0.2 and 0.2:0.8 to 0:1, respectively, have a higher degradation ability with respect to methylene blue aqueous solutions under UV irradiation at ambient temperature compared to purely rutile TiO(2) nanorods synthesized with Ti(4+)/Ti(3+) molar ratios from 0.7:0.3 to 0.3:0.7. The high photocatalytic activity of the multi-phase TiO(2) samples is primarily attributed to their larger band gap and suppressed recombination of photo-generated electron-hole pairs.

  17. Electroluminescence property improvement by adjusting quantum wells' position relative to p-doped region in InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well light emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, P.; Zhao, D. G.; Jiang, D. S.; Long, H.; Li, M.; Yang, J.; Zhu, J. J.; Liu, Z. S.; Li, X. J.; Liu, W.; Li, X.; Liang, F.; Liu, J. P.; Zhang, B. S.; Yang, H.

    2017-03-01

    The hole distribution and electroluminescence property improvement by adjusting the relative position between quantum wells and p-doped region in InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well structures are experimentally and theoretically investigated. Five designed samples with different barrier layer parameters of multiple-quantum-well structure are grown by MOCVD and then fabricated into devices. The electroluminescence properties of these samples are measured and compared. It is found that the output electroluminescence intensity of samples is enhanced if the position of quantum wells shifts towards p-side, while the output power is reduced if their position is shifted towards the n-side. The theoretical calculation of characteristics of these devices using the simulation program APSYS agrees well with the experimental data, illustrating that the effect of relative position between p-doped region and quantum wells on the improvement of hole distribution and electroluminescence performance is significant, especially for InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well devices operated under high injection condition.

  18. Effective viscoelastic properties of shales.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornet, Jan; Dabrowski, Marcin; Schmid, Daniel

    2017-04-01

    Shales are often characterized as being elasto-plastic: they deform elastically for stresses below a certain yield and plastically at the limit. This approach dismisses any time dependent behavior that occurs in nature. Our goal is to better understand this time dependency by considering the visco-elastic behavior of shales before plasticity is reached. Shales are also typically heterogeneous and the question arises as to how to derive their effective properties in order to model them as a homogeneous medium. We model shales using inclusion based models due to their versatility and their ability to represent the microstructure. The inclusions represent competent quartz or calcite grains which are set in a viscous matrix made of clay minerals. Our approach relies on both numerical and analytical results in two dimension and we use them to cross check each other. The numerical results are obtained using MILAMIN, a fast-finite element solver for large problems, while the analytical solutions are based on the correspondence principle of linear viscoelasticity. This principle allows us to use the results on effective properties already derived for elastic bodies and to adapt them to viscoelastic bodies. We start by revisiting the problem of a single inclusion in an infinite medium and then move on to consider many inclusions.

  19. The effects of feeder adjustment and trough space on growth performance of finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    Myers, A J; Goodband, R D; Tokach, M D; Dritz, S S; DeRouchey, J M; Nelssen, J L

    2012-12-01

    Two studies were conducted to determine the effects of feeder adjustment and trough space on growth performance of finishing pigs. In Exp. 1, 234 pigs (initial BW 41.5 kg) were used in an 89-d trial. Pigs were randomly allotted to 1 of 3 treatments with 9 replications of 8 pigs/pen and 1 replicate with 6 pigs/pen. Treatments consisted of a minimum feeder gap setting of 1.27, 1.91, or 2.54 cm. Feeders were adjusted to a minimum gap setting, but the agitation plate could be moved upward to a maximum opening of 1.91, 2.54, or 3.18 cm, respectively. Feeder adjustments of 1.27, 1.91, and 2.54 cm averaged 28, 58, and 75% pan coverage, respectively. From d 0 to 58, increasing feeder gap improved (linear; P ≤ 0.04) ADG and ADFI, but decreased (linear; P < 0.05) G:F. Although the response was linear for ADG, no increase occurred (quadratic; P = 0.15) beyond the 1.91-cm feeder gap setting. From d 58 to 89, increasing feeder gap setting tended (linear; P = 0.08) to worsen G:F. Overall (d 0 to 89), pigs fed with increasing feeder gap had decreased (linear; P <0.03) G:F due to increased (linear; P <0.02) ADFI. In Exp. 2, 288 pigs (initial BW 41.3 kg) were used in a 91-d study to evaluate the effects of feeder trough space (4.45 vs. 8.9 cm/pig) and minimum feeder gap opening of 1.27 cm (narrow) vs. 2.54 cm (wide). The treatments were arranged in a 2 × 2 factorial with 6 replications per treatment. Feeder trough space was altered by having pens of either 8 to 16 pigs per pen with all pigs provided 0.74 m(2) floor space per pig. From d 0 to 56 and 56 to 91, no adjustment × space interactions or effects of trough space were observed. From d 0 to 56, pigs with the wide feeder gap setting had decreased (P < 0.02) G:F compared with those that had the narrow feeder gap setting. From d 56 to 91, pigs with the wider feeder gap setting had increased (P < 0.001) ADFI, but consequently had decreased (P < 0.01) G:F. Overall (d 0 to 91), no trough space × feeder adjustment interactions

  20. Are effective teachers like good parents? Teaching styles and student adjustment in early adolescence.

    PubMed

    Wentzel, Kathryn R

    2002-01-01

    This study examined the utility of parent socialization models for understanding teachers' influence on student adjustment in middle school. Teachers were assessed with respect to their modeling of motivation and to Baumrind's parenting dimensions of control, maturity demands, democratic communication, and nurturance. Student adjustment was defined in terms of their social and academic goals and interest in class, classroom behavior, and academic performance. Based on information from 452 sixth graders from two suburban middle schools, results of multiple regressions indicated that the five teaching dimensions explained significant amounts of variance in student motivation, social behavior, and achievement. High expectations (maturity demands) was a consistent positive predictor of students' goals and interests, and negative feedback (lack of nurturance) was the most consistent negative predictor of academic performance and social behavior. The role of motivation in mediating relations between teaching dimensions and social behavior and academic achievement also was examined; evidence for mediation was not found. Relations of teaching dimensions to student outcomes were the same for African American and European American students, and for boys and girls. The implications of parent socialization models for understanding effective teaching are discussed.

  1. Conformity expectations: Differential effects on IVF twins and singletons' parent-child relationships and adjustment.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Kayla N; Rueter, Martha A; Connor, Jennifer J; Chen, Muzi; Damario, Mark

    2015-08-01

    Increased utilization of in vitro fertilization (IVF) to treat infertility has resulted in a growing twin birthrate. Despite early childhood risks, twins have fewer psychosocial problems in middle childhood than singleton children. This study proposes that parents' conformity expectations for children have differential effects on parent-child relationships for twin and singleton children, which indirectly explains twins' more optimum psychosocial adjustment. Parental conformity expectations, parent-child relationship satisfaction, and children's emotional, behavioral, and attention problems were assessed in a sample of 288 6- to 12-year-old IVF-conceived twins and singletons. Overall, parents of twins had higher expectations for child conformity to parent rules than singleton parents. Path models demonstrate that twin status and parental expectations for child conformity interact to influence parent-child relationships, and this interaction indirectly accounted for differences in twins' and singletons' psychosocial adjustment. Findings suggest parenting constructs have differential influences on the association between twin status and parent-child relationships. Parenting research, predominantly conducted with singletons, should be reexamined before applying existing research to twin children and their families.

  2. Acoustic particle filter with adjustable effective pore size for automated sample preparation.

    PubMed

    Jung, Byoungsok; Fisher, Karl; Ness, Kevin D; Rose, Klint A; Mariella, Raymond P

    2008-11-15

    This article presents analysis and optimization of a microfluidic particle filter that uses acoustic radiation forces to remove particles larger than a selected size by adjusting the driving conditions of the piezoelectric transducer (PZT). Operationally, the acoustic filter concentrates microparticles to the center of the microchannel, minimizing undesirable particle adsorption to the microchannel walls. Finite element models predict the complex two-dimensional acoustic radiation force field perpendicular to the flow direction in microfluidic devices. We compare these results with experimental parametric studies including variations of the PZT driving frequencies and voltages as well as various particle sizes (0.5-5.0 microm in diameter). These results provide insight into the optimal operating conditions and show the efficacy of our device as a filter with an adjustable effective pore size. We demonstrate the separation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae from MS2 bacteriophage using our acoustic device. With optimized design of our microfluidic flow system, we achieved yields of greater than 90% for the MS2 with greater than 80% removal of the S. cerevisiae in this continuous-flow sample preparation device.

  3. Ketogenic diet effects on cognition, mood, and psychosocial adjustment in children.

    PubMed

    Lambrechts, D A J E; Bovens, M J M; de la Parra, N M; Hendriksen, J G M; Aldenkamp, A P; Majoie, M J M

    2013-02-01

    The ketogenic diet (KD) is increasingly used for the treatment of refractory epilepsy. The aim of this study was to evaluate possible adverse effects of the diet on cognition, behavior, psychosocial adjustment, and quality of life in school-aged children and adolescents. Fifteen subjects were assessed before diet initiation. After approximately 6 months, on diet treatment 11 patients (73%) were reassessed. We used a combination of individually administered psychological tests for the children and parent report questionnaires. Five of 15 patients had a seizure reduction of more than 50%. Cognition showed a small trend toward improvement in most patients. Psychosocial adjustment, on the other hand, showed small trends toward worsening. For mood, two areas showed a larger change, revealing more mood problems although this was not on a statistically significant level. In this small group of children, there is no indication that the KD has a negative impact on cognition or social adaptation at short term. There is a tendency toward an increase in mood problems. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  4. The additive and interactive effects of parenting and temperament in predicting adjustment problems of children of divorce.

    PubMed

    Lengua, L J; Wolchik, S A; Sandler, I N; West, S G

    2000-06-01

    Investigated the interaction between parenting and temperament in predicting adjustment problems in children of divorce. The study utilized a sample of 231 mothers and children, 9 to 12 years old, who had experienced divorce within the previous 2 years. Both mothers' and children's reports on parenting, temperament, and adjustment variables were obtained and combined to create cross-reporter measures of the variables. Parenting and temperament were directly and independently related to outcomes consistent with an additive model of their effects. Significant interactions indicated that parental rejection was more strongly related to adjustment problems for children low in positive emotionality, and inconsistent discipline was more strongly related to adjustment problems for children high in impulsivity. These findings suggest that children who are high in impulsivity may be at greater risk for developing problems, whereas positive emotionality may operate as a protective factor, decreasing the risk of adjustment problems in response to negative parenting.

  5. Guided Bayesian imputation to adjust for confounding when combining heterogeneous data sources in comparative effectiveness research.

    PubMed

    Antonelli, Joseph; Zigler, Corwin; Dominici, Francesca

    2017-03-03

    In comparative effectiveness research, we are often interested in the estimation of an average causal effect from large observational data (the main study). Often this data does not measure all the necessary confounders. In many occasions, an extensive set of additional covariates is measured for a smaller and non-representative population (the validation study). In this setting, standard approaches for missing data imputation might not be adequate due to the large number of missing covariates in the main data relative to the smaller sample size of the validation data. We propose a Bayesian approach to estimate the average causal effect in the main study that borrows information from the validation study to improve confounding adjustment. Our approach combines ideas of Bayesian model averaging, confounder selection, and missing data imputation into a single framework. It allows for different treatment effects in the main study and in the validation study, and propagates the uncertainty due to the missing data imputation and confounder selection when estimating the average causal effect (ACE) in the main study. We compare our method to several existing approaches via simulation. We apply our method to a study examining the effect of surgical resection on survival among 10 396 Medicare beneficiaries with a brain tumor when additional covariate information is available on 2220 patients in SEER-Medicare. We find that the estimated ACE decreases by 30% when incorporating additional information from SEER-Medicare.

  6. Regulatory Properties of ADP Glucose Pyrophosphorylase Are Required for Adjustment of Leaf Starch Synthesis in Different Photoperiods1[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Mugford, Sam T.; Fernandez, Olivier; Brinton, Jemima; Flis, Anna; Krohn, Nicole; Encke, Beatrice; Feil, Regina; Sulpice, Ronan; Lunn, John E.; Stitt, Mark; Smith, Alison M.

    2014-01-01

    Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) leaves synthesize starch faster in short days than in long days, but the mechanism that adjusts the rate of starch synthesis to daylength is unknown. To understand this mechanism, we first investigated whether adjustment occurs in mutants lacking components of the circadian clock or clock output pathways. Most mutants adjusted starch synthesis to daylength, but adjustment was compromised in plants lacking the GIGANTEA or FLAVIN-BINDING, KELCH REPEAT, F BOX1 components of the photoperiod-signaling pathway involved in flowering. We then examined whether the properties of the starch synthesis enzyme adenosine 5′-diphosphate-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase) are important for adjustment of starch synthesis to daylength. Modulation of AGPase activity is known to bring about short-term adjustments of photosynthate partitioning between starch and sucrose (Suc) synthesis. We found that adjustment of starch synthesis to daylength was compromised in plants expressing a deregulated bacterial AGPase in place of the endogenous AGPase and in plants containing mutant forms of the endogenous AGPase with altered allosteric regulatory properties. We suggest that the rate of starch synthesis is in part determined by growth rate at the end of the preceding night. If growth at night is low, as in short days, there is a delay before growth recovers during the next day, leading to accumulation of Suc and stimulation of starch synthesis via activation of AGPase. If growth at night is fast, photosynthate is used for growth at the start of the day, Suc does not accumulate, and starch synthesis is not up-regulated. PMID:25293961

  7. Maximizing cost-effectiveness by adjusting treatment strategy according to glaucoma severity.

    PubMed

    Guedes, Ricardo Augusto Paletta; Guedes, Vanessa Maria Paletta; Gomes, Carlos Eduardo de Mello; Chaoubah, Alfredo

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the most cost-effective strategy for the treatment of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) in Brazil, from the payer's perspective (Brazilian Public Health System) in the setting of the Glaucoma Referral Centers. Study design was a cost-effectiveness analysis of different treatment strategies for POAG. We developed 3 Markov models (one for each glaucoma stage: early, moderate and advanced), using a hypothetical cohort of POAG patients, from the perspective of the Brazilian Public Health System (SUS) and a horizon of the average life expectancy of the Brazilian population. Different strategies were tested according to disease severity. For early glaucoma, we compared observation, laser and medications. For moderate glaucoma, medications, laser and surgery. For advanced glaucoma, medications and surgery. Main outcome measures were ICER (incremental cost-effectiveness ratio), medical direct costs and QALY (quality-adjusted life year). In early glaucoma, both laser and medical treatment were cost-effective (ICERs of initial laser and initial medical treatment over observation only, were R$ 2,811.39/QALY and R$ 3,450.47/QALY). Compared to observation strategy, the two alternatives have provided significant gains in quality of life. In moderate glaucoma population, medical treatment presented the highest costs among treatment strategies. Both laser and surgery were highly cost-effective in this group. For advanced glaucoma, both tested strategies were cost-effective. Starting age had a great impact on results in all studied groups. Initiating glaucoma therapy using laser or surgery were more cost-effective, the younger the patient. All tested treatment strategies for glaucoma provided real gains in quality of life and were cost-effective. However, according to the disease severity, not all strategies provided the same cost-effectiveness profile. Based on our findings, there should be a preferred strategy for each glaucoma stage

  8. Maximizing cost-effectiveness by adjusting treatment strategy according to glaucoma severity

    PubMed Central

    Guedes, Ricardo Augusto Paletta; Guedes, Vanessa Maria Paletta; Gomes, Carlos Eduardo de Mello; Chaoubah, Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: The aim of this study is to determine the most cost-effective strategy for the treatment of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) in Brazil, from the payer's perspective (Brazilian Public Health System) in the setting of the Glaucoma Referral Centers. Methods: Study design was a cost-effectiveness analysis of different treatment strategies for POAG. We developed 3 Markov models (one for each glaucoma stage: early, moderate and advanced), using a hypothetical cohort of POAG patients, from the perspective of the Brazilian Public Health System (SUS) and a horizon of the average life expectancy of the Brazilian population. Different strategies were tested according to disease severity. For early glaucoma, we compared observation, laser and medications. For moderate glaucoma, medications, laser and surgery. For advanced glaucoma, medications and surgery. Main outcome measures were ICER (incremental cost-effectiveness ratio), medical direct costs and QALY (quality-adjusted life year). Results: In early glaucoma, both laser and medical treatment were cost-effective (ICERs of initial laser and initial medical treatment over observation only, were R$ 2,811.39/QALY and R$ 3,450.47/QALY). Compared to observation strategy, the two alternatives have provided significant gains in quality of life. In moderate glaucoma population, medical treatment presented the highest costs among treatment strategies. Both laser and surgery were highly cost-effective in this group. For advanced glaucoma, both tested strategies were cost-effective. Starting age had a great impact on results in all studied groups. Initiating glaucoma therapy using laser or surgery were more cost-effective, the younger the patient. Conclusion: All tested treatment strategies for glaucoma provided real gains in quality of life and were cost-effective. However, according to the disease severity, not all strategies provided the same cost-effectiveness profile. Based on our findings, there should be a

  9. An examination of crossover and spillover effects of spousal and expatriate cross-cultural adjustment on expatriate outcomes.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Riki; Yun, Seokhwa; Tesluk, Paul E

    2002-08-01

    Integrating work-family and cross-cultural adjustment literatures, the researchers proposed and tested a spillover and crossover model of expatriates' cross-cultural adjustment with reciprocal relationships. Spillover effects refer to the influence that expatriate attitudes in a particular domain (e.g., work) have on attitudes in other domains (e.g., nonwork), whereas crossover effects refer to the influence of expatriate attitudes on the spouse's attitudes (and vice versa). Data collected from Japanese expatriates, their spouses, and their superiors strongly supported both spillover and crossover effects between expatriate and spousal cross-cultural adjustment. In addition, expatriates' cross-cultural adjustment was found to be related to satisfaction, which, in turn, was found to be negatively related to expatriates' intention to return to their homeland early.

  10. Gaming in risk-adjusted mortality rates: effect of misclassification of risk factors in the benchmarking of cardiac surgery risk-adjusted mortality rates.

    PubMed

    Siregar, Sabrina; Groenwold, Rolf H H; Versteegh, Michel I M; Noyez, Luc; ter Burg, Willem Jan P P; Bots, Michiel L; van der Graaf, Yolanda; van Herwerden, Lex A

    2013-03-01

    Upcoding or undercoding of risk factors could affect the benchmarking of risk-adjusted mortality rates. The aim was to investigate the effect of misclassification of risk factors on the benchmarking of mortality rates after cardiac surgery. A prospective cohort was used comprising all adult cardiac surgery patients in all 16 cardiothoracic centers in The Netherlands from January 1, 2007, to December 31, 2009. A random effects model, including the logistic European system for cardiac operative risk evaluation (EuroSCORE) was used to benchmark the in-hospital mortality rates. We simulated upcoding and undercoding of 5 selected variables in the patients from 1 center. These patients were selected randomly (nondifferential misclassification) or by the EuroSCORE (differential misclassification). In the random patients, substantial misclassification was required to affect benchmarking: a 1.8-fold increase in prevalence of the 4 risk factors changed an underperforming center into an average performing one. Upcoding of 1 variable required even more. When patients with the greatest EuroSCORE were upcoded (ie, differential misclassification), a 1.1-fold increase was sufficient: moderate left ventricular function from 14.2% to 15.7%, poor left ventricular function from 8.4% to 9.3%, recent myocardial infarction from 7.9% to 8.6%, and extracardiac arteriopathy from 9.0% to 9.8%. Benchmarking using risk-adjusted mortality rates can be manipulated by misclassification of the EuroSCORE risk factors. Misclassification of random patients or of single variables will have little effect. However, limited upcoding of multiple risk factors in high-risk patients can greatly influence benchmarking. To minimize "gaming," the prevalence of all risk factors should be carefully monitored. Copyright © 2013 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A Cost-Effective Fluorescence Mini-Microscope with Adjustable Magnifications for Biomedical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yu Shrike; Ribas, João; Nadhman, Akhtar; Aleman, Julio; Selimović, Šeila; Lesher-Perez, Sasha Cai; Wang, Ting; Manoharan, Vijayan; Shin, Su-Ryon; Damilano, Alessia; Annabi, Nasim; Dokmeci, Mehmet Remzi; Takayama, Shuichi; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2015-01-01

    We have designed and fabricated a miniature microscope from off-the-shelf components and webcam, with built-in fluorescence capability for biomedical applications. The mini-microscope was able to detect both biochemical parameters such as cell/tissue viability (e.g. Live/Dead assay), and biophysical properties of the microenvironment such as oxygen levels in microfabricated tissues based on an oxygen-sensitive fluorescent dye. This mini-microscope has adjustable magnifications from 8-60X, achieves a resolution as high as <2 μm, and possesses a long working distance of 4.5 mm (at a magnification of 8X). The mini-microscope was able to chronologically monitor cell migration and analyze beating of microfluidic liver and cardiac bioreactors in real time, respectively. The mini-microscope system is cheap, and its modularity allows convenient integration with a wide variety of pre-existing platforms including but not limited to, cell culture plates, microfluidic devices, and organs-on-a-chip systems. Therefore, we envision its widespread applications in cell biology, tissue engineering, biosensing, microfluidics, and organs-on-chips, which can potentially replace conventional bench-top microscopy where long-term in situ and large-scale imaging/analysis is required. PMID:26282117

  12. The effect of illumination and electrode adjustment on the carrier behavior in special multilayer devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Yanhong; Ou, Qingdong; Wang, Jinjiang; Zhang, Dengyu; Chen, Liezun; Li, Yanqing

    2017-08-01

    Intermediate connectors play an important role in semiconductor devices, especially in tandem devices. In this paper, four types of different intermediate connectors (e.g. Mg:Alq3/MoO3, MoO3, Mg:Alq3, and none) and two kinds of modified electrode materials (LiF and MoO3) integrated into the special multilayer devices are proposed, with the aim of studying the impact of light illumination and electrode adjustment on the carrier behavior of intermediate connectors through the current density-voltage characteristics, interfacial electronic structures, and capacitance-voltage characteristics. The results show that the illumination enhances the charge generation and separation in intermediate connectors, and further electrode interface modifications enhance the functionality of intermediate connectors. In addition, the device with an efficient intermediate connector structure shows a photoelectric effect, which paves the way for organic photovoltaic devices to realize optical-electrical integration transformation.

  13. Romantic relationships and adjustment problems in China: the moderating effect of classroom romantic context.

    PubMed

    Hou, Jinqin; Natsuaki, Misaki N; Zhang, Jianxin; Guo, Fei; Huang, Zheng; Wang, Mianbo; Chen, Zhiyan

    2013-02-01

    Theoretical and empirical research has shown that adolescent romantic relationships are associated with a wide range of developmental outcomes, including adverse consequences. The present study used a hierarchical linear model to examine the moderating effect of classroom romantic context on the association between adolescent romantic relationships and adjustment problems. Data were collected from 4776 Chinese adolescents across 106 classes and from 47 schools. The participants' ages ranged from 12 to 18 years. The results indicated that romantic involvement and breakups were associated with adolescents' depressive symptoms and delinquent behaviors. Moreover, the association between breakups and depressive symptoms depended on the classroom romantic context. Specifically, we found that adolescents who experienced breakups showed fewer depressive symptoms in classrooms where romantic relationships were common among classmates than in those classrooms where romantic relationships were rare among classmates. The theoretical implications of these findings are discussed. Copyright © 2012 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The effect of HWVP feed nitrate and carbonate content on glass redox adjustment

    SciTech Connect

    Wiemers, K.D.

    1996-03-01

    The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) is being designed for the Department of Energy to immobilize pretreated radioactive high-level waste (HLW) as glass for geological disposal. In the HWVP formic acid will be added to the pretreated HLW prior to vitrification. The formic acid is added to adjust the feed rheology and to provide a reductant which maintains the feed in the melter within an acceptable redox range. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of nitrate and carbonate concentrations in the pretreated neutralized current acid waste (NCAW) feed on the amount of formic acid required to obtain an acceptable glass redox state in the melter. The glass redox state was measured by the Fe{sup +2}/Fe{sup +3} ratio in the vitrified product.

  15. Separate and combined effects of time of day and verbal instruction on knee extensor neuromuscular adjustments.

    PubMed

    Jaafar, Hamdi; Girard, Olivier; Lajili, Hanene

    2017-09-05

    We examined time of day and verbal instruction separate and combined effects on knee extensor neuromuscular adjustments, with special reference to rapid muscle force production capacity. Ten healthy male participants performed four experimental trials in counterbalanced order: morning-"hard-and-fast" instruction, evening-"hard-and-fast" instruction, morning-"fast" instruction and evening-"fast" instruction. During each experimental trial, neuromuscular performance was assessed from the completion of six maximal isometric voluntary contractions (rest = 2 minutes) of the knee extensors with concomitant quadriceps surface EMG recordings. For each contraction, we determined maximal voluntary force (Fmax), maximal rate of force development (RFDmax) and associated maximal electromechanical delay (EMDmax) and maximal rate of muscle activation (RMAmax). Globally, oral temperature (+2.2%), Fmax (+4.9%) and accompanying median frequency (+6.6%) / mean power frequency (+6.0%) as well as RFDmax (+13.5%) and RMAmax (+15.5%) were significantly higher in the evening than morning (p < 0.05). Conversely, evening in reference to morning values were lower for EMDmax (-4.3%, p < 0.05). Compared to a "hard-and-fast" instruction, RFDmax (+30.6%) and corresponding RMS activity (+18.6%) were globally higher using a "fast" instruction (p < 0.05), irrespectively of the time of day. There was no significant interaction effect of time of day and verbal instruction on any parameter, except for EMDmax (p = 0.028). Despite diurnal variation in maximal or explosive force production of knee extensors and associated neuromuscular parameters, these adjustments occurred essentially independently of the verbal instruction provided.

  16. Adjustable hydrazine modulation of single-wall carbon nanotube network field effect transistors from p-type to n-type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Ruixuan; Xie, Dan; Xu, Jianlong; Sun, Yilin; Sun, MengXing; Zhang, Cheng; Li, Xian

    2016-11-01

    Single-wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) network field effect transistors (FETs), which show decent p-type electronic properties, have been fabricated. The use of hydrazine as an aqueous solution and a strong n-type dopant for the SWCNTs is demonstrated in this paper. The electrical properties are obviously tuned by hydrazine treatment at different concentrations on the surface of the SWCNT network FETs. The transport behavior of SWCNTs can be modulated from p-type to n-type, demonstrating the controllable and adjustable doping effect of hydrazine. With a higher concentration of hydrazine, more electrons can be transferred from the hydrazine molecules to the SWCNT network films, thus resulting in a change of threshold voltage, carrier mobility and on-current. By cleaning the device, the hydrazine doping effects vanish, which indicates that the doping effects of hydrazine are reversible. Through x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) characterization, the doping effects of hydrazine have also been studied.

  17. Positive Adjustment Among American Repatriated Prisoners of the Vietnam War: Modeling the Long-Term Effects of Captivity

    PubMed Central

    King, Daniel W.; King, Lynda A.; Park, Crystal L.; Lee, Lewina O.; Kaiser, Anica Pless; Spiro, Avron; Moore, Jeffrey L.; Kaloupek, Danny G.; Keane, Terence M.

    2015-01-01

    A longitudinal lifespan model of factors contributing to later-life positive adjustment was tested on 567 American repatriated prisoners from the Vietnam War. This model encompassed demographics at time of capture and attributes assessed after return to the U.S. (reports of torture and mental distress) and approximately 3 decades later (later-life stressors, perceived social support, positive appraisal of military experiences, and positive adjustment). Age and education at time of capture and physical torture were associated with repatriation mental distress, which directly predicted poorer adjustment 30 years later. Physical torture also had a salutary effect, enhancing later-life positive appraisals of military experiences. Later-life events were directly and indirectly (through concerns about retirement) associated with positive adjustment. Results suggest that the personal resources of older age and more education and early-life adverse experiences can have cascading effects over the lifespan to impact well-being in both positive and negative ways. PMID:26693100

  18. Positive Adjustment Among American Repatriated Prisoners of the Vietnam War: Modeling the Long-Term Effects of Captivity.

    PubMed

    King, Daniel W; King, Lynda A; Park, Crystal L; Lee, Lewina O; Kaiser, Anica Pless; Spiro, Avron; Moore, Jeffrey L; Kaloupek, Danny G; Keane, Terence M

    2015-11-01

    A longitudinal lifespan model of factors contributing to later-life positive adjustment was tested on 567 American repatriated prisoners from the Vietnam War. This model encompassed demographics at time of capture and attributes assessed after return to the U.S. (reports of torture and mental distress) and approximately 3 decades later (later-life stressors, perceived social support, positive appraisal of military experiences, and positive adjustment). Age and education at time of capture and physical torture were associated with repatriation mental distress, which directly predicted poorer adjustment 30 years later. Physical torture also had a salutary effect, enhancing later-life positive appraisals of military experiences. Later-life events were directly and indirectly (through concerns about retirement) associated with positive adjustment. Results suggest that the personal resources of older age and more education and early-life adverse experiences can have cascading effects over the lifespan to impact well-being in both positive and negative ways.

  19. Effects of reduced plantar cutaneous afferent feedback on locomotor adjustments in dynamic stability during perturbed walking.

    PubMed

    Höhne, Angela; Stark, Christian; Brüggemann, Gert-Peter; Arampatzis, Adamantios

    2011-08-11

    This study examined the effects of reduced plantar cutaneous afferent feedback on predictive and feedback adaptive locomotor adjustments in dynamic stability during perturbed walking. Twenty-two matched participants divided between an experimental-group and a control-group performed a gait protocol, which included surface alterations to one covered exchangeable gangway-element (hard/soft). In the experimental-group, cutaneous sensation in both foot soles was reduced to the level of sensory peripheral neuropathy by means of intradermal injections of an anaesthetic solution, without affecting foot proprioception or muscles. The gait protocol consisted of baseline trials on a uniformly hard surface and an adaptation phase consisting of nineteen trials incorporating a soft gangway-element, interspersed with three trials using the hard surface-element (2nd, 8th and 19th). Dynamic stability was assessed by quantifying the margin of stability (MS), which was calculated as the difference between the base of support (BS) and the extrapolated centre of mass (CM). The horizontal velocity of the CM and its vertical projection in the anterior-posterior direction and the eigenfrequency of an inverted pendulum determine the extrapolated-CM. Both groups increased the BS at the recovery step in response to the first unexpected perturbation. These feedback corrections were used more extensively in the experimental-group, which led to a higher MS compared to the control-group, i.e. a more stable body-position. In the adaptation phase the MS returned to baseline similarly in both groups. In the trial on the hard surface directly after the first perturbation, both groups increased the MS at touchdown of the disturbed leg compared to baseline trials, indicating rapid predictive adjustments irrespective of plantar cutaneous input. Our findings demonstrate that the locomotor adaptational potential does not decrease due to the loss of plantar sensation.

  20. Effects of pH adjustment and sodium ions on sour taste intensity of organic acids.

    PubMed

    Neta, E R D; Johanningsmeier, S D; Drake, M A; McFeeters, R F

    2009-01-01

    Protonated organic acid species have been shown to be the primary stimuli responsible for sour taste of organic acids. However, we have observed that sour taste may be modulated when the pH of acid solutions is raised using sodium hydroxide. Objectives were to evaluate the effect of pH adjustment on sour taste of equimolar protonated organic acid solutions and to investigate the potential roles of organic anions and sodium ions on sour taste perception. Despite equal concentrations of protonated acid species, sour taste intensity decreased significantly with increased pH for acetic, lactic, malic, and citric acids (P < 0.05). Total organic anion concentration did not explain the suppression of sour taste in solutions containing a blend of 3 organic acids with constant concentration of protonated organic acid species and hydrogen ions and variable organic anion concentrations (R(2)= 0.480, P = 0.12). Sour taste suppression in these solutions seemed to be more closely related to sodium ions added in the form of NaOH (R(2)= 0.861, P = 0.007). Addition of 20 mM NaCl to acid solutions resulted in significant suppression of sour taste (P = 0.016). However, sour taste did not decrease with further addition of NaCl up to 80 mM. Presence of sodium ions was clearly shown to decrease sour taste of organic acid solutions. Nonetheless, suppression of sour taste in pH adjusted single acid solutions was greater than what would be expected based on the sodium ion concentration alone, indicating an additional suppression mechanism may be involved.

  1. Feasibility and physiological effects of noninvasive neurally adjusted ventilatory assist in preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Gibu, Christopher K; Cheng, Phillip Y; Ward, Raymond J; Castro, Benjamin; Heldt, Gregory P

    2017-10-01

    BackgroundNoninvasive neurally adjusted ventilator assist (NIV-NAVA) was introduced to our clinical practice via a pilot and a randomized observational study to assess its safety, feasibility, and short-term physiological effects.MethodsThe pilot protocol applied NIV-NAVA to 11 infants on nasal CPAP, high-flow nasal cannula, or nasal intermittent mandatory ventilation (NIMV), in multiple 2- to 4-h periods of NIV-NAVA for comparison. This provided the necessary data to design a randomized, controlled observational crossover study in eight additional infants to compare the physiological effects of NIV-NAVA with NIMV during 2-h steady-state conditions. We recorded the peak inspiratory pressure (PIP), FiO2, Edi, oxygen saturations (histogram analysis), transcutaneous PCO2, and movement with an Acoustic Respiratory Movement Sensor.ResultsThe NAVA catheter was used for 81 patient days without complications. NIV-NAVA produced significant reductions (as a percentage of measurements on NIMV) in the following: PIP, 13%; FiO2, 13%; frequency of desaturations, 42%; length of desaturations, 32%; and phasic Edi, 19%. Infant movement and caretaker movement were reduced by 42% and 27%, respectively. Neural inspiratory time was increased by 39 ms on NIV-NAVA, possibly due to Head's paradoxical reflex.ConclusionNIV-NAVA was a safe, alternative mode of noninvasive support that produced beneficial short-term physiological effects, especially compared with NIMV.

  2. Improvement of anticipatory postural adjustments for balance control: effect of a single training session.

    PubMed

    Kanekar, Neeta; Aruin, Alexander S

    2015-04-01

    Humans use anticipatory and compensatory postural strategies to maintain and restore balance when perturbed. Inefficient generation and utilization of anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) is one of the reasons for postural instability. The aim of the study was to investigate the role of training in improvement of APAs and its effect on subsequent control of posture. Thirteen healthy young adults were exposed to predictable external perturbations before and after a single training session consisting of catches of a medicine ball thrown at the shoulder level. 3-D body kinematics, EMG activity of thirteen trunk and lower limb muscles, and ground reaction forces were recorded before and immediately after a single training session. Muscle onsets, EMG integrals, center of pressure (COP), and center of mass (COM) displacements were analyzed during the anticipatory and compensatory phases of postural control. The effect of a single training session was seen as significantly early muscle onsets and larger anticipatory COP displacements. As a result, significantly smaller peak COM displacements were observed after the perturbation indicating greater postural stability. The outcome of this study provides a background for examining the role of training in improvement of APAs and its effect on postural stability in individuals in need.

  3. Psychological Separation and Adjustment to University: Moderating Effects of Gender, Age, and Perceived Parenting Style.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beyers, Wim; Goossens, Luc

    2003-01-01

    Examined the association between psychological separation and adjustment to university among college students. Found that two dimensions of psychological separation--independence from parents and positive separation feelings--predicted better adjustment to college life. Independence from parents was moderated by grade, gender, and perceived…

  4. Parental Attachment, Separation-Individuation, and College Student Adjustment: A Structural Equation Analysis of Mediational Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattanah, Jonathan F.; Hancock, Gregory R.; Brand, Bethany L.

    2004-01-01

    Secure parental attachment and healthy levels of separation-individuation have been consistently linked to greater college student adjustment. The present study proposes that the relation between parental attachment and college adjustment is mediated by healthy separation-individuation. The authors gathered data on maternal and paternal…

  5. Parental Attachment, Separation-Individuation, and College Student Adjustment: A Structural Equation Analysis of Mediational Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattanah, Jonathan F.; Hancock, Gregory R.; Brand, Bethany L.

    2004-01-01

    Secure parental attachment and healthy levels of separation-individuation have been consistently linked to greater college student adjustment. The present study proposes that the relation between parental attachment and college adjustment is mediated by healthy separation-individuation. The authors gathered data on maternal and paternal…

  6. The Mary Poppins Effect: Relationships between Gifted Students' Self Concept and Adjustment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins-Friedman, Reva; Murphy, Douglas L.

    1988-01-01

    Actual/idealized and actual/public self-concept coherence was used as a measure of adjustment to being labeled gifted and subsequently participating in a gifted education program for 128 fourth through eighth graders. Results indicated overall better adjustment was significantly related to greater coherence between self- and ideal-self…

  7. The Effects of Coping Humour and Gender on College Adjustment in Turkish Freshmen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oguz-Duran, Nagihan; Yuksel, Asuman

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the roles of coping humour and gender in the college adjustment of Turkish freshmen. Considering greater happiness and academic achievement as predictors of initial college adjustment, data were gathered from a sample of 574 students using the Subjective Well-Being Scale (SWS) and the Coping Humour…

  8. Adjusting Teacher Salaries for the Cost of Living: The Effect on Salary Comparisons and Policy Conclusions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoddard, C.

    2005-01-01

    Teaching salaries are commonly adjusted for the cost of living, but this incorrectly accounts for welfare differences across states. Adjusting for area amenities and opportunities, however, produces more accurate salary comparisons. Amenities and opportunities can be measured by the wage premium other workers in a state face. The two methods…

  9. Improved protein-adsorption-resistant property of PES/SPC blend membrane by adjustment of coagulation bath composition.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ting; Wang, Yan-qiang; Su, Yan-lei; Jiang, Zhong-yi

    2005-12-30

    To improve surface protein-adsorption-resistant property of polyethersulfone (PES) membranes, soybean phosphatidylcholine (SPC) was added to PES casting solution. The blend membranes were prepared by a phase inversion method in a wet process. The surface of PES/SPC blend membranes was characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). XPS data revealed that the phosphorylcholine (PC) groups were concentrated at the surface by changing the composition of coagulation bath. Addition of N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) in coagulation bath could prolong coagulation time and facilitate the migration of SPC from polymer bulk to membrane surface. The PES/SPC blend membranes dramatically reduced BSA and fibrinogen adsorption compared to PES control membrane due to effective immobilization of PC groups at the surface of PES/SPC blend membranes.

  10. Adjustable structure transition and improved gases (H2, CO2) adsorption property of metal-organic framework MIL-53 by encapsulation of BNHx.

    PubMed

    Si, Xiaoliang; Zhang, Jian; Li, Fen; Jiao, Chengli; Wang, Shuang; Liu, Shuang; Li, Zhibao; Zhou, Huaiying; Sun, Lixian; Xu, Fen

    2012-03-21

    The structure transition of flexible MOF (MIL-53) can be adjusted by confinement of BNH(x) into MIL-53 channels. Hydrogen and carbon dioxide adsorption properties are also improved by incorporating BNH(x). At 77 K and 1 atm pressure hydrogen storage capacity can reach 2.0 wt% and CO(2) adsorption capacity is 4.5 mmol g(-1) at 273 K 1 atm.

  11. Effect of Race and Marital Status on Mothers’ Observed Parenting and Adolescent Adjustment in Youth With Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Young, Mackenzie T.; Gruhn, Meredith A.; Grey, Margaret; Delamater, Alan M.; Jaser, Sarah S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine demographic differences in parenting behaviors and adjustment in youth with type 1 diabetes. Methods Adolescents’ psychosocial adjustment was assessed via self-reports and parent reports, and clinical data were obtained from adolescents’ medical records. Mother–adolescent dyads (N = 93) engaged in a videotaped discussion task, which was coded for observed parenting behaviors. Results Single and non-White mothers exhibited significantly more overinvolved and less collaborative parenting behaviors. Higher levels of overinvolved parenting and lower levels of collaborative parenting were associated with poorer adolescent adjustment (i.e., higher levels of externalizing problems). Observed parenting was not significantly associated with glycemic control. There was an indirect effect of marital status and race/ethnicity on externalizing behaviors through parenting. Conclusions The current study highlights parenting as a potential target for interventions, especially in single and minority mothers, to improve adjustment in this population. PMID:25248850

  12. Perceived parenting style and adolescent adjustment: revisiting directions of effects and the role of parental knowledge.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Margaret; Stattin, Håkan; Ozdemir, Metin

    2012-11-01

    In the present research on parenting and adolescent behavior, there is much focus on reciprocal, bidirectional, and transactional processes, but parenting-style research still adheres to a unidirectional perspective in which parents affect youth behavior but are unaffected by it. In addition, many of the most cited parenting-style studies have used measures of parental behavioral control that are questionable because they include measures of parental knowledge. The goals of this study were to determine whether including knowledge items might have affected results of past studies and to test the unidirectional assumption. Data were from 978 adolescents participating in a longitudinal study. Parenting-style and adolescent adjustment measures at 2 time points were used, with a 2-year interval between time points. A variety of internal and external adjustment measures were used. Results showed that including knowledge items in measures of parental behavioral control elevated links between behavioral control and adjustment. Thus, the results and conclusions of many of the most highly cited studies are likely to have been stronger than if the measures had focused strictly on parental behavior. In addition, adolescent adjustment predicted changes in authoritative and neglectful parenting styles more robustly than these styles predicted changes in adolescent adjustment. Adolescent adjustment also predicted changes in authoritativeness more robustly than authoritativeness predicted changes in adjustment. Thus, parenting style cannot be seen as independent of the adolescent. In summary, both the theoretical premises of parenting-style research and the prior findings should be revisited.

  13. Does HPA-Axis Dysregulation Account for the Effects of Income on Effortful Control and Adjustment in Preschool Children?

    PubMed Central

    Lengua, Liliana J.; Zalewski, Maureen; Fisher, Phil; Moran, Lyndsey

    2014-01-01

    The effects of low income on children's adjustment might be accounted for by disruptions to hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA)-axis activity and to the development of effortful control. Using longitudinal data and a community sample of preschool-age children (N = 306, 36–39 months) and their mothers, recruited to over-represent low-income families, we explored the associations among diurnal cortisol levels and effortful control, and we tested a model in which diurnal cortisol and effortful control account for the effects of family income on child adjustment. Continuous indicators of morning cortisol level and diurnal slope, as well as dichotomous indicators reflecting low morning levels and flat diurnal slope, were examined as predictors of rank-order changes in two dimensions of effortful control, executive control and delay ability. Low income was related to a flat diurnal cortisol slope, and above the effects of family income, a flat diurnal cortisol slope predicted lower social competence. Low morning cortisol level predicted smaller gains in executive control and higher total adjustment problems. Further, delay ability predicted lower adjustment problems above the effects of income and diurnal cortisol levels. The results suggest that HPA-axis dysregulation and effortful control contribute additively to children's adjustment. PMID:25414597

  14. Does HPA-Axis Dysregulation Account for the Effects of Income on Effortful Control and Adjustment in Preschool Children?

    PubMed

    Lengua, Liliana J; Zalewski, Maureen; Fisher, Phil; Moran, Lyndsey

    2013-09-01

    The effects of low income on children's adjustment might be accounted for by disruptions to hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis activity and to the development of effortful control. Using longitudinal data and a community sample of preschool-age children (N = 306, 36-39 months) and their mothers, recruited to over-represent low-income families, we explored the associations among diurnal cortisol levels and effortful control, and we tested a model in which diurnal cortisol and effortful control account for the effects of family income on child adjustment. Continuous indicators of morning cortisol level and diurnal slope, as well as dichotomous indicators reflecting low morning levels and flat diurnal slope, were examined as predictors of rank-order changes in two dimensions of effortful control, executive control and delay ability. Low income was related to a flat diurnal cortisol slope, and above the effects of family income, a flat diurnal cortisol slope predicted lower social competence. Low morning cortisol level predicted smaller gains in executive control and higher total adjustment problems. Further, delay ability predicted lower adjustment problems above the effects of income and diurnal cortisol levels. The results suggest that HPA-axis dysregulation and effortful control contribute additively to children's adjustment.

  15. The Effects of Work Intensity on Adolescent Mental Health, Achievement, and Behavioral Adjustment: New Evidence from a Prospective Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mortimer, Jeylan T.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Examined effects of work intensity on 1,000 employed adolescents. Found that students who worked at higher intensity engaged in more alcohol use. Negative effects on mental health, academic achievement, and 2 other indicators of behavioral adjustment were not found, but seniors working at moderate intensity (fewer than 20 hours per week) had…

  16. The differential effects of forms and settings of exposure to violence on adolescents' adjustment.

    PubMed

    Ho, Man Yee; Cheung, Fanny M

    2010-07-01

    This study investigated the link between exposure to violence and psychosocial adjustment for 442 Chinese secondary school students in Form 1-3. The students completed an inventory assessing exposure to violence through witnessing and through direct victimization in different settings (community, school, and home). Multiple measures and informants (i.e., self-report, teacher report, and school report) were used to assess emotional, behavioral, and cognitive functioning in adolescents. The results of this study showed that overall exposure to violence was related to emotional and behavior problems. High rates of exposure to violence across multiple contexts were found in this sample. After controlling for the co-occurrence of risk factors (e.g., exposure to violence in other settings), both witnessing school violence and being victimized by domestic violence were associated with emotional problems, whereas being victimized by community violence was related to behavior problems. These results suggest that there are differential effects of risks associated with different forms and settings of exposure.

  17. The effects of physiological adjustments on the perceptual and acoustical characteristics of simulated laryngeal vocal tremor.

    PubMed

    Lester, Rosemary A; Story, Brad H

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if adjustments to the voice source [i.e., fundamental frequency (F0), degree of vocal fold adduction] or vocal tract filter (i.e., vocal tract shape for vowels) reduce the perception of simulated laryngeal vocal tremor and to determine if listener perception could be explained by characteristics of the acoustical modulations. This research was carried out using a computational model of speech production that allowed for precise control and manipulation of the glottal and vocal tract configurations. Forty-two healthy adults participated in a perceptual study involving pair-comparisons of the magnitude of "shakiness" with simulated samples of laryngeal vocal tremor. Results revealed that listeners perceived a higher magnitude of voice modulation when simulated samples had a higher mean F0, greater degree of vocal fold adduction, and vocal tract shape for /i/ vs /ɑ/. However, the effect of F0 was significant only when glottal noise was not present in the acoustic signal. Acoustical analyses were performed with the simulated samples to determine the features that affected listeners' judgments. Based on regression analyses, listeners' judgments were predicted to some extent by modulation information present in both low and high frequency bands.

  18. Social support and adjustment in patients with sarcoma: the moderator effect of the disease phase.

    PubMed

    Paredes, Tiago F; Canavarro, Maria C; Simões, Mário R

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the association between different types of perceived social support and adjustment of patients with sarcoma, and if these relationships would differ depending on the outcome measure and phase of disease. Forty-nine patients in the diagnostic phase, 43 in the treatment phase, and 59 in the follow-up phase were recruited. Participants completed the Medical Outcomes Study Social Support Survey Questionnaire, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and World Health Organization Quality of Life Assessment. Positive social interaction, emotional/informational, affectionate, and tangible supports were significantly associated with depression scores, but not with anxiety. Except for affectionate support, all the associations with overall quality of life were significant. A moderating effect of the phase of the disease was also found in the association between tangible support and anxiety, and between affectionate support, depression, and overall quality of life. In clinical practice it is important to implement phase-specific psychosocial interventions and to take into consideration other factors beyond perceived social support while handling patients with sarcoma.

  19. The effect of Parkinson's disease and levodopa on adaptation of anticipatory postural adjustments.

    PubMed

    Hall, L M; Brauer, S G; Horak, F; Hodges, P W

    2013-10-10

    Postural support alters anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs). Efficient adaptation to changes in postural support in reactive and centrally initiated postural synergies is impaired in Parkinson's disease (PD). This study examined whether APAs are affected differently by familiar and novel supports in people with PD, ON and OFF levodopa. The effect of PD and levodopa on the ability to immediately adapt APAs to changes in support and refine with practice was also investigated. Fourteen people with PD and 14 healthy control participants performed 20 single rapid leg lift tasks in four support conditions: unsupported, bilateral handgrip (familiar), bite plate (novel) and a combined handgrip+bite plate condition. APAs, identified from force plate data, were characterized by an increase in the vertical ground reaction force under the lifted leg as a result of a shift of weight toward the stance limb. Results showed the ability to incorporate familiar and novel external supports into the postural strategy was preserved in PD. Controls and PD patients in the OFF state further refined the postural strategy with practice as evidenced by changes in amplitude of vertical ground reaction forces and forces applied to support apparatus within conditions between the initial and final trials. In the ON state, people with PD failed to refine the use of postural supports in any condition. The results suggest that immediate postural adaptation is intact in people with PD and unaffected by levodopa administration but the ability to refine postural adaptations with task experience is compromised by dopamine therapy.

  20. The effects of physiological adjustments on the perceptual and acoustical characteristics of simulated laryngeal vocal tremor

    PubMed Central

    Lester, Rosemary A.; Story, Brad H.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if adjustments to the voice source [i.e., fundamental frequency (F0), degree of vocal fold adduction] or vocal tract filter (i.e., vocal tract shape for vowels) reduce the perception of simulated laryngeal vocal tremor and to determine if listener perception could be explained by characteristics of the acoustical modulations. This research was carried out using a computational model of speech production that allowed for precise control and manipulation of the glottal and vocal tract configurations. Forty-two healthy adults participated in a perceptual study involving pair-comparisons of the magnitude of “shakiness” with simulated samples of laryngeal vocal tremor. Results revealed that listeners perceived a higher magnitude of voice modulation when simulated samples had a higher mean F0, greater degree of vocal fold adduction, and vocal tract shape for /i/ vs /ɑ/. However, the effect of F0 was significant only when glottal noise was not present in the acoustic signal. Acoustical analyses were performed with the simulated samples to determine the features that affected listeners' judgments. Based on regression analyses, listeners' judgments were predicted to some extent by modulation information present in both low and high frequency bands. PMID:26328711

  1. Coping resources, perceived stress and adjustment to divorce among Israeli women: assessing effects.

    PubMed

    Kulik, Liat; Heine-Cohen, Etti

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine how socioeconomic resources (level of education and evaluation of economic situation), cognitive resources (sense of coherence), emotional resources (the quality of relationship with the ex-spouse and the existence of a new romantic relationship), and perceived stress contribute to explaining the adjustment of Israeli women to divorce. Adjustment to divorce was examined along four dimensions: self-acceptance of divorce, disentanglement of the love relationship, symptoms of grief, and self-evaluation. The research sample consisted of 114 divorced Jewish women, all of whom had retained custody of their children. Among the resources examined, the contribution of sense of coherence to explaining adjustment to divorce was particularly significant, followed by the existence of a new romantic relationship. Furthermore, resources were found to interact with perceived stress in explaining women's adjustment to divorce.

  2. Efficient and Cost-Effective Use of Adjustable Canopy Hoods in a Chemistry Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothchild, Robert

    1988-01-01

    Suggests the use of small canopy hoods that provide flexibility of vertical and horizontal adjustment over the lab bench as a replacement for permanent hoods. Includes many safety related instances where canopy hoods should be used. (MVL)

  3. Tetraphenylcyclopentadiene Derivatives: Aggregation-Induced Emission, Adjustable Luminescence from Green to Blue, Efficient Undoped OLED Performance and Good Mechanochromic Properties.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Zhijun; Li, Le; Wang, Can; Xie, Yujun; Hu, Quanyuan; Peng, Qian; Ye, Shanghui; Li, Qianqian; Li, Zhen

    2016-12-01

    Silole derivatives, the first reported and famous AIEgens, are a series of Si-containing conjugated rings with the σ*-π* conjugation, and this unique electronic structure imparts them high electron affinity and fast electron mobility, but not ideal blue luminogens due to their relatively long conjugation length. By replacing the Si atom with the C one, six new AIEgens without the σ*-π* conjugation effect are successfully synthesized based on a tetraphenylcyclopentadiene core. In addition to the sky-blue emission (λEL = 492 nm) with Lmax , ηC,max , and ηP,max up to 24 096 cd m(-2) , 6.80 cd A(-1) , and 4.07 lm W(-1) , respectively, the careful control of the conjugation degree by changing the linkage mode, results in the blue one (λEL = 440 nm) with relatively good performance (Lmax : 8721 cd m(-2) and ηC,max : 3.40 cd A(-1) ), indicating that the replacement of the Si atom by C one is an alternative design strategy to yield blue even deep-blue AIEgens with good device performance. Meanwhile, their reversible mechanochromic properties are realized with apparent fluorescence changes between deep-blue and green emissive colors, offering them additional promising applications in optoelectronic devices. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Effectiveness of Adjustable Cervical Orthoses and Modular Cervical Thoracic Orthoses in Restricting Neck Motion: A Comparative In vivo Biomechanical Study.

    PubMed

    Gao, Fan

    2015-10-01

    In vivo biomechanical study. To compare the effectiveness of adjustable cervical orthoses (COs) and modular cervical thoracic orthoses (CTOs) with standard devices in restricting neck motion in all 3 anatomical planes. No literature is available regarding the effectiveness of adjustable COs and modular CTOs in restricting neck motion, and existing in vivo evaluation methodologies lack consistency and objectivity. The effectiveness of adjustable COs (Vista collar and Vista multipost collar) and modular CTOs (Vista TS, Vista TS with multipost, and Vista TS4 with multipost) in comparison with standard devices (Aspen collar [AC] and Aspen cervical thoracic orthosis) in restricting neck motion across 3 anatomical planes was studied in vivo in 27 healthy participants across prescribed loading levels ranging from 0.5 to 2.0 N·m. Neck range of motion allowed was compared between devices using Tukey post hoc test. The compliance of devices in restricting flexion and extension was obtained via a linear regression model. When compared with modular CTOs, Aspen CTO was significantly more effective at motion restriction in both sagittal and frontal planes under loading level higher than 1.5 N·m. Modular CTOs outperformed adjustable COs in most of the cases but were fairly comparable with the standard CO (i.e., AC). Adjustable COs were just as effective as standard COs. The compliances of devices in restricting neck flexion ranked in ascending order were 0.83 (Aspen CTO), 1.53 (Vista TS with multipost), 1.60 (Vista TS4 with multipost), 1.77 (Vista multipost collar), 1.78 (AC), 1.99 (Vista TS), and 2.43 (Vista Collar) degrees per N·m. Overall, modular CTOs had poorer performance in neck restriction than their standard counterpart (ACTO), whereas adjustable COs showed overall comparable performance to their standard counterpart (AC). The outcomes may assist clinicians in selecting appropriate devices. N/A.

  5. The effects of hysterectomy on body image, self-esteem, and marital adjustment in Turkish women with gynecologic cancer.

    PubMed

    Pinar, Gul; Okdem, Seyda; Dogan, Nevin; Buyukgonenc, Lale; Ayhan, Ali

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the differences in the effect of hysterectomy on body image, self-esteem, and marital adjustment in Turkish women with gynecologic cancer based on specific independent variables, including age, education, employment, having or not having children, and income. This cross-sectional study compared a group of women who underwent a hysterectomy (n = 100) with a healthy control group (n = 100). The study findings indicate that women who had a hysterectomy were found in worse conditions in terms of body image, self-esteem, and dyadic adjustment compared to healthy women. In terms of dyadic adjustment and body image among women who had undergone a hysterectomy, those with lower levels of income and education were found in poorer conditions. The study's findings show that hysterectomies have negative effects on body image, self-esteem, and dyadic adjustment in women affected by gynecologic cancer. Nursing assessment of self-esteem and marital adjustment indicators and implementation of strategies to increase self-confidence and self-esteem are needed for high-risk women.

  6. An Adjustment for the Effects of Observation Time on Mean Temperature and Degree-Day Computations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrd, Gregory P.

    1985-08-01

    Biases in mean temperatures due to differing times of daily maximum and minimum temperature observation cause problems in evaluation of temporal and spatial anomalies in temperature and derived degree day values. These biases were examined using six years (1973-78) of digitized hourly temperature data taken at Oneonta, New York. An annual mean temperature difference of 2.5°F is noted between means computed with the 0600 LST and 1500 IST observation times, with individual monthly differences as high as 4.4°F. Maximum seasonal degree day biases were 743 heating degree days (HDD) (10.2%), 169 cooling degree days (CDD) (43.3%), and 299 growing degree days (GDD) (14.3%).A modified version of the Blackburn method for adjusting mean temperature data for observation time bias is presented. The modified method involves adjusting data to a `true' mean obtained by averaging all hourly temperature values for the 24-hour period ending at midnight, rather than adjusting to the midnight standard observational mean obtained by averaging the maximum and minimum values over the same period. The adjustments are applied to mean temperatures from stations with different observation times in the region around Oneonta, resulting in spatial analysis fields which are believed to be more representative than those using the published data. This suggests that application of such an adjustment scheme results in a more homogeneous climatological data set.

  7. The Modifier Effect and Property Mutability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hampton, James A.; Passanisi, Alessia; Jonsson, Martin L.

    2011-01-01

    The modifier effect is the reduction in perceived likelihood of a generic property sentence, when the head noun is modified. We investigated the prediction that the modifier effect would be stronger for mutable than for central properties, without finding evidence for this predicted interaction over the course of five experiments. However…

  8. Effect of a non-adjustable oral appliance on upper airway morphology in obstructive sleep apnoea.

    PubMed

    Sam, K; Lam, B; Ooi, C G; Cooke, M; Ip, M S

    2006-05-01

    To evaluate the effect of oral appliance (OA) on upper airway morphology and its relationship with treatment response in subjects with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). Symptomatic OSA subjects were recruited. Non-adjustable OA was custom made. Variables examined at baseline and while wearing the device at 2 months included polysomnographic data, computed tomographic measurements of upper airway cross sectional area at level of velopharynx (VA) and hypopharynx (HA), upper airway volume, and cephalometric parameters. Treatment outcome was based on post-treatment apnoea-hypopnoea index (AHI). Forty patients were recruited and 23 (7 women) completed the study. They were middle-aged (49, 40-58 years) (median, interquartile range) and overweight (BMI 26, 23.3-29.5 kg/m2), with moderate OSA (AHI 26.4, 14.1-36). The overall post treatment AHI was 8.4 (2.4-12.5), with 14 (61%) patients showing good response (AHI<10), and the other 9 patients showing moderate response (>50% reduction in AHI but still 10). OA decreased the cross-sectional area of the HA (P=0.046), showed a trend of decreasing the ratio of cross-sectional area of the HA to cross-sectional area of the VA (P=0.053) and significantly increased the overall upper airway volume (P=0.006, n=11). No significant relationship between upper airway parameters and treatment outcome was identified. OA altered upper airway morphometry towards a profile consistent with decreased propensity to collapse, which may thus have contributed to improvement of OSA.

  9. Effectiveness of pharmacist dosing adjustment for critically ill patients receiving continuous renal replacement therapy: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Sai-Ping; Zhu, Zheng-Yi; Wu, Xiao-Liang; Lu, Xiao-Yang; Zhang, Xing-Guo; Wu, Bao-Hua

    2014-01-01

    The impact of continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) on drug removal is complicated; pharmacist dosing adjustment for these patients may be advantageous. This study aims to describe the development and implementation of pharmacist dosing adjustment for critically ill patients receiving CRRT and to examine the effectiveness of pharmacist interventions. A comparative study was conducted in an intensive care unit (ICU) of a university-affiliated hospital. Patients receiving CRRT in the intervention group received specialized pharmacy dosing service from pharmacists, whereas patients in the no-intervention group received routine medical care without pharmacist involvement. The two phases were compared to evaluate the outcome of pharmacist dosing adjustment. The pharmacist carried out 233 dosing adjustment recommendations for patients receiving CRRT, and 212 (90.98%) of the recommendations were well accepted by the physicians. Changes in CRRT-related variables (n=144, 61.81%) were the most common risk factors for dosing errors, whereas antibiotics (n=168, 72.10%) were the medications most commonly associated with dosing errors. Pharmacist dosing adjustment resulted in a US$2,345.98 ICU cost savings per critically ill patient receiving CRRT. Suspected adverse drug events in the intervention group were significantly lower than those in the preintervention group (35 in 27 patients versus [vs] 18 in eleven patients, P<0.001). However, there was no significant difference between length of ICU stay and mortality after pharmacist dosing adjustment, which was 8.93 days vs 7.68 days (P=0.26) and 30.10% vs 27.36% (P=0.39), respectively. Pharmacist dosing adjustment for patients receiving CRRT was well accepted by physicians, and was related with lower adverse drug event rates and ICU cost savings. These results may support the development of strategies to include a pharmacist in the multidisciplinary ICU team.

  10. Effectiveness of pharmacist dosing adjustment for critically ill patients receiving continuous renal replacement therapy: a comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Sai-Ping; Zhu, Zheng-Yi; Wu, Xiao-Liang; Lu, Xiao-Yang; Zhang, Xing-Guo; Wu, Bao-Hua

    2014-01-01

    Background The impact of continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) on drug removal is complicated; pharmacist dosing adjustment for these patients may be advantageous. This study aims to describe the development and implementation of pharmacist dosing adjustment for critically ill patients receiving CRRT and to examine the effectiveness of pharmacist interventions. Methods A comparative study was conducted in an intensive care unit (ICU) of a university-affiliated hospital. Patients receiving CRRT in the intervention group received specialized pharmacy dosing service from pharmacists, whereas patients in the no-intervention group received routine medical care without pharmacist involvement. The two phases were compared to evaluate the outcome of pharmacist dosing adjustment. Results The pharmacist carried out 233 dosing adjustment recommendations for patients receiving CRRT, and 212 (90.98%) of the recommendations were well accepted by the physicians. Changes in CRRT-related variables (n=144, 61.81%) were the most common risk factors for dosing errors, whereas antibiotics (n=168, 72.10%) were the medications most commonly associated with dosing errors. Pharmacist dosing adjustment resulted in a US$2,345.98 ICU cost savings per critically ill patient receiving CRRT. Suspected adverse drug events in the intervention group were significantly lower than those in the preintervention group (35 in 27 patients versus [vs] 18 in eleven patients, P<0.001). However, there was no significant difference between length of ICU stay and mortality after pharmacist dosing adjustment, which was 8.93 days vs 7.68 days (P=0.26) and 30.10% vs 27.36% (P=0.39), respectively. Conclusion Pharmacist dosing adjustment for patients receiving CRRT was well accepted by physicians, and was related with lower adverse drug event rates and ICU cost savings. These results may support the development of strategies to include a pharmacist in the multidisciplinary ICU team. PMID:24940066

  11. Shyness and School Adjustment among Chinese Preschool Children: Examining the Moderating Effect of Gender and Teacher-Child Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, YunPeng; Wu, JianFen; Chen, YingMin; Han, Lei; Han, PiGuo; Wang, Peng; Gao, Fengqiang

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: The current study examined the moderating effects of gender and teacher-child relationship on the association between shyness and school adjustment (school liking and avoidance, cooperative and independent participation). The sample consisted of 524 preschool students from 3 cities of Shandong province in northern China. Mothers…

  12. The Effects of Occupational Work Adjustment on Factors Leading to High School Drop Out in Rural Northwest Ohio.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dietrich, Angela

    The effect of four Occupational Work Adjustment (OWA) programs on risk factors leading to students dropping out of high school was assessed. Data were gathered from four OWA teachers in high schools in Northwest Ohio; information was provided for 27 individual students and 2 groups of 28 students each for the 1992-93 school year. The following…

  13. Previous International Experience, Cross-Cultural Training, and Expatriates' Cross-Cultural Adjustment: Effects of Cultural Intelligence and Goal Orientation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koo Moon, Hyoung; Kwon Choi, Byoung; Shik Jung, Jae

    2012-01-01

    Although various antecedents of expatriates' cross-cultural adjustment have been addressed, previous international experience, predeparture cross-cultural training, and cultural intelligence (CQ) have been most frequently examined. However, there are few attempts that explore the effects of these antecedents simultaneously or consider the possible…

  14. Previous International Experience, Cross-Cultural Training, and Expatriates' Cross-Cultural Adjustment: Effects of Cultural Intelligence and Goal Orientation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koo Moon, Hyoung; Kwon Choi, Byoung; Shik Jung, Jae

    2012-01-01

    Although various antecedents of expatriates' cross-cultural adjustment have been addressed, previous international experience, predeparture cross-cultural training, and cultural intelligence (CQ) have been most frequently examined. However, there are few attempts that explore the effects of these antecedents simultaneously or consider the possible…

  15. A Meta-Analysis of the Effects of Cross-Cultural Training on Expatriate Performance and Adjustment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Mark A.; Robie, Chet

    2001-01-01

    Meta-analysis of 16 studies of expatriate managers' adjustment and 25 of expatriate job performance showed that mean effect sizes were lower than in previous analyses. Cautions about basing cross-cultural training on results of such studies were expressed. (Contains 68 references.) (SK)

  16. The Effectiveness of the Strength-Centered Career Adjustment Model for Dual-Career Women in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Yu-Chen; Tien, Hsiu-Lan Shelley

    2011-01-01

    The authors investigated the effectiveness of a Strength-Centered Career Adjustment Model for dual-career women (N = 28). Fourteen women in the experimental group received strength-centered career counseling for 6 to 8 sessions; the 14 women in the control group received test services in 1 to 2 sessions. All participants completed the Personal…

  17. The Moderating Effect of Machiavellianism on the Relationships between Bullying, Peer Acceptance, and School Adjustment in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wei, Hsi-Sheng; Chen, Ji-Kang

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the moderating effect of Machiavellianism on the relationships between bullying, peer acceptance, and school adjustment (rule-following behavior and academic performance) among 216 middle school 7th-graders in Taipei, Taiwan. The participants were divided into two groups according to their Machiavellianism. Multi-group path…

  18. Shyness and School Adjustment among Chinese Preschool Children: Examining the Moderating Effect of Gender and Teacher-Child Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, YunPeng; Wu, JianFen; Chen, YingMin; Han, Lei; Han, PiGuo; Wang, Peng; Gao, Fengqiang

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: The current study examined the moderating effects of gender and teacher-child relationship on the association between shyness and school adjustment (school liking and avoidance, cooperative and independent participation). The sample consisted of 524 preschool students from 3 cities of Shandong province in northern China. Mothers…

  19. Does HPA-Axis Dysregulation Account for the Effects of Income on Effortful Control and Adjustment in Preschool Children?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lengua, Liliana J.; Zalewski, Maureen; Fisher, Phil; Moran, Lyndsey

    2013-01-01

    The effects of low income on children's adjustment might be accounted for by disruptions to hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis activity and to the development of effortful control. Using longitudinal data and a community sample of preschool-age children (N?=?306, 36-39?months) and their mothers, recruited to over-represent low-income…

  20. The Effects of Gratitude Journaling on Turkish First Year College Students' College Adjustment, Life Satisfaction and Positive Affect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isik, Serife; Ergüner-Tekinalp, Bengü

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the effects of gratitude journaling on first-year college students' adjustment, life satisfaction, and positive affect. Students who scored high (i.e., scores between 35 and 56) on the Perceived Stress Scale (Cohen et al. in "Journal of Health and Social Behavior," 24, 385-396, 1983) and low (i.e., scores between 48…

  1. The Effectiveness of the Strength-Centered Career Adjustment Model for Dual-Career Women in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Yu-Chen; Tien, Hsiu-Lan Shelley

    2011-01-01

    The authors investigated the effectiveness of a Strength-Centered Career Adjustment Model for dual-career women (N = 28). Fourteen women in the experimental group received strength-centered career counseling for 6 to 8 sessions; the 14 women in the control group received test services in 1 to 2 sessions. All participants completed the Personal…

  2. Does HPA-Axis Dysregulation Account for the Effects of Income on Effortful Control and Adjustment in Preschool Children?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lengua, Liliana J.; Zalewski, Maureen; Fisher, Phil; Moran, Lyndsey

    2013-01-01

    The effects of low income on children's adjustment might be accounted for by disruptions to hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis activity and to the development of effortful control. Using longitudinal data and a community sample of preschool-age children (N?=?306, 36-39?months) and their mothers, recruited to over-represent low-income…

  3. Exploring the Effects of Social Networking on Students' Perceptions of Social Connectedness, Adjustment, Academic Engagement, and Institutional Commitment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Michele J.; Childress, Janice E.; Trujillo, Daniel J.

    2010-01-01

    Social networking is a tool being explored by many institutions as a means of connecting to and communicating with students. This study explores whether or not students' use of social networking services (SNSs) has significant effects on social connectedness, college adjustment, academic engagement, and institutional commitment. Students' use of…

  4. 25 CFR 1000.104 - Can funding amounts negotiated in an AFA be adjusted during the year it is in effect?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Can funding amounts negotiated in an AFA be adjusted... Affairs Programs Determining Afa Amounts § 1000.104 Can funding amounts negotiated in an AFA be adjusted during the year it is in effect? Yes, funding amounts negotiated in an AFA may be adjusted under...

  5. 25 CFR 1000.104 - Can funding amounts negotiated in an AFA be adjusted during the year it is in effect?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Can funding amounts negotiated in an AFA be adjusted... Affairs Programs Determining Afa Amounts § 1000.104 Can funding amounts negotiated in an AFA be adjusted during the year it is in effect? Yes, funding amounts negotiated in an AFA may be adjusted under...

  6. 25 CFR 1000.104 - Can funding amounts negotiated in an AFA be adjusted during the year it is in effect?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Can funding amounts negotiated in an AFA be adjusted... Affairs Programs Determining Afa Amounts § 1000.104 Can funding amounts negotiated in an AFA be adjusted during the year it is in effect? Yes, funding amounts negotiated in an AFA may be adjusted under...

  7. 25 CFR 1000.104 - Can funding amounts negotiated in an AFA be adjusted during the year it is in effect?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Can funding amounts negotiated in an AFA be adjusted... Affairs Programs Determining Afa Amounts § 1000.104 Can funding amounts negotiated in an AFA be adjusted during the year it is in effect? Yes, funding amounts negotiated in an AFA may be adjusted under...

  8. Effect of Facet Displacement on Radiation Field and Its Application for Panel Adjustment of Large Reflector Antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei; Lian, Peiyuan; Zhang, Shuxin; Xiang, Binbin; Xu, Qian

    2017-05-01

    Large reflector antennas are widely used in radars, satellite communication, radio astronomy, and so on. The rapid developments in these fields have created demands for development of better performance and higher surface accuracy. However, low accuracy and low efficiency are the common disadvantages for traditional panel alignment and adjustment. In order to improve the surface accuracy of large reflector antenna, a new method is presented to determinate panel adjustment values from far field pattern. Based on the method of Physical Optics (PO), the effect of panel facet displacement on radiation field value is derived. Then the linear system is constructed between panel adjustment vector and far field pattern. Using the method of Singular Value Decomposition (SVD), the adjustment value for all panel adjustors are obtained by solving the linear equations. An experiment is conducted on a 3.7 m reflector antenna with 12 segmented panels. The results of simulation and test are similar, which shows that the presented method is feasible. Moreover, the discussion about validation shows that the method can be used for many cases of reflector shape. The proposed research provides the instruction to adjust surface panels efficiently and accurately.

  9. Hispanic Americans Baseline Alcohol Survey (HABLAS): Effects of Container Size Adjustments on Estimates of Alcohol Consumption Across Hispanic National Groups

    PubMed Central

    Mills, Britain A.; Harris, T. Robert

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study was conducted to examine discrepancies in alcohol consumption estimates between a self-reported standard quantity—frequency measure and an adjusted version based on respondents’ typically used container size. Method: Using a multistage cluster sample design, 5,224 Hispanic individuals 18 years of age and older were selected from the household population in five metropolitan areas of the United States: Miami, New York, Philadelphia, Houston, and Los Angeles. The survey-weighted response rate was 76%. Personal interviews lasting an average of 1 hour were conducted in respondents’ homes in either English or Spanish. Results: The overall effect of container adjustment was to increase estimates of ethanol consumption by 68% for women (range across Hispanic groups: 17%–99%) and 30% for men (range: 14%–42%). With the exception of female Cuban American, Mexican American, and South/Central American beer drinkers and male Cuban American wine drinkers, all percentage differences between unadjusted and container-adjusted estimates were positive. Second, container adjustments produced the largest change for volume of distilled spirits, followed by wine and beer. Container size adjustments generally produced larger percentage increases in consumption estimates for the higher volume drinkers, especially the upper tertile of female drinkers. Conclusions: Self-reported alcohol consumption based on standard drinks underreports consumption when compared with reports based on the amount of alcohol poured into commonly used containers. PMID:22152669

  10. Hispanic Americans Baseline Alcohol Survey (HABLAS): effects of container size adjustments on estimates of alcohol consumption across Hispanic national groups.

    PubMed

    Caetano, Raul; Mills, Britain A; Harris, T Robert

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine discrepancies in alcohol consumption estimates between a self-reported standard quantity-frequency measure and an adjusted version based on respondents' typically used container size. Using a multistage cluster sample design, 5,224 Hispanic individuals 18 years of age and older were selected from the household population in five metropolitan areas of the United States: Miami, New York, Philadelphia, Houston, and Los Angeles. The survey-weighted response rate was 76%. Personal interviews lasting an average of 1 hour were conducted in respondents' homes in either English or Spanish. The overall effect of container adjustment was to increase estimates of ethanol consumption by 68% for women (range across Hispanic groups: 17%-99%) and 30% for men (range: 14%-42%). With the exception of female Cuban American, Mexican American, and South/Central American beer drinkers and male Cuban American wine drinkers, all percentage differences between unadjusted and container-adjusted estimates were positive. Second, container adjustments produced the largest change for volume of distilled spirits, followed by wine and beer. Container size adjustments generally produced larger percentage increases in consumption estimates for the higher volume drinkers, especially the upper tertile of female drinkers. Self-reported alcohol consumption based on standard drinks underreports consumption when compared with reports based on the amount of alcohol poured into commonly used containers.

  11. The Effectiveness of Emotionally Focused Couples Therapy on Sexual Satisfaction and Marital Adjustment of Infertile Couples with Marital Conflicts.

    PubMed

    Soleimani, Ali Akbar; Najafi, Maryam; Ahmadi, Khodabakhsh; Javidi, Nasirudin; Hoseini Kamkar, Elnaz; Mahboubi, Mohamad

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to determine the efficacy of emotionally focused couples therapy (EFT-C) on enhancement of marital adjustment in infertile couples. This was a semi-experimental study with a pre- and post-test design. We selected 30 infertile couples (60 subjects) by purposive sampling. Couples were randomly assigned to two groups, sample and control. Each group consisted of 15 couples who had marital maladjustment and low sexual satisfaction. Couples answered the marital adjustment and sexual satisfaction questionnaires at baseline after which the sample group received 10 sessions of EFT-C. Results of pre-test and post-test showed that EFT-C significantly impacted marital adjustment and sexual satisfaction. EFT-C had a significant effect on enhancement of satisfaction, cohesion and affectional expression. This approach impacted physical and emotional sexual satisfaction of infertile couples.

  12. The Effectiveness of Emotionally Focused Couples Therapy on Sexual Satisfaction and Marital Adjustment of Infertile Couples with Marital Conflicts

    PubMed Central

    Soleimani, Ali Akbar; Najafi, Maryam; Ahmadi, Khodabakhsh; Javidi, Nasirudin; Hoseini Kamkar, Elnaz; Mahboubi, Mohamad

    2015-01-01

    Background The purpose of this investigation is to determine the efficacy of emotionally focused couples therapy (EFT-C) on enhancement of marital adjustment in infertile couples. Materials and Methods This was a semi-experimental study with a pre- and post-test design. We selected 30 infertile couples (60 subjects) by purposive sampling. Couples were randomly assigned to two groups, sample and control. Each group consisted of 15 couples who had marital maladjustment and low sexual satisfaction. Couples answered the marital adjustment and sexual satisfaction questionnaires at baseline after which the sample group received 10 sessions of EFT-C. Results Results of pre-test and post-test showed that EFT-C significantly impacted marital adjustment and sexual satisfaction. Conclusion EFT-C had a significant effect on enhancement of satisfaction, cohesion and affectional expression. This approach impacted physical and emotional sexual satisfaction of infertile couples. PMID:26644864

  13. Effects of Individual Characteristics on Expatriates' Adjustment and Job Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhatti, Muhammad Awais; Kaur, Sharan; Battour, Mohamed Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Researchers have been focusing on the predictors of expatriates' adjustment and job performance at different levels (individual level, organizational level and societal level), but still some of the predictors have been ignored or unclear in the expatriate literature. The purpose of this paper is to develop a comprehensive framework…

  14. EFFECTS OF APTITUDE-SCORE ADJUSTMENTS BY AGE CURVES ON PREDICTION OF JOB PERFORMANCE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DROEGE, ROBERT C.

    THIS STUDY WAS CONDUCTED BY THE UNITED STATES EMPLOYMENT SERVICE TO EXAMINE ONE ASPECT OF THE INTERRELATIONSHIP OF APTITUDES, JOB PERFORMANCE, AND AGE -- SPECIFICALLY, TO DETERMINE THE RELATIVE VALIDITY OF UNADJUSTED AND AGE-ADJUSTED GENERAL APTITUDE TEST BATTERY (GATB) APTITUDE SCORES FOR PREDICTING OCCUPATIONAL SUCCESS. ELEVEN LONGITUDINAL…

  15. Location Memory in the Real World: Category Adjustment Effects in 3-Dimensional Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holden, Mark P.; Newcombe, Nora S.; Shipley, Thomas F.

    2013-01-01

    The ability to remember spatial locations is critical to human functioning, both in an evolutionary and in an everyday sense. Yet spatial memories and judgments often show systematic errors and biases. Bias has been explained by models such as the Category Adjustment model (CAM), in which fine-grained and categorical information about locations…

  16. The Effects of Divorce and Parental Conflict on Children's Adjustment: A Prospective Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Daniel

    Replicating the methodology used by Block, Block, and Gjerde (1986), a prospective, longitudinal examination was made of relations between divorce and children's adjustment. Data from the New York Longitudinal Study (NYLS), originally collected by Thomas, Chess, and Birch (1963, 1968, 1977, 1983, 1984) was analyzed. The NYLS assessed children's…

  17. Effects of Social Capital in Multiple Contexts on the Psychosocial Adjustment of Chinese Migrant Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Qiaobing

    2017-01-01

    Drawing upon a sample of 772 migrant children and their parents in Shanghai, China, this study used an ecological framework to investigate how social capital embedded in a range of social contexts (i.e., family, school, peer, and community) influenced the psychosocial adjustment of Chinese migrant children. Using structural equation modeling with…

  18. School Climate Support for Behavioral and Psychological Adjustment: Testing the Mediating Effect of Social Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Ming-Te

    2009-01-01

    The present study used an ecological framework to examine the relationships among adolescents' perceptions of school climate, social competence, and behavioral and psychological adjustment in the middle school years. This study improved upon prior studies by using "structural equation modeling" to investigate the hypothesized mediating…

  19. Effects of Individual Characteristics on Expatriates' Adjustment and Job Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhatti, Muhammad Awais; Kaur, Sharan; Battour, Mohamed Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Researchers have been focusing on the predictors of expatriates' adjustment and job performance at different levels (individual level, organizational level and societal level), but still some of the predictors have been ignored or unclear in the expatriate literature. The purpose of this paper is to develop a comprehensive framework…

  20. Location Memory in the Real World: Category Adjustment Effects in 3-Dimensional Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holden, Mark P.; Newcombe, Nora S.; Shipley, Thomas F.

    2013-01-01

    The ability to remember spatial locations is critical to human functioning, both in an evolutionary and in an everyday sense. Yet spatial memories and judgments often show systematic errors and biases. Bias has been explained by models such as the Category Adjustment model (CAM), in which fine-grained and categorical information about locations…

  1. Spiritual Well-Being and Dyadic Adjustment: Mediator Effects for Family Strengths

    PubMed Central

    Ghaffari, Majid

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The aim of the present study was to test a structural model of hypothesized relationships between spiritual well-being, intervening variables of personal worth of self and others, commitment to relationship stability, commitment to relationship growth, positive interaction/appreciation, communication/conflict resolution, time spent together, and, the dependent variable, dyadic adjustment. Materials and Methods Two hundred and sixty eight (171 females and 97 males) married parent subjects were selected by convenience sampling from three universities in Mazandaran, Iran, to take part in this study. They were all volunteers and were not paid and their age range was 23 to 47 (31.07 ± 4.37 years). All participants were asked to complete the spiritual well-being scale (SWBS), family strengths scale (FSS) and revised dyadic adjustment scale (RDAS). Results The results from structural equation modeling confirmed a hierarchy for the development of family strengths, and indicated that spiritual well-being and strength in most characteristics affected dyadic adjustment, positively (P <0.05). Conclusions Couples’ level of dyadic adjustment is increased when they have higher spiritual well-being, value each other, have commitment to each other, communicate well, enjoy being with each other, and spend time together. PMID:27822273

  2. School Climate Support for Behavioral and Psychological Adjustment: Testing the Mediating Effect of Social Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Ming-Te

    2009-01-01

    The present study used an ecological framework to examine the relationships among adolescents' perceptions of school climate, social competence, and behavioral and psychological adjustment in the middle school years. This study improved upon prior studies by using "structural equation modeling" to investigate the hypothesized mediating…

  3. Effects of Social Capital in Multiple Contexts on the Psychosocial Adjustment of Chinese Migrant Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Qiaobing

    2017-01-01

    Drawing upon a sample of 772 migrant children and their parents in Shanghai, China, this study used an ecological framework to investigate how social capital embedded in a range of social contexts (i.e., family, school, peer, and community) influenced the psychosocial adjustment of Chinese migrant children. Using structural equation modeling with…

  4. Adjoint Methods for Adjusting Three-Dimensional Atmosphere and Surface Properties to Fit Multi-Angle Multi-Pixel Polarimetric Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, William G.; Cairns, Brian; Bal, Guillaume

    2014-01-01

    This paper derives an efficient procedure for using the three-dimensional (3D) vector radiative transfer equation (VRTE) to adjust atmosphere and surface properties and improve their fit with multi-angle/multi-pixel radiometric and polarimetric measurements of scattered sunlight. The proposed adjoint method uses the 3D VRTE to compute the measurement misfit function and the adjoint 3D VRTE to compute its gradient with respect to all unknown parameters. In the remote sensing problems of interest, the scalar-valued misfit function quantifies agreement with data as a function of atmosphere and surface properties, and its gradient guides the search through this parameter space. Remote sensing of the atmosphere and surface in a three-dimensional region may require thousands of unknown parameters and millions of data points. Many approaches would require calls to the 3D VRTE solver in proportion to the number of unknown parameters or measurements. To avoid this issue of scale, we focus on computing the gradient of the misfit function as an alternative to the Jacobian of the measurement operator. The resulting adjoint method provides a way to adjust 3D atmosphere and surface properties with only two calls to the 3D VRTE solver for each spectral channel, regardless of the number of retrieval parameters, measurement view angles or pixels. This gives a procedure for adjusting atmosphere and surface parameters that will scale to the large problems of 3D remote sensing. For certain types of multi-angle/multi-pixel polarimetric measurements, this encourages the development of a new class of three-dimensional retrieval algorithms with more flexible parametrizations of spatial heterogeneity, less reliance on data screening procedures, and improved coverage in terms of the resolved physical processes in the Earth?s atmosphere.

  5. Synergistic effect of adjustments of elastic stockings to maintain reduction in leg volume after mechanical lymph drainage.

    PubMed

    de Godoy, José Maria Pereira; Lopes Pinto, Renata; Pereira de Godoy, Ana Carolina; de Fátima Guerreiro Godoy, Maria

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of elastic compression stockings on volumetric variations of lymphedematous limbs between mechanical lymph drainage sessions. Eleven patients with Grade II leg lymphedema, regardless of etiology, were evaluated in a randomized clinical trial. The ages ranged from 47 to 83 years old with a mean of 62.4 years. Participants were submitted to mechanical lymph drainage (RAGodoy) associated with adjusted and unadjusted knee-high elastic compression stockings (20/30 Venosan). The effect of these stockings on the maintenance of volumetric reductions between sessions of lymph drainage was assessed. In all, 33 evaluations were carried out, 18 of patients using well-adjusted stockings and 15 with badly-adjusted stockings. The differences in volumes were significant (unpaired t-test; P-value < 0.0001). Adjusting the compression provided by elastic stockings according to the size of the leg has a synergistic effect in reducing volume during mechanical lymph drainage.

  6. Hot environment effects on alloy mechanical properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, J. M.; Aning, K.; Tien, J. K.

    1976-01-01

    Prolonged high temperature performance of structural alloys requires joint attention to both corrosion and mechanical properties, and to their possible interactions. In this interpretive review paper, we provide a systematic compaction of theories and key observations on corrosion-mechanical properties interactions, from early single crystal work in the 1930s to recent studies on superalloys in nonoxidizing, oxidizing and hot corrosive environments. Particular attention is paid to environmental effects on creep, stress rupture and fatigue properties.

  7. Thermal and humidity sensing behaviors of Mn1.85Co0.3Ni0.85O4 thin films: Effects of adjusting the surface morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, L.; Ling, Z. Y.; Wu, M. Y.; Zhang, G.; Liu, S. Z.; Zhang, S. Q.; Ling, D. X.

    2017-07-01

    In this account, Mn1.85Co0.3Ni0.85O4 (MCN) thin films with various surface morphologies were prepared using the sol-gel technique, and the resulting deposits were analyzed by various analytical methods. The crystal structure of the films was determined by XRD analysis and was shown as cubic spinel structure. The film morphology characterized by SEM showed that the surface structure of the films was affected by the preparation conditions, and the elemental composition investigated by EDX revealed that the nano and porous structure of the surface boosted the number of the oxygen vacancies present in the films. The effects of evolution in surface morphology on the thermal and humidity sensing properties of the films were investigated and analyzed. The results suggested that the surface morphology and the corresponding sensing properties of MCN films could be adjusted by the preparation conditions to yield suitable thermal and humidity multifunctional sensors with high performance.

  8. Effects of body immersion on postural adjustments to voluntary arm movements in humans: role of load receptor input.

    PubMed Central

    Dietz, V; Colombo, G

    1996-01-01

    1. The effect of body immersion on postural adjustments was studied in ten healthy subjects. Reaction times, for pushing or pulling a rigid handle, in response to a visual stimulus were measured. In addition EMG recordings were taken from upper arm and lower leg muscles during three levels of body immersion while standing on a platform (immersed to spinal levels: lumbar nerve root 2 (L2); thoracic nerve root 4 (T4); and cervical nerve root 7 (C7)), while floating and while standing or sitting out of water. 2. With increasing levels of body immersion there was a near linear reduction in the amplitude of the gastrocnemius (GM) EMG activity before (200 ms) the onset of a force signal from pulling, but immersion had a significantly weaker effect on the amplitude of the tibialis anterior (TA) EMG during pushing movements. There was no significant difference in the effect of body immersion on biceps femoris (BF) and rectus femoris (RF). Under free-floating conditions postural adjustments did not occur in response to pull or push movements. There were no adaptational changes of EMG adjustments during successive trials at a given immersion level. 3. Under non-immersed conditions reaction times were significantly shorter during sitting than during standing. This difference is assumed to be due to the postural adjustments required while standing before the onset of a voluntary arm movement. While standing, reaction times were significantly longer for pull compared with push movements. Under all conditions of body immersion the reaction times remained longer compared with the sitting condition, even when no leg muscle EMG adjustments were present. 4. It is assumed that the differential effect of body immersion on the antagonistic leg muscles is due to the differential neuronal control of antagonistic leg muscles with a strong influence from proprioceptive input (most probably from load receptors) on the leg extensors. The longer reaction times seen during body immersion

  9. A novel moisture adjusted vegetation index (MAVI) to reduce background reflectance and topographical effects on LAI retrieval.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Gaolong; Ju, Weimin; Chen, J M; Liu, Yibo

    2014-01-01

    A new moisture adjusted vegetation index (MAVI) is proposed using the red, near infrared, and shortwave infrared (SWIR) reflectance in band-ratio form in this paper. The effectiveness of MAVI in retrieving leaf area index (LAI) is investigated using Landsat-5 data and field LAI measurements in two forest and two grassland areas. The ability of MAVI to retrieve forest LAI under different background conditions is further evaluated using canopy reflectance of Jack Pine and Black Spruce forests simulated by the 4-Scale model. Compared with several commonly used two-band vegetation index, such as normalized difference vegetation index, soil adjusted vegetation index, modified soil adjusted vegetation index, optimized soil adjusted vegetation index, MAVI is a better predictor of LAI, on average, which can explain 70% of variations of LAI in the four study areas. Similar to other SWIR-related three-band vegetation index, such as modified normalized difference vegetation index (MNDVI) and reduced simple ratio (RSR), MAVI is able to reduce the background reflectance effects on forest canopy LAI retrieval. MAVI is more suitable for retrieving LAI than RSR and MNDVI, because it avoids the difficulty in properly determining the maximum and minimum SWIR values required in RSR and MNDVI, which improves the robustness of MAVI in retrieving LAI of different land cover types. Moreover, MAVI is expressed as ratios between different spectral bands, greatly reducing the noise caused by topographical variations, which makes it more suitable for applications in mountainous area.

  10. The Effectiveness of Emotionally Focused Therapy on Enhancing Marital Adjustment and Quality of Life among Infertile Couples with Marital Conflicts

    PubMed Central

    Najafi, Maryam; Soleimani, Ali Akbar; Ahmadi, Khodabakhsh; Javidi, Nasirudin; Kamkar, Elnaz Hoseini

    2015-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study is to investigate the efficacy of emotionally fo- cused therapy (EFT-C) on promoting marital adjustment of infertile couples with marital conflicts by improving quality of life. Materials and Methods This is a semi-experimental study with a pre- and post–test design in which 30 infertile couples (60 individuals) were chosen by purposive sampling. Couples were randomly divided into two groups, sample and control, of 15 couples each. Next, couples in the sample population answered questionnaires for marital adjustment, sexual satisfaction and quality of life after which they received 10 sessions of EFT-C. Results Pre- and post-tests showed that EFT-C had a significant effect on marital adjust- ment and quality of life. Conclusion According to the results, EFT-C had a significant, positive effect on en- hancement of marital adjustment. Life quality of infertile couples significantly increased via application of EFT-C. This approach improved the physical, psychological and social relationships of infertile couples and enhanced their social environment. PMID:26246883

  11. Effective 3D protein structure prediction with local adjustment genetic-annealing algorithm.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Long; Lin, Xiao-Li

    2010-09-01

    The protein folding problem consists of predicting protein tertiary structure from a given amino acid sequence by minimizing the energy function. The protein folding structure prediction is computationally challenging and has been shown to be NP-hard problem when the 3D off-lattice AB model is employed. In this paper, the local adjustment genetic-annealing (LAGA) algorithm was used to search the ground state of 3D offlattice AB model for protein folding structure. The algorithm included an improved crossover strategy and an improved mutation strategy, where a local adjustment strategy was also used to enhance the searching ability. The experiments were carried out with the Fibonacci sequences. The experimental results demonstrate that the LAGA algorithm appears to have better performance and accuracy compared to the previous methods.

  12. Task-related and person-related variables influence the effect of low back pain on anticipatory postural adjustments.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Jesse V; Lyman, Courtney A; Hitt, Juvena R; Henry, Sharon M

    2017-08-01

    People with low back pain exhibit altered postural coordination that has been suggested as a target for treatment, but heterogeneous presentation has rendered it difficult to identify appropriate candidates and protocols for such treatments. This study evaluated the associations of task-related and person-related factors with the effect of low back pain on anticipatory postural adjustments. Thirteen subjects with and 13 without low back pain performed seated, rapid arm flexion in self-initiated and cued conditions. Mixed-model ANOVA were used to evaluate group and condition effects on APA onset latencies of trunk muscles, arm-raise velocity, and pre-movement cortical potentials. These measures were evaluated for correlation with pain ratings, Fear Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire scores, and Modified Oswestry Questionnaire scores. Delayed postural adjustments of subjects with low back pain were greater in the cued condition than in the self-initiated condition. The group with low back pain exhibited larger-amplitude cortical potentials than the group without pain, but also significantly slower arm-raise velocities. With arm-raise velocity as a covariate, the effect of low back pain remained significant for the latencies of postural adjustments but not for cortical potentials. Latencies of the postural adjustments significantly correlated with Oswestry and Fear Avoidance Beliefs scores. Delayed postural adjustments with low back pain appear to be influenced by cueing of movement, pain-related disability and fear of activity. These results highlight the importance of subject characteristics, task condition, and task performance when comparing across studies or when developing treatment of people with low back pain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Adjusting the Chain Gear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koloc, Z.; Korf, J.; Kavan, P.

    The adjustment (modification) deals with gear chains intermediating (transmitting) motion transfer between the sprocket wheels on parallel shafts. The purpose of the adjustments of chain gear is to remove the unwanted effects by using the chain guide on the links (sliding guide rail) ensuring a smooth fit of the chain rollers into the wheel tooth gap.

  14. Low-cost tissue simulating phantoms with adjustable wavelength-dependent scattering properties in the visible and infrared ranges

    PubMed Central

    Saager, Rolf B.; Quach, Alan; Rowland, Rebecca A.; Baldado, Melissa L.; Durkin, Anthony J.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. We present a method for low-cost fabrication of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) tissue simulating phantoms with tunable scattering spectra, spanning visible, and near-infrared regimes. These phantoms use optical polishing agents (aluminum oxide powders) at various grit sizes to approximate in vivo tissue scattering particles across multiple size distributions (range: 17 to 3  μm). This class of tunable scattering phantoms is used to mimic distinct changes in wavelength-dependent scattering properties observed in tissue pathologies such as partial thickness burns. Described by a power-law dependence on wavelength, the scattering magnitude of these phantoms scale linearly with particle concentration over a physiologic range [μs′=(0.5 to 2.0  mm−1)] whereas the scattering spectra, specific to each particle size distribution, correlate to distinct exponential coefficients (range: 0.007 to 0.32). Aluminum oxide powders used in this investigation did not detectably contribute to the absorption properties of these phantoms. The optical properties of these phantoms are verified through inverse adding-doubling methods and the tolerances of this fabrication method are discussed. PMID:27292135

  15. Effect of Nanofiller Characteristics on Nanocomposite Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Working, Dennis C.; Lillehei, Peter T.; Lowther, Sharon E.; Siochi, Emilie J.; Kim, Jae-Woo; Sauti, Godfrey; Wise, Kristopher E.; Park, Cheol

    2016-01-01

    This report surveys the effect of nanofiller characteristics on nanocomposites fabricated with two polyimide matrices. Mechanical and electrical properties were determined. Microscopy results showed that matrix chemistry, nanofiller characteristics and processing conditions had significant impact on nanocomposite quality.

  16. Assessing TMDL effectiveness using flow-adjusted concentrations: a case study of the Neuse River, North Carolina.

    PubMed

    Stow, Craig A; Borsuk, Mark E

    2003-05-15

    Integrated control of both point and nonpoint source water pollution using Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) assignments will be a major regulatory focus over the next decade. We propose the use of "flow-adjusted" pollutant concentrations to evaluate the effectiveness of management actions taken to meet approved TMDLs. Pollutant concentrations are usually highly correlated with streamflow, and flow is strongly weather-dependent. Thus, pollutant loads, which are calculated as pollutant concentration multiplied by streamflow, have a large weather-dependent variance component. This natural variation can be removed by calculating flow-adjusted concentrations. While such values are not a direct measure of pollutant load, they make it easier to discern changes in streamwater quality. Additionally, they are likely to be a better predictor of pollutant concentrations in the receiving waterbody. We demonstrate the use of this technique using long-term nutrient data from the Neuse River in North Carolina. The Neuse River Estuary has suffered many eutrophication symptoms, and a program to reduce nutrient loading has been in place for several years. We show that, in addition to revealing recent reductions in nutrient inputs, annual flow-adjusted riverine nutrient concentrations show a more pronounced relationship with estuarine nutrient concentrations than do annual nutrient loads. Thus, we suggest that the calculation of flow-adjusted concentrations is a useful technique to aid in assessment of TMDL implementation.

  17. Effect of race and marital status on mothers' observed parenting and adolescent adjustment in youth with type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Lord, Jadienne H; Young, Mackenzie T; Gruhn, Meredith A; Grey, Margaret; Delamater, Alan M; Jaser, Sarah S

    2015-01-01

    To examine demographic differences in parenting behaviors and adjustment in youth with type 1 diabetes.  Adolescents' psychosocial adjustment was assessed via self-reports and parent reports, and clinical data were obtained from adolescents' medical records. Mother-adolescent dyads (N = 93) engaged in a videotaped discussion task, which was coded for observed parenting behaviors. Single and non-White mothers exhibited significantly more overinvolved and less collaborative parenting behaviors. Higher levels of overinvolved parenting and lower levels of collaborative parenting were associated with poorer adolescent adjustment (i.e., higher levels of externalizing problems). Observed parenting was not significantly associated with glycemic control. There was an indirect effect of marital status and race/ethnicity on externalizing behaviors through parenting. The current study highlights parenting as a potential target for interventions, especially in single and minority mothers, to improve adjustment in this population. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Adjustment to the Curve Number Nrcs-Cn to Account for the Vegetation Effect on the Hydrological Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, A.; Temimi, M.; Khanbilvardi, R.

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this work is to develop an approach that makes use of remotely sensed Greenness Fraction (GF) as a proxy for the vegetation density to automatically adjust the Curve Number model (NRCS-CN) to account for the effect of the changes in vegetation growth on hydrological processes. Daily gauged precipitation-runoff pairs (1948 to 2003) from the MOdel Parameter Estimation EXperiment dataset (MOPEX) over 26 watersheds across the U.S. were used to estimate monthly averaged CNs (CNsim) and then compared to the monthly GF. An adjustment factor was then proposed for the typical static CN inputs which do not account for the vegetation growth over time; the result was a vegetation-adjusted CN (CNveg adj). The improvement in the performance of the NRCS-CN methodology was assessed. The results evidence how the CNveg adj compensates the underestimation of the standard CN (CNstd). The ratio of the estimated runoff using the CNstd (Qstd) to the observed runoff (Qobs) was 0.36; while with the CNveg adj (Qveg adj) was 0.98. The correlation coefficient of simulated and observed runoff when using CNstd and CNveg adj, was 0.42 and 0.92, respectively. Likewise, the Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient of Qstd was -0.92 and 0.85 for Qveg adj. This implies that the adjustment to the CN is crucial for improved hydrological modeling and, therefore, for flood and flash flood monitoring and forecasting.

  19. 26 CFR 1.1014-6 - Special rule for adjustments to basis where property is acquired from a decedent prior to his death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., with a life estate to A, and the remainder to B or his estate. The transferred property consists of 100... estate. Under section 1014(a), the uniform basis of the property in the hands of the trustee, the life... reversion to take effect upon the expiration of a life estate in another, the uniform basis of the entire...

  20. 26 CFR 1.1014-6 - Special rule for adjustments to basis where property is acquired from a decedent prior to his death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., with a life estate to A, and the remainder to B or his estate. The transferred property consists of 100... estate. Under section 1014(a), the uniform basis of the property in the hands of the trustee, the life... reversion to take effect upon the expiration of a life estate in another, the uniform basis of the entire...

  1. 26 CFR 1.1014-6 - Special rule for adjustments to basis where property is acquired from a decedent prior to his death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., with a life estate to A, and the remainder to B or his estate. The transferred property consists of 100... estate. Under section 1014(a), the uniform basis of the property in the hands of the trustee, the life... reversion to take effect upon the expiration of a life estate in another, the uniform basis of the entire...

  2. 26 CFR 1.1014-6 - Special rule for adjustments to basis where property is acquired from a decedent prior to his death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., with a life estate to A, and the remainder to B or his estate. The transferred property consists of 100... estate. Under section 1014(a), the uniform basis of the property in the hands of the trustee, the life... reversion to take effect upon the expiration of a life estate in another, the uniform basis of the entire...

  3. Effect of Hydrolyzed Wheat Gluten and Starch Ratio on the Viscoelastic Properties of Rubber Composites

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The hydrolyzed wheat gluten (WG) and wheat starch (WS) showed substantial reinforcement effects in rubber composites. Due to different abilities of WG and WS to increase the modulus of rubber composites, the composite properties can be adjusted by varying the ratio of WG and WS as a co-filler. The...

  4. Shaft adjuster

    DOEpatents

    Harry, H.H.

    1988-03-11

    Abstract and method for the adjustment and alignment of shafts in high power devices. A plurality of adjacent rotatable angled cylinders are positioned between a base and the shaft to be aligned which when rotated introduce an axial offset. The apparatus is electrically conductive and constructed of a structurally rigid material. The angled cylinders allow the shaft such as the center conductor in a pulse line machine to be offset in any desired alignment position within the range of the apparatus. 3 figs.

  5. Shaft adjuster

    DOEpatents

    Harry, Herbert H.

    1989-01-01

    Apparatus and method for the adjustment and alignment of shafts in high power devices. A plurality of adjacent rotatable angled cylinders are positioned between a base and the shaft to be aligned which when rotated introduce an axial offset. The apparatus is electrically conductive and constructed of a structurally rigid material. The angled cylinders allow the shaft such as the center conductor in a pulse line machine to be offset in any desired alignment position within the range of the apparatus.

  6. Effects of Hoods and Flame-Retardant Fabrics on WBGT Clothing Adjustment Factors.

    PubMed

    Ashley, Candi D; Bernard, Thomas E

    2008-01-01

    Personal protective clothing (PPC) may include hoods and flame-retardant (FR) fabrics that may affect heat transfer and, thus, the critical wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT crit) to maintain thermal equilibrium. The purpose of this study was to compare the differences in WBGT crit for hooded vs. nonhooded versions of particle barrier and vapor barrier coveralls as well as for coveralls made of two flame-retardant fabrics (INDURA cotton and Nomex). Acclimated men (n = 11) and women (n = 4) walked on a treadmill in a climatic chamber at 180 W/m2 wearing four different ensembles: limited-use, particle barrier coveralls with and without a hood (Tyvek 1427), and limited-use vapor barrier coveralls with and without a hood (Tychem QC, polyethylene-coated Tyvek). Twelve of the participants wore one of two flame-retardant coveralls. All participants wore standard cotton clothing. Progressive exposure testing at 50% relative humidity (rh) was designed so that each subject established a physiological steady-state followed by a clear loss of thermal equilibrium. WBGT crit was the WBGT 5 min prior to a loss of thermal equilibrium. Hooded ensembles had a lower WBGT crit than the nonhooded ensembles. The difference suggested a clothing adjustment of 1 degrees C for hoods. There were no significant differences among the FR ensembles and cotton work cloths, and the proposed clothing adjustment for FR coveralls clothing is 0 degrees C.

  7. Effects of unilateral stroke on multi-finger synergies and their feed-forward adjustments

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Hang Jin; Maenza, Candice; Good, David C.; Huang, Xuemei; Park, Jaebum; Sainburg, Robert L.; Latash, Mark L.

    2016-01-01

    We explored the changes in multi-finger synergies in patients after a single cortical stroke with mild motor impairments. We hypothesized that both synergy indices and anticipatory synergy adjustments prior to the initiation of a self-paced quick action would be diminished in the patients compared to age-matched controls. The patients with history of cortical stroke, and age-matched controls (n = 12 in each group) performed one-finger and multi-finger accurate force production tasks involving both steady-state and quick force pulse production. Finger interdependence (enslaving) and multi-finger synergies stabilizing total force were quantified. The stroke patients showed lower maximal finger forces, in particular in the contralesional hand, which also showed increased enslaving indices. Multi-finger synergies during steady-state force production were, however, unchanged after stroke. In contrast, a drop in the synergy index prior to the force pulse generation was significantly delayed in the stroke patients. Our results show that mild cortical stroke leads to no significant changes in multifinger synergies, but there is impairment in feed-forward adjustments of the synergies prior to a quick action, a drop in the maximal force production, and an increase in enslaving. We conclude that studies of synergies reveal two aspects of synergic control differentially affected by cortical stroke. PMID:26828408

  8. Psychosocial effects of adjustment in Antarctica: lessons for long-duration spaceflight.

    PubMed

    Palinkas, L A

    1990-01-01

    This paper examines the utility of remote, isolated Antarctic research stations as analogs for long-duration spaceflights from the perspective of psychosocial processes of adaptation and adjustment. Certain features of the physical and man-made environments found in Antarctica are similar to those that will be encountered in outer space. In both settings, men and women are likely to experience a number of physiological and psychological changes in response to the extreme environmental conditions and the prolonged isolation and confinement. Biomedical research in Antarctica provides an opportunity to study the causes of these changes and to develop strategies for reducing the risks to health and well-being before they pose a serious threat to crew safety and mission success. A number of lessons for long-duration spaceflight are examined, including screening and selection of personnel; training programs designed to facilitate individual adjustment and group adaptation and minimize group conflict; identification of optimal leadership characteristics for small, isolated groups; an understanding of social dynamics and group "microcultures" necessary for the organization and management of small but heterogeneous groups; organization of work activities; facility design; and support infrastructure.

  9. Effects of lateral perturbations and changing stance conditions on anticipatory postural adjustment.

    PubMed

    Santos, Marcio J; Aruin, Alexander S

    2009-06-01

    The study investigates the role of lateral muscles and changing stance conditions in anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs). Subjects stood laterally to an aluminum pendulum released by an experimenter and were required to stop it with their right or left hand. Stance conditions were manipulated by having the subjects stand in the following positions: on a single limb (SS), with feet together (narrow base of support, NB), and with feet shoulder width apart (regular base of support, RB). Bilateral EMG activity of dorsal, ventral, and lateral trunk and leg muscles and ground reaction forces were recorded and quantified within the time intervals typical of APAs. Anticipatory postural adjustments were seen in all experimental conditions, and their magnitudes depended on the stance and the side of perturbation. Accordingly, APAs in lateral muscles increased on the side of perturbation in SS condition, while simultaneous activation of dorsal muscles occurred on the contralateral side. Smaller APAs were seen in lateral muscles in conditions with a wider base of support (NB, RB) and APAs in dorsal muscles were smaller in NB - in comparison to RB - stance. The results of the present study provide new data on the role of lateral, ventral, and dorsal muscles in anticipatory postural control when dealing with lateral perturbations in conditions of postural instability.

  10. Quality-adjusted life years lost to arthritis: effects of gender, race,and social class.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, R M; Alcaraz, J E; Anderson, J P; Weisman, M

    1996-12-01

    To estimate the public health impact of self-reported arthritis in terms of Quality-Adjusted Life Years. The Quality of Well-being Scale (QWB) is a general measure of health-related quality of life that scores levels of wellness on a continuum between death (0.0) and optimum functioning (1.0). Values for the QWB were imputed for the National Health Interview Survey. These estimates were adjusted for mortality based on the life tables. Age-specific estimates were obtained for those reporting arthritis and compared to estimators for the population not reporting arthritis. These estimates were broken down by race (white versus nonwhite), gender and socioeconomic status. The expected life years lost because of arthritis were 1.86 (95% confidence interval 1.40-2.32 years). Arthritis was reported more often among those of lower income, those living in rural areas, those of lower educational attainment, and older respondents. Men and women did not differ in rates of reporting arthritis, but men with arthritis had lower QWB scores than women with arthritis. Arthritis has a significant public health impact.

  11. Isomer effects on polyimide properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stump, B. L.

    1975-01-01

    The effect of structure variation on the solubility and glass-transition temperature of polyimide polymers is investigated. The addition of alkyl substituents to an aromatic ring in the polymer molecule, the reduction in the number of imide rings per average polymer chain-length, and a variation in the symmetry of the polymer molecule are studied. The synthesis of key intermediates for the preparation of the monomers required in this investigation is reported along with progress made in the synthesis of polyimide-precursor amines that contain functional groups to allow for post-cure cross-linking.

  12. [Phospholipids: properties and health effects].

    PubMed

    Torres García, Jairo; Durán Agüero, Samuel

    2014-09-12

    Phospholipids are amphipathic lipids, which are found in all the cell membranes, organized as a lipid bilayer. They belong to the glycerol-derived lipids, showing a similar structure as triglycerides. The current interest of them comes from its effectiveness to incorporate different fatty acids in the cell membrane, as they exhibit better absorption and utilization than triglycerides. In this paper, the bibliographical data published about the benefits of the phospholipids in inflammatory processes, cancer, cardiovascular diseases, neurological disorders, liver disease and as an antioxidants transporter is reviewed.

  13. Particular adaptations to potentially slippery surfaces: the effects of friction on consecutive postural adjustments (CPA).

    PubMed

    Memari, Sahel; Le Bozec, Serge; Bouisset, Simon

    2014-02-21

    This research deals with the postural adjustments that occur after the end of voluntary movement ("consecutive postural adjustments": CPAs). The influence of a potentially slippery surface on CPA characteristics was considered, with the aim of exploring more deeply the postural component of the task-movement. Seven male adults were asked to perform a single step, as quickly as possible, to their own footprint marked on the ground. A force plate measured the resultant reaction forces along the antero-posterior axis (R(x)) and the centre of pressure (COP) displacements along the antero-posterior and lateral axes (Xp and Yp). The velocity of the centre of gravity (COG) along the antero-posterior axis and the corresponding impulse (∫R(x)dt) were calculated; the peak velocity (termed "progression velocity": V(xG)) was measured. The required coefficient of friction (RCOF) along the progression axis (pμ(x)) was determined. Two materials, differing by their COF, were laid at foot contact (FC), providing a rough foot contact (RoFC), and a smooth foot contact (SmFC) considered to be potentially slippery. Two step lengths were also performed: a short step (SS) and a long step (LS). Finally, the subjects completed four series of ten steps each. These were preceded by preliminary trials, to allow them to acquire the necessary adaptation to experimental conditions. The antero-posterior force time course presented a positive phase, that included APAs ("anticipatory postural adjustments") and step execution (STEP), followed by a negative one, corresponding to CPAs. The backward impulse (CPI) was equal to the forward one (BPI), independently of friction and progression velocity. Moreover, V(xG) did not differ according to friction, but was faster when the step length was greater. Last CPA peak amplitudes (pCPA) were significantly greater and CPA durations (dCPA) shorter for RoFC and conversely for SmFC, contrary to APA. Finally, the results show a particular adaptation to the

  14. Modifications of anticipatory postural adjustments in a rock climbing task: the effect of supporting wall inclination.

    PubMed

    Noé, F

    2006-08-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the influence of initial postural constraint on the realisation of a leg release in a rock climbing task. Two conditions were tested: a vertical posture and an overhanging posture. The overhanging posture was characterised by a large sustentation base, which enhanced the mechanical possibilities of the system. Subjects had to release their right foot in both postural conditions. In the vertical posture, movement's effectuation was associated with anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs). In the overhanging posture, the movement was performed without APAs. The results indicated that APAs were modulated according to the possibilities of force creation of the system. Hence, the disappearance of APAs in the overhanging posture was explained by the efficiency of the system to create the impulse necessary to perform the task.

  15. Moment Reconstruction and Moment-Adjusted Imputation When Exposure is Generated by a Complex, Nonlinear Random Effects Modeling Process

    PubMed Central

    Potgieter, Cornelis J.; Wei, Rubin; Kipnis, Victor; Freedman, Laurence S.; Carroll, Raymond J.

    2016-01-01

    Summary For the classical, homoscedastic measurement error model, moment reconstruction (Freedman et al., 2004, 2008) and moment-adjusted imputation (Thomas et al., 2011) are appealing, computationally simple imputation-like methods for general model fitting. Like classical regression calibration, the idea is to replace the unobserved variable subject to measurement error with a proxy that can be used in a variety of analyses. Moment reconstruction and moment-adjusted imputation differ from regression calibration in that they attempt to match multiple features of the latent variable, and also to match some of the latent variable’s relationships with the response and additional covariates. In this note, we consider a problem where true exposure is generated by a complex, nonlinear random effects modeling process, and develop analogues of moment reconstruction and moment-adjusted imputation for this case. This general model includes classical measurement errors, Berkson measurement errors, mixtures of Berkson and classical errors and problems that are not measurement error problems, but also cases where the data generating process for true exposure is a complex, nonlinear random effects modeling process. The methods are illustrated using the National Institutes of Health-AARP Diet and Health Study where the latent variable is a dietary pattern score called the Healthy Eating Index - 2005. We also show how our general model includes methods used in radiation epidemiology as a special case. Simulations are used to illustrate the methods. PMID:27061196

  16. New approaches to provide feedback from nuclear and covariance data adjustment for effective improvement of evaluated nuclear data files

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmiotti, Giuseppe; Salvatores, Massimo; Hursin, Mathieu; Kodeli, Ivo; Gabrielli, Fabrizio; Hummel, Andrew

    2017-09-01

    A critical examination of the role of uncertainty assessment, target accuracies, role of integral experiment for validation and, consequently, of data adjustments methods is underway since several years at OECD-NEA, the objective being to provide criteria and practical approaches to use effectively the results of sensitivity analyses and cross section adjustments for feedback to evaluators and experimentalists in order to improve without ambiguities the knowledge of neutron cross sections, uncertainties, and correlations to be used in a wide range of applications and to meet new requirements and constraints for innovative reactor and fuel cycle system design. An approach will be described that expands as much as possible the use in the adjustment procedure of selected integral experiments that provide information on "elementary" phenomena, on separated individual physics effects related to specific isotopes or on specific energy ranges. An application to a large experimental data base has been performed and the results are discussed in the perspective of new evaluation projects like the CIELO initiative.

  17. New approaches to provide feedback from nuclear and covariance data adjustment for effective improvement of evaluated nuclear data files

    SciTech Connect

    Palmiotti, Giuseppe; Salvatores, Massimo; Hursin, Mathieu; Kodeli, Ivo; Gabrielli, Fabrizio; Hummel, Andrew

    2016-11-01

    A critical examination of the role of uncertainty assessment, target accuracies, role of integral experiment for validation and, consequently, of data adjustments methods is underway since several years at OECD-NEA, the objective being to provide criteria and practical approaches to use effectively the results of sensitivity analyses and cross section adjustments for feedback to evaluators and experimentalists in order to improve without ambiguities the knowledge of neutron cross sections, uncertainties, and correlations to be used in a wide range of applications and to meet new requirements and constraints for innovative reactor and fuel cycle system design. An approach will be described that expands as much as possible the use in the adjustment procedure of selected integral experiments that provide information on “elementary” phenomena, on separated individual physics effects related to specific isotopes or on specific energy ranges. An application to a large experimental data base has been performed and the results are discussed in the perspective of new evaluation projects like the CIELO initiative.

  18. Effect of teaching stress management skills on self-esteem and behavioral adjustment in people with somatomotor disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Kamalinasab, Z; Mahdavi, A; Ebrahimi, M; Vahidi Nekoo, M; Aghaei, M; Ebrahimi, F

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Psychological interventions for enhancing mental health in those with somatomotor-physical disabilities are vital. The existing research aimed to examine the effect of teaching stress management skills on self-esteem and behavioral adjustment in individuals with somatomotor-physical disabilities. Methodology: The method of the survey was semi-experimental with a pre-test post-test design and a control group. Hence, in Tehran, 40 girls with somatomotor-physical disabilities were selected by using convenience sampling, and they were divided into two groups: control and experiment. Both groups were tested by using a demography questionnaire, Rozenberg’s self-esteem scale, and a behavioral adjustment questionnaire. Afterwards, the test group received lessons on stress management within ten sessions, but the control group received no interventions. Then both groups were post-tested, and the collected data were analyzed by using descriptive and inferential statistics methods through SPSS software. Findings: Findings showed that teaching stress management skills significantly increased self-esteem and behavioral adjustment in girls with somatomotor-physical disabilities (p < 0.001). Conclusion: According to the study, it could be concluded that teaching stress management skills is an effective way to help endangered individuals such as girls who have somatomotor-physical disabilities because it is highly efficient especially when it is performed in groups, it is cheap, and acceptable by different people. PMID:28316725

  19. The Work and Social Adjustment Scale: Psychometric properties and validity among males and females, and outpatients with and without personality disorders.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, G; Kvarstein, E H; Wilberg, T

    2017-07-05

    The Work and Social Adjustment Scale (WSAS) is an outcome measure assessing degree of functional impairment. Its psychometric properties, validity and sensitivity to change have been supported in several studies. However, no explicit psychometric or validity study of WSAS has been performed on data from a large sample of psychiatric outpatients, with and without personality disorders. The aim of this study was therefore to provide additional knowledge of the properties of WSAS in such a sample. The material comprised data from 1371 patients, from 15 different units participating in the Norwegian Network of Personality-Focused Treatment Programs. Psychometric properties of the scale, such as measurement invariance among males and females, longitudinal invariance, as well as associations with other clinical measures and sensitivity to change were analysed. The results confirm that WSAS constitutes a reliable, unidimensional and gender invariant measure, sensitive to change and to severity of mental distress. Although highly associated with levels of depression, WSAS measures a clinically important aspect of impairment. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. The Effectiveness of Aripiprazole for Tics, Social Adjustment, and Parental Stress in Children and Adolescents with Tourette's Disorder.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liang-Jen; Chou, Wen-Jiun; Chou, Miao-Chun; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2016-06-01

    Tourette's syndrome (TS) frequently results in a negative impact on multiple functional domains. This prospective open-label study investigated the potential effectiveness of aripiprazole for tics, social adjustment, and parental stress in children and adolescents with TS. Study participants consisted of 26 patients (mean age 10.4 ± 3.0 years; 22 boys and 4 girls) who were prescribed aripiprazole, with each dose ranging from 2.5 to 15 mg/day. At baseline and 2, 4, and 8 weeks from baseline, tic symptoms, social adjustment, and parenting stress were assessed using the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale (YGTSS), the Social Adjustment Inventory for Children and Adolescents (SAICA), and the Parenting Stress Index (PSI). Aripiprazole could be optionally titrated from 2.5 to 30 mg/day at each visit. Of the 26 patients at the initial visit, 22 (84.6%) completed the study. The mean dose of aripiprazole at the endpoint was 8.0 ± 4.0 mg/day. During the 8-week aripiprazole treatment period, motor tics, phonic tics, and impairment on the YGTSS all showed significant improvement. Home behaviors on the SAICA and child domain on the PSI also showed significant improvement. Patients' phonic tics, but not motor tics, showed a positive correlation with their school function and peer relationships. The child domain on the PSI was positively correlated with motor tics, phonic tics, and impairment, as measured by the YGTSS. An 8-week aripiprazole treatment program for children and adolescents with TS was beneficial to their tic symptoms, behaviors at home, and caregivers' stress with regard to fulfilling parenting roles. A long-term placebo-controlled trial with larger samples is warranted to confirm the effectiveness of aripiprazole for social adjustment and parental stress.

  1. After adjusting for bias in meta-analysis seasonal influenza vaccine remains effective in community-dwelling elderly.

    PubMed

    Darvishian, Maryam; Gefenaite, Giedre; Turner, Rebecca M; Pechlivanoglou, Petros; Van der Hoek, Wim; Van den Heuvel, Edwin R; Hak, Eelko

    2014-07-01

    To compare the performance of the bias-adjusted meta-analysis to the conventional meta-analysis assessing seasonal influenza vaccine effectiveness among community-dwelling elderly aged 60 years and older. Systematic literature search revealed 14 cohort studies that met inclusion and exclusion criteria. Laboratory-confirmed influenza, influenza-like illness, hospitalization from influenza and/or pneumonia, and all-cause mortality were study outcomes. Potential biases were identified using bias checklists. The magnitude and uncertainty of biases were assessed by expert opinion. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated using random effects model. After incorporating biases, overall effect estimates regressed slightly toward no effect, with the largest relative difference between conventional and bias-adjusted ORs for laboratory-confirmed influenza (OR, 0.18; 95% CI: 0.01, 3.00 vs. OR, 0.23; 95% CI: 0.03, 2.04). In most of the studies, CIs widened reflecting uncertainties about the biases. The between-study heterogeneity reduced considerably with the largest reduction for all-cause mortality (I(2) = 4%, P = 0.39 vs. I(2) = 91%, P < 0.01). This case study showed that after addressing potential biases influenza vaccine was still estimated effective in preventing hospitalization from influenza and/or pneumonia and all-cause mortality. Increasing the number of assessors and incorporating empirical evidence might improve the new bias-adjustment method. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Essays in applied macroeconomics: Asymmetric price adjustment, exchange rate and treatment effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Jingping

    This dissertation consists of three essays. Chapter II examines the possible asymmetric response of gasoline prices to crude oil price changes using an error correction model with GARCH errors. Recent papers have looked at this issue. Some of these papers estimate a form of error correction model, but none of them accounts for autoregressive heteroskedasticity in estimation and testing for asymmetry and none of them takes the response of crude oil price into consideration. We find that time-varying volatility of gasoline price disturbances is an important feature of the data, and when we allow for asymmetric GARCH errors and investigate the system wide impulse response function, we find evidence of asymmetric adjustment to crude oil price changes in weekly retail gasoline prices. Chapter III discusses the relationship between fiscal deficit and exchange rate. Economic theory predicts that fiscal deficits can significantly affect real exchange rate movements, but existing empirical evidence reports only a weak impact of fiscal deficits on exchange rates. Based on US dollar-based real exchange rates in G5 countries and a flexible varying coefficient model, we show that the previously documented weak relationship between fiscal deficits and exchange rates may be the result of additive specifications, and that the relationship is stronger if we allow fiscal deficits to impact real exchange rates non-additively as well as nonlinearly. We find that the speed of exchange rate adjustment toward equilibrium depends on the state of the fiscal deficit; a fiscal contraction in the US can lead to less persistence in the deviation of exchange rates from fundamentals, and faster mean reversion to the equilibrium. Chapter IV proposes a kernel method to deal with the nonparametric regression model with only discrete covariates as regressors. This new approach is based on recently developed least squares cross-validation kernel smoothing method. It can not only automatically smooth

  3. The effect of the systemic inflammatory response on plasma zinc and selenium adjusted for albumin.

    PubMed

    Ghashut, Rawia A; McMillan, Donald C; Kinsella, John; Vasilaki, Aikaterini T; Talwar, Dinesh; Duncan, Andrew

    2016-04-01

    The magnitude of systemic inflammatory response, as evidenced by C-reactive protein (CRP), is a major factor associated with lower zinc and selenium. They may also be influenced by their binding proteins, such as albumin. The aim of the present study was to examine the relationships between plasma zinc, selenium and the systemic inflammatory response in a large cohort of patients referred for nutritional screen and also to examine these relationships in patients with critical illness. Patients referred for nutritional assessment of zinc (n = 743) and selenium (n = 833) and 114 patients with critical illness were examined. Intra-assay imprecision was <10% for these analytes. In the nutritional screen cohort, plasma zinc was significantly associated with CRP (rs = -0.404, p < 0.001) and albumin (rs = 0.588, p < 0.001). For each CRP category (≤10, 11-80, >80 mg/l) the zinc/albumin ratio x100 was similar (31, 33 and 32 respectively, p = 0.029). Plasma selenium was significantly associated with CRP (rs = -0.489, p < 0.001) and albumin (rs = 0.600, p < 0.001). With increasing CRP category (≤10, 11-80, >80 mg/l) the selenium/albumin ratio ×100 was lower (2.3, 2.1 and 1.8 respectively, p < 0.001). Similar relationships were also observed in the cohort of patients with critical illness. Plasma zinc was associated with both CRP and albumin. The impact of the systemic inflammatory response could be largely adjusted by albumin concentrations. Plasma selenium was associated with both CRP and albumin. The impact of the systemic inflammatory response on plasma selenium concentrations could not be reasonably adjusted by albumin concentrations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of adjusted cuff pressure of endotracheal tube during thyroidectomy on postoperative airway complications: prospective, randomized, and controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Jung-Hee; Han, Sun-Sook; Do, Sang-Hwan; Lee, Jung-Min; Lee, Sang-Chul; Choi, Eun-Soo

    2013-04-01

    Postoperative sore throat (POST) is a common complaint after general anesthesia, especially following thyroidectomy. We examined the effect of adjusting the endotracheal tube cuff pressure during thyroidectomy on the incidence of airway complications. Ninety patients scheduled for elective thyroidectomy were randomized into two groups: control (group A, n = 45) and experimental (group B, n = 45). All patients underwent total intravenous anesthesia with propofol and remifentanil. In group A, the cuff pressure was set to 25 cm H2O initially and then monitored continuously without adjustment during thyroidectomy. In group B, the cuff pressure was maintained at approximately 25 cm H2O throughout the operation. The incidences and the severity of POST, hoarseness, dysphagia, and cough were recorded at 2 and 24 h postoperatively. Cuff pressures in group A changed significantly over time (P < 0.05) and were higher than those of group B during thyroidectomy (P < 0.05). The incidences of POST were lower in group B than in group A at 2 and 24 h postoperatively (P < 0.05), and there was a significant difference in the severity of POST at 2 h postoperatively between the two groups. There were no differences in the incidences of hoarseness, dysphagia, and cough between the two study groups (P > 0.05). Adjusting the endotracheal cuff pressure during thyroidectomy decreased the incidence and degree of POST. Intraoperative monitoring and adjustment of the cuff pressure can reduce POST in patients undergoing thyroidectomy.

  5. The effects of backward adjustable thoracic support in wheelchair on spinal curvature and back muscle activation for elderly people.

    PubMed

    Li, Chun-Ting; Chen, Yen-Nien; Chang, Chih-Han; Tsai, Kuen-Horng

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the effects of backward adjustable thoracic support on spinal curvature and back muscle activation during wheelchair sitting. Twenty elderly people were recruited for this study. The backward adjustable thoracic support sitting posture was compared with the slumped, normal, and lumbar support sitting postures. Spinal curvatures (pelvic, lumbar, and thoracic angles) and muscle activations of 4 back muscles on both sides (maximal voluntary isometric contraction of the lumbar multifidus, lumbar erector spinae, iliocostalis lumborum pars thoracis, and thoracic erector spinae at T9) were measured and compared between the different sitting postures using one-way analysis of variance with repeated measures. The backward adjustable thoracic support sitting posture showed a relatively neutral pelvic tilt (-0.32±4.80°) when compared with the slumped (22.84±5.27°) and lumbar support (-8.97±3.31°) sitting postures (P<0.001), and showed relatively higher lumbar lordosis (-23.38±6.50°) when compared with the slumped (14.77±7.83°), normal (0.44±7.47°), and lumbar support (-16.76±4.77°) sitting postures (P<0.05). It also showed relatively lower back muscle activity when compared with the normal and lumbar support sitting postures (P<0.05). The backward adjustable thoracic support sitting concept was suggested because it maintains a more neutral pelvic tilt, higher lumbar lordosis, and lower back muscle activation, which may help maintain a better sitting posture and reduce the risk of back pain.

  6. The Effects of Backward Adjustable Thoracic Support in Wheelchair on Spinal Curvature and Back Muscle Activation for Elderly People

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chun-Ting; Chen, Yen-Nien; Chang, Chih-Han; Tsai, Kuen-Horng

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the effects of backward adjustable thoracic support on spinal curvature and back muscle activation during wheelchair sitting. Methods Twenty elderly people were recruited for this study. The backward adjustable thoracic support sitting posture was compared with the slumped, normal, and lumbar support sitting postures. Spinal curvatures (pelvic, lumbar, and thoracic angles) and muscle activations of 4 back muscles on both sides (maximal voluntary isometric contraction of the lumbar multifidus, lumbar erector spinae, iliocostalis lumborum pars thoracis, and thoracic erector spinae at T9) were measured and compared between the different sitting postures using one-way analysis of variance with repeated measures. Results The backward adjustable thoracic support sitting posture showed a relatively neutral pelvic tilt (−0.32±4.80°) when compared with the slumped (22.84±5.27°) and lumbar support (−8.97±3.31°) sitting postures (P<0.001), and showed relatively higher lumbar lordosis (−23.38±6.50°) when compared with the slumped (14.77±7.83°), normal (0.44±7.47°), and lumbar support (−16.76±4.77°) sitting postures (P<0.05). It also showed relatively lower back muscle activity when compared with the normal and lumbar support sitting postures (P<0.05). Conclusions The backward adjustable thoracic support sitting concept was suggested because it maintains a more neutral pelvic tilt, higher lumbar lordosis, and lower back muscle activation, which may help maintain a better sitting posture and reduce the risk of back pain. PMID:25480152

  7. Is antipsychotic polypharmacy associated with metabolic syndrome even after adjustment for lifestyle effects?: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Although the validity and safety of antipsychotic polypharmacy remains unclear, it is commonplace in the treatment of schizophrenia. This study aimed to investigate the degree that antipsychotic polypharmacy contributed to metabolic syndrome in outpatients with schizophrenia, after adjustment for the effects of lifestyle. Methods A cross-sectional survey was carried out between April 2007 and October 2007 at Yamanashi Prefectural KITA hospital in Japan. 334 patients consented to this cross-sectional study. We measured the components consisting metabolic syndrome, and interviewed the participants about their lifestyle. We classified metabolic syndrome into four groups according to the severity of metabolic disturbance: the metabolic syndrome; the pre-metabolic syndrome; the visceral fat obesity; and the normal group. We used multinomial logistic regression models to assess the association of metabolic syndrome with antipsychotic polypharmacy, adjusting for lifestyle. Results Seventy-four (22.2%) patients were in the metabolic syndrome group, 61 (18.3%) patients were in the pre-metabolic syndrome group, and 41 (12.3%) patients were in visceral fat obesity group. Antipsychotic polypharmacy was present in 167 (50.0%) patients. In multinomial logistic regression analyses, antipsychotic polypharmacy was significantly associated with the pre-metabolic syndrome group (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 2.348; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.181-4.668), but not with the metabolic syndrome group (AOR, 1.269; 95%CI, 0.679-2.371). Conclusions These results suggest that antipsychotic polypharmacy, compared with monotherapy, may be independently associated with an increased risk of having pre-metabolic syndrome, even after adjusting for patients' lifestyle characteristics. As metabolic syndrome is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular mortality, further studies are needed to clarify the validity and safety of antipsychotic polypharmacy. PMID:21791046

  8. Cascading effects of interparental conflict in adolescence: Linking threat appraisals, self-efficacy, and adjustment.

    PubMed

    Fosco, Gregory M; Feinberg, Mark E

    2015-02-01

    This study examined the longitudinal implications of adolescents' exposure to interparental conflict for their developmental success. In the proposed developmental cascade model, adolescents' perceptions of parental conflict as threatening is a risk factor for diminished self-efficacy, which would account for diminished adjustment. This study presents longitudinal data for 768 sixth-grade students and their families over four time points, ending in eighth grade. Analyses were conducted in three steps. First, replication of longitudinal support for threat as a mediator of the link between interparental conflict and emotional distress was found; however, findings did not support threat as a mediator of behavior problems or subjective well-being. Second, threat was found to mediate the longitudinal association between interparental conflict and self-efficacy. Third, a developmental cascade model supported a risk process in which interparental conflict was related to adolescents' threat appraisals, which undermined self-efficacy beliefs, and was then linked with emotional distress, behavior problems, and subjective well-being.

  9. On the gravity and geoid effects of glacial isostatic adjustment in Fennoscandia - a short note

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sjöberg, L. E.

    2016-02-01

    Many geoscientists argue that there is a gravity low of 10-30 mGal in Fennoscandia as a remaining fingerprint of the last ice age and load, both vanished about 10 kyr ago. However, the extraction of the gravity signal related with Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA) is complicated by the fact that the total gravity field is caused by many significant density distributions in the Earth. Here we recall a methodology originating with A. Bjerhammar 35 years ago, that emphasizes that the present land uplift phenomenon mainly occurs in the region thatwas covered by the ice cap, and it is highly correlated with the spectral window of degrees 10-22 of the global gravity field, whose lower limit fairly well corresponds to the wavelength that agrees with the size of the region. This implies that, although in principle the GIA is a global phenomenon, the geoid and gravity lows as well as the land upheaval in Fennoscandia are typically regional phenomena that cannot be seen in a global correlation study as it is blurred by many irrelevant gravity signals. It is suggested that a regional multi-regression analysis with a band-limited spectral gravity signal as the observable, a method tested already 2 decades ago, can absorb possible significant disturbing signals, e.g. from topographic and crustal depth variations, and thereby recover the GIA signal.

  10. On the gravity and geoid effects of glacial isostatic adjustment in Fennoscandia - a short note

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sjöberg, L. E.

    2015-12-01

    Many geoscientists argue that there is a gravity low of 10-30 mGal in Fennoscandia as a remaining fingerprint of the last ice age and load, both vanished about 10 kyr ago. However, the extraction of the gravity signal related with Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA) is complicated by the fact that the total gravity field is caused by many significant density distributions in the Earth. Here we recall a methodology originating with A. Bjerhammar 35 years ago, that emphasizes that the present land uplift phenomenon mainly occurs in the region thatwas covered by the ice cap, and it is highly correlated with the spectral window of degrees 10-22 of the global gravity field, whose lower limit fairly well corresponds to the wavelength that agrees with the size of the region. This implies that, although in principle the GIA is a global phenomenon, the geoid and gravity lows as well as the land upheaval in Fennoscandia are typically regional phenomena that cannot be seen in a global correlation study as it is blurred by many irrelevant gravity signals. It is suggested that a regional multi-regression analysis with a band-limited spectral gravity signal as the observable, a method tested already 2 decades ago, can absorb possible significant disturbing signals, e.g. from topographic and crustal depth variations, and thereby recover the GIA signal.

  11. Laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding: complications and side effects responsible for the poor long-term outcome.

    PubMed

    Gustavsson, Sven; Westling, Agneta

    2002-06-01

    In a remarkably short time, Laparoscopic Adjustable Gastric Banding (LAGB) has become a common operation for morbid obesity in Europe and elsewhere. More than 70,000 such procedures have been performed in recent years. We used LAGB as a routine treatment for morbid obesity in 90 patients between 1994 and 1996. We agree with other authors that LAGB is the least invasive of all gastric restrictive procedures, resulting in a low perioperative mortality and morbidity. The weight loss appears to be similar to that obtained by vertical banded gastroplasty (VBG). However, our long-term follow-up studies, including endoscopic examinations, as well as recent data in the literature also indicate a number of significant problems with LAGB. Patient discomfort occurs frequently in the postoperative course. When questioned according to a standardized protocol 2 years after surgery, every other patient in our series admitted heartburn and acid regurgitation. Regular endoscopic surveillance revealed a prevalence of erosive esophagitis of 44%. After a median follow-up of 7 years, 58% of the patients had been reoperated on, almost always with excision of the banding system and conversion to Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGBP). The reasons for reoperation were esophagitis, band erosion, pouch dilatation, leakage from the balloon, and esophageal dilatation, complications that also have been described in several recent papers in the literature. Our prediction is that LAGB will not stand the test of time. Copyright 2002, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

  12. Cascading Effects of Interparental Conflict in Adolescence: Linking Threat Appraisals, Self-Efficacy, and Adjustment

    PubMed Central

    Fosco, Gregory M.; Feinberg, Mark E.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the longitudinal implications of adolescents’ exposure to interparental conflict for their developmental success. In the proposed developmental cascade model, adolescents’ perceptions of parental conflict as threatening is a risk factor for diminished self-efficacy, which would account for diminished adjustment. This study presents longitudinal data for 768 6th-grade students and their families over four time points, ending in 8th grade. Analyses were conducted in three steps. First, replication of longitudinal support for threat as a mediator of the link between interparental conflict and emotional distress was found; however, findings did not support threat as a mediator of behavior problems or subjective well-being. Second, threat was found to mediate the longitudinal association between interparental conflict and self-efficacy. Finally, a developmental cascade model supported a risk process in which interparental conflict was related to adolescents’ threat appraisals, which undermined self-efficacy beliefs, and was then linked with emotional distress, behavior problems, and subjective well-being. PMID:25017469

  13. Effects of the history of adoption in the emotional adjustment of adopted adolescents.

    PubMed

    Reppold, Caroline Tozzi; Hutz, Claudio Simon

    2009-11-01

    Since the decade of 1980, the model of stress and coping proposed for the assessment of vulnerability of adoptive families emphasizes that the emotional adjustment of those adopted is moderated by variables such as institutionalization, the manner and age at which the adoption was revealed, the change of first name, and the contact with the biological family. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship of these variables to the perceived parenting style, mood, and self-esteem of the adopted adolescents. Participants in the study were 68 adolescents, between the ages of 14 and 15, adopted during infancy through judicial channels. The adolescents responded to a questionnaire about the history of adoption and to scales of Parenting Styles, Depression and Self-esteem. The main results indicated that the late revelation of adoption and the change of the first name are connected to higher levels of depression and low self-esteem and to more frequent perceptions of negligent or authoritarian parenting style. The contact with the biological family was frequently mentioned among those who perceived their parents as authoritative and presented the best indicator of mood and self-esteem. These findings were discussed in light of the necessity for multidisciplinary actions which can improve the psychological adaptation of the adopting families.

  14. Mesoscale Effective Property Simulations Incorporating Conductive Binder

    DOE PAGES

    Trembacki, Bradley L.; Noble, David R.; Brunini, Victor E.; ...

    2017-07-26

    Lithium-ion battery electrodes are composed of active material particles, binder, and conductive additives that form an electrolyte-filled porous particle composite. The mesoscale (particle-scale) interplay of electrochemistry, mechanical deformation, and transport through this tortuous multi-component network dictates the performance of a battery at the cell-level. Effective electrode properties connect mesoscale phenomena with computationally feasible battery-scale simulations. We utilize published tomography data to reconstruct a large subsection (1000+ particles) of an NMC333 cathode into a computational mesh and extract electrode-scale effective properties from finite element continuum-scale simulations. We present a novel method to preferentially place a composite binder phase throughout the mesostructure,more » a necessary approach due difficulty distinguishing between non-active phases in tomographic data. We compare stress generation and effective thermal, electrical, and ionic conductivities across several binder placement approaches. Isotropic lithiation-dependent mechanical swelling of the NMC particles and the consideration of strain-dependent composite binder conductivity significantly impact the resulting effective property trends and stresses generated. Lastly, our results suggest that composite binder location significantly affects mesoscale behavior, indicating that a binder coating on active particles is not sufficient and that more accurate approaches should be used when calculating effective properties that will inform battery-scale models in this inherently multi-scale battery simulation challenge.« less

  15. Reverse-total shoulder arthroplasty cost-effectiveness: A quality-adjusted life years comparison with total hip arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Bachman, Daniel; Nyland, John; Krupp, Ryan

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To compare reverse-total shoulder arthroplasty (RSA) cost-effectiveness with total hip arthroplasty cost-effectiveness. METHODS: This study used a stochastic model and decision-making algorithm to compare the cost-effectiveness of RSA and total hip arthroplasty. Fifteen patients underwent pre-operative, and 3, 6, and 12 mo post-operative clinical examinations and Short Form-36 Health Survey completion. Short form-36 Health Survey subscale scores were converted to EuroQual Group Five Dimension Health Outcome scores and compared with historical data from age-matched patients who had undergone total hip arthroplasty. Quality-adjusted life year (QALY) improvements based on life expectancies were calculated. RESULTS: The cost/QALY was $3900 for total hip arthroplasty and $11100 for RSA. After adjusting the model to only include shoulder-specific physical function subscale items, the RSA QALY improved to 2.8 years, and its cost/QALY decreased to $8100. CONCLUSION: Based on industry accepted standards, cost/QALY estimates supported both RSA and total hip arthroplasty cost-effectiveness. Although total hip arthroplasty remains the quality of life improvement “gold standard” among arthroplasty procedures, cost/QALY estimates identified in this study support the growing use of RSA to improve patient quality of life. PMID:26925384

  16. Reverse-total shoulder arthroplasty cost-effectiveness: A quality-adjusted life years comparison with total hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Bachman, Daniel; Nyland, John; Krupp, Ryan

    2016-02-18

    To compare reverse-total shoulder arthroplasty (RSA) cost-effectiveness with total hip arthroplasty cost-effectiveness. This study used a stochastic model and decision-making algorithm to compare the cost-effectiveness of RSA and total hip arthroplasty. Fifteen patients underwent pre-operative, and 3, 6, and 12 mo post-operative clinical examinations and Short Form-36 Health Survey completion. Short form-36 Health Survey subscale scores were converted to EuroQual Group Five Dimension Health Outcome scores and compared with historical data from age-matched patients who had undergone total hip arthroplasty. Quality-adjusted life year (QALY) improvements based on life expectancies were calculated. The cost/QALY was $3900 for total hip arthroplasty and $11100 for RSA. After adjusting the model to only include shoulder-specific physical function subscale items, the RSA QALY improved to 2.8 years, and its cost/QALY decreased to $8100. Based on industry accepted standards, cost/QALY estimates supported both RSA and total hip arthroplasty cost-effectiveness. Although total hip arthroplasty remains the quality of life improvement "gold standard" among arthroplasty procedures, cost/QALY estimates identified in this study support the growing use of RSA to improve patient quality of life.

  17. Labor Market Effects of Human Capital and of Its Adjustment to Technological Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mincer, Jacob

    This document, a review of labor market effects of human capital, focuses on two related topics. Part I describes the following early findings of the research on effects of education and job training on the wage structure, labor turnover, and unemployment: decline of training with experience, positive and significant effects of training on length…

  18. Effective property of tooth enamel: monoclinic behavior.

    PubMed

    Lu, Cunyou; Nakamura, Toshio; Korach, Chad S

    2012-05-11

    Human tooth enamel possesses a unique morphology characterized by a repeated cell arrangement, which is composed of varying orientations of hydroxyapatite crystals. In the past, various investigators have reported diverse mechanical properties based on isotropic or orthotropic mechanical models in their experimental and numerical studies. However, these models are insufficient to capture the accurate microstructural effects on the enamel mechanical response. In this paper, a monoclinic anisotropic model, which offers correct descriptions of enamel deformation behaviors, is introduced. The model takes into account the 3D orientation changes of the hydroxyapatite crystals and their spatial elastic property variations. The proposed approach is based on a unit-cell and periodic boundary conditions, and it utilizes the collective deformation characteristics of many rods to determine 13 independent material constants required for the monoclinic model. These constants are necessary to utilize the effective property model to study various mechanical conditions such as abrasion, erosion, wear and fracture of whole tooth enamel.

  19. Aviation fuel property effects on altitude relight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venkataramani, K.

    1987-01-01

    The major objective of this experimental program was to investigate the effects of fuel property variation on altitude relight characteristics. Four fuels with widely varying volatility properties (JP-4, Jet A, a blend of Jet A and 2040 Solvent, and Diesel 2) were tested in a five-swirl-cup-sector combustor at inlet temperatures and flows representative of windmilling conditions of turbofan engines. The effects of fuel physical properties on atomization were eliminated by using four sets of pressure-atomizing nozzles designed to give the same spray Sauter mean diameter (50 + or - 10 micron) for each fuel at the same design fuel flow. A second series of tests was run with a set of air-blast nozzles. With comparable atomization levels, fuel volatility assumes only a secondary role for first-swirl-cup lightoff and complete blowout. Full propagation first-cup blowout were independent of fuel volatility and depended only on the combustor operating conditions.

  20. Effect of a variability-adjusted algorithm on the efficiency of perimetric testing.

    PubMed

    Gardiner, Stuart K

    2014-05-06

    Variability in perimetry increases with the amount of damage, making it difficult for testing algorithms to efficiently converge to the true sensitivity. This study describes a variability-adjusted algorithm (VAA), in which step size increases with variability. Contrasts were transformed to a new scale wherein the SD of frequency-of-seeing curves remains 1 unit for any sensitivity. A Bayesian thresholding procedure based on the existing Zippy Estimation by Sequential Testing (ZEST) algorithm was simulated on this new scale, and results converted back to decibels. The root-mean-squared (RMS) error from true sensitivity based on these simulations was compared against that achieved by ZEST using the same number of presentations. The procedure was repeated after limiting sensitivities to 15 dB or higher, the lower limit of reliable sensitivities using standard white-on-white perimetry in glaucoma, for both algorithms. When the true sensitivity was 35 dB, with starting estimate also 35 dB, RMS errors of the algorithms were similar, ranging from 1.39 dB to 1.60 dB. When true sensitivity was instead 20 dB, with starting estimate 35 dB, VAA reduced the RMS error from 7.43 dB to 3.66 dB. Limiting sensitivities at 15 dB or higher reduced RMS errors, except when true sensitivity was near 15 dB. VAA reduces perimetric variability without increasing test duration in cases in which the starting estimate of sensitivity is too high; for example, due to a small scotoma. Limiting the range of possible sensitivities at 15 dB or higher made algorithms more efficient, unless the true sensitivity was near this limit. This framework provides a new family of test algorithms that may benefit patients.

  1. Effect of a Variability-Adjusted Algorithm on the Efficiency of Perimetric Testing

    PubMed Central

    Gardiner, Stuart K.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. Variability in perimetry increases with the amount of damage, making it difficult for testing algorithms to efficiently converge to the true sensitivity. This study describes a variability-adjusted algorithm (VAA), in which step size increases with variability. Methods. Contrasts were transformed to a new scale wherein the SD of frequency-of-seeing curves remains 1 unit for any sensitivity. A Bayesian thresholding procedure based on the existing Zippy Estimation by Sequential Testing (ZEST) algorithm was simulated on this new scale, and results converted back to decibels. The root-mean-squared (RMS) error from true sensitivity based on these simulations was compared against that achieved by ZEST using the same number of presentations. The procedure was repeated after limiting sensitivities to 15 dB or higher, the lower limit of reliable sensitivities using standard white-on-white perimetry in glaucoma, for both algorithms. Results. When the true sensitivity was 35 dB, with starting estimate also 35 dB, RMS errors of the algorithms were similar, ranging from 1.39 dB to 1.60 dB. When true sensitivity was instead 20 dB, with starting estimate 35 dB, VAA reduced the RMS error from 7.43 dB to 3.66 dB. Limiting sensitivities at 15 dB or higher reduced RMS errors, except when true sensitivity was near 15 dB. Conclusions. VAA reduces perimetric variability without increasing test duration in cases in which the starting estimate of sensitivity is too high; for example, due to a small scotoma. Limiting the range of possible sensitivities at 15 dB or higher made algorithms more efficient, unless the true sensitivity was near this limit. This framework provides a new family of test algorithms that may benefit patients. PMID:24713484

  2. Monte Carlo Investigation on the Effect of Heterogeneities on Strut Adjusted Volume Implant (SAVI) Dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koontz, Craig

    Breast cancer is the most prevalent cancer for women with more than 225,000 new cases diagnosed in the United States in 2012 (ACS, 2012). With the high prevalence, comes an increased emphasis on researching new techniques to treat this disease. Accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) has been used as an alternative to whole breast irradiation (WBI) in order to treat occult disease after lumpectomy. Similar recurrence rates have been found using ABPI after lumpectomy as with mastectomy alone, but with the added benefit of improved cosmetic and psychological results. Intracavitary brachytherapy devices have been used to deliver the APBI prescription. However, inability to produce asymmetric dose distributions in order to avoid overdosing skin and chest wall has been an issue with these devices. Multi-lumen devices were introduced to overcome this problem. Of these, the Strut-Adjusted Volume Implant (SAVI) has demonstrated the greatest ability to produce an asymmetric dose distribution, which would have greater ability to avoid skin and chest wall dose, and thus allow more women to receive this type of treatment. However, SAVI treatments come with inherent heterogeneities including variable backscatter due to the proximity to the tissue-air and tissue-lung interfaces and variable contents within the cavity created by the SAVI. The dose calculation protocol based on TG-43 does not account for heterogeneities and thus will not produce accurate dosimetry; however Acuros, a model-based dose calculation algorithm manufactured by Varian Medical Systems, claims to accurately account for heterogeneities. Monte Carlo simulation can calculate the dosimetry with high accuracy. In this thesis, a model of the SAVI will be created for Monte Carlo, specifically using MCNP code, in order to explore the affects of heterogeneities on the dose distribution. This data will be compared to TG-43 and Acuros calculated dosimetry to explore their accuracy.

  3. Microbial effect on soil hydraulic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furman, Alex; Rosenzweig, Ravid; Volk, Elazar; Rosenkranz, Hella; Iden, Sascha; Durner, Wolfgang

    2014-05-01

    Although largely ignored, the soil contains large amount of biofilms (attached microbes) that can affect many processes. While biochemical processes are studied, biophysical processes receive only little attention. Biofilms may occupy some of the pore space, and by that affect the soil hydraulic properties. This effect on unsaturated soils, however, was not intensively studied. In this research we directly measure the hydraulic properties, namely the soil's unsaturated hydraulic conductivity function and retention curve, for soils containing real biofilm. To do that we inoculate soil with biofilm-forming bacteria and incubate it with sufficient amounts of nutrient until biofilm is formed. The hydraulic properties of the incubated soil are then measured using several techniques, including multi-step outflow and evaporation method. The longer measurements (evaporation method) are conducted under refrigeration conditions to minimize microbial activity during the experiment. The results show a clear effect of the biofilm, where the biofilm-affected soil (sandy loam in our case) behaves like a much finer soil. This qualitatively makes sense as the biofilm generates an effective pore size distribution that is characterized by smaller pores. However, the effect is much more complex and needs to be studied carefully considering (for example) dual porosity models. We compare our preliminary results with other experiments, including flow-through column experiments and experiments with biofilm analogues. Clearly a better understanding of the way microbial activity alters the hydraulic properties may help designing more efficient bioremediation, irrigation, and other soil-related processes.

  4. Development of adjustment functions to assess combined safety effects of multiple treatments on rural two-lane roadways.

    PubMed

    Park, Juneyoung; Abdel-Aty, Mohamed

    2015-02-01

    Numerous studies have attempted to evaluate the safety effectiveness of specific single treatment on roadways by estimating crash modification factors (CMFs). However, there is a need to also assess safety effects of multiple treatments since multiple treatments are usually simultaneously applied to roadways. Due to the lack of sufficient CMFs of multiple treatments, the Highway Safety Manual (HSM) provides combining method for multiple CMFs. However, it is cautioned in the HSM and related sources that combined safety effect of multiple CMFs may be over or under estimated. Moreover, the literature did not evaluate the accuracy of the combining method using CMFs obtained from the same study area. Thus, the main objectives of this research are: (1) to estimate CMFs and crash modification functions (CM Functions) for two single treatments (shoulder rumble strips, widening (1-9ft) shoulder width) and combination (installing shoulder rumble strips+widening shoulder width) using the observational before-after with empirical Bayes (EB) method and (2) to develop adjustment factors and functions to assess combined safety effects of multiple treatments based on the accuracy of the combined CMFs for multiple treatments estimated by the existing combining method. Data was collected for rural two-lane roadways in Florida and Florida-specific safety performance functions (SPFs) were estimated for different crash types and severities. The CM Functions and adjustment functions were developed using linear and nonlinear regression models. The results of before-after with EB method show that the two single treatments and combination are effective in reducing total and SVROR (single vehicle run-off roadway) crashes. The results indicate that the treatments were more safety effective for the roadway segments with narrower original shoulder width in the before period. It was found that although the CMFs for multiple treatments (i.e., combination of two single treatments) were generally

  5. The Effect of an Adjustable Hinged Operating Table on Lumbar Lordosis during Lumbar Surgery.

    PubMed

    Sebastian, Arjun; Ahmed, Amin; Vernon, Brian; Nguyen, Emily C; Aleem, Ilyas; Clarke, Michelle J; Currier, Bradford L; Anderson, Paul; Bydon, Mohamad; Nassr, Ahmad

    2017-07-24

    Prospective observational study OBJECTIVES.: Quantify the amount of lumbar lordosis achieved on a hinged operative table in neutral, flexion, and extension. Hinged operative tables may allow surgeons to adjust lumbar spine positioning intraoperatively. The amount of lumbar lordosis in neutral, flexion, and extension positions has not been quantified prospectively using a hinged table. Thirty patients undergoing elective lumbar surgery were enrolled. Standing x-rays taken in neutral, maximal flexion, and maximal extension were obtained. Following prone positioning on a hinged operative table, x-rays in neutral, maximal flexion, and maximal extension were taken. Total lumbar lordosis was calculated for all 6 images by two physicians. Disc degeneration was graded using Pfirrmann grades. Lumbar lordosis on the operative table was 56.5 ± 2.1, 43.6 ± 2.2, 63.2 ± 2.0 compared to 46.9 ± 3.1, 33.2 ± 2.8, 52.3 ± 3.3 on the standing films in neutral, flexion, and extension respectively. Average flexion (12.9 ± 1.1) and extension (6.7 ± 1.2) were significantly different from neutral on the table (p < .001). Lumbar lordosis was significantly higher on the operative table (p < .001). Total range of motion was 19.6 ± 1.9 on the table and 19.1 ± 2.0 with standing (p = 0.42). Average Pfirrmann disc grade was 2.77 ± 0.10 which did not correlate with range of motion (p = 0.40). In this cohort, the hinged operative table allowed for a physiologic arc of motion of nearly 20 from flexion to extension. A considerable amount of lumbar sagittal motion can be obtained on hinged operative tables without decreasing overall lumbar lordosis below physiologic levels. 3.

  6. Life Stress and Adjustment: Effects of Life Events Experienced by Young Adolescents and Their Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Lawrence H.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Used a longitudinal design to test the effects of life events experienced by young adolescents and their parents. Criteria were the adolescents' depression, anxiety and self-esteem. Analysis showed a significant effect for the adolescents' controllable, but not uncontrollable, negative events. (Author/RWB)

  7. Development of Adjustable Grazing Incidence Optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, Paul B.; Davis, W.; Schwartz, D. A.; Trolier-McKinstry, S.; Wilke, R. H. T.

    2010-03-01

    We report on the development of adjustable grazing incidence optics. We are developing bimorph mirrors for high resolution (sub-arc second) imaging. Bimorph mirrors consist of a thin layer of piezo-electric material deposited on the back surface of a thin (< 0.4 mm) thermally formed glass or electroplated metal segmented mirror. Voltage applied across the thickness of the piezo produces a strain in the plane of the mirror surface. The strain produces bending of the mirror similar to the bi-metallic effect. No reaction structure is necessary, which allows one to densely nest mirror shells for large effective area. A pixilated array of outer electrodes on the piezo material localizes the strain to the particular piezo "pixel.” Mirror figure errors are corrected (on-orbit) via induced localized deformations. We have successfully deposited a 1-micrometer thick layer of the piezo-electric material lead-zirconate-titanate (PZT) on thin glass mirrors. We report on the electrical and mechanical properties of the bimorph mirrors, and mirror requirements. We discuss finite element modeling of bimorph mirrors. In particular, we focus on how a difference in mirror mounting affects the influence functions ( the induced deformations). We are also developing the use of electrostrictive adjusters for moderate resolution (a few arc second) imaging. Electroplated nickel/cobalt full shells are mounted together using the adjusters. The adjusters are arrayed axially and tangentially between shells, with their adjustable dimension in the radial direction. Each shell is adjusted and fixed in place during mirror assembly, starting with the innermost shell. We review finite element modeling of the adjustable optics and the application of the adjustment system to correct manufacturing errors. We discuss initial tests using electrostrictive adjusters to change the shape of flat mirror segments. This work is supported by NASA Contract NNX09AE87G and a grant from the Gordon and Betty Moore

  8. Analysis of error-prone survival data under additive hazards models: measurement error effects and adjustments.

    PubMed

    Yan, Ying; Yi, Grace Y

    2016-07-01

    Covariate measurement error occurs commonly in survival analysis. Under the proportional hazards model, measurement error effects have been well studied, and various inference methods have been developed to correct for error effects under such a model. In contrast, error-contaminated survival data under the additive hazards model have received relatively less attention. In this paper, we investigate this problem by exploring measurement error effects on parameter estimation and the change of the hazard function. New insights of measurement error effects are revealed, as opposed to well-documented results for the Cox proportional hazards model. We propose a class of bias correction estimators that embraces certain existing estimators as special cases. In addition, we exploit the regression calibration method to reduce measurement error effects. Theoretical results for the developed methods are established, and numerical assessments are conducted to illustrate the finite sample performance of our methods.

  9. Surfactant concentration effects on micellar properties.

    PubMed

    Jusufi, Arben; LeBard, David N; Levine, Benjamin G; Klein, Michael L

    2012-01-26

    A hydrophobic theory is combined with a Debye-Hückel approximation to calculate surfactant micellization properties such as the critical micelle concentration (cmc) and concentration effects. The predictive power of the theory is validated by comparison with experimental data of various ionic surfactant types in presence of salt. The theory is also used to describe micellar properties of surfactant models developed for molecular simulations for which cmc computations become infeasible. The theory allows such computations and helps to evaluate the quality of models used in simulations.

  10. Analytical fuel property effects--small combustors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutton, R. D.; Troth, D. L.; Miles, G. A.

    1984-01-01

    The consequences of using broad-property fuels in both conventional and advanced state-of-the-art small gas turbine combustors are assessed. Eight combustor concepts were selected for initial screening, of these, four final combustor concepts were chosen for further detailed analysis. These included the dual orifice injector baseline combustor (a current production 250-C30 engine combustor) two baseline airblast injected modifications, short and piloted prechamber combustors, and an advanced airblast injected, variable geometry air staged combustor. Final predictions employed the use of the STAC-I computer code. This quasi 2-D model includes real fuel properties, effects of injector type on atomization, detailed droplet dynamics, and multistep chemical kinetics. In general, fuel property effects on various combustor concepts can be classified as chemical or physical in nature. Predictions indicate that fuel chemistry has a significant effect on flame radiation, liner wall temperature, and smoke emission. Fuel physical properties that govern atomization quality and evaporation rates are predicted to affect ignition and lean-blowout limits, combustion efficiency, unburned hydrocarbon, and carbon monoxide emissions.

  11. Providing stability of properties of filled polymers under the joint effect of exploitation factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minakova, N. N.; Ushakov, V. Ya.

    2016-11-01

    The present work is devoted to a search for the structural parameter that can be used to adjust the structure of a resistive polymer composite material stable against the action of exploitation factors. The objects of research are polymers filled with technical carbon. Various approaches have been developed for them to control the stability of their properties: application of polymers of different chemical compositions and electroconductive filler with different concentrations, grades, and surface modifications. The following main problems have been formulated: based on an analysis of physical structurization processes, to reveal geometrical parameters determining the stability of properties under the joint effect of the exploitation factors; to adjust the structural parameter that responds to these factors; to check its efficiency; to estimate the importance of factors that influence the stability of the properties; and to propose an approach to the adjustment of the main material components to provide the stability of properties under the effect of the exploitation factors. The structural parameter was adjusted based on the physical principles developed earlier by the authors of the present report and other authors, whose publications are given in the References. It has been established that the stability of properties to the joint influence of the exploitation factors can be determined by the structural parameter that responds to branching of the electroconductive grid in a comparative analysis of the known material and the material being synthesized. Its application allows the problem of adjusting the material components to be also solved in the case in which identical values of the specific volume electrical resistances are formed for different elemental compositions.

  12. Effective structural properties in polycrystalline graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossain, Zubaer

    This talk will discuss effective structural properties in polycrystalline graphene under the presence of atomic scale heterogeneity. Polycrystallinity is ubiquitous in solids, but theories describing their effective behavior remain limited, particularly when heterogeneity is present in the form of nonuniform deformation or composition. Over the decades, exploration of the effective transport and strength properties of heterogeneous systems has been carried out mostly with random distribution of grains or regular periodic structures under various approximations, in translating the underlying physics into a single representative volume element. Although heterogeneity can play a critical role in modulating the basic behavior of low-dimensional materials, it is difficult to capture the local characteristics accurately by these approximations. Taking polycrystalline graphene as an example material, we study the effective structural properties (such as Young's Modulus, Poisson's ratio and Toughness) by using a combination of density functional theory and molecular dynamic simulations. We identify the key mechanisms that govern their effective behavior and exploit the understanding to engineer the behavior by doping with a carefully selected choice of chemical elements.

  13. Effective Optical Properties of Plasmonic Nanocomposites

    PubMed Central

    Etrich, Christoph; Fahr, Stephan; Hedayati, Mehdi Keshavarz; Faupel, Franz; Elbahri, Mady; Rockstuhl, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    Plasmonic nanocomposites find many applications, such as nanometric coatings in emerging fields, such as optotronics, photovoltaics or integrated optics. To make use of their ability to affect light propagation in an unprecedented manner, plasmonic nanocomposites should consist of densely packed metallic nanoparticles. This causes a major challenge for their theoretical description, since the reliable assignment of effective optical properties with established effective medium theories is no longer possible. Established theories, e.g., the Maxwell-Garnett formalism, are only applicable for strongly diluted nanocomposites. This effective description, however, is a prerequisite to consider plasmonic nanocomposites in the design of optical devices. Here, we mitigate this problem and use full wave optical simulations to assign effective properties to plasmonic nanocomposites with filling fractions close to the percolation threshold. We show that these effective properties can be used to properly predict the optical action of functional devices that contain nanocomposites in their design. With this contribution we pave the way to consider plasmonic nanocomposites comparably to ordinary materials in the design of optical elements. PMID:28788484

  14. Socio-economic status and family structure differences in early trajectories of child adjustment: Individual and neighbourhood effects.

    PubMed

    Flouri, Eirini; Midouhas, Emily; Ruddy, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    We examined the effects of single-parent family status and high parental socio-economic status (SES) on the trajectories of children's emotional/behavioural adjustment in early-to-middle childhood (ages 3-7 years). We also assessed whether these family characteristics interact with the equivalent neighbourhood characteristics of shares of single-parent families and high-SES adults in predicting these trajectories. Using data on 9850 children in England participating in the Millennium Cohort Study, we found that family status and parental SES predicted children's trajectories of adjustment. Even after controlling for these family factors and key child and parent characteristics, the neighbourhood shares of high-SES adults and single-parent families were related (negatively and positively, respectively) to child problem behaviour. Importantly, children of low-SES parents in neighbourhoods with a high concentration of high-SES adults had fewer emotional symptoms than their counterparts in areas with fewer high-SES adults. Surprisingly, the adverse effect of single-parent family status on child hyperactivity was attenuated in areas with a higher share of single-parent families.

  15. Prior event rate ratio adjustment for hidden confounding in observational studies of treatment effectiveness: a pairwise Cox likelihood approach.

    PubMed

    Lin, Nan Xuan; Henley, William Edward

    2016-12-10

    Observational studies provide a rich source of information for assessing effectiveness of treatment interventions in many situations where it is not ethical or practical to perform randomized controlled trials. However, such studies are prone to bias from hidden (unmeasured) confounding. A promising approach to identifying and reducing the impact of unmeasured confounding is prior event rate ratio (PERR) adjustment, a quasi-experimental analytic method proposed in the context of electronic medical record database studies. In this paper, we present a statistical framework for using a pairwise approach to PERR adjustment that removes bias inherent in the original PERR method. A flexible pairwise Cox likelihood function is derived and used to demonstrate the consistency of the simple and convenient alternative PERR (PERR-ALT) estimator. We show how to estimate standard errors and confidence intervals for treatment effect estimates based on the observed information and provide R code to illustrate how to implement the method. Assumptions required for the pairwise approach (as well as PERR) are clarified, and the consequences of model misspecification are explored. Our results confirm the need for researchers to consider carefully the suitability of the method in the context of each problem. Extensions of the pairwise likelihood to more complex designs involving time-varying covariates or more than two periods are considered. We illustrate the application of the method using data from a longitudinal cohort study of enzyme replacement therapy for lysosomal storage disorders. © 2016 The Authors. Statistics in Medicine Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. The effect of pH adjustment of 0.5% bupivacaine on the latency of epidural anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Stevens, R A; Chester, W L; Grueter, J A; Schubert, A; Brandon, D; Clayton, B; Spitzer, L

    1989-01-01

    pH adjustment of lidocaine and 2-chloroprocaine has been reported to decrease the latency of epidural anesthesia (EA). The effect of alkalinization of bupivacaine on onset of surgical anesthesia has not been adequately studied to date. To determine what effect raising the pH of 0.5% bupivacaine has on the latency of EA in patients undergoing lower extremity surgery, we performed a randomized, double-blind study. Forty patients were randomly divided into two groups. Group I patients received 15 ml of a local anesthetic (LA) solution containing 0.5% bupivacaine and 0.15 mEq of NaHCO3. Group II patients received 15 ml of a standard solution of 0.5% bupivacaine. Both solutions contained freshly added epinephrine (1:200,000). After injection of LA via Tuohy needle, sensory testing was conducted using a safety pin. The pH of the LA used for Group I was 6.96 +/- 0.01 and for Group II was 5.33 +/- 0.11. No statistically significant difference was found between the anesthetic parameters tested in each group. On this basis, we find no advantage of pH adjustment of 0.5% bupivacaine for EA.

  17. Adjustment of minimum seismic shear coefficient considering site effects for long-period structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Minsheng; Du, Hongbiao; Cui, Jie; Zeng, Qingli; Jiang, Haibo

    2016-06-01

    Minimum seismic base shear is a key factor employed in the seismic design of long-period structures, which is specified in some of the major national seismic building codes viz. ASCE7-10, NZS1170.5 and GB50011-2010. In current Chinese seismic design code GB50011-2010, however, effects of soil types on the minimum seismic shear coefficient are not considered, which causes problems for long-period structures sited in hard or rock soil to meet the minimum base shear requirement. This paper aims to modify the current minimum seismic shear coefficient by taking into account site effects. For this purpose, effective peak acceleration (EPA) is used as a representation for the ordinate value of the design response spectrum at the plateau. A large amount of earthquake records, for which EPAs are calculated, are examined through the statistical analysis by considering soil conditions as well as the seismic fortification intensities. The study indicates that soil types have a significant effect on the spectral ordinates at the plateau as well as the minimum seismic shear coefficient. Modified factors related to the current minimum seismic shear coefficient are preliminarily suggested for each site class. It is shown that the modified seismic shear coefficients are more effective to the determination of minimum seismic base shear of long-period structures.

  18. Bounds on the average causal effects in randomized trials with noncompliance by covariate adjustment.

    PubMed

    Shan, Na; Xu, Ping-Feng

    2016-11-01

    In randomized trials with noncompliance, causal effects cannot be identified without strong assumptions. Therefore, several authors have considered bounds on the causal effects. Applying an idea of VanderWeele (), Chiba () gave bounds on the average causal effects in randomized trials with noncompliance using the information on the randomized assignment, the treatment received and the outcome under monotonicity assumptions about covariates. But he did not consider any observed covariates. If there are some observed covariates such as age, gender, and race in a trial, we propose new bounds using the observed covariate information under some monotonicity assumptions similar to those of VanderWeele and Chiba. And we compare the three bounds in a real example. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Relationship between efficiency and clinical effectiveness indicators in an adjusted model of resource consumption: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Adjusted clinical groups (ACG®) have been widely used to adjust resource distribution; however, the relationship with effectiveness has been questioned. The purpose of the study was to measure the relationship between efficiency assessed by ACG® and a clinical effectiveness indicator in adults attended in Primary Health Care Centres (PHCs). Methods Research design: cross-sectional study. Subjects: 196, 593 patients aged >14 years in 13 PHCs in Catalonia (Spain). Measures: Age, sex, PHC, basic care team (BCT), visits, episodes (diagnoses), and total direct costs of PHC care and co-morbidity as measured by ACG® indicators: Efficiency indices for costs, visits, and episodes (costs EI, visits EI, episodes EI); a complexity or risk index (RI); and effectiveness measured by a general synthetic index (SI). The relationship between EI, RI, and SI in each PHC and BCT was measured by multiple correlation coefficients (r). Results In total, 56 of the 106 defined ACG® were present in the study population, with five corresponding to 44.5% of the patients, 11 to 68.0% of patients, and 30 present in less than 0.5% of the sample. The RI in each PHC ranged from 0.9 to 1.1. Costs, visits, and episodes had similar trends for efficiency in six PHCs. There was moderate correlation between costs EI and visits EI (r = 0.59). SI correlation with episodes EI and costs EI was moderate (r = 0.48 and r = −0.34, respectively) and was r = −0.14 for visits EI. Correlation between RI and SI was r = 0.29. Conclusions The Efficiency and Effectiveness ACG® indicators permit a comparison of primary care processes between PHCs. Acceptable correlation exists between effectiveness and indicators of efficiency in episodes and costs. PMID:24139144

  20. The Effects of the "Language for Learning" Programme on the Social Adjustment of Kindergarten Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benner, Gregory J.; Zeng, Songtian

    2017-01-01

    The results of previous research on the "Language for Learning" programme suggest that it produces positive effects on the intellectual, language, and social skills of young children with and without disabilities [Benner, G. J., Trout, A., Nordness, P. N., Nelson, J. R., Knobel, M. L., Epstein, A.,…Epstein, M. H. (2002). "The…

  1. Longitudinal Effects of Teacher and Student Perceptions of Teacher-Student Relationship Qualities on Academic Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Jan N.

    2011-01-01

    The shared and unique effects of teacher and student reports of teacher-student relationship quality (TSRQ) in second and third grade on academic self-views, behavioral engagement, and achievement the following year were investigated in a sample of 714 academically at-risk students. Teacher and student reports of teacher-student support and…

  2. Treatment effects of methylphenidate on behavioral adjustment in children with mental retardation and ADHD.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Deborah A; Santos, Cynthia W; Roache, John D; Casat, Charles D; Loveland, Katherine A; Lachar, David; Lane, David M; Faria, Laura P; Cleveland, Lynne A

    2003-02-01

    The effects of stimulant medication treatment were investigated in children with mental retardation (MR) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Parent and teacher behavioral ratings and reports of side effects were obtained for children (N = 24, mean age = 10.9 years, SD = 2.4) during a placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover treatment trial with 0.15 mg/kg, 0.30 mg/kg, and 0.60 mg/kg b.i.d. dosages of methylphenidate. The most significant improvements occurred at the 0.60 mg/kg methylphenidate dose for teacher ratings of inattention (p =.024), hyperactivity (p <.001), aggression (p <.001), and asocial behavior (p =.009). No significant improvements, relative to placebo, occurred at the 0.15 mg/kg dosage. Of interest, nearly all significant medication-related behavioral improvements were detected by teachers. However, parents were sensitive raters of side effects, noting more sleeping problems and loss of appetite at the 0.60 mg/kg dose compared with placebo. These results suggest that symptoms of ADHD can be treated successfully in children with ADHD/MR, and consistent with MTA study results, higher doses were most effective. Furthermore, these improvements were not accompanied by increases in symptoms such as staring, social withdrawal, or anxiety.

  3. The Effects of Cross-Cultural Communication Education on International Students' Adjustment and Adaptation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Tony J.; Schartner, Alina

    2014-01-01

    The recent increase in the provision of cross- and intercultural education for sojourners has not been matched by commensurate research into its effects on participants. Evaluation, where undertaken at all, has been largely confined to expatriate business contexts and has tended to be undertaken pre-sojourn. Crucially, evaluation has not engaged…

  4. Socioenvironmental Risk and Adjustment in Latino Youth: The Mediating Effects of Family Processes and Social Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prelow, Hazel M.; Loukas, Alexandra; Jordan-Green, Lisa

    2007-01-01

    The direct and mediated effects of socioenvironmental risk on internalizing and externalizing problems among Latino youth aged 10-14 were examined using prospective analyses. Participants in this study were 464 Latino mother and child dyads surveyed as part of the "Welfare, Children & Families: A Three City Study." It was hypothesized that…

  5. The Effects of Cross-Cultural Communication Education on International Students' Adjustment and Adaptation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Tony J.; Schartner, Alina

    2014-01-01

    The recent increase in the provision of cross- and intercultural education for sojourners has not been matched by commensurate research into its effects on participants. Evaluation, where undertaken at all, has been largely confined to expatriate business contexts and has tended to be undertaken pre-sojourn. Crucially, evaluation has not engaged…

  6. Impact of Father Involvement: A Closer Look at Indirect Effects Models Involving Marriage and Child Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goeke-Morey, Marcie C.; Cummings, E. Mark

    2007-01-01

    In this article we present a framework for understanding the indirect effects of fathering on child development in the context of the marriage. We discuss three central pathways of influence: through relations between marital quality and fathering, through children's exposure to father expressions of marital discord, and through relations between…

  7. Effects of School Mobility on Adolescent Social Ties and Academic Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langenkamp, Amy G.

    2016-01-01

    Why are transfer students at an increased risk for disengagement and dropout? Previous research suggests that the loss of school-based social relationships play a role. Data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) are used to analyze what predicts student transfer and what effect this has on students' social…

  8. Effects of Multiple Context and Cumulative Stress on Urban Children's Adjustment in Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morales, Julie R.; Guerra, Nancy G.

    2006-01-01

    Using longitudinal data collected over 2 years on a sample of 2,745 urban elementary school children (1st-6th graders, ages 6-11 years) from economically disadvantaged communities, effects of stressful experiences within 3 contexts (school, family, neighborhood), cumulative stress, and multiple context stress on 3 indices of children's adjustment…

  9. Romantic Relationships and Adjustment Problems in China: The Moderating Effect of Classroom Romantic Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hou, Jinqin; Natsuaki, Misaki N.; Zhang, Jianxin; Guo, Fei; Huang, Zheng; Wang, Mianbo; Chen, Zhiyan

    2013-01-01

    Theoretical and empirical research has shown that adolescent romantic relationships are associated with a wide range of developmental outcomes, including adverse consequences. The present study used a hierarchical linear model to examine the moderating effect of classroom romantic context on the association between adolescent romantic…

  10. Romantic Relationships and Adjustment Problems in China: The Moderating Effect of Classroom Romantic Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hou, Jinqin; Natsuaki, Misaki N.; Zhang, Jianxin; Guo, Fei; Huang, Zheng; Wang, Mianbo; Chen, Zhiyan

    2013-01-01

    Theoretical and empirical research has shown that adolescent romantic relationships are associated with a wide range of developmental outcomes, including adverse consequences. The present study used a hierarchical linear model to examine the moderating effect of classroom romantic context on the association between adolescent romantic…

  11. Effects of School Mobility on Adolescent Social Ties and Academic Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langenkamp, Amy G.

    2016-01-01

    Why are transfer students at an increased risk for disengagement and dropout? Previous research suggests that the loss of school-based social relationships play a role. Data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) are used to analyze what predicts student transfer and what effect this has on students' social…

  12. Effectiveness of Home Visiting as a Strategy for Promoting Children's Adjustment to School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkland, Kristen

    2013-01-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that involving families in home visiting services promotes positive experiences during the initial years of a child's life; however less is known about whether or not the benefits continue to accrue after a child enters school. This article describes the results of a study examining the effectiveness of an…

  13. Child Adjustment and Parent Functioning: Considering the Role of Child Driven Effects

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Ni; Ansari, Arya

    2016-01-01

    Based on 13,694 mother-child dyads from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Kindergarten Cohort (ECLS-K), this study examined the bidirectional relations between parental and child functioning from kindergarten through third grade. Results from the cross-lagged models demonstrated that child-driven effects co-occurred with parental effects and these effects were comparable in size. At the same time, however, results from the latent profile analysis revealed idiosyncratic patterns of parent and child functioning. Compared with children in the least optimal functioning profiles, those in the average and above average profiles elicited greater improvements in parents’ functioning over time. Although children characterized by poor academic performance at kindergarten appeared to precede parents characterized by harsh parenting at third grade, there was a threshold in the evolving strength of the overall child-driven effects. Taken together, the results from this study underscore the importance of considering reciprocal processes in the parent-child dynamic while also underscoring individual differences in these processes across the early to middle childhood years. PMID:26866838

  14. Child adjustment and parent functioning: Considering the role of child-driven effects.

    PubMed

    Yan, Ni; Ansari, Arya

    2016-04-01

    Based on 13,694 mother-child dyads from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Kindergarten Study (ECLS-K; Rock & Pollack, 2002; Tourangeau, Nord, Lê, Sorongon, & Najarian, 2009), this study is an examination of the bidirectional relations between parental and child functioning from kindergarten through 3rd grade. Results from the cross-lagged models demonstrated that child-driven effects co-occurred with parental effects, and that these effects were comparable in size. At the same time, however, results from the latent profile analysis (LPA) revealed idiosyncratic patterns of parent and child functioning. Compared with children in the least optimal functioning profiles, those in the average and above-average profiles elicited greater improvement in parents' functioning over time. Although children characterized by poor academic performance at kindergarten appeared to precede parents characterized by harsh parenting at 3rd grade, there was a threshold in the evolving strength of the overall child-driven effects. Taken together, the results from this study underscore the importance of considering reciprocal processes in the parent-child dynamic while also underscoring individual differences in these processes across the early- to middle-childhood years.

  15. Socioenvironmental Risk and Adjustment in Latino Youth: The Mediating Effects of Family Processes and Social Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prelow, Hazel M.; Loukas, Alexandra; Jordan-Green, Lisa

    2007-01-01

    The direct and mediated effects of socioenvironmental risk on internalizing and externalizing problems among Latino youth aged 10-14 were examined using prospective analyses. Participants in this study were 464 Latino mother and child dyads surveyed as part of the "Welfare, Children & Families: A Three City Study." It was hypothesized that…

  16. Alcohol's Effects on Lipid Bilayer Properties

    PubMed Central

    Ingólfsson, Helgi I.; Andersen, Olaf S.

    2011-01-01

    Alcohols are known modulators of lipid bilayer properties. Their biological effects have long been attributed to their bilayer-modifying effects, but alcohols can also alter protein function through direct protein interactions. This raises the question: Do alcohol's biological actions result predominantly from direct protein-alcohol interactions or from general changes in the membrane properties? The efficacy of alcohols of various chain lengths tends to exhibit a so-called cutoff effect (i.e., increasing potency with increased chain length, which that eventually levels off). The cutoff varies depending on the assay, and numerous mechanisms have been proposed such as: limited size of the alcohol-protein interaction site, limited alcohol solubility, and a chain-length-dependent lipid bilayer-alcohol interaction. To address these issues, we determined the bilayer-modifying potency of 27 aliphatic alcohols using a gramicidin-based fluorescence assay. All of the alcohols tested (with chain lengths of 1–16 carbons) alter the bilayer properties, as sensed by a bilayer-spanning channel. The bilayer-modifying potency of the short-chain alcohols scales linearly with their bilayer partitioning; the potency tapers off at higher chain lengths, and eventually changes sign for the longest-chain alcohols, demonstrating an alcohol cutoff effect in a system that has no alcohol-binding pocket. PMID:21843475

  17. Teachers and Their International Relocation: The Effect of Self-Efficacy and Flexibility on Adjustment and Outcome Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Kirchenheim, Clement; Richardson, Warnie

    2005-01-01

    In this study the adjustment process in a designated group of expatriates, (teachers), who have severed ties with their home country and employer is investigated. Based on existing literature, the value of self-efficacy and flexibility on the adjustment process was explored. It was hypothesised that adjustment would result in reduced turnover…

  18. School Entry Age: The Effects on School Achievement and Adjustment. An Education Field Problem Research Project Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabinowitz, Linda Gross

    Compared were the academic achievement, personal and social adjustment, and special education referral rates of early, middle, and late school entrants. It was hypothesized that: (1) there is a significant relationship between entry age and achievement and adjustment variables; (2) achievement and adjustment are significantly different among…

  19. Statistical perspective on adjusting for center effect in a 2 x 2 crossover design with application to clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Yue, L Q

    2000-11-01

    Patients for large-scale clinical trials are typically recruited from multiple centers to ensure adequate patient population and timely enrollment. In this note, carryover, treatment, and period effects for continuous data in multicenter studies with a 2 x 2 crossover design are examined using two types of covariate analysis adjusted for center effect proposed by Castellana and Patel (1). The correspondence among F-tests for various sources of variation in the two approaches is derived in detail. An example from a clinical study with complete and incomplete data is given to illustrate the use of the two types of covariate analysis. Also, the impact of complete and incomplete data on the covariate analyses is discussed along with the weighted squares of means analysis used in SAS procedure PROC GLM and residual maximum likelihood (REML) estimation employed in SAS procedure PROC MIXED.

  20. The effects of visitation on incarcerated juvenile offenders: how contact with the outside impacts adjustment on the inside.

    PubMed

    Monahan, Kathryn C; Goldweber, Asha; Cauffman, Elizabeth

    2011-04-01

    The present study investigates how visitation from parents impacts youths' mental health in the first two months of incarceration in a secure juvenile facility. A diverse sample of 276 male, newly incarcerated serious adolescent offenders (14-17 years) was interviewed over a 60-day period. Results indicate that youth who receive visits from parents report more rapid declines in depressive symptoms over time compared to youth who do not receive parental visits. Moreover, these effects are cumulative, such that the greater number of visits from parents, the greater the decrease in depressive symptoms. Importantly, the protective effect of receiving parental visits during incarceration exists regardless of the quality of the parent-adolescent relationship. Policy changes that facilitate visitation may be key for easing adjustment during the initial period of incarceration.

  1. A local adjustment strategy for the initialization of dynamic causal modelling to infer effective connectivity in brain epileptic structures.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Wentao; Karfoul, Ahmad; Shu, Huazhong; Le Bouquin Jeannès, Régine

    2017-03-07

    This paper addresses the question of effective connectivity in the human cerebral cortex in the context of epilepsy. Among model based approaches to infer brain connectivity, spectral Dynamic Causal Modelling is a conventional technique for which we propose an alternative to estimate cross spectral density. The proposed strategy we investigated tackles the sub-estimation of the free energy using the well-known variational Expectation-Maximization algorithm highly sensitive to the initialization of the parameters vector by a permanent local adjustment of the initialization process. The performance of the proposed strategy in terms of effective connectivity identification is assessed using simulated data generated by a neuronal mass model (simulating unidirectional and bidirectional flows) and real epileptic intracerebral Electroencephalographic signals. Results show the efficiency of proposed approach compared to the conventional Dynamic Causal Modelling and the one wherein a deterministic annealing scheme is employed.

  2. Sample-Size Planning for More Accurate Statistical Power: A Method Adjusting Sample Effect Sizes for Publication Bias and Uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Samantha F; Kelley, Ken; Maxwell, Scott E

    2017-09-01

    The sample size necessary to obtain a desired level of statistical power depends in part on the population value of the effect size, which is, by definition, unknown. A common approach to sample-size planning uses the sample effect size from a prior study as an estimate of the population value of the effect to be detected in the future study. Although this strategy is intuitively appealing, effect-size estimates, taken at face value, are typically not accurate estimates of the population effect size because of publication bias and uncertainty. We show that the use of this approach often results in underpowered studies, sometimes to an alarming degree. We present an alternative approach that adjusts sample effect sizes for bias and uncertainty, and we demonstrate its effectiveness for several experimental designs. Furthermore, we discuss an open-source R package, BUCSS, and user-friendly Web applications that we have made available to researchers so that they can easily implement our suggested methods.

  3. Effective Mechanical Properties of Fuzzy Fiber Composites

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-16

    fibers’’. Numerical examples of compositesmade of epoxy resin , carbonfibers and carbon nanotubes are presented and the impact of the carbon nanotubes...allows us to compute effective properties of composites with multiple types of ??fuzzy fibers??. Numerical examples of composites made of epoxy resin ...length (Fig. 1 in [42]). The CNTs have inter- nal radius 0.51 nm and external radius 0.85 nm. The ‘‘fuzzy fibers’’ are embedded in EPIKOTE 862 resin . The

  4. Effects of Benthopelagic Animals on Seabed Properties

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-07

    Effects of Benthopelagic Animals on Seabed Properties D.V. Holliday Marconi Aerospace Analysis and Research Division 4669 Murphy Canyon Road San...ability of benthic biologists and biological oceanographers to observe life on and in the seabed; to describe the interactions between the animals ...bottom. OBJECTIVES Direct observation of animals that live on or in the seabed is exceptionally difficult. This is especially true in areas with

  5. Hormone replacement therapy and breast cancer mortality in Swedish women: results after adjustment for 'healthy drug-user' effect.

    PubMed

    Yuen, J; Persson, I; Bergkvist, L; Hoover, R; Schairer, C; Adami, H O

    1993-07-01

    No change of breast cancer mortality has been reported previously after long-term hormone replacement therapy. A conceivable explanation for the apparent discrepancy between incidence and mortality may be selection bias due to lower prevalence of breast cancer in women who receive replacement hormones, compared with nonexposed women. We used a new approach to correct for bias due to this 'healthy drug-user effect,' by adjusting the external, population-based, mortality rates for such cases prevalent during the recruitment period of our cohort. In this cohort of some 23,000 Swedish women, who were prescribed various hormone replacement regimens, breast cancer mortality was analyzed after follow-up to 12 years. External analyses revealed overall standardized mortality ratios for breast cancer rising from 0.71 to 0.81, but not significantly different from unity, after adjustment procedures. In multivariate regression models, excluding prevalent cases in the cohort, women prescribed estradiol, conjugated estrogens, or an estrogen-progestin combination were not at a higher risk relative to those given other and weak estrogens, relative risks being 0.81 and 0.68, respectively. On the basis of the present analytical approach, we conclude that breast cancer mortality does not appear to be changed overall or in subgroups, despite increased incidence.

  6. [Study on influence between activated carbon property and immobilized biological activated carbon purification effect].

    PubMed

    Wang, Guang-zhi; Li, Wei-guang; He, Wen-jie; Han, Hong-da; Ding, Chi; Ma, Xiao-na; Qu, Yan-ming

    2006-10-01

    By means of immobilizing five kinds of activated carbon, we studied the influence between the chief activated carbon property items and immobilized bioactivated carbon (IBAC) purification effect with the correlation analysis. The result shows that the activated carbon property items which the correlation coefficient is up 0.7 include molasses, abrasion number, hardness, tannin, uniform coefficient, mean particle diameter and effective particle diameter; the activated carbon property items which the correlation coefficient is up 0.5 include pH, iodine, butane and tetrachloride. In succession, the partial correlation analysis shows that activated carbon property items mostly influencing on IBAC purification effect include molasses, hardness, abrasion number, uniform coefficient, mean particle diameter and effective particle diameter. The causation of these property items bringing influence on IBAC purification is that the activated carbon holes distribution (representative activated carbon property item is molasses) provides inhabitable location and adjust food for the dominance bacteria; the mechanical resist-crash property of activated carbon (representative activated carbon property items: abrasion number and hardness) have influence on the stability of biofilm; and the particle diameter size and distribution of activated carbon (representative activated carbon property items: uniform coefficient, mean particle diameter and effective particle diameter) can directly affect the force of water in IBAC filter bed, which brings influence on the dominance bacteria immobilizing on activated carbon.

  7. Hydrogen effect on the properties of sapphire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mogilevsky, Radion N.; Sharafutdinova, Liudmila G.; Nedilko, Sergiy; Gavrilov, Valeriy; Verbilo, Dmitriy; Mittl, Scott D.

    2009-05-01

    Sapphire is a widely used material for optical, electronic and semiconductor applications due to its excellent optical properties and very high durability. Optical and mechanical properties of sapphire depend on many factors such as the starting materials that are used to grow crystals, methods to grow sapphire crystals, etc. Demand for highest purity and quality of sapphire crystals increased ten fold for the last several years due to new applications for this material. In this work we studied the effect of starting materials and crystal growth methods on the optical and mechanical properties of sapphire, especially concentrating on the effect of hydrogen on the properties of sapphire. It was found that the infrared (IR) absorption which is traditionally used to measure the hydrogen content in sapphire crystals cannot be reliably used and the data obtained by this method provides a much lower hydrogen concentration than actual. We have shown for the first time that Nuclear Magnetic Resonance techniques can be successfully used to determine hydrogen concentration in sapphire crystals. We have shown that hydrogen concentration in sapphire can reach thousands of ppm if these crystals are grown from Verneuil starting material or aluminum oxide powder. Alternatively, the hydrogen concentration is very low if sapphire crystals are grown from High Purity Densified Alumina (HPDA®) as a starting material. HPDA® is produced by EMT, Inc through their proprietary patented technology. It was found that optical and mechanical properties of sapphire crystals grown using EMT HPDA® starting material are much better than those sapphire crystals grown using a starting material of Verneuil crystals or aluminum oxide powder.

  8. Large-scale synthesis of monodisperse SiC nanoparticles with adjustable size, stoichiometric ratio and properties by fluidized bed chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Rongzheng; Liu, Malin; Chang, Jiaxing

    2017-02-01

    A facile fluidized bed chemical vapor deposition method was proposed for the synthesis of monodisperse SiC nanoparticles by using the single precursor of hexamethyldisilane (HMDS). SiC nanoparticles with average particle size from 10 to 200 nm were obtained by controlling the temperature and the gas ratio. An experimental chemical vapor deposition phase diagram of SiC in the HMDS-Ar-H2 system was obtained and three regions of SiC-Si, SiC and SiC-C can be distinguished. The BET surface area and the photoluminescence properties of the SiC nanoparticles can be adjusted by changing the nanoparticle size. For the SiC nanospheres with free carbon, a novel hierarchical structure with 5 8 nm SiC nanoparticles embedded into the graphite matrix was obtained. The advantages of fluidized bed technology for the preparation of SiC nanoparticles were proposed based on the features of homogenous reaction zone, narrow temperature distribution, ultra-short reactant residence time and mass production.

  9. Climate-related trends in sapwood biophysical properties in two conifers: avoidance of hydraulic dysfunction through coordinated adjustments in xylem efficiency, safety and capacitance.

    PubMed

    Barnard, David M; Meinzer, Frederick C; Lachenbruch, Barbara; McCulloh, Katherine A; Johnson, Daniel M; Woodruff, David R

    2011-04-01

    In the Pacific north-west, the Cascade Mountain Range blocks much of the precipitation and maritime influence of the Pacific Ocean, resulting in distinct climates east and west of the mountains. The current study aimed to investigate relationships between water storage and transport properties in populations of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) and ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) adapted to both climates. Sapwood thickness, capacitance, vulnerability to embolism, and axial and radial conductivity were measured on samples collected from trunks of mature trees. The sapwood of ponderosa pine was three to four times thicker than Douglas-fir. Radial conductivity was higher in west-side populations of both species, but axial conductivity was higher in the east-side populations and in Douglas-fir. Eastern populations of both species had sapwood that was more vulnerable to embolism than west-side populations. Sapwood capacitance was similar between species, but was about twice as great in east-side populations (580 kg m⁻³ MPa⁻¹) as in west-side populations (274 kg m⁻³ MPa⁻¹). Capacitance was positively correlated with both mean embolism pressure and axial conductivity across species and populations, suggesting that coordinated adjustments in xylem efficiency, safety and water storage capacity may serve to avoid embolism along a gradient of increasing aridity. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Longitudinal Effects of Teacher and Student Perceptions of Teacher-Student Relationship Qualities on Academic Adjustment

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Jan N.

    2010-01-01

    The shared and unique effects of teacher and student reports of teacher student relationship quality (TSRQ) in second and third grade on academic self views, behavioral engagement, and achievement the following year were investigated in a sample of 714 academically at-risk students. Teacher and student reports of teacher-student support and conflict showed low correspondence. As a block, teacher and student reports of TSRQ predicted all outcomes, above prior performance on that outcome and background variables. Student reports uniquely predicted school belonging, perceived academic competence, and math achievement. Teacher reports uniquely predicted behavioral engagement and child perceived academic competence. Teacher and student reports of the teacher-student relationship assess largely different constructs that predict different outcomes. Implications of findings for practice and research are discussed. PMID:21984843

  11. How do clarinet players adjust the resonances of their vocal tracts for different playing effects?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritz, Claudia; Wolfe, Joe

    2005-11-01

    In a simple model, the reed of the clarinet is mechanically loaded by the series combination of the acoustical impedances of the instrument itself and of the player's airway. Here we measure the complex impedance spectrum of players' airways using an impedance head adapted to fit inside a clarinet mouthpiece. A direct current shunt with high acoustical resistance allows players to blow normally, so the players can simulate the tract condition under playing conditions. The reproducibility of the results suggest that the players' ``muscle memory'' is reliable for this task. Most players use a single, highly stable vocal tract configuration over most of the playing range, except for the altissimo register. However, this ``normal'' configuration varies substantially among musicians. All musicians change the configuration, often drastically for ``special effects'' such as glissandi and slurs: the tongue is lowered and the impedance magnitude reduced when the player intends to lower the pitch or to slur downwards, and vice versa.

  12. Adjusting for mortality effects in chronic toxicity testing: Mixture model approach

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, S.C.D.; Smith, E.P.

    2000-01-01

    Chronic toxicity tests, such as the Ceriodaphnia dubia 7-d test are typically analyzed using standard statistical methods such as analysis of variance or regression. Recent research has emphasized the use of Poisson regression or more generalized regression for the analysis of the fecundity data from these studies. A possible problem in using standard statistical techniques is that mortality may occur from toxicant effects as well as reduced fecundity. A mixture model that accounts for fecundity and mortality is proposed for the analysis of data arising from these studies. Inferences about key parameters in the model are discussed. A joint estimate of the inhibition concentration is proposed based on the model. Confidence interval estimations via the bootstrap method is discussed. An example is given for a study involving copper and mercury.

  13. "Butterfly effect" in CuO/graphene composite nanosheets: a small interfacial adjustment triggers big changes in electronic structure and Li-ion storage performance.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoting; Zhou, Jisheng; Song, Huaihe; Chen, Xiaohong; Fedoseeva, Yu V; Okotrub, A V; Bulusheva, L G

    2014-10-08

    Generally speaking, excellent electrochemical performance of metal oxide/graphene nanosheets (GNSs) composite is attributed to the interfacial interaction (or "synergistic effect") between constituents. However, there are no any direct observations on how the electronic structure is changed and how the properties of Li-ion storage are affected by adjusting the interfacial interaction, despite of limited investigations on the possible nature of binding between GNSs and metal oxide. In this paper, CuO nanosheets/GNSs composites with a little Cu2O (ca. 4 wt %) were utilized as an interesting model to illustrate directly the changes of interfacial nature as well as its deep influence on the electronic structure and Li-ion storage performance of composite. The interfacial adjustment was successfully fulfilled by removal of Cu2O in the composite by NH3·H2O. Formation of Cu-O-C bonds on interfaces both between CuO and GNSs, and Cu2O and GNSs in the original CuO/GNSs composites was detected. The small interfacial alteration by removal of the little Cu2O results in the obvious changes in electronic structure, such as weakening of covalent Cu-O-C interfacial interaction and recovery of π bonds in graphene, and simultaneously leads to variations in electrochemical performance of composites, including a 21% increase of reversible capacity, degradation of cyclic stability and rate-performance, and obvious increase of charge-transfer resistance, which can be called a "butterfly effect" in graphene-based metal oxide composites. These interesting phenomena could be helpful to design not only the high-performance graphene/metal oxide anode materials but also various advanced graphene-based composites used in the other fields such as sensors, catalysis, fuel cells, solar cells, etc.

  14. What is the lifetime risk of developing cancer?: the effect of adjusting for multiple primaries

    PubMed Central

    Sasieni, P D; Shelton, J; Ormiston-Smith, N; Thomson, C S; Silcocks, P B

    2011-01-01

    Background: The ‘lifetime risk' of cancer is generally estimated by combining current incidence rates with current all-cause mortality (‘current probability' method) rather than by describing the experience of a birth cohort. As individuals may get more than one type of cancer, what is generally estimated is the average (mean) number of cancers over a lifetime. This is not the same as the probability of getting cancer. Methods: We describe a method for estimating lifetime risk that corrects for the inclusion of multiple primary cancers in the incidence rates routinely published by cancer registries. The new method applies cancer incidence rates to the estimated probability of being alive without a previous cancer. The new method is illustrated using data from the Scottish Cancer Registry and is compared with ‘gold-standard' estimates that use (unpublished) data on first primaries. Results: The effect of this correction is to make the estimated ‘lifetime risk' smaller. The new estimates are extremely similar to those obtained using incidence based on first primaries. The usual ‘current probability' method considerably overestimates the lifetime risk of all cancers combined, although the correction for any single cancer site is minimal. Conclusion: Estimation of the lifetime risk of cancer should either be based on first primaries or should use the new method. PMID:21772332

  15. Parenting as a moderator of the effects of maternal depressive symptoms on preadolescent adjustment

    PubMed Central

    Zalewski, Maureen; Thompson, Stephanie F.; Lengua, Liliana J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to examine whether parenting moderated the association between maternal depressive symptoms and initial levels and growth of preadolescent internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Method This study used a community sample of pre-adolescent children (N=214; 8–12 years old at Time 1), measuring maternal depressive symptoms and parenting at Time 1, and preadolescent internalizing and externalizing symptoms at each year for 3 years. Results After modeling latent growth curves of internalizing and externalizing symptoms, growth factors were conditioned on maternal depressive symptoms, positive (acceptance and consistent discipline) and negative (rejection and physical punishment) parenting, and the interactions of depression and parenting. Maternal rejection moderated the relation of maternal depression with internalizing symptoms, such that high rejection exacerbated the effects of maternal depressive symptoms on initial levels of preadolescent internalizing problems. There were no significant interactions predicting externalizing problems. Conclusion The findings highlight how specific parenting behaviors may alter the way in which maternal depressive symptoms confer risk for behavior problems. PMID:25915593

  16. Parenting as a Moderator of the Effects of Maternal Depressive Symptoms on Preadolescent Adjustment.

    PubMed

    Zalewski, Maureen; Thompson, Stephanie F; Lengua, Liliana J

    2015-04-27

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether parenting moderated the association between maternal depressive symptoms and initial levels and growth of preadolescent internalizing and externalizing symptoms. This study used a community sample of preadolescent children (N = 214; 8-12 years old at Time 1), measuring maternal depressive symptoms and parenting at Time 1, and preadolescent internalizing and externalizing symptoms at each year for 3 years. After modeling latent growth curves of internalizing and externalizing symptoms, growth factors were conditioned on maternal depressive symptoms, positive (acceptance and consistent discipline) and negative (rejection and physical punishment) parenting, and the interactions of depression and parenting. Maternal rejection moderated the relation of maternal depression with internalizing symptoms, such that high rejection exacerbated the effects of maternal depressive symptoms on initial levels of preadolescent internalizing problems. There were no significant interactions predicting externalizing problems. The findings highlight how specific parenting behaviors may alter the way in which maternal depressive symptoms confer risk for behavior problems.

  17. Effect of birth weight on adulthood renal function: A bias-adjusted meta-analytic approach.

    PubMed

    Das, Sumon Kumar; Mannan, Munim; Faruque, Abu Syed Golam; Ahmed, Tahmeed; McIntyre, Harold David; Al Mamun, Abdullah

    2016-07-01

    While the association between low birth weight (LBW; <2500 g) and development of adult chronic renal disease (CKD) is inconsistently reported, less information is available regarding association of high birth weight (HBW; ≥4000 g) with CKD. We undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis on studies published before 30 September 2015 and report associations between birth weight and renal function. Blood (glomerular filtration rate (GFR)) and urine (microalbuminuria/albumin excreation rate (AER)/urinary albumin creatinine ratio (ACR)) parameters were used to define CKD. Three different effect size estimates were used (odds ratio, regression coefficient and mean difference). The odds of developing CKD in the life course among those born LBW was 1.77 (95% CI: 1.42, 2.20) times and 1.68 (1.27, 2.33) times, assessed by blood and urine parameters respectively. Higher risk was also observed among Asian and Australian populations (blood: OR 2.68; urine: OR 2.28), individuals aged ≤30 years (blood: OR 2.30; urine: OR 1.26), and ≥50 years (blood: OR 3.66; urine: OR 3.10), people with diabetes (blood: OR 2.51), and aborigines (urine: OR 2.32). There was no significant association between HBW and CKD. For every 1 kg increase in BW, the estimated GFR increased by 2.09 mL/min per 1.73 m(2) (1.33-2.85), and it was negatively associated with LogACR (ß -0.07, 95% CI: -0.14, 0.00). LBW inborn had lower mean GFR -4.62 (-7.10, -2.14) compared with normal BW. Findings of this study suggest that LBW increased the risk of developing CKD, and HBW did not show any significant impact.

  18. Cluster Properties via Sunyaev-Zel Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooray, Asantha

    We will discuss the role played by the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect in uderstanding the physical properties of the intracluster medium. While the SZ effect has been considered widely for its cosmological purposes when combined with multiwavelength observations the SZ effect data can also be used to understand the nature and evolution of the ICM including its thermal structure and the presence of nonthermal plasma. We also discuss future opportunities on this aspect involving observations from the planned South Pole Telescope Planck mission and various other attempts to image the SZ effect in galaxy clusters using wide-field bolometer arrays and other techniques. We will also explore the connection between gas in clusters and the general intergalactic medium and how one can use detailed wide-field SZ maps beyond those towards individual clusters to study such possibilities.

  19. [Prebiotics: concept, properties and beneficial effects].

    PubMed

    Corzo, N; Alonso, J L; Azpiroz, F; Calvo, M A; Cirici, M; Leis, R; Lombó, F; Mateos-Aparicio, I; Plou, F J; Ruas-Madiedo, P; Rúperez, P; Redondo-Cuenca, A; Sanz, M L; Clemente, A

    2015-02-07

    Prebiotics are non-digestible food ingredients (oligosaccharides) that reach the colon and are used as substrate by microorganisms producing energy, metabolites and micronutrients used for the host; in addition they also stimulate the selective growth of certain beneficial species (mainly bifidobacteria and lactobacilli) in the intestinal microbiota. In this article, a multidisciplinary approach to understand the concept of prebiotic carbohydrates, their properties and beneficial effects in humans has been carried out. Definitions of prebiotics, reported by relevant international organizations and researchers, are described. A comprehensive description of accepted prebiotics having strong scientific evidence of their beneficial properties in humans (inulin-type fructans, FOS, GOS, lactulose and human milk oligosaccharides) is reported. Emerging prebiotics and those which are in the early stages of study have also included in this study. Taken into account that the chemical structure greatly influences carbohydrates prebiotic properties, the analytical techniques used for their analysis and characterization are discussed. In vitro and in vivo models used to evaluate the gastrointestinal digestion, absorption resistance and fermentability in the colon of prebiotics as well as major criteria to design robust intervention trials in humans are described. Finally, a comprehensive summary of the beneficial effects of prebiotics for health at systemic and intestinal levels is reported. The research effort on prebiotics has been intensive in last decades and has demonstrated that a multidisciplinary approach is necessary in order to claim their health benefits. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  20. Thermophysical property sensitivity effects in steel solidification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Overfelt, Tony

    1993-01-01

    The simulation of advanced solidification processes via digital computer techniques has gained widespread acceptance during the last decade or so. Models today can predict transient temperature fields, fluid flow fields, important microstructural parameters, and potential defects in castings. However, the lack of accurate thermophysical property data on important industrial alloys threatens to limit the ability of manufacturers to fully capitalize on the technology's benefits. A study of the sensitivity of one such numerical model of a steel plate casting to imposed variations in the data utilized for the thermal conductivity, specific heat, density, and heat of fusion is described. The sensitivity of the data's variability is characterized by its effects on the net solidification time of various points along the centerline of the plate casting. Recommendations for property measurements are given and the implications of data uncertainty for modelers are discussed.

  1. Effect of molecular weight on polyphenylquinoxaline properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, Brian J.

    1991-01-01

    A series of polyphenyl quinoxalines with different molecular weight and end-groups were prepared by varying monomer stoichiometry. Thus, 4,4'-oxydibenzil and 3,3'-diaminobenzidine were reacted in a 50/50 mixture of m-cresol and xylenes. Reaction concentration, temperature, and stir rate were studied and found to have an effect on polymer properties. Number and weight average molecular weights were determined and correlated well with viscosity data. Glass transition temperatures were determined and found to vary with molecular weight and end-groups. Mechanical properties of films from polymers with different molecular weights were essentially identical at room temperature but showed significant differences at 232 C. Diamine terminated polymers were found to be much less thermooxidatively stable than benzil terminated polymers when aged at 316 C even though dynamic thermogravimetric analysis revealed only slight differences. Lower molecular weight polymers exhibited better processability than higher molecular weight polymers.

  2. The Effectiveness of Functional Family Therapy in Reducing Adolescent Mental Health Risk and Family Adjustment Difficulties in an Irish Context.

    PubMed

    Hartnett, Dan; Carr, Alan; Sexton, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of Functional Family Therapy (FFT) 42 cases were randomized to FFT and 55 to a waiting-list control group. Minimization procedures controlled the effects of potentially confounding baseline variables. Cases were treated by a team of five therapists who implemented FFT with a moderate degree of fidelity. Rates of clinical recovery were significantly higher in the FFT group than in the control group. Compared to the comparison group, parents in the FFT group reported significantly greater improvement in adolescent problems on the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) and both parents and adolescents reported improvements in family adjustment on the Systemic Clinical Outcomes and Routine Evaluation (SCORE). In addition, 93% of youth and families in the treatment condition completed FFT. Improvements shown immediately after treatment were sustained at 3-month follow-up. Results provide a current demonstration of FFT's effectiveness for youth with behavior problems in community-based settings, expand our understanding of the range of positive outcomes of FFT to include mental health risk and family-defined problem severity and impact, and suggests that it is an effective intervention when implemented in an Irish context.

  3. Single breath diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide: effects of adjustment for inspired volume dead space, carbon dioxide, hemoglobin and carboxyhemoglobin.

    PubMed

    Viegi, G; Baldi, S; Begliomini, E; Ferdeghini, E M; Pistelli, F

    1998-01-01

    In order to assess the additive effects of taking into account dead space volume (VD), carbon dioxide, hemoglobin (Hb) and carboxyhemoglobin on computation of single breath carbon monoxide diffusing capacity (DLCOsb), we sequentially applied all the corrections recommended by the 1987 American Thoracic Society (ATS) document on DLCOsb standardization. We used data from 739 men (333 nonsmokers and 406 current smokers) and 475 women (403 nonsmokers and 72 current smokers) who underwent measurement of DLCOsb in the decade 1985-1994 at the Lung Function Laboratory of our institute. With respect to the unadjusted DLCOsb value, significant small differences were found for all the corrected formulas, ranging from -0.18 to 1.48 ml/min/mm Hg in men and from -0.24 to 1.57 ml/min/mm Hg in women. After computing the percent change of DLCOsb [(unadjusted-adjusted value) x 100/unadjusted value], we observed that the correction for VD caused an underestimation of DLCOsb of about 5.8% in men and 7.7% in women. However, when all the corrections were considered, these figures decreased to about 0.9% in males and 2.9% in females. Regarding specifically the correction for Hb, the adjusted value was slightly lower in men, while it was some-what higher in women, with respect to the unadjusted DLCOsb. In conclusion, the corrections suggested by ATS in the computation of DLCOsb, when considered altogether, seem to account for a limited proportion of test variability in usual clinical conditions, especially in males.

  4. Effect of race/ethnicity on risk of complete and partial molar pregnancy after adjustment for age.

    PubMed

    Melamed, Alexander; Gockley, Allison A; Joseph, Naima T; Sun, Sue Yazaki; Clapp, Mark A; Goldstein, Donald P; Berkowitz, Ross S; Horowitz, Neil S

    2016-10-01

    To quantify the effect of race/ethnicity on risk of complete and partial molar pregnancy. We conducted a cross-sectional study including women who were followed for complete or partial mole and those who had a live singleton birth in a teaching hospital in the northeastern United States between 2000 and 2013. We calculated race/ethnicity-specific risk of complete and partial mole per 10,000 live births, and used logistic regression to estimate crude and age-adjusted relative risks (RR) of complete and partial mole. We identified 140 cases of complete mole, 115 cases of partial mole, and 105,942 live births. The risk of complete mole was 13 cases per 10,000 live births (95% confidence interval [CI] 11-16) and that of partial mole was 11 cases per 10,000 live births (95% CI 9-13). After age-adjustment, Asians were more likely to develop complete mole (RR 2.3 95% CI 1.4-3.8, p<0.001) but less likely to develop partial mole (RR 0.2; 95% CI 0.04-0.7, p=0.02) than whites. Blacks were significantly less likely than whites to develop partial mole (RR 0.4; 95% CI 0.2-0.8, p=0.01) but only marginally less likely to develop complete mole (RR 0.6; 95% CI 0.3-1.0, p=0.07). Hispanics were less likely than whites to develop complete mole (RR 0.4; 95% CI 0.2-0.7, p=0.002) and partial mole (RR 0.4; 95% CI 0.2-0.9, p=0.02). Race/ethnicity is a significant risk factor for both complete and partial molar pregnancy in the northeastern United States. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The effect of somatic cell count data adjustment and interpretation, as outlined in European Union legislation, on herd eligibility to supply raw milk for processing of dairy products.

    PubMed

    More, S J; Clegg, T A; Lynch, P J; O'Grady, L

    2013-06-01

    Somatic cell count (SCC) limits are a key component of national and international regulation for milk quality. As yet, very limited work has been published on SCC regulatory standards, including on the effect of different approaches to SCC data adjustment and interpretation. This study examines the effect of SCC data adjustment and interpretation, as outlined in current European Union (EU) legislation, on herd eligibility to supply raw milk for processing of dairy products for human consumption, using Irish data for illustration. The study used Irish milk-recording data as a proxy for bulk tank SCC (BTSCC) data, to calculate an unadjusted monthly SCC value for each herd during each month of participation. Subsequently, 4 data adjustments were applied, as outlined in EU and national legislation: seasonal adjustment; 3-mo rolling geometric average, without accounting for a break in the supply; 3-mo rolling geometric average, after accounting for a break in the supply; and seasonal adjustment and 3-mo rolling geometric average combined, after accounting for a break in the supply. Analyses were conducted to examine the effect, during the period from 2004 to 2010, of data adjustment on the percentage of herds with herd SCC >400,000 cells/mL. In all, 4 interpretation scenarios, incorporating different data adjustment combinations, were used to estimate herd eligibility (compliant, under warning, or suspended, as defined by legislation) to supply raw milk for processing. The 4 methods of data adjustment each led to a sizable reduction (6.7, 5.0, 5.3, and 11.1 percentage points, respectively, compared with the unadjusted data) in the percentage of herds exceeding a herd SCC of 400,000 cells/mL. Herd eligibility varied by interpretation scenarios, in particular those incorporating seasonal adjustment. The study provides new perspectives on the effect of data adjustment on herd SCC and of interpretation scenarios on herd eligibility. The results provide an illustrative

  6. Simple and cost-effective fabrication of solid biodegradable polymer microneedle arrays with adjustable aspect ratio for transdermal drug delivery using acupuncture microneedles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cha, Kyoung Je; Kim, Taewan; Jea Park, Sung; Kim, Dong Sung

    2014-11-01

    Polymer microneedle arrays (MNAs) have received much attention for their use in transdermal drug delivery and microneedle therapy systems due to the advantages they offer, such as low cost, good mechanical properties, and a versatile choice of materials. Here, we present a simple and cost-effective method for the fabrication of a biodegradable polymer MNA in which the aspect ratio of each microneedle is adjustable using commercially available acupuncture microneedles. In our process, a master template with acupuncture microneedles, whose shape will be the final MNA, was carefully prepared by fixing them onto a plastic substrate with selectively drilled holes which, in turn, determine the aspect ratios of the microneedles. A polylactic acid (PLA; a biodegradable polymer) MNA was fabricated by a micromolding process with a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) mold containing the cavity of the microneedles, which was obtained by the PDMS replica molding against the master template. The mechanical force and degradation behavior of the replicated PLA MNA were characterized with the help of a compression test and an accelerated degradation test, respectively. Finally, the transdermal drug delivery performance of the PLA MNA was successfully simulated by two different methods of penetration and staining, using the skin of a pig cadaver. These results indicated that the proposed method can be effectively used for the fabrication of polymer MNAs which can be used in various microneedle applications.

  7. Three-year trials of personal therapy among schizophrenic patients living with or independent of family, II: Effects on adjustment of patients.

    PubMed

    Hogarty, G E; Greenwald, D; Ulrich, R F; Kornblith, S J; DiBarry, A L; Cooley, S; Carter, M; Flesher, S

    1997-11-01

    Previous analyses of the personal and social adjustment of outpatients with schizophrenia have either relied on the assessment of unrepresentative patients who survived without relapse or used analyses that included relapse assessments, a potential confound when different rates of relapse existed among treatment conditions. The authors' goal was to conduct a study of the effects of personal therapy on outcome that was designed to take into consideration the effects of relapse. They evaluated the effectiveness of personal therapy over 3 years after hospital discharge among 151 patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. The patients were randomly assigned to receive personal therapy or contrasting therapies in one of two concurrent trials. One trial included patients who were living with family (N = 97); the other included patients who were living independent of family (N = 54). Patients were assessed at 6-month intervals over 3 years of treatment on measures of personal and social adjustment; patients who relapsed and restabilized and those who did not relapse were included. Personal therapy had positive effects on broad components of social adjustment (role performance) but had few differential effects on symptoms, and patients receiving personal therapy remained more anxious than patients who received family or supportive therapy. For patients who were living with family, personal therapy led to better outcomes in overall performance than did the other treatments. Although family therapy had only one positive effect on patients' social adjustment, the personal adjustment (residual symptoms) of patients who received family therapy appeared to improve more than that of patients receiving personal or supportive therapy. For patients not living with family, personal therapy was more successful than supportive therapy in improving work performance and relationships out of the home. Longitudinal effects of personal therapy on symptoms were similar to those

  8. Persistent sex-by-environment effects on offspring fitness and sex-ratio adjustment in a wild bird population

    PubMed Central

    Bowers, E. Keith; Thompson, Charles F.; Sakaluk, Scott K.

    2014-01-01

    Summary A major component of sex-allocation theory, the Trivers-Willard Model (TWM), posits that sons and daughters are differentially affected by variation in the rearing environment. In many species, the amount of parental care received is expected to have differing effects on the fitness of males and females. When this occurs, the TWM predicts that selection should favour adjustment of the offspring sex ratio in relation to the expected fitness return from offspring. However, evidence for sex-by-environment effects is mixed and little is known about the adaptive significance of producing either sex. Here, we test whether offspring sex ratios vary according to predictions of the TWM in the house wren (Troglodytes aedon, Vieillot). We also test the assumption of a sex-by-environment effect on offspring using two experiments, one in which we manipulated age-differences among nestlings within broods, and another in which we held nestling age constant but manipulated brood size. As predicted, females with high investment ability over-produced sons relative to those with lower ability. Males were also over-produced early within breeding seasons. In our experiments, the body mass of sons was more strongly affected by the sibling-competitive environment and resource availability than that of daughters: males grew heavier than females when reared in good conditions but were lighter than females when in poor conditions. Parents rearing broods with 1:1 sex ratios were more productive than parents rearing broods biased more strongly towards sons or daughters, suggesting that selection favours the production of mixed-sex broods. However, differences in the condition of offspring as neonates persisted to adulthood, and their reproductive success as adults varied with the body mass of sons, but not daughters, prior to independence from parental care. Thus, selection should favour slight but predictable variations in the sex ratio in relation to the quality of offspring that

  9. Piston core properties and disturbance effects.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olsen, H.W.; Rice, T.L.; Mayne, P.W.; Singh, R.D.

    1986-01-01

    Laboratory geotechnical data on piston cores for 31 sites on the mid-Atlantic Upper Continental Slope show the near-surface sediments vary from normally consolidated to somewhat overconsolidated clayey silts and silty clays of low to high plasticity. They also exhibit normalized behavior and their index property correlations with the effective-stress friction angle, the undrained strength ratio, and the compression index are reasonably consistent with existing knowledge. Because existing knowledge concerning disturbance effect suggests that in-situ preconsolidation stress values should lie between those derived from the triaxial and laboratory vane data, the preconsolidation stress values obtained from the consolidation data appear to be appreciably smaller than in-situ values. -from ASCE Publications Information

  10. A Cost-effectiveness Analysis of Laparoscopic Gastric Bypass, Adjustable Gastric Banding and Non-Surgical Weight Loss Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Salem, Leon; Devlin, Allison; Sullivan, Sean D.; Flum, David R.

    2009-01-01

    Setting Laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB) and Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) are the two most commonly performed bariatric procedures. While both procedures likely reduce healthcare expenditures related to the resolution of comorbid conditions, they have different rates of perioperative risks and differential rates of associated weight loss. Objective We designed a model to evaluate the incremental cost-effectiveness (ICER) of these procedures compared to non-operative weight loss interventions and to each other. Methods Deterministic, payer-perspective model comparing the lifetime expected costs and outcomes of LAGB, LRYGB and non-surgical treatment. The major endpoints were survival, health related quality of life and weight loss. Life expectancy and lifetime medical costs were calculated across age, sex and body mass index (BMI) strata using previously published data. Results For both men and women LRYGB and LAGB were cost-effective at less than $25,000/QALY even when evaluating the full range of baseline BMI and estimates of adverse outcomes, weight loss and costs. For base-case scenarios in men (age 35, BMI 40) the ICER was $11,604 per QALY for LAGB, compared to $18,543 per QALY for LRYGB. For base-case scenarios in women (age 35, BMI 40) the ICER was $8,878 per QALY for LAGB, compared to $14,680 per QALY for LRYGB. Conclusions Modeled cost-effectiveness analysis showed that both operative interventions for morbid obesity, LAGB and RYGB, were cost-effective at less than $25,000, and LAGB was more cost-effective than RYGB for all the base-case scenarios. PMID:18069075

  11. Biochar's effect on soil nitrous oxide emissions from a maize field with lime-adjusted pH treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hüppi, R.; Felber, R.; Neftel, A.; Six, J.; Leifeld, J.

    2015-07-01

    Biochar, a carbon-rich, porous pyrolysis product of organic residues may positively affect plant yield and can, owing to its inherent stability, promote soil carbon sequestration when amended to agricultural soils. Another possible effect of biochar is the reduction in emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O). A number of laboratory incubations have shown significantly reduced N2O emissions from soil when mixed with biochar. Emission measurements under field conditions however are more scarce and show weaker or no reductions, or even increases in N2O emissions. One of the hypothesized mechanisms for reduced N2O emissions from soil is owing to the increase in soil pH following the application of alkaline biochar. To test the effect of biochar on N2O emissions in a temperate maize system, we set up a field trial with a 20 t ha-1 biochar treatment, a limestone treatment adjusted to the same pH as the biochar treatment, and a control treatment without any addition. An automated static chamber system measured N2O emissions for each replicate plot (n = 3) every 3.6 h over the course of 8 months. The field was conventionally fertilised at a rate of 160 kg-N ha-1 in 3 applications of 40, 80 and 40 kg-N ha-1. Cumulative N2O emissions were 53 % smaller in the biochar compared to the control treatment. However, the effect of the treatments overall was not statistically significant (p = 0.26) because of the large variability in the dataset. Limed soils emitted similar mean cumulative amounts of N2O as the control. This indicates that the observed N2O reduction effect of biochar was not caused by a pH effect.

  12. Cost Effectiveness of Childhood Cochlear Implantation and Deaf Education in Nicaragua: A Disability Adjusted Life Year Model.

    PubMed

    Saunders, James E; Barrs, David M; Gong, Wenfeng; Wilson, Blake S; Mojica, Karen; Tucci, Debara L

    2015-09-01

    Cochlear implantation (CI) is a common intervention for severe-to-profound hearing loss in high-income countries, but is not commonly available to children in low resource environments. Owing in part to the device costs, CI has been assumed to be less economical than deaf education for low resource countries. The purpose of this study is to compare the cost effectiveness of the two interventions for children with severe-to-profound sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) in a model using disability adjusted life years (DALYs). Cost estimates were derived from published data, expert opinion, and known costs of services in Nicaragua. Individual costs and lifetime DALY estimates with a 3% discounting rate were applied to both two interventions. Sensitivity analysis was implemented to evaluate the effect on the discounted cost of five key components: implant cost, audiology salary, speech therapy salary, number of children implanted per year, and device failure probability. The costs per DALY averted are $5,898 and $5,529 for CI and deaf education, respectively. Using standards set by the WHO, both interventions are cost effective. Sensitivity analysis shows that when all costs set to maximum estimates, CI is still cost effective. Using a conservative DALY analysis, both CI and deaf education are cost-effective treatment alternatives for severe-to-profound SNHL. CI intervention costs are not only influenced by the initial surgery and device costs but also by rehabilitation costs and the lifetime maintenance, device replacement, and battery costs. The major CI cost differences in this low resource setting were increased initial training and infrastructure costs, but lower medical personnel and surgery costs.

  13. Constraining the surface properties of effective Skyrme interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jodon, R.; Bender, M.; Bennaceur, K.; Meyer, J.

    2016-08-01

    Background: Deformation energy surfaces map how the total binding energy of a nuclear system depends on the geometrical properties of intrinsic configurations, thereby providing a powerful tool to interpret nuclear spectroscopy and large-amplitude collective-motion phenomena such as fission. The global behavior of the deformation energy is known to be directly connected to the surface properties of the effective interaction used for its calculation. Purpose: The precise control of surface properties during the parameter adjustment of an effective interaction is key to obtain a reliable and predictive description of nuclear properties. The most relevant indicator is the surface-energy coefficient asurf. There are several possibilities for its definition and estimation, which are not fully equivalent and require a computational effort that can differ by orders of magnitude. The purpose of this study is threefold: first, to identify a scheme for the determination of asurf that offers the best compromise between robustness, precision, and numerical efficiency; second, to analyze the correlation between values for asurf and the characteristic energies of the fission barrier of 240Pu; and third, to lay out an efficient and robust procedure for how the deformation properties of the Skyrme energy density functional (EDF) can be constrained during the parameter fit. Methods: There are several frequently used possibilities to define and calculate the surface energy coefficient asurf of effective interactions built for the purpose of self-consistent mean-field calculations. The most direct access is provided by the model system of semi-infinite nuclear matter, but asurf can also be extracted from the systematics of binding energies of finite nuclei. Calculations can be carried out either self-consistently [Hartree-Fock (HF)], which incorporates quantal shell effects, or in one of the semiclassical extended Thomas-Fermi (ETF) or modified Thomas-Fermi (MTF) approximations. The

  14. Adjustable Reeds For Weaving

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farley, Gary L.

    1994-01-01

    Local characteristics of fabrics varied to suit special applications. Adjustable reed machinery proposed for use in weaving fabrics in various net shapes, widths, yarn spacings, and yarn angles. Locations of edges of fabric and configuration of warp and filling yarns varied along fabric to obtain specified properties. In machinery, reed wires mounted in groups on sliders, mounted on lengthwise rails in reed frame. Mechanisms incorporated to move sliders lengthwise, parallel to warp yarns, by sliding them along rails; move sliders crosswise by translating reed frame rails perpendicular to warp yarns; and crosswise by spreading reed rails within group. Profile of reed wires in group on each slider changed.

  15. Effect of bicellar systems on skin properties.

    PubMed

    Barbosa-Barros, L; Barba, C; Cócera, M; Coderch, L; López-Iglesias, C; de la Maza, A; López, O

    2008-03-20

    Bicelles are discoidal aggregates formed by a flat dimyristoyl-glycero-phosphocholine (DMPC) bilayer, stabilized by a rim of dihexanoyl-glycero-phosphocholine (DHPC) in water. Given the structure, composition and the dimensions of these aggregates around 10-50 nm diameter, their use for topical applications is a promising strategy. This work evaluates the effect of DMPC/DHPC bicelles with molar ratio (2/1) on intact skin. Biophysical properties of the skin, such as transepidermal water loss (TEWL), elasticity, skin capacitance and irritation were measured in healthy skin in vivo. To study the effect of the bicellar systems on the microstructure of the stratum corneum (SC) in vitro, pieces of native tissue were treated with the aforementioned bicellar system and evaluated by freeze substitution applied to transmission electron microscopy (FSTEM). Our results show that bicelles increase the TEWL, the skin elastic parameters and, decrease skin hydration without promoting local signs of irritation and without affecting the SC lipid microstructure. Thus, a permeabilizing effect of bicelles on the skin takes place possibly due to the changes in the phase behaviour of the SC lipids by effect of phospholipids from bicelles.

  16. Effect of cryogel on soil properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altunina, L. K.; Fufaeva, M. S.; Filatov, D. A.; Svarovskaya, L. I.; Rozhdestvenskii, E. A.; Gan-Erdene, T.

    2014-05-01

    Samples from the A1 and A1A2 horizons of sandy loamy gray forest soil containing 3.1% organic matter have been mixed with a 5% solution of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) at a ratio of 7 : 1 under laboratory conditions. The samples were frozen at -20°C in a refrigerator; after a freezing-thawing cycle, the evaporation of water from their surface, their thermal conductivity coefficient, their elasticity modulus, and other properties were studied. It has been experimentally found that the thermal conductivity coefficient of cryostructured soil is lower than that of common soil by 25%. It has been shown that the cryostructured soil retains water for a longer time and that the water evaporation rate from its surface is significantly lower compared to the control soil. Cryogel has no negative effect on the catalase activity of soil; it changes the physical properties of soils and positively affects the population of indigenous soil microflora and the growth of the sown plants.

  17. Effects of recycled fiber on the properties of fiberboard panels

    Treesearch

    Chin-yin Hwang; Chung-yun Hse; Todd F. Shupe

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the effects of recycled and virgin wood fiber on the properties of fiberboard. Replacing virgin fiber with recycled fiber adversely affected physical and mechanical properties of fiberboard. Bending properties and dimensional stability were linearly dependent on virgin fiber ratios. Based on strength properties, panels with 20 and 40 percent...

  18. Parents who hit and scream: interactive effects of verbal and severe physical aggression on clinic-referred adolescents' adjustment.

    PubMed

    LeRoy, Michelle; Mahoney, Annette; Boxer, Paul; Gullan, Rebecca Lakin; Fang, Qijuan

    2014-05-01

    The goals of this study were first, to delineate the co-occurrence of parental severe physical aggression and verbal aggression toward clinic-referred adolescents, and second, to examine the interactive effects of parental severe physical aggression and verbal aggression on adolescent externalizing and internalizing behavior problems. This research involved 239 referrals of 11- to 18-year-old youth and their dual-parent families to a non-profit, private community mental health center in a semi-rural Midwest community. Multiple informants (i.e., adolescents and mothers) were used to assess parental aggression and adolescent behavior problems. More than half of clinic-referred adolescents (51%) experienced severe physical aggression and/or high verbal aggression from one or both parents. A pattern of interactive effects of mother-to-adolescent severe physical aggression and verbal aggression on adolescent behavior problems emerged, indicating that when severe physical aggression was present, mother-to-adolescent verbal aggression was positively associated with greater adolescent behavior problems whereas when severe physical aggression was not present, the links between verbal aggression and behavior problems was no longer significant. No interactive effects were found for father-to-adolescent severe physical aggression and verbal aggression on adolescent adjustment; however, higher father-to-adolescent verbal aggression was consistently linked to behavior problems above and beyond the influence of severe physical aggression. The results of this study should promote the practice of routinely assessing clinic-referred adolescents and their parents about their experiences of verbal aggression in addition to severe physical aggression and other forms of abuse. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Biochar's effect on soil nitrous oxide emissions from a maize field with lime adjusted pH treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hüppi, Roman; Leifeld, Jens; Felber, Raphael; Neftel, Albrecht; Six, Johan

    2015-04-01

    Biochar is a carbon-rich, porous product from pyrolysis of organic residues. Especially tropical soils have shown positive response in yield to biochar addition. Its high stability in soil makes biochar a potent carbon sequestration option at the same time. A number of laboratory incubations have shown significantly reduced nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from soil when mixed with biochar. Emission measurements from the field show the same trend but are much more scarce. One of the hypothesized mechanisms for reduced N2O emissions from soil is owing to the increase in soil pH from the application of alkaline biochar. To test the effect of biochar on N2O emissions from a temperate maize system, we set up a field trial with a 20 t/ha biochar treatment, a limestone treatment adjusted to the same pH as with biochar and a control without addition. An automated static chamber greenhouse gas measurement system measured N2O emissions for each replicated (n=3) every 3.6 hours. The field was conventionally fertilised at a rate of 160 kg-N/ha in 3 doses of 40, 80 and 40 kg-N/ha. Cumulative emissions show a significant reduction for N2O in the biochar treatment by about 55 % relative to the control. The limed treatment shows similar emissions than control but with higher variability. This suggests that the N2O reduction effect of biochar is not mainly due to its liming effect. In conclusion, we confirm that biochar is a promising material to reduce N2O emissions from intensively managed agricultural soils.

  20. An Examination of the Effects of Career Development Courses on Career Decision-Making Self-Efficacy, Adjustment to College, Learning Integration, and Academic Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Michele J.; Pedersen, Joan S.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of career development courses on career decision-making self-efficacy (CDMSE), college adjustment, learning integration, academic achievement, and retention among undecided undergraduates. It also investigated the effects of course format on career decision-making abilities and academic success outcomes and…

  1. Signal Amplification in Field Effect-Based Sandwich Enzyme-Linked Immunosensing by Tuned Buffer Concentration with Ionic Strength Adjuster.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Satyendra; Kumar, Narendra; Panda, Siddhartha

    2016-04-01

    Miniaturization of the sandwich enzyme-based immunosensor has several advantages but could result in lower signal strength due to lower enzyme loading. Hence, technologies for amplification of the signal are needed. Signal amplification in a field effect-based electrochemical immunosensor utilizing chip-based ELISA is presented in this work. First, the molarities of phosphate buffer saline (PBS) and concentrations of KCl as ionic strength adjuster were optimized to maximize the GOx glucose-based enzymatic reactions in a beaker for signal amplification measured by change in the voltage shift with an EIS device (using 20 μl of solution) and validated with a commercial pH meter (using 3 ml of solution). The PBS molarity of 100 μM with 25 mM KCl provided the maximum voltage shift. These optimized buffer conditions were further verified for GOx immobilized on silicon chips, and similar trends with decreased PBS molarity were obtained; however, the voltage shift values obtained on chip reaction were lower as compared to the reactions occurring in the beaker. The decreased voltage shift with immobilized enzyme on chip could be attributed to the increased Km (Michaelis-Menten constant) values in the immobilized GOx. Finally, a more than sixfold signal enhancement (from 8 to 47 mV) for the chip-based sandwich immunoassay was obtained by altering the PBS molarity from 10 to 100 μM with 25 mM KCl.

  2. Investigating the synergistic impedance match and attenuation effect of Co@C composite through adjusting the permittivity and permeability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Daoran; Liang, Xiaohui; Quan, Bin; Cheng, Yan; Ji, Guangbin; Du, Youwei

    2017-03-01

    Impedance matching and microwave attenuation play key roles in electromagnetic absorption. Moderate electromagnetic parameters will lead to matched impedance matching and attenuation ability. Using magnetic/dielectric composites is considered to be an efficient strategy for achieving excellent electromagnetic absorbing properties. The Co@C reported in this research not only resulted in improved impedance matching behavior, but also possessed strong microwave attenuation ability due to its polarizing and conducting features. As a result, the effective absorption frequency of the optimal absorber covers 4.2 GHz under a thin coating layer of 1.4 mm. The attenuation mechanism has also been discussed in depth in this study.

  3. Effects of two feeder designs and adjustment strategies on the growth performance and carcass characteristics of growing-finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    Bergstrom, J R; Nelssen, J L; Tokach, M D; Dritz, S S; Goodband, R D; Derouchey, J M

    2012-12-01

    Our objective was to compare effects of a conventional dry (CD, 152.4-cm-wide, 5-space, Staco Inc., Schaefferstown, PA) and a wet-dry (WD, double-sided, each side = 38.1-cm-space, Crystal Springs, GroMaster Inc., Omaha, NE) feeder using various feeder adjustment openings on the growth performance and carcass characteristics of growing-finishing pigs (Sus scrofa). In Exp. 1, 1,296 pigs (BW 19 kg) were used in a 27-d study to evaluate 3 feeder openings nested within each feeder design. From d 0 to 27, pigs fed with a WD feeder had similar ADG, but lower (P < 0.02) ADFI and greater G:F than pigs fed with a CD feeder. Increased adjustment opening increased (linear, P < 0.01) ADG and ADFI by pigs fed with a WD feeder, and increased (linear, P < 0.01) ADFI by pigs fed with a CD feeder. In Exp. 2, 1,248 pigs (BW 33 kg) were used to evaluate 3 feeder openings nested within each feeder design in a 93-d study. Pigs fed with a WD feeder had greater (P < 0.05) ADG, ADFI, final BW, HCW, and backfat, but decreased fat-free lean index (FFLI) than those fed with a CD feeder. Increased opening of the WD feeder resulted in greater (linear, P < 0.05) ADG, ADFI, HCW, and backfat, but lower FFLI. No differences among CD feeder openings were observed, and G:F did not differ among all feeder treatments. In Exp. 3, 1,287 pigs (BW 38 kg) were used in a 92-d factorial experiment with 4 feeder treatments and 2 diet types (low and high byproduct diets). Feeder treatments were CD at approximately a 2.4-cm opening, WD at a 3.2-cm opening, WD changed to a 2.5-cm opening on d 56, and WD changed to a 2.5-cm opening on d 28 and a 1.9-cm opening on d 56. Pigs fed with a WD feeder had greater (P < 0.01) ADG, ADFI, HCW, and backfat, but decreased FFLI than pigs fed with a CD feeder. Decreasing the WD feeder opening during the study decreased (P < 0.05) ADG. Pigs with the WD feeder opening decreased to 1.9 cm had reduced (P < 0.05) ADFI and backfat, but increased FFLI compared with pigs with a WD

  4. Effect of bars on the galaxy properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vera, Matias; Alonso, Sol; Coldwell, Georgina

    2016-10-01

    Aims: With the aim of assessing the effects of bars on disk galaxy properties, we present an analysis of different characteristics of spiral galaxies with strong bars, weak bars and without bars. Methods: We identified barred galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). By visual inspection of SDSS images we classified the face-on spiral galaxies brighter than g< 16.5 mag into strong-bar, weak-bar, and unbarred galaxies. With the goal of providing an appropriate quantification of the influence of bars on galaxy properties, we also constructed a suitable control sample of unbarred galaxies with similar redshifts, magnitudes, morphology, bulge sizes, and local density environment distributions to those of barred galaxies. Results: We found 522 strong-barred and 770 weak-barred galaxies; this represents a bar fraction of 25.82% with respect to the full sample of spiral galaxies, in good agreement with several previous studies. We also found that strong-barred galaxies show lower efficiency in star formation activity and older stellar populations (as derived with the Dn(4000) spectral index) with respect to weak-barred and unbarred spirals from the control sample. In addition, there is a significant excess of strong-barred galaxies with red colors. The color-color and color-magnitude diagrams show that unbarred and weak-barred galaxies are more extended towards the blue zone, while strong-barred disk objects are mostly grouped in the red region. Strong-barred galaxies present an important excess of high metallicity values compared to unbarred and weak-barred disk objects, which show similar distributions. Regarding the mass-metallicity relation, we found that weak-barred and unbarred galaxies are fitted by similar curves, while strong-barred ones show a curve that falls abruptly with more significance in the range of low stellar masses (log (M∗/M⊙) < 10.0). These results would indicate that prominent bars produced an accelerating effect on the gas processing

  5. Atmospheric aerosols: Their Optical Properties and Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Measured properties of atmospheric aerosol particles are presented. These include aerosol size frequency distribution and complex retractive index. The optical properties of aerosols are computed based on the presuppositions of thermodynamic equilibrium and of Mie-theory.

  6. Effect of chemical modification on tribological properties

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Biobased ingredients possess a number of properties that makes them very desirable for applications in lubricant formulations. These include: excellent boundary properties, high viscosity index, low volatility, low traction coefficient, renewability, and biodegradability. Biobased ingredients also h...

  7. On regression adjustment for the propensity score.

    PubMed

    Vansteelandt, S; Daniel, R M

    2014-10-15

    Propensity scores are widely adopted in observational research because they enable adjustment for high-dimensional confounders without requiring models for their association with the outcome of interest. The results of statistical analyses based on stratification, matching or inverse weighting by the propensity score are therefore less susceptible to model extrapolation than those based solely on outcome regression models. This is attractive because extrapolation in outcome regression models may be alarming, yet difficult to diagnose, when the exposed and unexposed individuals have very different covariate distributions. Standard regression adjustment for the propensity score forms an alternative to the aforementioned propensity score methods, but the benefits of this are less clear because it still involves modelling the outcome in addition to the propensity score. In this article, we develop novel insights into the properties of this adjustment method. We demonstrate that standard tests of the null hypothesis of no exposure effect (based on robust variance estimators), as well as particular standardised effects obtained from such adjusted regression models, are robust against misspecification of the outcome model when a propensity score model is correctly specified; they are thus not vulnerable to the aforementioned problem of extrapolation. We moreover propose efficient estimators for these standardised effects, which retain a useful causal interpretation even when the propensity score model is misspecified, provided the outcome regression model is correctly specified.

  8. Effect of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding on gastrointestinal metabolism of ingested glucose12

    PubMed Central

    Magkos, Faidon; Bradley, David; Eagon, J Christopher; Patterson, Bruce W; Klein, Samuel

    2016-01-01

    Background: Data from studies conducted in animal models suggest that intestinal glucose uptake and metabolism are upregulated after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery, which contributes to a weight-loss–independent improvement in glycemic control. Objective: We conducted a cohort study to evaluate whether an increase in gastrointestinal metabolism of ingested glucose occurs in obese people who underwent RYGB compared with those who underwent laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB). Design: A mixed meal containing stable isotope–labeled glucose was used to determine the gastrointestinal (small intestine and liver) retention, and presumably metabolism, of ingested glucose in obese subjects before and after matched weight loss (∼21%) induced by RYGB (n = 16) or LAGB (n = 9). Results: The total percentage of ingested glucose that appeared in the systemic circulation was slightly lower after than before RYGB (85% ± 9% and 90% ± 8%, respectively) but was slightly higher after than before LAGB (89% ± 3% and 85% ± 4%, respectively) (P-interaction < 0.05). Accordingly, gastrointestinal clearance of ingested glucose (cumulative percentage cleared over 6 h postprandially) increased after RYGB (from 10% ± 8% before to 15% ± 9% after surgery) but decreased after LAGB (from 15% ± 4% before to 11% ± 3% after surgery) (P < 0.05). Surgery-induced weight loss caused a similar decrease in the 6-h postprandial plasma glucose area under the curve in both RYGB and LAGB groups (–4% ± 9% and –6% ± 5%, respectively; P = 0.475). Conclusions: These data support the notion that intestinal glucose disposal increases after RYGB surgery. However, the magnitude of the effect was small and did not result in weight-loss–independent therapeutic effects on postprandial glycemic control. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00981500. PMID:26607940

  9. Adjustable magnetoelectric effect of self-assembled vertical multiferroic nanocomposite films by the in-plane misfit strain and ferromagnetic volume fraction

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Huaping; Chai, Guozhong; Zhou, Ting; Zhang, Zheng; Kitamura, Takayuki; Zhou, Haomiao

    2014-03-21

    The strain-mediated magnetoelectric (ME) property of self-assembled vertical multiferroic nanocomposite films epitaxially grown on cubic substrates was calculated by a nonlinear thermodynamic theory combined with the elastic theory. The dependent relations of phase state of ferroelectric films with the in-plane misfit strain, out-of-plane misfit strain, temperature, and volume fraction of ferromagnetic phase were confirmed. The effects of in-plane misfit strain and ferromagnetic volume fraction on the polarization and dielectric constant of ferroelectric films at room temperature were elaborately analyzed for the vertical BaTiO{sub 3}-CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} and PbTiO{sub 3}-CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanocomposite films. Our calculated results confirmed the relationship among ME effect and in-plane misfit strain and ferromagnetic volume fraction in the nanocomposite films. The ME voltage coefficients of vertical BaTiO{sub 3}-CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} and PbTiO{sub 3}-CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanocomposite films displayed various maximums and abrupt points at special phases and phase transition boundaries. The ME voltage coefficients of lead-free BaTiO{sub 3}-CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanocomposite films epitaxially grown on different substrates could reach a comparative value of ∼2 V·cm{sup −1}·Oe{sup −1} under the controllable in-plane misfit strain induced by substrate clamping. Our results provided an available method for the optimal design of vertical multiferroic nanocomposites with adjustable ME effect by optimizing the ferromagnetic volume fraction and substrate type.

  10. Spousal Adjustment to Myocardial Infarction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziglar, Elisa J.

    This paper reviews the literature on the stresses and coping strategies of spouses of patients with myocardial infarction (MI). It attempts to identify specific problem areas of adjustment for the spouse and to explore the effects of spousal adjustment on patient recovery. Chapter one provides an overview of the importance in examining the…

  11. Effect of microparticulated whey proteins on milk coagulation properties.

    PubMed

    Sturaro, A; Penasa, M; Cassandro, M; Varotto, A; De Marchi, M

    2014-11-01

    The enhancement of milk coagulation properties (MCP) and the reuse of whey produced by the dairy industry are of great interest to improve the efficiency of the cheese-making process. Native whey proteins (WP) can be aggregated and denatured to obtain colloidal microparticulated WP (MWP). The objective of this study was to assess the effect of MWP on MCP; namely, rennet coagulation time (RCT), curd-firming time, and curd firmness 30 min after rennet addition. Six concentrations of MWP (vol/vol; 1.5, 3.0, 4.5, 6.0, 7.5, and 9.0%) were added to 3 bulk milk samples (collected and analyzed during 3 d), and a sample without MWP was used as control. Within each day of analysis, 6 replicates of MCP for each treatment were obtained, changing the position of the treatment in the rack. For control samples, 2 replicates per day were performed. In addition to MCP, WP fractions were measured on each treatment during the 3 d of analysis. Milk coagulation properties were measured on 144 samples by using a Formagraph (Foss Electric, Hillerød, Denmark). Increasing the amount of MWP added to milk led to a longer RCT. In particular, significant differences were found between RCT of the control samples (13.5 min) and RCT of samples with 3.0% (14.6 min) or more MWP. A similar trend was observed for curd-firming time, which was shortest in the control samples and longest in samples with 9.0% MWP (21.4 min). No significant differences were detected for curd firmness at 30 min across concentrations of MWP. Adjustments in cheese processing should be made when recycling MWP, in particular during the coagulation process, by prolonging the time of rennet activity before cutting the curd.

  12. Balancing Score Adjusted Targeted Minimum Loss-based Estimation

    PubMed Central

    Lendle, Samuel David; Fireman, Bruce; van der Laan, Mark J.

    2015-01-01

    Adjusting for a balancing score is sufficient for bias reduction when estimating causal effects including the average treatment effect and effect among the treated. Estimators that adjust for the propensity score in a nonparametric way, such as matching on an estimate of the propensity score, can be consistent when the estimated propensity score is not consistent for the true propensity score but converges to some other balancing score. We call this property the balancing score property, and discuss a class of estimators that have this property. We introduce a targeted minimum loss-based estimator (TMLE) for a treatment-specific mean with the balancing score property that is additionally locally efficient and doubly robust. We investigate the new estimator’s performance relative to other estimators, including another TMLE, a propensity score matching estimator, an inverse probability of treatment weighted estimator, and a regression-based estimator in simulation studies. PMID:26561539

  13. The use of Quality-Adjusted Life Years in cost-effectiveness analyses in palliative care: Mapping the debate through an integrative review

    PubMed Central

    Wichmann, Anne B; Adang, Eddy MM; Stalmeier, Peep FM; Kristanti, Sinta; Van den Block, Lieve; Vernooij-Dassen, Myrra JFJ; Engels, Yvonne

    2017-01-01

    Background: In cost-effectiveness analyses in healthcare, Quality-Adjusted Life Years are often used as outcome measure of effectiveness. However, there is an ongoing debate concerning the appropriateness of its use for decision-making in palliative care. Aim: To systematically map pros and cons of using the Quality-Adjusted Life Year to inform decisions on resource allocation among palliative care interventions, as brought forward in the debate, and to discuss the Quality-Adjusted Life Year’s value for palliative care. Design: The integrative review method of Whittemore and Knafl was followed. Theoretical arguments and empirical findings were mapped. Data sources: A literature search was conducted in PubMed, EMBASE, and CINAHL, in which MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) terms were Palliative Care, Cost-Benefit Analysis, Quality of Life, and Quality-Adjusted Life Years. Findings: Three themes regarding the pros and cons were identified: (1) restrictions in life years gained, (2) conceptualization of quality of life and its measurement, including suggestions to adapt this, and (3) valuation and additivity of time, referring to changing valuation of time. The debate is recognized in empirical studies, but alternatives not yet applied. Conclusion: The Quality-Adjusted Life Year might be more valuable for palliative care if specific issues are taken into account. Despite restrictions in life years gained, Quality-Adjusted Life Years can be achieved in palliative care. However, in measuring quality of life, we recommend to—in addition to the EQ-5D— make use of quality of life or capability instruments specifically for palliative care. Also, we suggest exploring the possibility of integrating valuation of time in a non-linear way in the Quality-Adjusted Life Year. PMID:28190374

  14. The use of Quality-Adjusted Life Years in cost-effectiveness analyses in palliative care: Mapping the debate through an integrative review.

    PubMed

    Wichmann, Anne B; Adang, Eddy Mm; Stalmeier, Peep Fm; Kristanti, Sinta; Van den Block, Lieve; Vernooij-Dassen, Myrra Jfj; Engels, Yvonne

    2017-04-01

    In cost-effectiveness analyses in healthcare, Quality-Adjusted Life Years are often used as outcome measure of effectiveness. However, there is an ongoing debate concerning the appropriateness of its use for decision-making in palliative care. To systematically map pros and cons of using the Quality-Adjusted Life Year to inform decisions on resource allocation among palliative care interventions, as brought forward in the debate, and to discuss the Quality-Adjusted Life Year's value for palliative care. The integrative review method of Whittemore and Knafl was followed. Theoretical arguments and empirical findings were mapped. A literature search was conducted in PubMed, EMBASE, and CINAHL, in which MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) terms were Palliative Care, Cost-Benefit Analysis, Quality of Life, and Quality-Adjusted Life Years. Three themes regarding the pros and cons were identified: (1) restrictions in life years gained, (2) conceptualization of quality of life and its measurement, including suggestions to adapt this, and (3) valuation and additivity of time, referring to changing valuation of time. The debate is recognized in empirical studies, but alternatives not yet applied. The Quality-Adjusted Life Year might be more valuable for palliative care if specific issues are taken into account. Despite restrictions in life years gained, Quality-Adjusted Life Years can be achieved in palliative care. However, in measuring quality of life, we recommend to-in addition to the EQ-5D- make use of quality of life or capability instruments specifically for palliative care. Also, we suggest exploring the possibility of integrating valuation of time in a non-linear way in the Quality-Adjusted Life Year.

  15. Adjustable Autonomy Testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, Jane T.; Schrenkenghost, Debra K.

    2001-01-01

    The Adjustable Autonomy Testbed (AAT) is a simulation-based testbed located in the Intelligent Systems Laboratory in the Automation, Robotics and Simulation Division at NASA Johnson Space Center. The purpose of the testbed is to support evaluation and validation of prototypes of adjustable autonomous agent software for control and fault management for complex systems. The AA T project has developed prototype adjustable autonomous agent software and human interfaces for cooperative fault management. This software builds on current autonomous agent technology by altering the architecture, components and interfaces for effective teamwork between autonomous systems and human experts. Autonomous agents include a planner, flexible executive, low level control and deductive model-based fault isolation. Adjustable autonomy is intended to increase the flexibility and effectiveness of fault management with an autonomous system. The test domain for this work is control of advanced life support systems for habitats for planetary exploration. The CONFIG hybrid discrete event simulation environment provides flexible and dynamically reconfigurable models of the behavior of components and fluids in the life support systems. Both discrete event and continuous (discrete time) simulation are supported, and flows and pressures are computed globally. This provides fast dynamic simulations of interacting hardware systems in closed loops that can be reconfigured during operations scenarios, producing complex cascading effects of operations and failures. Current object-oriented model libraries support modeling of fluid systems, and models have been developed of physico-chemical and biological subsystems for processing advanced life support gases. In FY01, water recovery system models will be developed.

  16. Parallax adjustment for visual comfort enhancement using the effect of parallax distribution and cross talk in parallax-barrier autostereoscopic three-dimensional display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Donghyun; Lee, Hyoung; Kim, Sung-Kyu; Sohn, Kwanghoon

    2015-12-01

    Visual discomfort is a common problem in three-dimensional (3D) videos, and this issue is the subject of many current studies. Among the methods to overcome visual discomfort presented in current research, parallax adjustment methods provide little guidance in determining the condition for parallax control. We propose a parallax adjustment based on the effects of parallax distribution and cross talk on visual comfort, where the visual comfort level is used as the adjustment parameter, in parallax-barrier-type autostereoscopic 3D displays. We use the horizontal image shift method for parallax adjustment to enhance visual comfort. The speeded-up robust feature is used to estimate the parallax distribution of 3D sequences, and the required amount for parallax control is chosen based on the predefined effect of parallax distribution and cross talk on visual comfort. To evaluate the performance of the proposed method, we used commercial 3D equipment with various intrinsic cross-talk levels. Subjective tests were conducted at the fixed optimal viewing distance for each piece of equipment. The results show that comfortable videos were generated based on the proposed parallax adjustment method.

  17. Adjusted effects of domestic violence, tobacco use, and indoor air pollution from use of solid fuel on child mortality.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Shanta; Lin, Yuan

    2013-10-01

    Studies that have separately examined the consequences of gender based violence upon women, use of solid fuel for cooking, and mother and father's use of tobacco on child health have concluded that they serve as risk factors for maternal and child health. Some authors have implied that these studies may have run the risk of overestimating the burden of disease of one factor over another. In this paper, we included all four factors in the same model to estimate their adjusted effects on child mortality, controlling for the demographic factors. The data come from 2005 to 2006 National Family Health Survey of India that interviewed a nationally representative sample of 39,257 couples. Of the four factors, mothers' use of tobacco presented the highest risk for child mortality (OR = 1.42; CI = 1.27-1.60) followed by fathers' use of tobacco (OR = 1.23; CI = 1.12-1.36), households' use of solid fuel for cooking (OR = 1.23; CI = 1.06-1.43), and physical abuse upon mothers (OR = 1.20; CI = 1.10-1.32). Among the households that used solid fuel for cooking, improved cookstoves users experienced 28 % lower odds of child mortality (OR = 0.72; CI = 0.61-0.86) compared to nonusers of improved cookstoves. Additionally, increase in age of mothers at birth of first child, parents' education, and household wealth served as protective factors for child mortality. To prevent child death, programs should focus on reducing couple's use of tobacco, protecting women from physical abuse, and helping households switch from solid to liquid fuel. Moreover, a significant reduction in child death could be attained by improving girls' education, and delaying their age at marriage and first birth.

  18. Effect of Experimentally-Induced Trunk Muscular Tensions on the Sit-to-Stand Task Performance and Associated Postural Adjustments

    PubMed Central

    Hamaoui, Alain; Alamini-Rodrigues, Caroline

    2017-01-01

    It has been shown that increased muscular activity along the trunk is likely to impair body balance, but there is little knowledge about its consequences on more dynamic tasks. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of unilateral and bilateral increases of muscular tension along the trunk on the sit-to-stand task (STS) performance and associated anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs). Twelve healthy females (23 ± 3 years, 163 ± 0.06 cm, 56 ± 9 kg), free of any neurological or musculoskeletal disorders, performed six trials of the STS at maximum speed, in seven experimental conditions varying the muscular tension along each side of the trunk, using a specific bimanual compressive load paradigm. A six-channel force plate was used to calculate the coordinates of the center of pressure (CP) along the anterior-posterior and medial-lateral axes, and the kinematics of the head, spine and pelvis, were estimated using three pairs of uni-axial accelerometers. The postural and focal components of the task were assessed using three biomechanical parameters calculated from CP signals: the duration and magnitude of APAs, and the duration of focal movement (dFM). Results showed that beyond a given level, higher muscular tension along the trunk results in longer APAs, but with a stable duration of the focal movement. In addition, no significant variation of APAs and FM parameters was found between bilateral and unilateral increases of muscular tension. It was suggested that restricted mobility due to higher muscular tension along the trunk requires an adaptation of the programming of APAs to keep the same level of performance in the STS task. These findings may have implications in treatment strategies aimed at preserving functional autonomy in pathologies including a rise of muscular tension. PMID:28220064

  19. Effect of Experimentally-Induced Trunk Muscular Tensions on the Sit-to-Stand Task Performance and Associated Postural Adjustments.

    PubMed

    Hamaoui, Alain; Alamini-Rodrigues, Caroline

    2017-01-01

    It has been shown that increased muscular activity along the trunk is likely to impair body balance, but there is little knowledge about its consequences on more dynamic tasks. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of unilateral and bilateral increases of muscular tension along the trunk on the sit-to-stand task (STS) performance and associated anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs). Twelve healthy females (23 ± 3 years, 163 ± 0.06 cm, 56 ± 9 kg), free of any neurological or musculoskeletal disorders, performed six trials of the STS at maximum speed, in seven experimental conditions varying the muscular tension along each side of the trunk, using a specific bimanual compressive load paradigm. A six-channel force plate was used to calculate the coordinates of the center of pressure (CP) along the anterior-posterior and medial-lateral axes, and the kinematics of the head, spine and pelvis, were estimated using three pairs of uni-axial accelerometers. The postural and focal components of the task were assessed using three biomechanical parameters calculated from CP signals: the duration and magnitude of APAs, and the duration of focal movement (dFM). Results showed that beyond a given level, higher muscular tension along the trunk results in longer APAs, but with a stable duration of the focal movement. In addition, no significant variation of APAs and FM parameters was found between bilateral and unilateral increases of muscular tension. It was suggested that restricted mobility due to higher muscular tension along the trunk requires an adaptation of the programming of APAs to keep the same level of performance in the STS task. These findings may have implications in treatment strategies aimed at preserving functional autonomy in pathologies including a rise of muscular tension.

  20. Pre-Post Tornado Effects on Aggressive Children's Psychological and Behavioral Adjustment Through One-Year Postdisaster.

    PubMed

    Lochman, John E; Vernberg, Eric; Powell, Nicole P; Boxmeyer, Caroline L; Jarrett, Matthew; McDonald, Kristina; Qu, Lixin; Hendrickson, Michelle; Kassing, Francesca

    2017-01-01

    Using a risk-resilience framework, this study examined how varying levels of exposure to a natural disaster (EF-4 tornado) and children's characteristics (sex; anxiety) influenced the behavioral and psychological adjustment of children who shared a common risk factor predisaster (elevated aggression) prior to exposure through 1-year postdisaster. Participants included 360 children in Grades 4-6 (65% male; 78% African American) and their parents from predominantly low-income households who were already participating in a longitudinal study of indicated prevention effects for externalizing outcomes when the tornado occurred in 2011. Fourth-grade children who were screened for overt aggressive behavior were recruited in 3 annual cohorts (120 per year, beginning in 2009). Parent-rated aggression and internalizing problems were assessed prior to the tornado (Wave 1), within a half-year after the tornado (Wave 2), and at a 1-year follow-up (Wave 3). Children and parents rated their exposure to aspects of tornado-related traumatic experiences at Wave 3. Children displayed less reduction on aggression and internalizing problems if the children had experienced distress after the tornado or fears for their life, in combination with their pre-tornado level of anxiety. Higher levels of children's and parents' exposure to the tornado interacted with children's lower baseline child anxiety to predict less reduction in aggression and internalizing problems 1 year after the tornado. Higher levels of disaster exposure negatively affected at-risk children's level of improvement in aggression and internalizing problems, when life threat (parent- and child-reported) and child-reported distress after the tornado were moderated by baseline anxiety.

  1. Evaluating the effects of variation in clinical practice: a risk adjusted cost-effectiveness (RAC-E) analysis of acute stroke services

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Methods for the cost-effectiveness analysis of health technologies are now well established, but such methods may also have a useful role in the context of evaluating the effects of variation in applied clinical practice. This study illustrates a general methodology for the comparative analysis of applied clinical practice at alternative institutions – risk adjusted cost-effectiveness (RAC-E) analysis – with an application that compares acute hospital services for stroke patients admitted to the main public hospitals in South Australia. Methods Using linked, routinely collected data on all South Australian hospital separations from July 2001 to June 2008, an analysis of the RAC-E of services provided at four metropolitan hospitals was undertaken using a decision analytic framework. Observed (plus extrapolated) and expected lifetime costs and survival were compared across patient populations, from which the relative cost-effectiveness of services provided at the different hospitals was estimated. Results Unadjusted results showed that at one hospital patients incurred fewer costs and gained more life years than at the other hospitals (i.e. it was the dominant hospital). After risk adjustment, the cost minimizing hospital incurred the lowest costs, but with fewer life-years gained than one other hospital. The mean incremental cost per life-year gained of services provided at the most effective hospital was under $20,000, with an associated 65% probability of being cost-effective at a $50,000 per life year monetary threshold. Conclusions RAC-E analyses can be used to identify important variation in the costs and outcomes associated with clinical practice at alternative institutions. Such data provides an impetus for further investigation to identify specific areas of variation, which may then inform the dissemination of best practice service delivery and organisation. PMID:22905669

  2. Effects of the preventive and corrective adjustments in economical designs for online process control for attributes with misclassification errors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinino, Roberto C.; Ho, Linda Lee

    2010-01-01

    The procedure for online process control by attributes consists of inspecting a single item at every m produced items. It is decided on the basis of the inspection result whether the process is in-control (the conforming fraction is stable) or out-of-control (the conforming fraction is decreased, for example). Most articles about online process control have cited the stoppage of the production process for an adjustment when the inspected item is non-conforming (then the production is restarted in-control, here denominated as corrective adjustment). Moreover, the articles related to this subject do not present semi-economical designs (which may yield high quantities of non-conforming items), as they do not include a policy of preventive adjustments (in such case no item is inspected), which can be more economical, mainly if the inspected item can be misclassified. In this article, the possibility of preventive or corrective adjustments in the process is decided at every m produced item. If a preventive adjustment is decided upon, then no item is inspected. On the contrary, the m-th item is inspected; if it conforms, the production goes on, otherwise, an adjustment takes place and the process restarts in-control. This approach is economically feasible for some practical situations and the parameters of the proposed procedure are determined minimizing an average cost function subject to some statistical restrictions (for example, to assure a minimal level-fixed in advance-of conforming items in the production process). Numerical examples illustrate the proposal.

  3. Ultrasonic atomization: effect of liquid phase properties.

    PubMed

    Avvaru, Balasubrahmanyam; Patil, Mohan N; Gogate, Parag R; Pandit, Aniruddha B

    2006-02-01

    Experiments have been conducted to understand the mechanism by which the ultrasonic vibration at the gas liquid interface causes the atomization of liquid. For this purpose, aqueous solutions having different viscosities and liquids showing Newtonian (aqueous solution of glycerin) and non-Newtonian behavior (aqueous solution of sodium salt of carboxy methyl cellulose) were employed. It has been found that the average droplet size produced by the pseudo-plastic liquid is less than that produced by the viscous Newtonian liquid having viscosity equal to zero-shear rate viscosity of the shear thinning liquid. The droplet size was found to increase initially with an increase in the viscosity up to a certain threshold viscosity after which the droplet size was found to decrease again. Also droplet size distribution is found to be more compact (uniform sizes) with an increasing viscosity of the atomizing liquid. The presence of the cavitation and its effect on the atomization has been semi quantitatively confirmed using energy balance and by the measurement of the droplet ejection velocities and validated on the basis of the decomposition of the aqueous KI solution. A correlation has been proposed for the prediction of droplet size for aqueous Newtonian fluids and fluids showing non-Newtonian behavior based on the dimensionless numbers incorporating the operating parameters of the ultrasonic atomizer and the liquid phase physico-chemical properties.

  4. Structural characteristics of surface-functionalized nitrogen-doped diamond-like carbon films and effective adjustment to cell attachment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ai-Ping; Liu, Min; Yu, Jian-Can; Qian, Guo-Dong; Tang, Wei-Hua

    2015-05-01

    Nitrogen-doped diamond-like carbon (DLC:N) films prepared by the filtered cathodic vacuum arc technology are functionalized with various chemical molecules including dopamine (DA), 3-Aminobenzeneboronic acid (APBA), and adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and the impacts of surface functionalities on the surface morphologies, compositions, microstructures, and cell compatibility of the DLC:N films are systematically investigated. We demonstrate that the surface groups of DLC:N have a significant effect on the surface and structural properties of the film. The activity of PC12 cells depends on the particular type of surface functional groups of DLC:N films regardless of surface roughness and wettability. Our research offers a novel way for designing functionalized carbon films as tailorable substrates for biosensors and biomedical engineering applications. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51272237, 51272231, and 51010002) and the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (Grant Nos. 2012M520063, 2013T60587, and Bsh1201016).

  5. The Peer Group as a Context: Moderating Effects on Relations between Maternal Parenting and Social and School Adjustment in Chinese Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Xinyin; Chang, Lei; He, Yunfeng; Liu, Hongyun

    2005-01-01

    This 2-year longitudinal study examined, in a sample of Chinese children (initial M age=11 years), the moderating effects of the peer group on relations between maternal supportive parenting and social and school adjustment. Data were collected from multiple sources including peer assessments, teacher ratings, school records, and maternal reports.…

  6. Language Adjustment of International Students in the US: A Social Network Analysis on the Effects of Language Resources, Language Norm and Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qiu, Wei

    2011-01-01

    The study explores factors that enhance or inhibit the language adjustment of international students in the U.S. Using social network influence model, the study examines the effects of language resources, language norm, and technology use on international students' self-confidence in overall English skills and four subskills, namely, listening,…

  7. The Effects of Economic and Social Stressors on Parenting and Adolescent Adjustment of African-American Families. CEIC Research Brief, No. 109.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Ronald

    This study examines economic and social stressors and their effects on the parenting styles and adolescent adjustment of African American families. It systematically characterizes and explains the nature of some of the chronic economic and social stressors experienced by poor African American families as they affect parenting and adolescent…

  8. Effectiveness of Group Positive Parenting Program (Triple P) in Changing Child Behavior, Parenting Style, and Parental Adjustment: An Intervention Study in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fujiwara, Takeo; Kato, Noriko; Sanders, Matthew R.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of a group-based family intervention program known as the Group Positive Parenting Program (Triple P), with families in Japan. Reductions in children's behavioral problems, changes in dysfunctional parenting practices, and affects on parenting adjustment were examined. Participants of…

  9. Language Adjustment of International Students in the US: A Social Network Analysis on the Effects of Language Resources, Language Norm and Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qiu, Wei

    2011-01-01

    The study explores factors that enhance or inhibit the language adjustment of international students in the U.S. Using social network influence model, the study examines the effects of language resources, language norm, and technology use on international students' self-confidence in overall English skills and four subskills, namely, listening,…

  10. 42 CFR 495.211 - Payment adjustments effective for 2015 and subsequent MA payment years with respect to MA EPs and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Payment adjustments effective for 2015 and....211 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION STANDARDS FOR THE ELECTRONIC HEALTH RECORD TECHNOLOGY...

  11. Effectiveness of Group Positive Parenting Program (Triple P) in Changing Child Behavior, Parenting Style, and Parental Adjustment: An Intervention Study in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fujiwara, Takeo; Kato, Noriko; Sanders, Matthew R.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of a group-based family intervention program known as the Group Positive Parenting Program (Triple P), with families in Japan. Reductions in children's behavioral problems, changes in dysfunctional parenting practices, and affects on parenting adjustment were examined. Participants of…

  12. Effects of Autistic Traits on Social and School Adjustment in Children and Adolescents: The Moderating Roles of Age and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsiao, Mei-Ni; Tseng, Wan-Ling; Huang, Hui-Yi; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the associations between children's and adolescents' autistic-like social deficits and school and social adjustment as well as the moderating roles of age and gender in these associations. The sample consisted of 1321 students (48.7% boys) in Grade 1 to Grade 8 from northern Taiwan. Children's and adolescents' autistic-like…

  13. The Adjustment Process for Individuals with Spinal Cord Injury: The Effect of Perceived Premorbid Sense of Coherence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lustig, Daniel C.

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between perceived changes in sense of coherence from pre- to postinjury and adjustment for a group of individuals with spinal cord injury. It was hypothesized that after a spinal cord injury, an individual's belief that he or she had significantly reduced his or her sense of coherence would be associated…

  14. The Effects of Work Intensity on Adolescent Mental Health, Achievement and Behavioral Adjustment: New Evidence from a Prospective Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mortimer, Jeylan T.; And Others

    This longitudinal study examined adolescents' mental health, academic achievement, and behavioral adjustment in relation to work intensity during high school. Data were collected from approximately 1,000 adolescents during a 4-year period, beginning in the subjects' freshman year of high school. Self-administered questionnaires were distributed…

  15. Effects of Autistic Traits on Social and School Adjustment in Children and Adolescents: The Moderating Roles of Age and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsiao, Mei-Ni; Tseng, Wan-Ling; Huang, Hui-Yi; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the associations between children's and adolescents' autistic-like social deficits and school and social adjustment as well as the moderating roles of age and gender in these associations. The sample consisted of 1321 students (48.7% boys) in Grade 1 to Grade 8 from northern Taiwan. Children's and adolescents' autistic-like…

  16. The Effect of Undergraduate GPA Selectivity Adjustment on Pre-interview Ranking of Rural Medical School Applicants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Gregory Eastham; Blue, Amy Victoria; Basco, William Thomas, Jr.

    2003-01-01

    Almost all U.S. medical schools adjust applicants' GPAs based on the selectivity of applicants' undergraduate institutions. Analysis of data from 2,033 in-state applicants to the Medical University of South Carolina, 1996-99, found that this practice did not adversely affect the number of rural applicants offered admission interviews. (SV)

  17. Effect of Adjusting Pseudo-Guessing Parameter Estimates on Test Scaling When Item Parameter Drift Is Present

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Kyung T.; Wells, Craig S.; Hambleton, Ronald K.

    2015-01-01

    In item response theory test scaling/equating with the three-parameter model, the scaling coefficients A and B have no impact on the c-parameter estimates of the test items since the cparameter estimates are not adjusted in the scaling/equating procedure. The main research question in this study concerned how serious the consequences would be if…

  18. The Effect of Undergraduate GPA Selectivity Adjustment on Pre-interview Ranking of Rural Medical School Applicants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Gregory Eastham; Blue, Amy Victoria; Basco, William Thomas, Jr.

    2003-01-01

    Almost all U.S. medical schools adjust applicants' GPAs based on the selectivity of applicants' undergraduate institutions. Analysis of data from 2,033 in-state applicants to the Medical University of South Carolina, 1996-99, found that this practice did not adversely affect the number of rural applicants offered admission interviews. (SV)

  19. Social Support and Self-Esteem Effects on Psychological Adjustment in Children and Adolescents with Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varni, James W.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    The mediation of family and peer social support and self-esteem in the relationship between chronic strain and psychological adjustment in children and adolescents with juvenile diabetes is investigated. Family support is more important than peer support for children, while the opposite holds for adolescents. Self-esteem benefits both groups. (AF)

  20. The Adjustment Process for Individuals with Spinal Cord Injury: The Effect of Perceived Premorbid Sense of Coherence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lustig, Daniel C.

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between perceived changes in sense of coherence from pre- to postinjury and adjustment for a group of individuals with spinal cord injury. It was hypothesized that after a spinal cord injury, an individual's belief that he or she had significantly reduced his or her sense of coherence would be associated…

  1. The Effects of Child Sexual Abuse in Later Family Life; Mental Health, Parenting and Adjustment of Offspring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Ron; O'Connor, Tom; Dunn, Judy; Golding, Jean

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate links between child sexual abuse (occurring before 13 years), later mental health, family organization, parenting behaviors, and adjustment in offspring. Method: The present study investigates a subsample of the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children an ongoing study of women and their families in the area of…

  2. Historical cohort study of US man-made vitreous fiber production workers: VI. Respiratory system cancer standardized mortality ratios adjusted for the confounding effect of cigarette smoking.

    PubMed

    Marsh, G M; Buchanich, J M; Youk, A O

    2001-09-01

    To date, the US cohort study of man-made vitreous fiber workers has provided no consistent evidence of a relationship between man-made vitreous fiber exposure and mortality from malignant or non-malignant respiratory disease. Nevertheless, there have been small, overall excesses in respiratory system cancer (RSC) among workers from the fiberglass and rock/slag wool production plants included in the study that were unexplained by estimated worker exposures to respirable fiber or other agents present in the plants. The present investigation was designed to provide a quantitative estimate of the extent to which the overall excess in RSC mortality observed at the total cohort level among male fiberglass and rock/slag wool workers is a result of the positive confounding effects of cigarette smoking. Because cigarette-smoking data were neither available nor obtainable at the individual level for all members of the fiberglass and rock/slag wool cohorts, we used the "indirect" method to adjust RSC standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) at the group (cohort and plant) level. Our adjustment suggested that cigarette smoking accounts for all of the 7% and 24% excesses in RSC observed, respectively, for the male fiberglass and rock/slag wool cohorts in the latest mortality updates. The same conclusion was reached regardless of which of several alternative formulations were used to adjust local rate-based RSC SMRs. We found that our smoking adjustments were robust with respect to several alternative characterizations and (with the exception of one fiberglass plant) produced adjusted RSC SMRs that were lower than their unadjusted counterparts. Further, all statistically significantly elevated unadjusted SMRs were reduced to not statistically significant levels. These results reaffirm that RSC SMRs based on US and local rates must take into account the potential confounding effects of cigarette smoking. They also suggest that the use of local county mortality rate-based SMRs may not

  3. [Effects of acupuncture combined with dietary adjustments and aerobic exercise on body weight, body mass index and serum leptin level in simple obesity patients].

    PubMed

    Yang, Ji-jun; Xing, Hai-jiao; Wang, Shao-jin; Xiao, Hong-ling; Li, Mei; Li, Qing

    2010-12-01

    To observe the effect of acupuncture combined with dietary adjustments and aerobic exercise on the body weight, body mass index (BMI) and serum leptin content of patients with simple obesity, so as to evaluate the efficacy of the present therapy in the treatment of simple obesity. A total of 61 cases of out-patients were randomly divided into control (n=30) and treatment (n=31) groups. Patients in the control group were treated with dietary adjustments and aerobic exercise everyday (30 min/d), continuously for 51 days, and those of the treatment group were treated with acupuncture [Zhong-wan (CV 12), Tianshu (ST 25), Guanyuan (CV 4), etc.] plus dietary adjustment and aerobic exercise everyday, with 15 days being a course of treatment, 3 days' interval between every two courses, and 3 courses altogether. Serum leptin content was detected by using radioimmunoassay. Compared with pre-treatment, the body weight and BMI and serum leptin levels in the control and treatment groups were all decreased significantly (P < 0.01). Comparison between the two groups showed that the body weight at the end of the 1st and 3rd course of treatment, the BMI at the end of the 1st, 2nd and 3rd course of treatment, and serum leptin level after the treatment in the treatment group were all significantly lower than those in the control group (P < 0.05, P < 0.01). The difference values of body weight and BMI between pre-treatment and post-treatment of the treatment group were obviously higher than those of the control group (P < 0.01), suggesting a better therapeutic effect of acupuncture combined with dietary adjustments and aerobic exercise in the treatment of simple obesity. Acupuncture combined with dietary adjustments and aerobic exercise can reduce the body weight, BMI and serum leptin level, which is better than dietary adjustments plus aerobic exercise.

  4. Tillage Effects on Soil Properties & Respiration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusu, Teodor; Bogdan, Ileana; Moraru, Paula; Pop, Adrian; Duda, Bogdan; Cacovean, Horea; Coste, Camelia

    2015-04-01

    Soil tillage systems can be able to influence soil compaction, water dynamics, soil temperature and soil structural condition. These processes can be expressed as changes of soil microbiological activity, soil respiration and sustainability of agriculture. Objectives of this study were: 1) to assess the effects of tillage systems (Conventional System-CS, Minimum Tillage-MT, No-Tillage-NT) on soil compaction, soil temperature, soil moisture and soil respiration and 2) to establish the relationship that exists in changing soil properties. Three treatments were installed: CS-plough + disc; MT-paraplow + rotary grape; NT-direct sowing. The study was conducted on an Argic-Stagnic Faeoziom. The MT and NT applications reduce or completely eliminate the soil mobilization, due to this, soil is compacted in the first year of application. The degree of compaction is directly related to soil type and its state of degradation. The state of soil compaction diminished over time, tending toward a specific type of soil density. Soil moisture was higher in NT and MT at the time of sowing and in the early stages of vegetation and differences diminished over time. Moisture determinations showed statistically significant differences. The MT and NT applications reduced the thermal amplitude in the first 15 cm of soil depth and increased the soil temperature by 0.5-2.20C. The determinations confirm the effect of soil tillage system on soil respiration; the daily average was lower at NT (315-1914 mmoli m-2s-1) and followed by MT (318-2395 mmoli m-2s-1) and is higher in the CS (321-2480 mmol m-2s-1). Comparing with CS, all the two conservation tillage measures decreased soil respiration, with the best effects of no-tillage. An exceeding amount of CO2 produced in the soil and released into the atmosphere, resulting from aerobic processes of mineralization of organic matter (excessive loosening) is considered to be not only a way of increasing the CO2 in the atmosphere, but also a loss of

  5. Effects of autistic traits on social and school adjustment in children and adolescents: the moderating roles of age and gender.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Mei-Ni; Tseng, Wan-Ling; Huang, Hui-Yi; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the associations between children's and adolescents' autistic-like social deficits and school and social adjustment as well as the moderating roles of age and gender in these associations. The sample consisted of 1321 students (48.7% boys) in Grade 1 to Grade 8 from northern Taiwan. Children's and adolescents' autistic-like social deficits were assessed using the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS), and their school and social adjustment (i.e., academic performance, negative attitudes toward schoolwork/teachers/classmates, behavioral problems at schools, negative peer relationships, and problems with peers) were assessed using the Social Adjustment Inventory for Children and Adolescents (SAICA). Both measures were completed by the mothers of the participants. Results from the linear mixed models demonstrated that autistic-like social deficits were associated with poor academic performance, negative attitudes toward schoolwork, teachers, and classmates, behavioral problems at schools, negative peer relationships, and problematic peer interactions. Moreover, gender and/or age moderated the associations between autistic-like social deficits and school and social adjustment problems. For example, autistic-like social deficits were more strongly related to negative school attitude, school social problems, and negative peer relationships in boys than in girls. Further, autistic-like social deficits were more strongly related to problems with peers in older girls than in older boys or younger children (regardless of gender). In conclusion, the present study suggests that autistic-like social deficits may place children and adolescents at increased risk for social and school maladjustment and that the extent of maladjustment may vary with the child's age and gender and the domains of adjustment under discussion.

  6. Effects of changing stance conditions on anticipatory postural adjustment and reaction time to voluntary arm movement in humans

    PubMed Central

    Dietz, V; Kowalewski, R; Nakazawa, K; Colombo, G

    2000-01-01

    The effect on reaction time (RT) and anticipatory postural adjustment (APA) of unexpectedly changing stance conditions was studied using a push or pull arm movement task. The aim was to evaluate the modifiability of RT and APA by an external perturbation associated with an automatic compensatory reaction.Subjects standing on a moveable platform were asked to push or pull a rigid handle as quickly and as strongly as possible in response to the ‘go-signal’, a visual signal from a green or red light-emitting diode. Forward and backward translations of the platform were randomly induced at four time intervals after the go-signal. In some experiments to detect unspecific arousal there were no platform translations but an acoustic signal was given before the go-signal. Surface electromyographic activity (EMG) of upper arm and lower leg muscles was analysed.During the push task both RT and the duration of APA (onset of APA till the force signal indicating hand action) were shorter during backward than during forward translation. During the pull task the effect of platform translations was the reverse. The delay between go-signal and onset of APA remained constant. Consequently, RT and APA became shorter when the platform was translated in the same direction as that in which the upper body was displaced by the push or pull movement, and longer when it was translated in the opposite direction. The effects were maximal when translations were induced 250 ms after the go-signal, but a difference was detected up to 375 ms.Furthermore, with forward and backward platform translations RT was shorter when the translations were induced early rather than late after the go-signal. This was associated with a shortening of the delay between the go-signal and onset of APA, while APA duration remained constant. The shortened RT was in the range of that obtained when an acoustic signal was given just before the go-signal.It is concluded that (i) both the RT and the duration of APA can

  7. Investigation on the coupling effect of thermochromism and microstructure on spectral properties of structured surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Junfei; Xuan, Yimin; Li, Qiang; Fan, Desong; Huang, Jinguo

    2012-07-01

    This paper is aimed at studying the coupling effect of thermochromism and surface microstructure on the spectral properties of structured surfaces. We prepare the samples of structured surfaces of perovskite-type manganese thermochromic materials by patterning one-dimensional gratings and two-dimensional cavity arrays by means of the photolithographic technique. Experiment on radiative properties of these samples indicates that the emittance of the structured surfaces dramatically increases compared with that of the bulk thermochromic materials. It is demonstrated the adjustable emittance range of the thermochromic materials can be effectively enlarged by designing the surface morphology. This implies a novel approach for improving the thermochromic effect of the perovskite-type manganese materials.

  8. Importance of customer adjustment regions in the non-clinical property of thought: A home examination in low and high-income areas of Mashhad.

    PubMed

    Fazaeli, S; Yousefi, M; Banikazemi, S H; Ghazizadeh Hashemi, Sah; Khorsand, A; Badiee, Sh

    2015-01-01

    Responsiveness was proposed via WHO as a fundamental sign to evaluate the enforcement of wellness practices and evaluates with a standard organization of fields that are classified to 2 principal classes "Respect as characters" and "customer adjustment". The current research included the value of customer adjustment areas in low and high-income communities of Mashhad. In the current descriptive research, an example of 923 families was chosen stochastically of 2 low and high pay areas of Mashhad. WHO survey employed for information gathering. Regular rate reviews and Ordinal Logistic Regression (OLR) applied for information investigation. In overall, respondents chose basic amenities quality as the primary area, and the path to social care networks recognized as the wicked primary area. Families in high-income states obtained higher areas of immediate notations and selection associated with low-income. There is a meaningful correlation among parameters of ages, having a part whom required care and self-imposed health via the ranking of customer adjustment areas. The investigation of the homes' viewpoint concerning the classification of non-clinical perspectives of care quality, particularly while confronted by restricted sources, can assist in managing enterprises towards topics that are more relevant and results in the development of the wellness policy achievement and fecundity.

  9. Fine Mapping Seronegative and Seropositive Rheumatoid Arthritis to Shared and Distinct HLA Alleles by Adjusting for the Effects of Heterogeneity

    PubMed Central

    Han, Buhm; Diogo, Dorothée; Eyre, Steve; Kallberg, Henrik; Zhernakova, Alexandra; Bowes, John; Padyukov, Leonid; Okada, Yukinori; González-Gay, Miguel A.; Rantapää-Dahlqvist, Solbritt; Martin, Javier; Huizinga, Tom W.J.; Plenge, Robert M.; Worthington, Jane; Gregersen, Peter K.; Klareskog, Lars; de Bakker, Paul I.W.; Raychaudhuri, Soumya

    2014-01-01

    Despite progress in defining human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles for anti-citrullinated-protein-autoantibody-positive (ACPA+) rheumatoid arthritis (RA), identifying HLA alleles for ACPA-negative (ACPA−) RA has been challenging because of clinical heterogeneity within clinical cohorts. We imputed 8,961 classical HLA alleles, amino acids, and SNPs from Immunochip data in a discovery set of 2,406 ACPA− RA case and 13,930 control individuals. We developed a statistical approach to identify and adjust for clinical heterogeneity within ACPA− RA and observed independent associations for serine and leucine at position 11 in HLA-DRβ1 (p = 1.4 × 10−13, odds ratio [OR] = 1.30) and for aspartate at position 9 in HLA-B (p = 2.7 × 10−12, OR = 1.39) within the peptide binding grooves. These amino acid positions induced associations at HLA-DRB1∗03 (encoding serine at 11) and HLA-B∗08 (encoding aspartate at 9). We validated these findings in an independent set of 427 ACPA− case subjects, carefully phenotyped with a highly sensitive ACPA assay, and 1,691 control subjects (HLA-DRβ1 Ser11+Leu11: p = 5.8 × 10−4, OR = 1.28; HLA-B Asp9: p = 2.6 × 10−3, OR = 1.34). Although both amino acid sites drove risk of ACPA+ and ACPA− disease, the effects of individual residues at HLA-DRβ1 position 11 were distinct (p < 2.9 × 10−107). We also identified an association with ACPA+ RA at HLA-A position 77 (p = 2.7 × 10−8, OR = 0.85) in 7,279 ACPA+ RA case and 15,870 control subjects. These results contribute to mounting evidence that ACPA+ and ACPA− RA are genetically distinct and potentially have separate autoantigens contributing to pathogenesis. We expect that our approach might have broad applications in analyzing clinical conditions with heterogeneity at both major histocompatibility complex (MHC) and non-MHC regions. PMID:24656864

  10. Cortical control of object-specific grasp relies on adjustments of both activity and effective connectivity: a common marmoset study.

    PubMed

    Tia, Banty; Takemi, Mitsuaki; Kosugi, Akito; Castagnola, Elisa; Ansaldo, Alberto; Nakamura, Takafumi; Ricci, Davide; Ushiba, Junichi; Fadiga, Luciano; Iriki, Atsushi

    2017-08-09

    and scissor grips. Considering effective connectivity, finger and scissor grips evoked stronger outflow from primary motor to premotor cortex, whereas whole-hand grip displayed the opposite pattern. These findings suggest that fundamental control mechanisms, relying on adjustments of cortical activity and connectivity, are conserved across primates. Consistently, marmosets could represent a good model to investigate primate brain mechanisms. © 2017 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of The Physiological Society.

  11. Effects of live weight adjusted feeding strategy on plasma indicators of energy balance in Holstein cows managed for extended lactation.

    PubMed

    Gaillard, C; Vestergaard, M; Weisbjerg, M R; Sehested, J

    2016-04-01

    In early lactation, most of the dairy cows are in negative energy balance; the extent and duration depend in part on the feeding strategy. Previous studies showed an increased lactation milk yield by use of a live weight (LW) adjusted feeding strategy with a high energy diet before and a reduced energy diet after LW nadir compared with a standard diet throughout lactation. The objective of the present study was to examine how such an individualized feeding strategy affects plasma indicators of energy status. It was hypothesized that an energy-enriched diet until LW nadir will reduce the severity of the negative energy balance, and that the reduction in diet energy concentration from LW nadir will extend the negative energy balance period further. Sixty-two Holstein cows (30% first parity) were managed for 16 months extended lactation and randomly allocated to one of two feeding strategies at calving. Two partially mixed rations were used, one with a high energy density (HD) and a 50 : 50 forage : concentrate ratio, and one with a lower energy density (LD, control diet) and a 60 : 40 forage : concentrate ratio. Half of the cows were offered the HD diet until they reached at least 42 days in milk and a LW gain⩾0 kg/day based on a 5-days LW average, and were then shifted to the LD diet (strategy HD-LD). The other half of the cows were offered the LD diet throughout lactation (control strategy LD-LD). Weekly blood samples were drawn for analysis of plasma metabolites and hormones. Before the shift in diet, the HD-LD cows had higher glucose and lower beta-hydroxybutyrate and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) concentrations than the LD-LD cows. After the shift until 36 weeks after calving, plasma NEFA was higher in HD-LD than LD-LD cows. Insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 were not affected by the feeding strategy. To conclude, in early lactation, the energy-enriched diet reduced the negative energy balance. Plasma NEFA was higher in HD-LD than LD-LD cows from

  12. Effects of Increased Loading on In Vivo Tendon Properties: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    WIESINGER, HANS-PETER; KÖSTERS, ALEXANDER; MÜLLER, ERICH; SEYNNES, OLIVIER R.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction In vivo measurements have been used in the past two decades to investigate the effects of increased loading on tendon properties, yet the current understanding of tendon macroscopic changes to training is rather fragmented, limited to reports of tendon stiffening, supported by changes in material properties and/or tendon hypertrophy. The main aim of this review was to analyze the existing literature to gain further insights into tendon adaptations by extracting patterns of dose-response and time-course. Methods PubMed/Medline, SPORTDiscus, and Google Scholar databases were searched for studies examining the effect of training on material, mechanical, and morphological properties via longitudinal or cross-sectional designs. Results Thirty-five of 6440 peer-reviewed articles met the inclusion criteria. The key findings were i) the confirmation of a nearly systematic adaptation of tendon tissue to training, ii) the important variability in the observed changes in tendon properties between and within studies, and iii) the absence of a consistent incremental pattern regarding the dose-response or the time-course relation of tendon adaptation within the first months of training. However, long-term (years) training was associated with a larger tendon cross-sectional area, without any evidence of differences in material properties. Our analysis also highlighted several gaps in the existing literature, which may be addressed in future research. Conclusions In line with some cross-species observations about tendon design, tendon cross-sectional area allegedly constitutes the ultimate adjusting parameter to increased loading. We propose here a theoretical model placing tendon hypertrophy and adjustments in material properties as parts of the same adaptive continuum. PMID:25563908

  13. Parental physical punishment and adolescent adjustment: bidirectionality and the moderation effects of child ethnicity and parental warmth.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ming-Te; Kenny, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    This study used cross-lagged modeling to examine reciprocal relations between maternal and paternal physical punishment and adolescent misconduct and depressive symptoms, while accounting for stability in both physical punishment and adjustment problems over time. Data were drawn from a sample of 862 two-parent families and their adolescent children (52 % males; 54 % European American; 44 % African American; 2 % other ethnic backgrounds). Mothers' and fathers' physical punishment of their adolescents' ages 12 and 14 predicted increased misconduct and depressive symptoms among these adolescents at ages 14 and 16. Adolescent misconduct, but not depressive symptoms, at ages 12 and 14 predicted increased physical punishment by their parents at ages 14 and 16. Neither parental warmth nor child ethnicity moderated the longitudinal relationship between parental physical punishment and adolescent adjustment. Patterns of findings were similar across mothers and fathers.

  14. Analysis of case-parent trios for imprinting effect using a loglinear model with adjustment for sex-of-parent-specific transmission ratio distortion.

    PubMed

    Huang, Lam Opal; Infante-Rivard, Claire; Labbe, Aurélie

    2017-08-01

    Transmission ratio distortion (TRD) is a phenomenon where parental transmission of disease allele to the child does not follow the Mendelian inheritance ratio. TRD occurs in a sex-of-parent-specific or non-sex-of-parent-specific manner. An offset computed from the transmission probability of the minor allele in control-trios can be added to the loglinear model to adjust for TRD. Adjusting the model removes the inflation in the genotype relative risk (RR) estimate and Type 1 error introduced by non-sex-of-parent-specific TRD. We now propose to further extend this model to estimate an imprinting parameter. Some evidence suggests that more than 1% of all mammalian genes are imprinted. In the presence of imprinting, for example, the offspring inheriting an over-transmitted disease allele from the parent with a higher expression level in a neighboring gene is over-represented in the sample. TRD mechanisms such as meiotic drive and gametic competition occur in a sex-of-parent-specific manner. Therefore, sex-of-parent-specific TRD (ST) leads to over-representation of maternal or paternal alleles in the affected child. As a result, ST may bias the imprinting effect when present in the sample. We propose a sex-of-parent-specific transmission offset in adjusting the loglinear model to account for ST. This extended model restores the correct RR estimates for child and imprinting effects, adjusts for inflation in Type 1 error, and improves performance on sensitivity and specificity compared to the original model without ST offset. We conclude that to correctly interpret the association signal of an imprinting effect, adjustment for ST is necessary to ensure valid conclusions.

  15. Explorations of Crystalline Effects on 4-(Benzyloxy)Benzaldehyde Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harismah, Kun; Ozkendir, O. Murat; Mirzaei, Mahmoud

    2015-12-01

    The properties of 4-(benzyloxy)benzaldehyde (BBA), as a pharmaceutically important compound, have been investigated through the density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The properties of original crystalline and optimised gaseous structures have been evaluated to recognise the crystalline effects. In addition to the structural properties, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) properties have also been evaluated for both investigated systems to better detect the effects in atomic levels. The results indicated that the structural shape of BBA is significantly changed in the optimised gaseous system, showing significant crystalline effects on the geometrical positions. Moreover, the magnitudes for energies and dipole moments indicate notable effects on the electronic properties. The evaluated NMR properties also show that the atoms of aromatic systems detect significant changes more than the atoms of aliphatic systems in the investigated BBA. And finally, the oxygen bridge atom plays a dominant role in combining two benzene rings of BBA.

  16. Effectiveness and safety of adjustable maintenance dosing with budesonide/formoterol turbuhaler compared with traditional fixed doses in bronchial asthma: a multi-centre Nigerian study.

    PubMed

    Ige, O M; Ohaju-Obodo, J O; Chukwu, C; Peters, E J; Okpapi, J; Chukwuka, C

    2010-09-01

    The modern treatment guideline of bronchial asthma recognize that combination of long acting beta2-agonists and inhaled glucocorticoids, enables better control of inflammation and symptoms of asthma than inhaled glucocorticoids only. These guidelines recommended that patients are educated to adjust their medication to their asthma severity using physician-guided self-management plans. However, many patients take a fixed dose of their controller medication and adjust their reliever medication to asthma symptoms Therefore, combination of formoterol and budesonide can be delivered at different dosing level without the need to change inhalers. This study examined whether asthma control improved if patients adjusted the maintenance doses(AMD) ofbudesonide/formoterol (Symbicort, 80/ 4.5 microg and 160/4.5 microg) according to asthma severity compared with traditional fixed dosing (FD) regimens. This was a prospective open randomized trial carried out in five teaching hospitals across Nigeria between 15th July 2002 and 15th July 2003. Patients with bronchial asthma who met the enrollment criteria were randomized to receive either adjustable dosing or fixed dosing for a period of twelve weeks. The results obtained at the start and the end of the study showed that budesonide/formoterol combination effectively achieved and maintained control of asthma. The adjustable dosing achieves more effective control compared to fixed dosing in terms of the number of patients that are redistributed to less severe forms of persistent asthma. The percentage of patients with intermittent asthma increased from 9.3% at randomization to 55.6% at the end of therapy with more patients at the AMD arm of treatment. Also for mild persistent asthma there was an increase from 20.4% to 24.1%. This showed that at the end of treatment, majority (79.7%) of the patients had intermittent and mild persistent asthma. The frequency of use of budesonide/formoterol in the two arms of treatment showed that

  17. Risk Adjustment for Lumbar Dysfunction: Comparison of Linear Mixed Models With and Without Inclusion of Between-Clinic Variation as a Random Effect.

    PubMed

    Yen, Sheng-Che; Corkery, Marie B; Chui, Kevin K; Manjourides, Justin; Wang, Ying-Chih; Resnik, Linda J

    2015-12-01

    Valid comparison of patient outcomes of physical therapy care requires risk adjustment for patient characteristics using statistical models. Because patients are clustered within clinics, results of risk adjustment models are likely to be biased by random, unobserved between-clinic differences. Such bias could lead to inaccurate prediction and interpretation of outcomes. The purpose of this study was to determine if including between-clinic variation as a random effect would improve the performance of a risk adjustment model for patient outcomes following physical therapy for low back dysfunction. This was a secondary analysis of data from a longitudinal cohort of 147,623 patients with lumbar dysfunction receiving physical therapy in 1,470 clinics in 48 states of the United States. Three linear mixed models predicting patients' functional status (FS) at discharge, controlling for FS at intake, age, sex, number of comorbidities, surgical history, and health care payer, were developed. Models were: (1) a fixed-effect model, (2) a random-intercept model that allowed clinics to have different intercepts, and (3) a random-slope model that allowed different intercepts and slopes for each clinic. Goodness of fit, residual error, and coefficient estimates were compared across the models. The random-effect model fit the data better and explained an additional 11% to 12% of the between-patient differences compared with the fixed-effect model. Effects of payer, acuity, and number of comorbidities were confounded by random clinic effects. Models may not have included some variables associated with FS at discharge. The clinics studied may not be representative of all US physical therapy clinics. Risk adjustment models for functional outcome of patients with lumbar dysfunction that control for between-clinic variation performed better than a model that does not. © 2015 American Physical Therapy Association.

  18. 45 CFR 74.83 - Effect on intangible property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Effect on intangible property. 74.83 Section 74.83 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE... Effect on intangible property. Data sharing (FOIA) requirements as set forth in § 74.36(d)(1) do...

  19. 45 CFR 74.83 - Effect on intangible property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Effect on intangible property. 74.83 Section 74.83 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE... Effect on intangible property. Data sharing (FOIA) requirements as set forth in § 74.36(d)(1) do not...

  20. The effect of fire on soil properties

    Treesearch

    Leonard F. DeBano

    1991-01-01

    Fire affects nutrient cycling and the physical, chemical, and biological properties of soils occupied by western montane forests. Combustion of litter and soil organic matter (OM) increases the availability of some nutrients, although others are volatilized (for example, N, P, S). Soil OM loss also affects cation exchange capacity, organic chelation, aggregate...

  1. Effects of tritium on material properties

    SciTech Connect

    Caskey, G.R. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The effecs of tritium on deformation and fracture of metals are reviewed with emphasis on similarities and differences between tritium and the other hydrogen isotopes. Helium generated by radioactive decay of tritium introduces time dependent property changes not observed with protium or deuterium. On-going studies and topics for further investigations are identified. 17 refs., 6 figs., 9 tabs.

  2. Aviation-fuel property effects on combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosfjord, T. J.

    1984-01-01

    The fuel chemical property influence on a gas turbine combustor was studied using 25 test fuels. Fuel physical properties were de-emphasized by using fuel injectors which produce highly-atomized, and hence rapidly vaporizing sprays. A substantial fuel spray characterization effort was conducted to allow selection of nozzles which assured that such sprays were achieved for all fuels. The fuels were specified to cover the following wide ranges of chemical properties: hydrogen, 9.1 to 15 (wt) pct; total aromatics, 0 to 100 (vol) pct; and naphthalene, 0 to 30 (vol) pct. standard fuels (e.g., Jet A, JP4), speciality products (e.g., decalin, xylene tower bottoms) and special fuel blends were included. The latter group included six, 4-component blends prepared to achieve parametric variations in fuel hydrogen, total aromatics and naphthalene contents. The principle influences of fuel chemical properties on the combustor behavior were reflected by the radiation, liner temperature, and exhaust smoke number (or equivalently, soot number density) data. Test results indicated that naphthalene content strongly influenced the radiative heat load while parametric variations in total aromatics did not.

  3. Importance of customer adjustment regions in the non-clinical property of thought: A home examination in low and high-income areas of Mashhad

    PubMed Central

    Fazaeli, S; Yousefi, M; Banikazemi, SH; Ghazizadeh Hashemi, SAH; Khorsand, A; Badiee, Sh

    2015-01-01

    Responsiveness was proposed via WHO as a fundamental sign to evaluate the enforcement of wellness practices and evaluates with a standard organization of fields that are classified to 2 principal classes “Respect as characters” and “customer adjustment”. The current research included the value of customer adjustment areas in low and high-income communities of Mashhad. In the current descriptive research, an example of 923 families was chosen stochastically of 2 low and high pay areas of Mashhad. WHO survey employed for information gathering. Regular rate reviews and Ordinal Logistic Regression (OLR) applied for information investigation. In overall, respondents chose basic amenities quality as the primary area, and the path to social care networks recognized as the wicked primary area. Families in high-income states obtained higher areas of immediate notations and selection associated with low-income. There is a meaningful correlation among parameters of ages, having a part whom required care and self-imposed health via the ranking of customer adjustment areas. The investigation of the homes’ viewpoint concerning the classification of non-clinical perspectives of care quality, particularly while confronted by restricted sources, can assist in managing enterprises towards topics that are more relevant and results in the development of the wellness policy achievement and fecundity. PMID:28316675

  4. Effects of molybdenum on water utilization, antioxidative defense system and osmotic-adjustment ability in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) under drought stress.

    PubMed

    Wu, Songwei; Hu, Chengxiao; Tan, Qiling; Nie, Zhaojun; Sun, Xuecheng

    2014-10-01

    Molybdenum (Mo), as an essential trace element in plants, plays an essential role in abiotic stress tolerance of plants. To obtain a better understanding of drought tolerance enhanced by Mo, a hydroponic trial was conducted to investigate the effects of Mo on water utilization, antioxidant enzymes, non-enzymatic antioxidants, and osmotic-adjustment products in the Mo-efficient '97003' and Mo-inefficient '97014' under PEG simulated drought stress. Our results indicate that Mo application significantly enhanced Pn, chlorophyll, dry matter, grain yield, biomass, RWC and WUE and decreased Tr, Gs and water loss of wheat under drought stress, suggesting that Mo application improved the water utilization capacity in wheat. The activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase and the contents of non-enzymatic antioxidants content such as ascorbic acid, reduced glutathione, carotenoid were significantly increased and malonaldehyde contents were decreased by Mo application under PEG simulated drought stress, suggesting that Mo application enhanced the ability of scavenging active oxygen species. The osmotic-adjustment products such as soluble protein, proline and soluble sugar were also increased by Mo application under PEG simulated drought stress, indicating that Mo improved the osmotic adjustment ability in wheat. It is hypothesized that Mo application might improve the drought tolerance of wheat by enhancing water utilization capability and the abilities of antioxidative defense and osmotic adjustment. Similarities and differences between the Mo-efficient and Mo-inefficient cultivars wheat in response to Mo under drought stress are discussed.

  5. Effects of body height, notebook computer size, and workstation height on recommended adjustments for proper work posture when operating a notebook computer.

    PubMed

    Nanthavanij, Suebsak; Jalil, Sakib; Ammarapala, Veeris

    2008-12-01

    Factors which are likely to affect recommended workstation and notebook computer (NBC) adjustments to obtain ergonomic work posture during NBC operation are investigated. They are: (1) body height, (2) NBC size, and (3) workstation height (i.e., seat and work surface heights). Six recommended adjustments which are evaluated include: (1) footrest height, (2) seat support height, (3) NBC base support height, (4) distance between the user's body and NBC (or user-NBC distance), (5) tilt angle of NBC base, and (6) screen angle. It is found that body height has a significant effect on footrest height and user-NBC distance while NBC size has a significant effect on user-NBC distance, tilt angle of NBC base, and screen angle. Workstation height, on the other hand, does not show any effect on the six recommended adjustments. However, the results suggest that there are interactions between body height and NBC size, and between body height and workstation height when evaluating their effects on footrest height, tilt angle of NBC base, and screen angle.

  6. Control of physical properties of carbon nanofibers obtained from coaxial electrospinning of PMMA and PAN with adjustable inner/outer nozzle-ends.

    PubMed

    Kaerkitcha, Navaporn; Chuangchote, Surawut; Sagawa, Takashi

    2016-12-01

    Hollow carbon nanofibers (HCNFs) were prepared by electrospinning method with several coaxial nozzles, in which the level of the inner nozzle-end is adjustable. Core/shell nanofibers were prepared from poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) as a pyrolytic core and polyacrylonitrile (PAN) as a carbon shell with three types of normal (viz. inner and outer nozzle-ends are balanced in the same level), inward, and outward coaxial nozzles. The influence of the applied voltage on these three types of coaxial nozzles was studied. Specific surface area, pore size diameter, crystallinity, and degree of graphitization of the hollow and mesoporous structures of carbon nanofibers obtained after carbonization of the as spun PMMA/PAN nanofibers were characterized by BET analyses, X-ray diffraction, and Raman spectroscopy in addition to the conductivity measurements. It was found that specific surface area, crystallinity, and graphitization degree of the HCNFs affect the electrical conductivity of the carbon nanofibers.

  7. Long-term Adjustment After Surviving Open Heart Surgery: The Effect of Using Prayer for Coping Replicated in a Prospective Design.

    PubMed

    Ai, A L; Ladd, K L; Peterson, C; Cook, C A; Shearer, M; Koenig, H G

    2010-12-01

    despite the growing evidence for effects of religious factors on cardiac health in general populations, findings are not always consistent in sicker and older populations. We previously demonstrated that short-term negative outcomes (depression and anxiety) among older adults following open heart surgery are partially alleviated when patients employ prayer as part of their coping strategy. The present study examines multifaceted effects of religious factors on long-term postoperative adjustment, extending our previous findings concerning prayer and coping with cardiac disease. analyses capitalized on a preoperative survey and medical variables from the Society of Thoracic Surgeons' National Database of patients undergoing open heart surgery. The current participants completed a mailed survey 30 months after surgery. Two hierarchical regressions were performed to evaluate the extent to which religious factors predicted depression and anxiety, after controlling for key demographics, medical indices, and mental health. predicting lower levels of depression at the follow-up were preoperative use of prayer for coping, optimism, and hope. Predicting lower levels of anxiety at the follow-up were subjective religiousness, marital status, and hope. Predicting poorer adjustment were reverence in religious contexts, preoperative mental health symptoms, and medical comorbidity. Including optimism and hope in the model did not eliminate effects of religious factors. Several other religious factors had no long-term influences. MPLICATIONS: the influence of religious factors on the long-term postoperative adjustment is independent and complex, with mediating factors yet to be determined. Future research should investigate mechanisms underlying religion-health relations.

  8. Effects of Surf Zone Sediment Properties on Shock Wave Behavior

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-07

    SEP 1999 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-1999 to 00-00-1999 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Effects of Surf Zone Sediment Properties on Shock Wave ...Effects of Surf Zone Sediment Properties on Shock Wave Behavior L. Dale Bibee Seafloor Geosciences – Code 7432 Naval Research Laboratory Stennis...mines is critically dependent upon the propagation effectiveness of shock waves from the charge to the mine. Data and modeling show that this

  9. Continuously adjustable Pulfrich spectacles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, Ken; Karpf, Ron

    2011-03-01

    A number of Pulfrich 3-D movies and TV shows have been produced, but the standard implementation has inherent drawbacks. The movie and TV industries have correctly concluded that the standard Pulfrich 3-D implementation is not a useful 3-D technique. Continuously Adjustable Pulfrich Spectacles (CAPS) is a new implementation of the Pulfrich effect that allows any scene containing movement in a standard 2-D movie, which are most scenes, to be optionally viewed in 3-D using inexpensive viewing specs. Recent scientific results in the fields of human perception, optoelectronics, video compression and video format conversion are translated into a new implementation of Pulfrich 3- D. CAPS uses these results to continuously adjust to the movie so that the viewing spectacles always conform to the optical density that optimizes the Pulfrich stereoscopic illusion. CAPS instantly provides 3-D immersion to any moving scene in any 2-D movie. Without the glasses, the movie will appear as a normal 2-D image. CAPS work on any viewing device, and with any distribution medium. CAPS is appropriate for viewing Internet streamed movies in 3-D.

  10. The relationship between effectiveness and costs measured by a risk-adjusted case-mix system: multicentre study of Catalonian population data bases

    PubMed Central

    Sicras-Mainar, Antoni; Navarro-Artieda, Ruth; Blanca-Tamayo, Milagrosa; Velasco-Velasco, Soledad; Escribano-Herranz, Esperanza; Llopart-López, Josep Ramon; Violan-Fors, Concepción; Vilaseca-Llobet, Josep Maria; Sánchez-Fontcuberta, Encarna; Benavent-Areu, Jaume; Flor-Serra, Ferran; Aguado-Jodar, Alba; Rodríguez-López, Daniel; Prados-Torres, Alejandra; Estelrich-Bennasar, Jose

    2009-01-01

    Background The main objective of this study is to measure the relationship between morbidity, direct health care costs and the degree of clinical effectiveness (resolution) of health centres and health professionals by the retrospective application of Adjusted Clinical Groups in a Spanish population setting. The secondary objectives are to determine the factors determining inadequate correlations and the opinion of health professionals on these instruments. Methods/Design We will carry out a multi-centre, retrospective study using patient records from 15 primary health care centres and population data bases. The main measurements will be: general variables (age and sex, centre, service [family medicine, paediatrics], and medical unit), dependent variables (mean number of visits, episodes and direct costs), co-morbidity (Johns Hopkins University Adjusted Clinical Groups Case-Mix System) and effectiveness. The totality of centres/patients will be considered as the standard for comparison. The efficiency index for visits, tests (laboratory, radiology, others), referrals, pharmaceutical prescriptions and total will be calculated as the ratio: observed variables/variables expected by indirect standardization. The model of cost/patient/year will differentiate fixed/semi-fixed (visits) costs of the variables for each patient attended/year (N = 350,000 inhabitants). The mean relative weights of the cost of care will be obtained. The effectiveness will be measured using a set of 50 indicators of process, efficiency and/or health results, and an adjusted synthetic index will be constructed (method: percentile 50). The correlation between the efficiency (relative-weights) and synthetic (by centre and physician) indices will be established using the coefficient of determination. The opinion/degree of acceptance of physicians (N = 1,000) will be measured using a structured questionnaire including various dimensions. Statistical analysis: multiple regression analysis (procedure

  11. Climate-related trends in sapwood biophysical properties in two conifers: avoidance of hydraulic dysfunction through coordinated adjustments in xylem efficiency, safety and capacitance

    Treesearch

    David M. Barnard; Frederick C. Meinzer; Barbara Lachenbruch; Katherine A. McCulloh; Daniel M. Johnson; David R. Woodruff

    2011-01-01

    In the Pacific north-west, the Cascade Mountain Range blocks much of the precipitation and maritime influence of the Pacific Ocean, resulting in distinct climates east and west of the mountains. The current study aimed to investigate relationships between water storage and transport properties in populations of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii)...

  12. Analytical properties of the effective refractive index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puzko, R. S.; Merzlikin, A. M.

    2017-01-01

    The propagation of a plane wave through a periodic layered system is considered in terms of the effective parameters. The problem of introduction of effective parameters is discussed. It was demonstrated that although the effective admittance cannot be introduced, it is possible to introduce the effective refractive index, which tends toward the Rytov value when the system size increases. It was shown that the effective wave vector derivative is an analytical function of frequency. In particular, the Kramers-Kronig-like relations for real and imaginary parts of the effective wave vector derivative were obtained. The Kramers-Kronig-like relations for the effective refractive index were also considered. The results obtained numerically were proved by exact solution of Maxwell's equations in the specific case of an "equi-impedance" system.

  13. Effect of Hybridization on Stiffness Properties of Woven Textile Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bejan, Liliana; Taranu, Nicolae; Sîrbu, Adriana

    2013-04-01

    The present study focuses on stiffness properties of woven textile reinforced polymeric composites with respect to hybridization, and geometry of reinforcement. The analyzed composites represent combinations of different fibre materials (E-glass, Kevlar 49, carbon HM) in a predetermined fabric geometry (a plane weave embedded in thermosetting polymeric resin) serving controlled properties and required performance. The effects of hybridization on the stiffness properties of woven textile composites have been studied with respect to the fibres materials, the unbalancing degree of fabrics, and the variation of compactness and undulation of yarns. Some undesirable effects in fabric geometry can be overcome by the combined effects of hybridization and compactness.

  14. Fano effect dominance over Coulomb blockade in transport properties of parallel coupled quantum dot system

    SciTech Connect

    Brogi, Bharat Bhushan Ahluwalia, P. K.; Chand, Shyam

    2015-06-24

    Theoretical study of the Coulomb blockade effect on transport properties (Transmission Probability and I-V characteristics) for varied configuration of coupled quantum dot system has been studied by using Non Equilibrium Green Function(NEGF) formalism and Equation of Motion(EOM) method in the presence of magnetic flux. The self consistent approach and intra-dot Coulomb interaction is being taken into account. As the key parameters of the coupled quantum dot system such as dot-lead coupling, inter-dot tunneling and magnetic flux threading through the system can be tuned, the effect of asymmetry parameter and magnetic flux on this tuning is being explored in Coulomb blockade regime. The presence of the Coulomb blockade due to on-dot Coulomb interaction decreases the width of transmission peak at energy level ε + U and by adjusting the magnetic flux the swapping effect in the Fano peaks in asymmetric and symmetric parallel configuration sustains despite strong Coulomb blockade effect.

  15. Fano effect dominance over Coulomb blockade in transport properties of parallel coupled quantum dot system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brogi, Bharat Bhushan; Chand, Shyam; Ahluwalia, P. K.

    2015-06-01

    Theoretical study of the Coulomb blockade effect on transport properties (Transmission Probability and I-V characteristics) for varied configuration of coupled quantum dot system has been studied by using Non Equilibrium Green Function(NEGF) formalism and Equation of Motion(EOM) method in the presence of magnetic flux. The self consistent approach and intra-dot Coulomb interaction is being taken into account. As the key parameters of the coupled quantum dot system such as dot-lead coupling, inter-dot tunneling and magnetic flux threading through the system can be tuned, the effect of asymmetry parameter and magnetic flux on this tuning is being explored in Coulomb blockade regime. The presence of the Coulomb blockade due to on-dot Coulomb interaction decreases the width of transmission peak at energy level ɛ + U and by adjusting the magnetic flux the swapping effect in the Fano peaks in asymmetric and symmetric parallel configuration sustains despite strong Coulomb blockade effect.

  16. Emotional adjustment and distressed interpersonal relations among low-income African American mothers: moderating effects of demanding kin relations.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Ronald D; Budescu, Mia

    2013-01-01

    Association of mothers' emotional adjustment and negative kin relations with distressed interpersonal relations was examined. Among 115 low-income African American mothers, relationship of depressive symptoms, self-esteem, and demanding kin relations with psychological control and stressful interpersonal relations was assessed. Depressive symptoms and demanding kin relations were positively associated with mothers' use of psychological control in parenting. Interaction of self-esteem with demanding kin relations revealed that self-esteem was negatively associated with psychological control for mothers with high-demanding kin relations but not for mothers with low-demanding kin relations. Mothers' depressive symptoms and demanding kin relations were positively associated with their stressful interpersonal relations. Findings were discussed in terms of the need for research on the beneficial and detrimental aspects of families' social network.

  17. Adjustment of measurements with multiplicative errors: error analysis, estimates of the variance of unit weight, and effect on volume estimation from LiDAR-type digital elevation models.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yun; Xu, Peiliang; Peng, Junhuan; Shi, Chuang; Liu, Jingnan

    2014-01-10

    Modern observation technology has verified that measurement errors can be proportional to the true values of measurements such as GPS, VLBI baselines and LiDAR. Observational models of this type are called multiplicative error models. This paper is to extend the work of Xu and Shimada published in 2000 on multiplicative error models to analytical error analysis of quantities of practical interest and estimates of the variance of unit weight. We analytically derive the variance-covariance matrices of the three least squares (LS) adjustments, the adjusted measurements and the corrections of measurements in multiplicative error models. For quality evaluation, we construct five estimators for the variance of unit weight in association of the three LS adjustment methods. Although LiDAR measurements are contaminated with multiplicative random errors, LiDAR-based digital elevation models (DEM) have been constructed as if they were of additive random errors. We will simulate a model landslide, which is assumed to be surveyed with LiDAR, and investigate the effect of LiDAR-type multiplicative error measurements on DEM construction and its effect on the estimate of landslide mass volume from the constructed DEM.

  18. Adjustment of Measurements with Multiplicative Errors: Error Analysis, Estimates of the Variance of Unit Weight, and Effect on Volume Estimation from LiDAR-Type Digital Elevation Models

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Yun; Xu, Peiliang; Peng, Junhuan; Shi, Chuang; Liu, Jingnan

    2014-01-01

    Modern observation technology has verified that measurement errors can be proportional to the true values of measurements such as GPS, VLBI baselines and LiDAR. Observational models of this type are called multiplicative error models. This paper is to extend the work of Xu and Shimada published in 2000 on multiplicative error models to analytical error analysis of quantities of practical interest and estimates of the variance of unit weight. We analytically derive the variance-covariance matrices of the three least squares (LS) adjustments, the adjusted measurements and the corrections of measurements in multiplicative error models. For quality evaluation, we construct five estimators for the variance of unit weight in association of the three LS adjustment methods. Although LiDAR measurements are contaminated with multiplicative random errors, LiDAR-based digital elevation models (DEM) have been constructed as if they were of additive random errors. We will simulate a model landslide, which is assumed to be surveyed with LiDAR, and investigate the effect of LiDAR-type multiplicative error measurements on DEM construction and its effect on the estimate of landslide mass volume from the constructed DEM. PMID:24434880

  19. The Effects of School-Based Maum Meditation Program on the Self-Esteem and School Adjustment in Primary School Students

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Yang Gyeong; Lee, In Soo

    2013-01-01

    Self-esteem and school adjustment of children in the lower grades of primary school, the beginning stage of school life, have a close relationship with development of personality, mental health and characters of children. Therefore, the present study aimed to verify the effect of school-based Maum Meditation program on children in the lower grades of primary school, as a personality education program. The result showed that the experimental group with application of Maum Meditation program had significant improvements in self-esteem and school adjustment, compared to the control group without the application. In conclusion, since the study provides significant evidence that the intervention of Maum Meditation program had positive effects on self-esteem and school adjustment of children in the early stage of primary school, it is suggested to actively employ Maum Meditation as a school-based meditation program for mental health promotion of children in the early school ages, the stage of formation of personalities and habits. PMID:23777717

  20. The effect of lameness prevalence on technical efficiency at the dairy farm level: an adjusted data envelopment analysis approach.

    PubMed

    Barnes, A P; Rutherford, K M D; Langford, F M; Haskell, M J

    2011-11-01

    A key indicator of resource use within farming is technical efficiency, which measures the amount of physical output attainable from a given set of inputs. The social aspects, in particular the treatment of animals, have generally been ignored within these measurement schemas. In addition, animal welfare will affect the production technology under which farms operate, and some allowance for this is needed within the measurement approach. This is the first paper to apply animal welfare as a discriminating technology within a technical efficiency framework. Using results from an animal welfare monitoring study coupled with resource usage data, it presents an adjusted measure of technical efficiency applied to a sample of British dairy farms and compares differences in lameness management strategies for herds. We employ both a categorical and nondiscretionary variant of the data envelopment analysis approach to measure technical efficiencies and adjust for various degrees of lameness prevalence among these farms. This paper finds that farms with low rates of lameness (below 10% of the cattle herd) tend to have significantly higher technical efficiencies than those with lameness rates of above 10% of the herd. Farms that have levels of lameness of between 10 to 20% of the herd and higher levels of lameness (above 20% of the herd) did not differ significantly. Furthermore, low lameness farms are inefficient in terms of labor and stocking density, but this is outweighed by the gain in milk yield obtained on these farms. Consequently, we argue for a whole-farm, rather than a partial indicator, approach to assessing efficiency when noneconomic factors such as lameness are accounted for. From a policy perspective, we support programs that encourage active lameness management. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of hydrocolloids on functional properties of navy bean starch

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The effects of hydrocolloid replacement on the pasting properties of navy bean starch and on the properties of navy bean starch gels were studied. Navy bean starch was isolated, and blends were prepared with beta-glucan, guar gum, pectin and xanthan gum solutions. The total solids concentration was ...

  2. 26 CFR 1.9001-2 - Basis adjustments for taxable years beginning on or after 1956 adjustment date.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 1956 adjustment date. (c) Adjustment for part of terms-letter reserve applicable to property disposed... adjustment date shall be made as of that date for that part of the terms-letter reserve which was applicable... changeover date and before the taxpayer's 1956 adjustment date. This paragraph shall apply even though,...

  3. Effect of skin-pass rolling direction on magnetic properties of semiprocessed nonoriented electrical steel sheets

    SciTech Connect

    Kurosaki, Y.; Shimazu, T.; Shiozaki, M.

    1999-09-01

    Effect of skin-pass rolling direction on magnetic properties and directionality in semiprocessed nonoriented electrical steel sheets produced by skin-pass rolling process was studied. Skin-pass rolling direction greatly affects magnetic properties and directionality. By control of skin-pass rolling direction, the value of B{sub 50} in the required directions such as 0{degree}, 90{degree} and circumferential direction can be adjusted and the value of B{sub 50} is higher than that of the usual skin-pass rolling direction of 0{degree}. The textures of the steel sheets developed after batch annealing varied with the skin-pass rolling directions and this result indicates that the residual strain energy by skin-pass rolling varies with skin-pass rolling directions.

  4. Effective Heat and Mass Transport Properties of Anisotropic Porous Ceria for Solar Thermochemical Fuel Generation

    PubMed Central

    Haussener, Sophia; Steinfeld, Aldo

    2012-01-01

    High-resolution X-ray computed tomography is employed to obtain the exact 3D geometrical configuration of porous anisotropic ceria applied in solar-driven thermochemical cycles for splitting H2O and CO2. The tomography data are, in turn, used in direct pore-level numerical simulations for determining the morphological and effective heat/mass transport properties of porous ceria, namely: porosity, specific surface area, pore size distribution, extinction coefficient, thermal conductivity, convective heat transfer coefficient, permeability, Dupuit-Forchheimer coefficient, and tortuosity and residence time distributions. Tailored foam designs for enhanced transport properties are examined by means of adjusting morphologies of artificial ceria samples composed of bimodal distributed overlapping transparent spheres in an opaque medium. PMID:28817039

  5. Effective Heat and Mass Transport Properties of Anisotropic Porous Ceria for Solar Thermochemical Fuel Generation.

    PubMed

    Haussener, Sophia; Steinfeld, Aldo

    2012-01-19

    High-resolution X-ray computed tomography is employed to obtain the exact 3D geometrical configuration of porous anisotropic ceria applied in solar-driven thermochemical cycles for splitting H2O and CO2. The tomography data are, in turn, used in direct pore-level numerical simulations for determining the morphological and effective heat/mass transport properties of porous ceria, namely: porosity, specific surface area, pore size distribution, extinction coefficient, thermal conductivity, convective heat transfer coefficient, permeability, Dupuit-Forchheimer coefficient, and tortuosity and residence time distributions. Tailored foam designs for enhanced transport properties are examined by means of adjusting morphologies of artificial ceria samples composed of bimodal distributed overlapping transparent spheres in an opaque medium.

  6. Effects of Benthopelagic Animals on Seabed Properties

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-09-30

    V., R. L. O’Driscoll, and D. E. McGehee. 1998. “Effect of orientation on broadband acoustic scattering of Antarctic krill Euphausia superba ...O’Driscoll, and L. V. Martin-Traykovski. 1998. “Effects of orientation on acoustic scattering from Antarctic krill at 120 kHz,” Deep Sea Research

  7. Increased sensitivity to effects of normal aging and Alzheimer’s disease on cortical thickness by adjustment for local variability in gray/white contrast: A multi-sample MRI study

    PubMed Central

    Westlye, Lars T.; Walhovd, Kristine B.; Dale, Anders M.; Espeseth, Thomas; Reinvang, Ivar; Raz, Naftali; Agartz, Ingrid; Greve, Douglas N.; Fischl, Bruce; Fjell, Anders M.

    2009-01-01

    MRI-based estimates of cerebral morphometric properties, e.g. cortical thickness, are pivotal to studies of normal and pathological brain changes. These measures are based on automated or manual segmentation procedures, which utilize the tissue contrast between gray and white matter on T1-weighted MR images. Tissue contrast is unlikely to remain a constant property across groups of different age and health. An important question is therefore how the sensitivity of cortical thickness estimates is influenced by variability in WM/GM contrast. The effect of adjusting for variability in WM/GM contrast on age sensitivity of cortical thickness was tested in 1,189 healthy subjects from six different samples, enabling evaluation of consistency of effects within and between sites and scanners. Further, the influence of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) diagnosis on cortical thickness with and without correction for contrast was tested in an additional sample of 96 patients. In healthy controls, regional increases in the sensitivity of the cortical thickness measure to age were found after correcting for contrast. Across samples, the strongest effects were observed in frontal, lateral temporal and parietal areas. Controlling for contrast variability also increased the cortical thickness estimates’ sensitivity to AD, thus replicating the finding in an independent clinical sample. The results showed increased sensitivity of cortical estimates to AD in areas earlier reported to be compromised in AD, including medial temporal, inferior and superior parietal regions. In sum, the findings indicate that adjusting for contrast can increase the sensitivity of MR morphometry to variables of interest. PMID:19501655

  8. 26 CFR 1.9001-3 - Basis adjustments for taxable years between changeover date and 1956 adjustment date.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (e) of the Act shall be made in lieu of the adjustments for depreciation otherwise required by... the amount of the terms-letter reserve applicable to such property. (c) Adjustment for depreciation... changeover date and before the 1956 adjustment date, for depreciation applicable to such property...

  9. The hyperpolarization-activated non-specific cation current (In ) adjusts the membrane properties, excitability, and activity pattern of the giant cells in the rat dorsal cochlear nucleus.

    PubMed

    Rusznák, Zoltán; Pál, Balázs; Kőszeghy, Aron; Fu, Yuhong; Szücs, Géza; Paxinos, George

    2013-03-01

    Giant cells of the cochlear nucleus are thought to integrate multimodal sensory inputs and participate in monaural sound source localization. Our aim was to explore the significance of a hyperpolarization-activated current in determining the activity of giant neurones in slices prepared from 10 to 14-day-old rats. When subjected to hyperpolarizing stimuli, giant cells produced a 4-(N-ethyl-N-phenylamino)-1,2-dimethyl-6-(methylamino) pyridinium chloride (ZD7288)-sensitive inward current with a reversal potential and half-activation voltage of -36 and -88 mV, respectively. Consequently, the current was identified as the hyperpolarization-activated non-specific cationic current (Ih ). At the resting membrane potential, 3.5% of the maximum Ih conductance was available. Immunohistochemistry experiments suggested that hyperpolarization-activated, cyclic nucleotide-gated, cation non-selective (HCN)1, HCN2, and HCN4 subunits contribute to the assembly of the functional channels. Inhibition of Ih hyperpolarized the membrane by 6 mV and impeded spontaneous firing. The frequencies of spontaneous inhibitory and excitatory postsynaptic currents reaching the giant cell bodies were reduced but no significant change was observed when evoked postsynaptic currents were recorded. Giant cells are affected by biphasic postsynaptic currents consisting of an excitatory and a subsequent inhibitory component. Inhibition of Ih reduced the frequency of these biphasic events by 65% and increased the decay time constants of the inhibitory component. We conclude that Ih adjusts the resting membrane potential, contributes to spontaneous action potential firing, and may participate in the dendritic integration of the synaptic inputs of the giant neurones. Because its amplitude was higher in young than in adult rats, Ih of the giant cells may be especially important during the postnatal maturation of the auditory system.

  10. Adjusting for reverse causation to estimate the effect of obesity on mortality after incident heart failure in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study.

    PubMed

    Shakiba, Maryam; Soori, Hamid; Mansournia, Mohammad Ali; Nazari, Seyed Saeed Hashemi; Salimi, Yahya

    2016-01-01

    The lower mortality rate of obese patients with heart failure (HF) has been partly attributed to reverse causation bias due to weight loss caused by disease. Using data about weight both before and after HF, this study aimed to adjust for reverse causation and examine the association of obesity both before and after HF with mortality. Using the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study, 308 patients with data available from before and after the incidence of HF were included. Pre-morbid and post-morbid obesity were defined based on body mass index measurements at least three months before and after incident HF. The associations of pre-morbid and post-morbid obesity and weight change with survival after HF were evaluated using a Cox proportional hazard model. Pre-morbid obesity was associated with higher mortality (hazard ratio [HR], 1.61; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04 to 2.49) but post-morbid obesity was associated with increased survival (HR, 0.57; 95% CI, 0.37 to 0.88). Adjusting for weight change due to disease as a confounder of the obesity-mortality relationship resulted in the absence of any significant associations between post-morbid obesity and mortality. This study demonstrated that controlling for reverse causality by adjusting for the confounder of weight change may remove or reverse the protective effect of obesity on mortality among patients with incident HF.

  11. Adjusting for reverse causation to estimate the effect of obesity on mortality after incident heart failure in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The lower mortality rate of obese patients with heart failure (HF) has been partly attributed to reverse causation bias due to weight loss caused by disease. Using data about weight both before and after HF, this study aimed to adjust for reverse causation and examine the association of obesity both before and after HF with mortality. METHODS: Using the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study, 308 patients with data available from before and after the incidence of HF were included. Pre-morbid and post-morbid obesity were defined based on body mass index measurements at least three months before and after incident HF. The associations of pre-morbid and post-morbid obesity and weight change with survival after HF were evaluated using a Cox proportional hazard model. RESULTS: Pre-morbid obesity was associated with higher mortality (hazard ratio [HR], 1.61; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04 to 2.49) but post-morbid obesity was associated with increased survival (HR, 0.57; 95% CI, 0.37 to 0.88). Adjusting for weight change due to disease as a confounder of the obesity-mortality relationship resulted in the absence of any significant associations between post-morbid obesity and mortality. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated that controlling for reverse causality by adjusting for the confounder of weight change may remove or reverse the protective effect of obesity on mortality among patients with incident HF. PMID:27283142

  12. Adjustment of interaural time difference in head related transfer functions based on listeners' anthropometry and its effect on sound localization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Yôiti; Watanabe, Kanji; Iwaya, Yukio; Gyoba, Jiro; Takane, Shouichi

    2005-04-01

    Because the transfer functions governing subjective sound localization (HRTFs) show strong individuality, sound localization systems based on synthesis of HRTFs require suitable HRTFs for individual listeners. However, it is impractical to obtain HRTFs for all listeners based on measurements. Improving sound localization by adjusting non-individualized HRTFs to a specific listener based on that listener's anthropometry might be a practical method. This study first developed a new method to estimate interaural time differences (ITDs) using HRTFs. Then correlations between ITDs and anthropometric parameters were analyzed using the canonical correlation method. Results indicated that parameters relating to head size, and shoulder and ear positions are significant. Consequently, it was attempted to express ITDs based on listener's anthropometric data. In this process, the change of ITDs as a function of azimuth angle was parameterized as a sum of sine functions. Then the parameters were analyzed using multiple regression analysis, in which the anthropometric parameters were used as explanatory variables. The predicted or individualized ITDs were installed in the nonindividualized HRTFs to evaluate sound localization performance. Results showed that individualization of ITDs improved horizontal sound localization.

  13. Effect of Present-on-Admission (POA) Reporting Accuracy on Hospital Performance Assessments Using Risk-Adjusted Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Goldman, L Elizabeth; Chu, Philip W; Bacchetti, Peter; Kruger, Jenna; Bindman, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate how the accuracy of present-on-admission (POA) reporting affects hospital 30-day acute myocardial infarction (AMI) mortality assessments. Data Sources A total of 2005 California patient discharge data (PDD) and vital statistics death files. Study Design We compared hospital performance rankings using an established model assessing hospital performance for AMI with (1) a model incorporating POA indicators of whether a secondary condition was a comorbidity or a complication of care, and (2) a simulation analysis that factored POA indicator accuracy into the hospital performance assessment. For each simulation, we changed POA indicators for six major acute risk factors of AMI mortality. The probability of POA being changed depended on patient and hospital characteristics. Principal Findings Comparing the performance rankings of 268 hospitals using the established model with that using the POA indicator, 67 hospitals' (25 percent) rank differed by ≥10 percent. POA reporting inaccuracy due to overreporting and underreporting had little additional impact; POA overreporting contributed to 4 percent of hospitals' difference in rank compared to the POA model and POA underreporting contributed to <1 percent difference. Conclusion Incorporating POA indicators into risk-adjusted models of AMI care has a substantial impact on hospital rankings of performance that is not primarily attributable to inaccuracy in POA hospital reporting. PMID:25285372

  14. CATS EYES Adjustment Procedures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-04-01

    AL-TR-1 993-0025 AD-A264 069 CATS EYES ADJUSTMENT PROCEDURES A R M Joseph C. Antonio DTIC S ELECTET University of Dayton Research Institute MAY 13...Final November 1992 - January 1993 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE S. FUNDING NUMBERS C F33615-90-C-0005 CATS EYES Adjustment Procedures PE - 62205F 6. AUTHOR(S) PR...the loss of NVG performance resulting from improper goggle adjustments. This report describes correct adjustment procedures for the CATS EYES NVG system

  15. Exploring methods for comparing the real-world effectiveness of treatments for osteoporosis: adjusted direct comparisons versus using patients as their own control.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, Linda; Mesterton, Johan; Tepie, Maurille Feudjo; Intorcia, Michele; Overbeek, Jetty; Ström, Oskar

    2017-09-21

    Using Swedish and Dutch registry data for women initiating bisphosphonates, we evaluated two methods of comparing the real-world effectiveness of osteoporosis treatments that attempt to adjust for differences in patient baseline characteristics. Each method has advantages and disadvantages; both are potential complements to clinical trial analyses. We evaluated methods of comparing the real-world effectiveness of osteoporosis treatments that attempt to adjust for both observed and unobserved confounding. Swedish and Dutch registry data for women initiating zoledronate or oral bisphosphonates (OBPs; alendronate/risedronate) were used; the primary outcome was fracture. In adjusted direct comparisons (ADCs), regression and matching techniques were used to account for baseline differences in known risk factors for fracture (e.g., age, previous fracture, comorbidities). In an own-control analysis (OCA), for each treatment, fracture incidence in the first 90 days following treatment initiation (the baseline risk period) was compared with fracture incidence in the 1-year period starting 91 days after treatment initiation (the treatment exposure period). In total, 1196 and 149 women initiating zoledronate and 14,764 and 25,058 initiating OBPs were eligible in the Swedish and Dutch registries, respectively. Owing to the small Dutch zoledronate sample, only the Swedish data were used to compare fracture incidences between treatment groups. ADCs showed a numerically higher fracture incidence in the zoledronate than in the OBPs group (hazard ratio 1.09-1.21; not statistically significant, p > 0.05). For both treatment groups, OCA showed a higher fracture incidence in the baseline risk period than in the treatment exposure period, indicating a treatment effect. OCA showed a similar or greater effect in the zoledronate group compared with the OBPs group. ADC and OCA each possesses advantages and disadvantages. Combining both methods may provide an estimate of real

  16. Effects of {omega} meson self-coupling on the properties of finite nuclei and neutron stars

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Raj; Dhiman, Shashi K.; Agrawal, B. K.

    2006-09-15

    The effects of {omega} meson self-coupling (OMSC) on the properties of finite nuclei and neutron stars are investigated within the framework of an effective field theory based relativistic mean-field (ERMF) model that includes the contributions from all possible mixed interactions between the scalar-isoscalar ({sigma}), vector-isoscalar ({omega}), and vector-isovector ({rho}) mesons up to the quartic order. For a realistic investigation, several parameter sets corresponding to different values of OMSC are generated by adjusting the remaining parameters of the ERMF model to fit the properties of the finite nuclei. Though all these parameter sets give equally good fit to the properties of the finite nuclei, only moderate values of OMSC are favored from the 'naturalness' point of view. The equations of state for the symmetric nuclear and pure neutron matters resulting from the parameter sets, with the moderate values of OMSC are in close agreement with the ones obtained within the Dirac-Brueckner-Hartree-Fock approximation. For such parameter sets, the limiting mass for the neutron stars composed of {beta}-stable matter is {approx}1.9 M{sub {center_dot}}. It is found that the direct Urca process can occur in the neutron stars with 'canonical' mass of 1.4 M{sub {center_dot}} only for the moderate and higher values of OMSC. Some other interesting properties for the neutron stars are also discussed.

  17. Detecting effects of filaments on galaxy properties in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey III

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yen-Chi; Ho, Shirley; Mandelbaum, Rachel; Bahcall, Neta A.; Brownstein, Joel R.; Freeman, Peter E.; Genovese, Christopher R.; Schneider, Donald P.; Wasserman, Larry

    2017-04-01

    We study the effects of filaments on galaxy properties in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 12 using filaments from the 'Cosmic Web Reconstruction' catalogue, a publicly available filament catalogue for SDSS. Since filaments are tracers of medium- to high-density regions, we expect that galaxy properties associated with the environment are dependent on the distance to the nearest filament. Our analysis demonstrates that a red galaxy or a high-mass galaxy tends to reside closer to filaments than a blue or low-mass galaxy. After adjusting the effect from stellar mass, on average, early-forming galaxies or large galaxies have a shorter distance to filaments than late-forming galaxies or small galaxies. For the main galaxy sample, all signals are very significant (>6σ). For the LOWZ and CMASS sample, the stellar mass and size are significant (>2σ). The filament effects we observe persist until z = 0.7 (the edge of the CMASS sample). Comparing our results to those using the galaxy distances from redMaPPer galaxy clusters as a reference, we find a similar result between filaments and clusters. Moreover, we find that the effect of clusters on the stellar mass of nearby galaxies depends on the galaxy's filamentary environment. Our findings illustrate the strong correlation of galaxy properties with proximity to density ridges, strongly supporting the claim that density ridges are good tracers of filaments.

  18. Phonemic Analysis: Effects of Word Properties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schreuder, Robert; van Bon, Wim H. J.

    The phonemic effects of word length, consonant-vowel structure, syllable structure, and meaning on word segmentation were investigated in two experiments with young children. The decentration hypothesis, which predicts that children who habitually direct their attention to word meaning would concentrate better at analyzing a spoken form without…

  19. Space environmental effects on graphite-epoxy compressive properties and epoxy tensile properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, Derek J.; Sykes, George F., Jr.; Herakovich, Carl T.

    1987-01-01

    This study characterizes the effects of electron radiation and temperature on a graphite-epoxy composite material. Compressive properties of the T300/934 material system were obtained at -250 F (-157 C), room temperature, and 250 F (121 C). Tensile specimens of the Fiberite 934 epoxy resin were fabricated and tested at room temperature and 250 F (121 C). Testing was conducted in the baseline (nonirradiated) and irradiated conditions. The radiation exposure was designed to simulate 30 year, worst-case exposure in geosynchronous Earth orbit. Mechanical properties tended to degrade at elevated temperature and improve at cryogenic temperature. Irradiation generally degraded properties at all temperatures.

  20. Attentional adjustment to conflict strength: evidence from the effects of manipulating flanker-target SOA on response times and prestimulus pupil size.

    PubMed

    Wendt, Mike; Kiesel, Andrea; Geringswald, Franziska; Purmann, Sascha; Fischer, Rico

    2014-01-01

    Current models of cognitive control assume gradual adjustment of processing selectivity to the strength of conflict evoked by distractor stimuli. Using a flanker task, we varied conflict strength by manipulating target and distractor onset. Replicating previous findings, flanker interference effects were larger on trials associated with advance presentation of the flankers compared to simultaneous presentation. Controlling for stimulus and response sequence effects by excluding trials with feature repetitions from stimulus administration (Experiment 1) or from the statistical analyses (Experiment 2), we found a reduction of the flanker interference effect after high-conflict predecessor trials (i.e., trials associated with advance presentation of the flankers) but not after low-conflict predecessor trials (i.e., trials associated with simultaneous presentation of target and flankers). This result supports the assumption of conflict-strength-dependent adjustment of visual attention. The selective adaptation effect after high-conflict trials was associated with an increase in prestimulus pupil diameter, possibly reflecting increased cognitive effort of focusing attention.