Science.gov

Sample records for adjustable effective properties

  1. A membrane-type acoustic metamaterial with adjustable acoustic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langfeldt, F.; Riecken, J.; Gleine, W.; von Estorff, O.

    2016-07-01

    A new realization of a membrane-type acoustic metamaterial (MAM) with adjustable sound transmission properties is presented. The proposed design distinguishes itself from other realizations by a stacked arrangement of two MAMs which is inflated using pressurized air. The static pressurization leads to large nonlinear deformations and, consequently, geometrical stiffening of the MAMs which is exploited to adjust the eigenmodes and sound transmission loss of the structure. A theoretical analysis of the proposed inflatable MAM design using numerical and analytical models is performed in order to identify two important mechanisms, namely the shifting of the eigenfrequencies and modal residuals due to the pressurization, responsible for the transmission loss adjustment. Analytical formulas are provided for predicting the eigenmode shifting and normal incidence sound transmission loss of inflated single and double MAMs using the concept of effective mass. The investigations are concluded with results from a test sample measurement inside an impedance tube, which confirm the theoretical predictions.

  2. Hydrogel blends with adjustable properties as patches for transdermal delivery.

    PubMed

    Mazzitelli, Stefania; Pagano, Cinzia; Giusepponi, Danilo; Nastruzzi, Claudio; Perioli, Luana

    2013-09-15

    The effect of different preparation parameters were analyzed with respect to the rheological and pharmaceutical characteristics of hydrogel blend patches, as transdermal delivery formulation. Mixtures of pectin and gelatin were employed for the production of patches, with adjustable properties, following a two-step gelation procedure. The first gelation, a thermal one, is trigged by the presence of gelatin, whereas, the second gelation, an ionic one, is due to the formation of the typical egg box structure of pectin. In particular, the patch structural properties were assessed by oscillation stress sweep measurements which provided information concerning their viscolelastic properties. In addition, different modalities for drug loading were analyzed with respect to drug homogeneous distribution; testosterone was employed as model drug for transdermal administration. Finally, the performances of the produced transdermal patches were studied, in term of reproducibility and reliability, by determination of in vitro drug release profiles.

  3. 15 CFR 6.5 - Effective date of adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... INFLATION ADJUSTMENTS § 6.5 Effective date of adjustments. The adjustments made by § 6.4 of this part, of... December 7, 2012, and before the effective date of any future inflation adjustment thereto made...

  4. 15 CFR 6.5 - Effective date of adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... INFLATION ADJUSTMENTS § 6.5 Effective date of adjustments. The adjustments made by § 6.4 of this part, of... December 7, 2012, and before the effective date of any future inflation adjustment thereto made...

  5. 15 CFR 6.5 - Effective date of adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... INFLATION ADJUSTMENTS § 6.5 Effective date of adjustments. The adjustments made by § 6.4 of this part, of... December 11, 2008, and before the effective date of any future inflation adjustment thereto made...

  6. 15 CFR 6.5 - Effective date of adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... INFLATION ADJUSTMENTS § 6.5 Effective date of adjustments. The adjustments made by § 6.4 of this part, of... December 11, 2008, and before the effective date of any future inflation adjustment thereto made...

  7. 15 CFR 6.5 - Effective date of adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... INFLATION ADJUSTMENTS § 6.5 Effective date of adjustments. The adjustments made by § 6.4 of this part, of... December 11, 2008, and before the effective date of any future inflation adjustment thereto made...

  8. Are Effective Properties Effective?

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Ru; Ingber, Marc S.; Hsiao, S.-C.

    2008-02-15

    The effective moduli (effective Young's modulus, effective Poisson's ratio, effective shear modulus, and effective bulk modulus) of dispersed-phase-reinforced composite materials are determined at the mesoscopic level using three-dimensional parallel boundary element simulations. By comparing the mesoscopic BEM results and the macroscopic results based on effective properties, limitations in the effective property approach have been examined.

  9. 26 CFR 1.743-1 - Optional adjustment to basis of partnership property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 1065). These adjustments to the transferee's distributive shares do not affect the transferee's capital... transferee's negative basis adjustment for the partnership asset (determined by taking into the account the... property under section 754. T receives a negative $50 basis adjustment under section 743(b) that,...

  10. Tuning the properties of polymer bulk heterojunction solar cells by adjusting fullerene size to control intercalation

    SciTech Connect

    Cates, N.C.

    2010-02-24

    We demonstrate that intercalation of fullerene derivatives between the side chains of conjugated polymers can be controlled by adjusting the fullerene size and compare the properties of intercalated and nonintercalated poly(2,5-bis(3-hexadecylthiophen-2-yl)thieno[3,2-b]thiophene) (pBTTT):fullerene blends. The intercalated blends, which exhibit optimal solar-cell performance at 1:4 polymer:fullerene by weight, have better photoluminescence quenching and lower absorption than the nonintercalated blends, which optimize at 1:1. Understanding how intercalation affects performance will enable more effective design of polymer:fullerene solar cells.

  11. Impacts of Parameters Adjustment of Relativistic Mean Field Model on Neutron Star Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasmudin; Sulaksono, A.

    Analysis of the parameters adjustment effects in isovector as well as in isoscalar sectors of effective field based relativistic mean field (E-RMF) model in the symmetric nuclear matter and neutron-rich matter properties has been performed. The impacts of the adjustment on slowly rotating neutron star are systematically investigated. It is found that the mass-radius relation obtained from adjusted parameter set G2** is compatible not only with neutron stars masses from 4U 0614+09 and 4U 1636-536, but also with the ones from thermal radiation measurement in RX J1856 and with the radius range of canonical neutron star of X7 in 47 Tuc, respectively. It is also found that the moment inertia of PSR J073-3039A and the strain amplitude of gravitational wave at the Earth's vicinity of PSR J0437-4715 as predicted by the E-RMF parameter sets used are in reasonable agreement with the extracted constraints of these observations from isospin diffusion data.

  12. The acoustic effect of vocal tract adjustments in zebra finches

    PubMed Central

    Riede, Tobias; Schilling, Nadja; Goller, Franz

    2012-01-01

    Vocal production in songbirds requires the control of the respiratory system, the syrinx as sound source and the vocal tract as acoustic filter. Vocal tract movements consist of beak, tongue and hyoid movements which change the volume of the oropharyngeal-esophageal cavity (OEC), glottal movements and tracheal length changes. The respective contributions of each movement to filter properties are not completely understood, but the effects of this filtering are thought to be very important for acoustic communication in birds. One of the most striking movements of the upper vocal tract during vocal behavior in songbirds involves the OEC. This study measured the acoustic effect of OEC adjustments in zebra finches by comparing resonance acoustics between an utterance with OEC expansion (calls) and a similar utterance without OEC expansion (respiratory sounds induced by a bilateral syringeal denervation). X-ray cineradiography confirmed the presence of an OEC motor pattern during song and call production, and a custom-built Hall-effect collar system confirmed that OEC expansion movements were not present during respiratory sounds. The spectral emphasis during zebra finch call production ranging between 2.5 and 5 kHz was not present during respiratory sounds, indicating strongly that it can be attributed to the OEC expansion. PMID:23085986

  13. Properties of an adjustable quarter-wave system under conditions of multiple beam interference.

    PubMed

    Bibikova, Evelina A; Kundikova, Nataliya D

    2013-03-20

    We investigate the polarimetric properties of an adjustable two plate quarter-wave system. We take into account multiple beam interference within single wave plates. Different adjustments of an adjustable two plate quarter-wave system are required for the production of the left-handed and the right-handed circular polarized coherent light. We investigate experimentally laser light polarization conversion by the systems consisting of two birefringent mica plates. An adjustable two plate quarter-wave system produces high-quality circularly polarized coherent light with the intensity-related ellipticity better than 0.99 at any wavelength.

  14. Breakdown of the Robustness Property of Lotka's Law: The Case of Adjusted Counts for Multiauthorship Attribution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rousseau, Ronald

    1992-01-01

    Examines the robustness property of Lotka's law for scholarly papers with more than one author. Adjusted counts for assigning credit to authors proportionally are explained, and two bibliographies are analyzed using frequency distributions that show where the robustness property breaks down. (nine references) (LRW)

  15. The Bivalency Effect: Evidence for Flexible Adjustment of Cognitive Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rey-Mermet, Alodie; Meier, Beat

    2012-01-01

    When bivalent stimuli (i.e., stimuli with features for two different tasks) appear occasionally, performance is slower on subsequent univalent stimuli. This "bivalency effect" reflects an adjustment of cognitive control arising from the more demanding context created by bivalent stimuli. So far, it has been investigated only on task switch trials,…

  16. Order Effects in Belief Updating: The Belief-Adjustment Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogarth, Robin M.; Einhorn, Hillel J.

    1992-01-01

    A theory of the updating of beliefs over time is presented that explicitly accounts for order-effect phenomena as arising from the interaction of information-processing strategies and task characteristics. The belief-adjustment model is supported by 5 experiments involving 192 adult subjects. (SLD)

  17. 18 CFR 367.4114 - Account 411.4, Investment tax credit adjustments, service company property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Account 411.4, Investment tax credit adjustments, service company property. 367.4114 Section 367.4114 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF...

  18. 18 CFR 367.4114 - Account 411.4, Investment tax credit adjustments, service company property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Account 411.4, Investment tax credit adjustments, service company property. 367.4114 Section 367.4114 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER...

  19. Call Number Adjustment: The Effects on Browsability if No Adjustment Is Made.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodman, Ruey L.

    In these times of tight budgets, libraries are seeking ways to cut costs, and one area being examined is book processing. This study assesses the impact on the organization of a library collection if the call number is not changed to fit into the shelf list sequence. The research questions examined are: "Is it necessary to adjust the book number…

  20. Lasso adjustments of treatment effect estimates in randomized experiments

    PubMed Central

    Bloniarz, Adam; Liu, Hanzhong; Zhang, Cun-Hui; Sekhon, Jasjeet S.; Yu, Bin

    2016-01-01

    We provide a principled way for investigators to analyze randomized experiments when the number of covariates is large. Investigators often use linear multivariate regression to analyze randomized experiments instead of simply reporting the difference of means between treatment and control groups. Their aim is to reduce the variance of the estimated treatment effect by adjusting for covariates. If there are a large number of covariates relative to the number of observations, regression may perform poorly because of overfitting. In such cases, the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (Lasso) may be helpful. We study the resulting Lasso-based treatment effect estimator under the Neyman–Rubin model of randomized experiments. We present theoretical conditions that guarantee that the estimator is more efficient than the simple difference-of-means estimator, and we provide a conservative estimator of the asymptotic variance, which can yield tighter confidence intervals than the difference-of-means estimator. Simulation and data examples show that Lasso-based adjustment can be advantageous even when the number of covariates is less than the number of observations. Specifically, a variant using Lasso for selection and ordinary least squares (OLS) for estimation performs particularly well, and it chooses a smoothing parameter based on combined performance of Lasso and OLS. PMID:27382153

  1. Lasso adjustments of treatment effect estimates in randomized experiments.

    PubMed

    Bloniarz, Adam; Liu, Hanzhong; Zhang, Cun-Hui; Sekhon, Jasjeet S; Yu, Bin

    2016-07-01

    We provide a principled way for investigators to analyze randomized experiments when the number of covariates is large. Investigators often use linear multivariate regression to analyze randomized experiments instead of simply reporting the difference of means between treatment and control groups. Their aim is to reduce the variance of the estimated treatment effect by adjusting for covariates. If there are a large number of covariates relative to the number of observations, regression may perform poorly because of overfitting. In such cases, the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (Lasso) may be helpful. We study the resulting Lasso-based treatment effect estimator under the Neyman-Rubin model of randomized experiments. We present theoretical conditions that guarantee that the estimator is more efficient than the simple difference-of-means estimator, and we provide a conservative estimator of the asymptotic variance, which can yield tighter confidence intervals than the difference-of-means estimator. Simulation and data examples show that Lasso-based adjustment can be advantageous even when the number of covariates is less than the number of observations. Specifically, a variant using Lasso for selection and ordinary least squares (OLS) for estimation performs particularly well, and it chooses a smoothing parameter based on combined performance of Lasso and OLS. PMID:27382153

  2. Liquid crystal pretilt angle control using adjustable wetting properties of alignment layers

    SciTech Connect

    Ahn, Han Jin; Kim, Jong Bok; Kim, Kyung Chan; Hwang, Byoung Har; Kim, Jong Tae; Baik, Hong Koo; Park, Jin Seol; Kang, Daeseung

    2007-06-18

    The authors demonstrate the production of amorphous fluorinated carbon (a-C:F) thin film with adjustable wetting properties, inducing variable liquid crystal (LC) pretilt angles. To control the surface wetting properties, they apply a dual radio frequency magnetron system with a controlled power ratio of targets. In this manner we obtain various compositional surfaces with fluorine and carbon components and adjust the surface energy with regard to the various compositions. Whereas the fluorine-rich a-C:F layer shows a preference for homeotropic (vertical) LC alignment, the carbon-rich a-C:F layer shows a planar LC alignment. To achieve uniform LC alignment with a proper pretilt angle, an accelerated Ar{sup +} ion beam irradiates the films after the deposition process. The ion beam selectively destroys the surface bonding of the a-C:F films, yielding an intermediate pretilt angle.

  3. Liquid crystal pretilt angle control using adjustable wetting properties of alignment layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Han Jin; Kim, Jong Bok; Kim, Kyung Chan; Hwang, Byoung Har; Kim, Jong Tae; Baik, Hong Koo; Park, Jin Seol; Kang, Daeseung

    2007-06-01

    The authors demonstrate the production of amorphous fluorinated carbon (a-C:F) thin film with adjustable wetting properties, inducing variable liquid crystal (LC) pretilt angles. To control the surface wetting properties, they apply a dual radio frequency magnetron system with a controlled power ratio of targets. In this manner we obtain various compositional surfaces with fluorine and carbon components and adjust the surface energy with regard to the various compositions. Whereas the fluorine-rich a-C :F layer shows a preference for homeotropic (vertical) LC alignment, the carbon-rich a-C :F layer shows a planar LC alignment. To achieve uniform LC alignment with a proper pretilt angle, an accelerated Ar+ ion beam irradiates the films after the deposition process. The ion beam selectively destroys the surface bonding of the a-C :F films, yielding an intermediate pretilt angle.

  4. Tuning the properties of ZnO, hematite, and Ag nanoparticles by adjusting the surface charge.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianhui; Dong, Guanjun; Thurber, Aaron; Hou, Yayi; Gu, Min; Tenne, Dmitri A; Hanna, C B; Punnoose, Alex

    2012-03-01

    A poly (acryl acid) (PAA) post-treatment method is performed to modify the surface charge of ZnO nanospheres, hematite nanocubes, and Ag nanoprisms from highly positive to very negative by adjusting the PAA concentration, to and greatly modify their photoluminescence, cytotoxicity, magnetism, and surface plasmon resonance. This method provides a general way to tune the nanoparticle properties for broad physicochemical and biological applications. PMID:22298490

  5. Baroclinic adjustment. [parameterization of eddy flux effects on atmospheric temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, P. H.

    1978-01-01

    A detailed comparison is presented of the actual shear in the atmosphere with the critical shear given by the two-layer model of Phillips (1954), in which there is a critical temperature gradient separating stable conditions from baroclinically unstable ones. A very simple parameterization of the effect of eddy fluxes on atmospheric temperature is suggested, where the parameterization includes beta effects. The parameterization is illustrated by applying it in a one-dimensional heat-balance climate model. Enhancement of the eddy flux in a continuous atmosphere under supercritical conditions is stressed. This enhancement leads to a negative feedback between the meridional eddy flux of heat and the meridional temperature gradient. The feedback restricts gradients to values near the critical value, a process referred to as baroclinic adjustment. This should facilitate the development of simple climate models involving feedbacks associated with both the meridional vertical temperature structure.

  6. Property-process relations in simulated clinical abrasive adjusting of dental ceramics.

    PubMed

    Yin, Ling

    2012-12-01

    This paper reports on property-process correlations in simulated clinical abrasive adjusting of a wide range of dental restorative ceramics using a dental handpiece and diamond burs. The seven materials studied included four mica-containing glass ceramics, a feldspathic porcelain, a glass-infiltrated alumina, and a yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia. The abrasive adjusting process was conducted under simulated clinical conditions using diamond burs and a clinical dental handpiece. An attempt was made to establish correlations between process characteristics in terms of removal rate, chipping damage, and surface finish and material mechanical properties of hardness, fracture toughness and Young's modulus. The results show that the removal rate is mainly a function of hardness, which decreases nonlinearly with hardness. No correlations were noted between the removal rates and the complex relations of hardness, Young's modulus and fracture toughness. Surface roughness was primarily a linear function of diamond grit size and was relatively independent of materials. Chipping damage in terms of the average chipping width decreased with fracture toughness except for glass-infiltrated alumina. It also had higher linear correlations with critical strain energy release rates (R²=0.66) and brittleness (R²=0.62) and a lower linear correlation with indices of brittleness (R²=0.32). Implications of these results can provide guidance for the microstructural design of dental ceramics, optimize performance, and guide the proper selection of technical parameters in clinical abrasive adjusting conducted by dental practitioners.

  7. The Effect of Articulatory Adjustment on Reducing Hypernasality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rong, Panying; Kuehn, David

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: With the goal of using articulatory adjustments to reduce hypernasality, this study utilized an articulatory synthesis model (Childers, 2000) to simulate the adjustment of articulatory configurations with an open velopharynx to achieve the same acoustic goal as normal speech simulated with a closed velopharynx. Method: To examine the…

  8. Iranian Version of the Mini-Mental Adjustment to Cancer Scale: Factor Structure and Psychometric Properties.

    PubMed

    Patoo, Mozhgan; Allahyari, Abbas Ali; Moradi, Ali Reza; Payandeh, Mehrdad

    2015-01-01

    Mental adjustment to cancer is known as a psychological, physical, and psychological health variable among cancer patients. The present study examines the factor structure and psychometric properties of the Mini-Mental Adjustment to Cancer scale (Mini-MAC) in a sample of Iranian adults who suffer from cancer. The sample consists of 320 cancer patients selected through non-random convenient sampling procedure from the hospitals and clinics in the cities of Kermanshah and Shiraz in Iran, using the Mini-MAC scale. One hundred of these patients also completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale. Statistical methods used to analyze the data included confirmatory and exploratory factor analysis, discriminate validity, and Cronbach alpha coefficients for internal consistency. Factor analysis confirms five factors in the Mini-MAC. The values of fit indices are within the acceptable range. Significant correlations between the Mini-MAC and other measures also show that this scale has discriminate validity. Alpha coefficients for the subscales are Helplessness/Hopelessness,.94; Cognitive Avoidance.76; Anxious Preoccupation,.90; Fatalism,.77; Fighting Spirit.80; and total scale.84, respectively. The results confirm the five-factor structure of the Persian Mini-MAC scale and also prove that it is a reliable and valid scale. They show that this scale has sufficient power to measure different aspects of mental adjustment in patients with cancer. PMID:26600241

  9. The Effect of Family Communication Patterns on Adopted Adolescent Adjustment

    PubMed Central

    Rueter, Martha A.

    2008-01-01

    Adoption and family communication both affect adolescent adjustment. We proposed that adoption status and family communication interact such that adopted adolescents in families with certain communication patterns are at greater risk for adjustment problems. We tested this hypothesis using a community-based sample of 384 adoptive and 208 nonadoptive families. Adolescents in these families were, on average, 16 years of age. The results supported our hypothesis. Adopted adolescents were at significantly greater risk for adjustment problems compared to nonadopted adolescents in families that emphasized conformity orientation without conversation orientation and in families that emphasized neither conformity nor conversation orientation. Adolescents in families emphasizing conversation orientation were at lower risk for adjustment problems, regardless of adoption status. PMID:19649145

  10. Effects of Relational Authenticity on Adjustment to College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenz, A. Stephen; Holman, Rachel L.; Lancaster, Chloe; Gotay, Stephanie G.

    2016-01-01

    The authors examined the association between relational health and student adjustment to college. Data were collected from 138 undergraduate students completing their 1st semester at a large university in the mid-southern United States. Regression analysis indicated that higher levels of relational authenticity were a predictor of success during…

  11. Effective Report Writing in Vocational Evaluation and Work Adjustment Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esser, Thomas J.

    The document serves as a guideline to report writing for vocational evaluation and work adjustment programs, providing general principles for content with the aim of developing some uniformity in report organization. Common problems in report writing are described from the reader's and writer's perspective. Basic principles are listed which should…

  12. Mediating Effects of Relationships with Mentors on College Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenz, A. Stephen

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between student adjustment to college and relational health with peers, mentors, and the community. Data were collected from 80 undergraduate students completing their first semester of course work at a large university in the mid-South. A series of simultaneous multiple regression analyses indicated that…

  13. Adolescent Leisure Dimensions, Psychosocial Adjustment, and Gender Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Graham L.; Inglis, Brad C.

    2012-01-01

    Leisure provides the context for much of adolescent behaviour and development. While both theory and research point to the benefits of participation in leisure activities that are highly structured, the association between structured leisure and psychosocial adjustment is not uniformly high. This paper presents a model of adolescent leisure…

  14. Continuity in Adolescent Career Preparation and Its Effects on Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skorikov, Vladimir

    2007-01-01

    Career preparation represents a major developmental task of adolescence, which has not received sufficient attention in empirical research on career development. Thus, this study was designed to examine the structure, continuity, and change in adolescent career preparation and its relationships with adjustment. The data were collected from a…

  15. The Effect of Childhood Trauma on Later Psychological Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browne, Caroline; Winkelman, Cecelia

    2007-01-01

    This study examined whether adult attachment and cognitive distortion mediate the relationship between childhood trauma and psychological adjustment. The participants were 219 students (40 men and 117 women) enrolled in a university degree. Participants completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, which assessed retrospective accounts of…

  16. Moderators and mediators of the effects of interparental conflict on children's adjustment.

    PubMed

    Kerig, P K

    1998-06-01

    Moderational and mediational models of the relationships among appraisals, interparental conflict, and children's adjustment were tested in a sample of 174 families with a school-age child. Parents rated children's exposure to interparental conflict and internalizing, externalizing, and total behavior problems. Children completed questionnaires regarding their appraisals of their parents' conflicts, including frequency and intensity, perceived threat, control, and self-blame, as well as measures of anxiety and depression. Results overall demonstrated more consistent support for the moderational than mediational hypotheses. Appraisals of conflict properties, threat, self-blame, and perceived control moderated the effects of interparental conflict on externalizing, total problems, and anxiety in boys. Conflict properties, threat, self-blame, perceived control, and self-calming acted as moderators of internalizing in girls.

  17. Moderators and mediators of the effects of interparental conflict on children's adjustment.

    PubMed

    Kerig, P K

    1998-06-01

    Moderational and mediational models of the relationships among appraisals, interparental conflict, and children's adjustment were tested in a sample of 174 families with a school-age child. Parents rated children's exposure to interparental conflict and internalizing, externalizing, and total behavior problems. Children completed questionnaires regarding their appraisals of their parents' conflicts, including frequency and intensity, perceived threat, control, and self-blame, as well as measures of anxiety and depression. Results overall demonstrated more consistent support for the moderational than mediational hypotheses. Appraisals of conflict properties, threat, self-blame, and perceived control moderated the effects of interparental conflict on externalizing, total problems, and anxiety in boys. Conflict properties, threat, self-blame, perceived control, and self-calming acted as moderators of internalizing in girls. PMID:9650626

  18. Tuning of Ranvier node and internode properties in myelinated axons to adjust action potential timing

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Marc C.; Alexandrova, Olga; Cossell, Lee; Stange-Marten, Annette; Sinclair, James; Kopp-Scheinpflug, Conny; Pecka, Michael; Attwell, David; Grothe, Benedikt

    2015-01-01

    Action potential timing is fundamental to information processing; however, its determinants are not fully understood. Here we report unexpected structural specializations in the Ranvier nodes and internodes of auditory brainstem axons involved in sound localization. Myelination properties deviated significantly from the traditionally assumed structure. Axons responding best to low-frequency sounds had a larger diameter than high-frequency axons but, surprisingly, shorter internodes. Simulations predicted that this geometry helps to adjust the conduction velocity and timing of action potentials within the circuit. Electrophysiological recordings in vitro and in vivo confirmed higher conduction velocities in low-frequency axons. Moreover, internode length decreased and Ranvier node diameter increased progressively along the distal axon segments, which simulations show was essential to ensure precisely timed depolarization of the giant calyx of Held presynaptic terminal. Thus, individual anatomical parameters of myelinated axons can be tuned to optimize pathways involved in temporal processing. PMID:26305015

  19. Thermo-adjustable mechanical properties of polymer, lipid-based complex fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firestone, Millicent; Lee, Sungwon

    2012-02-01

    Combined rheology (oscillatory and steady shear) and SAXS studies reveal details on the temperature-dependent, reversible mechanical properties of nonionic polymer, lipid-based complex fluids. Compositions prepared by introduction of the polymer as either a lipid conjugate or a triblock copolymer form an elastic gel as the temperature is increased to 18 C. The network is produced from PEO chain entanglement and physical crosslinks confined within the intervening aqueous layers of a multilamellar structured lyotropic mesophase. Although the complex fluids are weak gels, tuning of the gel strength can be achieved by temperature adjustment. The sol state formed at reduced temperature arises as a consequence of the well-solvated PEO chains adopting a non-interacting, conformational state. Complex fluids prepared with the triblock copolymers exhibit greater tunability in viscoelasticity than those containing the PEGylated-lipid conjugate because of the temperature-dependent water solubility of the central PPO block. The water solubility of PPO at reduced temperatures results in the polymer being expelled from the self-assembled amphiphilic bilayer, causing collapse of the swollen lamellar structure and loss of the PEO network. At elevated temperatures, the triblock reinserts into the bilayer producing an elastic gel. These studies identify macromolecular architectures for the facile preparation of dynamic soft materials possessing a range of mechanical properties that can be tuned by modest temperature control.

  20. 20 CFR 340.9 - Effect of adjustment in connection with subsequent payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effect of adjustment in connection with subsequent payments. 340.9 Section 340.9 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT RECOVERY OF BENEFITS § 340.9 Effect of adjustment in connection...

  1. Effects of Peer Victimization on Psychological and Academic Adjustment in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rueger, Sandra Yu; Jenkins, Lyndsay N.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the current study is to investigate the effects of frequency of peer victimization experiences on psychological and academic adjustment during early adolescence, with a focus on testing psychological adjustment as a mediator, as well as differences based on gender and type of victimization. The sample in this short-term longitudinal…

  2. Aggressive and Prosocial Peer Group Functioning: Effects on Children's Social, School, and Psychological Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung-Hall, Janet; Chen, Xinyin

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effects of aggressive and prosocial contexts of peer groups on children's socioemotional and school adjustment. Data on informal peer groups, social functioning, and different aspects of adjustment were collected from multiple sources in a sample of elementary school children (149 boys, 181 girls; M age = 10 years).…

  3. The Impact of Statistically Adjusting for Rater Effects on Conditional Standard Errors of Performance Ratings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raymond, Mark R.; Harik, Polina; Clauser, Brian E.

    2011-01-01

    Prior research indicates that the overall reliability of performance ratings can be improved by using ordinary least squares (OLS) regression to adjust for rater effects. The present investigation extends previous work by evaluating the impact of OLS adjustment on standard errors of measurement ("SEM") at specific score levels. In addition, a…

  4. Wild capuchin monkeys adjust stone tools according to changing nut properties

    PubMed Central

    Luncz, Lydia V.; Falótico, Tiago; Pascual-Garrido, Alejandra; Corat, Clara; Mosley, Hannah; Haslam, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Animals foraging in their natural environments need to be proficient at recognizing and responding to changes in food targets that affect accessibility or pose a risk. Wild bearded capuchin monkeys (Sapajus libidinosus) use stone tools to access a variety of nut species, including otherwise inaccessible foods. This study tests whether wild capuchins from Serra da Capivara National Park in Brazil adjust their tool selection when processing cashew (Anacardium spp.) nuts. During the ripening process of cashew nuts, the amount of caustic defensive substance in the nut mesocarp decreases. We conducted field experiments to test whether capuchins adapt their stone hammer selection to changing properties of the target nut, using stones of different weights and two maturation stages of cashew nuts. The results show that although fresh nuts are easier to crack, capuchin monkeys used larger stone tools to open them, which may help the monkeys avoid contact with the caustic hazard in fresh nuts. We demonstrate that capuchin monkeys are actively able to distinguish between the maturation stages within one nut species, and to adapt their foraging behaviour accordingly. PMID:27624672

  5. Wild capuchin monkeys adjust stone tools according to changing nut properties.

    PubMed

    Luncz, Lydia V; Falótico, Tiago; Pascual-Garrido, Alejandra; Corat, Clara; Mosley, Hannah; Haslam, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Animals foraging in their natural environments need to be proficient at recognizing and responding to changes in food targets that affect accessibility or pose a risk. Wild bearded capuchin monkeys (Sapajus libidinosus) use stone tools to access a variety of nut species, including otherwise inaccessible foods. This study tests whether wild capuchins from Serra da Capivara National Park in Brazil adjust their tool selection when processing cashew (Anacardium spp.) nuts. During the ripening process of cashew nuts, the amount of caustic defensive substance in the nut mesocarp decreases. We conducted field experiments to test whether capuchins adapt their stone hammer selection to changing properties of the target nut, using stones of different weights and two maturation stages of cashew nuts. The results show that although fresh nuts are easier to crack, capuchin monkeys used larger stone tools to open them, which may help the monkeys avoid contact with the caustic hazard in fresh nuts. We demonstrate that capuchin monkeys are actively able to distinguish between the maturation stages within one nut species, and to adapt their foraging behaviour accordingly. PMID:27624672

  6. Wild capuchin monkeys adjust stone tools according to changing nut properties.

    PubMed

    Luncz, Lydia V; Falótico, Tiago; Pascual-Garrido, Alejandra; Corat, Clara; Mosley, Hannah; Haslam, Michael

    2016-09-14

    Animals foraging in their natural environments need to be proficient at recognizing and responding to changes in food targets that affect accessibility or pose a risk. Wild bearded capuchin monkeys (Sapajus libidinosus) use stone tools to access a variety of nut species, including otherwise inaccessible foods. This study tests whether wild capuchins from Serra da Capivara National Park in Brazil adjust their tool selection when processing cashew (Anacardium spp.) nuts. During the ripening process of cashew nuts, the amount of caustic defensive substance in the nut mesocarp decreases. We conducted field experiments to test whether capuchins adapt their stone hammer selection to changing properties of the target nut, using stones of different weights and two maturation stages of cashew nuts. The results show that although fresh nuts are easier to crack, capuchin monkeys used larger stone tools to open them, which may help the monkeys avoid contact with the caustic hazard in fresh nuts. We demonstrate that capuchin monkeys are actively able to distinguish between the maturation stages within one nut species, and to adapt their foraging behaviour accordingly.

  7. Effective Transport Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauri, Roberto

    In this chapter we study a particular case of multiphase systems, namely two-phase materials in which one of the phases is randomly dispersed in the other, so that the composite can be viewed on a macroscale as an effective continuum, with well defined properties. In general, the theoretical determination of the parameter for an effective medium requires, as a rule, the solution of a corresponding transport problem at the microscale, which takes into account the morphology of the system and its evolution. As the mathematical problem is well-posed on a microscale, this can be accomplished using, for example, the multiple scale approach shown in Chap. 11 ; however, the task requires massive computations and is therefore difficult to implement from the practical standpoint. Here, instead, we focus on a deterministic approach to the problem, where the geometry and spatial configuration of the particles comprising the included phase are given and the solution to the microscale problem is therefore sought analytically. As examples, we study the effective thermal conductivity of solid reinforced materials (Sect. 10.1), the effective viscosity of non-colloidal suspensions (Sect. 10.2), the effective permeability of porous materials (10.3) and the effective self- and gradient diffusivities of colloidal suspensions (Sect. 10.4). Then, in Sect. 10.5, an alternative dynamic definition of the transport coefficients is considered, which can also serve as a basis to determine the effective properties of complex systems.

  8. Consequences of self-handicapping: effects on coping, academic performance, and adjustment.

    PubMed

    Zuckerman, M; Kieffer, S C; Knee, C R

    1998-06-01

    Self-handicappers erect impediments to performance to protect their self-esteem. The impediments may interfere with the ability to do well and, as such, may result in poor adjustment. Using a longitudinal design, the present studies examined prospective effects of self-handicapping on coping, academic performance, and several adjustment-related variables (e.g., self-esteem). It was found that, compared to low self-handicappers, high self-handicappers reported higher usage of coping strategies implying withdrawal and negative focus. High self-handicappers performed less well academically, an effect that was mediated in part by poor study habits. Finally, high self-handicapping resulted in poorer adjustment over time, and poorer adjustment resulted in higher self-handicapping over time. These relations are consistent with the idea of a vicious cycle in which self-handicapping and poor adjustment reinforce one another.

  9. Effects of multiple context and cumulative stress on urban children's adjustment in elementary school.

    PubMed

    Morales, Julie R; Guerra, Nancy G

    2006-01-01

    Using longitudinal data collected over 2 years on a sample of 2,745 urban elementary school children (1st-6th graders, ages 6-11 years) from economically disadvantaged communities, effects of stressful experiences within 3 contexts (school, family, neighborhood), cumulative stress, and multiple context stress on 3 indices of children's adjustment (achievement, depression, and aggression) were examined. All 3 stressor contexts were related contemporaneously and longitudinally to negative outcomes across adjustment measures, with differential paths in each predictive model. Cumulative stress was linearly related to increases in adjustment problems but multiple context stress was not related to problematic adjustment beyond effects of cumulative stress alone. The important influence of life events stress on children's adjustment in disadvantaged communities is discussed.

  10. Melt-processable hydrophobic acrylonitrile-based copolymer systems with adjustable elastic properties designed for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Cui, J; Trescher, K; Kratz, K; Jung, F; Hiebl, B; Lendlein, A

    2010-01-01

    (AN-co-nBA) biomaterials were sterilized with ethylene oxide and tested for cytotoxicity in direct contact tests with L929 cells according to the EN DIN ISO standard 10993-5. All tested samples exhibited non-toxic effects on the functional integrity of the cell membrane and the mitochondrial activity. However, the morphology of the cells on the samples was different from that observed on polystyrene as control, indicating slightly cytotoxic effects according to the evaluation guide of the US Pharmacopeial Convention. Thus, the melt-processable, hydrophobic P(AN-co-nBA) copolymers with adjustable mechanical properties are promising candidates for in vitro investigations of tissue growth kinetics.

  11. Regulatory properties of ADP glucose pyrophosphorylase are required for adjustment of leaf starch synthesis in different photoperiods.

    PubMed

    Mugford, Sam T; Fernandez, Olivier; Brinton, Jemima; Flis, Anna; Krohn, Nicole; Encke, Beatrice; Feil, Regina; Sulpice, Ronan; Lunn, John E; Stitt, Mark; Smith, Alison M

    2014-12-01

    Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) leaves synthesize starch faster in short days than in long days, but the mechanism that adjusts the rate of starch synthesis to daylength is unknown. To understand this mechanism, we first investigated whether adjustment occurs in mutants lacking components of the circadian clock or clock output pathways. Most mutants adjusted starch synthesis to daylength, but adjustment was compromised in plants lacking the GIGANTEA or FLAVIN-BINDING, KELCH REPEAT, F BOX1 components of the photoperiod-signaling pathway involved in flowering. We then examined whether the properties of the starch synthesis enzyme adenosine 5'-diphosphate-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase) are important for adjustment of starch synthesis to daylength. Modulation of AGPase activity is known to bring about short-term adjustments of photosynthate partitioning between starch and sucrose (Suc) synthesis. We found that adjustment of starch synthesis to daylength was compromised in plants expressing a deregulated bacterial AGPase in place of the endogenous AGPase and in plants containing mutant forms of the endogenous AGPase with altered allosteric regulatory properties. We suggest that the rate of starch synthesis is in part determined by growth rate at the end of the preceding night. If growth at night is low, as in short days, there is a delay before growth recovers during the next day, leading to accumulation of Suc and stimulation of starch synthesis via activation of AGPase. If growth at night is fast, photosynthate is used for growth at the start of the day, Suc does not accumulate, and starch synthesis is not up-regulated.

  12. Child effects and child care: Implications for risk and adjustment.

    PubMed

    Snell, Emily K; Hindman, Annemarie H; Belsky, Jay

    2015-11-01

    Evocative effects of child characteristics on the quality and quantity of child care were assessed in two studies using longitudinal data from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care. We focus on the influence of child characteristics on two important aspects of the child care experience: language stimulation provided by caregivers and quantity of care. In Study 1, associations between the developmental status of children aged 15 to 54 months and the language stimulation provided by their caregivers were examined using path models, and longitudinal child effects were detected across the earliest time points of the study. In Study 2, the associations among child behavior, temperament, development, and time in care were examined. Little evidence was found for such child effects on time in care. The results are discussed in terms of the effects of child care on child development and implications for developmental processes, particularly for children at greatest risk for developmental delay or psychopathology.

  13. Child effects and child care: Implications for risk and adjustment.

    PubMed

    Snell, Emily K; Hindman, Annemarie H; Belsky, Jay

    2015-11-01

    Evocative effects of child characteristics on the quality and quantity of child care were assessed in two studies using longitudinal data from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care. We focus on the influence of child characteristics on two important aspects of the child care experience: language stimulation provided by caregivers and quantity of care. In Study 1, associations between the developmental status of children aged 15 to 54 months and the language stimulation provided by their caregivers were examined using path models, and longitudinal child effects were detected across the earliest time points of the study. In Study 2, the associations among child behavior, temperament, development, and time in care were examined. Little evidence was found for such child effects on time in care. The results are discussed in terms of the effects of child care on child development and implications for developmental processes, particularly for children at greatest risk for developmental delay or psychopathology. PMID:26439062

  14. Assessing Longitudinal Change: Adjustment for Regression to the Mean Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rocconi, Louis M.; Ethington, Corinna A.

    2009-01-01

    Pascarella (J Coll Stud Dev 47:508-520, 2006) has called for an increase in use of longitudinal data with pretest-posttest design when studying effects on college students. However, such designs that use multiple measures to document change are vulnerable to an important threat to internal validity, regression to the mean. Herein, we discuss a…

  15. The Effects of Grouping Practices and Curricular Adjustments on Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tieso, Carol

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of curricular (textbook, revised, and differentiated) and grouping (whole, between, and within-class) practices on intermediate students' achievement in mathematics. A pretest-posttest, quasi-experimental design using a stratified random sample of 31 teachers and their students (N = 645) was…

  16. Using Hierarchical Rater Model to Adjust Effect Size

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luo, Long

    2012-01-01

    The topic of this research is inference for effect size of a curriculum intervention, which is an important research topic in education. The linear relationship between the outcomes of an intervention and teachers' fidelity, the extent to which the intervention was actually delivered by teachers as intended, is an important component for…

  17. Adjustment of the Chiral Nematic Phase Properties of Cellulose Nanocrystals by Polymer Grafting.

    PubMed

    Azzam, Firas; Heux, Laurent; Jean, Bruno

    2016-05-01

    The self-organization properties of sulfated cellulose nanocrystals, TEMPO-oxidized cellulose nanocrystals and polymer-decorated cellulose nanocrystals suspensions in water were investigated and compared. Polarized light optical microscopy observations showed that these three systems phase separated to form a lower anisotropic chiral-nematic phase and an upper isotropic phase following a nucleation and growth mechanism, proving that surface-grafted polymer chains did not inhibit the self-organization properties of CNCs. The phase diagrams and pitch of the suspensions were shown to strongly depend on the surface chemistry of the nanoparticles and the nature of the interacting forces. Especially, the entropic repulsion contribution of the polymer chains to the overall interactions forces resulted in a decrease of the critical volume fractions due to an increase of the effective diameter of the rods. Additionally, above a cellulose volume fraction of 3.5% v/v, the pitch was significantly smaller for polymer-decorated CNC suspensions than for sulfated as-prepared CNC ones, revealing stronger chiral interactions with the surface-grafted chains. In all cases, the addition of small quantities of monovalent salt induced an increase of the critical concentrations, but values for polymer-decorated CNCs were always the smallest ones due to entropic repulsion forces. Overall, results show that polymer grafting provides more tunability to the chiral-nematic phase properties of CNCs, including an enhanced expression of the chirality. PMID:27054465

  18. BEclear: Batch Effect Detection and Adjustment in DNA Methylation Data.

    PubMed

    Akulenko, Ruslan; Merl, Markus; Helms, Volkhard

    2016-01-01

    Batch effects describe non-natural variations of, for example, large-scale genomic data sets. If not corrected by suitable numerical algorithms, batch effects may seriously affect the analysis of these datasets. The novel array platform independent software tool BEclear enables researchers to identify those portions of the data that deviate statistically significant from the remaining data and to replace these portions by typical values reconstructed from neighboring data entries based on latent factor models. In contrast to other comparable methods that often use some sort of global normalization of the data, BEclear avoids changing the apparently unaffected parts of the data. We tested the performance of this approach on DNA methylation data for various tumor data sets taken from The Cancer Genome Atlas and compared the results to those obtained with the existing algorithms ComBat, Surrogate Variable Analysis, RUVm and Functional normalization. BEclear constantly performed at par with or better than these methods. BEclear is available as an R package at the Bioconductor project http://bioconductor.org/packages/release/bioc/html/BEclear.html. PMID:27559732

  19. BEclear: Batch Effect Detection and Adjustment in DNA Methylation Data

    PubMed Central

    Akulenko, Ruslan; Merl, Markus; Helms, Volkhard

    2016-01-01

    Batch effects describe non-natural variations of, for example, large-scale genomic data sets. If not corrected by suitable numerical algorithms, batch effects may seriously affect the analysis of these datasets. The novel array platform independent software tool BEclear enables researchers to identify those portions of the data that deviate statistically significant from the remaining data and to replace these portions by typical values reconstructed from neighboring data entries based on latent factor models. In contrast to other comparable methods that often use some sort of global normalization of the data, BEclear avoids changing the apparently unaffected parts of the data. We tested the performance of this approach on DNA methylation data for various tumor data sets taken from The Cancer Genome Atlas and compared the results to those obtained with the existing algorithms ComBat, Surrogate Variable Analysis, RUVm and Functional normalization. BEclear constantly performed at par with or better than these methods. BEclear is available as an R package at the Bioconductor project http://bioconductor.org/packages/release/bioc/html/BEclear.html. PMID:27559732

  20. Movement Sonification: Effects on Motor Learning beyond Rhythmic Adjustments

    PubMed Central

    Effenberg, Alfred O.; Fehse, Ursula; Schmitz, Gerd; Krueger, Bjoern; Mechling, Heinz

    2016-01-01

    Motor learning is based on motor perception and emergent perceptual-motor representations. A lot of behavioral research is related to single perceptual modalities but during last two decades the contribution of multimodal perception on motor behavior was discovered more and more. A growing number of studies indicates an enhanced impact of multimodal stimuli on motor perception, motor control and motor learning in terms of better precision and higher reliability of the related actions. Behavioral research is supported by neurophysiological data, revealing that multisensory integration supports motor control and learning. But the overwhelming part of both research lines is dedicated to basic research. Besides research in the domains of music, dance and motor rehabilitation, there is almost no evidence for enhanced effectiveness of multisensory information on learning of gross motor skills. To reduce this gap, movement sonification is used here in applied research on motor learning in sports. Based on the current knowledge on the multimodal organization of the perceptual system, we generate additional real-time movement information being suitable for integration with perceptual feedback streams of visual and proprioceptive modality. With ongoing training, synchronously processed auditory information should be initially integrated into the emerging internal models, enhancing the efficacy of motor learning. This is achieved by a direct mapping of kinematic and dynamic motion parameters to electronic sounds, resulting in continuous auditory and convergent audiovisual or audio-proprioceptive stimulus arrays. In sharp contrast to other approaches using acoustic information as error-feedback in motor learning settings, we try to generate additional movement information suitable for acceleration and enhancement of adequate sensorimotor representations and processible below the level of consciousness. In the experimental setting, participants were asked to learn a closed

  1. Movement Sonification: Effects on Motor Learning beyond Rhythmic Adjustments.

    PubMed

    Effenberg, Alfred O; Fehse, Ursula; Schmitz, Gerd; Krueger, Bjoern; Mechling, Heinz

    2016-01-01

    Motor learning is based on motor perception and emergent perceptual-motor representations. A lot of behavioral research is related to single perceptual modalities but during last two decades the contribution of multimodal perception on motor behavior was discovered more and more. A growing number of studies indicates an enhanced impact of multimodal stimuli on motor perception, motor control and motor learning in terms of better precision and higher reliability of the related actions. Behavioral research is supported by neurophysiological data, revealing that multisensory integration supports motor control and learning. But the overwhelming part of both research lines is dedicated to basic research. Besides research in the domains of music, dance and motor rehabilitation, there is almost no evidence for enhanced effectiveness of multisensory information on learning of gross motor skills. To reduce this gap, movement sonification is used here in applied research on motor learning in sports. Based on the current knowledge on the multimodal organization of the perceptual system, we generate additional real-time movement information being suitable for integration with perceptual feedback streams of visual and proprioceptive modality. With ongoing training, synchronously processed auditory information should be initially integrated into the emerging internal models, enhancing the efficacy of motor learning. This is achieved by a direct mapping of kinematic and dynamic motion parameters to electronic sounds, resulting in continuous auditory and convergent audiovisual or audio-proprioceptive stimulus arrays. In sharp contrast to other approaches using acoustic information as error-feedback in motor learning settings, we try to generate additional movement information suitable for acceleration and enhancement of adequate sensorimotor representations and processible below the level of consciousness. In the experimental setting, participants were asked to learn a closed

  2. Effects of Forgiveness of Perpetrators on Marital Adjustment for Survivors of Sexual Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holeman, Virginia Todd; Myers, Rita W.

    1998-01-01

    The effects of forgiveness on survivors' marital adjustment and the effects of childhood sexual abuse on forgiveness were examined. Self-report scales regarding abuse and forgiveness and demographic information were collected from clients (N=63). ANOVA produced significant main effects; forgiveness was negatively correlated with perceived…

  3. Effect of chain stiffness on polymer properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luettmer-Strathmann, Jutta

    2008-03-01

    Static and dynamic properties of polymers are affected by the stiffness of the chains. In this work, we investigate structural and thermodynamic properties of a lattice model for semiflexible polymer chains. The model is an extension of Shaffer's bond- fluctuation model and includes attractive interactions between monomers and an adjustable bending penalty that determines the Kuhn segment length. For isolated chains, a competition between monomer-monomer interactions and bending penalties determines the chain conformations at low temperatures. For dense melts, packing effects play an important role in the structure and thermodynamics of the polymeric liquid. In order to investigate static properties as a function of temperature and chain stiffness, we perform Wang-Landau type simulations and construct densities of states over the two-dimensional state space of monomer-monomer and bending contributions to the internal energy.

  4. Research on mechanism and application of effect of adjustment errors in aspheric surface stitching interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, Yujing; Zhang, Hongxin; Lv, Ning; Tang, Yanchao; Li, Junshi

    2014-11-01

    Due to the existence of imprecise fitting of subapertures' overlap zone, the accumulation of adjustment errors is significant during the measurement of aspheric surface by stitching interferometry. Theoretical analysis indicates that the effect and the appearance of three-direction adjustment errors accords with that of Seidel aberration, of which the axial error leads defocus, third-order spherical aberration and higher-order errors of wave front distribution. Based on the analysis we have made, a correction model has been established, and the estimated values of adjustment errors have been acquired. By correcting the higher-order aberration in the model, fitting precision of subapertures' overlap zone can be improved. Experiment for comparison shows that, after fitting, the value of both residual error and uncertainty of measurement become smaller than those values obtained by traditional correction method of three-direction adjustment error, which proves that the stitching precision of proposed method is higher.

  5. 26 CFR 1.743-1 - Optional adjustment to basis of partnership property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... adjusted as a result of the transfer of an interest in a partnership by sale or exchange or on the death of... the transfer of an interest in a partnership, either by sale or exchange or as a result of the death... of the death of a partner, the transferee's basis in the transferred partnership interest...

  6. 26 CFR 1.743-1 - Optional adjustment to basis of partnership property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... adjusted as a result of the transfer of an interest in a partnership by sale or exchange or on the death of... the transfer of an interest in a partnership, either by sale or exchange or as a result of the death... of the death of a partner, the transferee's basis in the transferred partnership interest...

  7. 26 CFR 1.743-1 - Optional adjustment to basis of partnership property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... adjusted as a result of the transfer of an interest in a partnership by sale or exchange or on the death of... the transfer of an interest in a partnership, either by sale or exchange or as a result of the death... of the death of a partner, the transferee's basis in the transferred partnership interest...

  8. 26 CFR 1.743-1 - Optional adjustment to basis of partnership property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... adjusted as a result of the transfer of an interest in a partnership by sale or exchange or on the death of... the transfer of an interest in a partnership, either by sale or exchange or as a result of the death... of the death of a partner, the transferee's basis in the transferred partnership interest...

  9. Effects of Forecasts on the Revisions of Concurrent Seasonally Adjusted Data Using the X-11 Seasonal Adjustment Procedure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bobbitt, Larry; Otto, Mark

    Three Autoregressive Integrated Moving Averages (ARIMA) forecast procedures for Census Bureau X-11 concurrent seasonal adjustment were empirically tested. Forty time series from three Census Bureau economic divisions (business, construction, and industry) were analyzed. Forecasts were obtained from fitted seasonal ARIMA models augmented with…

  10. 26 CFR 1.734-1 - Optional adjustment to basis of undistributed partnership property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Distributions by A Partnership § 1.734-1 Optional... the basis of partnership property as the result of a distribution of property to a partner, unless the... and a distribution of partnership property is made, whether or not in liquidation of the...

  11. Tailoring Feedback: Effective Feedback Should Be Adjusted Depending on the Needs of the Learner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookhart, Susan M.

    2011-01-01

    All students deserve effective feedback. General principles for effective feedback should be adjusted depending on the learner's needs. Feedback to struggling students should include focusing on the process, selecting only one or just a few points, giving self-referenced feedback to describe progress or capability, being very clear, and checking…

  12. Bicultural Effectiveness Training: A Treatment Intervention for Enhancing Intercultural Adjustment in Cuban American Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szapocznik, Jose; And Others

    1984-01-01

    By reducing culture conflict and acculturative stress, the Bicultural Effectiveness Training (BET) enhances adjustment in Cuban American families and reduces conduct disorders in adolescents. BET teaches family members that skills for effective functioning in different value contexts (cultural or otherwise) can be viewed as complementary and…

  13. Effects of aging and dual tasking on step adjustments to perturbations in visually cued walking.

    PubMed

    Mazaheri, Masood; Hoogkamer, Wouter; Potocanac, Zrinka; Verschueren, Sabine; Roerdink, Melvyn; Beek, Peter J; Peper, C E; Duysens, Jacques

    2015-12-01

    Making step adjustments is an essential component of walking. However, the ability to make step adjustments may be compromised when the walker's attentional capacity is limited. This study compared the effects of aging and dual tasking on step adjustments in response to stepping-target perturbations during visually cued treadmill walking. Fifteen older adults (69.4 ± 5.0 years; mean ± SD) and fifteen young adults (25.4 ± 3.0 years) walked at a speed of 3 km/h on a treadmill. Both groups performed visually cued step adjustments in response to unpredictable shifts of projected stepping targets in forward (FW), backward (BW) or sideward (SW) directions, at different levels of task difficulty [which increased as the available response distance (ARD) decreased], and with and without dual tasking (auditory Stroop task). In both groups, step adjustments were smaller than required. For FW and BW shifts, older adults undershot more under dual-task conditions. For these shifts, ARD affected the age groups differentially. For SW shifts, larger errors were found for older adults, dual tasking and the most difficult ARD. Stroop task performance did not differ between groups in all conditions. Older adults have more difficulty than young adults to make corrective step adjustments while walking, especially under dual-tasking conditions. Furthermore, they seemed to prioritize the cognitive task over the step adjustment task, a strategy that may pose aging populations at a greater fall risk. For comparable task difficulty, the older adults performed considerably worse than the young adults, indicating a decreased ability to adjust steps under time pressure.

  14. Effects of aging and dual tasking on step adjustments to perturbations in visually cued walking.

    PubMed

    Mazaheri, Masood; Hoogkamer, Wouter; Potocanac, Zrinka; Verschueren, Sabine; Roerdink, Melvyn; Beek, Peter J; Peper, C E; Duysens, Jacques

    2015-12-01

    Making step adjustments is an essential component of walking. However, the ability to make step adjustments may be compromised when the walker's attentional capacity is limited. This study compared the effects of aging and dual tasking on step adjustments in response to stepping-target perturbations during visually cued treadmill walking. Fifteen older adults (69.4 ± 5.0 years; mean ± SD) and fifteen young adults (25.4 ± 3.0 years) walked at a speed of 3 km/h on a treadmill. Both groups performed visually cued step adjustments in response to unpredictable shifts of projected stepping targets in forward (FW), backward (BW) or sideward (SW) directions, at different levels of task difficulty [which increased as the available response distance (ARD) decreased], and with and without dual tasking (auditory Stroop task). In both groups, step adjustments were smaller than required. For FW and BW shifts, older adults undershot more under dual-task conditions. For these shifts, ARD affected the age groups differentially. For SW shifts, larger errors were found for older adults, dual tasking and the most difficult ARD. Stroop task performance did not differ between groups in all conditions. Older adults have more difficulty than young adults to make corrective step adjustments while walking, especially under dual-tasking conditions. Furthermore, they seemed to prioritize the cognitive task over the step adjustment task, a strategy that may pose aging populations at a greater fall risk. For comparable task difficulty, the older adults performed considerably worse than the young adults, indicating a decreased ability to adjust steps under time pressure. PMID:26298043

  15. The effects of practice on speed of information processing using the Adjusting-Paced Serial Addition Test (Adjusting-PSAT) and the Computerized Tests of Information Processing (CTIP).

    PubMed

    Baird, B J; Tombaugh, Thomas N; Francis, M

    2007-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted to determine the effects of practice on the Adjusting-Paced Serial Addition Task (Adjusting-PSAT) (Tombaugh, 1999) and the Computerized Tests of Information Processing (CTIP) (Tombaugh & Rees, 2000). The Adjusting-PSAT is a computerized modification of the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT) (Gronwall, 1977) that makes the interval between digits contingent on the correctness of the response. This titration procedure permits a threshold value to be derived that represents the shortest presentation interval in which a person can process the digits to produce the correct sum. The CTIP consists of three reaction time tests that are progressively more difficult. Results showed that robust practice effects occurred with the Adjusting-PSAT, with the greatest increase in performance occurring on the first retest trial. Practice effects were equally prominent regardless of whether the first retest trial occurred 20A min, 1 week, or 3 months after the first administration. These gains were maintained for periods up to 6 months and were independent of modality of presentation (visual or auditory) and type of number list (easy or hard). In contrast to the findings with the Adjusting-PSAT, only minimal practice effects were observed with the CTIP. The major clinical implication of the study is that the high reliability coefficients for the CTIP, the lack of anxiety associated with its administration, and its insensitivity to variables such as numerical and verbal ability make the CTIP ideally suited for the serial evaluation of cognitive status. These characteristics also make the CTIP a viable alternative to the Adjusting-PSAT or PASAT for measuring speed of information processing. If the Adjusting-PSAT is administered repeatedly in clinical evaluations, a "dual baseline" or "run in" procedure should be used, with the second administration serving as the baseline measurement. PMID:17523883

  16. Motivating drivers to correctly adjust head restraints: assessing effectiveness of three different interventions.

    PubMed

    Fockler, S K; Vavrik, J; Kristiansen, L

    1998-11-01

    Three types of driver educational strategies were tested to determine the most effective approach for motivating drivers to adjust their head restraints to the correct vertical position: (1) a human interactive personal contact with a member of an ICBC-trained head restraint adjustment team, (2) a passive video presentation of the consequences of correct and incorrect head restraint adjustment, and (3) an interactive three-dimensional kinetic model showing the consequences of correct and incorrect head restraint adjustment. An experimental pretest-posttest control group design was used. A different educational treatment was used in each of three lanes of a vehicle emissions testing facility, with a fourth lane with no intervention serving as a control group. Observational and self-reported data were obtained from a total of 1,974 vehicles entering and exiting the facility. The human intervention led to significantly more drivers actually adjusting their head restraints immediately after the intervention than the passive video or interactive kinetic model approaches, which were both no different from the control group. The human intervention was recommended as the most effective and was implemented successfully on a limited basis during 3 months of 1995 and again during 3 months of 1996.

  17. [Structural adjustment, cultural adjustment?].

    PubMed

    Dujardin, B; Dujardin, M; Hermans, I

    2003-12-01

    Over the last two decades, multiple studies have been conducted and many articles published about Structural Adjustment Programmes (SAPs). These studies mainly describe the characteristics of SAPs and analyse their economic consequences as well as their effects upon a variety of sectors: health, education, agriculture and environment. However, very few focus on the sociological and cultural effects of SAPs. Following a summary of SAP's content and characteristics, the paper briefly discusses the historical course of SAPs and the different critiques which have been made. The cultural consequences of SAPs are introduced and are described on four different levels: political, community, familial, and individual. These levels are analysed through examples from the literature and individual testimonies from people in the Southern Hemisphere. The paper concludes that SAPs, alongside economic globalisation processes, are responsible for an acute breakdown of social and cultural structures in societies in the South. It should be a priority, not only to better understand the situation and its determining factors, but also to intervene and act with strategies that support and reinvest in the social and cultural sectors, which is vital in order to allow for individuals and communities in the South to strengthen their autonomy and identify.

  18. "Effect of Anxiety Reduction on Children's School Performance and Social Adjustment": Correction to Wood (2006)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Jeffrey J.

    2007-01-01

    Reports an error in "Effect of anxiety reduction on children's school performance and social adjustment" by Jeffrey Wood (Developmental Psychology, 2006[Mar], Vol 42[2], 345-349). The byline and author note should have included the author's middle initial, J. Thus, the byline and author note should refer to "Jeffrey J. Wood." The correction is…

  19. The Effects of Marital Conflict on Korean Children's Appraisal of Conflict and Psychological Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oh, Kyung Ja; Lee, Soojin; Park, Soo Hyun

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the effects of marital conflict on Korean children's psychological adjustment and appraisal of hypothetical marital conflict situations. Children between the ages of 10 and 12 were divided into "high-conflict" (n = 58) and "low-conflict" (n = 58) groups based on their self-reported degree of perceived interparental conflict in…

  20. The Effects Behavior Problems in Preschool Children Have on Their School Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoleri, Sibel

    2013-01-01

    This research is conducted to examine the predictor effects the behavior problem level has on the school adjustment variable. With this objective, the sample research group consists of 136 children (having normal growth) between 5-6 years old attending preschools affiliated with the Ministry of National Education, and located in the city centre of…

  1. Parenting and Late Adolescent Emotional Adjustment: Mediating Effects of Discipline and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinney, Cliff; Milone, Mary Catherine; Renk, Kimberly

    2011-01-01

    Research suggests that parenting styles are related to the types of discipline parents utilize and that the coupling of parenting styles and discipline techniques are related to child outcomes. Although extant research examines the effects of parenting styles and discipline on child and early adolescent adjustment, less is known about adjustment…

  2. Effects of pH adjustment and sodium ions on sour taste intensity of organic acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Protonated organic acid species have been shown to be the primary stimuli responsible for sour taste of organic acids. However, we have observed that sour taste may be modulated when the pH of acid solutions is raised using sodium hydroxide. Objectives were to evaluate the effect of pH adjustment on...

  3. School Climate Support for Behavioral and Psychological Adjustment: Testing the Mediating Effect of Social Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Ming-Te

    2009-01-01

    The present study used an ecological framework to examine the relationships among adolescents' perceptions of school climate, social competence, and behavioral and psychological adjustment in the middle school years. This study improved upon prior studies by using "structural equation modeling" to investigate the hypothesized mediating effect of…

  4. Parenting and late adolescent emotional adjustment: mediating effects of discipline and gender.

    PubMed

    McKinney, Cliff; Milone, Mary Catherine; Renk, Kimberly

    2011-08-01

    Research suggests that parenting styles are related to the types of discipline parents utilize and that the coupling of parenting styles and discipline techniques are related to child outcomes. Although extant research examines the effects of parenting styles and discipline on child and early adolescent adjustment, less is known about adjustment in late adolescents, also described as emerging adults. Thus, the current study investigated the relationships among parenting styles (e.g., authoritative, authoritarian, permissive), discipline strategies (e.g., non-violent discipline, psychological aggression, physical assault), and emerging adult emotional adjustment (e.g., self-esteem, depression, and anxiety). The sample consisted of 526 participants ranging in age from 18 to 22 years. Results were analyzed with structural equation modeling and suggest that, although perceived parenting styles and discipline are both correlated with emerging adult emotional adjustment, perceived parenting is associated with emerging adult emotional adjustment for females but not males when examined simultaneously with perceived discipline. This finding demonstrates the importance of examining the direct and indirect relationships in the context of gender dyads. PMID:21479509

  5. [Effects of social support on the adjustment to extracurricular sports activities among junior high school students].

    PubMed

    Koshi, Ryoko; Sekizawa, Keiko

    2009-10-01

    This study examined the hypothesis that when students received and/or provided either support for skill improvement or support for interpersonal relations, their overall adjustment level in extracurricular activities would be higher than for students who received and/or provided neither support. Data were analyzed from 475 junior high school students (female 175, male 300) who were taking extracurricular sports activities, out of 743 research participants. The results were as follows. Students who received support mainly for skill improvement showed a statistically equivalent adjustment level as students who received support mainly for interpersonal relations. Students who received either support showed higher adjustment levels than students who received neither. Additionally, providing support showed the same results. The exchange of different types of social support showed equivalent effects on the adjustment level as the exchange of the same type of social support. These results suggest that even though the types of social support are different for skill improvement or interpersonal relations, the exchange of support positively contributes to junior high school students' adjustment level in extracurricular activities. PMID:19938660

  6. Parenting and late adolescent emotional adjustment: mediating effects of discipline and gender.

    PubMed

    McKinney, Cliff; Milone, Mary Catherine; Renk, Kimberly

    2011-08-01

    Research suggests that parenting styles are related to the types of discipline parents utilize and that the coupling of parenting styles and discipline techniques are related to child outcomes. Although extant research examines the effects of parenting styles and discipline on child and early adolescent adjustment, less is known about adjustment in late adolescents, also described as emerging adults. Thus, the current study investigated the relationships among parenting styles (e.g., authoritative, authoritarian, permissive), discipline strategies (e.g., non-violent discipline, psychological aggression, physical assault), and emerging adult emotional adjustment (e.g., self-esteem, depression, and anxiety). The sample consisted of 526 participants ranging in age from 18 to 22 years. Results were analyzed with structural equation modeling and suggest that, although perceived parenting styles and discipline are both correlated with emerging adult emotional adjustment, perceived parenting is associated with emerging adult emotional adjustment for females but not males when examined simultaneously with perceived discipline. This finding demonstrates the importance of examining the direct and indirect relationships in the context of gender dyads.

  7. Elucidation of a physiological adjustment effect in a forest environment: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Song, Chorong; Ikei, Harumi; Miyazaki, Yoshifumi

    2015-04-01

    There is a significant positive relationship between exposure to forest environments and physical and mental health. However, there are individual differences within these responses, and this phenomenon has posed questions in various fields. Here, we show that the physiological effect of a forest environment can differ depending on a subject's initial values and that forests have a physiological adjustment effect close to an appropriate level. Subjects with high initial blood pressure and pulse rate showed a decrease in these values after walking in a forested area, whereas those with low initial values showed an increase. There was no physiological adjustment effect observed in an urban area; thus, these effects are specific to a forest environment.

  8. Effect of Wound Classification on Risk-Adjustment in American College of Surgeons NSQIP

    PubMed Central

    Ju, Mila H.; Cohen, Mark E.; Bilimoria, Karl Y.; Latus, Melissa S.; Scholl, Lisa M.; Schwab, Bradley J.; Byrd, Claudia M.; Ko, Clifford Y.; Dellinger, E. Patchen; Hall, Bruce L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Surgical wound classification has been used in risk-adjustment models. However, it can be subjective and potentially improperly bias hospital quality comparisons. The objective is to examine the effect of wound classification on hospital performance risk-adjustment models. Study Design Retrospective review of the 2011 ACS NSQIP database was conducted for wound classification categories: clean, clean/contaminated, contaminated, and dirty/infected. To assess the influence of wound classification on risk-adjustment, two models were developed for each outcome: one including and one excluding wound classification. For each model, hospital postoperative complications were estimated using hierarchical multivariable regression methods. Absolute changes in hospital rank, correlations of odds-ratios, and outlier status agreement between models were examined. Results Of the 442,149 cases performed in 315 hospitals: 53.6% were classified as clean; 34.2% clean/contaminated; 6.7% contaminated; and 5.5% dirty/infected. The surgical site infection (SSI) rate was highest in dirty/infected (8.5%) and lowest in clean (1.8%) cases. For overall SSI, the absolute change in risk-adjusted hospital performance rank between models including vs. excluding wound classification was minimal (mean 4.5 out of 315 positions). The correlations between odds ratios of the two performance models were nearly perfect (R=0.9976, P<0.0001), and outlier status agreement was excellent (Kappa=0.9508, P<0.0001). Similar findings were observed in models of subgroups of SSI and other postoperative outcomes. Conclusions In circumstances where alternate information is available for risk-adjustment, there appear to be minimal differences in performance models that include vs. exclude wound classification. Therefore, ACS NSQIP is critically evaluating the continued use of wound classification in hospital performance risk-adjustment models. PMID:25053222

  9. [The effects of self-perception and attitudes to cultures on international students' feeling of adjustment].

    PubMed

    Hayashi, S

    1997-12-01

    Asian students of seven Japanese language schools participated, and data of 292 Chinese, Taiwanese, and Korean students were analyzed in this study. They were asked about (1) attitudes toward their own and other cultures, (2) high regard for their country and culture, (3) self-efficacy and social skills at the moment and when they were in their country, (4) aspired level of social skills in this country, and (5) feeling of adjustment to life in Japan. Main findings were as follows: (1) psychological factors had stronger effects on the feeling than demographic factors. Self-efficacy in particular had a strong effect. (2) Attitudes to own and other cultures were related to self-efficacy and the feeling. (3) Structural analysis revealed a difference in the feeling between students from socialist and capitalist regions. Based on the analysis, a causal model was proposed of psychological and demographic factors leading to feeling of adjustment, and Asian students' adjustment to life in Japan was discussed in terms of adjustment to their inner, psychological environment. PMID:9551537

  10. Social desirability effects on measures of adjustment to university, independence from parents, and self-efficacy.

    PubMed

    Silverthorn, N A; Gekoski, W L

    1995-03-01

    Results of regression analyses on data from 96 first-year undergraduates indicated that social desirability (Jackson and Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scales), particularly scores on the Jackson scale, is related strongly to scores on measures of adjustment (Student Adaptation to College Questionnaire), self-efficacy (Hale-Fibel Generalized Expectation for Success Scale), and independence (Psychological Separation Inventory) from mother, but not from father. In addition, both the Jackson and Marlowe-Crowne scales were correlated highly. Independence from parents and self-efficacy each continued to show a relationship with adjustment to university after social desirability effects were removed. Failure to remove the effect(s) of social desirability from the present measures is likely to lead to inflated estimates of their relation to each other or to other measures.

  11. [Effect of economic structure adjustment on pollution emission: a case study of COD].

    PubMed

    Li, Ming-Sheng; Zhou, Lei; Chen, Yuan-Hang; Li, Qian; Zhang, Jian-Hui

    2014-08-01

    Economic structure adjustment is an important means to reduce the emissions of pollutants. For quantitative analysis of the effect of economic structure adjustment on the reduction of pollution emission, the country was divided into four sub-regions, eastern, northeastern, central and western, and the industry was divided into 39 sectors. Taking chemical oxygen demand (COD) as an example, the influences of regional structure and industry structure adjustment on total emission reduction and emission intensity were analyzed through building a model. The results showed that, in 2000-2010: (1) COD emissions in China were reduced from 1 445 x 10(4) t to 1 238 x 10(4) t, with a total emission of 14 950 x 10(4) t in 11 years, among which the emissions from eastern area occupied the largest proportion, accounting for 35.6%. (2) In the industrial COD emissions, emission from paper and paper products was the largest, accounting for 35.8% of the industrial COD emissions. (3) The economic structure changes in the four areas reduced the COD emissions by 420 x 10(4) t, resulting in a decrease of 1.29% in COD emission intensity. (4) Industrial internal structure changes reduced the COD emissions by 533 x 10(4) t, leading to a decrease of 3.1% in COD emission intensity. The research results have certain reference value in guiding the Chinese economic structure adjustment and achieving the targets of energy-saving and emission reduction.

  12. Effects of Biofreeze and chiropractic adjustments on acute low back pain: a pilot study☆

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, John; Enix, Dennis; Snyder, Brian; Giggey, Kristan; Tepe, Rodger

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Objective This randomized controlled study was designed to determine the pain-relieving effect of Biofreeze (Performance Health Inc., Export, PA) body surface application and chiropractic adjustments on subjects with acute low back pain (LBP). Methods The data were collected at the baseline, 2 weeks after treatment, and 4 weeks after treatment for final analyses. Diversified manual adjustments were provided by licensed chiropractors twice a week for 4 weeks to both control and experimental groups. Biofreeze was applied to the lower back area 3 times a day for 4 weeks in the experimental group. Outcome assessments included visual analog scale, Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire, heart rate variability for stress, and electromyography for low back muscle activity. Results A total of 36 subjects were recruited in the study (25 male). The average age was 34 years. Significant pain reduction was found after each week of treatment in the experimental group (P < .05). The Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire did not show significant changes in both groups. There were no significant differences for pain reduction in the control group. Heart rate variability analysis showed no significant change (P > .05) in the experimental group after 4 weeks of Biofreeze and chiropractic adjustments. There were no statistically significant changes in the electromyography readings between the 2 groups. Conclusion Biofreeze combined with chiropractic adjustment showed significant reduction in LBP. PMID:19674721

  13. Effects of emotional support-focused nursing interventions on the psychosocial adjustment of breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Gümüs, Aysun Babacan; Cam, Olcay

    2008-01-01

    The purpose was to examine the effect of emotional support-focused nursing interventions on the psychosocial adjustment of breast cancer patients. The research was conducted in the Radiation Oncology Department of Ege University Medical Faculty Hospital and at Talay Aktas Oncology Hospital in Turkey. There were 30 newly diagnosed breast cancer patients included in the sample. Emotional support-focused nursing interventions were administered in seven sessions individually with each patient. A total of 210 hours of meetings with the patients were conducted. Data were collected by administering a pre-test and post-test in two phases with the patients using a Descriptive Information Form and the Psychosocial Adjustment to Illness Scale - Self Report (PAIS-SR). The patients mean age was 44.5 (SD=6.38) years and the mean duration of illness was 6.46 (SD=1.99) months. In the comparison of the PAIS-SR pretest and post-test mean scores it was determined that there was a significant increase in patients adaptation to health care orientation (p=0.001), domestic environment (p<0.01), sexual relationships (p<0.05), extended family relationships (p<0.001) and social environment (p<0.001), and a significant decrease in psychological distress (p<0.001). However, there was no change in patients vocational adjustment (p<0.05). According to these findings emotional support-focused nursing interventions had a part in increasing patients psychosocial adjustment. PMID:19256761

  14. The effects of coping on adjustment: Re-examining the goodness of fit model of coping effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Masel, C N; Terry, D J; Gribble, M

    1996-01-01

    Abstract The primary aim of the present study was to examine the extent to which the effects of coping on adjustment are moderated by levels of event controllability. Specifically, the research tested two revisions to the goodness of fit model of coping effectiveness. First, it was hypothesized that the effects of problem management coping (but not problem appraisal coping) would be moderated by levels of event controllability. Second, it was hypothesized that the effects of emotion-focused coping would be moderated by event controllability, but only in the acute phase of a stressful encounter. To test these predictions, a longitudinal study was undertaken (185 undergraduate students participated in all three stages of the research). Measures of initial adjustment (low depression and coping efficacy) were obtained at Time 1. Four weeks later (Time 2), coping responses to a current or a recent stressor were assessed. Based on subjects' descriptions of the event, objective and subjective measures of event controllability were also obtained. Measures of concurrent and subsequent adjustment were obtained at Times 2 and 3 (two weeks later), respectively. There was only weak support for the goodness of fit model of coping effectiveness. The beneficial effects of a high proportion of problem management coping (relative to total coping efforts) on Time 3 perceptions of coping efficacy were more evident in high control than in low control situations. Other results of the research revealed that, irrespective of the controllability of the event, problem appraisal coping strategies and emotion-focused strategies (escapism and self-denigration) were associated with high and low levels of concurrent adjustment, respectively. The effects of these coping responses on subsequent adjustment were mediated through concurrent levels of adjustment.

  15. Effects of anchoring and adjustment in the evaluation of product pricing.

    PubMed

    Elaad, Eitan; Sayag, Neta; Ezer, Aliya

    2010-08-01

    Anchoring and adjustment comprise a heuristic that creates expectations. Two types of anchors were applied on participants' evaluation of products: the price reference of the product (maximum, minimum, or no price reference) and the context in which the products were evaluated (the prestige of the shopping center). Results showed that both factors anchored evaluations of products' value. Context effects were explained by the different expectations of visitors in prestigious (looking for quality) and less prestigious (seeking a bargain) centers.

  16. 3D printed auxetic forms on knitted fabrics for adjustable permeability and mechanical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimmelsmann, N.; Meissner, H.; Ehrmann, A.

    2016-07-01

    The 3D printing technology can be applied into manufacturing primary shaping diverse products, from models dealing as examples for future products that will be produced with another technique, to useful objects. Since 3D printing is nowadays significantly slower than other possibilities to manufacture items, such as die casting, it is often used for small parts that are produced in small numbers or for products that cannot be created in another way. Combinations of 3D printing with other objects, adding novel functionalities to them, are thus favourable to a complete primary shaping process. Textile fabrics belong to the objects whose mechanical and other properties can notably be modified by adding 3D printed forms. This article mainly reports on a new possibility to change the permeability of textile fabrics by 3D printing auxetic forms, e.g. for utilising them in textile filters. In addition, auxetic forms 3D printed on knitted fabrics can bring about mechanical properties that are conducive to tensile constructions.

  17. Axially adjustable magnetic properties in arrays of multilayered Ni/Cu nanowires with variable segment sizes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirazi Tehrani, A.; Almasi Kashi, M.; Ramazani, A.; Montazer, A. H.

    2016-07-01

    Arrays of multilayered Ni/Cu nanowires (NWs) with variable segment sizes were fabricated into anodic aluminum oxide templates using a pulsed electrodeposition method in a single bath for designated potential pulse times. Increasing the pulse time between 0.125 and 2 s in the electrodeposition of Ni enabled the formation of segments with thicknesses ranging from 25 to 280 nm and 10-110 nm in 42 and 65 nm diameter NWs, respectively, leading to disk-shaped, rod-shaped and/or near wire-shaped geometries. Using hysteresis loop measurements at room temperature, the axial and perpendicular magnetic properties were investigated. Regardless of the segment geometry, the axial coercivity and squareness significantly increased with increasing Ni segment thickness, in agreement with a decrease in calculated demagnetizing factors along the NW length. On the contrary, the perpendicular magnetic properties were found to be independent of the pulse times, indicating a competition between the intrawire interactions and the shape demagnetizing field.

  18. Effects of site-specific level adjustments on speech recognition with cochlear implants

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Ning; Pfingst, Bryan E.

    2013-01-01

    ) required for 50% correct speech recognition, were evaluated for these MAPs using CUNY sentences. The site-specific level-adjusted MAPs were compared to the globally level-adjusted MAP and the MAP without level adjustment. The effects on speech recognition of adjusting the minimal stimulation level settings on the 5 poorest stimulation sites were also compared with effects of removing these sites from the speech-processor MAP. Results The 5% level increase on the 5 electrodes with the worst MDTs resulted in an improvement in the group-mean SRT of 2.36 dB SNR relative to the MAP without level adjustment. The magnitude of level increase that resulted in the greatest SRT improvement for individuals varied across ears. MDTs measured at 20% DR significantly improved on the poor sites after the level adjustment that resulted in the best SRT for that ear was applied. Increasing the minimal stimulation levels on all stimulation sites or removing sites selected for rehabilitation, the parsimonious approaches, did not improve speech reception thresholds. Conclusions The site-specific adjustments of the T level settings improved modulation sensitivity at low levels and significantly improved subjects’ speech reception thresholds. Thus, this site-rehabilitation strategy was an effective alternative to site-selection strategies for improving speech recognition in cochlear implant users. PMID:24225651

  19. Baseline adjustment and change revisited: effect of smoking on change in periodontal status following periodontal therapy.

    PubMed

    Preus, Hans R; Sandvik, Leiv; Gjermo, Per; Baelum, Vibeke

    2014-04-01

    Smokers have frequently been reported to have more severe periodontitis, to respond less favorably to periodontal therapy, and to show elevated rate of recurrence compared with non-smokers. The aims of this study was to compare the results of baseline-adjusted and -unadjusted analyses when assessing the effect of smoking on change in periodontal status following therapy and to discuss the methodological issues involved. This is a secondary analysis of data from 180 periodontitis patients enrolled in a randomized controlled clinical intervention trial. Information on smoking habits was elicited from the participants before, and 12 months after, therapy. The clinical parameters analyzed were probing pocket depth and clinical attachment level, using both simple analysis of change (SAC) and analysis of covariance (ancova), adjusting for age, gender, and treatment group. The current smokers presented with more severe periodontitis at baseline than did former and never smokers. Results of the SAC indicated that the current smokers benefitted more from treatment than did former or never smokers, whereas the results of the baseline-adjusted ancova indicated no such differences. Both sets of results are likely to be biased with respect to valid conclusions regarding the 'causal' effect of smoking. Possible sources of bias are discussed.

  20. Self-Reported Adolescent Behavioral Adjustment: Effects of Prenatal Cocaine Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Min, Meeyoung O.; Minnes, Sonia; Yoon, Susan; Short, Elizabeth J.; Singer, Lynn T.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To assess the direct effects of prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE) on adolescent internalizing, externalizing and attention problems, controlling for confounding drug and environmental factors. Method At 12 and 15 years of age, 371 adolescents (189 PCE, 182 non-cocaine exposed (NCE)), primarily African-American and of low socioeconomic status, participating in a longitudinal, prospective study from birth were assessed for behavioral adjustment using the Youth Self-Report (YSR). Results Longitudinal mixed model analyses indicated that PCE was associated with greater externalizing behavioral problems at ages 12 and 15 and more attention problems at age 15, after controlling for confounders. PCE effects were not found for internalizing behaviors. PCE adolescents in adoptive/foster care reported more externalizing and attention problems than PCE adolescents in biological mother/relative care at age 12 or NCE adolescents at both ages. No PCE by gender interaction was found. Prenatal marijuana exposure, home environment, parental attachment and monitoring, family conflict, and violence exposure were also significant predictors of adolescent behavioral adjustment. Conclusions Prenatal cocaine exposure is a risk factor for poor behavioral adjustment in adolescence. PMID:24581794

  1. The effects of sibling relationships on social adjustment among Japanese twins compared with singletons.

    PubMed

    Nozaki, Mari; Fujisawa, Keiko K; Ando, Juko; Hasegawa, Toshikazu

    2012-12-01

    This study examined the link between sibling relationships and children's social adjustment by comparing twin siblings and siblings with different ages (singleton siblings}, and clarified the role of reciprocity in sibling relationships on children's social development. Mothers of 58 monozygotic twin pairs, 48 dizygotic twin pairs, and 86 singleton sibling pairs reported their children's sibling relationships and social adjustment.This study showed that the effects of sibling relationships on the prosocial behaviors and conduct problems of each child are stronger for twins than for singleton siblings. Moreover, positivity toward one's sibling increased peer problems only among monozygotic twins. The opposite tendency was present among dizygotic twins and singleton siblings. This study suggests the importance for children's social development of having many interactions with siblings and establishing reciprocity in sibling relationships. Moreover, our results suggest that the quality of sibling relationships among monozygotic twins may be different from those among dizygotic twins and singleton siblings.

  2. Cyclostrophic adjustment in swirling gas flows and the Ranque-Hilsch vortex tube effect

    SciTech Connect

    Kalashnik, M. V. Visheratin, K. N.

    2008-04-15

    A theoretical analysis of cyclostrophic adjustment is presented; i.e., adjustment to balance between pressure gradient and centrifugal force in axisymmetric flow of an inviscid gas is examined. The solution to the problem is represented as the sum of a time-independent (balanced) and time-dependent (wave) components. It is shown that the wave component of the flow in an unbounded domain decays with time, and the corresponding solution reduces to the balanced component. In a bounded domain, the balanced flow component exists against the background of undamped acoustic waves. It is found that the balanced flow is thermally stratified at Mach numbers close to unity, with a substantial decrease in gas temperature (to between -50 and -100 deg. C) in the axial region. This finding, combined with the results of special experiments, is used to explain the Ranque-Hilsch vortex tube effect.

  3. Cyclostrophic adjustment in swirling gas flows and the Ranque-Hilsch vortex tube effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalashnik, M. V.; Visheratin, K. N.

    2008-04-01

    A theoretical analysis of cyclostrophic adjustment is presented; i.e., adjustment to balance between pressure gradient and centrifugal force in axisymmetric flow of an inviscid gas is examined. The solution to the problem is represented as the sum of a time-independent (balanced) and time-dependent (wave) components. It is shown that the wave component of the flow in an unbounded domain decays with time, and the corresponding solution reduces to the balanced component. In a bounded domain, the balanced flow component exists against the background of undamped acoustic waves. It is found that the balanced flow is thermally stratified at Mach numbers close to unity, with a substantial decrease in gas temperature (to between -50 and -100°C) in the axial region. This finding, combined with the results of special experiments, is used to explain the Ranque-Hilsch vortex tube effect.

  4. Adjustable degradation properties and biocompatibility of amorphous and functional poly(ester-acrylate)-based materials.

    PubMed

    Undin, Jenny; Finne-Wistrand, Anna; Albertsson, Ann-Christine

    2014-07-14

    Tuning the properties of materials toward a special application is crucial in the area of tissue engineering. The design of materials with predetermined degradation rates and controlled release of degradation products is therefore vital. Providing a material with various functional groups is one of the best ways to address this issue because alterations and modifications of the polymer backbone can be performed easily. Two different 2-methylene-1,3-dioxepane/glycidyl methacrylate-based (MDO/GMA) copolymers were synthesized with different feed ratios and immersed into a phosphate buffer solution at pH 7.4 and in deionized water at 37 °C for up to 133 days. After different time intervals, the molecular weight changes, mass loss, pH, and degradation products were determined. By increasing the amount of GMA functional groups in the material, the degradation rate and the amount of acidic degradation products released from the material were decreased. As a result, the composition of the copolymers greatly affected the degradation rate. A rapid release of acidic degradation products during the degradation process could be an important issue for biomedical applications because it might affect the biocompatibility of the material. The cytotoxicity of the materials was evaluated using a MTT assay. These tests indicated that none of the materials demonstrated any obvious cytotoxicity, and the materials could therefore be considered biocompatible.

  5. Effective System for Automatic Bundle Block Adjustment and Ortho Image Generation from Multi Sensor Satellite Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akilan, A.; Nagasubramanian, V.; Chaudhry, A.; Reddy, D. Rajesh; Sudheer Reddy, D.; Usha Devi, R.; Tirupati, T.; Radhadevi, P. V.; Varadan, G.

    2014-11-01

    Block Adjustment is a technique for large area mapping for images obtained from different remote sensingsatellites.The challenge in this process is to handle huge number of satellite imageries from different sources with different resolution and accuracies at the system level. This paper explains a system with various tools and techniques to effectively handle the end-to-end chain in large area mapping and production with good level of automation and the provisions for intuitive analysis of final results in 3D and 2D environment. In addition, the interface for using open source ortho and DEM references viz., ETM, SRTM etc. and displaying ESRI shapes for the image foot-prints are explained. Rigorous theory, mathematical modelling, workflow automation and sophisticated software engineering tools are included to ensure high photogrammetric accuracy and productivity. Major building blocks like Georeferencing, Geo-capturing and Geo-Modelling tools included in the block adjustment solution are explained in this paper. To provide optimal bundle block adjustment solution with high precision results, the system has been optimized in many stages to exploit the full utilization of hardware resources. The robustness of the system is ensured by handling failure in automatic procedure and saving the process state in every stage for subsequent restoration from the point of interruption. The results obtained from various stages of the system are presented in the paper.

  6. What is the effect of adjusting epirubicin doses for body surface area?

    PubMed Central

    Dobbs, N. A.; Twelves, C. J.

    1998-01-01

    Doses of cytotoxic drugs are routinely adjusted according to body surface area. We have evaluated this practice in 32 women with advanced breast cancer treated with single-agent epirubicin 12.5-120 mg m(-2). Epirubicin and its metabolites were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Unadjusted plasma clearance was calculated from dose in mg, and adjusted clearance from dose in mg m(-2). Unadjusted clearance did not correlate with surface area, height, weight, per cent ideal body weight or body mass index. There was no difference in the coefficient of variation (CV) of adjusted and unadjusted clearance (39.4% and 37.7% respectively). The AUC that would have resulted from giving an unadjusted dose was calculated. This predicted AUC was accurate, unbiased and had the same CV as the actual AUC. Similarly, in 11 patients an analysis of actual and predicted neutropenia confirmed that unadjusted dosing would have had no significant effect on the pattern of myelosuppression. Normalization of epirubicin dosage according to surface area appears not to reduce either pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic variability. PMID:9744507

  7. Internet for the internationals: effects of internet use motivations on international students' college adjustment.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun-Ju; Lee, Lu; Jang, Jeongwoo

    2011-01-01

    Drawing upon the uses and gratifications approach, the current study examined how international students' Internet use motivations affect their academic, social, and emotional adjustments in the new environment. A total of 166 Chinese students studying in Korea participated in a web-based survey. First, a factor analysis identified four distinct motivations for Internet use: homeland orientation (to stay connected to the home country), local information seeking (to learn about the host society), local social interaction (to form interpersonal relationships locally), and entertainment. After controlling for the effects of sociodemographic variables (i.e., gender, year at school, length of residence, Korean language proficiency) and personality traits (i.e., extraversion, openness to experience, neuroticism), Internet use motivations were found to be significant predictors of international students' social and emotional adjustments. Specifically, those seeking to build a local social network through the Internet reported greater satisfaction with their social life, whereas homeland orientation was associated with poorer emotional adaptation. Various Internet activities, such as e-mail, blogging, and instant messaging, were not significantly related to college adjustments, suggesting the multi-functionality of Internet-based communication channels.

  8. Internet for the internationals: effects of internet use motivations on international students' college adjustment.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun-Ju; Lee, Lu; Jang, Jeongwoo

    2011-01-01

    Drawing upon the uses and gratifications approach, the current study examined how international students' Internet use motivations affect their academic, social, and emotional adjustments in the new environment. A total of 166 Chinese students studying in Korea participated in a web-based survey. First, a factor analysis identified four distinct motivations for Internet use: homeland orientation (to stay connected to the home country), local information seeking (to learn about the host society), local social interaction (to form interpersonal relationships locally), and entertainment. After controlling for the effects of sociodemographic variables (i.e., gender, year at school, length of residence, Korean language proficiency) and personality traits (i.e., extraversion, openness to experience, neuroticism), Internet use motivations were found to be significant predictors of international students' social and emotional adjustments. Specifically, those seeking to build a local social network through the Internet reported greater satisfaction with their social life, whereas homeland orientation was associated with poorer emotional adaptation. Various Internet activities, such as e-mail, blogging, and instant messaging, were not significantly related to college adjustments, suggesting the multi-functionality of Internet-based communication channels. PMID:21117984

  9. Academic self-concept in high school: predictors and effects on adjustment in higher education.

    PubMed

    Wouters, Sofie; Germeijs, Veerle; Colpin, Hilde; Verschueren, Karine

    2011-12-01

    Academic self-concept is considered a relevant psychological construct influencing many educational outcomes directly or indirectly. Therefore, the major focus of the current study is on the predictors and effects of academic self-concept in late adolescence. First, we studied the simultaneous effects of individual, class-average and school-average achievement (i.e., assessed by school grades) on academic self-concept in the final year of high school, thereby replicating and extending previous research on the big-fish-little-pond effect model. Second, the predictive value of high school academic self-concept for academic adjustment and success in the first year of higher education was examined. The sample comprised 536 twelfth grade students (44% boys) recruited from 24 schools (67 classes) that were representative with regard to geographical region and educational network in Flanders. Structural equation modeling showed that, when examining the joint contribution of school- and class-average achievement, only class-average achievement was significantly and negatively associated with academic self-concept. Furthermore, a significant effect of academic self-concept in high school on academic adjustment and success in higher education (in addition to any effects of high school academic achievement) was found. These results highlight the importance of considering academic self-concept in educational research and policy.

  10. Relativistic Effects on Chemical Properties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKelvey, Donald R.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses how anomalous chemical properties may be explained by considering relativistic effects. Traces development of the relativistic wave equation (Dirac equation) starting with the Borh treatment of the hydrogen atom and discusses major consequences of the Dirac equation. Suggests that these topics receive greater attention in the…

  11. The portion size effect on food intake. An anchoring and adjustment process?

    PubMed

    Marchiori, David; Papies, Esther K; Klein, Olivier

    2014-10-01

    People consistently over-eat when served a large compared with a small (appropriate) portion of food. However, the mechanism underlying this so-called portion size effect is not well understood. We argue that the process of anchoring and adjustment naturally describes this effect, such that the size of a presented portion works as an anchor that strongly influences consumption. The classical anchoring and adjustment paradigm was applied to six hypothetical eating situations. Participants were asked to imagine being served either a small or a large portion of food (i.e., low and high anchor) and to indicate whether they would consume more or less than this amount. Then, they indicated how much they would eat. These estimates were compared with a no-anchor condition where participants did not imagine a specific portion size but only indicated how much they would eat. In addition, half of participants in the anchoring conditions received a discounting instruction stating that the portion size they had been asked to imagine was randomly selected and thus not informative for their consumption estimate. As expected, participants who imagined to be served larger portions estimated to consume significantly more food than participants in the no-anchor condition, and participants who imagined to be served smaller portions estimated to consume significantly less food than participants in the no-anchor condition. The discounting manipulation did not reduce this effect of the anchors. We suggest that the process of anchoring and adjustment may provide a useful framework to understand the portion size effect and we discuss implications of this perspective.

  12. Teachers and Their International Relocation: The Effect of Self-Esteem and Pay Satisfaction on Adjustment and Outcome Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Warnie; von Kirchenheim, Clement; Richardson, Carole

    2006-01-01

    This is the second of two papers investigating the adjustment process in a designated group of expatriates, (teachers), who have severed ties with their home country and employer. In the first paper we examined the effect of self-efficacy and flexibility within this adjustment process, revealing the significance of self-efficacy but failing to…

  13. Posttraumatic growth moderates the effects of posttraumatic stress symptoms on adjustment and positive affective reactions in digestive system cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Ben-Zur, Hasida; Cohen, Miri; Gouzman, Julia

    2015-01-01

    The study aims were twofold: (1) To investigate the associations of posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) and posttraumatic growth (PTG) with adjustment and affective reactions of digestive system cancer patients and (2) To assess the moderating effects of PTG on the associations of PTSS with adjustment and affective reactions. The sample consisted of 200 respondents 1-4 years following diagnosis and treatment for digestive system cancer. Participants completed questionnaires assessing PTSS, PTG, adjustment, positive affect (PA), and negative affect (NA). The results showed that PTG was positively associated with adjustment and PA, while PTSS was negatively associated with these outcomes and positively associated with NA. Moderation effects of PTG were also observed: The negative associations between PTSS and adjustment or PA were weaker under high levels than under low levels of PTG. It was concluded that PTG is important both as a contributor to better adjustment and PA, as well as a moderator of the detrimental effects of PTSS on adjustment and PA following recovery from cancer. Thus, when developing post-cancer intervention programs, PTG should be viewed as a factor to be encouraged and nurtured for the benefit of cancer patients' adjustment and their long-term well-being.

  14. The effect of case-mix adjustment on admission-based reimbursement.

    PubMed Central

    Kinzer, D; Warner, M

    1983-01-01

    This paper addresses two questions: (1) Does adjusting for case mix have any effect on prospective admission-based reimbursement? and (2) How does the way in which case type is defined (DRG, ICD9CM, Age, etc) affect reimbursement systems? Data from 20 Maryland hospitals provided the basis for analysis, and the results illustrate how hospital reimbursement is affected under alternative definitions of case type (including no case type), showing highly significant variation. Implications for cost control and existing and proposed prospective reimbursement systems are discussed. Images Figure 5 PMID:6409840

  15. Estimating the average treatment effects of nutritional label use using subclassification with regression adjustment.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Michael J; Gutman, Roee

    2014-11-28

    Propensity score methods are common for estimating a binary treatment effect when treatment assignment is not randomized. When exposure is measured on an ordinal scale (i.e. low-medium-high), however, propensity score inference requires extensions which have received limited attention. Estimands of possible interest with an ordinal exposure are the average treatment effects between each pair of exposure levels. Using these estimands, it is possible to determine an optimal exposure level. Traditional methods, including dichotomization of the exposure or a series of binary propensity score comparisons across exposure pairs, are generally inadequate for identification of optimal levels. We combine subclassification with regression adjustment to estimate transitive, unbiased average causal effects across an ordered exposure, and apply our method on the 2005-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey to estimate the effects of nutritional label use on body mass index.

  16. Changes in social adjustment with cognitive processing therapy: effects of treatment and association with PTSD symptom change.

    PubMed

    Monson, Candice M; Macdonald, Alexandra; Vorstenbosch, Valerie; Shnaider, Philippe; Goldstein, Elizabeth S R; Ferrier-Auerbach, Amanda G; Mocciola, Katharine E

    2012-10-01

    The current study sought to determine if different spheres of social adjustment, social and leisure, family, and work and income improved immediately following a course of cognitive processing therapy (CPT) when compared with those on a waiting list in a sample of 46 U.S. veterans diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). We also sought to determine whether changes in different PTSD symptom clusters were associated with changes in these spheres of social adjustment. Overall social adjustment, extended family relationships, and housework completion significantly improved in the CPT versus waiting-list condition, η(2) = .08 to .11. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses revealed that improvements in total clinician-rated PTSD symptoms were associated with improvements in overall social and housework adjustment. When changes in reexperiencing, avoidance, emotional numbing, and hyperarousal were all in the model accounting for changes in total social adjustment, improvements in emotional numbing symptoms were associated with improvements in overall social, extended family, and housework adjustment (β = .38 to .55). In addition, improvements in avoidance symptoms were associated with improvements in housework adjustment (β = .30), but associated with declines in extended family adjustment (β = -.34). Results suggest that it is important to consider the extent to which PTSD treatments effectively reduce specific types of symptoms, particularly emotional numbing and avoidance, to generally improve social adjustment.

  17. Adjusting for observational secondary treatments in estimating the effects of randomized treatments.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Min; Wang, Yanping

    2013-07-01

    In randomized clinical trials, for example, on cancer patients, it is not uncommon that patients may voluntarily initiate a secondary treatment postrandomization, which needs to be properly adjusted for in estimating the "true" effects of randomized treatments. As an alternative to the approach based on a marginal structural Cox model (MSCM) in Zhang and Wang [(2012). Estimating treatment effects from a randomized trial in the presence of a secondary treatment. Biostatistics 13, 625-636], we propose methods that treat the time to start a secondary treatment as a dependent censoring process, which is handled separately from the usual censoring such as the loss to follow-up. Two estimators are proposed, both based on the idea of inversely weighting by the probability of having not started a secondary treatment yet. The second estimator focuses on improving efficiency of inference by a robust covariate-adjustment that does not require any additional assumptions. The proposed methods are evaluated and compared with the MSCM-based method in terms of bias and variance tradeoff using simulations and application to a cancer clinical trial.

  18. Effects of Timing of Adversity on Adolescent and Young Adult Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiff, Cara J.; Cortes, Rebecca C.; Lengua, Liliana J.; Kosterman, Rick; Hawkins, J. David; Mason, W. Alex

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to adversity during childhood and adolescence predicts adjustment across development. Furthermore, adolescent adjustment problems persist into young adulthood. This study examined relations of contextual adversity with concurrent adolescent adjustment and prospective mental health and health outcomes in young adulthood. A longitudinal…

  19. The effects of feeder adjustment and trough space on growth performance of finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    Myers, A J; Goodband, R D; Tokach, M D; Dritz, S S; DeRouchey, J M; Nelssen, J L

    2012-12-01

    Two studies were conducted to determine the effects of feeder adjustment and trough space on growth performance of finishing pigs. In Exp. 1, 234 pigs (initial BW 41.5 kg) were used in an 89-d trial. Pigs were randomly allotted to 1 of 3 treatments with 9 replications of 8 pigs/pen and 1 replicate with 6 pigs/pen. Treatments consisted of a minimum feeder gap setting of 1.27, 1.91, or 2.54 cm. Feeders were adjusted to a minimum gap setting, but the agitation plate could be moved upward to a maximum opening of 1.91, 2.54, or 3.18 cm, respectively. Feeder adjustments of 1.27, 1.91, and 2.54 cm averaged 28, 58, and 75% pan coverage, respectively. From d 0 to 58, increasing feeder gap improved (linear; P ≤ 0.04) ADG and ADFI, but decreased (linear; P < 0.05) G:F. Although the response was linear for ADG, no increase occurred (quadratic; P = 0.15) beyond the 1.91-cm feeder gap setting. From d 58 to 89, increasing feeder gap setting tended (linear; P = 0.08) to worsen G:F. Overall (d 0 to 89), pigs fed with increasing feeder gap had decreased (linear; P <0.03) G:F due to increased (linear; P <0.02) ADFI. In Exp. 2, 288 pigs (initial BW 41.3 kg) were used in a 91-d study to evaluate the effects of feeder trough space (4.45 vs. 8.9 cm/pig) and minimum feeder gap opening of 1.27 cm (narrow) vs. 2.54 cm (wide). The treatments were arranged in a 2 × 2 factorial with 6 replications per treatment. Feeder trough space was altered by having pens of either 8 to 16 pigs per pen with all pigs provided 0.74 m(2) floor space per pig. From d 0 to 56 and 56 to 91, no adjustment × space interactions or effects of trough space were observed. From d 0 to 56, pigs with the wide feeder gap setting had decreased (P < 0.02) G:F compared with those that had the narrow feeder gap setting. From d 56 to 91, pigs with the wider feeder gap setting had increased (P < 0.001) ADFI, but consequently had decreased (P < 0.01) G:F. Overall (d 0 to 91), no trough space × feeder adjustment interactions

  20. Conformity expectations: Differential effects on IVF twins and singletons' parent-child relationships and adjustment.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Kayla N; Rueter, Martha A; Connor, Jennifer J; Chen, Muzi; Damario, Mark

    2015-08-01

    Increased utilization of in vitro fertilization (IVF) to treat infertility has resulted in a growing twin birthrate. Despite early childhood risks, twins have fewer psychosocial problems in middle childhood than singleton children. This study proposes that parents' conformity expectations for children have differential effects on parent-child relationships for twin and singleton children, which indirectly explains twins' more optimum psychosocial adjustment. Parental conformity expectations, parent-child relationship satisfaction, and children's emotional, behavioral, and attention problems were assessed in a sample of 288 6- to 12-year-old IVF-conceived twins and singletons. Overall, parents of twins had higher expectations for child conformity to parent rules than singleton parents. Path models demonstrate that twin status and parental expectations for child conformity interact to influence parent-child relationships, and this interaction indirectly accounted for differences in twins' and singletons' psychosocial adjustment. Findings suggest parenting constructs have differential influences on the association between twin status and parent-child relationships. Parenting research, predominantly conducted with singletons, should be reexamined before applying existing research to twin children and their families.

  1. Are effective teachers like good parents? Teaching styles and student adjustment in early adolescence.

    PubMed

    Wentzel, Kathryn R

    2002-01-01

    This study examined the utility of parent socialization models for understanding teachers' influence on student adjustment in middle school. Teachers were assessed with respect to their modeling of motivation and to Baumrind's parenting dimensions of control, maturity demands, democratic communication, and nurturance. Student adjustment was defined in terms of their social and academic goals and interest in class, classroom behavior, and academic performance. Based on information from 452 sixth graders from two suburban middle schools, results of multiple regressions indicated that the five teaching dimensions explained significant amounts of variance in student motivation, social behavior, and achievement. High expectations (maturity demands) was a consistent positive predictor of students' goals and interests, and negative feedback (lack of nurturance) was the most consistent negative predictor of academic performance and social behavior. The role of motivation in mediating relations between teaching dimensions and social behavior and academic achievement also was examined; evidence for mediation was not found. Relations of teaching dimensions to student outcomes were the same for African American and European American students, and for boys and girls. The implications of parent socialization models for understanding effective teaching are discussed.

  2. An examination of crossover and spillover effects of spousal and expatriate cross-cultural adjustment on expatriate outcomes.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Riki; Yun, Seokhwa; Tesluk, Paul E

    2002-08-01

    Integrating work-family and cross-cultural adjustment literatures, the researchers proposed and tested a spillover and crossover model of expatriates' cross-cultural adjustment with reciprocal relationships. Spillover effects refer to the influence that expatriate attitudes in a particular domain (e.g., work) have on attitudes in other domains (e.g., nonwork), whereas crossover effects refer to the influence of expatriate attitudes on the spouse's attitudes (and vice versa). Data collected from Japanese expatriates, their spouses, and their superiors strongly supported both spillover and crossover effects between expatriate and spousal cross-cultural adjustment. In addition, expatriates' cross-cultural adjustment was found to be related to satisfaction, which, in turn, was found to be negatively related to expatriates' intention to return to their homeland early.

  3. Effect of Risk Adjustment Method on Comparisons of Health Care Utilization Between Complementary and Alternative Medicine Users and Nonusers

    PubMed Central

    Gerkovich, Mary M.; Cherkin, Daniel C.; Deyo, Richard A.; Sherman, Karen J.; Lafferty, William E.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objectives Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) providers are becoming more integrated into the United States health care system. Because patients self-select CAM use, risk adjustment is needed to make the groups more comparable when analyzing utilization. This study examined how the choice of risk adjustment method affects assessment of CAM use on overall health care utilization. Design and subjects Insurance claims data for 2000–2003 from Washington State, which mandates coverage of CAM providers, were analyzed. Three (3) risk adjustment methods were compared in patients with musculoskeletal conditions: Adjusted Clinical Groups (ACG), Diagnostic Cost Groups (DCG), and the Charlson Index. Relative Value Units (RVUs) were used as a proxy for expenditures. Two (2) sets of median regression models were created: prospective, which used risk adjustments from the previous year to predict RVU in the subsequent year, and concurrent, which used risk adjustment measures to predict RVU in the same year. Results The sample included 92,474 claimants. Prospective models showed little difference in the effect of CAM use on RVU among the three risk adjustment methods, and all models had low predictive power (R2 ≤0.05). In the concurrent models, coefficients were similar in direction and magnitude for all risk adjustment methods, but in some models the predicted effect of CAM use on RVU differed by as much as double between methods. Results of DCG and ACG models were similar and were stronger than Charlson models. Conclusions Choice of risk adjustment method may have a modest effect on the outcome of interest. PMID:23036140

  4. The effect of HWVP feed nitrate and carbonate content on glass redox adjustment

    SciTech Connect

    Wiemers, K.D.

    1996-03-01

    The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) is being designed for the Department of Energy to immobilize pretreated radioactive high-level waste (HLW) as glass for geological disposal. In the HWVP formic acid will be added to the pretreated HLW prior to vitrification. The formic acid is added to adjust the feed rheology and to provide a reductant which maintains the feed in the melter within an acceptable redox range. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of nitrate and carbonate concentrations in the pretreated neutralized current acid waste (NCAW) feed on the amount of formic acid required to obtain an acceptable glass redox state in the melter. The glass redox state was measured by the Fe{sup +2}/Fe{sup +3} ratio in the vitrified product.

  5. Regulatory Properties of ADP Glucose Pyrophosphorylase Are Required for Adjustment of Leaf Starch Synthesis in Different Photoperiods1[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Mugford, Sam T.; Fernandez, Olivier; Brinton, Jemima; Flis, Anna; Krohn, Nicole; Encke, Beatrice; Feil, Regina; Sulpice, Ronan; Lunn, John E.; Stitt, Mark; Smith, Alison M.

    2014-01-01

    Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) leaves synthesize starch faster in short days than in long days, but the mechanism that adjusts the rate of starch synthesis to daylength is unknown. To understand this mechanism, we first investigated whether adjustment occurs in mutants lacking components of the circadian clock or clock output pathways. Most mutants adjusted starch synthesis to daylength, but adjustment was compromised in plants lacking the GIGANTEA or FLAVIN-BINDING, KELCH REPEAT, F BOX1 components of the photoperiod-signaling pathway involved in flowering. We then examined whether the properties of the starch synthesis enzyme adenosine 5′-diphosphate-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase) are important for adjustment of starch synthesis to daylength. Modulation of AGPase activity is known to bring about short-term adjustments of photosynthate partitioning between starch and sucrose (Suc) synthesis. We found that adjustment of starch synthesis to daylength was compromised in plants expressing a deregulated bacterial AGPase in place of the endogenous AGPase and in plants containing mutant forms of the endogenous AGPase with altered allosteric regulatory properties. We suggest that the rate of starch synthesis is in part determined by growth rate at the end of the preceding night. If growth at night is low, as in short days, there is a delay before growth recovers during the next day, leading to accumulation of Suc and stimulation of starch synthesis via activation of AGPase. If growth at night is fast, photosynthate is used for growth at the start of the day, Suc does not accumulate, and starch synthesis is not up-regulated. PMID:25293961

  6. Adjustable hydrazine modulation of single-wall carbon nanotube network field effect transistors from p-type to n-type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Ruixuan; Xie, Dan; Xu, Jianlong; Sun, Yilin; Sun, MengXing; Zhang, Cheng; Li, Xian

    2016-11-01

    Single-wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) network field effect transistors (FETs), which show decent p-type electronic properties, have been fabricated. The use of hydrazine as an aqueous solution and a strong n-type dopant for the SWCNTs is demonstrated in this paper. The electrical properties are obviously tuned by hydrazine treatment at different concentrations on the surface of the SWCNT network FETs. The transport behavior of SWCNTs can be modulated from p-type to n-type, demonstrating the controllable and adjustable doping effect of hydrazine. With a higher concentration of hydrazine, more electrons can be transferred from the hydrazine molecules to the SWCNT network films, thus resulting in a change of threshold voltage, carrier mobility and on-current. By cleaning the device, the hydrazine doping effects vanish, which indicates that the doping effects of hydrazine are reversible. Through x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) characterization, the doping effects of hydrazine have also been studied.

  7. Adjustable hydrazine modulation of single-wall carbon nanotube network field effect transistors from p-type to n-type.

    PubMed

    Dai, Ruixuan; Xie, Dan; Xu, Jianlong; Sun, Yilin; Sun, MengXing; Zhang, Cheng; Li, Xian

    2016-11-01

    Single-wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) network field effect transistors (FETs), which show decent p-type electronic properties, have been fabricated. The use of hydrazine as an aqueous solution and a strong n-type dopant for the SWCNTs is demonstrated in this paper. The electrical properties are obviously tuned by hydrazine treatment at different concentrations on the surface of the SWCNT network FETs. The transport behavior of SWCNTs can be modulated from p-type to n-type, demonstrating the controllable and adjustable doping effect of hydrazine. With a higher concentration of hydrazine, more electrons can be transferred from the hydrazine molecules to the SWCNT network films, thus resulting in a change of threshold voltage, carrier mobility and on-current. By cleaning the device, the hydrazine doping effects vanish, which indicates that the doping effects of hydrazine are reversible. Through x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) characterization, the doping effects of hydrazine have also been studied.

  8. Adjustable hydrazine modulation of single-wall carbon nanotube network field effect transistors from p-type to n-type.

    PubMed

    Dai, Ruixuan; Xie, Dan; Xu, Jianlong; Sun, Yilin; Sun, MengXing; Zhang, Cheng; Li, Xian

    2016-11-01

    Single-wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) network field effect transistors (FETs), which show decent p-type electronic properties, have been fabricated. The use of hydrazine as an aqueous solution and a strong n-type dopant for the SWCNTs is demonstrated in this paper. The electrical properties are obviously tuned by hydrazine treatment at different concentrations on the surface of the SWCNT network FETs. The transport behavior of SWCNTs can be modulated from p-type to n-type, demonstrating the controllable and adjustable doping effect of hydrazine. With a higher concentration of hydrazine, more electrons can be transferred from the hydrazine molecules to the SWCNT network films, thus resulting in a change of threshold voltage, carrier mobility and on-current. By cleaning the device, the hydrazine doping effects vanish, which indicates that the doping effects of hydrazine are reversible. Through x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) characterization, the doping effects of hydrazine have also been studied. PMID:27670730

  9. A Cost-Effective Fluorescence Mini-Microscope with Adjustable Magnifications for Biomedical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yu Shrike; Ribas, João; Nadhman, Akhtar; Aleman, Julio; Selimović, Šeila; Lesher-Perez, Sasha Cai; Wang, Ting; Manoharan, Vijayan; Shin, Su-Ryon; Damilano, Alessia; Annabi, Nasim; Dokmeci, Mehmet Remzi; Takayama, Shuichi; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2015-01-01

    We have designed and fabricated a miniature microscope from off-the-shelf components and webcam, with built-in fluorescence capability for biomedical applications. The mini-microscope was able to detect both biochemical parameters such as cell/tissue viability (e.g. Live/Dead assay), and biophysical properties of the microenvironment such as oxygen levels in microfabricated tissues based on an oxygen-sensitive fluorescent dye. This mini-microscope has adjustable magnifications from 8-60X, achieves a resolution as high as <2 μm, and possesses a long working distance of 4.5 mm (at a magnification of 8X). The mini-microscope was able to chronologically monitor cell migration and analyze beating of microfluidic liver and cardiac bioreactors in real time, respectively. The mini-microscope system is cheap, and its modularity allows convenient integration with a wide variety of pre-existing platforms including but not limited to, cell culture plates, microfluidic devices, and organs-on-a-chip systems. Therefore, we envision its widespread applications in cell biology, tissue engineering, biosensing, microfluidics, and organs-on-chips, which can potentially replace conventional bench-top microscopy where long-term in situ and large-scale imaging/analysis is required. PMID:26282117

  10. Effects of pH adjustment and sodium ions on sour taste intensity of organic acids.

    PubMed

    Neta, E R D; Johanningsmeier, S D; Drake, M A; McFeeters, R F

    2009-01-01

    Protonated organic acid species have been shown to be the primary stimuli responsible for sour taste of organic acids. However, we have observed that sour taste may be modulated when the pH of acid solutions is raised using sodium hydroxide. Objectives were to evaluate the effect of pH adjustment on sour taste of equimolar protonated organic acid solutions and to investigate the potential roles of organic anions and sodium ions on sour taste perception. Despite equal concentrations of protonated acid species, sour taste intensity decreased significantly with increased pH for acetic, lactic, malic, and citric acids (P < 0.05). Total organic anion concentration did not explain the suppression of sour taste in solutions containing a blend of 3 organic acids with constant concentration of protonated organic acid species and hydrogen ions and variable organic anion concentrations (R(2)= 0.480, P = 0.12). Sour taste suppression in these solutions seemed to be more closely related to sodium ions added in the form of NaOH (R(2)= 0.861, P = 0.007). Addition of 20 mM NaCl to acid solutions resulted in significant suppression of sour taste (P = 0.016). However, sour taste did not decrease with further addition of NaCl up to 80 mM. Presence of sodium ions was clearly shown to decrease sour taste of organic acid solutions. Nonetheless, suppression of sour taste in pH adjusted single acid solutions was greater than what would be expected based on the sodium ion concentration alone, indicating an additional suppression mechanism may be involved.

  11. Effects of reduced plantar cutaneous afferent feedback on locomotor adjustments in dynamic stability during perturbed walking.

    PubMed

    Höhne, Angela; Stark, Christian; Brüggemann, Gert-Peter; Arampatzis, Adamantios

    2011-08-11

    This study examined the effects of reduced plantar cutaneous afferent feedback on predictive and feedback adaptive locomotor adjustments in dynamic stability during perturbed walking. Twenty-two matched participants divided between an experimental-group and a control-group performed a gait protocol, which included surface alterations to one covered exchangeable gangway-element (hard/soft). In the experimental-group, cutaneous sensation in both foot soles was reduced to the level of sensory peripheral neuropathy by means of intradermal injections of an anaesthetic solution, without affecting foot proprioception or muscles. The gait protocol consisted of baseline trials on a uniformly hard surface and an adaptation phase consisting of nineteen trials incorporating a soft gangway-element, interspersed with three trials using the hard surface-element (2nd, 8th and 19th). Dynamic stability was assessed by quantifying the margin of stability (MS), which was calculated as the difference between the base of support (BS) and the extrapolated centre of mass (CM). The horizontal velocity of the CM and its vertical projection in the anterior-posterior direction and the eigenfrequency of an inverted pendulum determine the extrapolated-CM. Both groups increased the BS at the recovery step in response to the first unexpected perturbation. These feedback corrections were used more extensively in the experimental-group, which led to a higher MS compared to the control-group, i.e. a more stable body-position. In the adaptation phase the MS returned to baseline similarly in both groups. In the trial on the hard surface directly after the first perturbation, both groups increased the MS at touchdown of the disturbed leg compared to baseline trials, indicating rapid predictive adjustments irrespective of plantar cutaneous input. Our findings demonstrate that the locomotor adaptational potential does not decrease due to the loss of plantar sensation.

  12. Improvement of anticipatory postural adjustments for balance control: effect of a single training session

    PubMed Central

    Kanekar, Neeta; Aruin, Alexander S.

    2014-01-01

    Humans use anticipatory and compensatory postural strategies to maintain and restore balance when perturbed. Inefficient generation and utilization of anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) is one of the reasons for postural instability. The aim of the study was to investigate the role of training in improvement of APAs and its effect on subsequent control of posture. Thirteen healthy young adults were exposed to predictable external perturbations before and after a single training session consisting of catches of a medicine ball thrown at the shoulder level. 3-D body kinematics, EMG activity of thirteen trunk and leg muscles, and ground reaction forces were recorded before and immediately after a single training session. Muscle onsets, EMG integrals, center of pressure (COP), and center of mass (COM) displacements were analyzed during the anticipatory and compensatory phases of postural control. The effect of a single training session was seen as significantly early muscle onsets and larger anticipatory COP displacements. As a result, significantly smaller peak COM displacements were observed after the perturbation indicating greater postural stability. The outcome of this study provides a background for examining the role of training in improvement of APAs and its effect on postural stability in individuals in need. PMID:25434280

  13. Improvement of anticipatory postural adjustments for balance control: effect of a single training session.

    PubMed

    Kanekar, Neeta; Aruin, Alexander S

    2015-04-01

    Humans use anticipatory and compensatory postural strategies to maintain and restore balance when perturbed. Inefficient generation and utilization of anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) is one of the reasons for postural instability. The aim of the study was to investigate the role of training in improvement of APAs and its effect on subsequent control of posture. Thirteen healthy young adults were exposed to predictable external perturbations before and after a single training session consisting of catches of a medicine ball thrown at the shoulder level. 3-D body kinematics, EMG activity of thirteen trunk and lower limb muscles, and ground reaction forces were recorded before and immediately after a single training session. Muscle onsets, EMG integrals, center of pressure (COP), and center of mass (COM) displacements were analyzed during the anticipatory and compensatory phases of postural control. The effect of a single training session was seen as significantly early muscle onsets and larger anticipatory COP displacements. As a result, significantly smaller peak COM displacements were observed after the perturbation indicating greater postural stability. The outcome of this study provides a background for examining the role of training in improvement of APAs and its effect on postural stability in individuals in need.

  14. The Effects of Coping Humour and Gender on College Adjustment in Turkish Freshmen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oguz-Duran, Nagihan; Yuksel, Asuman

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the roles of coping humour and gender in the college adjustment of Turkish freshmen. Considering greater happiness and academic achievement as predictors of initial college adjustment, data were gathered from a sample of 574 students using the Subjective Well-Being Scale (SWS) and the Coping Humour…

  15. Adjusting Teacher Salaries for the Cost of Living: The Effect on Salary Comparisons and Policy Conclusions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoddard, C.

    2005-01-01

    Teaching salaries are commonly adjusted for the cost of living, but this incorrectly accounts for welfare differences across states. Adjusting for area amenities and opportunities, however, produces more accurate salary comparisons. Amenities and opportunities can be measured by the wage premium other workers in a state face. The two methods…

  16. 42 CFR 495.211 - Payment adjustments effective for 2015 and subsequent MA payment years with respect to MA EPs and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Payment adjustments effective for 2015 and... effective for 2015 and subsequent MA payment years with respect to MA EPs and MA-affiliated eligible hospitals. (a) In general. Beginning for MA payment adjustment year 2015, payment adjustments set forth...

  17. 42 CFR 495.211 - Payment adjustments effective for 2015 and subsequent MA payment years with respect to MA EPs and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Payment adjustments effective for 2015 and... effective for 2015 and subsequent MA payment years with respect to MA EPs and MA-affiliated eligible hospitals. (a) In general. Beginning for MA payment adjustment year 2015, payment adjustments set forth...

  18. 42 CFR 495.211 - Payment adjustments effective for 2015 and subsequent MA payment years with respect to MA EPs and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Payment adjustments effective for 2015 and... effective for 2015 and subsequent MA payment years with respect to MA EPs and MA-affiliated eligible hospitals. (a) In general. Beginning for MA payment adjustment year 2015, payment adjustments set forth...

  19. Perceived parenting style and adolescent adjustment: revisiting directions of effects and the role of parental knowledge.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Margaret; Stattin, Håkan; Ozdemir, Metin

    2012-11-01

    In the present research on parenting and adolescent behavior, there is much focus on reciprocal, bidirectional, and transactional processes, but parenting-style research still adheres to a unidirectional perspective in which parents affect youth behavior but are unaffected by it. In addition, many of the most cited parenting-style studies have used measures of parental behavioral control that are questionable because they include measures of parental knowledge. The goals of this study were to determine whether including knowledge items might have affected results of past studies and to test the unidirectional assumption. Data were from 978 adolescents participating in a longitudinal study. Parenting-style and adolescent adjustment measures at 2 time points were used, with a 2-year interval between time points. A variety of internal and external adjustment measures were used. Results showed that including knowledge items in measures of parental behavioral control elevated links between behavioral control and adjustment. Thus, the results and conclusions of many of the most highly cited studies are likely to have been stronger than if the measures had focused strictly on parental behavior. In addition, adolescent adjustment predicted changes in authoritative and neglectful parenting styles more robustly than these styles predicted changes in adolescent adjustment. Adolescent adjustment also predicted changes in authoritativeness more robustly than authoritativeness predicted changes in adjustment. Thus, parenting style cannot be seen as independent of the adolescent. In summary, both the theoretical premises of parenting-style research and the prior findings should be revisited.

  20. Subthreshold-swing-adjustable tunneling-field-effect-transistor-based random-access memory for nonvolatile operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huh, In; Cheon, Woo Young; Choi, Woo Young

    2016-04-01

    A subthreshold-swing-adjustable tunneling-field-effect-transistor-based random-access memory (SAT RAM) has been proposed and fabricated for low-power nonvolatile memory applications. The proposed SAT RAM cell demonstrates adjustable subthreshold swing (SS) depending on stored information: small SS in the erase state ("1" state) and large SS in the program state ("0" state). Thus, SAT RAM cells can achieve low read voltage (Vread) with a large memory window in addition to the effective suppression of ambipolar behavior. These unique features of the SAT RAM are originated from the locally stored charge, which modulates the tunneling barrier width (Wtun) of the source-to-channel tunneling junction.

  1. Coping resources, perceived stress and adjustment to divorce among Israeli women: assessing effects.

    PubMed

    Kulik, Liat; Heine-Cohen, Etti

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine how socioeconomic resources (level of education and evaluation of economic situation), cognitive resources (sense of coherence), emotional resources (the quality of relationship with the ex-spouse and the existence of a new romantic relationship), and perceived stress contribute to explaining the adjustment of Israeli women to divorce. Adjustment to divorce was examined along four dimensions: self-acceptance of divorce, disentanglement of the love relationship, symptoms of grief, and self-evaluation. The research sample consisted of 114 divorced Jewish women, all of whom had retained custody of their children. Among the resources examined, the contribution of sense of coherence to explaining adjustment to divorce was particularly significant, followed by the existence of a new romantic relationship. Furthermore, resources were found to interact with perceived stress in explaining women's adjustment to divorce.

  2. Efficient and Cost-Effective Use of Adjustable Canopy Hoods in a Chemistry Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothchild, Robert

    1988-01-01

    Suggests the use of small canopy hoods that provide flexibility of vertical and horizontal adjustment over the lab bench as a replacement for permanent hoods. Includes many safety related instances where canopy hoods should be used. (MVL)

  3. The effects of physiological adjustments on the perceptual and acoustical characteristics of simulated laryngeal vocal tremor.

    PubMed

    Lester, Rosemary A; Story, Brad H

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if adjustments to the voice source [i.e., fundamental frequency (F0), degree of vocal fold adduction] or vocal tract filter (i.e., vocal tract shape for vowels) reduce the perception of simulated laryngeal vocal tremor and to determine if listener perception could be explained by characteristics of the acoustical modulations. This research was carried out using a computational model of speech production that allowed for precise control and manipulation of the glottal and vocal tract configurations. Forty-two healthy adults participated in a perceptual study involving pair-comparisons of the magnitude of "shakiness" with simulated samples of laryngeal vocal tremor. Results revealed that listeners perceived a higher magnitude of voice modulation when simulated samples had a higher mean F0, greater degree of vocal fold adduction, and vocal tract shape for /i/ vs /ɑ/. However, the effect of F0 was significant only when glottal noise was not present in the acoustic signal. Acoustical analyses were performed with the simulated samples to determine the features that affected listeners' judgments. Based on regression analyses, listeners' judgments were predicted to some extent by modulation information present in both low and high frequency bands. PMID:26328711

  4. The effects of physiological adjustments on the perceptual and acoustical characteristics of simulated laryngeal vocal tremor

    PubMed Central

    Lester, Rosemary A.; Story, Brad H.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if adjustments to the voice source [i.e., fundamental frequency (F0), degree of vocal fold adduction] or vocal tract filter (i.e., vocal tract shape for vowels) reduce the perception of simulated laryngeal vocal tremor and to determine if listener perception could be explained by characteristics of the acoustical modulations. This research was carried out using a computational model of speech production that allowed for precise control and manipulation of the glottal and vocal tract configurations. Forty-two healthy adults participated in a perceptual study involving pair-comparisons of the magnitude of “shakiness” with simulated samples of laryngeal vocal tremor. Results revealed that listeners perceived a higher magnitude of voice modulation when simulated samples had a higher mean F0, greater degree of vocal fold adduction, and vocal tract shape for /i/ vs /ɑ/. However, the effect of F0 was significant only when glottal noise was not present in the acoustic signal. Acoustical analyses were performed with the simulated samples to determine the features that affected listeners' judgments. Based on regression analyses, listeners' judgments were predicted to some extent by modulation information present in both low and high frequency bands. PMID:26328711

  5. Age effects on the control of dynamic balance during step adjustments under temporal constraints.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Wataru; Fukaya, Takashi; Kobayashi, Satomi; Ohashi, Yukari

    2016-06-01

    This study investigated the age effects on the control of dynamic balance during step adjustments under temporal constraints. Fifteen young adults and 14 older adults avoided a virtual white planar obstacle by lengthening or shortening their steps under free or constrained conditions. In the anterior-posterior direction, older adults demonstrated significantly decreased center of mass velocity at the swing foot contact under temporal constraints. Additionally, the distances between the 'extrapolated center of mass' position and base of support at the swing foot contact were greater in older adults than young adults. In the mediolateral direction, center of mass displacement was significantly increased in older adults compared with young adults. Consequently, older adults showed a significantly increased step width at the swing foot contact in the constraint condition. Overall, these data suggest that older adults demonstrate a conservative strategy to maintain anterior-posterior stability. By contrast, although older adults are able to modulate their step width to maintain mediolateral dynamic balance, age-related changes in mediolateral balance control under temporal constraints may increase the risk of falls in the lateral direction during obstacle negotiation.

  6. Magnitude and directional effects of marital sex-role incongruence on marital adjustment.

    PubMed

    Li, J T; Caldwell, R A

    1987-03-01

    Economic and social forces have converged to influence the fundamental nature of marriage in the 1980s. Marriages are shifting from the complementary type, in which the husband is employed and the wife cares for the household and children, to the parallel type, in which both spouses are employed and both are responsible for the housework. This study examines the relationship between marital sex role incongruence and marital adjustment. Both the magnitude and the direction of the incongruence are related to marital adjustment level. The study's major hypothesis is that the relationship between marital sex-role incongruence and marital adjustment is a function of both the magnitude of the incongruence and the direction of the disagreement. Couples in the study were recruited from a moderately sized midwestern university community. 103 couples agreed to participate but 73 couples actually returned the questionnaire. Of these 73 couples, 63% were randomly recruited through door-to-door solicitation, 29% were recruited from an evangelical Christian organization and church, and 8% were recruited from acquaintances of the 1st author. After deleting incomplete questionnaires, final sample size was 67 couples. Each member of a marital dyad completed a questionnaire including a Dyadic Adjustment Scale to measure marital adjustment, a Sex-Role Egalitarianism Scale to measure marital sex-role orientation, a Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale Short Form C to measure social desirability bias, and a demographic information sheet. Findings indicate that direction of incongruence plays a very important role in determining the impact of marital sex-role incongruence on marital adjustment; namely, the greater the incongruence is in the direction of the wife being more egalitarian relative to her husband, the more negative is the estimated impact on marital adjustment. Conversely, the greater the incongruence is in the direction of the husband being more egalitarian than his

  7. Attachment-based classifications of children's family drawings: psychometric properties and relations with children's adjustment in kindergarten.

    PubMed

    Pianta, R C; Longmaid, K; Ferguson, J E

    1999-06-01

    Investigated an attachment-based theoretical framework and classification system, introduced by Kaplan and Main (1986), for interpreting children's family drawings. This study concentrated on the psychometric properties of the system and the relation between drawings classified using this system and teacher ratings of classroom social-emotional and behavioral functioning, controlling for child age, ethnic status, intelligence, and fine motor skills. This nonclinical sample consisted of 200 kindergarten children of diverse racial and socioeconomic status (SES). Limited support for reliability of this classification system was obtained. Kappas for overall classifications of drawings (e.g., secure) exceeded .80 and mean kappa for discrete drawing features (e.g., figures with smiles) was .82. Coders' endorsement of the presence of certain discrete drawing features predicted their overall classification at 82.5% accuracy. Drawing classification was related to teacher ratings of classroom functioning independent of child age, sex, race, SES, intelligence, and fine motor skills (with p values for the multivariate effects ranging from .043-.001). Results are discussed in terms of the psychometric properties of this system for classifying children's representations of family and the limitations of family drawing techniques for young children. PMID:10353083

  8. The Effects of Occupational Work Adjustment on Factors Leading to High School Drop Out in Rural Northwest Ohio.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dietrich, Angela

    The effect of four Occupational Work Adjustment (OWA) programs on risk factors leading to students dropping out of high school was assessed. Data were gathered from four OWA teachers in high schools in Northwest Ohio; information was provided for 27 individual students and 2 groups of 28 students each for the 1992-93 school year. The following…

  9. Previous International Experience, Cross-Cultural Training, and Expatriates' Cross-Cultural Adjustment: Effects of Cultural Intelligence and Goal Orientation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koo Moon, Hyoung; Kwon Choi, Byoung; Shik Jung, Jae

    2012-01-01

    Although various antecedents of expatriates' cross-cultural adjustment have been addressed, previous international experience, predeparture cross-cultural training, and cultural intelligence (CQ) have been most frequently examined. However, there are few attempts that explore the effects of these antecedents simultaneously or consider the possible…

  10. Does HPA-Axis Dysregulation Account for the Effects of Income on Effortful Control and Adjustment in Preschool Children?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lengua, Liliana J.; Zalewski, Maureen; Fisher, Phil; Moran, Lyndsey

    2013-01-01

    The effects of low income on children's adjustment might be accounted for by disruptions to hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis activity and to the development of effortful control. Using longitudinal data and a community sample of preschool-age children (N?=?306, 36-39?months) and their mothers, recruited to over-represent low-income…

  11. Effects of a Developmentally Based Intervention with Teachers on Native American and White Early Adolescents' Schooling Adjustment in Rural Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamm, Jill V.; Farmer, Thomas W.; Robertson, Dylan; Dadisman, Kimberly A.; Murray, Allen; Meece, Judith L.; Song, Samuel Y.

    2010-01-01

    This study reports the effectiveness of a developmentally based, teacher professional development intervention aimed at improving early adolescent school adjustment. Teachers in rural schools in a Northern Plains state took part in professional development activities across a year. Following a randomized control trial design, Native American and…

  12. The Effects of the Marriage Enrichment Program Based on the Cognitive-Behavioral Approach on the Marital Adjustment of Couples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalkan, Melek; Ersanli, Ercumend

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of the marriage enrichment program based on the cognitive-behavioral approach on levels of marital adjustment of individuals. The experimental and control group of this research was totally composed of 30 individuals. A pre-test post-test research model with control group was used in this…

  13. Exploring the Effects of Social Networking on Students' Perceptions of Social Connectedness, Adjustment, Academic Engagement, and Institutional Commitment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Michele J.; Childress, Janice E.; Trujillo, Daniel J.

    2010-01-01

    Social networking is a tool being explored by many institutions as a means of connecting to and communicating with students. This study explores whether or not students' use of social networking services (SNSs) has significant effects on social connectedness, college adjustment, academic engagement, and institutional commitment. Students' use of…

  14. The Moderating Effect of Machiavellianism on the Relationships between Bullying, Peer Acceptance, and School Adjustment in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wei, Hsi-Sheng; Chen, Ji-Kang

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the moderating effect of Machiavellianism on the relationships between bullying, peer acceptance, and school adjustment (rule-following behavior and academic performance) among 216 middle school 7th-graders in Taipei, Taiwan. The participants were divided into two groups according to their Machiavellianism. Multi-group path…

  15. The Effectiveness of the Strength-Centered Career Adjustment Model for Dual-Career Women in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Yu-Chen; Tien, Hsiu-Lan Shelley

    2011-01-01

    The authors investigated the effectiveness of a Strength-Centered Career Adjustment Model for dual-career women (N = 28). Fourteen women in the experimental group received strength-centered career counseling for 6 to 8 sessions; the 14 women in the control group received test services in 1 to 2 sessions. All participants completed the Personal…

  16. Shyness and School Adjustment among Chinese Preschool Children: Examining the Moderating Effect of Gender and Teacher-Child Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, YunPeng; Wu, JianFen; Chen, YingMin; Han, Lei; Han, PiGuo; Wang, Peng; Gao, Fengqiang

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: The current study examined the moderating effects of gender and teacher-child relationship on the association between shyness and school adjustment (school liking and avoidance, cooperative and independent participation). The sample consisted of 524 preschool students from 3 cities of Shandong province in northern China. Mothers…

  17. The Effectiveness of Emotionally Focused Couples Therapy on Sexual Satisfaction and Marital Adjustment of Infertile Couples with Marital Conflicts

    PubMed Central

    Soleimani, Ali Akbar; Najafi, Maryam; Ahmadi, Khodabakhsh; Javidi, Nasirudin; Hoseini Kamkar, Elnaz; Mahboubi, Mohamad

    2015-01-01

    Background The purpose of this investigation is to determine the efficacy of emotionally focused couples therapy (EFT-C) on enhancement of marital adjustment in infertile couples. Materials and Methods This was a semi-experimental study with a pre- and post-test design. We selected 30 infertile couples (60 subjects) by purposive sampling. Couples were randomly assigned to two groups, sample and control. Each group consisted of 15 couples who had marital maladjustment and low sexual satisfaction. Couples answered the marital adjustment and sexual satisfaction questionnaires at baseline after which the sample group received 10 sessions of EFT-C. Results Results of pre-test and post-test showed that EFT-C significantly impacted marital adjustment and sexual satisfaction. Conclusion EFT-C had a significant effect on enhancement of satisfaction, cohesion and affectional expression. This approach impacted physical and emotional sexual satisfaction of infertile couples. PMID:26644864

  18. An effect of physical activity-based recreation programs on children's optimism, humor styles, and school life adjustment.

    PubMed

    Koo, Jae-Eun; Lee, Gwang-Uk

    2015-06-01

    This study puts its purpose in identifying the effect of the participation in physical activity-based recreation programs on the optimism of children, humor styles, and school life adjustment. To achieve the study purpose, this study selected 190 subjects as samples were extracted targeting senior students of elementary schools who participated in the physical activity-based recreation in the metropolitan areas as of 2014. As research methods, questionnaire papers were used and reliability analysis, factor analysis, correlation analysis, and multiple regression analysis were conducted by utilizing SPSS 18.0 after inputting analysis data into the computer. The study results, obtained in this study are as follows: First, in terms of the effect of the participation in physical activity-based recreation programs on optimism, participation frequency and participation intensity would have an effect on optimism, while participation period would have a significant effect on being positive among the sub-factors of optimism. Second, participation in physical activity-based recreation programs might have a significant effect on humor styles. Third, in terms of the effect of the participation in physical activity-based recreation programs on the school life adjustment, it was demonstrated that participation period and participation intensity would have a significant effect on school life adjustment, while participation frequency would have a significant effect on regulation-observance and school life satisfaction.

  19. Adjustment of lifetime risks of space radiation-induced cancer by the healthy worker effect and cancer misclassification.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Leif E; Kovyrshina, Tatiana

    2015-12-01

    Background. The healthy worker effect (HWE) is a source of bias in occupational studies of mortality among workers caused by use of comparative disease rates based on public data, which include mortality of unhealthy members of the public who are screened out of the workplace. For the US astronaut corp, the HWE is assumed to be strong due to the rigorous medical selection and surveillance. This investigation focused on the effect of correcting for HWE on projected lifetime risk estimates for radiation-induced cancer mortality and incidence. Methods. We performed radiation-induced cancer risk assessment using Poisson regression of cancer mortality and incidence rates among Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors. Regression coefficients were used for generating risk coefficients for the excess absolute, transfer, and excess relative models. Excess lifetime risks (ELR) for radiation exposure and baseline lifetime risks (BLR) were adjusted for the HWE using standardized mortality ratios (SMR) for aviators and nuclear workers who were occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation. We also adjusted lifetime risks by cancer mortality misclassification among atomic bomb survivors. Results. For all cancers combined ("Nonleukemia"), the effect of adjusting the all-cause hazard rate by the simulated quantiles of the all-cause SMR resulted in a mean difference (not percent difference) in ELR of 0.65% and mean difference of 4% for mortality BLR, and mean change of 6.2% in BLR for incidence. The effect of adjusting the excess (radiation-induced) cancer rate or baseline cancer hazard rate by simulated quantiles of cancer-specific SMRs resulted in a mean difference of [Formula: see text] in the all-cancer mortality ELR and mean difference of [Formula: see text] in the mortality BLR. Whereas for incidence, the effect of adjusting by cancer-specific SMRs resulted in a mean change of [Formula: see text] for the all-cancer BLR. Only cancer mortality risks were adjusted by

  20. Implicit advance knowledge effects on the interplay between arm movements and postural adjustments in catching.

    PubMed

    Tijtgat, Pieter; Vanrenterghem, Jos; Bennett, Simon J; De Clercq, Dirk; Savelsbergh, Geert J P; Lenoir, Matthieu

    2012-06-19

    This study examined if, and how, implicit advance knowledge of upcoming ball speed influences the interplay between arm movements and concomitant postural adjustments in one-handed catching. While standing, subjects were asked to catch balls that were presented with or without implicit advance knowledge of four different ball speeds. Full body kinematics and ground reaction forces were measured, which allowed the assessment of arm movements and postural adjustments through the momentum of the arm, rest of the body and whole body. Providing implicit advance knowledge induced a forward arm raising movement scaled to ball speed in the initial transport phase. However, the accompanying backward postural adjustments were unaffected, which is suggestive of a passive control mechanism. In the subsequent grasping phase, the scaling of arm raising movement exhibited in the presence of implicit advance knowledge resulted in a reduced need for postural adjustments, particularly at the highest ball speed. Together, these findings suggest that cortical involvement based on previous experience not only shapes the arm movements but also the subsequent interplaying postural responses.

  1. The Effects of Divorce and Parental Conflict on Children's Adjustment: A Prospective Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Daniel

    Replicating the methodology used by Block, Block, and Gjerde (1986), a prospective, longitudinal examination was made of relations between divorce and children's adjustment. Data from the New York Longitudinal Study (NYLS), originally collected by Thomas, Chess, and Birch (1963, 1968, 1977, 1983, 1984) was analyzed. The NYLS assessed children's…

  2. Location Memory in the Real World: Category Adjustment Effects in 3-Dimensional Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holden, Mark P.; Newcombe, Nora S.; Shipley, Thomas F.

    2013-01-01

    The ability to remember spatial locations is critical to human functioning, both in an evolutionary and in an everyday sense. Yet spatial memories and judgments often show systematic errors and biases. Bias has been explained by models such as the Category Adjustment model (CAM), in which fine-grained and categorical information about locations…

  3. Effects of Individual Characteristics on Expatriates' Adjustment and Job Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhatti, Muhammad Awais; Kaur, Sharan; Battour, Mohamed Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Researchers have been focusing on the predictors of expatriates' adjustment and job performance at different levels (individual level, organizational level and societal level), but still some of the predictors have been ignored or unclear in the expatriate literature. The purpose of this paper is to develop a comprehensive framework…

  4. The Modifier Effect and Property Mutability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hampton, James A.; Passanisi, Alessia; Jonsson, Martin L.

    2011-01-01

    The modifier effect is the reduction in perceived likelihood of a generic property sentence, when the head noun is modified. We investigated the prediction that the modifier effect would be stronger for mutable than for central properties, without finding evidence for this predicted interaction over the course of five experiments. However…

  5. A Novel Moisture Adjusted Vegetation Index (MAVI) to Reduce Background Reflectance and Topographical Effects on LAI Retrieval

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Gaolong; Ju, Weimin; Chen, J. M.; Liu, Yibo

    2014-01-01

    A new moisture adjusted vegetation index (MAVI) is proposed using the red, near infrared, and shortwave infrared (SWIR) reflectance in band-ratio form in this paper. The effectiveness of MAVI in retrieving leaf area index (LAI) is investigated using Landsat-5 data and field LAI measurements in two forest and two grassland areas. The ability of MAVI to retrieve forest LAI under different background conditions is further evaluated using canopy reflectance of Jack Pine and Black Spruce forests simulated by the 4-Scale model. Compared with several commonly used two-band vegetation index, such as normalized difference vegetation index, soil adjusted vegetation index, modified soil adjusted vegetation index, optimized soil adjusted vegetation index, MAVI is a better predictor of LAI, on average, which can explain 70% of variations of LAI in the four study areas. Similar to other SWIR-related three-band vegetation index, such as modified normalized difference vegetation index (MNDVI) and reduced simple ratio (RSR), MAVI is able to reduce the background reflectance effects on forest canopy LAI retrieval. MAVI is more suitable for retrieving LAI than RSR and MNDVI, because it avoids the difficulty in properly determining the maximum and minimum SWIR values required in RSR and MNDVI, which improves the robustness of MAVI in retrieving LAI of different land cover types. Moreover, MAVI is expressed as ratios between different spectral bands, greatly reducing the noise caused by topographical variations, which makes it more suitable for applications in mountainous area. PMID:25025128

  6. A novel moisture adjusted vegetation index (MAVI) to reduce background reflectance and topographical effects on LAI retrieval.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Gaolong; Ju, Weimin; Chen, J M; Liu, Yibo

    2014-01-01

    A new moisture adjusted vegetation index (MAVI) is proposed using the red, near infrared, and shortwave infrared (SWIR) reflectance in band-ratio form in this paper. The effectiveness of MAVI in retrieving leaf area index (LAI) is investigated using Landsat-5 data and field LAI measurements in two forest and two grassland areas. The ability of MAVI to retrieve forest LAI under different background conditions is further evaluated using canopy reflectance of Jack Pine and Black Spruce forests simulated by the 4-Scale model. Compared with several commonly used two-band vegetation index, such as normalized difference vegetation index, soil adjusted vegetation index, modified soil adjusted vegetation index, optimized soil adjusted vegetation index, MAVI is a better predictor of LAI, on average, which can explain 70% of variations of LAI in the four study areas. Similar to other SWIR-related three-band vegetation index, such as modified normalized difference vegetation index (MNDVI) and reduced simple ratio (RSR), MAVI is able to reduce the background reflectance effects on forest canopy LAI retrieval. MAVI is more suitable for retrieving LAI than RSR and MNDVI, because it avoids the difficulty in properly determining the maximum and minimum SWIR values required in RSR and MNDVI, which improves the robustness of MAVI in retrieving LAI of different land cover types. Moreover, MAVI is expressed as ratios between different spectral bands, greatly reducing the noise caused by topographical variations, which makes it more suitable for applications in mountainous area. PMID:25025128

  7. A novel moisture adjusted vegetation index (MAVI) to reduce background reflectance and topographical effects on LAI retrieval.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Gaolong; Ju, Weimin; Chen, J M; Liu, Yibo

    2014-01-01

    A new moisture adjusted vegetation index (MAVI) is proposed using the red, near infrared, and shortwave infrared (SWIR) reflectance in band-ratio form in this paper. The effectiveness of MAVI in retrieving leaf area index (LAI) is investigated using Landsat-5 data and field LAI measurements in two forest and two grassland areas. The ability of MAVI to retrieve forest LAI under different background conditions is further evaluated using canopy reflectance of Jack Pine and Black Spruce forests simulated by the 4-Scale model. Compared with several commonly used two-band vegetation index, such as normalized difference vegetation index, soil adjusted vegetation index, modified soil adjusted vegetation index, optimized soil adjusted vegetation index, MAVI is a better predictor of LAI, on average, which can explain 70% of variations of LAI in the four study areas. Similar to other SWIR-related three-band vegetation index, such as modified normalized difference vegetation index (MNDVI) and reduced simple ratio (RSR), MAVI is able to reduce the background reflectance effects on forest canopy LAI retrieval. MAVI is more suitable for retrieving LAI than RSR and MNDVI, because it avoids the difficulty in properly determining the maximum and minimum SWIR values required in RSR and MNDVI, which improves the robustness of MAVI in retrieving LAI of different land cover types. Moreover, MAVI is expressed as ratios between different spectral bands, greatly reducing the noise caused by topographical variations, which makes it more suitable for applications in mountainous area.

  8. Adjoint Methods for Adjusting Three-Dimensional Atmosphere and Surface Properties to Fit Multi-Angle Multi-Pixel Polarimetric Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, William G.; Cairns, Brian; Bal, Guillaume

    2014-01-01

    This paper derives an efficient procedure for using the three-dimensional (3D) vector radiative transfer equation (VRTE) to adjust atmosphere and surface properties and improve their fit with multi-angle/multi-pixel radiometric and polarimetric measurements of scattered sunlight. The proposed adjoint method uses the 3D VRTE to compute the measurement misfit function and the adjoint 3D VRTE to compute its gradient with respect to all unknown parameters. In the remote sensing problems of interest, the scalar-valued misfit function quantifies agreement with data as a function of atmosphere and surface properties, and its gradient guides the search through this parameter space. Remote sensing of the atmosphere and surface in a three-dimensional region may require thousands of unknown parameters and millions of data points. Many approaches would require calls to the 3D VRTE solver in proportion to the number of unknown parameters or measurements. To avoid this issue of scale, we focus on computing the gradient of the misfit function as an alternative to the Jacobian of the measurement operator. The resulting adjoint method provides a way to adjust 3D atmosphere and surface properties with only two calls to the 3D VRTE solver for each spectral channel, regardless of the number of retrieval parameters, measurement view angles or pixels. This gives a procedure for adjusting atmosphere and surface parameters that will scale to the large problems of 3D remote sensing. For certain types of multi-angle/multi-pixel polarimetric measurements, this encourages the development of a new class of three-dimensional retrieval algorithms with more flexible parametrizations of spatial heterogeneity, less reliance on data screening procedures, and improved coverage in terms of the resolved physical processes in the Earth?s atmosphere.

  9. School adjustment in sixth graders: parenting transitions, family climate, and peer norm effects.

    PubMed

    Kurdek, L A; Fine, M A; Sinclair, R J

    1995-04-01

    This study examined whether sixth graders' (mean age = 11.86 years) adjustment to the school context (assessed by grades, achievement scores, and disruptive behavior) was affected by factors from both the family context (represented by students' reports of the number of parenting transitions experienced as well as current levels of supervision, acceptance, autonomy granting, and conflict in the family) and the peer context (represented by students' perceptions of peer norms supporting academic excellence). School adjustment was related to the number of parenting transitions experienced, family climate, and peer norms as well as to higher-order relations involving family climate and peer norms such that (a) high grade point averages occurred at only moderate levels of family supervision, (b) achievement scores were positively related to supervision at only low levels of family autonomy granting, and (c) grade point average was positively related to peer norms at only high levels of family acceptance.

  10. Post-error adjustments and ADHD symptoms in adults: The effect of laterality and state regulation.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Saleh M H; Börger, Norbert A; Geuze, Reint H; van der Meere, Jaap J

    2016-10-01

    Evidence is accumulating that individuals with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) do not adjust their responses after committing errors. Post-error response adjustments are taken to reflect, among others, error monitoring that is essential for learning, flexible behavioural adaptation, and achieving future goals. Many behavioural studies have suggested that atypical lateral brain functions and difficulties in allocating effort to protect performance against stressors (i.e., state regulation) are key factors in ADHD. Whether these factors contribute to the absence of post-error response adjustments in ADHD is unknown. The aim of the present study is to investigate the contribution of the left and right hemispheres and the deficiency in effort allocation to deviant post-error processing in adults with high ADHD symptoms. From a pool of 87 university students, two groups were formed: a group with higher (n=30) and a group with lower (n=26) scores on the ADHD index subscale of the Conners' Adult ADHD Rating Scales. The groups performed a lateralized lexical decision task with a fast and slower stimulus presentation rate. Post-error slowing and post-error response accuracy to stimuli presented in the left and right visual field were measured in each stimulus presentation rate. Results indicated that subjects with the lower ADHD scores slowed down and improved their response accuracy after errors, especially when stimuli were presented in the right visual field at the slower rate. In contrast, subjects with the higher ADHD scores showed no post-error adjustments. Results suggest that during lexical decision performance, impaired error processing in adults with ADHD is associated with affected ability of the left hemisphere to compensate for errors, especially when extra effort allocation is needed to meet task demands.

  11. Post-error adjustments and ADHD symptoms in adults: The effect of laterality and state regulation.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Saleh M H; Börger, Norbert A; Geuze, Reint H; van der Meere, Jaap J

    2016-10-01

    Evidence is accumulating that individuals with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) do not adjust their responses after committing errors. Post-error response adjustments are taken to reflect, among others, error monitoring that is essential for learning, flexible behavioural adaptation, and achieving future goals. Many behavioural studies have suggested that atypical lateral brain functions and difficulties in allocating effort to protect performance against stressors (i.e., state regulation) are key factors in ADHD. Whether these factors contribute to the absence of post-error response adjustments in ADHD is unknown. The aim of the present study is to investigate the contribution of the left and right hemispheres and the deficiency in effort allocation to deviant post-error processing in adults with high ADHD symptoms. From a pool of 87 university students, two groups were formed: a group with higher (n=30) and a group with lower (n=26) scores on the ADHD index subscale of the Conners' Adult ADHD Rating Scales. The groups performed a lateralized lexical decision task with a fast and slower stimulus presentation rate. Post-error slowing and post-error response accuracy to stimuli presented in the left and right visual field were measured in each stimulus presentation rate. Results indicated that subjects with the lower ADHD scores slowed down and improved their response accuracy after errors, especially when stimuli were presented in the right visual field at the slower rate. In contrast, subjects with the higher ADHD scores showed no post-error adjustments. Results suggest that during lexical decision performance, impaired error processing in adults with ADHD is associated with affected ability of the left hemisphere to compensate for errors, especially when extra effort allocation is needed to meet task demands. PMID:27429094

  12. Effects of pelvic adjustment on pelvic posture and angles of the lower limb joints during walking in female university students

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Misuk

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the effects of pelvic adjustment on pelvic posture and lower limb joint angles during walking in female university students. [Subjects] Thirty healthy female university students were randomly assigned to an experimental group (pelvic adjustment group, n = 15) and a control group (stretching group, n = 15). [Methods] Pelvic adjustment was performed three times on the experimental group. The control group performed three sets of pelvic muscle stretching for 15 minutes. A back mapper and motion analysis equipment were used to measure pelvic posture and angles of lower limb joints for the experimental and control group. [Results] The values obtained before and after the intervention were compared. For the experimental group, the results were significantly different in terms of reduced differences in hip flexion between the left and right hips and in knee abduction between the left and right knees. Differences in pelvic position and pelvic torsion were also found in the experimental group. No significant differences in the control group were identified. [Conclusion] Pelvic adjustment affects pelvic position and torsion and this enhancement to pelvic stability decreases hip flexion and knee abduction during walking. PMID:27190468

  13. Adjustment to the Curve Number Nrcs-Cn to Account for the Vegetation Effect on the Hydrological Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, A.; Temimi, M.; Khanbilvardi, R.

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this work is to develop an approach that makes use of remotely sensed Greenness Fraction (GF) as a proxy for the vegetation density to automatically adjust the Curve Number model (NRCS-CN) to account for the effect of the changes in vegetation growth on hydrological processes. Daily gauged precipitation-runoff pairs (1948 to 2003) from the MOdel Parameter Estimation EXperiment dataset (MOPEX) over 26 watersheds across the U.S. were used to estimate monthly averaged CNs (CNsim) and then compared to the monthly GF. An adjustment factor was then proposed for the typical static CN inputs which do not account for the vegetation growth over time; the result was a vegetation-adjusted CN (CNveg adj). The improvement in the performance of the NRCS-CN methodology was assessed. The results evidence how the CNveg adj compensates the underestimation of the standard CN (CNstd). The ratio of the estimated runoff using the CNstd (Qstd) to the observed runoff (Qobs) was 0.36; while with the CNveg adj (Qveg adj) was 0.98. The correlation coefficient of simulated and observed runoff when using CNstd and CNveg adj, was 0.42 and 0.92, respectively. Likewise, the Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient of Qstd was -0.92 and 0.85 for Qveg adj. This implies that the adjustment to the CN is crucial for improved hydrological modeling and, therefore, for flood and flash flood monitoring and forecasting.

  14. Adjusting effect estimates for unmeasured confounding with validation data using propensity score calibration

    PubMed Central

    Stürmer, Til; Schneeweiss, Sebastian; Avorn, Jerry; Glynn, Robert J

    2006-01-01

    Often important confounders are not available in studies. Sensitivity analyses based on the relation of single, but not multiple, unmeasured confounders with an exposure of interest in a separate validation study have been proposed. The authors controlled for measured confounding in the main cohort using propensity scores (PS) and addressed unmeasured confounding by estimating two additional PS in a validation study. The ‘error-prone’ PS exclusively used information available in the main cohort. The ‘gold-standard’ PS additionally included covariates available only in the validation study. Based on these two PS in the validation study, regression calibration was applied to adjust regression coefficients. This propensity score calibration (PSC) adjusts for unmeasured confounding in cohort studies with validation data under certain, usually untestable, assumptions. PSC was used to assess nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAID) and 1-year mortality in a large cohort of elderly. ‘Traditional’ adjustment resulted in a relative risk (RR) in NSAID users of 0.80 (95% confidence interval: 0.77–0.83) compared to an unadjusted RR of 0.68 (0.66–0.71). Application of PSC resulted in a more plausible RR of 1.06 (1.00–1.12). Until validity and limitations of PSC have been assessed in different settings, the method should be seen as a sensitivity analysis. PMID:15987725

  15. Psychological preparation for surgery pediatric patients: the effects on children's and parents' stress responses and adjustment.

    PubMed

    Visintainer, M A; Wolfer, J A

    1975-08-01

    This clinical experiment tested variations of psychological preparation and supportive care designed to increase the adjustment of children (and their parents) hospitalized for elective surgery. Eighty-four children, aged 3 to 12, admitted for tonsillectomies were randomly assigned to one of three treatment conditions or to a control group: (1) a combination of systematic preparation, rehearsal, and supportive care conducted prior to each stressful procedure; (2) a single-session preparation conducted after admission, and (3) consistent supportive care given by one nurse at the same points as in the first condition, but including no systematic preparation or rehearsal. The children's hospital adjustment was measured by blind ratings of behavioral upset and cooperation during the blood test, medication injection, transport to surgery, induction, and postoperative fluid intake and by recovery room medications and pulse rates and time to first voiding. Post-hospital adjustment was assessed with Vernon et al.'s Post Hospital Behavior Inventory. Parent outcome measures included self-ratings for anxiety and satisfaction with information and care. As hypothesized, the results demonstrated that children who received condition one showed significantly less upset and more cooperation and their parents reported significantly greater satisfaction and less anxiety than did children or parents in the other groups. Younger children were significantly more upset and less cooperative than older children.

  16. Mathematical procedure to adjust for the healthy worker effect: the case of firefighting, diabetes, and heart disease.

    PubMed

    Choi, B C

    2001-12-01

    This article presents a mathematical procedure to adjust for one component of the healthy worker effect (HWE), namely, the healthy hired effect, on diabetes in the case of firefighting and heart disease. Three examples from real studies are given to illustrate, step-by-step, the application of the mathematical procedure. The mathematical procedure can be applied to adjust for other components of the HWE (e.g., the low-risk hired effect on obese individuals and smokers). In such cases, additional information will be needed to use the mathematical procedure. Results of applying the mathematical procedure in the case of firefighting and heart disease revealed the rather unexpected results that adjusting for diabetes selection on hiring leads to only a 3% to 9% increase in the magnitude of ratio statistics such as the standardized mortality ratio. It might be argued that the HWE from one component such as the healthy hired effect on diabetes might be small, but together with other components, the HWE might be large. Further investigation will be needed to support this argument.

  17. Studying the effects of dietary body weight-adjusted acute tryptophan depletion on punishment-related behavioral inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Gaber, Tilman J.; Dingerkus, Vita L. S.; Crockett, Molly J.; Bubenzer-Busch, Sarah; Helmbold, Katrin; Sánchez, Cristina L.; Dahmen, Brigitte; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Zepf, Florian D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Alterations in serotonergic (5-HT) neurotransmission are thought to play a decisive role in affective disorders and impulse control. Objective This study aims to reproduce and extend previous findings on the effects of acute tryptophan depletion (ATD) and subsequently diminished central 5-HT synthesis in a reinforced categorization task using a refined body weight–adjusted depletion protocol. Design Twenty-four young healthy adults (12 females, mean age [SD]=25.3 [2.1] years) were subjected to a double-blind within-subject crossover design. Each subject was administered both an ATD challenge and a balanced amino acid load (BAL) in two separate sessions in randomized order. Punishment-related behavioral inhibition was assessed using a forced choice go/no-go task that incorporated a variable payoff schedule. Results Administration of ATD resulted in significant reductions in TRP measured in peripheral blood samples, indicating reductions of TRP influx across the blood–brain barrier and related brain 5-HT synthesis. Overall accuracy and response time performance were improved after ATD administration. The ability to adjust behavioral responses to aversive outcome magnitudes and behavioral adjustments following error contingent punishment remained intact after decreased brain 5-HT synthesis. A previously observed dissociation effect of ATD on punishment-induced inhibition was not observed. Conclusions Our results suggest that neurodietary challenges with ATD Moja–De have no detrimental effects on task performance and punishment-related inhibition in healthy adults. PMID:26268708

  18. Effect of Second-phase Particles on Static Adjustment of Calcite Grain Boundaries in Carbonate Mylonites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ree, J.; Lee, S.; Jung, H.

    2010-12-01

    Static adjustment of grain boundaries during the waning stage of deformation with sustained heat (e.g. at the end of an orogeny) has not been studied much, although it is important for the interpretation of microstructural status during the main stage of deformation. We report here that static adjustment of calcite grain boundaries is dependent on second-phase particles in carbonate mylonites from the Geounri Shear Zone in the Taebaeksan Basin of South Korea. The carbonate mylonites consist of relic (porphyroclastic) calcites (120-400 μm) and dynamically recrystallized calcites (30-35 μm) with second-phase particles (15-20 μm) of quartz and phyllosilicates. Both calcite grains contain mechanical twins and the twins are wider (10-20 μm thick) in the relic calcites than in the dynamically recrystallized ones (1-3 μm thick). In the layers of carbonate mylonite with less than 3% of second phases, grain boundaries of calcites are straight with triple junctions. In contrast, calcite grain boundaries are lobate to wavy in the layers with more than 3% of second phases, suggesting dynamic grain boundary migration. Calcite grains in both layers show a strong lattice preferred orientation indicating dominant slip system of basal with minor one of rhomb . We interpret that the foam texture of calcite in the mylonite layers with less than 3% of second phases was produced during the waning stage of the main deformation with a sustained heat since both syntectonic and posttectonic chloritoid porphyroblasts occur in adjacent phyllonite layers in the shear zone. 3% volume fraction of second-phase particles might be a critical value above which deformation microstructures of the main phase were ‘frozen’ without static adjustment in our carbonate mylonites.

  19. Adjusting for Network Size and Composition Effects in Exponential-Family Random Graph Models.

    PubMed

    Krivitsky, Pavel N; Handcock, Mark S; Morris, Martina

    2011-07-01

    Exponential-family random graph models (ERGMs) provide a principled way to model and simulate features common in human social networks, such as propensities for homophily and friend-of-a-friend triad closure. We show that, without adjustment, ERGMs preserve density as network size increases. Density invariance is often not appropriate for social networks. We suggest a simple modification based on an offset which instead preserves the mean degree and accommodates changes in network composition asymptotically. We demonstrate that this approach allows ERGMs to be applied to the important situation of egocentrically sampled data. We analyze data from the National Health and Social Life Survey (NHSLS). PMID:21691424

  20. Adjusting for Network Size and Composition Effects in Exponential-Family Random Graph Models

    PubMed Central

    Krivitsky, Pavel N.; Handcock, Mark S.; Morris, Martina

    2011-01-01

    Exponential-family random graph models (ERGMs) provide a principled way to model and simulate features common in human social networks, such as propensities for homophily and friend-of-a-friend triad closure. We show that, without adjustment, ERGMs preserve density as network size increases. Density invariance is often not appropriate for social networks. We suggest a simple modification based on an offset which instead preserves the mean degree and accommodates changes in network composition asymptotically. We demonstrate that this approach allows ERGMs to be applied to the important situation of egocentrically sampled data. We analyze data from the National Health and Social Life Survey (NHSLS). PMID:21691424

  1. Effect of Nanofiller Characteristics on Nanocomposite Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Working, Dennis C.; Lillehei, Peter T.; Lowther, Sharon E.; Siochi, Emilie J.; Kim, Jae-Woo; Sauti, Godfrey; Wise, Kristopher E.; Park, Cheol

    2016-01-01

    This report surveys the effect of nanofiller characteristics on nanocomposites fabricated with two polyimide matrices. Mechanical and electrical properties were determined. Microscopy results showed that matrix chemistry, nanofiller characteristics and processing conditions had significant impact on nanocomposite quality.

  2. Effects of unilateral stroke on multi-finger synergies and their feed-forward adjustments.

    PubMed

    Jo, H J; Maenza, C; Good, D C; Huang, X; Park, J; Sainburg, R L; Latash, M L

    2016-04-01

    We explored the changes in multi-finger synergies in patients after a single cortical stroke with mild motor impairments. We hypothesized that both synergy indices and anticipatory synergy adjustments prior to the initiation of a self-paced quick action would be diminished in the patients compared to age-matched controls. The patients with history of cortical stroke, and age-matched controls (n=12 in each group) performed one-finger and multi-finger accurate force production tasks involving both steady-state and quick force pulse production. Finger interdependence (enslaving) and multi-finger synergies stabilizing total force were quantified. The stroke patients showed lower maximal finger forces, in particular in the contralesional hand, which also showed increased enslaving indices. Multi-finger synergies during steady-state force production were, however, unchanged after stroke. In contrast, a drop in the synergy index prior to the force pulse generation was significantly delayed in the stroke patients. Our results show that mild cortical stroke leads to no significant changes in multifinger synergies, but there is impairment in feed-forward adjustments of the synergies prior to a quick action, a drop in the maximal force production, and an increase in enslaving. We conclude that studies of synergies reveal two aspects of synergic control differentially affected by cortical stroke. PMID:26828408

  3. Effects of Hoods and Flame-Retardant Fabrics on WBGT Clothing Adjustment Factors.

    PubMed

    Ashley, Candi D; Bernard, Thomas E

    2008-01-01

    Personal protective clothing (PPC) may include hoods and flame-retardant (FR) fabrics that may affect heat transfer and, thus, the critical wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT crit) to maintain thermal equilibrium. The purpose of this study was to compare the differences in WBGT crit for hooded vs. nonhooded versions of particle barrier and vapor barrier coveralls as well as for coveralls made of two flame-retardant fabrics (INDURA cotton and Nomex). Acclimated men (n = 11) and women (n = 4) walked on a treadmill in a climatic chamber at 180 W/m2 wearing four different ensembles: limited-use, particle barrier coveralls with and without a hood (Tyvek 1427), and limited-use vapor barrier coveralls with and without a hood (Tychem QC, polyethylene-coated Tyvek). Twelve of the participants wore one of two flame-retardant coveralls. All participants wore standard cotton clothing. Progressive exposure testing at 50% relative humidity (rh) was designed so that each subject established a physiological steady-state followed by a clear loss of thermal equilibrium. WBGT crit was the WBGT 5 min prior to a loss of thermal equilibrium. Hooded ensembles had a lower WBGT crit than the nonhooded ensembles. The difference suggested a clothing adjustment of 1 degrees C for hoods. There were no significant differences among the FR ensembles and cotton work cloths, and the proposed clothing adjustment for FR coveralls clothing is 0 degrees C. PMID:18041645

  4. Shaft adjuster

    DOEpatents

    Harry, H.H.

    1988-03-11

    Abstract and method for the adjustment and alignment of shafts in high power devices. A plurality of adjacent rotatable angled cylinders are positioned between a base and the shaft to be aligned which when rotated introduce an axial offset. The apparatus is electrically conductive and constructed of a structurally rigid material. The angled cylinders allow the shaft such as the center conductor in a pulse line machine to be offset in any desired alignment position within the range of the apparatus. 3 figs.

  5. Shaft adjuster

    DOEpatents

    Harry, Herbert H.

    1989-01-01

    Apparatus and method for the adjustment and alignment of shafts in high power devices. A plurality of adjacent rotatable angled cylinders are positioned between a base and the shaft to be aligned which when rotated introduce an axial offset. The apparatus is electrically conductive and constructed of a structurally rigid material. The angled cylinders allow the shaft such as the center conductor in a pulse line machine to be offset in any desired alignment position within the range of the apparatus.

  6. Low-cost tissue simulating phantoms with adjustable wavelength-dependent scattering properties in the visible and infrared ranges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saager, Rolf B.; Quach, Alan; Rowland, Rebecca A.; Baldado, Melissa L.; Durkin, Anthony J.

    2016-06-01

    We present a method for low-cost fabrication of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) tissue simulating phantoms with tunable scattering spectra, spanning visible, and near-infrared regimes. These phantoms use optical polishing agents (aluminum oxide powders) at various grit sizes to approximate in vivo tissue scattering particles across multiple size distributions (range: 17 to 3 μm). This class of tunable scattering phantoms is used to mimic distinct changes in wavelength-dependent scattering properties observed in tissue pathologies such as partial thickness burns. Described by a power-law dependence on wavelength, the scattering magnitude of these phantoms scale linearly with particle concentration over a physiologic range [μs‧=(0.5 to 2.0 mm-1)] whereas the scattering spectra, specific to each particle size distribution, correlate to distinct exponential coefficients (range: 0.007 to 0.32). Aluminum oxide powders used in this investigation did not detectably contribute to the absorption properties of these phantoms. The optical properties of these phantoms are verified through inverse adding-doubling methods and the tolerances of this fabrication method are discussed.

  7. Particular adaptations to potentially slippery surfaces: the effects of friction on consecutive postural adjustments (CPA).

    PubMed

    Memari, Sahel; Le Bozec, Serge; Bouisset, Simon

    2014-02-21

    This research deals with the postural adjustments that occur after the end of voluntary movement ("consecutive postural adjustments": CPAs). The influence of a potentially slippery surface on CPA characteristics was considered, with the aim of exploring more deeply the postural component of the task-movement. Seven male adults were asked to perform a single step, as quickly as possible, to their own footprint marked on the ground. A force plate measured the resultant reaction forces along the antero-posterior axis (R(x)) and the centre of pressure (COP) displacements along the antero-posterior and lateral axes (Xp and Yp). The velocity of the centre of gravity (COG) along the antero-posterior axis and the corresponding impulse (∫R(x)dt) were calculated; the peak velocity (termed "progression velocity": V(xG)) was measured. The required coefficient of friction (RCOF) along the progression axis (pμ(x)) was determined. Two materials, differing by their COF, were laid at foot contact (FC), providing a rough foot contact (RoFC), and a smooth foot contact (SmFC) considered to be potentially slippery. Two step lengths were also performed: a short step (SS) and a long step (LS). Finally, the subjects completed four series of ten steps each. These were preceded by preliminary trials, to allow them to acquire the necessary adaptation to experimental conditions. The antero-posterior force time course presented a positive phase, that included APAs ("anticipatory postural adjustments") and step execution (STEP), followed by a negative one, corresponding to CPAs. The backward impulse (CPI) was equal to the forward one (BPI), independently of friction and progression velocity. Moreover, V(xG) did not differ according to friction, but was faster when the step length was greater. Last CPA peak amplitudes (pCPA) were significantly greater and CPA durations (dCPA) shorter for RoFC and conversely for SmFC, contrary to APA. Finally, the results show a particular adaptation to the

  8. Isomer effects on polyimide properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stump, B. L.

    1975-01-01

    The effect of structure variation on the solubility and glass-transition temperature of polyimide polymers is investigated. The addition of alkyl substituents to an aromatic ring in the polymer molecule, the reduction in the number of imide rings per average polymer chain-length, and a variation in the symmetry of the polymer molecule are studied. The synthesis of key intermediates for the preparation of the monomers required in this investigation is reported along with progress made in the synthesis of polyimide-precursor amines that contain functional groups to allow for post-cure cross-linking.

  9. [Phospholipids: properties and health effects].

    PubMed

    Torres García, Jairo; Durán Agüero, Samuel

    2014-09-12

    Phospholipids are amphipathic lipids, which are found in all the cell membranes, organized as a lipid bilayer. They belong to the glycerol-derived lipids, showing a similar structure as triglycerides. The current interest of them comes from its effectiveness to incorporate different fatty acids in the cell membrane, as they exhibit better absorption and utilization than triglycerides. In this paper, the bibliographical data published about the benefits of the phospholipids in inflammatory processes, cancer, cardiovascular diseases, neurological disorders, liver disease and as an antioxidants transporter is reviewed.

  10. The Effects of Backward Adjustable Thoracic Support in Wheelchair on Spinal Curvature and Back Muscle Activation for Elderly People

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chun-Ting; Chen, Yen-Nien; Chang, Chih-Han; Tsai, Kuen-Horng

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the effects of backward adjustable thoracic support on spinal curvature and back muscle activation during wheelchair sitting. Methods Twenty elderly people were recruited for this study. The backward adjustable thoracic support sitting posture was compared with the slumped, normal, and lumbar support sitting postures. Spinal curvatures (pelvic, lumbar, and thoracic angles) and muscle activations of 4 back muscles on both sides (maximal voluntary isometric contraction of the lumbar multifidus, lumbar erector spinae, iliocostalis lumborum pars thoracis, and thoracic erector spinae at T9) were measured and compared between the different sitting postures using one-way analysis of variance with repeated measures. Results The backward adjustable thoracic support sitting posture showed a relatively neutral pelvic tilt (−0.32±4.80°) when compared with the slumped (22.84±5.27°) and lumbar support (−8.97±3.31°) sitting postures (P<0.001), and showed relatively higher lumbar lordosis (−23.38±6.50°) when compared with the slumped (14.77±7.83°), normal (0.44±7.47°), and lumbar support (−16.76±4.77°) sitting postures (P<0.05). It also showed relatively lower back muscle activity when compared with the normal and lumbar support sitting postures (P<0.05). Conclusions The backward adjustable thoracic support sitting concept was suggested because it maintains a more neutral pelvic tilt, higher lumbar lordosis, and lower back muscle activation, which may help maintain a better sitting posture and reduce the risk of back pain. PMID:25480152

  11. Examining the Relationship between Heavy Alcohol Use and Assaults: With Adjustment for the Effects of Unmeasured Confounders

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Wenbin; Chikritzhs, Tanya

    2015-01-01

    Background. Experimental studies suggest that alcohol can lead to aggression in laboratory settings; however, it is impossible to test the causal relationship between alcohol use and real-life violence among humans in randomized clinical trials. Objectives. (i) To examine the relationship between heavy alcohol use and assaults in a population based study; (ii) to demonstrate the proxy outcome method, as a means of controlling the effects of unknown/unmeasured confounders in observational studies. Methods. This study used data collected from three waves of the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH). The effects of heavy alcohol use on assault were measured using multivariable logistic regressions in conjunction with the proxy outcome method. Results. Application of the proxy outcome method indicated that effect sizes of heavy alcohol use on the risk of assault were overestimated in the standard models. After adjusting for the effects of unknown/unmeasured confounders, the risk of assault remained 43% and 63% higher (P < 0.05) among participants who consumed 5+ drinks/day for 5–8 days/month and 9–30 days/month, respectively. Conclusions. Even after adjustment for unknown/unmeasured confounders the association between heavy alcohol use and risk of violence remained significant. These findings support the hypothesis that heavy alcohol use can cause violence. PMID:26380283

  12. Reverse-total shoulder arthroplasty cost-effectiveness: A quality-adjusted life years comparison with total hip arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Bachman, Daniel; Nyland, John; Krupp, Ryan

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To compare reverse-total shoulder arthroplasty (RSA) cost-effectiveness with total hip arthroplasty cost-effectiveness. METHODS: This study used a stochastic model and decision-making algorithm to compare the cost-effectiveness of RSA and total hip arthroplasty. Fifteen patients underwent pre-operative, and 3, 6, and 12 mo post-operative clinical examinations and Short Form-36 Health Survey completion. Short form-36 Health Survey subscale scores were converted to EuroQual Group Five Dimension Health Outcome scores and compared with historical data from age-matched patients who had undergone total hip arthroplasty. Quality-adjusted life year (QALY) improvements based on life expectancies were calculated. RESULTS: The cost/QALY was $3900 for total hip arthroplasty and $11100 for RSA. After adjusting the model to only include shoulder-specific physical function subscale items, the RSA QALY improved to 2.8 years, and its cost/QALY decreased to $8100. CONCLUSION: Based on industry accepted standards, cost/QALY estimates supported both RSA and total hip arthroplasty cost-effectiveness. Although total hip arthroplasty remains the quality of life improvement “gold standard” among arthroplasty procedures, cost/QALY estimates identified in this study support the growing use of RSA to improve patient quality of life. PMID:26925384

  13. Effects of the history of adoption in the emotional adjustment of adopted adolescents.

    PubMed

    Reppold, Caroline Tozzi; Hutz, Claudio Simon

    2009-11-01

    Since the decade of 1980, the model of stress and coping proposed for the assessment of vulnerability of adoptive families emphasizes that the emotional adjustment of those adopted is moderated by variables such as institutionalization, the manner and age at which the adoption was revealed, the change of first name, and the contact with the biological family. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship of these variables to the perceived parenting style, mood, and self-esteem of the adopted adolescents. Participants in the study were 68 adolescents, between the ages of 14 and 15, adopted during infancy through judicial channels. The adolescents responded to a questionnaire about the history of adoption and to scales of Parenting Styles, Depression and Self-esteem. The main results indicated that the late revelation of adoption and the change of the first name are connected to higher levels of depression and low self-esteem and to more frequent perceptions of negligent or authoritarian parenting style. The contact with the biological family was frequently mentioned among those who perceived their parents as authoritative and presented the best indicator of mood and self-esteem. These findings were discussed in light of the necessity for multidisciplinary actions which can improve the psychological adaptation of the adopting families. PMID:19899647

  14. On the gravity and geoid effects of glacial isostatic adjustment in Fennoscandia - a short note

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sjöberg, L. E.

    2016-02-01

    Many geoscientists argue that there is a gravity low of 10-30 mGal in Fennoscandia as a remaining fingerprint of the last ice age and load, both vanished about 10 kyr ago. However, the extraction of the gravity signal related with Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA) is complicated by the fact that the total gravity field is caused by many significant density distributions in the Earth. Here we recall a methodology originating with A. Bjerhammar 35 years ago, that emphasizes that the present land uplift phenomenon mainly occurs in the region thatwas covered by the ice cap, and it is highly correlated with the spectral window of degrees 10-22 of the global gravity field, whose lower limit fairly well corresponds to the wavelength that agrees with the size of the region. This implies that, although in principle the GIA is a global phenomenon, the geoid and gravity lows as well as the land upheaval in Fennoscandia are typically regional phenomena that cannot be seen in a global correlation study as it is blurred by many irrelevant gravity signals. It is suggested that a regional multi-regression analysis with a band-limited spectral gravity signal as the observable, a method tested already 2 decades ago, can absorb possible significant disturbing signals, e.g. from topographic and crustal depth variations, and thereby recover the GIA signal.

  15. On the gravity and geoid effects of glacial isostatic adjustment in Fennoscandia - a short note

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sjöberg, L. E.

    2015-12-01

    Many geoscientists argue that there is a gravity low of 10-30 mGal in Fennoscandia as a remaining fingerprint of the last ice age and load, both vanished about 10 kyr ago. However, the extraction of the gravity signal related with Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA) is complicated by the fact that the total gravity field is caused by many significant density distributions in the Earth. Here we recall a methodology originating with A. Bjerhammar 35 years ago, that emphasizes that the present land uplift phenomenon mainly occurs in the region thatwas covered by the ice cap, and it is highly correlated with the spectral window of degrees 10-22 of the global gravity field, whose lower limit fairly well corresponds to the wavelength that agrees with the size of the region. This implies that, although in principle the GIA is a global phenomenon, the geoid and gravity lows as well as the land upheaval in Fennoscandia are typically regional phenomena that cannot be seen in a global correlation study as it is blurred by many irrelevant gravity signals. It is suggested that a regional multi-regression analysis with a band-limited spectral gravity signal as the observable, a method tested already 2 decades ago, can absorb possible significant disturbing signals, e.g. from topographic and crustal depth variations, and thereby recover the GIA signal.

  16. Cascading effects of interparental conflict in adolescence: Linking threat appraisals, self-efficacy, and adjustment.

    PubMed

    Fosco, Gregory M; Feinberg, Mark E

    2015-02-01

    This study examined the longitudinal implications of adolescents' exposure to interparental conflict for their developmental success. In the proposed developmental cascade model, adolescents' perceptions of parental conflict as threatening is a risk factor for diminished self-efficacy, which would account for diminished adjustment. This study presents longitudinal data for 768 sixth-grade students and their families over four time points, ending in eighth grade. Analyses were conducted in three steps. First, replication of longitudinal support for threat as a mediator of the link between interparental conflict and emotional distress was found; however, findings did not support threat as a mediator of behavior problems or subjective well-being. Second, threat was found to mediate the longitudinal association between interparental conflict and self-efficacy. Third, a developmental cascade model supported a risk process in which interparental conflict was related to adolescents' threat appraisals, which undermined self-efficacy beliefs, and was then linked with emotional distress, behavior problems, and subjective well-being.

  17. Cascading Effects of Interparental Conflict in Adolescence: Linking Threat Appraisals, Self-Efficacy, and Adjustment

    PubMed Central

    Fosco, Gregory M.; Feinberg, Mark E.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the longitudinal implications of adolescents’ exposure to interparental conflict for their developmental success. In the proposed developmental cascade model, adolescents’ perceptions of parental conflict as threatening is a risk factor for diminished self-efficacy, which would account for diminished adjustment. This study presents longitudinal data for 768 6th-grade students and their families over four time points, ending in 8th grade. Analyses were conducted in three steps. First, replication of longitudinal support for threat as a mediator of the link between interparental conflict and emotional distress was found; however, findings did not support threat as a mediator of behavior problems or subjective well-being. Second, threat was found to mediate the longitudinal association between interparental conflict and self-efficacy. Finally, a developmental cascade model supported a risk process in which interparental conflict was related to adolescents’ threat appraisals, which undermined self-efficacy beliefs, and was then linked with emotional distress, behavior problems, and subjective well-being. PMID:25017469

  18. Effects of the history of adoption in the emotional adjustment of adopted adolescents.

    PubMed

    Reppold, Caroline Tozzi; Hutz, Claudio Simon

    2009-11-01

    Since the decade of 1980, the model of stress and coping proposed for the assessment of vulnerability of adoptive families emphasizes that the emotional adjustment of those adopted is moderated by variables such as institutionalization, the manner and age at which the adoption was revealed, the change of first name, and the contact with the biological family. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship of these variables to the perceived parenting style, mood, and self-esteem of the adopted adolescents. Participants in the study were 68 adolescents, between the ages of 14 and 15, adopted during infancy through judicial channels. The adolescents responded to a questionnaire about the history of adoption and to scales of Parenting Styles, Depression and Self-esteem. The main results indicated that the late revelation of adoption and the change of the first name are connected to higher levels of depression and low self-esteem and to more frequent perceptions of negligent or authoritarian parenting style. The contact with the biological family was frequently mentioned among those who perceived their parents as authoritative and presented the best indicator of mood and self-esteem. These findings were discussed in light of the necessity for multidisciplinary actions which can improve the psychological adaptation of the adopting families.

  19. Cascading effects of interparental conflict in adolescence: Linking threat appraisals, self-efficacy, and adjustment.

    PubMed

    Fosco, Gregory M; Feinberg, Mark E

    2015-02-01

    This study examined the longitudinal implications of adolescents' exposure to interparental conflict for their developmental success. In the proposed developmental cascade model, adolescents' perceptions of parental conflict as threatening is a risk factor for diminished self-efficacy, which would account for diminished adjustment. This study presents longitudinal data for 768 sixth-grade students and their families over four time points, ending in eighth grade. Analyses were conducted in three steps. First, replication of longitudinal support for threat as a mediator of the link between interparental conflict and emotional distress was found; however, findings did not support threat as a mediator of behavior problems or subjective well-being. Second, threat was found to mediate the longitudinal association between interparental conflict and self-efficacy. Third, a developmental cascade model supported a risk process in which interparental conflict was related to adolescents' threat appraisals, which undermined self-efficacy beliefs, and was then linked with emotional distress, behavior problems, and subjective well-being. PMID:25017469

  20. Effects of adjusting cropping systems on utilization efficiency of climatic resources in Northeast China under future climate scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Jianping; Zhao, Junfang; Xu, Yanhong; Chu, Zheng; Mu, Jia; Zhao, Qian

    Quantitatively evaluating the effects of adjusting cropping systems on the utilization efficiency of climatic resources under climate change is an important task for assessing food security in China. To understand these effects, we used daily climate variables obtained from the regional climate model RegCM3 from 1981 to 2100 under the A1B scenario and crop observations from 53 agro-meteorological experimental stations from 1981 to 2010 in Northeast China. Three one-grade zones of cropping systems were divided by heat, water, topography and crop-type, including the semi-arid areas of the northeast and northwest (III), the one crop area of warm-cool plants in semi-humid plain or hilly regions of the northeast (IV), and the two crop area in irrigated farmland in the Huanghuaihai Plain (VI). An agro-ecological zone model was used to calculate climatic potential productivities. The effects of adjusting cropping systems on climate resource utilization in Northeast China under the A1B scenario were assessed. The results indicated that from 1981 to 2100 in the III, IV and VI areas, the planting boundaries of different cropping systems in Northeast China obviously shifted toward the north and the east based on comprehensively considering the heat and precipitation resources. However, due to high temperature stress, the climatic potential productivity of spring maize was reduced in the future. Therefore, adjusting the cropping system is an effective way to improve the climatic potential productivity and climate resource utilization. Replacing the one crop in one year model (spring maize) by the two crops in one year model (winter wheat and summer maize) significantly increased the total climatic potential productivity and average utilization efficiencies. During the periods of 2011-2040, 2041-2070 and 2071-2100, the average total climatic potential productivities of winter wheat and summer maize increased by 9.36%, 11.88% and 12.13% compared to that of spring maize

  1. Monte Carlo Investigation on the Effect of Heterogeneities on Strut Adjusted Volume Implant (SAVI) Dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koontz, Craig

    Breast cancer is the most prevalent cancer for women with more than 225,000 new cases diagnosed in the United States in 2012 (ACS, 2012). With the high prevalence, comes an increased emphasis on researching new techniques to treat this disease. Accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) has been used as an alternative to whole breast irradiation (WBI) in order to treat occult disease after lumpectomy. Similar recurrence rates have been found using ABPI after lumpectomy as with mastectomy alone, but with the added benefit of improved cosmetic and psychological results. Intracavitary brachytherapy devices have been used to deliver the APBI prescription. However, inability to produce asymmetric dose distributions in order to avoid overdosing skin and chest wall has been an issue with these devices. Multi-lumen devices were introduced to overcome this problem. Of these, the Strut-Adjusted Volume Implant (SAVI) has demonstrated the greatest ability to produce an asymmetric dose distribution, which would have greater ability to avoid skin and chest wall dose, and thus allow more women to receive this type of treatment. However, SAVI treatments come with inherent heterogeneities including variable backscatter due to the proximity to the tissue-air and tissue-lung interfaces and variable contents within the cavity created by the SAVI. The dose calculation protocol based on TG-43 does not account for heterogeneities and thus will not produce accurate dosimetry; however Acuros, a model-based dose calculation algorithm manufactured by Varian Medical Systems, claims to accurately account for heterogeneities. Monte Carlo simulation can calculate the dosimetry with high accuracy. In this thesis, a model of the SAVI will be created for Monte Carlo, specifically using MCNP code, in order to explore the affects of heterogeneities on the dose distribution. This data will be compared to TG-43 and Acuros calculated dosimetry to explore their accuracy.

  2. Labor Market Effects of Human Capital and of Its Adjustment to Technological Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mincer, Jacob

    This document, a review of labor market effects of human capital, focuses on two related topics. Part I describes the following early findings of the research on effects of education and job training on the wage structure, labor turnover, and unemployment: decline of training with experience, positive and significant effects of training on length…

  3. Life satisfaction and adjustment of children of alcoholics: the effects of parental drinking, family disorganization and survival roles.

    PubMed

    Braithwaite, V; Devine, C

    1993-11-01

    The stress paradigm was used to investigate the extent to which parental alcohol dependency, family disorganization ana Black's (1979) and Wegscheider's (1976) survival roles affected the adjustment of children of alcoholics (COAs). The study was cross-sectional based on the responses of a non-random community sample of 112 adolescents. The predictors of life satisfaction differed from the predictors of minor psychiatric symptoms. Parental alcohol dependency had no direct effect on minor psychiatric symptoms, with low family cohesiveness and intimacy being the major determinants of psychopathology. In contrast, parental alcohol dependency and family disharmony had an additive effect on level of life satisfaction. Family variables did not buffer children from the effects of alcohol once they recognized parental drinking as a problem. Nor did the survival roles protect children in any way. Indeed, the roles of the 'lost' child, the 'acting-out' child, and the 'clown' were detrimental to well-being.

  4. The Cost-Effectiveness of Laparoscopic Adjustable Gastric Banding in the Morbidly Obese Adult Population of Australia

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yong Yi; Veerman, J. Lennert; Barendregt, Jan J.

    2013-01-01

    Background To examine the cost-effectiveness of providing laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB) surgery to all morbidly obese adults in the 2003 Australian population. Methods and Findings Analyzed costs and benefits associated with two intervention scenarios, one providing LAGB surgery to individuals with BMI >40 and another to individuals with BMI >35, with each compared relative to a ‘do nothing’ scenario. A multi-state, multiple cohort Markov model was used to determine the cost-effectiveness of LAGB surgery over the lifetime of each cohort. All costs and health outcomes were assessed from an Australian health sector perspective and were discounted using a 3% annual rate. Uncertainty and sensitivity analyzes were conducted to test the robustness of model outcomes. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) were measured in 2003 Australian dollars per disability adjusted life year (DALY) averted. The ICER for the scenario providing LAGB surgery to all individuals with a BMI >40 was dominant [95% CI: dominant - $588] meaning that the intervention led to both improved health and cost savings. The ICER when providing surgery to those with a BMI >35 was $2 154/DALY averted [95% CI: dominant - $6 033]. Results were highly sensitive to changes in the likelihood of long-term complications. Conclusion LAGB surgery is highly cost-effective when compared to the $50 000/DALY threshold for cost-effectiveness used in Australia. LAGB surgery also ranks highly in terms of cost-effectiveness when compared to other population-level interventions for weight loss in Australia. The results of this study are in line with other economic evaluations on LAGB surgery. This study recommends that the Australian federal government provide a full subsidy for LAGB surgery to morbidly obese Australians with a BMI >40. PMID:23717680

  5. Aviation fuel property effects on altitude relight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venkataramani, K.

    1987-01-01

    The major objective of this experimental program was to investigate the effects of fuel property variation on altitude relight characteristics. Four fuels with widely varying volatility properties (JP-4, Jet A, a blend of Jet A and 2040 Solvent, and Diesel 2) were tested in a five-swirl-cup-sector combustor at inlet temperatures and flows representative of windmilling conditions of turbofan engines. The effects of fuel physical properties on atomization were eliminated by using four sets of pressure-atomizing nozzles designed to give the same spray Sauter mean diameter (50 + or - 10 micron) for each fuel at the same design fuel flow. A second series of tests was run with a set of air-blast nozzles. With comparable atomization levels, fuel volatility assumes only a secondary role for first-swirl-cup lightoff and complete blowout. Full propagation first-cup blowout were independent of fuel volatility and depended only on the combustor operating conditions.

  6. Examining the Effects of Residence and Gender on College Student Adjustment in Iran: Implications for Psychotherapists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohammadi, Mehdi; Schwitzer, Alan M.; Nunnery, John

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effects of on-campus residence, in comparison with commuter status, on academic performance, vocational commitment, self-efficacy, and perceptions of the college environment among female and male Iranian students at Shiraz University, Iran. The study sought to extend previous work investigating the effects of college…

  7. 20 CFR 418.1230 - What is the effective date of an income-related monthly adjustment amount initial determination...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...-related monthly adjustment amount initial determination that is based on a more recent tax year? 418.1230... Income-Related Monthly Adjustment Amount Determinations Using A More Recent Tax Year's Modified Adjusted... initial determination that is based on a more recent tax year? (a) When you make your request prior...

  8. 20 CFR 418.1230 - What is the effective date of an income-related monthly adjustment amount initial determination...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...-related monthly adjustment amount initial determination that is based on a more recent tax year? 418.1230... Income-Related Monthly Adjustment Amount Determinations Using A More Recent Tax Year's Modified Adjusted... initial determination that is based on a more recent tax year? (a) When you make your request prior...

  9. 20 CFR 418.2230 - What is the effective date of an income-related monthly adjustment amount initial determination...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...-related monthly adjustment amount initial determination based on a more recent tax year? 418.2230 Section... Adjustments to Medicare Prescription Drug Coverage Premiums Determinations Using A More Recent Tax Year's... adjustment amount initial determination based on a more recent tax year? We will follow the rules in §...

  10. Relationship between efficiency and clinical effectiveness indicators in an adjusted model of resource consumption: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Adjusted clinical groups (ACG®) have been widely used to adjust resource distribution; however, the relationship with effectiveness has been questioned. The purpose of the study was to measure the relationship between efficiency assessed by ACG® and a clinical effectiveness indicator in adults attended in Primary Health Care Centres (PHCs). Methods Research design: cross-sectional study. Subjects: 196, 593 patients aged >14 years in 13 PHCs in Catalonia (Spain). Measures: Age, sex, PHC, basic care team (BCT), visits, episodes (diagnoses), and total direct costs of PHC care and co-morbidity as measured by ACG® indicators: Efficiency indices for costs, visits, and episodes (costs EI, visits EI, episodes EI); a complexity or risk index (RI); and effectiveness measured by a general synthetic index (SI). The relationship between EI, RI, and SI in each PHC and BCT was measured by multiple correlation coefficients (r). Results In total, 56 of the 106 defined ACG® were present in the study population, with five corresponding to 44.5% of the patients, 11 to 68.0% of patients, and 30 present in less than 0.5% of the sample. The RI in each PHC ranged from 0.9 to 1.1. Costs, visits, and episodes had similar trends for efficiency in six PHCs. There was moderate correlation between costs EI and visits EI (r = 0.59). SI correlation with episodes EI and costs EI was moderate (r = 0.48 and r = −0.34, respectively) and was r = −0.14 for visits EI. Correlation between RI and SI was r = 0.29. Conclusions The Efficiency and Effectiveness ACG® indicators permit a comparison of primary care processes between PHCs. Acceptable correlation exists between effectiveness and indicators of efficiency in episodes and costs. PMID:24139144

  11. Microbial effect on soil hydraulic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furman, Alex; Rosenzweig, Ravid; Volk, Elazar; Rosenkranz, Hella; Iden, Sascha; Durner, Wolfgang

    2014-05-01

    Although largely ignored, the soil contains large amount of biofilms (attached microbes) that can affect many processes. While biochemical processes are studied, biophysical processes receive only little attention. Biofilms may occupy some of the pore space, and by that affect the soil hydraulic properties. This effect on unsaturated soils, however, was not intensively studied. In this research we directly measure the hydraulic properties, namely the soil's unsaturated hydraulic conductivity function and retention curve, for soils containing real biofilm. To do that we inoculate soil with biofilm-forming bacteria and incubate it with sufficient amounts of nutrient until biofilm is formed. The hydraulic properties of the incubated soil are then measured using several techniques, including multi-step outflow and evaporation method. The longer measurements (evaporation method) are conducted under refrigeration conditions to minimize microbial activity during the experiment. The results show a clear effect of the biofilm, where the biofilm-affected soil (sandy loam in our case) behaves like a much finer soil. This qualitatively makes sense as the biofilm generates an effective pore size distribution that is characterized by smaller pores. However, the effect is much more complex and needs to be studied carefully considering (for example) dual porosity models. We compare our preliminary results with other experiments, including flow-through column experiments and experiments with biofilm analogues. Clearly a better understanding of the way microbial activity alters the hydraulic properties may help designing more efficient bioremediation, irrigation, and other soil-related processes.

  12. The effects of growth hormone deficiency and growth hormone replacement therapy on intellectual ability, personality and adjustment in children.

    PubMed

    Puga González, B; Ferrández Longás, A; Oyarzábal, M; Nosas, R

    2010-06-01

    Traditionally, it has been assumed that intellectual development in children with growth hormone deficiency (GHD) is distributed between ranges of a normal population based on the observation that it does not differ substantially from that of children of the same age. Nevertheless, few studies have investigated this assumption. This Spanish Collaborative study was prospectively planned with two main purposes: to study a possible influence of GHD on intelligence quotient (IQ), personality traits and adaptative capacity and to study the evolution of these parameters during substitution therapy with growth hormone (GH). Although the overall intellectual ability of children with GHD is comparable to that of a normal reference population, some areas such the motor-component scale (evaluated by McCarthy test) and performance IQ (evaluated by WISC-R) were below the mean at the beginning of the study, showing significant improvement during therapy. Emotional adjustment (normal at study start) also improved significantly during treatment. Females showed better adjustment capacity before and during GH therapy. Longer studies with an increased number of cases are needed to confirm these effects of GHD and its treatment in children.

  13. The Effects of Sensorimotor Training on Anticipatory Postural Adjustment of the Trunk in Chronic Low Back Pain Patients

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Jin Ah; Bae, Sea Hyun; Do Kim, Gi; Kim, Kyung Yoon

    2013-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to examine the effects of sensorimotor training on the anticipatory postural adjustment (APA) of chronic low back pain (CLBP) patients. [Subjects and Methods] Fourteen CLBP patients were randomly assigned to Group II (ordinary physical therapy, n=7) and Group III (sensorimotor training, n=7). In addition, a normal group (Group I) consisting of seven subjects was chosen as the control group. The two CLBP groups received their own treatment five times per week, for four weeks, for 40 minutes each time. Changes in pain and functional performance evaluation were examined by the visual analogue scale (VAS) and the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI). In order to look at the change in APA, muscle onset time was examined using electromyography (EMG). [Results] Group III showed significant changes in both VAS and ODI. According to comparison of the results for muscle onset time, there were significant decreases in Group III's transversus abdominis muscle (TrA) and external oblique muscle (EO) in the standing and sitting positions. There were significant differences between Group II and III in terms of the TrA in the sitting position. [Conclusion] Sensorimotor training makes patients capable of learning how to adjust muscles, thereby alleviating pain and improving muscle performance. PMID:24259943

  14. [Effects of exogenous melatonin on nitrogen metabolism and osmotic adjustment substances of melon seedlings under sub-low temperature].

    PubMed

    Gao, Qing-hai; Jia, Shuang-shuang; Miao, Yong-mei; Lu, Xiao-min; Li, Hui-min

    2016-02-01

    The melon cultivar 'Yangjiaosu' was subjected to the treatment of 18 °C/12 °C (day/night) in an artificial climate chamber for 6 days, and the activities of nitrogen metabolism related enzymes [nitrate reductase (NR), glutamine synthetase (GS), glutamate synthase (GOGAT) and glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) ] , the contents of total N, NO3(-)-N and NH4+-N as well as the osmotic adjustment substances of melon leaf were then determined. The results showed that, compared with the control, sub-low temperature treatment reduced the contents of total N, NO3(-)-N and the NR activity, but increased the content of NH4(+)-N, thereby leading to the growth inhibition of melon. Exogenous MT treatment significantly improved the activities of nitrogen metabolism related enzymes, especially the activities of GS and GOGAT, effectively reducing the content of NH4+-N. Moreover, MT treatment increased the contents of proline, soluble protein and soluble sugar, and alleviated the damage of sub-low temperature on the cell membrane by reducing the relative electrical conductivity and MDA content of melon leaves. In short, this work suggested that exogenous MT would enhance the sub-low temperature adaptability of melon by decreasing the leaf content of NH4-N, increasing the contents of osmotic adjustment substances and reducing the membrane lipid peroxidation levels.

  15. [Effects of exogenous melatonin on nitrogen metabolism and osmotic adjustment substances of melon seedlings under sub-low temperature].

    PubMed

    Gao, Qing-hai; Jia, Shuang-shuang; Miao, Yong-mei; Lu, Xiao-min; Li, Hui-min

    2016-02-01

    The melon cultivar 'Yangjiaosu' was subjected to the treatment of 18 °C/12 °C (day/night) in an artificial climate chamber for 6 days, and the activities of nitrogen metabolism related enzymes [nitrate reductase (NR), glutamine synthetase (GS), glutamate synthase (GOGAT) and glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) ] , the contents of total N, NO3(-)-N and NH4+-N as well as the osmotic adjustment substances of melon leaf were then determined. The results showed that, compared with the control, sub-low temperature treatment reduced the contents of total N, NO3(-)-N and the NR activity, but increased the content of NH4(+)-N, thereby leading to the growth inhibition of melon. Exogenous MT treatment significantly improved the activities of nitrogen metabolism related enzymes, especially the activities of GS and GOGAT, effectively reducing the content of NH4+-N. Moreover, MT treatment increased the contents of proline, soluble protein and soluble sugar, and alleviated the damage of sub-low temperature on the cell membrane by reducing the relative electrical conductivity and MDA content of melon leaves. In short, this work suggested that exogenous MT would enhance the sub-low temperature adaptability of melon by decreasing the leaf content of NH4-N, increasing the contents of osmotic adjustment substances and reducing the membrane lipid peroxidation levels. PMID:27396126

  16. Adjustment of minimum seismic shear coefficient considering site effects for long-period structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Minsheng; Du, Hongbiao; Cui, Jie; Zeng, Qingli; Jiang, Haibo

    2016-06-01

    Minimum seismic base shear is a key factor employed in the seismic design of long-period structures, which is specified in some of the major national seismic building codes viz. ASCE7-10, NZS1170.5 and GB50011-2010. In current Chinese seismic design code GB50011-2010, however, effects of soil types on the minimum seismic shear coefficient are not considered, which causes problems for long-period structures sited in hard or rock soil to meet the minimum base shear requirement. This paper aims to modify the current minimum seismic shear coefficient by taking into account site effects. For this purpose, effective peak acceleration (EPA) is used as a representation for the ordinate value of the design response spectrum at the plateau. A large amount of earthquake records, for which EPAs are calculated, are examined through the statistical analysis by considering soil conditions as well as the seismic fortification intensities. The study indicates that soil types have a significant effect on the spectral ordinates at the plateau as well as the minimum seismic shear coefficient. Modified factors related to the current minimum seismic shear coefficient are preliminarily suggested for each site class. It is shown that the modified seismic shear coefficients are more effective to the determination of minimum seismic base shear of long-period structures.

  17. Analytical fuel property effects--small combustors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutton, R. D.; Troth, D. L.; Miles, G. A.

    1984-01-01

    The consequences of using broad-property fuels in both conventional and advanced state-of-the-art small gas turbine combustors are assessed. Eight combustor concepts were selected for initial screening, of these, four final combustor concepts were chosen for further detailed analysis. These included the dual orifice injector baseline combustor (a current production 250-C30 engine combustor) two baseline airblast injected modifications, short and piloted prechamber combustors, and an advanced airblast injected, variable geometry air staged combustor. Final predictions employed the use of the STAC-I computer code. This quasi 2-D model includes real fuel properties, effects of injector type on atomization, detailed droplet dynamics, and multistep chemical kinetics. In general, fuel property effects on various combustor concepts can be classified as chemical or physical in nature. Predictions indicate that fuel chemistry has a significant effect on flame radiation, liner wall temperature, and smoke emission. Fuel physical properties that govern atomization quality and evaporation rates are predicted to affect ignition and lean-blowout limits, combustion efficiency, unburned hydrocarbon, and carbon monoxide emissions.

  18. Effective structural properties in polycrystalline graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossain, Zubaer

    This talk will discuss effective structural properties in polycrystalline graphene under the presence of atomic scale heterogeneity. Polycrystallinity is ubiquitous in solids, but theories describing their effective behavior remain limited, particularly when heterogeneity is present in the form of nonuniform deformation or composition. Over the decades, exploration of the effective transport and strength properties of heterogeneous systems has been carried out mostly with random distribution of grains or regular periodic structures under various approximations, in translating the underlying physics into a single representative volume element. Although heterogeneity can play a critical role in modulating the basic behavior of low-dimensional materials, it is difficult to capture the local characteristics accurately by these approximations. Taking polycrystalline graphene as an example material, we study the effective structural properties (such as Young's Modulus, Poisson's ratio and Toughness) by using a combination of density functional theory and molecular dynamic simulations. We identify the key mechanisms that govern their effective behavior and exploit the understanding to engineer the behavior by doping with a carefully selected choice of chemical elements.

  19. "Butterfly effect" in CuO/graphene composite nanosheets: a small interfacial adjustment triggers big changes in electronic structure and Li-ion storage performance.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoting; Zhou, Jisheng; Song, Huaihe; Chen, Xiaohong; Fedoseeva, Yu V; Okotrub, A V; Bulusheva, L G

    2014-10-01

    Generally speaking, excellent electrochemical performance of metal oxide/graphene nanosheets (GNSs) composite is attributed to the interfacial interaction (or "synergistic effect") between constituents. However, there are no any direct observations on how the electronic structure is changed and how the properties of Li-ion storage are affected by adjusting the interfacial interaction, despite of limited investigations on the possible nature of binding between GNSs and metal oxide. In this paper, CuO nanosheets/GNSs composites with a little Cu2O (ca. 4 wt %) were utilized as an interesting model to illustrate directly the changes of interfacial nature as well as its deep influence on the electronic structure and Li-ion storage performance of composite. The interfacial adjustment was successfully fulfilled by removal of Cu2O in the composite by NH3·H2O. Formation of Cu-O-C bonds on interfaces both between CuO and GNSs, and Cu2O and GNSs in the original CuO/GNSs composites was detected. The small interfacial alteration by removal of the little Cu2O results in the obvious changes in electronic structure, such as weakening of covalent Cu-O-C interfacial interaction and recovery of π bonds in graphene, and simultaneously leads to variations in electrochemical performance of composites, including a 21% increase of reversible capacity, degradation of cyclic stability and rate-performance, and obvious increase of charge-transfer resistance, which can be called a "butterfly effect" in graphene-based metal oxide composites. These interesting phenomena could be helpful to design not only the high-performance graphene/metal oxide anode materials but also various advanced graphene-based composites used in the other fields such as sensors, catalysis, fuel cells, solar cells, etc.

  20. "Butterfly effect" in CuO/graphene composite nanosheets: a small interfacial adjustment triggers big changes in electronic structure and Li-ion storage performance.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoting; Zhou, Jisheng; Song, Huaihe; Chen, Xiaohong; Fedoseeva, Yu V; Okotrub, A V; Bulusheva, L G

    2014-10-01

    Generally speaking, excellent electrochemical performance of metal oxide/graphene nanosheets (GNSs) composite is attributed to the interfacial interaction (or "synergistic effect") between constituents. However, there are no any direct observations on how the electronic structure is changed and how the properties of Li-ion storage are affected by adjusting the interfacial interaction, despite of limited investigations on the possible nature of binding between GNSs and metal oxide. In this paper, CuO nanosheets/GNSs composites with a little Cu2O (ca. 4 wt %) were utilized as an interesting model to illustrate directly the changes of interfacial nature as well as its deep influence on the electronic structure and Li-ion storage performance of composite. The interfacial adjustment was successfully fulfilled by removal of Cu2O in the composite by NH3·H2O. Formation of Cu-O-C bonds on interfaces both between CuO and GNSs, and Cu2O and GNSs in the original CuO/GNSs composites was detected. The small interfacial alteration by removal of the little Cu2O results in the obvious changes in electronic structure, such as weakening of covalent Cu-O-C interfacial interaction and recovery of π bonds in graphene, and simultaneously leads to variations in electrochemical performance of composites, including a 21% increase of reversible capacity, degradation of cyclic stability and rate-performance, and obvious increase of charge-transfer resistance, which can be called a "butterfly effect" in graphene-based metal oxide composites. These interesting phenomena could be helpful to design not only the high-performance graphene/metal oxide anode materials but also various advanced graphene-based composites used in the other fields such as sensors, catalysis, fuel cells, solar cells, etc. PMID:25226227

  1. The Effects of Cross-Cultural Communication Education on International Students' Adjustment and Adaptation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Tony J.; Schartner, Alina

    2014-01-01

    The recent increase in the provision of cross- and intercultural education for sojourners has not been matched by commensurate research into its effects on participants. Evaluation, where undertaken at all, has been largely confined to expatriate business contexts and has tended to be undertaken pre-sojourn. Crucially, evaluation has not engaged…

  2. Impact of Father Involvement: A Closer Look at Indirect Effects Models Involving Marriage and Child Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goeke-Morey, Marcie C.; Cummings, E. Mark

    2007-01-01

    In this article we present a framework for understanding the indirect effects of fathering on child development in the context of the marriage. We discuss three central pathways of influence: through relations between marital quality and fathering, through children's exposure to father expressions of marital discord, and through relations between…

  3. Child adjustment and parent functioning: Considering the role of child-driven effects.

    PubMed

    Yan, Ni; Ansari, Arya

    2016-04-01

    Based on 13,694 mother-child dyads from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Kindergarten Study (ECLS-K; Rock & Pollack, 2002; Tourangeau, Nord, Lê, Sorongon, & Najarian, 2009), this study is an examination of the bidirectional relations between parental and child functioning from kindergarten through 3rd grade. Results from the cross-lagged models demonstrated that child-driven effects co-occurred with parental effects, and that these effects were comparable in size. At the same time, however, results from the latent profile analysis (LPA) revealed idiosyncratic patterns of parent and child functioning. Compared with children in the least optimal functioning profiles, those in the average and above-average profiles elicited greater improvement in parents' functioning over time. Although children characterized by poor academic performance at kindergarten appeared to precede parents characterized by harsh parenting at 3rd grade, there was a threshold in the evolving strength of the overall child-driven effects. Taken together, the results from this study underscore the importance of considering reciprocal processes in the parent-child dynamic while also underscoring individual differences in these processes across the early- to middle-childhood years.

  4. Longitudinal Effects of Teacher and Student Perceptions of Teacher-Student Relationship Qualities on Academic Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Jan N.

    2011-01-01

    The shared and unique effects of teacher and student reports of teacher-student relationship quality (TSRQ) in second and third grade on academic self-views, behavioral engagement, and achievement the following year were investigated in a sample of 714 academically at-risk students. Teacher and student reports of teacher-student support and…

  5. Romantic Relationships and Adjustment Problems in China: The Moderating Effect of Classroom Romantic Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hou, Jinqin; Natsuaki, Misaki N.; Zhang, Jianxin; Guo, Fei; Huang, Zheng; Wang, Mianbo; Chen, Zhiyan

    2013-01-01

    Theoretical and empirical research has shown that adolescent romantic relationships are associated with a wide range of developmental outcomes, including adverse consequences. The present study used a hierarchical linear model to examine the moderating effect of classroom romantic context on the association between adolescent romantic…

  6. Effectiveness of Home Visiting as a Strategy for Promoting Children's Adjustment to School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkland, Kristen

    2013-01-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that involving families in home visiting services promotes positive experiences during the initial years of a child's life; however less is known about whether or not the benefits continue to accrue after a child enters school. This article describes the results of a study examining the effectiveness of an…

  7. Degrees of freedom in interspecific allometry: an adjustment for the effects of phylogenetic constraint.

    PubMed

    Smith, R J

    1994-01-01

    The data used in studies of bivariate interspecific allometry usually violate the assumption of statistical independence. Although the traits of each species are commonly treated as independent, the expression of a trait among species within a genus may covary because of shared common ancestry. The same effect exists for genera within a family and so on up the phylogenetic hierarchy. Determining sample size by counting data points overestimates the effective sample size, which then leads to overestimating the degrees of freedom that should be used in calculating probabilities and confidence intervals. This results in an inflated Type 1 error rate. Although some workers (e.g., Felsenstein [1985] Am. Nat. 125:1-15) have suggested that this issue may invalidate interspecific allometry as a comparative method, a correction for the problem can be approximated with variance components from a nested analysis of variance. Variance components partition the total variation in the data set among the levels of the nested hierarchy. If the variance component for each nested level is weighted by the number of groups at that level, the sum of these values is an estimate of an effective sample size for the data set which reflects the effects of phylogenetic constraint. Analysis of two data sets, using taxonomy to define levels of the nested hierarchy, suggests that it has been common for published studies of interspecific allometry to severely overestimate the number of degrees of freedom. Interspecific allometry remains an important comparative method for evaluating questions concerning individual species that are not similarly addressed by the format of most of the newer comparative methods. With the correction proposed here for estimating degrees of freedom, the major statistical weakness of the procedure is substantially reduced. PMID:8141245

  8. [Study on influence between activated carbon property and immobilized biological activated carbon purification effect].

    PubMed

    Wang, Guang-zhi; Li, Wei-guang; He, Wen-jie; Han, Hong-da; Ding, Chi; Ma, Xiao-na; Qu, Yan-ming

    2006-10-01

    By means of immobilizing five kinds of activated carbon, we studied the influence between the chief activated carbon property items and immobilized bioactivated carbon (IBAC) purification effect with the correlation analysis. The result shows that the activated carbon property items which the correlation coefficient is up 0.7 include molasses, abrasion number, hardness, tannin, uniform coefficient, mean particle diameter and effective particle diameter; the activated carbon property items which the correlation coefficient is up 0.5 include pH, iodine, butane and tetrachloride. In succession, the partial correlation analysis shows that activated carbon property items mostly influencing on IBAC purification effect include molasses, hardness, abrasion number, uniform coefficient, mean particle diameter and effective particle diameter. The causation of these property items bringing influence on IBAC purification is that the activated carbon holes distribution (representative activated carbon property item is molasses) provides inhabitable location and adjust food for the dominance bacteria; the mechanical resist-crash property of activated carbon (representative activated carbon property items: abrasion number and hardness) have influence on the stability of biofilm; and the particle diameter size and distribution of activated carbon (representative activated carbon property items: uniform coefficient, mean particle diameter and effective particle diameter) can directly affect the force of water in IBAC filter bed, which brings influence on the dominance bacteria immobilizing on activated carbon.

  9. Roth versus MBT: does bracket prescription have an effect on the subjective outcome of pre-adjusted edgewise treatment?

    PubMed

    Moesi, Bopelo; Dyer, Fiona; Benson, Philip E

    2013-04-01

    The aim was to determine if bracket prescription has any effect on the subjective outcome of pre-adjusted edgewise treatment as judged by professionals. This retrospective observational assessment study was undertaken in the Orthodontic Department of the Charles Clifford Dental Hospital, Sheffield, UK. Forty sets of post-treatment study models from patients treated using a pre-adjusted edgewise appliance (20 Roth and 20 MBT) were selected. The models were masked and shown in a random order to nine experienced orthodontic clinicians, who were asked to assess the quality of the outcome, using a pre-piloted questionnaire. The principal outcome measure was the Incisor and Canine Aesthetic Torque and Tip (ICATT) score for each of the 40 post-treatment models carried out by the nine judges. A two-way analysis of variance was undertaken with the dependent variable, total ICATT score and independent variables, Bracket prescription (Roth or MBT) and Assessor. There were statistically significant differences between the subjective assessments of the nine judges (P<0.001), but there was no statistically significant difference between the two bracket prescriptions (P = 0.900). The best agreement between a clinician's judgment of prescription used and the actual prescription was fair (kappa statistic 0.25; CI -0.05 to 0.55). The ability to determine which bracket prescription was used was no better than chance for the majority of clinicians. Bracket prescription had no effect on the subjective aesthetic judgments of post-treatment study models made by nine experienced orthodontists.

  10. Longitudinal Effects of Teacher and Student Perceptions of Teacher-Student Relationship Qualities on Academic Adjustment

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Jan N.

    2010-01-01

    The shared and unique effects of teacher and student reports of teacher student relationship quality (TSRQ) in second and third grade on academic self views, behavioral engagement, and achievement the following year were investigated in a sample of 714 academically at-risk students. Teacher and student reports of teacher-student support and conflict showed low correspondence. As a block, teacher and student reports of TSRQ predicted all outcomes, above prior performance on that outcome and background variables. Student reports uniquely predicted school belonging, perceived academic competence, and math achievement. Teacher reports uniquely predicted behavioral engagement and child perceived academic competence. Teacher and student reports of the teacher-student relationship assess largely different constructs that predict different outcomes. Implications of findings for practice and research are discussed. PMID:21984843

  11. How do clarinet players adjust the resonances of their vocal tracts for different playing effects?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritz, Claudia; Wolfe, Joe

    2005-11-01

    In a simple model, the reed of the clarinet is mechanically loaded by the series combination of the acoustical impedances of the instrument itself and of the player's airway. Here we measure the complex impedance spectrum of players' airways using an impedance head adapted to fit inside a clarinet mouthpiece. A direct current shunt with high acoustical resistance allows players to blow normally, so the players can simulate the tract condition under playing conditions. The reproducibility of the results suggest that the players' ``muscle memory'' is reliable for this task. Most players use a single, highly stable vocal tract configuration over most of the playing range, except for the altissimo register. However, this ``normal'' configuration varies substantially among musicians. All musicians change the configuration, often drastically for ``special effects'' such as glissandi and slurs: the tongue is lowered and the impedance magnitude reduced when the player intends to lower the pitch or to slur downwards, and vice versa.

  12. The effect of somatic cell count data adjustment and interpretation, as outlined in European Union legislation, on herd eligibility to supply raw milk for processing of dairy products.

    PubMed

    More, S J; Clegg, T A; Lynch, P J; O'Grady, L

    2013-06-01

    Somatic cell count (SCC) limits are a key component of national and international regulation for milk quality. As yet, very limited work has been published on SCC regulatory standards, including on the effect of different approaches to SCC data adjustment and interpretation. This study examines the effect of SCC data adjustment and interpretation, as outlined in current European Union (EU) legislation, on herd eligibility to supply raw milk for processing of dairy products for human consumption, using Irish data for illustration. The study used Irish milk-recording data as a proxy for bulk tank SCC (BTSCC) data, to calculate an unadjusted monthly SCC value for each herd during each month of participation. Subsequently, 4 data adjustments were applied, as outlined in EU and national legislation: seasonal adjustment; 3-mo rolling geometric average, without accounting for a break in the supply; 3-mo rolling geometric average, after accounting for a break in the supply; and seasonal adjustment and 3-mo rolling geometric average combined, after accounting for a break in the supply. Analyses were conducted to examine the effect, during the period from 2004 to 2010, of data adjustment on the percentage of herds with herd SCC >400,000 cells/mL. In all, 4 interpretation scenarios, incorporating different data adjustment combinations, were used to estimate herd eligibility (compliant, under warning, or suspended, as defined by legislation) to supply raw milk for processing. The 4 methods of data adjustment each led to a sizable reduction (6.7, 5.0, 5.3, and 11.1 percentage points, respectively, compared with the unadjusted data) in the percentage of herds exceeding a herd SCC of 400,000 cells/mL. Herd eligibility varied by interpretation scenarios, in particular those incorporating seasonal adjustment. The study provides new perspectives on the effect of data adjustment on herd SCC and of interpretation scenarios on herd eligibility. The results provide an illustrative

  13. Effects of chundosunbup Qi-training on psychological adjustments: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Lee, M S; Jeong, S M; Oh, S W; Ryu, H; Chung, H T

    1998-01-01

    This cross-sectional investigation evaluated the trend of psychological changes by ChunDoSunBup (CDSB) Qi-training using a self-report inventory of emotional distress, Symptom Check List-90-Revision (SCL-90-R). 41 normal healthy subjects (mean age = 20.98 +/- 5.39) and 123 CDSB Qi-trainees (divided into three groups, Q1, Q2 and Q3) participated in this study. Group Q1 has received 1-4 months CDSB Qi-training (age 21.95 +/- 7.82, n = 41); Q2 has 5-12 months Qi-training (age 20.0 +/- 7.75, n = 41); and Q3 has more than 13 months Qi-training (age 22.68 +/- 6.72, n = 41). Our results show that Qi-trainees over 13 months had significantly lower scores compared to controls. A significant negative correlation was found between the Qi-training period and all SCL-90-R subscales except phobic anxiety. These results suggest that CDSB Qi-training is effective in protection as well as reduction of psychological symptomatology.

  14. An adjustment of benthic ecological quality assessment to effects of salinity.

    PubMed

    Fleischer, Dirk; Zettler, Michael L

    2009-08-01

    In the last decade a politically inspired marine protection movement arose in the European Union. This movement leads to an holistic strategy. Merging the Water Framework Directive (WFD) and the Marine Strategy Directive (MSD) along the European coastline demands sophisticated ecological classification procedures. The 'Benthic Quality Index' (BQI) is one of several indices created in view of the WFD. We used the dynamic species reference system ES(50)(0.05) to test the capability of BQI to exclude primary environmental factors including the salinity gradient and depth (a proxy for the oxygen regime) from the ecological quality (EcoQ) assessment. A macrozoobenthos dataset of the southern Baltic Sea spreading over more than 20 years and over 100,000 km2 was used for the EcoQ assessment. Quality assurance rules were applied to the record set and an analytical dataset of 936 sampling events with 20,451 abundance records was used in the analysis. We show that the natural salinity gradient has a severe impact on the BQI based EcoQ. We adapted the calculation procedure to reduce the salinity effects to a minimum. According to the adaptation 503 sensitivity/tolerance values for 87 species were computed. These values were calculated within seven salinity ranges from 0 to >30 PSU and two depth zones. These values can be used as a reference for further investigation in the Baltic and other areas with similar environmental conditions. PMID:19084875

  15. Simple and cost-effective fabrication of solid biodegradable polymer microneedle arrays with adjustable aspect ratio for transdermal drug delivery using acupuncture microneedles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cha, Kyoung Je; Kim, Taewan; Jea Park, Sung; Kim, Dong Sung

    2014-11-01

    Polymer microneedle arrays (MNAs) have received much attention for their use in transdermal drug delivery and microneedle therapy systems due to the advantages they offer, such as low cost, good mechanical properties, and a versatile choice of materials. Here, we present a simple and cost-effective method for the fabrication of a biodegradable polymer MNA in which the aspect ratio of each microneedle is adjustable using commercially available acupuncture microneedles. In our process, a master template with acupuncture microneedles, whose shape will be the final MNA, was carefully prepared by fixing them onto a plastic substrate with selectively drilled holes which, in turn, determine the aspect ratios of the microneedles. A polylactic acid (PLA; a biodegradable polymer) MNA was fabricated by a micromolding process with a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) mold containing the cavity of the microneedles, which was obtained by the PDMS replica molding against the master template. The mechanical force and degradation behavior of the replicated PLA MNA were characterized with the help of a compression test and an accelerated degradation test, respectively. Finally, the transdermal drug delivery performance of the PLA MNA was successfully simulated by two different methods of penetration and staining, using the skin of a pig cadaver. These results indicated that the proposed method can be effectively used for the fabrication of polymer MNAs which can be used in various microneedle applications.

  16. [Prebiotics: concept, properties and beneficial effects].

    PubMed

    Corzo, N; Alonso, J L; Azpiroz, F; Calvo, M A; Cirici, M; Leis, R; Lombó, F; Mateos-Aparicio, I; Plou, F J; Ruas-Madiedo, P; Rúperez, P; Redondo-Cuenca, A; Sanz, M L; Clemente, A

    2015-02-07

    Prebiotics are non-digestible food ingredients (oligosaccharides) that reach the colon and are used as substrate by microorganisms producing energy, metabolites and micronutrients used for the host; in addition they also stimulate the selective growth of certain beneficial species (mainly bifidobacteria and lactobacilli) in the intestinal microbiota. In this article, a multidisciplinary approach to understand the concept of prebiotic carbohydrates, their properties and beneficial effects in humans has been carried out. Definitions of prebiotics, reported by relevant international organizations and researchers, are described. A comprehensive description of accepted prebiotics having strong scientific evidence of their beneficial properties in humans (inulin-type fructans, FOS, GOS, lactulose and human milk oligosaccharides) is reported. Emerging prebiotics and those which are in the early stages of study have also included in this study. Taken into account that the chemical structure greatly influences carbohydrates prebiotic properties, the analytical techniques used for their analysis and characterization are discussed. In vitro and in vivo models used to evaluate the gastrointestinal digestion, absorption resistance and fermentability in the colon of prebiotics as well as major criteria to design robust intervention trials in humans are described. Finally, a comprehensive summary of the beneficial effects of prebiotics for health at systemic and intestinal levels is reported. The research effort on prebiotics has been intensive in last decades and has demonstrated that a multidisciplinary approach is necessary in order to claim their health benefits.

  17. Long-Term Effects of Incestuous Child Abuse in College Women: Social Adjustment, Social Cognition, and Family Characteristics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harter, Stephanie; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Investigated family and social cognitive characteristics as mediators of social adjustment among college women. Indicated decreased cohesion and adaptability in the family of origin, increased perception of social isolation, and poorer social adjustment among subjects abused as children. Family characteristics and especially increased perceptions…

  18. Effect of molecular weight on polyphenylquinoxaline properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, Brian J.

    1991-01-01

    A series of polyphenyl quinoxalines with different molecular weight and end-groups were prepared by varying monomer stoichiometry. Thus, 4,4'-oxydibenzil and 3,3'-diaminobenzidine were reacted in a 50/50 mixture of m-cresol and xylenes. Reaction concentration, temperature, and stir rate were studied and found to have an effect on polymer properties. Number and weight average molecular weights were determined and correlated well with viscosity data. Glass transition temperatures were determined and found to vary with molecular weight and end-groups. Mechanical properties of films from polymers with different molecular weights were essentially identical at room temperature but showed significant differences at 232 C. Diamine terminated polymers were found to be much less thermooxidatively stable than benzil terminated polymers when aged at 316 C even though dynamic thermogravimetric analysis revealed only slight differences. Lower molecular weight polymers exhibited better processability than higher molecular weight polymers.

  19. The unusual properties of effective blood substitutes.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Amy G; Intaglietta, Marcos

    2002-03-01

    Blood substitutes or oxygen carrying plasma expanders were originally formulated to simulate the transport properties of blood, particularly oxygen carrying capacity, viscosity, p50, and colloid osmotic pressure, under the hypothesis that blood is the most desirable fluid in volume restitution. However, changes introduced into the organism during hemorrhage adversely affect microvascular function due to reflex vasoconstriction which causes the fall of functional capillary density, and lowers tissue oxygenation, conditions that are not universally reversed with retransfusion of blood. The restoration of microvascular function is seldom complete upon retransfusion of blood. New formulations of hemoglobin molecules in solutions whose oncotic pressure is in the range of 60-100 mmHg, p50 is about 5 mmHg, viscosity 3-4 cP, and oxygen carrying capacity in the range of 4-7 g/dl equivalent hemoglobin deliver better microvascular function after resuscitation when compared to whole blood and oxygen carrying plasma expanders with transport properties similar to those of blood. The improved performance is in part due to the increased plasma viscosity which increases capillary transmural pressure which reverses capillary collapse induced during low perfusion pressures. High oncotic pressure reinforces this effect, since it brings more fluid into the circulation. Microvascular transport studies of the effects of resuscitation in shock show that functional capillary density is the primary determinant of survival, thus maintenance of an open and fully perfused microcirculation is more critical than insuring oxygen supply, since closed capillaries lead to the accumulation of slowly diffusing byproducts of metabolism which ultimately become toxic. The required combination of properties can be achieved by conjugating hemoglobin and polyethylene glycol. Resuscitation fluids based on hemoglobin containing vesicles may provide the next level of functional improvement in the formulation

  20. Persistent sex-by-environment effects on offspring fitness and sex-ratio adjustment in a wild bird population

    PubMed Central

    Bowers, E. Keith; Thompson, Charles F.; Sakaluk, Scott K.

    2014-01-01

    Summary A major component of sex-allocation theory, the Trivers-Willard Model (TWM), posits that sons and daughters are differentially affected by variation in the rearing environment. In many species, the amount of parental care received is expected to have differing effects on the fitness of males and females. When this occurs, the TWM predicts that selection should favour adjustment of the offspring sex ratio in relation to the expected fitness return from offspring. However, evidence for sex-by-environment effects is mixed and little is known about the adaptive significance of producing either sex. Here, we test whether offspring sex ratios vary according to predictions of the TWM in the house wren (Troglodytes aedon, Vieillot). We also test the assumption of a sex-by-environment effect on offspring using two experiments, one in which we manipulated age-differences among nestlings within broods, and another in which we held nestling age constant but manipulated brood size. As predicted, females with high investment ability over-produced sons relative to those with lower ability. Males were also over-produced early within breeding seasons. In our experiments, the body mass of sons was more strongly affected by the sibling-competitive environment and resource availability than that of daughters: males grew heavier than females when reared in good conditions but were lighter than females when in poor conditions. Parents rearing broods with 1:1 sex ratios were more productive than parents rearing broods biased more strongly towards sons or daughters, suggesting that selection favours the production of mixed-sex broods. However, differences in the condition of offspring as neonates persisted to adulthood, and their reproductive success as adults varied with the body mass of sons, but not daughters, prior to independence from parental care. Thus, selection should favour slight but predictable variations in the sex ratio in relation to the quality of offspring that

  1. Persistent sex-by-environment effects on offspring fitness and sex-ratio adjustment in a wild bird population.

    PubMed

    Bowers, E Keith; Thompson, Charles F; Sakaluk, Scott K

    2015-03-01

    A major component of sex-allocation theory, the Trivers-Willard model (TWM), posits that sons and daughters are differentially affected by variation in the rearing environment. In many species, the amount of parental care received is expected to have differing effects on the fitness of males and females. When this occurs, the TWM predicts that selection should favour adjustment of the offspring sex ratio in relation to the expected fitness return from offspring. However, evidence for sex-by-environment effects is mixed, and little is known about the adaptive significance of producing either sex. Here, we test whether offspring sex ratios vary according to predictions of the TWM in the house wren (Troglodytes aedon, Vieillot). We also test the assumption of a sex-by-environment effect on offspring using two experiments, one in which we manipulated age differences among nestlings within broods, and another in which we held nestling age constant but manipulated brood size. As predicted, females with high investment ability overproduced sons relative to those with lower ability. Males were also overproduced early within breeding seasons. In our experiments, the body mass of sons was more strongly affected by the sibling-competitive environment and resource availability than that of daughters: males grew heavier than females when reared in good conditions but were lighter than females when in poor conditions. Parents rearing broods with 1:1 sex ratios were more productive than parents rearing broods biased more strongly towards sons or daughters, suggesting that selection favours the production of mixed-sex broods. However, differences in the condition of offspring as neonates persisted to adulthood, and their reproductive success as adults varied with the body mass of sons, but not daughters, prior to independence from parental care. Thus, selection should favour slight but predictable variations in the sex ratio in relation to the quality of offspring that parents are

  2. The effect of polygamous marital structure on behavioral, emotional, and academic adjustment in children: a comprehensive review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Elbedour, Salman; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J; Caridine, Corin; Abu-Saad, Hasan

    2002-12-01

    Polygamy represents expanded family structures that are based on marriages involving a husband with 2 or more wives. Interestingly, polygamy is legally and widely practiced in 850 societies across the globe. In the last 2 decades, polygamy has been the focus of a significant growth in public, political, and academic awareness. Indeed, several quantitative and qualitative research articles and theoretical papers have emerged during this period, particularly concerning the effects of this form of marital structure on behavioral, emotional, and academic adjustment of children. However, to date, no researcher has provided a summary of the extant literature. Thus, the purpose of this comprehensive literature review is to summarize findings and to discuss implications of empirical studies that have examined whether polygamous marital structures are beneficial or harmful to children in comparison with children raised in monogamous marital structures. This review includes a summary of the findings from all quantitative and qualitative studies in the extant literature that have examined the effect of polygamy on children's outcomes.

  3. Unexperienced mechanical effects of muscular fatigue can be predicted by the Central Nervous System as revealed by anticipatory postural adjustments.

    PubMed

    Monjo, Florian; Forestier, Nicolas

    2014-09-01

    Muscular fatigue effects have been shown to be compensated by the implementation of adaptive compensatory neuromuscular strategies, resulting in modifications of the initial motion coordination. However, no studies have focused on the efficiency of the feedforward motor commands when muscular fatigue occurs for the first time during a particular movement. This study included 18 healthy subjects who had to perform arm-raising movements in a standing posture at a maximal velocity before and after a fatiguing procedure involving focal muscles. The arm-raising task implies the generation of predictive processes of control, namely Anticipatory Postural Adjustments (APAs), whose temporal and quantitative features have been shown to be dependent on the kinematics of the upcoming arm-raising movement. By altering significantly the kinematic profile of the focal movement with a fatiguing procedure, we sought to find out whether APAs scaled to the lower mechanical disturbance. APAs were measured using surface electromyography. Following the fatiguing procedure, acceleration peaks of the arm movement decreased by ~27%. APAs scaled to this lower fatigue-related disturbance during the very first trial post-fatigue, suggesting that the Central Nervous System can predict unexperienced mechanical effects of muscle fatigue. It is suggested that these results are accounted for by prediction processes in which the central integration of the groups III and IV afferents leads to an update of the internal model by remapping the relationship between focal motor command magnitude and the actual mechanical output.

  4. Time-adjusted variable resistor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heyser, R. C.

    1972-01-01

    Timing mechanism was developed effecting extremely precisioned highly resistant fixed resistor. Switches shunt all or portion of resistor; effective resistance is varied over time interval by adjusting switch closure rate.

  5. Constraining the surface properties of effective Skyrme interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jodon, R.; Bender, M.; Bennaceur, K.; Meyer, J.

    2016-08-01

    Background: Deformation energy surfaces map how the total binding energy of a nuclear system depends on the geometrical properties of intrinsic configurations, thereby providing a powerful tool to interpret nuclear spectroscopy and large-amplitude collective-motion phenomena such as fission. The global behavior of the deformation energy is known to be directly connected to the surface properties of the effective interaction used for its calculation. Purpose: The precise control of surface properties during the parameter adjustment of an effective interaction is key to obtain a reliable and predictive description of nuclear properties. The most relevant indicator is the surface-energy coefficient asurf. There are several possibilities for its definition and estimation, which are not fully equivalent and require a computational effort that can differ by orders of magnitude. The purpose of this study is threefold: first, to identify a scheme for the determination of asurf that offers the best compromise between robustness, precision, and numerical efficiency; second, to analyze the correlation between values for asurf and the characteristic energies of the fission barrier of 240Pu; and third, to lay out an efficient and robust procedure for how the deformation properties of the Skyrme energy density functional (EDF) can be constrained during the parameter fit. Methods: There are several frequently used possibilities to define and calculate the surface energy coefficient asurf of effective interactions built for the purpose of self-consistent mean-field calculations. The most direct access is provided by the model system of semi-infinite nuclear matter, but asurf can also be extracted from the systematics of binding energies of finite nuclei. Calculations can be carried out either self-consistently [Hartree-Fock (HF)], which incorporates quantal shell effects, or in one of the semiclassical extended Thomas-Fermi (ETF) or modified Thomas-Fermi (MTF) approximations. The

  6. Electrostatic Embedding To Model the Impact of Environment on Photophysical Properties of Molecular Crystals: A Self-Consistent Charge Adjustment Procedure.

    PubMed

    Wilbraham, Liam; Adamo, Carlo; Labat, Frédéric; Ciofini, Ilaria

    2016-07-12

    A case study of 1,8-dihydroxy-2-napthaldehyde (DHNA)-exhibiting an excited-state intramolecular double proton transfer resulting in photophysical properties sensitive to the surrounding environment-has been used to assess the performance of electrostatic embedding approaches designed to accurately recover the effects of a bulk crystalline environment on calculated photophysical properties. The first approach, based on time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) applied in a QM/QM' scheme, makes use of a background point charge distribution which can accurately reproduce the exact ground-state Ewald potential of the bulk crystal. The second approach seeks to "optimize" these charges in a self-consistent manner in order to reproduce the electrostatic field produced by the environment at the excited state. Using these two approaches, both absorption and emission properties of molecular crystals, such as the position and the relative shift in the emission bands in the solid state with respect to solution, can be accurately reproduced. More generally, the results obtained show how these computationally affordable approaches can be used to predict the excited-state behavior of molecules in condensed phases, thus allowing their employment to predict or design new molecular materials with enhanced photophysical properties. PMID:27231786

  7. Effects of anharmonic vibrations on molecular properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lounila, J.; Wasser, R.; Diehl, P.

    In consequence of recent advances made mainly in ab initio methods, relatively accurate anharmonic force fields are beginning to be available for an increasing number of molecules. This makes the calculation of anharmonic vibrational averaging effects on various molecular properties practical. In the present paper this calculation is discussed in detail, pointing out the simplifications which result when the effects of anharmonicity are specified by the conversion between the equilibrium and average geometries of the molecule. The different contributions to the vibrational averages of the internal coordinates of the molecules HCN, C2H2, CH4, C6H6 and NH3 are reported, considering their sensitivity to the details of the force fields used in the calculation. By combining the results with the experimental structures of these molecules their equilibrium or average geometries are derived.

  8. Piston core properties and disturbance effects.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olsen, H.W.; Rice, T.L.; Mayne, P.W.; Singh, R.D.

    1986-01-01

    Laboratory geotechnical data on piston cores for 31 sites on the mid-Atlantic Upper Continental Slope show the near-surface sediments vary from normally consolidated to somewhat overconsolidated clayey silts and silty clays of low to high plasticity. They also exhibit normalized behavior and their index property correlations with the effective-stress friction angle, the undrained strength ratio, and the compression index are reasonably consistent with existing knowledge. Because existing knowledge concerning disturbance effect suggests that in-situ preconsolidation stress values should lie between those derived from the triaxial and laboratory vane data, the preconsolidation stress values obtained from the consolidation data appear to be appreciably smaller than in-situ values. -from ASCE Publications Information

  9. Biochar's effect on soil nitrous oxide emissions from a maize field with lime adjusted pH treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hüppi, Roman; Leifeld, Jens; Felber, Raphael; Neftel, Albrecht; Six, Johan

    2015-04-01

    Biochar is a carbon-rich, porous product from pyrolysis of organic residues. Especially tropical soils have shown positive response in yield to biochar addition. Its high stability in soil makes biochar a potent carbon sequestration option at the same time. A number of laboratory incubations have shown significantly reduced nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from soil when mixed with biochar. Emission measurements from the field show the same trend but are much more scarce. One of the hypothesized mechanisms for reduced N2O emissions from soil is owing to the increase in soil pH from the application of alkaline biochar. To test the effect of biochar on N2O emissions from a temperate maize system, we set up a field trial with a 20 t/ha biochar treatment, a limestone treatment adjusted to the same pH as with biochar and a control without addition. An automated static chamber greenhouse gas measurement system measured N2O emissions for each replicated (n=3) every 3.6 hours. The field was conventionally fertilised at a rate of 160 kg-N/ha in 3 doses of 40, 80 and 40 kg-N/ha. Cumulative emissions show a significant reduction for N2O in the biochar treatment by about 55 % relative to the control. The limed treatment shows similar emissions than control but with higher variability. This suggests that the N2O reduction effect of biochar is not mainly due to its liming effect. In conclusion, we confirm that biochar is a promising material to reduce N2O emissions from intensively managed agricultural soils.

  10. Parents who hit and scream: interactive effects of verbal and severe physical aggression on clinic-referred adolescents' adjustment.

    PubMed

    LeRoy, Michelle; Mahoney, Annette; Boxer, Paul; Gullan, Rebecca Lakin; Fang, Qijuan

    2014-05-01

    The goals of this study were first, to delineate the co-occurrence of parental severe physical aggression and verbal aggression toward clinic-referred adolescents, and second, to examine the interactive effects of parental severe physical aggression and verbal aggression on adolescent externalizing and internalizing behavior problems. This research involved 239 referrals of 11- to 18-year-old youth and their dual-parent families to a non-profit, private community mental health center in a semi-rural Midwest community. Multiple informants (i.e., adolescents and mothers) were used to assess parental aggression and adolescent behavior problems. More than half of clinic-referred adolescents (51%) experienced severe physical aggression and/or high verbal aggression from one or both parents. A pattern of interactive effects of mother-to-adolescent severe physical aggression and verbal aggression on adolescent behavior problems emerged, indicating that when severe physical aggression was present, mother-to-adolescent verbal aggression was positively associated with greater adolescent behavior problems whereas when severe physical aggression was not present, the links between verbal aggression and behavior problems was no longer significant. No interactive effects were found for father-to-adolescent severe physical aggression and verbal aggression on adolescent adjustment; however, higher father-to-adolescent verbal aggression was consistently linked to behavior problems above and beyond the influence of severe physical aggression. The results of this study should promote the practice of routinely assessing clinic-referred adolescents and their parents about their experiences of verbal aggression in addition to severe physical aggression and other forms of abuse.

  11. Spousal Adjustment to Myocardial Infarction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziglar, Elisa J.

    This paper reviews the literature on the stresses and coping strategies of spouses of patients with myocardial infarction (MI). It attempts to identify specific problem areas of adjustment for the spouse and to explore the effects of spousal adjustment on patient recovery. Chapter one provides an overview of the importance in examining the…

  12. Signal Amplification in Field Effect-Based Sandwich Enzyme-Linked Immunosensing by Tuned Buffer Concentration with Ionic Strength Adjuster.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Satyendra; Kumar, Narendra; Panda, Siddhartha

    2016-04-01

    Miniaturization of the sandwich enzyme-based immunosensor has several advantages but could result in lower signal strength due to lower enzyme loading. Hence, technologies for amplification of the signal are needed. Signal amplification in a field effect-based electrochemical immunosensor utilizing chip-based ELISA is presented in this work. First, the molarities of phosphate buffer saline (PBS) and concentrations of KCl as ionic strength adjuster were optimized to maximize the GOx glucose-based enzymatic reactions in a beaker for signal amplification measured by change in the voltage shift with an EIS device (using 20 μl of solution) and validated with a commercial pH meter (using 3 ml of solution). The PBS molarity of 100 μM with 25 mM KCl provided the maximum voltage shift. These optimized buffer conditions were further verified for GOx immobilized on silicon chips, and similar trends with decreased PBS molarity were obtained; however, the voltage shift values obtained on chip reaction were lower as compared to the reactions occurring in the beaker. The decreased voltage shift with immobilized enzyme on chip could be attributed to the increased Km (Michaelis-Menten constant) values in the immobilized GOx. Finally, a more than sixfold signal enhancement (from 8 to 47 mV) for the chip-based sandwich immunoassay was obtained by altering the PBS molarity from 10 to 100 μM with 25 mM KCl.

  13. Disability-adjusted life years in the assessment of health effects of traffic-related air pollution.

    PubMed

    Adamkiewicz, Ł; Badyda, A J; Gayer, A; Mucha, D

    2015-01-01

    Traffic-related air pollutants have an impact on human health and have been recognized as one of the main stressors that cause mortality and morbidity in urban areas. Research confirms that citizens living in the vicinity of main roads are strongly exposed to high concentrations of numerous air pollutants. In the present study the measurements of traffic-related parameters such as density, velocity, and structure were performed for cross-sections of selected street canyons in Warsaw, the capital city of Poland. In addition, the results of the general traffic measurements were used to describe the number of cars crossing the border of the city. Vehicle emissions of PM10 were calculated for the whole city area and changes of the PM10 concentration were modeled to present the exposure to this pollutant that could be attributable to traffic. The principles of the environmental burden of disease (EBD) were used. The assessment of the impact of traffic-related air pollutants on human health was made. The results, presented in disability-adjusted life years (DALY), were based on the outcomes of the study conducted in 2008-2012 in Warsaw, one the most congested agglomerations in Europe, and included the health damage effect of the exposure to high concentrations of air pollutants. DALY calculations were performed in accordance to the methodologies used in renowned international scientific research on EBD.

  14. A highly effective and adjustable dual plasmid system for O-GlcNAcylated recombinant protein production in E. coli.

    PubMed

    Han, Cuifang; Shan, Hui; Bi, Chuanlin; Zhang, Xinling; Qi, Jieqiong; Zhang, Boyuan; Gu, Yuchao; Yu, Wengong

    2015-06-01

    O-GlcNAcylation is a ubiquitous, dynamic and reversible post-translational protein modification in metazoans, and it is catalysed and removed by O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) and O-GlcNAcase, respectively. Prokaryotes lack endogenous OGT activity. It has been reported that coexpression of mammalian OGT with its target substrates in Escherichia coli produce O-GlcNAcylated recombinant proteins, but the plasmids used were not compatible, and the expression of both OGT and its target protein were induced by the same inducer. Here, we describe a compatible dual plasmid system for coexpression of OGT and its target substrate for O-GlcNAcylated protein production in E. coli. The approach was validated using the CKII and p53 protein as control. This compatible dual plasmid system contains an arabinose-inducible OGT expression vector with a pUC origin and an isopropyl β-d-thiogalactopyranoside-inducible OGT target substrate expression vector bearing a p15A origin. The dual plasmid system produces recombinant proteins with varying O-GlcNAcylation levels by altering the inducer concentration. More importantly, the O-GlcNAcylation efficiency was much higher than the previously reported system. Altogether, we established an adjustable compatible dual plasmid system that can effectively yield O-GlcNAcylated proteins in E. coli.

  15. Clinical effectiveness of the activator adjusting instrument in the management of musculoskeletal disorders: a systematic review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Huggins, Tiffany; Boras, Ana Luburic; Gleberzon, Brian J.; Popescu, Mara; Bahry, Lianna A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic review of the literature investigating clinical outcomes involving the use of the Activator Adjusting Instrument (AAI) or Activator Methods Chiropractic Technique (AMCT). Methods: A literature synthesis was performed on the available research and electronic databases, along with hand-searching of journals and reference tracking for any studies that investigated the AAI in terms of clinical effectiveness. Studies that met the inclusion criteria were evaluated using an instrument that assessed their methodological quality. Results: Eight articles met the inclusion criteria. Overall, the AAI provided comparable clinically meaningful benefits to patients when compared to high-velocity, low-amplitude (HVLA) manual manipulation or trigger point therapy for patients with acute and chronic spinal pain, temporomandibular joint (TMJ) dysfunction and trigger points of the trapezius muscles. Conclusion: This systematic review of 8 clinical trials involving the use of the AAI found reported benefits to patients with a spinal pain and trigger points, although the clinical trials reviewed suffered from many methodological limitations, including small sample size, relatively brief follow-up period and lack of control or sham treatment groups. PMID:22457541

  16. Small-area health comparisons using health-adjusted life expectancies: a Bayesian random-effects approach.

    PubMed

    Jonker, Marcel F; Congdon, Peter D; van Lenthe, Frank J; Donkers, Bas; Burdorf, Alex; Mackenbach, Johan P

    2013-09-01

    Health-adjusted life expectancy (HALE) is one of the most attractive summary measures of population health. It provides balanced attention to fatal as well as non-fatal health outcomes, is sensitive to the severity of morbidity within the population, and can be readily compared between areas with very different population age structures. HALE, however, cannot be calculated at the small-area level using traditional life table methodology. Hence we propose a Bayesian random-effects modeling approach that recognizes correlations and pools strength between sexes, age-groups, geographical areas, and health outcomes. This approach allows for the calculation of HALE for areas as small as 2000 person years at risk and with relatively modest health state survey sample sizes. The feasibility of the Bayesian approach is illustrated in a real-life example, which also shows how differences in areas' health performances can be adequately quantified. Such information can be invaluable for the appropriate targetting and subsequent evaluation of urban regeneration, neighborhood renewal, and community-based initiatives aimed at improving health and reducing health inequalities. PMID:23778148

  17. Effects of resveratrol on membrane biophysical properties: relevance for its pharmacological effects.

    PubMed

    Brittes, J; Lúcio, M; Nunes, C; Lima, J L F C; Reis, S

    2010-11-01

    The current study gathers a range of spectrophotometric and spectrofluorimetric techniques to systematically monitor the effects of resveratrol (trans-3,5,4'-trihydrostilbene) on the biophysical properties of membrane model systems consisting of unilamellar liposomes of phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) with the ultimate goal of relating these effects with some of the well documented pharmacological properties of this compound, and clarifying some controversial results reported on the literature. Physiological conditions have been pursued, such as a buffered pH control with adjusted ionic strength similar to the blood plasma conditions (pH 7.4, I=0.1M) and the study at different membrane physical states (gel phase and fluid phase) for the assessment of resveratrol-membrane: aqueous partition coefficient by derivative spectroscopy. Results obtained by fluorescence quenching and anisotropy studies indicate that resveratrol has a membrane fluidizing effect and is able to permeate the membrane even in the gel phase. These results mirror the well described antioxidant effect of resveratrol, since antioxidants have to reach peroxidised rigid membranes and increase membrane fluidity in order to interact more efficiently with lipid radicals in the disordered lipid bilayer. Location of resveratrol pointed also to a membrane distribution that is favourable for scavenging the lipid radicals and was elucidated using probes positioned at different membrane depths suggesting that this compound penetrates into the acyl membrane region but also positions its polar hydroxyl group near the headgroup region of the membrane. PMID:20691168

  18. Effects of Knots on Protein Folding Properties

    PubMed Central

    Soler, Miguel A.; Faísca, Patrícia F. N.

    2013-01-01

    This work explores the impact of knots, knot depth and motif of the threading terminus in protein folding properties (kinetics, thermodynamics and mechanism) via extensive Monte Carlo simulations of lattice models. A knotted backbone has no effect on protein thermodynamic stability but it may affect key aspects of folding kinetics. In this regard, we found clear evidence for a functional advantage of knots: knots enhance kinetic stability because a knotted protein unfolds at a distinctively slower rate than its unknotted counterpart. However, an increase in knot deepness does not necessarily lead to more effective changes in folding properties. In this regard, a terminus with a non-trivial conformation (e.g. hairpin) can have a more dramatic effect in enhancing kinetic stability than knot depth. Nevertheless, our results suggest that the probability of the denatured ensemble to keep knotted is higher for proteins with deeper knots, indicating that knot depth plays a role in determining the topology of the denatured state. Refolding simulations starting from denatured knotted conformations show that not every knot is able to nucleate folding and further indicate that the formation of the knotting loop is a key event in the folding of knotted trefoils. They also show that there are specific native contacts within the knotted core that are crucial to keep a native knotting loop in denatured conformations which otherwise have no detectable structure. The study of the knotting mechanism reveals that the threading of the knotting loop generally occurs towards late folding in conformations that exhibit a significant degree of structural consolidation. PMID:24023962

  19. Adjustable magnetoelectric effect of self-assembled vertical multiferroic nanocomposite films by the in-plane misfit strain and ferromagnetic volume fraction

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Huaping; Chai, Guozhong; Zhou, Ting; Zhang, Zheng; Kitamura, Takayuki; Zhou, Haomiao

    2014-03-21

    The strain-mediated magnetoelectric (ME) property of self-assembled vertical multiferroic nanocomposite films epitaxially grown on cubic substrates was calculated by a nonlinear thermodynamic theory combined with the elastic theory. The dependent relations of phase state of ferroelectric films with the in-plane misfit strain, out-of-plane misfit strain, temperature, and volume fraction of ferromagnetic phase were confirmed. The effects of in-plane misfit strain and ferromagnetic volume fraction on the polarization and dielectric constant of ferroelectric films at room temperature were elaborately analyzed for the vertical BaTiO{sub 3}-CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} and PbTiO{sub 3}-CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanocomposite films. Our calculated results confirmed the relationship among ME effect and in-plane misfit strain and ferromagnetic volume fraction in the nanocomposite films. The ME voltage coefficients of vertical BaTiO{sub 3}-CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} and PbTiO{sub 3}-CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanocomposite films displayed various maximums and abrupt points at special phases and phase transition boundaries. The ME voltage coefficients of lead-free BaTiO{sub 3}-CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanocomposite films epitaxially grown on different substrates could reach a comparative value of ∼2 V·cm{sup −1}·Oe{sup −1} under the controllable in-plane misfit strain induced by substrate clamping. Our results provided an available method for the optimal design of vertical multiferroic nanocomposites with adjustable ME effect by optimizing the ferromagnetic volume fraction and substrate type.

  20. Effect of cryogel on soil properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altunina, L. K.; Fufaeva, M. S.; Filatov, D. A.; Svarovskaya, L. I.; Rozhdestvenskii, E. A.; Gan-Erdene, T.

    2014-05-01

    Samples from the A1 and A1A2 horizons of sandy loamy gray forest soil containing 3.1% organic matter have been mixed with a 5% solution of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) at a ratio of 7 : 1 under laboratory conditions. The samples were frozen at -20°C in a refrigerator; after a freezing-thawing cycle, the evaporation of water from their surface, their thermal conductivity coefficient, their elasticity modulus, and other properties were studied. It has been experimentally found that the thermal conductivity coefficient of cryostructured soil is lower than that of common soil by 25%. It has been shown that the cryostructured soil retains water for a longer time and that the water evaporation rate from its surface is significantly lower compared to the control soil. Cryogel has no negative effect on the catalase activity of soil; it changes the physical properties of soils and positively affects the population of indigenous soil microflora and the growth of the sown plants.

  1. Adjustable Autonomy Testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, Jane T.; Schrenkenghost, Debra K.

    2001-01-01

    The Adjustable Autonomy Testbed (AAT) is a simulation-based testbed located in the Intelligent Systems Laboratory in the Automation, Robotics and Simulation Division at NASA Johnson Space Center. The purpose of the testbed is to support evaluation and validation of prototypes of adjustable autonomous agent software for control and fault management for complex systems. The AA T project has developed prototype adjustable autonomous agent software and human interfaces for cooperative fault management. This software builds on current autonomous agent technology by altering the architecture, components and interfaces for effective teamwork between autonomous systems and human experts. Autonomous agents include a planner, flexible executive, low level control and deductive model-based fault isolation. Adjustable autonomy is intended to increase the flexibility and effectiveness of fault management with an autonomous system. The test domain for this work is control of advanced life support systems for habitats for planetary exploration. The CONFIG hybrid discrete event simulation environment provides flexible and dynamically reconfigurable models of the behavior of components and fluids in the life support systems. Both discrete event and continuous (discrete time) simulation are supported, and flows and pressures are computed globally. This provides fast dynamic simulations of interacting hardware systems in closed loops that can be reconfigured during operations scenarios, producing complex cascading effects of operations and failures. Current object-oriented model libraries support modeling of fluid systems, and models have been developed of physico-chemical and biological subsystems for processing advanced life support gases. In FY01, water recovery system models will be developed.

  2. Language Adjustment of International Students in the US: A Social Network Analysis on the Effects of Language Resources, Language Norm and Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qiu, Wei

    2011-01-01

    The study explores factors that enhance or inhibit the language adjustment of international students in the U.S. Using social network influence model, the study examines the effects of language resources, language norm, and technology use on international students' self-confidence in overall English skills and four subskills, namely, listening,…

  3. The Effects of Economic and Social Stressors on Parenting and Adolescent Adjustment of African-American Families. CEIC Research Brief, No. 109.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Ronald

    This study examines economic and social stressors and their effects on the parenting styles and adolescent adjustment of African American families. It systematically characterizes and explains the nature of some of the chronic economic and social stressors experienced by poor African American families as they affect parenting and adolescent…

  4. Growing up in a Dangerous Developmental Milieu: The Effects of Parenting Processes on Adjustment in Inner-City African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vazsonyi, Alexander T.; Pickering, Lloyd E.; Bolland, John M.

    2006-01-01

    The current longitudinal study examined the protective effects of parenting processes on measures of adolescent adjustment (health-compromising and violent behaviors) in a sample of high-risk, inner-city, poor African American youth N = 2,867). Parenting processes played an important role in this dangerous developmental milieu. For male…

  5. Effectiveness of Group Positive Parenting Program (Triple P) in Changing Child Behavior, Parenting Style, and Parental Adjustment: An Intervention Study in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fujiwara, Takeo; Kato, Noriko; Sanders, Matthew R.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of a group-based family intervention program known as the Group Positive Parenting Program (Triple P), with families in Japan. Reductions in children's behavioral problems, changes in dysfunctional parenting practices, and affects on parenting adjustment were examined. Participants of…

  6. Effect of bars on the galaxy properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vera, Matias; Alonso, Sol; Coldwell, Georgina

    2016-10-01

    Aims: With the aim of assessing the effects of bars on disk galaxy properties, we present an analysis of different characteristics of spiral galaxies with strong bars, weak bars and without bars. Methods: We identified barred galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). By visual inspection of SDSS images we classified the face-on spiral galaxies brighter than g< 16.5 mag into strong-bar, weak-bar, and unbarred galaxies. With the goal of providing an appropriate quantification of the influence of bars on galaxy properties, we also constructed a suitable control sample of unbarred galaxies with similar redshifts, magnitudes, morphology, bulge sizes, and local density environment distributions to those of barred galaxies. Results: We found 522 strong-barred and 770 weak-barred galaxies; this represents a bar fraction of 25.82% with respect to the full sample of spiral galaxies, in good agreement with several previous studies. We also found that strong-barred galaxies show lower efficiency in star formation activity and older stellar populations (as derived with the Dn(4000) spectral index) with respect to weak-barred and unbarred spirals from the control sample. In addition, there is a significant excess of strong-barred galaxies with red colors. The color-color and color-magnitude diagrams show that unbarred and weak-barred galaxies are more extended towards the blue zone, while strong-barred disk objects are mostly grouped in the red region. Strong-barred galaxies present an important excess of high metallicity values compared to unbarred and weak-barred disk objects, which show similar distributions. Regarding the mass-metallicity relation, we found that weak-barred and unbarred galaxies are fitted by similar curves, while strong-barred ones show a curve that falls abruptly with more significance in the range of low stellar masses (log (M∗/M⊙) < 10.0). These results would indicate that prominent bars produced an accelerating effect on the gas processing

  7. Longitudinal field investigation of the moderating and mediating effects of self-efficacy on the relationship between training and newcomer adjustment.

    PubMed

    Saks, A M

    1995-04-01

    A longitudinal field study examined the moderating and mediating effects of self-efficacy on the relationship between training and the adjustment of newcomers during their 1st year of employment. The results provided some support for the hypothesis that initial self-efficacy moderates the relationship between training and adjustment. Training was more strongly related to posttraining self-efficacy, ability to cope, job performance, and intention to quit the profession for newcomers with low levels of initial self-efficacy mediates the relationship between training and adjustment; however, evidence of complete mediation was found only for ability to cope. Posttraining self-efficacy partially mediated the relationships between training and job satisfaction, organizational and professional commitment, and intention to quit the organization and the profession. Research and practical implications of these findings for the training and the socialization of newcomers are discussed.

  8. Atmospheric aerosols: Their Optical Properties and Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Measured properties of atmospheric aerosol particles are presented. These include aerosol size frequency distribution and complex retractive index. The optical properties of aerosols are computed based on the presuppositions of thermodynamic equilibrium and of Mie-theory.

  9. Effects of Autistic Traits on Social and School Adjustment in Children and Adolescents: The Moderating Roles of Age and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsiao, Mei-Ni; Tseng, Wan-Ling; Huang, Hui-Yi; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the associations between children's and adolescents' autistic-like social deficits and school and social adjustment as well as the moderating roles of age and gender in these associations. The sample consisted of 1321 students (48.7% boys) in Grade 1 to Grade 8 from northern Taiwan. Children's and adolescents' autistic-like…

  10. The Effects of Child Sexual Abuse in Later Family Life; Mental Health, Parenting and Adjustment of Offspring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Ron; O'Connor, Tom; Dunn, Judy; Golding, Jean

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate links between child sexual abuse (occurring before 13 years), later mental health, family organization, parenting behaviors, and adjustment in offspring. Method: The present study investigates a subsample of the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children an ongoing study of women and their families in the area of…

  11. The Effect of Undergraduate GPA Selectivity Adjustment on Pre-interview Ranking of Rural Medical School Applicants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Gregory Eastham; Blue, Amy Victoria; Basco, William Thomas, Jr.

    2003-01-01

    Almost all U.S. medical schools adjust applicants' GPAs based on the selectivity of applicants' undergraduate institutions. Analysis of data from 2,033 in-state applicants to the Medical University of South Carolina, 1996-99, found that this practice did not adversely affect the number of rural applicants offered admission interviews. (SV)

  12. The Adjustment Process for Individuals with Spinal Cord Injury: The Effect of Perceived Premorbid Sense of Coherence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lustig, Daniel C.

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between perceived changes in sense of coherence from pre- to postinjury and adjustment for a group of individuals with spinal cord injury. It was hypothesized that after a spinal cord injury, an individual's belief that he or she had significantly reduced his or her sense of coherence would be associated…

  13. Structural characteristics of surface-functionalized nitrogen-doped diamond-like carbon films and effective adjustment to cell attachment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ai-Ping; Liu, Min; Yu, Jian-Can; Qian, Guo-Dong; Tang, Wei-Hua

    2015-05-01

    Nitrogen-doped diamond-like carbon (DLC:N) films prepared by the filtered cathodic vacuum arc technology are functionalized with various chemical molecules including dopamine (DA), 3-Aminobenzeneboronic acid (APBA), and adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and the impacts of surface functionalities on the surface morphologies, compositions, microstructures, and cell compatibility of the DLC:N films are systematically investigated. We demonstrate that the surface groups of DLC:N have a significant effect on the surface and structural properties of the film. The activity of PC12 cells depends on the particular type of surface functional groups of DLC:N films regardless of surface roughness and wettability. Our research offers a novel way for designing functionalized carbon films as tailorable substrates for biosensors and biomedical engineering applications. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51272237, 51272231, and 51010002) and the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (Grant Nos. 2012M520063, 2013T60587, and Bsh1201016).

  14. Effect of Chitosan Properties on Immunoreactivity

    PubMed Central

    Ravindranathan, Sruthi; Koppolu, Bhanu prasanth; Smith, Sean G.; Zaharoff, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Chitosan is a widely investigated biopolymer in drug and gene delivery, tissue engineering and vaccine development. However, the immune response to chitosan is not clearly understood due to contradicting results in literature regarding its immunoreactivity. Thus, in this study, we analyzed effects of various biochemical properties, namely degree of deacetylation (DDA), viscosity/polymer length and endotoxin levels, on immune responses by antigen presenting cells (APCs). Chitosan solutions from various sources were treated with mouse and human APCs (macrophages and/or dendritic cells) and the amount of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) released by the cells was used as an indicator of immunoreactivity. Our results indicate that only endotoxin content and not DDA or viscosity influenced chitosan-induced immune responses. Our data also indicate that low endotoxin chitosan (<0.01 EU/mg) ranging from 20 to 600 cP and 80% to 97% DDA is essentially inert. This study emphasizes the need for more complete characterization and purification of chitosan in preclinical studies in order for this valuable biomaterial to achieve widespread clinical application. PMID:27187416

  15. Effects of live weight adjusted feeding strategy on plasma indicators of energy balance in Holstein cows managed for extended lactation.

    PubMed

    Gaillard, C; Vestergaard, M; Weisbjerg, M R; Sehested, J

    2016-04-01

    In early lactation, most of the dairy cows are in negative energy balance; the extent and duration depend in part on the feeding strategy. Previous studies showed an increased lactation milk yield by use of a live weight (LW) adjusted feeding strategy with a high energy diet before and a reduced energy diet after LW nadir compared with a standard diet throughout lactation. The objective of the present study was to examine how such an individualized feeding strategy affects plasma indicators of energy status. It was hypothesized that an energy-enriched diet until LW nadir will reduce the severity of the negative energy balance, and that the reduction in diet energy concentration from LW nadir will extend the negative energy balance period further. Sixty-two Holstein cows (30% first parity) were managed for 16 months extended lactation and randomly allocated to one of two feeding strategies at calving. Two partially mixed rations were used, one with a high energy density (HD) and a 50 : 50 forage : concentrate ratio, and one with a lower energy density (LD, control diet) and a 60 : 40 forage : concentrate ratio. Half of the cows were offered the HD diet until they reached at least 42 days in milk and a LW gain⩾0 kg/day based on a 5-days LW average, and were then shifted to the LD diet (strategy HD-LD). The other half of the cows were offered the LD diet throughout lactation (control strategy LD-LD). Weekly blood samples were drawn for analysis of plasma metabolites and hormones. Before the shift in diet, the HD-LD cows had higher glucose and lower beta-hydroxybutyrate and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) concentrations than the LD-LD cows. After the shift until 36 weeks after calving, plasma NEFA was higher in HD-LD than LD-LD cows. Insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 were not affected by the feeding strategy. To conclude, in early lactation, the energy-enriched diet reduced the negative energy balance. Plasma NEFA was higher in HD-LD than LD-LD cows from

  16. Fine Mapping Seronegative and Seropositive Rheumatoid Arthritis to Shared and Distinct HLA Alleles by Adjusting for the Effects of Heterogeneity

    PubMed Central

    Han, Buhm; Diogo, Dorothée; Eyre, Steve; Kallberg, Henrik; Zhernakova, Alexandra; Bowes, John; Padyukov, Leonid; Okada, Yukinori; González-Gay, Miguel A.; Rantapää-Dahlqvist, Solbritt; Martin, Javier; Huizinga, Tom W.J.; Plenge, Robert M.; Worthington, Jane; Gregersen, Peter K.; Klareskog, Lars; de Bakker, Paul I.W.; Raychaudhuri, Soumya

    2014-01-01

    Despite progress in defining human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles for anti-citrullinated-protein-autoantibody-positive (ACPA+) rheumatoid arthritis (RA), identifying HLA alleles for ACPA-negative (ACPA−) RA has been challenging because of clinical heterogeneity within clinical cohorts. We imputed 8,961 classical HLA alleles, amino acids, and SNPs from Immunochip data in a discovery set of 2,406 ACPA− RA case and 13,930 control individuals. We developed a statistical approach to identify and adjust for clinical heterogeneity within ACPA− RA and observed independent associations for serine and leucine at position 11 in HLA-DRβ1 (p = 1.4 × 10−13, odds ratio [OR] = 1.30) and for aspartate at position 9 in HLA-B (p = 2.7 × 10−12, OR = 1.39) within the peptide binding grooves. These amino acid positions induced associations at HLA-DRB1∗03 (encoding serine at 11) and HLA-B∗08 (encoding aspartate at 9). We validated these findings in an independent set of 427 ACPA− case subjects, carefully phenotyped with a highly sensitive ACPA assay, and 1,691 control subjects (HLA-DRβ1 Ser11+Leu11: p = 5.8 × 10−4, OR = 1.28; HLA-B Asp9: p = 2.6 × 10−3, OR = 1.34). Although both amino acid sites drove risk of ACPA+ and ACPA− disease, the effects of individual residues at HLA-DRβ1 position 11 were distinct (p < 2.9 × 10−107). We also identified an association with ACPA+ RA at HLA-A position 77 (p = 2.7 × 10−8, OR = 0.85) in 7,279 ACPA+ RA case and 15,870 control subjects. These results contribute to mounting evidence that ACPA+ and ACPA− RA are genetically distinct and potentially have separate autoantigens contributing to pathogenesis. We expect that our approach might have broad applications in analyzing clinical conditions with heterogeneity at both major histocompatibility complex (MHC) and non-MHC regions. PMID:24656864

  17. Functional properties of bone marrow derived multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells are altered in heart failure patients, and could be corrected by adjustment of expansion strategies

    PubMed Central

    Dmitrieva, Renata I.; Revittser, Alla V.; Klukina, Maria A.; Sviryaev, Yuri V.; Korostovtseva, Ludmila S.; Kostareva, Anna A.; Zaritskey, Andrey Yu.; Shlyakhto, Evgeny V.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Bone marrow multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (BM-MMSC) considered as a prospective substrate for cell therapy applications, however adult stem cells could be affected by donor-specific factors: age, gender, medical history. Our aim was to investigate how HF affects the functional properties of BM-MMSC. Materials and methods: BM-MMSC from 10 healthy donors (HD), and 16 donors with chronic HF were evaluated for proliferative activity, ability to differentiate, replicative senescence, expression of genes that affect regeneration and fibrosis. The effect of culturing conditions on efficiency of BM-MMSC expansion was determined. Results: HF-derived BM-MMSC demonstrated early decrease of proliferative activity and upregulation of genes that control both, regeneration and fibrosis: Tgf-β pathway, synthesis of ECM, remodeling enzymes, adhesion molecules. We assume that these effects were related to increase of frequency of myofibroblast-like CD146+/SMAα+ CFU-F in HF samples; (ii) low seeding density and hypoxia resulted in predominant purification and expansion of CD146+/SMAα- CFU-Fs. (iii) the activity of NPs system was downregulated in HF BM-MMSC; Conclusions: downregulation of NP signaling in combination with upregulation of Tgf-β pathway in BM-MMSC would result in pro-fibrotic phenotype and make these cells non-effective for therapeutic applications; the corrections in culturing strategy resulted in 23-27 increase of expansion efficiency. PMID:25606985

  18. Effects of Increased Loading on In Vivo Tendon Properties: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    WIESINGER, HANS-PETER; KÖSTERS, ALEXANDER; MÜLLER, ERICH; SEYNNES, OLIVIER R.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction In vivo measurements have been used in the past two decades to investigate the effects of increased loading on tendon properties, yet the current understanding of tendon macroscopic changes to training is rather fragmented, limited to reports of tendon stiffening, supported by changes in material properties and/or tendon hypertrophy. The main aim of this review was to analyze the existing literature to gain further insights into tendon adaptations by extracting patterns of dose-response and time-course. Methods PubMed/Medline, SPORTDiscus, and Google Scholar databases were searched for studies examining the effect of training on material, mechanical, and morphological properties via longitudinal or cross-sectional designs. Results Thirty-five of 6440 peer-reviewed articles met the inclusion criteria. The key findings were i) the confirmation of a nearly systematic adaptation of tendon tissue to training, ii) the important variability in the observed changes in tendon properties between and within studies, and iii) the absence of a consistent incremental pattern regarding the dose-response or the time-course relation of tendon adaptation within the first months of training. However, long-term (years) training was associated with a larger tendon cross-sectional area, without any evidence of differences in material properties. Our analysis also highlighted several gaps in the existing literature, which may be addressed in future research. Conclusions In line with some cross-species observations about tendon design, tendon cross-sectional area allegedly constitutes the ultimate adjusting parameter to increased loading. We propose here a theoretical model placing tendon hypertrophy and adjustments in material properties as parts of the same adaptive continuum. PMID:25563908

  19. Parental physical punishment and adolescent adjustment: bidirectionality and the moderation effects of child ethnicity and parental warmth.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ming-Te; Kenny, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    This study used cross-lagged modeling to examine reciprocal relations between maternal and paternal physical punishment and adolescent misconduct and depressive symptoms, while accounting for stability in both physical punishment and adjustment problems over time. Data were drawn from a sample of 862 two-parent families and their adolescent children (52 % males; 54 % European American; 44 % African American; 2 % other ethnic backgrounds). Mothers' and fathers' physical punishment of their adolescents' ages 12 and 14 predicted increased misconduct and depressive symptoms among these adolescents at ages 14 and 16. Adolescent misconduct, but not depressive symptoms, at ages 12 and 14 predicted increased physical punishment by their parents at ages 14 and 16. Neither parental warmth nor child ethnicity moderated the longitudinal relationship between parental physical punishment and adolescent adjustment. Patterns of findings were similar across mothers and fathers.

  20. Parental physical punishment and adolescent adjustment: bidirectionality and the moderation effects of child ethnicity and parental warmth.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ming-Te; Kenny, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    This study used cross-lagged modeling to examine reciprocal relations between maternal and paternal physical punishment and adolescent misconduct and depressive symptoms, while accounting for stability in both physical punishment and adjustment problems over time. Data were drawn from a sample of 862 two-parent families and their adolescent children (52 % males; 54 % European American; 44 % African American; 2 % other ethnic backgrounds). Mothers' and fathers' physical punishment of their adolescents' ages 12 and 14 predicted increased misconduct and depressive symptoms among these adolescents at ages 14 and 16. Adolescent misconduct, but not depressive symptoms, at ages 12 and 14 predicted increased physical punishment by their parents at ages 14 and 16. Neither parental warmth nor child ethnicity moderated the longitudinal relationship between parental physical punishment and adolescent adjustment. Patterns of findings were similar across mothers and fathers. PMID:24384596

  1. Tillage Effects on Soil Properties & Respiration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusu, Teodor; Bogdan, Ileana; Moraru, Paula; Pop, Adrian; Duda, Bogdan; Cacovean, Horea; Coste, Camelia

    2015-04-01

    Soil tillage systems can be able to influence soil compaction, water dynamics, soil temperature and soil structural condition. These processes can be expressed as changes of soil microbiological activity, soil respiration and sustainability of agriculture. Objectives of this study were: 1) to assess the effects of tillage systems (Conventional System-CS, Minimum Tillage-MT, No-Tillage-NT) on soil compaction, soil temperature, soil moisture and soil respiration and 2) to establish the relationship that exists in changing soil properties. Three treatments were installed: CS-plough + disc; MT-paraplow + rotary grape; NT-direct sowing. The study was conducted on an Argic-Stagnic Faeoziom. The MT and NT applications reduce or completely eliminate the soil mobilization, due to this, soil is compacted in the first year of application. The degree of compaction is directly related to soil type and its state of degradation. The state of soil compaction diminished over time, tending toward a specific type of soil density. Soil moisture was higher in NT and MT at the time of sowing and in the early stages of vegetation and differences diminished over time. Moisture determinations showed statistically significant differences. The MT and NT applications reduced the thermal amplitude in the first 15 cm of soil depth and increased the soil temperature by 0.5-2.20C. The determinations confirm the effect of soil tillage system on soil respiration; the daily average was lower at NT (315-1914 mmoli m-2s-1) and followed by MT (318-2395 mmoli m-2s-1) and is higher in the CS (321-2480 mmol m-2s-1). Comparing with CS, all the two conservation tillage measures decreased soil respiration, with the best effects of no-tillage. An exceeding amount of CO2 produced in the soil and released into the atmosphere, resulting from aerobic processes of mineralization of organic matter (excessive loosening) is considered to be not only a way of increasing the CO2 in the atmosphere, but also a loss of

  2. Effects of molybdenum on water utilization, antioxidative defense system and osmotic-adjustment ability in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) under drought stress.

    PubMed

    Wu, Songwei; Hu, Chengxiao; Tan, Qiling; Nie, Zhaojun; Sun, Xuecheng

    2014-10-01

    Molybdenum (Mo), as an essential trace element in plants, plays an essential role in abiotic stress tolerance of plants. To obtain a better understanding of drought tolerance enhanced by Mo, a hydroponic trial was conducted to investigate the effects of Mo on water utilization, antioxidant enzymes, non-enzymatic antioxidants, and osmotic-adjustment products in the Mo-efficient '97003' and Mo-inefficient '97014' under PEG simulated drought stress. Our results indicate that Mo application significantly enhanced Pn, chlorophyll, dry matter, grain yield, biomass, RWC and WUE and decreased Tr, Gs and water loss of wheat under drought stress, suggesting that Mo application improved the water utilization capacity in wheat. The activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase and the contents of non-enzymatic antioxidants content such as ascorbic acid, reduced glutathione, carotenoid were significantly increased and malonaldehyde contents were decreased by Mo application under PEG simulated drought stress, suggesting that Mo application enhanced the ability of scavenging active oxygen species. The osmotic-adjustment products such as soluble protein, proline and soluble sugar were also increased by Mo application under PEG simulated drought stress, indicating that Mo improved the osmotic adjustment ability in wheat. It is hypothesized that Mo application might improve the drought tolerance of wheat by enhancing water utilization capability and the abilities of antioxidative defense and osmotic adjustment. Similarities and differences between the Mo-efficient and Mo-inefficient cultivars wheat in response to Mo under drought stress are discussed.

  3. The Effect of the Neurac Sling Exercise on Postural Balance Adjustment and Muscular Response Patterns in Chronic Low Back Pain Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji Hae; Kim, Young Eok; Bae, Sea Hyun; Kim, Kyung Yoon

    2013-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to examine the effects of the Neurac sling exercise on postural balance adjustment and muscular response patterns in chronic low back pain (CLBP) patients. [Subjects and Methods] Sixteen CLBP patients participated in this study. They were randomly and equally assigned to group I, whose members received ordinary physical therapy (40 minutes per time, four times per week), and group II, whose members performed a lumbar stabilization exercise using the Neurac sling after ordinary physical therapy (40 minutes per time, four times per week). The visual analogue scale (VAS) and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) were used to evaluate exercise effects. BioRescue and electromyography were utilized for the measurement of changes in postural balance adjustment and muscular response patterns, respectively. [Results] Both groups saw their VAS and ODI decrease significantly. There were significant decreases in both groups in posturography as well, but group II recorded a greater decrease. There were significant increases in the flexion–relaxation ratio in both groups, and there were significant increases in the extension–flexion ratio in the left L1–2 of group I and in all elements of group II. [Conclusion] Lumbar stabilization exercise using the Neurac sling is effective in decreasing pain, improving damaged postural balance adjustment, and normalizing muscle response patterns of CLBP patients. PMID:24259906

  4. Applying risk adjusted cost-effectiveness (RAC-E) analysis to hospitals: estimating the costs and consequences of variation in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Karnon, Jonathan; Caffrey, Orla; Pham, Clarabelle; Grieve, Richard; Ben-Tovim, David; Hakendorf, Paul; Crotty, Maria

    2013-06-01

    Cost-effectiveness analysis is well established for pharmaceuticals and medical technologies but not for evaluating variations in clinical practice. This paper describes a novel methodology--risk adjusted cost-effectiveness (RAC-E)--that facilitates the comparative evaluation of applied clinical practice processes. In this application, risk adjustment is undertaken with a multivariate matching algorithm that balances the baseline characteristics of patients attending different settings (e.g., hospitals). Linked, routinely collected data are used to analyse patient-level costs and outcomes over a 2-year period, as well as to extrapolate costs and survival over patient lifetimes. The study reports the relative cost-effectiveness of alternative forms of clinical practice, including a full representation of the statistical uncertainty around the mean estimates. The methodology is illustrated by a case study that evaluates the relative cost-effectiveness of services for patients presenting with acute chest pain across the four main public hospitals in South Australia. The evaluation finds that services provided at two hospitals were dominated, and of the remaining services, the more effective hospital gained life years at a low mean additional cost and had an 80% probability of being the most cost-effective hospital at realistic cost-effectiveness thresholds. Potential determinants of the estimated variation in costs and effects were identified, although more detailed analyses to identify specific areas of variation in clinical practice are required to inform improvements at the less cost-effective institutions.

  5. Explorations of Crystalline Effects on 4-(Benzyloxy)Benzaldehyde Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harismah, Kun; Ozkendir, O. Murat; Mirzaei, Mahmoud

    2015-12-01

    The properties of 4-(benzyloxy)benzaldehyde (BBA), as a pharmaceutically important compound, have been investigated through the density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The properties of original crystalline and optimised gaseous structures have been evaluated to recognise the crystalline effects. In addition to the structural properties, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) properties have also been evaluated for both investigated systems to better detect the effects in atomic levels. The results indicated that the structural shape of BBA is significantly changed in the optimised gaseous system, showing significant crystalline effects on the geometrical positions. Moreover, the magnitudes for energies and dipole moments indicate notable effects on the electronic properties. The evaluated NMR properties also show that the atoms of aromatic systems detect significant changes more than the atoms of aliphatic systems in the investigated BBA. And finally, the oxygen bridge atom plays a dominant role in combining two benzene rings of BBA.

  6. ADJUSTABLE DOUBLE PULSE GENERATOR

    DOEpatents

    Gratian, J.W.; Gratian, A.C.

    1961-08-01

    >A modulator pulse source having adjustable pulse width and adjustable pulse spacing is described. The generator consists of a cross coupled multivibrator having adjustable time constant circuitry in each leg, an adjustable differentiating circuit in the output of each leg, a mixing and rectifying circuit for combining the differentiated pulses and generating in its output a resultant sequence of negative pulses, and a final amplifying circuit for inverting and square-topping the pulses. (AEC)

  7. Effects of ICG concentration and particle diameter on photophysical properties of ICG-doped nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crovisier, Jason; Bahmani, Baharak; Saleh, Reema; Vullev, Valentine; Anvari, Bahman

    2014-03-01

    The variety of nanoparticles developed by numerous investigators has presented a diverse platform for various optical imaging applications in biomedicine. We have previously reported that the FDA-approved chromophore Indocyanine Green (ICG) can be successfully encapsulated by cross-linked poly-allylamine hydrochloride (PAH)-Disodium Monophosphate (Na2HPO4) to form a nanoparticle for near-infrared imaging applications. The diameter of the constructs is dependent on the charge ratio between the polymer and salt used to encapsulate the chromophore. Modifications of the synthesis methods can alter the photophysical properties of the capsules, either through the adjustment of the charge ratio between PAH and Na2HPO4 or concentration of ICG successfully impregnated into the capsule. Through understanding the effects of tuning the nanoparticle properties, the photophysical characteristics of the constructs can be optimized. Here we present the results of adjusting the diameter of the nanoparticle and amount of ICG on the hydrodynamic diameters, absorption and fluorescence characteristics, and the relative fluorescence quantum yield. Optimizing the photophysical properties of the constructs can lead to increased imaging sensitivity and contrast for potential translational applications, including tumor imaging, which may utilize these nanoconstructs.

  8. The relationship between effectiveness and costs measured by a risk-adjusted case-mix system: multicentre study of Catalonian population data bases

    PubMed Central

    Sicras-Mainar, Antoni; Navarro-Artieda, Ruth; Blanca-Tamayo, Milagrosa; Velasco-Velasco, Soledad; Escribano-Herranz, Esperanza; Llopart-López, Josep Ramon; Violan-Fors, Concepción; Vilaseca-Llobet, Josep Maria; Sánchez-Fontcuberta, Encarna; Benavent-Areu, Jaume; Flor-Serra, Ferran; Aguado-Jodar, Alba; Rodríguez-López, Daniel; Prados-Torres, Alejandra; Estelrich-Bennasar, Jose

    2009-01-01

    Background The main objective of this study is to measure the relationship between morbidity, direct health care costs and the degree of clinical effectiveness (resolution) of health centres and health professionals by the retrospective application of Adjusted Clinical Groups in a Spanish population setting. The secondary objectives are to determine the factors determining inadequate correlations and the opinion of health professionals on these instruments. Methods/Design We will carry out a multi-centre, retrospective study using patient records from 15 primary health care centres and population data bases. The main measurements will be: general variables (age and sex, centre, service [family medicine, paediatrics], and medical unit), dependent variables (mean number of visits, episodes and direct costs), co-morbidity (Johns Hopkins University Adjusted Clinical Groups Case-Mix System) and effectiveness. The totality of centres/patients will be considered as the standard for comparison. The efficiency index for visits, tests (laboratory, radiology, others), referrals, pharmaceutical prescriptions and total will be calculated as the ratio: observed variables/variables expected by indirect standardization. The model of cost/patient/year will differentiate fixed/semi-fixed (visits) costs of the variables for each patient attended/year (N = 350,000 inhabitants). The mean relative weights of the cost of care will be obtained. The effectiveness will be measured using a set of 50 indicators of process, efficiency and/or health results, and an adjusted synthetic index will be constructed (method: percentile 50). The correlation between the efficiency (relative-weights) and synthetic (by centre and physician) indices will be established using the coefficient of determination. The opinion/degree of acceptance of physicians (N = 1,000) will be measured using a structured questionnaire including various dimensions. Statistical analysis: multiple regression analysis (procedure

  9. Controllable synthesis of 3D BaXO4 (X = W, Mo) microstructures by adjusting nucleation stage and their photoluminescence properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Miaojing; Guan, Yue; Yin, Yongkui; Cui, Xinyu; Rong, Shengzhong; Jin, Ge; Hao, Yanhua; Wu, Qunhong

    2015-04-01

    Due to high speed development of micro- or nanodevices, the requirements for their building blocks (micro- or nanostructures) with specific morphologies are more and more strict. Herein, two facile strategies are introduced to synthesize 3D BaWO4 and BaMoO4 microcrystals. By adjusting the concentration of reagents or chelate, the aspect ratios and the pod number of obtained products were successfully controlled. A series of characteristics (XRD and SEM) indicate the difference of surface energy at nucleation stage plays a crucial role in final shapes. The obtained samples (BaMoO4 and BaWO4) exhibited different emission intensities.

  10. 45 CFR 74.83 - Effect on intangible property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Effect on intangible property. 74.83 Section 74.83 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE... Effect on intangible property. Data sharing (FOIA) requirements as set forth in § 74.36(d)(1) do...

  11. Adjustment of measurements with multiplicative errors: error analysis, estimates of the variance of unit weight, and effect on volume estimation from LiDAR-type digital elevation models.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yun; Xu, Peiliang; Peng, Junhuan; Shi, Chuang; Liu, Jingnan

    2014-01-10

    Modern observation technology has verified that measurement errors can be proportional to the true values of measurements such as GPS, VLBI baselines and LiDAR. Observational models of this type are called multiplicative error models. This paper is to extend the work of Xu and Shimada published in 2000 on multiplicative error models to analytical error analysis of quantities of practical interest and estimates of the variance of unit weight. We analytically derive the variance-covariance matrices of the three least squares (LS) adjustments, the adjusted measurements and the corrections of measurements in multiplicative error models. For quality evaluation, we construct five estimators for the variance of unit weight in association of the three LS adjustment methods. Although LiDAR measurements are contaminated with multiplicative random errors, LiDAR-based digital elevation models (DEM) have been constructed as if they were of additive random errors. We will simulate a model landslide, which is assumed to be surveyed with LiDAR, and investigate the effect of LiDAR-type multiplicative error measurements on DEM construction and its effect on the estimate of landslide mass volume from the constructed DEM.

  12. The Effects of School-Based Maum Meditation Program on the Self-Esteem and School Adjustment in Primary School Students

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Yang Gyeong; Lee, In Soo

    2013-01-01

    Self-esteem and school adjustment of children in the lower grades of primary school, the beginning stage of school life, have a close relationship with development of personality, mental health and characters of children. Therefore, the present study aimed to verify the effect of school-based Maum Meditation program on children in the lower grades of primary school, as a personality education program. The result showed that the experimental group with application of Maum Meditation program had significant improvements in self-esteem and school adjustment, compared to the control group without the application. In conclusion, since the study provides significant evidence that the intervention of Maum Meditation program had positive effects on self-esteem and school adjustment of children in the early stage of primary school, it is suggested to actively employ Maum Meditation as a school-based meditation program for mental health promotion of children in the early school ages, the stage of formation of personalities and habits. PMID:23777717

  13. Adjustment of Measurements with Multiplicative Errors: Error Analysis, Estimates of the Variance of Unit Weight, and Effect on Volume Estimation from LiDAR-Type Digital Elevation Models

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Yun; Xu, Peiliang; Peng, Junhuan; Shi, Chuang; Liu, Jingnan

    2014-01-01

    Modern observation technology has verified that measurement errors can be proportional to the true values of measurements such as GPS, VLBI baselines and LiDAR. Observational models of this type are called multiplicative error models. This paper is to extend the work of Xu and Shimada published in 2000 on multiplicative error models to analytical error analysis of quantities of practical interest and estimates of the variance of unit weight. We analytically derive the variance-covariance matrices of the three least squares (LS) adjustments, the adjusted measurements and the corrections of measurements in multiplicative error models. For quality evaluation, we construct five estimators for the variance of unit weight in association of the three LS adjustment methods. Although LiDAR measurements are contaminated with multiplicative random errors, LiDAR-based digital elevation models (DEM) have been constructed as if they were of additive random errors. We will simulate a model landslide, which is assumed to be surveyed with LiDAR, and investigate the effect of LiDAR-type multiplicative error measurements on DEM construction and its effect on the estimate of landslide mass volume from the constructed DEM. PMID:24434880

  14. Adjustment of measurements with multiplicative errors: error analysis, estimates of the variance of unit weight, and effect on volume estimation from LiDAR-type digital elevation models.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yun; Xu, Peiliang; Peng, Junhuan; Shi, Chuang; Liu, Jingnan

    2013-01-01

    Modern observation technology has verified that measurement errors can be proportional to the true values of measurements such as GPS, VLBI baselines and LiDAR. Observational models of this type are called multiplicative error models. This paper is to extend the work of Xu and Shimada published in 2000 on multiplicative error models to analytical error analysis of quantities of practical interest and estimates of the variance of unit weight. We analytically derive the variance-covariance matrices of the three least squares (LS) adjustments, the adjusted measurements and the corrections of measurements in multiplicative error models. For quality evaluation, we construct five estimators for the variance of unit weight in association of the three LS adjustment methods. Although LiDAR measurements are contaminated with multiplicative random errors, LiDAR-based digital elevation models (DEM) have been constructed as if they were of additive random errors. We will simulate a model landslide, which is assumed to be surveyed with LiDAR, and investigate the effect of LiDAR-type multiplicative error measurements on DEM construction and its effect on the estimate of landslide mass volume from the constructed DEM. PMID:24434880

  15. Aviation-fuel property effects on combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosfjord, T. J.

    1984-01-01

    The fuel chemical property influence on a gas turbine combustor was studied using 25 test fuels. Fuel physical properties were de-emphasized by using fuel injectors which produce highly-atomized, and hence rapidly vaporizing sprays. A substantial fuel spray characterization effort was conducted to allow selection of nozzles which assured that such sprays were achieved for all fuels. The fuels were specified to cover the following wide ranges of chemical properties: hydrogen, 9.1 to 15 (wt) pct; total aromatics, 0 to 100 (vol) pct; and naphthalene, 0 to 30 (vol) pct. standard fuels (e.g., Jet A, JP4), speciality products (e.g., decalin, xylene tower bottoms) and special fuel blends were included. The latter group included six, 4-component blends prepared to achieve parametric variations in fuel hydrogen, total aromatics and naphthalene contents. The principle influences of fuel chemical properties on the combustor behavior were reflected by the radiation, liner temperature, and exhaust smoke number (or equivalently, soot number density) data. Test results indicated that naphthalene content strongly influenced the radiative heat load while parametric variations in total aromatics did not.

  16. Fano effect dominance over Coulomb blockade in transport properties of parallel coupled quantum dot system

    SciTech Connect

    Brogi, Bharat Bhushan Ahluwalia, P. K.; Chand, Shyam

    2015-06-24

    Theoretical study of the Coulomb blockade effect on transport properties (Transmission Probability and I-V characteristics) for varied configuration of coupled quantum dot system has been studied by using Non Equilibrium Green Function(NEGF) formalism and Equation of Motion(EOM) method in the presence of magnetic flux. The self consistent approach and intra-dot Coulomb interaction is being taken into account. As the key parameters of the coupled quantum dot system such as dot-lead coupling, inter-dot tunneling and magnetic flux threading through the system can be tuned, the effect of asymmetry parameter and magnetic flux on this tuning is being explored in Coulomb blockade regime. The presence of the Coulomb blockade due to on-dot Coulomb interaction decreases the width of transmission peak at energy level ε + U and by adjusting the magnetic flux the swapping effect in the Fano peaks in asymmetric and symmetric parallel configuration sustains despite strong Coulomb blockade effect.

  17. 26 CFR 1.1014-6 - Special rule for adjustments to basis where property is acquired from a decedent prior to his death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... depreciation, obsolescence, amortization, and depletion allowed the taxpayer on such property for the period..., obsolescence, amortization, and depletion for the period held by the taxpayer prior to the decedent's...

  18. 26 CFR 1.1014-6 - Special rule for adjustments to basis where property is acquired from a decedent prior to his death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... depreciation, obsolescence, amortization, and depletion allowed the taxpayer on such property for the period..., obsolescence, amortization, and depletion for the period held by the taxpayer prior to the decedent's...

  19. 26 CFR 1.1014-6 - Special rule for adjustments to basis where property is acquired from a decedent prior to his death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... depreciation, obsolescence, amortization, and depletion allowed the taxpayer on such property for the period..., obsolescence, amortization, and depletion for the period held by the taxpayer prior to the decedent's...

  20. 26 CFR 1.1014-6 - Special rule for adjustments to basis where property is acquired from a decedent prior to his death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., obsolescence, amortization, and depletion allowed the taxpayer on such property for the period prior to the..., obsolescence, amortization, and depletion for the period held by the taxpayer prior to the decedent's...

  1. Quantifying effects of particulate properties on powder flow properties using a ring shear tester.

    PubMed

    Hou, Hao; Sun, Changquan Calvin

    2008-09-01

    Effects of particle size, morphology, particle density, and surface silicification, on powder flow properties were investigated using a ring shear tester. Flow properties were quantified by flow function (FF), that is, unconfined yield strength, f(c), as a function of major principal stress. A total of 11 powders from three series of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC): Avicel (regular MCC, elongated particles), Prosolv (silicified MCC, elongated particles), and Celphere (spherical MCC), were studied. Particle size distribution in each type of MCC was systematically different. Within each series, smaller particles always led to poorer powder flow properties. The slope of FF line was correlated to degree of powder consolidation by external stress. A key mechanism of the detrimental effect of particle size reduction on flow properties was the larger powder specific surface area. Flow properties of Celphere were significantly better than Avicel of comparable particles size, suggesting spherical morphology promoted better powder flow properties. Flow properties of powders different in densities but similar in particle size, shape, and surface properties were similar. When corrected for density effect, higher particle density corresponded to better flow behavior. Surface silicification significantly improved flow properties of finer MCC, but did not improve those of coarser.

  2. Effect of sugar composition on the water sorption and softening properties of cookie.

    PubMed

    Kawai, Kiyoshi; Toh, Midori; Hagura, Yoshio

    2014-02-15

    In order to elucidate the effect of sugar composition on the water sorption and softening properties of cookie, three types of sugar composition (sugar alone, sugar-trehalose, and sugar-sorbitol) were employed as an ingredient of cookie, and softening temperature (Ts) of the cookie samples, adjusted to various water contents, was investigated using thermal rheological analysis. Ts decreased linearly with increasing water content of the cookie samples. At each water content, Ts of samples was higher in the order of sugar-trehalose>sugaralone >sugar-sorbitol. On the other hand, the glass transition temperature (Tg) of the sugar and/or sugar alcohol mixtures used for cookie preparation was investigated using differential scanning calorimetry. A linear relationship was found between anhydrous Ts of the cookie samples and anhydrous Tg of the sugar and/or sugar alcohol mixtures. These results suggest that sugar composition plays an important role in the softening properties of cookie samples.

  3. Effect of liquid-to-solid ratios on the properties of magnesium phosphate chemically bonded ceramics.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ai-juan; Zhang, Jiao; Li, Jun-ming; Ma, An-bo; Liu, Lin-tao

    2013-07-01

    The temperature variation, setting time, phase compositions and compressive strength of magnesium phosphate chemically bonded ceramics were important for its application in biomedical field. Different amounts of liquid were added into the premixed acid phosphate and oxide powders in order to study the effect of liquid-to-solid ratios on the properties of magnesium phosphate chemically bonded ceramics. The results indicated that the setting time increased and the maximum temperature decreased as the liquid-to-solid ratio increases. The hydrated product was mainly composed of magnesium potassium phosphate hexahydrate, which was not affected by the liquid-to-solid ratios. Besides, magnesia was also found because it was an obvious excess of the hydrated reaction. The compressive strength decreased as the liquid-to-solid ratios increase possibly because of the higher porosity caused by the superfluous liquid. According to the performed study, results indicated that the properties of MPCBC could be adjusted by changing the liquid-to-solid ratios.

  4. Emotional adjustment and distressed interpersonal relations among low-income African American mothers: moderating effects of demanding kin relations.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Ronald D; Budescu, Mia

    2013-01-01

    Association of mothers' emotional adjustment and negative kin relations with distressed interpersonal relations was examined. Among 115 low-income African American mothers, relationship of depressive symptoms, self-esteem, and demanding kin relations with psychological control and stressful interpersonal relations was assessed. Depressive symptoms and demanding kin relations were positively associated with mothers' use of psychological control in parenting. Interaction of self-esteem with demanding kin relations revealed that self-esteem was negatively associated with psychological control for mothers with high-demanding kin relations but not for mothers with low-demanding kin relations. Mothers' depressive symptoms and demanding kin relations were positively associated with their stressful interpersonal relations. Findings were discussed in terms of the need for research on the beneficial and detrimental aspects of families' social network. PMID:23356357

  5. Emotional adjustment and distressed interpersonal relations among low-income African American mothers: moderating effects of demanding kin relations.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Ronald D; Budescu, Mia

    2013-01-01

    Association of mothers' emotional adjustment and negative kin relations with distressed interpersonal relations was examined. Among 115 low-income African American mothers, relationship of depressive symptoms, self-esteem, and demanding kin relations with psychological control and stressful interpersonal relations was assessed. Depressive symptoms and demanding kin relations were positively associated with mothers' use of psychological control in parenting. Interaction of self-esteem with demanding kin relations revealed that self-esteem was negatively associated with psychological control for mothers with high-demanding kin relations but not for mothers with low-demanding kin relations. Mothers' depressive symptoms and demanding kin relations were positively associated with their stressful interpersonal relations. Findings were discussed in terms of the need for research on the beneficial and detrimental aspects of families' social network.

  6. Scaling properties of collective effects at RHIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaytsev, A. S.

    2016-02-01

    Azimuthal anisotropy is one of the key observables to study the properties of matter created in high energy heavy-ion collisions at RHIC and the LHC. The collective behaviour is quantified in terms of anisotropy coefficients vn measured with respect to their corresponding event planes. Predictions from the viscous hydrodynamics for the scaling of the anisotropic flow coefficients vn with eccentricity, system size and transverse energy are tested using the recent data from PHENIX Collaboration.

  7. Repair material properties for effective structural application

    SciTech Connect

    Mangat, P.S.; Limbachiya, M.C.

    1997-04-01

    Strength and engineering properties of three generic repair materials which are likely to influence long-term performance of repaired concrete structures were studied. Measured properties include strength, stiffness, shrinkage and creep deformations, together with the complete compressive stress-strain characteristics including post-cracking behavior. The repair materials considered in this investigation are commercially available and widely used. These included a high performance non-shrinkable concrete, a mineral based cementitious material with no additives or coarse aggregate size particles, and a cementitious mortar containing styrene acrylic copolymer with fiber additives. Performance comparisons are also made between these materials and plain concrete mixes of similar strength and stiffness, suitable for repair applications. The results show that shrinkage of the repair materials was significantly greater than the shrinkage of normal concrete. Moreover, the shrinkage of those modified with a polymer admixture was found to be very sensitive to the relative humidity of the exposure compared to normal concrete. The post-peak strain capacity of the material modified with a polymer admixture was markedly improved leading to a more pronounced falling branch of stress-strain curve. The ultimate stress level (at a maximum load) of specially formulated repair materials varies significantly, the lowest ultimate stress being recorded for the porous mineral-based material. The inclusion of aggregates improves the mechanical properties and dimensional stability of repair materials.

  8. Control of physical properties of carbon nanofibers obtained from coaxial electrospinning of PMMA and PAN with adjustable inner/outer nozzle-ends.

    PubMed

    Kaerkitcha, Navaporn; Chuangchote, Surawut; Sagawa, Takashi

    2016-12-01

    Hollow carbon nanofibers (HCNFs) were prepared by electrospinning method with several coaxial nozzles, in which the level of the inner nozzle-end is adjustable. Core/shell nanofibers were prepared from poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) as a pyrolytic core and polyacrylonitrile (PAN) as a carbon shell with three types of normal (viz. inner and outer nozzle-ends are balanced in the same level), inward, and outward coaxial nozzles. The influence of the applied voltage on these three types of coaxial nozzles was studied. Specific surface area, pore size diameter, crystallinity, and degree of graphitization of the hollow and mesoporous structures of carbon nanofibers obtained after carbonization of the as spun PMMA/PAN nanofibers were characterized by BET analyses, X-ray diffraction, and Raman spectroscopy in addition to the conductivity measurements. It was found that specific surface area, crystallinity, and graphitization degree of the HCNFs affect the electrical conductivity of the carbon nanofibers. PMID:27067734

  9. Effect of Hybridization on Stiffness Properties of Woven Textile Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bejan, Liliana; Taranu, Nicolae; Sîrbu, Adriana

    2013-04-01

    The present study focuses on stiffness properties of woven textile reinforced polymeric composites with respect to hybridization, and geometry of reinforcement. The analyzed composites represent combinations of different fibre materials (E-glass, Kevlar 49, carbon HM) in a predetermined fabric geometry (a plane weave embedded in thermosetting polymeric resin) serving controlled properties and required performance. The effects of hybridization on the stiffness properties of woven textile composites have been studied with respect to the fibres materials, the unbalancing degree of fabrics, and the variation of compactness and undulation of yarns. Some undesirable effects in fabric geometry can be overcome by the combined effects of hybridization and compactness.

  10. Maternal adjustment or constraint: differential effects of food availability on maternal deposition of macro-nutrients, steroids and thyroid hormones in rock pigeon eggs.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Bin-Yan; Dijkstra, Cor; Darras, Veerle M; de Vries, Bonnie; Groothuis, Ton G G

    2016-01-01

    In oviparous species like birds, eggs provide the direct environment in which embryos are developing. Mothers may adjust different egg components in different ways in reaction to environmental cues either to adjust offspring development or because of constraints. In this study, we investigated the effects of food quality and quantity before and during egg laying on three different aspects of egg quality: macro-nutrients (egg and yolk mass), androgens (testosterone and androstenedione), and thyroid hormones (3,5,3'-triiodothyronine, T3 and l-thyroxine, T4), using the rock pigeon (Columba livia). As expected, egg and yolk mass were significantly reduced for the eggs laid under the poor-food condition, indicating a maternal trade-off between offspring and self in allocating important resources. We did not find any significant change in yolk testosterone or their within-clutch pattern over the laying sequence. This is consistent with the fact that, in contrast with nutrients, these hormones are not costly to produce, but does not support the hypothesis that they play a role in adjusting brood size to food conditions. In contrast, we found that T3 levels were higher in the egg yolks under the poor-food condition whereas the total T4 content was lower. This change could be related to the fact that iodine, the critical constituent of thyroid hormones, might be a limiting factor in the production of this hormone. Given the knowledge that food restriction usually lead to reduction of circulating T3 levels, our results suggested that avian mothers can independently regulate its concentrations in their eggs from their own circulation. The study demonstrates that environmentally induced maternal effects via the egg can be a result of a combination of constrained resources and unconstrained signals and that thyroid hormones might be an interesting case of both. Therefore, this hormone and the interplay of different maternal effects on the offspring phenotype deserve much more

  11. Synthesis gas production with an adjustable H{sub 2}/CO ratio through the coal gasification process: effects of coal ranks and methane addition

    SciTech Connect

    Yan Cao; Zhengyang Gao; Jing Jin; Hongchang Zhou; Marten Cohron; Houying Zhao; Hongying Liu; Weiping Pan

    2008-05-15

    Direct production of synthesis gas using coal as a cheap feedstock is attractive but challenging due to its low H{sub 2}/CO ratio of generated synthesis gas. Three typical U.S. coals of different ranks were tested in a 2.5 in. coal gasifier to investigate their gasification reactivity and adjustability on H{sub 2}/CO ratio of generated synthesis gas with or without the addition of methane. Tests indicated that lower-rank coals (lignite and sub-bituminous) have higher gasification reactivity than bituminous coals. The coal gasification reactivity is correlated to its synthesis-gas yield and the total percentage of H{sub 2} and CO in the synthesis gas, but not to the H{sub 2}/CO ratio. The H{sub 2}/CO ratio of coal gasification was found to be correlated to the rank of coals, especially the H/C ratio of coals. Methane addition into the dense phase of the pyrolysis and gasification zone of the cogasification reactor could make the best use of methane in adjusting the H{sub 2}/CO ratio of the generated synthesis gas. The maximum methane conversion efficiency, which was likely correlated to its gasification reactivity, could be achieved by 70% on average for all tested coals. The actual catalytic effect of generated coal chars on methane conversion seemed coal-dependent. The coal-gasification process benefits from methane addition and subsequent conversion on the adjustment of the H{sub 2}/CO ratio of synthesis gas. The methane conversion process benefits from the use of coal chars due to their catalytic effects. This implies that there were likely synergistic effects on both. 25 refs., 3 figs., 3

  12. Maternal adjustment or constraint: differential effects of food availability on maternal deposition of macro-nutrients, steroids and thyroid hormones in rock pigeon eggs.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Bin-Yan; Dijkstra, Cor; Darras, Veerle M; de Vries, Bonnie; Groothuis, Ton G G

    2016-01-01

    In oviparous species like birds, eggs provide the direct environment in which embryos are developing. Mothers may adjust different egg components in different ways in reaction to environmental cues either to adjust offspring development or because of constraints. In this study, we investigated the effects of food quality and quantity before and during egg laying on three different aspects of egg quality: macro-nutrients (egg and yolk mass), androgens (testosterone and androstenedione), and thyroid hormones (3,5,3'-triiodothyronine, T3 and l-thyroxine, T4), using the rock pigeon (Columba livia). As expected, egg and yolk mass were significantly reduced for the eggs laid under the poor-food condition, indicating a maternal trade-off between offspring and self in allocating important resources. We did not find any significant change in yolk testosterone or their within-clutch pattern over the laying sequence. This is consistent with the fact that, in contrast with nutrients, these hormones are not costly to produce, but does not support the hypothesis that they play a role in adjusting brood size to food conditions. In contrast, we found that T3 levels were higher in the egg yolks under the poor-food condition whereas the total T4 content was lower. This change could be related to the fact that iodine, the critical constituent of thyroid hormones, might be a limiting factor in the production of this hormone. Given the knowledge that food restriction usually lead to reduction of circulating T3 levels, our results suggested that avian mothers can independently regulate its concentrations in their eggs from their own circulation. The study demonstrates that environmentally induced maternal effects via the egg can be a result of a combination of constrained resources and unconstrained signals and that thyroid hormones might be an interesting case of both. Therefore, this hormone and the interplay of different maternal effects on the offspring phenotype deserve much more

  13. Effects of Proximate Foreclosed Properties on Individuals' Systolic Blood Pressure in Massachusetts, 1987–2008

    PubMed Central

    Arcaya, Mariana; Glymour, M. Maria; Chakrabarti, Prabal; Christakis, Nicholas A; Kawachi, Ichiro; Subramanian, S V

    2014-01-01

    Introduction No studies have examined the effects of local foreclosure activity on neighbors' blood pressure, despite the fact that spillover effects of nearby foreclosures include many known risk factors for increased blood pressure. We assessed the extent to which living near foreclosed properties is associated with subsequent systolic blood pressure (SBP). Methods and Results We used geocoded 6,590 observations collected from 1,740 participants in the Framingham Offspring Cohort across five waves (1987-2008) of the Framingham Heart Study to create a longitudinal record of exposure to nearby foreclosure activity. We distinguished between Real Estate Owned foreclosures (REOs), which typically sit vacant, and foreclosures purchased by third party buyers, which are generally put into productive use. Counts of lender-owned foreclosed properties within 100 meters of participants' homes were used to predict measured SBP and odds of being hypertensive. We assessed whether self-reported alcoholic drinks per week and measured BMI helped explain the foreclosure activity-SBP relationship. Each additional REO located within 100 meters of a participant's home was associated with an increase in SBP of 1.71 mm/hg (p=.03; 95%CI = 0.18 - 3.24) after adjusting for individual- and area-level confounders, but not with odds of hypertension. The presence of foreclosures purchased by third party buyers was not associated with SBP nor with hypertension. BMI and alcohol consumption attenuated the effect of living near REOs on SBP in fully adjusted models. Conclusion Real Estate Owned foreclosed properties may put nearby neighbors at risk for increased SBP, with higher alcohol consumption and body mass index partially mediating this relationship. PMID:24891622

  14. Effects of Constituent Properties on Performance Improvement of a Quenching and Partitioning Steel

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Kyoo Sil; Hu, Xiaohua; Sun, Xin; Taylor, Mark D.; De Moor, Emmanuel; Speer, John; Matlock, David K.

    2014-04-01

    In this paper, a two-dimensional microstructure-based finite element modeling method is adopted to investigate the effects of material parameters of the constituent phases on the macroscopic tensile behavior of Q&P steel and then to do a computational materials design approach for its performance improvement. For this purpose, a model Q&P steel is first produced and various experiments are then performed to characterize the steel. Actual microstructure-based model is generated based on the information from EBSD, SEM and nano-indentation test, and the material properties for the constituent phases are determined based on the initial constituents’ properties from HEXRD test and the subsequent calibration of model prediction to tensile test results. Influence of various material parameters of the constituents on the macroscopic behaviors is then investigated by separately adjusting them by small amount. Based on the observation on the respective influence of constituents’ material parameters, a new set of material parameters are devised, which results in better performance in ductility. The results indicate that various material parameters may need to be concurrently adjusted in a cohesive way in order to improve the performance of Q&P steel. In summary, higher austenite stability, less strength difference between the phases, higher hardening exponents of the phases are generally beneficial for the performance improvement. The information from this study can be used to devise new Q&P heat-treating parameters to produce the Q&P steels with better performance.

  15. Adjustment of interaural time difference in head related transfer functions based on listeners' anthropometry and its effect on sound localization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Yôiti; Watanabe, Kanji; Iwaya, Yukio; Gyoba, Jiro; Takane, Shouichi

    2005-04-01

    Because the transfer functions governing subjective sound localization (HRTFs) show strong individuality, sound localization systems based on synthesis of HRTFs require suitable HRTFs for individual listeners. However, it is impractical to obtain HRTFs for all listeners based on measurements. Improving sound localization by adjusting non-individualized HRTFs to a specific listener based on that listener's anthropometry might be a practical method. This study first developed a new method to estimate interaural time differences (ITDs) using HRTFs. Then correlations between ITDs and anthropometric parameters were analyzed using the canonical correlation method. Results indicated that parameters relating to head size, and shoulder and ear positions are significant. Consequently, it was attempted to express ITDs based on listener's anthropometric data. In this process, the change of ITDs as a function of azimuth angle was parameterized as a sum of sine functions. Then the parameters were analyzed using multiple regression analysis, in which the anthropometric parameters were used as explanatory variables. The predicted or individualized ITDs were installed in the nonindividualized HRTFs to evaluate sound localization performance. Results showed that individualization of ITDs improved horizontal sound localization.

  16. 26 CFR 1.1014-6 - Special rule for adjustments to basis where property is acquired from a decedent prior to his death.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... depreciation, obsolescence, amortization, and depletion allowed the taxpayer on such property for the period..., obsolescence, amortization, and depletion for the period held by the taxpayer prior to the decedent's death... in contemplation of death. Depreciation in the amount of $750 per year was allowable for each of...

  17. Photonic approach for microwave frequency measurement with adjustable measurement range and resolution using birefringence effect in highly non-linear fiber.

    PubMed

    Feng, Danqi; Xie, Heng; Qian, Lifen; Bai, Qinhong; Sun, Junqiang

    2015-06-29

    We experimentally demonstrate a novel approach for microwave frequency measurement utilizing birefringence effect in the highly non-linear fiber (HNLF). A detailed theoretical analysis is presented to implement the adjustable measurement range and resolution. By stimulating a complementary polarization-domain interferometer pair in the HNLF, a mathematical expression that relates the microwave frequency and amplitude comparison function is developed. We carry out a proof-to-concept experiment. A frequency measurement range of 2.5-30 GHz with a measurement error within 0.5 GHz is achieved except 16-17.5 GHz. This method is all-optical and requires no high-speed electronic components. PMID:26191769

  18. Exposure effects on the optical properties of building materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lane, Sarah; Cathcart, J. Michael; Harrell, J. Timothy

    2008-04-01

    Georgia Tech recently initiated a weathering effects measurement program to monitor the optical properties of several common building materials. A set of common building materials were placed outdoors and optical property measurements made over a series of weeks to assess the impact of exposure on these properties. Both reflectivity and emissivity measurements were made. Materials in this program included aluminum flashing, plastic sheets, bricks, roof shingles, and tarps. This paper will discuss the measurement approach, experimental setup, and present preliminary results from the optical property measurements.

  19. Effect of habitat quality on the ecological behaviour of a temperate-living primate: time-budget adjustments.

    PubMed

    Ménard, Nelly; Motsch, Peggy; Delahaye, Alexia; Saintvanne, Alice; Le Flohic, Guillaume; Dupé, Sandrine; Vallet, Dominique; Qarro, Mohamed; Pierre, Jean-Sébastien

    2013-07-01

    Barbary macaques, like other non-human primates living in highly seasonal temperate environments, display high monthly variations in their diet. In addition, their diet changes according to the habitat type they colonize and to the degree of habitat degradation due to resource exploitation by local people, in particular through pastoralism. We studied the time-budget adjustments of wild Barbary macaques in three cedar-oak forests impacted by different intensities of grazing pressure from goats and sheep. We examined how diet variations influenced the time monkeys spent in their activities and their day range lengths (i.e. their energy costs). At three studied sites, diet composition and time budgets showed marked seasonal variations. Diet composition had a strong influence on monkeys' time budget. In the forest where pastoralism was the highest, diet included a greater proportion of underground resources, shrub fruit and acorns, which led to an increase in the time spent foraging and moving, as well as an important increase in day range lengths. Energy costs were therefore higher in a degraded environment than in a suitable habitat. The monkeys living in forests subjected to pastoralism took advantage of increased day lengths to spend more time searching for food. However, in the forest with the highest pastoralism pressure, although monkeys spent more time foraging, they spent less time feeding than monkeys at the other sites. In addition, they appeared to have reached the limits of the available time they could devote to these activities, as their diurnal resting time was at its lowest level over several months. Temperature variations did not appear to modify monkeys' time budgets. In the least favourable habitat, saving time from resting activity allowed monkeys to maintain a relatively high level of social activity, partly linked to rearing constraints.

  20. Effectiveness of various irrigation activation protocols and the self-adjusting file system on smear layer and debris removal.

    PubMed

    Çapar, İsmail Davut; Aydinbelge, Hale Ari

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to evaluate smear layer generation and residual debris after using self-adjusting file (SAF) or rotary instrumentation and to compare the debris and smear layer removal efficacy of the SAF cleaning/shaping irrigation system against final agitation techniques. One hundred and eight maxillary lateral incisor teeth were randomly divided into nine experimental groups (n = 12), and root canals were prepared using ProTaper Universal rotary files, with the exception of the SAF instrumentation group. During instrumentation, root canals were irrigated with a total of 16 mL of 5% NaOCl. For final irrigation, rotary-instrumented groups were irrigated with 10 mL of 17% EDTA and 10 mL of 5% NaOCl using different irrigation agitation regimens (syringe irrigation with needles, NaviTip FX, manual dynamic irrigation, CanalBrush, EndoActivator, EndoVac, passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI), and SAF irrigation). In the SAF instrumentation group, root canals were instrumented for 4 min at a rate of 4 mL/min with 5% NaOCl and received a final flush with same as syringe irrigation with needles. The surface of the root dentin was observed using a scanning electron microscope. The SAF instrumentation group generated less smear layer and yielded cleaner canals compared to rotary instrumentation. The EndoActivator, EndoVac, PUI, and SAF irrigation groups increased the efficacy of irrigating solutions on the smear layer and debris removal. The SAF instrumentation yielded cleaner canal walls when compared to rotary instrumentation. None of the techniques completely removed the smear layer from the root canal walls.

  1. R Squared Shrinkage in Multiple Regression Research: An Empirical Evaluation of Use and Impact of Adjusted Effect Formulae.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thatcher, Greg W.; Henson, Robin K.

    This study examined research in training and development to determine effect size reporting practices. It focused on the reporting of corrected effect sizes in research articles using multiple regression analyses. When possible, researchers calculated corrected effect sizes and determine if the associated shrinkage could have impacted researcher…

  2. Effect of mixed dust on sinter properties

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, Y.H.; Moon, S.M.; Jhung, S.S.

    1996-12-31

    In recent years low grade ion ores such as limonite and dusts containing iron oxides are being increasingly used in the sintering process. The regulations for pollution control are being more severely strengthened year by year, therefore, companies are facing the important issue of producing high quality sinters using low grade iron ores with the least environmental contamination. 250 thousand tons of mixed dust corresponding to 25% of the annual total dusts generated at Pohang steel works are being reused in sinter plants. The dusts collected by DL-sinter machine, LD-converter, BF-ore bin and incinerator are transported to the open yard for drying. They are mixed according to the relatively constant ratio produced by the above dust source and added to the mixed raw materials for sintering. The added quantity of mixed dust was so small (average 1.8 wt.%) compared with the total raw mix that the authors had little interest and no research result has yet been achieved. In this research, therefore, under the similar conditions to the actual operation in the sinter plant, sintering pot tests were carried out while changing the added quantity of mixed dust. The physical and chemical properties of the sample sinter were investigated and the results are presented in this report.

  3. Convective adjustment in baroclinic atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emanuel, Kerry A.

    1986-01-01

    Local convection in planetary atmospheres is generally considered to result from the action of gravity on small regions of anomalous density. That in rotating baroclinic fluids the total potential energy for small scale convection contains a centrifugal as well as a gravitational contribution is shown. Convective adjustment in such an atmosphere results in the establishment of near adiabatic lapse rates of temperature along suitably defined surfaces of constant angular momentum, rather than in the vertical. This leads in general to sub-adiabatic vertical lapse rates. That such an adjustment actually occurs in the earth's atmosphere is shown by example and the magnitude of the effect for several other planetary atmospheres is estimated.

  4. Effects of resin formulation and nanofiller surface treatment on the properties of experimental hybrid resin composite.

    PubMed

    Musanje, Lawrence; Ferracane, Jack L

    2004-08-01

    This study evaluated the effects of nanofiller surface treatment and resin viscosity on the early and long-term properties of experimental hybrid composites. Three resin formulations (low, medium and high viscosity) were prepared by varying the ratio of TEGDMA:UDMA:bis-GMA (47:33:16 wt%; 30:33:33 wt%; 12:33:51 wt%). Composites contained 71.3 wt% silanated strontium glass (1-3 microm) and 12.6 wt% of either silanated or unsilanated silica (OX-50; 0.04 microm). Specimens (n=10) for flexural strength, flexural modulus, fracture toughness and Knoop hardness were tested after 24 h, 1 and 6 months exposure to water at 37 degrees C. Degree of conversion (DC) was determined 24 h after photoinitiation using FTIR. Resin viscosity only had a marginal influence on the mechanical response of composites but it can be adjusted to achieve a balance between DC and mechanical properties. Adding non-bonded nanofiller to hybrid composites had no systematic effect on DC. Non-bonded nanofillers had no significant effect on the long-term properties of hybrid composites. PMID:15046897

  5. Effect of suspension property on granule morphology and compaction behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Hae-Weon Lee, Guesup Song, In-Sik Suk

    1995-12-31

    Granule morphology is an important factor during dry pressing, since it has great influences on die flowability, compaction ratio, and resulting green microstructure. Granule morphology and packing structure of ultrafine Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} particles in the granule were optimized during spray drying by adjusting the suspension structure. The particle packing structure of spray-dried granule was investigated with suspension structure. The effects of granule morphology and its particle packing structure on compaction and resultant sintering behavior were evaluated.

  6. Efficient Adjustable Reflectivity Smart Window

    SciTech Connect

    D. Morgan Tench

    2005-12-01

    This project addressed the key technical issues for development of an efficient smart window based on reversible electrochemical transfer of silver between a mirror electrode and a localized counter electrode. Effort to provide uniform switching over large areas focused on use of a resistive transparent electrode innerlayer to increase the interelectrode resistance. An effective edge seal was developed in collaboration with adhesive suppliers and an electrochromic device manufacturer. Work to provide a manufacturable counter electrode focused on fabricating a dot matrix electrode without photolithography by electrodeposition of Pt nuclei on inherent active sites on a transparent oxide conductor. An alternative counter electrode based on a conducting polymer and an ionic liquid electrolyte was also investigated. Work in all of these areas was successful. Sputtered large-bandgap oxide innerlayers sandwiched between conductive indium tin oxide (ITO) layers were shown to provide sufficient cross-layer resistance (>300 ohm/cm{sup 2}) without significantly affecting the electrochemical properties of the ITO overlayer. Two edge seal epoxies, one procured from an epoxy manufacturer and one provided by an electrochromic device manufacturer in finished seals, were shown to be effective barriers against oxygen intrusion up to 80 C. The optimum density of nuclei for the dot matrix counter electrode was attained without use of photolithography by electrodeposition from a commercial alkaline platinum plating bath. Silver loss issues for cells with dot matrix electrodes were successfully addressed by purifying the electrolyte and adjusting the cell cycling parameters. More than 30K cycles were demonstrated for a REM cell (30-cm square) with a dot matrix counter electrode. Larger cells (30-cm square) were successfully fabricated but could not be cycled since the nucleation layers (provided by an outside supplier) were defective so that mirror deposits could not be produced.

  7. Effect Of Solidification Speed On Fatigue Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccay, M. H.; Schmidt, D. D.; Hamilton, W. D.; Alter, W. S.; Parr, R. A.

    1989-01-01

    Fast solidification increases fatigue life, but failure distribution becomes less predictable. Report describes effects of rate of solidification on nickel-based super-alloy MAR-M246(Hf) used in turbine blades. Based on experiments in which specimens directionally solidified at 5 cm/h and 30 cm/h, then tested for high cycle fatigue. Specimens also inspected by energy-dispersive x-ray (EDX) analysis and optical and electron microscopy.

  8. Effects of LEO Environment on Tensile Properties of PEEK Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Takashi; Nakamura, Hiroshi; Shimamura, Hiroyuki

    2009-01-01

    To clarify the effects of space environment on mechanical properties of polymer, exposure experiments were conducted utilizing the International Space Station Russian Service Module. Poly-ether-ether-ketone (PEEK) films under tensile stress were exposed to low Earth orbit (LEO) environment, and reference samples were irradiated with atomic oxygen (AO), electron beam (EB), and ultraviolet light (UV) in ground facilities. By comparing the results of flight and ground tests, the degradation behavior and the influential factors in LEO were investigated. The following results were obtained. (1) UV was found to be the harshest factor in LEO on tensile properties, since it decreased elongation to 15% of pristine sample after 46-months exposure. (2) AO in LEO eroded the specimen surface with a cone-like morphology and reduced the thickness; however, it had no significant effect on tensile properties. (3) EB irradiation in LEO had no measurable effects on the material properties.

  9. Marital conflict, divorce, and children's adjustment.

    PubMed

    Kelly, J B

    1998-04-01

    This article summarizes current research on children's adjustment after separation and divorce, and then focuses on the contributions of marital conflict, marital violence, and hostile family environments to children's adjustment during marriage and after divorce. Children living in marriages with frequent and intense conflict are significantly more likely to have substantial adjustment problems before parental divorce and compromised parent-child relationships. These findings suggest that the deleterious effects of divorce per se have been overstated, with insufficient attention paid in the clinical and research literature to the damaging effects of highly troubled marriages on children's adjustment.

  10. Space environmental effects on graphite-epoxy compressive properties and epoxy tensile properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, Derek J.; Sykes, George F., Jr.; Herakovich, Carl T.

    1987-01-01

    This study characterizes the effects of electron radiation and temperature on a graphite-epoxy composite material. Compressive properties of the T300/934 material system were obtained at -250 F (-157 C), room temperature, and 250 F (121 C). Tensile specimens of the Fiberite 934 epoxy resin were fabricated and tested at room temperature and 250 F (121 C). Testing was conducted in the baseline (nonirradiated) and irradiated conditions. The radiation exposure was designed to simulate 30 year, worst-case exposure in geosynchronous Earth orbit. Mechanical properties tended to degrade at elevated temperature and improve at cryogenic temperature. Irradiation generally degraded properties at all temperatures.

  11. 26 CFR 1.9001-3 - Basis adjustments for taxable years between changeover date and 1956 adjustment date.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... adjusted basis of any retirement-straight line property as of any time on or after the changeover date and...-straight line property held on the changeover date by the taxpayer or its predecessor and shall, as of that... (e)(1) of the Act, the basis of any retirement-straight line property shall be adjusted, as of...

  12. Cost-effectiveness analysis of dialysis and kidney transplant in patients with renal impairment using disability adjusted life years in Iran

    PubMed Central

    YaghoubiFard, Safiye; Goudarzi, Reza; Etminan, Abbas; Baneshi, MohammadReza; Barouni, Mohsen; Jafari Sirizi, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Background: This cross-sectional study was conducted to compare the cost-effectiveness of three therapeutic methods of long-term hemodialysis, kidney transplant from a living person and kidney transplant from a cadaver utilizing Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALY) using data from the records of patients referred to Afzalipour Hospital of Kerman in 2012. Methods: This cross-sectional study utilizing Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALY) as outcome measure, used data from the records of patients referred to Afzalipour Hospital of Kerman in 2012. The decision tree model and decision tree software (Tree Age pro 11) were used for data analysis. In this research, costs and effects were studied from the patients and healthcare providers’ perspective. Results: In the patient’s perspective, the CER of dialysis was 5.04 times greater than transplant from a living person and 6.15 times higher than transplant from a cadaveric donor. In the hospital’s perspective, the average cost-effectiveness ratio of dialysis was 8.4 times greater than transplant from a living person and 14.07 times higher than transplant from a cadaver. The smaller the C-E ratio, the greater was the cost-effectiveness. In both perspectives, the order of effectiveness of treatment methods were transplant from a cadaver, transplant from a living person and dialysis. Conclusion: Considering the results obtained in this study, measures should be taken to increase the desire for organ donation from brain-dead patients, living people and patients’ relatives PMID:27493934

  13. Couple-Focused Prevention at the Transition to Parenthood, a Randomized Trial: Effects on Coparenting, Parenting, Family Violence, and Parent and Child Adjustment.

    PubMed

    Feinberg, Mark E; Jones, Damon E; Hostetler, Michelle L; Roettger, Michael E; Paul, Ian M; Ehrenthal, Deborah B

    2016-08-01

    The transition to parenthood is a stressful period for most parents as individuals and as couples, with variability in parent mental health and couple relationship functioning linked to children's long-term emotional, mental health, and academic outcomes. Few couple-focused prevention programs targeting this period have been shown to be effective. The purpose of this study was to test the short-term efficacy of a brief, universal, transition-to-parenthood intervention (Family Foundations) and report the results of this randomized trial at 10 months postpartum. This was a randomized controlled trial; 399 couples expecting their first child were randomly assigned to intervention or control conditions after pretest. Intervention couples received a manualized nine-session (five prenatal and four postnatal classes) psychoeducational program delivered in small groups. Intent-to-treat analyses indicated that intervention couples demonstrated better posttest levels than control couples on more than two thirds of measures of coparenting, parent mental health, parenting, child adjustment, and family violence. Program effects on family violence were particularly large. Of eight outcome variables that did not demonstrate main effects, seven showed moderated intervention impact; such that, intervention couples at higher levels of risk during pregnancy showed better outcomes than control couples at similar levels of risk. These findings replicate a prior smaller study of Family Foundations, indicating that the Family Foundations approach to supporting couples making the transition to parenthood can have broad impact for parents, family relationships, and children's adjustment. Program effects are consistent and benefit all families, with particularly notable effects for families at elevated prenatal risk. PMID:27334116

  14. The effect of marriage on young adult heavy drinking and its mediators: results from two methods of adjusting for selection into marriage.

    PubMed

    Lee, Matthew R; Chassin, Laurie; Mackinnon, David

    2010-12-01

    This study tested the effect of marriage on young adult heavy drinking and tested whether this effect was mediated by involvement in social activities, religiosity, and self-control reasons for limiting drinking. The sample of 508 young adults was taken from an ongoing longitudinal study of familial alcoholism that over-sampled children of alcoholics (Chassin, Rogosch, & Barrera, 1991). In order to distinguish role socialization effects of marriage from confounding effects of role selection into marriage, analyses used both the analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) method and the change score method of adjusting for pre-marriage levels of heavy drinking and the mediators. Results showed role socialization effects of marriage on post-marriage declines in heavy drinking. This effect was mediated by involvement in social activities such that marriage predicted decreased involvement in social activities, which in turn predicted decreased heavy drinking. There were no statistically significant mediated effects of religiosity. The mediated effect of self-control reasons for limiting drinking was supported by the ANCOVA method only, and further investigation suggested that this result was detected erroneously due to violation of an assumption of the ANCOVA method that is not shared by the change score method. Findings from this study offer an explanation for the maturing out of heavy drinking that takes place for some individuals over the course of young adulthood. Methodologically, results suggest that the ANCOVA method should be employed with caution, and that the change score method is a viable approach to confirming results from the ANCOVA method.

  15. SLIT ADJUSTMENT CLAMP

    DOEpatents

    McKenzie, K.R.

    1959-07-01

    An electrode support which permits accurate alignment and adjustment of the electrode in a plurality of planes and about a plurality of axes in a calutron is described. The support will align the slits in the electrode with the slits of an ionizing chamber so as to provide for the egress of ions. The support comprises an insulator, a leveling plate carried by the insulator and having diametrically opposed attaching screws screwed to the plate and the insulator and diametrically opposed adjusting screws for bearing against the insulator, and an electrode associated with the plate for adjustment therewith.

  16. Facile synthesis of Cu/Cu{sub x}O nanoarchitectures with adjustable phase composition for effective NO{sub x} gas sensor at room temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Lixue; Li, Li; Yang, Ying; Zhang, Guo; Gong, Lihong; Jing, Liqiang; Fu, Honggang; Shi, Keying

    2013-10-15

    Graphical abstract: The Cu/Cu{sub x}O nanoarchitectures with 30–70 nm hollow nanospheres reduced by 3 mmol NaBH{sub 4} exhibits excellent gas-sensing property to low-concentration NO{sub x} gas at room temperature. - Highlights: • The Cu/Cu{sub x}O nanoarchitectures with hollow nanospheres are successfully synthesized. • The method is used for preparing the with Cu/Cu{sub x}O adjustable phase composition. • The C3 sample exhibites excellent gas-sensing propertie to NO{sub x} at room temperation. • The Cu/Cu{sub x}O nanoarchitectures have significant for application of gas sensor. - Abstract: The Cu/Cu{sub x}O nanoarchitectures with 30–70 nm hollow nanospheres are successfully synthesized by a facile wet chemical method. The synthesized products have been studied by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and thermo gravimetric-differential scanning calorimetry (TG-DSC) analysis. The Cu/Cu{sub x}O sensors based on the nanoarchitectures are used to detect the NO{sub x} at room temperature. The results demonstrate that the obtained Cu/Cu{sub x}O nanoarchitectures reduced by 3 mmol NaBH{sub 4} exhibits excellent gas-sensing properties: low detection limit of 0.97 ppm, relatively high sensitivity, short response time, broad linear range and high selectivity. The reasons for gas-sensing activity enhancement on Cu/Cu{sub x}O nanoarchitectures are discussed. The Cu/Cu{sub x}O nanocrystalline with the hierarchical pores structure and tunable compositions have significant for application of gas sensor.

  17. Effect of chain stiffness on structural and thermodynamic properties of polymer melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luettmer-Strathmann, Jutta

    2008-03-01

    Static and dynamic properties of polymers are affected by the stiffness of the chains. In this work, we investigate structural and thermodynamic properties of a lattice model for semiflexible polymer chains. The model is an extension of Shaffer's bond- fluctuation model [1] and includes attractive interactions between monomers and an adjustable bending penalty that determines the Kuhn segment length. For isolated chains, a competition between monomer-monomer interactions and bending penalties determines the chain conformations at low temperatures. For dense melts, packing effects play an important role in the structure and thermodynamics of the polymeric liquid. In order to investigate static properties as a function of temperature and chain stiffness, we perform Wang-Landau type simulations and construct densities of states over the two- dimensional state space of monomer-monomer and bending contributions to the internal energy. In addition, we present first results from an algorithm for equation-of-state effects in lattice models. [1] J. S. Shaffer, J. Chem. Phys. 101, 4205 (1994).

  18. Processing effects on the mechanical properties of tungsten heavy alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kishi, Toshihito; German, R. M.

    1990-01-01

    Tungsten heavy alloys exhibit significant mechanical property sensitivities to the fabrication variables. These sensitivities are illustrated in this examination of vacuum sintering and the effects of composition, sintering temperature, and sintering time on the mechanical properties of tungsten heavy alloys. Measurements were conducted to assess the density, strength, hardness, and elongation dependencies. A detrimental aspect of vacuum sintering is matrix phase evaporation, although vacuum sintering does eliminate the need for postsintering heat treatments.

  19. United We Stand? The Effects of a Couple-Coping Intervention on Adjustment to Early Stage Breast or Gynecological Cancer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Jennifer L.; Halford, W. Kim; Ward, Bruce G.

    2004-01-01

    Cancer diagnosis affects the psychological well-being of both patients and their partners, and effective coping has been suggested to be a conjoint process of mutual support. Ninety-four married women with early stage cancer and their partners were randomly assigned to couples-based coping training (CanCOPE), individual coping training for the…

  20. Developmental Model Using Gestalt-Play versus Cognitive-Verbal Group with Chinese Adolescents: Effects on Strengths and Adjustment Enhancement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Yih-Jiun

    2007-01-01

    This study compared the effectiveness of short-term developmental group counseling applying Gestalt-play versus cognitive-verbal approaches with Taiwanese adolescents. On a measure of behavioral and emotional strengths, teachers reported significant changes in students' overall behavioral and emotional strengths measured via total scores. Specific…

  1. Interface coupling-induced enhancement of magnetoimpedance effect in heterogeneous nanobrush by adjusting textures of Co nanowires

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Interface coupling-induced and interface coupling-enhanced magnetoimpedance (MI) effect in heterogeneous nanobrush has been investigated. The nanobrush is composed of Fe25Ni75 nanofilm and textured hexagonal close-packed cobalt nanowire array, respectively fabricated by RF magnetron sputtering and electrochemical deposition. The design of this structure is based on the vortex distribution of magnetic moments in thin film, which can be induced by the exchange coupling effect at the interfaces of the nanobrush. The texture of nanowires plays an important role in the MI effect of the nanobrush, which is regulated by controlling the pH values and temperatures of the deposition process. The ‘parallel’ and ‘perpendicular’ coupling models were used to explain the different MI results of the nanobrush with cobalt nanowires, which have (100) and (002) textures, respectively. The optimized MI effect of the nanobrush brought by (100) nanowires can be magnified by 300% with more than 80%/Oe magnetic sensitivity at a low frequency, which has great application potentials in low-frequency MI sensors. PMID:24207011

  2. Effects of Parental Depressive Symptoms on Child Adjustment Moderated by Hypothalamic Pituitary Adrenal Activity: Within- and between-Family Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laurent, Heidemarie K.; Leve, Leslie D.; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Natsuaki, Misaki N.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Fisher, Philip A.; Marceau, Kristine; Harold, Gordon T.; Reiss, David

    2013-01-01

    Child hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) activity was investigated as a moderator of parental depressive symptom effects on child behavior in an adoption sample ("n" = 210 families). Adoptive parents' depressive symptoms and child internalizing and externalizing were assessed at 18, 27, and 54 months, and child morning and evening HPA activity…

  3. Remotely Adjustable Hydraulic Pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kouns, H. H.; Gardner, L. D.

    1987-01-01

    Outlet pressure adjusted to match varying loads. Electrohydraulic servo has positioned sleeve in leftmost position, adjusting outlet pressure to maximum value. Sleeve in equilibrium position, with control land covering control port. For lowest pressure setting, sleeve shifted toward right by increased pressure on sleeve shoulder from servovalve. Pump used in aircraft and robots, where hydraulic actuators repeatedly turned on and off, changing pump load frequently and over wide range.

  4. Weighted triangulation adjustment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, Walter L.

    1969-01-01

    The variation of coordinates method is employed to perform a weighted least squares adjustment of horizontal survey networks. Geodetic coordinates are required for each fixed and adjustable station. A preliminary inverse geodetic position computation is made for each observed line. Weights associated with each observed equation for direction, azimuth, and distance are applied in the formation of the normal equations in-the least squares adjustment. The number of normal equations that may be solved is twice the number of new stations and less than 150. When the normal equations are solved, shifts are produced at adjustable stations. Previously computed correction factors are applied to the shifts and a most probable geodetic position is found for each adjustable station. Pinal azimuths and distances are computed. These may be written onto magnetic tape for subsequent computation of state plane or grid coordinates. Input consists of punch cards containing project identification, program options, and position and observation information. Results listed include preliminary and final positions, residuals, observation equations, solution of the normal equations showing magnitudes of shifts, and a plot of each adjusted and fixed station. During processing, data sets containing irrecoverable errors are rejected and the type of error is listed. The computer resumes processing of additional data sets.. Other conditions cause warning-errors to be issued, and processing continues with the current data set.

  5. [Effects of chlorophyllin-iron on osmotic adjustment and activities of antioxidantive enzymes in cucumber seedlings under suboptimal temperature].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Meng; Wang, Xiu-feng; Zhang, Fan-yang; Wei, Min; Shi, Qing-hua; Yang, Feng-juan; Li, Yan

    2014-12-01

    Cucumber cultivar 'Jinyan 4' was subjected to suboptimal temperature treatment of 18/12 degrees C (day/night) in the growth chambers. A solution culture experiment was conducted to study the effect of exogenously spraying 5 mg x L(-1) chlorophyllin-iron solution on plant growth, the content of proline, soluble sugar, MDA and activity of peroxidase in the leaves of cucumber seedling under suboptimal temperature. Application of chlorophyllin-iron showed prominent effects on mitigating the stress of suboptimal temperature on growth of the cucumber seedlings, significantly increasing the plant height, leaf area, shoot dry mass, the contents of soluble sugar and proline and the activities of SOD, POD, CAT and APX. Exogenously spraying chlorophyllin-iron could promote the accumulation of proline and soluble sugar, raise the activities of antioxidant enzymes, decrease the membrane lipid peroxidation and improve the adaptability of cucumber seedlings under suboptimal temperature. PMID:25876404

  6. Breed effects and heterosis in advanced generations of composite populations on actual weight, adjusted weight, hip height, and condition score of beef cows.

    PubMed

    Gregory, K E; Cundiff, L V; Koch, R M

    1992-06-01

    Heterosis effects were evaluated in three composite populations in F1, F2, and F3 generations separately and combined in 1-yr-old and from 2- through greater than or equal to 7-yr-old beef cows. Traits included actual weight, weight adjusted to a common condition score, hip height, and condition score. Breed effects were evaluated in the nine parental breeds (Red Poll [R], Hereford [H], Angus [A], Limousin [L], Braunvieh [B], Pinzgauer [P], Gelbvieh [G], Simmental [S], and Charolais [C]) that contributed to the three composite populations (MARC I = 1/4 B, 1/4 C, 1/4 L, 1/8 H, 1/8 A; MARC II = 1/4 G, 1/4 S, 1/4 H, 1/4 A; and MARC III = 1/4 R, 1/4 P, 1/4 H, 1/4 A). Breed group (parental breed and composite) effects were significant for all traits analyzed. The effects of heterosis were generally important (P less than .05) for all traits in F1, F2, and F3 generations separately and combined in the three composite populations. Generally, the magnitude of heterosis observed at 1 yr of age did not differ from that observed in cows from 2 through greater than or equal to 7 yr old. Adjusting weight to a common condition score resulted in an average reduction of heterosis effects on actual weight by approximately one-fourth. Thus, approximately one-fourth of the effects of heterosis on weight result from heterosis effects on condition score. Generally, retained heterosis in the F3 generation of either 1-yr-old or from 2-through greater than or equal to 7-yr-old cows of the three composite populations did not differ (P greater than .05) from expectation based on retained heterozygosity for the traits analyzed. These results support the hypothesis that heterosis for weight, hip height, and condition score of cows of these age classes is the result of dominance effects of genes.

  7. Concurrent and longitudinal effects of ethnic identity and experiences of discrimination on psychosocial adjustment of Navajo adolescents.

    PubMed

    Galliher, Renee V; Jones, Matthew D; Dahl, Angie

    2011-03-01

    In this study, we examined concurrent and longitudinal relations among Navajo adolescents' ethnic identity, experiences of discrimination, and psychosocial outcomes (i.e., self-esteem, substance use, and social functioning). At Time 1, 137 Navajo adolescents (67 male, 70 female), primarily in Grades 9 and 10, completed a written survey assessing ethnic identity, discrimination experiences, and a range of internalizing and externalizing behaviors. Two years later, 92 participants completed the same survey again. Ethnic and cultural identification was assessed via the Multiethnic Ethnic Identity Measure (MEIM; Phinney, 1992) and the Orthogonal Cultural Identification Scale (OCIS; Oetting & Beauvais, 1990). At Time 1, MEIM Affirmation and Belonging, MEIM Exploration, and OCIS White American identification all demonstrated strong, positive associations with adaptive functioning for male and female adolescents, whereas discrimination experiences were linked to lower self-esteem and social functioning for male adolescents. By Time 2, fewer significant concurrent associations between ethnic identity and psychosocial functioning scores remained, and discrimination experiences emerged as the most consistent correlate of poorer psychosocial functioning for male adolescents. Controlling for Time 1 psychosocial functioning, relatively few direct effects of ethnic and cultural identification variables predicted psychosocial functioning longitudinally, but discrimination experiences demonstrated strong and consistent longitudinal links with boys' substance use. Finally, interaction effects assessing the moderating influence of ethnic and cultural identification on negative links between discrimination and psychosocial functioning suggested that embeddedness in and connection to Navajo culture and, in some cases, connection to White American culture, served as a buffer to the negative effects of discrimination experiences. PMID:21142373

  8. Career adjustment via reasonable accommodations: the effects of an employee-empowerment intervention for people with disabilities.

    PubMed

    Rumrill, P D; Garnette, M R

    1997-01-01

    The article describes an experimental approach to increasing consumer participation in the Americans with Disabilities Act's Title I accommodation request process. Specifically, participants (N = 36) completed a structured interview to identify their needs for on-the-job accommodations, received detailed information about Title I provisions, and completed a social competence training program to assist them in requesting accommodations from their employers. Results indicated that the intervention was effective in increasing knowledge of Title I provisions and behavioral activity related to requesting and implementing accommodations.

  9. An examination of main and interactive effects of substance abuse recovery housing on multiple indicators of adjustment

    PubMed Central

    Jason, Leonard A.; Olson, Bradley D.; Ferrari, Joseph R.; Majer, John M.; Alvarez, Josefina; Stout, Jane

    2010-01-01

    Aims To assess the effectiveness of community-based supports in promoting abstinence from substance use and related problems. Design and participants Individuals (n = 150) discharged from residential substance abuse treatment facilities were assigned randomly to either an Oxford House recovery home or usual after-care condition and then interviewed every 6 months for a 24-month period. Intervention Oxford Houses are democratic, self-run recovery homes. Measurements Hierarchical linear modeling was used to examine the effect of predictive variables on wave trajectories of substance use, employment, self-regulation and recent criminal charges. Regressions first examined whether predictor variables modeled wave trajectories by condition (Oxford House versus usual after-care), psychiatric comorbidity, age and interactions. Findings At the 24-month follow-up, there was less substance abuse for residents living in Oxford Houses for 6 or more months (15.6%), compared both to participants with less than 6 months (45.7%) or to participants assigned to the usual after-care condition (64.8%). Results also indicated that older residents and younger members living in a house for 6 or more months experienced better outcomes in terms of substance use, employment and self-regulation. Conclusions Oxford Houses, a type of self-governed recovery setting, appear to stabilize many individuals who have substance abuse histories. PMID:17567399

  10. 38 CFR 18.444 - Academic adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Academic adjustments. 18....444 Academic adjustments. (a) Academic requirements. A recipient shall make necessary modifications to its academic requirements to ensure that these requirements do not discriminate or have the effect...

  11. Fuel injection pump with adjustable timing

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamura, H.; Abe, N.

    1987-04-28

    A fuel injection pump is described comprising: a pump body; a plunger disposed in the pump body for reciprocating within the pump body; and a pre-stroke adjusting mechanism disposed in the pump body and operatively connected with the plunger for adjusting an effective pre-stroke of the plunger.

  12. Targeting Interventions: Moderators of the Effects of Expressive Writing and Assertiveness Training on the Adjustment of International University Students.

    PubMed

    Hijazi, Alaa M; Tavakoli, Shedeh; Slavin-Spenny, Olga M; Lumley, Mark A

    2011-06-01

    Acculturative stress is a common experience for international students and is associated with psychological and physical problems. In a previous study, the authors reported that two stress reduction interventions-expressive writing (EW) and assertiveness training (AT)-had limited overall benefits among international students at an American University. The current analyses of data from that study investigated whether individual differences moderated the effects of EW and AT. Results indicate that greater acculturative stress at baseline predicted greater improvement from both interventions, compared with control. Women benefited more from AT than EW, except that EW improved women's physical symptoms. Men benefited more from EW than AT. Students with limited emotional awareness and expression tended to benefit from both interventions, relative to control. Finally, nation of origin cultural differences generally did not predict outcomes. It is concluded that the benefits of EW and AT and can be enhanced by targeting these interventions to specific subgroups of international students. PMID:21660220

  13. Effective material properties of thermoelectric composites with elliptical fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yi-Ze

    2015-06-01

    In the present work, the effective material properties of thermoelectric composites with elliptical fibers are studied. Explicit solutions are derived by the conformal mapping function and Mori-Tanaka method. Numerical simulations are performed to present the behaviors of normalized effective material constants. From the results, it can be observed that both the effective electric and thermal conductivities can be reduced by increasing the filling ratio and a/ b. Such influences can also be found for the effective thermoelectric figure of merit. But they are different from those on the effective Seebeck and Peltier coefficients.

  14. Effect of processing on Polymer/Composite structure and properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Advances in the vitality and economic health of the field of polymer forecasting are discussed. A consistent and rational point of view which considers processing as a participant in the underlying triad of relationships which comprise materials science and engineering is outlined. This triad includes processing as it influences material structure, and ultimately properties. Methods in processing structure properties, polymer science and engineering, polymer chemistry and synthesis, structure and modification and optimization through processing, and methods of melt flow modeling in processing structure property relations of polymer were developed. Mechanical properties of composites are considered, and biomedical materials research to include polymer processing effects are studied. An analysis of the design technology of advances graphite/epoxy composites is also reported.

  15. Effect of adjusting pulse durations of functional electrical stimulation cycling on energy expenditure and fatigue after spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Gorgey, Ashraf S; Poarch, Hunter J; Dolbow, David D; Castillo, Teodoro; Gater, David R

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to determine the effects of three different pulse durations (200, 350, and 500 microseconds [P200, P350, and P500, respectively]) on oxygen uptake (VO2), cycling performance, and energy expenditure (EE) percentage of fatigue of the knee extensor muscle group immediately and 48 to 72 h after cycling in persons with spinal cord injury (SCI). A convenience sample of 10 individuals with motor complete SCI participated in a repeated-measures design using a functional electrical stimulation (FES) cycle ergometer over a 3 wk period. There was no difference among the three FES protocols on relative VO2 or cycling EE. Delta EE between exercise and rest was 42% greater in both P500 and P350 compared with P200 (p = 0.07), whereas recovery VO2 was 23% greater in P350 compared with P200 (p = 0.03). There was no difference in the outcomes of the three pulse durations on muscle fatigue. Knee extensor torque significantly decreased immediately after (p < 0.001) and 48 to 72 h after (p < 0.001) FES leg cycling. Lengthening pulse duration did not affect submaximal or relative VO2 or EE, total EE, and time to fatigue. Greater recovery VO2 and delta EE were noted in P350 and P500 compared with P200. An acute bout of FES leg cycling resulted in torque reduction that did not fully recover 48 to 72 h after cycling.

  16. Effect of adjusting pulse durations of functional electrical stimulation cycling on energy expenditure and fatigue after spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Gorgey, Ashraf S; Poarch, Hunter J; Dolbow, David D; Castillo, Teodoro; Gater, David R

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to determine the effects of three different pulse durations (200, 350, and 500 microseconds [P200, P350, and P500, respectively]) on oxygen uptake (VO2), cycling performance, and energy expenditure (EE) percentage of fatigue of the knee extensor muscle group immediately and 48 to 72 h after cycling in persons with spinal cord injury (SCI). A convenience sample of 10 individuals with motor complete SCI participated in a repeated-measures design using a functional electrical stimulation (FES) cycle ergometer over a 3 wk period. There was no difference among the three FES protocols on relative VO2 or cycling EE. Delta EE between exercise and rest was 42% greater in both P500 and P350 compared with P200 (p = 0.07), whereas recovery VO2 was 23% greater in P350 compared with P200 (p = 0.03). There was no difference in the outcomes of the three pulse durations on muscle fatigue. Knee extensor torque significantly decreased immediately after (p < 0.001) and 48 to 72 h after (p < 0.001) FES leg cycling. Lengthening pulse duration did not affect submaximal or relative VO2 or EE, total EE, and time to fatigue. Greater recovery VO2 and delta EE were noted in P350 and P500 compared with P200. An acute bout of FES leg cycling resulted in torque reduction that did not fully recover 48 to 72 h after cycling. PMID:25803753

  17. The effects of mechanical transparency on adjustment to a complex visuomotor transformation at early and late working age.

    PubMed

    Heuer, Herbert; Hegele, Mathias

    2010-12-01

    Mechanical tools are transparent in the sense that their input-output relations can be derived from their perceptible characteristics. Modern technology creates more and more tools that lack mechanical transparency, such as in the control of the position of a cursor by means of a computer mouse or some other input device. We inquired whether an enhancement of transparency by means of presenting the shaft of a virtual sliding lever, which governed the transformation of hand position into cursor position, supports performance of aimed cursor movement and the acquisition of an internal model of the transformation in both younger and older adults. Enhanced transparency resulted in an improvement of visual closed-loop control in terms of movement time and curvature of cursor paths. The movement-time improvement was more pronounced at older working age than at younger working age, so that the enhancement of transparency can serve as a means to mitigate age-related declines in performance. Benefits for the acquisition of an internal model of the transformation and of explicit knowledge were absent. Thus, open-loop control in this task did not profit from enhanced mechanical transparency. These findings strongly suggest that environmental support of transparency of the effects of input devices on controlled systems might be a powerful tool to support older users. Enhanced transparency may also improve simulator-based training by increasing motivation, even if training benefits do not transfer to situations without enhanced transparency.

  18. The effect of marriage on young adult heavy drinking and its mediators: results from two methods of adjusting for selection into marriage.

    PubMed

    Lee, Matthew R; Chassin, Laurie; Mackinnon, David

    2010-12-01

    This study tested the effect of marriage on young adult heavy drinking and tested whether this effect was mediated by involvement in social activities, religiosity, and self-control reasons for limiting drinking. The sample of 508 young adults was taken from an ongoing longitudinal study of familial alcoholism that over-sampled children of alcoholics (Chassin, Rogosch, & Barrera, 1991). In order to distinguish role socialization effects of marriage from confounding effects of role selection into marriage, analyses used both the analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) method and the change score method of adjusting for pre-marriage levels of heavy drinking and the mediators. Results showed role socialization effects of marriage on post-marriage declines in heavy drinking. This effect was mediated by involvement in social activities such that marriage predicted decreased involvement in social activities, which in turn predicted decreased heavy drinking. There were no statistically significant mediated effects of religiosity. The mediated effect of self-control reasons for limiting drinking was supported by the ANCOVA method only, and further investigation suggested that this result was detected erroneously due to violation of an assumption of the ANCOVA method that is not shared by the change score method. Findings from this study offer an explanation for the maturing out of heavy drinking that takes place for some individuals over the course of young adulthood. Methodologically, results suggest that the ANCOVA method should be employed with caution, and that the change score method is a viable approach to confirming results from the ANCOVA method. PMID:21198229

  19. Effects of pentoxifylline on equine neutrophil function and flow properties.

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, D J; Geor, R J; Burris, S M; Smith, C M

    1992-01-01

    Pentoxifylline has been reported to improve peripheral vascular circulation by altering the flow properties of blood. To determine if the hemorrheological effects of pentoxifylline were mediated by alterations in neutrophil function and/or flow properties, we evaluated the drug's effects on equine neutrophils in vitro. Pentoxifylline, at a concentration of 1 x 10(-1) M, but not at concentrations of 1 x 10(-6) M to 1 x 10(-2) M, markedly suppressed neutrophil superoxide production, zymosan phagocytosis and adherence to nylon wool. Pentoxifylline failed to improve neutrophil filterability through 3 mu polycarbonate filters at any concentration tested. We conclude that equine neutrophil function and flow properties are unlikely to be affected by pentoxifylline concentrations achievable in vivo. PMID:1335832

  20. Effect of extrusion processing on the microstructure, mechanical properties, biocorrosion properties and antibacterial properties of Ti-Cu sintered alloys.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Erlin; Li, Shengyi; Ren, Jing; Zhang, Lan; Han, Yong

    2016-12-01

    Ti-Cu sintered alloys, Ti-Cu(S) alloy, have exhibited good anticorrosion resistance and strong antibacterial properties, but low ductility in previous study. In this paper, Ti-Cu(S) alloys were subjected to extrusion processing in order to improve the comprehensive property. The phase constitute, microstructure, mechanical property, biocorrosion property and antibacterial activity of the extruded alloys, Ti-Cu(E), were investigated in comparison with Ti-Cu(S) by X-ray diffraction (XRD), optical microscopy (OM), scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) with energy disperse spectroscopy (EDS), mechanical testing, electrochemical testing and plate-count method in order to reveal the effect of the extrusion process. XRD, OM and SEM results showed that the extrusion process did not change the phase constitute but refined the grain size and Ti2Cu particle significantly. Ti-Cu(E) alloys exhibited higher hardness and compressive yield strength than Ti-Cu(S) alloys due to the fine grain and Ti2Cu particles. With the consideration of the total compressive strain, it was suggested that the extrusion process could improve the ductility of Ti-Cu alloy(S) alloys. Electrochemical results have indicated that the extrusion process improved the corrosion resistance of Ti-Cu(S) alloys. Plate-count method displayed that both Ti-Cu(S) and Ti-Cu(E) exhibited strong antibacterial activity (>99%) against S. aureus. All these results demonstrated that hot forming processing, such as the extrusion in this study, refined the microstructure and densified the alloy, in turn improved the ductility and strength as well as anticorrosion properties without reduction in antibacterial properties.

  1. Effect of extrusion processing on the microstructure, mechanical properties, biocorrosion properties and antibacterial properties of Ti-Cu sintered alloys.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Erlin; Li, Shengyi; Ren, Jing; Zhang, Lan; Han, Yong

    2016-12-01

    Ti-Cu sintered alloys, Ti-Cu(S) alloy, have exhibited good anticorrosion resistance and strong antibacterial properties, but low ductility in previous study. In this paper, Ti-Cu(S) alloys were subjected to extrusion processing in order to improve the comprehensive property. The phase constitute, microstructure, mechanical property, biocorrosion property and antibacterial activity of the extruded alloys, Ti-Cu(E), were investigated in comparison with Ti-Cu(S) by X-ray diffraction (XRD), optical microscopy (OM), scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) with energy disperse spectroscopy (EDS), mechanical testing, electrochemical testing and plate-count method in order to reveal the effect of the extrusion process. XRD, OM and SEM results showed that the extrusion process did not change the phase constitute but refined the grain size and Ti2Cu particle significantly. Ti-Cu(E) alloys exhibited higher hardness and compressive yield strength than Ti-Cu(S) alloys due to the fine grain and Ti2Cu particles. With the consideration of the total compressive strain, it was suggested that the extrusion process could improve the ductility of Ti-Cu alloy(S) alloys. Electrochemical results have indicated that the extrusion process improved the corrosion resistance of Ti-Cu(S) alloys. Plate-count method displayed that both Ti-Cu(S) and Ti-Cu(E) exhibited strong antibacterial activity (>99%) against S. aureus. All these results demonstrated that hot forming processing, such as the extrusion in this study, refined the microstructure and densified the alloy, in turn improved the ductility and strength as well as anticorrosion properties without reduction in antibacterial properties. PMID:27612770

  2. Micromagnetic model for biaxial stress effects on magnetic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sablik, M. J.; Riley, L. A.; Burkhardt, G. L.; Kwun, H.; Cannell, P. Y.; Watts, K. T.; Langman, R. A.

    1994-04-01

    A micromagnetic formulation has been developed for modeling the effect of biaxial stress on magnetoelastic processes in polycrystalline steels. The formulation uses a modified version of the Kashiwaya model for the effect of biaxial stress on magnetic properties and combines it with the Schneider-Cannell-Watts model for magnetoelastic processes in steels. In particular, the model involves use of an effective stress equal to one of the deviatoric (i.e. distortional) normal stress components, depending on whether the field is parallel to a tensile or compressive axis or to the third axis perpendicular to the plane of biaxial stress. Computer results are compared to experimental results on the effects of biaxial stress on magnetic properties in mild steel and in SAE-4130 steel. Good qualitative agreement is found in almost all cases, in that in going from one biaxial stress case to the next, the same kinds of changes are seen magnetically.

  3. Effects of greige cotton lint properties on hydroentangled nonwoven fabrics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study determined the effects of fiber length, the length uniformity index, micronaire (fineness), and strength of greige cotton lint on properties of nonwoven fabrics. Seven bales of pre-cleaned greige (non-bleached) cotton were procured from a U.S cotton producer and ginner. Each bale primar...

  4. Effect of web formation on properties of hydroentangled nonwoven fabrics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted to determine the effects of two popular web-forming technologies, viz., the Rando air-laid technology and the traditional carding technology, on properties of the hydroentangled nonwoven fabrics made therewith. The fibers used in the study were greige cotton, bleached cotton, ...

  5. Effects of physical properties on thermo-fluids cavitating flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, T. R.; Wang, G. Y.; Huang, B.; Li, D. Q.; Ma, X. J.; Li, X. L.

    2015-12-01

    The aims of this paper are to study the thermo-fluid cavitating flows and to evaluate the effects of physical properties on cavitation behaviours. The Favre-averaged Navier-Stokes equations with the energy equation are applied to numerically investigate the liquid nitrogen cavitating flows around a NASA hydrofoil. Meanwhile, the thermodynamic parameter Σ is used to assess the thermodynamic effects on cavitating flows. The results indicate that the thermodynamic effects on the thermo-fluid cavitating flows significantly affect the cavitation behaviours, including pressure and temperature distribution, the variation of physical properties, and cavity structures. The thermodynamic effects can be evaluated by physical properties under the same free-stream conditions. The global sensitivity analysis of liquid nitrogen suggests that ρv, Cl and L significantly influence temperature drop and cavity structure in the existing numerical framework, while pv plays the dominant role when these properties vary with temperature. The liquid viscosity μl slightly affects the flow structure via changing the Reynolds number Re equivalently, however, it hardly affects the temperature distribution.

  6. THE EFFECT OF FIBER SURFACE SUGAR CONTENT ON YARN PROPERTIES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous work examining the effect of ageing on cotton fiber surface chemical and HVI properties, yarn processing performance, and yarn quality showed that cotton bales storage for at least two years exhibit signficant changes in a number of these variables including surface sugar content, HVI color...

  7. Effect of adjuvant physical properties on spray characteristics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of adjuvant physical properties on spray characteristics were studied. Dynamic surface tension was measured with a Sensa Dyne surface tensiometer 6000 using the maximum bubble pressure method. Viscosity was measured with a Brookfield synchro-lectric viscometer model LVT using a UL adap...

  8. Weaker error signals do not reduce the effectiveness of post-error adjustments: comparing error processing in young and middle-aged adults.

    PubMed

    Strozyk, Jessica Vanessa; Jentzsch, Ines

    2012-06-15

    In this study we investigated age-related differences in error processing, comparing performance measures and physiological indicators of error processing of middle-aged (41-59years) and young (18-31years) adults using a version of the Eriksen flanker task. Although middle-aged participants were overall slower, both groups showed a comparable decrease in reaction time on error trials as well as slower and more accurate post-error performance. Despite the preserved error speeding and post-error slowing effects, we found an amplitude reduction in the Ne/ERN, contradicting the existence of a direct relationship between the amplitude of this component and post-error adjustments. This was further supported by the lack of significant correlations between the single-trial Ne/ERN amplitude and error-related reaction times. The single-trial Ne/ERN distribution showed a reduced variance for middle-aged compared to young participants, suggesting that weaker overall error signals rather than lapses in error detection are responsible for the observed Ne/ERN amplitude reductions. However, we argue that the signal still reached the necessary threshold to trigger normal post-error adjustments. Finally, the early Pe showed a reduction in amplitude and an increase in latency for middle-aged compared to young adults. Together, the findings suggest clear signs of a physiological decline in error processing at an earlier age than previously known, but these changes do not yet affect implementation of adaptive behavioral changes in middle-aged participants. PMID:22578713

  9. 36 CFR 1207.51 - Later disallowances and adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Later disallowances and adjustments. 1207.51 Section 1207.51 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS... AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS After-The-Grant Requirements § 1207.51 Later disallowances and adjustments....

  10. 12 CFR 560.35 - Adjustments to home loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adjustments to home loans. 560.35 Section 560... Lending and Investment Powers for Federal Savings Associations § 560.35 Adjustments to home loans. (a) For any home loan secured by borrower-occupied property, or property to be occupied by the...

  11. 12 CFR 560.35 - Adjustments to home loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Adjustments to home loans. 560.35 Section 560... Lending and Investment Powers for Federal Savings Associations § 560.35 Adjustments to home loans. (a) For any home loan secured by borrower-occupied property, or property to be occupied by the...

  12. Effects of Soil Property Uncertainty on Projected Active Layer Thickness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harp, D. R.; Atchley, A. L.; Coon, E.; Painter, S. L.; Wilson, C. J.; Romanovsky, V. E.; Liljedahl, A.

    2014-12-01

    Uncertainty in future climate is often assumed to contribute the largest uncertainty to active layer thickness (ALT) projections. However, the impact of soil property uncertainty on these projections may be significant. In this research, we evaluate the contribution of soil property uncertainty on ALT projections at the Barrow Environmental Observatory, Alaska. The effect of variations in porosity, thermal conductivity, saturation, and water retention properties of peat and mineral soil are evaluated. The micro-topography of ice wedge polygons present at the site is included in the analysis using three 1D column models to represent polygon center, rim and trough features. The Arctic Terrestrial Simulator (ATS) is used to model multiphase thermal and hydrological processes in the subsurface. We apply the Null-Space Monte Carlo (NSMC) algorithm to identify an ensemble of soil property combinations that produce simulated temperature profiles that are consistent with temperature measurements available from the site. ALT is simulated for the ensemble of soil property combinations for four climate scenarios. The uncertainty in ALT due to soil properties within and across climate scenarios is evaluated. This work was supported by LANL Laboratory Directed Research and Development Project LDRD201200068DR and by the The Next-Generation Ecosystem Experiments (NGEE Arctic) project. NGEE-Arctic is supported by the Office of Biological and Environmental Research in the DOE Office of Science.

  13. Effect of Antiadherents on the Physical and Drug Release Properties of Acrylic Polymeric Films.

    PubMed

    Ammar, Hussein O; Ghorab, Mamdouh M; Felton, Linda A; Gad, Shadeed; Fouly, Aya A

    2016-06-01

    Antiadherents are used to decrease tackiness of a polymer coating during both processing and subsequent storage. Despite being a common excipient in coating formulae, antiadherents may affect mechanical properties of the coating film as well as drug release from film-coated tablets, but how could addition of antiadherents affect these properties and to what extent and is there a relation between the physical characteristics of the tablet coat and the drug release mechanisms? The aim of this study was to evaluate physical characteristics of films containing different amounts of the antiadherents talc, glyceryl monostearate, and PlasACRYL(TM) T20. Eudragit RL30D and Eudragit RS30D as sustained release polymers and Eudragit FS30D as a delayed release material were used. Polymer films were characterized by tensile testing, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), microscopic examination, and water content as calculated from loss on drying. The effect of antiadherents on in vitro drug release for the model acetylsalicylic acid tablets coated with Eudragit FS30D was also determined. Increasing talc concentration was found to decrease the ability of the polymer films to resist mechanical stress. In contrast, glyceryl monostearate (GMS) and PlasACRYL produced more elastic films. Talc at concentrations higher than 25% caused negative effects, which make 25% concentration recommended to be used with acrylic polymers. All antiadherents delayed the drug release at all coating levels; hence, different tailoring of drug release may be achieved by adjusting antiadherent concentration with coating level. PMID:26314244

  14. Effect of Antiadherents on the Physical and Drug Release Properties of Acrylic Polymeric Films.

    PubMed

    Ammar, Hussein O; Ghorab, Mamdouh M; Felton, Linda A; Gad, Shadeed; Fouly, Aya A

    2016-06-01

    Antiadherents are used to decrease tackiness of a polymer coating during both processing and subsequent storage. Despite being a common excipient in coating formulae, antiadherents may affect mechanical properties of the coating film as well as drug release from film-coated tablets, but how could addition of antiadherents affect these properties and to what extent and is there a relation between the physical characteristics of the tablet coat and the drug release mechanisms? The aim of this study was to evaluate physical characteristics of films containing different amounts of the antiadherents talc, glyceryl monostearate, and PlasACRYL(TM) T20. Eudragit RL30D and Eudragit RS30D as sustained release polymers and Eudragit FS30D as a delayed release material were used. Polymer films were characterized by tensile testing, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), microscopic examination, and water content as calculated from loss on drying. The effect of antiadherents on in vitro drug release for the model acetylsalicylic acid tablets coated with Eudragit FS30D was also determined. Increasing talc concentration was found to decrease the ability of the polymer films to resist mechanical stress. In contrast, glyceryl monostearate (GMS) and PlasACRYL produced more elastic films. Talc at concentrations higher than 25% caused negative effects, which make 25% concentration recommended to be used with acrylic polymers. All antiadherents delayed the drug release at all coating levels; hence, different tailoring of drug release may be achieved by adjusting antiadherent concentration with coating level.

  15. Effect of wet grinding on structural properties of ball clay

    SciTech Connect

    Purohit, A. Chander, S.; Dhaka, M. S.; Hameed, A.; Singh, P.; Nehra, S. P.

    2015-05-15

    In this paper, the effect of wet grinding on structural properties of ball clay is undertaken. The wet grinding treatment was performed employing ball and vibro mills for different time spells of 2, 4, 8 and 16 hours. The structural properties were carried out using X-ray diffraction (XRD). The structure of ground samples is found to be simple cubic. The crystallographic parameters are calculated and slight change in lattice constant, inter planner spacing and particle size is observed with grinding treatment. The results are in agreement with the available literature.

  16. Hygrothermal ageing effect on mechanical properties of FRP laminates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larbi, S.; Bensaada, R.; Bilek, A.; Djebali, S.

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this work is to study the effect of hygrothermal aging on mechanical properties of two composite materials (carbon fiber / epoxy and glass fiber E / vinylester). Two stratifications are studied for each material. Both materials are exposed to two different environments, the sea water and the deionized water at a temperature of 40°C. The kinetic of material absorption is plotted. We see an irreversible degradation of material caused by exposure time. The characterization of samples in the virgin state and the aged condition is achieved with three points bending tests. We can see significant loss of mechanical properties due to hygrothermal aging.

  17. Effect of superhydrophobicity on the barrier properties of polymethylene films.

    PubMed

    Tuberquia, Juan C; Nizamidin, Nabijan; Jennings, G Kane

    2010-09-01

    Superhydrophobic polymethylene (PM) films provide remarkable protection against the transport of aqueous redox probes as a result of entrapped air at the water/polymer interface. The wetting properties and the topography for a set of superhydrophobic (SH) and nonsuperhydrophobic (NSH) PM films were established to compare their interfacial behavior using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). EIS results show that SH PM films exhibit resistances against ion transfer that are approximately 3 orders of magnitude higher than those of NSH PM films. Rationalization of these results in the context of the Helmholtz theory reveals that the imaginary impedance or inverse capacitance of SH PM films exhibits positive deviations from that predicted by Helmholtz theory for smooth PM films. Here, we model the capacitance behavior of a SH film as a PM/air composite that acts as a circuit of capacitors. The resulting mathematical model of this analysis enables correlation of the effective dielectric properties of the film (d(effective), epsilon(effective)) to measurable properties such as thickness (d(film)) and the dielectric constant (epsilon(PM)) of the PM film. Finally, a sensitivity analysis shows that the limited contact area between the aqueous solution and PM in SH films is the primary reason for the enhancement in the barrier properties of the film.

  18. Simple, Internally Adjustable Valve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burley, Richard K.

    1990-01-01

    Valve containing simple in-line, adjustable, flow-control orifice made from ordinary plumbing fitting and two allen setscrews. Construction of valve requires only simple drilling, tapping, and grinding. Orifice installed in existing fitting, avoiding changes in rest of plumbing.

  19. Self Adjusting Sunglasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Corning Glass Works' Serengeti Driver sunglasses are unique in that their lenses self-adjust and filter light while suppressing glare. They eliminate more than 99% of the ultraviolet rays in sunlight. The frames are based on the NASA Anthropometric Source Book.

  20. Rural to Urban Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abramson, Jane A.

    Personal interviews with 100 former farm operators living in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, were conducted in an attempt to understand the nature of the adjustment process caused by migration from rural to urban surroundings. Requirements for inclusion in the study were that respondents had owned or operated a farm for at least 3 years, had left their…

  1. Self adjusting inclinometer

    DOEpatents

    Hunter, Steven L.

    2002-01-01

    An inclinometer utilizing synchronous demodulation for high resolution and electronic offset adjustment provides a wide dynamic range without any moving components. A device encompassing a tiltmeter and accompanying electronic circuitry provides quasi-leveled tilt sensors that detect highly resolved tilt change without signal saturation.

  2. Limitations of ozone data assimilation with adjustment of NOx emissions: mixed effects on NO2 forecast over Beijing and surrounding areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, X.; Zhu, J.; Wang, Z. F.; Gbaguidi, A.; Lin, C. Y.; Xin, J. Y.; Song, T.; Hu, B.

    2015-12-01

    This study investigates a cross-variable ozone data assimilation (DA) method based on an ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) that has been validated as an efficient approach for improving ozone forecasts. The main purpose is to delve into the impacts of the cross-variable adjustment of nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions on the nitrogen dioxide (NO2) forecasts over Beijing and surrounding regions during the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games. A mixed effect on the NO2 forecasts was observed during the application of the cross-variable assimilation approach in real-data assimilation (RDA) experiments. The method improved the NO2 forecast over almost half of the urban sites with reductions of the root mean square errors (RMSEs) by 15-36 % in contrast to big increases of the RMSEs over other urban stations by 56-239 %. Over the urban stations with negative DA impacts, improvement of the NO2 forecasts with 7 % reduction of the RMSEs was noticed during the night and the morning vs. significant deterioration of the forecasts during daytime with 190 % increase of the RMSEs, suggesting the negative DA impacts mainly occurred during daytime. Ideal data assimilation (IDA) experiments with a box model and the same cross-variable assimilation method, as a further investigation, confirmed the mixed effects found in the RDA experiments. An improvement of the NOx emission estimation was obtained from the cross-variable assimilation under relatively small errors in the prior estimation of NOx emissions during daytime, while deterioration of the NOx emission estimation was found under large biases in the prior estimation of NOx emissions during daytime. However, the cross-variable assimilation improved the NOx emission estimations during the night and the morning even with large biases in the prior estimations. The mixed effects observed in the cross-variable assimilation, i.e., positive DA impacts on NO2 forecast over some urban sites, negative DA impacts over the other urban sites and weak DA

  3. Limitations of ozone data assimilation with adjustment of NOx emissions: mixed effects on NO2 forecasts over Beijing and surrounding areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Xiao; Zhu, Jiang; Wang, ZiFa; Gbaguidi, Alex; Lin, CaiYan; Xin, JinYuan; Song, Tao; Hu, Bo

    2016-05-01

    This study investigates a cross-variable ozone data assimilation (DA) method based on an ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) that has been used in the companion study to improve ozone forecasts over Beijing and surrounding areas. The main purpose is to delve into the impacts of the cross-variable adjustment of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions on the nitrogen dioxide (NO2) forecasts over this region during the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games. A mixed effect on the NO2 forecasts was observed through application of the cross-variable assimilation approach in the real-data assimilation (RDA) experiments. The method improved the NO2 forecasts over almost half of the urban sites with reductions of the root mean square errors (RMSEs) by 15-36 % in contrast to big increases of the RMSEs over other urban stations by 56-239 %. Over the urban stations with negative DA impacts, improvement of the NO2 forecasts (with 7 % reduction of the RMSEs) was noticed at night and in the morning versus significant deterioration during daytime (with 190 % increase of the RMSEs), suggesting that the negative data assimilation impacts mainly occurred during daytime. Ideal-data assimilation (IDA) experiments with a box model and the same cross-variable assimilation method confirmed the mixed effects found in the RDA experiments. In the same way, NOx emission estimation was improved at night and in the morning even under large biases in the prior emission, while it deteriorated during daytime (except for the case of minor errors in the prior emission). The mixed effects observed in the cross-variable data assimilation, i.e., positive data assimilation impacts on NO2 forecasts over some urban sites, negative data assimilation impacts over the other urban sites, and weak data assimilation impacts over suburban sites, highlighted the limitations of the EnKF under strong nonlinear relationships between chemical variables. Under strong nonlinearity between daytime ozone concentrations and NOx emissions

  4. Relationship between radical scavenging effects and anticorrosive properties of polyphenols

    SciTech Connect

    Gust, J.; Wawer, I.

    1995-01-01

    The radical scavenging effects and anticorrosive properties of polyphenols (gallic acid [GA] and two gallotannins) that contained ortho-trihydroxyl aromatic rings but different numbers of GA moieties and different molecular masses were studied. Scavenging of the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) by the polyphenols was studied by electron spin resonance (ESR). The ESR spectra of the reaction products of the polyphenols and hydrated ferric sulfate were recorded. The anticorrosive properties of the polyphenols were studied by gravimetric and linear polarization measurements. X-ray analysis and mercury porosimetry were used to investigate the rust and its phase components converted by the polyphenols. An increase in the molecular mass (and the number of GA moieties) was found to increase the ability of the polyphenols to scavenge DPPH radicals and to convert the rust. Thus, evaluation of the scavenging effect was shown effective as a fast method to estimate and predict the usefulness of various polyphenols for anticorrosive applications.

  5. Effective Rheological Properties in Semi-dilute Bacterial Suspensions.

    PubMed

    Potomkin, Mykhailo; Ryan, Shawn D; Berlyand, Leonid

    2016-03-01

    Interactions between swimming bacteria have led to remarkable experimentally observable macroscopic properties such as the reduction in the effective viscosity, enhanced mixing, and diffusion. In this work, we study an individual-based model for a suspension of interacting point dipoles representing bacteria in order to gain greater insight into the physical mechanisms responsible for the drastic reduction in the effective viscosity. In particular, asymptotic analysis is carried out on the corresponding kinetic equation governing the distribution of bacteria orientations. This allows one to derive an explicit asymptotic formula for the effective viscosity of the bacterial suspension in the limit of bacterium non-sphericity. The results show good qualitative agreement with numerical simulations and previous experimental observations. Finally, we justify our approach by proving existence, uniqueness, and regularity properties for this kinetic PDE model. PMID:27025378

  6. Effect of oxygenates blending with gasoline to improve fuel properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babazadeh Shayan, Soheil; Seyedpour, Seyed Morteza; Ommi, Fathollah

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to study the effect of oxygenate additives into gasoline for the improvement of physicochemical properties of blends. Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE), Methanol, Tertiary butyl alcohol (TBA), and Tertiary amyl alcohol (TAA) blend into unleaded gasoline with various blended rates of 2.5%, 5%, 7.5%, 10%, 15%, and 20%. Physicochemical properties of blends are analyzed by the standard American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM) methods. Methanol, TBA, and TAA increase density of the mixtures, but MTBE decreases density. The addition of oxygenates lead to a distortion of the base gasoline's distillation curves. The Reid vapor pressure (RVP) of gasoline is found to increase with the addition of the oxygenated compounds. All oxygenates improve both motor and research octane numbers. Among these four additives, TBA shows the best fuel properties.

  7. The Effectiveness of Cultural Adjustment and Trauma Services (CATS): generating practice-based evidence on a comprehensive, school-based mental health intervention for immigrant youth.

    PubMed

    Beehler, Sarah; Birman, Dina; Campbell, Ruth

    2012-09-01

    A collaborative study of Cultural Adjustment and Trauma Services (CATS), a comprehensive, school-based mental health program for traumatized immigrant children and adolescents, was conducted to generate practice-based evidence on the service delivery model across two school districts. Program effectiveness was assessed by testing whether client functioning and PTSD symptoms improved as a result of 7 separate service elements. An array of clinical services including CBT, supportive therapy, and coordinating services were provided to all students, and an evidence-based intervention for trauma, TF-CBT, was implemented with a subset of students. Greater quantities of CBT and supportive therapy increased functioning, while greater quantities of coordinating services decreased symptoms of PTSD. TF-CBT services were associated with both improved functioning and PTSD symptoms, although TF-CBT was implemented with fidelity to the overall comprehensive service model rather than the structured intervention model. Results suggest the comprehensive school-based model was effective, though different service components affected different student outcomes. Implications of these findings for immigrant mental health interventions and implementing structured evidence-based practices into community mental health programs are discussed. Suggestions are made for future research on existing mental health practices with immigrants.

  8. Simulations of Decadal-scale Climate Change Impacts on Agriculture: Attributing Trends in Regional Corn Yields to Physiological Effects Versus Adjusted Farm Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kucharik, C.

    2003-12-01

    A recent study published in Science in early 2003 [by David Lobell and Gregory Asner, Dept. of Global Ecology, Carnegie Inst. of Washington] highlighted that little effort has been put forth to understand the impacts of previous decadal-scale climate changes on row-crop agriculture. The major obstacle to overcome in quantifying crop response to climate changes over large regions is deciphering between changes attributed to climate change versus technology, land-management and other factors. While the Lobell and Asner study concluded that regional temperature trends potentially contributed to corn and soybean yield trends from 1982-1998, a partitioning of the observed increases between direct physiological effects versus farmer management adjustment to climate was not a goal of their study. As part of this study, an agricultural version of the Integrated BIosphere Simulator (Agro-IBIS), was used to investigate how decadal-scale climate changes may have contributed to corn yield trends across the Mississippi Basin from 1948-2001. The primary objective was to investigate the relative contributions of physiological effects and farmer adjustments in planting date and hybrid choice to long-term corn yield trends. The impacts of advancing technology on agriculture were removed from model simulations so that the impact of weather and farm management decisions (e.g., planting date and hybrid choice) could be separated from observed long-term trends in the USDA crop yield record. Scenarios were used that accounted for smart-farmers, where management adjustments (planting date and/or hybrid) were made in response to climate changes, and for business-as-usual-farmers who continued to plant the same hybrids on the same date during the study period. When average, optimum corn planting dates from the 1950s were compared with the 1990s, significant springtime warming in regions of the northern fringes of the cornbelt (e.g., North Dakota, Minnesota) over the past 40 years have

  9. Floating-diffusion electrometer with adjustable sensitivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tower, John R. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    The effective capacitance of the floating diffusion in a floating-diffusion electrometer is modified to adjust electrometer sensitivity. This is done by changing the direct potential applied to a gate electrode proximate to the floating diffusion.

  10. Effects of humidity on the mechanical properties of gecko setae.

    PubMed

    Prowse, Michael S; Wilkinson, Matt; Puthoff, Jonathan B; Mayer, George; Autumn, Kellar

    2011-02-01

    We tested the hypothesis that an increase in relative humidity (RH) causes changes in the mechanical properties of the keratin of adhesive gecko foot hairs (setae). We measured the effect of RH on the tensile deformation properties, fracture, and dynamic mechanical response of single isolated tokay gecko setae and strips of the smooth lamellar epidermal layer. The mechanical properties of gecko setae were strongly affected by RH. The complex elastic modulus (measured at 5 Hz) of a single seta at 80% RH was 1.2 GPa, only 39% of the value when dry. An increase in RH reduced the stiffness and increased the strain to failure. The loss tangent increased significantly with humidity, suggesting that water absorption produces a transition to a more viscous type of deformation. The influence of RH on the properties of the smooth epidermal layer was comparable with that of isolated seta, with the exception of stress at rupture. These values were two to four times greater for the setae than for the smooth layer. The changes in mechanical properties of setal keratin were consistent with previously reported increases in contact forces, supporting the hypothesis that an increase in RH softens setal keratin, which increases adhesion and friction.

  11. Investigation of the effects of cobalt ions on epoxy properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, J. J.; Stoakley, D. M.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of Co(acac)sub x complexes on MY-720 epoxy properties have been investigated. It appears that Co2(+) ions form antibonding or nonbonding orbitals which increase the free volume and also reduce the cohesiveness of the host epoxy. The effects of Co2(+) ions, on the other hand, seem to result in increased Cohesiveness of the epoxy. The experimental values of magnetic moments of both types of ions in MY-720 suggest that the orbital momentum contributions of the (3d) electrons are partially conserved, though the effect is more pronounced for Co2(+) ions. The coordination environment of the cobalt ions in the host epoxy does not appear to be uniquely defined. These results indicate that the effects of metal ions on resin properties cannot be easily predicted on the basis of ligand field theory argument alone. Complex interactions between metal ions and host epoxy molecular structure suggest the desirability of parallel experimental investigations of electronic, magnetic, and mechanical properties of metal ion-containing epoxy samples for comparison with theory.

  12. Effects of model layer simplification using composite hydraulic properties

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuniansky, Eve L.; Sepulveda, Nicasio; Elango, Lakshmanan

    2011-01-01

    Groundwater provides much of the fresh drinking water to more than 1.5 billion people in the world (Clarke et al., 1996) and in the United States more that 50 percent of citizens rely on groundwater for drinking water (Solley et al., 1998). As aquifer systems are developed for water supply, the hydrologic system is changed. Water pumped from the aquifer system initially can come from some combination of inducing more recharge, water permanently removed from storage, and decreased groundwater discharge. Once a new equilibrium is achieved, all of the pumpage must come from induced recharge and decreased discharge (Alley et al., 1999). Further development of groundwater resources may result in reductions of surface water runoff and base flows. Competing demands for groundwater resources require good management. Adequate data to characterize the aquifers and confining units of the system, like hydrologic boundaries, groundwater levels, streamflow, and groundwater pumping and climatic data for recharge estimation are to be collected in order to quantify the effects of groundwater withdrawals on wetlands, streams, and lakes. Once collected, three-dimensional (3D) groundwater flow models can be developed and calibrated and used as a tool for groundwater management. The main hydraulic parameters that comprise a regional or subregional model of an aquifer system are the hydraulic conductivity and storage properties of the aquifers and confining units (hydrogeologic units) that confine the system. Many 3D groundwater flow models used to help assess groundwater/surface-water interactions require calculating ?effective? or composite hydraulic properties of multilayered lithologic units within a hydrogeologic unit. The calculation of composite hydraulic properties stems from the need to characterize groundwater flow using coarse model layering in order to reduce simulation times while still representing the flow through the system accurately. The accuracy of flow models with

  13. Effects of metal oxide nanoparticles on soil properties.

    PubMed

    Ben-Moshe, Tal; Frenk, Sammy; Dror, Ishai; Minz, Dror; Berkowitz, Brian

    2013-01-01

    In recent years the behavior and properties of nanoparticles released to the environment have been studied extensively to better assess the potential consequences of their broad use in commercial products. The fate, transport and mobility of nanoparticles in soil were shown to be strongly dependent on environmental conditions. However, little is known about the possible effects of nanoparticles on soil chemical, physical and biological properties. In this study, two types of metal oxide nanoparticles, CuO and Fe(3)O(4) were mixed into two types of soil and the effects of the nanoparticles on various soil properties were assessed. Metal oxide nanoparticles were shown previously to catalyze the oxidation of organic pollutants in aqueous suspensions, and they were therefore expected to induce changes in the organic material in the soil, especially upon addition of an oxidant. It was found that the nanoparticles did not change the total amount of organic materials in the soil or the total organic carbon in the soil extract; however, three-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy demonstrated changes in humic substances. The nanoparticles also affected the soil bacterial community composition, based on denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) fingerprinting, but had little impact on the macroscopic properties of the soil.

  14. Bismuth telluride nanostructures: preparation, thermoelectric properties and topological insulating effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashalley, Eric; Chen, Haiyuan; Tong, Xin; Li, Handong; Wang, Zhiming M.

    2015-05-01

    Bismuth telluride is known to wield unique properties for a wide range of device applications. However, as devices migrate to the nanometer scale, significant amount of studies are being conducted to keep up with the rapidly growing nanotechnological field. Bi2Te3 possesses distinctive properties at the nanometer level from its bulk material. Therefore, varying synthesis and characterization techniques are being employed for the realization of various Bi2Te3 nanostructures in the past years. A considerable number of these works have aimed at improving the thermoelectric (TE) figure-of-merit (ZT) of the Bi2Te3 nanostructures and drawing from their topological insulating properties. This paper reviews the various Bi2Te3 and Bi2Te3-based nanostructures realized via theoretical and experimental procedures. The study probes the preparation techniques, TE properties and the topological insulating effects of 0D, 1D, 2D and Bi2Te3 nanocomposites. With several applications as a topological insulator (TI), the topological insulating effect of the Bi2Te3 is reviewed in detail with the time reversal symmetry (TRS) and surface state spins which characterize TIs. Schematics and preparation methods for the various nanostructural dimensions are accordingly categorized.

  15. Effects of nuclear power plants on residential property values

    SciTech Connect

    Gamble, H.B.; Downing, R.H.

    1982-11-01

    The results are presented of two studies done on the effects of nuclear power plants on residential property values. One study, which examined property values in the vicinity of four Northeastern power plants prior to the March, 1979 TMI accident, found no significant evidence positively or negatively. Using the same analytic approach, residences in the TMI area were surveyed after the accident and again no determining evidence was found upon consideration of all of 1979. The methodology of both studies is examined along with a discussion of the hedonic price model on which they were based. It is speculated, however, that the difficulties involved in the clean up and the resultant rise in utility prices may inadvertently create long-term capitalization effects. 18 references.

  16. Dependence of sinusoidal electric field effect on neuronal morphological properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Xile; Yin, Xiaowei; Lu, Meili; Yi, Guosheng; Wang, Jiang

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, the neuronal firing patterns under extracellular sinusoidal electric field (EF) are investigated based on a reduced two-compartment model with focus on the effects of morphological and internal coupling parameters. We observe that the neuron can exhibit bursting, synchronous firing and subthreshold oscillation depending on EF amplitude A and frequency f. Furthermore, neuronal firing properties change obviously over a range of morphological parameter p. As p increases, the firing region expands first and then diminishes gradually until it disappears in the observed (A, f) parameter space and the transition from bursting to synchronous firing is also markedly distinct. Meanwhile, the morphological parameter also has significant effects on the EF threshold for triggering neuronal spikes. Unlike morphological parameter, though the internal coupling conductance gc can also induce some changes in firing behavior and EF threshold, it cannot qualitatively change neuronal dynamical properties. All these results demonstrate that neuronal morphology plays a crucial role in neuronal responses to sinusoidal EF.

  17. Numerical evaluation of effective unsaturated hydraulic properties for fractured rocks

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Zhiming; Kwicklis, Edward M

    2009-01-01

    To represent a heterogeneous unsaturated fractured rock by its homogeneous equivalent, Monte Carlo simulations are used to obtain upscaled (effective) flow properties. In this study, we present a numerical procedure for upscaling the van Genuchten parameters of unsaturated fractured rocks by conducting Monte Carlo simulations of the unsaturated flow in a domain under gravity-dominated regime. The simulation domain can be chosen as the scale of block size in the field-scale modeling. The effective conductivity is computed from the steady-state flux at the lower boundary and plotted as a function of the averaging pressure head or saturation over the domain. The scatter plot is then fitted using van Genuchten model and three parameters, i.e., the saturated conductivity K{sub s}, the air-entry parameter {alpha}, the pore-size distribution parameter n, corresponding to this model are considered as the effective K{sub s}, effective {alpha}, and effective n, respectively.

  18. Precision adjustable stage

    DOEpatents

    Cutburth, Ronald W.; Silva, Leonard L.

    1988-01-01

    An improved mounting stage of the type used for the detection of laser beams is disclosed. A stage center block is mounted on each of two opposite sides by a pair of spaced ball bearing tracks which provide stability as well as simplicity. The use of the spaced ball bearing pairs in conjunction with an adjustment screw which also provides support eliminates extraneous stabilization components and permits maximization of the area of the center block laser transmission hole.

  19. Adjustable vane windmills

    SciTech Connect

    Ducker, W.L.

    1982-09-14

    A system of rotatably and pivotally mounted radially extended bent supports for radially extending windmill rotor vanes in combination with axially movable radially extended control struts connected to the vanes with semi-automatic and automatic torque and other sensing and servo units provide automatic adjustment of the windmill vanes relative to their axes of rotation to produce mechanical output at constant torque or at constant speed or electrical quantities dependent thereon.

  20. Adjustable vane windmills

    SciTech Connect

    Ducker, W.L.

    1980-01-15

    A system of rotatably and pivotally mounted radially extended bent supports for radially extending windmill rotor vanes in combination with axially movable radially extended control struts connected to the vanes with semi-automatic and automatic torque and other sensing and servo units provide automatic adjustment of the windmill vanes relative to their axes of rotation to produce mechanical output at constant torque or at constant speed or electrical quantities dependent thereon.

  1. Adjustable vane windmills

    SciTech Connect

    Ducker, W.L.

    1982-09-07

    A system of rotatably and pivotally mounted radially extended bent supports for radially extending windmill rotor vanes in combination with axially movable radially extended control struts connected to the vanes with semi-automatic and automatic torque and other sensing and servo units provide automatic adjustment of the windmill vanes relative to their axes of rotation to produce mechanical output at constant torque or at constant speed or electrical quantities dependent thereon.

  2. The Effects of Intellectual Property Rights on Access to Medicines and Catastrophic Expenditure.

    PubMed

    Jung, Youn; Kwon, Soonman

    2015-01-01

    Since the introduction of Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) in 1995, there has been considerable concern that poor access to essential medicines in developing countries would be exacerbated because strengthening intellectual property rights (IPR) leads to monopoly of pharmaceutical markets and delayed entry of lower-cost generic drugs. However, despite extensive research and disputes regarding this issue, there are few empirical studies on the topic. In this study, we investigated the effect of IPR on access to medicines and catastrophic expenditure for medicines, using data from World Health Surveys 2002-2003. The index of patent rights developed by Ginarte and Park (1997) was used to measure the IPR protection level of each country. Estimates were adjusted for individual and country characteristics. In the results of multilevel logistic regression analyses, higher level of IPR significantly increased the likelihood of nonaccess to prescribed medicines even after controlling for individual socioeconomic status and national characteristics associated with access to medicines. This study's finding on the negative impact of IPR on access to medicines calls for the implementation of more active policy at the supra-national level to improve access in low- and middle-income countries.

  3. KINETIC MODELING OF FUEL EFFECTS OVER A WIDE RANGE OF CHEMISTRY, PROPERTIES, AND SOURCES

    SciTech Connect

    Bunting, Bruce G; Bunce, Michael; Niak, Chitralkumar; Puduppakkam, Karthik

    2012-01-01

    Kinetic modeling is an important tool for engine design and can also be used for engine tuning and to study response to fuel chemistry and properties before an engine configuration is physically built and tested. Methodologies needed for studying fuel effects include development of fuel kinetic mechanisms for pure compounds, tools for designing surrogate blends of pure compounds that mimic a desired market fuel, and tools for reducing kinetic mechanisms to a size that allows inclusion in complex CFD engine models. In this paper, we demonstrate the use of these tools to reproduce engine results for a series of research diesel fuels using surrogate fuels in an engine and then modeling results with a simple 2 component surrogate blend with physical properties adjusted to vary fuel volatility. Results indicate that we were reasonably successful in mimicking engine performance of real fuels with blends of pure compounds. We were also successful in spanning the range of the experimental data using CFD and kinetic modeling, but further tuning and matching will be needed to exactly match engine performance of the real and surrogate fuels.

  4. The Effects of Intellectual Property Rights on Access to Medicines and Catastrophic Expenditure.

    PubMed

    Jung, Youn; Kwon, Soonman

    2015-01-01

    Since the introduction of Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) in 1995, there has been considerable concern that poor access to essential medicines in developing countries would be exacerbated because strengthening intellectual property rights (IPR) leads to monopoly of pharmaceutical markets and delayed entry of lower-cost generic drugs. However, despite extensive research and disputes regarding this issue, there are few empirical studies on the topic. In this study, we investigated the effect of IPR on access to medicines and catastrophic expenditure for medicines, using data from World Health Surveys 2002-2003. The index of patent rights developed by Ginarte and Park (1997) was used to measure the IPR protection level of each country. Estimates were adjusted for individual and country characteristics. In the results of multilevel logistic regression analyses, higher level of IPR significantly increased the likelihood of nonaccess to prescribed medicines even after controlling for individual socioeconomic status and national characteristics associated with access to medicines. This study's finding on the negative impact of IPR on access to medicines calls for the implementation of more active policy at the supra-national level to improve access in low- and middle-income countries. PMID:26077858

  5. Effect of Intercritical Annealing on Microstructural Evolution and Properties of Quenched & Partitioned (Q&P) Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Riming; Jin, Xuejun; Wang, Chenglin; Wang, Li

    2016-04-01

    Transformation of metastable austenite into martensite in novel quenched & partitioned (Q&P) steels improves sheet formability, allowing this class of high-strength steels to be used for automotive structural components. The current work studies the microstructural evolution by varying intercritical annealing time ( t a), as well as its influence on the martensite-austenite constituent and mechanical properties of Q&P steels. As the t a was prolonged, the morphology of retained austenite progressively transformed from block to a mixture of block and film, and finally changed to totally film. Based on electron back-scatter diffraction (EBSD) measurements and uniaxial tensile response, the holding time of 600 s at 760 °C was determined to produce the best results in terms of highest volume fraction of retained austenite ( f γ = 15.8%) and largest strain (26.8%) at the ultimate tensile strength (892 MPa). This difference in work-hardening behavior corresponds directly to the transformation rate of retained austenite with different morphology. The slower rate of transformation of filmy austenite allowed for work hardening to persist at high strains where the transformation effect had already been exhausted in the blocky one. There is great potential for properties improvement through adjustment of metastability of retained austenite.

  6. Melatonin adjusts the expression pattern of clock genes in the suprachiasmatic nucleus and induces antidepressant-like effect in a mouse model of seasonal affective disorder.

    PubMed

    Nagy, Andras David; Iwamoto, Ayaka; Kawai, Misato; Goda, Ryosei; Matsuo, Haruka; Otsuka, Tsuyoshi; Nagasawa, Mao; Furuse, Mitsuhiro; Yasuo, Shinobu

    2015-05-01

    Recently, we have shown that C57BL/6J mice exhibit depression-like behavior under short photoperiod and suggested them as an animal model for investigating seasonal affective disorder (SAD). In this study, we tested if manipulations of the circadian clock with melatonin treatment could effectively modify depression-like and anxiety-like behaviors and brain serotonergic system in C57BL/6J mice. Under short photoperiods (8-h light/16-h dark), daily melatonin treatments 2 h before light offset have significantly altered the 24-h patterns of mRNA expression of circadian clock genes (per1, per2, bmal1 and clock) within the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) mostly by increasing amplitude in their expressional rhythms without inducing robust phase shifts in them. Melatonin treatments altered the expression of genes of serotonergic neurotransmission in the dorsal raphe (tph2, sert, vmat2 and 5ht1a) and serotonin contents in the amygdala. Importantly, melatonin treatment reduced the immobility in forced swim test, a depression-like behavior. As a key mechanism of melatonin-induced antidepressant-like effect, the previously proposed phase-advance hypothesis of the circadian clock could not be confirmed under conditions of our experiment. However, our findings of modest adjustments in both the amplitude and phase of the transcriptional oscillators in the SCN as a result of melatonin treatments may be sufficient to associate with the effects seen in the brain serotonergic system and with the improvement in depression-like behavior. Our study confirmed a predictive validity of C57BL/6J mice as a useful model for the molecular analysis of links between the clock and brain serotonergic system, which could greatly accelerate our understanding of the pathogenesis of SAD, as well as the search for new treatments.

  7. Loss of quality adjusted days as a trial endpoint: effect of early thrombolytic treatment in suspected myocardial infarction. Grampion Region Early Anistreplase Trial (GREAT).

    PubMed Central

    Rawles, J; Light, J

    1993-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVES--(1) To measure the quality of life and the loss of quality adjusted days (QADS) after suspected acute myocardial infarction in patients who received thrombolytic treatment either at home or in hospital. (2) To compare the loss of QADS as a trial endpoint with the conventional endpoints of mortality and Q-wave infarction. DESIGN--Randomised double blind parallel group trial of anistreplase (30 U given intravenously) and placebo given either at home or in hospital. SETTING--Rural practices in Grampian admitting patients to teaching hospitals in Aberdeen. PATIENTS--A total of 311 patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction and no contraindications to thrombolytic treatment seen at home within four hours of the onset of symptoms. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS--Loss of quality adjusted days (QADS) in the first 100 days after suspected myocardial infarction (365 QADS = 1 QALY) was the main outcome measure. Compared with later administration in hospital, anistreplase at home resulted in a relative reduction of mortality of 49% (95% confidence interval 3.95%, 2p = 0.04), and a relative reduction of 26% in the proportion of survivors with infarction who had Q-waves (95% CI 7.44%, 2p = 0.007). During the 100 day follow up, the median loss of QADS was 25 for all patients. This loss was significantly greater in those who died than in survivors (65 v 18, 2p < 0.001), and in survivors with infarction than in survivors without infarction (26 v 13, 2p < 0.01). However, there was no significant difference in loss of QADS in those with infarction with or without Q-waves (29 v 21, NS), and the median loss of QADS was not significantly different in those who had thrombolytic treatment at home or in hospital (median difference 0, 95% CI -5, +4 QADS). CONCLUSIONS--Loss of QADS had two serious limitations as an outcome measure: it was less sensitive than mortality and it failed to reflect physiological benefit. Palliative treatment with no physiological effect

  8. Effective hydraulic properties on a highly heterogeneous soil horizon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samouëlian, A.; Cousin, I.; Frison, A.; Richard, G.

    2009-04-01

    Knowing the soil hydraulic functioning for agricultural practices is more and more important in the context of global change. In that context, soil horizons represent the reference soil volume in term of soil functioning. Nevertheless they can be heterogeneous as for example, stony horizons, cultivated horizons, or also specific weathering horizons like those in Albeluvisol. The determination of effective hydraulic properties in these heterogeneous horizons can not be done by classical laboratory experiments like Multi-Step-Outflow or evaporative Wind experiment. So it remains a real challenge to get the effective hydraulic properties. The aim of this paper is to propose a methodology for the determination of effective hydraulic properties of heterogeneous soil horizons based on the knowledge of the: on one hand the 3D soil structure and on the other hand the local hydraulic properties. The studied soil is an Albeluvisol that exhibits some horizons composed by the juxtaposition of two Elementary Pedological Volumes (EPVs); they can be visually distinguished by their colours (ochre and white) and they have differential hydraulic functioning: the clayey ochre ones conduct less water than the loamy white ones. Local hydraulic properties were determined on each type of volumes. The 3D structure of the heterogeneous horizon was obtained by electrical resistivity measurements. Several two-dimensional cuts with different structures were extracted from this 3D block so that we can simulate on them the hydraulic functioning of the horizon by the Hydrus2D software. The equivalent water retention curve was obtained thanks to the additive properties of the water retention curves at the local scale. The equivalent unsaturated hydraulic conductivity of the horizon was determined on each 2D cut, which requires the knowledge of the structure. The calculations were done by two methods, a numerical one that simulated the water flow for a constant hydraulic potential, a analytical

  9. 41 CFR 109-27.5007-2 - Inventory adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Inventory adjustments. 109-27.5007-2 Section 109-27.5007-2 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS SUPPLY...

  10. 41 CFR 109-27.5007-2 - Inventory adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Inventory adjustments. 109-27.5007-2 Section 109-27.5007-2 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS SUPPLY...

  11. 41 CFR 109-27.5007-2 - Inventory adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Inventory adjustments. 109-27.5007-2 Section 109-27.5007-2 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS SUPPLY...

  12. 41 CFR 101-26.803-4 - Adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true Adjustments. 101-26.803-4 Section 101-26.803-4 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System FEDERAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS SUPPLY AND PROCUREMENT 26-PROCUREMENT SOURCES AND PROGRAM 26.8-Discrepancies or Deficiencies in...

  13. Granularity in superconductors: intrinsic properties and processing-dependent effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Passos, W. A. C.; Lisboa-Filho, P. N.; Caparroz, R.; de Faria, C. C.; Venturini, P. C.; Araujo-Moreira, F. M.; Sergeenkov, S.; Ortiz, W. A.

    2001-05-01

    This contribution presents a selected set of results, obtained as part of a systematic investigation, evidencing that many effects exhibited by superconductors are distinct manifestations of granularity which, in turn, is envisaged as a break of symmetry. The Wohlleben effect, the “fishtail anomaly”, the magnetic remanence exhibited by Josephson junction arrays, and the jumps on the magnetic moment of superconducting samples of mesoscopic dimensions, are examples which we briefly review and discuss taking granularity as the basic ingredient. The emphasis of the present approach is to recognize the importance of granularity in every scenario intended to explain the magnetic properties of superconducting systems.

  14. Effects of powder flow properties on capsule filling weight uniformity.

    PubMed

    Osorio, Juan G; Muzzio, Fernando J

    2013-09-01

    Filling capsules with the right amount of powder ingredients is an important quality parameter. The purpose of this study was to develop effective laboratory methods for characterizing flow properties of pharmaceutical powder blends and correlating such properties to weight variability in filled capsules. The methods used for powder flow characterization were bulk and tapped density, gravitational displacement rheometer (GDR) flow index, Freeman Technology V.4 (FT4) powder rheometer compressibility, FT4 basic flow energy (BFE), and cohesion parameters [cohesion, (C) and flow factor (ffc)] measured in a shear cell also using the FT4. Capsules were filled using an MG2-G140 continuous nozzle dosator capsule-filling machine. Powder flow properties were the most predominant factors affecting the weight and weight variability in the filled capsules. Results showed that the weight variability decreased with increasing bulk and tapped density, ffc and BFE, while the weight variability increased with increasing compressibility, cohesion and GDR flow index. Powder flow properties of the final blends were significantly correlated to the final capsule weight and weight variability of the filled capsules.

  15. Effects of model layer simplification using composite hydraulic properties

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sepulveda, Nicasio; Kuniansky, Eve L.

    2010-01-01

    The effects of simplifying hydraulic property layering within an unconfined aquifer and the underlying confining unit were assessed. The hydraulic properties of lithologic units within the unconfined aquifer and confining unit were computed by analyzing the aquifer-test data using radial, axisymmetric two-dimensional (2D) flow. Time-varying recharge to the unconfined aquifer and pumping from the confined Upper Floridan aquifer (USA) were simulated using 3D flow. Conceptual flow models were developed by gradually reducing the number of lithologic units in the unconfined aquifer and confining unit by calculating composite hydraulic properties for the simplified lithologic units. Composite hydraulic properties were calculated using either thickness-weighted averages or inverse modeling using regression-based parameter estimation. No significant residuals were simulated when all lithologic units comprising the unconfined aquifer were simulated as one layer. The largest residuals occurred when the unconfined aquifer and confining unit were aggregated into a single layer (quasi-3D), with residuals over 100% for the leakage rates to the confined aquifer and the heads in the confining unit. Residuals increased with contrasts in vertical hydraulic conductivity between the unconfined aquifer and confining unit. Residuals increased when the constant-head boundary at the bottom of the Upper Floridan aquifer was replaced with a no-flow boundary.

  16. Solar Sail Material Performance Property Response to Space Environmental Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, David L.; Semmel, Charles; Hovater, Mary; Nehls, Mary; Gray, Perry; Hubbs, Whitney; Wertz, George

    2004-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) continues research into the utilization of photonic materials for spacecraft propulsion. Spacecraft propulsion, using photonic materials, will be achieved using a solar sail. A solar sail operates on the principle that photons, originating from the sun, impart pressure to the sail and therefore provide a source for spacecraft propulsion. The pressure imparted to a solar sail can be increased, up to a factor of two, if the sun-facing surface is perfectly reflective. Therefore, these solar sails are generally composed of a highly reflective metallic sun-facing layer, a thin polymeric substrate and occasionally a highly emissive back surface. Near term solar sail propelled science missions are targeting the Lagrange point 1 (Ll) as well as locations sunward of L1 as destinations. These near term missions include the Solar Polar Imager and the L1 Diamond. The Environmental Effects Group at NASA s Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) continues to actively characterize solar sail material in preparation for these near term solar sail missions. Previous investigations indicated that space environmental effects on sail material thermo-optical properties were minimal and would not significantly affect the propulsion efficiency of the sail. These investigations also indicated that the sail material mechanical stability degrades with increasing radiation exposure. This paper will further quantify the effect of space environmental exposure on the mechanical properties of candidate sail materials. Candidate sail materials for these missions include Aluminum coated Mylar[TM], Teonex[TM], and CPl (Colorless Polyimide). These materials were subjected to uniform radiation doses of electrons and protons in individual exposures sequences. Dose values ranged from 100 Mrads to over 5 Grads. The engineering performance property responses of thermo-optical and mechanical properties were

  17. Magnetically Coupled Adjustable Speed Drive Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Chvala, William D.; Winiarski, David W.

    2002-08-18

    Adjustable speed drive (ASD) technologies have the ability to precisely control motor sytems output and produce a numbr of benefits including energy and demand savings. This report examines the performance and cost effectiveness of a specific class of ASDs called magnetically-coupled adjustable speed drives (MC-ASD) which use the strength of a magnetic field to control the amount of torque transferred between motor and drive shaft. The MagnaDrive Adjustable Speed Coupling System uses fixed rare-earth magnets and varies the distance between rotating plates in the assembly. the PAYBACK Variable Speed Drive uses an electromagnet to control the speed of the drive

  18. Effects of low back pain and of Stabilization or Movement-System-Impairment treatments on voluntary postural adjustments: randomized, controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Lomond, Karen V.; Jacobs, Jesse V.; Hitt, Juvena R.; DeSarno, Michael J.; Bunn, Janice Y.; Henry, Sharon M.

    2014-01-01

    Background People with low back pain (LBP) exhibit impaired anticipatory postural adjustment (APAs). Objective To evaluate whether current motor retraining treatments address LBP-associated changes in movement coordination during tasks that do and do not require APAs. Design Prospectively registered, randomized controlled trial with a blinded assessor. Setting Outcome evaluations occurred in a university laboratory; treatments, in outpatient physical therapy clinics. Patients Fifteen subjects without LBP and 33 subjects with chronic, recurrent, non-specific LBP. Intervention Twelve subjects with LBP received stabilization treatment, 21 received Movement System Impairment (MSI)-based treatment, over 6 weekly 1-hour sessions plus home exercises. Measurements Pre- and post- treatment, surface electromyography (EMG) was recorded bilaterally from trunk and leg muscles during unsupported and supported leg-lifting tasks, which did and did not require an APA, respectively. Vertical reaction forces under the contralateral leg were recorded to characterize the APA. Oswestry disability scores and numeric pain ratings were also recorded. Results Persons with LBP demonstrated an impaired APA compared to persons without LBP, characterized by increased pre-movement contralateral force application and increased post-movement trunk EMG amplitude, regardless of the task. Following treatments, both groups similarly improved in disability and function; however, APA characteristics did not change (i.e. force application or EMG amplitude) in either task. Limitations Treating clinicians were not blinded to treatment allocation, only short-term outcomes were assessed, and main effects of treatment do not rule out non-specific effects of time or repeated exposure. Conclusions Movement impairments in persons with LBP are not limited to tasks requiring an APA. Stabilization and MSI-based treatments for LBP do not ameliorate, and may exacerbate, APA impairments (i.e., excessive force

  19. Contrast Enhancement Algorithm Based on Gap Adjustment for Histogram Equalization

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Chung-Cheng; Ting, Chih-Chung

    2016-01-01

    Image enhancement methods have been widely used to improve the visual effects of images. Owing to its simplicity and effectiveness histogram equalization (HE) is one of the methods used for enhancing image contrast. However, HE may result in over-enhancement and feature loss problems that lead to unnatural look and loss of details in the processed images. Researchers have proposed various HE-based methods to solve the over-enhancement problem; however, they have largely ignored the feature loss problem. Therefore, a contrast enhancement algorithm based on gap adjustment for histogram equalization (CegaHE) is proposed. It refers to a visual contrast enhancement algorithm based on histogram equalization (VCEA), which generates visually pleasing enhanced images, and improves the enhancement effects of VCEA. CegaHE adjusts the gaps between two gray values based on the adjustment equation, which takes the properties of human visual perception into consideration, to solve the over-enhancement problem. Besides, it also alleviates the feature loss problem and further enhances the textures in the dark regions of the images to improve the quality of the processed images for human visual perception. Experimental results demonstrate that CegaHE is a reliable method for contrast enhancement and that it significantly outperforms VCEA and other methods. PMID:27338412

  20. Effect of particle properties on the flowability of ibuprofen powders.

    PubMed

    Liu, L X; Marziano, I; Bentham, A C; Litster, J D; White, E T; Howes, T

    2008-10-01

    Powder flowability is one of the key parameters in the pharmaceutical tabletting process. The flowability is affected by both the particles' properties and the tabletting equipment characteristics. Although it is generally accepted that powder flowability increases with an increase in particle size, quantitative studies and comprehensive theoretical insights into the particle property effects are still lacking. In this paper, ibuprofen, a non-steroidal drug widely used as an anti-inflammatory analgesic was chosen as a model material to assess the effect of particle properties on its flowability. Ibuprofen typically has a needle shaped morphology. The flowability of ibuprofen size fractions was studied in detail using two flow measurement methods. The separated fractions were also compared to magnesium stearate lubricated ibuprofen and its size fractions. The experimental results showed that powder flowability is significantly affected by both the particle size and size distribution. The finest size fraction that is separated from the bulk ibuprofen powder flows better than the bulk powder. For powders with narrow size distributions, the flowability increases significantly with the increase in particle size. In addition, admixing magnesium stearate to ibuprofen not only increases the flow function of the powder, but also reduces the internal friction angle. A theoretical analysis based on the limiting tensile strength of the powder bed was carried out and the flow conditions for particles of different size and shape were developed.

  1. Solvent effects on the properties of hyperbranched polythiophenes.

    PubMed

    Torras, Juan; Zanuy, David; Aradilla, David; Alemán, Carlos

    2016-09-21

    The structural and electronic properties of all-thiophene dendrimers and dendrons in solution have been evaluated using very different theoretical approaches based on quantum mechanical (QM) and hybrid QM/molecular mechanics (MM) methodologies: (i) calculations on minimum energy conformations using an implicit solvation model in combination with density functional theory (DFT) or time-dependent DFT (TD-DFT) methods; (ii) hybrid QM/MM calculations, in which the solute and solvent molecules are represented at the DFT level as point charges, respectively, on snapshots extracted from classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations using explicit solvent molecules, and (iii) QM/MM-MD trajectories in which the solute is described at the DFT or TD-DFT level and the explicit solvent molecules are represented using classical force-fields. Calculations have been performed in dichloromethane, tetrahydrofuran and dimethylformamide. A comparison of the results obtained using the different approaches with the available experimental data indicates that the incorporation of effects associated with both the conformational dynamics of the dendrimer and the explicit solvent molecules is strictly necessary to satisfactorily reproduce the properties of the investigated systems. Accordingly, QM/MM-MD simulations are able to capture such effects providing a reliable description of electronic properties-conformational flexibility relationships in all-Th dendrimers.

  2. Effects of prestresses on mechanical properties of isotropic graphite materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oku, T.; Kurumada, A.; Imamura, Y.; Kawamata, K.; Shiraishi, M.

    1998-10-01

    Graphite materials which are used for plasma facing components and other components are subjected to stresses due to the high heat flux from the fusion plasma. Some mechanical properties of graphite materials can change due to the prestresses. The property changes should be considered for the design of the plasma facing components. The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of prestresses on the mechanical properties of isotropic graphite materials. Compressive prestresses were applied to two kinds of isotropic fine-grained graphites (IG-430 and IG-11) at 298 K (both), 1873 K (IG-11), 2273 K (IG-11) and 2283 K (IG-430). As a result, the decrease in Young's modulus for IG-430 due to high-temperature prestressing was 56% which was much larger than the 6.4% that was due to prestressing at 298 K. The results for IG-11 were the same as those for IG-430 graphite. This finding was considered to be due primarily to a difference in degree of the preferred orientation of crystallites in the graphite on the basis of the Bacon anisotropy factor (BAF) obtained from X-ray diffraction measurement of the prestressed specimens. Furthermore, high-temperature compressive prestressing produced an increase in the strength of the isotropic graphite, although room temperature prestressing produced no such effect. The results obtained here suggest that the isotropic graphite which is subjected to high-temperature compressive stresses can become anisotropic in service.

  3. Solvent effects on the properties of hyperbranched polythiophenes.

    PubMed

    Torras, Juan; Zanuy, David; Aradilla, David; Alemán, Carlos

    2016-09-21

    The structural and electronic properties of all-thiophene dendrimers and dendrons in solution have been evaluated using very different theoretical approaches based on quantum mechanical (QM) and hybrid QM/molecular mechanics (MM) methodologies: (i) calculations on minimum energy conformations using an implicit solvation model in combination with density functional theory (DFT) or time-dependent DFT (TD-DFT) methods; (ii) hybrid QM/MM calculations, in which the solute and solvent molecules are represented at the DFT level as point charges, respectively, on snapshots extracted from classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations using explicit solvent molecules, and (iii) QM/MM-MD trajectories in which the solute is described at the DFT or TD-DFT level and the explicit solvent molecules are represented using classical force-fields. Calculations have been performed in dichloromethane, tetrahydrofuran and dimethylformamide. A comparison of the results obtained using the different approaches with the available experimental data indicates that the incorporation of effects associated with both the conformational dynamics of the dendrimer and the explicit solvent molecules is strictly necessary to satisfactorily reproduce the properties of the investigated systems. Accordingly, QM/MM-MD simulations are able to capture such effects providing a reliable description of electronic properties-conformational flexibility relationships in all-Th dendrimers. PMID:27541726

  4. Magnetic Nanoparticles: Surface Effects and Properties Related to Biomedicine Applications

    PubMed Central

    Issa, Bashar; Obaidat, Ihab M.; Albiss, Borhan A.; Haik, Yousef

    2013-01-01

    Due to finite size effects, such as the high surface-to-volume ratio and different crystal structures, magnetic nanoparticles are found to exhibit interesting and considerably different magnetic properties than those found in their corresponding bulk materials. These nanoparticles can be synthesized in several ways (e.g., chemical and physical) with controllable sizes enabling their comparison to biological organisms from cells (10–100 μm), viruses, genes, down to proteins (3–50 nm). The optimization of the nanoparticles’ size, size distribution, agglomeration, coating, and shapes along with their unique magnetic properties prompted the application of nanoparticles of this type in diverse fields. Biomedicine is one of these fields where intensive research is currently being conducted. In this review, we will discuss the magnetic properties of nanoparticles which are directly related to their applications in biomedicine. We will focus mainly on surface effects and ferrite nanoparticles, and on one diagnostic application of magnetic nanoparticles as magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents. PMID:24232575

  5. The pH effect of solvent in silanization on fluoride released and mechanical properties of heat-cured acrylic resin containing fluoride-releasing filler.

    PubMed

    Nakornchai, Natha; Arksornnukit, Mansuang; Kamonkhantikul, Krid; Takahashi, Hidekazu

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of an acidic-adjusted pH of solvent in silanization on the amount of fluoride released and mechanical properties of heat-cured acrylic resin containing a silanized fluoride-releasing filler. The experimental groups were divided into 4 groups; non-silanized, acidic-adjusted pH, non-adjusted pH, and no filler as control. For fluoride measurement, each specimen was placed in deionized water which was changed every day for 7 days, every week for 7 weeks and measured. The flexural strength and flexural modulus were evaluated after aging for 48 h, 1, and 2 months. Two-way ANOVA indicated significant differences among groups, storage times, and its interaction in fluoride measurement and flexural modulus. For flexural strength, there was significant difference only among groups. Acidic-adjusted pH of solvent in silanization enhanced the amount of fluoride released from acrylic resin, while non-adjusted pH of solvent exhibited better flexural strength of acrylic resin. PMID:27252000

  6. The pH effect of solvent in silanization on fluoride released and mechanical properties of heat-cured acrylic resin containing fluoride-releasing filler.

    PubMed

    Nakornchai, Natha; Arksornnukit, Mansuang; Kamonkhantikul, Krid; Takahashi, Hidekazu

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of an acidic-adjusted pH of solvent in silanization on the amount of fluoride released and mechanical properties of heat-cured acrylic resin containing a silanized fluoride-releasing filler. The experimental groups were divided into 4 groups; non-silanized, acidic-adjusted pH, non-adjusted pH, and no filler as control. For fluoride measurement, each specimen was placed in deionized water which was changed every day for 7 days, every week for 7 weeks and measured. The flexural strength and flexural modulus were evaluated after aging for 48 h, 1, and 2 months. Two-way ANOVA indicated significant differences among groups, storage times, and its interaction in fluoride measurement and flexural modulus. For flexural strength, there was significant difference only among groups. Acidic-adjusted pH of solvent in silanization enhanced the amount of fluoride released from acrylic resin, while non-adjusted pH of solvent exhibited better flexural strength of acrylic resin.

  7. Plyometric training effects on Achilles tendon stiffness and dissipative properties.

    PubMed

    Fouré, Alexandre; Nordez, Antoine; Cornu, Christophe

    2010-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of 14 wk of plyometric training on mechanical properties of the Achilles tendon. Nineteen subjects were randomly assigned to trained or control group. Cross-sectional area (CSA), stiffness, and dissipation coefficient of the Achilles tendon were measured before and after the training period. In the trained group, a decrease in dissipation coefficient (-35.0%; P<0.05) and an upward trend in stiffness (+24.1%) of the Achilles tendon was found, without any changes in Achilles tendon CSA (P>0.05). Plyometric training enhances the muscular tension transmission mainly through a reduction in energy dissipated by the tendon. The lack of changes in the Achilles tendon CSA indicates that changes in mechanical properties would mainly result from a qualitative change in tendinous tissues rather than from changes in the geometry of the Achilles tendon.

  8. Effects of Material Properties on Bacterial Adhesion and Biofilm Formation.

    PubMed

    Song, F; Koo, H; Ren, D

    2015-08-01

    Adhesion of microbes, such as bacteria and fungi, to surfaces and the subsequent formation of biofilms cause multidrug-tolerant infections in humans and fouling of medical devices. To address these challenges, it is important to understand how material properties affect microbe-surface interactions and engineer better nonfouling materials. Here we review the recent progresses in this field and discuss the main challenges and opportunities. In particular, we focus on bacterial biofilms and review the effects of surface energy, charge, topography, and stiffness of substratum material on bacterial adhesion. We summarize how these surface properties influence oral biofilm formation, and we discuss the important findings from nondental systems that have potential applications in dental medicine.

  9. Biodiesel Fuel Property Effects on Particulate Matter Reactivity

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, A.; Black, S.; McCormick, R. L.

    2010-06-01

    Controlling diesel particulate emissions to meet the 2007 U.S. standard requires the use of a diesel particulate filter (DPF). The reactivity of soot, or the carbon fraction of particulate matter, in the DPF and the kinetics of soot oxidation are important in achieving better control of aftertreatment devices. Studies showed that biodiesel in the fuel can increase soot reactivity. This study therefore investigated which biodiesel fuel properties impact reactivity. Three fuel properties of interest included fuel oxygen content and functionality, fuel aromatic content, and the presence of alkali metals. To determine fuel effects on soot reactivity, the performance of a catalyzed DPF was measured with different test fuels through engine testing and thermo-gravimetric analysis. Results showed no dependence on the aromatic content or the presence of alkali metals in the fuel. The presence and form of fuel oxygen was the dominant contributor to faster DPF regeneration times and soot reactivity.

  10. Effect of helium on tensile properties of vanadium alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, H.M.; Billone, M.C.; Smith, D.L.

    1997-08-01

    Tensile properties of V-4Cr-4Ti (Heat BL-47), 3Ti-1Si (BL-45), and V-5Ti (BL-46) alloys after irradiation in a conventional irradiation experiment and in the Dynamic Helium Charging Experiment (DHCE) were reported previously. This paper presents revised tensile properties of these alloys, with a focus on the effects of dynamically generated helium of ductility and work-hardening capability at <500{degrees}C. After conventional irradiation (negligible helium generation) at {approx}427{degrees}C, a 30-kg heat of V-4Cr-4Ti (BL-47) exhibited very low uniform elongation, manifesting a strong susceptibility to loss of work-hardening capability. In contrast, a 15-kg heat of V-3Ti-1Si (BL -45) exhibited relatively high uniform elongation ({approx}4%) during conventional irradiation at {approx}427{degrees}C, showing that the heat is resistant to loss of work-hardening capability.

  11. Effects of aggressive remediation on soil properties and function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Switzer, Christine; Zihms, Stephanie; Pape, Andrew; Robson, Andrew; Knapp, Charles

    2013-04-01

    Aggressive remediation processes such as thermal desorption, smouldering, and chemical oxidiation remediation processes have significant promise to deliver substantial contaminant reduction in short periods of time, effecting as much as 95-99+% mass removal from non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) source zones. In situ thermal remediation exposes soils to temperatures of 100+°C for periods of weeks or months. In situ smouldering exposes soils to 600-1000+°C for hours to days. Chemical oxidation exposes soils to harsh oxidizing chemicals for weeks or months effecting reactive degradation of chemical contaminants but also surrounding soils. These processes have the potential to result in significant changes to the soil properties, particularly at the particle surface and grain interfaces. The dynamic effects of these changes have important implications in soil management practice. The mobilisation of soil nutrients may challenge rehabilitation or biological "polishing" after aggressive remediation. Plant germination and growth are inhibited and water dynamics are affected as well. Although permeability remains unaffected, infiltration is more rapid and capillary rise is reduced after smouldering remediation. Mobilisation of fines does not explain the change in infiltration and capillary rise; these effects persist after removal of the smaller half of the particle size distribution. Some separation of the soil column is observed in water infiltration after both thermal and smouldering remediation, indicating that erosion and subsidence are potential problems. These effects may be manifestations of subcritical water repellency. Based on the retention of capillary rise and lack of effects on other soil properties, the soil should be amenable to improvement measures. This presentation will place the effects of aggressive remediation into context within real soils and model materials.

  12. Effect of filter designs on hydraulic properties and well efficiency.

    PubMed

    Kim, Byung-Woo

    2014-09-01

    To analyze the effect of filter pack arrangement on the hydraulic properties and the well efficiency of a well design, a step drawdown was conducted in a sand-filled tank model. Prior to the test, a single filter pack (SFP), granule only, and two dual filter packs (DFPs), type A (granule-pebble) and type B (pebble-granule), were designed to surround the well screen. The hydraulic properties and well efficiencies related to the filter packs were evaluated using the Hazen's, Eden-Hazel's, Jacob's, and Labadie-Helweg's methods. The results showed that the hydraulic properties and well efficiency of the DFPs were higher than those of a SFP, and the clogging effect and wellhead loss related to the aquifer material were the lowest owing to the grain size and the arrangement of the filter pack. The hydraulic conductivity of the DFPs types A and B was about 1.41 and 6.43 times that of a SFP, respectively. In addition, the well efficiency of the DFPs types A and B was about 1.38 and 1.60 times that of the SFP, respectively. In this study, hydraulic property and well efficiency changes were observed according to the variety of the filter pack used. The results differed from the predictions of previous studies on the grain-size ratio. Proper pack-aquifer ratios and filter pack arrangements are primary factors in the construction of efficient water wells, as is the grain ratio, intrinsic permeability (k), and hydraulic conductivity (K) between the grains of the filter packs and the grains of the aquifer.

  13. Effect of filter designs on hydraulic properties and well efficiency.

    PubMed

    Kim, Byung-Woo

    2014-09-01

    To analyze the effect of filter pack arrangement on the hydraulic properties and the well efficiency of a well design, a step drawdown was conducted in a sand-filled tank model. Prior to the test, a single filter pack (SFP), granule only, and two dual filter packs (DFPs), type A (granule-pebble) and type B (pebble-granule), were designed to surround the well screen. The hydraulic properties and well efficiencies related to the filter packs were evaluated using the Hazen's, Eden-Hazel's, Jacob's, and Labadie-Helweg's methods. The results showed that the hydraulic properties and well efficiency of the DFPs were higher than those of a SFP, and the clogging effect and wellhead loss related to the aquifer material were the lowest owing to the grain size and the arrangement of the filter pack. The hydraulic conductivity of the DFPs types A and B was about 1.41 and 6.43 times that of a SFP, respectively. In addition, the well efficiency of the DFPs types A and B was about 1.38 and 1.60 times that of the SFP, respectively. In this study, hydraulic property and well efficiency changes were observed according to the variety of the filter pack used. The results differed from the predictions of previous studies on the grain-size ratio. Proper pack-aquifer ratios and filter pack arrangements are primary factors in the construction of efficient water wells, as is the grain ratio, intrinsic permeability (k), and hydraulic conductivity (K) between the grains of the filter packs and the grains of the aquifer. PMID:24571417

  14. When does female multiple mating evolve to adjust inbreeding? Effects of inbreeding depression, direct costs, mating constraints, and polyandry as a threshold trait.

    PubMed

    Duthie, A Bradley; Bocedi, Greta; Reid, Jane M

    2016-09-01

    Polyandry is often hypothesized to evolve to allow females to adjust the degree to which they inbreed. Multiple factors might affect such evolution, including inbreeding depression, direct costs, constraints on male availability, and the nature of polyandry as a threshold trait. Complex models are required to evaluate when evolution of polyandry to adjust inbreeding is predicted to arise. We used a genetically explicit individual-based model to track the joint evolution of inbreeding strategy and polyandry defined as a polygenic threshold trait. Evolution of polyandry to avoid inbreeding only occurred given strong inbreeding depression, low direct costs, and severe restrictions on initial versus additional male availability. Evolution of polyandry to prefer inbreeding only occurred given zero inbreeding depression and direct costs, and given similarly severe restrictions on male availability. However, due to its threshold nature, phenotypic polyandry was frequently expressed even when strongly selected against and hence maladaptive. Further, the degree to which females adjusted inbreeding through polyandry was typically very small, and often reflected constraints on male availability rather than adaptive reproductive strategy. Evolution of polyandry solely to adjust inbreeding might consequently be highly restricted in nature, and such evolution cannot necessarily be directly inferred from observed magnitudes of inbreeding adjustment. PMID:27464756

  15. When does female multiple mating evolve to adjust inbreeding? Effects of inbreeding depression, direct costs, mating constraints, and polyandry as a threshold trait

    PubMed Central

    Duthie, A. Bradley; Bocedi, Greta; Reid, Jane M.

    2016-01-01

    Polyandry is often hypothesized to evolve to allow females to adjust the degree to which they inbreed. Multiple factors might affect such evolution, including inbreeding depression, direct costs, constraints on male availability, and the nature of polyandry as a threshold trait. Complex models are required to evaluate when evolution of polyandry to adjust inbreeding is predicted to arise. We used a genetically explicit individual‐based model to track the joint evolution of inbreeding strategy and polyandry defined as a polygenic threshold trait. Evolution of polyandry to avoid inbreeding only occurred given strong inbreeding depression, low direct costs, and severe restrictions on initial versus additional male availability. Evolution of polyandry to prefer inbreeding only occurred given zero inbreeding depression and direct costs, and given similarly severe restrictions on male availability. However, due to its threshold nature, phenotypic polyandry was frequently expressed even when strongly selected against and hence maladaptive. Further, the degree to which females adjusted inbreeding through polyandry was typically very small, and often reflected constraints on male availability rather than adaptive reproductive strategy. Evolution of polyandry solely to adjust inbreeding might consequently be highly restricted in nature, and such evolution cannot necessarily be directly inferred from observed magnitudes of inbreeding adjustment. PMID:27464756

  16. Analytical fuel property effects: Small combustors, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, T. G.; Monty, J. D.; Morton, H. L.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of non-standard aviation fuels on a typical small gas turbine combustor were studied and the effectiveness of design changes intended to counter the effects of these fuels was evaluated. The T700/CT7 turboprop engine family was chosen as being representative of the class of aircraft power plants desired for this study. Fuel properties, as specified by NASA, are characterized by low hydrogen content and high aromatics levels. No. 2 diesel fuel was also evaluated in this program. Results demonstrated the anticipated higher than normal smoke output and flame radiation intensity with resulting increased metal temperatures on the baseline T700 combustor. Three new designs were evaluated using the non standard fuels. The three designs incorporated enhanced cooling features and smoke reduction features. All three designs, when burning the broad specification fuels, exhibited metal temperatures at or below the baseline combustor temperatures on JP-5. Smoke levels were acceptable but higher than predicted.

  17. 5 CFR 9901.322 - Setting and adjusting rate ranges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Setting and adjusting rate ranges. 9901... Increases § 9901.322 Setting and adjusting rate ranges. (a) Subject to § 9901.105, the Secretary may set and... factors. (b) The Secretary may determine the effective date of newly set or adjusted band rate...

  18. 28 CFR 85.3 - Adjustments to penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ....3 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CIVIL MONETARY PENALTIES INFLATION... section, are adjusted in accordance with the inflation adjustment procedures prescribed in section 5 of the Federal Civil Monetary Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act of 1990, Pub. L. 101-410, effective...

  19. 28 CFR 85.3 - Adjustments to penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ....3 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CIVIL MONETARY PENALTIES INFLATION... section, are adjusted in accordance with the inflation adjustment procedures prescribed in section 5 of the Federal Civil Monetary Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act of 1990, Pub. L. 101-410, effective...

  20. 28 CFR 85.3 - Adjustments to penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ....3 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CIVIL MONETARY PENALTIES INFLATION... section, are adjusted in accordance with the inflation adjustment procedures prescribed in section 5 of the Federal Civil Monetary Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act of 1990, Pub. L. 101-410, effective...

  1. Size effects on mechanical and thermal properties of thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, Md Tarekul

    Materials, from electronic to structural, exhibit properties that are sensitive to their composition and internal microstructures such as grain and precipitate sizes, crystalline phases, defects and dopants. Therefore, the research trend has been to obtain fundamental understanding in processing-structure-properties to develop new materials or new functionalities for engineering applications. The advent of nanotechnology has opened a new dimension to this research area because when material size is reduced to nanoscale, properties change significantly from the bulk values. This phenomenon expands the problem to 'size-processing-structure-propertiesfunctionalities'. The reinvigorated research for the last few decades has established size dependency of the material properties such as thermal conductivity, Young's modulus and yield strength, electrical resistivity, photo-conductance etc. It is generally accepted that classical physical laws can be used to scale down the properties up to 25-50 nm length-scale, below which their significant deviation or even breakdown occur. This dissertation probes the size effect from a different perspective by asking the question, if nanoscale size influences one physical domain, why it would not influence the coupling between two or more domains? Or in other words, if both mechanical and thermal properties are different at the nanoscale, can mechanical strain influence thermal conductivity? The hypothesis of size induced multi-domain coupling is therefore the foundation of this dissertation. It is catalyzed by the only few computational studies available in the literature while experimental validations have been non-existent owing to experimental challenges. The objective of this research is to validate this hypothesis, which will open a novel avenue to tune properties and functionalities of materials with the size induced multi-domain coupling. Single domain characterization itself is difficult at the nanoscale due to specimen

  2. Subsea adjustable choke valves

    SciTech Connect

    Cyvas, M.K. )

    1989-08-01

    With emphasis on deepwater wells and marginal offshore fields growing, the search for reliable subsea production systems has become a high priority. A reliable subsea adjustable choke is essential to the realization of such a system, and recent advances are producing the degree of reliability required. Technological developments have been primarily in (1) trim material (including polycrystalline diamond), (2) trim configuration, (3) computer programs for trim sizing, (4) component materials, and (5) diver/remote-operated-vehicle (ROV) interfaces. These five facets are overviewed and progress to date is reported. A 15- to 20-year service life for adjustable subsea chokes is now a reality. Another factor vital to efficient use of these technological developments is to involve the choke manufacturer and ROV/diver personnel in initial system conceptualization. In this manner, maximum benefit can be derived from the latest technology. Major areas of development still required and under way are listed, and the paper closes with a tabulation of successful subsea choke installations in recent years.

  3. Effects of nasalance on the acoustical properties of the tenor passaggio and the head voice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perna, Nicholas Kevin

    This study aims to measure the effect that nasality has on the acoustical properties of the tenor passaggio and head voice. Not to be confused with forward resonance, nasality here will be defined as nasalance, the reading of a Nasometer, or the percentage of nasal and oral airflow during phonation. A previous study by Peer Birch et al. has shown that professional tenors used higher percentages of nasalance through their passaggio. They hypothesized that tenors used nasalance to make slight timbral adjustments as they ascended through passaggio. Other well respected authors including Richard Miller and William McIver have claimed that teaching registration issues is the most important component of training young tenors. It seemed logical to measure the acoustic effects of nasalance on the tenor passaggio and head voice. Eight professional operatic tenors participated as subjects performing numerous vocal exercises that demonstrated various registration events. These examples were recorded and analyzed using a Nasometer and Voce Vista Pro Software. Tenors did generally show an increase of nasalance during an ascending B-flat major scale on the vowels [i] and [u]. Perhaps the most revealing result was that six of seven tenors showed at least a 5-10% increase in nasalance on the note after their primary register transition on the vowel of [a]. It is suggested that this phenomenon receive further empirical scrutiny, because, if true, pedagogues could use nasalance as a tool for helping a young tenor ascend through his passaggio.

  4. The Effect of Plasticizers on the Erosion and Mechanical Properties of Polymeric Films

    PubMed Central

    Rabek, Cheryl L.; Stelle, Rachel Van; Dziubla, Thomas D.; Puleo, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Cellulose acetate phthalate (CAP) and Pluronic F-127 combined together (70:30 wt:wt) create a rigid, surface eroding association polymer. To impart flexibility into the polymer system and allow for a drug delivery film that can contour to varying wound shapes, plasticizers were added. Triethyl citrate (TEC) or tributyl citrate (TBC) was combined with CAP and Pluronic F-127 at 0, 10, or 20 wt%. Mechanical analysis was performed on the films as they were prepared and following a 2 hour incubation in phosphate-buffered saline. Tensile tests showed that higher plasticizer content increased the % elongation but decreased the elastic modulus (E) and ultimate tensile strength (UTS). The effect TEC had on the % elongation was twice as much than that of TBC. After incubation, % elongation, E, and UTS all increased because plasticizer leached out of the films. MicroCT and SEM were performed on the samples both before and after incubation to determine how erosion and leaching of plasticizer affected the interior and exterior structure of the films. Porosity increased as plasticizer content increased, however, plasticizer content did not have a significant effect on the rate of erosion. The mechanical properties of CAP-Pluronic films can be adjusted by the type and amount of plasticizer added to the system and therefore can be tailored for different drug delivery applications. PMID:23520360

  5. Easy adjustment structure and method for realizing InP based polarization beam splitter via Pockels effect dependence on crystal orientation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Kei; Nasu, Yusuke; Ohiso, Yoshitaka; Iga, Ryuzo

    2016-08-01

    We propose a novel adjustment structure and method for an InP-based polarization beam splitter/combiner by using the characteristic whereby the sign at the front of this term changes depending on the light propagation direction. To confirm the proposed principle of adjustment for our InP-based Mach–Zehnder interferometer polarization beam splitter/combiner, we fabricated a test sample that had an npin high-mesa waveguide structure with InGaAlAs/InAlAs multiple quantum wells. By using the test sample, we demonstrated the easy adjustment of an InP-based polarization beam splitter/combiner with the individual modulation of the TE and TM modes and showed that we can output TE/TM polarization at any port as desired.

  6. Habitat structure mediates biodiversity effects on ecosystem properties.

    PubMed

    Godbold, J A; Bulling, M T; Solan, M

    2011-08-22

    Much of what we know about the role of biodiversity in mediating ecosystem processes and function stems from manipulative experiments, which have largely been performed in isolated, homogeneous environments that do not incorporate habitat structure or allow natural community dynamics to develop. Here, we use a range of habitat configurations in a model marine benthic system to investigate the effects of species composition, resource heterogeneity and patch connectivity on ecosystem properties at both the patch (bioturbation intensity) and multi-patch (nutrient concentration) scale. We show that allowing fauna to move and preferentially select patches alters local species composition and density distributions, which has negative effects on ecosystem processes (bioturbation intensity) at the patch scale, but overall positive effects on ecosystem functioning (nutrient concentration) at the multi-patch scale. Our findings provide important evidence that community dynamics alter in response to localized resource heterogeneity and that these small-scale variations in habitat structure influence species contributions to ecosystem properties at larger scales. We conclude that habitat complexity forms an important buffer against disturbance and that contemporary estimates of the level of biodiversity required for maintaining future multi-functional systems may need to be revised.

  7. Greywater reuse for irrigation: effect on soil properties.

    PubMed

    Travis, Micheal J; Wiel-Shafran, Alit; Weisbrod, Noam; Adar, Eilon; Gross, Amit

    2010-05-15

    A controlled study of the effect of greywater (GW) irrigation on soil properties was conducted. Containers of sand, loam and loess soils were planted with lettuce, and irrigated with fresh water, raw artificial GW or treated artificial GW. Greywater was treated using a recirculating vertical-flow constructed wetland. Soil samples were collected every 10 days for the 40-day duration of the study, and plant growth was measured. Soils were analysed for physicochemical and biological parameters to determine changes caused by the different treatments. It was demonstrated that raw artificial GW significantly increased the development of hydrophobicity in the sand and loam soils, as determined by water droplet penetration time. No significant changes were observed for the loess soil under all treatments. Observed hydrophobicity was correlated with increased oil and grease and surfactant concentrations in the soil. Zeta (zeta) potential of the soils was measured to determine changes in the soil particle surface properties as a result of GW irrigation. A significant change in zeta-potential (less negative) was observed in the raw artificial GW-irrigated sand, whereas no difference was observed in the loam or loess. Soils irrigated with fresh water or treated GW exhibited no increase in hydrophobicity. Fecal coliform bacteria were absent or <10 CFU g(-1) in soils irrigated with fresh water or treated GW, but at least 1 order of magnitude higher in raw artificial GW irrigated soils. Only in the last sampling event and only for the loess soil was plant growth significantly higher for fresh water irrigated vs. raw or treated GW irrigated soils. This study demonstrates that treated GW can be effectively irrigated without detrimental effects on soil or plant growth; however, raw GW may significantly change soil properties that can impact the movement of water in soil and the transport of contaminants in the vadose zone.

  8. The effects of biodegradation and photodegradation on DOM optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, A.; Moll, L.; Kraus, T. E.

    2012-12-01

    In aquatic environments, dissolved organic matter (DOM) plays a central role in ecosystem biogeochemistry and is important because it affects light penetration, food web dynamics, and pollutant transport. While knowing DOM concentration is important, it is also critical to characterize DOM composition because its chemical make-up determines how it reacts in the environment. Furthermore, the ability to determine the origin of DOM can help inform watershed management and predict future trends. The main factors affecting DOM composition include (1) original source material, (2) biodegradation, and (3) photodegradation. Many studies use optical properties (absorbance and fluorescence) to infer DOM composition and source, however there are few controlled laboratory studies using endmember sources. Here DOM optical properties of eight endmember sources-including soil, plant and algal leachates-from San Francisco Bay Delta wetlands were investigated following biological and photochemical degradation during a three month incubation period. The effects of photoexposure were examined at various points along the biodegradation curve to simulate photodegradation occurring as microorganisms consumed and transformed the bioavailable DOM. Samples were analyzed for dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration, absorbance, and fluorescence. While our results showed little change in DOC concentration in the soil leachate over the 3 month study period, DOC concentrations in plant and algal leachates decrease by over 70% within the first three days of biodegradation. As expected, biodegradation led to an increase in fluorescence index (FI), humic index (HIX), and specific absorbance (SUVA) values. Carbon-normalized fluorescence values increased for humic-like components associated with Peaks C and A, but decreased for more labile material, which is associated with Peak T. While the initial FI for plant and algal leachates was similar to soil, the FI for both of these sources increased

  9. Extinction properties of metallic nanowires: Quantum diffraction and retardation effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moradi, Afshin

    2015-10-01

    The standard Mie theory for the extinction of electromagnetic radiation by a metal cylinder that is irradiated by a normally incident plane wave is extended to the case of a metallic nanowire, where two quantum longitudinal waves are excited. The modification of the Mie theory due to quantum diffraction effects is included by employing the quantum hydrodynamic approximation and applying the appropriate quantum additional boundary conditions. The extinction properties of the system and their differences with previous treatments based on the standard local and nonlocal models are shown. Also, as an example the validity of the nonretarded approximation in the quantum nonlocal optical response of a sodium nanowire is discussed.

  10. Effect of leavening microflora on pizza dough properties.

    PubMed

    Coppola, S; Pepe, O; Mauriello, G

    1998-11-01

    Fourteen different starter cultures containing one strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae with and without individual or combinations of lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus plantarum, Lact. sanfrancisco, Enterococcus faecium, Leuconostoc mesenteroides) were employed to investigate the role of leavening microflora on the properties of pizza doughs. Microbiological, chemical and physical characteristics of doughs prepared with the same flour and under the same processing conditions were determined. Leavening times and acidification properties depended on the microbial association used. The proportions of lactic and acetic acid produced by lactic acid bacteria were consistent with the metabolic properties of the strains employed. The bacteria/yeast ratios arising from microbial counts at the end of the leavening process were always lower in comparison to sour- or bread-doughs. The size of the yeast population did not change much, while bacteria showed from one to four duplications. Rheologically, the fermented doughs could only be significantly distinguished from the control dough with regard to the elastic modulus. Principal Component Analysis was applied to the acidimetric data. The scattergram of the two principal components effectively discriminated 13 of the 14 pizza dough types.

  11. Fluid property and operational effects on swirl injector atomization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, G. B., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Results of atomization tests of rocket injection elements are correlated in terms of the test fluid properties and the injection element operating conditions. The type of element modeled has a central, swirling liquid oxidizer flow; and a coaxial, axial gaseous fuel flow. Results of the correlations describe the effect of geometry, fluid properties, and operating conditions on liquid atomization. The ranges of test conditions allow reasonable extrapolation to actual high-pressure engine operating conditions. At such conditions, the swirl element should produce exceptionally finely-atomized and well-distributed spray for high combustion performance. United Technologies Research Center (UTRC) completed a test program to measure fluid spray atomization, in terms of droplet size and droplet size distributions, for swirling-flow injection elements. Element sizes and dimensions covered ranges of dimensions representative of typical cryogenic (O2/H2) liquid rocket engine practice. Relevant dimensions include the element diameter, the tangential-entry metering slot length, and the coastal fuel slot radial gap. Test fluids included water, simulated Jet-A, and Freon 113. These fluids cover ranges of properties which include or approach those of liquid oxygen. Gaseous nitrogen simulated the coaxial gaseous hydrogen fuel flow.

  12. Annealing effects on optical properties of natural alexandrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes Scalvi, Rosa M.; Li, Máximo Siu; Scalvi, Luis V. A.

    2003-11-01

    Natural alexandrite (BeAl2O4:Cr3+) crystals are investigated as regards the effects of annealing on their optical properties. Optical absorption spectra are measured from the ultraviolet (190 nm) to the near infrared (900 nm), for a sample subjected to consecutive annealing processes, where time and temperature are varied. Besides this, luminescence spectra are simultaneously obtained for this sample, excited with a Kr+ laser source, tuned on an ultraviolet multi-line mode (337.5, 350.7 and 356.4 nm). We observe from absorption as well as from emission data that annealing mainly influences the distribution of Cr3+ and Fe3+ ions, located on sites of a mirror plane (Cs symmetry), which are responsible for the optical properties of alexandrite. The results obtained lead to the conclusion that annealing induces a modification of the population of Cr3+ on Cs sites as well as on sites located on an inversion plane (Ci). Annealing could improve the optical properties of this material, as regards its application as a tunable laser.

  13. Effects of acetylcholine on neuronal properties in entorhinal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Heys, James G.; Schultheiss, Nathan W.; Shay, Christopher F.; Tsuno, Yusuke; Hasselmo, Michael E.

    2012-01-01

    The entorhinal cortex (EC) receives prominent cholinergic innervation from the medial septum and the vertical limb of the diagonal band of Broca (MSDB). To understand how cholinergic neurotransmission can modulate behavior, research has been directed toward identification of the specific cellular mechanisms in EC that can be modulated through cholinergic activity. This review focuses on intrinsic cellular properties of neurons in EC that may underlie functions such as working memory, spatial processing, and episodic memory. In particular, the study of stellate cells (SCs) in medial entorhinal has resulted in discovery of correlations between physiological properties of these neurons and properties of the unique spatial representation that is demonstrated through unit recordings of neurons in medial entorhinal cortex (mEC) from awake-behaving animals. A separate line of investigation has demonstrated persistent firing behavior among neurons in EC that is enhanced by cholinergic activity and could underlie working memory. There is also evidence that acetylcholine plays a role in modulation of synaptic transmission that could also enhance mnemonic function in EC. Finally, the local circuits of EC demonstrate a variety of interneuron physiology, which is also subject to cholinergic modulation. Together these effects alter the dynamics of EC to underlie the functional role of acetylcholine in memory. PMID:22837741

  14. The effect of interlayers on dissimilar friction weld properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maldonado-Zepeda, Cuauhtemoc

    The influence of silver interlayers on the metallurgical and mechanical properties of dissimilar aluminium alloy/stainless steel friction welds are investigated. An elastic contact model is proposed that explains the conditions at and close to the contact surface, which produce Al2O3 particle fracture in dissimilar MMC/AISI 304 stainless steel friction welds. Intermixed (IM) and particle dispersed (PD) regions are formed in Ag-containing dissimilar friction welds. These regions form very early in the joining operation and both contain Ag3Al. Therefore, an interlayer (Ag) introduced with the specific aim of preventing FexAly compound formation in MMC/AISI 304 stainless steel friction welds promotes the formation of another intermetallic phase at the bondline. Since IM and PD regions are progressively removed as the friction welding operation proceeds thinner intermetallic layers are produced when long friction welding times are applied. This type of behavior is quite different from that observed in silver-free dissimilar MMC/AISI 304 stainless steel welds. Nanoparticles of silver are formed in dissimilar MMC/Ag/AISI 304 stainless steel welds produced using low friction pressures. Nanoparticle formation in dissimilar friction welds has never been previously observed or investigated. The introduction of silver interlayers decreases heat generation during welding, produces narrower softened zone regions and improved notch tensile strength properties. All research to-date has assumed per se that joint mechanical properties wholly depend on the mechanical properties and width of the intermetallic layer formed at the dissimilar joint interface. However, it is shown in this thesis that the mechanical properties of MMC/AISI 304 stainless steel joints are determined by the combined effects of intermetallic formation at the bondline and softened zone formation in MMC base material immediately adjacent to the joint interface. A methodology for calculating the notch tensile

  15. Effect of Individual Layer Shape on the Mechanical Properties of Dissimilar Al Alloys Laminated Metal Composite Sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zejun; Wu, Xia; Hu, Hongbo; Chen, Quanzhong; Liu, Qing

    2014-03-01

    For the dissimilar laminated metal composite sheets (LMCS) fabricated by roll bonding technology, the great differences of mechanical properties between the constituent metals lead to the non-uniform deformation and individual layer necking. The individual layer shape affects the mechanical properties and microstructure of dissimilar LMCS. The Al/Al alloy (1100/7075) LMCS with the same thickness and ratio of dissimilar metals, but different individual layer shapes, have been successfully fabricated by hot accumulative roll bonding in conjunction with cold rolling technology. Some effective methods (such as sheet crown, warp degree, and slant angle) were presented to quantitatively evaluate the individual layer shape and necking of constituent metals. The microstructure and mechanical properties of 1100/7075 LMCS with different individual layer shapes were investigated. The effects of bonding interface on the mechanical properties were obtained based on the assessment of individual layer shapes and necking. The strength and elongation of LMCS decrease with the increase of variation of individual layer shapes and necking when the number of layers keeps constant. The research results offer some theoretical guides and references for adjusting the control measures of compatibility deformation, optimizing the hot roll bonding technologies, and designing the novel high-performance dissimilar LMCS.

  16. Thermal properties of soils: effect of biochar application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usowicz, Boguslaw; Lukowski, Mateusz; Lipiec, Jerzy

    2014-05-01

    Thermal properties (thermal conductivity, heat capacity and thermal diffusivity) have a significant effect on the soil surface energy partitioning and resulting in the temperature distribution. Thermal properties of soil depend on water content, bulk density and organic matter content. An important source of organic matter is biochar. Biochar as a material is defined as: "charcoal for application as a soil conditioner". Biochar is generally associated with co-produced end products of pyrolysis. Many different materials are used as biomass feedstock for biochar, including wood, crop residues and manures. Additional predictions were done for terra preta soil (also known as "Amazonian dark earth"), high in charcoal content, due to adding a mixture of charcoal, bone, and manure for thousands of years i.e. approximately 10-1,000 times longer than residence times of most soil organic matter. The effect of biochar obtained from the wood biomass and other organic amendments (peat, compost) on soil thermal properties is presented in this paper. The results were compared with wetland soils of different organic matter content. The measurements of the thermal properties at various water contents were performed after incubation, under laboratory conditions using KD2Pro, Decagon Devices. The measured data were compared with predictions made using Usowicz statistical-physical model (Usowicz et al., 2006) for biochar, mineral soil and soil with addition of biochar at various water contents and bulk densities. The model operates statistically by probability of occurrence of contacts between particular fractional compounds. It combines physical properties, specific to particular compounds, into one apparent conductance specific to the mixture. The results revealed that addition of the biochar and other organic amendments into the soil caused considerable reduction of the thermal conductivity and diffusivity. The mineral soil showed the highest thermal conductivity and diffusivity

  17. Fatigue effect of elastocaloric properties in natural rubber.

    PubMed

    Sebald, Gael; Xie, Zhongjian; Guyomar, Daniel

    2016-08-13

    In the framework of elastocaloric (eC) refrigeration, the fatigue effect on the eC effect of natural rubber (NR) is investigated. Repetitive deformation cycles at engineering strain regime from 1 to 6 results in a rapid rupture (approx. 800 cycles). Degradation of properties and fatigue life are then investigated at three different strain regimes with the same strain amplitude: before onset strain of strain-induced crystallization (SIC) (strain regime of 0-3), onset strain of melting (strain regime of 2-5) and high strain of SIC (strain regime of 4-7). Strain of 0-3 leads to a low eC effect and cracking after 2000 cycles. Strain of 2-5 and 4-7 results in an excellent crack growth resistance and much higher eC effect with adiabatic temperature changes of 3.5 K and 4.2 K, respectively, thanks to the effect of SIC. The eC stress coefficient index γ (ratio between eC temperature change and applied stress) for strains of 2-5 and 4-7 are γ2-5=4.4 K MPa(-1) and γ4-7=1.6 K MPa(-1), respectively, demonstrating the advantage of the strain regime 2-5. Finally, a high-cycle test up to 1.7×10(5) cycles is successfully applied to the NR sample with very little degradation of eC properties, constituting an important step towards cooling applications.This article is part of the themed issue 'Taking the temperature of phase transitions in cool materials'. PMID:27402933

  18. Aerosol optical properties and their radiative effects in northern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhanqing; Xia, Xiangao; Cribb, Maureen; Mi, Wen; Holben, Brent; Wang, Pucai; Chen, Hongbin; Tsay, Si-Chee; Eck, T. F.; Zhao, Fengsheng; Dutton, E. G.; Dickerson, R. E.

    2007-11-01

    As a fast developing country covering a large territory, China is experiencing rapid environmental changes. High concentrations of aerosols with diverse properties are emitted in the region, providing a unique opportunity for understanding the impact of environmental changes on climate. Until very recently, few observational studies were conducted in the source regions. The East Asian Study of Tropospheric Aerosols: An International Regional Experiment (EAST-AIRE) attempts to characterize the physical, optical and chemical properties of the aerosols and their effects on climate over China. This study presents some preliminary results using continuous high-quality measurements of aerosol, cloud and radiative quantities made at the first EAST-AIRE baseline station at Xianghe, about 70 km east of Beijing over a period of one year (September 2004 to September 2005). It was found that the region is often covered by a thick layer of haze (with a yearly mean aerosol optical depth equal to 0.82 at 500 nm and maximum greater than 4) due primarily to anthropogenic emissions. An abrupt "cleanup" of the haze often took place in a matter of one day or less because of the passage of cold fronts. The mean single scattering albedo is approximately 0.9 but has strong day-to-day variations with maximum monthly averages occurring during the summer. Large aerosol loading and strong absorption lead to a very large aerosol radiative effect at the surface (the annual 24-hour mean values equals 24 W m-2), but a much smaller aerosol radiative effect at the top of the atmosphere (one tenth of the surface value). The boundary atmosphere is thus heated dramatically during the daytime, which may affect atmospheric stability and cloud formation. In comparison, the cloud radiative effect at the surface is only moderately higher (-41 W m-2) than the aerosol radiative effect at the surface.

  19. Adolescent Mothers' Adjustment to Parenting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, Valerie Jarvis; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examined adolescent mothers' adjustment to parenting, self-esteem, social support, and perceptions of baby. Subjects (n=52) responded to questionnaires at two time periods approximately six months apart. Mothers with higher self-esteem at Time 1 had better adjustment at Time 2. Adjustment was predicted by Time 2 variables; contact with baby's…

  20. Solar Sail Material Performance Property Response to Space Environmental Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, David L.; Semmel, Charles; Hovater, Mary; Nehls, Mary; Gray, Perry; Hubbs, Whitney; Wertz, George

    2004-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) continues research into the utilization of photonic materials for spacecraft propulsion. Spacecraft propulsion, using photonic materials, will be achieved using a solar sail. A solar sail operates on the principle that photons, originating from the sun, impart pressure to the sail and therefore provide a source for spacecraft propulsion. The pressure imparted to a solar sail can be increased, up to a factor of two if the sun-facing surface is perfectly reflective. Therefore, these solar sails are generally composed of a highly reflective metallic sun-facing layer, a thin polymeric substrate and occasionally a highly emissive back surface. Near term solar sail propelled science missions are targeting the Lagrange point 1 (L1) as well as locations sunward of L1 as destinations. These near term missions include the Solar Polar Imager' and the L1 Diamond '. The Environmental Effects Group at NASA's Marshall Space Fliglit Center (MSFC) continues to actively characterize solar sail material in preparation for these near term solar sail missions. Previous investigations indicated that space environmental effects on sail material thermo-optical properties were minimal and would not significantly affect the propulsion efficiency of the sail3-'. These investigations also indicated that the sail material mechanical stability degrades with increasing radiation exposure. This paper will further quantify the effect of space environmental exposure on the mechanical properties of candidate sail materials. Candidate sail materials for these missions include Aluminum coated Mylar TM, Teonexm, and CP1 (Colorless Polyimide). These materials were subjected to uniform radiation doses of electrons and protons in individual exposures sequences. Dose values ranged from 100 Mrads to over 5 Grads. The engineering performance property responses of thermo-optical and mechanical properties were

  1. Effect of diet on mechanical properties of horse's hair.

    PubMed

    Kania, Małgorzata; Mikołajewska, Dorota; Marycz, Krzysztof; Kobielarz, Magdalena

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this research was to assess the effect of diet supplementation with zinc and copper, in different chemical forms (organic and inorganic), on the mechanical properties of the hair of healthy English thoroughbred horses. Hairs were taken from 18 horses which had been fed with oats and hay for a period of 110 days. Twelve of the horses had been additionally given a daily dose of 700 g of highquality 44-ingredients Fohlengold St-Hippolyt muesli made by Muhle Ebert Dilheim. Six of them had received the muesli-containing organic zinc and copper (OS), while the other six horses had received the muesli-containing inorganic zinc and copper (IS). The mechanical properties of the hairs before and after the supplementation period were tested in a Synergie 100 (MTS) testing machine. Each of the hairs was loaded at a constant rate of 20 mm/min until rupture. Young modulus (E), breaking stress (Ru) and yield point (Rs) of the particular hairs were determined. No significant changes in the mechanical parameters were observed in the reference group in which the horses were fed with only oats and hay for the whole experimental period of 110 days. The supplementation of the diet with inorganic zinc and copper resulted in an increase in the elasticity and diameter of the hairs and in a simultaneous reduction in their strength. Whereas organic zinc and copper caused an increase in the elasticity and strength of the hairs and a simultaneous reduction in their diameter. It has been shown that the organic form of the supplemented trace zinc and copper (mainly copper) elements has a beneficial effect on the mechanical properties of the hairs since it results in an increase in both their elasticity and strength.

  2. Effect of heat processing on selected grain amaranth physicochemical properties.

    PubMed

    Muyonga, John H; Andabati, Brian; Ssepuuya, Geoffrey

    2014-01-01

    Grain amaranth is a pseudocereal with unique agricultural, nutritional, and functional properties. This study was undertaken to determine the effect of different heat-processing methods on physicochemical and nutraceutical properties in two main grain amaranth species, of Amaranthus hypochondriacus L. and Amaranthus cruentus L. Grains were prepared by roasting and popping, milled and analyzed for changes in in vitro protein digestibility, gruel viscosity, pasting characteristics, antioxidant activity, flavonoids, and total phenolics. In vitro protein digestibility was determined using the pepsin-pancreatin enzyme system. Viscosity and pasting characteristics of samples were determined using a Brookfield Viscometer and a Rapid Visco Analyzer, respectively. The grain methanol extracts were analysed for phenolics using spectrophotometry while antioxidant activity was determined using the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) method. Heat treatment led to a reduction in protein digestibility, the effect being higher in popped than in roasted samples. Viscosities for roasted grain amaranth gruels were significantly higher than those obtained from raw and popped grain amaranth gruels. The results for pasting properties were consistent with the results for viscosity. In both A. hypochondriacus L. and A. cruentus L., the order of the viscosity values was roasted>raw>popped. The viscosities were also generally lower for A. cruentus L. compared to A. hypochondriacus L. Raw samples for both A. hypochondriacus L. and A. cruentus L. did not significantly differ in total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), and total antioxidant activity values. Thermal processing led to an increase in TFC and antioxidant activity. However, TPC of heat-processed samples remained unchanged. From the results, it can be concluded that heat treatment enhances antioxidant activity of grain amaranth and causes rheological changes dependent on the nature of heat treatment.

  3. Effect of heat processing on selected grain amaranth physicochemical properties

    PubMed Central

    Muyonga, John H; Andabati, Brian; Ssepuuya, Geoffrey

    2014-01-01

    Grain amaranth is a pseudocereal with unique agricultural, nutritional, and functional properties. This study was undertaken to determine the effect of different heat-processing methods on physicochemical and nutraceutical properties in two main grain amaranth species, of Amaranthus hypochondriacus L. and Amaranthus cruentus L. Grains were prepared by roasting and popping, milled and analyzed for changes in in vitro protein digestibility, gruel viscosity, pasting characteristics, antioxidant activity, flavonoids, and total phenolics. In vitro protein digestibility was determined using the pepsin-pancreatin enzyme system. Viscosity and pasting characteristics of samples were determined using a Brookfield Viscometer and a Rapid Visco Analyzer, respectively. The grain methanol extracts were analysed for phenolics using spectrophotometry while antioxidant activity was determined using the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) method. Heat treatment led to a reduction in protein digestibility, the effect being higher in popped than in roasted samples. Viscosities for roasted grain amaranth gruels were significantly higher than those obtained from raw and popped grain amaranth gruels. The results for pasting properties were consistent with the results for viscosity. In both A. hypochondriacus L. and A. cruentus L., the order of the viscosity values was roasted>raw>popped. The viscosities were also generally lower for A. cruentus L. compared to A. hypochondriacus L. Raw samples for both A. hypochondriacus L. and A. cruentus L. did not significantly differ in total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), and total antioxidant activity values. Thermal processing led to an increase in TFC and antioxidant activity. However, TPC of heat-processed samples remained unchanged. From the results, it can be concluded that heat treatment enhances antioxidant activity of grain amaranth and causes rheological changes dependent on the nature of heat treatment. PMID

  4. Fuel property effects on engine combustion processes. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Cernansky, N.P.; Miller, D.L.

    1995-04-27

    A major obstacle to improving spark ignition engine efficiency is the limitations on compression ratio imposed by tendency of hydrocarbon fuels to knock (autoignite). A research program investigated the knock problem in spark ignition engines. Objective was to understand low and intermediate temperature chemistry of combustion processes relevant to autoignition and knock and to determine fuel property effects. Experiments were conducted in an optically and physically accessible research engine, static reactor, and an atmospheric pressure flow reactor (APFR). Chemical kinetic models were developed for prediction of species evolution and autoignition behavior. The work provided insight into low and intermediate temperature chemistry prior to autoignition of n-butane, iso-butane, n-pentane, 1-pentene, n-heptane, iso-octane and some binary blends. Study of effects of ethers (MTBE, ETBE, TAME and DIPE ) and alcohols (methanol and ethanol) on the oxidation and autoignition of primary reference fuel (PRF) blends.

  5. Effects of mefenoxam fungicide on soil biochemical properties.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Isidoro; García-Martínez, Ana María; Osta, Paloma; Parrado, Juan; Tejada, Manuel

    2015-05-01

    We studied the effect of mefenoxam on soil biochemical properties. Soil was mixed with three rates of mefenoxam (0.5, 1 and 2 L ha(-1)) and incubated for 83 days. Fungicide was applied to the soil four times during the experiment, according to the manufacturer's instructions. Soil ergosterol, dehydrogenase, urease, β-glucosidase, and phosphatase activities were measured during the experiment. Compared to controls, soils with the highest doses of mefenoxam demonstrated decreased ergosterol and dehydrogenase activities by 81 and 27 %, respectively; whereas, urease, β-glucosidase, and phosphatase activities increased. These results suggest that mefenoxam may possibly have consequences for agronomic crop production due to the negative effect on soil fungal populations and stimulation of the growth of soil bacterial activity.

  6. Anharmonic effects in the thermoelectric properties of PbTe

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Otaibi, Jawaher; Srivastava, G. P.

    2014-07-28

    In this work, we investigate the crystal anharmonic effects in the thermoelectric properties of n-type PbTe. The lattice thermal transport coefficient is computed by employing an isotropic continuum model for the dispersion relation for acoustic as well as optical phonon branches, an isotropic continuum model for crystal anharmonicity, and the single-mode relaxation time scheme. The electronic components of the transport coefficients in a wide temperature range are calculated using the isotropic-nearly-free-electron model, interaction of electrons with deformation potential of acoustic phonons, and the effect of the band non-parabolicity. It is found that the transverse optical branches play a major role in determining the phonon conductivity and the thermoelectric figure of merit of this material.

  7. Nanostructured Composites: Effective Mechanical Property Determination of Nanotube Bundles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saether, E.; Pipes, R. B.; Frankland, S. J. V.

    2002-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes naturally tend to form crystals in the form of hexagonally packed bundles or ropes that should exhibit a transversely isotropic constitutive behavior. Although the intratube axial stiffness is on the order of 1 TPa due to a strong network of delocalized bonds, the intertube cohesive strength is orders of magnitude less controlled by weak, nonbonding van der Waals interactions. An accurate determination of the effective mechanical properties of nanotube bundles is important to assess potential structural applications such as reinforcement in future composite material systems. A direct method for calculating effective material constants is developed in the present study. The Lennard-Jones potential is used to model the nonbonding cohesive forces. A complete set of transverse moduli are obtained and compared with existing data.

  8. Effect of Moisture on Powder Flow Properties of Theophylline

    PubMed Central

    Sandler, Niklas; Reiche, Katharina; Heinämäki, Jyrki; Yliruusi, Jouko

    2010-01-01

    Powder flow is influenced by environmental factors, such as moisture and static electricity, as well as powder related factors, such as morphology, size, size distribution, density, and surface area. Pharmaceutical solids may be exposed to water during storage in an atmosphere containing water vapor, or in a dosage form consisting of materials (e.g., excipients) that contain water and are capable of transferring in to other ingredients. The effect of moisture on powder flowability depends on the amount of water and its distribution. The aim of this work was to examine the effect of humidity on the flow properties of theophylline using information derived from solid-state analysis of the systems investigated.

  9. International Workshop on Stratospheric Aerosols: Measurements, Properties, and Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pueschel, Rudolf F. (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    Following a mandate by the International Aerosol Climatology Program under the auspices of International Association of Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics International Radiation Commission, 45 scientists from five nations convened to discuss relevant issues associated with the measurement, properties, and effects of stratospheric aerosols. A summary is presented of the discussions on formation and evolution, transport and fate, effects on climate, role in heterogeneous chemistry, and validation of lidar and satellite remote sensing of stratospheric aerosols. Measurements are recommended of the natural (background) and the volcanically enhanced aerosol (sulfuric acid and silica particles), the exhaust of shuttle, civil aviation and supersonic aircraft operations (alumina, soot, and ice particles), and polar stratospheric clouds (ice, condensed nitric and hydrochloric acids).

  10. Effect of irradiated pork on physicochemical properties of meat emulsions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Yun-Sang; Sung, Jung-Min; Jeong, Tae-Jun; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Song, Dong-Heon; Ham, Youn-Kyung; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Kim, Young-Boong; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2016-02-01

    The effect of pork irradiated with doses up to 10 kGy on meat emulsions formulated with carboxy methyl cellulose (CMC) was investigated. Raw pork was vacuums packaged at a thickness of 2.0 cm and irradiated by X-ray linear accelerator (15 kW, 5 MeV). The emulsion had higher lightness, myofibrillar protein solubility, total protein solubility, and apparent viscosity with increasing doses, whereas cooking loss, total expressible fluid separation, and hardness decreased. There were no significant differences in fat separation, sarcoplasmic protein solubility, springiness, and cohesiveness. Our results indicated that it is treatment by ionizing radiation which causes the effects the physicochemical properties of the final raw meat product.

  11. Effects of biochar prepared from organic waste on soil properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gascó, Gabriel; Cely, Paola; María Tarquis, Ana; Paz-Ferreiro, Jorge; Saa-Requejo, Antonio; María Méndez, Ana

    2014-05-01

    Biochar is a carbon-rich solid obtained by the thermal decomposition of organic matter under a limited supply of oxygen and at relatively low temperatures. Biochar can be prepared from the pyrolysis of different organic feedstocks, such as wood and biomass crops, agricultural by-products, different types of waste or paper industry waste materials . The pyrolysis procedure of waste, i.e. sewage sludge, has mainly two advantages, firstly, it removes pathogens from waste and, secondly, biochar can reduce the leaching of heavy metals present in raw sewage sludge. This trend of the use of waste material as feedstocks to the preparation of biochar is increasing in the last years due to industrial development and economic growth imply an increase in waste generation. The application of biochar may have positive effects on soil physical properties as water holding capacity and structure or on soil biological activity and soil quality. Also, biochar can be used to remove water pollutants and can be used in multiple ways in soil remediation due to its adsorption of pesticides or metals. Also, biochar contribute to carbon sequestration due to carbon stability of biochar materials. The objective of this presentation is to review the positive effects of the biochar prepared from organic waste on soil properties.

  12. Deformation properties with a finite-range simple effective interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behera, B.; Viñas, X.; Routray, T. R.; Robledo, L. M.; Centelles, M.; Pattnaik, S. P.

    2016-08-01

    Deformed and spherical even-even nuclei are studied using a finite-range simple effective interaction within the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov mean-field approach. Different parameter sets of the interaction, corresponding to different incompressibility, are constructed by varying the exponent γ of the density in the traditional density-dependent term. Ten of the 12 parameters of these interactions are determined from properties of asymmetric nuclear matter and spin-polarized pure neutron matter. The two remaining parameters are fitted to reproduce the experimental binding energies known in 620 even-even nuclei using several variants of the rotational energy correction. The rms deviations for the binding energy depend on the value of γ and the way the rotational energy correction is treated but they can be as low as 1.56 MeV, a value competitive with other renowned effective interactions of Skyrme and Gogny type. Charge radii are compared to the experimental values of 313 even-even nuclei and the rms deviation is again comparable and even superior to the one of popular Skyrme and Gogny forces. Emphasis is given to the deformation properties predicted with these interactions by analyzing the potential energy surfaces for several well deformed nuclei and the fission barriers of some nuclei. Comparison of the results with the experimental information, where available, as well as with the results of the Gogny D1S force, shows satisfactory agreement.

  13. Effect of cryogenic treatment on thermal conductivity properties of copper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadig, D. S.; Ramakrishnan, V.; Sampathkumaran, P.; Prashanth, C. S.

    2012-06-01

    Copper exhibits high thermal conductivity properties and hence it is extensively used in cryogenic applications like cold fingers, heat exchangers, etc. During the realization of such components, copper undergoes various machining operations from the raw material stage to the final component. During these machining processes, stresses are induced within the metal resulting in internal stresses, strains and dislocations. These effects build up resistance paths for the heat carriers which transfer heat from one location to the other. This in turn, results in reduction of thermal conductivity of the conducting metal and as a result the developed component will not perform as per expectations. In the process of cryogenic treatment, the metal samples are exposed to cryogenic temperature for extended duration of time for 24 hours and later tempered. During this process, the internal stresses and strains are reduced with refinement of the atomic structure. These effects are expected to favourably improve thermal conductivity properties of the metal. In this experimental work, OFHC copper samples were cryotreated for 24 hours at 98 K and part of them were tempered at 423K for one hour. Significant enhancement of thermal conductivity values were observed after cryotreating and tempering the copper samples.

  14. A Preliminary Report on the Pilot Study: "The Effect of Adult Basic Education on the Occupational Adjustment and Acculturation of the Low Literate Adult."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shearon, Ronald W.; Puder, William H.

    A Pilot Phase of an evaluative study of adult basic education was included to develop and evaluate data-gathering instruments to measure sociopsychological variables bearing on levels of, and potentials for, adjustment; to describe participants and nonparticipants by these measures and assess changes over time; and to examine changes in potentials…

  15. Reciprocal influences between maternal parenting and child adjustment in a high-risk population: a 5-year cross-lagged analysis of bidirectional effects.

    PubMed

    Barbot, Baptiste; Crossman, Elizabeth; Hunter, Scott R; Grigorenko, Elena L; Luthar, Suniya S

    2014-09-01

    This study examines longitudinally the bidirectional influences between maternal parenting (behaviors and parenting stress) and mothers' perceptions of their children's adjustment, in a multivariate approach. Data was gathered from 361 low-income mothers (many with psychiatric diagnoses) reporting on their parenting behavior, parenting stress, and their child's adjustment, in a 2-wave longitudinal study over 5 years. Measurement models were developed to derive 4 broad parenting constructs (involvement, control, rejection, and stress) and 3 child adjustment constructs (internalizing problems, externalizing problems, and social competence). After measurement invariance of these constructs was confirmed across relevant groups and over time, both measurement models were integrated in a single crossed-lagged regression analysis of latent constructs. Multiple reciprocal influences were observed between parenting and perceived child adjustment over time: Externalizing and internalizing problems in children were predicted by baseline maternal parenting behaviors, and child social competence was found to reduce parental stress and increase parental involvement and appropriate monitoring. These findings on the motherhood experience are discussed in light of recent research efforts to understand mother-child bidirectional influences and their potential for practical applications.

  16. Reciprocal Influences Between Maternal Parenting and Child Adjustment in a High-risk Population: A Five-Year Cross-Lagged Analysis of Bidirectional Effects

    PubMed Central

    Barbot, Baptiste; Crossman, Elizabeth; Hunter, Scott R.; Grigorenko, Elena L.; Luthar, Suniya S.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines longitudinally the bidirectional influences between maternal parenting (behaviors and parenting stress) and mothers' perceptions of their children's adjustment, in a multivariate approach. Data was gathered from 361 low-income mothers (many with psychiatric diagnoses) reporting on their parenting behavior, parenting stress and their child's adjustment, in a two-wave longitudinal study over 5 years. Measurement models were developed to derive four broad parenting constructs (Involvement, Control, Rejection, and Stress) and three child adjustment constructs (Internalizing problems, Externalizing problems, and Social competence). After measurement invariance of these constructs was confirmed across relevant groups and over time, both measurement models were integrated in a single crossed-lagged regression analysis of latent constructs. Multiple reciprocal influence were observed between parenting and perceived child adjustment over time: Externalizing and internalizing problems in children were predicted by baseline maternal parenting behaviors, while child social competence was found to reduce parental stress and increase parental involvement and appropriate monitoring. These findings on the motherhood experience are discussed in light of recent research efforts to understand mother-child bi-directional influences, and their potential for practical applications. PMID:25089759

  17. Effects of Corporal Punishment, Perceived Caretaker Warmth, and Cultural Beliefs on the Psychological Adjustment of Children in St. Kitts, West Indies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohner, Ronald P.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Structural equation modeling analysis of 349 youths, aged 9-16, in St. Kitts, West Indies, showed that physical punishment by itself does make a modest, but significant, direct and negative contribution to youths' psychological adjustment. Children tended to experience themselves to be rejected in direct proportion to the frequency and severity of…

  18. First-principles study of quantum confinement and surface effects on the electronic properties of InAs nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Ning, Feng; Tang, Li-Ming Zhang, Yong; Chen, Ke-Qiu

    2013-12-14

    We have used first principles methods to systematically investigate the quantum confinement effect on the electronic properties of zinc-blende (ZB) and wurtzite (WZ) InAs nanowires (NWs) with different orientations and diameters, and compared their electronic properties before and after pseudo-hydrogen passivation. The results show that the calculated carrier effective masses are dependent on the NW diameter, except for [110] ZB NWs, and the hole effective masses of [111] ZB NWs are larger than the electron effective masses when the NW diameter is ≥26 Å. The band alignments of [111] ZB and [0001] WZ NWs reveal that the effect of quantum confinement on the conduction bands is greater than on the valence bands, and the position of the valence band maximum level changes little with increasing NW diameter. The pseudo-hydrogen passivated NWs have larger band gaps than the corresponding unpassivated NWs. The carrier effective masses and mobilities can be adjusted by passivating the surface dangling bonds.

  19. Property.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piele, Philip K.

    Several court cases involving acquisition, use, and disposal of property by institutions of higher education are briefly summarized in this chapter. Cases discussed touch on such topics as municipal annexation of university property; repurchase of properties temporarily allocated to faculty members; implications of zoning laws and zoning board…

  20. Size Effects on the Magnetic Properties of Nanoscale Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jianping

    Finite size effects on the magnetic properties of nanoscale particles have been studied in this work. The first system studied was MnFe_2O _4 prepared by coprecipitation followed by digestion. The particles were single crystals with an average diameter controllable from 5 nm to 25 nm. These particles have a higher inversion degree of metal ion distribution between the tetrahedral sites and octahedral sites of the spinel structure than those synthesized with ceramic methods. This higher inversion leads to a higher Curie temperature. We found that the structure of the particles can be varied by heat treatment. The Curie temperature of the particles decreased after heat treatment in inert gas, however, it increased after heat treatment in air. The size effects show in two aspects on the MnFe_2O _4 particles. First, the Curie temperature decreased as particles size was reduced, which was explained by finite size scaling. Second, the saturation magnetization decreased as particle size decreased because of the existence of a nonmagnetic layer on the surface of MnFe_2 O_4 particles. The second system studied was Co particles synthesized with an inverse micelle technique. The particles were small (1-5 nm) and had a narrow size distribution. The Co particles were superparamagnetic at room temperature and showed a set of consistent magnetic data in magnetic moment per particle, coercivity, and blocking temperature. We found the anisotropy constant and saturation magnetization of Co particles had a strong size dependence. The anisotropy constant was above the bulk value of Co and increased as particle size decreased. The saturation magnetization increased as the particle became smaller. The magnetic properties of Co particles also strongly suggested a core/shell structure in each particle. But no physical inhomogeneity was observed. We have also studied ligand effects on the magnetic properties of Co particles. The magnetization of the Co particles was quenched by 36%, 27

  1. The Effect of Microstructure On Transport Properties of Porous Electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, Serena W.

    The goal of this work is to further understand the relationships between porous electrode microstructure and mass transport properties. This understanding allows us to predict and improve cell performance from fundamental principles. The investigated battery systems are the widely used rechargeable Li-ion battery and the non-rechargeable alkaline battery. This work includes three main contributions in the battery field listed below. Direct Measurement of Effective Electronic Transport in Porous Li-ion Electrodes. An accurate assessment of the electronic conductivity of electrodes is necessary for understanding and optimizing battery performance. The bulk electronic conductivity of porous LiCoO2-based cathodes was measured as a function of porosity, pressure, carbon fraction, and the presence of an electrolyte. The measurements were performed by delamination of thin-film electrodes from their aluminum current collectors and by use of a four-line probe. Imaging and Correlating Microstructure To Conductivity. Transport properties of porous electrodes are strongly related to microstructure. An experimental 3D microstructure is needed not only for computation of direct transport properties, but also for a detailed electrode microstructure characterization. This work utilized X-ray tomography and focused ion beam (FIB)/scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to obtain the 3D structures of alkaline battery cathodes. FIB/SEM has the advantage of detecting carbon additives; thus, it was the main tomography tool employed. Additionally, protocols and techniques for acquiring, processing and segmenting series of FIB/SEM images were developed as part of this work. FIB/SEM images were also used to correlate electrodes' microstructure to their respective conductivities for both Li-ion and alkaline batteries. Electrode Microstructure Metrics and the 3D Stochastic Grid Model. A detailed characterization of microstructure was conducted in this work, including characterization of the

  2. 41 CFR 109-27.5007-2 - Inventory adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Inventory adjustments. 109-27.5007-2 Section 109-27.5007-2 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property... PROCUREMENT 27-INVENTORY MANAGEMENT 27.50-Inventory Management Policies, Procedures, and Guidelines §...

  3. 27 CFR 70.186 - Legal effect of certificate of sale of personal property and deed of real property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Legal effect of certificate of sale of personal property and deed of real property. 70.186 Section 70.186 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY...

  4. Thermoelectric properties of a two-dimensional electron gas exhibiting the quantum Hall effect

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, J.S.; Dahlberg, E.D.; Valois, A.J.; Robinson, G.Y.

    1986-02-15

    This Communication reports studies of the thermoelectric properties of a two-dimensional electron gas in the quantum Hall regime. The data are compared to theoretical predictions for the thermopower when the chemical potential lies either in the middle of a Landau level or midway between two levels. For the comparison a Gaussian broadening is assumed and a good fit to the data can be obtained with the width of the levels as the adjustable parameter.

  5. Comparative effectiveness and safety of gastric bypass, sleeve gastrectomy and adjustable gastric banding in a population-based bariatric program: prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Richdeep S.; Majumdar, Sumit R.; Rueda-Clausen, Christian F.; Apte, Sameer; Birch, Daniel W.; Karmali, Shahzeer; Sharma, Arya M.; Klarenbach, Scott; Padwal, Raj S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Bariatric surgery in Canada is primarily delivered within publicly funded specialty clinics. Previous studies have demonstrated that bariatric surgery is superior to intensive medical management for reduction of weight and obesity-related comorbidities. Our objective was to compare the effectiveness and safety of laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) and adjustable gastric banding (LAGB) in a publicly funded, population-based bariatric treatment program. Methods We followed consecutive bariatric surgery patients for 2 years. The primary outcome was weight change (in kilograms). Between-group changes were analyzed using multivariable regression. Last-observation-carried-forward imputation was used for missing data. Results We included 150 consecutive patients (51 RYGB; 51 LSG; 48 LAGB) in our study. At baseline, mean age was 43.5 ± 9.5 years, 87.3% of patients were women, and preoperative body mass index (BMI) was 46.2 ± 7.4. Absolute and relative (% of baseline) weight loss at 2 years were 36.6 ± 19.5 kg (26.1 ± 12.2%) for RYGB, 21.4 ± 16.0 kg (16.4 ± 11.6%) for LSG and 7.0 ± 9.7 kg (5.8 ± 7.9%) for LAGB (p < 0.001). Change in BMI was greater for the RYGB (−13.0 ± 6.6) than both the LSG (−7.6 ± 5.7) and the LAGB (−2.6 ± 3.5) groups (p < 0.001). The reduction in diabetes, hypertension and dyslipidemia was greater after RYGB than after LAGB (all p < 0.05). There were no deaths. The anastomotic and staple leakage rate was 1.3%. Conclusion In a publicly funded, population-based bariatric surgery program, RYGB and LSG demonstrated greater weight loss than the LAGB procedure. Bypass resulted in the greatest reduction in obesity-related comorbidities. All procedures were safe. PMID:27240132

  6. The Effect of Cold Work on Properties of Alloy 617

    SciTech Connect

    Richard Wright

    2014-08-01

    Alloy 617 is approved for non-nuclear construction in the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section I and Section VIII, but is not currently qualified for nuclear use in ASME Code Section III. A draft Code Case was submitted in 1992 to qualify the alloy for nuclear service but efforts were stopped before the approval process was completed.1 Renewed interest in high temperature nuclear reactors has resulted in a new effort to qualify Alloy 617 for use in nuclear pressure vessels. The mechanical and physical properties of Alloy 617 were extensively characterized for the VHTR programs in the 1980’s and incorporated into the 1992 draft Code Case. Recently, the properties of modern heats of the alloy that incorporate an additional processing step, electro-slag re-melting, have been characterized both to confirm that the properties of contemporary material are consistent with those in the historical record and to increase the available database. A number of potential issues that were identified as requiring further consideration prior to the withdrawal of the 1992 Code Case are also being re-examined in the current R&D program. Code Cases are again being developed to allow use of Alloy 617 for nuclear design within the rules of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. In general the Code defines two temperature ranges for nuclear design with austenitic and nickel based alloys. Below 427°C (800°F) time dependent behavior is not considered, while above this temperature creep and creep-fatigue are considered to be the dominant life-limiting deformation modes. There is a corresponding differentiation in the treatment of the potential for effects associated with cold work. Below 427°C the principal issue is the relationship between the level of cold work and the propensity for stress corrosion cracking and above that temperature the primary concern is the impact of cold work on creep-rupture behavior.

  7. 26 CFR 1.1333-1 - Tax adjustment measured by prior benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... recovery. See 26 CFR (1939) 29.127(b)-1 (Regulations 111). (b) Elective method; tax adjustment measured by... election under section 1020, relating to the adjustment of basis of property for depreciation,...

  8. 26 CFR 1.1333-1 - Tax adjustment measured by prior benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... recovery. See 26 CFR (1939) 29.127(b)-1 (Regulations 111). (b) Elective method; tax adjustment measured by... election under section 1020, relating to the adjustment of basis of property for depreciation,...

  9. 26 CFR 1.1333-1 - Tax adjustment measured by prior benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... recovery. See 26 CFR (1939) 29.127(b)-1 (Regulations 111). (b) Elective method; tax adjustment measured by... election under section 1020, relating to the adjustment of basis of property for depreciation,...

  10. 26 CFR 1.1333-1 - Tax adjustment measured by prior benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... recovery. See 26 CFR (1939) 29.127(b)-1 (Regulations 111). (b) Elective method; tax adjustment measured by... election under section 1020, relating to the adjustment of basis of property for depreciation,...

  11. 26 CFR 1.1333-1 - Tax adjustment measured by prior benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... election under section 1020, relating to the adjustment of basis of property for depreciation, obsolescence... recovery. See 26 CFR (1939) 29.127(b)-1 (Regulations 111). (b) Elective method; tax adjustment measured...

  12. EFFECTS OF GAMMA RADIATION ON ELECTROCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF IONIC LIQUIDS

    SciTech Connect

    Visser, A; Nicholas Bridges, N; Thad Adams, T; John Mickalonis, J; Mark02 Williamson, M

    2009-04-21

    The electrochemical properties of ionic liquids (ILs) make them attractive for possible replacement of inorganic salts in high temperature molten salt electrochemical processing of nuclear fuel. To be a feasible replacement solvent, ILs need to be stable in moderate and high doses of radiation without adverse chemical and physical effects. Here, we exposed seven different ILs to a 1.2 MGy dose of gamma radiation to investigate their physical and chemical properties as they related to radiological stability. The azolium-based ILs experienced the greatest change in appearance, but these ILs were chemically more stable to gamma radiation than some of the other classes of ILs tested, due to the presence of aromatic electrons in the azolium ring. All the ILs exhibited a decrease in their conductivity and electrochemical window (at least 1.1 V), both of which could affect the utility of ILs in electrochemical processing. The concentration of the irradiation decomposition products was less than 3 mole %, with no impurities detectable using NMR techniques.

  13. The effects of body properties on sand-swimming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharpe, Sarah; Kuckuk, Robyn; Koehler, Stephan; Goldman, Daniel

    2014-03-01

    Numerous animals locomote effectively within sand, yet few studies have investigated how body properties and kinematics contribute to subsurface performance. We compare the movement strategies of two desert dwelling subsurface sand-swimmers exhibiting disparate body forms: the long-slender limbless shovel-nosed snake (C. occipitalis) and the relatively shorter sandfish lizard (S. scincus). Both animals ``swim'' subsurface using a head-to-tail propagating wave of body curvature. We use a previously developed granular resistive force theory to successfully predict locomotion of performance of both animals; the agreement with theory implies that both animal's swim within a self-generated frictional fluid. We use theory to show that the snake's shape (body length to body radius ratio), low friction and undulatory gait are close to optimal for sand-swimming. In contrast, we find that the sandfish's shape and higher friction are farther from optimal and prevent the sandfish from achieving the same performance as the shovel-nosed snake during sand-swimming. However, the sandfish's kinematics allows it to operate at the highest performance possible given its body properties. NSF PoLS

  14. Effects of reflection properties of natural surfaces in aerial reconnaissance.

    PubMed

    Coulson, K L

    1966-06-01

    Measurements of the reflecting and polarizing properties of various soils, sands, and vegetation in the visible-and near-ir spectral regions show that dark surfaces polarize the reflected radiation strongly while highly reflecting surfaces have relatively weak polarizing properties. In general, the reflectance of mineral surfaces increases, and the degree of polarization of the reflected radiation decreases, with increasing wavelength and increasing angle of incidence. There is little or no indication of specular reflection from the surfaces for which measurements were made. Introduction of the reflection data into the equation of radiative transfer for clear and slightly turbid models of the earth's atmosphere shows that the upward radiation that would be incident on a high-altitude aircraft or satellite would be dominated by surface-reflected radiation for the red and near-ir regions over highly reflecting surfaces such as deserts, whereas atmospheric scattering is most important for short wavelengths and dark surfaces. Because of polarization effects, atmospheric transmission of optical contrasts is better in one orthogonal intensity component than the other, the difference being sufficient to merit polarizing optics in reconnaissance instrumentation under certain conditions.

  15. Effect of refractive error on temperament and character properties

    PubMed Central

    Kalkan Akcay, Emine; Canan, Fatih; Simavli, Huseyin; Dal, Derya; Yalniz, Hacer; Ugurlu, Nagihan; Gecici, Omer; Cagil, Nurullah

    2015-01-01

    AIM To determine the effect of refractive error on temperament and character properties using Cloninger's psychobiological model of personality. METHODS Using the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), the temperament and character profiles of 41 participants with refractive errors (17 with myopia, 12 with hyperopia, and 12 with myopic astigmatism) were compared to those of 30 healthy control participants. Here, temperament comprised the traits of novelty seeking, harm-avoidance, and reward dependence, while character comprised traits of self-directedness, cooperativeness, and self-transcendence. RESULTS Participants with refractive error showed significantly lower scores on purposefulness, cooperativeness, empathy, helpfulness, and compassion (P<0.05, P<0.01, P<0.05, P<0.05, and P<0.01, respectively). CONCLUSION Refractive error might have a negative influence on some character traits, and different types of refractive error might have different temperament and character properties. These personality traits may be implicated in the onset and/or perpetuation of refractive errors and may be a productive focus for psychotherapy. PMID:25709911

  16. Effect of thermal modification on rheological properties of polyethylene blends

    SciTech Connect

    Siriprumpoonthum, Monchai; Nobukawa, Shogo; Yamaguchi, Masayuki; Satoh, Yasuo; Sasaki, Hiroko

    2014-03-15

    We examined the effects of thermal modification under flow field on the rheological properties of linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE) with high molecular weight, low-density polyethylene (LDPE), and their blends, without thermal stabilizer. Although structural changes during processing are not detected by size extrusion chromatography or nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, linear viscoelastic properties changed greatly, especially for the LLDPE. A cross-linking reaction took place, leading to, presumably, star-shaped long-chain branches. Consequently, the modified LLDPE, having high zero-shear viscosity, became a thermorheologically complex melt. Moreover, it should be noted that the drawdown force, defined as the uniaxial elongational force at a constant draw ratio, was significantly enhanced for the blends. Enhancement of elongational viscosity was also detected. The drawdown force and elongational viscosity are marked for the thermally modified blend as compared with those for the blend of thermally modified pure components. Intermolecular cross-linking reactions between LDPE and LLDPE, yielding polymers with more than two branch points per chain, result in marked strain-hardening in the elongational viscosity behavior even at small strain. The recovery curve of the oscillatory modulus after the shear modification is further evidence of a branched structure.

  17. Influence of CO2 exposure on pH value, electrochemical properties, and the formation of calcium-phosphate on Ti-6Al-4V under adjusted in vitro conditions in DMEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Höhn, Sarah; Virtanen, Sannakaisa

    2015-06-01

    Immersion tests for studying biomaterials surface reactions should be carried out at a pH value of 7.4 and an adjusted blood physiological electrolyte to simulate as far as possible in vivo conditions. The present work deals with surface reactivity of the biocompatible Ti-6Al-4V alloy in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium (DMEM) and the influence of different immersion conditions on the pH value of solution and thus on the surface charge and calcium-phosphate formation on the oxide covered alloy surface. More specifically, the influence of the temperature (room temperature vs. 37 °C) and atmospheric exposure (solution open-to-air vs. solution exposed to 5% CO2 in air) was investigated. Electrochemical measurements, XPS and ATR-IR studies were carried out for interface characterization. Precipitations of calcium-phosphate (Ca-P) on Ti-6Al-4V in DMEM are formed depending on the atmospheric conditions (presence or absence of CO2). In the absence of CO2 strong coverage of the surface by a Ca-P layer takes place; in solution exposed to 5% CO2, however, only minor amounts of Ca-P are found on the surface. This drastically different behavior can be explained by different surface terminations of OH and TiO2, induced by atmosphere-dependent pH change in solution. In consequence, different surface charges on Ti-6Al-4V can be formed at the interface depending on the type of hydroxides after contact with the electrolyte. Hence, the surface charge influences the interaction with adsorption of charged species and further modifies the oxide properties. The adsorption of the charged cations (Ca2 +) and anions (PO43 -, HPO42 -, H2PO4 -) leads to the formation of additional calcium phosphate layers. The pH of the solution is also important. At higher pH the titanium surface is more negatively charged leading to an increased electrostatic interaction with Ca2 + and reduced solubility of the calcium phosphates. Additional experiments indicate that the CO2 content in the atmosphere is

  18. A review on in situ stiffness adjustment methods in MEMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Laat, M. L. C.; Pérez Garza, H. H.; Herder, J. L.; Ghatkesar, M. K.

    2016-06-01

    In situ stiffness adjustment in microelectromechanical systems is used in a variety of applications such as radio-frequency mechanical filters, energy harvesters, atomic force microscopy, vibration detection sensors. In this review we provide designers with an overview of existing stiffness adjustment methods, their working principle, and possible adjustment range. The concepts are categorized according to their physical working principle. It is concluded that the electrostatic adjustment principle is the most applied method, and narrow to wide ranges in stiffness can be achieved. But in order to obtain a wide range in stiffness change, large, complex devices were designed. Mechanical stiffness adjustment is found to be a space-effective way of obtaining wide changes in stiffness, but these methods are often discrete and require large tuning voltages. Stiffness adjustment through stressing effects or change in Young’s modulus was used only for narrow ranges. The change in second moment of inertia was used for stiffness adjustment in the intermediate range.

  19. Delay Adjusted Incidence Infographic

    Cancer.gov

    This Infographic shows the National Cancer Institute SEER Incidence Trends. The graphs show the Average Annual Percent Change (AAPC) 2002-2011. For Men, Thyroid: 5.3*,Liver & IBD: 3.6*, Melanoma: 2.3*, Kidney: 2.0*, Myeloma: 1.9*, Pancreas: 1.2*, Leukemia: 0.9*, Oral Cavity: 0.5, Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma: 0.3*, Esophagus: -0.1, Brain & ONS: -0.2*, Bladder: -0.6*, All Sites: -1.1*, Stomach: -1.7*, Larynx: -1.9*, Prostate: -2.1*, Lung & Bronchus: -2.4*, and Colon & Rectum: -3/0*. For Women, Thyroid: 5.8*, Liver & IBD: 2.9*, Myeloma: 1.8*, Kidney: 1.6*, Melanoma: 1.5, Corpus & Uterus: 1.3*, Pancreas: 1.1*, Leukemia: 0.6*, Brain & ONS: 0, Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma: -0.1, All Sites: -0.1, Breast: -0.3, Stomach: -0.7*, Oral Cavity: -0.7*, Bladder: -0.9*, Ovary: -0.9*, Lung & Bronchus: -1.0*, Cervix: -2.4*, and Colon & Rectum: -2.7*. * AAPC is significantly different from zero (p<.05). Rates were adjusted for reporting delay in the registry. www.cancer.gov Source: Special section of the Annual Report to the Nation on the Status of Cancer, 1975-2011.

  20. Effect of BPSH post treatment on DMFC performance and properties

    SciTech Connect

    Kickner, M.; Yuseung, K.; McGrath, James E.; Zelenay, P.; Pivovar, B. S.

    2002-01-01

    Direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) are being investigated for applications ranging from milliwatt (cell phones) to kilowatt (MUS) size scales. A common pitfall for DMFCs has been the inability of the electrolyte, typically Nafion, to act as an effective methanol barrier. Methanol crossover adversely affects the cell by lowering the cell voltage due to a mixed potential at the cathode and lower fuel utilization. Improved DMFC performance was demonstrated with sulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone) copolymer membranes (1). Another study has shown the dependence of polymer properties and morphology on the post treatment of such membranes (2). In agreement with measurements on free-standing films, the fuel cell characteristics of these membranes have been found to have a strong dependence on acidification treatment. Methanol permeability, proton conductivity, and electro-osmotic drag coefficient all were found to increase when the membranes were acidified under boiling conditions versus a low-temperature process.