Science.gov

Sample records for adjustable pin tool

  1. FSW of Tapered Thickness Welds using an Adjustable Pin Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Glynn; Venable, Richard; Lawless, Kirby; Smelser, Jerry (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes the advantages of tapered thickness welds in FSW (friction stir welding), the structure of FSW welds, the adjustable pin tool used in FSW. Other topics described include compliance and temperature measurement in a FSW system, loads and torque upon the pin tool and its ability to penetrate different metals, and the results and metallurgy of FSW welds.

  2. Auto-adjustable pin tool for friction stir welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ding, R. Jeffrey (Inventor); Oelgoetz, Peter A. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    An auto-adjusting pin tool for friction stir welding is presented wherein the pin tool automatically adjusts for welding materials of varying thicknesses, and the pin can be incrementally withdrawn from the workpieces thus eliminating any crater or keyhole in the weld. The inventive apparatus is comprised of a welding head housing a motor connected to a controller instrument package and an arbor supported by bearings. The arbor forms an interior cylinder and is encircled by a stationary slip ring though which are ported hydraulic passageways into the interior cylinder of the arbor such that a piston housed therein may be moved axially. Coupled to the piston is a pin tool which is treaded on its lower end and which is moveably seated in, and extending through, a shoulder housing having concave lower face. When welding, the rotating treaded end of the pin enters and stirs the workpieces while the lower face of the shoulder housing compacts the workpieces. As the welding head traverses the shoulder housing the controller senses any rising pressure on the lower face of the shoulder housing and withdraws the arbor to keep the pressure constant. At the same time, the piston moves towards the workpieces thus extending the pin further from the shoulder. This keeps the pin at a proper depth in the workpieces regardless of their thicknesses. As the weld terminates this same operation can be used to incrementally withdraw the pin during the final part of the traverse, thus eliminating any keyhole or crater that would otherwise be created.

  3. Friction Stir Welding of Tapered Thickness Welds Using an Adjustable Pin Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Glynn; Venable, Richard; Lawless, Kirby

    2003-01-01

    Friction stir welding (FSW) can be used for joining weld lands that vary in thickness along the length of the weld. An adjustable pin tool mechanism can be used to accomplish this in a single-pass, full-penetration weld by providing for precise changes in the pin length relative to the shoulder face during the weld process. The difficulty with this approach is in accurately adjusting the pin length to provide a consistent penetration ligament throughout the weld. The weld technique, control system, and instrumentation must account for mechanical and thermal compliances of the tooling system to conduct tapered welds successfully. In this study, a combination of static and in-situ measurements, as well as active control, is used to locate the pin accurately and maintain the desired penetration ligament. Frictional forces at the pin/shoulder interface were a source of error that affected accurate pin position. A traditional FSW pin tool design that requires a lead angle was used to join butt weld configurations that included both constant thickness and tapered sections. The pitch axis of the tooling was fixed throughout the weld; therefore, the effective lead angle in the tapered sections was restricted to within the tolerances allowed by the pin tool design. The sensitivity of the FSW process to factors such as thickness offset, joint gap, centerline offset, and taper transition offset were also studied. The joint gap and the thickness offset demonstrated the most adverse affects on the weld quality. Two separate tooling configurations were used to conduct tapered thickness welds successfully. The weld configurations included sections in which the thickness decreased along the weld, as well as sections in which the thickness increased along the weld. The data presented here include weld metallography, strength data, and process load data.

  4. Alignment tool facilitates pin placement on irregular horizontal surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyle, J. V.

    1966-01-01

    Alignment tool facilitates spotting and cementing plastic pins on the true vertical to irregular concave and convex surfaces. The tool consists of a wood tripod with individually adjustable legs, a wood block with a hole for placing the pins and two spirit levels at a 90 degree angle for easy alignment.

  5. Tool Blunts Cotter Pin Legs for Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stein, J. A.; Helble, D. R.

    1982-01-01

    Jaws on new insertion tool contain upset point and anvil. Point forces cotter-pin legs into loop as it engages anvil. Cotter pin before insertion consists of loop and straight shaft composed of two legs welded together as tips. After insertion, welded legs have been shaped into loop. Tool used to prevent bent loose ends of cotter pins from scratching workers' fingers or cutting and entangling wires.

  6. Retractable Pin Tools for the Friction Stir Welding Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Two companies have successfully commercialized a specialized welding tool developed at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). Friction stir welding uses the high rotational speed of a tool and the resulting frictional heat created from contact to crush, 'stir' together, and forge a bond between two metal alloys. It has had a major drawback, reliance on a single-piece pin tool. The pin is slowly plunged into the joint between two materials to be welded and rotated as high speed. At the end of the weld, the single-piece pin tool is retracted and leaves a 'keyhole,' something which is unacceptable when welding cylindrical objects such as drums, pipes and storage tanks. Another drawback is the requirement for different-length pin tools when welding materials of varying thickness. An engineer at the MSFC helped design an automatic retractable pin tool that uses a computer-controlled motor to automatically retract the pin into the shoulder of the tool at the end of the weld, preventing keyholes. This design allows the pin angle and length to be adjusted for changes in material thickness and results in a smooth hole closure at the end of the weld. Benefits of friction stir welding, using the MSFC retractable pin tool technology, include the following: The ability to weld a wide range of alloys, including previously unweldable and composite materials; provision of twice the fatigue resistance of fusion welds and no keyholes; minimization of material distortion; no creation of hazards such as welding fumes, radiation, high voltage, liquid metals, or arcing; automatic retraction of the pin at the end of the weld; and maintaining full penetration of the pin.

  7. 20. LOCK GATES, 3 FOOT WALKWAY, ADJUSTMENT AT GUDGEON PIN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. LOCK GATES, 3 FOOT WALKWAY, ADJUSTMENT AT GUDGEON PIN AND QUOIN SHOE. May 1933 - Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel Project, Lock & Dam No. 17, Upper Mississippi River, New Boston, Mercer County, IL

  8. Pin Load Control Applied to Retractable Pin Tool Technology and its Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oelgoetz, Peter

    2000-01-01

    Until the development of retractable pin tool (RPT) technology, friction stir welding (FSW) was limited to constant thickness joining of aluminum materials and the choices of keyhole elimination focused on traditional fusion and plug weld repair techniques. An invention, US Patent Number 5,893.507, "Auto-Adjustable Pin Tool for Friction Stir Welding" assigned to NASA, demonstrated an approach to resolve these serious drawbacks. This approach brings forth a technique that allows the crater, or keyhole, to be closed out automatically at the end of the weld joint without adding any additional equipment or material. Also the probe length can be varied automatically in the weld joint to compensate for material thickness changes, such as, in a tapered joint. This paper reports the effects of pin extension and retraction rates in the weld joint and its correlation to weld quality. The investigation utilized a pin load-detecting device that was integrated in the Phase 2A RPT designed by Boeing for NASA/MSFC. The RPT modification provided pin load data that was accessed and used to eliminate root side indications and determine pin manipulation rates necessary to produce consistence homogeneous joints.

  9. Pin Load Control Applied to Retractable Pin Tool Technology and Its Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olegoetz, P.

    1999-01-01

    Until the development of retractable pin tool (RPT) technology, friction stir welding (FSW) was limited to constant thickness joining of aluminum materials and the choices of keyhole elimination focused on traditional fusion and plug weld repair techniques. An invention, US Patent Number 5,893,507, "Auto-Adjustable Pin Tool for Friction Stir Welding" assigned to NASA, demonstrated an approach to resolve these serious drawbacks. This approach brings forth a technique that allows the crater, or keyhole, to be closed out automatically at the end of the weld joint without adding any additional equipment or material. Also the probe length can be varied automatically in the weld joint to compensate for material thickness changes, such as, in a tapered joint. This paper reports the effects of pin extension and retraction rates in the weld joint and its correlation to weld quality. The investigation utilized a pin load-detecting device that was integrated in the Phase IIA RPT designed by Boeing for NASA/MSFC. The RPT modification provided pin load data that was accessed and used to eliminate root side indications and determine pin manipulation rates necessary to produce consistence homogeneous joints.

  10. Pin Load Control Applied to Retractable Pin Tool Technology and its Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oelgoetz, Peter A.

    2000-01-01

    Until the development of retractable pin tool (RPT) technology, friction stir welding (FSW) was limited to constant thickness joining of aluminum materials and the choices of keyhole elimination focused on traditional fusion and plug weld repair techniques. An invention, US Patent Number 5,893,507, "Auto-Adjustable Pin Tool for Friction Stir Welding" assigned to NASA, demonstrated an approach to resolve these serious drawbacks. This approach brings forth a technique that allows the crater, or keyhole, to be closed out automatically at the end of the weld joint without adding any additional equipment or material. Also the probe length can be varied automatically in the weld joint to compensate for material thickness changes, such as, in a tapered joint. This paper reports the effects of pin extension and retraction rates in the weld joint and its correlation to weld quality. The investigation utilized a pin load-detecting device that was integrated in the Phase 2A RPT designed by Boeing for NASA/MSFC. The RPT modification provided pin load data that was accessed and used to eliminate root side indications and determine pin manipulation rates necessary to produce consistence homogeneous joints.

  11. Mechanical Property Analysis in the Retracted Pin-Tool (RPT) Region of Friction Stir Welded (FSW) Aluminum Lithium 2195

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ding, R. Jeffrey; Oelgoetz, Peter A.

    1999-01-01

    The "Auto-Adjustable Pin Tool for Friction Stir Welding", was developed at The Marshall Space Flight Center to address process deficiencies unique to the FSW process. The auto-adjustable pin tool, also called the retractable pin-tool (R.PT) automatically withdraws the welding probe of the pin-tool into the pin-tool's shoulder. The primary function of the auto-adjustable pin-tool is to allow for keyhole closeout, necessary for circumferential welding and localized weld repair, and, automated pin-length adjustment for the welding of tapered material thickness. An overview of the RPT hardware is presented. The paper follows with studies conducted using the RPT. The RPT was used to simulate two capabilities; welding tapered material thickness and closing out the keyhole in a circumferential weld. The retracted pin-tool regions in aluminum- lithium 2195 friction stir weldments were studied through mechanical property testing and metallurgical sectioning. Correlation's can be =de between retractable pin-tool programmed parameters, process parameters, microstructure, and resulting weld quality.

  12. Pin Tool Geometry Effects in Friction Stir Welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Querin, J. A.; Rubisoff, H. A.; Schneider, J. A.

    2009-01-01

    In friction stir welding (FSW) there is significant evidence that material can take one of two different flow paths when being displaced from its original position in front of the pin tool to its final position in the wake of the weld. The geometry of the pin tool, along with the process parameters, plays an important role in dictating the path that the material takes. Each flow path will impart a different thermomechanical history on the material, consequently altering the material microstructure and subsequent weld properties. The intention of this research is to isolate the effect that different pin tool attributes have on the flow paths imparted on the FSWed material. Based on published weld tool geometries, a variety of weld tools were fabricated and used to join AA2219. Results from the tensile properties and microstructural characterization will be presented.

  13. Investigating the Effects of Pin Tool Design on Friction Stir Welded Ti-6Al-4V

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubisoff, H. A.; Querin, J. A.; Schneider, Judy A.; Magee, D.

    2009-01-01

    Friction stir welding (FSWing), a solid state joining technique, uses a non-consumable rotating pin tool to thermomechanically join materials. Heating of the weldment caused by friction and deformation is a function of the interaction between the pin tool and the work piece. Therefore, the geometry of the pin tool is in part responsible for the resulting microstructure and mechanical properties. In this study microwave sintered tungsten carbide (WC) pin tools with tapers and flats were used to FSW Ti-6Al-4V. Transverse sections of welds were mechanically tested, and the microstructure was characterized using optical microscopy (OM) and scanning election microscopy (SEM). X-ray diffraction (XRD) and electron back-scatter diffraction (EBSD) were used to characterize the texture within the welds produced from the different pin tool designs.

  14. Effect of Pin Tool Shape on Metal Flow During Friction Stir Welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McClure, J. C.; Coronado, E.; Aloor, S.; Nowak, B.; Murr, L. M.; Nunes, Arthur C., Jr.; Munafo, Paul M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    It has been shown that metal moves behind the rotating Friction Stir Pin Tool in two separate currents or streams. One current, mostly on the advancing side, enters a zone of material that rotates with the pin tool for one or more revolutions and eventually is abandoned behind the pin tool in crescent-shaped pieces. The other current, largely on the retreating side of the pin tool is moved by a wiping process to the back of the pin tool and fills in between the pieces of the rotational zone that have been shed by the rotational zone. This process was studied by using a faying surface copper trace to clarify the metal flow. Welds were made with pin tools having various thread pitches. Decreasing the thread pitch causes the large scale top-to-bottorn flow to break up into multiple vortices along the pin and an unthreaded pin tool provides insufficient vertical motion for there to be a stable rotational zone and flow of material via the rotational zone is not possible leading to porosity on the advancing side of the weld.

  15. VALVE FUNNEL SPRING PIN PRESS PERFORMANCE AND FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENTS EVALUATION FOR SPECIAL TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT

    SciTech Connect

    WITHERSPOON JT

    2009-12-30

    This evaluation allows use of the valve funnel spring pin press and describes appropriate handling instructions for the tool. The engineering evaluation is required for operations and field use of special tools and equipment.

  16. Structure-Property Correlation of AA2014 Friction Stir Welds: Role of Tool Pin Profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramanjaneyulu, K.; Madhusudhan Reddy, G.; Venugopal Rao, A.; Markandeya, R.

    2013-08-01

    The influence of rapid plastic deformation in the generation of welding heat during friction stir welding (FSW), supplementing the frictional heat generation by the tool shoulder, forms the thrust of the present investigation. Several researchers have highlighted the role of tool shoulder in the generation of frictional heat and suggested that the tool-material interface friction as the sole mechanism for heating. The configuration of tool pin profile is seldom studied for its contribution to welding heat through rapid plastic deformation at high strain rates (103/s), especially while welding thick plates. An attempt has been made to understand the dependence of deformation heat generation with different tool pin profiles in welding 5 mm thick AA2014-T6 aluminum alloy, maintaining the same swept volume during the tool rotation. An attempt has also been made to correlate the influence of process response variables such as force and torque acting on the tool pin. To quantify the physical influence of tool pin profile, temperature measurements were made in the region adjacent to the rotating pin, close to nugget in the thermo-mechanically affected zone (TMAZ). It has been observed that the temperature rises at a relatively rapid rate in the case of hexagonal tool pin compared to the welds produced employing other tool pin profiles. It is observed that during FSW, extensive deformation experienced at the nugget zone and the evolved microstructure strongly influences the mechanical properties of the joint. The present study is also aimed at understanding the influence of tool profile on the microstructural changes and the associated mechanical properties. Transverse tensile samples failed at the nugget/TMAZ boundary due to localized softening. Hexagonal tool pin profile welds have shown higher tensile strength, low TMAZ width, and high nugget hardness compared to other tool pin profile welds.

  17. Tool for removing split pin remnants from a nuclear reactor vessel

    SciTech Connect

    Havoic-Conroy, S.M.

    1986-05-27

    A tool is described for removing from anchor bores in the upper core plate of a nuclear reactor vessel, anchor pin remnants which may be broken from guide tube assemblies upon withdrawal thereof from large seating apertures adjacent to the anchor bores in the upper core plate, the tool comprising: support means dimensioned to fit through a seating aperture, a pin driving member carried by the support means, means for lowering the support means through a seating aperture to a use position beneath the upper core plate with the pin driving member in registry with an adjacent anchor bore, and motive means for moving the pin driving member upwardly into the anchor bore to drive the anchor pin remnant therefrom.

  18. Closed-Loop Control System for Friction Stir Welding Retractable Pin Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ding, R. Jeffrey; Romine, Peter L.; Munafo, Paul M. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    NASA invention disclosure, NASA Case No. MFS-31413, entitled "System for Controlling the Stirring Pin of a Friction Stir Welding Apparatus", (Patent Pending) authored by Jeff Ding, Dr Peter Romine and Pete Oelgoetz, addresses the precision control of the friction stir welding process. The closed-loop control system automatically adjusts the spinning welding pin, real-time, to maintain a precise penetration ligament (i.e., distance between pin-tip and weld panel backside surface). A specific pin length can be maintained while welding constant thickness or tapered material thickness weld panels. The closed-loop control system provides operator data and information relative to the exact position of the welding pin inside the weld joint. This paper presents the closed-loop RPT control system that operates using the auto-feedback of force signals sensed by the tip and shoulder of the welding pin. Significance: The FSW process can be successfully used in a production environment only if there is a method or technique that informs the FSW operator the precise location of the welding pin inside the weld joint. This is essential for applications in aerospace, automotive, pressure vessel, commercial aircraft and other industries.

  19. Abrasive Wear Resistance of Tool Steels Evaluated by the Pin-on-Disc Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bressan, José Divo; Schopf, Roberto Alexandre

    2011-05-01

    Present work examines tool steels abrasion wear resistance and the abrasion mechanisms which are one main contributor to failure of tooling in metal forming industry. Tooling used in cutting and metal forming processes without lubrication fails due to this type of wear. In the workshop and engineering practice, it is common to relate wear resistance as function of material hardness only. However, there are others parameters which influences wear such as: fracture toughness, type of crystalline structure and the occurrence of hard precipitate in the metallic matrix and also its nature. In the present investigation, the wear mechanisms acting in tool steels were analyzed and, by normalized tests, wear resistance performance of nine different types of tool steels were evaluated by pin-on-disc testing. Conventional tool steels commonly used in tooling such as AISI H13 and AISI A2 were compared in relation to tool steels fabricated by sintering process such as Crucible CPM 3V, CPM 9V and M4 steels. Friction and wear testing were carried out in a pin-on-disc automated equipment which pin was tool steel and the counter-face was a abrasive disc of silicon carbide. Normal load of 5 N, sliding velocity of 0.45 m/s, total sliding distance of 3000 m and room temperature were employed. The wear rate was calculated by the Archard's equation and from the plotted graphs of pin cumulated volume loss versus sliding distance. Specimens were appropriately heat treated by quenching and three tempering cycles. Percentage of alloying elements, metallographic analyses of microstructure and Vickers microhardness of specimens were performed, analyzed and correlated with wear rate. The work is concluded by the presentation of a rank of tool steel wear rate, comparing the different tool steel abrasion wear resistance: the best tool steel wear resistance evaluated was the Crucible CPM 9V steel.

  20. The Plastic Flow Field in the Vicinity of the Pin-Tool During Friction Stir Welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernstein, E. L.; Nunes, A. C., Jr.

    2000-01-01

    The plastic flow field in the vicinity of the pin-tool during Friction Stir Welding (FSW) needs to be understood if a theoretical understanding of the process is to be attained. The structure of welds does not exhibit the flow field itself, but consists in a residue of displacements left by the plastic flow field. The residue requires analysis to extract from it the instantaneous flow field around the pin-tool. A simplified merry-go-round model makes sense of some tracer experiments reported in the literature. A quantitative comparison is made of the displacements of copper wire markers with displacements computed from a hypothetical plastic flow field. The hypothetical plastic flow field consists in a circular rotation field about a translating pin tool with angular velocity varying with radius from the pin centerline. A sharply localized rotational field comprising slip on a surface around the tool agreed better with observations than a distributed slip field occupying a substantial volume around the tool. Both the tracer and the wire displacements support the "rotating plug" model, originally invoked or thermal reasons, of the FSW process.

  1. Storm Water Management Model Climate Adjustment Tool (SWMM-CAT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US EPA’s newest tool, the Stormwater Management Model (SWMM) – Climate Adjustment Tool (CAT) is meant to help municipal stormwater utilities better address potential climate change impacts affecting their operations. SWMM, first released in 1971, models hydrology and hydrauli...

  2. Flow in the Proximity of the Pin-Tool in Friction Stir Welding and Its Relation to Weld Homogeneity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nunes, Arthur C., Jr.

    2000-01-01

    In the Friction Stir Welding (FSW) process a rotating pin inserted into a seam literally stirs the metal from each side of the seam together. It is proposed that the flow in the vicinity of the pin-tool comprises a primary rapid shear over a cylindrical envelope covering the pin-tool and a relatively slow secondary flow taking the form of a ring vortex about the tool circumference. This model is consistent with a plastic characterization of metal flow, where discontinuities in shear flow are allowed but not viscous effects. It is consistent with experiments employing several different kinds of tracer: atomic markers, shot, and wire. If a rotating disc with angular velocity w is superposed on a translating continuum with linear velocity omega, the trajectories of tracer points become circular arcs centered upon a point displaced laterally a distance v/omega from the center of rotation of the disc in the direction of the advancing side of the disc. In the present model a stream of metal approaching the tool (taken as the coordinate system of observation) is sheared at the slip surface, rapidly rotated around the tool, sheared again on the opposite side of the tool, and deposited in the wake of the tool. Local shearing rates are high, comparable to metal cutting in this model. The flow patterns in the vicinity of the pin-tool determine the level of homogenization and dispersal of contaminants that occurs in the FSW process. The approaching metal streams enfold one another as they are rotated around the tool. Neglecting mixing they return to the same lateral position in the wake of the tool preserving lateral tracer positions as if the metal had flowed past the tool like an extrusion instead of being rotated around it. (The seam is, however, obliterated.) The metal stream of thickness approximately that of the tool diameter D is wiped past the tool at elevated temperatures drawn out to a thickness of v/2(omega) in the wiping zone. Mixing distances in the wiping zone

  3. Effect of tool pin features on process response variables during friction stir welding of dissimilar aluminum alloys

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Rabby, Reza; Tang, Wei; Reynolds, A. P.

    2015-05-13

    In this article, the effect of pin features and orientation/placement of the materials on advancing side were investigated for friction stir welding (FSW) of dissimilar aluminum alloys AA2050 and AA6061. Pins for FSW were produced with a 2.12 mm pitch thread having three flats/flutes. Three sets of rotational speed/welding speed were used to perform a series of welds in a butt joint arrangement. The results show that, joint quality, process response variables and welding temperature are highly affected by pin features and material orientation in FSW. Defect free joints with effective material transportation in the weld nugget zone were obtainedmore » when welding was performed with AA2050 on the advancing side. The tool also encounters less in-plane reaction force for welding with 2050 on the advancing side. Pin with thread+3 flats produces quality welds at low rotational and travel speed regardless of the location of alloys on advancing or retreating side.« less

  4. Effect of tool pin features on process response variables during friction stir welding of dissimilar aluminum alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Rabby, Reza; Tang, Wei; Reynolds, A. P.

    2015-05-13

    In this article, the effect of pin features and orientation/placement of the materials on advancing side were investigated for friction stir welding (FSW) of dissimilar aluminum alloys AA2050 and AA6061. Pins for FSW were produced with a 2.12 mm pitch thread having three flats/flutes. Three sets of rotational speed/welding speed were used to perform a series of welds in a butt joint arrangement. The results show that, joint quality, process response variables and welding temperature are highly affected by pin features and material orientation in FSW. Defect free joints with effective material transportation in the weld nugget zone were obtained when welding was performed with AA2050 on the advancing side. The tool also encounters less in-plane reaction force for welding with 2050 on the advancing side. Pin with thread+3 flats produces quality welds at low rotational and travel speed regardless of the location of alloys on advancing or retreating side.

  5. Effect of tool pin features on process response variables during friction stir welding of dissimilar aluminum alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Rabby, Reza; Tang, Wei; Reynolds, A. P.

    2015-07-01

    In this article, the effect of pin features and orientation/placement of the materials on advancing side were investigated for friction stir welding (FSW) of dissimilar aluminum alloys AA2050 and AA6061. Pins for FSW were produced with a 2.12 mm pitch thread having three flats/flutes. Three sets of rotational speed/welding speed were used to perform a series of welds in a butt joint arrangement. The results show that, joint quality, process response variables and welding temperature are highly affected by pin features and material orientation in FSW. Defect free joints with effective material transportation in the weld nugget zone were obtained when welding was performed with AA2050 on the advancing side. The tool also encounters less in-plane reaction force for welding with 2050 on the advancing side. Pin with thread+3 flats produces quality welds at low rotational and travel speed regardless of the location of alloys on advancing or retreating side.

  6. A New Climate Adjustment Tool: An update to EPA’s Storm Water Management Model

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US EPA’s newest tool, the Stormwater Management Model (SWMM) – Climate Adjustment Tool (CAT) is meant to help municipal stormwater utilities better address potential climate change impacts affecting their operations.

  7. Manual adjustable probe tool for friction stir welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oelgoetz, Peter A. (Inventor); Ding, Jeff (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A friction stir welding tool is provided generally comprising three parts: a rotatable welding tool body (22) that has an outer threaded surface (32) and a probe (24) extending from a distal end of the body, a shoulder (26), which has a threaded inner surface (40) and a bore (36) at a distal end of the shoulder, and a jam nut (28), which has a threaded inner surface (42). The shoulder is threaded onto the tool body such that the probe extends from the shoulder through the bore by a preferred length. The jam nut is then threaded onto the tool body to secure the shoulder. The tool is operatively connected to a drive motor for rotating the tool body. The shoulder may include a knife edge projecting from the distal end (38) thereof adjacent the bore. The knife edge inhibits the weld material from migrating along the probe to intrude inside the shoulder, where it may prevent separation of the tool body and the shoulder when readjustment of the tool is necessary.

  8. Increase of Acting Pressure by Adjusted Tool Geometry in Laser Shock Forming

    SciTech Connect

    Wielage, Hanna; Vollertsen, Frank

    2011-01-17

    In laser shock forming TEA-CO2{sub 2}-laser induced shock waves are used to form metal foils, such as aluminum or copper. The process utilizes an initiated plasma shock wave on the target surface, which leads to a forming of the foil. Several pulses can be applied at one point in order to achieve a high forming degree without increasing the energy density beyond the ablation limit. During the process, pressure peaks in the range of several MPa can be achieved. In this article, it will be demonstrated that the acting shock wave pressure can be increased and the forming behavior can be modified by an adjustment of tool geometry, which limits the non-directional propagation of the shock wave. Shock wave pressure measurements as well as forming results with different tool geometries show that the acting pressure, and therefore the forming behavior, can be modified by an adjustment of the tool.

  9. Precision tool holder with flexure-adjustable, three degrees of freedom for a four-axis lathe

    DOEpatents

    Bono, Matthew J.; Hibbard, Robin L.

    2008-03-04

    A precision tool holder for precisely positioning a single point cutting tool on 4-axis lathe, such that the center of the radius of the tool nose is aligned with the B-axis of the machine tool, so as to facilitate the machining of precision meso-scale components with complex three-dimensional shapes with sub-.mu.m accuracy on a four-axis lathe. The device is designed to fit on a commercial diamond turning machine and can adjust the cutting tool position in three orthogonal directions with sub-micrometer resolution. In particular, the tool holder adjusts the tool position using three flexure-based mechanisms, with two flexure mechanisms adjusting the lateral position of the tool to align the tool with the B-axis, and a third flexure mechanism adjusting the height of the tool. Preferably, the flexures are driven by manual micrometer adjusters. In this manner, this tool holder simplifies the process of setting a tool with sub-.mu.m accuracy, to substantially reduce the time required to set the tool.

  10. Adjustable-Viewing-Angle Endoscopic Tool for Skull Base and Brain Surgery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bae, Youngsam; Liao, Anna; Manohara, Harish; Shahinian, Hrayr

    2008-01-01

    The term Multi-Angle and Rear Viewing Endoscopic tooL (MARVEL) denotes an auxiliary endoscope, now undergoing development, that a surgeon would use in conjunction with a conventional endoscope to obtain additional perspective. The role of the MARVEL in endoscopic brain surgery would be similar to the role of a mouth mirror in dentistry. Such a tool is potentially useful for in-situ planetary geology applications for the close-up imaging of unexposed rock surfaces in cracks or those not in the direct line of sight. A conventional endoscope provides mostly a frontal view that is, a view along its longitudinal axis and, hence, along a straight line extending from an opening through which it is inserted. The MARVEL could be inserted through the same opening as that of the conventional endoscope, but could be adjusted to provide a view from almost any desired angle. The MARVEL camera image would be displayed, on the same monitor as that of the conventional endoscopic image, as an inset within the conventional endoscopic image. For example, while viewing a tumor from the front in the conventional endoscopic image, the surgeon could simultaneously view the tumor from the side or the rear in the MARVEL image, and could thereby gain additional visual cues that would aid in precise three-dimensional positioning of surgical tools to excise the tumor. Indeed, a side or rear view through the MARVEL could be essential in a case in which the object of surgical interest was not visible from the front. The conceptual design of the MARVEL exploits the surgeon s familiarity with endoscopic surgical tools. The MARVEL would include a miniature electronic camera and miniature radio transmitter mounted on the tip of a surgical tool derived from an endo-scissor (see figure). The inclusion of the radio transmitter would eliminate the need for wires, which could interfere with manipulation of this and other surgical tools. The handgrip of the tool would be connected to a linkage similar to

  11. Development and Validation of a Risk-Adjustment Tool in Acute Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Chu-Lin; Clark, Sunday; Sullivan, Ashley F; Camargo, Carlos A

    2009-01-01

    Objective To develop and prospectively validate a risk-adjustment tool in acute asthma. Data Sources Data were obtained from two large studies on acute asthma, the Multicenter Airway Research Collaboration (MARC) and the National Emergency Department Safety Study (NEDSS) cohorts. Both studies involved >60 emergency departments (EDs) and were performed during 1996–2001 and 2003–2006, respectively. Both included patients aged 18–54 years presenting to the ED with acute asthma. Study Design Retrospective cohort studies. Data Collection Clinical information was obtained from medical record review. The risk index was derived in the MARC cohort and then was prospectively validated in the NEDSS cohort. Principle Findings There were 3,515 patients in the derivation cohort and 3,986 in the validation cohort. The risk index included nine variables (age, sex, current smoker, ever admitted for asthma, ever intubated for asthma, duration of symptoms, respiratory rate, peak expiratory flow, and number of beta-agonist treatments) and showed satisfactory discrimination (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, 0.75) and calibration (p=.30 for Hosmer–Lemeshow test) when applied to the validation cohort. Conclusions We developed and validated a novel risk-adjustment tool in acute asthma. This tool can be used for health care provider profiling to identify outliers for quality improvement purposes. PMID:19619246

  12. Replacement of split-pin assemblies in nuclear reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Nee, J.D.; Green, R.A.

    1989-12-12

    This patent describes a pin-insertion/torque tool for the replacement of old split-pin assemblies. Each of the new split-pin assemblies including a new split-pin having times and a new nut for securing the new split pin in the guide tube, a new nut being inserted in the guide tube in position to receive a split pin. The the pin-insertion/torque tool including a blade means for engaging a new split pin with the blade with the tines of the new split pins straddling the blade, means, connected to the blade, for advancing the split-pin into the guide tube into threading engagement with the new nut positioned to receive a new split pin and means, to be connected to the nut for securing the new nut onto the new split pin while the split pin is engaged by the blade.

  13. Pin care

    MedlinePlus

    There are different types of pin-cleaning solutions. The two most common solutions are: Sterile water A mixture of half normal saline and half hydrogen peroxide Use the solution that your surgeon recommends. Supplies you will need to ...

  14. Fuel pin

    DOEpatents

    Christiansen, D.W.; Karnesky, R.A.; Leggett, R.D.; Baker, R.B.

    1987-11-24

    A fuel pin for a liquid metal nuclear reactor is provided. The fuel pin includes a generally cylindrical cladding member with metallic fuel material disposed therein. At least a portion of the fuel material extends radially outwardly to the inner diameter of the cladding member to promote efficient transfer of heat to the reactor coolant system. The fuel material defines at least one void space therein to facilitate swelling of the fuel material during fission.

  15. Wild capuchin monkeys adjust stone tools according to changing nut properties.

    PubMed

    Luncz, Lydia V; Falótico, Tiago; Pascual-Garrido, Alejandra; Corat, Clara; Mosley, Hannah; Haslam, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Animals foraging in their natural environments need to be proficient at recognizing and responding to changes in food targets that affect accessibility or pose a risk. Wild bearded capuchin monkeys (Sapajus libidinosus) use stone tools to access a variety of nut species, including otherwise inaccessible foods. This study tests whether wild capuchins from Serra da Capivara National Park in Brazil adjust their tool selection when processing cashew (Anacardium spp.) nuts. During the ripening process of cashew nuts, the amount of caustic defensive substance in the nut mesocarp decreases. We conducted field experiments to test whether capuchins adapt their stone hammer selection to changing properties of the target nut, using stones of different weights and two maturation stages of cashew nuts. The results show that although fresh nuts are easier to crack, capuchin monkeys used larger stone tools to open them, which may help the monkeys avoid contact with the caustic hazard in fresh nuts. We demonstrate that capuchin monkeys are actively able to distinguish between the maturation stages within one nut species, and to adapt their foraging behaviour accordingly. PMID:27624672

  16. Dowel pin

    DOEpatents

    Wojcik, Thaddeus A.

    1978-01-01

    Two abutting members are locked together by reaming a hole entirely through one member and at least partly through the other, machining a circular groove in each through hole just below the surface of the member, press fitting a dowel pin having a thin wall extension on at least one end thereof into the hole in both members, a thin wall extension extending into each through hole, crimping or snapping the thin wall extension into the grooves to positively lock the dowel pin in place and, if necessary, tack welding the end of the thin-wall extension in place.

  17. Auto-Adjustable Tool for Self-Reacting and Conventional Friction Stir Welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Robert W. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A friction stir welding dcvice that is configured to perform convention friction stir welding as well as self-reacting friction stir welding is described. A pin passes hrough an upper shoulder and can selectively attach 10 and detach from a lower shoulder in a preferred embodiment. A controller maintains thc discrete position of, and/or force applied by, the upper and lower shoulders during self-reacting friction stir welding, or maintains the pin at a desired depth and/or applied force during conventional friction stir welding.

  18. Locking Pull Pin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Killgrove, T. O.

    1986-01-01

    Proposed self-locking pull pin not accidentally released by shock or vibration but intentionally released by pull on lanyard. Any rotational movement of main pin traps secondary pin: prevents further rotation and disengagement of main pin.

  19. Adjustment and validation of a simulation tool for CSP plants based on parabolic trough technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Barberena, Javier; Ubani, Nora

    2016-05-01

    The present work presents the validation process carried out for a simulation tool especially designed for the energy yield assessment of concentrating solar plants based on parabolic through (PT) technology. The validation has been carried out by comparing the model estimations with real data collected from a commercial CSP plant. In order to adjust the model parameters used for the simulation, 12 different days were selected among one-year of operational data measured at the real plant. The 12 days were simulated and the estimations compared with the measured data, focusing on the most important variables from the simulation point of view: temperatures, pressures and mass flow of the solar field, gross power, parasitic power, and net power delivered by the plant. Based on these 12 days, the key parameters for simulating the model were properly fixed and the simulation of a whole year performed. The results obtained for a complete year simulation showed very good agreement for the gross and net electric total production. The estimations for these magnitudes show a 1.47% and 2.02% BIAS respectively. The results proved that the simulation software describes with great accuracy the real operation of the power plant and correctly reproduces its transient behavior.

  20. Disability adjusted life year (DALY): a useful tool for quantitative assessment of environmental pollution.

    PubMed

    Gao, Tingting; Wang, Xiaochang C; Chen, Rong; Ngo, Huu Hao; Guo, Wenshan

    2015-04-01

    Disability adjusted life year (DALY) has been widely used since 1990s for evaluating global and/or regional burden of diseases. As many environmental pollutants are hazardous to human health, DALY is also recognized as an indicator to quantify the health impact of environmental pollution related to disease burden. Based on literature reviews, this article aims to give an overview of the applicable methodologies and research directions for using DALY as a tool for quantitative assessment of environmental pollution. With an introduction of the methodological framework of DALY, the requirements on data collection and manipulation for quantifying disease burdens are summarized. Regarding environmental pollutants hazardous to human beings, health effect/risk evaluation is indispensable for transforming pollution data into disease data through exposure and dose-response analyses which need careful selection of models and determination of parameters. Following the methodological discussions, real cases are analyzed with attention paid to chemical pollutants and pathogens usually encountered in environmental pollution. It can be seen from existing studies that DALY is advantageous over conventional environmental impact assessment for quantification and comparison of the risks resulted from environmental pollution. However, further studies are still required to standardize the methods of health effect evaluation regarding varied pollutants under varied circumstances before DALY calculation. PMID:25549348

  1. Alignment Pins for Assembling and Disassembling Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Oliver C.

    2008-01-01

    Simple, easy-to-use, highly effective tooling has been devised for maintaining alignment of bolt holes in mating structures during assembly and disassembly of the structures. The tooling was originally used during removal of a body flap from the space shuttle Atlantis, in which misalignments during removal of the last few bolts could cause the bolts to bind in their holes. By suitably modifying the dimensions of the tooling components, the basic design of the tooling can readily be adapted to other structures that must be maintained in alignment. The tooling includes tapered, internally threaded alignment pins designed to fit in the bolt holes in one of the mating structures, plus a draw bolt and a cup that are used to install or remove each alignment pin. In preparation for disassembly of two mating structures, external supports are provided to prevent unintended movement of the structures. During disassembly of the structures, as each bolt that joins the structures is removed, an alignment pin is installed in its place. Once all the bolts have been removed and replaced with pins, the pins maintain alignment as the structures are gently pushed or pulled apart on the supports. In assembling the two structures, one reverses the procedure described above: pins are installed in the bolt holes, the structures are pulled or pushed together on the supports, then the pins are removed and replaced with bolts. The figure depicts the tooling and its use. To install an alignment pin in a bolt hole in a structural panel, the tapered end of the pin is inserted from one side of the panel, the cup is placed over the pin on the opposite side of the panel, the draw bolt is inserted through the cup and threaded into the pin, the draw bolt is tightened to pull the pin until the pin is seated firmly in the hole, then the draw bolt and cup are removed, leaving the pin in place. To remove an alignment pin, the cup is placed over the pin on the first-mentioned side of the panel, the draw

  2. Glacial isostatic adjustment using GNSS permanent stations and GIA modelling tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kollo, Karin; Spada, Giorgio; Vermeer, Martin

    2013-04-01

    Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA) affects the Earth's mantle in areas which were once ice covered and the process is still ongoing. In this contribution we focus on GIA processes in Fennoscandian and North American uplift regions. In this contribution we use horizontal and vertical uplift rates from Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) permanent stations. For Fennoscandia the BIFROST dataset (Lidberg, 2010) and North America the dataset from Sella, 2007 were used respectively. We perform GIA modelling with the SELEN program (Spada and Stocchi, 2007) and we vary ice model parameters in space in order to find ice model which suits best with uplift values obtained from GNSS time series analysis. In the GIA modelling, the ice models ICE-5G (Peltier, 2004) and the ice model denoted as ANU05 ((Fleming and Lambeck, 2004) and references therein) were used. As reference, the velocity field from GNSS permanent station time series was used for both target areas. Firstly the sensitivity to the harmonic degree was tested in order to reduce the computation time. In the test, nominal viscosity values and pre-defined lithosphere thicknesses models were used, varying maximum harmonic degree values. Main criteria for choosing the suitable harmonic degree was chi-square fit - if the error measure does not differ more than 10%, then one might use as well lower harmonic degree value. From this test, maximum harmonic degree of 72 was chosen to perform calculations, as the larger value did not significantly modify the results obtained, as well the computational time for observations was kept reasonable. Secondly the GIA computations were performed to find the model, which could fit with highest probability to the GNSS-based velocity field in the target areas. In order to find best fitting Earth viscosity parameters, different viscosity profiles for the Earth models were tested and their impact on horizontal and vertical velocity rates from GIA modelling was studied. For every

  3. Pins for direct restorations.

    PubMed

    Papa, J; Wilson, P R; Tyas, M J

    1993-10-01

    Self-threading dentine pins permit the retention of large complex direct restorations but there are problems associated with their placement. Strain and crazing of dentine following pin insertion and pulpal and lateral perforations are common. Perforations can be avoided by operator awareness of tooth morphology. Strain and crazing has been found to be minimized by unscrewing the pin slightly after insertion, by using pins with a tap thread, and by using the smallest pin possible. Twist drill form and dulling affects the pin channel shape which in turn influences pin seating. A lack of standardization of pin and twist drill diameter and length has been implicated as the cause of poor pin retention. Manufacturers, in an attempt to standardize the depth of penetration of pins, have incorporated shoulders at the midpoint of the pin, which has met with varying success. More research in the area of limiting pin penetration is necessary, as well as attempts to improve the quality control of pin and twist drill manufacture. PMID:8227686

  4. Study on the auto-leveling adjustment vibration isolation system for the ultra-precision machine tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, XiCong; Li, ZengQiang; Zhao, XueSen; Sun, Tao; Zhang, KunPeng

    2014-08-01

    The requirement of the vibration isolation system for ultra-precision machine tool was extremely stringent. However, most of the isolation systems currently cannot meet the requirement. Therefore, it is urgently needed to design a new vibration isolation system to fulfill the strict vibration capability required by ultra-precision machine tool. In this paper the structure and principle of the conventional vibration isolation systems composed of air springs were first elucidated thoroughly. Based on these knowledge, we have designed a vibration isolation system with the function of auto-leveling adjustment for a home-made ultra-precision machine tool. The capability of vibration isolation system was validated by an experimental method, in which acceleration-frequency curves were recorded. And post data processing including the analyzing the cut-off frequency and amplitude attenuation were followed. The experimental results demonstrated that the air spring vibration isolation system designed in this paper has the capability to effectively isolate the vibration from the ground: it has a higher attenuation ratio for vibration with a frequency beyond 3 Hz, which preferably meet the vibration isolation requirement of the ultra-precision machine tool.

  5. Reusable Mechanical Pin Puller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ngo, Son; Farley, Rodger; Devine, ED

    1991-01-01

    Reusable mechanical pin puller relatively simple spring-loaded trigger mechanism. Designed to save money and increase safety as substitute for costly and potentially dangerous pyrotechnic pin pullers used in development and testing of deployment mechanisms.

  6. Adjustment of Protein Crystal Porosity for Biotemplating: Chemical and Protein Engineering Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wine, Yariv; Cohen-Hadar, Noa; Lagziel-Simis, Shira; Dror, Yael; Frolow, Felix; Freeman, Amihay

    2010-05-01

    Protein crystals, routinely prepared for the elucidation of protein 3D structures by X-ray crystallography, present an ordered and highly accurate 3D array of protein molecules. Inherent to the 3D arrangement of the protein molecules in the crystal is a complementary 3D array of voids made of interconnected cavities and exhibiting highly ordered porosity. Here we propose and demonstrate feasibility of using chemical and genetic tools to alter protein crystal packing by a series of modifications of targeted sites on protein's surface, enabling the generation of a series of protein crystal biotemplates, all originating from same parent protein.

  7. Using APV (adjusted present value): a better tool for valuing operations.

    PubMed

    Luehrman, T A

    1997-01-01

    Anyone who learned valuation techniques more than a few years ago is probably due for a refresher course. For the past 25 years, managers have been taught that the best practice for valuing assets-that is, an existing business, factory, product line, or market position-is to use a discounted-cash-flow (DCF) methodology. That is still true. But the particular version of DCF that has been accepted as the standard-using the weighted-average cost of capital (WACC)-is now obsolete. Today's better alternative, adjusted present value (APV), is especially versatile and reliable. It will likely replace WACC as the DCF methodology of choice among generalists. Like WACC, APV is used to value operations, or assets-in-place-that is, any existing asset that will generate a stream of future cash flows. Timothy Luehrman explains APV and walks readers through a case example designed to teach them how to use it. He argues that APV always works when WACC does-and sometimes when WACC doesn't, because it requires fewer restrictive assumptions. And APV is less prone to yield serious errors than WACC is. But, most important, general managers will find that APV's power lies in the managerially relevant information it provides. APV can help managers analyze not only how much an asset is worth but also where the value comes from. PMID:10167595

  8. IMp: The customizable LEGO® Pinned Insect Manipulator

    PubMed Central

    Dupont, Steen; Price, Benjamin; Blagoderov, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We present a pinned insect manipulator (IMp) constructed of LEGO® building bricks with two axes of movement and two axes of rotation. In addition we present three variants of the IMp to emphasise the modular design, which facilitates resizing to meet the full range of pinned insect specimens, is fully customizable, collapsible, affordable and does not require specialist tools or knowledge to assemble. PMID:25685035

  9. Nuclear fuel pin scanner

    DOEpatents

    Bramblett, Richard L.; Preskitt, Charles A.

    1987-03-03

    Systems and methods for inspection of nuclear fuel pins to determine fiss loading and uniformity. The system includes infeed mechanisms which stockpile, identify and install nuclear fuel pins into an irradiator. The irradiator provides extended activation times using an approximately cylindrical arrangement of numerous fuel pins. The fuel pins can be arranged in a magazine which is rotated about a longitudinal axis of rotation. A source of activating radiation is positioned equidistant from the fuel pins along the longitudinal axis of rotation. The source of activating radiation is preferably oscillated along the axis to uniformly activate the fuel pins. A detector is provided downstream of the irradiator. The detector uses a plurality of detector elements arranged in an axial array. Each detector element inspects a segment of the fuel pin. The activated fuel pin being inspected in the detector is oscillated repeatedly over a distance equal to the spacing between adjacent detector elements, thereby multiplying the effective time available for detecting radiation emissions from the activated fuel pin.

  10. Straight SU-8 pins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safavieh, R.; Pla Roca, M.; Qasaimeh, M. A.; Mirzaei, M.; Juncker, D.

    2010-05-01

    SU-8 can be patterned with high resolution, is flexible and tough. These characteristics qualify SU-8 as a material for making spotting pins for printing DNA and protein microarrays, and it can potentially replace the commonly used silicon and steel pins that are expensive, brittle in the case of silicon and can damage the substrate during the printing process. SU-8, however, accumulates large internal stress during fabrication and, as a consequence, thin and long SU-8 structures bend and coil up, which precludes using it for long, freestanding structures such as pins. Here we introduce (i) a novel fabrication process that allows the making of 30 mm long, straight spotting pins that feature (ii) a new design and surface chemistry treatments for better capillary flow control and more homogeneous spotting. A key innovation for the fabrication is a post-processing annealing step with slow temperature ramping and mechanical clamping between two identical substrates to minimize stress buildup and render it symmetric, respectively, which together yield a straight SU-8 structure. SU-8 pins fabricated using this process are compliant and resilient and can buckle without damage during printing. The pins comprise a novel flow stop valve for accurate metering of fluids, and their surface was chemically patterned to render the outside of the pin hydrophobic while the inside of the slit is hydrophilic, and the slit thus spontaneously fills when dipped into a solution while preventing droplet attachment on the outside. A single SU-8 pin was used to print 1392 protein spots in one run. SU-8 pins are inexpensive, straightforward to fabricate, robust and may be used as disposable pins for microarray fabrication. These pins serve as an illustration of the potential application of ultralow stress SU-8 for making freestanding microfabricated polymer microstructures.

  11. Adjustment of the thermal component of two tourism climatological assessment tools using thermal perception and preference surveys from Hungary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovács, Attila; Unger, János; Gál, Csilla V.; Kántor, Noémi

    2016-07-01

    This study introduces new methodological concepts for integrating seasonal subjective thermal assessment patterns of people into the thermal components of two tourism climatological evaluation tools: the Tourism Climatic Index (TCI) and the Climate-Tourism/Transfer-Information-Scheme (CTIS). In the case of the TCI, we replaced the air temperature and relative humidity as the basis of the initial rating system with the physiologically equivalent temperature (PET)—a complex human biometeorological index. This modification improves the TCI's potential to evaluate the thermal aspects of climate. The major accomplishments of this study are (a) the development of a new, PET-based rating system and its integration into the thermal sub-indices of the TCI and (b) the regionalization of the thermal components of CTIS to reflect both the thermal sensation and preference patterns of people. A 2-year-long (2011-2012) thermal comfort survey conducted in Szeged, Hungary, from spring to autumn was utilized to demonstrate the implementation of the introduced concepts. We found considerable differences between the thermal perception and preference patterns of Hungarians, with additional variations across the evaluated seasons. This paper describes the proposed methodology for the integration of the new seasonal, perception-based, and preference-based PET rating systems into the TCI, and presents the incorporation of new PET thresholds into the CTIS. In order to demonstrate the utility of the modified evaluation tools, we performed case study climate analyses for three Hungarian tourist destinations. The additional adjustments introduced during the course of those analyses include the reduction of TCI's temporal resolution to 10-day intervals and the exclusion of nocturnal and winter periods from the investigation.

  12. Adjustment of the thermal component of two tourism climatological assessment tools using thermal perception and preference surveys from Hungary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovács, Attila; Unger, János; Gál, Csilla V.; Kántor, Noémi

    2015-05-01

    This study introduces new methodological concepts for integrating seasonal subjective thermal assessment patterns of people into the thermal components of two tourism climatological evaluation tools: the Tourism Climatic Index (TCI) and the Climate-Tourism/Transfer-Information-Scheme (CTIS). In the case of the TCI, we replaced the air temperature and relative humidity as the basis of the initial rating system with the physiologically equivalent temperature (PET)—a complex human biometeorological index. This modification improves the TCI's potential to evaluate the thermal aspects of climate. The major accomplishments of this study are (a) the development of a new, PET-based rating system and its integration into the thermal sub-indices of the TCI and (b) the regionalization of the thermal components of CTIS to reflect both the thermal sensation and preference patterns of people. A 2-year-long (2011-2012) thermal comfort survey conducted in Szeged, Hungary, from spring to autumn was utilized to demonstrate the implementation of the introduced concepts. We found considerable differences between the thermal perception and preference patterns of Hungarians, with additional variations across the evaluated seasons. This paper describes the proposed methodology for the integration of the new seasonal, perception-based, and preference-based PET rating systems into the TCI, and presents the incorporation of new PET thresholds into the CTIS. In order to demonstrate the utility of the modified evaluation tools, we performed case study climate analyses for three Hungarian tourist destinations. The additional adjustments introduced during the course of those analyses include the reduction of TCI's temporal resolution to 10-day intervals and the exclusion of nocturnal and winter periods from the investigation.

  13. PINS Spectrum Identification Guide

    SciTech Connect

    A.J. Caffrey

    2012-03-01

    The Portable Isotopic Neutron Spectroscopy—PINS, for short—system identifies the chemicals inside munitions and containers without opening them, a decided safety advantage if the fill chemical is a hazardous substance like a chemical warfare agent or an explosive. The PINS Spectrum Identification Guide is intended as a reference for technical professionals responsible for the interpretation of PINS gamma-ray spectra. The guide is divided into two parts. The three chapters that constitute Part I cover the science and technology of PINS. Neutron activation analysis is the focus of Chapter 1. Chapter 2 explores PINS hardware, software, and related operational issues. Gamma-ray spectral analysis basics are introduced in Chapter 3. The six chapters of Part II cover the identification of PINS spectra in detail. Like the PINS decision tree logic, these chapters are organized by chemical element: phosphorus-based chemicals, chlorine-based chemicals, etc. These descriptions of hazardous, toxic, and/or explosive chemicals conclude with a chapter on the identification of the inert chemicals, e.g. sand, used to fill practice munitions.

  14. Spring loaded locator pin assembly

    DOEpatents

    Groll, T.A.; White, J.P.

    1998-03-03

    This invention deals with spring loaded locator pins. Locator pins are sometimes referred to as captured pins. This is a mechanism which locks two items together with the pin that is spring loaded so that it drops into a locator hole on the work piece. 5 figs.

  15. Spring loaded locator pin assembly

    DOEpatents

    Groll, Todd A.; White, James P.

    1998-01-01

    This invention deals with spring loaded locator pins. Locator pins are sometimes referred to as captured pins. This is a mechanism which locks two items together with the pin that is spring loaded so that it drops into a locator hole on the work piece.

  16. New Tool Creates a Big Stir

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    A new self-adjusting, retractable pin tool for friction stir welding is now used in the manufacturing of components for NASA Space Shuttles. Friction stir welding is a process that makes straight-line welds without bringing the parent material to a liquid state. This is accomplished through high-speed rotation, which generates frictional heat between the welding tool and the piece being welded. This heat causes the material to soften to the point of plasticity without allowing it to melt. The plasticized material is then transferred from the front edge of the welding tool to the trail edge, where it joins the pieces being welded. However, a major flaw of this method is its reliance on a single-piece pin tool. The weld is left unfinished and a hole remains where the pin was inserted. The hole must be covered with a rivet in order to preserve the integrity of the weld. The NASA-developed pin tool, however, eliminates the need for this finishing step, as its retraction allows continuous rewelding at lesser depths, until the hole is completely closed. With this NASA technology, welding of higher strength alloys, as well as non-planer and variable thickness structures can be achieved.

  17. System for Controlling the Stirring Pin of a Friction Stir Welding Apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ding, R. Jeffrey (Inventor); Romine, Peter L. (Inventor); Oelgoetz, Peter A. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A control is provided for a friction stir welding apparatus comprising a pin tool which includes a shoulder and a rotating pin extending outwardly from the shoulder of the pin tool and which, in use, is plunged into a workpiece formed contacting workpiece members to stir weld the members together. The control system controls the penetration of the pin tool into the workpiece members which are mounted on a support anvil. The control system includes a pin length controller for controlling pin length relative to the shoulder and for producing a corresponding pin length signal. A pin force sensor senses the force being exerted on the pin during welding and produces a corresponding actual pin force signal. A probe controller controls a probe extending outwardly from the pin, senses a parameter related to the distance between the probe and the supporting anvil and produces a corresponding probe signal. A workpiece standoff sensor senses the standoff distance between the workpiece and the standoff sensor and produces a corresponding standoff signal. A control unit receives the various signals, together with a weld schedule, and, based on these signals and the weld schedule, controls the pin length controller so as to control pin penetration into the workpiece.

  18. PINS-3X Operations

    SciTech Connect

    E.H. Seabury

    2013-09-01

    Idaho National Laboratory’s (INL’s) Portable Isotopic Neutron Spectroscopy System (PINS) non-intrusively identifies the chemical fill of munitions and sealed containers. The PINS-3X variant of the system is used to identify explosives and uses a deuterium-tritium (DT) electronic neutron generator (ENG) as the neutron source. Use of the system, including possession and use of the neutron generator and shipment of the system components requires compliance with a number of regulations. This report outlines some of these requirements as well as some of the requirements in using the system outside of INL.

  19. Statistics of dislocation pinning at localized obstacles

    SciTech Connect

    Dutta, A.; Bhattacharya, M. Barat, P.

    2014-10-14

    Pinning of dislocations at nanosized obstacles like precipitates, voids, and bubbles is a crucial mechanism in the context of phenomena like hardening and creep. The interaction between such an obstacle and a dislocation is often studied at fundamental level by means of analytical tools, atomistic simulations, and finite element methods. Nevertheless, the information extracted from such studies cannot be utilized to its maximum extent on account of insufficient information about the underlying statistics of this process comprising a large number of dislocations and obstacles in a system. Here, we propose a new statistical approach, where the statistics of pinning of dislocations by idealized spherical obstacles is explored by taking into account the generalized size-distribution of the obstacles along with the dislocation density within a three-dimensional framework. Starting with a minimal set of material parameters, the framework employs the method of geometrical statistics with a few simple assumptions compatible with the real physical scenario. The application of this approach, in combination with the knowledge of fundamental dislocation-obstacle interactions, has successfully been demonstrated for dislocation pinning at nanovoids in neutron irradiated type 316-stainless steel in regard to the non-conservative motion of dislocations. An interesting phenomenon of transition from rare pinning to multiple pinning regimes with increasing irradiation temperature is revealed.

  20. Statistics of dislocation pinning at localized obstacles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, A.; Bhattacharya, M.; Barat, P.

    2014-10-01

    Pinning of dislocations at nanosized obstacles like precipitates, voids, and bubbles is a crucial mechanism in the context of phenomena like hardening and creep. The interaction between such an obstacle and a dislocation is often studied at fundamental level by means of analytical tools, atomistic simulations, and finite element methods. Nevertheless, the information extracted from such studies cannot be utilized to its maximum extent on account of insufficient information about the underlying statistics of this process comprising a large number of dislocations and obstacles in a system. Here, we propose a new statistical approach, where the statistics of pinning of dislocations by idealized spherical obstacles is explored by taking into account the generalized size-distribution of the obstacles along with the dislocation density within a three-dimensional framework. Starting with a minimal set of material parameters, the framework employs the method of geometrical statistics with a few simple assumptions compatible with the real physical scenario. The application of this approach, in combination with the knowledge of fundamental dislocation-obstacle interactions, has successfully been demonstrated for dislocation pinning at nanovoids in neutron irradiated type 316-stainless steel in regard to the non-conservative motion of dislocations. An interesting phenomenon of transition from rare pinning to multiple pinning regimes with increasing irradiation temperature is revealed.

  1. Diffusion inspires selection of pinning nodes in pinning control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Ming-Yang; He, Xingsheng; Fu, Zhong-Qian; Liao, Hao; Cai, Shi-min; Zhuo, Zhao

    2016-03-01

    The outstanding problem of controlling a complex network via pinning is related to network dynamics and has the potential to master large-scale real-world systems as well. This paper addresses the heart issue about how to choose pinning nodes for pinning control, where pinning control aims to control a network to an identical state by injecting feedback control signals to a small fraction of nodes. We explore networks' controllability from not only mathematical analysis, but also the aspects of network topology and information diffusion. Then, the connection between pinning control and information diffusion is given, and pinning node selection is transferred into multi-spreader problem in information diffusion. Based on information diffusion, a heuristic method is proposed to select pinning nodes by optimizing the spreading ability of multiple spreaders. The proposed method greatly improves the controllability of large practical networks, and provides a new perspective to investigate pinning node selection.

  2. Tool for Two Types of Friction Stir Welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Robert

    2006-01-01

    A tool that would be useable in both conventional and self-reacting friction stir welding (FSW) has been proposed. The tool would embody both a prior tooling concept for self-reacting FSW and an auto-adjustable pin-tool (APT) capability developed previously as an augmentation for conventional FSW. Some definitions of terms are prerequisite to a meaningful description of the proposed tool. In conventional FSW, depicted in Figure 1, one uses a tool that includes (1) a rotating shoulder on top (or front) of the workpiece and (2) a rotating pin that protrudes from the shoulder into the depth of the workpiece. The main axial force exerted by the tool on the workpiece is reacted through a ridged backing anvil under (behind) the workpiece. When conventional FSW is augmented with an APT capability, the depth of penetration of the pin into the workpiece is varied in real time by a position- or force-control system that extends or retracts the pin as needed to obtain the desired effect. In self-reacting (also known as self-reacted) friction stir welding (SR-FSW), there are two rotating shoulders: one on top (or front) and one on the bottom (or back) of the workpiece. In this case, a threaded shaft protrudes from the tip of the pin to beyond the back surface of the workpiece. The back shoulder is held axially in place against tension by a nut on the threaded shaft. The main axial force exerted on the workpiece by the tool and front shoulder is reacted through the back shoulder and the threaded shaft, back into the FSW machine head, so that a backing anvil is no longer needed. A key transmits torque between the bottom shoulder and the threaded shaft, so that the bottom shoulder rotates with the shaft. A tool for SRFSW embodying this concept was reported in "Mechanism for Self-Reacted Friction Stir Welding" (MFS-31914), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 28, No. 10 (October 2004), page 53. In its outward appearance, the proposed tool (see Figure 2) would fit the above description of an SR

  3. Lever-Arm Pin Puller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macmartin, Malcolm

    1994-01-01

    Mechanism holds retaining pins in place except when actuated to release pins quickly. Mechanism is integral part of cover designed to be removed with simple downward motion of hand. Before removal, mechanism secures cover in place. After removal, mechanism holds retaining pins for reuse.

  4. Pin puller impact shock attenuation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Auclair, G. F.; Leonard, B. S.; Robbins, R. E.; Proffitt, W. L.

    1976-01-01

    Design of a pin arresting mechanism for a pyrotechnically actuated pin puller is reviewed. The investigative approach is discussed and the impact shock test results for various candidate designs are presented. The selected pin arresting design reduced the peak value of the shock response spectrum by five to one.

  5. Spatial Pinning Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frasca, Mattia; Buscarino, Arturo; Rizzo, Alessandro; Fortuna, Luigi

    2012-05-01

    In this Letter, we introduce the concept of spatial pinning control for a network of mobile chaotic agents. In a planar space, N agents move as random walkers and interact according to a time-varying r-disk proximity graph. A control input is applied only to those agents which enter a given area, called control region. The control is effective in driving all the agents to a reference evolution and has better performance than pinning control on a fixed set of agents. We derive analytical conditions on the relative size of the control region and the agent density for the global convergence of the system to the reference evolution and study the system under different regimes inherited by the velocity.

  6. SIMULATE-4 pin power calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Bahadir, T.; Lindahl, S. Oe

    2006-07-01

    A new pin power reconstruction module has been implemented in Studsvik Scandpower's next generation nodal code, SIMULATE-4. Heterogeneous pin powers are calculated by modulating multi-group pin powers from the sub-mesh solver of SIMULATE-4 with pin form factors from single-assembly CASMO-5 lattice calculations. The multi-group pin power model captures instantaneous spectral effects, and actinide tracking on the assembly sub-mesh describes exposure-induced pin power variations. Model details and verification tests against high order multi-assembly transport methods are presented. The accuracy of the new methods is also demonstrated by comparing SIMULATE-4 calculations with measured critical experiment pin powers. (authors)

  7. Innovative Tools Advance Revolutionary Weld Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    (no toxic smoke or shielding gas, liquid metal splatter, arcing, dangerous voltage, or radiation), and environmentally sound (no consumables, fumes, or noise) than fusion welding. Under computer control, an automated FSW machine can create welds with high reproducibility, improving efficiency and overall quality of manufactured materials. The process also allows for welding dissimilar metals as well as those metals considered to be "unweldable" such as the 7xxx series aluminum alloys. Its effectiveness and versatility makes FSW useful for aerospace, rail, automotive, marine, and military applications. A downside to FSW, however, is the keyhole opening left in the weld when the FSW pin tool exits the weld joint. This is a significant problem when using the FSW process to join circumferential structures such as pipes and storage containers. Furthermore, weld joints that taper in material thickness also present problems when using the conventional FSW pin tool, because the threaded pin rotating within the weld joint material is a fixed length. There must be capability for the rotating pin to both increase and decrease in length in real time while welding the tapered material. (Both circumferential and tapered thickness weldments are found in the space shuttle external tank.) Marshall engineers addressed both the keyhole and tapered material thickness problems by developing the auto-adjustable pin tool. This unique piece of equipment automatically withdraws the pin into the tool s shoulder for keyhole closeout. In addition, the auto-adjustable pin tool retracts, or shortens, the rotating pin while welding a weld joint that tapers from one thickness to a thinner thickness. This year, the impact of the Marshall innovation was recognized with an "Excellence in Technology Transfer Award" from the Federal Laboratory Consortium.

  8. IMp: The customizable LEGO(®) Pinned Insect Manipulator.

    PubMed

    Dupont, Steen; Price, Benjamin; Blagoderov, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    We present a pinned insect manipulator (IMp) constructed of LEGO® building bricks with two axes of movement and two axes of rotation. In addition we present three variants of the IMp to emphasise the modular design, which facilitates resizing to meet the full range of pinned insect specimens, is fully customizable, collapsible, affordable and does not require specialist tools or knowledge to assemble. PMID:25685035

  9. The PIN-FORMED (PIN) protein family of auxin transporters

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Summary The PIN-FORMED (PIN) proteins are secondary transporters acting in the efflux of the plant signal molecule auxin from cells. They are asymmetrically localized within cells and their polarity determines the directionality of intercellular auxin flow. PIN genes are found exclusively in the genomes of multicellular plants and play an important role in regulating asymmetric auxin distribution in multiple developmental processes, including embryogenesis, organogenesis, tissue differentiation and tropic responses. All PIN proteins have a similar structure with amino- and carboxy-terminal hydrophobic, membrane-spanning domains separated by a central hydrophilic domain. The structure of the hydrophobic domains is well conserved. The hydrophilic domain is more divergent and it determines eight groups within the protein family. The activity of PIN proteins is regulated at multiple levels, including transcription, protein stability, subcellular localization and transport activity. Different endogenous and environmental signals can modulate PIN activity and thus modulate auxin-distribution-dependent development. A large group of PIN proteins, including the most ancient members known from mosses, localize to the endoplasmic reticulum and they regulate the subcellular compartmentalization of auxin and thus auxin metabolism. Further work is needed to establish the physiological importance of this unexpected mode of auxin homeostasis regulation. Furthermore, the evolution of PIN-based transport, PIN protein structure and more detailed biochemical characterization of the transport function are important topics for further studies. PMID:20053306

  10. Pip pin reliability and design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skyles, Lane P.

    1994-01-01

    Pip pins are used in many engineering applications. Of particular interest to the aerospace industry is their use in various mechanism designs. Many payloads that fly aboard our nation's Space Shuttle have at least one actuated mechanism. Often these mechanisms incorporate pip pins in their design in order to fasten interfacing parts or joints. Pip pins are most often used when an astronaut will have a direct interface with the mechanism. This interfacing can be done during Space Shuttle mission EVA's (ExtraVehicular Activity). The main reason for incorporating pip pins is convenience and their ability to provide a quick release for interfacing parts. However, there are some issues that must be taken into account when using them in a design. These issues include documented failures and quality control problems when using substandard pip pins. A history of pip pins as they relate to the aerospace industry as well as general design features is discussed.

  11. Nondestrucive analysis of fuel pins

    DOEpatents

    Stepan, I.E.; Allard, N.P.; Suter, C.R.

    1972-11-03

    Disclosure is made of a method and a correspondingly adapted facility for the nondestructive analysis of the concentation of fuel and poison in a nuclear reactor fuel pin. The concentrations of fuel and poison in successive sections along the entire length of the fuel pin are determined by measuring the reactivity of a thermal reactor as each successive small section of the fuel pin is exposed to the neutron flux of the reactor core and comparing the measured reactivity with the reactivities measured for standard fuel pins having various known concentrations. Only a small section of the length of the fuel pin is exposed to the neutron flux at any one time while the remainder of the fuel pin is shielded from the neutron flux. In order to expose only a small section at any one time, a boron-10-lined dry traverse tube is passed through the test region within the core of a low-power thermal nuclear reactor which has a very high fuel sensitivity. A narrow window in the boron-10 lining is positioned at the core center line. The fuel pins are then systematically traversed through the tube past the narrow window such that successive small sections along the length of the fuel pin are exposed to the neutron flux which passes through the narrow window.

  12. Shock characterization of TOAD pins

    SciTech Connect

    Weirick, L.J.; Navarro, N.J.

    1995-08-01

    The purpose of this program was to characterize Time Of Arrival Detectors (TOAD) pins response to shock loading with respect to risetime, amplitude, repeatability and consistency. TOAD pins were subjected to impacts of 35 to 420 kilobars amplitude and approximately 1 ms pulse width to investigate the timing spread of four pins and the voltage output profile of the individual pins. Sets of pins were also aged at 45{degrees}, 60{degrees}, and 80{degrees}C for approximately nine weeks before shock testing at 315 kilobars impact stress. Four sets of pins were heated to 50.2{degrees}C (125{degrees}F) for approximately two hours and then impacted at either 50 or 315 kilobars. Also, four sets of pins were aged at 60{degrees}C for nine weeks and then heated to 50.2{degrees}C before shock testing at 50 and 315 kilobars impact stress, respectively. Particle velocity measurements at the contact point between the stainless steel targets and TOAD pins were made using a Velocity Interferometer System for Any Reflector (VISAR) to monitor both the amplitude and profile of the shock waves.

  13. Shock characterization of toad pins

    SciTech Connect

    Weirick, L.J.; Navarro, M.J.

    1996-05-01

    The purpose of this program was to characterize Time Of Arrival Detectors (TOAD) pins response to shock loading with respect to risetime, amplitude, repeatability and consistency. TOAD pins were subjected to impacts of 35 to 420 kilobars amplitude and approximately 1 ms pulse width to investigate the timing spread of four pins and the voltage output profile of the individual pins. Sets of pins were also aged at 45{degree}, 60{degree} and 80{degree}C for approximately nine weeks before shock testing at 315 kilobars impact stress. Four sets of pins were heated to 50.2{degree}C (125{degree}F) for approximately two hours and then impacted at either 50 or 315 kilobars. Also, four sets of pins were aged at 60{degree}C for nine weeks and then heated to 50.2{degree}C before shock testing at 50 and 315 kilobars impact stress, respectively. Particle velocity measurements at the contact point between the stainless steel targets and TOAD pins were made using a Velocity Interferometer System for Any Reflector (VISAR) to monitor both the amplitude and profile of the shock waves. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  14. Gimbaled-shoulder friction stir welding tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Robert W. (Inventor); Lawless, Kirby G. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A gimbaled-shoulder friction stir welding tool includes a pin and first and second annular shoulders coupled to the pin. At least one of the annular shoulders is coupled to the pin for gimbaled motion with respect thereto as the tool is rotated by a friction stir welding apparatus.

  15. Fuel pin cladding

    DOEpatents

    Vaidyanathan, Swaminathan; Adamson, Martyn G.

    1986-01-01

    An improved fuel pin cladding, particularly adapted for use in breeder reactors, consisting of composite tubing with austenitic steel on the outer portion of the thickness of the tube wall and with nickel and/or ferritic material on the inner portion of the thickness of the tube wall. The nickel forms a sacrificial barrier as it reacts with certain fission products thereby reducing fission product activity at the austenitic steel interface. The ferritic material forms a preventive barrier for the austenitic steel as it is immune to liquid metal embrittlement. The improved cladding permits the use of high density fuel which in turn leads to a better breeding ratio in breeder reactors, and will increase the threshold at which failure occurs during temperature transients.

  16. Fuel pin cladding

    DOEpatents

    Vaidyanathan, S.; Adamson, M.G.

    1983-12-16

    An improved fuel pin cladding, particularly adapted for use in breeder reactors, is described which consist of composite tubing with austenitic steel on the outer portion of the thickness of the tube wall and with nickel an/or ferritic material on the inner portion of the thickness of the tube wall. The nickel forms a sacrificial barrier as it reacts with certain fission products thereby reducing fission product activity at the austenitic steel interface. The ferritic material forms a preventive barrier for the austenitic steel as it is immune to liquid metal embrittlement. The improved cladding permits the use of high density fuel which in turn leads to a better breeding ratio in breeder reactors, and will increase the threshold at which failure occurs during temperature transients.

  17. Fuel pin cladding

    DOEpatents

    Vaidyanathan, S.; Adamson, M.G.

    1986-01-28

    Disclosed is an improved fuel pin cladding, particularly adapted for use in breeder reactors, consisting of composite tubing with austenitic steel on the outer portion of the thickness of the tube wall and with nickel and/or ferritic material on the inner portion of the thickness of the tube wall. The nickel forms a sacrificial barrier as it reacts with certain fission products thereby reducing fission product activity at the austenitic steel interface. The ferritic material forms a preventive barrier for the austenitic steel as it is immune to liquid metal embrittlement. The improved cladding permits the use of high density fuel which in turn leads to a better breeding ratio in breeder reactors, and will increase the threshold at which failure occurs during temperature transients. 2 figs.

  18. Anvil for Flaring PCB Guide Pins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winn, E.; Turner, R.

    1985-01-01

    Spring-loaded anvil results in fewer fractured pins. New anvil for flaring guide pins in printed-circuit boards absorbs approximately 80 percent of press force. As result fewer pins damaged, and work output of flaring press greatly increased.

  19. Friction stir weld tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Robert W. (Inventor); Payton, Lewis N. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A friction stir weld tool sleeve is supported by an underlying support pin. The pin material is preferably selected for toughness and fracture characteristics. The pin sleeve preferably has a geometry which employs the use of an interrupted thread, a plurality of flutes and/or eccentric path to provide greater flow through. Paddles have been found to assist in imparting friction and directing plastic metal during the welding process.

  20. Friction Stir Weld Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Robert W. (Inventor); Payton, Lewis N. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A friction stir weld tool sleeve is supported by an underlying support pin. The pin material is preferably selected for toughness and fracture characteristics. The pin sleeve preferably has a geometry which employs the use of an interrupted thread, a plurality of flutes and/or eccentric path to provide greater flow through. Paddles have been found to assist in imparting friction and directing plastic metal during the welding process.

  1. Shifting tools

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, E.P.; Welch, W.R.

    1984-03-13

    An improved shifting tool connectable in a well tool string and useful to engage and position a slidable sleeve in a sliding sleeve device in a well flow conductor. The selectively profiled shifting tool keys provide better fit with and more contact area between keys and slidable sleeves. When the engaged slidable sleeve cannot be moved up and the shifting tool is not automatically disengaged, emergency disengagement means may be utilized by applying upward force to the shifting tool sufficient to shear pins and cause all keys to be cammed inwardly at both ends to completely disengage for removal of the shifting tool from the sliding sleeve device.

  2. Automated fuel pin loading system

    DOEpatents

    Christiansen, D.W.; Brown, W.F.; Steffen, J.M.

    An automated loading system for nuclear reactor fuel elements utilizes a gravity feed conveyor which permits individual fuel pins to roll along a constrained path perpendicular to their respective lengths. The individual lengths of fuel cladding are directed onto movable transports, where they are aligned coaxially with the axes of associated handling equipment at appropriate production stations. Each fuel pin can be be reciprocated axially and/or rotated about its axis as required during handling steps. The fuel pins are inerted as a batch prior to welding of end caps by one of two disclosed welding systems.

  3. Automated fuel pin loading system

    DOEpatents

    Christiansen, David W.; Brown, William F.; Steffen, Jim M.

    1985-01-01

    An automated loading system for nuclear reactor fuel elements utilizes a gravity feed conveyor which permits individual fuel pins to roll along a constrained path perpendicular to their respective lengths. The individual lengths of fuel cladding are directed onto movable transports, where they are aligned coaxially with the axes of associated handling equipment at appropriate production stations. Each fuel pin can be reciprocated axially and/or rotated about its axis as required during handling steps. The fuel pins are inserted as a batch prior to welding of end caps by one of two disclosed welding systems.

  4. Control of flux pinning in MOD YBCO coated conductor.

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, W.; Huang, Y.; Li, X.; Kodenkandath, T.; Rupich, M. W.; Schoop, U.; Verebelyi, D. T.; Thieme, C. L. H.; Siegal, E.; Holesinger, T. G.; Maiorov, B.; Civale, L.; Miller, D. J.; Maroni, V. A.; Li, J.; Martin, P. M.; Specht, E. D.; Goyal, A.; Paranthaman, M. P.; American Superconductor Corp.; LANL; ORNL

    2007-06-01

    NTwo different types of defect structures have been identified to be responsible for the enhanced pinning in metal organic deposited YBCO films. Rare earth additions result in the formation of nanodots in the YBCO matrix, which form uncorrelated pinning centers, increasing pinning in all magnetic field orientations. 124-type intergrowths, which form as laminar structures parallel to the ab-plane, are responsible for the large current enhancement when the magnetic field is oriented in the ab-plane. TEM studies showed that the intergrowths emanate from cuprous containing secondary phase particles, whose density is partially controlled by the rare earth doping level. Critical process parameters have been identified to control this phase formation, and therefore, control the f 24 intergrowth formation. This work has shown that through process control and proper conductor design, either by adjusting the composition or by multiple coatings of different functional layers, the desired angular dependence can be achieved.

  5. Differential pressure pin discharge apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Oakley, David J.

    1987-01-01

    Disclosed is a discharge assembly for allowing elongate pins to be discharged from an area of relatively low pressure to an area of relatively greater pressure. The discharge assembly includes a duck valve having a lip piece made of flexible material. The flexible lip piece responds to a fluctuating pressure created downstream by an aspirator. The aspirator reduces the downstream pressure sensed by the duck valve when the discharge assembly is in the open position. This allows elongate pins to be moved through the duck valve with no backflow because the aspirator pressure is less than the pressure in the low pressure area from which the pins originate. Closure of the assembly causes the aspirator static pressure to force the flexible duck valve lip piece into a tightly sealed position also preventing backflow. The discharge assembly can be easily controlled using a single control valve which blocks the flow of aspirator gas and closes the pin passageway extending through the assembly.

  6. Differential pressure pin discharge apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Oakley, David J.

    1987-02-03

    Disclosed is a discharge assembly for allowing elongate pins to be discharged from an area of relatively low pressure to an area of relatively greater pressure. The discharge assembly includes a duck valve having a lip piece made of flexible material. The flexible lip piece responds to a fluctuating pressure created downstream by an aspirator. The aspirator reduces the downstream pressure sensed by the duck valve when the discharge assembly is in the open position. This allows elongate pins to be moved through the duck valve with no backflow because the aspirator pressure is less than the pressure in the low pressure area from which the pins originate. Closure of the assembly causes the aspirator static pressure to force the flexible duck valve lip piece into a tightly sealed position also preventing backflow. The discharge assembly can be easily controlled using a single control valve which blocks the flow of aspirator gas and closes the pin passageway extending through the assembly.

  7. Differential pressure pin discharge apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Oakley, D.J.

    1984-05-30

    Disclosed is a discharge assembly for allowing elongate pins to be discharged from an area of relatively low pressure to an area of relatively greater pressure. The discharge assembly includes a duck valve having a lip piece made of flexible material. The flexible lip piece responds to a fluctuating pressure created downstream by an aspirator. The aspirator reduces the downstream pressure sensed by the duck valve when the discharge assembly is in the open position. This allows elongate pins to be moved through the duck valve with no backflow because the aspirator pressure is less than the pressure in the low pressure area from which the pins originate. Closure of the assembly causes the aspirator static pressure to force the flexible duck valve lip piece into a tightly sealed position also preventing backflow. The discharge assembly can be easily controlled using a single control valve which blocks the flow of aspirator gas and closes the pins passageway extending through the assembly.

  8. Pin1 in Neuronal Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Esther B.E.; Bonni, Azad

    2009-01-01

    While the role of the prolyl isomerase Pin1 in dividing cells has long been recognized, Pin1’s function in postmitotic neurons is poorly understood. We have identified a novel mechanism by which Pin1 mediates activation of the mitochondrial cell death machinery specifically in neurons. This perspective presents a sophisticated signaling pathway that triggers neuronal apoptosis upon JNK-mediated phosphorylation of the BH3-only protein BIMEL at serine 65. Pin1 is enriched at the mitochondria in neurons together with BIMEL and components of a neuron-specific JNK signaling complex and functions as a molecular switch that couples the phosphorylation of BIMEL by JNK to apoptosis specifically in neurons. We discuss how these findings relate to our understanding of the development of the nervous system and the pathogenesis of neurologic disorders. PMID:17568190

  9. A Flux-Pinning Mechanism for Segment Assembly and Alignment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gersh-Range, Jessica A.; Arnold, William R.; Peck, Mason A.; Stahl, H. Philip

    2011-01-01

    Currently, the most compelling astrophysics questions include how planets and the first stars formed and whether there are protostellar disks that contain large organic molecules. Although answering these questions requires space telescopes with apertures of at least 10 meters, such large primaries are challenging to construct by scaling up previous designs; the limited capacity of a launch vehicle bounds the maximum diameter of a monolithic primary, and beyond a certain size, deployable telescopes cannot fit in current launch vehicle fairings. One potential solution is connecting the primary mirror segments edgewise using flux-pinning mechanisms, which are analogous to non-contacting damped springs. In the baseline design, a flux-pinning mechanism consists of a magnet and a superconductor separated by a predetermined gap, with the damping adjusted by placing aluminum near the interface. Since flux pinning is possible only when the superconductor is cooled below a critical temperature, flux-pinning mechanisms are uniquely suited for cryogenic space telescopes. By placing these mechanisms along the edges of the mirror segments, a primary can be built up over time. Since flux pinning requires no mechanical deployments, the assembly process could be robotic or use some other non-contacting scheme. Advantages of this approach include scalability and passive stability.

  10. Finite Element Analysis of Laser Engineered Net Shape (LENS™) Tungsten Clad Squeeze Pins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakhuja, Amit; Brevick, Jerald R.

    2004-06-01

    In the aluminum high-pressure die-casting and indirect squeeze casting processes, local "squeeze" pins are often used to minimize internal solidification shrinkage in heavy casting sections. Squeeze pins frequently fail in service due to molten aluminum adhering to the H13 tool steel pins ("soldering"). A wide variety of coating materials and methods have been developed to minimize soldering on H13. However, these coatings are typically very thin, and experience has shown their performance on squeeze pins is highly variable. The LENS™ process was employed in this research to deposit a relatively thick tungsten cladding on squeeze pins. An advantage of this process was that the process parameters could be precisely controlled in order to produce a satisfactory cladding. Two fixtures were designed and constructed to enable the end and outer diameter (OD) of the squeeze pins to be clad. Analyses were performed on the clad pins to evaluate the microstructure and chemical composition of the tungsten cladding and the cladding-H13 substrate interface. A thermo-mechanical finite element analysis (FEA) was performed to assess the stress distribution as a function of cladding thickness on the pins during a typical casting thermal cycle. FEA results were validated via a physical test, where the clad squeeze pins were immersed into molten aluminum. Pins subjected to the test were evaluated for thermally induced cracking and resistance to soldering of the tungsten cladding.

  11. Friction stir welding tool

    DOEpatents

    Tolle; Charles R. , Clark; Denis E. , Barnes; Timothy A.

    2008-04-15

    A friction stir welding tool is described and which includes a shank portion; a shoulder portion which is releasably engageable with the shank portion; and a pin which is releasably engageable with the shoulder portion.

  12. PinBus Interface Design

    SciTech Connect

    Hammerstrom, Donald J.; Adgerson, Jewel D.; Sastry, Chellury; Pratt, Richard M.; Pratt, Robert G.

    2009-12-30

    On behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy, PNNL has explored and expanded upon a simple control interface that might have merit for the inexpensive communication of smart grid operational objectives (demand response, for example) to small electric end-use devices and appliances. The approach relies on bi-directional communication via the electrical voltage states of from one to eight shared interconnection pins. The name PinBus has been suggested and adopted for the proposed interface protocol. The protocol is defined through the presentation of state diagrams and the pins’ functional definitions. Both simulations and laboratory demonstrations are being conducted to demonstrate the elegance and power of the suggested approach. PinBus supports a very high degree of interoperability across its interfaces, allowing innumerable pairings of devices and communication protocols and supporting the practice of practically any smart grid use case.

  13. Prolyl isomerase Pin1 regulated signaling pathway revealed by Pin1 +/+ and Pin1 -/- mouse embryonic fibroblast cells.

    PubMed

    Huang, Guo-Liang; Qiu, Jin-Hua; Li, Bin-Bin; Wu, Jing-Jing; Lu, Yan; Liu, Xing-Yan; He, Zhiwei

    2013-10-01

    Pin1 (peptidylprolyl cis/trans isomerase, NIMA-interacting 1) plays a key role in a number of diseases including cancer and Alzheimer disease. Previous studies have identified a wide range of phosphoproteins as Pin1 substrates. Related pathways were analyzed separately. The aim of this study was to provide a comprehensive picture involving Pin1 regulation. A genome-wide mRNA expression microarray was carried out using the RNA isolation from Pin1 (+/+) and Pin1 (-/-) mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) cells. Signaling pathways regulated by Pin1 were analyzed with the utility of KEGG pathway and GO annotation. An expression pattern regulated by Pin1 was revealed. A total of 606 genes, 375 being up-regulated and 231 down-regulated, were differentially expressed when comparing Pin1 +/+ to Pin1 -/- MEF cells. Totally 48 pathways were shown to be regulated by Pin1 expression in KEGG pathway analysis. In the GO annotation system, 19 processes on biological processes, 15 processes on cellular components, and 18 processes on molecular functions were found to be in the regulation of Pin1 expression. Pathways related to immune system and cancer showed most significant association with Pin1 regulation. Pin1 is an important regulator in a wide range of signaling pathways that were related to immune system and cancer. PMID:23563987

  14. Thermoacoustic pin stacks. Summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Keolian, R.M.

    1994-07-06

    The construction and testing of a new stack geometry for thermoacoustic engines, called a pin stack, has been started. The stack is at the heart of a class of heat engines that use sound to deliver refrigeration, or use a temperature difference to generate sound. Calculations show that the pin stack should make useful improvements in engine efficiency. About 2000 wires will be hand sewn in a hexagonal lattice between the hot and cold heat exchangers in a sound source using low pressure neon gas between 300 K and 77 K. Thermoacoustics, Refrigeration, Acoustic source, Heat pump.

  15. Enhancement of vortex pinning in superconductor/ferromagnet bilayers via angled demagnetization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cieplak, Marta Z.; Zhu, L. Y.; Adamus, Z.; Kończykowski, M.; Chien, C. L.

    2011-07-01

    We use local and global magnetometry measurements to study the influence of magnetic domain width w on the domain-induced vortex pinning in superconducting/ferromagnetic bilayers, built of a Nb film and a ferromagnetic Co/Pt multilayer with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy, with an insulating layer to eliminate the proximity effect. The quasiperiodic domain patterns with different and systematically adjustable width w, as acquired by a special demagnetization procedure, exert tunable vortex pinning on a superconducting layer. The largest enhancement of vortex pinning, by a factor of more than 10, occurs when w≈0.31μm is close to the magnetic penetration depth.

  16. Lightning Pin Injection Testing on MOSFETS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ely, Jay J.; Nguyen, Truong X.; Szatkowski, George N.; Koppen, Sandra V.; Mielnik, John J.; Vaughan, Roger K.; Wysocki, Philip F.; Celaya, Jose R.; Saha, Sankalita

    2009-01-01

    Lightning transients were pin-injected into metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) to induce fault modes. This report documents the test process and results, and provides a basis for subsequent lightning tests. MOSFETs may be present in DC-DC power supplies and electromechanical actuator circuits that may be used on board aircraft. Results show that unprotected MOSFET Gates are susceptible to failure, even when installed in systems in well-shielded and partial-shielded locations. MOSFET Drains and Sources are significantly less susceptible. Device impedance decreased (current increased) after every failure. Such a failure mode may lead to cascading failures, as the damaged MOSFET may allow excessive current to flow through other circuitry. Preliminary assessments on a MOSFET subjected to 20-stroke pin-injection testing demonstrate that Breakdown Voltage, Leakage Current and Threshold Voltage characteristics show damage, while the device continues to meet manufacturer performance specifications. The purpose of this research is to develop validated tools, technologies, and techniques for automated detection, diagnosis and prognosis that enable mitigation of adverse events during flight, such as from lightning transients; and to understand the interplay between lightning-induced surges and aging (i.e. humidity, vibration thermal stress, etc.) on component degradation.

  17. Cryogenically cooled detector pin mount

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, Jr., William E; Chrisp, Michael P

    2014-06-03

    A focal plane assembly facilitates a molybdenum base plate being mounted to another plate made from aluminum. The molybdenum pin is an interference fit (press fit) in the aluminum base plate. An annular cut out area in the base plate forms two annular flexures.

  18. Propagation of spiral waves pinned to circular and rectangular obstacles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutthiopad, Malee; Luengviriya, Jiraporn; Porjai, Porramain; Phantu, Metinee; Kanchanawarin, Jarin; Müller, Stefan C.; Luengviriya, Chaiya

    2015-05-01

    We present an investigation of spiral waves pinned to circular and rectangular obstacles with different circumferences in both thin layers of the Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction and numerical simulations with the Oregonator model. For circular objects, the area always increases with the circumference. In contrast, we varied the circumference of rectangles with equal areas by adjusting their width w and height h . For both obstacle forms, the propagating parameters (i.e., wavelength, wave period, and velocity of pinned spiral waves) increase with the circumference, regardless of the obstacle area. Despite these common features of the parameters, the forms of pinned spiral waves depend on the obstacle shapes. The structures of spiral waves pinned to circles as well as rectangles with the ratio w /h ˜1 are similar to Archimedean spirals. When w /h increases, deformations of the spiral shapes are observed. For extremely thin rectangles with w /h ≫1 , these shapes can be constructed by employing semicircles with different radii which relate to the obstacle width and the core diameter of free spirals.

  19. Adjustment disorder

    MedlinePlus

    American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. 5th ed. Arlington, Va: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013. Powell AD. Grief, bereavement, and adjustment disorders. In: Stern TA, Rosenbaum ...

  20. Electrical contact tool set station

    DOEpatents

    Byers, M.E.

    1988-02-22

    An apparatus is provided for the precise setting to zero of electrically conductive cutting tools used in the machining of work pieces. An electrically conductive cylindrical pin, tapered at one end to a small flat, rests in a vee-shaped channel in a base so that its longitudinal axis is parallel to the longitudinal axis of the machine's spindle. Electronic apparatus is connected between the cylindrical pin and the electrically conductive cutting tool to produce a detectable signal when contact between tool and pin is made. The axes of the machine are set to zero by contact between the cutting tool and the sides, end or top of the cylindrical pin. Upon contact, an electrical circuit is completed, and the detectable signal is produced. The tool can then be set to zero for that axis. Should the tool contact the cylindrical pin with too much force, the cylindrical pin would be harmlessly dislodged from the vee-shaped channel, preventing damage either to the cutting tool or the cylindrical pin. 5 figs.

  1. Improved shock-detecting pin arrangement

    SciTech Connect

    Erskine, D.J.

    1996-05-01

    Shockwave speeds are often measured by comparing arrival times at the tips of electrical shorting pins in a hexagonal array over two elevations (called up and down). In the conventional arrangement, the center pin is solely responsible for measuring the curvature of the wavefront. Without this datum the shock speed cannot be precisely determined. In some experiments this pin fail frequently enough to be a problem. We report a simple rearrangement between up and down designated pins which eliminates the critical reliance on a single pin. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  2. Downhole tool

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R.; Muradov, Andrei; Pixton, David S.; Dahlgren, Scott Steven; Briscoe, Michael A.

    2007-03-20

    A double shouldered downhole tool connection comprises box and pin connections having mating threads intermediate mating primary and secondary shoulders. The connection further comprises a secondary shoulder component retained in the box connection intermediate a floating component and the primary shoulders. The secondary shoulder component and the pin connection cooperate to transfer a portion of makeup load to the box connection. The downhole tool may be selected from the group consisting of drill pipe, drill collars, production pipe, and reamers. The floating component may be selected from the group consisting of electronics modules, generators, gyroscopes, power sources, and stators. The secondary shoulder component may comprises an interface to the box connection selected from the group consisting of radial grooves, axial grooves, tapered grooves, radial protrusions, axial protrusions, tapered protrusions, shoulders, and threads.

  3. Pinning control of chimera states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gambuzza, Lucia Valentina; Frasca, Mattia

    2016-08-01

    The position of the coherent and incoherent domain of a chimera state in a ring of nonlocally coupled oscillators is strongly influenced by the initial conditions, making nontrivial the problem of confining them in a specific region of the structure. In this paper we propose the use of spatial pinning to induce a chimera state where the nodes belonging to one domain, either the coherent or the incoherent, are fixed by the control action. We design two different techniques according to the dynamics to be forced in the region of pinned nodes, and validate them on FitzHugh-Nagumo and Kuramoto oscillators. Furthermore, we introduce a suitable strategy to deal with the effects of finite size in small structures.

  4. Pinning synchronization of a mobile agent network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lei; Sun, You-xian

    2009-11-01

    We investigate the problem of controlling a group of mobile agents in a plane in order to move them towards a desired orbit via pinning control, in which each agent is associated with a chaotic oscillator coupled with those of neighboring agents, and the pinning strategy is to have the common linear feedback acting on a small fraction of agents by random selection. We explore the effects of the pinning probability, feedback gains and agent density in the pinning synchronization of a mobile agent network under a fast-switching constraint, and perform numerical simulations for validation. In particular, we show that there exists a critical pinning density for network synchronization with an unbounded region: above the threshold, the dynamical network can be controlled by pinning; below it, anarchy prevails. And for the network with a single bounded synchronization region, pinning control has little effect as regards enhancing network synchronizability.

  5. On pins and needles: how vaccines are portrayed on Pinterest.

    PubMed

    Guidry, Jeanine P D; Carlyle, Kellie; Messner, Marcus; Jin, Yan

    2015-09-22

    Vaccination is an effective public health tool for reducing morbidity and mortality caused by infectious diseases. However, increasing numbers of parents question the safety of vaccines or refuse to vaccinate their children outright. The Internet is playing a significant role in the growing voice of the anti-vaccination movement as a growing number of people use the Internet to obtain health information, including information about vaccines. Given the role the Internet plays in providing vaccination-related communication, coupled with limited research in this area, this study focused on the social media platform Pinterest, analyzing 800 vaccine-related pins through a quantitative content analysis. The majority of the pins were anti-vaccine, and most were original posts as opposed to repins. Concerns about vaccine safety and side effects were oft-repeated themes, as was the concept of conspiracy theory. Pro-vaccine pins elicited consistently more engagement than anti-vaccine pins. Health educators and public health organizations should be aware of these dynamics, since a successful health communication campaign should start with an understanding of what and how publics communicate about the topic at hand. PMID:26319742

  6. Adjustable microforceps.

    PubMed

    Bao, J Y

    1991-04-01

    The commonly used microforceps have a much greater opening distance and spring resistance than needed. A piece of plastic ring or rubber band can be used to adjust the opening distance and reduce most of the spring resistance, making the user feel more comfortable and less fatigued. PMID:2051437

  7. Pin Wire Coating Trip Report

    SciTech Connect

    Spellman, G P

    2004-03-18

    A meeting to discuss the current pin wire coating problems was held at the Reynolds plant in Los Angeles on 2MAR04. The attendance list for Reynolds personnel is attached. there was an initial presentation which gave a brief history and the current status of pin wire coating at Reynolds. There was a presentation by Lori Primus on the requirements and issues for the coating. There was a presentation by Jim Smith of LANL on the chemistry and to some extent process development done to date. There was a long session covering what steps should be taken in the short term and, to a lesser extent, the long term. The coating currently being used is a blend of two polymers, polyethersulfone and polyparabanic acid (PPA) and some TiO2 filler. This system was accepted and put into production when the pin wire coating was outsourced to another company in 1974. When that company no longer was interested, the wire coating was brought in-house to Reynolds. At that time polyparabanic acid was actually a commercial product available from Exxon under the trade name Tradlon. However, it appears that the material used at Reynolds was synthesized locally. Also, it appears that a single large batch was synthesized in that time period and used up to 1997 when the supply ran out. The reason for the inclusion of TiO2 is not known although it does act as a rheological thickener. However, a more controlled thickening can be obtained with materials such as fumed silica. This material would have less likelihood of causing point imperfections in the coatings. Also, the mixing technique being used for all stages of the process is a relatively low shear ball mill process and the author recommends a high shear process such as a three roll paint mill, at least for the final mixing. Since solvent is added to the powder at Reynolds, it may be that they need to have the paint mill there.

  8. Improved shock-detection pin arrangement

    SciTech Connect

    Erskine, D.J.

    1995-08-01

    Shockwave speeds are often measured by comparing arrival times at the tips of electrical shorting pins in a hexagonal array over two elevations (called up and down). In the conventional arrangement, the center pin is solely responsible for measuring the curvature of the wavefront. Without this datum the shock speed cannot be precisely determined. In some experiments this pin fail frequently enough to be a problem. We report a simple rearrangement between up and down designated pins which eliminates the critical reliance on a single.

  9. Piezoelectric Pins for Use as Dust Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manning, H. L. K.; Campbell, I. H.; Nelson, K. A.; Yager, J. R.

    2002-09-01

    Piezoelectric pins are devices currently used in a number of applications including detecting elementary particle beams, monitoring volcanoes, and detecting high-speed micro-sized particles. These pins provide a means of studying ejecta from cratering processes in the laboratory and offer a potential lightweight, low power, flight dust detector. Using the hypervelocity dust particle accelerator at Concordia College in Moorhead, Minnesota, we have investigated the transient charge generated by piezoelectric pins impacted by dust particles. Carbonyl iron dust particles of 0.5-5 micrometer diameter having speeds ranging from 1-5 km/sec impacted the pins. The DC-100 MHz pin response was recorded and analyzed. The transient pin response to a single particle consists of many charge pulses of alternating sign (less than 10 ns in duration) separated by the pressure wave propagation time across the crystal (typically 100 ns). The charge produced by the pin changes sign when the pressure waves in the piezoelectric crystal reflect off of the metal electrodes. The magnitude of the pin response as a function of the impacting particle properties is presented and discussed. Pins using both polycrystalline PZT and single crystal LiNbO3 as the piezoelectric material were studied. This work is supported at Concordia College by the Minnesota Space Grant Consortium.

  10. Fabrication of FFTF fuel pin wire wrap

    SciTech Connect

    Epperson, E.M.

    1980-06-01

    Lateral spacing between FFTF fuel pins is required to provide a passageway for the sodium coolant to flow over each pin to remove heat generated by the fission process. This spacing is provided by wrapping each fuel pin with type 316 stainless steel wire. This wire has a 1.435mm (0.0565 in.) to 1.448mm (0.0570 in.) diameter, contains 17 +- 2% cold work and was fabricated and tested to exacting RDT Standards. About 500 kg (1100 lbs) or 39 Km (24 miles) of fuel pin wrap wire is used in each core loading. Fabrication procedures and quality assurance tests are described.

  11. Magnetic pinning in superconductor-ferromagnet multilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Bulaevskii, L. N.; Chudnovsky, E. M.; Maley, M. P.

    2000-05-01

    We argue that superconductor/ferromagnet multilayers of nanoscale period should exhibit strong pinning of vortices by the magnetic domain structure in magnetic fields below the coercive field when ferromagnetic layers exhibit strong perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. The estimated maximum magnetic pinning energy for single vortex in such a system is about 100 times larger than the pinning energy by columnar defects. This pinning energy may provide critical currents as high as 10{sup 6}-10{sup 7} A/cm{sup 2} at high temperatures (but not very close to T{sub c}) at least in magnetic fields below 0.1 T. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics.

  12. Heat Exchanger With Internal Pin Elements

    DOEpatents

    Gerstmann, Joseph; Hannon, Charles L.

    2004-01-13

    A heat exchanger/heater comprising a tubular member having a fluid inlet end, a fluid outlet end and plurality of pins secured to the interior wall of the tube. Various embodiments additionally comprise a blocking member disposed concentrically inside the pins, such as a core plug or a baffle array. Also disclosed is a vapor generator employing an internally pinned tube, and a fluid-heater/heat-exchanger utilizing an outer jacket tube and fluid-side baffle elements, as well as methods for heating a fluid using an internally pinned tube.

  13. Shaft adjuster

    DOEpatents

    Harry, Herbert H.

    1989-01-01

    Apparatus and method for the adjustment and alignment of shafts in high power devices. A plurality of adjacent rotatable angled cylinders are positioned between a base and the shaft to be aligned which when rotated introduce an axial offset. The apparatus is electrically conductive and constructed of a structurally rigid material. The angled cylinders allow the shaft such as the center conductor in a pulse line machine to be offset in any desired alignment position within the range of the apparatus.

  14. Update on PIN or Signature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matyas, Vashek

    We promised a year back some data on the experiment that we ran with chip and PIN. If you recall, it was the first phase that we reported on here last year, where we used the University bookstore, and two PIN pads, one with very solid privacy shielding, the other one without any. We ran 17 people through the first one, 15 people through the second one, and we also had the students do, about half of them forging the signature, half of them signing their own signature, on the back of the card that is used for purchasing books, or whatever.We had a second phase of the experiment, after long negotiations, and very complicated logistics, with a supermarket in Brno where we were able to do anything that we wanted through the experiment for five hours on the floor, with only the supermarket manager, the head of security, and the camera operators knowing about the experiment. So the shop assistants, the ground floor security, everybody basically on the floor, did not know about the experiment. That was one of the reasons why the supermarket, or management, agreed to take part, they wanted to control their own internal security procedures.

  15. Partial covariate adjusted regression

    PubMed Central

    Şentürk, Damla; Nguyen, Danh V.

    2008-01-01

    Covariate adjusted regression (CAR) is a recently proposed adjustment method for regression analysis where both the response and predictors are not directly observed (Şentürk and Müller, 2005). The available data has been distorted by unknown functions of an observable confounding covariate. CAR provides consistent estimators for the coefficients of the regression between the variables of interest, adjusted for the confounder. We develop a broader class of partial covariate adjusted regression (PCAR) models to accommodate both distorted and undistorted (adjusted/unadjusted) predictors. The PCAR model allows for unadjusted predictors, such as age, gender and demographic variables, which are common in the analysis of biomedical and epidemiological data. The available estimation and inference procedures for CAR are shown to be invalid for the proposed PCAR model. We propose new estimators and develop new inference tools for the more general PCAR setting. In particular, we establish the asymptotic normality of the proposed estimators and propose consistent estimators of their asymptotic variances. Finite sample properties of the proposed estimators are investigated using simulation studies and the method is also illustrated with a Pima Indians diabetes data set. PMID:20126296

  16. Pin1 as an anticancer drug target.

    PubMed

    Xu, Guoyan G; Etzkorn, Felicia A

    2009-09-01

    Pin1 specifically catalyzes the cis/trans isomerization of phospho-Ser/Thr-Pro bonds and plays an important role in many cellular events through the effects of conformational change on the function of its biological substrates, including cell division cycle 25 C (Cdc25C), c-Jun and p53. Pin1 is overexpressed in many human cancer tissues, including breast, prostate and lung cancer. Its expression correlates with cyclin D1 levels, which contribute to cell transformation. Overexpression of Pin1 promotes tumor growth, while inhibition of Pin1 causes tumor cell apoptosis. Pin1 plays an important role in oncogenesis and therefore may serve as an effective anticancer target. Many inhibitors of Pin1 have been discovered, including several classes of designed inhibitors (alkene isosteres, reduced amides, indanyl ketones) and natural products (juglone, pepticinnamin E analogues, PiB and its derivatives obtained from a library screen). Pin1 inhibitors could be used as a novel type of anticancer drug by blocking cell cycle progression. Therefore, Pin1 represents a new diagnostic and therapeutic anticancer drug target. PMID:19890497

  17. Failure Analysis of Electrical Pin Connectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, John A.; Baughman, James M.; Smith, Stephen W.; Herath, Jeffrey A.

    2008-01-01

    A study was initiated to determine the root cause of failure for circuit board electrical connection pins that failed during vibRatory testing. The circuit board is part of an unmanned space probe, and the vibratory testing was performed to ensure component survival of launch loading conditions. The results of this study show that the pins failed as a result of fatigue loading.

  18. The prolyl isomerase Pin1 as a molecular switch to determine the fate of phosphoproteins

    PubMed Central

    Liou, Yih-Cherng; Zhou, Xiao Zhen; Lu, Kun Ping

    2011-01-01

    Pin1 is a highly conserved enzyme that only isomerizes specific phosphorylated Ser/Thr-Pro bonds in certain proteins, thereby inducing conformational changes. Such conformational changes represent a novel and tightly controlled signaling mechanism regulating a spectrum of protein activities in physiology and disease, often through phosphorylation-dependent, ubiquitin-mediated proteasomal degradation. In this review, we summarize recent advances in elucidating the role and regulation of Pin1 in controlling protein stability. We also propose a mechanism by which Pin1 functions as a molecular switch to control the fates of phosphoproteins. We finally stress the need to develop tools to directly visualize Pin1-catalyzed protein conformational changes as a way to determine their roles in the development and treatment of human diseases. PMID:21852138

  19. Pinning Synchronization of Directed Networks With Switching Topologies: A Multiple Lyapunov Functions Approach.

    PubMed

    Wen, Guanghui; Yu, Wenwu; Hu, Guoqiang; Cao, Jinde; Yu, Xinghuo

    2015-12-01

    This paper studies the global pinning synchronization problem for a class of complex networks with switching directed topologies. The common assumption in the existing related literature that each possible network topology contains a directed spanning tree is removed in this paper. Using tools from M -matrix theory and stability analysis of the switched nonlinear systems, a new kind of network topology-dependent multiple Lyapunov functions is proposed for analyzing the synchronization behavior of the whole network. It is theoretically shown that the global pinning synchronization in switched complex networks can be ensured if some nodes are appropriately pinned and the coupling is carefully selected. Interesting issues of how many and which nodes should be pinned for possibly realizing global synchronization are further addressed. Finally, some numerical simulations on coupled neural networks are provided to verify the theoretical results. PMID:26595418

  20. Pinning impulsive control algorithms for complex network

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Wen; Lü, Jinhu; Chen, Shihua; Yu, Xinghuo

    2014-03-15

    In this paper, we further investigate the synchronization of complex dynamical network via pinning control in which a selection of nodes are controlled at discrete times. Different from most existing work, the pinning control algorithms utilize only the impulsive signals at discrete time instants, which may greatly improve the communication channel efficiency and reduce control cost. Two classes of algorithms are designed, one for strongly connected complex network and another for non-strongly connected complex network. It is suggested that in the strongly connected network with suitable coupling strength, a single controller at any one of the network's nodes can always pin the network to its homogeneous solution. In the non-strongly connected case, the location and minimum number of nodes needed to pin the network are determined by the Frobenius normal form of the coupling matrix. In addition, the coupling matrix is not necessarily symmetric or irreducible. Illustrative examples are then given to validate the proposed pinning impulsive control algorithms.

  1. Pin-Retraction Mechanism On Quick-Release Cover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macmartin, Malcolm

    1994-01-01

    Quick-release cover includes pin-retraction mechanism releasing cover quickly from lower of two sets of pin connections holding cover. Cover released at top by pulling lever as described in "Lever-Arm Pin Puller" (NPO-18788). Removal of cover begins when technician or robot pulls upper-pin-release lever. Cover swings downward until tabs on lower pins are pulled through slots in their receptacles. Lower pins are then free.

  2. The Mean-Field Flux Pinning Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stejic, George

    We develop the Mean-Field Flux Pinning Theory, designed to model the flux line lattice (FLL) as it interacts with itself, the flux pinning centers and the geometry of the superconductor. Like other mean-field theories, the mean-field flux pinning theory does not attempt to model the FLL completely. Instead, it utilizes a simplified model for the FLL, termed the mean-field FLL, in which the FLL is modelled as a continuous vector field rather than as discrete fluxons as in other theories. By so doing, the interactions of the FLL are greatly simplified and more easily modelled. One application of the mean-field flux pinning theory is to predict J_{c} from microstructural data, which we use to determine the optimal Nb-Ti microstructures with (1) alpha -Ti pinning centers and (2) Nb pinning centers. The microstructure is modelled on a grid in which the local values of T_{c} and kappa reflect the spatial distribution of the pinning centers and the superconductor. Using this model, we solve the G-L equations and calculate the pinning potential defined as the vortex free energy as a function of position. We conclude that the ideal Nb-Ti microstructure with alpha-Ti pinning centers would require 40 volume percent of alpha -Ti and have 6nm thick pinning centers. In the Nb pinning center case, the ideal microstructure requires 50 volume percent of Nb and would have 6nm pinning centers. Another application for the mean-field flux pinning theory is to model the FLL as it interacts with the penetrating magnetic fields within lambda of the superconducting surface. Using this theory, we study the effects of sample geometry on the FLL and J _{c} for the thin film geometry. We find that the FLL becomes increasingly distorted as the film thickness is reduced and that J_{c } increases sharply for dimensions less that lambda. These predictions are experimentally evaluated in Nb-Ti thin films. Our results show that J_{c} values as high as 1/3 of J_{d} and a strong orientational

  3. Pinning Loss Power Density in Superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsushita, Teruo

    2015-03-01

    The pinning loss power density is theoretically derived based on the resistive energy dissipation when the flux lines are driven by the Lorentz force in a superconductor. The obtained loss power density does not depend on the viscosity or flow resistivity, but is proportional to the pinning force density only, and it possesses the nature of hysteresis loss, as commonly measured in experiments. These features are predicted by the critical state model, which was recently proved theoretically. The obtained pinning force density is consistent with the prediction of the coherent potential approximation theory, a kind of statistical summation theory, for flux pinning. Thus, the irreversible properties associated with the flux pinning can be comprehensively described by these flux pinning theories. The irreversible flux pinning in the superconductor is compared with similar irreversible phenomena such as the motion of magnetic domain walls in ferromagnetic materials and the friction in mechanical systems. The possibility is also discussed for a general theoretical description of these irreversible phenomena in which the hysteresis loss occurs.

  4. Electroanalytical devices with pins and thread.

    PubMed

    Glavan, Ana C; Ainla, Alar; Hamedi, Mahiar M; Fernández-Abedul, M Teresa; Whitesides, George M

    2016-01-01

    This work describes the adaptive use of conventional stainless steel pins-used in unmodified form or coated with carbon paste-as working, counter, and quasi-reference electrodes in electrochemical devices fabricated using cotton thread or embossed omniphobic R(F) paper to contain the electrolyte and sample. For some applications, these pin electrodes may be easier to modify and use than printed electrodes, and their position and orientation can be changed as needed. Electroanalytical devices capable of multiplex analysis (thread-based arrays or 96-well plates) were easily fabricated using pins as electrodes in either thread or omniphobic R(F) paper. PMID:26549661

  5. Mechanical evaluation of external skeletal fixator-intramedullary pin tie-in configurations applied to cadaveral humeri from red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis).

    PubMed

    Van Wettere, Arnaud J; Redig, Patrick T; Wallace, Larry J; Bourgeault, Craig A; Bechtold, Joan E

    2009-12-01

    Use of external skeletal fixator-intramedullary pin (ESF-IM) tie-in fixators is an adjustable and effective method of fracture fixation in birds. The objective of this study was to determine the contribution of each of the following parameters to the compressive and torsional rigidity of an ESF-IM pin tie-in applied to avian bones with an osteotomy gap: (1) varying the fixation pin position in the proximal bone segment and (2) increasing the number of fixation pins in one or both bone segments. ESF-IM pin tie-in constructs were applied to humeri harvested from red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) (n=24) that had been euthanatized for clinical reasons. Constructs with a variation in the placement of the proximal fixation pin and with 2, 3, or 4 fixation pins applied to avian bone with an osteotomy gap were loaded to a defined displacement in torque and axial compression. Response variables were determined from resulting load-displacement curves (construct stiffness, load at 1-mm displacement). Increasing the number of fixation pins from 1 to 2 per bone segment significantly increased the stiffness in torque (110%) and compression (60%), and the safe load in torque (107%) and compression (50%). Adding a fixation pin to the distal bone segment to form a 3-pin fixator significantly increased the stiffness (27%) and safe load (20%) in torque but not in axial compression. In the configuration with 2 fixation pins, placing the proximal pin distally in the proximal bone segment significantly increased the stiffness in torque (28%), and the safe load in torque (23%) and in axial compression (32%). Results quantified the relative importance of specific parameters affecting the rigidity of ESF-IM pin tie-in constructs as applied to unstable bone fracture models in birds. PMID:20235458

  6. The Unbearable Lightness of PIN Cracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berkman, Omer; Ostrovsky, Odelia Moshe

    We describe new attacks on the financial PIN processing API. The attacks apply to switches as well as to verification facilities. The attacks are extremely severe allowing an attacker to expose customer PINs by executing only one or two API calls per exposed PIN. One of the attacks uses only the translate function which is a required function in every switch. The other attacks abuse functions that are used to allow customers to select their PINs online. Some of the attacks can be applied in switches even though the attacked functions require issuer's keys which do not exist in a switch. This is particularly disturbing as it was widely believed that functions requiring issuer's keys cannot do any harm if the respective keys are unavailable.

  7. The actuated latch pin and its development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawlor, P. J.

    1980-01-01

    An actuated latch pin developed to meet the need for a reusable locking device is described. The unit can function as a pin puller or as a pin pusher latch. Initial prototype testing demonstrated the feasibility of the device with the unit being driven from a 28 V dc supply and using 15 W to drive a 12 mm diameter pin through a stroke of 10 mm with a side load of 100 N in 120 ms. High wear rates with a MOS2 lubrication on the ballscrew and angular contact bearings have necessitated the reduction in the duty cycle from 1000 cycles in air and vacuum to 100 in air and 1000 in vacuum.

  8. Final development report H1632 Adjustable Caster Assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Kibalo, E.F.

    1994-03-01

    The H1632 Adjustable Caster Assembly was developed for use on the H1501B Transportation Accident Resistant Container (TARC). The caster can be raised and lowered via its attached leveling jack or, by removing a locking pin, can be aligned horizontally or removed for transportational purposes. The H1632 is packaged as a single kit that contains two left and two right adjustable caster assemblies along with the required support plates and hardware.

  9. Quick-Release Pin With Lever Action

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trevino, Robert C.

    1995-01-01

    Lever-action quick-release pin operated more easily. Mechanism operated with gloved hand. In modified version, lever added to handle to facilitate actuation. Lever action reduces actuation force. Lever-action pin operated by squeezing on any point of moveable ends of lever and handle together between thumb and forefinger or by simply grasping and squeezing handle and lever with entire hand in more natural grasp.

  10. Performance measurements of hybrid PIN diode arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, S.L. ); Arens, J.F.; Jernigan, J.G. . Space Sciences Lab.); Kramer, G. ); Collins, T.; Worley, S. ); Wilburn, C.D. ); Skubic, P. )

    1990-10-01

    We report the successful development of hybrid PIN diode arrays and a series of room-temperature measurements in a high-energy pion beam at FNAL. A PMOS VLSI 256 {times} 256 readout array having 30 {mu}m square pixels was indium-bump bonded to a mating PIN diode detector array. Preliminary measurements on the resulting hybrid show excellent signal-to-noise at room temperature. 3 refs., 5 figs.

  11. Investigating Dynamic Interdomain Allostery in Pin1

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Jeffrey W.

    2015-01-01

    Signaling proteins often sequester complementary functional sites in separate domains. How do the different domains communicate with one another? An attractive system to address this question is the mitotic regulator, human Pin1 (Lu et al. 1996). Pin-1 consists of two tethered domains: a WW domain for substrate binding, and a catalytic domain for peptidyl-prolyl isomerase (PPIase) activity. Pin1 accelerates the cis-trans isomerization of phospho-Ser/Thr-Pro (pS/T-P) motifs within proteins regulating the cell cycle and neuronal development. The early x-ray (Ranganathan et al. 1997; Verdecia et al. 2000) and solution NMR studies (Bayer et al. 2003; Jacobs et al. 2003) of Pin1 indicated inter- and intradomain motion. We became interested in exploring how such motions might affect interdomain communication, using NMR. Our accumulated results indicate substrate binding to Pin1 WW domain changes the intra/inter domain mobility, thereby altering substrate activity in the distal PPIase domain catalytic site. Thus, Pin1 shows evidence of dynamic allostery, in the sense of Cooper and Dryden (Cooper and Dryden 1984). We highlight our results supporting this conclusion, and summarize them via a simple speculative model of conformational selection. PMID:26495045

  12. Self-locking double retention redundant pull pin release

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Killgrove, Thomas O. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A double-retention redundant pull pin release system is disclosed. The system responds to a single pull during an intentional release operation. A spiral-threaded main pin is seated in a mating bore in a housing, which main pin has a flange fastened thereon at the part of the main pin which is exterior to the housing. Accidental release tends to rotate the main pin. A secondary pin passes through a slightly oversized opening in the flange and is seated in a second bore in the housing. The pins counteract against one another to prevent accidental release. A frictional lock is shared between the main and secondary pins to enhance further locking of the system. The secondary pin, in response to a first pull, is fully retracted from its bore and flange hole. Thereafter the pull causes the main pin to rotate free of the housing to release, for example, a parachute mechanism.

  13. NMR study of domain wall pinning in a magnetically ordered material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pleshakov, I. V.; Popov, P. S.; Kuz'min, Yu. I.; Dudkin, V. I.

    2016-01-01

    The use of nuclear magnetic resonance in the form of spin echo in combination with magnetic field pulses applied to a magnetically ordered material sample offers a convenient tool for studying characteristics of the centers of domain-wall pinning. Possibilities of this method have been demonstrated in experiments with lithium-zinc ferrite.

  14. Whole-Pin Furnace system: An experimental facility for studying irradiated fuel pin behavior under potential reactor accident conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Y.Y.; Tsai, H.C.; Donahue, D.A.; Pushis, D.O.; Savoie, F.E.; Holland, J.W.; Wright, A.E.; August, C.; Bailey, J.L.; Patterson, D.R.

    1990-05-01

    The whole-pin furnace system is a new in-cell experimental facility constructed to investigate how irradiated fuel pins may fail under potential reactor accident conditions. Extensive checkouts have demonstrated excellent performance in remote operation, temperature control, pin breach detection, and fission gas handling. The system is currently being used in testing of EBIR-II-irradiated Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) metal fuel pins; future testing will include EBR-II-irradiated mixed-oxide fuel pins. 7 refs., 4 figs.

  15. The Maize PIN Gene Family of Auxin Transporters.

    PubMed

    Forestan, Cristian; Farinati, Silvia; Varotto, Serena

    2012-01-01

    Auxin is a key regulator of plant development and its differential distribution in plant tissues, established by a polar cell to cell transport, can trigger a wide range of developmental processes. A few members of the two families of auxin efflux transport proteins, PIN-formed (PIN) and P-glycoprotein (ABCB/PGP), have so far been characterized in maize. Nine new Zea mays auxin efflux carriers PIN family members and two maize PIN-like genes have now been identified. Four members of PIN1 (named ZmPIN1a-d) cluster, one gene homologous to AtPIN2 (ZmPIN2), three orthologs of PIN5 (ZmPIN5a-c), one gene paired with AtPIN8 (ZmPIN8), and three monocot-specific PINs (ZmPIN9, ZmPIN10a, and ZmPIN10b) were cloned and the phylogenetic relationships between early-land plants, monocots, and eudicots PIN proteins investigated, including the new maize PIN proteins. Tissue-specific expression patterns of the 12 maize PIN genes, 2 PIN-like genes and ZmABCB1, an ABCB auxin efflux carrier, were analyzed together with protein localization and auxin accumulation patterns in normal conditions and in response to drug applications. ZmPIN gene transcripts have overlapping expression domains in the root apex, during male and female inflorescence differentiation and kernel development. However, some PIN family members have specific tissue localization: ZmPIN1d transcript marks the L1 layer of the shoot apical meristem and inflorescence meristem during the flowering transition and the monocot-specific ZmPIN9 is expressed in the root endodermis and pericycle. The phylogenetic and gene structure analyses together with the expression pattern of the ZmPIN gene family indicate that subfunctionalization of some maize PINs can be associated to the differentiation and development of monocot-specific organs and tissues and might have occurred after the divergence between dicots and monocots. PMID:22639639

  16. Ratchet effect in a conformal pinning array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janko, Boldizsar; Ray, Dipanjan; Olson Reichhardt, Cynthia; Reichhardt, Charles

    2014-03-01

    Pinning arrays where the pinning sites are located at the vertices of a conformally transformed hexagonal lattice, also known as conformal pinning arrays (CPA), have recently been shown to greatly enhance the critical current of type-II superconductors both in simulation and in experiment. Here we show using molecular dynamics simulations that the differing flux-flow resistance of the CPA in the forward and reverse directions causes it to function as a highly effective vortex ratchet. We drive the vortices using an applied external ac current, and we find that the resulting dc output voltage for the CPA ratchet is larger than that for a random pinning array with a pinning gradient by up to an order of magnitude. The enhancement is robust over a wide range of vortex densities, temperatures, and ac drive amplitudes and frequencies. D. Ray et al, Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 267001 (2013); Y. L. Wang et al, Phys. Rev. B 87, 220501(R) (2013); S. Guenon et al, Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 252602 (2013).

  17. De-pinning of disordered bosonic chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogt, N.; Cole, J. H.; Shnirman, A.

    2016-05-01

    We consider onset of transport (de-pinning) in one-dimensional bosonic chains with a repulsive boson–boson interaction that decays exponentially on large length-scales. Our study is relevant for (i) de-pinning of Cooper-pairs in Josephson junction arrays; (ii) de-pinning of magnetic flux quanta in quantum-phase-slip ladders, i.e. arrays of superconducting wires in a ladder-configuration that allow for the coherent tunneling of flux quanta. In the low-frequency, long wave-length regime these chains can be mapped onto an effective model of a one-dimensional elastic field in a disordered potential. The standard de-pinning theories address infinitely long systems in two limiting cases: (a) of uncorrelated disorder (zero correlation length); (b) of long range power-law correlated disorder (infinite correlation length). In this paper we study numerically chains of finite length in the intermediate case of long but finite disorder correlation length. This regime is of relevance for, e.g., the experimental systems mentioned above. We study the interplay of three length scales: the system length, the interaction range, the correlation length of disorder. In particular, we observe the crossover between the solitonic onset of transport in arrays shorter than the disorder correlation length to onset of transport by de-pinning for longer arrays.

  18. A double tuned rail damper—increased damping at the two first pinned-pinned frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maes, J.; Sol, H.

    2003-10-01

    Railway-induced vibrations are a growing matter of environmental concern. The rapid development of transportation, the increase of vehicle speeds and vehicle weights have resulted in higher vibration levels. In the meantime vibrations that were tolerated in the past are now considered to be a nuisance. Numerous solutions have been proposed to remedy these problems. The majority only acts on a specific part of the dynamic behaviour of the track. This paper presents a possible solution to reduce the noise generated by the 'pinned-pinned' frequencies. Pinned-pinned frequencies correspond with standing waves whose nodes are positioned exactly at the sleeper supports. The two first pinned-pinned frequencies are situated approximately at 950 and 2200 Hz (UIC60-rail and sleeper spacing of 0.60 m). To attenuate these vibrations, the Department of MEMC at the VUB has developed a dynamic vibration absorber called the Double Tuned Rail Damper (DTRD). The DTRD is mounted between two sleepers on the rail and is powered by the motion of the rail. The DTRD consists of two major parts: a steel plate which is connected to the rail with an interface of an elastic layer, and a rubber mass. The two first resonance frequencies of the steel plate coincide with the targeted pinned-pinned frequencies of the rail. The rubber mass acts as a motion controller and energy absorber. Measurements at a test track of the French railway company (SNCF) have shown considerable attenuation of the envisaged pinned-pinned frequencies. The attenuation rate surpasses 5 dB/m at certain frequency bands.

  19. Design of an adjustable polarization-independent and wideband electromagnetic absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yun; Jiang, Jianjun; Chen, Mi; Li, Shicai; Miao, Ling; Bie, Shaowei

    2016-03-01

    An adjustable polarization-independent electromagnetic absorber based on a frequency-selective surface is proposed for both C and X microwave-band applications. The design using a symmetric fan-shaped pattern significantly reduces the sensitivity to different polarizations of normal incident microwaves. To achieve adjustability, PIN diodes are connected between patterned unit cells. By incorporating inductors into the metal patterns, an S-shaped series bias provides the bias voltage to PIN diodes. By tuning the working states of the diodes, an adjustable absorption performance from 4.6 to 13 GHz is achieved for both transverse electric and transverse magnetic polarizations in normal incidence.

  20. A division in PIN-medicated patterning during lateral organ initiation in grasses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Using phlyogenic and gene synteny analysis we identified an angiosperm PIN clade sister to PIN1, here termed SISter-of-PIN1 (soPIN1), which is present in all sampled angiosperms except for Brassicaceae. Additionally, we identified a conserved duplication of PIN1 in the grasses: PIN1a and PIN1b. In...

  1. Transportation of pinned charge density waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koo, Je Huan; Jeong, Jae Yoon; Cho, Guangsup

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the transport of pinned charge density waves (CDWs) that is observed in low dimensional materials. We treated pinned CDWs as moving CDWs that were confined within a typical quantum well amongst the many different types where pinning occurs at the barrier. We calculated the current flowing out of the quantum well by confined CDWs. The calculated conductivity is in good correspondence with experimental data in TTF-TCNQ, where the measured Fröhlich-Peierls temperature is 60 K much higher than the theoretical value of 20 K. The voltage dependence of the conductivity was calculated, where this is easily transformed into the dependence of electric field. The magnetic susceptibility was also calculated with a similar trend of experimental data. The susceptibility is a diamagnetic contribution by CDWs in addition to the constant background Pauli paramagnetic part.

  2. PINS Testing and Modification for Explosive Identification

    SciTech Connect

    E.H. Seabury; A.J. Caffrey

    2011-09-01

    The INL's Portable Isotopic Neutron Spectroscopy System (PINS)1 non-intrusively identifies the chemical fill of munitions and sealed containers. PINS is used routinely by the U.S. Army, the Defense Threat Reduction Agency, and foreign military units to determine the contents of munitions and other containers suspected to contain explosives, smoke-generating chemicals, and chemical warfare agents such as mustard and nerve gas. The objects assayed with PINS range from softball-sized M139 chemical bomblets to 200 gallon DOT 500X ton containers. INL had previously examined2 the feasibility of using a similar system for the identification of explosives, and based on this proof-of-principle test, the development of a dedicated system for the identification of explosives in an improvised nuclear device appears entirely feasible. INL has been tasked by NNSA NA-42 Render Safe Research and Development with the development of such a system.

  3. Flows in Pinned Arrays Simulating Brush Seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, R.C.; Kudriavtsev, V. V.; Braun, M. J.; Athavale, M. M.

    1996-01-01

    Flows through idealized pin arrays were investigated using an unstructured grid finite difference model and the simplified Ergun model to predict leakage flows and pressure drops in brush seals. The models are in good agreement in the laminar region with departures in the laminar-turbulent transition region defined by the simplified Ergun model. No local disturbances in the velocity or pressure fields, symptomatic of turbulence were found in the numerical results. The simplified model failed to predict the pressure drop of a 32-pin anisotropic array. Transitional and anisotropic behavior requires

  4. Mesoscopic pinning forces in neutron star crusts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seveso, S.; Pizzochero, P. M.; Grill, F.; Haskell, B.

    2016-02-01

    The crust of a neutron star is thought to be comprised of a lattice of nuclei immersed in a sea of free electrons and neutrons. As the neutrons are superfluid, their angular momentum is carried by an array of quantized vortices. These vortices can pin to the nuclear lattice and prevent the neutron superfluid from spinning down, allowing it to store angular momentum which can then be released catastrophically, giving rise to a pulsar glitch. A crucial ingredient for this model is the maximum pinning force that the lattice can exert on the vortices, as this allows us to estimate the angular momentum that can be exchanged during a glitch. In this paper, we perform, for the first time, a detailed and quantitative calculation of the pinning force per unit length acting on a vortex immersed in the crust and resulting from the mesoscopic vortex-lattice interaction. We consider realistic vortex tensions, allow for displacement of the nuclei and average over all possible orientations of the crystal with respect to the vortex. We find that, as expected, the mesoscopic pinning force becomes weaker for longer vortices and is generally much smaller than previous estimates, based on vortices aligned with the crystal. Nevertheless, the forces we obtain still have maximum values of the order of fpin ≈ 1015 dyn cm-1, which would still allow for enough angular momentum to be stored in the crust to explain large Vela glitches, if part of the star is decoupled during the event.

  5. Flux pinning and stabilizer studies. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Collings, E.W.

    1994-11-29

    A synopsis of the results of the flux-pinning and stabilizer studies that form the central theme of the subject contract is followed by a list of papers that were published during the period August 28, 1986 to November 31, 1992.

  6. 49 CFR 230.97 - Crank pins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Crank pins. 230.97 Section 230.97 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Steam Locomotives and Tenders Driving...

  7. Valve for fuel pin loading system

    DOEpatents

    Christiansen, David W.

    1985-01-01

    A cyclone valve surrounds a wall opening through which cladding is projected. An axial valve inlet surrounds the cladding. Air is drawn through the inlet by a cyclone stream within the valve. An inflatable seal is included to physically engage a fuel pin subassembly during loading of fuel pellets.

  8. Valve for fuel pin loading system

    DOEpatents

    Christiansen, D.W.

    1984-01-01

    A cyclone valve surrounds a wall opening through which cladding is projected. An axial valve inlet surrounds the cladding. Air is drawn through the inlet by a cyclone stream within the valve. An inflatable seal is included to physically engage a fuel pin subassembly during loading of fuel pellets.

  9. Vortex pinning properties in Fe-chalcogenides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leo, A.; Grimaldi, G.; Guarino, A.; Avitabile, F.; Nigro, A.; Galluzzi, A.; Mancusi, D.; Polichetti, M.; Pace, S.; Buchkov, K.; Nazarova, E.; Kawale, S.; Bellingeri, E.; Ferdeghini, C.

    2015-12-01

    Among the families of iron-based superconductors, the 11-family is one of the most attractive for high field applications at low temperatures. Optimization of the fabrication processes for bulk, crystalline and/or thin film samples is the first step in producing wires and/or tapes for practical high power conductors. Here we present the results of a comparative study of pinning properties in iron-chalcogenides, investigating the flux pinning mechanisms in optimized Fe(Se{}1-xTe x ) and FeSe samples by current-voltage characterization, magneto-resistance and magnetization measurements. In particular, from Arrhenius plots in magnetic fields up to 9 T, the activation energy is derived as a function of the magnetic field, {U}0(H), whereas the activation energy as a function of temperature, U(T), is derived from relaxation magnetization curves. The high pinning energies, high upper critical field versus temperature slopes near critical temperatures, and highly isotropic pinning properties make iron-chalcogenide superconductors a technological material which could be a real competitor to cuprate high temperature superconductors for high field applications.

  10. Rotary pin-in-maze discriminator

    DOEpatents

    Benavides, Gilbert L.

    1997-01-01

    A discriminator apparatus and method that discriminates between a unique signal and any other (incorrect) signal. The unique signal is a sequence of events; each event can assume one of two possible event states. Given the unique signal, a maze wheel is allowed to rotate fully in one direction. Given an incorrect signal, both the maze wheel and a pin wheel lock in position.

  11. Vortex creep and thermal depinning within strong pinning theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willa, Roland; Buchacek, Martin; Geshkenbein, Vadim B.; Blatter, Gianni

    Vortex pinning in type-II superconductors can occur through the collective action of many pins (weak collective pinning scenario) or through plastic deformations induced by a low density of defects (strong pinning scenario). For the latter case, a new formalism has recently be developed to provide a quantitative link between the microscopic pinning landscape and experimentally accessible quantities describing pinning on a macroscopic level. Examples are the critical current density jc, the I- V characteristics, or the ac Campbell length λC. Inspired by the original work of Larkin and Brazovskii on density wave pinning, we have extended the strong pinning formalism to account for thermal depinning of flux lines and vortex creep.

  12. 8. DETAIL VIEW OF PIN CONNECTION, NORTH WEB, SHOWING FLOOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. DETAIL VIEW OF PIN CONNECTION, NORTH WEB, SHOWING FLOOR BEAM, STRINGERS, LATTICE BRACING, EYEBARS, AND PIN, LOOKING SOUTH - Four Mile Bridge, Spanning Elk River on County Road 42, Steamboat Springs, Routt County, CO

  13. Timing analysis of PWR fuel pin failures

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, K.R.; Wade, N.L.; Katsma, K.R.; Siefken, L.J. ); Straka, M. )

    1992-09-01

    This report discusses research conducted to develop and demonstrate a methodology for calculation of the time interval between receipt of the containment isolation signals and the first fuel pin failure for loss-of-coolant accidents (LOCAs). Demonstration calculations were performed for a Babcock and Wilcox (B W) design (Oconee) and a Westinghouse (W) four-loop design (Seabrook). Sensitivity studies were performed to assess the impacts of fuel pin burnup, axial peaking factor, break size, emergency core cooling system availability, and main coolant pump trip on these times. The analysis was performed using the following codes: FRAPCON-2, for the calculation of steady-state fuel behavior; SCDAP/RELAP5/MOD3 and TRACPF1/MOD1, for the calculation of the transient thermal-hydraulic conditions in the reactor system; and FRAP-T6, for the calculation of transient fuel behavior. In addition to the calculation of fuel pin failure timing, this analysis provides a comparison of the predicted results of SCDAP/RELAP5/MOD3 and TRAC-PF1/MOD1 for large-break LOCA analysis. Using SCDAP/RELAP5/MOD3 thermal-hydraulic data, the shortest time intervals calculated between initiation of containment isolation and fuel pin failure are 10.4 seconds and 19.1 seconds for the B W and W plants, respectively. Using data generated by TRAC-PF1/MOD1, the shortest intervals are 10.3 seconds and 29.1 seconds for the B W and W plants, respectively. These intervals are for a double-ended, offset-shear, cold leg break, using the technical specification maximum peaking factor and applied to fuel with maximum design burnup. Using peaking factors commensurate with actual burnups would result in longer intervals for both reactor designs. This document provides appendices K and L of this report which provide plots for the timing analysis of PWR fuel pin failures for Oconee and Seabrook respectively.

  14. Effects of Pin Detached Space on Heat Transfer and Pin-Fin Arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Siw, Sin C.; Chyu, Minking K.; Shih, Tom I-P.; Alvin, Mary Anne

    2012-08-01

    Heat transfer and pressure characteristics in a rectangular channel with pin-fin arrays of partial detachment from one of the endwalls have been experimentally studied. The overall channel geometry (W = 76.2 mm, E = 25.4 mm) simulates an internal cooling passage of wide aspect ratio (3:1) in a gas turbine airfoil. With a given pin diameter, D = 6.35 mm = ¼E, three different pin-fin height-to-diameter ratios, H/D = 4, 3, and 2, were examined. Each of these three cases corresponds to a specific pin array geometry of detachment spacing (C) between the pin tip and one of the endwalls, i.e., C/D = 0, 1, 2, respectively. The Reynolds number, based on the hydraulic diameter of the unobstructed cross-section and the mean bulk velocity, ranges from 10,000 to 25,000. The experiment employs a hybrid technique based on transient liquid crystal imaging to obtain the distributions of the local heat transfer coefficient over all of the participating surfaces, including the endwalls and all the pin elements. Experimental results reveal that the presence of a detached space between the pin tip and the endwall has a significant effect on the convective heat transfer and pressure loss in the channel. The presence of pin-to-endwall spacing promotes wall-flow interaction, generates additional separated shear layers, and augments turbulent transport. In general, an increase in detached spacing, or C/D, leads to lower heat transfer enhancement and pressure drop. However, C/D = 1, i.e., H/D = 3, of a staggered array configuration exhibits the highest heat transfer enhancement, followed by the cases of C/D = 0 and C/D = 2, i.e., H/D = 4 or 2, respectively.

  15. 18. SHEAR PIN, UNIT 24 GORGE POWERHOUSE. THE WICKET GATES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. SHEAR PIN, UNIT 24 GORGE POWERHOUSE. THE WICKET GATES ON THE TURBINE ARE EACH EQUIPPED WITH A SHEAR PIN AND OIL PRESSURE GAUGE. IF A GATE JAMS, THE PIN SMEARS AND THE CHANGE IN OIL PRESSURE TRIGGERS AN ALARM, 1989. - Skagit Power Development, Gorge Powerhouse, On Skagit River, 0.4 mile upstream from Newhalem, Newhalem, Whatcom County, WA

  16. Article mounting and position adjustment stage

    DOEpatents

    Cutburth, Ronald W.; Silva, Leonard L.

    1988-01-01

    An improved adjustment and mounting stage of the type used for the detection of laser beams is disclosed. A ring sensor holder has locating pins on a first side thereof which are positioned within a linear keyway in a surrounding housing for permitting reciprocal movement of the ring along the keyway. A rotatable ring gear is positioned within the housing on the other side of the ring from the linear keyway and includes an oval keyway which drives the ring along the linear keyway upon rotation of the gear. Motor-driven single-stage and dual (x, y) stage adjustment systems are disclosed which are of compact construction and include a large laser transmission hole.

  17. Article mounting and position adjustment stage

    DOEpatents

    Cutburth, R.W.; Silva, L.L.

    1988-05-10

    An improved adjustment and mounting stage of the type used for the detection of laser beams is disclosed. A ring sensor holder has locating pins on a first side thereof which are positioned within a linear keyway in a surrounding housing for permitting reciprocal movement of the ring along the keyway. A rotatable ring gear is positioned within the housing on the other side of the ring from the linear keyway and includes an oval keyway which drives the ring along the linear keyway upon rotation of the gear. Motor-driven single-stage and dual (x, y) stage adjustment systems are disclosed which are of compact construction and include a large laser transmission hole. 6 figs.

  18. Effects of mesh density and flow conditioning in simulating 7-pin wire wrapped fuel pins.

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J. G.; Babin, B. R.; Pointer, W. D.; Fischer, P. F.

    2008-01-01

    In response to the goals outlined by the U.S. Department of Energy's Global Nuclear Energy Partnership program, Argonne National Laboratory has initiated an effort to create an integrated multi-physics multi-resolution thermal hydraulic simulation tool package for the evaluation of nuclear power plant design and safety. As part of this effort, the applicability of a variety of thermal hydraulic analysis methods for the prediction of heat transfer and fluid dynamics in the wire-wrapped fuel-rod bundles found in a fast reactor core is being evaluated. The work described herein provides an initial assessment of the capabilities of the general purpose commercial computational fluid dynamics code Star-CD for the prediction of fluid dynamic characteristics in a wire wrapped fast reactor fuel assembly. A 7-pin wire wrapped fuel rod assembly based on the dimensions of fuel elements in the concept Advanced Burner Test Reactor [1] was simulated for different mesh densities and domain configurations. A model considering a single axial span of the wire wrapped fuel assembly was initially used to assess mesh resolution effects. The influence of the inflow/outflow boundary conditions on the predicted flow fields in the single-span model were then investigated through comparisons with the central span region of models which included 3 and 5 spans. The change in grid refinement had minimal impact on the inter-channel exchange within the assembly resulting in roughly a 5 percent maximum difference. The central span of the 3-span and 5-span cases exhibits much higher velocities than the single span case,, with the largest deviation (15 to 20 percent) occurring furthest away from the wire spacer grids in the higher velocity regions. However, the differences between predicted flow fields in the 3-span and 5-span models are minimal.

  19. A Biomechanical Comparison Of Pin Configurations Used For Percutaneous Pinning Of Distal Tibia Fractures In Children

    PubMed Central

    Brantley, Justin; Majumdar, Aditi; Jobe, J. Taylor; Kallur, Antony; Salas, Christina

    2016-01-01

    Background Percutaneous pin fixation is often used in conjunction with closed-reduction and cast immobilization to treat pediatric distal tibia fractures. The goal of this procedure is to maintain reduction and provide improved stabilization, in effort to facilitate a more anatomic union. We conducted a biomechanical study of the torsional and bending stability of three commonly used pin configurations in distal tibia fracture fixation. Methods A transverse fracture was simulated at the metaphyseal/diaphyseal junction in 15 synthetic tibias. Each fracture was reduced and fixed with two Kirschner wires, arranged in one of three pin configurations: parallel, retrograde, medial to lateral pins entering at the medial malleolus distal to the fracture (group A); parallel, antegrade, medial to lateral pins entering at the medial diaphysis proximal to the fracture (group B); or a cross-pin configuration with one retrograde, medial to lateral pin entering the medial malleolus distal to the fracture and the second an antegrade, medial to lateral pin entering at the medial diaphysis proximal to the fracture (group C). Stability of each construct was assessed by resistance to torsion and bending. Results Resistance to external rotation stress was significantly higher in group A than group B (P = 0.044). Resistance to internal rotation stress was significantly higher in group C than group B (P = 0.003). There was no significant difference in torsional stiffness when comparing group A with group C. Under a medial-directed load, group B and C specimens were significantly stiffer than those in group A (28 N/mm and 24 N/mm vs. 14 N/mm for A; P = 0.001 and P = 0.009, respectively) Conclusions None of the three pin configurations produced superior results with respect to all variables studied. Group A configuration provided the highest resistance to external rotation forces, which is the most clinically relevant variable under short-cast immobilization. Parallel, retrograde, medial

  20. Effects of three intramedullary pinning techniques on proximal pin location and articular damage in the canine tibia.

    PubMed

    Dixon, B C; Tomlinson, J L; Wagner-Mann, C C

    1994-01-01

    The effects of three different techniques of intramedullary (IM) pin placement on pin location and incidence of stifle joint injury were evaluated using 70 cadaver canine tibiae after mid-disphyseal osteotomy. In 50 tibiae, pins were placed retrograde in either a nondirected (group A) or a craniomedially directed fashion (group B) with 25 tibiae in each group. Pins were driven normograde (group N) in 20 tibiae. All the stifles were dissected to qualitatively evaluate pin interference with different joint structures. End-on radiographs of the tibial plateaus were used to quantitatively evaluate pin location. Interference with the caudal cruciate ligament, medial meniscus, lateral meniscus, or meniscal ligaments was not observed in any group. There was a significant association between pinning technique and incidence of involvement of the cranial cruciate ligament (P < .005), patella (P < .001), patellar ligament (P < .005), and femoral condyle (P < .01). Pin location for group A was significantly different from either other group in a cranial-caudal direction (P = .003), and was significantly different from group N in a medial-lateral direction (P = .005). No significant difference was observed between pin location for groups B and N in either plane. It was concluded that although nondirected retrograde pinning cannot be recommended, retrograde pins directed craniomedially may be an acceptable technique for the repair of proximal to mid-diaphyseal tibial fractures if care is taken to properly seat the pins. PMID:7871708

  1. Bending stiffness of conical and standard external fixator pins.

    PubMed

    Oni, O O; Capper, M; Soutis, C

    1993-10-01

    The bending stiffnesses of a conical and a standard external fixator pin have been compared. The pins were inserted into pilot holes in a piece of teak hardwood and loads of different magnitudes were applied at a fixed moment arm. Force-deflection curves were obtained for each pin, and stiffness (newtons per metre) and percentage stiffness reduction were calculated for each pilot hole size. The results show that deflection increased (i.e. stiffness decreased) with increasing force or diameter of pilot hole. This loss of stiffness was linear for the standard pin but was bimodal for the conical pin. PMID:8286671

  2. A comparative study of two types of sternal pins used for sternal closure: poly-L-lactide sternal pins versus uncalcined hydroxyapatite poly-L-lactide sternal pins.

    PubMed

    Fu, Xian-ming; Oshima, Hideki; Araki, Yoshimori; Narita, Yuji; Mutsuga, Masato; Okada, Noritaka; Tsunekawa, Tomohiro; Usui, Akihiko

    2013-12-01

    Bioabsorbable poly-L-lactide (PLLA) sternal pins are applied to reinforce sternal closure during cardiac surgery. However, these pins lack osteoconductivity. A new bioabsorbable sternal pin with osteoconductivity, made of uncalcined hydroxyapatite and poly-L-lactide (u-HA-PLLA) has been developed. This study was conducted to compare the two types of sternal pins in terms of sternal stability and healing after median sternotomy. Between October 2006 and January 2012, 105 patients underwent aortic surgery for aortic aneurysms or dissection via median sternotomy and sternal closure with sternal pins. Among these patients, 75 were followed for 12 months using serial computed tomography (CT). PLLA sternal pins were used in 30 patients (group A) and u-HA-PLLA sternal pins were used in 45 patients (group B). The incidence rates of transverse sternal dehiscence, anteroposterior displacement and complete sternal fusion were evaluated using CT. The cross-sectional cortical bone density area (CBDA) of the sternum around the sternal pins was examined to evaluate the osteoconductivity of the sternal pins. There were no significant differences between groups A and B in the sternal dehiscence rate (6.7 vs 4.4 %), sternal displacement rate (6.7 vs 2.2 %) or 12-month sternal fusion rate (63.3 vs 73.3 %). The CBDA around the sternal pins significantly increased between discharge and 12 months after surgery in group B (P < 0.001) but not in group A. These results show that u-HA-PLLA sternal pins exhibit certain osteoconductivity; however, both PLLA and u-HA-PLLA sternal pins provide comparable clinical outcomes regarding sternal stability and healing. PMID:23996506

  3. Quenched pinning and collective dislocation dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Ovaska, Markus; Laurson, Lasse; Alava, Mikko J.

    2015-01-01

    Several experiments show that crystalline solids deform in a bursty and intermittent fashion. Power-law distributed strain bursts in compression experiments of micron-sized samples, and acoustic emission energies from larger-scale specimens, are the key signatures of the underlying critical-like collective dislocation dynamics - a phenomenon that has also been seen in discrete dislocation dynamics (DDD) simulations. Here we show, by performing large-scale two-dimensional DDD simulations, that the character of the dislocation avalanche dynamics changes upon addition of sufficiently strong randomly distributed quenched pinning centres, present e.g. in many alloys as immobile solute atoms. For intermediate pinning strength, our results adhere to the scaling picture of depinning transitions, in contrast to pure systems where dislocation jamming dominates the avalanche dynamics. Still stronger disorder quenches the critical behaviour entirely. PMID:26024505

  4. Quenched pinning and collective dislocation dynamics.

    PubMed

    Ovaska, Markus; Laurson, Lasse; Alava, Mikko J

    2015-01-01

    Several experiments show that crystalline solids deform in a bursty and intermittent fashion. Power-law distributed strain bursts in compression experiments of micron-sized samples, and acoustic emission energies from larger-scale specimens, are the key signatures of the underlying critical-like collective dislocation dynamics - a phenomenon that has also been seen in discrete dislocation dynamics (DDD) simulations. Here we show, by performing large-scale two-dimensional DDD simulations, that the character of the dislocation avalanche dynamics changes upon addition of sufficiently strong randomly distributed quenched pinning centres, present e.g. in many alloys as immobile solute atoms. For intermediate pinning strength, our results adhere to the scaling picture of depinning transitions, in contrast to pure systems where dislocation jamming dominates the avalanche dynamics. Still stronger disorder quenches the critical behaviour entirely. PMID:26024505

  5. Scroll waves pinned to moving heterogeneities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ke, Hua; Zhang, Zhihui; Steinbock, Oliver

    2015-03-01

    Three-dimensional excitable systems can self-organize vortex patterns that rotate around one-dimensional phase singularities called filaments. In experiments with the Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction and numerical simulations, we pin these scroll waves to translating inert cylinders and demonstrate the controlled repositioning of their rotation centers. If the pinning site extends only along a portion of the filament, the phase singularity is stretched out along the trajectory of the heterogeneity, which effectively writes the singularity into the system. Its trailing end point follows the heterogeneity with a lower velocity. This velocity, its dependence on the placement of the anchor, and the shape of the filament are explained by a curvature flow model.

  6. Influential Factors of Z-pin Bridging Force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chenghu; Wu, Zhe; Meng, Zhijun; Li, Muchen

    2014-08-01

    The nine-pin bridging force experiments are conducted at room temperature (20 °C) and at 75 °C. A three-dimensional z-pin unit cell for finite element analysis is established to study the influential factors of the z-pin bridging force. The experimental results show that the z-pin bridging force at 75 °C is smaller than at 20 °C. The z-pin bridging force is highly dependent on the surface area of z-pin. Therefore, it is feasible that the bridging force can be enhanced by changing the surface area of z-pin. The study also shows that the lay-up sequences of laminates have an impact on the z-pin bridging force, and the maximum bridging force of z-pin rises with the increase elastic modules of the resin. The z-pin bridging force reduces with rise of temperature for two reasons: The elastic modulus and shear strength of the resin decrease with rise of temperature, forcing the bridging force to reduce and the resin makes some clamping effect on z-pin, pushing the bridging force to increase.

  7. Statistical-summation theory of weak flux-line pins

    SciTech Connect

    Kerchner, H.R.

    1981-01-01

    A random array of flux-line-pinning defects is shown to produce a large, bulk pinning-force density even if the pins individually fail to satisfy the threshold criterion. By using a simplified model defect-FLL interaction, approximate expressions are obtained for the critical pinning-force density F/sub c/. The theory predicts that in materials with a weak pinning structure F/sub c/ depends only weakly on magnetic field except within narrow peaks near the upper and lower critical fields. The width of the peaks increases as the pinning is made stronger. A broad, dome-shaped peak in F/sub c/ and scaling-law behavior, both of which are usually associated with large F/sub c/ materials, is the strong-pinning limit of this theory.

  8. Thermal performance of a pin-fin assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babus'hag, R. F.; Akintunde, K.; Probert, S. D.

    1995-02-01

    The steady-state forced-convective cooling of a horizontally based pin-fin assembly has been investigated experimentally. The circular pin-fins protruded vertically upward from a horizontal base plate. For each in-line or staggered combination of specified pin-fins and air-flow rate, the optimal spacing-to-diameter ratios corresponding to the maximum rate of heat dissipation from the array have been deduced. The effect of changing the thermal conductivity of the pin-fin material has been studied. Designers should aim to have a spacing-to-diameter ratio of 1.04, in the span-wise direction, for all pin-fin systems; whereas, the ratio for the pin-fins in the stream-wise direction will depend upon what fin material is used and whether or not the pin-fins are staggered or aligned.

  9. Channelized coplanar waveguide pin-diode switches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ponchak, G. E.; Simons, R. N.

    1989-01-01

    Three different types of p-i-n diode, reflective CPW switches are presented. The first two switches are the series and the shunt mounted diode switches. Each has achieved greater than 15 dB of isolation over a broad bandwidth. The third switch is a narrow band, high isolation switched filter which has achieved 19 dB of isolation. Equivalent circuits and measured performance for each switch is presented.

  10. Timing analysis of PWR fuel pin failures

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, K.R.; Wade, N.L.; Katsma, K.R.; Siefken, L.J. ); Straka, M. )

    1992-09-01

    Research has been conducted to develop and demonstrate a methodology for calculation of the time interval between receipt of the containment isolation signals and the first fuel pin failure for loss-of-coolant accidents (LOCAs). Demonstration calculations were performed for a Babcock and Wilcox (B W) design (Oconee) and a Westinghouse (W) four-loop design (Seabrook). Sensitivity studies were performed to assess the impacts of fuel pin bumup, axial peaking factor, break size, emergency core cooling system availability, and main coolant pump trip on these times. The analysis was performed using the following codes: FRAPCON-2, for the calculation of steady-state fuel behavior; SCDAP/RELAP5/MOD3 and TRACPF1/MOD1, for the calculation of the transient thermal-hydraulic conditions in the reactor system; and FRAP-T6, for the calculation of transient fuel behavior. In addition to the calculation of fuel pin failure timing, this analysis provides a comparison of the predicted results of SCDAP/RELAP5/MOD3 and TRAC-PFL/MOD1 for large-break LOCA analysis. Using SCDAP/RELAP5/MOD3 thermal-hydraulic data, the shortest time intervals calculated between initiation of containment isolation and fuel pin failure are 10.4 seconds and 19.1 seconds for the B W and W plants, respectively. Using data generated by TRAC-PF1/MOD1, the shortest intervals are 10.3 seconds and 29.1 seconds for the B W and W plants, respectively. These intervals are for a double-ended, offset-shear, cold leg break, using the technical specification maximum peaking factor and applied to fuel with maximum design bumup. Using peaking factors commensurate widi actual bumups would result in longer intervals for both reactor designs. This document also contains appendices A through J of this report.

  11. Rotary pin-in-maze discriminator

    DOEpatents

    Benavides, G.L.

    1997-05-06

    A discriminator apparatus and method that discriminates between a unique signal and any other (incorrect) signal are disclosed. The unique signal is a sequence of events; each event can assume one of two possible event states. Given the unique signal, a maze wheel is allowed to rotate fully in one direction. Given an incorrect signal, both the maze wheel and a pin wheel lock in position. 4 figs.

  12. Performance measurements of hybrid PIN diode arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Jernigan, J.G.; Arens, J.F. . Space Sciences Lab.); Kramer, G. ); Collins, T.; Herring, J. ); Shapiro, S.L. ); Wilburn, C.D. )

    1990-05-01

    We report on the successful effort to develop hybrid PIN diode arrays and to demonstrate their potential as components of vertex detectors. Hybrid pixel arrays have been fabricated by the Hughes Aircraft Co. by bump bonding readout chips developed by Hughes to an array of PIN diodes manufactured by Micron Semiconductor Inc. These hybrid pixel arrays were constructed in two configurations. One array format having 10 {times} 64 pixels, each 120 {mu}m square, and the other format having 256 {times} 256 pixels, each 30 {mu}m square. In both cases, the thickness of the PIN diode layer is 300 {mu}m. Measurements of detector performance show that excellent position resolution can be achieved by interpolation. By determining the centroid of the charge cloud which spreads charge into a number of neighboring pixels, a spatial resolution of a few microns has been attained. The noise has been measured to be about 300 electrons (rms) at room temperature, as expected from KTC and dark current considerations, yielding a signal-to-noise ratio of about 100 for minimum ionizing particles. 4 refs., 13 figs.

  13. Gravitropism of Arabidopsis thaliana Roots Requires the Polarization of PIN2 toward the Root Tip in Meristematic Cortical Cells[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Abidur; Takahashi, Maho; Shibasaki, Kyohei; Wu, Shuang; Inaba, Takehito; Tsurumi, Seiji; Baskin, Tobias I.

    2010-01-01

    In the root, the transport of auxin from the tip to the elongation zone, referred to here as shootward, governs gravitropic bending. Shootward polar auxin transport, and hence gravitropism, depends on the polar deployment of the PIN-FORMED auxin efflux carrier PIN2. In Arabidopsis thaliana, PIN2 has the expected shootward localization in epidermis and lateral root cap; however, this carrier is localized toward the root tip (rootward) in cortical cells of the meristem, a deployment whose function is enigmatic. We use pharmacological and genetic tools to cause a shootward relocation of PIN2 in meristematic cortical cells without detectably altering PIN2 polarization in other cell types or PIN1 polarization. This relocation of cortical PIN2 was negatively regulated by the membrane trafficking factor GNOM and by the regulatory A1 subunit of type 2-A protein phosphatase (PP2AA1) but did not require the PINOID protein kinase. When GNOM was inhibited, PINOID abundance increased and PP2AA1 was partially immobilized, indicating both proteins are subject to GNOM-dependent regulation. Shootward PIN2 specifically in the cortex was accompanied by enhanced shootward polar auxin transport and by diminished gravitropism. These results demonstrate that auxin flow in the root cortex is important for optimal gravitropic response. PMID:20562236

  14. ADJUSTABLE DOUBLE PULSE GENERATOR

    DOEpatents

    Gratian, J.W.; Gratian, A.C.

    1961-08-01

    >A modulator pulse source having adjustable pulse width and adjustable pulse spacing is described. The generator consists of a cross coupled multivibrator having adjustable time constant circuitry in each leg, an adjustable differentiating circuit in the output of each leg, a mixing and rectifying circuit for combining the differentiated pulses and generating in its output a resultant sequence of negative pulses, and a final amplifying circuit for inverting and square-topping the pulses. (AEC)

  15. Adjustable sutures in children.

    PubMed

    Engel, J Mark; Guyton, David L; Hunter, David G

    2014-06-01

    Although adjustable sutures are considered a standard technique in adult strabismus surgery, most surgeons are hesitant to attempt the technique in children, who are believed to be unlikely to cooperate for postoperative assessment and adjustment. Interest in using adjustable sutures in pediatric patients has increased with the development of surgical techniques specific to infants and children. This workshop briefly reviews the literature supporting the use of adjustable sutures in children and presents the approaches currently used by three experienced strabismus surgeons. PMID:24924284

  16. Continuous Monitoring of Pin Tip Wear and Penetration into Rock Surface Using a New Cerchar Abrasivity Testing Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamzaban, Mohammad-Taghi; Memarian, Hossein; Rostami, Jamal

    2014-03-01

    Evaluation of rock abrasivity is important when utilizing mechanized excavation in various mining and civil projects in hard rock. This is due to the need for proper selection of the rock cutting tools, estimation of the tool wear, machine downtime for cutter change, and costs. The Cerchar Abrasion Index (CAI) test is one of the simplest and most widely used methods for evaluating rock abrasivity. In this study, a new device for the determination of frictional forces and depth of pin penetration into the rock surface during a Cerchar test is discussed. The measured parameters were used to develop an analytical model for calculation of the size of the wear flat (and hence a continuous measure of CAI as the pin moves over the sample) and pin tip penetration into the rock during the test. Based on this model, continuous curves of CAI changes and pin tip penetration into the rock were plotted. Results of the model were used for introduction of a new parameter describing rock-pin interaction and classification of rock abrasion.

  17. Sorting signals for PIN1 trafficking and localization.

    PubMed

    Marcote, María Jesús; Sancho-Andrés, Gloria; Soriano-Ortega, Esther; Aniento, Fernando

    2016-08-01

    PIN-FORMED (PIN) family proteins direct polar auxin transport based on their asymmetric (polar) localization at the plasma membrane. In the case of PIN1, it mainly localizes to the basal (rootward) plasma membrane domain of stele cells in root meristems. Vesicular trafficking events, such as clathrin-dependent PIN1 endocytosis and polar recycling, are probably the main determinants for PIN1 polar localization. However, very little is known about the signals which may be involved in binding the μ-adaptin subunit of clathrin adaptor complexes (APs) for sorting of PIN1 within clathrin-coated vesicles, which can determine its trafficking and localization. We have performed a systematic mutagenesis analysis to investigate putative sorting motifs in the hydrophilic loop of PIN1. We have found that a non-canonical motif, based in a phenylalanine residue, through the binding of μA(μ2)- and μD(μ3)-adaptin, is important for PIN1 endocytosis and for PIN1 traffcking along the secretory pathway, respectively. In addition, tyrosine-based motifs, which also bind different μ-adaptins, could also contribute to PIN1 trafficking and localization. PMID:27603315

  18. The effect of indole-3-carbinol on PIN1 and PIN2 in Arabidopsis roots

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Ella; Nisani, Sophia; Sela, Mor; Behar, Hila; Chamovitz, Daniel A

    2015-01-01

    The phytochemical indole-3-carbinol is produced in Cruciferous plants upon tissue rapture and deters herbivores. We recently showed that indole-3-carbinol modulates auxin signaling in root tips. Here we present transcript profiling experiments which further reveal the influence of indole-3-carbinol on auxin signaling in root tips, and also show that I3C affects auxin transporters. Brief treatment with indole-3-carbinol led to a reduction in the amount of PIN1 and to mislocalization of PIN2. PMID:26252364

  19. The effect of indole-3-carbinol on PIN1 and PIN2 in Arabidopsis roots.

    PubMed

    Katz, Ella; Nisani, Sophia; Sela, Mor; Behar, Hila; Chamovitz, Daniel A

    2015-01-01

    The phytochemical indole-3-carbinol is produced in Cruciferous plants upon tissue rapture and deters herbivores. We recently showed that indole-3-carbinol modulates auxin signaling in root tips. Here we present transcript profiling experiments which further reveal the influence of indole-3-carbinol on auxin signaling in root tips, and also show that I3C affects auxin transporters. Brief treatment with indole-3-carbinol led to a reduction in the amount of PIN1 and to mislocalization of PIN2. PMID:26252364

  20. Apparatus and methods for installing, removing and adjusting an inner turbine shell section relative to an outer turbine shell section

    DOEpatents

    Leach, David; Bergendahl, Peter Allen; Waldo, Stuart Forrest; Smith, Robert Leroy; Phelps, Robert Kim

    2001-01-01

    A turbine includes upper and lower inner shell sections mounting the nozzles and shrouds and which inner shell is supported by pins secured to a surrounding outer shell. To disassemble the turbine for access to the inner shell sections and rotor, an alignment fixture is secured to the lower outer shell section and has pins engaging the inner shell section. To disassemble the turbine, the inner shell weight is transferred to the lower outer shell section via the alignment fixture and cradle pins. Roller assemblies are inserted through access openings vacated by support pins to permit rotation of the lower inner shell section out of and into the lower outer shell section during disassembly and assembly. The alignment fixture includes adjusting rods for adjusting the inner shell axially, vertically, laterally and about a lateral axis. A roller over-cage is provided to rotate the inner shell and a dummy shell to facilitate assembly and disassembly in the field.

  1. A mechanism to pin skyrmions in chiral magnets.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ye-Hua; Li, You-Quan

    2013-02-20

    We propose a mechanism to pin skyrmions in chiral magnetic thin films by introducing local maxima of magnetic exchange strength as pinning centers. The local maxima can be realized by engineering the local density of itinerant electrons. The stationary properties and the dynamical pinning and depinning processes of an isolated skyrmion around a pinning center are studied. We carry out numerical simulations of the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert (LLG) equation and find a way to control the position of an isolated skyrmion in a pinning center lattice using electric current pulses. The results are verified by a Thiele equation analysis. We also find that the critical current to depin a skyrmion, which is estimated to have order of magnitude 10(7)-10(8) A m(-2), has linear dependence on the pinning strength. PMID:23339842

  2. A mechanism to pin skyrmions in chiral magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ye-Hua; Li, You-Quan

    2013-02-01

    We propose a mechanism to pin skyrmions in chiral magnetic thin films by introducing local maxima of magnetic exchange strength as pinning centers. The local maxima can be realized by engineering the local density of itinerant electrons. The stationary properties and the dynamical pinning and depinning processes of an isolated skyrmion around a pinning center are studied. We carry out numerical simulations of the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert (LLG) equation and find a way to control the position of an isolated skyrmion in a pinning center lattice using electric current pulses. The results are verified by a Thiele equation analysis. We also find that the critical current to depin a skyrmion, which is estimated to have order of magnitude 107-108 A m-2, has linear dependence on the pinning strength.

  3. Contact stresses in pin-loaded orthotropic plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyer, M. W.; Klang, E. C.

    1984-01-01

    The effects of pin elasticity, friction, and clearance on the stresses near the hole in a pin-loaded orthotropic plate are described. The problem is modeled as a contact elasticity problem using complex variable theory, the pin and the plate being two elastic bodies interacting through contact. This modeling is in contrast to previous works which assumed that the pin is rigid or that it exerts a known cosinusoidal radial traction on the hole boundary. Neither of these approaches explicitly involves a pin. A collocation procedure and iteration were used to obtain numerical results for a variety of plate and pin elastic properties and various levels of friction and clearance. Collocation was used to enforce the boundary and iteration was used to find the contact and no-slip regions on the boundary. Details of the numerical scheme are discussed.

  4. Flux-pinning mechanisms for improving cryogenic segmented mirror performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gersh-Range, Jessica; Arnold, William R.; Lehner, David; Stahl, H. Philip

    2015-01-01

    Although large cryogenic space telescopes may provide a means of answering compelling astrophysics questions, the required increase in the primary mirror diameter presents technical challenges. Larger primaries are more flexible, and cryogenic mirrors are typically very lightly damped-the material damping is negligible, and common damping methods break down. To address these challenges, we propose placing flux-pinning mechanisms along the edges of adjacent mirror segments. These mechanisms consist of a collection of magnets and superconductors, and like flexures, they preferentially allow motion in specific degrees of freedom. Motion in nonpreferred degrees of freedom is resisted by a force analogous to a damped spring force, and the stiffness and damping can be adjusted independently. As an example, we consider simple mechanisms consisting of an inexpensive magnet and a single superconductor. These mechanisms provide increasing resistance as the magnet and superconductor-or mirror segments attached to each-come closer to colliding. These mechanisms, with typical stiffness and damping values on the order of 5000 N/m and 5 kg/s, respectively, also provide modest improvements to the mirror performance. Greater gains can be achieved by using stronger magnets or smaller separations, or by placing nonmagnetic conductive materials near the mechanism.

  5. Current-voltage characteristics in collective pinning

    SciTech Connect

    de la Cruz, F.; Luzuriaga, J.; Martinez, E.N.; Osquiguil, E.J.

    1987-11-01

    The critical-current curves of amorphous samples which exhibit collective flux pinning have been analyzed, and it was found that the nonlinear part can be fitted by an expression of the form V(I)approx.((I-I/sub K/)/I/sub K/)/sup zeta/. This form, which could be due to critical behavior, is consistent with an interpretation of the unpinning of vortices in the collective regime as a phase transition between the static flux-line lattice (FLL) and the FLL in steady-state movement as has been proposed by Fisher.

  6. Semiconducting glasses with flux pinning inclusions

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, William L.; Poon, Siu-Joe; Duwez, Pol E.

    1981-01-01

    A series of amorphous superconducting glassy alloys containing 1% to 10% by volume of flux pinning crystalline inclusions have been found to have potentially useful properties as high field superconducting magnet materials. The alloys are prepared by splat cooling by the piston and anvil technique. The alloys have the composition (TM).sub.90-70 (M).sub.10-30 where TM is a transition metal selected from at least one metal of Groups IVB, VB, VIB, VIIB or VIIIB of the Periodic Table such as Nb, Mo, Ru, Zr, Ta, W or Re and M is at least one metalloid such as B, P, C, N, Si, Ge or Al.

  7. Nanobubble stability induced by contact line pinning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yawei; Zhang, Xianren

    2013-01-01

    The origin of surface nanobubbles stability is a controversial topic since nanobubbles were first observed. Here, we propose a mechanism that the three-phase contact line pinning, which results from the intrinsic nanoscale physical roughness or chemical heterogeneities of substrates, leads to stable surface nanobubbles. Using the constrained lattice density functional theory (LDFT) and kinetic LDFT, we prove thermodynamically and dynamically that the state with nanobubbles is in fact a thermodynamical metastable state. The mechanism consistent with the classical nucleation theory can interpret most of experimental characteristics for nanobubbles qualitatively, and predict relationships among the gas-side nanobubble contact angle, nanobubble size, and chemical potential.

  8. Alignment Tool For Inertia Welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, Gary L.

    1991-01-01

    Compact, easy-to-use tool aligns drive bar of inertia welder over hole in stub. Ensures drive bar concentric to hole within 0.002 in. (0.051 mm.). Holds two batteries and light bulb. Electrical circuit completed, providing current to bulb when pin in contact with post. When pin centered in post hole, it does not touch post, and lamp turns off. Built for use in making repair welds on liquid-oxygen-injector posts in Space Shuttle main engine. Version having suitably modified dimensions used to facilitate alignment in other forests of post.

  9. The influence of an electrostatic pin chuck on EUV mask flatness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dicks, Gerald A.; Mikkelson, Andrew R.; Engelstad, Roxann L.

    2004-12-01

    The development of a low-distortion mask is of prime importance to Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) Lithography. The mask consists of a standard ultra low expansion (ULE®) substrate measuring 152.4 mm x 152.4 mm x 6.35 mm, with a 280 nm thick reflective multilayer deposited on the top surface. Nonflatness of the mask patterned surface will manifest itself as image placement errors on the device wafer. Bottom surface nonflatness can interfere with securely holding the mask in the patterning and exposure tools as well as exacerbating patterned surface nonflatness. Of great concern is the effect of the mounting technique employed in the patterning and exposure tools on mask flatness. One such design, the electrostatic pin chuck, consists of a 'bed of pins' on the top surface of the chuck that will support the EUV mask during patterning and exposure. The pin design has been proposed to minimize the likelihood of particulates becoming lodged between the mask and chuck that would adversely distort the mask. To ensure that a chuck of this design will minimize image placement errors while still securely holding the mask, three-dimensional finite element (FE) models have been created to predict the influence of the electrostatic pin chuck on mask flatness. Legendre polynomials were used as input to the models to represent experimentally-measured substrate bottom surface shapes. The FE results illustrate that mechanical modeling provides an invaluable tool for quantifying the influence of mounting techniques on mask flatness, and, ultimately optimizing system parameters to successfully meet the stringent requirements at the 45-nm node (and below).

  10. Retractable pin dual in-line package test clip

    SciTech Connect

    Bandzuch, G.S.; Kosslow, W.J

    1993-12-31

    This invention is a Dual In-line Package (DIP) test clip for use when troubleshooting circuits containing DIP integrated circuits. This test clip is a significant improvement over existing DIP test clips in that it has retractable pins which will permit troubleshooting without risk of accidentally shorting adjacent pins together when moving probes to different pins on energized circuits or when the probe is accidentally bumped while taking measurements.

  11. Retractable pin dual in-line package test clip

    DOEpatents

    Bandzuch, Gregory S.; Kosslow, William J.

    1996-01-01

    This invention is a Dual In-Line Package (DIP) test clip for use when troubleshooting circuits containing DIP integrated circuits. This test clip is a significant improvement over existing DIP test clips in that it has retractable pins which will permit troubleshooting without risk of accidentally shorting adjacent pins together when moving probes to different pins on energized circuits or when the probe is accidentally bumped while taking measurements.

  12. Pinning synchronization of discrete dynamical networks with delay coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Ranran; Peng, Mingshu; Zuo, Jun

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the pinning synchronization analysis for nonlinear coupled delayed discrete dynamical networks with the identical or nonidentical topological structure. Based on the Lyapunov stability theory, pinning control method and linear matrix inequalities, several adaptive synchronization criteria via two kinds of pinning control method are obtained. Two examples based on Rulkov chaotic system are included to illustrate the effectiveness and verification of theoretical analysis.

  13. Development of 3D pseudo pin-by-pin calculation methodology in ANC

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, B.; Mayhue, L.; Huria, H.; Ivanov, B.

    2012-07-01

    Advanced cores and fuel assembly designs have been developed to improve operational flexibility, economic performance and further enhance safety features of nuclear power plants. The simulation of these new designs, along with strong heterogeneous fuel loading, have brought new challenges to the reactor physics methodologies currently employed in the industrial codes for core analyses. Control rod insertion during normal operation is one operational feature in the AP1000{sup R} plant of Westinghouse next generation Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) design. This design improves its operational flexibility and efficiency but significantly challenges the conventional reactor physics methods, especially in pin power calculations. The mixture loading of fuel assemblies with significant neutron spectrums causes a strong interaction between different fuel assembly types that is not fully captured with the current core design codes. To overcome the weaknesses of the conventional methods, Westinghouse has developed a state-of-the-art 3D Pin-by-Pin Calculation Methodology (P3C) and successfully implemented in the Westinghouse core design code ANC. The new methodology has been qualified and licensed for pin power prediction. The 3D P3C methodology along with its application and validation will be discussed in the paper. (authors)

  14. Percutaneous pinning of fifth carpal-metacarpal fracture-dislocations: an alternative pin trajectory.

    PubMed

    Saing, Minn H; Lee, Sue Y; Raphael, James S

    2008-09-01

    Traditional management of unstable fourth and fifth carpal-metacarpal (CMC) fracture-dislocations (fx-dislocs) of the hand includes closed reduction and percutaneous pinning (CRPP) versus open reduction internal fixation (ORIF). Traditional trajectory of pin placement is toward the base of the hook of the hamate. Our case series of CMC fx-dislocs treated with this trajectory led to the development of ulnar deep motor branch symptoms (sxs). We attempt to propose an alternative trajectory that could lower the chance of iatrogenic injury. Five fresh frozen cadaveric specimens underwent percutaneous pinning of the fifth CMC joint using fluoroscopic guidance. Each cadaver was dissected, and the proximity of the deep motor branch of the ulnar nerve was measured in relation to a pin that penetrated the volar cortex. Our results confirm the close proximity of the deep motor branch of the ulnar nerve to the volar cortex of the hamate and demonstrate the potential for iatrogenic injury during CRPP of the fifth CMC fx-dislocs, especially with penetration of the volar cortex. By demonstrating the close proximity of the deep motor branch to the volar cortex of the hamate in cadavers, we highlight the potential for iatrogenic injury with CRPP of CMC fx-dislocs as seen in our case series. We recommend a more midaxial starting point on the proximal metacarpal with a trajectory aimed at the midbody of the hamate to prevent penetration of the hamate volar cortex and limit the chances of iatrogenic injury. PMID:18780105

  15. Percutaneous Pinning of Fifth Carpal–Metacarpal Fracture–Dislocations: An Alternative Pin Trajectory

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sue Y.; Raphael, James S.

    2008-01-01

    Traditional management of unstable fourth and fifth carpal–metacarpal (CMC) fracture–dislocations (fx–dislocs) of the hand includes closed reduction and percutaneous pinning (CRPP) versus open reduction internal fixation (ORIF). Traditional trajectory of pin placement is toward the base of the hook of the hamate. Our case series of CMC fx–dislocs treated with this trajectory led to the development of ulnar deep motor branch symptoms (sxs). We attempt to propose an alternative trajectory that could lower the chance of iatrogenic injury. Five fresh frozen cadaveric specimens underwent percutaneous pinning of the fifth CMC joint using fluoroscopic guidance. Each cadaver was dissected, and the proximity of the deep motor branch of the ulnar nerve was measured in relation to a pin that penetrated the volar cortex. Our results confirm the close proximity of the deep motor branch of the ulnar nerve to the volar cortex of the hamate and demonstrate the potential for iatrogenic injury during CRPP of the fifth CMC fx–dislocs, especially with penetration of the volar cortex. By demonstrating the close proximity of the deep motor branch to the volar cortex of the hamate in cadavers, we highlight the potential for iatrogenic injury with CRPP of CMC fx–dislocs as seen in our case series. We recommend a more midaxial starting point on the proximal metacarpal with a trajectory aimed at the midbody of the hamate to prevent penetration of the hamate volar cortex and limit the chances of iatrogenic injury. PMID:18780105

  16. The Scaling Rule and Fluxon Core Pinning in a High-Field Superconductor with Artificially Introduced Pins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooley, Lance David

    Flux pinning affects virtually every aspect of high-field superconductivity. Its fundamental mechanism(s) are in principle derived from a complicated theory, but are in practice generally accessed through measuring the field dependence of the bulk flux pinning force (F _{p}(B)). The central piece of information is the shape of the F_{p }(B) curve: It is generally accepted that if, and only if, the curve's shape is constant while the temperature or pin dimension changes, one pinning mechanism is dominant (the 'scaling rule'). During the course of this thesis, we established that the shape of F_{p}(B) is affected by the statistical distribution of the elementary pinning forces (f_{p}). Contrary to prior beliefs, it was concluded that the shape of the bulk pinning force curve for fluxon core pinning is constant, when the distribution is broad, only if the microstructure is fractal. The peak of the F_ {p}(B) curve occurs at a lower field prior models predict, regardless of whether the shape of the curve is constant. When the distribution is narrow, a constant shape occurs, and has the shape predicted for core pinning and direct summation. Thus, the bulk pinning force curve and the elementary pinning mechanism are directly related by the scaling rule only when the f_ {p} distribution is narrow. Within this context, core pinning has been investigated with a specially fabricated Nb-Ti composite having artificially introduced pins, for which the f_{p } distribution is as narrow as can be made. By design, core pinning should be dominant; the shape of the F_{p}(B) curve does not, however, have the predicted form. The results can be explained by a new pinning mechanism, which incorporates the proximity effect and an anisotropic fluxon core, as proposed by Gurevich. It is concluded that the shape of the bulk pinning force curve is very sensitive to the proximity effect, and it can have a peak at a higher field than was previously thought possible for core pinning. The scaling

  17. Heat transfer in a fuel pin shipping container. [IDENT 1578

    SciTech Connect

    Ingham, J.G.

    1980-11-11

    Maximum cladding temperatures occur when the IDENT 1578 fuel pin shipping container is installed in the T-3 Cask. The maximum allowable cladding temperature of 800/sup 0/F is reached when the rate of energy deposited in the 19-pin basket reaches 400 watts. Since 45% of the energy which is generated in the fuel escapes the 19-pin basket without being deposited, mostly gamma energy, the maximum allowable rate of heat generation is 400/.55 = 727 watts. Similarly, the maximum allowable cladding temperature of 800/sup 0/F is reached when the rate of energy deposited in the 40-pin basket reaches 465 watts. Since 33% of the energy which is generated in the fuel escapes the 40-pin basket without being deposited, mostly gamma energy, the maximum allowable rate of heat generation is 465/.66 = 704 watts. The IDENT 1578 fuel pin shipping container therefore meets its thermal design criteria. IDENT 1578 can handle fuel pins with a decay heat load of 600 watts while maintaining the maximum fuel pin cladding temperature below 800/sup 0/F. The emissivities which were determined from the test results for the basket tubes and container are relatively low and correspond to new, shiny conditions. As the IDENT 1578 container is exposed to high temperatures for extended periods of time during the transportation of fuel pins, the emissivities will probably increase. This will result in reduced temperatures.

  18. Contact line pinning and the relationship between nanobubbles and substrates.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yawei; Wang, Jianjun; Zhang, Xianren; Wang, Wenchuan

    2014-02-01

    We report a theoretical study of nanobubble stabilization on a substrate by contact line pinning. In particular, we predict the magnitude of the pinning force required to stabilize a nanobubble and the threshold values of the pinning force that the substrate can provide. We show that the substrate chemistry and the local structures of substrate heterogeneity together determine whether or not surface nanobubbles are stable. We find that for stable nanobubbles, the contact angles are independent of substrate chemistry as its effects are cancelled out by the pinning effect. This prediction is in agreement with available experimental data. PMID:24511966

  19. Positioning and locking device for fuel pin to grid attachment

    DOEpatents

    Frick, Thomas M.; Wineman, Arthur L.

    1976-01-01

    A positioning and locking device for fuel pin to grid attachment provides an inexpensive means of positively positioning and locking the individual fuel pins which make up the driver fuel assemblies used in nuclear reactors. The device can be adapted for use with a currently used attachment grid assembly design and insures that the pins remain in their proper position throughout the in-reactor life of the assembly. This device also simplifies fuel bundle assembly in that a complete row of fuel pins can be added to the bundle during each step of assembly.

  20. Contact line pinning and the relationship between nanobubbles and substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yawei; Wang, Jianjun; Zhang, Xianren; Wang, Wenchuan

    2014-02-01

    We report a theoretical study of nanobubble stabilization on a substrate by contact line pinning. In particular, we predict the magnitude of the pinning force required to stabilize a nanobubble and the threshold values of the pinning force that the substrate can provide. We show that the substrate chemistry and the local structures of substrate heterogeneity together determine whether or not surface nanobubbles are stable. We find that for stable nanobubbles, the contact angles are independent of substrate chemistry as its effects are cancelled out by the pinning effect. This prediction is in agreement with available experimental data.

  1. Epigallocatechin-gallate Suppresses Tumorigenesis by Directly Targeting Pin1

    SciTech Connect

    Urusova, Darya V.; Shim, Jung-Hyun; Kim, Dong Joon; Jung, Sung Keun; Zykova, Tatyana A.; Carper, Andria; Bode, Ann M.; Dong, Zigang

    2011-09-01

    The most active anticancer component in green tea is epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG). The human peptidyl prolyl cis/trans isomerase (Pin1) plays a critical role in oncogenic signaling. Herein, we report the X-ray crystal structure of the Pin1/EGCG complex resolved at 1.9 Å resolution. Notably, the structure revealed the presence of EGCG in both the WW and PPIase domains of Pin1. The direct binding of EGCG with Pin1 was confirmed and the interaction inhibited Pin1 PPIase activity. In addition, proliferation of cells expressing Pin1 was inhibited and tumor growth in a xenograft mouse model was suppressed. The binding of EGCG with Arg17 in the WW domain prevented the binding of c-Jun, a well-known Pin1 substrate. EGCG treatment corresponded with a decreased abundance of cyclin D1 and diminution of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-l3-acetate–induced AP-1 or NF-κB promoter activity in cells expressing Pin1. Overall, these results showed that EGCG directly suppresses the tumor-promoting effect of Pin1.

  2. Thermal analysis of the FSP-1 fuel pin irradiation test

    SciTech Connect

    Lyon, W.F. III.

    1990-07-25

    Thermal analysis of a pin from the FSP-1 fuels irradiation test has been completed. The purpose of the analysis was to provide predictions of fuel pin temperatures, determine the flow regime within the lithium annulus of the test assembly, and provide a standardized model for a consistent basis of comparison between pins within the test assembly. The calculations have predicted that the pin is operating at slightly above the test design temperatures and that the flow regime within the lithium annulus is a laminar buoyancy driven flow. 7 refs., 5 figs.

  3. Effects of pin shape and array orientation on heat transfer and pressure loss in pin fin arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metzger, D. E.; Fan, C. S.; Haley, S. W.

    1984-01-01

    In order to reduce the cooling airflow required by gas turbine blades, two families of pin fin array geometries which may potentially improve such air-cooled turbine blade airfoils' internal cooling performance are experimentally studied. One family uses circular cross section pins with various array orientations relative to the mean flow direction. The other family employs pins with an oblong cross section, again with various orientations. Heat transfer and pressure loss results indicate that the use of circular pins whose array orientation varies between the staggered and the inline can, in some cases, increase heat transfer while decreasing pressure loss. Elongated pins increased heat transfer, but with increased pressure loss. Pin surface heat transfer coefficients are double the endwall values.

  4. Optimizing Dynamical Network Structure for Pinning Control

    PubMed Central

    Orouskhani, Yasin; Jalili, Mahdi; Yu, Xinghuo

    2016-01-01

    Controlling dynamics of a network from any initial state to a final desired state has many applications in different disciplines from engineering to biology and social sciences. In this work, we optimize the network structure for pinning control. The problem is formulated as four optimization tasks: i) optimizing the locations of driver nodes, ii) optimizing the feedback gains, iii) optimizing simultaneously the locations of driver nodes and feedback gains, and iv) optimizing the connection weights. A newly developed population-based optimization technique (cat swarm optimization) is used as the optimization method. In order to verify the methods, we use both real-world networks, and model scale-free and small-world networks. Extensive simulation results show that the optimal placement of driver nodes significantly outperforms heuristic methods including placing drivers based on various centrality measures (degree, betweenness, closeness and clustering coefficient). The pinning controllability is further improved by optimizing the feedback gains. We also show that one can significantly improve the controllability by optimizing the connection weights. PMID:27067020

  5. Optimizing Dynamical Network Structure for Pinning Control.

    PubMed

    Orouskhani, Yasin; Jalili, Mahdi; Yu, Xinghuo

    2016-01-01

    Controlling dynamics of a network from any initial state to a final desired state has many applications in different disciplines from engineering to biology and social sciences. In this work, we optimize the network structure for pinning control. The problem is formulated as four optimization tasks: i) optimizing the locations of driver nodes, ii) optimizing the feedback gains, iii) optimizing simultaneously the locations of driver nodes and feedback gains, and iv) optimizing the connection weights. A newly developed population-based optimization technique (cat swarm optimization) is used as the optimization method. In order to verify the methods, we use both real-world networks, and model scale-free and small-world networks. Extensive simulation results show that the optimal placement of driver nodes significantly outperforms heuristic methods including placing drivers based on various centrality measures (degree, betweenness, closeness and clustering coefficient). The pinning controllability is further improved by optimizing the feedback gains. We also show that one can significantly improve the controllability by optimizing the connection weights. PMID:27067020

  6. Optimizing Dynamical Network Structure for Pinning Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orouskhani, Yasin; Jalili, Mahdi; Yu, Xinghuo

    2016-04-01

    Controlling dynamics of a network from any initial state to a final desired state has many applications in different disciplines from engineering to biology and social sciences. In this work, we optimize the network structure for pinning control. The problem is formulated as four optimization tasks: i) optimizing the locations of driver nodes, ii) optimizing the feedback gains, iii) optimizing simultaneously the locations of driver nodes and feedback gains, and iv) optimizing the connection weights. A newly developed population-based optimization technique (cat swarm optimization) is used as the optimization method. In order to verify the methods, we use both real-world networks, and model scale-free and small-world networks. Extensive simulation results show that the optimal placement of driver nodes significantly outperforms heuristic methods including placing drivers based on various centrality measures (degree, betweenness, closeness and clustering coefficient). The pinning controllability is further improved by optimizing the feedback gains. We also show that one can significantly improve the controllability by optimizing the connection weights.

  7. Development of a linear pin wear test machine. [304 ss on 3. 50 maraging steel

    SciTech Connect

    Schmale, D.T.; Bourcier, R.J.

    1987-04-01

    In support of a study of the mechanical properties of amorphous alloys produced by laser surface melting, a linear pin wear test machine has been developed and constructed. The machine repeatedly follows a single straight path in one direction through the use of simple kinematic principles. The wear pin is held in a tone arm-like assembly which rides on an off-center rotating bearing. Wear track length can be adjusted by varying bearing eccentricity and tone-arm offset, while wear track location may be changed by specimen translation via two micrometer mounted ball slides. Frictional force is measured by using a load cell mounted on precision bearings while displacement is monitored by using a precalibrated LVDT. The specimen holder is designed to hold irregular specimens up to 0.46 x 1.90 x 2.54 cm. Selected frictional load and displacement data are recorded using a digital oscilloscope. Results of tests performed on an annealed 304 stainless steel specimen using a 350 maraging steel pin are presented.

  8. DigiPINS: a database for vertebrate exonic single nucleotide polymorphisms and its application to cancer association studies.

    PubMed

    Navratil, Vincent; Penel, Simon; Delmotte, Stéphane; Mouchiroud, Dominique; Gautier, Christian; Aouacheria, Abdel

    2008-04-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), which are the most abundant form of genetic variations in numerous organisms, have emerged as important tools for the study of complex genetic traits and deciphering of genome evolution. High-throughput genome sequencing projects worldwide provide an unprecedented opportunity for whole-genome SNP analysis in a variety of species. To facilitate SNP discovery in vertebrates, we have developed a web-based, user-friendly, and fully automated application, DigiPINS, for genome-wide identification of exonic SNPs from EST data. Currently, the database can be used to the mining of exonic SNPs in six complete genomes (Homo sapiens, Mus musculus, Rattus norvegicus, Canis familiaris, Gallus gallus and Danio rerio). In addition to providing information on sequence conservation, DigiPINS allows compilation of comprehensive sets of polymorphisms within cancer candidate genes or identification of novel cancer markers, making it potentially useful for cancer association studies. The DigiPINS server is available via the internet at http://pbil.univ-lyon1.fr/gem/DigiPINS/query_DigiPINS.php. PMID:17988782

  9. Adjusting the Chain Gear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koloc, Z.; Korf, J.; Kavan, P.

    The adjustment (modification) deals with gear chains intermediating (transmitting) motion transfer between the sprocket wheels on parallel shafts. The purpose of the adjustments of chain gear is to remove the unwanted effects by using the chain guide on the links (sliding guide rail) ensuring a smooth fit of the chain rollers into the wheel tooth gap.

  10. Adjustment to Recruit Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Betty S.

    The thesis examines problems of adjustment encountered by new recruits entering the military services. Factors affecting adjustment are discussed: the recruit training staff and environment, recruit background characteristics, the military's image, the changing values and motivations of today's youth, and the recruiting process. Sources of…

  11. Percutaneous pinning of fractures of the distal radius.

    PubMed

    Alm-Paulsen, Paal Sandoe; Rod, Oyvind; Rød, Kristian; Rajabi, Benjamin; Russwurm, Harald; Finsen, Vilhjalmur

    2012-09-01

    Reduction of fractures of the distal radius is often supplemented with percutaneous pinning, but there is little evidence that this affects the clinical outcome. A total of 43 patients with pinned, and 296 with conservatively-treated, fractures were reviewed a mean of 6 (range 3-13) years after injury. We found controls among the conservatively-treated patients who matched 30 of the patients with pinned fractures with respect to age, sex, trauma energy, and radiographic measurements at injury. Clinical and radiological results of the two groups were compared and contrasted. There was a trend for better radiological results in patients with pinned fractures, but not significantly so, and no difference in clinical variables. We identified seven published randomised studies in which pinning was compared with reduction and plaster of Paris alone. Most reported better radiological results at review. The three smallest studies with the shortest follow-up reported better clinical outcome for pinned fractures, while the remaining four studies found no significant clinical benefit from pinning. Although the radiological results were improved by percutaneous pinning in addition to reduction and plaster of Paris, the clinical outcome in extra-articular and simple intra-articular fractures seemed unaffected. PMID:22694081

  12. Origin of pinning enhancement in a ferromagnet-superconductor bilayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cieplak, Marta Z.; Cheng, X. M.; Chien, C. L.; Sang, Hai

    2005-01-01

    Vortex pinning has been studied for the superconducting Nb film covering ferromagnetic Co /Pt multilayer with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy, in which the magnetization reversal proceeds via domain-wall motion. Large enhancement of pinning in the Nb film has been observed in the final stages of the reversal process, and we demonstrate that it is caused by residual uninverted dendrite-shaped magnetic domains.

  13. The pin-amalgam restoration. Part 1. A review.

    PubMed

    Evans, J R; Wetz, J H

    1977-01-01

    A review of the literature indicates that the use of pins to support amalgam or cast gold restorations in advanced caries in posterior teeth is a quick and relatively inexpensive method of restoring teeth otherwise doomed to extraction. However, the use of pins demands a careful and skillful dentist who understands the morphology of these teeth and the proper use of the materials if injury to the pulp, accidental perforations, crazing of the dentin, and splitting of teeth are to be prevented. Until more objective and controlled studies are completed, the use of cemented pins vs. self-threading pins remains a matter of empirical and personal preference. It is clear that success in the use of any pin or pins depends more on the dentist's skill and judgment than on the particular type of pin technique used. In order to more objectively evaluate the use of pin-amalgam restorations, Part 11 of this study will analyze the results obtained in the Clinic at Tufts University School of Dental Medicine. PMID:318695

  14. Optical fuel pin scanner. [Patent application; for reading identifications

    DOEpatents

    Kirchner, T.L.; Powers, H.G.

    1980-12-09

    This patent relates to an optical identification system developed for post-irradiation disassembly and analysis of fuel bundle assemblies. The apparatus is designed to be lowered onto a stationary fuel pin to read identification numbers or letters imprinted on the circumference of the top fuel pin and cap. (DLC)

  15. Heat transfer coefficients for staggered arrays of short pin fins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanfossen, G. J.

    1981-01-01

    Short pin fins are often used to increase that heat transfer to the coolant in the trailing edge of a turbine blade. Due primarily to limits of casting technology, it is not possible to manufacture pins of optimum length for heat transfer purposes in the trailing edge region. In many cases the pins are so short that they actually decrease the total heat transfer surface area compared to a plain wall. A heat transfer data base for these short pins is not available in the literature. Heat transfer coefficients on pin and endwall surfaces were measured for several staggered arrays of short pin fins. The measured Nusselt numbers when plotted versus Reynolds numbers were found to fall on a single curve for all surfaces tested. The heat transfer coefficients for the short pin fins (length to diameter ratios of 1/2 and 2) were found to be about a factor of two lower than data from the literature for longer pin arrays (length to diameter ratios of about 8).

  16. Heat transfer coefficients for staggered arrays of short pin fins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanfossen, G. J.

    1981-01-01

    Short pin fins are often used to increase the heat transfer to the coolant in the trailing edge of a turbine blade. Due primarily to limits of casting technology, it is not possible to manufacture pins of optimum length for heat transfer purposes in the trailing edge region. In many cases the pins are so short that they actually decrease the total heat transfer surface area compared to a plain wall. A heat transfer data base for these short pins is not available in the literature. Heat transfer coefficients on pin and endwall surfaces were measured for several staggered arrays of short pin fins. The measured Nusselt numbers when plotted versus Reynolds numbers were found to fall on a single curve for all surfaces tested. The heat transfer coefficients for the short pin fins (length to diameter ratios of 1/2 and 2) were found to be about a factor of two lower than data from the literature for longer pin arrays (length to diameter ratios of about 8).

  17. Destabilizing interactions among [PSI(+)] and [PIN(+)] yeast prion variants.

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, Michael E; Liebman, Susan W

    2003-01-01

    The yeast Sup35 and Rnq1 proteins can exist in either the noninfectious soluble forms, [psi-] or [pin-], respectively, or the multiple infectious amyloid-like forms called [PSI+] or [PIN+] prion variants (or prion strains). It was previously shown that [PSI+] and [PIN+] prions enhance one another's de novo appearance. Here we show that specific prion variants of [PSI+] and [PIN+] disrupt each other's stable inheritance. Acquiring [PSI+] often impedes the inheritance of particular [PIN+] variants. Conversely, the presence of some [PIN+] variants impairs the inheritance of weak [PSI+] but not strong [PSI+] variants. These same [PIN+] variants generate a single-dot fluorescence pattern when a fusion of Rnq1 and green fluorescent protein is expressed. Another [PIN+] variant, which forms a distinctly different multiple-dot fluorescence pattern, does not impair [PSI+] inheritance. Thus, destabilization of prions by heterologous prions depends upon the variants involved. These findings may have implications for understanding interactions among other amyloid-forming proteins, including those associated with certain human diseases. PMID:14704158

  18. 41. VIEW OF WEST BASCULE LEAF LOCKING PINS IN EXTENDED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    41. VIEW OF WEST BASCULE LEAF LOCKING PINS IN EXTENDED POSITION - PINS FIT INTO MATCHING BUSHINGS ON THE EAST LEAF AND SECURE THE EAST AND WEST SECTIONS WHEN THE BRIDGE IS DOWN. - Tomlinson Bridge, Spanning Quinnipiac River at Forbes Street (U.S. Route 1), New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  19. Prefoldin and Pins synergistically regulate asymmetric division and suppress dedifferentiation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yingjie; Rai, Madhulika; Wang, Cheng; Gonzalez, Cayetano; Wang, Hongyan

    2016-01-01

    Prefoldin is a molecular chaperone complex that regulates tubulin function in mitosis. Here, we show that Prefoldin depletion results in disruption of neuroblast polarity, leading to neuroblast overgrowth in Drosophila larval brains. Interestingly, co-depletion of Prefoldin and Partner of Inscuteable (Pins) leads to the formation of gigantic brains with severe neuroblast overgrowth, despite that Pins depletion alone results in smaller brains with partially disrupted neuroblast polarity. We show that Prefoldin acts synergistically with Pins to regulate asymmetric division of both neuroblasts and Intermediate Neural Progenitors (INPs). Surprisingly, co-depletion of Prefoldin and Pins also induces dedifferentiation of INPs back into neuroblasts, while depletion either Prefoldin or Pins alone is insufficient to do so. Furthermore, knocking down either α-tubulin or β-tubulin in pins- mutant background results in INP dedifferentiation back into neuroblasts, leading to the formation of ectopic neuroblasts. Overexpression of α-tubulin suppresses neuroblast overgrowth observed in prefoldin pins double mutant brains. Our data elucidate an unexpected function of Prefoldin and Pins in synergistically suppressing dedifferentiation of INPs back into neural stem cells. PMID:27025979

  20. Semiconductor P-I-N detector

    SciTech Connect

    Sudharsanan, Rengarajan; Karam, Nasser H.

    2001-01-01

    A semiconductor P-I-N detector including an intrinsic wafer, a P-doped layer, an N-doped layer, and a boundary layer for reducing the diffusion of dopants into the intrinsic wafer. The boundary layer is positioned between one of the doped regions and the intrinsic wafer. The intrinsic wafer can be composed of CdZnTe or CdTe, the P-doped layer can be composed of ZnTe doped with copper, and the N-doped layer can be composed of CdS doped with indium. The boundary layers is formed of an undoped semiconductor material. The boundary layer can be deposited onto the underlying intrinsic wafer. The doped regions are then typically formed by a deposition process or by doping a section of the deposited boundary layer.

  1. Cracking Bank PINs by Playing Mastermind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Focardi, Riccardo; Luccio, Flaminia L.

    The bank director was pretty upset noticing Joe, the system administrator, spending his spare time playing Mastermind, an old useless game of the 70ies. He had fought the instinct of telling him how to better spend his life, just limiting to look at him in disgust long enough to be certain to be noticed. No wonder when the next day the director fell on his chair astonished while reading, on the newspaper, about a huge digital fraud on the ATMs of his bank, with millions of Euros stolen by a team of hackers all around the world. The article mentioned how the hackers had 'played with the bank computers just like playing Mastermind', being able to disclose thousands of user PINs during the one-hour lunch break. That precise moment, a second before falling senseless, he understood the subtle smile on Joe's face the day before, while training at his preferred game, Mastermind.

  2. Pin stack array for thermoacoustic energy conversion

    DOEpatents

    Keolian, Robert M.; Swift, Gregory W.

    1995-01-01

    A thermoacoustic stack for connecting two heat exchangers in a thermoacoustic energy converter provides a convex fluid-solid interface in a plane perpendicular to an axis for acoustic oscillation of fluid between the two heat exchangers. The convex surfaces increase the ratio of the fluid volume in the effective thermoacoustic volume that is displaced from the convex surface to the fluid volume that is adjacent the surface within which viscous energy losses occur. Increasing the volume ratio results in an increase in the ratio of transferred thermal energy to viscous energy losses, with a concomitant increase in operating efficiency of the thermoacoustic converter. The convex surfaces may be easily provided by a pin array having elements arranged parallel to the direction of acoustic oscillations and with effective radial dimensions much smaller than the thicknesses of the viscous energy loss and thermoacoustic energy transfer volumes.

  3. Nb-Ti composite wires with artificial ferromagnetic pins

    SciTech Connect

    Cooley, L.D.; Jablonski, P.D.; Heussner, R.W.

    1997-06-01

    Flux-pinning data for Nb47Ti/Fe and Nb55Ti/Ni composites indicate that ferromagnets pin by a barrier mechanism similar to the mechanism studied by Clem for superconductor/insulator multilayers. However, in contrast to Clem`s model, the optimum pin separation should be rather large, because at smaller pin separations the condition {vert_bar}{psi}{vert_bar}{sup 2} = 0 at the superconductor/ferromagnet interface leads to a reduction of T{sub c} and H{sub c2}. Nonetheless, the authors find no indication in the experimental data that pin separations much smaller than the predicted optimum value adversely affect J{sub c}, T{sub c}, or H{sub c2}.

  4. Retrievable fuel pin end member for a nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Rosa, Jerry M.

    1982-01-01

    A bottom end member (17b) on a retrievable fuel pin (13b) secures the pin (13b) within a nuclear reactor (12) by engaging on a transverse attachment rail (18) with a spring clip type of action. Removal and reinstallation if facilitated as only axial movement of the fuel pin (13b) is required for either operation. A pair of resilient axially extending blades (31) are spaced apart to define a slot (24) having a seat region (34) which receives the rail (18) and having a land region (37), closer to the tips (39) of the blades (31) which is normally of less width than the rail (18). Thus an axially directed force sufficient to wedge the resilient blades (31) apart is required to emplace or release the fuel pin (13b) such force being greater than the axial forces on the fuel pins (13b) which occur during operation of the reactor (12).

  5. Spatial homogenization methods for pin-by-pin neutron transport calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlowski, Tomasz

    For practical reactor core applications low-order transport approximations such as SP3 have been shown to provide sufficient accuracy for both static and transient calculations with considerably less computational expense than the discrete ordinate or the full spherical harmonics methods. These methods have been applied in several core simulators where homogenization was performed at the level of the pin cell. One of the principal problems has been to recover the error introduced by pin-cell homogenization. Two basic approaches to treat pin-cell homogenization error have been proposed: Superhomogenization (SPH) factors and Pin-Cell Discontinuity Factors (PDF). These methods are based on well established Equivalence Theory and Generalized Equivalence Theory to generate appropriate group constants. These methods are able to treat all sources of error together, allowing even few-group diffusion with one mesh per cell to reproduce the reference solution. A detailed investigation and consistent comparison of both homogenization techniques showed potential of PDF approach to improve accuracy of core calculation, but also reveal its limitation. In principle, the method is applicable only for the boundary conditions at which it was created, i.e. for boundary conditions considered during the homogenization process---normally zero current. Therefore, there exists a need to improve this method, making it more general and environment independent. The goal of proposed general homogenization technique is to create a function that is able to correctly predict the appropriate correction factor with only homogeneous information available, i.e. a function based on heterogeneous solution that could approximate PDFs using homogeneous solution. It has been shown that the PDF can be well approximated by least-square polynomial fit of non-dimensional heterogeneous solution and later used for PDF prediction using homogeneous solution. This shows a promise for PDF prediction for off

  6. Three-dimensional pin-to-pin analyses of VVER-440 cores by the MOBY-DICK code

    SciTech Connect

    Lehmann, M.; Mikolas, P.

    1994-12-31

    Nuclear design for the Dukovany (EDU) VVER-440s nuclear power plant is routinely performed by the MOBY-DICK system. After its implementation on Hewlett Packard series 700 workstations, it is able to perform routinely three-dimensional pin-to-pin core analyses. For purposes of code validation, the benchmark prepared from EDU operational data was solved.

  7. SLIT ADJUSTMENT CLAMP

    DOEpatents

    McKenzie, K.R.

    1959-07-01

    An electrode support which permits accurate alignment and adjustment of the electrode in a plurality of planes and about a plurality of axes in a calutron is described. The support will align the slits in the electrode with the slits of an ionizing chamber so as to provide for the egress of ions. The support comprises an insulator, a leveling plate carried by the insulator and having diametrically opposed attaching screws screwed to the plate and the insulator and diametrically opposed adjusting screws for bearing against the insulator, and an electrode associated with the plate for adjustment therewith.

  8. CMS Frailty Adjustment Model

    PubMed Central

    Kautter, John; Pope, Gregory C.

    2004-01-01

    The authors document the development of the CMS frailty adjustment model, a Medicare payment approach that adjusts payments to a Medicare managed care organization (MCO) according to the functional impairment of its community-residing enrollees. Beginning in 2004, this approach is being applied to certain organizations, such as Program of All-Inclusive Care for the Elderly (PACE), that specialize in providing care to the community-residing frail elderly. In the future, frailty adjustment could be extended to more Medicare managed care organizations. PMID:25372243

  9. Remotely Adjustable Hydraulic Pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kouns, H. H.; Gardner, L. D.

    1987-01-01

    Outlet pressure adjusted to match varying loads. Electrohydraulic servo has positioned sleeve in leftmost position, adjusting outlet pressure to maximum value. Sleeve in equilibrium position, with control land covering control port. For lowest pressure setting, sleeve shifted toward right by increased pressure on sleeve shoulder from servovalve. Pump used in aircraft and robots, where hydraulic actuators repeatedly turned on and off, changing pump load frequently and over wide range.

  10. Domain wall pinning for racetrack memory using exchange bias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polenciuc, I.; Vick, A. J.; Allwood, D. A.; Hayward, T. J.; Vallejo-Fernandez, G.; O'Grady, K.; Hirohata, A.

    2014-10-01

    The pinning of domain walls in ferromagnetic (F) wires is one possible technique for the creation of a solid state magnetic memory. Such a system has been under consideration for some time but one of the main limitations is the control of, and non-uniformity of the domain wall pinning. Techniques such as the lithographic definition of notches and steps in the substrate have had some success in creating local pins but have the disadvantage of being expensive to fabricate and the reproducibility of the domain wall pinning strength is limited. In this letter, we report on an alternative strategy to create pins of reproducible strength using crossed ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic (AF) wires such that exchange bias can be introduced at the crossing points. Such a system has the advantage of ease of fabrication and creating domain wall pins of controlled strength by varying the width of the AF wire. We have achieved domain wall pinning field strengths of up to 37 Oe in a system where the AF wire is deposited above the F wire which is comparable to the values achieved using notches.

  11. Dynamics of Glass Forming Liquids with Randomly Pinned Particles

    PubMed Central

    Chakrabarty, Saurish; Karmakar, Smarajit; Dasgupta, Chandan

    2015-01-01

    It is frequently assumed that in the limit of vanishing cooling rate, the glass transition phenomenon becomes a thermodynamic transition at a temperature TK. However, with any finite cooling rate, the system falls out of equilibrium at temperatures near Tg(>TK), implying that the very existence of the putative thermodynamic phase transition at TK can be questioned. Recent studies of systems with randomly pinned particles have hinted that the thermodynamic glass transition may be observed for liquids with randomly pinned particles. This expectation is based on the results of approximate calculations that suggest that the thermodynamic glass transition temperature increases with increasing concentration of pinned particles and it may be possible to equilibrate the system at temperatures near the increased transition temperature. We test the validity of this prediction through extensive molecular dynamics simulations of two model glass-forming liquids in the presence of random pinning. We find that extrapolated thermodynamic transition temperature TK does not show any sign of increasing with increasing pinning concentration. The main effect of pinning is found to be a rapid decrease in the kinetic fragility of the system with increasing pin concentration. Implications of these observations for current theories of the glass transition are discussed. PMID:26206070

  12. Weighted triangulation adjustment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, Walter L.

    1969-01-01

    The variation of coordinates method is employed to perform a weighted least squares adjustment of horizontal survey networks. Geodetic coordinates are required for each fixed and adjustable station. A preliminary inverse geodetic position computation is made for each observed line. Weights associated with each observed equation for direction, azimuth, and distance are applied in the formation of the normal equations in-the least squares adjustment. The number of normal equations that may be solved is twice the number of new stations and less than 150. When the normal equations are solved, shifts are produced at adjustable stations. Previously computed correction factors are applied to the shifts and a most probable geodetic position is found for each adjustable station. Pinal azimuths and distances are computed. These may be written onto magnetic tape for subsequent computation of state plane or grid coordinates. Input consists of punch cards containing project identification, program options, and position and observation information. Results listed include preliminary and final positions, residuals, observation equations, solution of the normal equations showing magnitudes of shifts, and a plot of each adjusted and fixed station. During processing, data sets containing irrecoverable errors are rejected and the type of error is listed. The computer resumes processing of additional data sets.. Other conditions cause warning-errors to be issued, and processing continues with the current data set.

  13. PIN2 Turnover in Arabidopsis Root Epidermal Cells Explored by the Photoconvertible Protein Dendra2

    PubMed Central

    Jásik, Ján; Boggetti, Barbara; Baluška, František; Volkmann, Dieter; Gensch, Thomas; Rutten, Twan; Altmann, Thomas; Schmelzer, Elmon

    2013-01-01

    The steady state level of integral membrane proteins is dependent on a strictly controlled delivery and removal. Here we show that Dendra2, a green-to-red photoconvertible fluorescent protein, is a suitable tool to study protein turnover in plants. We characterized the fluorescence properties of Dendra2 expressed either as a free protein or as a tag in Arabidopsis thaliana roots and optimized photoconversion settings to study protein turnover. Dendra2 was fused to the PIN2 protein, an auxin transporter in the root tip, and by time-lapse imaging and assessment of red and green signal intensities in the membrane after photoconversion we quantified directly and simultaneously the rate of PIN2 delivery of the newly synthesized protein into the plasma membrane as well as the disappearance of the protein from the plasma membrane due to degradation. Additionally we have verified several factors which are expected to affect PIN2 protein turnover and therefore potentially regulate root growth. PMID:23637828

  14. Flux Pinning in the Superconducting Phases of UPt_3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shung, Emmin; Rosenbaum, Thomas F.

    1997-03-01

    We examine the effectiveness of bulk and surface pinning in the superconducting phases of UPt_3. Using high resolution Hall probe arrays, we measure locally the magnetization hysteresis and relaxation in a single crystal torus. The toroidal topology allows us to distinguish surface and bulk pinning effects by measuring the local magnetization over the hole, the bulk, and the interface. By comparing field cooled and zero field cooled measurements, we attempt to correlate the changes in flux pinning with the transition between the two superconducting phases. (R. J. Zieve et. al., Phys. Rev. B51), 12041 (1995)

  15. An Accelerated Method for Testing Soldering Tendency of Core Pins

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Qingyou; Xu, Hanbing; Ried, Paul; Olson, Paul

    2010-01-01

    An accelerated method for testing die soldering has been developed. High intensity ultrasonic vibrations has been used to simulate the die casting conditions such as high pressure and high impingement speed of molten metal on the pin. Soldering tendency of steels and coated pins has been examined. The results indicate that in the low carbon steel/Al system, the onset of soldering is 60 times faster with ultrasonic vibration than that without ultrasonic vibration. In the H13/A380 system, the onset of soldering reaction is accelerated to 30-60 times. Coating significantly reduces the soldering tendency of the core pins.

  16. Fabrication of oxide dispersion strengthened ferritic clad fuel pins

    SciTech Connect

    Zirker, L.R. ); Bottcher, J.H. ); Shikakura, S. ); Tsai, C.L. . Dept. of Welding Engineering); Hamilton, M.L. )

    1991-01-01

    A resistance butt welding procedure was developed and qualified for joining ferritic fuel pin cladding to end caps. The cladding are INCO MA957 and PNC ODS lots 63DSA and 1DK1, ferritic stainless steels strengthened by oxide dispersion, while the end caps are HT9 a martensitic stainless steel. With adequate parameter control the weld is formed without a residual melt phase and its strength approaches that of the cladding. This welding process required a new design for fuel pin end cap and weld joint. Summaries of the development, characterization, and fabrication processes are given for these fuel pins. 13 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Flux pinning by grain boundaries in A15 superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Welch, D.O.; Suenaga, M.; Snead, C.L. Jr.; Hatcher, R.D.

    1985-01-01

    The form of the scaling law for flux pinning by grain boundaries in A15-structure compounds, primarily in the case of Nb3Sn and its alloys, is discussed, and the effect of alloying and radiation damage on the pinning strength is compared with predictions of the electron-scattering theory of the elementary pinning force. In addition, some preliminary results of 2-dimensional computer simulations are discussed in relation to the observed effects of alloying on the form of the scaling law for Nb3Sn.

  18. Three-Dimensional Prints with Pinned Cylindrical Lens Arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasuda, Shin; Shimizu, Keishi

    2013-09-01

    An application of pinned cylindrical lens arrays (CLAs) reported in Opt. Rev. 19 (2012) 287 to three-dimensional prints is presented for the first time. This lens fabrication method features the easy control of the pitch and radius of curvature of the lens arrays by taking advantage of the pinning effect that the partition walls created on a polymeric substrate by scratching with a cutter blade prevent the ultraviolet curable polymer dispensed between the walls from spreading. It is demonstrated in this paper that a three-dimensional print was realized successfully with the pinned CLA fabricated with our method.

  19. Pinning Control in a System of Mobile Chaotic Oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dariani, Reza; Buscarino, Arturo; Fortuna, Luigi; Frasca, Mattia

    2011-09-01

    In this paper, pinning control in a system of moving agents (each one associated to a chaotic dynamical system) has been investigated. In particular, we have studied and compared two different strategies for pinning control and discussed the not trivial relation between synchronization and control of the chaotic agents. Our results show how system parameters like agent density are critical in order to reach a synchronous behavior of the agents as well as to reach global control of the system by only pinning a reduced set of agents.

  20. Child Adjustment and Parent Efficacy Scale-Developmental Disability (CAPES-DD): First psychometric evaluation of a new child and parenting assessment tool for children with a developmental disability.

    PubMed

    Emser, Theresa S; Mazzucchelli, Trevor G; Christiansen, Hanna; Sanders, Matthew R

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the psychometric properties of the Child Adjustment and Parent Efficacy Scale-Developmental Disability (CAPES-DD), a brief inventory for assessing emotional and behavioral problems of children with developmental disabilities aged 2- to 16-years, as well as caregivers' self-efficacy in managing these problems. A sample of 636 parents participated in the study. Children's ages ranged from 2 to 15. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses supported a 21-item, three-factor model of CAPES-DD child adjustment with 13 items describing behavioral (10 items) and emotional (3 items) problems and 8 items describing prosocial behavior. Three additional items were included due to their clinical usefulness and contributed to a Total Problem Score. Factor analyses also supported a 16-item, one factor model of CAPES-DD self-efficacy. Psychometric evaluation of the CAPES-DD revealed scales had satisfactory to very good internal consistency, as well as very good convergent and predictive validity. The instrument is to be in the public domain and free for practitioners and researchers to use. Potential uses of the measure and implications for future validation studies are discussed. PMID:26921524

  1. Groove refinishing tool

    DOEpatents

    Kellogg, Harvey J.; Holm, Robert O.

    1983-01-01

    A groove refinishing tool which utilizes a finishing wheel which is controlled by an air grinder motor. The air grinder motor is mounted on a main body section which is pivotally attached to a shoe element. The shoe element contains guide pins which guide the shoe element on the groove to be refinished. Application of pressure on the main body element compresses a weight counterbalance spring to extend the finishing wheel through the shoe element to refinish the groove surface. A window is provided for viewing the refinishing operation. Milling operations can also be performed by replacing the finishing wheel with a milling wheel.

  2. Equilibrium ultrastable glasses produced by random pinning

    SciTech Connect

    Hocky, Glen M.; Reichman, David R.; Berthier, Ludovic

    2014-12-14

    Ultrastable glasses have risen to prominence due to their potentially useful material properties and the tantalizing possibility of a general method of preparation via vapor deposition. Despite the importance of this novel class of amorphous materials, numerical studies have been scarce because achieving ultrastability in atomistic simulations is an enormous challenge. Here, we bypass this difficulty and establish that randomly pinning the position of a small fraction of particles inside an equilibrated supercooled liquid generates ultrastable configurations at essentially no numerical cost, while avoiding undesired structural changes due to the preparation protocol. Building on the analogy with vapor-deposited ultrastable glasses, we study the melting kinetics of these configurations following a sudden temperature jump into the liquid phase. In homogeneous geometries, we find that enhanced kinetic stability is accompanied by large scale dynamic heterogeneity, while a competition between homogeneous and heterogeneous melting is observed when a liquid boundary invades the glass at constant velocity. Our work demonstrates the feasibility of large-scale, atomistically resolved, and experimentally relevant simulations of the kinetics of ultrastable glasses.

  3. Multi-pin chemiresistors for microchemical sensors

    DOEpatents

    Ho, Clifford K.

    2007-02-20

    A multi-pin chemiresistor for use in microchemical sensors. A pair of free-standing, bare wires is supported by an electrically insulating support, and are oriented parallel to each other and spaced closely together. A free-standing film of a chemically sensitive polymer that swells when exposed to vapors of a volatile chemical is formed in-between the pair of closely-spaced wires by capillary action. Similar in construction to a thermocouple, this "chemicouple" is relatively inexpensive and easy to fabricate by dipping the pair of bare wires into a bath of well-mixed chemiresistor ink. Also, a chemiresistor "stick" is formed by dipping an electrically insulating rod with two or more linear or spiral-wrapped electrical traces into the bath of well-mixed chemiresistor ink, which deposits a uniform coating of the chemically sensitive polymer on the rod and the electrical traces. These "sticks" can be easily removed and replaced from a multi-chemiresistor plug.

  4. Superconducting vortex pinning with artificial magnetic nanostructures.

    SciTech Connect

    Velez, M.; Martin, J. I.; Villegas, J. E.; Hoffmann, A.; Gonzalez, E. M.; Vicent, J. L.; Schuller, I. K.; Univ. de Oviedo-CINN; Unite Mixte de Physique CNRS Univ. Paris-Sud; Univ.Complutense de Madrid; Univ. California at San Diego

    2008-11-01

    This review is dedicated to summarizing the recent research on vortex dynamics and pinning effects in superconducting films with artificial magnetic structures. The fabrication of hybrid superconducting/magnetic systems is presented together with the wide variety of properties that arise from the interaction between the superconducting vortex lattice and the artificial magnetic nanostructures. Specifically, we review the role that the most important parameters in the vortex dynamics of films with regular array of dots play. In particular, we discuss the phenomena that appear when the symmetry of a regular dot array is distorted from regularity towards complete disorder including rectangular, asymmetric, and aperiodic arrays. The interesting phenomena that appear include vortex-lattice reconfigurations, anisotropic dynamics, channeling, and guided motion as well as ratchet effects. The different regimes are summarized in a phase diagram indicating the transitions that take place as the characteristic distances of the array are modified respect to the superconducting coherence length. Future directions are sketched out indicating the vast open area of research in this field.

  5. Pinning of Austenite Grain Boundaries by

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doğan, Ömer N.; Michal, G. M.; Kwon, H.-W.

    1992-08-01

    The growth behavior of austenite grains in the presence of A1N precipitates varies with the temperature and time of anneal. To study this behavior, two iron alloys, (in weight percent) a 0.1 carbon base chemistry with 0.03A1/0.01N and 0.09A1/0.04N, respectively, were annealed between 1000 °C and 1200 °C for times of up to 180 minutes. Using optical microscopy, as many as 1000 austenite grains per heat-treatment condition were measured. Conditions of sup- pressed, abnormal, and uniform grain growth were observed. Using an extraction replica tech- nique, the size, shape, and distribution of the A1N particles were determined using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The largest grain boundary curvatures calculated, using the Hellman- Hillert pinning model, were in close agreement with independent calculations of curvatures using the grain size data. The largest grains in the lognormal size distribution of austenite grains were found to be the ones with the potential to grow to abnormally large sizes.

  6. Alignment Tool For Welding Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, Jeffrey L.; Steffins, Alfred P.

    1992-01-01

    Alignment tool enables accurate positioning of optoelectronic sensor measuring weld penetration. Designed for use on tungsten/inert-gas welding apparatus, used to adjust position of sensor so photodiode puts out maximum signal. Tangs of slotted cap bent slightly inward to provide spring force holding cap snugly on sensor mount. Tool installed and removed without aid of other tools. Length of pointer adjusted with set-screws. Used with variety of gas cup and electrode lengths.

  7. Four-state memory based on a giant and non-volatile converse magnetoelectric effect in FeAl/PIN-PMN-PT structure

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Yanping; Gao, Cunxu; Chen, Zhendong; Xi, Shibo; Shao, Weixia; Zhang, Peng; Chen, Guilin; Li, Jiangong

    2016-01-01

    We report a stable, tunable and non-volatile converse magnetoelectric effect (ME) in a new type of FeAl/PIN-PMN-PT heterostructure at room temperature, with a giant electrical modulation of magnetization for which the maximum relative magnetization change (ΔM/M) is up to 66%. The 109° ferroelastic domain switching in the PIN-PMN-PT and coupling with the ferromagnetic (FM) film via uniaxial anisotropy originating from the PIN-PMN-PT (011) surface are the key roles in converse ME effect. We also propose here a new, four-state memory through which it is possible to modify the remanent magnetism state by adjusting the electric field. This work represents a helpful approach to securing electric-writing magnetic-reading with low energy consumption for future high-density information storage applications. PMID:27417902

  8. Four-state memory based on a giant and non-volatile converse magnetoelectric effect in FeAl/PIN-PMN-PT structure.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yanping; Gao, Cunxu; Chen, Zhendong; Xi, Shibo; Shao, Weixia; Zhang, Peng; Chen, Guilin; Li, Jiangong

    2016-01-01

    We report a stable, tunable and non-volatile converse magnetoelectric effect (ME) in a new type of FeAl/PIN-PMN-PT heterostructure at room temperature, with a giant electrical modulation of magnetization for which the maximum relative magnetization change (ΔM/M) is up to 66%. The 109° ferroelastic domain switching in the PIN-PMN-PT and coupling with the ferromagnetic (FM) film via uniaxial anisotropy originating from the PIN-PMN-PT (011) surface are the key roles in converse ME effect. We also propose here a new, four-state memory through which it is possible to modify the remanent magnetism state by adjusting the electric field. This work represents a helpful approach to securing electric-writing magnetic-reading with low energy consumption for future high-density information storage applications. PMID:27417902

  9. Four-state memory based on a giant and non-volatile converse magnetoelectric effect in FeAl/PIN-PMN-PT structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Yanping; Gao, Cunxu; Chen, Zhendong; Xi, Shibo; Shao, Weixia; Zhang, Peng; Chen, Guilin; Li, Jiangong

    2016-07-01

    We report a stable, tunable and non-volatile converse magnetoelectric effect (ME) in a new type of FeAl/PIN-PMN-PT heterostructure at room temperature, with a giant electrical modulation of magnetization for which the maximum relative magnetization change (ΔM/M) is up to 66%. The 109° ferroelastic domain switching in the PIN-PMN-PT and coupling with the ferromagnetic (FM) film via uniaxial anisotropy originating from the PIN-PMN-PT (011) surface are the key roles in converse ME effect. We also propose here a new, four-state memory through which it is possible to modify the remanent magnetism state by adjusting the electric field. This work represents a helpful approach to securing electric-writing magnetic-reading with low energy consumption for future high-density information storage applications.

  10. Pinning and movement of individual nanoscale magnetic skyrmions via defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanneken, Christian; Kubetzka, André; von Bergmann, Kirsten; Wiesendanger, Roland

    2016-05-01

    An understanding of the pinning of magnetic skyrmions to defects is crucial for the development of future spintronic applications. While pinning is desirable for a precise positioning of magnetic skyrmions it is detrimental when they are to be moved through a material. We use scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) to study the interaction between atomic scale defects and magnetic skyrmions that are only a few nanometers in diameter. The studied pinning centers range from single atom inlayer defects and adatoms to clusters adsorbed on the surface of our model system. We find very different pinning strengths and identify preferred positions of the skyrmion. The interaction between a cluster and a skyrmion can be sufficiently strong for the skyrmion to follow when the cluster is moved across the surface by lateral manipulation with the STM tip.

  11. 13. UNDERSIDE OF THROUGHWAY SHOWING MAIN CHORDS, SUSPENSION EYEBAR PIN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. UNDERSIDE OF THROUGHWAY SHOWING MAIN CHORDS, SUSPENSION EYE-BAR PIN CONNECTORS, LOWER CHORD EYEBARS AND LATERAL BRACING MEMBERS - Spruce Street Bridge, East Spruce Street, 500 Block, spanning Power Canal, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI

  12. 10. EYEBAR PIN CONNECTION JOINING VERTICAL SUSPENSION STRINGER WITH LATERAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. EYEBAR PIN CONNECTION JOINING VERTICAL SUSPENSION STRINGER WITH LATERAL BRACING MEMBERS - Spruce Street Bridge, East Spruce Street, 500 Block, spanning Power Canal, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI

  13. 22. DETAIL VIEW OF NONSUBMERSIBLE TAINTER GATE, SHOWING TRUNNION PIN, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. DETAIL VIEW OF NONSUBMERSIBLE TAINTER GATE, SHOWING TRUNNION PIN, GATE ARM AND GATE GAUGE, LOOKING NORTHWEST - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel, Lock & Dam No. 10, Guttenberg, Clayton County, IA

  14. SP-100 fuel pin performance: Results from irradiation testing

    SciTech Connect

    Makenas, B.J.; Paxton, D.M.; Vaidyanathan, S.; Hoth, C.W.

    1993-09-01

    A total of 86 experimental fuel pins with various fuel, liner, and cladding candidate materials have been irradiated in the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) and the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) reactor as part of the SP-100 fuel pin irradiation testing program. Postirradiation examination results from these fuel pin are key in establishing performance correlations and demonstrating the lifetime and safety of the reactor fuel system. This paper provides a brief description of the in-reactor fuel pin tests and presents the most recent irradiation data on the performance of wrought rhenium (Re) liner material and high density UN fuel at goal burnup of 6 atom percent (at. %). It also provides an overview of the significant variety of other fuel/liner/cladding combinations which were irradiated as part of this program and which may be of interest to more advanced efforts.

  15. 8. Pin connecting and eye bar nest, lower chord, down ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Pin connecting and eye bar nest, lower chord, down river truss 132-0 Span 2 from Hot Metal Bridge. - Monongahela Connecting Railroad Company, Main Bridge, Spanning Monongahela River at mile post 3.1, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  16. 7. Pin connections and eye bar nest, lower chord, up ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Pin connections and eye bar nest, lower chord, up river truss, 321-4 Span 3. - Monongahela Connecting Railroad Company, Main Bridge, Spanning Monongahela River at mile post 3.1, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  17. 6. Pin connection and eye bar nest, lower chord, up ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Pin connection and eye bar nest, lower chord, up river truss, 321-4 Span 3. - Monongahela Connecting Railroad Company, Main Bridge, Spanning Monongahela River at mile post 3.1, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  18. Pinning Susceptibility: The Effect of Dilute, Quenched Disorder on Jamming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graves, Amy L.; Nashed, Samer; Padgett, Elliot; Goodrich, Carl P.; Liu, Andrea J.; Sethna, James P.

    2016-06-01

    We study the effect of dilute pinning on the jamming transition. Pinning reduces the average contact number needed to jam unpinned particles and shifts the jamming threshold to lower densities, leading to a pinning susceptibility, χp . Our main results are that this susceptibility obeys scaling form and diverges in the thermodynamic limit as χp∝|ϕ -ϕc∞|-γp where ϕc∞ is the jamming threshold in the absence of pins. Finite-size scaling arguments yield these values with associated statistical (systematic) errors γp=1.018 ±0.026 (0.291 ) in d =2 and γp=1.534 ±0.120 (0.822 ) in d =3 . Logarithmic corrections raise the exponent in d =2 to close to the d =3 value, although the systematic errors are very large.

  19. 22. PIN CONNECTION AT JUNCTURE OF INTERMEDIATE VERTICAL WITH BOTTOM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. PIN CONNECTION AT JUNCTURE OF INTERMEDIATE VERTICAL WITH BOTTOM CHORD ON PENNSYLVANIA PETIT TRUSS. HYDRAULICALLY FORGED EYES ON ROLLED STOCK. - New River Bridge, Spanning New River at State Route 623, Pembroke, Giles County, VA

  20. 4. DETAIL OF PIN CONNECTION ON SOUTH SIDE. North ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. DETAIL OF PIN CONNECTION ON SOUTH SIDE. - North Branch Quantico Creek Bridge, Prince William Forest Park, on NPS Route 406 spanning north branch of Quantico Creek, Dumfries, Prince William County, VA

  1. 7. DETAIL VIEW OF PIN CONNECTION, NORTH WEB, SHOWING FLOOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. DETAIL VIEW OF PIN CONNECTION, NORTH WEB, SHOWING FLOOR BEANS, STRINGERS, LATTICE BRACING, EYEBARS AND DECKING, LOOKING SOUTH - Four Mile Bridge, Spanning Elk River on County Road 42, Steamboat Springs, Routt County, CO

  2. 9. Detail view (looking east) of pin connection of vertical ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Detail view (looking east) of pin connection of vertical tensile members at the fifth panel point north from south abutment of Moody Bridge. - Moody Bridge, Spanning South Fork Eel River, Garberville, Humboldt County, CA

  3. 11. Detail view (looking east) of pin connection of vertical ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Detail view (looking east) of pin connection of vertical tensile members between panels nine end ten of Moody Bridge - Moody Bridge, Spanning South Fork Eel River, Garberville, Humboldt County, CA

  4. 8. Detail view (looking east) of pin connection of vertical ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Detail view (looking east) of pin connection of vertical member at the third panel point north from south abutment of Moody Bridge. - Moody Bridge, Spanning South Fork Eel River, Garberville, Humboldt County, CA

  5. Pinned orbital moments – A new contribution to magnetic anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Audehm, P.; Schmidt, M.; Brück, S.; Tietze, T.; Gräfe, J.; Macke, S.; Schütz, G.; Goering, E.

    2016-05-01

    Reduced dimensionality and symmetry breaking at interfaces lead to unusual local magnetic configurations, such as glassy behavior, frustration or increased anisotropy. The interface between a ferromagnet and an antiferromagnet is such an example for enhanced symmetry breaking. Here we present detailed X-ray magnetic circular dichroism and X-ray resonant magnetic reflectometry investigations on the spectroscopic nature of uncompensated pinned magnetic moments in the antiferromagnetic layer of a typical exchange bias system. Unexpectedly, the pinned moments exhibit nearly pure orbital moment character. This strong orbital pinning mechanism has not been observed so far and is not discussed in literature regarding any theory for local magnetocrystalline anisotropy energies in magnetic systems. To verify this new phenomenon we investigated the effect at different temperatures. We provide a simple model discussing the observed pure orbital moments, based on rotatable spin magnetic moments and pinned orbital moments on the same atom. This unexpected observation leads to a concept for a new type of anisotropy energy.

  6. 24. PIN CONNECTION AT VERTICAL AND BOTTOM CHORD ON CAMELBACK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. PIN CONNECTION AT VERTICAL AND BOTTOM CHORD ON CAMELBACK THROUGH TRUSS. VERTICAL AND BOTTOM CHORD MADE OF HAND-FORGED EYE BARS - New River Bridge, Spanning New River at State Route 623, Pembroke, Giles County, VA

  7. 21. DETAIL VIEW OF SUBMERSIBLE TAINTER GATE, SHOWING TRUNNION PIN, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. DETAIL VIEW OF SUBMERSIBLE TAINTER GATE, SHOWING TRUNNION PIN, LOOKING NORTH - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel, Lock & Dam No. 8, On Mississippi River near Houston County, MN, Genoa, Vernon County, WI

  8. 23. DETAIL VIEW OF SUBMERSIBLE TAINTER GATE, SHOWING TRUNNION PIN, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. DETAIL VIEW OF SUBMERSIBLE TAINTER GATE, SHOWING TRUNNION PIN, GATE ARM AND GATE GAUGE, LOOKING SOUTHEAST - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel, Lock & Dam No. 10, Guttenberg, Clayton County, IA

  9. Criteria for stochastic pinning control of networks of chaotic maps

    SciTech Connect

    Mwaffo, Violet; Porfiri, Maurizio; DeLellis, Pietro

    2014-03-15

    This paper investigates the controllability of discrete-time networks of coupled chaotic maps through stochastic pinning. In this control scheme, the network dynamics are steered towards a desired trajectory through a feedback control input that is applied stochastically to the network nodes. The network controllability is studied by analyzing the local mean square stability of the error dynamics with respect to the desired trajectory. Through the analysis of the spectral properties of salient matrices, a toolbox of conditions for controllability are obtained, in terms of the dynamics of the individual maps, algebraic properties of the network, and the probability distribution of the pinning control. We demonstrate the use of these conditions in the design of a stochastic pinning control strategy for networks of Chirikov standard maps. To elucidate the applicability of the approach, we consider different network topologies and compare five different stochastic pinning strategies through extensive numerical simulations.

  10. 43. DETAIL OF PINNED UPPER CHORD CONNECTION BETWEEN ANCHOR ARM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    43. DETAIL OF PINNED UPPER CHORD CONNECTION BETWEEN ANCHOR ARM AND SUSPENDED (PANEL 67). VIEW TO NORTH. - Blue Water Bridge, Spanning St. Clair River at I-69, I-94, & Canadian Route 402, Port Huron, St. Clair County, MI

  11. 9. FINIAL DETAIL COVERING PIN CONNECTIONS AND COMPRESSION BLOCK AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. FINIAL DETAIL COVERING PIN CONNECTIONS AND COMPRESSION BLOCK AT EAST INCLINED END POST. NOTE CONSTRUCTION DATE OF 1880. - Peevy Road Bridge, Peevy Road spanning Perkiomen Creek in Upper Hanover Township, East Greenville, Montgomery County, PA

  12. 10. DETAIL VIEW OF PIN CONNECTION, SOUTH WEB, SHOWING TOP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. DETAIL VIEW OF PIN CONNECTION, SOUTH WEB, SHOWING TOP CHORD, INCLINED END POST, EYEBARS, AND PORTAL BRACING, LOOKING SOUTHWEST - Four Mile Bridge, Spanning Elk River on County Road 42, Steamboat Springs, Routt County, CO

  13. 11. VIEW OF PIN CONNECTION, SOUTH WEB, SHOWING TOP CHORD, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. VIEW OF PIN CONNECTION, SOUTH WEB, SHOWING TOP CHORD, LATTICE BRACING, HIP VERTICAL, EYEBARS, TOP LATERAL BRACING, AND STRUTS, LOOKING SOUTH - Four Mile Bridge, Spanning Elk River on County Road 42, Steamboat Springs, Routt County, CO

  14. Pinning impulsive directed coupled delayed dynamical network and its applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chunnan; Wu, Quanjun; Xiang, Lan; Zhou, Jin

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of the present paper is to further investigate pinning synchronisation of a complex delayed dynamical network with directionally coupling by a single impulsive controller. By developing the analysis procedure of pinning impulsive stability for undirected coupled dynamical network previously, some simple yet general criteria of pinning impulsive synchronisation for such directed coupled network are derived analytically. It is shown that a single impulsive controller can always pin a given directed coupled network to a desired homogenous solution, including an equilibrium point, a periodic orbit, or a chaotic orbit. Subsequently, the theoretical results are illustrated by a directed small-world complex network which is a cellular neural network (CNN) and a directed scale-free complex network with the well-known Hodgkin-Huxley neuron oscillators. Numerical simulations are finally given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control methodology.

  15. Procedure of recovery of pin-by-pin fields of energy release in the core of VVER-type reactor for the BIPR-8 code

    SciTech Connect

    Gordienko, P. V. Kotsarev, A. V.; Lizorkin, M. P.

    2014-12-15

    The procedure of recovery of pin-by-pin energy-release fields for the BIPR-8 code and the algorithm of the BIPR-8 code which is used in nodal computation of the reactor core and on which the recovery of pin-by-pin fields of energy release is based are briefly described. The description and results of the verification using the module of recovery of pin-by-pin energy-release fields and the TVS-M program are given.

  16. Ferromagnetic artificial pinning centers in superconducting niobium-titanium wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizzo, Nicholas David

    1997-09-01

    Ferromagnetic artificial pinning centers were used in superconducting NbTi wires to achieve a large critical current density (Jsb{c}) in a magnetic field. The wire processing was developed to make four wires that contained nanometer-sized arrays of Ni or Fe pins inside micron-sized filaments of a Nbsb{0.36}Tiosb{0.64} alloy. The optimum pin size and spacing for maximum Jsb{c} was approximately 5 nm and 30 nm, respectively. A ferromagnetic pin volume of only 2% Ni produced Jsb{c}'s (e.g., 2500 A/mmsp2 at 5 T, 4.2 K) that were comparable to those of other NbTi wires that have pin volumes ranging from 12% to 20%. Therefore, ferromagnetic artificial pins are more effective than nonmagnetic pins for a given volume percent. Saturation Magnetization measurements on the wires showed a correlation between an increase in the amount of Ni remaining ferromagnetic in the wires and an increase in Jsb{c}. These results suggest wires with larger volumes of Ni may have even higher Jsb{c}'s. The critical temperature (Tsb{c}) of the best wire with Ni pins was only slightly depressed (Tsb{c}≈8.6 K) from the measured bulk value for Nbsb{0.36}Tiosb{0.64} (Tsb{c}≈9 K), suggesting that proximity effects from the Ni are not severe. Wires with small superconducting filament diameters (0.3 mum) displayed enhanced Jsb{c} at low fields (B ≤ 5 T) that was attributed to pinning at the filament surfaces. Finally, for wires with large filaments, the optimum bulk pinning force (Fsb{p}) dependence on B was well described by the form Fsb{p}~ bsp{1/2}(1-b) where b = B/Hsb{c2} and Hsb{c2} is the upper critical field of the superconductor. This form is interpreted as a general result of the large optimum pin spacings in our APC wires. This thesis research was the result of a collaboration between Yale University and IGC-Advanced Superconductors (Waterbury, CT).

  17. Pin and roller attachment system for ceramic blades

    DOEpatents

    Shaffer, James E.

    1995-01-01

    In a turbine, a plurality of blades are attached to a turbine wheel by way of a plurality of joints which form a rolling contact between the blades and the turbine wheel. Each joint includes a pin and a pair of rollers to provide rolling contact between the pin and an adjacent pair of blades. Because of this rolling contact, high stress scuffing between the blades and the turbine wheel reduced, thereby inhibiting catastrophic failure of the blade joints.

  18. Pin and roller attachment system for ceramic blades

    DOEpatents

    Shaffer, J.E.

    1995-07-25

    In a turbine, a plurality of blades are attached to a turbine wheel by way of a plurality of joints which form a rolling contact between the blades and the turbine wheel. Each joint includes a pin and a pair of rollers to provide rolling contact between the pin and an adjacent pair of blades. Because of this rolling contact, high stress scuffing between the blades and the turbine wheel reduced, thereby inhibiting catastrophic failure of the blade joints. 3 figs.

  19. Electrically controlled pinning of Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya domain walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Koji; Tretiakov, Oleg A.

    2016-03-01

    We propose a method to all-electrically control a domain-wall position in a ferromagnetic nanowire with Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction. The strength of this interaction can be controlled by an external electric field, which in turn allows a fine tuning of the pinning potential of a spin-spiral domain wall. It allows to create more mobile pinning sites and can also be advantageous for ultra-low power electronics.

  20. Mechanisms of Soldering Formation on Coated Core Pins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Jie; Denouden, Tony; Han, Qingyou

    2012-02-01

    Die soldering is one of the major casting defects during the high-pressure die casting (HPDC) process, causing dimensional inaccuracy of the castings and increased downtimes of the HPDC machine. In this study, we analyzed actually failed core pins to determine the mechanism of soldering and its procedures. The results show that the soldering process starts from a local coating failure, involves a series of intermetallic phase formation from reactions between molten aluminum alloys and the H13 steel pin, and accelerates when an aluminum-rich, face-centered cubic (fcc) phase is formed between the intermetallic phases. It is the formation of the aluminum-rich fcc phase in the reaction region that joins the core pin with the casting, resulting in the sticking of the casting to the core pin. When undercuts are formed on the core pin, the ejection of castings from the die will lead to either a core pin failure or damages to the casting being ejected.

  1. Behaviour of irradiated PHWR fuel pins during high temperature heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viswanathan, U. K.; Unnikrishnan, K.; Mishra, Prerna; Banerjee, Suparna; Anantharaman, S.; Sah, D. N.

    2008-12-01

    Fuel pins removed from an irradiated pressurised heavy water reactor (PHWR) fuel bundle discharged after an extended burn up of 15,000 MWd/tU have been subjected to isothermal heating tests in temperature range 700-1300 °C inside hot-cells. The heating of the fuel pins was carried out using a specially designed remotely operable furnace, which allowed localized heating of about 100 mm length of the fuel pin at one end under flowing argon gas or in air atmosphere. Post-test examination performed in the hot-cells included visual examination, leak testing, dimension measurement and optical and scanning electron microscopy. Fuel pins having internal pressure of 2.1-2.7 MPa due to fission gas release underwent ballooning and micro cracking during heating for 10 min at 800 °C and 900 °C but not at 700 °C. Fuel pin heated at 1300 °C showed complete disruption of cladding in heating zone, due to the embrittlement of the cladding. The examination of fuel from the pin tested at 1300 °C showed presence of large number of bubbles; both intragranular as well as intergranular bubbles. Details of the experiments and the results are presented in this paper.

  2. A complication following ACL reconstruction using bioabsorbable cross-pins.

    PubMed

    Vecchini, Eugenio; Micheloni, Gian Mario; Corbo, Valentina Rita; Perusi, Francesco; Dib, Giovanni; Magnan, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    This is a case of a proximal pin migration after ACL reconstruction in medial soft tissue with pain, inflammatory reaction and functional reduction. 33-year-old male presented at our clinic with a complete ACL rupture. Reconstruction with autogenous gracilis and semitendinosus hamstring tendons was performed and graft fixed in the femoral canal with two PLLA bioabsorbable pins (RIGIDFIX® Cross Pin System). Two months postoperatively the patient presented swelling and pain on the medial side of the knee, full range of motion and negative results at the Lachman and Pivot shift tests. MRI examination showed the superior femoral tunnel crossing both the lateral and medial cortex lodging the pin in the knee's medial soft tissue corresponding to the swelling area reported by the patient. The tendon graft was properly positioned. After surgical removal of the pin through a small skin incision, the pain and swelling promptly subsided allowing the patient return to normal activities in few weeks without any pain. In our opinion the painful swelling of the knee was due to a displacement of the pin that had been accidentally lodged in the soft tissues instead of the bone causing a foreign-body reaction resulting in granuloma formation with local inflammation. This dislodgement could have been due to an inappropriately long femoral tunnel. PMID:27104331

  3. Pinned vortex hopping in a neutron star crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haskell, B.; Melatos, A.

    2016-09-01

    The motion of superfluid vortices in a neutron star crust is at the heart of most theories of pulsar glitches. Pinning of vortices to ions can decouple the superfluid from the crust and create a reservoir of angular momentum. Sudden large-scale unpinning can lead to an observable glitch. In this paper, we investigate the scattering of a free vortex off a pinning potential and calculate its mean free path, in order to assess whether unpinned vortices can skip multiple pinning sites and come close enough to their neighbours to trigger avalanches, or whether they simply hop from one pinning site to its neighbour, giving rise to a more gradual creep. We find that there is a significant range of parameter space in which avalanches can be triggered, thus supporting the hypothesis that they may lie at the origin of pulsar glitches. For realistic values of the pinning force and superfluid drag parameters, we find that avalanches are more likely in the higher density regions of the crust where pinning is stronger. Physical differences in stellar parameters, such as mass and temperature, may lead to a switch between creep-like motion and avalanches, explaining the different characteristics of glitching pulsars.

  4. Dipentamethylene thiuram monosulfide is a novel inhibitor of Pin1

    SciTech Connect

    Tatara, Yota; Lin, Yi-Chin; Bamba, Yoshimasa; Mori, Tadashi; Uchida, Takafumi

    2009-07-03

    Pin1 is involved in eukaryotic cell proliferation by changing the structure and function of phosphorylated proteins. PiB, the Pin1 specific inhibitor, blocks cancer cell proliferation. However, low solubility of PiB in DMSO has limited studies of its effectiveness. We screened for additional Pin1 inhibitors and identified the DMSO-soluble compound dipentamethylene thiuram monosulfide (DTM) that inhibits Pin1 activity with an EC50 value of 4.1 {mu}M. Molecular modeling and enzyme kinetic analysis indicated that DTM competitively inhibits Pin1 activity, with a K{sub i} value of 0.05 {mu}M. The K{sub D} value of DTM with Pin1 was determined to be 0.06 {mu}M by SPR technology. Moreover, DTM specifically inhibited peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase activity in HeLa cells. FACS analysis showed that DTM induced G0 arrest of the HCT116 cells. Our results suggest that DTM has the potential to guide the development of novel antifungal and/or anticancer drugs.

  5. Self-pinning of a nanosuspension droplet: Molecular dynamics simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Baiou; Webb, Edmund B.

    2016-07-01

    Results are presented from molecular dynamics simulations of Pb(l) nanodroplets containing dispersed Cu nanoparticles (NPs) and spreading on solid surfaces. Three-dimensional simulations are employed throughout, but droplet spreading and pinning are reduced to two-dimensional processes by modeling cylindrical NPs in cylindrical droplets; NPs have radius RNP≅3 nm while droplets have initial R0≅42 nm . At low particle loading explored here, NPs in sufficient proximity to the initial solid-droplet interface are drawn into advancing contact lines; entrained NPs eventually bind with the underlying substrate. For relatively low advancing contact angle θadv, self-pinning on entrained NPs occurs; for higher θadv, depinning is observed. Self-pinning and depinning cases are compared and forces on NPs at the contact line are computed during a depinning event. Though significant flow in the droplet occurs in close proximity to the particle during depinning, resultant forces are relatively low. Instead, forces due to liquid atoms confined between the particles and substrate dominate the forces on NPs; that is, for the NP size studied here, forces are interface dominated. For pinning cases, a precursor wetting film advances ahead of the pinned contact line but at a significantly slower rate than for a pure droplet. This is because the precursor film is a bilayer of liquid atoms on the substrate surface but it is instead a monolayer film as it crosses over pinning particles; thus, mass delivery to the bilayer structure is impeded.

  6. Refixation of osteochondral fractures by ultrasound-activated, resorbable pins

    PubMed Central

    Neumann, H.; Schulz, A. P.; Gille, J.; Klinger, M.; Jürgens, C.; Reimers, N.; Kienast, B.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Osteochondral injuries, if not treated adequately, often lead to severe osteoarthritis. Possible treatment options include refixation of the fragment or replacement therapies such as Pridie drilling, microfracture or osteochondral grafts, all of which have certain disadvantages. Only refixation of the fragment can produce a smooth and resilient joint surface. The aim of this study was the evaluation of an ultrasound-activated bioresorbable pin for the refixation of osteochondral fragments under physiological conditions. Methods In 16 Merino sheep, specific osteochondral fragments of the medial femoral condyle were produced and refixed with one of conventional bioresorbable pins, titanium screws or ultrasound-activated pins. Macro- and microscopic scoring was undertaken after three months. Results The healing ratio with ultrasound-activated pins was higher than with conventional pins. No negative heat effect on cartilage has been shown. Conclusion As the material is bioresorbable, no further surgery is required to remove the implant. MRI imaging is not compromised, as it is with implanted screws. The use of bioresorbable pins using ultrasound is a promising technology for the refixation of osteochondral fractures. PMID:23610699

  7. Numerical modeling of pin-fin micro heat exchangers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galvis, E.; Jubran, B. A.; Behdinan, F. Xi. K.; Fawaz, Z.

    2008-04-01

    A micro heat exchanger (MHE) can effectively control the temperature of surfaces in high heat flux applications. In this study, several turbulence models are analyzed using a 3D finite element model of a MHE. The MHE consists of a narrow planar flow passage between flat parallel plates with small cylindrical pin fins spanning these walls. The pin fin array geometry investigated is staggered, with pin diameters of 0.5, 5.1 and 8.5 mm, height to diameter ratio of 1.0 and streamwise (longitudinal) and spanwise (transverse) to diameter ratios of 1.5 and 2.5, respectively. Pressure loss and heat transfer simulated results for 4,000 ≤ Re ≤ 50,000 are reported and compared with previously published numerical and experimental results. It was found that the flat micro pin fin overall thermal performance always exceeds that of the parallel plate counterpart (smooth channel) by a factor of as much as 2.2 for the 8.5 mm diameter pins, and by 4 for the 0.5 mm diameter pins in the investigated Reynolds number range. Further, among the six turbulence models investigated, the RNG model tends to be the best model to predict both the Nusselt number and the friction factor and capture the main feature of the flow field in MHE.

  8. Pinned vortex hopping in a neutron star crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haskell, B.; Melatos, A.

    2016-06-01

    The motion of superfluid vortices in a neutron star crust is at the heart of most theories of pulsar glitches. Pinning of vortices to ions can decouple the superfluid from the crust and create a reservoir of angular momentum. Sudden large scale unpinning can lead to an observable glitch. In this paper we investigate the scattering of a free vortex off a pinning potential and calculate its mean free path, in order to assess whether unpinned vortices can skip multiple pinning sites and come close enough to their neighbours to trigger avalanches, or whether they simply hop from one pinning site to its neighbour, giving rise to a more gradual creep. We find that there is a significant range of parameter space in which avalanches can be triggered, thus supporting the hypothesis that they may lie at the origin of pulsar glitches. For realistic values of the pinning force and superfluid drag parameters we find that avalanches are more likely in the higher density regions of the crust where pinning is stronger. Physical differences in stellar parameters, such as mass and temperature, may lead to a switch between creep-like motion and avalanches, explaining the different characteristics of glitching pulsars.

  9. Comparative stress effects of vented and nonvented self-threading retentive pins.

    PubMed

    Savoca, D E; Schmidt, J R

    1984-08-01

    Longitudinally vented self-threading pins do not demonstrate a significant improvement in the complete seating of the pins or a decrease of dentinal crazing. The link series technique does demonstrate a significant improvement in the complete seating of pins and in the prevention of misalignment of the pins with the channels. PMID:6590837

  10. Dynamical coupled-channels study of {pi}N {right arrow} {pi pi}N reactions.

    SciTech Connect

    Kamano, H.; Julia-Diaz, B.; Lee, T.-S. H.; Matsuyama, A.; Sato, T.; Physics; Jefferson Lab.; Univ. of Barcelona; Shizuoka Univ.; Osaka Univ.

    2009-02-24

    As a step toward performing a complete coupled-channels analysis of the world data of {pi}N,{gamma}*N {yields} {pi}N,{eta}N,{pi}{pi}N reactions, the {pi}N {yields} {pi}{pi}N reactions are investigated starting with the dynamical coupled-channels model developed in Phys. Rev. C 76, 065201 (2007). The channels included are {pi}N,{eta}N, and {pi}{pi}N which has {pi}{Delta},{rho}N, and {sigma}N resonant components. The nonresonant amplitudes are generated from solving a set of coupled-channels equations with the meson-baryon potentials defined by effective Lagrangians. The resonant amplitudes are generated from 16 bare excited nucleon (N*) states that are dressed by the nonresonant interactions as constrained by the unitarity condition. The data of total cross sections and {pi}N and {pi}{pi} invariant mass distributions of {pi} + p {yields} {pi} + {pi} + n, {pi} + {pi}0p and {pi} - p {yields} {pi} + {pi} - n, {pi} - {pi}0p,{pi}0{pi}0n reactions from threshold to the invariant mass W = 2 GeV can be described to a very large extent. We show the importance of the coupled-channels effects and the strong interference among the contributions from the {pi}{Delta},{sigma}N, and {rho}N channels. The large interference between the resonant and nonresonant amplitudes is also demonstrated. Possible future developments are discussed.

  11. Spatially periodic domain wall pinning potentials: Asymmetric pinning and dipolar biasing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metaxas, P. J.; Zermatten, P.-J.; Novak, R. L.; Rohart, S.; Jamet, J.-P.; Weil, R.; Ferré, J.; Mougin, A.; Stamps, R. L.; Gaudin, G.; Baltz, V.; Rodmacq, B.

    2013-02-01

    Domain wall propagation has been measured in continuous, weakly disordered, quasi-two-dimensional, Ising-like magnetic layers that are subject to spatially periodic domain wall pinning potentials. The potentials are generated non-destructively using the stray magnetic field of ordered arrays of magnetically hard [Co/Pt]m nanoplatelets, which are patterned above and are physically separated from the continuous magnetic layer. The effect of the periodic pinning potentials on thermally activated domain wall creep dynamics is shown to be equivalent, at first approximation, to that of a uniform, effective retardation field, Hret, which acts against the applied field, H. We show that Hret depends not only on the array geometry but also on the relative orientation of H and the magnetization of the nanoplatelets. A result of the latter dependence is that wall-mediated hysteresis loops obtained for a set nanoplatelet magnetization exhibit many properties that are normally associated with ferromagnet/antiferromagnet exchange bias systems. These include a switchable bias, coercivity enhancement, and domain wall roughness that is dependent on the applied field polarity.

  12. Antimicrobial efficacy of external fixator pins coated with a lipid stabilized hydroxyapatite/chlorhexidine complex to prevent pin tract infection in a goat model.

    SciTech Connect

    Dejong, E. Schuyler; Deberardino, T. M.; Brooks, D. E.; Nelson, B. J.; Campbell, Allison A.; Bottoni, Craig R.; Pusateri, A. E.; Walton, R. S.; Guymon, C. H.; Mcmanus, Albert T.

    2001-06-01

    Background: Pin tract infection is a common complication of external fixation. An antiinfective external fixator pin might help to reduce the incidence of pin tract infection and improve pin fixation. Methods: Stainless steel and titanium external fixator pins, with and without a lipid stabilized hydroxyapatite/chlorhexidine coating, were evaluated in a goat model. Two pins contaminated with an identifiable Staphylococcus aureus strain were inserted into each tibia of 12 goats. The pin sites were examined daily. On day 14, the animals were killed, and the pin tips cultured. Insertion and extraction torques were measured. Results: Infection developed in 100% of uncoated pins, whereas coated pins demonstrated 4.2% infected, 12.5% colonized, and the remainder, 83.3%, had no growth (p < 0.01). Pin coating decreased the percent loss of fixation torque over uncoated pins (p = 0.04). Conclusion: These results demonstrate that the lipid stabilized hydroxyapatite/chlorhexidine coating was successful in decreasing infection and improving fixation of external fixator pins.

  13. Discovery of novel selenium derivatives as Pin1 inhibitors by high-throughput screening.

    PubMed

    Subedi, Amit; Shimizu, Takeshi; Ryo, Akihide; Sanada, Emiko; Watanabe, Nobumoto; Osada, Hiroyuki

    2016-06-01

    Peptidyl prolyl cis/trans isomerization by Pin1 regulates various oncogenic signals during cancer progression, and its inhibition through multiple approaches has established Pin1 as a therapeutic target. However, lack of simplified screening systems has limited the discovery of potent Pin1 inhibitors. We utilized phosphorylation-dependent binding of Pin1 to its specific substrate to develop a screening system for Pin1 inhibitors. Using this system, we screened a chemical library, and identified a novel selenium derivative as Pin1 inhibitor. Based on structure-activity guided chemical synthesis, we developed more potent Pin1 inhibitors that inhibited cancer cell proliferation. PMID:27120460

  14. Rural to Urban Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abramson, Jane A.

    Personal interviews with 100 former farm operators living in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, were conducted in an attempt to understand the nature of the adjustment process caused by migration from rural to urban surroundings. Requirements for inclusion in the study were that respondents had owned or operated a farm for at least 3 years, had left their…

  15. Self adjusting inclinometer

    DOEpatents

    Hunter, Steven L.

    2002-01-01

    An inclinometer utilizing synchronous demodulation for high resolution and electronic offset adjustment provides a wide dynamic range without any moving components. A device encompassing a tiltmeter and accompanying electronic circuitry provides quasi-leveled tilt sensors that detect highly resolved tilt change without signal saturation.

  16. Self Adjusting Sunglasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Corning Glass Works' Serengeti Driver sunglasses are unique in that their lenses self-adjust and filter light while suppressing glare. They eliminate more than 99% of the ultraviolet rays in sunlight. The frames are based on the NASA Anthropometric Source Book.

  17. Combining Marriage and Career: The Professional Adjustment of Marital Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rizvi, Afroz Haider

    2016-01-01

    In the paper, the researcher attempted to assess Professional Adjustment status and level of teachers according to their marital status on a sample of 792 teachers. Teachers have been classified into two categories viz. married and unmarried. To evaluate the status of professional adjustment of teachers, a tool viz. "Manual on Teachers…

  18. Adjustable cutting guide aligns and positions stacks of material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thiel, A. M.

    1966-01-01

    Adjustable guide tool aligns and positions stacks of material for cutting at various angles. The device adapts its shape to stacks of any corner angle, adjusts to any cutting angle, and quickly aligns the stacks for repeated cutting. With this device, an operator need not place his hands under the knife during alignment.

  19. Tool for Inspecting Alignment of Twinaxial Connectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Christopher R.

    2008-01-01

    A proposed tool would be used to inspect alignments of mating twinaxial-connector assemblies on interconnecting wiring harnesses. More specifically, the tool would be used to inspect the alignment of each contact pin of each connector on one assembly with the corresponding socket in the corresponding connector on the other assembly. It is necessary to inspect the alignment because if mating of the assemblies is attempted when any pin/socket pair is misaligned beyond tolerance, the connection will not be completed and the dielectric material in the socket will be damaged (see Figure 1). Although the basic principle of the tool is applicable to almost any type of mating connector assemblies, the specific geometry of the tool must match the pin-and-socket geometry of the specific mating assemblies to be inspected. In the original application for which the tool was conceived, each of the mating assemblies contains eight twinaxial connectors; the pin diameter is 0.014 in. (.0.35 mm), and the maximum allowable pin/socket misalignment is 0.007 in. (.0.18 mm). Incomplete connections can result in loss of flight data within the functional path to the space shuttle crew cockpit displays. The tool (see Figure 2) would consist mainly of a transparent disk with alignment clocking tabs that can be fitted onto either connector assembly. Sets of circles or equivalent reference markings are affixed to the face of the tool, located at the desired positions of the mating contact pairs. An inspector would simply fit the tool onto a connector assembly, engaging the clocking tabs until the tool fits tightly. The inspector would then align one set of circles positioning a line of sight perpendicular to one contact within the connector assembly. Mis alignments would be evidenced by the tip of a pin contact straying past the inner edge of the circle. Socket contact misalignments would be evidenced by a crescent-shaped portion of the white dielectric appearing within the circle. The tool

  20. Flux Pinning in Superconducting Niobium-Titanium Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKinnell, James Charles

    1990-01-01

    By studying Nb-Ti alloys from Nb44wt%Ti to Nb62wt%Ti the low field (2T) current density has been raised from 6500A/mm^2 (4.2^ circK) with standard Nb46.5wt%Ti to 7400A/mm ^2 with Nb58wt%Ti. When standard processing sequences were used, the alloys containing more than 46.5wt%Ti exhibited non-uniform microstructures following a precipitation heat treatment and the hardness rose from 200 DPN to over 300 DPN. By increasing the cold work prior to heat treatment the non-uniform precipitation was avoided. The amount of cold work needed prior to heat treatment to suppress non-uniform precipitation increased as the Ti content of the alloy increased. The volume fraction of precipitate produced during a given heat treatment also increased as the Ti content of the alloy increased. As the Ti content increased, the peak in the reduced pinning force curve shifted from b = 0.5 to b = 0.25. In order to determine whether the change in the flux pinning properties was due to the change in microstructure or due to enhanced Delta H_{c} pinning as the Ti content was increased, a set of wires with similar microstructures was developed. Their flux pinning behavior showed that the higher Ti alloys have pinning force curves which peak at progressively lower reduced fields. Thus Delta H_{c} pinning becomes the dominant pinning mechanism as the Ti content is increased.

  1. Manifold tool guide

    DOEpatents

    Djordjevic, Aleksandar

    1983-12-27

    A tool guide that makes possible the insertion of cleaning and/or inspection tools into a manifold pipe that will dislocate and extract the accumulated sediment in such manifold pipes. The tool guide basically comprises a right angled tube (or other angled tube as required) which can be inserted in a large tube and locked into a radially extending cross pipe by adjustable spacer rods and a spring-loaded cone, whereby appropriate cleaning tools can be inserted into to cross pipe for cleaning, inspection, etc.

  2. Manifold tool guide

    DOEpatents

    Djordjevic, A.

    1983-12-27

    A tool guide is described that makes possible the insertion of cleaning and/or inspection tools into a manifold pipe that will dislocate and extract the accumulated sediment in such manifold pipes. The tool guide basically comprises a right angled tube (or other angled tube as required) which can be inserted in a large tube and locked into a radially extending cross pipe by adjustable spacer rods and a spring-loaded cone, whereby appropriate cleaning tools can be inserted into the cross pipe for cleaning, inspection, etc. 3 figs.

  3. Manifold tool guide

    DOEpatents

    Djordjevic, A.

    1982-07-08

    A tool guide that makes possible the insertion of cleaning and/or inspection tools into a manifold pipe that will dislocate and extract the accumulated sediment in such manifold pipes. The tool guide basically comprises a right angled tube (or other angled tube as required) which can be inserted in a large tube and locked into a radially extending cross pipe by adjustable spacer rods and a spring-loaded cone, whereby appropriate cleaning tools can be inserted into to cross pipe for cleaning, inspection, etc.

  4. Precision adjustable stage

    DOEpatents

    Cutburth, Ronald W.; Silva, Leonard L.

    1988-01-01

    An improved mounting stage of the type used for the detection of laser beams is disclosed. A stage center block is mounted on each of two opposite sides by a pair of spaced ball bearing tracks which provide stability as well as simplicity. The use of the spaced ball bearing pairs in conjunction with an adjustment screw which also provides support eliminates extraneous stabilization components and permits maximization of the area of the center block laser transmission hole.

  5. Adjustable Autonomy Testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, Jane T.; Schrenkenghost, Debra K.

    2001-01-01

    The Adjustable Autonomy Testbed (AAT) is a simulation-based testbed located in the Intelligent Systems Laboratory in the Automation, Robotics and Simulation Division at NASA Johnson Space Center. The purpose of the testbed is to support evaluation and validation of prototypes of adjustable autonomous agent software for control and fault management for complex systems. The AA T project has developed prototype adjustable autonomous agent software and human interfaces for cooperative fault management. This software builds on current autonomous agent technology by altering the architecture, components and interfaces for effective teamwork between autonomous systems and human experts. Autonomous agents include a planner, flexible executive, low level control and deductive model-based fault isolation. Adjustable autonomy is intended to increase the flexibility and effectiveness of fault management with an autonomous system. The test domain for this work is control of advanced life support systems for habitats for planetary exploration. The CONFIG hybrid discrete event simulation environment provides flexible and dynamically reconfigurable models of the behavior of components and fluids in the life support systems. Both discrete event and continuous (discrete time) simulation are supported, and flows and pressures are computed globally. This provides fast dynamic simulations of interacting hardware systems in closed loops that can be reconfigured during operations scenarios, producing complex cascading effects of operations and failures. Current object-oriented model libraries support modeling of fluid systems, and models have been developed of physico-chemical and biological subsystems for processing advanced life support gases. In FY01, water recovery system models will be developed.

  6. Grain boundary curvature and grain growth kinetics with particle pinning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahandeh, Sina; Militzer, Matthias

    2013-08-01

    Second-phase particles are used extensively in design of polycrystalline materials to control the grain size. According to Zener's theory, a distribution of particles creates a pinning pressure on a moving grain boundary. As a result, a limiting grain size is observed, but the effect of pinning on the detail of grain growth kinetics is less known. The influence of the particles on the microstructure occurs in multiple length scales, established by particle radius and the grain size. In this article, we use a meso-scale phase-field model that simulates grain growth in the presence of a uniform pinning pressure. The curvature of the grain boundary network is measured to determine the driving pressure of grain growth in 2D and 3D systems. It was observed that the grain growth continues, even under conditions where the average driving pressure is smaller than the pinning pressure. The limiting grain size is reached when the maximum of driving pressure distribution in the structure is equal to the pinning pressure. This results in a limiting grain size, larger than the one predicted by conventional models, and further analysis shows consistency with experimental observations. A physical model is proposed for the kinetics of grain growth using parameters based on the curvature analysis of the grain boundaries. This model can describe the simulated grain growth kinetics.

  7. Pin-loaded holes in large orthotropic plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mangalgiri, P. D.

    1984-01-01

    Pin-loaded holes commonly occur in engineering structures. However, accurate analysis of such holes presents formidable difficulties because of the load-dependent contact of the pin with the plate. Significant progress has recently been achieved in the analysis of holes in isotropic plates. This paper develops a simple and accurate method for the partial contact analysis of pin-loaded holes in composites. The method is based on an inverse formulation that seeks to determine loads in a given contact-separation configuration. A unified approach for all types of fit was used. Continuum solutions were obtained for infinitely large plates of various typical orthotropic properties with holes loaded by smooth rigid pins. These solutions were then compared with those for isotropic plates. The effects of orthotropy and the type of fit were studied through load-contact relationships, distribution of stresses and displacements, and their variation with load. The results are of direct relevance to the analysis and design of pin joints in composite plates.

  8. Stroboscopic phenomena in superconductors with dynamic pinning landscape.

    PubMed

    Jelić, Ž L; Milošević, M V; Van de Vondel, J; Silhanek, A V

    2015-01-01

    Introducing artificial pinning centers is a well established strategy to trap quantum vortices and increase the maximal magnetic field and applied electric current that a superconductor can sustain without dissipation. In case of spatially periodic pinning, a clear enhancement of the superconducting critical current arises when commensurability between the vortex configurations and the pinning landscape occurs. With recent achievements in (ultrafast) optics and nanoengineered plasmonics it has become possible to exploit the interaction of light with superconductivity, and create not only spatially periodic imprints on the superconducting condensate, but also temporally periodic ones. Here we show that in the latter case, temporal matching phenomena develop, caused by stroboscopic commensurability between the characteristic frequency of the vortex motion under applied current and the frequency of the dynamic pinning. The matching resonances persist in a broad parameter space, including magnetic field, driving current, or material purity, giving rise to unusual features such as externally variable resistance/impedance and Shapiro steps in current-voltage characteristics. All features are tunable by the frequency of the dynamic pinning landscape. These findings open further exploration avenues for using flashing, spatially engineered, and/or mobile excitations on superconductors, permitting us to achieve advanced functionalities. PMID:26423610

  9. Silicide Schottky Contacts to Silicon: Screened Pinning at Defect Levels

    SciTech Connect

    Drummond, T.J.

    1999-03-11

    Silicide Schottky contacts can be as large as 0.955 eV (E{sub v} + 0.165 eV) on n-type silicon and as large as 1.05 eV (E{sub c} {minus} 0.07 eV) on p-type silicon. Current models of Schottky barrier formation do not provide a satisfactory explanation of occurrence of this wide variation. A model for understanding Schottky contacts via screened pinning at defect levels is presented. In the present paper it is shown that most transition metal silicides are pinned approximately 0.48 eV above the valence band by interstitial Si clusters. Rare earth disilicides pin close to the divacancy acceptor level 0.41 eV below the conduction band edge while high work function silicides of Ir and Pt pin close to the divacancy donor level 0.21 eV above the valence band edge. Selection of a particular defect pinning level depends strongly on the relative positions of the silicide work function and the defect energy level on an absolute energy scale.

  10. Pin-Type Gas Cooled Reactor for Nuclear Electric Propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Steven A.; Lipinski, Ronald J.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes a point design for a pin-type Gas-Cooled Reactor concept that uses a fuel pin design similar to the SP100 fuel pin. The Gas-Cooled Reactor is designed to operate at 100 kWe for 7 years plus have a reduced power mode of 20% power for a duration of 5 years. The power system uses a gas-cooled, UN-fueled, pin-type reactor to heat He/Xe gas that flows directly into a recuperated Brayton system to produce electricity. Heat is rejected to space via a thermal radiator that unfolds in space. The reactor contains approximately 154 kg of 93.15 % enriched UN in 313 fuel pins. The fuel is clad with rhenium-lined Nb-1Zr. The pressures vessel and ducting are cooled by the 900 K He/Xe gas inlet flow or by thermal radiation. This permits all pressure boundaries to be made of superalloy metals rather than refractory metals, which greatly reduces the cost and development schedule required by the project. The reactor contains sufficient rhenium (a neutron poison) to make the reactor subcritical under water immersion accidents without the use of internal shutdown rods. The mass of the reactor and reflectors is about 750 kg.

  11. Irradiation of TZM: Uranium dioxide fuel pin at 1700 K

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdonald, G. E.

    1973-01-01

    A fuel pin clad with TZM and containing solid pellets of uranium dioxide was fission heated in a static helium-cooled capsule at a maximum surface temperature of 1700 K for approximately 1000 hr and to a total burnup of 2.0 percent of the uranium-235. The results of the postirradiation examination indicated: (1) A transverse, intergranular failure of the fuel pin occurred when the fuel pin reached 2.0-percent burnup. This corresponds to 1330 kW-hr/cu cm, where the volume is the sum of the fuel, clad, and void volumes in the fuel region. (2) The maximum swelling of the fuel pin was less than 1.5 percent on the fuel-pin diameter. (3) There was no visible interaction between the TZM clad and the UO2. (4) Irradiation at 1700 K produced a course-grained structure, with an average grain diameter of 0.02 centimeter and with some of the grains extending one-half of the thickness of the clad. (5) Below approximately 1500 K, the irradiation of the clad produced a moderately fine-grained structure, with an average grain diameter of 0.004 centimeter.

  12. Flux Pinning and Connectivity in MgB2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumption, M. D.; Susner, M.; Bhatia, M.; Collings, E. W.

    2008-03-01

    The transport and pinning properties of in-situ MgB2 bulks and strands are discussed. The influence of SiC, excess Mg, B4C, TiC, and their combination on Birr and Bc2 as distinct from connectivity and flux pinning is the focus of the work. SiC dopants increase Bc2 and Birr predominantly, with little influence on connectivity or flux pinning. Excess Mg improves the transport current, changes the grain microstructure, and also leads local maxima in Bc2 and Birr at excess Mg levels of 15% mol fraction. Fp curves are consistent with grain boundary pinning for the binary materials over the whole temperature range. This is also true for SiC and TiC doped materials at lower fields and temperatures, while higher temperatures show a deviation from surface pinning. These higher temperature deviations are consistent with the size and distribution of these nanoparticulate additions. Normal state resistivity measurements and models are used to extract residual resistivity values, percent connectivity, and Debye temperatures. Debye temperatures are seen to be depressed by SiC doping, an effect which is confirmed by heat capacity measurements. Residual resistivity values are seen to correlate with Bc2 and Birr enhancements, consistent with B site substitution with C as evidenced by XRD extracted lattice parameter shifts.

  13. Stroboscopic phenomena in superconductors with dynamic pinning landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jelić, Ž. L.; Milošević, M. V.; van de Vondel, J.; Silhanek, A. V.

    2015-10-01

    Introducing artificial pinning centers is a well established strategy to trap quantum vortices and increase the maximal magnetic field and applied electric current that a superconductor can sustain without dissipation. In case of spatially periodic pinning, a clear enhancement of the superconducting critical current arises when commensurability between the vortex configurations and the pinning landscape occurs. With recent achievements in (ultrafast) optics and nanoengineered plasmonics it has become possible to exploit the interaction of light with superconductivity, and create not only spatially periodic imprints on the superconducting condensate, but also temporally periodic ones. Here we show that in the latter case, temporal matching phenomena develop, caused by stroboscopic commensurability between the characteristic frequency of the vortex motion under applied current and the frequency of the dynamic pinning. The matching resonances persist in a broad parameter space, including magnetic field, driving current, or material purity, giving rise to unusual features such as externally variable resistance/impedance and Shapiro steps in current-voltage characteristics. All features are tunable by the frequency of the dynamic pinning landscape. These findings open further exploration avenues for using flashing, spatially engineered, and/or mobile excitations on superconductors, permitting us to achieve advanced functionalities.

  14. Stroboscopic phenomena in superconductors with dynamic pinning landscape

    PubMed Central

    Jelić, Ž. L.; Milošević, M. V.; Van de Vondel, J.; Silhanek, A. V.

    2015-01-01

    Introducing artificial pinning centers is a well established strategy to trap quantum vortices and increase the maximal magnetic field and applied electric current that a superconductor can sustain without dissipation. In case of spatially periodic pinning, a clear enhancement of the superconducting critical current arises when commensurability between the vortex configurations and the pinning landscape occurs. With recent achievements in (ultrafast) optics and nanoengineered plasmonics it has become possible to exploit the interaction of light with superconductivity, and create not only spatially periodic imprints on the superconducting condensate, but also temporally periodic ones. Here we show that in the latter case, temporal matching phenomena develop, caused by stroboscopic commensurability between the characteristic frequency of the vortex motion under applied current and the frequency of the dynamic pinning. The matching resonances persist in a broad parameter space, including magnetic field, driving current, or material purity, giving rise to unusual features such as externally variable resistance/impedance and Shapiro steps in current-voltage characteristics. All features are tunable by the frequency of the dynamic pinning landscape. These findings open further exploration avenues for using flashing, spatially engineered, and/or mobile excitations on superconductors, permitting us to achieve advanced functionalities. PMID:26423610

  15. Pressure drop and heat transfer characteristics of circular and oblong low aspect ratio pin fins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arora, S. C.; Messeh, W. A.

    1985-09-01

    The pressure drop and heat transfer characteristics of circular and oblong pin fins of height-to-diameter ratio of unity used to augment internal cooling of gas turbine airfoils are presented. Data were obtained for an array of 10 rows of staggered pin fins in a 25:1 aspect ratio channel, with both pins and channel endwalls forming the heat transfer surface. Results show that the array average friction factor increases with increasing blockage caused by different arrangement of pin fin geometries in the channel. The local heat transfer coefficient increases up to the 3rd row of pin fins and decreases thereafter. Oblong pin fins with gamma=90 deg (major axis parallel to the direction of flow) result in higher heat transfer rates and lower friction factor than the circular pin fins. For other orientations, oblong pin fins do not offer any advantage over circular pin fins for Re or = 20,000 (typical of small gas turbine engines).

  16. Double diameter boring tool

    DOEpatents

    Ashbaugh, F.A.; Murry, K.R.

    1986-02-10

    A boring tool and a method of operation are provided for boring two concentric holes of precision diameters and depths in a single operation. The boring tool includes an elongated tool body, a shank for attachment to a standard adjustable boring head which is used on a manual or numerical control milling machine and first and second diametrically opposed cutting flutes formed for cutting in opposite directions. The diameter of the elongated tool body is substantially equal to the distance from the first flute tip to the axis of rotation plus the distance from the second flute tip to the axis of rotation. The axis of rotation of the tool is spaced from the tool centerline a distance substantially equal to one-half the distance from the second flute tip to the axis of rotation minus one-half the distance from the first flute tip to the axis of rotation. The method includes the step of inserting the boring tool into the boring head, adjusting the distance between the tool centerline and the tool axis of rotation as described above and boring the two concentric holes.

  17. Double diameter boring tool

    DOEpatents

    Ashbaugh, Fred N.; Murry, Kenneth R.

    1988-12-27

    A boring tool and a method of operation are provided for boring two concentric holes of precision diameters and depths in a single operation. The boring tool includes an elongated tool body, a shank for attachment to a standard adjustable boring head which is used on a manual or numerical control milling machine and first and second diametrically opposed cutting edges formed for cutting in opposite directions. The diameter of the elongated tool body is substantially equal to the distance from the first cutting edge tip to the axis of rotation plus the distance from the second cutting edge tip to the axis of rotation. The axis of rotation of the tool is spaced from the tool centerline a distance substantially equal to one-half the distance from the second cutting edge tip to the axis of rotation minus one-half the distance from the first cutting edge tip to the axis of rotation. The method includes the step of inserting the boring tool into the boring head, adjusting the distance between the tool centerline and the tool axis of rotation as described above and boring the two concentric holes.

  18. Critical current density and flux pinning in an unconventional superconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, S.; Kaul, S. N.; Rodríguez Fernández, J.; Fernández Barquín, L.

    2009-12-01

    The functional dependence of the critical current density on magnetic field, J(H), observed at fixed temperatures in the unconventional type-II superconductor, LaAgMn ( c=0.1,0.2,0.3) alloys, but not the relative magnitude of J in different alloy compositions at any given temperature and field, is adequately described by the exponential-decay critical state model. In accordance with the predictions of the Kramer's flux-pinning model, the peak value of the pinning force density FPmax∝( with the exponent 1.7⩽m⩽2.8 and F/FPmax scales with h=H/Hc_2, where Hc_2 is the upper critical field. Irrespective of sample composition and temperature in the superconducting state, the pinning of the flux line lattice (FLL) dominates over the plastic FLL shear.

  19. Electrodynamics of type-II superconductor with periodic pinning array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hung, R. F.; Berco, D.; Shapiro, I. Ya.; Shapiro, B.; Rosenstein, B.

    2011-01-01

    Static and dynamic distribution of the superconducting condensate order parameters and current density is studied by numerical simulation of the 2D time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau equations. The vortex flux lattice in layered type-II superconductors under magnetic field above the lower critical field is described by the order parameters. Moreover, the pinning effect has been considered in this work. The Abrikosov lattice which is hexagonal in the static case is deformed due to the size of pinning centers. The dynamical order parameters distribution shows that the vortex transport (flux flow) is conducted via diffusive motion of the so-called interstitial vortices. The trajectories for interstitial vortices with different sizes of pinning centers are shown.

  20. Analysis of a finite composite plate with smooth rigid pin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naidu, A. C. B.; Dattaguru, B.; Ramamurthy, T. S.; Mangalgiri, P. D.

    1985-01-01

    An elastic continuum method of analysis developed for a smooth rigid pin in a finite composite plate by using complex potentials that satisfy the governing orthotropic differential equation is presented. The plate is subjected to uniaxial loading and the nonlinear problems of partial contact in the pin-plate are studied. Three types of pin fits are examined: interference, push, and clearance. The problems of stresses due to pure interference, load contact behavior, and stresses variations are addressed. The effects of the rectangular geometry and the orthotropic property of the plate are demonstrated through numerical results. It is found that the use of large hole diameter/plate width ratios have deleterious effects and the use of interference has beneficial effects. The solutions obtained will help in the development of special finite elements for fastener joints. Finally, the boundary conditions on the finite outer boundaries are found to be satisfied by a successive integration technique.

  1. Impact of Edge-Barrier Pinning in Superconducting Thin Films

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, W. A.; Barnes, P.N.; Mullins, M. J.; Baca, F. J.; Emergo, R. L. S.; Wu, J.; Haugan, T. J.; Clem, J. R.

    2010-12-30

    It has been suggested that edge-barrier pinning might cause the critical current density (J{sub c}) in bridged superconducting films to increase. Subsequent work indicated that this edge-barrier effect does not impact bridges larger than 1 {micro}m. However, we provide a theoretical assessment with supporting experimental data suggesting edge-barrier pinning can significantly enhance J{sub c} for bridges of a few microns or even tens of microns thus skewing any comparisons among institutions. As such, when reporting flux pinning and superconductor processing improvements for J{sub c} comparisons, the width of the sample has to be taken into consideration as is currently done with film thickness.

  2. The enhancement of vortex pinning in ferromagnet/superconductor bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cieplak, Marta Z.; Adamus, Z.; Abal'Oshev, A.; Abal'Osheva, I.; Berkowski, M.; Cheng, X. M.; Sang, Hai; Chien, C. L.

    2005-03-01

    The magnetic-domain induced vortex pinning is studied in the ferromagnet/superconductor bilayers (FSB's), in which the F layers are Co/Pt multilayers with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy, and the S layers are either niobium or high temperature superconductor YBa2Cu3O7 (YBCO). The magnetization measurements reveal the enhancement of the flux pinning in both types of FSB's during the reversal of the magnetization of the F layer, but the details of the behavior depend on the type of the S layer. In the case of niobium FSB the maximum of pinning appears when the F layer is in the final stage of the magnetic reversal process, while the FSB with YBCOshows the maximumwhen the F layer is saturated. The possible origins of these differences are discussed.

  3. Practical synchronization on complex dynamical networks via optimal pinning control.

    PubMed

    Li, Kezan; Sun, Weigang; Small, Michael; Fu, Xinchu

    2015-07-01

    We consider practical synchronization on complex dynamical networks under linear feedback control designed by optimal control theory. The control goal is to minimize global synchronization error and control strength over a given finite time interval, and synchronization error at terminal time. By utilizing the Pontryagin's minimum principle, and based on a general complex dynamical network, we obtain an optimal system to achieve the control goal. The result is verified by performing some numerical simulations on Star networks, Watts-Strogatz networks, and Barabási-Albert networks. Moreover, by combining optimal control and traditional pinning control, we propose an optimal pinning control strategy which depends on the network's topological structure. Obtained results show that optimal pinning control is very effective for synchronization control in real applications. PMID:26274112

  4. Effect of the Starting Point of Half-Pin Insertion on the Insertional Torque of the Pin at the Tibia

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung-Jae; Kim, Sung-Hwan; Kim, Young-Hwan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The authors have observed a failure to achieve secure fixation in elderly patients when inserting a half-pin at the anteromedial surface of the tibia. The purpose of this study was to compare two methods for inserting a half-pin at tibia diaphysis in elderly patients. Materials and Methods Twenty cadaveric tibias were divided into Group C or V. A half-pin was inserted into the tibias of Group C via the conventional method, from the anteromedial surface to the interosseous border of the tibia diaphysis, and into the tibias of Group V via the vertical method, from the anterior border to the posterior surface at the same level. The maximum insertion torque was measured during the bicortical insertion with a torque driver. The thickness of the cortex was measured by micro-computed tomography. The relationship between the thickness of the cortex engaged and the insertion torque was investigated. Results The maximum insertion torque and the thickness of the cortex were significantly higher in Group V than Group C. Both groups exhibited a statistically significant linear correlation between torque and thickness by Spearman's rank correlation analysis. Conclusion Half-pins inserted by the vertical method achieved purchase of more cortex than those inserted by the conventional method. Considering that cortical thickness and insertion torque in Group V were significantly greater than those in Group C, we suggest that the vertical method of half-pin insertion may be an alternative to the conventional method in elderly patients. PMID:25510759

  5. Small pinning points increase grounding-line sensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favier, Lionel; Pattyn, Frank; Berger, Sophie; Drews, Reinhard

    2016-04-01

    Initialising prognostic simulations of outlet glaciers relies on geometry and surface velocity, from which data assimilation methods rectify poorly known parameters such as ice stiffness or basal slipperiness. Stemming from the contact between ice shelves and submarine topographic highs, pinning points impact both ice velocity and stiffness but, wherever they are small enough, they can easily be overlooked by satellite observations. Here, we use the ice-sheet model BISICLES to investigate the future ice dynamical behaviour of two neighbouring outlet glaciers in Dronning Maud Land, i.e., Hansenbreen and West Raghnild glacier. The latter is buttressed by a previously uncharted pinning point at the ice shelf front while both are separated by an ice promontory. We also reconstruct ice velocity and geometry fields including the pinning point, which is absent from Antarctic-wide datasets, from data collected on site. The model is initialised with three combinations of ice geometry and stiffness, (i) with or (ii) without the pinning point influence in the assimilation procedure, and (iii) being a variant of (i) but starting with unpinning. We explore two sub-ice shelf melting scenarios of three amplitudes, and two weertmann-type sliding law exponents for each initialisation. The results show the future unstable retreat of Hansenbreen, moderately affected by unpinning. However, ignoring the pinning point in data assimilation overstiffens the ice shelf and highly decreases the timing of the retreat. This study stresses the need of accurate bathymetry and ice velocity, as the current datasets that disregard pinning points tend to stabilise marine sectors of the East Antarctic ice sheet, hence affecting sea-level rise predictions.

  6. Self-pinning of a nanosuspension droplet: Molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Shi, Baiou; Webb, Edmund B

    2016-07-01

    Results are presented from molecular dynamics simulations of Pb(l) nanodroplets containing dispersed Cu nanoparticles (NPs) and spreading on solid surfaces. Three-dimensional simulations are employed throughout, but droplet spreading and pinning are reduced to two-dimensional processes by modeling cylindrical NPs in cylindrical droplets; NPs have radius R_{NP}≅3nm while droplets have initial R_{0}≅42nm. At low particle loading explored here, NPs in sufficient proximity to the initial solid-droplet interface are drawn into advancing contact lines; entrained NPs eventually bind with the underlying substrate. For relatively low advancing contact angle θ_{adv}, self-pinning on entrained NPs occurs; for higher θ_{adv}, depinning is observed. Self-pinning and depinning cases are compared and forces on NPs at the contact line are computed during a depinning event. Though significant flow in the droplet occurs in close proximity to the particle during depinning, resultant forces are relatively low. Instead, forces due to liquid atoms confined between the particles and substrate dominate the forces on NPs; that is, for the NP size studied here, forces are interface dominated. For pinning cases, a precursor wetting film advances ahead of the pinned contact line but at a significantly slower rate than for a pure droplet. This is because the precursor film is a bilayer of liquid atoms on the substrate surface but it is instead a monolayer film as it crosses over pinning particles; thus, mass delivery to the bilayer structure is impeded. PMID:27575186

  7. Fuel pin failure in the PFR/TREAT experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Herbert, R.; Hunter, C.W.; Kramer, J.M.; Wood, M.H.; Wright, A.E.

    1986-01-01

    The PFR/TREAT safety testing programme involves the transient testing of fresh and pre-irradiated UK and US fuel pins. This paper summarizes the experimental and calculational results obtained to date on fuel pin failure during transient overpower (resulting from an accidental addition of resolivity) and transient undercooling followed by overpower (arising from an accidental stoppage of the primary sodium circulating pumps) accidents. Companion papers at this conference address: (I) the progress and future plans of the programme, and (II) post-failure material movements.

  8. Performance of breached LMFBR fuel pins during continued operation

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, J.D.B.; Strain, R.V.; Gross, K.C.; Hofman, G.L.; Colburn, R.P.; Adamson, M.G.; Ukai, S.

    1985-01-01

    Four EBR-II tests were used to scope the behavior of breached mixed-oxide pins. After release of stored fission gas, delayed-neutron signals were large and easily detected, although not readily correlated with exposed fuel area. No problems were met during reactor operation or fuel handling. Fuel-sodium reaction caused only narrow breaches which released minute amounts of fuel and fission products; the reaction product appeared dense and non-friable. These initial results indicated LMFBR oxide pins could have considerable potential for operating in the breached mode.

  9. Inner shell radial pin geometry and mounting arrangement

    DOEpatents

    Leach, David; Bergendahl, Peter Allen

    2002-01-01

    Circumferentially spaced arrays of support pins are disposed through access openings in an outer turbine shell and have projections received in recesses in forward and aft sections of an inner turbine shell supported from the outer shell. The projections have arcuate sides in a circumferential direction affording line contacts with the side walls of the recesses and are spaced from end faces of the recesses, enabling radial and axial expansion and contraction of the inner shell relative to the outer shell. All loads are taken up in a tangential direction by the outer shell with the support pins taking no radial loadings.

  10. Method and apparatus for enhancing vortex pinning by conformal crystal arrays

    DOEpatents

    Janko, Boldizsar; Reichhardt, Cynthia; Reichhardt, Charles; Ray, Dipanjan

    2015-07-14

    Disclosed is a method and apparatus for strongly enhancing vortex pinning by conformal crystal arrays. The conformal crystal array is constructed by a conformal transformation of a hexagonal lattice, producing a non-uniform structure with a gradient where the local six-fold coordination of the pinning sites is preserved, and with an arching effect. The conformal pinning arrays produce significantly enhanced vortex pinning over a much wider range of field than that found for other vortex pinning geometries with an equivalent number of vortex pinning sites, such as random, square, and triangular.

  11. Simulation of the vortex dynamics in a real pinning landscape of YBa2Cu3O7-δ coated conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadovskyy, Ivan; Koshelev, Alexei; Glatz, Andreas; Ortalan, Volkan; Rupich, Martin; Leroux, Maxime

    We present a critical current analysis of a real high-temperature superconducting (HTS) sample in a magnetic field by combining state-of-the-art large-scale Ginzburg-Landau simulations with reconstructive three-dimensional scanning transmission electron microscopy tomography of the pinning landscape in Dy-doped YBa2Cu3O7-δ. This methodology provides a unique look at the vortex dynamics in the presence of a complex pinning landscape, responsible for the high current-carrying capacity characteristic of commercial HTS wires. Our method demonstrates very good functional and quantitative agreement of the critical current between simulation and experiment, providing a new predictive tool for HTS wires design. Work was supported by the Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing (SciDAC) program funded by U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Advanced Scientific Computing Research and Basic Energy Sciences.

  12. Continuously adjustable Pulfrich spectacles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, Ken; Karpf, Ron

    2011-03-01

    A number of Pulfrich 3-D movies and TV shows have been produced, but the standard implementation has inherent drawbacks. The movie and TV industries have correctly concluded that the standard Pulfrich 3-D implementation is not a useful 3-D technique. Continuously Adjustable Pulfrich Spectacles (CAPS) is a new implementation of the Pulfrich effect that allows any scene containing movement in a standard 2-D movie, which are most scenes, to be optionally viewed in 3-D using inexpensive viewing specs. Recent scientific results in the fields of human perception, optoelectronics, video compression and video format conversion are translated into a new implementation of Pulfrich 3- D. CAPS uses these results to continuously adjust to the movie so that the viewing spectacles always conform to the optical density that optimizes the Pulfrich stereoscopic illusion. CAPS instantly provides 3-D immersion to any moving scene in any 2-D movie. Without the glasses, the movie will appear as a normal 2-D image. CAPS work on any viewing device, and with any distribution medium. CAPS is appropriate for viewing Internet streamed movies in 3-D.

  13. Subsea adjustable choke valves

    SciTech Connect

    Cyvas, M.K. )

    1989-08-01

    With emphasis on deepwater wells and marginal offshore fields growing, the search for reliable subsea production systems has become a high priority. A reliable subsea adjustable choke is essential to the realization of such a system, and recent advances are producing the degree of reliability required. Technological developments have been primarily in (1) trim material (including polycrystalline diamond), (2) trim configuration, (3) computer programs for trim sizing, (4) component materials, and (5) diver/remote-operated-vehicle (ROV) interfaces. These five facets are overviewed and progress to date is reported. A 15- to 20-year service life for adjustable subsea chokes is now a reality. Another factor vital to efficient use of these technological developments is to involve the choke manufacturer and ROV/diver personnel in initial system conceptualization. In this manner, maximum benefit can be derived from the latest technology. Major areas of development still required and under way are listed, and the paper closes with a tabulation of successful subsea choke installations in recent years.

  14. Workplace Counseling Tools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirk, James J.; Woody, Connie; Burns, Naomi; Howard, Sherrie; Rice, Misty

    This publication describes counseling approaches supervisors and human resource professionals can use to help marginal employees become better adjusted and more productive in the workplace. Three case studies are also provided for training purposes. The counseling tools are as follows: (1) Adlerian counseling, involving the belief that humans'…

  15. 77 FR 40387 - Price Adjustment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-09

    ... Price Adjustment AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a recently filed Postal Service request to adjust prices for several market dominant products... announcing its intent to adjust prices for several market dominant products within First-Class Mail...

  16. The influence of the repetition rate on the nanosecond pulsed pin-to-pin microdischarges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Bang-Dou; Takashima, Keisuke; Zhu, Xi-Ming; Pu, Yi-Kang

    2014-10-01

    The effect of repetition rate on a nanosecond atmospheric pressure discharge is investigated. The discharge is generated between two pins in a mixture of Ne and Ar. The voltage, current, power waveforms and the temporally and spatially resolved electron density and an ‘effective’ electron temperature are measured, with a pulse interval between 1.5 and 200 µs. It is found that not only does the repetition rate have a strong influence on the breakdown voltage and the peak discharge power, but it can also affect the rise rate of the volume averaged electron density and its peak value. Temporally and spatially resolved measurement of the electron density and the effective electron temperature show that the spatial distributions of both quantities are also influenced by the repetition rate. In the initial discharge period of all cases, the sharp rise of the electron density correlates with the drastic drop of the effective electron temperature. It is suggested that the residual charges have a strong impact on the axial distribution of the electric field and energetic electrons between the electrodes during the breakdown period, as illustrated by a simple sheath model.

  17. First Tests for the Detection of the LINAC Irradiation Field Using PIN Diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Nava, C. E. Ojeda; Ramirez-Jimenez, F. J.; Navarro, L. F. Villasenor; Cruz, M. Duran

    2008-08-11

    The employment of the technology of semiconductor detectors, in the medical physics environment is of great importance due to its versatility and dependability. In this work we present the first results and the experimental arrangement employed with PIN diodes that are conditioned for the measurement of the field of irradiation of a lineal accelerator (LINAC) used in radiotherapy. In our tests we used a PIN photodiode. In former experiments, this diode presented a response to the intensity of the applied field when it was exposed to an X-ray beam in medical and industrial radiography equipments. This diode is a low cost and easy acquisition one in the field. These characteristics transform it into a serious candidate as detector to be used in electronic arrangements for the detection of radiation fields in radio-therapy with X-rays. Experiments were designed to obtain the response of this diode when it was exposed to X-ray beams of a LINAC used in radiotherapy. Firstly the tests were carried out for a 6 MeV photon beam with a source to surface distance (SSD) of 100 cm, obtaining very encouraging results. We seek to carry out tests for more energy values in order to obtain the energy response of this detector as a radiation sensor device. This device could be applied in the design of working tools, for example, for the quality control in procedures of radiotherapy.

  18. First Tests for the Detection of the LINAC Irradiation Field Using PIN Diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nava, C. E. Ojeda; Ramírez-Jiménez, F. J.; Navarro, L. F. Villaseñor; Cruz, M. Durán

    2008-08-01

    The employment of the technology of semiconductor detectors, in the medical physics environment is of great importance due to its versatility and dependability. In this work we present the first results and the experimental arrangement employed with PIN diodes that are conditioned for the measurement of the field of irradiation of a lineal accelerator (LINAC) used in radiotherapy. In our tests we used a PIN photodiode. In former experiments, this diode presented a response to the intensity of the applied field when it was exposed to an X-ray beam in medical and industrial radiography equipments. This diode is a low cost and easy acquisition one in the field. These characteristics transform it into a serious candidate as detector to be used in electronic arrangements for the detection of radiation fields in radio-therapy with X-rays. Experiments were designed to obtain the response of this diode when it was exposed to X-ray beams of a LINAC used in radiotherapy. Firstly the tests were carried out for a 6 MeV photon beam with a source to surface distance (SSD) of 100 cm, obtaining very encouraging results. We seek to carry out tests for more energy values in order to obtain the energy response of this detector as a radiation sensor device. This device could be applied in the design of working tools, for example, for the quality control in procedures of radiotherapy.

  19. BetterThanPin: Empowering Users to Fight Phishing (Poster)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Teik Guan

    The BetterThanPin concept is an online security service that allows users to enable almost any Cloud or Web-based account (e.g. Gmail, MSN, Yahoo, etc) to be protected with "almost" 2-factor authentication (2FA). The result is that users can now protect their online accounts with better authentication, without waiting for the service or cloud provider.

  20. Pinned orbital moments - A new contribution to magnetic anisotropy.

    PubMed

    Audehm, P; Schmidt, M; Brück, S; Tietze, T; Gräfe, J; Macke, S; Schütz, G; Goering, E

    2016-01-01

    Reduced dimensionality and symmetry breaking at interfaces lead to unusual local magnetic configurations, such as glassy behavior, frustration or increased anisotropy. The interface between a ferromagnet and an antiferromagnet is such an example for enhanced symmetry breaking. Here we present detailed X-ray magnetic circular dichroism and X-ray resonant magnetic reflectometry investigations on the spectroscopic nature of uncompensated pinned magnetic moments in the antiferromagnetic layer of a typical exchange bias system. Unexpectedly, the pinned moments exhibit nearly pure orbital moment character. This strong orbital pinning mechanism has not been observed so far and is not discussed in literature regarding any theory for local magnetocrystalline anisotropy energies in magnetic systems. To verify this new phenomenon we investigated the effect at different temperatures. We provide a simple model discussing the observed pure orbital moments, based on rotatable spin magnetic moments and pinned orbital moments on the same atom. This unexpected observation leads to a concept for a new type of anisotropy energy. PMID:27151436

  1. 35. View is the underside of a lower chord pin ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. View is the underside of a lower chord pin connection showing the top strut, along with lateral and diagonal members. There are four of these per through truss for a total of eight. - Weidemeyer Bridge, Spanning Thomes Creek at Rawson Road, Corning, Tehama County, CA

  2. The stress distribution in pin-loaded orthotropic plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klang, E. C.; Hyer, M. W.

    1985-01-01

    The performance of mechanically fastened composite joints was studied. Specially, a single-bolt connector was modeled as a pin-loaded, infinite plate. The model that was developed used two dimensional, complex variable, elasticity techniques combined with a boundary collocation procedure to produce solutions for the problem. Through iteration, the boundary conditions were satisfied and the stresses in the plate were calculated. Several graphite epoxy laminates were studied. In addition, parameters such as the pin modulus, coefficient of friction, and pin-plate clearance were varied. Conclusions drawn from this study indicate: (1) the material properties (i.e., laminate configuration) of the plate alter the stress state and, for highly orthotropic materials, the contact stress deviates greatly from the cosinusoidal distribution often assumed; (2) friction plays a major role in the distribution of stresses in the plate; (3) reversing the load direction also greatly effects the stress distribution in the plate; (4) clearance (or interference) fits change the contact angle and thus the location of the peak hoop stress; and (5) a rigid pin appears to be a good assumption for typical material systems.

  3. Pinned orbital moments – A new contribution to magnetic anisotropy

    PubMed Central

    Audehm, P.; Schmidt, M.; Brück, S.; Tietze, T.; Gräfe, J.; Macke, S.; Schütz, G.; Goering, E.

    2016-01-01

    Reduced dimensionality and symmetry breaking at interfaces lead to unusual local magnetic configurations, such as glassy behavior, frustration or increased anisotropy. The interface between a ferromagnet and an antiferromagnet is such an example for enhanced symmetry breaking. Here we present detailed X-ray magnetic circular dichroism and X-ray resonant magnetic reflectometry investigations on the spectroscopic nature of uncompensated pinned magnetic moments in the antiferromagnetic layer of a typical exchange bias system. Unexpectedly, the pinned moments exhibit nearly pure orbital moment character. This strong orbital pinning mechanism has not been observed so far and is not discussed in literature regarding any theory for local magnetocrystalline anisotropy energies in magnetic systems. To verify this new phenomenon we investigated the effect at different temperatures. We provide a simple model discussing the observed pure orbital moments, based on rotatable spin magnetic moments and pinned orbital moments on the same atom. This unexpected observation leads to a concept for a new type of anisotropy energy. PMID:27151436

  4. Dynamic characteristics of a magnetorheological pin joint for civil structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yancheng; Li, Jianchun

    2014-03-01

    Magnetorheological (MR) pin joint is a novel device in which its joint moment resistance can be controlled in real-time by altering the applied magnetic field. The smart pin joint is intended to be used as a controllable connector between the columns and beams of a civil structure to instantaneously shift the structural natural frequencies in order to avoid resonance and therefore to reduce unwanted vibrations and hence prevent structural damage. As an intrinsically nonlinear device, modelling of this MR fluid based device is a challenging task and makes the design of a suitable control algorithm a cumbersome situation. Aimed at its application in civil structure, the main purpose of this paper is to test and characterise the hysteretic behaviour of MR pin joint. A test scheme is designed to obtain the dynamic performance of MR pin joint in the dominant earthquake frequency range. Some unique phenomena different from those of MR damper are observed through the experimental testing. A computationally-efficient model is proposed by introducing a hyperbolic element to accurately reproduce its dynamic behaviour and to further facilitate the design of a suitable control algorithm. Comprehensive investigations on the model accuracy and dependences of the proposed model on loading condition (frequency and amplitude) and input current level are reported in the last section of this paper.

  5. Evaluation of Wear between Pin and Bush in Roller Chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noguchi, Shoji; Yoshiba, Hideaki; Nakayama, Satoshi; Kanada, Tohru

    A roller chain is a typical machine element used in bicycles, motorcycles and many other devices for power transmission. The life of a roller chain is determined by elongation. As a rule of thumb, a chain begins to skip cogs on the sprocket wheel when the percentage of elongation reaches approximately 3%. Mechanical wear between pins and bushes causes elongation of the roller chain. However, research on the evaluation of wear of the roller chain is rare and the achievement is unstated. We describe the following initiatives in the study of wear between pins and bushes of a roller chain: (1) development of a wear tester using only two chain links, (2) establishment of a specific evaluation method using a roundness tester, and (3) causal explanation of non-uniform wear using the finite-element method (FEM). The experimental results show that pins and bushes are not in contact at the centerline, and that wear occurs exclusively at the tips of the pins owing to the bending deformation under the condition of tensile load.

  6. 38. Upper level, retractor cables for lock pin around pulley ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. Upper level, retractor cables for lock pin around pulley at center, umbilical cables at lower right, plywood cover for top of missile at right - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Delta Flight, Launch Facility, On County Road T512, south of Exit 116 off I-90, Interior, Jackson County, SD

  7. Detail of north abutment of Seventh Street Bridge. Notice pin ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of north abutment of Seventh Street Bridge. Notice pin connection that serves to anchor eye-bar suspension cable after descending below roadway level inside of the compressed lower girder. The bridge is not anchored in the traditional sense. - Three Sisters Bridges, Seventh Street Bridge, Spanning Allegheny River at Seventh Street, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  8. CCD AND PIN-CMOS DEVELOPMENTS FOR LARGE OPTICAL TELESCOPE.

    SciTech Connect

    RADEKA, V.

    2006-04-03

    Higher quantum efficiency in near-IR, narrower point spread function and higher readout speed than with conventional sensors have been receiving increased emphasis in the development of CCDs and silicon PIN-CMOS sensors for use in large optical telescopes. Some key aspects in the development of such devices are reviewed.

  9. Silicon PIN diode array hybrids for charged particle detection

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, S.L.; Dunwoodie, W.M.; Arens, J.F.; Jernigan, J.G.; Gaalema, S.

    1988-09-01

    We report on the design of silicon PIN diode array hybrids for use as charged particle detectors. A brief summary of the need for vertex detectors is presented. Circuitry, block diagrams and device specifications are included. 8 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  10. 13. Closeup of typical pin connection detailing eyebars as tension ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Close-up of typical pin connection detailing eye-bars as tension members of built-up plates, angles and cross latticing. (Nov. 30, 1988) - University Heights Bridge, Spanning Harlem River at 207th Street & West Harlem Road, New York County, NY

  11. CLOSEUP OF TYPICAL BUILTUP, RIVETED AND PIN CONNECTED DECK TRUSS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CLOSE-UP OF TYPICAL BUILT-UP, RIVETED AND PIN CONNECTED DECK TRUSS LOOKING UP AND NORTHEAST. - Huey P. Long Bridge, Spanning Mississippi River approximately midway between nine & twelve mile points upstream from & west of New Orleans, Jefferson, Jefferson Parish, LA

  12. Ultrasonic decontamination of prototype fast breeder reactor fuel pins.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Aniruddha; Bhatt, R B; Behere, P G; Afzal, Mohd

    2014-04-01

    Fuel pin decontamination is the process of removing particulates of radioactive material from its exterior surface. It is an important process step in nuclear fuel fabrication. It assumes more significance with plutonium bearing fuel known to be highly radio-toxic owing to its relatively longer biological half life and shorter radiological half life. Release of even minute quantity of plutonium oxide powder in the atmosphere during its handling can cause alarming air borne activity and may pose a severe health hazard to personnel working in the vicinity. Decontamination of fuel pins post pellet loading operation is thus mandatory before they are removed from the glove box for further processing and assembly. This paper describes the setting up of ultrasonic decontamination process, installed inside a custom built fume-hood in the production line, comprising of a cleaning tank with transducers, heaters, pin handling device and water filtration system and its application in cleaning of fuel pins for prototype fast breeder reactor. The cleaning process yielded a typical decontamination efficiency of more than 99%. PMID:24405906

  13. 9. Detail of pin truss and floor board system, from ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Detail of pin truss and floor board system, from Minnesota end of the bridge, looking at the bridge's southwest side - Enloe Bridge No. 90021, Spanning Red River of North between Minnesota & North Dakota on County State Aid Highway 28, Wolverton, Wilkin County, MN

  14. Automatic Tension Adjuster For Flexible-Shaft Grinder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burley, Richard K.; Hoult, William S.

    1990-01-01

    Flexible shaft of grinding tool automatically maintained in tension by air pressure. Probelike tool bent to reach hard-to-reach areas for grinding and polishing. Unless shaft held in tension, however, it rubs against its sheath, overheating and wearing out quickly. By taking up slack in flexible cable, tension adjuster reduces friction and enables tool to operate more efficiently, in addition to lengthening operating life.

  15. Experimental study on thermal performance of micro pin fin heat sinks with various shapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hua, Junye; Li, Gui; Zhao, Xiaobao; Li, Qihe

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents a visualization experimental study on the heat transfer characteristics of various shapes of micro pin fins, including the circular, ellipse, diamond, square and triangle shape micro pin fin arrays with various equivalent diameters and pin fin density. The influences study of different sizes and shapes of pin fin on Nusselt number and heat transfer coefficient have been conducted. The results show that with the increase of the flow rate, the temperature of the bottom of the experimental section decreases. And the Nusselt number of different shapes of micro pin fins increases with the increase of Re. In which, the heat transfer performance of the ellipse shape pin fin appears better among the other shapes of pin fins. However, the higher pin fin of the ellipse shape density leads to a weaker flow performance. Besides, the micro-scale heat transfer correlation between the Nusselt number and the Reynolds number is fitted based on the experimental data.

  16. 9. DETAIL VIEW OF BOTTOM CHORD/FLOOR BEAM/IBAR PIN CONNECTION. WELDED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. DETAIL VIEW OF BOTTOM CHORD/FLOOR BEAM/I-BAR PIN CONNECTION. WELDED PLATE AT PIN CONNECTION IS 20TH CENTURY REVISION. - Bucks County Bridge No. 313, Spanning Delaware Canal at Letchworth Avenue, Yardley, Bucks County, PA

  17. Tooth crazing associated with threaded pins: a three-dimensional model.

    PubMed

    Webb, E L; Straka, W F; Phillips, C L

    1989-05-01

    A model for observing the three-dimensional pattern of cracking associated with placement of self-threading retentive pins was developed. Four sizes of self-threading pins were placed in extracted posterior tooth samples. The pins were subsequently removed and the samples coated with butyl acetate lacquer except for the pin channel orifice. Samples were immersed in dye solution followed by a demineralization and dehydration process. Samples were placed in methyl salicylate until cleared. Cleared samples were examined for dye penetration into the pin channel and communication with the pulp chamber. Comparisons were made of the patterns created by the four sizes of retentive pins. Results showed that more extensive cracks occurred with the larger size pins and that crack communication with the pulp chamber occurred more frequently with the larger pins. PMID:2664149

  18. Assemblies with both target and fuel pins in an isotope-production reactor

    DOEpatents

    Cawley, W.E.; Omberg, R.P.

    1982-08-19

    A method is described for producing tritium in a fast breeder reactor cooled with liquid metal. Lithium target material is placed in pins adjacent to fuel pins in order to increase the tritium production rate.

  19. Pinning distributed synchronization of stochastic dynamical networks: a mixed optimization approach.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yang; Gao, Huijun; Lu, Jianquan; Kurths, Jürgen Kurthsrgen

    2014-10-01

    This paper is concerned with the problem of pinning synchronization of nonlinear dynamical networks with multiple stochastic disturbances. Two kinds of pinning schemes are considered: 1) pinned nodes are fixed along the time evolution and 2) pinned nodes are switched from time to time according to a set of Bernoulli stochastic variables. Using Lyapunov function methods and stochastic analysis techniques, several easily verifiable criteria are derived for the problem of pinning distributed synchronization. For the case of fixed pinned nodes, a novel mixed optimization method is developed to select the pinned nodes and find feasible solutions, which is composed of a traditional convex optimization method and a constraint optimization evolutionary algorithm. For the case of switching pinning scheme, upper bounds of the convergence rate and the mean control gain are obtained theoretically. Simulation examples are provided to show the advantages of our proposed optimization method over previous ones and verify the effectiveness of the obtained results. PMID:25291734

  20. 29 CFR 1926.301 - Hand tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hand tools. 1926.301 Section 1926.301 Labor Regulations...) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Tools-Hand and Power § 1926.301 Hand tools. (a) Employers shall not issue or permit the use of unsafe hand tools. (b) Wrenches, including adjustable, pipe,...

  1. 29 CFR 1926.301 - Hand tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hand tools. 1926.301 Section 1926.301 Labor Regulations...) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Tools-Hand and Power § 1926.301 Hand tools. (a) Employers shall not issue or permit the use of unsafe hand tools. (b) Wrenches, including adjustable, pipe,...

  2. 29 CFR 1926.301 - Hand tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hand tools. 1926.301 Section 1926.301 Labor Regulations...) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Tools-Hand and Power § 1926.301 Hand tools. (a) Employers shall not issue or permit the use of unsafe hand tools. (b) Wrenches, including adjustable, pipe,...

  3. 29 CFR 1926.301 - Hand tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hand tools. 1926.301 Section 1926.301 Labor Regulations...) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Tools-Hand and Power § 1926.301 Hand tools. (a) Employers shall not issue or permit the use of unsafe hand tools. (b) Wrenches, including adjustable, pipe,...

  4. 29 CFR 1926.301 - Hand tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hand tools. 1926.301 Section 1926.301 Labor Regulations...) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Tools-Hand and Power § 1926.301 Hand tools. (a) Employers shall not issue or permit the use of unsafe hand tools. (b) Wrenches, including adjustable, pipe,...

  5. Transient Pinning and Pulling: A Mechanism for Bending Microtubules.

    PubMed

    Kent, Ian A; Rane, Parag S; Dickinson, Richard B; Ladd, Anthony J C; Lele, Tanmay P

    2016-01-01

    Microtubules have a persistence length of the order of millimeters in vitro, but inside cells they bend over length scales of microns. It has been proposed that polymerization forces bend microtubules in the vicinity of the cell boundary or other obstacles, yet bends develop even when microtubules are polymerizing freely, unaffected by obstacles and cell boundaries. How these bends are formed remains unclear. By tracking the motions of microtubules marked by photobleaching, we found that in LLC-PK1 epithelial cells local bends develop primarily by plus-end directed transport of portions of the microtubule contour towards stationary locations (termed pinning points) along the length of the microtubule. The pinning points were transient in nature, and their eventual release allowed the bends to relax. The directionality of the transport as well as the overall incidence of local bends decreased when dynein was inhibited, while myosin inhibition had no observable effect. This suggests that dynein generates a tangential force that bends microtubules against stationary pinning points. Simulations of microtubule motion and polymerization accounting for filament mechanics and dynein forces predict the development of bends of size and shape similar to those observed in cells. Furthermore, simulations show that dynein-generated bends at a pinning point near the plus end can cause a persistent rotation of the tip consistent with the observation that bend formation near the tip can change the direction of microtubule growth. Collectively, these results suggest a simple physical mechanism for the bending of growing microtubules by dynein forces accumulating at pinning points. PMID:26974838

  6. Transient Pinning and Pulling: A Mechanism for Bending Microtubules

    PubMed Central

    Kent, Ian A.; Rane, Parag S.; Dickinson, Richard B.; Ladd, Anthony J. C.; Lele, Tanmay P.

    2016-01-01

    Microtubules have a persistence length of the order of millimeters in vitro, but inside cells they bend over length scales of microns. It has been proposed that polymerization forces bend microtubules in the vicinity of the cell boundary or other obstacles, yet bends develop even when microtubules are polymerizing freely, unaffected by obstacles and cell boundaries. How these bends are formed remains unclear. By tracking the motions of microtubules marked by photobleaching, we found that in LLC-PK1 epithelial cells local bends develop primarily by plus-end directed transport of portions of the microtubule contour towards stationary locations (termed pinning points) along the length of the microtubule. The pinning points were transient in nature, and their eventual release allowed the bends to relax. The directionality of the transport as well as the overall incidence of local bends decreased when dynein was inhibited, while myosin inhibition had no observable effect. This suggests that dynein generates a tangential force that bends microtubules against stationary pinning points. Simulations of microtubule motion and polymerization accounting for filament mechanics and dynein forces predict the development of bends of size and shape similar to those observed in cells. Furthermore, simulations show that dynein-generated bends at a pinning point near the plus end can cause a persistent rotation of the tip consistent with the observation that bend formation near the tip can change the direction of microtubule growth. Collectively, these results suggest a simple physical mechanism for the bending of growing microtubules by dynein forces accumulating at pinning points. PMID:26974838

  7. Optical dispersion compensation in 300-pin MSA transponders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendlovic, David; Shabtay, Gal

    2005-02-01

    The 300-pin Multi Source Agreement (MSA) and other MSAs provide basic requirements from a transponder or transceiver used in 10Gb/s optical networks. These MSAs typically address a wide range of applications, including: SONET/SDH, 10GbE and 10GFC for Metro, long-haul (LH) and ultra-long-haul (ULH) networks. Nonetheless, being a basic standard, the 300-pin MSA addresses the minimal required specifications set and does not cover the whole set of requirements and applications that system vendors are interested in. For example, widely tunable and extended reach transponders are not included in the 300-pin MSA. Chromatic dispersion is one of the major reach limiting factors in optical networks. In reconfigurable optical networks, chunks of DWDM channels may travel through different routes and therefore require tunable dispersion compensation. In static ULH optical networks, the number of dispersion compensation fibers (DCFs) dictates the amount of residual chromatic dispersion. This residual chromatic dispersion differs from one DWDM channel to the other. Unless it is compensated at the receiver, it further restricts the link length and reduces the distance between one regenerator to the other. This results in shorter links and more O-E-O blocks, which dramatically increases the cost of the network. This paper discusses a specially designed optical dispersion compensation (ODC) device that is packaged in a standard butterfly package and can fit into a 300-pin MSA transponder. A transponder with the proposed ODC can still satisfy all the basic requirements that are described in the 300-pin MSA while providing improved chromatic dispersion tolerance.

  8. Radiation hardness characteristics of Si-PIN radiation detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Manhee; Jo, Woo Jin; Kim, Han Soo; Ha, Jang Ho

    2015-06-01

    The Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) has fabricated Si-PIN radiation detectors with low leakage current, high resistivity (>11 kΩ cm) and low capacitance for high-energy physics and X-ray spectroscopy. Floating-zone (FZ) 6-in. diameter N-type silicon wafers, with <1 1 1> crystal orientation and 675 μm thick, were used in the detector fabrication. The active areas are 3 mm×3 mm, 5 mm×5 mm and 10 mm×10 mm. We used a double deep-diffused structure at the edge of the active area for protection from the surface leakage path. We also compared the electrical performance of the Si-PIN detector with anti-reflective coating (ARC). For a detector with an active area of 3 mm×3 mm, the leakage current is about 1.9 nA and 7.4 nA at a 100 V reverse bias voltage, and 4.6 pF and 4.4 pF capacitance for the detector with and without an ARC, respectively. In addition, to compare the energy resolution in terms of radiation hardness, we measured the energy spectra with 57Co and 133Ba before the irradiation. Using developed preamplifiers (KAERI-PA1) that have ultra-low noise and high sensitivity, and a 3 mm×3 mm Si-PIN radiation detector, we obtained energy resolutions with 122 keV of 57Co and 81 keV of 133Ba of 0.221 keV and 0.261 keV, respectively. After 10, 100, 103, 104 and 105 Gy irradiation, we tested the characteristics of the radiation hardness on the Si-PIN radiation detectors in terms of electrical and energy spectra performance changes. The fabricated Si-PIN radiation detectors are working well under high dose irradiation conditions.

  9. [Apical root pins of high-karat gold alloys for resected roots].

    PubMed

    Handtmann, S; Lindemann, W; Sculte, W

    1989-02-01

    Following earlier studies on corrosion of silver pins in the root canal experience will be presented with the use of high-karat gold pins for apical closure of root amputations. The commercially available standardized Ackermann silver pins were replaced by high-karat gold pins of similar Vicker hardness and inserted in 218 patients with 264 root amputations since 1986. A clinical and radiological follow-up demonstrated a success rate of over 90%. PMID:2598876

  10. Expression Analysis of PIN Genes in Root Tips and Nodules of Medicago truncatula.

    PubMed

    Sańko-Sawczenko, Izabela; Łotocka, Barbara; Czarnocka, Weronika

    2016-01-01

    Polar auxin transport is dependent on the family of PIN-formed proteins (PINs), which are membrane transporters of anionic indole-3-acetic acid (IAA(-)). It is assumed that polar auxin transport may be essential in the development and meristematic activity maintenance of Medicago truncatula (M. truncatula) root nodules. However, little is known about the involvement of specific PIN proteins in M. truncatula nodulation. Using real-time quantitative PCR, we analyzed the expression patterns of all previously identified MtPIN genes and compared them between root nodules and root tips of M. truncatula. Our results demonstrated significant differences in the expression level of all 11 genes (MtPIN1-MtPIN11) between examined organs. Interestingly, MtPIN9 was the only PIN gene with higher expression level in root nodules compared to root tips. This result is the first indication of PIN9 transporter potential involvement in M. truncatula nodulation. Moreover, relatively high expression level in root nodules was attributed to MtPINs encoding orthologs of Arabidopsis thaliana PIN5 subclade. PIN proteins from this subclade have been found to localize in the endoplasmic reticulum, which may indicate that the development and meristematic activity maintenance of M. truncatula root nodules is associated with intracellular homeostasis of auxins level and their metabolism in the endoplasmic reticulum. PMID:27463709

  11. Expression Analysis of PIN Genes in Root Tips and Nodules of Medicago truncatula

    PubMed Central

    Sańko-Sawczenko, Izabela; Łotocka, Barbara; Czarnocka, Weronika

    2016-01-01

    Polar auxin transport is dependent on the family of PIN-formed proteins (PINs), which are membrane transporters of anionic indole-3-acetic acid (IAA−). It is assumed that polar auxin transport may be essential in the development and meristematic activity maintenance of Medicago truncatula (M. truncatula) root nodules. However, little is known about the involvement of specific PIN proteins in M. truncatula nodulation. Using real-time quantitative PCR, we analyzed the expression patterns of all previously identified MtPIN genes and compared them between root nodules and root tips of M. truncatula. Our results demonstrated significant differences in the expression level of all 11 genes (MtPIN1–MtPIN11) between examined organs. Interestingly, MtPIN9 was the only PIN gene with higher expression level in root nodules compared to root tips. This result is the first indication of PIN9 transporter potential involvement in M. truncatula nodulation. Moreover, relatively high expression level in root nodules was attributed to MtPINs encoding orthologs of Arabidopsis thaliana PIN5 subclade. PIN proteins from this subclade have been found to localize in the endoplasmic reticulum, which may indicate that the development and meristematic activity maintenance of M. truncatula root nodules is associated with intracellular homeostasis of auxins level and their metabolism in the endoplasmic reticulum. PMID:27463709

  12. Delay Adjusted Incidence Infographic

    Cancer.gov

    This Infographic shows the National Cancer Institute SEER Incidence Trends. The graphs show the Average Annual Percent Change (AAPC) 2002-2011. For Men, Thyroid: 5.3*,Liver & IBD: 3.6*, Melanoma: 2.3*, Kidney: 2.0*, Myeloma: 1.9*, Pancreas: 1.2*, Leukemia: 0.9*, Oral Cavity: 0.5, Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma: 0.3*, Esophagus: -0.1, Brain & ONS: -0.2*, Bladder: -0.6*, All Sites: -1.1*, Stomach: -1.7*, Larynx: -1.9*, Prostate: -2.1*, Lung & Bronchus: -2.4*, and Colon & Rectum: -3/0*. For Women, Thyroid: 5.8*, Liver & IBD: 2.9*, Myeloma: 1.8*, Kidney: 1.6*, Melanoma: 1.5, Corpus & Uterus: 1.3*, Pancreas: 1.1*, Leukemia: 0.6*, Brain & ONS: 0, Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma: -0.1, All Sites: -0.1, Breast: -0.3, Stomach: -0.7*, Oral Cavity: -0.7*, Bladder: -0.9*, Ovary: -0.9*, Lung & Bronchus: -1.0*, Cervix: -2.4*, and Colon & Rectum: -2.7*. * AAPC is significantly different from zero (p<.05). Rates were adjusted for reporting delay in the registry. www.cancer.gov Source: Special section of the Annual Report to the Nation on the Status of Cancer, 1975-2011.

  13. Simulation of the Vortex Dynamics in a Real Pinning Landscape of YBa2 Cu3 O7 -δ Coated Conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadovskyy, I. A.; Koshelev, A. E.; Glatz, A.; Ortalan, V.; Rupich, M. W.; Leroux, M.

    2016-01-01

    The ability of high-temperature superconductors (HTSs) to carry very large currents with almost no dissipation makes them irreplaceable for high-power applications. The development and further improvement of HTS-based cables require an in-depth understanding of the superconducting vortex dynamics in the presence of complex pinning landscapes. We present a critical current analysis of a real HTS sample in a magnetic field by combining state-of-the-art large-scale Ginzburg-Landau simulations with reconstructive three-dimensional scanning-transmission-electron-microscopy tomography of the pinning landscape in Dy-doped YBa2 Cu3 O7 -δ . This methodology provides a unique look at the vortex dynamics in the presence of a complex pinning landscape responsible for the high-current-carrying-capacity characteristic of commercial HTS wires. Our method demonstrates very good functional and quantitative agreement of the critical current between simulation and experiment, providing a new predictive tool for HTS wire designs.

  14. Pinning down the Milky Way's spin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-09-01

    New, very precise measurements have shown that the rotation of the Milky Way is simpler than previously thought. A remarkable result from the most successful ESO instrument HARPS, shows that a much debated, apparent 'fall' of neighbourhood Cepheid stars towards our Sun stems from an intrinsic property of the Cepheids themselves. First Light of the PRIMA Instrument ESO PR Photo 30/08 Cepheids in the Solar Neighbourhood The result, obtained by a group of astrophysicists led by Nicolas Nardetto, will soon appear in the journal Astronomy & Astrophysics. Since Henrietta Leavitt's discovery of their unique properties in 1912, the class of bright, pulsating stars known as Cepheids has been used as a distance indicator. Combined with velocity measurements, the properties of Cepheids are also an extremely valuable tool in investigations of how our galaxy, the Milky Way, rotates. "The motion of Milky Way Cepheids is confusing and has led to disagreement among researchers," says Nardetto. "If the rotation of the Galaxy is taken into account, the Cepheids appear to 'fall' towards the Sun with a mean velocity of about 2 km/s." A debate has raged for decades as to whether this phenomenon was truly related to the actual motion of the Cepheids and, consequently, to a complicated rotating pattern of our galaxy, or if it was the result of effects within the atmospheres of the Cepheids. Nardetto and his colleagues observed eight Cepheids with the high precision HARPS spectrograph, attached to the 3.6-m ESO telescope at La Silla, 2400 m up in the mountains of the Chilean Atacama Desert. HARPS, or the High Accuracy Radial Velocity Planetary Searcher, is best known as a very successful planet hunter, but it can also be used to resolve other complicated cases, where its ability to determine radial velocities - the speed with which something is moving towards or away from us - with phenomenally high accuracy is invaluable. "Our observations show that this apparent motion towards us almost

  15. Photovoltaic response of a polymer p-i-n junction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yanguang; Hu, Yufeng; Gao, Jun

    2007-12-01

    We report the photovoltaic characterization of a polymer p-i-n junction, realized by in situ electrochemical doping and thermal cycling. The planar, "frozen" p-i-n junction exhibits record-high open-circuit voltage up to 2.25V, and in-plane short-circuit current density in excess of 10mA /cm2 under simulated sunlight (˜300mW/cm2). Our results suggest that built-in potential close to the polymer energy gap in magnitude can be obtained in a polymer device structure without the use of dissimilar electrodes, and large short-circuit current density is possible without the use of strong electron acceptors, which limits the open-circuit voltage.

  16. [Results following percutaneous intramedullary pin fixation in distal radius fractures].

    PubMed

    Kirchner, R; Hüttl, T; Krüger-Franke, M; Rosemeyer, B

    1994-01-01

    42 distal radius fractures have been submitted to further examination after percutaneous intramedullary pin fixation. The outcome were 95.3% of very good to good anatomic results and 90.5% of satisfying functional results. This showed the close link between the radiological-anatomical and functional results. The success of the treatment was very acceptable, although the Morbus Sudeck as the major complication--with 7.2%--was still relatively frequently observed. It could be seen that particularly fractures at the risk of dislocation with smash zone constituted an indication for the percutaneous intramedullary pin fixation, that is to say all fractures for which a retention is primarily difficult. It constitutes a supplement, as well as an extension to the therapy of the distal radius fractures. PMID:7516105

  17. Spectrometry and dosimetry of fast neutrons using pin diode detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaki Dizaji, H.; Kakavand, T.; Abbasi Davani, F.

    2014-03-01

    Elastic scattering of light nuclei, especially hydrogen, is widely used for detection of fast neutrons. Semiconductor devices based on silicon detectors are frequently used for different radiation detections. In this work, a neutron spectrometer consisting of a pin diode coupled with a polyethylene converter and aluminum degrader layers has been developed. Aluminum layers are used as discriminators of different neutron energies for detectors. The response of the converter-degrader-pin diode configuration, the optimum thickness of the converter and the degrader layers have been extracted using MCNP and SRIM simulation codes. The possibility of using this type of detector for fast neutron spectrometry and dosimetry has been investigated. A fairly good agreement was seen between neutron energy spectrum and dose obtained from our configurations and these specifications from an 241Am-Be neutron source.

  18. Asymmetric weak-pinning superconducting channels: Vortex ratchets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, K.; Heitmann, T. W.; Song, C.; Defeo, M. P.; Plourde, B. L. T.; Hesselberth, M. B. S.; Kes, P. H.

    2007-12-01

    The controlled motion of objects through narrow channels is important in many fields. We have fabricated asymmetric weak-pinning channels in a superconducting thin-film strip for controlling the dynamics of vortices. The lack of pinning allows the vortices to move through the channels with the dominant interaction determined by the shape of the channel walls. We present measurements of vortex dynamics in the channels and compare these with similar measurements on a set of uniform-width channels. While the uniform-width channels exhibit a symmetric response for both directions through the channel, the vortex motion through the asymmetric channels is quite different, with substantial asymmetries in both the static depinning and dynamic flux flow. This vortex ratchet effect has a rich dependence on magnetic field and driving force amplitude.

  19. Turbine blade and non-integral platform with pin attachment

    DOEpatents

    Campbell, Christian Xavier; Eng, Darryl; Marra, John J.

    2016-08-02

    Platforms (36, 38) span between turbine blades (23, 24, 25) on a disk (32). Each platform may be individually mounted to the disk by a pin attachment (42). Each platform (36) may have a rotationally rearward edge portion (50) that underlies a forward portion (45) of the adjacent platform (38). This limits centrifugal bending of the rearward portion of the platform, and provides coolant sealing. The rotationally forward edge (44A, 44B) of the platform overlies a seal element (51) on the pressure side (28) of the forwardly adjacent blade, and does not underlie a shelf on that blade. The pin attachment allows radial mounting of each platform onto the disk via tilting (60) of the platform during mounting to provide mounting clearance for the rotationally rearward edge portion (50). This facilitates quick platform replacement without blade removal.

  20. Direct visualization of magnetic vortex pinning in superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menghini, Mariela; Kramer, R. B. G.; Silhanek, A. V.; Sautner, J.; Metlushko, V.; de Keyser, K.; Fritzsche, J.; Verellen, N.; Moshchalkov, V. V.

    2009-04-01

    We study the vortex structure in a Pb film deposited on top of a periodic array of ferromagnetic square microrings by combining two high-resolution imaging techniques: Bitter decoration and scanning Hall-probe microscopy (SHPM). The periodicity and strength of the magnetic pinning potential generated by the square microrings are controlled by the magnetic history of the template. When the square rings are in the magnetized dipolar state, known as the onion state, the strong stray field generated at the domain walls prevents the decoration of vortices. SHPM images show that the stray field generated by the dipoles is much stronger than the vortex field, in agreement with the results of simulations. Real-space vortex imaging has revealed that in the onion state, the corners of the square rings act as effective pinning centers for vortices.

  1. Adaptive synchronization and pinning control of colored networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zhaoyan; Xu, Xin-Jian; Chen, Guanrong; Fu, Xinchu

    2012-12-01

    A colored network model, corresponding to a colored graph in mathematics, is used for describing the complexity of some inter-connected physical systems. A colored network is consisted of colored nodes and edges. Colored nodes may have identical or nonidentical local dynamics. Colored edges between any pair of nodes denote not only the outer coupling topology but also the inner interactions. In this paper, first, synchronization of edge-colored networks is studied from adaptive control and pinning control approaches. Then, synchronization of general colored networks is considered. To achieve synchronization of a colored network to an arbitrarily given orbit, open-loop control, pinning control and adaptive coupling strength methods are proposed and tested, with some synchronization criteria derived. Finally, numerical examples are given to illustrate theoretical results.

  2. Turbine blade and non-integral platform with pin attachment

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, Christian X; Eng, Darryl; Marra, John J

    2015-01-27

    Platforms (36, 38) span between turbine blades (23, 24, 25) on a disk (32). Each platform may be individually mounted to the disk by a pin attachment (42). Each platform (36) may have a rotationally rearward edge portion (50) that underlies a forward portion (45) of the adjacent platform (38). This limits centrifugal bending of the rearward portion of the platform, and provides coolant sealing. The rotationally forward edge (44A, 44B) of the platform overlies a seal element (51) on the pressure side (28) of the forwardly adjacent blade, and does not underlie a shelf on that blade. The pin attachment allows radial mounting of each platform onto the disk via tilting (60) of the platform during mounting to provide mounting clearance for the rotationally rearward edge portion (50). This facilitates quick platform replacement without blade removal.

  3. Lightning Pin Injection Test: MOSFETS in "ON" State

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ely, Jay J.; Nguyen, Truong X.; Szatkowski, George N.; Koppen, Sandra V.; Mielnik, John J.; Vaughan, Roger K.; Saha, Sankalita; Wysocki, Philip F.; Celaya, Jose R.

    2011-01-01

    The test objective was to evaluate MOSFETs for induced fault modes caused by pin-injecting a standard lightning waveform into them while operating. Lightning Pin-Injection testing was performed at NASA LaRC. Subsequent fault-mode and aging studies were performed by NASA ARC researchers using the Aging and Characterization Platform for semiconductor components. This report documents the test process and results, to provide a basis for subsequent lightning tests. The ultimate IVHM goal is to apply prognostic and health management algorithms using the features extracted during aging to allow calculation of expected remaining useful life. A survey of damage assessment techniques based upon inspection is provided, and includes data for optical microscope and X-ray inspection. Preliminary damage assessments based upon electrical parameters are also provided.

  4. Collective action of nanopatterned pins: barrier towards creating interstitial vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, Gorky; Mohan, Shyam; Sinha, Jaivardhan; Banerjee, Satyajit

    2009-03-01

    We show that by nano-patterning a superconductor (NbSe2 singlecrystal) with an array of blind holes produces significant magnetic field sweep rate dependent metastable magnetization response[1]. Our results are explained on the basis of a unique collective action of the blind holes pins which creates a barrier against vortex redistribution inside the sample. We propose that this barrier leads to a phase separation creating distinct population of vortices viz., those pinned on blind holes and those confined in the interstitials between the holes [1]. We find that due to the barrier, there is a significant enhancement in the stability of vortices against thermal fluctuations. [1] Gorky Shaw, Shyam Mohan, Jaivardhan Sinha and S. S. Banerjee* (submitted; xxx.lanl.gov/abs/0811.1256) *satyajit@iitk.ac.in

  5. A pin gene families encoding components of auxin efflux carriers in Brassica juncea.

    PubMed

    Ni, Wei Min; Chen, Xiao Ya; Xu, Zhi Hong; Xue, Hong Wei

    2002-09-01

    Based on the sequence information of Arabidopsis PIN1, two cDNAs encoding PIN homologues from Brassica juncea, Bjpin2 and Bjpin3, were isolated through cDNA library screening. Bjpin2 and Bjpin3 encoded proteins containing 640 and 635 amino acid residues, respectively, which shared 97.5% identities with each other and were highly homologous to Arabidopsis PIN1, PIN2 and other putative PIN proteins. BjPIN2 and BjPIN3 had similar structures as AtPIN proteins. Northern blot analysis indicated that Bjpin2 was expressed in stem, leaf and floral tissues, while Bjpin3 was expressed predominantly in stem and hypocotyls. Two promoter fragments of pin genes, Bjpin-X and Bjpin-Z, were isolated by 'genome walking' technique using primers at 5'-end of pin cDNA. Promoter-gus fusion studies revealed the GUS activities driven by Bjpin-X were at internal side of xylem and petal; while those driven by Bjpin-Z were detected at leaf vein, epidermal cell and cortex of stem, vascular tissues and anther. Results of the pin genes with different expression patterns in B. juncea suggested the presence of a gene family. PMID:12296384

  6. Pin1 promotes production of Alzheimer's amyloid {beta} from {beta}-cleaved amyloid precursor protein

    SciTech Connect

    Akiyama, Hirotada; Shin, Ryong-Woon; Uchida, Chiyoko; Kitamoto, Tetsuyuki; Uchida, Takafumi . E-mail: uchidat@cir.tohoku.ac.jp

    2005-10-21

    Here we show that prolyl isomerase Pin1 is involved in the A{beta} production central to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. Enzyme immunoassay of brains of the Pin1-deficient mice revealed that production of A{beta}40 and A{beta}42 was lower than that of the wild-type mice, indicating that Pin1 promotes A{beta} production in the brain. GST-Pin1 pull-down and immunoprecipitation assay revealed that Pin1 binds phosphorylated Thr668-Pro of C99. In the Pin1 {sup -/-} MEF transfected with C99, Pin1 co-transfection enhanced the levels of A{beta}40 and A{beta}42 compared to that without Pin1 co-transfection. In COS7 cells transfected with C99, Pin1 co-transfection enhanced the generation of A{beta}40 and A{beta}42, and reduced the expression level of C99, facilitating the C99 turnover. Thus, Pin1 interacts with C99 and promotes its {gamma}-cleavage, generating A{beta}40 and A{beta}42. Further, GSK3 inhibitor lithium blocked Pin1 binding to C99 by decreasing Thr668 phosphorylation and attenuated A{beta} generation, explaining the inhibitory effect of lithium on A{beta} generation.

  7. Performance of a TiN-coated monolithic silicon pin-diode array under mechanical stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    VanDevender, B. A.; Bodine, L. I.; Myers, A. W.; Amsbaugh, J. F.; Howe, M. A.; Leber, M. L.; Robertson, R. G. H.; Tolich, K.; Van Wechel, T. D.; Wall, B. L.

    2012-05-01

    The Karlsruhe Tritium Neutrino Experiment (KATRIN) will detect tritium β-decay electrons that pass through its electromagnetic spectrometer with a highly segmented monolithic silicon pin-diode focal-plane detector (FPD). This pin-diode array will be on a single piece of 500-μm-thick silicon, with contact between titanium nitride (TiN)-coated detector pixels and front-end electronics made by spring-loaded pogo pins. The pogo pins will exert a total force of up to 50 N on the detector, deforming it and resulting in mechanical stress up to 50 MPa in the silicon bulk. We have evaluated a prototype pin-diode array with a pogo-pin connection scheme similar to the KATRIN FPD. We find that pogo pins make good electrical contact to TiN and observe no effects on detector resolution or reverse-bias leakage current which can be attributed to mechanical stress.

  8. Two-dimensional computational modeling of sodium boiling in simulated LMFBR fuel-pin bundles

    SciTech Connect

    Dearing, J.F.

    1981-01-01

    Extensive sodium boiling tests have been carried out in two simulated LMFBR fuel pin bundles in the Thermal-Hydraulic Out-of-Reactor Safety (THORS) Facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Experimental results from a 19-pin bundle (THORS Bundle 6A) have been previously reported, and experimental results from a 61-pin bundle (THORS Bundle 9) will be reported soon. The results discussed here are from the 19-pin bundle. Preliminary analysis has shown that the computational methods used and conclusions reached are equally valid for the 61-pin bundle, as well as the 19-pin in-reactor Sodium Loop Safety Facility (SLSF) W-1 experiment. The main result of THORS sodium boiling experimentation is that boiling behavior is determined by two-dimensional effects, i.e., the rates of mass, momentum and energy transfer in the direction perpendicular to the axes of the fuel pins.

  9. Local endwall heat/mass-transfer distributions in pin fin channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, S. C.; Kim, Y. S.; Han, J. C.

    1987-10-01

    Naphthalene sublimination experiments were conducted to study the effects of the pin configuration, the pin length-to-diameter ratio, and the entrance length on local endwall heat/mass transfer in a channel with short pin fins (pin length-to-diameter ratios of 0.5 and 1.0). The detailed distributions of the local endwall heat/mass-transfer coefficient were obtained for staggered and aligned arrays of pin fins, for the spanwise pin spacing-to-diameter ratio of 2.5, and for streamwise pin spacing-to-diameter ratios of 1.25 and 2.5. The Reynolds numbers were kept at about 33,000. Overall- and row-averaged Nusselt numbers compared very well with those from previous heat-transfer studies.

  10. Special pinning phenomena in arrays of defects with gradient spatial distributions on niobium film

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Tian-Chiuan; Horng, Lance Wu, Jong-Ching

    2015-05-07

    Flux pinning effect is related to the strong influence by the presence of defects that act as pinning centers. We present transport experiments that investigate the pinning properties in a spacing-graded array of pinning sites. We have found the asymmetric pinning by arrays of defects with modulated gradient spatial distributions on niobium film. One can clearly see the asymmetric pinning effect for the vortex motion. The dc voltage depends on the amplitude of the ac current and that there is a sharp maximum at matching fields. This curve, however, has an interesting sign reversal phenomenon below the first matching field, which will be investigated more in the future. The dc voltage as a function of dc and ac applied current gives evidence that the artificial arrays of gradient pinning site density induce ratchet effect. This effect can be used to control the vortex motion, which will be important for the application of vortex based on electronic devices.

  11. In vitro evaluation of dynamic fluid displacement in dentinal tubules activated on pin placement.

    PubMed

    Hummert, T; Kaiser, D

    1992-08-01

    The use of cemented, friction-lock, and self-threading pins for improving retention has been essential for treatment in restorative dentistry, with the self-threading pin considered to be the most retentive. Cavity varnish has been suggested to prevent microleakage around pins. This study investigated the insertion of a self-threading pin when the pinhole was filled with a liquid dye. The results showed that pinholes filled with dye before pin placement had measurable dye displacement. Pinholes without pins displayed no measurable dye displacement through the dentin; this was also true when the dye fluid was removed before the pin placement. However, the dye in pinholes was displaced toward the path of least resistance, and fluid in a pinhole can contribute to crazing of the dentin during placement. PMID:1501168

  12. Thermal analysis of the IDENT 1578 fuel pin shipping container

    SciTech Connect

    Ingham, J.G.

    1980-01-01

    The IDENT 1578 container, which is a 110-in. long 5.5-in. OD tube, is designed for shipping FFTF fuel elements in T-3 casks between HEDL, HFEF, and other laboratories. The thermal analysis was conducted to evaluate whether or not the container satisfies its thermal design criteria (handle a decay heat load of 600 watts, max fuel pin cladding temperature not exceeding 800/sup 0/F).

  13. FFTF metal fuel pin sodium bond quality verification

    SciTech Connect

    Pitner, A.L.; Dittmer, J.O.

    1988-12-01

    The Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) Series III driver fuel design consists of U-10Zr fuel slugs contained in a ferritic alloy cladding. A liquid metal, sodium bond between the fuel and cladding is required to prevent unacceptable temperatures during operation. Excessive voiding or porosity in the sodium thermal bond could result in localized fuel melting during irradiation. It is therefore imperative that bond quality be verified during fabrication of these metal fuel pins prior to irradiation. This document discusses this verification.

  14. Pin diode calibration - beam overlap monitoring for low energy cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Drees, A.; Montag, C.; Thieberger, P.

    2015-09-30

    We were trying to address the question whether or not the Pin Diodes, currently installed approximately 1 meter downstream of the RHIC primary collimators, are suitable to monitor a recombination signal from the future RHIC low energy cooling section. A maximized recombination signal, with the Au+78 ions being lost on the collimator, will indicate optimal Au-electron beam overlap as well as velocity matching of the electron beam in the cooling section.

  15. Adler Synchronization of Spatial Laser Solitons Pinned by Defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulau, P. V.; McIntyre, C.; Noblet, Y.; Radwell, N.; Firth, W. J.; Colet, P.; Ackemann, T.; Oppo, G.-L.

    2012-05-01

    Defects due to growth fluctuations in broad-area semiconductor lasers induce pinning and frequency shifts of spatial laser solitons. The effects of defects on the interaction of two solitons are considered in lasers with frequency-selective feedback both theoretically and experimentally. We demonstrate frequency and phase synchronization of paired laser solitons as their detuning is varied. In both theory and experiment the locking behavior is well described by the Adler model for the synchronization of coupled oscillators.

  16. Adler synchronization of spatial laser solitons pinned by defects.

    PubMed

    Paulau, P V; McIntyre, C; Noblet, Y; Radwell, N; Firth, W J; Colet, P; Ackemann, T; Oppo, G-L

    2012-05-25

    Defects due to growth fluctuations in broad-area semiconductor lasers induce pinning and frequency shifts of spatial laser solitons. The effects of defects on the interaction of two solitons are considered in lasers with frequency-selective feedback both theoretically and experimentally. We demonstrate frequency and phase synchronization of paired laser solitons as their detuning is varied. In both theory and experiment the locking behavior is well described by the Adler model for the synchronization of coupled oscillators. PMID:23003255

  17. 20. 80 foot pony truss an upper chord pin ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. 80 foot pony truss - an upper chord pin connection at a vertical post other than at the end post. Common to the five 80 foot trusses and similar to the 64 foot truss, there are two pairs per 80 foot truss and one pair on the 64 foot truss for a total of 22. - Weidemeyer Bridge, Spanning Thomes Creek at Rawson Road, Corning, Tehama County, CA

  18. [Damage assessment of a stainless steel lock pin].

    PubMed

    Kallfass, M; Kühnemann, S; Steeb, S

    1993-01-01

    Metallurgical investigation methods were used to determine the cause of failure in a broken and explanted lock pin. Material analysis revealed that the implant material consists of a stainless steel. The fractographic investigation indicated a fatigue fracture with its typical characteristics. Macroscopic damage of the outer surface of the implant caused the fatigue fracture in the bone fracture region. Once the lock pin had failed, further crack propagation of the fatigue fracture was largely dependent on stress intensity and/or overloading of the implant in the bone fracture region as well as on the number of stress cycles. The following items should be observed by the physician applying implant materials: 1. A material showing only very small surface scratches in the order of magnitude of thousands of millimeters should not be implanted at all, because even the smallest surface roughness may cause fractures of the material. 2. Implant materials from low-cost manufacturers should never be applied. Such materials often show construction faults (in the present case an unnecessary weld in the upper part of the lock pin) or the material itself is not well conditioned (in the present case an insufficient annealing treatment). PMID:8480441

  19. Evaluation of rodded BWR assembly pin powers with simulate

    SciTech Connect

    Bahadir, T.; Lindahl, S. Oe.

    2012-07-01

    In the development of Studsvik's nodal code SIMULATE5, special attention has been given to the accurate description of pin powers. The code solves the multi-group diffusion or simplified P3 equations with high spatial resolution. A short description is given of the handling of material heterogeneities in the axial and radial directions - the axial re-homogenization and the radial sub-mesh model, respectively. Furthermore, two models which are of special importance in the presence of control rods, and hence on the pellet clad interaction (PCI) phenomenon, are described; the quarter-assembly thermal-hydraulic treatment and the depletion of absorber material. A numerical example for a real core shows that while the impact of the fine grained description is negligible on global parameters such as k{sub eff}, the effect on pin powers may be substantial. For a deeply inserted and highly depleted control rod, the difference in pin powers caused by neglecting the advanced models of SIMULATE5, may be as high as 15 %. (authors)

  20. Thermochemical evaluation of PCI failures in LWR fuel pins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Götzmann, Odo

    1982-06-01

    In searching for the reasons behind the PCI failures of LWR fuel pins two questions have obviously remained unanswered: (a) what is the iodine potential necessary to cause SCC of zircaloy, and (b) is this iodine potential available in a fuel pin. To answer these two questions, a consistent set of thermochemical data for the Zr-I system was created, the results of laboratory tests of iodine-induced SCC of zircaloy were evaluated, and, finally, equilibrium calculations for the fuel-fission-product system were performed to determine the temperature and oxygen potential required to produce an iodine potential high enough to cause SCC of zircaloy. The conclusion of this study is that SCC of zircaloy can be caused by an iodine potential equal to or greater than that needed to form ZrI with metallic zirconium. This iodine potential is available in an LWR fuel pin at oxygen potentials corresponding to stoichiometric fuel. The carrier of the potential, i.e. The attacking species, is CsI.

  1. Sequential vortex hopping in an array of artificial pinning centers

    SciTech Connect

    Keay, J. C.

    2010-02-24

    We use low-temperature magnetic force microscopy (MFM) to study the hopping motion of vortices in an array of artificial pinning centers (APCs). The array consists of nanoscale holes etched in a niobium thin film by Ar-ion sputtering through an anodic aluminum-oxide template. Variable-temperature magnetometry shows a transition temperature of 7.1 K and an enhancement of the magnetization up to the third matching field at 5 K. Using MFM with attractive and repulsive tip-vortex interaction, we measure the vortex-pinning strength and investigate the motion of individual vortices in the APC array. The depinning force for individual vortices at low field ranged from 0.7 to 1.2 pN. The motion of individual vortices was found to be reproducible and consistent with movement between adjacent holes in the film. The movements are repeatable but the sequence of hops depends on the scan direction. This asymmetry in the motion indicates nonuniform local pinning, a consequence of array disorder and hole-size variation.

  2. a Numerical Method for Stability Analysis of Pinned Flexible Mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beale, D. G.; Lee, S. W.

    1996-05-01

    A technique is presented to investigate the stability of mechanisms with pin-jointed flexible members. The method relies on a special floating frame from which elastic link co-ordinates are defined. Energies are easily developed for use in a Lagrange equation formulation, leading to a set of non-linear and mixed ordinary differential-algebraic equations of motion with constraints. Stability and bifurcation analysis is handled using a numerical procedure (generalized co-ordinate partitioning) that avoids the tedious and difficult task of analytically reducing the system of equations to a number equalling the system degrees of freedom. The proposed method was then applied to (1) a slider-crank mechanism with a flexible connecting rod and crank of constant rotational speed, and (2) a four-bar linkage with a flexible coupler with a constant speed crank. In both cases, a single pinned-pinned beam bending mode is employed to develop resonance curves and stability boundaries in the crank length-crank speed parameter plane. Flip and fold bifurcations are common occurrences in both mechanisms. The accuracy of the proposed method was also verified by comparison with previous experimental results [1].

  3. New Pinning Strategies for Second-Generation Wires

    SciTech Connect

    Solovyov, VF; Li, Q; Rupich, M; Sathyamurthy, S; Li, XP

    2013-06-01

    In the last several years, second-generation (2G) superconducting wires have been considered for applications in rotating machines operating in the 20-40 K temperature range in 1-3 T magnetic fields. Here, we outline several novel strategies for improving the low-temperature performance of second-generation wires by utilizing the in-plane strain of thick YBCO layers manufactured by the reel-to-reel metal-organic deposition (MOD) method. First, we show that he strain-induced pinning mechanism analysis, based on the Eshelby model of the elastically-strained composites, predicts that small YBCO grain size is a critical component of a strong pinning architecture. Second, we describe how the in-plane strain can be controlled by processing parameters. Systematic changes of the in-plane structure and YBCO grain size are mapped with respect to the YBCO stability line and the Cu2O-CuO line on the Bormann-Hammond diagram. It is demonstrated that the optimum critical current density is the result of a trade-off between YBCO grain coupling and the strain-induced pinning.

  4. AN Fitting Reconditioning Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lopez, Jason

    2011-01-01

    A tool was developed to repair or replace AN fittings on the shuttle external tank (ET). (The AN thread is a type of fitting used to connect flexible hoses and rigid metal tubing that carry fluid. It is a U.S. military-derived specification agreed upon by the Army and Navy, hence AN.) The tool is used on a drill and is guided by a pilot shaft that follows the inside bore. The cutting edge of the tool is a standard-size replaceable insert. In the typical Post Launch Maintenance/Repair process for the AN fittings, the six fittings are removed from the ET's GUCP (ground umbilical carrier plate) for reconditioning. The fittings are inspected for damage to the sealing surface per standard operations maintenance instructions. When damage is found on the sealing surface, the condition is documented. A new AN reconditioning tool is set up to cut and remove the surface damage. It is then inspected to verify the fitting still meets drawing requirements. The tool features a cone-shaped interior at 36.5 , and may be adjusted at a precise angle with go-no-go gauges to insure that the cutting edge could be adjusted as it wore down. One tool, one setting block, and one go-no-go gauge were fabricated. At the time of this reporting, the tool has reconditioned/returned to spec 36 AN fittings with 100-percent success of no leakage. This tool provides a quick solution to repair a leaky AN fitting. The tool could easily be modified with different-sized pilot shafts to different-sized fittings.

  5. 78 FR 62712 - Rate Adjustment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ... Rate Adjustment AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a recent Postal Service filing seeking postal rate adjustments based on exigent circumstances... On September 26, 2013, the Postal Service filed an exigent rate request with the Commission...

  6. Adjustable holder for transducer mounting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deotsch, R. C.

    1980-01-01

    Positioning of acoustic sensor, strain gage, or similar transducer is facilitated by adjustable holder. Developed for installation on Space Shuttle, it includes springs for maintaining uniform load on transducer with adjustable threaded cap for precisely controlling position of sensor with respect to surrounding structure.

  7. Spousal Adjustment to Myocardial Infarction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziglar, Elisa J.

    This paper reviews the literature on the stresses and coping strategies of spouses of patients with myocardial infarction (MI). It attempts to identify specific problem areas of adjustment for the spouse and to explore the effects of spousal adjustment on patient recovery. Chapter one provides an overview of the importance in examining the…

  8. Mood Adjustment via Mass Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knobloch, Silvia

    2003-01-01

    Proposes and experimentally tests mood adjustment approach, complementing mood management theory. Discusses how results regarding self-exposure across time show that patterns of popular music listening among a group of undergraduate students differ with initial mood and anticipation, lending support to mood adjustment hypotheses. Describes how…

  9. The class characteristic mark of the H&M Mul-T-Lock picking tool in toolmarks examination.

    PubMed

    Volkov, Nikolai; Finkelstein, Nir; Novoselsky, Yehuda; Tsach, Tsadok

    2014-07-01

    Mul-T-Lock is a high security lock cylinder distinguished by the use of a telescoping "pin-in-pin"-tumbler design. Picking the Mul-T-Lock cylinder with a traditional picking tool is highly complicated because it can get stuck between the inner and outer pins. The H&M Mul-T-Lock picking tool was designed to overcome this problem and facilitate the picking of the "pin-in-pin" cylinder. The purpose of this research is to determine whether H&M Mul-T-Lock picking tool leaves class characteristic mark and whether it can be distinguished from traditional picking tools marks and from regular key marks. It also describes and determines the class characteristic mark left on telescopic pins, its origin, recurrence, and its benefit to the toolmarks examiner. When receiving a Mul-T-Lock from a crime scene, a toolmarks examiner can quickly determine whether or not it was picked by an H&M Mul-T-Lock picking tool by noticing the class characteristic mark which this typical tool leaves. PMID:24840506

  10. Latest Adjustment of the Argentine Height System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piñón, D. A.; Cimbaro, S. R.; Sanchez, R. E.

    2013-05-01

    For over 70 years the National Geographic Institute of Argentina (NGI) has conducted a systematic project to building benchmarks throughout the country, which have been measured with spirit leveling and gravimetry techniques. The measurements were undertaken on a total of approximately 18,000 benchmarks, which define the High Precision Leveling Network of Argentina. The first adjustment of this network took place in 1971. This assignment was given to the Defense Mapping Agency of the United States of America (DMA). Leveling lines that were built and measured after the year 1971 were adjusted to this original network. It was of great importance to perform a new adjustment calculation with modern techniques to update the entire network. Some modern tools worth mentioning are: gravity interpolation using prediction method and topographic correction calculation by the Hammer method using SRTM model. All historical field books were digitalized to retrieve the information corresponding to the spirit leveling, from which it was then possible to calculate geopotential difference between the nodes, using the gravity acceleration values over the benchmarks. Subsequently, by the method of least squares it was possible to calculate the geopotential numbers of the nodes, and then the orthometric height of all the benchmarks. The recommendations of the Working Group III of SIRGAS (Geodetic Reference System for the Americas) were taken into account in relation to this task. The development of this paper shows the results that have been obtained so far in the development of the New Height System for Argentina.

  11. Pin1 promotes GR transactivation by enhancing recruitment to target genes

    PubMed Central

    Poolman, Toryn M.; Farrow, Stuart N.; Matthews, Laura; Loudon, Andrew S.; Ray, David W.

    2013-01-01

    The glucocorticoid receptor (GR) is a ligand activated transcription factor, serving to regulate both energy metabolism and immune functions. Factors that influence cellular sensitivity to glucocorticoids (GC) are therefore of great interest. The N-terminal of the GR contains numerous potential proline-directed phosphorylation sites, some of which can regulate GR transactivation. Unrestricted proline isomerisation can be inhibited by adjacent serine phosphorylation and requires a prolyl isomerise, Pin1. Pin1 therefore determines the functional outcome of proline-directed kinases acting on the GR, as cis/trans isomers are distinct pools with different interacting proteins. We show that Pin1 mediates GR transactivation, but not GR trans-repression. Two N-terminal GR serines, S203 and S211, are targets for Pin1 potentiation of GR transactivation, establishing a direct link between Pin1 and the GR. We also demonstrate GC-activated co-recruitment of GR and Pin1 to the GILZ gene promoter. The Pin1 effect required both its WW and catalytic domains, and GR recruitment to its GRE was Pin1-dependent. Therefore, Pin1 is a selective regulator of GR transactivation, acting through N-terminal phospho-serine residues to regulate GR recruitment to its target sites in the genome. As Pin1 is dysregulated in disease states, this interaction may contribute to altered GC action in inflammatory conditions. PMID:23887939

  12. PPP1, a plant-specific regulator of transcription controls Arabidopsis development and PIN expression.

    PubMed

    Benjamins, René; Barbez, Elke; Ortbauer, Martina; Terpstra, Inez; Lucyshyn, Doris; Moulinier-Anzola, Jeanette; Khan, Muhammad Asaf; Leitner, Johannes; Malenica, Nenad; Butt, Haroon; Korbei, Barbara; Scheres, Ben; Kleine-Vehn, Jürgen; Luschnig, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Directional transport of auxin is essential for plant development, with PIN auxin transport proteins representing an integral part of the machinery that controls hormone distribution. However, unlike the rapidly emerging framework of molecular determinants regulating PIN protein abundance and subcellular localization, insights into mechanisms controlling PIN transcription are still limited. Here we describe PIN2 PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN 1 (PPP1), an evolutionary conserved plant-specific DNA binding protein that acts on transcription of PIN genes. Consistent with PPP1 DNA-binding activity, PPP1 reporter proteins are nuclear localized and analysis of PPP1 null alleles and knockdown lines indicated a function as a positive regulator of PIN expression. Furthermore, we show that ppp1 pleiotropic mutant phenotypes are partially reverted by PIN overexpression, and results are presented that underline a role of PPP1-PIN promoter interaction in PIN expression control. Collectively, our findings identify an elementary, thus far unknown, plant-specific DNA-binding protein required for post-embryonic plant development, in general, and correct expression of PIN genes, in particular. PMID:27553690

  13. PPP1, a plant-specific regulator of transcription controls Arabidopsis development and PIN expression

    PubMed Central

    Benjamins, René; Barbez, Elke; Ortbauer, Martina; Terpstra, Inez; Lucyshyn, Doris; Moulinier-Anzola, Jeanette; Khan, Muhammad Asaf; Leitner, Johannes; Malenica, Nenad; Butt, Haroon; Korbei, Barbara; Scheres, Ben; Kleine-Vehn, Jürgen; Luschnig, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Directional transport of auxin is essential for plant development, with PIN auxin transport proteins representing an integral part of the machinery that controls hormone distribution. However, unlike the rapidly emerging framework of molecular determinants regulating PIN protein abundance and subcellular localization, insights into mechanisms controlling PIN transcription are still limited. Here we describe PIN2 PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN 1 (PPP1), an evolutionary conserved plant-specific DNA binding protein that acts on transcription of PIN genes. Consistent with PPP1 DNA-binding activity, PPP1 reporter proteins are nuclear localized and analysis of PPP1 null alleles and knockdown lines indicated a function as a positive regulator of PIN expression. Furthermore, we show that ppp1 pleiotropic mutant phenotypes are partially reverted by PIN overexpression, and results are presented that underline a role of PPP1-PIN promoter interaction in PIN expression control. Collectively, our findings identify an elementary, thus far unknown, plant-specific DNA-binding protein required for post-embryonic plant development, in general, and correct expression of PIN genes, in particular. PMID:27553690

  14. Liquid-metal pin-fin pressure drop by correlation in cross flow

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Zhibi; Kuzay, T.M.; Assoufid, L.

    1994-08-01

    The pin-fin configuration is widely used as a heat transfer enhancement method in high-heat-flux applications. Recently, the pin-fin design with liquid-metal coolant was also applied to synchrotron-radiation beamline devices. This paper investigates the pressure drop in a pin-post design beamline mirror with liquid gallium as the coolant. Because the pin-post configuration is a relatively new concept, information in literature about pin-post mirrors or crystals is rare, and information about the pressure drop in pin-post mirrors with liquid metal as the coolant is even more sparse. Due to this the authors considered the cross flow in cylinder-array geometry, which is very similar to that of the pin-post, to examine the pressure drop correlation with liquid metals over pin fins. The cross flow of fluid with various fluid characteristics or properties through a tube bank was studied so that the results can be scaled to the pin-fin geometry with liquid metal as the coolant. Study lead to two major variables to influence the pressure drop: fluid properties, viscosity and density, and the relative length of the posts. Correlation of the pressure drop between long and short posts and the prediction of the pressure drop of liquid metal in the pin-post mirror and comparison with an existing experiment are addressed.

  15. Connection stiffness and dynamical docking process of flux pinned spacecraft modules

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Yong; Zhang, Mingliang Gao, Dong

    2014-02-14

    This paper describes a novel kind of potential flux pinned docking system that consists of guidance navigation and control system, the traditional extrusion type propulsion system, and a flux pinned docking interface. Because of characteristics of passive stability of flux pinning, the docking control strategy of flux pinned docking system only needs a series of sequential control rather than necessary active feedback control, as well as avoidance of hazardous collision accident. The flux pinned force between YBaCuO (YBCO) high temperature superconductor bulk and permanent magnet is able to be given vent based on the identical current loop model and improved image dipole model, which can be validated experimentally. Thus, the connection stiffness between two flux pinned spacecraft modules can be calculated based on Hooke's law. This connection stiffness matrix at the equilibrium position has the positive definite performance, which can validate the passively stable connection of two flux pinned spacecraft modules theoretically. Furthermore, the relative orbital dynamical equation of two flux pinned spacecraft modules can be established based on Clohessy-Wiltshire's equations and improved image dipole model. The dynamical docking process between two flux pinned spacecraft modules can be obtained by way of numerical simulation, which suggests the feasibility of flux pinned docking system.

  16. The value of ultrasound-assisted pinned resorbable osteosynthesis for cranial vault remodelling in craniosynostosis.

    PubMed

    Freudlsperger, Christian; Castrillon-Oberndorfer, Gregor; Baechli, Heidi; Hoffmann, Juergen; Mertens, Christian; Engel, Michael

    2014-07-01

    Resorbable osteosynthesis is a widespread tool in craniofacial surgery, however only a limited number of studies have focused on ultrasound-assisted pinned resorbable systems in the treatment of craniosynostosis. Thirty-eight children with various types of craniosynostosis including scaphocephaly, trigonocephaly, anterior and posterior plagiocephaly were treated using the Sonic Welding resorbable osteosynthesis system. All patients were evaluated for operation time, stability of the surgical results, rate of local infections and visibility or palpability of the osteosynthesis material in the follow-up ranging from 15 to 21 month. Mean operation time was not significantly higher compared to conventional osteosynthesis material and all remodelled cranial vaults showed immediate stability. Only one patient showed signs of an inflammatory skin reaction, which recovered spontaneously. The number of palpable or visible plates, respectively, increased during the first months with a maximum at 12 months (34 (89%) plates palpable, 26 (68%) plates visible). After this time point, the number decreased continuously until the end of the follow-up period at 21 months when 3 (20%) plates were palpable, 0 (0%) plates were visible). Ultrasound-assisted pinned resorbable systems seem to be a promising tool in craniofacial surgery providing a timesaving and stable osteosynthesis. An initial swelling of the plates during the first 12 months before the complete degradation might result in a palpable and visible bulge. PMID:24011607

  17. Adjustable Induction-Heating Coil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, Rod; Bartolotta, Paul

    1990-01-01

    Improved design for induction-heating work coil facilitates optimization of heating in different metal specimens. Three segments adjusted independently to obtain desired distribution of temperature. Reduces time needed to achieve required temperature profiles.

  18. An Investigation on the Pin Bearings’ Optimization of a Hermetic Reciprocating Compressor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozdemir, A. R.; Hacioglu, B.; Kasapoglu, E.

    2015-08-01

    A hermetic reciprocating compressor is the most energy consuming component of the refrigerators. Therefore performance improvement studies of the compressor play an important role to reduce overall energy consumption of the refrigerators. Design of bearings is one of the major study areas influencing reciprocating compressor performance. In this study crank pin and piston pin bearings in hermetic compressor applications are investigated and optimized. The effect of operating conditions, bearing offset between crank pin and piston pin, bearing clearance and bearing location along the shaft on the friction loss were investigated and optimal bearing designs were developed. Efficiency measurements of the compressor showed that the improved crank pin and piston pin bearing designs provide up to 3.8% increase in the COP as a result of reduction in mechanical loss that is significantly influenced by the length of the bearings, bearing location along the shaft and operating conditions.

  19. Alopecia due to an allergic reaction to metal head-pins used in a neurosurgical operation

    PubMed Central

    Ono, Hajime; Takasuna, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Yuichiro

    2016-01-01

    Background: Allergic reactions to the metal head-pins of a head fixation holder are rare. Case Description: A 45-year-old woman was referred to our hospital for the treatment of unruptured cerebral aneurysms. She underwent successful surgical treatment using four head-pins of the Sugita frame. At her first outpatient visit 3 weeks after discharge, redness, sores, and focal hair loss were noted at all four areas where the pinning had been performed. The pin fixation was considered to be responsible for the alopecia because the condition of the scalp lesions was even in all four parts. Six months later, the scalp regained hair. The head-pins were made of stainless steel, containing iron, nickel, chromium, and other components. A previous history of contact dermatitis to metal jewellery was later proven. Conclusion: The history of metal allergy should have been carefully elicited because head fixation with head-pins is essential for neurosurgical procedures. PMID:26862455

  20. Effect of Weld Tool Geometry on Friction Stir Welded AA2219-T87 Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Querin, Joseph A.; Schneider, Judy A.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, flat panels of AA2219-T87 were friction stir welded (FSWed) using weld tools with tapered pins The three pin geometries of the weld tools included: 0 (straight cylinder), 30 , and 60 angles on the frustum. For each weld tool geometry, the FSW process parameters were optimized to eliminate defects. A constant heat input was maintained while varying the process parameters of spindle rpm and travel speed. This provided a constant heat input for each FSW weld panel while altering the hot working conditions imparted to the workpiece. The resulting mechanical properties were evaluated from tensile test results of the FSW joint.

  1. Payload specialist Robert Cenker after adjusting DSO equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Robert J. Cenker, STS 61-C payload specialist, returns a tiny tool to its stowage position after adjusting the inner workings of a device used in one of a number of detailed supplementary objective (DSO) studies for NASA's Space Biomedical Research Institute. The device is a pair of ocular counter-rolling goggles.

  2. Dynamic phases, pinning, and pattern formation for driven dislocation assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Caizhi; Reichhardt, Charles; Olson Reichhardt, Cynthia J.; Beyerlein, Irene J.

    2015-01-23

    We examine driven dislocation assemblies and show that they can exhibit a set of dynamical phases remarkably similar to those of driven systems with quenched disorder such as vortices in superconductors, magnetic domain walls, and charge density wave materials. These phases include pinned-jammed, fluctuating, and dynamically ordered states, and each produces distinct dislocation patterns as well as specific features in the noise fluctuations and transport properties. Lastly, our work suggests that many of the results established for systems with quenched disorder undergoing plastic depinning transitions can be applied to dislocation systems, providing a new approach for understanding pattern formation and dynamics in these systems.

  3. Dynamic phases, pinning, and pattern formation for driven dislocation assemblies

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Zhou, Caizhi; Reichhardt, Charles; Olson Reichhardt, Cynthia J.; Beyerlein, Irene J.

    2015-01-23

    We examine driven dislocation assemblies and show that they can exhibit a set of dynamical phases remarkably similar to those of driven systems with quenched disorder such as vortices in superconductors, magnetic domain walls, and charge density wave materials. These phases include pinned-jammed, fluctuating, and dynamically ordered states, and each produces distinct dislocation patterns as well as specific features in the noise fluctuations and transport properties. Lastly, our work suggests that many of the results established for systems with quenched disorder undergoing plastic depinning transitions can be applied to dislocation systems, providing a new approach for understanding pattern formation andmore » dynamics in these systems.« less

  4. Stresses in pin-loaded orthotropic plates using photoelasticity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyer, M. W.; Liu, D.

    1984-01-01

    The stresses in transparent glass-epoxy plates loaded by a steel pin through a hole were determined by photoelasticity. The stresses around the hole edge, across the net section, along the shear out line, and on the centerline below the hole for quasiisotropic, unidirectional, and angle ply plates are outlined. Stresses in an isotropic comparison specimen are also presented. Stress concentration factors for several locations around the plates are tabulated. The experimental apparatus and the experimental technique are discussed. The isochromatic and isoclinic fringe patterns for the four plates are shown. A description of the necessary photoelastic theory is appended.

  5. Dynamic Phases, Pinning, and Pattern Formation for Driven Dislocation Assemblies

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Caizhi; Reichhardt, Charles; Olson Reichhardt, Cynthia J.; Beyerlein, Irene J.

    2015-01-01

    We examine driven dislocation assemblies and show that they can exhibit a set of dynamical phases remarkably similar to those of driven systems with quenched disorder such as vortices in superconductors, magnetic domain walls, and charge density wave materials. These phases include pinned-jammed, fluctuating, and dynamically ordered states, and each produces distinct dislocation patterns as well as specific features in the noise fluctuations and transport properties. Our work suggests that many of the results established for systems with quenched disorder undergoing plastic depinning transitions can be applied to dislocation systems, providing a new approach for understanding pattern formation and dynamics in these systems. PMID:25613839

  6. Dynamic Phases, Pinning, and Pattern Formation for Driven Dislocation Assemblies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Caizhi; Reichhardt, Charles; Olson Reichhardt, Cynthia J.; Beyerlein, Irene J.

    2015-01-01

    We examine driven dislocation assemblies and show that they can exhibit a set of dynamical phases remarkably similar to those of driven systems with quenched disorder such as vortices in superconductors, magnetic domain walls, and charge density wave materials. These phases include pinned-jammed, fluctuating, and dynamically ordered states, and each produces distinct dislocation patterns as well as specific features in the noise fluctuations and transport properties. Our work suggests that many of the results established for systems with quenched disorder undergoing plastic depinning transitions can be applied to dislocation systems, providing a new approach for understanding pattern formation and dynamics in these systems.

  7. Frequency Reconfigurable Hybrid Slot Antenna Using PIN Diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiaolin; Sheng, Lili; Lin, Jiancheng; Chen, Gang

    2015-11-01

    This paper introduces a frequency reconfigurable hybrid slot antenna fed by coplanar waveguide (CPW) without complex bias network and DC blocking capacitor chips. In order to add reconfigurablility to the antenna, the PIN diodes are equipped in the slots. The antenna is capable of frequency switching at six different frequency bands between 1.7 GHz to 2.5 GHz, which can be used in multiradio wireless systems, such as DCS-1800, PCS1900, UMTS, Wibro and Bluetooth bands. The simulated and measured return loss, peak gain, together with the radiation patterns are presented and compared. Especially, the radiation patterns are stable at different frequency.

  8. A fission gas release correlation for uranium nitride fuel pins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinstein, M. B.; Davison, H. W.

    1973-01-01

    A model was developed to predict fission gas releases from UN fuel pins clad with various materials. The model was correlated with total release data obtained by different experimentors, over a range of fuel temperatures primarily between 1250 and 1660 K, and fuel burnups up to 4.6 percent. In the model, fission gas is transported by diffusion mechanisms to the grain boundaries where the volume grows and eventually interconnects with the outside surface of the fuel. The within grain diffusion coefficients are found from fission gas release rate data obtained using a sweep gas facility.

  9. Crystallization kinetics and self-induced pinning in cellular patterns

    SciTech Connect

    Aranson, Igor S.; Malomed, Boris A.; Pismen, Len M.; Tsimring, Lev S.

    2000-07-01

    Within the framework of the Swift-Hohenberg model it is shown numerically and analytically that the front propagation between cellular and uniform states is determined by periodic nucleation events triggered by the explosive growth of the localized zero-eigenvalue mode of the corresponding linear problem. We derive an evolution equation for this mode using asymptotic analysis, and evaluate the time interval between nucleation events, and hence the front speed. In the presence of noise, we find the velocity exponent of ''thermally activated'' front propagation (creep) beyond the pinning threshold. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.

  10. Flux pinning and percolation in high-Tc oxide superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsushita, Teruo; Ni, Baorong; Yamafuji, Kaoru

    Critical current characteristics in quench and melt growth (QMG) processed Y-Ba-Cu-O are investigated by ac inductive measurements. The critical current in these samples is percolative as is observed in sintered materials. However, this percolative behavior is not caused by weak-link grain boundaries but seems to be mainly attributed to layers of nonsuperconducting solidified melt. The experimental result of magnetization critical current density is compared with the theoretical estimate from the effective medium theory. It is also found that the shielding current with very high density flows locally inside the sample. Candidates for the dominant pinning centers in QMG processed samples are also discussed.

  11. Welding fixture for nuclear fuel pin cladding assemblies

    DOEpatents

    Oakley, David J.; Feld, Sam H.

    1986-01-01

    A welding fixture for locating a driver sleeve about the open end of a nuclear fuel pin cladding. The welding fixture includes a holder provided with an open cavity having shoulders for properly positioning the driver sleeve, the end cap, and a soft, high temperature resistant plastic protective sleeve that surrounds a portion of the end cap stem. Ejected contaminant particles spewed forth by closure of the cladding by pulsed magnetic welding techniques are captured within a contamination trap formed in the holder for ultimate removal and disposal of contaminating particles along with the holder.

  12. Welding fixture for nuclear fuel pin cladding assemblies

    DOEpatents

    Oakley, D.J.; Feld, S.H.

    1984-02-22

    A welding fixture is described for locating a driver sleeve about the open end of a nuclear fuel pin cladding. The welding fixture includes a holder provided with an open cavity having shoulders for properly positioning the driver sleeve, the end cap, and a soft, high temperature resistant plastic protective sleeve that surrounds a portion of the end cap stem. Ejected contaminant particles spewed forth by closure of the cladding by pulsed magnetic welding techniques are captured within a contamination trap formed in the holder for ultimate removal and disposal of contaminating particles along with the holder.

  13. Method for forming precision clockplate with pivot pins

    DOEpatents

    Wild, Ronald L.

    2010-06-01

    Methods are disclosed for producing a precision clockplate with rotational bearing surfaces (e.g. pivot pins). The methods comprise providing an electrically conductive blank, conventionally machining oversize features comprising bearing surfaces into the blank, optionally machining of a relief on non-bearing surfaces, providing wire accesses adjacent to bearing surfaces, threading the wire of an electrical discharge machine through the accesses and finishing the bearing surfaces by wire electrical discharge machining. The methods have been shown to produce bearing surfaces of comparable dimension and tolerances as those produced by micro-machining methods such as LIGA, at reduced cost and complexity.

  14. Passive Time Coincidence Measurements with HEU Oxide Fuel Pins

    SciTech Connect

    McConchie, Seth M; Hausladen, Paul; Mihalczo, John T

    2008-01-01

    Passive time coincidence measurements have been performed on highly enriched uranium (HEU) oxide fuel pins at the Idaho National Laboratory Power Burst Facility. These experiments evaluate HEU detection capability using passive coincidence counting when utilizing moderated 3He tubes. Data acquisition was performed with the Nuclear Material Identification System (NMIS) to calculate the neutron coincidence time distributions. The amounts of HEU measured were 1 kg, 4 kg, and 8 kg in sealed 55-gallon drums. Data collected with the 3He tubes also include passive measurement of 31 kg of depleted uranium (DU) in order to determine the ability to distinguish HEU from DU. This paper presents results from the measurements.

  15. Differential Regulation of Cellular Senescence and Differentiation by Prolyl Isomerase Pin1 in Cardiac Progenitor Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Toko, Haruhiro; Hariharan, Nirmala; Konstandin, Mathias H.; Ormachea, Lucia; McGregor, Michael; Gude, Natalie A.; Sundararaman, Balaji; Joyo, Eri; Joyo, Anya Y.; Collins, Brett; Din, Shabana; Mohsin, Sadia; Uchida, Takafumi; Sussman, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    Autologous c-kit+ cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs) are currently used in the clinic to treat heart disease. CPC-based regeneration may be further augmented by better understanding molecular mechanisms of endogenous cardiac repair and enhancement of pro-survival signaling pathways that antagonize senescence while also increasing differentiation. The prolyl isomerase Pin1 regulates multiple signaling cascades by modulating protein folding and thereby activity and stability of phosphoproteins. In this study, we examine the heretofore unexplored role of Pin1 in CPCs. Pin1 is expressed in CPCs in vitro and in vivo and is associated with increased proliferation. Pin1 is required for cell cycle progression and loss of Pin1 causes cell cycle arrest in the G1 phase in CPCs, concomitantly associated with decreased expression of Cyclins D and B and increased expression of cell cycle inhibitors p53 and retinoblastoma (Rb). Pin1 deletion increases cellular senescence but not differentiation or cell death of CPCs. Pin1 is required for endogenous CPC response as Pin1 knock-out mice have a reduced number of proliferating CPCs after ischemic challenge. Pin1 overexpression also impairs proliferation and causes G2/M phase cell cycle arrest with concurrent down-regulation of Cyclin B, p53, and Rb. Additionally, Pin1 overexpression inhibits replicative senescence, increases differentiation, and inhibits cell death of CPCs, indicating that cell cycle arrest caused by Pin1 overexpression is a consequence of differentiation and not senescence or cell death. In conclusion, Pin1 has pleiotropic roles in CPCs and may be a molecular target to promote survival, enhance repair, improve differentiation, and antagonize senescence. PMID:24375406

  16. Tunable phase diagram and vortex pinning in a superconductor-ferromagnet bilayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, L. Y.; Cieplak, Marta Z.; Chien, C. L.

    2010-08-01

    We have observed the evolution of phase diagram and vortex pinning using a single ferromagnet/superconductor bilayer of [Co/Pt]8/Nb through a special demagnetization procedure. It induces a continuous and reversible change in the domain width with equal positive/negative domains enabling the observation of the predicted tunable phase diagram. The tunable domain pattern also systematically affects vortex pinning. We have determined the dependence of the activation energy of vortex pinning on domain width, temperature, and magnetic field.

  17. A misplaced locking pin found near ET causes decision to scrub

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    A locking pin can be seen in the background, almost as a shadow, next to the orbiter aft ET attachment. Locking pins are used to secure handrails on the platforms while work is being performed. The misplaced pin was noticed during an inspection prior to launch, causing the decision to scrub about 90 minutes before liftoff. Launch was rescheduled for Oct. 11 at 7:17 p.m.

  18. Molecular analysis of PinX1 in human hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Oh, Bong-Kyeong; Chae, Kwang Jo; Park, Chanil; Park, Young Nyun

    2004-10-01

    PinX1 is located at 8p23, a region with frequent loss of heterozygosity in hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs). Overexpression of PinX1 is known to inhibit telomerase activity, shorten telomeres and induce crisis while its depletion increases tumorigenesis in nude mice. These results suggest that PinX1 might be critical for hepatocarcinogenesis. In this study, we assessed transcript expression of PinX1, the correlation between PinX1 mRNA level and telomere length and telomerase activity, as well as sequence alteration, in 24 HCCs and their adjacent non-HCC tissues from patients with B viral chronic hepatitis/cirrhosis. There was no significant difference between the levels of PinX1 mRNA in HCCs and those in non-HCCs. The PinX1 mRNA tended to increase as the telomere shortened in the HCCs (p=0.067, R(2)=0.166), but no correlation was found in non-HCCs. The PinX1 level revealed no significant relationship with telomerase activity in HCCs and non-HCCs. The missense mutations of PinX1, at the 254 and 265 residues, were found in 17% of the HCCs and their adjacent non-HCCs. The mutations were located in the non-conserved region and revealed no relation with PinX1 expression, telomere length and telomerase activity, suggesting that they are likely polymorphisms. Our findings suggest that PinX1 may not play a major role in hepatocarcinogenesis as a target tumor suppressor gene. PinX1, however, might be involved in the telomere length regulation of HCCs. PMID:15375513

  19. The PIN1 family gene PvPIN1 is involved in auxin-dependent root emergence and tillering in switchgrass.

    PubMed

    Xu, Kaijie; Sun, Fengli; Wang, Yongfeng; Shi, Lili; Liu, Shudong; Xi, Yajun

    2016-03-01

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.; family Poaceae) is a warm-season C4 perennial grass. Tillering plays an important role in determining the morphology of aboveground parts and the final biomass yield of switchgrass. Auxin distribution in plants can affect a variety of important growth and developmental processes, including the regulation of shoot and root branching, plant resistance and biological yield. Auxin transport and gradients in plants are mediated by influx and efflux carriers. PvPIN1, a switchgrass PIN1-like gene that is involved in regulating polar transport, is a putative auxin efflux carrier. Neighbor-joining analysis using sequences deposited in NCBI databases showed that the PvPIN1gene belongs to the PIN1 family and is evolutionarily closer to the Oryza sativa japonica group. Tiller emergence and development was significantly promoted in plants subjected toPvPIN1 RNA interference (RNAi), which yielded a phenotype similar to that of wild-type plants treated with the auxin transport inhibitor TIBA (2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid). A transgenic approach that inducedPvPIN1 gene overexpression or suppression altered tiller number and the shoot/root ratio. These data suggest that PvPIN1plays an important role in auxin-dependent adventitious root emergence and tillering. PMID:27007900

  20. The PIN1 family gene PvPIN1 is involved in auxin-dependent root emergence and tillering in switchgrass

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Kaijie; Sun, Fengli; Wang, Yongfeng; Shi, Lili; Liu, Shudong; Xi, Yajun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.; family Poaceae) is a warm-season C4 perennial grass. Tillering plays an important role in determining the morphology of aboveground parts and the final biomass yield of switchgrass. Auxin distribution in plants can affect a variety of important growth and developmental processes, including the regulation of shoot and root branching, plant resistance and biological yield. Auxin transport and gradients in plants are mediated by influx and efflux carriers. PvPIN1, a switchgrass PIN1-like gene that is involved in regulating polar transport, is a putative auxin efflux carrier. Neighbor-joining analysis using sequences deposited in NCBI databases showed that the PvPIN1gene belongs to the PIN1 family and is evolutionarily closer to the Oryza sativa japonica group. Tiller emergence and development was significantly promoted in plants subjected toPvPIN1 RNA interference (RNAi), which yielded a phenotype similar to that of wild-type plants treated with the auxin transport inhibitor TIBA (2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid). A transgenic approach that inducedPvPIN1 gene overexpression or suppression altered tiller number and the shoot/root ratio. These data suggest that PvPIN1plays an important role in auxin-dependent adventitious root emergence and tillering. PMID:27007900

  1. Effects of Pin1 Loss in HdhQ111 Knock-in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Agostoni, Elena; Michelazzi, Silvia; Maurutto, Marta; Carnemolla, Alisia; Ciani, Yari; Vatta, Paolo; Roncaglia, Paola; Zucchelli, Silvia; Leanza, Giampiero; Mantovani, Fiamma; Gustincich, Stefano; Santoro, Claudio; Piazza, Silvano; Del Sal, Giannino; Persichetti, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    Huntington’s disease (HD) is a fatal, dominantly inherited, neurodegenerative disorder due to a pathological expansion of the CAG repeat in the coding region of the HTT gene. In the quest for understanding the molecular basis of neurodegeneration, we have previously demonstrated that the prolyl isomerase Pin1 plays a crucial role in mediating p53-dependent apoptosis triggered by mutant huntingtin (mHtt) in vitro. To assess the effects of the lack of Pin1 in vivo, we have bred Pin1 knock-out mice with HdhQ111 knock-in mice, a genetically precise model of HD. We show that Pin1 genetic ablation modifies a portion of HdhQ111 phenotypes in a time-dependent fashion. As an early event, Pin1 activity reduces the DNA damage response (DDR). In midlife mice, by taking advantage of next-generation sequencing technology, we show that Pin1 activity modulates a portion of the alterations triggered by mHtt, extending the role of Pin1 to two additional HdhQ111 phenotypes: the unbalance in the “synthesis/concentration of hormones”, as well as the alteration of “Wnt/β-catenin signaling”. In aging animals, Pin1 significantly increases the number of mHtt-positive nuclear inclusions while it reduces gliosis. In summary, this work provides further support for a role of Pin1 in HD pathogenesis. PMID:27199664

  2. Functionally different PIN proteins control auxin flux during bulbil development in Agave tequilana

    PubMed Central

    Abraham Juárez, María Jazmín; Hernández Cárdenas, Rocío; Santoyo Villa, José Natzul; O’Connor, Devin; Sluis, Aaron; Hake, Sarah; Ordaz-Ortiz, José; Terry, Leon; Simpson, June

    2015-01-01

    In Agave tequilana, reproductive failure or inadequate flower development stimulates the formation of vegetative bulbils at the bracteoles, ensuring survival in a hostile environment. Little is known about the signals that trigger this probably unique phenomenon in agave species. Here we report that auxin plays a central role in bulbil development and show that the localization of PIN1-related proteins is consistent with altered auxin transport during this process. Analysis of agave transcriptome data led to the identification of the A. tequilana orthologue of PIN1 (denoted AtqPIN1) and a second closely related gene from a distinct clade reported as ‘Sister of PIN1’ (denoted AtqSoPIN1). Quantitative real-time reverse transcription–PCR (RT-qPCR) analysis showed different patterns of expression for each gene during bulbil formation, and heterologous expression of the A. tequilana PIN1 and SoPIN1 genes in Arabidopsis thaliana confirmed functional differences between these genes. Although no free auxin was detected in induced pedicel samples, changes in the levels of auxin precursors were observed. Taken as a whole, the data support the model that AtqPIN1 and AtqSoPIN1 have co-ordinated but distinct functions in relation to auxin transport during the initial stages of bulbil formation. PMID:25911746

  3. Functionally different PIN proteins control auxin flux during bulbil development in Agave tequilana.

    PubMed

    Abraham Juárez, María Jazmín; Hernández Cárdenas, Rocío; Santoyo Villa, José Natzul; O'Connor, Devin; Sluis, Aaron; Hake, Sarah; Ordaz-Ortiz, José; Terry, Leon; Simpson, June

    2015-07-01

    In Agave tequilana, reproductive failure or inadequate flower development stimulates the formation of vegetative bulbils at the bracteoles, ensuring survival in a hostile environment. Little is known about the signals that trigger this probably unique phenomenon in agave species. Here we report that auxin plays a central role in bulbil development and show that the localization of PIN1-related proteins is consistent with altered auxin transport during this process. Analysis of agave transcriptome data led to the identification of the A. tequilana orthologue of PIN1 (denoted AtqPIN1) and a second closely related gene from a distinct clade reported as 'Sister of PIN1' (denoted AtqSoPIN1). Quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-qPCR) analysis showed different patterns of expression for each gene during bulbil formation, and heterologous expression of the A. tequilana PIN1 and SoPIN1 genes in Arabidopsis thaliana confirmed functional differences between these genes. Although no free auxin was detected in induced pedicel samples, changes in the levels of auxin precursors were observed. Taken as a whole, the data support the model that AtqPIN1 and AtqSoPIN1 have co-ordinated but distinct functions in relation to auxin transport during the initial stages of bulbil formation. PMID:25911746

  4. Enhancing speed of pinning synchronizability: low-degree nodes with high feedback gains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Ming-Yang; Zhuo, Zhao; Liao, Hao; Fu, Zhong-Qian; Cai, Shi-Min

    2015-12-01

    Controlling complex networks is of paramount importance in science and engineering. Despite recent efforts to improve controllability and synchronous strength, little attention has been paid to the speed of pinning synchronizability (rate of convergence in pinning control) and the corresponding pinning node selection. To address this issue, we propose a hypothesis to restrict the control cost, then build a linear matrix inequality related to the speed of pinning controllability. By solving the inequality, we obtain both the speed of pinning controllability and optimal control strength (feedback gains in pinning control) for all nodes. Interestingly, some low-degree nodes are able to achieve large feedback gains, which suggests that they have high influence on controlling system. In addition, when choosing nodes with high feedback gains as pinning nodes, the controlling speed of real systems is remarkably enhanced compared to that of traditional large-degree and large-betweenness selections. Thus, the proposed approach provides a novel way to investigate the speed of pinning controllability and can evoke other effective heuristic pinning node selections for large-scale systems.

  5. Enhancing speed of pinning synchronizability: low-degree nodes with high feedback gains

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Ming-Yang; Zhuo, Zhao; Liao, Hao; Fu, Zhong-Qian; Cai, Shi-Min

    2015-01-01

    Controlling complex networks is of paramount importance in science and engineering. Despite recent efforts to improve controllability and synchronous strength, little attention has been paid to the speed of pinning synchronizability (rate of convergence in pinning control) and the corresponding pinning node selection. To address this issue, we propose a hypothesis to restrict the control cost, then build a linear matrix inequality related to the speed of pinning controllability. By solving the inequality, we obtain both the speed of pinning controllability and optimal control strength (feedback gains in pinning control) for all nodes. Interestingly, some low-degree nodes are able to achieve large feedback gains, which suggests that they have high influence on controlling system. In addition, when choosing nodes with high feedback gains as pinning nodes, the controlling speed of real systems is remarkably enhanced compared to that of traditional large-degree and large-betweenness selections. Thus, the proposed approach provides a novel way to investigate the speed of pinning controllability and can evoke other effective heuristic pinning node selections for large-scale systems. PMID:26626045

  6. Tomographic investigation of fermi level pinning at focused ion beam milled semiconductor surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, D.; Lubk, A.; Lenk, A.; Sturm, S.; Lichte, H.

    2013-12-01

    Electron holography in the transmission electron microscope (TEM) offers the spatial and signal resolution for studying effects like Fermi level pinning or dopant concentration variations important for the design of modern electronic devices. To overcome the loss of information along the projection direction, surface effects, and surface damage due to TEM specimen preparation, we apply electron holographic tomography to analyze the 3D potential distribution of semiconductor samples prepared by focused-ion-beam. We observe mid-band gap pinning of the Fermi level at Si surfaces but valence band pinning at Ge surfaces. The pinning extends over tens of nanometers into the bulk.

  7. Guidelines for optimizing random and correlated pinning in rare-earth-based superconducting films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacManus-Driscoll, J. L.; Maiorov, B.; Durrell, J.; Foltyn, S.; Jia, Q. X.; Civale, L.; Wang, H.; Kursumovic, A.; Peterson, D. E.

    2006-03-01

    Pinning in YBa2Cu3O7-x (YBCO) films is compared with mixed rare-earth (RE) films. The field dependence of critical current density and pinning force plots at 75.5 K are analysed. The work provides a guideline as to how to optimize pinning by inclusion of both random and correlated defects. In summary, Y mixed with larger RE ions appears to be optimum for effective pinning across a wide field regime as well as permitting growth at temperatures low enough for technological use.

  8. Thermal analysis of the FSP-1 fuel pin irradiation test. [for SP-100 space power reactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyon, William F., III

    1991-01-01

    Thermal analysis of a pin from the FSP-1 fuels irradiation test has been completed. The purpose of the analysis was to provide predictions of fuel pin temperatures, determine the flow regime within the lithium annulus of the test assembly, and provide a standardized model for a consistent basis of comparison between pins within the test assembly. The calculations have predicted that the pin is operating at slightly above the test design temperatures and that the flow regime within the lithium annulus is a laminar buoyancy driven flow.

  9. Flavonoids Redirect PIN-mediated Polar Auxin Fluxes during Root Gravitropic Responses*S⃞

    PubMed Central

    Santelia, Diana; Henrichs, Sina; Vincenzetti, Vincent; Sauer, Michael; Bigler, Laurent; Klein, Markus; Bailly, Aurélien; Lee, Youngsook; Friml, Jir̆í; Geisler, Markus; Martinoia, Enrico

    2008-01-01

    The rate, polarity, and symmetry of the flow of the plant hormone auxin are determined by the polar cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) auxin efflux carriers. Flavonoids, a class of secondary plant metabolites, have been suspected to modulate auxin transport and tropic responses. Nevertheless, the identity of specific flavonoid compounds involved and their molecular function and targets in vivo are essentially unknown. Here we show that the root elongation zone of agravitropic pin2/eir1/wav6/agr1 has an altered pattern and amount of flavonol glycosides. Application of nanomolar concentrations of flavonols to pin2 roots is sufficient to partially restore root gravitropism. By employing a quantitative cell biological approach, we demonstrate that flavonoids partially restore the formation of lateral auxin gradients in the absence of PIN2. Chemical complementation by flavonoids correlates with an asymmetric distribution of the PIN1 protein. pin2 complementation probably does not result from inhibition of auxin efflux, as supply of the auxin transport inhibitor N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid failed to restore pin2 gravitropism. We propose that flavonoids promote asymmetric PIN shifts during gravity stimulation, thus redirecting basipetal auxin streams necessary for root bending. PMID:18718912

  10. Flavonoids redirect PIN-mediated polar auxin fluxes during root gravitropic responses.

    PubMed

    Santelia, Diana; Henrichs, Sina; Vincenzetti, Vincent; Sauer, Michael; Bigler, Laurent; Klein, Markus; Bailly, Aurélien; Lee, Youngsook; Friml, Jirí; Geisler, Markus; Martinoia, Enrico

    2008-11-01

    The rate, polarity, and symmetry of the flow of the plant hormone auxin are determined by the polar cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) auxin efflux carriers. Flavonoids, a class of secondary plant metabolites, have been suspected to modulate auxin transport and tropic responses. Nevertheless, the identity of specific flavonoid compounds involved and their molecular function and targets in vivo are essentially unknown. Here we show that the root elongation zone of agravitropic pin2/eir1/wav6/agr1 has an altered pattern and amount of flavonol glycosides. Application of nanomolar concentrations of flavonols to pin2 roots is sufficient to partially restore root gravitropism. By employing a quantitative cell biological approach, we demonstrate that flavonoids partially restore the formation of lateral auxin gradients in the absence of PIN2. Chemical complementation by flavonoids correlates with an asymmetric distribution of the PIN1 protein. pin2 complementation probably does not result from inhibition of auxin efflux, as supply of the auxin transport inhibitor N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid failed to restore pin2 gravitropism. We propose that flavonoids promote asymmetric PIN shifts during gravity stimulation, thus redirecting basipetal auxin streams necessary for root bending. PMID:18718912

  11. [Cementable and adhesive pulpal pins as alternatives to self-threading screws].

    PubMed

    Dau, B; Albers, H K

    1989-11-01

    Self-threading retentive pins are to be disputed in case of the possible dentinal damage in form of cracks and craze patterns. For a short time two new pin systems are offered on the german market. The essential retention shall be attained by cementing or otherwise by gluing in the pin channel. It is obvious that the promised elimination of cracking and crazing stands in opposition to a significantly reduced retention in the dentin, compared to self-threading systems. A general dispensation of self-threading pins is therefore not to be recommended. PMID:2639541

  12. Peptidyl Prolyl Isomerase PIN1 Directly Binds to and Stabilizes Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1α

    PubMed Central

    Han, Hyeong-jun; Kwon, Nayoung; Choi, Min-A; Jung, Kyung Oh; Piao, Juan-Yu; Ngo, Hoang Kieu Chi; Kim, Su-Jung; Kim, Do-Hee; Chung, June-Key; Cha, Young-Nam; Youn, Hyewon; Choi, Bu Young; Min, Sang-Hyun; Surh, Young-Joon

    2016-01-01

    Peptidyl prolyl isomerase (PIN1) regulates the functional activity of a subset of phosphoproteins through binding to phosphorylated Ser/Thr-Pro motifs and subsequently isomerization of the phosphorylated bonds. Interestingly, PIN1 is overexpressed in many types of malignancies including breast, prostate, lung and colon cancers. However, its oncogenic functions have not been fully elucidated. Here, we report that PIN1 directly interacts with hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α in human colon cancer (HCT116) cells. PIN1 binding to HIF-1α occurred in a phosphorylation-dependent manner. We also found that PIN1 interacted with HIF-1α at both exogenous and endogenous levels. Notably, PIN1 binding stabilized the HIF-1α protein, given that their levels were significantly increased under hypoxic conditions. The stabilization of HIF-1α resulted in increased transcriptional activity, consequently upregulating expression of vascular endothelial growth factor, a major contributor to angiogenesis. Silencing of PIN1 or pharmacologic inhibition of its activity abrogated the angiogenesis. By utilizing a bioluminescence imaging technique, we were able to demonstrate that PIN1 inhibition dramatically reduced the tumor volume in a subcutaneous mouse xenograft model and angiogenesis as well as hypoxia-induced transcriptional activity of HIF-1α. These results suggest that PIN1 interacting with HIF-1α is a potential cancer chemopreventive and therapeutic target. PMID:26784107

  13. Peptidyl Prolyl Isomerase PIN1 Directly Binds to and Stabilizes Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1α.

    PubMed

    Han, Hyeong-Jun; Kwon, Nayoung; Choi, Min-A; Jung, Kyung Oh; Piao, Juan-Yu; Ngo, Hoang Kieu Chi; Kim, Su-Jung; Kim, Do-Hee; Chung, June-Key; Cha, Young-Nam; Youn, Hyewon; Choi, Bu Young; Min, Sang-Hyun; Surh, Young-Joon

    2016-01-01

    Peptidyl prolyl isomerase (PIN1) regulates the functional activity of a subset of phosphoproteins through binding to phosphorylated Ser/Thr-Pro motifs and subsequently isomerization of the phosphorylated bonds. Interestingly, PIN1 is overexpressed in many types of malignancies including breast, prostate, lung and colon cancers. However, its oncogenic functions have not been fully elucidated. Here, we report that PIN1 directly interacts with hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α in human colon cancer (HCT116) cells. PIN1 binding to HIF-1α occurred in a phosphorylation-dependent manner. We also found that PIN1 interacted with HIF-1α at both exogenous and endogenous levels. Notably, PIN1 binding stabilized the HIF-1α protein, given that their levels were significantly increased under hypoxic conditions. The stabilization of HIF-1α resulted in increased transcriptional activity, consequently upregulating expression of vascular endothelial growth factor, a major contributor to angiogenesis. Silencing of PIN1 or pharmacologic inhibition of its activity abrogated the angiogenesis. By utilizing a bioluminescence imaging technique, we were able to demonstrate that PIN1 inhibition dramatically reduced the tumor volume in a subcutaneous mouse xenograft model and angiogenesis as well as hypoxia-induced transcriptional activity of HIF-1α. These results suggest that PIN1 interacting with HIF-1α is a potential cancer chemopreventive and therapeutic target. PMID:26784107

  14. Design and fabrication of PIN-PMN-PT single-crystal high-frequency ultrasound transducers.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ping; Zhou, Qifa; Zhu, Benpeng; Wu, Dawei; Hu, Changhong; Cannata, Jonathan M; Tian, Jin; Han, Pengdi; Wang, Gaofeng; Shung, K Kirk

    2009-12-01

    High-frequency PIN-PMN-PT single crystal ultrasound transducers at center frequencies of 35 MHz and 60 MHz were successfully fabricated using lead indium niobate-lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate (0.23PIN- 0.5PMN-0.27PT) single crystal. The new PIN-PMN-PT single crystal has higher coercivity (6.0 kV/cm) and higher Curie temperature (160 degrees C) than PMN-PT crystal. Experimental results showed that the PIN-PMN-PT transducers have similar performance but better thermal stability compared with the PMN-PT transducers. PMID:20040413

  15. Enhancing speed of pinning synchronizability: low-degree nodes with high feedback gains.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ming-Yang; Zhuo, Zhao; Liao, Hao; Fu, Zhong-Qian; Cai, Shi-Min

    2015-01-01

    Controlling complex networks is of paramount importance in science and engineering. Despite recent efforts to improve controllability and synchronous strength, little attention has been paid to the speed of pinning synchronizability (rate of convergence in pinning control) and the corresponding pinning node selection. To address this issue, we propose a hypothesis to restrict the control cost, then build a linear matrix inequality related to the speed of pinning controllability. By solving the inequality, we obtain both the speed of pinning controllability and optimal control strength (feedback gains in pinning control) for all nodes. Interestingly, some low-degree nodes are able to achieve large feedback gains, which suggests that they have high influence on controlling system. In addition, when choosing nodes with high feedback gains as pinning nodes, the controlling speed of real systems is remarkably enhanced compared to that of traditional large-degree and large-betweenness selections. Thus, the proposed approach provides a novel way to investigate the speed of pinning controllability and can evoke other effective heuristic pinning node selections for large-scale systems. PMID:26626045

  16. The effect of pinning on drag in coupled one-dimensional channels of particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bairnsfather, C.; Olson Reichhardt, C. J.; Reichhardt, C.

    2011-04-01

    We consider a simple model for examining the effects of quenched disorder on drag consisting of particles interacting via a Yukawa potential that are placed in two coupled one-dimensional channels. The particles in one channel are driven and experience a drag from the undriven particles in the second channel. In the absence of pinning, for a finite driving force there is no pinned phase; instead, there are two dynamical regimes of completely coupled or locked flow and partially coupled flow. When pinning is added to one or both channels, we find that a remarkably rich variety of dynamical phases and drag effects arise that can be clearly identified by features in the velocity force curves. The presence of quenched disorder in only the undriven channel can induce a pinned phase in both channels. Above the depinning transition, the drag on the driven particles decreases with increasing pinning strength, and for high enough pinning strength, the particles in the undriven channel reach a reentrant pinned phase which produces a complete decoupling of the channels. We map out the dynamic phase diagrams as a function of pinning strength and the density of pinning in each channel. Our results may be relevant for understanding drag coupling in 1D Wigner crystal phases, and the effects we observe could also be explored using colloids in coupled channels produced with optical arrays, vortices in nanostructured superconductors, or other layered systems where drag effects arise.

  17. Prevention of pin site infection in external fixation: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Kazmers, Nikolas H; Fragomen, Austin T; Rozbruch, S Robert

    2016-08-01

    Pin site infections are a common complication of external fixation that places a significant burden on the patient and healthcare system. Such infections increase the number of clinic visits required during a patient's course of treatment, can result in the need for additional treatment including antibiotics and surgery, and most importantly can compromise patient outcomes should osteomyelitis or instability result from pin loosening or need for pin or complete construct removal. Factors that may influence the development of pin site infections include patient-specific risk factors, surgical technique, pin design characteristics, use of prophylactic antibiotics, and the post-operative pin care protocol including cleansing, dressing changes, and showering. Despite numerous studies that work to derive evidence-based recommendations for prevention of pin site infections, substantial controversy exists in regard to the optimal protocol. This review comprehensively evaluates the current literature to provide an overview of factors that may influence the incidence of pin site infections in patients undergoing treatment with external fixators, and concludes with a description of the preferred surgical and post-operative pin site protocols employed by the senior authors (ATF and SRR). PMID:27174086

  18. Effects of Pin1 Loss in Hdh(Q111) Knock-in Mice.

    PubMed

    Agostoni, Elena; Michelazzi, Silvia; Maurutto, Marta; Carnemolla, Alisia; Ciani, Yari; Vatta, Paolo; Roncaglia, Paola; Zucchelli, Silvia; Leanza, Giampiero; Mantovani, Fiamma; Gustincich, Stefano; Santoro, Claudio; Piazza, Silvano; Del Sal, Giannino; Persichetti, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a fatal, dominantly inherited, neurodegenerative disorder due to a pathological expansion of the CAG repeat in the coding region of the HTT gene. In the quest for understanding the molecular basis of neurodegeneration, we have previously demonstrated that the prolyl isomerase Pin1 plays a crucial role in mediating p53-dependent apoptosis triggered by mutant huntingtin (mHtt) in vitro. To assess the effects of the lack of Pin1 in vivo, we have bred Pin1 knock-out mice with Hdh(Q111) knock-in mice, a genetically precise model of HD. We show that Pin1 genetic ablation modifies a portion of Hdh(Q111) phenotypes in a time-dependent fashion. As an early event, Pin1 activity reduces the DNA damage response (DDR). In midlife mice, by taking advantage of next-generation sequencing technology, we show that Pin1 activity modulates a portion of the alterations triggered by mHtt, extending the role of Pin1 to two additional Hdh(Q111) phenotypes: the unbalance in the "synthesis/concentration of hormones", as well as the alteration of "Wnt/β-catenin signaling". In aging animals, Pin1 significantly increases the number of mHtt-positive nuclear inclusions while it reduces gliosis. In summary, this work provides further support for a role of Pin1 in HD pathogenesis. PMID:27199664

  19. Conformational selection in the recognition of phosphorylated substrates by the catalytic domain of human Pin1.

    PubMed

    Velazquez, Hector A; Hamelberg, Donald

    2011-11-01

    Post-translational phosphorylation and the related conformational changes in signaling proteins are responsible for regulating a wide range of subcellular processes. Human Pin1 is central to many of these cell signaling pathways in normal and aberrant subcellular processes, catalyzing cis-trans isomerization of the peptide ω-bond in phosphorylated serine/threonine-proline motifs in many proteins. Pin1 has therefore been identified as a possible drug target in many diseases, including cancer and Alzheimer's. The effects of phosphorylation on Pin1 substrates, and the atomistic basis for Pin1 recognition and catalysis, are not well understood. Here, we determine the conformational consequences of phosphorylation on Pin1 substrate analogues and the mechanism of recognition by the catalytic domain of Pin1 using all-atom molecular dynamics simulations. We show that phosphorylation induces backbone conformational changes on the peptide substrate analogues. We also show that Pin1 recognizes specific conformations of its substrate by conformational selection. Furthermore, dynamical correlated motions in the free Pin1 enzyme are present in the enzyme of the enzyme-substrate complex when the substrate is in the transition state configuration, suggesting that these motions play significant roles during catalytic turnover. These results provide a detailed atomistic picture of the mechanism of Pin1 recognition that can be exploited for drug design purposes and further our understanding of the synergistic complexities of post-translational phosphorylation and cis-trans isomerization. PMID:21967280

  20. Liquid-metal, pin-fin pressure drop by correlation in cross flow

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Z.; Kuzay, T.M.; Assoufid, L. )

    1995-02-01

    The pin-fin configuration is widely used in high-heat-flux applications. Recently, the pin-fin design with liquid-metal coolant was also applied to synchrotron-radiation beamline devices. This article investigates the pressure drop in a pin-post crystal with liquid gallium as the coolant. Because the pin-post configuration is a relatively new concept, information in the literature on pin-post mirrors or crystals is rare, and information on the pressure drop in pin-post mirrors with liquid metal as the coolant is even rarer. Because the cross flow in cylinder-array geometry is very similar to that of the pin post, the pressure drop correlation data for the cross flow of fluid with various fluid characteristics or properties through a tube bank are studied so that the results can be scaled to the pin-fin geometry with liquid metal as the coolant. The emphasis of this article is on the influence of two variables on the pressure drop: viscosity and density of fluid. The difference and correlation of the pressure drop between long and short posts and the predication of the pressure drop of liquid metal in the pin-post mirror and comparison with an existing experiment are addressed.

  1. Peptidyl-Prolyl Isomerase Pin1 Is a Cellular Factor Required for Hepatitis C Virus Propagation▿

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Yun-Sook; Tran, Huong T. L.; Park, Soo-Je; Yim, Seung-Ae; Hwang, Soon B.

    2011-01-01

    The life cycle of hepatitis C virus (HCV) is highly dependent on cellular factors. Using small interfering RNA (siRNA) library screening, we identified peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase NIMA-interacting 1 (Pin1) as a host factor involved in HCV propagation. Here we demonstrated that silencing of Pin1 expression resulted in decreases in HCV replication in both HCV replicon cells and cell culture-grown HCV (HCVcc)-infected cells, whereas overexpression of Pin1 increased HCV replication. Pin1 interacted with both the NS5A and NS5B proteins. However, Pin1 expression was increased only by the NS5B protein. Both the protein binding and isomerase activities of Pin1 were required for HCV replication. Juglone, a natural inhibitor of Pin1, inhibited HCV propagation by inhibiting the interplay between the Pin1 and HCV NS5A/NS5B proteins. These data indicate that Pin1 modulates HCV propagation and may contribute to HCV-induced liver pathogenesis. PMID:21680504

  2. 7 CFR 251.7 - Formula adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Formula adjustments. 251.7 Section 251.7 Agriculture... GENERAL REGULATIONS AND POLICIES-FOOD DISTRIBUTION THE EMERGENCY FOOD ASSISTANCE PROGRAM § 251.7 Formula adjustments. Formula adjustments. (a) Commodity adjustments. The Department will make annual adjustments...

  3. 12 CFR 1209.80 - Inflation adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Inflation adjustments. 1209.80 Section 1209.80... PROCEDURE Civil Money Penalty Inflation Adjustments § 1209.80 Inflation adjustments. The maximum amount of... thereafter adjusted in accordance with the Inflation Adjustment Act, on a recurring four-year cycle, is...

  4. 12 CFR 1209.80 - Inflation adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Inflation adjustments. 1209.80 Section 1209.80... PROCEDURE Civil Money Penalty Inflation Adjustments § 1209.80 Inflation adjustments. The maximum amount of... thereafter adjusted in accordance with the Inflation Adjustment Act, on a recurring four-year cycle, is...

  5. 12 CFR 1209.80 - Inflation adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Inflation adjustments. 1209.80 Section 1209.80... PROCEDURE Civil Money Penalty Inflation Adjustments § 1209.80 Inflation adjustments. The maximum amount of... thereafter adjusted in accordance with the Inflation Adjustment Act, on a recurring four-year cycle, is...

  6. An investigation of the bending stiffness of and the plane stresses generated by a flanged external fixator pin.

    PubMed

    Oni, O O; Capper, M; Soutis, C

    1995-02-01

    In an attempt to reduce pin loosening, a flanged external fixator pin has been designed and its bending stiffness has been compared with that of a standard pin. The pins were inserted into pilot holes previously drilled into a piece of teak hardwood. Loads of different magnitudes were applied at a fixed moment arm and force-deflection curves were obtained. Thereafter, percentage stiffness increase was calculated for each pilot hole size. The results show that the addition of a collar to the external fixator pin increases its stiffness and its ability to resist bending forces. In a parallel study, the stresses generated at the pin-bone interface by this pin and a standard pin were compared using finite element analysis techniques. The results show that the flange significantly reduced the stresses generated at the pin-bone interface. In addition, stresses were dissipated over a wider area. PMID:7714660

  7. Microdroplet evaporation with a forced pinned contact line.

    PubMed

    Gleason, Kevin; Putnam, Shawn A

    2014-09-01

    Experimental and numerical investigations of water microdroplet evaporation on heated, laser patterned polymer substrates are reported. The study is focused on both (i) controlling a droplet's contact line dynamics during evaporation to identifying how the contact line influences evaporative heat transfer and (ii) validating numerical simulations with experimental data. Droplets are formed on the polymer surface using a bottom-up methodology, where a computer-controlled syringe pump feeds water through a 200 μm diameter fluid channel within the heated polymer substrate. This methodology facilitates precise control of the droplet's growth rate, size, and inlet temperature. In addition to this microchannel supply line, the substrate surfaces are laser patterned with a moatlike trench around the fluid-channel outlet, adding additional control of the droplet's contact line motion, area, and contact angle. In comparison to evaporation on a nonpatterned polymer surface, the laser patterned trench increases contact line pinning time by ∼60% of the droplet's lifetime. Numerical simulations of diffusion controlled evaporation are compared the experimental data with a pinned contact line. These diffusion based simulations consistently over predict the droplet's evaporation rate. In efforts to improve this model, a temperature distribution along the droplet's liquid-vapor interface is imposed to account for the concentration distribution of saturated vapor along the interface, which yields improved predictions within 2-4% of the experimental data throughout the droplet's lifetime on heated substrates. PMID:25102248

  8. Strength of self-pinning in coffee drops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latka, Andrzej; Kawczinski, Kimberly; Nagel, Sidney

    The equilibrium contact angle θe of a liquid drop placed on a solid surface is uniquely determined by a balance of surface tension forces according to Young's Equation, yet is rarely observed in real systems. Due to contact angle hysteresis, liquids can make contact with a surface at any angle between the receding and advancing contact angle: θR <θe <θA . A particularly striking example of this phenomenon is the familiar coffee stain. For coffee θR = 0 , thus as the drop evaporates the contact line remains pinned at its initial location. This results in the majority of the coffee being deposited in a characteristic ring at the drop's original boundary. We investigate how solid particles suspended in a liquid could so strongly influence contact angle hysteresis, by measuring the receding contact angle of a drop at various times during the evaporation process. For low solute concentrations, θR slowly decreases as the drop evaporates, but remains positive. Surprisingly, we find that increasing the solute concentration results in θR = 0 and a fully pinned contact line almost immediately after the drop is deposited.

  9. Scalable Geiger/APD/PIN multi-channel sensing platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckley, Steve; Bellis, Stephen; Wilcock, Reuben; Mathewson, Alan; Jackson, J. Carlton

    2006-02-01

    Previous generation low light detection platforms have been based on the photomultiplier tube (PMT) or the silicon single photon counting module (SPCM) from Perkin Elmer1. A new generation of silicon CMOS compatible photon counting sensors are being developed offering high quantum efficiency, low operating voltage, high levels of robustness and compatibility with CMOS processing for integration into large format imaging arrays. This latest generation yields a new detector for emerging applications which demand photon counting performance providing high performance and flexibility not possible to date. We describe a 4-channel photon detection platform, which allows the use of 4 separate photon counting detectors in either free space or fibre-coupled mode. The platform is scalable up to 16 channels with plug in modules allowing active quenching or Peltier cooling as required. A graphical user interface allows feedback and control of all device parameters. We show a novel ability to integrate separate detection modules to extend the dynamic range of the system. This allows a PIN or APD mode detector to be used alongside sensitive photon counting detectors. An advanced FPGA and microcontroller interface has been designed which allows simultaneous time binning of counting rates and readout of the analog signals when used with linear detectors. This new architecture will be discussed, presenting a full characterization of count rate, quantum efficiency, time binning and sensitivity across the broad spectrum of light flux applicable to PIN diodes, APDs and Geiger-mode photon counting sensors.

  10. Modeling the Interaction between AFM Tips and Pinned Surface Nanobubbles.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zhenjiang; Liu, Yawei; Xiao, Qianxiang; Schönherr, Holger; Zhang, Xianren

    2016-01-26

    Although the morphology of surface nanobubbles has been studied widely with different AFM modes, AFM images may not reflect the real shapes of the nanobubbles due to AFM tip-nanobubble interactions. In addition, the interplay between surface nanobubble deformation and induced capillary force has not been well understood in this context. In our work we used constraint lattice density functional theory to investigate the interaction between AFM tips and pinned surface nanobubbles systematically, especially concentrating on the effects of tip hydrophilicity and shape. For a hydrophilic tip contacting a nanobubble, its hydrophilic nature facilitates its departure from the bubble surface, displaying a weak and intermediate-range attraction. However, when the tip squeezes the nanobubble during the approach process, the nanobubble shows an elastic effect that prevents the tip from penetrating the bubble, leading to a strong nanobubble deformation and repulsive interactions. On the contrary, a hydrophobic tip can easily pierce the vapor-liquid interface of the nanobubble during the approach process, leading to the disappearance of the repulsive force. In the retraction process, however, the adhesion between the tip and the nanobubble leads to a much stronger lengthening effect on nanobubble deformation and a strong long-range attractive force. The trends of force evolution from our simulations agree qualitatively well with recent experimental AFM observations. This favorable agreement demonstrates that our model catches the main intergradient of tip-nanobubble interactions for pinned surface nanobubbles and may therefore provide important insight into how to design minimally invasive AFM experiments. PMID:26751634

  11. Pinning and gas oversaturation imply stable single surface nanobubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lohse, Detlef; Zhang, Xuehua

    2015-03-01

    Surface nanobubbles are experimentally known to survive for days at hydrophobic surfaces immersed in gas-oversaturated water. This is different from bulk nanobubbles, which are pressed out by the Laplace pressure against any gas oversaturation and dissolve in submilliseconds, as derived by Epstein and Plesset [J. Chem. Phys. 18, 1505 (1950), 10.1063/1.1747520]. Pinning of the contact line has been speculated to be the reason for the stability of the surface nanobubbles. Building on an exact result by Popov [Phys. Rev. E 71, 036313 (2005), 10.1103/PhysRevE.71.036313] on coffee stain evaporation, here we confirm this speculation by an exact calculation for single surface nanobubbles. It is based only on (i) the diffusion equation, (ii) Laplace pressure, and (iii) Henry's equation, i.e., fluid dynamical equations which are all known to be valid down to the nanometer scale. The crucial parameter is the gas oversaturation ζ of the liquid. At the stable equilibrium, the gas overpressures due to this oversaturation and the Laplace pressure balance. The theory predicts how the contact angle of the pinned bubble depends on ζ and the surface nanobubble's footprint lateral extension L . It also predicts an upper lateral extension threshold for stable surface nanobubbles to exist.

  12. Diffusion-limited aggregation with power-law pinning.

    PubMed

    Hentschel, H G E; Popescu, M N; Family, F

    2004-01-01

    Using stochastic conformal mapping techniques we study the patterns emerging from Laplacian growth with a power-law decaying threshold for growth R(-gamma)(N) (where R(N) is the radius of the N-particle cluster). For gamma>1 the growth pattern is in the same universality class as diffusion limited aggregation (DLA), while for gamma<1 the resulting patterns have a lower fractal dimension D(gamma) than a DLA cluster due to the enhancement of growth at the hot tips of the developing pattern. Our results indicate that a pinning transition occurs at gamma=1/2, significantly smaller than might be expected from the lower bound alpha(min) approximately 0.67 of multifractal spectrum of DLA. This limiting case shows that the most singular tips in the pruned cluster now correspond to those expected for a purely one-dimensional line. Using multifractal analysis, analytic expressions are established for D(gamma) both close to the breakdown of DLA universality class, i.e., gamma less, similar 1, and close to the pinning transition, i.e., gamma greater, similar 1/2. PMID:14995617

  13. Raman spectroscopy of PIN hydrogenated amorphous silicon solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keya, Kimitaka; Torigoe, Yoshihiro; Toko, Susumu; Yamashita, Daisuke; Seo, Hyunwoong; Itagaki, Naho; Koga, Kazunori; Shiratani, Masaharu

    2015-09-01

    Light-induced degradation of hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) is a key issue for enhancing competitiveness in solar cell market. A-Si:H films with a lower density of Si-H2 bonds shows higher stability. Here we identified Si-H2 bonds in PIN a-Si:H solar cells fabricated by plasma CVD using Raman spectroscopy. A-Si:H solar cell has a structure of B-doped μc-SiC:H (12.5 nm)/ non-doped a-Si:H (250nm)/ P-doped μc-Si:H (40 nm) on glass substrates (Asahi-VU). By irradiating HeNe laser light from N-layer, peaks correspond to Si-H2 bonds (2100 cm-1) and Si-H bonds (2000 cm-1) have been identified in Raman scattering spectra. The intensity ratio of Si-H2 and Si-H ISiH2/ISiH is found to correlate well to light induced degradation of the cells Therefore, Raman spectroscopy is a promising method for studying origin of light-induced degradation of PIN solar cells.

  14. Temperature dependent simulation of diamond depleted Schottky PIN diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hathwar, Raghuraj; Dutta, Maitreya; Koeck, Franz A. M.; Nemanich, Robert J.; Chowdhury, Srabanti; Goodnick, Stephen M.

    2016-06-01

    Diamond is considered as an ideal material for high field and high power devices due to its high breakdown field, high lightly doped carrier mobility, and high thermal conductivity. The modeling and simulation of diamond devices are therefore important to predict the performances of diamond based devices. In this context, we use Silvaco® Atlas, a drift-diffusion based commercial software, to model diamond based power devices. The models used in Atlas were modified to account for both variable range and nearest neighbor hopping transport in the impurity bands associated with high activation energies for boron doped and phosphorus doped diamond. The models were fit to experimentally reported resistivity data over a wide range of doping concentrations and temperatures. We compare to recent data on depleted diamond Schottky PIN diodes demonstrating low turn-on voltages and high reverse breakdown voltages, which could be useful for high power rectifying applications due to the low turn-on voltage enabling high forward current densities. Three dimensional simulations of the depleted Schottky PIN diamond devices were performed and the results are verified with experimental data at different operating temperatures

  15. Pink Ribbon Pin-Ups: photographing femininity after breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Regehr, Kaitlyn

    2012-01-01

    Many treatments for breast cancer are traumatic, invasive and harshly visible. In addition to physical trauma, breast cancer is often associated with a variety of psychosocial issues surrounding romantic relationships, sexuality and feminine identity. Pink Ribbon Pin-Ups was a pin-up girl calendar wherein all the models were women who were living with, or had survived, breast cancer. The project's purpose was to raise funds and awareness for breast cancer research and to create a space where survivors could explore and express their post-cancer sexuality. This study uses an observational approach, paired with semi-structured interviews, to explore the ways that breast cancer survivors perceive their post-cancer body and the subsequent impact on relationships and feminine identity. By examining contemporary discussions regarding breast cancer, body image and the objectification of women, it is concluded that although this photographic approach may be at odds with some modern breast cancer activism, it does appear to meet the expressed needs of a particular group of women living with the disease. PMID:22624706

  16. Holding power of three different pin designs in the femur and ulna of the common buzzard (Buteo buteo).

    PubMed

    López García, Mariano; López Beceiro, Ana M; Valcárcel Juárez, Víctor; Muñoz Guzón, Fernando; González Cantalapiedra, Antonio

    2011-12-01

    External skeletal fixation is generally considered the best stabilization technique for immobilizing avian long bone fractures, but one of its major complications is the failure of bone-fixation pin interface or the loss of holding power. Consequently, this study is aimed at elucidating which pin design offers more pull-out strength in certain bones of the common buzzard (Buteo buteo). To achieve this objective, three pin designs (a smooth design and two negative profile threaded designs, with different thread pitch) were placed in five positions along the femur and ulna of the common buzzard. The pin pull-out strength was measured with the purpose of comparing medullary and pneumatic bones, insertion sites, and pin designs. Threaded pins with negative profile showed greater holding power than smooth pins (P < 0.05). When comparing holding power between the ulna and femur, no differences were found for smooth pins, whereas threaded pins showed more pull-out strength in the ulna than in the femur (P < 0.05). There were no differences observed related to pin location along the same bone when considering the same pin type. These results suggest that negative profile threaded pins have more holding power than smooth pins and that pneumatic bones provide less pull-out strength to negative profile threaded pins than medullary bones. PMID:22204047

  17. Pin1 cysteine-113 oxidation inhibits its catalytic activity and cellular function in Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chun-Hau; Li, Wenzong; Sultana, Rukhsana; You, Mi-Hyeon; Kondo, Asami; Shahpasand, Kooroch; Kim, Byeong Mo; Luo, ManLi; Nechama, Morris; Lin, Yu-Min; Yao, Yandan; Lee, Tae Ho; Zhou, Xiao Zhen; Swomley, Aaron M.; Butterfield, D. Allan; Zhang, Yan; Lu, Kun Ping

    2015-01-01

    The unique proline isomerase Pin1 is pivotal for protecting against age-dependent neurodegeneration in Alzheimer’s disease (AD), with its inhibition providing a molecular link between tangle and plaque pathologies. Pin1 is oxidatively modified in human AD brains, but little is known about its regulatory mechanisms and pathological significance of such Pin1 modification. In this paper, our determination of crystal structures of oxidized Pin1 reveals a series of Pin1 oxidative modifications on Cys113 in a sequential fashion. Cys113 oxidization is further confirmed by generating antibodies specifically recognizing oxidized Cys113 of Pin1. Furthermore, Pin1 oxidation on Cys113 inactivates its catalytic activity in vitro, and Ala point substitution of Cys113 inactivates the ability of Pin1 to isomerize tau as well as to promote protein turnover of tau and APP. Moreover, redox regulation affects Pin1 subcellular localization and Pin1-mediated neuronal survival in response to hypoxia treatment. Importantly, Cys113-oxidized Pin1 is significantly increased in human AD brain comparing to age-matched controls. These results not only identify a novel Pin1 oxidation site to be the critical catalytic residue Cys113, but also provide a novel oxidative regulation mechanism for inhibiting Pin1 activity in AD. These results suggest that preventing Pin1 oxidization might help to reduce the risk of AD. PMID:25576397

  18. The kinetics of root gravitropism in PIN mutants suggest redundancy in the signal transduction pathway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolverton, Chris

    As nonmotile organisms, plants rely on differential growth responses to maximize exposure to the resources necessary for growth and reproduction. One of the primary environmental cues causing differential growth in roots is gravity, which is thought to be sensed predominately in the root cap. This gravity perception event is thought to be transduced into information in the form of an auxin gradient across the cap and propagating basipetally toward the elongation zone. The discovery of several families of auxin efflux and influx carriers has provided significant insight into the mechanisms of directional auxin transport, and the identification of mutants in the genes encoding these carriers provides the opportunity to test the roles of these transporters in plant gravitropism. In this study, we report the results of a systematic, high-resolution study of the kinetics of root gravitropism of mutants in the PIN family of auxin efflux carriers. Based on reported expression and localization patterns, we predicted mutations in PIN2, PIN3, PIN4, and PIN7 to cause the greatest reduction in root gravitropism. While pin2 mutants showed severe gravitropic deficiencies in roots as reported previously, several alleles of pin3, pin4 and pin7 remained strongly gravitropic. PIN3 has been localized to the central columella cells, the purported gravisensing cells in the root, and shown to rapidly relocate to the lower flank of the columella cells upon gravistimulation, suggesting an early role in auxin gradient formation. Mutant alleles of PIN3 showed an early delay in response, with just 7 deg of curvature in the first hour compared to approximately 15 deg h-1 in wild-type, but their rate of curvature recovered to near wild-type levels over the ensuing 3 h. Pin3 mutants also showed a slower overall growth rate (124 µm h-1 ), elongating at approximately half the rate of wild-type roots (240 µm h-1 ). PIN4 has been localized to the quiescent center in the root, where it presumably

  19. Final RQ adjustments rule issued

    SciTech Connect

    Bergeson, L.L.

    1995-08-01

    On June 12, 1995, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued its long awaited final rule adjusting certain reportable quantities (RQs) for hazardous substances under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). The rule: revises the table of hazardous substances to add 47 individual Clean Air Act (CAA) hazardous air pollutants (HAPs); adjustments their statutory one-pound RQs; adds five other CAA HAPs that are categories of substances and assigns no RQ to the categories; and adjusts RQs for 11 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) listed hazardous wastes. EPA made conforming changes to the Clean Water Act table of hazardous substances and the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA) table of extremely hazardous substances. The rule became effective July 12, 1995.

  20. MCCB warm adjustment testing concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdei, Z.; Horgos, M.; Grib, A.; Preradović, D. M.; Rodic, V.

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents an experimental investigation in to operating of thermal protection device behavior from an MCCB (Molded Case Circuit Breaker). One of the main functions of the circuit breaker is to assure protection for the circuits where mounted in for possible overloads of the circuit. The tripping mechanism for the overload protection is based on a bimetal movement during a specific time frame. This movement needs to be controlled and as a solution to control this movement we choose the warm adjustment concept. This concept is meant to improve process capability control and final output. The warm adjustment device design will create a unique adjustment of the bimetal position for each individual breaker, determined when the testing current will flow thru a phase which needs to trip in a certain amount of time. This time is predetermined due to scientific calculation for all standard types of amperages and complies with the IEC 60497 standard requirements.

  1. FORTRAN tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Presser, L.

    1978-01-01

    An integrated set of FORTRAN tools that are commercially available is described. The basic purpose of various tools is summarized and their economic impact highlighted. The areas addressed by these tools include: code auditing, error detection, program portability, program instrumentation, documentation, clerical aids, and quality assurance.

  2. Percussion tool

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, Teddy R.

    2006-11-28

    A percussion tool is described and which includes a housing mounting a tool bit; a reciprocally moveable hammer borne by the housing and which is operable to repeatedly strike the tool bit; and a reciprocally moveable piston enclosed within the hammer and which imparts reciprocal movement to the reciprocally moveable hammer.

  3. Adjustable spacer with rotational lock

    SciTech Connect

    Bowyer, M.L.

    1984-02-28

    A spacing apparatus for tubing conduit in a subterranean well, normally for use with an electric component with a longitudinally extending external electrical cable, permits irrotational adjustment of the length of the tubing conduit. The spacing apparatus comprises telescoping members which are keyed to prevent rotation therebetween. A threaded member, longitudinally fixed relative to one longitudinal member, normally engages threads extending substantially along the entire length of the other telescoping member. Movement of a retaining sleeve permits disengagement of the threaded segments which ratchet along the threads during telescoping movement. The length of the conduit can thus be irrotationally adjusted to remove slack from the electrical cable.

  4. Convective adjustment in baroclinic atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emanuel, Kerry A.

    1986-01-01

    Local convection in planetary atmospheres is generally considered to result from the action of gravity on small regions of anomalous density. That in rotating baroclinic fluids the total potential energy for small scale convection contains a centrifugal as well as a gravitational contribution is shown. Convective adjustment in such an atmosphere results in the establishment of near adiabatic lapse rates of temperature along suitably defined surfaces of constant angular momentum, rather than in the vertical. This leads in general to sub-adiabatic vertical lapse rates. That such an adjustment actually occurs in the earth's atmosphere is shown by example and the magnitude of the effect for several other planetary atmospheres is estimated.

  5. Method and device for determining the position of a cutting tool relative to the rotational axis of a spindle-mounted workpiece

    DOEpatents

    Williams, R.R.

    1980-09-03

    The present invention is directed to a method and device for determining the location of a cutting tool with respect to the rotational axis of a spindle-mounted workpiece. A vacuum cup supporting a machinable sacrificial pin is secured to the workpiece at a location where the pin will project along and encompass the rotational axis of the workpiece. The pin is then machined into a cylinder. The position of the surface of the cutting tool contacting the machine cylinder is spaced from the rotational axis of the workpiece a distance equal to the radius of the cylinder.

  6. Method and device for determining the position of a cutting tool relative to the rotational axis of a spindle-mounted workpiece

    DOEpatents

    Williams, Richard R.

    1982-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a method and device for determining the location of a cutting tool with respect to the rotational axis of a spindle-mounted workpiece. A vacuum cup supporting a machinable sacrifical pin is secured to the workpiece at a location where the pin will project along and encompass the rotational axis of the workpiece. The pin is then machined into a cylinder. The position of the surface of the cutting tool contacting the machine cylinder is spaced from the rotational aixs of the workpiece a distance equal to the radius of the cylinder.

  7. Heat transfer and pressure drop in a compact pin-fin heat exchanger with pin orientation at 18 deg to the flow direction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, D. A.

    1991-01-01

    The heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics of a novel, compact heat exchanger in helium gas were measured at 3.5 MPa and Reynolds numbers of 450 to 12,000. The pin-fin specimen consisted of pins, 0.51 mm high and spaced 2.03 mm on centers, spanning a channel through which the helium flows; the angle of the row of pins to the flow direction was 18 deg. The specimen was radiatively heated on the top side at heat fluxes up to 74 W/sq cm and insulated on the back side. Correlations were developed for the friction factor and Nusselt number. The Nusselt number compares favorably to those of past studies of staggered pin-fins, when the measured temperatures are extrapolated to the temperature of the wall-fluid interface.

  8. 75 FR 33379 - Railroad Cost Recovery Procedures-Productivity Adjustment; Quarterly Rail Cost Adjustment Factor

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-11

    ... Surface Transportation Board Railroad Cost Recovery Procedures--Productivity Adjustment; Quarterly Rail... Railroads that the Board restate the previously published productivity adjustment for the 2003-2007 averaging period (2007 productivity adjustment) so that it tracks the 2007 productivity adjustment...

  9. Proposed Design and Operation of a Heat Pipe Reactor using the Sandia National Laboratories Annular Core Test Facility and Existing UZrH Fuel Pins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Steven A.; Lipinski, Ronald J.; Pandya, Tara; Peters, Curtis

    2005-02-01

    Heat Pipe Reactors (HPR) for space power conversion systems offer a number of advantages not easily provided by other systems. They require no pumping, their design easily deals with freezing and thawing of the liquid metal, and they can provide substantial levels of redundancy. Nevertheless, no reactor has ever been operated and cooled with heat pipes, and the startup and other operational characteristics of these systems remain largely unknown. Signification deviations from normal reactor heat removal mechanisms exist, because the heat pipes have fundamental heat removal limits due to sonic flow issues at low temperatures. This paper proposes an early prototypic test of a Heat Pipe Reactor (using existing 20% enriched nuclear fuel pins) to determine the operational characteristics of the HPR. The proposed design is similar in design to the HOMER and SAFE-300 HPR designs (Elliot, Lipinski, and Poston, 2003; Houts, et. al, 2003). However, this reactor uses existing UZrH fuel pins that are coupled to potassium heat pipes modules. The prototype reactor would be located in the Sandia Annular Core Research Reactor Facility where the fuel pins currently reside. The proposed reactor would use the heat pipes to transport the heat from the UZrH fuel pins to a water pool above the core, and the heat transport to the water pool would be controlled by adjusting the pressure and gas type within a small annulus around each heat pipe. The reactor would operate as a self-critical assembly at power levels up to 200 kWth. Because the nuclear heated HPR test uses existing fuel and because it would be performed in an existing facility with the appropriate safety authorization basis, the test could be performed rapidly and inexpensively. This approach makes it possible to validate the operation of a HPR and also measure the feedback mechanisms for a typical HPR design. A test of this nature would be the world's first operating Heat Pipe Reactor. This reactor is therefore called "HPR-1".

  10. Surface pinning in ferromagnetic films with perpendicular anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgos, E.; Sallica Leva, E.; Gómez, J.; Martínez Tabares, F.; Vásquez Mansilla, M.; Butera, A.

    2011-05-01

    We have studied the ferromagnetic resonance response in a series of atomically disordered FePt thin films as a function of film thickness (9-200 nm) and excitation frequency (9.5 and 24 GHz). These films are characterized by a perpendicular anisotropy that promotes a stripelike magnetic domain structure above a critical thickness dcr~30 nm. All films display a resonant absorption due to the uniform precession of the magnetization vector. The analysis of the linewidth as a function of film thickness shows that the line broadens considerably above dcr. In the thinner films (d<28 nm) we have only observed the absorption related to the uniform precession mode, but thicker films, in which a stripe domain pattern is observed at zero field in static magnetic measurements, show an additional resonance line when the magnetic field is applied at, or very close to, the film plane normal. This line appears at fields below the main resonance and is observed at both X and K bands with approximately the same field separation from the uniform mode. We have also found that the line separation between the two resonances varies with the film thickness, indicating that the appearance of an additional resonance is related to confinement effects, but does not follow the quadratic law expected for infinite surface pinning. The ferromagnetic resonance results have been interpreted within a model of standing spin waves with finite surface pinning. From the angular variation of the pinning parameter close to the film normal we have found that the surface anisotropy is perpendicular to the film plane and increases with film thickness. The origin of the surface anisotropy seems to be related to a substrate-induced strain produced in the fabrication process and to a surface layer with a reduced magnetization. Annealing the samples at relatively low temperatures produces important changes in the resonance spectra. The overall observed behavior suggests that even though the resonance experiments

  11. Hybrid CMOS SiPIN detectors as astronomical imagers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simms, Lance Michael

    Charge Coupled Devices (CCDs) have dominated optical and x-ray astronomy since their inception in 1969. Only recently, through improvements in design and fabrication methods, have imagers that use Complimentary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) technology gained ground on CCDs in scientific imaging. We are now in the midst of an era where astronomers might begin to design optical telescope cameras that employ CMOS imagers. The first three chapters of this dissertation are primarily composed of introductory material. In them, we discuss the potential advantages that CMOS imagers offer over CCDs in astronomical applications. We compare the two technologies in terms of the standard metrics used to evaluate and compare scientific imagers: dark current, read noise, linearity, etc. We also discuss novel features of CMOS devices and the benefits they offer to astronomy. In particular, we focus on a specific kind of hybrid CMOS sensor that uses Silicon PIN photodiodes to detect optical light in order to overcome deficiencies of commercial CMOS sensors. The remaining four chapters focus on a specific type of hybrid CMOS Silicon PIN sensor: the Teledyne Hybrid Visible Silicon PIN Imager (HyViSI). In chapters four and five, results from testing HyViSI detectors in the laboratory and at the Kitt Peak 2.1m telescope are presented. We present our laboratory measurements of the standard detector metrics for a number of HyViSI devices, ranging from 1k×1k to 4k×4k format. We also include a description of the SIDECAR readout circuit that was used to control the detectors. We then show how they performed at the telescope in terms of photometry, astrometry, variability measurement, and telescope focusing and guiding. Lastly, in the final two chapters we present results on detector artifacts such as pixel crosstalk, electronic crosstalk, and image persistence. One form of pixel crosstalk that has not been discussed elsewhere in the literature, which we refer to as Interpixel Charge

  12. Capillary pinning of immiscible gravity currents in porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, B.; MacMinn, C. W.; Huppert, H. E.; Juanes, R.

    2013-12-01

    Gravity currents in porous media have attracted interest recently in the context of geological carbon dioxide (CO2) storage, where supercritical CO2 is captured from the flue gas of power plants and injected underground into deep saline aquifers. Capillarity can be important in the spreading and migration of the buoyant CO2 after injection because the typical pore size is very small (~10-100 microns), but the impact of capillarity on these flows is not well understood. Here, we study the impact of capillarity on the buoyant spreading of a finite gravity current of non-wetting fluid into a dense, wetting fluid in a vertically confined, horizontal aquifer. We show via simple, table-top experiments using glass bead packs that capillary pressure hysteresis pins a portion of the fluid-fluid interface. The horizontal extent of the pinned portion of the interface grows over time and this is responsible for ultimately stopping the spreading of the buoyant current after a finite distance. In addition, capillarity blunts the leading edge of the buoyant current. We demonstrate through micromodel experiments that the characteristic height of the nose of the current is controlled by the pore throat size distribution and the balance between capillarity and gravity. We develop a theoretical model that captures the evolution of immiscible gravity currents and predicts the maximum migration distance. Our work suggests that capillary pinning and capillary blunting exert an important control on finite-release gravity currents in the context of CO2 sequestration in deep saline aquifers. Gravity driven flow of a buoyant, nonwetting fluid (air) over a dense, wetting fluid (propylene glycol). Starting with a vertical interface between the fluids, the flow first undergoes a lock-exchange process. The process models a finite release problem after the dense fluid hits the left boundary. In contrast to finite release of a miscible current that spreads indefinitely, spreading of an immiscible

  13. Sputtered pin amorphous silicon semi-conductor device and method therefor

    DOEpatents

    Moustakas, Theodore D.; Friedman, Robert A.

    1983-11-22

    A high efficiency amorphous silicon PIN semi-conductor device is constructed by the sequential sputtering of N, I and P layers of amorphous silicon and at least one semi-transparent ohmic electrode. A method of construction produces a PIN device, exhibiting enhanced physical integrity and facilitates ease of construction in a singular vacuum system and vacuum pump down procedure.

  14. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN RIGIDITY OF EXTERNAL FIXATOR AND NUMBER OF PINS: COMPUTER ANALYSIS USING FINITE ELEMENTS

    PubMed Central

    Sternick, Marcelo Back; Dallacosta, Darlan; Bento, Daniela Águida; do Reis, Marcelo Lemos

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the rigidity of a platform-type external fixator assembly, according to different numbers of pins on each clamp. Methods: Computer simulation on a large-sized Cromus dynamic external fixator (Baumer SA) was performed using a finite element method, in accordance with the standard ASTM F1541. The models were generated with approximately 450,000 quadratic tetrahedral elements. Assemblies with two, three and four Schanz pins of 5.5 mm in diameter in each clamp were compared. Every model was subjected to a maximum force of 200 N, divided into 10 sub-steps. For the components, the behavior of the material was assumed to be linear, elastic, isotropic and homogeneous. For each model, the rigidity of the assembly and the Von Mises stress distribution were evaluated. Results: The rigidity of the system was 307.6 N/mm for two pins, 369.0 N/mm for three and 437.9 N/mm for four. Conclusion: The results showed that four Schanz pins in each clamp promoted rigidity that was 19% greater than in the configuration with three pins and 42% greater than with two pins. Higher tension occurred in configurations with fewer pins. In the models analyzed, the maximum tension occurred on the surface of the pin, close to the fixation area. PMID:27047879

  15. Stability of Pin1 as revealed by thermal and spectroscopic studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jing-Zhang; Lin, Tao; Zhu, Guo-Fei; Du, Lin-Fang

    2010-06-01

    Pin1 is a two-domain enzyme which has peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase activity. Pin1 recognizes phospho-Ser/Thr-Pro motifs in cell-signaling proteins, and is both a cancer and an Alzheimer's disease target. The thermal stability of Pin1 was studied intensively by SDS-PAGE, enzymatic activity assay, intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy and circular dichroism spectroscopy. The activity of Pin1 gradually decreased above 40 °C, and the Tm was 57.6 ± 1.0 °C. Fluorescence experiments indicated that heat treatment induced changes in the substructures in Pin1, resulting in that the polarity in the microenvironments of the tryptophan residues increased. It is assumed that the thermal denaturation of Pin1 involved a three-state transition. The intermediate state of Pin1 at about 60 °C was confirmed by fluorescence emission spectra, the synchronous fluorescence spectra and CD measurements. Decreases in α-helix and β-sheet appeared above 40 °C, which was balanced by an enhancement in unordered coil. The Tm values calculated from α-helix transition and β-sheet transition were 54.6 ± 0.6 °C and 70.7 ± 3.3 °C, respectively. Our results illustrated that Pin1 had a relatively high thermal stability and the WW domain had a higher stability than the PPIase domain.

  16. Using the Missing Pin to Challenge Concepts of Refraction and Total Internal Reflection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tamang, Sushmika; Nopparatjamjomras, Suchai; Chitaree, Ratchapak; Nopparatjamjomras, Thasaneeya R.

    2015-01-01

    A container was placed on top of a piece of white paper, and a pin positioned so that it vertically touched an outside wall of the container. Students were asked to predict the image of the pin when it was observed from the top of the container. Two scenarios of either an empty container or a container completely filled with water were considered…

  17. The exocyst complex contributes to PIN auxin efflux carrier recycling and polar auxin transport in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Drdová, Edita Janková; Synek, Lukáš; Pečenková, Tamara; Hála, Michal; Kulich, Ivan; Fowler, John E; Murphy, Angus S; Zárský, Viktor

    2013-03-01

    In land plants polar auxin transport is one of the substantial processes guiding whole plant polarity and morphogenesis. Directional auxin fluxes are mediated by PIN auxin efflux carriers, polarly localized at the plasma membrane. The polarization of exocytosis in yeast and animals is assisted by the exocyst: an octameric vesicle-tethering complex and an effector of Rab and Rho GTPases. Here we show that rootward polar auxin transport is compromised in roots of Arabidopsis thaliana loss-of-function mutants in the EXO70A1 exocyst subunit. The recycling of PIN1 and PIN2 proteins from brefeldin-A compartments is delayed after the brefeldin-A washout in exo70A1 and sec8 exocyst mutants. Relocalization of PIN1 and PIN2 proteins after prolonged brefeldin-A treatment is largely impaired in these mutants. At the same time, however, plasma membrane localization of GFP:EXO70A1, and the other exocyst subunits studied (GFP:SEC8 and YFP:SEC10), is resistant to brefeldin-A treatment. In root cells of the exo70A1 mutant, a portion of PIN2 is internalized and retained in specific, abnormally enlarged, endomembrane compartments that are distinct from VHA-a1-labelled early endosomes or the trans-Golgi network, but are RAB-A5d positive. We conclude that the exocyst is involved in PIN1 and PIN2 recycling, and thus in polar auxin transport regulation. PMID:23163883

  18. Pintle Rod Qualification Test Plan and Report for Roll Pin Relocation

    SciTech Connect

    BOGER, R.M.

    1999-11-08

    A roll pin in the end of the pintle rod in core samplers needs to be moved upward to avoid potential interference with another part (the release disk) during installation of the retainer ring. This test plan/report is intended to demonstrate that the sampler valve closes normally and the pintle release mechanism operates normally with the new roll pin location.

  19. Fly-away restraint pin mechanism for the Army's PATRIOT missile system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, F. W.

    1977-01-01

    The development of the longitudinal restraint mechanism for the Army's Patriot missile system is reviewed. The initial design was an ordnance pin puller with a shear plane. Because of reliability problems and a desire to reduce cost, a fly-away restraint mechanism was chosen. After being manually unlocked, the restraint pin disengages the missile during launch by missile motion.

  20. EXFILE: A program for compiling irradiation data on UN and UC fuel pins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayer, J. T.; Smith, R. L.; Weinstein, M. B.; Davison, H. W.

    1973-01-01

    A FORTRAN-4 computer program for handling fuel pin data is described. Its main features include standardized output, easy access for data manipulation, and tabulation of important material property data. An additional feature allows simplified preparation of input decks for a fuel swelling computer code (CYGRO-2). Data from over 300 high temperature nitride and carbide based fuel pin irradiations are listed.