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Sample records for adjustable pin tool

  1. Auto-adjustable pin tool for friction stir welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ding, R. Jeffrey (Inventor); Oelgoetz, Peter A. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    An auto-adjusting pin tool for friction stir welding is presented wherein the pin tool automatically adjusts for welding materials of varying thicknesses, and the pin can be incrementally withdrawn from the workpieces thus eliminating any crater or keyhole in the weld. The inventive apparatus is comprised of a welding head housing a motor connected to a controller instrument package and an arbor supported by bearings. The arbor forms an interior cylinder and is encircled by a stationary slip ring though which are ported hydraulic passageways into the interior cylinder of the arbor such that a piston housed therein may be moved axially. Coupled to the piston is a pin tool which is treaded on its lower end and which is moveably seated in, and extending through, a shoulder housing having concave lower face. When welding, the rotating treaded end of the pin enters and stirs the workpieces while the lower face of the shoulder housing compacts the workpieces. As the welding head traverses the shoulder housing the controller senses any rising pressure on the lower face of the shoulder housing and withdraws the arbor to keep the pressure constant. At the same time, the piston moves towards the workpieces thus extending the pin further from the shoulder. This keeps the pin at a proper depth in the workpieces regardless of their thicknesses. As the weld terminates this same operation can be used to incrementally withdraw the pin during the final part of the traverse, thus eliminating any keyhole or crater that would otherwise be created.

  2. Friction Stir Welding of Tapered Thickness Welds Using an Adjustable Pin Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Glynn; Venable, Richard; Lawless, Kirby

    2003-01-01

    Friction stir welding (FSW) can be used for joining weld lands that vary in thickness along the length of the weld. An adjustable pin tool mechanism can be used to accomplish this in a single-pass, full-penetration weld by providing for precise changes in the pin length relative to the shoulder face during the weld process. The difficulty with this approach is in accurately adjusting the pin length to provide a consistent penetration ligament throughout the weld. The weld technique, control system, and instrumentation must account for mechanical and thermal compliances of the tooling system to conduct tapered welds successfully. In this study, a combination of static and in-situ measurements, as well as active control, is used to locate the pin accurately and maintain the desired penetration ligament. Frictional forces at the pin/shoulder interface were a source of error that affected accurate pin position. A traditional FSW pin tool design that requires a lead angle was used to join butt weld configurations that included both constant thickness and tapered sections. The pitch axis of the tooling was fixed throughout the weld; therefore, the effective lead angle in the tapered sections was restricted to within the tolerances allowed by the pin tool design. The sensitivity of the FSW process to factors such as thickness offset, joint gap, centerline offset, and taper transition offset were also studied. The joint gap and the thickness offset demonstrated the most adverse affects on the weld quality. Two separate tooling configurations were used to conduct tapered thickness welds successfully. The weld configurations included sections in which the thickness decreased along the weld, as well as sections in which the thickness increased along the weld. The data presented here include weld metallography, strength data, and process load data.

  3. Alignment tool facilitates pin placement on irregular horizontal surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyle, J. V.

    1966-01-01

    Alignment tool facilitates spotting and cementing plastic pins on the true vertical to irregular concave and convex surfaces. The tool consists of a wood tripod with individually adjustable legs, a wood block with a hole for placing the pins and two spirit levels at a 90 degree angle for easy alignment.

  4. Retractable Pin Tools for the Friction Stir Welding Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Two companies have successfully commercialized a specialized welding tool developed at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). Friction stir welding uses the high rotational speed of a tool and the resulting frictional heat created from contact to crush, 'stir' together, and forge a bond between two metal alloys. It has had a major drawback, reliance on a single-piece pin tool. The pin is slowly plunged into the joint between two materials to be welded and rotated as high speed. At the end of the weld, the single-piece pin tool is retracted and leaves a 'keyhole,' something which is unacceptable when welding cylindrical objects such as drums, pipes and storage tanks. Another drawback is the requirement for different-length pin tools when welding materials of varying thickness. An engineer at the MSFC helped design an automatic retractable pin tool that uses a computer-controlled motor to automatically retract the pin into the shoulder of the tool at the end of the weld, preventing keyholes. This design allows the pin angle and length to be adjusted for changes in material thickness and results in a smooth hole closure at the end of the weld. Benefits of friction stir welding, using the MSFC retractable pin tool technology, include the following: The ability to weld a wide range of alloys, including previously unweldable and composite materials; provision of twice the fatigue resistance of fusion welds and no keyholes; minimization of material distortion; no creation of hazards such as welding fumes, radiation, high voltage, liquid metals, or arcing; automatic retraction of the pin at the end of the weld; and maintaining full penetration of the pin.

  5. Pin Load Control Applied to Retractable Pin Tool Technology and its Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oelgoetz, Peter A.

    2000-01-01

    Until the development of retractable pin tool (RPT) technology, friction stir welding (FSW) was limited to constant thickness joining of aluminum materials and the choices of keyhole elimination focused on traditional fusion and plug weld repair techniques. An invention, US Patent Number 5,893,507, "Auto-Adjustable Pin Tool for Friction Stir Welding" assigned to NASA, demonstrated an approach to resolve these serious drawbacks. This approach brings forth a technique that allows the crater, or keyhole, to be closed out automatically at the end of the weld joint without adding any additional equipment or material. Also the probe length can be varied automatically in the weld joint to compensate for material thickness changes, such as, in a tapered joint. This paper reports the effects of pin extension and retraction rates in the weld joint and its correlation to weld quality. The investigation utilized a pin load-detecting device that was integrated in the Phase 2A RPT designed by Boeing for NASA/MSFC. The RPT modification provided pin load data that was accessed and used to eliminate root side indications and determine pin manipulation rates necessary to produce consistence homogeneous joints.

  6. Pin Load Control Applied to Retractable Pin Tool Technology and its Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oelgoetz, Peter

    2000-01-01

    Until the development of retractable pin tool (RPT) technology, friction stir welding (FSW) was limited to constant thickness joining of aluminum materials and the choices of keyhole elimination focused on traditional fusion and plug weld repair techniques. An invention, US Patent Number 5,893.507, "Auto-Adjustable Pin Tool for Friction Stir Welding" assigned to NASA, demonstrated an approach to resolve these serious drawbacks. This approach brings forth a technique that allows the crater, or keyhole, to be closed out automatically at the end of the weld joint without adding any additional equipment or material. Also the probe length can be varied automatically in the weld joint to compensate for material thickness changes, such as, in a tapered joint. This paper reports the effects of pin extension and retraction rates in the weld joint and its correlation to weld quality. The investigation utilized a pin load-detecting device that was integrated in the Phase 2A RPT designed by Boeing for NASA/MSFC. The RPT modification provided pin load data that was accessed and used to eliminate root side indications and determine pin manipulation rates necessary to produce consistence homogeneous joints.

  7. Pin Load Control Applied to Retractable Pin Tool Technology and Its Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olegoetz, P.

    1999-01-01

    Until the development of retractable pin tool (RPT) technology, friction stir welding (FSW) was limited to constant thickness joining of aluminum materials and the choices of keyhole elimination focused on traditional fusion and plug weld repair techniques. An invention, US Patent Number 5,893,507, "Auto-Adjustable Pin Tool for Friction Stir Welding" assigned to NASA, demonstrated an approach to resolve these serious drawbacks. This approach brings forth a technique that allows the crater, or keyhole, to be closed out automatically at the end of the weld joint without adding any additional equipment or material. Also the probe length can be varied automatically in the weld joint to compensate for material thickness changes, such as, in a tapered joint. This paper reports the effects of pin extension and retraction rates in the weld joint and its correlation to weld quality. The investigation utilized a pin load-detecting device that was integrated in the Phase IIA RPT designed by Boeing for NASA/MSFC. The RPT modification provided pin load data that was accessed and used to eliminate root side indications and determine pin manipulation rates necessary to produce consistence homogeneous joints.

  8. 20. LOCK GATES, 3 FOOT WALKWAY, ADJUSTMENT AT GUDGEON PIN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. LOCK GATES, 3 FOOT WALKWAY, ADJUSTMENT AT GUDGEON PIN AND QUOIN SHOE. May 1933 - Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel Project, Lock & Dam No. 17, Upper Mississippi River, New Boston, Mercer County, IL

  9. Mechanical Property Analysis in the Retracted Pin-Tool (RPT) Region of Friction Stir Welded (FSW) Aluminum Lithium 2195

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ding, R. Jeffrey; Oelgoetz, Peter A.

    1999-01-01

    The "Auto-Adjustable Pin Tool for Friction Stir Welding", was developed at The Marshall Space Flight Center to address process deficiencies unique to the FSW process. The auto-adjustable pin tool, also called the retractable pin-tool (R.PT) automatically withdraws the welding probe of the pin-tool into the pin-tool's shoulder. The primary function of the auto-adjustable pin-tool is to allow for keyhole closeout, necessary for circumferential welding and localized weld repair, and, automated pin-length adjustment for the welding of tapered material thickness. An overview of the RPT hardware is presented. The paper follows with studies conducted using the RPT. The RPT was used to simulate two capabilities; welding tapered material thickness and closing out the keyhole in a circumferential weld. The retracted pin-tool regions in aluminum- lithium 2195 friction stir weldments were studied through mechanical property testing and metallurgical sectioning. Correlation's can be =de between retractable pin-tool programmed parameters, process parameters, microstructure, and resulting weld quality.

  10. Pin Tool Geometry Effects in Friction Stir Welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Querin, J. A.; Rubisoff, H. A.; Schneider, J. A.

    2009-01-01

    In friction stir welding (FSW) there is significant evidence that material can take one of two different flow paths when being displaced from its original position in front of the pin tool to its final position in the wake of the weld. The geometry of the pin tool, along with the process parameters, plays an important role in dictating the path that the material takes. Each flow path will impart a different thermomechanical history on the material, consequently altering the material microstructure and subsequent weld properties. The intention of this research is to isolate the effect that different pin tool attributes have on the flow paths imparted on the FSWed material. Based on published weld tool geometries, a variety of weld tools were fabricated and used to join AA2219. Results from the tensile properties and microstructural characterization will be presented.

  11. Evaluation of Forces on the Welding Probe of the Automated Retractable Pin-Tool (RPT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ding, R. J.

    2001-01-01

    The NASA invention entitled 'The Hydraulic Controlled Auto-Adjustable Pin Tool for Friction Stir Welding' (US Patent 5,893,507), better known as the Retractable Pin-Tool (RPT), has been instrumented with a load-detecting device allowing the forces placed on the welding probe to be measured. As the welding probe is plunged into the material, the forces placed on the probe can now be characterized. Of particular interest are those forces experienced as the welding probe comes within close proximity to the back-up anvil. For a given material, it is believed that unique forces are generated relative to the distance between the welding probe and the anvil. The forces have been measured and characterized for several materials, and correlations have been made between these forces and the pin's position relative to the backside of the weld material.

  12. Evaluation of Forces on the Welding Probe of the Retractable Pin-Tool (RPT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ding, R. Jeffrey

    1999-01-01

    NASA invention entitled, "The Hydraulic Controlled Auto-Adjustable Pin Tool for Friction Stir Welding" (U.S. Patent 5,893,5 07), better known as the Retractable Pin-Tool (RPT) has been instrumented with a load detecting devise allowing the forces placed upon the welding probe to be measured. As the welding probe is plunged into the material, the forces placed upon the probe can now be charactefized. Of particular interest are those forces experienced as the welding probe comes within close proximity to the back-up anvil. For a given material, it is believed that unique forces are generated relative to the distance between the welding probe and the anvil. The forces have been measured and characterized for several materials, and correlations have been made between these forces and the pin's position relative to the backside of the weld material.

  13. Investigating the Effects of Pin Tool Design on Friction Stir Welded Ti-6Al-4V

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubisoff, H. A.; Querin, J. A.; Schneider, Judy A.; Magee, D.

    2009-01-01

    Friction stir welding (FSWing), a solid state joining technique, uses a non-consumable rotating pin tool to thermomechanically join materials. Heating of the weldment caused by friction and deformation is a function of the interaction between the pin tool and the work piece. Therefore, the geometry of the pin tool is in part responsible for the resulting microstructure and mechanical properties. In this study microwave sintered tungsten carbide (WC) pin tools with tapers and flats were used to FSW Ti-6Al-4V. Transverse sections of welds were mechanically tested, and the microstructure was characterized using optical microscopy (OM) and scanning election microscopy (SEM). X-ray diffraction (XRD) and electron back-scatter diffraction (EBSD) were used to characterize the texture within the welds produced from the different pin tool designs.

  14. Effect of Pin Tool Shape on Metal Flow During Friction Stir Welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McClure, J. C.; Coronado, E.; Aloor, S.; Nowak, B.; Murr, L. M.; Nunes, Arthur C., Jr.; Munafo, Paul M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    It has been shown that metal moves behind the rotating Friction Stir Pin Tool in two separate currents or streams. One current, mostly on the advancing side, enters a zone of material that rotates with the pin tool for one or more revolutions and eventually is abandoned behind the pin tool in crescent-shaped pieces. The other current, largely on the retreating side of the pin tool is moved by a wiping process to the back of the pin tool and fills in between the pieces of the rotational zone that have been shed by the rotational zone. This process was studied by using a faying surface copper trace to clarify the metal flow. Welds were made with pin tools having various thread pitches. Decreasing the thread pitch causes the large scale top-to-bottorn flow to break up into multiple vortices along the pin and an unthreaded pin tool provides insufficient vertical motion for there to be a stable rotational zone and flow of material via the rotational zone is not possible leading to porosity on the advancing side of the weld.

  15. VALVE FUNNEL SPRING PIN PRESS PERFORMANCE AND FUNCTIONAL REQUIREMENTS EVALUATION FOR SPECIAL TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT

    SciTech Connect

    WITHERSPOON JT

    2009-12-30

    This evaluation allows use of the valve funnel spring pin press and describes appropriate handling instructions for the tool. The engineering evaluation is required for operations and field use of special tools and equipment.

  16. Structure-Property Correlation of AA2014 Friction Stir Welds: Role of Tool Pin Profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramanjaneyulu, K.; Madhusudhan Reddy, G.; Venugopal Rao, A.; Markandeya, R.

    2013-08-01

    The influence of rapid plastic deformation in the generation of welding heat during friction stir welding (FSW), supplementing the frictional heat generation by the tool shoulder, forms the thrust of the present investigation. Several researchers have highlighted the role of tool shoulder in the generation of frictional heat and suggested that the tool-material interface friction as the sole mechanism for heating. The configuration of tool pin profile is seldom studied for its contribution to welding heat through rapid plastic deformation at high strain rates (103/s), especially while welding thick plates. An attempt has been made to understand the dependence of deformation heat generation with different tool pin profiles in welding 5 mm thick AA2014-T6 aluminum alloy, maintaining the same swept volume during the tool rotation. An attempt has also been made to correlate the influence of process response variables such as force and torque acting on the tool pin. To quantify the physical influence of tool pin profile, temperature measurements were made in the region adjacent to the rotating pin, close to nugget in the thermo-mechanically affected zone (TMAZ). It has been observed that the temperature rises at a relatively rapid rate in the case of hexagonal tool pin compared to the welds produced employing other tool pin profiles. It is observed that during FSW, extensive deformation experienced at the nugget zone and the evolved microstructure strongly influences the mechanical properties of the joint. The present study is also aimed at understanding the influence of tool profile on the microstructural changes and the associated mechanical properties. Transverse tensile samples failed at the nugget/TMAZ boundary due to localized softening. Hexagonal tool pin profile welds have shown higher tensile strength, low TMAZ width, and high nugget hardness compared to other tool pin profile welds.

  17. Adjustable Tool For Driving Multiple Fasteners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Joseph S., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Proposed tool tightens or loosens several bolts, screws, nuts, or other threaded fasteners arranged in circle on compressor head, automotive wheel, pipe-end flange, or similar object. Combines some features of related mechanism described in, "Tool for Driving Many Fasteners Simultaneously" (MSC-22386). Unique feature of proposed mechanism; lateral positions of output shafts adjusted, by use of mechanism called "selector," to fit fastener patterns with larger or smaller bolt circles. Concept extended from circular pattern to rectangular pattern for application to automobile headers and intake manifolds.

  18. Tool for removing split pin remnants from a nuclear reactor vessel

    SciTech Connect

    Havoic-Conroy, S.M.

    1986-05-27

    A tool is described for removing from anchor bores in the upper core plate of a nuclear reactor vessel, anchor pin remnants which may be broken from guide tube assemblies upon withdrawal thereof from large seating apertures adjacent to the anchor bores in the upper core plate, the tool comprising: support means dimensioned to fit through a seating aperture, a pin driving member carried by the support means, means for lowering the support means through a seating aperture to a use position beneath the upper core plate with the pin driving member in registry with an adjacent anchor bore, and motive means for moving the pin driving member upwardly into the anchor bore to drive the anchor pin remnant therefrom.

  19. Closed-Loop Control System for Friction Stir Welding Retractable Pin Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ding, R. Jeffrey; Romine, Peter L.; Munafo, Paul M. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    NASA invention disclosure, NASA Case No. MFS-31413, entitled "System for Controlling the Stirring Pin of a Friction Stir Welding Apparatus", (Patent Pending) authored by Jeff Ding, Dr Peter Romine and Pete Oelgoetz, addresses the precision control of the friction stir welding process. The closed-loop control system automatically adjusts the spinning welding pin, real-time, to maintain a precise penetration ligament (i.e., distance between pin-tip and weld panel backside surface). A specific pin length can be maintained while welding constant thickness or tapered material thickness weld panels. The closed-loop control system provides operator data and information relative to the exact position of the welding pin inside the weld joint. This paper presents the closed-loop RPT control system that operates using the auto-feedback of force signals sensed by the tip and shoulder of the welding pin. Significance: The FSW process can be successfully used in a production environment only if there is a method or technique that informs the FSW operator the precise location of the welding pin inside the weld joint. This is essential for applications in aerospace, automotive, pressure vessel, commercial aircraft and other industries.

  20. Abrasive Wear Resistance of Tool Steels Evaluated by the Pin-on-Disc Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bressan, José Divo; Schopf, Roberto Alexandre

    2011-05-01

    Present work examines tool steels abrasion wear resistance and the abrasion mechanisms which are one main contributor to failure of tooling in metal forming industry. Tooling used in cutting and metal forming processes without lubrication fails due to this type of wear. In the workshop and engineering practice, it is common to relate wear resistance as function of material hardness only. However, there are others parameters which influences wear such as: fracture toughness, type of crystalline structure and the occurrence of hard precipitate in the metallic matrix and also its nature. In the present investigation, the wear mechanisms acting in tool steels were analyzed and, by normalized tests, wear resistance performance of nine different types of tool steels were evaluated by pin-on-disc testing. Conventional tool steels commonly used in tooling such as AISI H13 and AISI A2 were compared in relation to tool steels fabricated by sintering process such as Crucible CPM 3V, CPM 9V and M4 steels. Friction and wear testing were carried out in a pin-on-disc automated equipment which pin was tool steel and the counter-face was a abrasive disc of silicon carbide. Normal load of 5 N, sliding velocity of 0.45 m/s, total sliding distance of 3000 m and room temperature were employed. The wear rate was calculated by the Archard's equation and from the plotted graphs of pin cumulated volume loss versus sliding distance. Specimens were appropriately heat treated by quenching and three tempering cycles. Percentage of alloying elements, metallographic analyses of microstructure and Vickers microhardness of specimens were performed, analyzed and correlated with wear rate. The work is concluded by the presentation of a rank of tool steel wear rate, comparing the different tool steel abrasion wear resistance: the best tool steel wear resistance evaluated was the Crucible CPM 9V steel.

  1. The Plastic Flow Field in the Vicinity of the Pin-Tool During Friction Stir Welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernstein, E. L.; Nunes, A. C., Jr.

    2000-01-01

    The plastic flow field in the vicinity of the pin-tool during Friction Stir Welding (FSW) needs to be understood if a theoretical understanding of the process is to be attained. The structure of welds does not exhibit the flow field itself, but consists in a residue of displacements left by the plastic flow field. The residue requires analysis to extract from it the instantaneous flow field around the pin-tool. A simplified merry-go-round model makes sense of some tracer experiments reported in the literature. A quantitative comparison is made of the displacements of copper wire markers with displacements computed from a hypothetical plastic flow field. The hypothetical plastic flow field consists in a circular rotation field about a translating pin tool with angular velocity varying with radius from the pin centerline. A sharply localized rotational field comprising slip on a surface around the tool agreed better with observations than a distributed slip field occupying a substantial volume around the tool. Both the tracer and the wire displacements support the "rotating plug" model, originally invoked or thermal reasons, of the FSW process.

  2. Characterization of the Influence of Tool Pin Profile on Microstructural and Mechanical Properties of Friction Stir Welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzbanrad, Javad; Akbari, Mostafa; Asadi, Parviz; Safaee, Samad

    2014-10-01

    In this study, the effect of tool pin profile on mechanical properties, microstructural, material flow, thermal and strain distributions of friction stir welding of AA5083 was investigated. Two different tools with cylindrical and square pin profiles were employed to produce the welds. A numerical model is developed for investigating the effect of tool pin profiles on material flow, thermal and strain distributions based on thermo-mechanically coupled rigid-viscoplastic 3D FEM. Then, optical microscopy was employed to characterize the microstructures features of the weld. Finally, tensile test was carried out to characterize the mechanical properties of the weld. Obtained results showed that square pin profile produced finer grain structure and higher ultimate strength relative to cylindrical one. These results may be related to higher eccentricity, larger stirred zone, and higher temperature in the weld zone of the square pin profile.

  3. Storm Water Management Model Climate Adjustment Tool (SWMM-CAT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US EPA’s newest tool, the Stormwater Management Model (SWMM) – Climate Adjustment Tool (CAT) is meant to help municipal stormwater utilities better address potential climate change impacts affecting their operations. SWMM, first released in 1971, models hydrology and hydrauli...

  4. Flow in the Proximity of the Pin-Tool in Friction Stir Welding and Its Relation to Weld Homogeneity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nunes, Arthur C., Jr.

    2000-01-01

    In the Friction Stir Welding (FSW) process a rotating pin inserted into a seam literally stirs the metal from each side of the seam together. It is proposed that the flow in the vicinity of the pin-tool comprises a primary rapid shear over a cylindrical envelope covering the pin-tool and a relatively slow secondary flow taking the form of a ring vortex about the tool circumference. This model is consistent with a plastic characterization of metal flow, where discontinuities in shear flow are allowed but not viscous effects. It is consistent with experiments employing several different kinds of tracer: atomic markers, shot, and wire. If a rotating disc with angular velocity w is superposed on a translating continuum with linear velocity omega, the trajectories of tracer points become circular arcs centered upon a point displaced laterally a distance v/omega from the center of rotation of the disc in the direction of the advancing side of the disc. In the present model a stream of metal approaching the tool (taken as the coordinate system of observation) is sheared at the slip surface, rapidly rotated around the tool, sheared again on the opposite side of the tool, and deposited in the wake of the tool. Local shearing rates are high, comparable to metal cutting in this model. The flow patterns in the vicinity of the pin-tool determine the level of homogenization and dispersal of contaminants that occurs in the FSW process. The approaching metal streams enfold one another as they are rotated around the tool. Neglecting mixing they return to the same lateral position in the wake of the tool preserving lateral tracer positions as if the metal had flowed past the tool like an extrusion instead of being rotated around it. (The seam is, however, obliterated.) The metal stream of thickness approximately that of the tool diameter D is wiped past the tool at elevated temperatures drawn out to a thickness of v/2(omega) in the wiping zone. Mixing distances in the wiping zone

  5. Effect of tool pin features on process response variables during friction stir welding of dissimilar aluminum alloys

    DOE PAGES

    Rabby, Reza; Tang, Wei; Reynolds, A. P.

    2015-05-13

    In this article, the effect of pin features and orientation/placement of the materials on advancing side were investigated for friction stir welding (FSW) of dissimilar aluminum alloys AA2050 and AA6061. Pins for FSW were produced with a 2.12 mm pitch thread having three flats/flutes. Three sets of rotational speed/welding speed were used to perform a series of welds in a butt joint arrangement. The results show that, joint quality, process response variables and welding temperature are highly affected by pin features and material orientation in FSW. Defect free joints with effective material transportation in the weld nugget zone were obtainedmore » when welding was performed with AA2050 on the advancing side. The tool also encounters less in-plane reaction force for welding with 2050 on the advancing side. Pin with thread+3 flats produces quality welds at low rotational and travel speed regardless of the location of alloys on advancing or retreating side.« less

  6. Effect of tool pin features on process response variables during friction stir welding of dissimilar aluminum alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Rabby, Reza; Tang, Wei; Reynolds, A. P.

    2015-05-13

    In this article, the effect of pin features and orientation/placement of the materials on advancing side were investigated for friction stir welding (FSW) of dissimilar aluminum alloys AA2050 and AA6061. Pins for FSW were produced with a 2.12 mm pitch thread having three flats/flutes. Three sets of rotational speed/welding speed were used to perform a series of welds in a butt joint arrangement. The results show that, joint quality, process response variables and welding temperature are highly affected by pin features and material orientation in FSW. Defect free joints with effective material transportation in the weld nugget zone were obtained when welding was performed with AA2050 on the advancing side. The tool also encounters less in-plane reaction force for welding with 2050 on the advancing side. Pin with thread+3 flats produces quality welds at low rotational and travel speed regardless of the location of alloys on advancing or retreating side.

  7. A New Climate Adjustment Tool: An update to EPA’s Storm Water Management Model

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US EPA’s newest tool, the Stormwater Management Model (SWMM) – Climate Adjustment Tool (CAT) is meant to help municipal stormwater utilities better address potential climate change impacts affecting their operations.

  8. Manual adjustable probe tool for friction stir welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oelgoetz, Peter A. (Inventor); Ding, Jeff (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A friction stir welding tool is provided generally comprising three parts: a rotatable welding tool body (22) that has an outer threaded surface (32) and a probe (24) extending from a distal end of the body, a shoulder (26), which has a threaded inner surface (40) and a bore (36) at a distal end of the shoulder, and a jam nut (28), which has a threaded inner surface (42). The shoulder is threaded onto the tool body such that the probe extends from the shoulder through the bore by a preferred length. The jam nut is then threaded onto the tool body to secure the shoulder. The tool is operatively connected to a drive motor for rotating the tool body. The shoulder may include a knife edge projecting from the distal end (38) thereof adjacent the bore. The knife edge inhibits the weld material from migrating along the probe to intrude inside the shoulder, where it may prevent separation of the tool body and the shoulder when readjustment of the tool is necessary.

  9. Increase of Acting Pressure by Adjusted Tool Geometry in Laser Shock Forming

    SciTech Connect

    Wielage, Hanna; Vollertsen, Frank

    2011-01-17

    In laser shock forming TEA-CO2{sub 2}-laser induced shock waves are used to form metal foils, such as aluminum or copper. The process utilizes an initiated plasma shock wave on the target surface, which leads to a forming of the foil. Several pulses can be applied at one point in order to achieve a high forming degree without increasing the energy density beyond the ablation limit. During the process, pressure peaks in the range of several MPa can be achieved. In this article, it will be demonstrated that the acting shock wave pressure can be increased and the forming behavior can be modified by an adjustment of tool geometry, which limits the non-directional propagation of the shock wave. Shock wave pressure measurements as well as forming results with different tool geometries show that the acting pressure, and therefore the forming behavior, can be modified by an adjustment of the tool.

  10. Fuel pin

    DOEpatents

    Christiansen, D.W.; Karnesky, R.A.; Leggett, R.D.; Baker, R.B.

    1987-11-24

    A fuel pin for a liquid metal nuclear reactor is provided. The fuel pin includes a generally cylindrical cladding member with metallic fuel material disposed therein. At least a portion of the fuel material extends radially outwardly to the inner diameter of the cladding member to promote efficient transfer of heat to the reactor coolant system. The fuel material defines at least one void space therein to facilitate swelling of the fuel material during fission.

  11. Precision tool holder with flexure-adjustable, three degrees of freedom for a four-axis lathe

    SciTech Connect

    Bono, Matthew J.; Hibbard, Robin L.

    2008-03-04

    A precision tool holder for precisely positioning a single point cutting tool on 4-axis lathe, such that the center of the radius of the tool nose is aligned with the B-axis of the machine tool, so as to facilitate the machining of precision meso-scale components with complex three-dimensional shapes with sub-.mu.m accuracy on a four-axis lathe. The device is designed to fit on a commercial diamond turning machine and can adjust the cutting tool position in three orthogonal directions with sub-micrometer resolution. In particular, the tool holder adjusts the tool position using three flexure-based mechanisms, with two flexure mechanisms adjusting the lateral position of the tool to align the tool with the B-axis, and a third flexure mechanism adjusting the height of the tool. Preferably, the flexures are driven by manual micrometer adjusters. In this manner, this tool holder simplifies the process of setting a tool with sub-.mu.m accuracy, to substantially reduce the time required to set the tool.

  12. Dowel pin

    DOEpatents

    Wojcik, Thaddeus A.

    1978-01-01

    Two abutting members are locked together by reaming a hole entirely through one member and at least partly through the other, machining a circular groove in each through hole just below the surface of the member, press fitting a dowel pin having a thin wall extension on at least one end thereof into the hole in both members, a thin wall extension extending into each through hole, crimping or snapping the thin wall extension into the grooves to positively lock the dowel pin in place and, if necessary, tack welding the end of the thin-wall extension in place.

  13. Adjustable-Viewing-Angle Endoscopic Tool for Skull Base and Brain Surgery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bae, Youngsam; Liao, Anna; Manohara, Harish; Shahinian, Hrayr

    2008-01-01

    The term Multi-Angle and Rear Viewing Endoscopic tooL (MARVEL) denotes an auxiliary endoscope, now undergoing development, that a surgeon would use in conjunction with a conventional endoscope to obtain additional perspective. The role of the MARVEL in endoscopic brain surgery would be similar to the role of a mouth mirror in dentistry. Such a tool is potentially useful for in-situ planetary geology applications for the close-up imaging of unexposed rock surfaces in cracks or those not in the direct line of sight. A conventional endoscope provides mostly a frontal view that is, a view along its longitudinal axis and, hence, along a straight line extending from an opening through which it is inserted. The MARVEL could be inserted through the same opening as that of the conventional endoscope, but could be adjusted to provide a view from almost any desired angle. The MARVEL camera image would be displayed, on the same monitor as that of the conventional endoscopic image, as an inset within the conventional endoscopic image. For example, while viewing a tumor from the front in the conventional endoscopic image, the surgeon could simultaneously view the tumor from the side or the rear in the MARVEL image, and could thereby gain additional visual cues that would aid in precise three-dimensional positioning of surgical tools to excise the tumor. Indeed, a side or rear view through the MARVEL could be essential in a case in which the object of surgical interest was not visible from the front. The conceptual design of the MARVEL exploits the surgeon s familiarity with endoscopic surgical tools. The MARVEL would include a miniature electronic camera and miniature radio transmitter mounted on the tip of a surgical tool derived from an endo-scissor (see figure). The inclusion of the radio transmitter would eliminate the need for wires, which could interfere with manipulation of this and other surgical tools. The handgrip of the tool would be connected to a linkage similar to

  14. Enhancing Infant-Toddler Adjustment during Transitions to Child Care: A Screening and Intervention Tool for Practitioners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez, Mari T.; Marfo, Kofi

    2005-01-01

    Children's successful adjustment to child care involves effectively managing their separation from parents. Persistent problems with separation interfere with other relationships and with learning opportunities. The authors of this article developed a tool that caregivers can use to identify adjustment difficulties in young children who are …

  15. Wild capuchin monkeys adjust stone tools according to changing nut properties

    PubMed Central

    Luncz, Lydia V.; Falótico, Tiago; Pascual-Garrido, Alejandra; Corat, Clara; Mosley, Hannah; Haslam, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Animals foraging in their natural environments need to be proficient at recognizing and responding to changes in food targets that affect accessibility or pose a risk. Wild bearded capuchin monkeys (Sapajus libidinosus) use stone tools to access a variety of nut species, including otherwise inaccessible foods. This study tests whether wild capuchins from Serra da Capivara National Park in Brazil adjust their tool selection when processing cashew (Anacardium spp.) nuts. During the ripening process of cashew nuts, the amount of caustic defensive substance in the nut mesocarp decreases. We conducted field experiments to test whether capuchins adapt their stone hammer selection to changing properties of the target nut, using stones of different weights and two maturation stages of cashew nuts. The results show that although fresh nuts are easier to crack, capuchin monkeys used larger stone tools to open them, which may help the monkeys avoid contact with the caustic hazard in fresh nuts. We demonstrate that capuchin monkeys are actively able to distinguish between the maturation stages within one nut species, and to adapt their foraging behaviour accordingly. PMID:27624672

  16. Wild capuchin monkeys adjust stone tools according to changing nut properties.

    PubMed

    Luncz, Lydia V; Falótico, Tiago; Pascual-Garrido, Alejandra; Corat, Clara; Mosley, Hannah; Haslam, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Animals foraging in their natural environments need to be proficient at recognizing and responding to changes in food targets that affect accessibility or pose a risk. Wild bearded capuchin monkeys (Sapajus libidinosus) use stone tools to access a variety of nut species, including otherwise inaccessible foods. This study tests whether wild capuchins from Serra da Capivara National Park in Brazil adjust their tool selection when processing cashew (Anacardium spp.) nuts. During the ripening process of cashew nuts, the amount of caustic defensive substance in the nut mesocarp decreases. We conducted field experiments to test whether capuchins adapt their stone hammer selection to changing properties of the target nut, using stones of different weights and two maturation stages of cashew nuts. The results show that although fresh nuts are easier to crack, capuchin monkeys used larger stone tools to open them, which may help the monkeys avoid contact with the caustic hazard in fresh nuts. We demonstrate that capuchin monkeys are actively able to distinguish between the maturation stages within one nut species, and to adapt their foraging behaviour accordingly. PMID:27624672

  17. Wild capuchin monkeys adjust stone tools according to changing nut properties.

    PubMed

    Luncz, Lydia V; Falótico, Tiago; Pascual-Garrido, Alejandra; Corat, Clara; Mosley, Hannah; Haslam, Michael

    2016-09-14

    Animals foraging in their natural environments need to be proficient at recognizing and responding to changes in food targets that affect accessibility or pose a risk. Wild bearded capuchin monkeys (Sapajus libidinosus) use stone tools to access a variety of nut species, including otherwise inaccessible foods. This study tests whether wild capuchins from Serra da Capivara National Park in Brazil adjust their tool selection when processing cashew (Anacardium spp.) nuts. During the ripening process of cashew nuts, the amount of caustic defensive substance in the nut mesocarp decreases. We conducted field experiments to test whether capuchins adapt their stone hammer selection to changing properties of the target nut, using stones of different weights and two maturation stages of cashew nuts. The results show that although fresh nuts are easier to crack, capuchin monkeys used larger stone tools to open them, which may help the monkeys avoid contact with the caustic hazard in fresh nuts. We demonstrate that capuchin monkeys are actively able to distinguish between the maturation stages within one nut species, and to adapt their foraging behaviour accordingly.

  18. Auto-Adjustable Tool for Self-Reacting and Conventional Friction Stir Welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Robert W. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A friction stir welding dcvice that is configured to perform convention friction stir welding as well as self-reacting friction stir welding is described. A pin passes hrough an upper shoulder and can selectively attach 10 and detach from a lower shoulder in a preferred embodiment. A controller maintains thc discrete position of, and/or force applied by, the upper and lower shoulders during self-reacting friction stir welding, or maintains the pin at a desired depth and/or applied force during conventional friction stir welding.

  19. Alignment Pins for Assembling and Disassembling Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Oliver C.

    2008-01-01

    Simple, easy-to-use, highly effective tooling has been devised for maintaining alignment of bolt holes in mating structures during assembly and disassembly of the structures. The tooling was originally used during removal of a body flap from the space shuttle Atlantis, in which misalignments during removal of the last few bolts could cause the bolts to bind in their holes. By suitably modifying the dimensions of the tooling components, the basic design of the tooling can readily be adapted to other structures that must be maintained in alignment. The tooling includes tapered, internally threaded alignment pins designed to fit in the bolt holes in one of the mating structures, plus a draw bolt and a cup that are used to install or remove each alignment pin. In preparation for disassembly of two mating structures, external supports are provided to prevent unintended movement of the structures. During disassembly of the structures, as each bolt that joins the structures is removed, an alignment pin is installed in its place. Once all the bolts have been removed and replaced with pins, the pins maintain alignment as the structures are gently pushed or pulled apart on the supports. In assembling the two structures, one reverses the procedure described above: pins are installed in the bolt holes, the structures are pulled or pushed together on the supports, then the pins are removed and replaced with bolts. The figure depicts the tooling and its use. To install an alignment pin in a bolt hole in a structural panel, the tapered end of the pin is inserted from one side of the panel, the cup is placed over the pin on the opposite side of the panel, the draw bolt is inserted through the cup and threaded into the pin, the draw bolt is tightened to pull the pin until the pin is seated firmly in the hole, then the draw bolt and cup are removed, leaving the pin in place. To remove an alignment pin, the cup is placed over the pin on the first-mentioned side of the panel, the draw

  20. Disability adjusted life year (DALY): a useful tool for quantitative assessment of environmental pollution.

    PubMed

    Gao, Tingting; Wang, Xiaochang C; Chen, Rong; Ngo, Huu Hao; Guo, Wenshan

    2015-04-01

    Disability adjusted life year (DALY) has been widely used since 1990s for evaluating global and/or regional burden of diseases. As many environmental pollutants are hazardous to human health, DALY is also recognized as an indicator to quantify the health impact of environmental pollution related to disease burden. Based on literature reviews, this article aims to give an overview of the applicable methodologies and research directions for using DALY as a tool for quantitative assessment of environmental pollution. With an introduction of the methodological framework of DALY, the requirements on data collection and manipulation for quantifying disease burdens are summarized. Regarding environmental pollutants hazardous to human beings, health effect/risk evaluation is indispensable for transforming pollution data into disease data through exposure and dose-response analyses which need careful selection of models and determination of parameters. Following the methodological discussions, real cases are analyzed with attention paid to chemical pollutants and pathogens usually encountered in environmental pollution. It can be seen from existing studies that DALY is advantageous over conventional environmental impact assessment for quantification and comparison of the risks resulted from environmental pollution. However, further studies are still required to standardize the methods of health effect evaluation regarding varied pollutants under varied circumstances before DALY calculation.

  1. Adjustment and validation of a simulation tool for CSP plants based on parabolic trough technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Barberena, Javier; Ubani, Nora

    2016-05-01

    The present work presents the validation process carried out for a simulation tool especially designed for the energy yield assessment of concentrating solar plants based on parabolic through (PT) technology. The validation has been carried out by comparing the model estimations with real data collected from a commercial CSP plant. In order to adjust the model parameters used for the simulation, 12 different days were selected among one-year of operational data measured at the real plant. The 12 days were simulated and the estimations compared with the measured data, focusing on the most important variables from the simulation point of view: temperatures, pressures and mass flow of the solar field, gross power, parasitic power, and net power delivered by the plant. Based on these 12 days, the key parameters for simulating the model were properly fixed and the simulation of a whole year performed. The results obtained for a complete year simulation showed very good agreement for the gross and net electric total production. The estimations for these magnitudes show a 1.47% and 2.02% BIAS respectively. The results proved that the simulation software describes with great accuracy the real operation of the power plant and correctly reproduces its transient behavior.

  2. Glacial isostatic adjustment using GNSS permanent stations and GIA modelling tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kollo, Karin; Spada, Giorgio; Vermeer, Martin

    2013-04-01

    Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA) affects the Earth's mantle in areas which were once ice covered and the process is still ongoing. In this contribution we focus on GIA processes in Fennoscandian and North American uplift regions. In this contribution we use horizontal and vertical uplift rates from Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) permanent stations. For Fennoscandia the BIFROST dataset (Lidberg, 2010) and North America the dataset from Sella, 2007 were used respectively. We perform GIA modelling with the SELEN program (Spada and Stocchi, 2007) and we vary ice model parameters in space in order to find ice model which suits best with uplift values obtained from GNSS time series analysis. In the GIA modelling, the ice models ICE-5G (Peltier, 2004) and the ice model denoted as ANU05 ((Fleming and Lambeck, 2004) and references therein) were used. As reference, the velocity field from GNSS permanent station time series was used for both target areas. Firstly the sensitivity to the harmonic degree was tested in order to reduce the computation time. In the test, nominal viscosity values and pre-defined lithosphere thicknesses models were used, varying maximum harmonic degree values. Main criteria for choosing the suitable harmonic degree was chi-square fit - if the error measure does not differ more than 10%, then one might use as well lower harmonic degree value. From this test, maximum harmonic degree of 72 was chosen to perform calculations, as the larger value did not significantly modify the results obtained, as well the computational time for observations was kept reasonable. Secondly the GIA computations were performed to find the model, which could fit with highest probability to the GNSS-based velocity field in the target areas. In order to find best fitting Earth viscosity parameters, different viscosity profiles for the Earth models were tested and their impact on horizontal and vertical velocity rates from GIA modelling was studied. For every

  3. Pharmacokinetic tools for the dose adjustment of ciclosporin in haematopoietic stem cell transplant patients

    PubMed Central

    Woillard, Jean-Baptiste; Lebreton, Vincent; Neely, Michael; Turlure, Pascal; Girault, Stéphane; Debord, Jean; Marquet, Pierre; Saint-Marcoux, Franck

    2014-01-01

    Aims Ciclosporin A (CsA) is used in the prophylaxis and treatment of acute and chronic graft vs. host disease after haematopoietic stem cell (HSCT) transplantation. Our objective was to build and compare three independent Bayesian estimators of CsA area under the curve (AUC) using a limited sampling strategy (LSS), to assist in dose adjustment. Methods The Bayesian estimators were developed using in parallel: two independent parametric modelling approaches (nonmem® and iterative two stage (ITS) Bayesian modelling) and the non-parametric adaptive grid method (Pmetrics®). Seventy-two full pharmacokinetic profiles (at pre-dose and 0.33, 0.66, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8 and 12h after dosing) collected from 40 HSCT patients given CsA were used to build the pharmacokinetic models, while 15 other profiles (n = 7) were kept for validation. For each Bayesian estimator, AUCs estimated using the full profiles were compared with AUCs estimated using three samples. Results The pharmacokinetic profiles were well fitted using a two compartment model with first order elimination, combined with a gamma function for the absorption phase with ITS and Pmetrics or an Erlang distribution with nonmem. The derived Bayesian estimators based on a C0-C1 h-C4 h sampling schedule (best LSS) accurately estimated CsA AUC(0,12 h) in the validation group (n = 15; nonmem: bias (mean ± SD)/RMSE 2.05% ± 13.31%/13.02%; ITS: 4.61% ± 10.56%/11.20%; Pmetrics: 0.30% ± 10.12%/10.47%). The dose chosen confronting the three results led to a pertinent dose proposal. Conclusions The developed Bayesian estimators were all able to predict ciclosporin AUC(0,12 h) in HSCT patients using only three blood with minimal bias and may be combined to increase the reliability of CsA dose adjustment in routine. PMID:24698009

  4. Adjustment of Protein Crystal Porosity for Biotemplating: Chemical and Protein Engineering Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wine, Yariv; Cohen-Hadar, Noa; Lagziel-Simis, Shira; Dror, Yael; Frolow, Felix; Freeman, Amihay

    2010-05-01

    Protein crystals, routinely prepared for the elucidation of protein 3D structures by X-ray crystallography, present an ordered and highly accurate 3D array of protein molecules. Inherent to the 3D arrangement of the protein molecules in the crystal is a complementary 3D array of voids made of interconnected cavities and exhibiting highly ordered porosity. Here we propose and demonstrate feasibility of using chemical and genetic tools to alter protein crystal packing by a series of modifications of targeted sites on protein's surface, enabling the generation of a series of protein crystal biotemplates, all originating from same parent protein.

  5. Nuclear fuel pin scanner

    DOEpatents

    Bramblett, Richard L.; Preskitt, Charles A.

    1987-03-03

    Systems and methods for inspection of nuclear fuel pins to determine fiss loading and uniformity. The system includes infeed mechanisms which stockpile, identify and install nuclear fuel pins into an irradiator. The irradiator provides extended activation times using an approximately cylindrical arrangement of numerous fuel pins. The fuel pins can be arranged in a magazine which is rotated about a longitudinal axis of rotation. A source of activating radiation is positioned equidistant from the fuel pins along the longitudinal axis of rotation. The source of activating radiation is preferably oscillated along the axis to uniformly activate the fuel pins. A detector is provided downstream of the irradiator. The detector uses a plurality of detector elements arranged in an axial array. Each detector element inspects a segment of the fuel pin. The activated fuel pin being inspected in the detector is oscillated repeatedly over a distance equal to the spacing between adjacent detector elements, thereby multiplying the effective time available for detecting radiation emissions from the activated fuel pin.

  6. Straight SU-8 pins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safavieh, R.; Pla Roca, M.; Qasaimeh, M. A.; Mirzaei, M.; Juncker, D.

    2010-05-01

    SU-8 can be patterned with high resolution, is flexible and tough. These characteristics qualify SU-8 as a material for making spotting pins for printing DNA and protein microarrays, and it can potentially replace the commonly used silicon and steel pins that are expensive, brittle in the case of silicon and can damage the substrate during the printing process. SU-8, however, accumulates large internal stress during fabrication and, as a consequence, thin and long SU-8 structures bend and coil up, which precludes using it for long, freestanding structures such as pins. Here we introduce (i) a novel fabrication process that allows the making of 30 mm long, straight spotting pins that feature (ii) a new design and surface chemistry treatments for better capillary flow control and more homogeneous spotting. A key innovation for the fabrication is a post-processing annealing step with slow temperature ramping and mechanical clamping between two identical substrates to minimize stress buildup and render it symmetric, respectively, which together yield a straight SU-8 structure. SU-8 pins fabricated using this process are compliant and resilient and can buckle without damage during printing. The pins comprise a novel flow stop valve for accurate metering of fluids, and their surface was chemically patterned to render the outside of the pin hydrophobic while the inside of the slit is hydrophilic, and the slit thus spontaneously fills when dipped into a solution while preventing droplet attachment on the outside. A single SU-8 pin was used to print 1392 protein spots in one run. SU-8 pins are inexpensive, straightforward to fabricate, robust and may be used as disposable pins for microarray fabrication. These pins serve as an illustration of the potential application of ultralow stress SU-8 for making freestanding microfabricated polymer microstructures.

  7. Strain tunable light emitting diodes with germanium P-I-N heterojunctions

    DOEpatents

    Lagally, Max G; Sanchez Perez, Jose Roberto

    2016-10-18

    Tunable p-i-n diodes comprising Ge heterojunction structures are provided. Also provided are methods for making and using the tunable p-i-n diodes. Tunability is provided by adjusting the tensile strain in the p-i-n heterojunction structure, which enables the diodes to emit radiation over a range of wavelengths.

  8. RemoveYoung: A tool for the removal of the young stellar component in galaxies within an adjustable age cutoff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomes, J. M.; Papaderos, P.

    2016-10-01

    The optical morphology of galaxies holds the cumulative record of their assembly history, and techniques for its quantitative characterization offer a promising avenue toward understanding galaxy formation and evolution. However, the morphology of star-forming galaxies is generally dictated by the youngest stellar component, which can readily overshine faint structural/morphological features in the older underlying stellar background (e.g., relics from recent minor mergers) that could hold important insights into the galaxy build-up process. Stripping off galaxy images from the emission from stellar populations younger than an adjustable age cutoff tcut can therefore provide a valuable tool in extragalactic research. RemoveYoung (), a publicly available tool that is presented here, exploits the combined power of integral field spectroscopy (IFS) and spectral population synthesis (SPS) toward this goal. Two-dimensional (2D) post-processing of SPS models to IFS data cubes with permits computation of the spectral energy, surface brightness, and stellar surface density distribution of stellar populations older than a user-defined tcut. This suggests a variety of applications of star-forming galaxies, such as interacting or merging galaxy pairs and lower mass starburst galaxies near and far; these include blue compact and tidal dwarf galaxies.

  9. PINS Spectrum Identification Guide

    SciTech Connect

    A.J. Caffrey

    2012-03-01

    The Portable Isotopic Neutron Spectroscopy—PINS, for short—system identifies the chemicals inside munitions and containers without opening them, a decided safety advantage if the fill chemical is a hazardous substance like a chemical warfare agent or an explosive. The PINS Spectrum Identification Guide is intended as a reference for technical professionals responsible for the interpretation of PINS gamma-ray spectra. The guide is divided into two parts. The three chapters that constitute Part I cover the science and technology of PINS. Neutron activation analysis is the focus of Chapter 1. Chapter 2 explores PINS hardware, software, and related operational issues. Gamma-ray spectral analysis basics are introduced in Chapter 3. The six chapters of Part II cover the identification of PINS spectra in detail. Like the PINS decision tree logic, these chapters are organized by chemical element: phosphorus-based chemicals, chlorine-based chemicals, etc. These descriptions of hazardous, toxic, and/or explosive chemicals conclude with a chapter on the identification of the inert chemicals, e.g. sand, used to fill practice munitions.

  10. PIN Diode Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramírez-Jiménez, F. J.

    2008-07-01

    A review of the application of PIN diodes as radiation detectors in particle counting, X- and γ-ray spectroscopy, medical applications and charged particle spectroscopy is presented. As a practical example of its usefulness, a PIN diode and a low noise preamplifier are included in a nuclear spectroscopy chain for X-ray measurements. This is a laboratory session designed to review the main concepts needed to set up the detector-preamplifier array and to make measurements of X-ray energy spectra with a room temperature PIN diode. The results obtained are compared with those obtained with a high resolution cooled Si-Li detector.

  11. Spring loaded locator pin assembly

    DOEpatents

    Groll, Todd A.; White, James P.

    1998-01-01

    This invention deals with spring loaded locator pins. Locator pins are sometimes referred to as captured pins. This is a mechanism which locks two items together with the pin that is spring loaded so that it drops into a locator hole on the work piece.

  12. Spring loaded locator pin assembly

    DOEpatents

    Groll, T.A.; White, J.P.

    1998-03-03

    This invention deals with spring loaded locator pins. Locator pins are sometimes referred to as captured pins. This is a mechanism which locks two items together with the pin that is spring loaded so that it drops into a locator hole on the work piece. 5 figs.

  13. Adjustment of the thermal component of two tourism climatological assessment tools using thermal perception and preference surveys from Hungary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovács, Attila; Unger, János; Gál, Csilla V.; Kántor, Noémi

    2016-07-01

    This study introduces new methodological concepts for integrating seasonal subjective thermal assessment patterns of people into the thermal components of two tourism climatological evaluation tools: the Tourism Climatic Index (TCI) and the Climate-Tourism/Transfer-Information-Scheme (CTIS). In the case of the TCI, we replaced the air temperature and relative humidity as the basis of the initial rating system with the physiologically equivalent temperature (PET)—a complex human biometeorological index. This modification improves the TCI's potential to evaluate the thermal aspects of climate. The major accomplishments of this study are (a) the development of a new, PET-based rating system and its integration into the thermal sub-indices of the TCI and (b) the regionalization of the thermal components of CTIS to reflect both the thermal sensation and preference patterns of people. A 2-year-long (2011-2012) thermal comfort survey conducted in Szeged, Hungary, from spring to autumn was utilized to demonstrate the implementation of the introduced concepts. We found considerable differences between the thermal perception and preference patterns of Hungarians, with additional variations across the evaluated seasons. This paper describes the proposed methodology for the integration of the new seasonal, perception-based, and preference-based PET rating systems into the TCI, and presents the incorporation of new PET thresholds into the CTIS. In order to demonstrate the utility of the modified evaluation tools, we performed case study climate analyses for three Hungarian tourist destinations. The additional adjustments introduced during the course of those analyses include the reduction of TCI's temporal resolution to 10-day intervals and the exclusion of nocturnal and winter periods from the investigation.

  14. Pin1 inhibitors: Pitfalls, progress and cellular pharmacology.

    PubMed

    Moore, Jonathan D; Potter, Andrew

    2013-08-01

    Compelling data supports the hypothesis that Pin1 inhibitors will be useful for the therapy of cancer: Pin1 deficient mice resist the induction of breast cancers normally evoked by expression of MMTV-driven Ras or Erb2 alleles. While Pin1 poses challenges for drug discovery, several groups have identified potent antagonists by structure based drug design, significant progress has been made designing peptidic inhibitors and a number of natural products have been found that blockade Pin1, notably epigallocatchechin gallate (EGCG), a major flavonoid in green tea. Here we critically discuss the modes of action and likely specificity of these compounds, concluding that a suitable chemical biology tool for probing the function of Pin1 has yet to be found. We conclude by outlining some open questions regarding the target validation of Pin1 and the prospects for identification of improved inhibitors in the future.

  15. Pin1 inhibitors: Pitfalls, progress and cellular pharmacology.

    PubMed

    Moore, Jonathan D; Potter, Andrew

    2013-08-01

    Compelling data supports the hypothesis that Pin1 inhibitors will be useful for the therapy of cancer: Pin1 deficient mice resist the induction of breast cancers normally evoked by expression of MMTV-driven Ras or Erb2 alleles. While Pin1 poses challenges for drug discovery, several groups have identified potent antagonists by structure based drug design, significant progress has been made designing peptidic inhibitors and a number of natural products have been found that blockade Pin1, notably epigallocatchechin gallate (EGCG), a major flavonoid in green tea. Here we critically discuss the modes of action and likely specificity of these compounds, concluding that a suitable chemical biology tool for probing the function of Pin1 has yet to be found. We conclude by outlining some open questions regarding the target validation of Pin1 and the prospects for identification of improved inhibitors in the future. PMID:23796453

  16. PINS-3X Operations

    SciTech Connect

    E.H. Seabury

    2013-09-01

    Idaho National Laboratory’s (INL’s) Portable Isotopic Neutron Spectroscopy System (PINS) non-intrusively identifies the chemical fill of munitions and sealed containers. The PINS-3X variant of the system is used to identify explosives and uses a deuterium-tritium (DT) electronic neutron generator (ENG) as the neutron source. Use of the system, including possession and use of the neutron generator and shipment of the system components requires compliance with a number of regulations. This report outlines some of these requirements as well as some of the requirements in using the system outside of INL.

  17. Diffusion inspires selection of pinning nodes in pinning control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Ming-Yang; He, Xingsheng; Fu, Zhong-Qian; Liao, Hao; Cai, Shi-min; Zhuo, Zhao

    2016-03-01

    The outstanding problem of controlling a complex network via pinning is related to network dynamics and has the potential to master large-scale real-world systems as well. This paper addresses the heart issue about how to choose pinning nodes for pinning control, where pinning control aims to control a network to an identical state by injecting feedback control signals to a small fraction of nodes. We explore networks' controllability from not only mathematical analysis, but also the aspects of network topology and information diffusion. Then, the connection between pinning control and information diffusion is given, and pinning node selection is transferred into multi-spreader problem in information diffusion. Based on information diffusion, a heuristic method is proposed to select pinning nodes by optimizing the spreading ability of multiple spreaders. The proposed method greatly improves the controllability of large practical networks, and provides a new perspective to investigate pinning node selection.

  18. Statistics of dislocation pinning at localized obstacles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, A.; Bhattacharya, M.; Barat, P.

    2014-10-01

    Pinning of dislocations at nanosized obstacles like precipitates, voids, and bubbles is a crucial mechanism in the context of phenomena like hardening and creep. The interaction between such an obstacle and a dislocation is often studied at fundamental level by means of analytical tools, atomistic simulations, and finite element methods. Nevertheless, the information extracted from such studies cannot be utilized to its maximum extent on account of insufficient information about the underlying statistics of this process comprising a large number of dislocations and obstacles in a system. Here, we propose a new statistical approach, where the statistics of pinning of dislocations by idealized spherical obstacles is explored by taking into account the generalized size-distribution of the obstacles along with the dislocation density within a three-dimensional framework. Starting with a minimal set of material parameters, the framework employs the method of geometrical statistics with a few simple assumptions compatible with the real physical scenario. The application of this approach, in combination with the knowledge of fundamental dislocation-obstacle interactions, has successfully been demonstrated for dislocation pinning at nanovoids in neutron irradiated type 316-stainless steel in regard to the non-conservative motion of dislocations. An interesting phenomenon of transition from rare pinning to multiple pinning regimes with increasing irradiation temperature is revealed.

  19. Statistics of dislocation pinning at localized obstacles

    SciTech Connect

    Dutta, A.; Bhattacharya, M. Barat, P.

    2014-10-14

    Pinning of dislocations at nanosized obstacles like precipitates, voids, and bubbles is a crucial mechanism in the context of phenomena like hardening and creep. The interaction between such an obstacle and a dislocation is often studied at fundamental level by means of analytical tools, atomistic simulations, and finite element methods. Nevertheless, the information extracted from such studies cannot be utilized to its maximum extent on account of insufficient information about the underlying statistics of this process comprising a large number of dislocations and obstacles in a system. Here, we propose a new statistical approach, where the statistics of pinning of dislocations by idealized spherical obstacles is explored by taking into account the generalized size-distribution of the obstacles along with the dislocation density within a three-dimensional framework. Starting with a minimal set of material parameters, the framework employs the method of geometrical statistics with a few simple assumptions compatible with the real physical scenario. The application of this approach, in combination with the knowledge of fundamental dislocation-obstacle interactions, has successfully been demonstrated for dislocation pinning at nanovoids in neutron irradiated type 316-stainless steel in regard to the non-conservative motion of dislocations. An interesting phenomenon of transition from rare pinning to multiple pinning regimes with increasing irradiation temperature is revealed.

  20. "Start With a Pin"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Jennifer

    1970-01-01

    Describes first grade science activity using soda straws, piNs, blocks of wood, paper clips, and washers as an introduction to weights and measures. Children worked independently in a problem solving manner with materials and recorded results by writing, drawing or tape recording. Varying student approaches, responses, and conclusions are…

  1. Lever-Arm Pin Puller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macmartin, Malcolm

    1994-01-01

    Mechanism holds retaining pins in place except when actuated to release pins quickly. Mechanism is integral part of cover designed to be removed with simple downward motion of hand. Before removal, mechanism secures cover in place. After removal, mechanism holds retaining pins for reuse.

  2. Tool for Two Types of Friction Stir Welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Robert

    2006-01-01

    A tool that would be useable in both conventional and self-reacting friction stir welding (FSW) has been proposed. The tool would embody both a prior tooling concept for self-reacting FSW and an auto-adjustable pin-tool (APT) capability developed previously as an augmentation for conventional FSW. Some definitions of terms are prerequisite to a meaningful description of the proposed tool. In conventional FSW, depicted in Figure 1, one uses a tool that includes (1) a rotating shoulder on top (or front) of the workpiece and (2) a rotating pin that protrudes from the shoulder into the depth of the workpiece. The main axial force exerted by the tool on the workpiece is reacted through a ridged backing anvil under (behind) the workpiece. When conventional FSW is augmented with an APT capability, the depth of penetration of the pin into the workpiece is varied in real time by a position- or force-control system that extends or retracts the pin as needed to obtain the desired effect. In self-reacting (also known as self-reacted) friction stir welding (SR-FSW), there are two rotating shoulders: one on top (or front) and one on the bottom (or back) of the workpiece. In this case, a threaded shaft protrudes from the tip of the pin to beyond the back surface of the workpiece. The back shoulder is held axially in place against tension by a nut on the threaded shaft. The main axial force exerted on the workpiece by the tool and front shoulder is reacted through the back shoulder and the threaded shaft, back into the FSW machine head, so that a backing anvil is no longer needed. A key transmits torque between the bottom shoulder and the threaded shaft, so that the bottom shoulder rotates with the shaft. A tool for SRFSW embodying this concept was reported in "Mechanism for Self-Reacted Friction Stir Welding" (MFS-31914), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 28, No. 10 (October 2004), page 53. In its outward appearance, the proposed tool (see Figure 2) would fit the above description of an SR

  3. SIMULATE-4 pin power calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Bahadir, T.; Lindahl, S. Oe

    2006-07-01

    A new pin power reconstruction module has been implemented in Studsvik Scandpower's next generation nodal code, SIMULATE-4. Heterogeneous pin powers are calculated by modulating multi-group pin powers from the sub-mesh solver of SIMULATE-4 with pin form factors from single-assembly CASMO-5 lattice calculations. The multi-group pin power model captures instantaneous spectral effects, and actinide tracking on the assembly sub-mesh describes exposure-induced pin power variations. Model details and verification tests against high order multi-assembly transport methods are presented. The accuracy of the new methods is also demonstrated by comparing SIMULATE-4 calculations with measured critical experiment pin powers. (authors)

  4. The PIN-FORMED (PIN) protein family of auxin transporters

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Summary The PIN-FORMED (PIN) proteins are secondary transporters acting in the efflux of the plant signal molecule auxin from cells. They are asymmetrically localized within cells and their polarity determines the directionality of intercellular auxin flow. PIN genes are found exclusively in the genomes of multicellular plants and play an important role in regulating asymmetric auxin distribution in multiple developmental processes, including embryogenesis, organogenesis, tissue differentiation and tropic responses. All PIN proteins have a similar structure with amino- and carboxy-terminal hydrophobic, membrane-spanning domains separated by a central hydrophilic domain. The structure of the hydrophobic domains is well conserved. The hydrophilic domain is more divergent and it determines eight groups within the protein family. The activity of PIN proteins is regulated at multiple levels, including transcription, protein stability, subcellular localization and transport activity. Different endogenous and environmental signals can modulate PIN activity and thus modulate auxin-distribution-dependent development. A large group of PIN proteins, including the most ancient members known from mosses, localize to the endoplasmic reticulum and they regulate the subcellular compartmentalization of auxin and thus auxin metabolism. Further work is needed to establish the physiological importance of this unexpected mode of auxin homeostasis regulation. Furthermore, the evolution of PIN-based transport, PIN protein structure and more detailed biochemical characterization of the transport function are important topics for further studies. PMID:20053306

  5. Pip pin reliability and design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skyles, Lane P.

    1994-01-01

    Pip pins are used in many engineering applications. Of particular interest to the aerospace industry is their use in various mechanism designs. Many payloads that fly aboard our nation's Space Shuttle have at least one actuated mechanism. Often these mechanisms incorporate pip pins in their design in order to fasten interfacing parts or joints. Pip pins are most often used when an astronaut will have a direct interface with the mechanism. This interfacing can be done during Space Shuttle mission EVA's (ExtraVehicular Activity). The main reason for incorporating pip pins is convenience and their ability to provide a quick release for interfacing parts. However, there are some issues that must be taken into account when using them in a design. These issues include documented failures and quality control problems when using substandard pip pins. A history of pip pins as they relate to the aerospace industry as well as general design features is discussed.

  6. Innovative Tools Advance Revolutionary Weld Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    (no toxic smoke or shielding gas, liquid metal splatter, arcing, dangerous voltage, or radiation), and environmentally sound (no consumables, fumes, or noise) than fusion welding. Under computer control, an automated FSW machine can create welds with high reproducibility, improving efficiency and overall quality of manufactured materials. The process also allows for welding dissimilar metals as well as those metals considered to be "unweldable" such as the 7xxx series aluminum alloys. Its effectiveness and versatility makes FSW useful for aerospace, rail, automotive, marine, and military applications. A downside to FSW, however, is the keyhole opening left in the weld when the FSW pin tool exits the weld joint. This is a significant problem when using the FSW process to join circumferential structures such as pipes and storage containers. Furthermore, weld joints that taper in material thickness also present problems when using the conventional FSW pin tool, because the threaded pin rotating within the weld joint material is a fixed length. There must be capability for the rotating pin to both increase and decrease in length in real time while welding the tapered material. (Both circumferential and tapered thickness weldments are found in the space shuttle external tank.) Marshall engineers addressed both the keyhole and tapered material thickness problems by developing the auto-adjustable pin tool. This unique piece of equipment automatically withdraws the pin into the tool s shoulder for keyhole closeout. In addition, the auto-adjustable pin tool retracts, or shortens, the rotating pin while welding a weld joint that tapers from one thickness to a thinner thickness. This year, the impact of the Marshall innovation was recognized with an "Excellence in Technology Transfer Award" from the Federal Laboratory Consortium.

  7. Concurrent cross-validation of the Self-Appraisal Questionnaire: a tool for assessing violent and nonviolent recidivism and institutional adjustment on a sample of North Carolina offenders.

    PubMed

    Loza, Wagdy; Conley, Michael; Warren, Birchie

    2004-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the Self-Appraisal Questionnaire (SAQ), a tool that was found to be reliable and valid for assessing violent and nonviolent recidivism and institutional adjustment for Canadian offenders, would also be valid for the same purposes with a demographically different population of North Carolina offenders. The internal consistency alphas and SAQ total and subscale scores' correlations were high. Offenders with high SAQ total scores had significantly more violent offenses, had more total number of past offenses, had higher numbers of past arrests, and had more institutional infractions than those with low SAQ scores. There were no significant differences between the responses of the African American and Caucasian offenders on the SAQ scales. These results support previous findings regarding the reliability and validity of the SAQ for assessing recidivism and institutional adjustment and suggest that the SAQ could be used with diverse populations. PMID:14969119

  8. Stepped-Pin Clevis Resists Jamming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Killgrove, T. O.

    1985-01-01

    Pin modification allows pyrotechnic release devices to operate more smoothly. New clevis pin has stepped diameters to prevent bending as it exits yoke. In contrast, conventional unstepped clevis pin bends and jams as it is withdrawn. Stepped pin design suitable for explosive and possible hammer driven pin sullers.

  9. Nondestrucive analysis of fuel pins

    DOEpatents

    Stepan, I.E.; Allard, N.P.; Suter, C.R.

    1972-11-03

    Disclosure is made of a method and a correspondingly adapted facility for the nondestructive analysis of the concentation of fuel and poison in a nuclear reactor fuel pin. The concentrations of fuel and poison in successive sections along the entire length of the fuel pin are determined by measuring the reactivity of a thermal reactor as each successive small section of the fuel pin is exposed to the neutron flux of the reactor core and comparing the measured reactivity with the reactivities measured for standard fuel pins having various known concentrations. Only a small section of the length of the fuel pin is exposed to the neutron flux at any one time while the remainder of the fuel pin is shielded from the neutron flux. In order to expose only a small section at any one time, a boron-10-lined dry traverse tube is passed through the test region within the core of a low-power thermal nuclear reactor which has a very high fuel sensitivity. A narrow window in the boron-10 lining is positioned at the core center line. The fuel pins are then systematically traversed through the tube past the narrow window such that successive small sections along the length of the fuel pin are exposed to the neutron flux which passes through the narrow window.

  10. Shock characterization of toad pins

    SciTech Connect

    Weirick, L.J.; Navarro, M.J.

    1996-05-01

    The purpose of this program was to characterize Time Of Arrival Detectors (TOAD) pins response to shock loading with respect to risetime, amplitude, repeatability and consistency. TOAD pins were subjected to impacts of 35 to 420 kilobars amplitude and approximately 1 ms pulse width to investigate the timing spread of four pins and the voltage output profile of the individual pins. Sets of pins were also aged at 45{degree}, 60{degree} and 80{degree}C for approximately nine weeks before shock testing at 315 kilobars impact stress. Four sets of pins were heated to 50.2{degree}C (125{degree}F) for approximately two hours and then impacted at either 50 or 315 kilobars. Also, four sets of pins were aged at 60{degree}C for nine weeks and then heated to 50.2{degree}C before shock testing at 50 and 315 kilobars impact stress, respectively. Particle velocity measurements at the contact point between the stainless steel targets and TOAD pins were made using a Velocity Interferometer System for Any Reflector (VISAR) to monitor both the amplitude and profile of the shock waves. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  11. Shock characterization of TOAD pins

    SciTech Connect

    Weirick, L.J.; Navarro, N.J.

    1995-08-01

    The purpose of this program was to characterize Time Of Arrival Detectors (TOAD) pins response to shock loading with respect to risetime, amplitude, repeatability and consistency. TOAD pins were subjected to impacts of 35 to 420 kilobars amplitude and approximately 1 ms pulse width to investigate the timing spread of four pins and the voltage output profile of the individual pins. Sets of pins were also aged at 45{degrees}, 60{degrees}, and 80{degrees}C for approximately nine weeks before shock testing at 315 kilobars impact stress. Four sets of pins were heated to 50.2{degrees}C (125{degrees}F) for approximately two hours and then impacted at either 50 or 315 kilobars. Also, four sets of pins were aged at 60{degrees}C for nine weeks and then heated to 50.2{degrees}C before shock testing at 50 and 315 kilobars impact stress, respectively. Particle velocity measurements at the contact point between the stainless steel targets and TOAD pins were made using a Velocity Interferometer System for Any Reflector (VISAR) to monitor both the amplitude and profile of the shock waves.

  12. Fuel pin cladding

    DOEpatents

    Vaidyanathan, S.; Adamson, M.G.

    1986-01-28

    Disclosed is an improved fuel pin cladding, particularly adapted for use in breeder reactors, consisting of composite tubing with austenitic steel on the outer portion of the thickness of the tube wall and with nickel and/or ferritic material on the inner portion of the thickness of the tube wall. The nickel forms a sacrificial barrier as it reacts with certain fission products thereby reducing fission product activity at the austenitic steel interface. The ferritic material forms a preventive barrier for the austenitic steel as it is immune to liquid metal embrittlement. The improved cladding permits the use of high density fuel which in turn leads to a better breeding ratio in breeder reactors, and will increase the threshold at which failure occurs during temperature transients. 2 figs.

  13. Fuel pin cladding

    DOEpatents

    Vaidyanathan, S.; Adamson, M.G.

    1983-12-16

    An improved fuel pin cladding, particularly adapted for use in breeder reactors, is described which consist of composite tubing with austenitic steel on the outer portion of the thickness of the tube wall and with nickel an/or ferritic material on the inner portion of the thickness of the tube wall. The nickel forms a sacrificial barrier as it reacts with certain fission products thereby reducing fission product activity at the austenitic steel interface. The ferritic material forms a preventive barrier for the austenitic steel as it is immune to liquid metal embrittlement. The improved cladding permits the use of high density fuel which in turn leads to a better breeding ratio in breeder reactors, and will increase the threshold at which failure occurs during temperature transients.

  14. Fuel pin cladding

    DOEpatents

    Vaidyanathan, Swaminathan; Adamson, Martyn G.

    1986-01-01

    An improved fuel pin cladding, particularly adapted for use in breeder reactors, consisting of composite tubing with austenitic steel on the outer portion of the thickness of the tube wall and with nickel and/or ferritic material on the inner portion of the thickness of the tube wall. The nickel forms a sacrificial barrier as it reacts with certain fission products thereby reducing fission product activity at the austenitic steel interface. The ferritic material forms a preventive barrier for the austenitic steel as it is immune to liquid metal embrittlement. The improved cladding permits the use of high density fuel which in turn leads to a better breeding ratio in breeder reactors, and will increase the threshold at which failure occurs during temperature transients.

  15. Foolproof quick-release locking pin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, E. P.; Othman, T. E.; Zmuda, L. J.

    1970-01-01

    Locking pin can be withdrawn only when stress on the joint is negligible. Pin consists of a forward-pointing sleeve, a spring-loaded sliding handle, and a sliding plunger. Plunger movement controls installation and withdrawal of pin.

  16. Gimbaled-shoulder friction stir welding tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Robert W. (Inventor); Lawless, Kirby G. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A gimbaled-shoulder friction stir welding tool includes a pin and first and second annular shoulders coupled to the pin. At least one of the annular shoulders is coupled to the pin for gimbaled motion with respect thereto as the tool is rotated by a friction stir welding apparatus.

  17. Friction Stir Weld Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Robert W. (Inventor); Payton, Lewis N. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A friction stir weld tool sleeve is supported by an underlying support pin. The pin material is preferably selected for toughness and fracture characteristics. The pin sleeve preferably has a geometry which employs the use of an interrupted thread, a plurality of flutes and/or eccentric path to provide greater flow through. Paddles have been found to assist in imparting friction and directing plastic metal during the welding process.

  18. Friction stir weld tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Robert W. (Inventor); Payton, Lewis N. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A friction stir weld tool sleeve is supported by an underlying support pin. The pin material is preferably selected for toughness and fracture characteristics. The pin sleeve preferably has a geometry which employs the use of an interrupted thread, a plurality of flutes and/or eccentric path to provide greater flow through. Paddles have been found to assist in imparting friction and directing plastic metal during the welding process.

  19. Automated fuel pin loading system

    DOEpatents

    Christiansen, David W.; Brown, William F.; Steffen, Jim M.

    1985-01-01

    An automated loading system for nuclear reactor fuel elements utilizes a gravity feed conveyor which permits individual fuel pins to roll along a constrained path perpendicular to their respective lengths. The individual lengths of fuel cladding are directed onto movable transports, where they are aligned coaxially with the axes of associated handling equipment at appropriate production stations. Each fuel pin can be reciprocated axially and/or rotated about its axis as required during handling steps. The fuel pins are inserted as a batch prior to welding of end caps by one of two disclosed welding systems.

  20. Automated fuel pin loading system

    DOEpatents

    Christiansen, D.W.; Brown, W.F.; Steffen, J.M.

    An automated loading system for nuclear reactor fuel elements utilizes a gravity feed conveyor which permits individual fuel pins to roll along a constrained path perpendicular to their respective lengths. The individual lengths of fuel cladding are directed onto movable transports, where they are aligned coaxially with the axes of associated handling equipment at appropriate production stations. Each fuel pin can be be reciprocated axially and/or rotated about its axis as required during handling steps. The fuel pins are inerted as a batch prior to welding of end caps by one of two disclosed welding systems.

  1. Differential pressure pin discharge apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Oakley, D.J.

    1984-05-30

    Disclosed is a discharge assembly for allowing elongate pins to be discharged from an area of relatively low pressure to an area of relatively greater pressure. The discharge assembly includes a duck valve having a lip piece made of flexible material. The flexible lip piece responds to a fluctuating pressure created downstream by an aspirator. The aspirator reduces the downstream pressure sensed by the duck valve when the discharge assembly is in the open position. This allows elongate pins to be moved through the duck valve with no backflow because the aspirator pressure is less than the pressure in the low pressure area from which the pins originate. Closure of the assembly causes the aspirator static pressure to force the flexible duck valve lip piece into a tightly sealed position also preventing backflow. The discharge assembly can be easily controlled using a single control valve which blocks the flow of aspirator gas and closes the pins passageway extending through the assembly.

  2. Differential pressure pin discharge apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Oakley, David J.

    1987-02-03

    Disclosed is a discharge assembly for allowing elongate pins to be discharged from an area of relatively low pressure to an area of relatively greater pressure. The discharge assembly includes a duck valve having a lip piece made of flexible material. The flexible lip piece responds to a fluctuating pressure created downstream by an aspirator. The aspirator reduces the downstream pressure sensed by the duck valve when the discharge assembly is in the open position. This allows elongate pins to be moved through the duck valve with no backflow because the aspirator pressure is less than the pressure in the low pressure area from which the pins originate. Closure of the assembly causes the aspirator static pressure to force the flexible duck valve lip piece into a tightly sealed position also preventing backflow. The discharge assembly can be easily controlled using a single control valve which blocks the flow of aspirator gas and closes the pin passageway extending through the assembly.

  3. Differential pressure pin discharge apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Oakley, David J.

    1987-01-01

    Disclosed is a discharge assembly for allowing elongate pins to be discharged from an area of relatively low pressure to an area of relatively greater pressure. The discharge assembly includes a duck valve having a lip piece made of flexible material. The flexible lip piece responds to a fluctuating pressure created downstream by an aspirator. The aspirator reduces the downstream pressure sensed by the duck valve when the discharge assembly is in the open position. This allows elongate pins to be moved through the duck valve with no backflow because the aspirator pressure is less than the pressure in the low pressure area from which the pins originate. Closure of the assembly causes the aspirator static pressure to force the flexible duck valve lip piece into a tightly sealed position also preventing backflow. The discharge assembly can be easily controlled using a single control valve which blocks the flow of aspirator gas and closes the pin passageway extending through the assembly.

  4. The dynamics of plant plasma membrane proteins: PINs and beyond.

    PubMed

    Luschnig, Christian; Vert, Grégory

    2014-08-01

    Plants are permanently situated in a fixed location and thus are well adapted to sense and respond to environmental stimuli and developmental cues. At the cellular level, several of these responses require delicate adjustments that affect the activity and steady-state levels of plasma membrane proteins. These adjustments involve both vesicular transport to the plasma membrane and protein internalization via endocytic sorting. A substantial part of our current knowledge of plant plasma membrane protein sorting is based on studies of PIN-FORMED (PIN) auxin transport proteins, which are found at distinct plasma membrane domains and have been implicated in directional efflux of the plant hormone auxin. Here, we discuss the mechanisms involved in establishing such polar protein distributions, focusing on PINs and other key plant plasma membrane proteins, and we highlight the pathways that allow for dynamic adjustments in protein distribution and turnover, which together constitute a versatile framework that underlies the remarkable capabilities of plants to adjust growth and development in their ever-changing environment.

  5. A Flux-Pinning Mechanism for Segment Assembly and Alignment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gersh-Range, Jessica A.; Arnold, William R.; Peck, Mason A.; Stahl, H. Philip

    2011-01-01

    Currently, the most compelling astrophysics questions include how planets and the first stars formed and whether there are protostellar disks that contain large organic molecules. Although answering these questions requires space telescopes with apertures of at least 10 meters, such large primaries are challenging to construct by scaling up previous designs; the limited capacity of a launch vehicle bounds the maximum diameter of a monolithic primary, and beyond a certain size, deployable telescopes cannot fit in current launch vehicle fairings. One potential solution is connecting the primary mirror segments edgewise using flux-pinning mechanisms, which are analogous to non-contacting damped springs. In the baseline design, a flux-pinning mechanism consists of a magnet and a superconductor separated by a predetermined gap, with the damping adjusted by placing aluminum near the interface. Since flux pinning is possible only when the superconductor is cooled below a critical temperature, flux-pinning mechanisms are uniquely suited for cryogenic space telescopes. By placing these mechanisms along the edges of the mirror segments, a primary can be built up over time. Since flux pinning requires no mechanical deployments, the assembly process could be robotic or use some other non-contacting scheme. Advantages of this approach include scalability and passive stability.

  6. PinBus Interface Design

    SciTech Connect

    Hammerstrom, Donald J.; Adgerson, Jewel D.; Sastry, Chellury; Pratt, Richard M.; Pratt, Robert G.

    2009-12-30

    On behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy, PNNL has explored and expanded upon a simple control interface that might have merit for the inexpensive communication of smart grid operational objectives (demand response, for example) to small electric end-use devices and appliances. The approach relies on bi-directional communication via the electrical voltage states of from one to eight shared interconnection pins. The name PinBus has been suggested and adopted for the proposed interface protocol. The protocol is defined through the presentation of state diagrams and the pins’ functional definitions. Both simulations and laboratory demonstrations are being conducted to demonstrate the elegance and power of the suggested approach. PinBus supports a very high degree of interoperability across its interfaces, allowing innumerable pairings of devices and communication protocols and supporting the practice of practically any smart grid use case.

  7. Friction stir welding tool

    DOEpatents

    Tolle; Charles R. , Clark; Denis E. , Barnes; Timothy A.

    2008-04-15

    A friction stir welding tool is described and which includes a shank portion; a shoulder portion which is releasably engageable with the shank portion; and a pin which is releasably engageable with the shoulder portion.

  8. [Structural adjustment, cultural adjustment?].

    PubMed

    Dujardin, B; Dujardin, M; Hermans, I

    2003-12-01

    Over the last two decades, multiple studies have been conducted and many articles published about Structural Adjustment Programmes (SAPs). These studies mainly describe the characteristics of SAPs and analyse their economic consequences as well as their effects upon a variety of sectors: health, education, agriculture and environment. However, very few focus on the sociological and cultural effects of SAPs. Following a summary of SAP's content and characteristics, the paper briefly discusses the historical course of SAPs and the different critiques which have been made. The cultural consequences of SAPs are introduced and are described on four different levels: political, community, familial, and individual. These levels are analysed through examples from the literature and individual testimonies from people in the Southern Hemisphere. The paper concludes that SAPs, alongside economic globalisation processes, are responsible for an acute breakdown of social and cultural structures in societies in the South. It should be a priority, not only to better understand the situation and its determining factors, but also to intervene and act with strategies that support and reinvest in the social and cultural sectors, which is vital in order to allow for individuals and communities in the South to strengthen their autonomy and identify.

  9. Cryogenically cooled detector pin mount

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, Jr., William E; Chrisp, Michael P

    2014-06-03

    A focal plane assembly facilitates a molybdenum base plate being mounted to another plate made from aluminum. The molybdenum pin is an interference fit (press fit) in the aluminum base plate. An annular cut out area in the base plate forms two annular flexures.

  10. Lightning Pin Injection Testing on MOSFETS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ely, Jay J.; Nguyen, Truong X.; Szatkowski, George N.; Koppen, Sandra V.; Mielnik, John J.; Vaughan, Roger K.; Wysocki, Philip F.; Celaya, Jose R.; Saha, Sankalita

    2009-01-01

    Lightning transients were pin-injected into metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) to induce fault modes. This report documents the test process and results, and provides a basis for subsequent lightning tests. MOSFETs may be present in DC-DC power supplies and electromechanical actuator circuits that may be used on board aircraft. Results show that unprotected MOSFET Gates are susceptible to failure, even when installed in systems in well-shielded and partial-shielded locations. MOSFET Drains and Sources are significantly less susceptible. Device impedance decreased (current increased) after every failure. Such a failure mode may lead to cascading failures, as the damaged MOSFET may allow excessive current to flow through other circuitry. Preliminary assessments on a MOSFET subjected to 20-stroke pin-injection testing demonstrate that Breakdown Voltage, Leakage Current and Threshold Voltage characteristics show damage, while the device continues to meet manufacturer performance specifications. The purpose of this research is to develop validated tools, technologies, and techniques for automated detection, diagnosis and prognosis that enable mitigation of adverse events during flight, such as from lightning transients; and to understand the interplay between lightning-induced surges and aging (i.e. humidity, vibration thermal stress, etc.) on component degradation.

  11. Gage measures electrical connector pin retention force

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    The retention force of a female connector pin is measured by observing the action of a calibrated spring in a gage consisting of housing, a plunger terminating in a male subminiature connector pin, and the tension spring.

  12. 49 CFR 230.97 - Crank pins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Crank pins. 230.97 Section 230.97 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Steam Locomotives and Tenders Driving Gear § 230.97 Crank pins. (a) General provisions. Crank pins shall be securely applied. Securing the fit of...

  13. Self-shearing retentive pins: a laboratory evaluation of pin channel penetration before shearing.

    PubMed

    Barkmeier, W W; Cooley, R L

    1979-09-01

    This laboratory study determined the depth reached by self-shearing pins in dentin pin channels. Pin channels were prepared with the self-limiting shoulder twist drill for each of the four systems tested. Mean channel depth reached for the various pin systems was: Stabilok (small), 2.31 mm; Stabilok (medium), 1.78 mm; Reten Pin, 1.40 mm; and TMS (Regular), 2.04 mm. A coparison was also made by calculating the mean percent of penetration in relation to the depth of prepared pin channel: Stabilok (small), 92.50%; Stabilok (medium), 63.62%; Reten Pin, 66.67%; and TMS (Regular) 81.75%.

  14. Pinning control of chimera states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gambuzza, Lucia Valentina; Frasca, Mattia

    2016-08-01

    The position of the coherent and incoherent domain of a chimera state in a ring of nonlocally coupled oscillators is strongly influenced by the initial conditions, making nontrivial the problem of confining them in a specific region of the structure. In this paper we propose the use of spatial pinning to induce a chimera state where the nodes belonging to one domain, either the coherent or the incoherent, are fixed by the control action. We design two different techniques according to the dynamics to be forced in the region of pinned nodes, and validate them on FitzHugh-Nagumo and Kuramoto oscillators. Furthermore, we introduce a suitable strategy to deal with the effects of finite size in small structures.

  15. Pinning control of chimera states.

    PubMed

    Gambuzza, Lucia Valentina; Frasca, Mattia

    2016-08-01

    The position of the coherent and incoherent domain of a chimera state in a ring of nonlocally coupled oscillators is strongly influenced by the initial conditions, making nontrivial the problem of confining them in a specific region of the structure. In this paper we propose the use of spatial pinning to induce a chimera state where the nodes belonging to one domain, either the coherent or the incoherent, are fixed by the control action. We design two different techniques according to the dynamics to be forced in the region of pinned nodes, and validate them on FitzHugh-Nagumo and Kuramoto oscillators. Furthermore, we introduce a suitable strategy to deal with the effects of finite size in small structures. PMID:27627316

  16. Pinning control of chimera states.

    PubMed

    Gambuzza, Lucia Valentina; Frasca, Mattia

    2016-08-01

    The position of the coherent and incoherent domain of a chimera state in a ring of nonlocally coupled oscillators is strongly influenced by the initial conditions, making nontrivial the problem of confining them in a specific region of the structure. In this paper we propose the use of spatial pinning to induce a chimera state where the nodes belonging to one domain, either the coherent or the incoherent, are fixed by the control action. We design two different techniques according to the dynamics to be forced in the region of pinned nodes, and validate them on FitzHugh-Nagumo and Kuramoto oscillators. Furthermore, we introduce a suitable strategy to deal with the effects of finite size in small structures.

  17. Electrical contact tool set station

    DOEpatents

    Byers, M.E.

    1988-02-22

    An apparatus is provided for the precise setting to zero of electrically conductive cutting tools used in the machining of work pieces. An electrically conductive cylindrical pin, tapered at one end to a small flat, rests in a vee-shaped channel in a base so that its longitudinal axis is parallel to the longitudinal axis of the machine's spindle. Electronic apparatus is connected between the cylindrical pin and the electrically conductive cutting tool to produce a detectable signal when contact between tool and pin is made. The axes of the machine are set to zero by contact between the cutting tool and the sides, end or top of the cylindrical pin. Upon contact, an electrical circuit is completed, and the detectable signal is produced. The tool can then be set to zero for that axis. Should the tool contact the cylindrical pin with too much force, the cylindrical pin would be harmlessly dislodged from the vee-shaped channel, preventing damage either to the cutting tool or the cylindrical pin. 5 figs.

  18. Tube flare inspection tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meunier, G. E.

    1980-01-01

    Flare angle and symmetry of tube ends can be checked by simple tool that consists of two stainless steel pins bonded to rubber plug. Primary function of tool is to inspect tubes before they are installed, thereby eliminating expense and inconvenience of repairing leaks caused by imperfect flares. Measuring hole tapers, countersink angles, and bearing race angles are other possible uses. Tool is used with optical comparator. Axis of tool is alined with centerline of tube. Shadow of seated pins on comparator screen allows operator to verify flare angle is within tolerance.

  19. Investigation of the bulk pinning force in YBCO superconducting films with nano-engineered pinning centres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crisan, A.; Dang, V. S.; Yearwood, G.; Mikheenko, P.; Huhtinen, H.; Paturi, P.

    2014-08-01

    For practical applications of superconducting materials in applied magnetic fields, artificial pinning centres in addition to natural ones are required to oppose the Lorentz force. These pinning centres are actually various types of defects in the superconductor matrix. The pinning centres can be categorised on their dimension (volume, surface, or point) and on their character (normal cores or Δκ cores). We have used the Dew Hughes approach to determine the types of pinning centres present in various samples, with various thicknesses, temperatures and nanostructured additions to the superconducting matrix. Results show that normal surface pinning centres are present throughout almost all the samples, as dominant pinning mechanism. Such 2D extended pinning centres are mainly due to dislocations, grain boundaries, nanorods. Strong normal point pinning centres were found to be common in BZO doped YBCO samples. Other types of pinning centres, in various (minor) concentrations were also found in some of the samples.

  20. Pin1At regulates PIN1 polar localization and root gravitropism

    PubMed Central

    Xi, Wanyan; Gong, Ximing; Yang, Qiaoyun; Yu, Hao; Liou, Yih-Cherng

    2016-01-01

    Root gravitropism allows plants to establish root systems and its regulation depends on polar auxin transport mediated by PIN-FORMED (PIN) auxin transporters. PINOID (PID) and PROTEIN PHOSPHATASE 2A (PP2A) act antagonistically on reversible phosphorylation of PINs. This regulates polar PIN distribution and auxin transport. Here we show that a peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase Pin1At regulates root gravitropism. Downregulation of Pin1At suppresses root agravitropic phenotypes of pp2aa and 35S:PID, while overexpression of Pin1At affects root gravitropic responses and enhances the pp2aa agravitropic phenotype. Pin1At also affects auxin transport and polar localization of PIN1 in stele cells, which is mediated by PID and PP2A. Furthermore, Pin1At catalyses the conformational change of the phosphorylated Ser/Thr-Pro motifs of PIN1. Thus, Pin1At mediates the conformational dynamics of PIN1 and affects PID- and PP2A-mediated regulation of PIN1 polar localization, which correlates with the regulation of root gravitropism. PMID:26791759

  1. Downhole tool

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, David R.; Muradov, Andrei; Pixton, David S.; Dahlgren, Scott Steven; Briscoe, Michael A.

    2007-03-20

    A double shouldered downhole tool connection comprises box and pin connections having mating threads intermediate mating primary and secondary shoulders. The connection further comprises a secondary shoulder component retained in the box connection intermediate a floating component and the primary shoulders. The secondary shoulder component and the pin connection cooperate to transfer a portion of makeup load to the box connection. The downhole tool may be selected from the group consisting of drill pipe, drill collars, production pipe, and reamers. The floating component may be selected from the group consisting of electronics modules, generators, gyroscopes, power sources, and stators. The secondary shoulder component may comprises an interface to the box connection selected from the group consisting of radial grooves, axial grooves, tapered grooves, radial protrusions, axial protrusions, tapered protrusions, shoulders, and threads.

  2. On pins and needles: how vaccines are portrayed on Pinterest.

    PubMed

    Guidry, Jeanine P D; Carlyle, Kellie; Messner, Marcus; Jin, Yan

    2015-09-22

    Vaccination is an effective public health tool for reducing morbidity and mortality caused by infectious diseases. However, increasing numbers of parents question the safety of vaccines or refuse to vaccinate their children outright. The Internet is playing a significant role in the growing voice of the anti-vaccination movement as a growing number of people use the Internet to obtain health information, including information about vaccines. Given the role the Internet plays in providing vaccination-related communication, coupled with limited research in this area, this study focused on the social media platform Pinterest, analyzing 800 vaccine-related pins through a quantitative content analysis. The majority of the pins were anti-vaccine, and most were original posts as opposed to repins. Concerns about vaccine safety and side effects were oft-repeated themes, as was the concept of conspiracy theory. Pro-vaccine pins elicited consistently more engagement than anti-vaccine pins. Health educators and public health organizations should be aware of these dynamics, since a successful health communication campaign should start with an understanding of what and how publics communicate about the topic at hand. PMID:26319742

  3. On pins and needles: how vaccines are portrayed on Pinterest.

    PubMed

    Guidry, Jeanine P D; Carlyle, Kellie; Messner, Marcus; Jin, Yan

    2015-09-22

    Vaccination is an effective public health tool for reducing morbidity and mortality caused by infectious diseases. However, increasing numbers of parents question the safety of vaccines or refuse to vaccinate their children outright. The Internet is playing a significant role in the growing voice of the anti-vaccination movement as a growing number of people use the Internet to obtain health information, including information about vaccines. Given the role the Internet plays in providing vaccination-related communication, coupled with limited research in this area, this study focused on the social media platform Pinterest, analyzing 800 vaccine-related pins through a quantitative content analysis. The majority of the pins were anti-vaccine, and most were original posts as opposed to repins. Concerns about vaccine safety and side effects were oft-repeated themes, as was the concept of conspiracy theory. Pro-vaccine pins elicited consistently more engagement than anti-vaccine pins. Health educators and public health organizations should be aware of these dynamics, since a successful health communication campaign should start with an understanding of what and how publics communicate about the topic at hand.

  4. Nuclear reactor with fuel pin bracing grid

    SciTech Connect

    Jolly, R.

    1980-01-01

    A fuel pin bracing grid for a nuclear fuel sub-assembly comprises a honeycomb array of unit cells formed from discrete strips. The cells are hexagonal, three alternate sides having windows and the remaining sides have linear groups of three embossments to provide guide pads for fuel pins. The openings provide a measure of compliancy for the grid to facilitate insertion and withdrawal of the pins. A fuel sub-assembly for a liquid metal cooled fast breeder nuclear reactor has a central fuel section with end extensions, the fuel section comprising a bundle of fuel pins in a hexagonal wrapper the pins being braced by a series of grids according to the invention. Reprocessing of the fuel is facilitated because the pins are withdrawable collectively from the compliant grids and wrapper combination merely by cutting an end extension from the wrapper. 4 claims.

  5. Pin-Align: A New Dynamic Programming Approach to Align Protein-Protein Interaction Networks

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    To date, few tools for aligning protein-protein interaction networks have been suggested. These tools typically find conserved interaction patterns using various local or global alignment algorithms. However, the improvement of the speed, scalability, simplification, and accuracy of network alignment tools is still the target of new researches. In this paper, we introduce Pin-Align, a new tool for local alignment of protein-protein interaction networks. Pin-Align accuracy is tested on protein interaction networks from IntAct, DIP, and the Stanford Network Database and the results are compared with other well-known algorithms. It is shown that Pin-Align has higher sensitivity and specificity in terms of KEGG Ortholog groups. PMID:25435900

  6. Heat Exchanger With Internal Pin Elements

    DOEpatents

    Gerstmann, Joseph; Hannon, Charles L.

    2004-01-13

    A heat exchanger/heater comprising a tubular member having a fluid inlet end, a fluid outlet end and plurality of pins secured to the interior wall of the tube. Various embodiments additionally comprise a blocking member disposed concentrically inside the pins, such as a core plug or a baffle array. Also disclosed is a vapor generator employing an internally pinned tube, and a fluid-heater/heat-exchanger utilizing an outer jacket tube and fluid-side baffle elements, as well as methods for heating a fluid using an internally pinned tube.

  7. Fabrication of FFTF fuel pin wire wrap

    SciTech Connect

    Epperson, E.M.

    1980-06-01

    Lateral spacing between FFTF fuel pins is required to provide a passageway for the sodium coolant to flow over each pin to remove heat generated by the fission process. This spacing is provided by wrapping each fuel pin with type 316 stainless steel wire. This wire has a 1.435mm (0.0565 in.) to 1.448mm (0.0570 in.) diameter, contains 17 +- 2% cold work and was fabricated and tested to exacting RDT Standards. About 500 kg (1100 lbs) or 39 Km (24 miles) of fuel pin wrap wire is used in each core loading. Fabrication procedures and quality assurance tests are described.

  8. Update on PIN or Signature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matyas, Vashek

    We promised a year back some data on the experiment that we ran with chip and PIN. If you recall, it was the first phase that we reported on here last year, where we used the University bookstore, and two PIN pads, one with very solid privacy shielding, the other one without any. We ran 17 people through the first one, 15 people through the second one, and we also had the students do, about half of them forging the signature, half of them signing their own signature, on the back of the card that is used for purchasing books, or whatever.We had a second phase of the experiment, after long negotiations, and very complicated logistics, with a supermarket in Brno where we were able to do anything that we wanted through the experiment for five hours on the floor, with only the supermarket manager, the head of security, and the camera operators knowing about the experiment. So the shop assistants, the ground floor security, everybody basically on the floor, did not know about the experiment. That was one of the reasons why the supermarket, or management, agreed to take part, they wanted to control their own internal security procedures.

  9. Pin bearing evaluation of LTM25 composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shah, C. H.; Postyn, A. S.

    1996-01-01

    This report summarizes pin bearing evaluations of LTM25 composite materials. Northrop Grumman Corporation conducted pin bearing testing and fabricate two panels from composite materials that cure at low temperatures. These materials are being incorporated into Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVS) to reduce manufacturing costs since they allow the use of low-cost tooling and facilities. Two composite prepreg product forms were evaluated; MR50/LTM25 unidirectional tape, batch 2881vd and CFS003/LTM25 woven cloth, batch 2216. Northrop Grumman fabricated, machined, and tested specimens to determine the bearing strength in accordance with MIL-HDBK-17D, Volume 1, Section 7.2.4. Quasi-isotropic laminates from the two product forms were fabricated for these tests. In addition, 2 quasi-isotropic panels of dimensions 12 in. x 28 in. were fabricated (one each from the two product forms), inspected, and shipped to NASA Langley for further evaluation.

  10. Failure Analysis of Electrical Pin Connectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, John A.; Baughman, James M.; Smith, Stephen W.; Herath, Jeffrey A.

    2008-01-01

    A study was initiated to determine the root cause of failure for circuit board electrical connection pins that failed during vibRatory testing. The circuit board is part of an unmanned space probe, and the vibratory testing was performed to ensure component survival of launch loading conditions. The results of this study show that the pins failed as a result of fatigue loading.

  11. Pinning of fermionic occupation numbers.

    PubMed

    Schilling, Christian; Gross, David; Christandl, Matthias

    2013-01-25

    The Pauli exclusion principle is a constraint on the natural occupation numbers of fermionic states. It has been suspected since at least the 1970s, and only proved very recently, that there is a multitude of further constraints on these numbers, generalizing the Pauli principle. Here, we provide the first analytic analysis of the physical relevance of these constraints. We compute the natural occupation numbers for the ground states of a family of interacting fermions in a harmonic potential. Intriguingly, we find that the occupation numbers are almost, but not exactly, pinned to the boundary of the allowed region (quasipinned). The result suggests that the physics behind the phenomenon is richer than previously appreciated. In particular, it shows that for some models, the generalized Pauli constraints play a role for the ground state, even though they do not limit the ground-state energy. Our findings suggest a generalization of the Hartree-Fock approximation.

  12. Pinning impulsive control algorithms for complex network.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wen; Lü, Jinhu; Chen, Shihua; Yu, Xinghuo

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, we further investigate the synchronization of complex dynamical network via pinning control in which a selection of nodes are controlled at discrete times. Different from most existing work, the pinning control algorithms utilize only the impulsive signals at discrete time instants, which may greatly improve the communication channel efficiency and reduce control cost. Two classes of algorithms are designed, one for strongly connected complex network and another for non-strongly connected complex network. It is suggested that in the strongly connected network with suitable coupling strength, a single controller at any one of the network's nodes can always pin the network to its homogeneous solution. In the non-strongly connected case, the location and minimum number of nodes needed to pin the network are determined by the Frobenius normal form of the coupling matrix. In addition, the coupling matrix is not necessarily symmetric or irreducible. Illustrative examples are then given to validate the proposed pinning impulsive control algorithms.

  13. Pinning impulsive control algorithms for complex network

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Wen; Lü, Jinhu; Chen, Shihua; Yu, Xinghuo

    2014-03-15

    In this paper, we further investigate the synchronization of complex dynamical network via pinning control in which a selection of nodes are controlled at discrete times. Different from most existing work, the pinning control algorithms utilize only the impulsive signals at discrete time instants, which may greatly improve the communication channel efficiency and reduce control cost. Two classes of algorithms are designed, one for strongly connected complex network and another for non-strongly connected complex network. It is suggested that in the strongly connected network with suitable coupling strength, a single controller at any one of the network's nodes can always pin the network to its homogeneous solution. In the non-strongly connected case, the location and minimum number of nodes needed to pin the network are determined by the Frobenius normal form of the coupling matrix. In addition, the coupling matrix is not necessarily symmetric or irreducible. Illustrative examples are then given to validate the proposed pinning impulsive control algorithms.

  14. Pin-Retraction Mechanism On Quick-Release Cover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macmartin, Malcolm

    1994-01-01

    Quick-release cover includes pin-retraction mechanism releasing cover quickly from lower of two sets of pin connections holding cover. Cover released at top by pulling lever as described in "Lever-Arm Pin Puller" (NPO-18788). Removal of cover begins when technician or robot pulls upper-pin-release lever. Cover swings downward until tabs on lower pins are pulled through slots in their receptacles. Lower pins are then free.

  15. The Mean-Field Flux Pinning Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stejic, George

    We develop the Mean-Field Flux Pinning Theory, designed to model the flux line lattice (FLL) as it interacts with itself, the flux pinning centers and the geometry of the superconductor. Like other mean-field theories, the mean-field flux pinning theory does not attempt to model the FLL completely. Instead, it utilizes a simplified model for the FLL, termed the mean-field FLL, in which the FLL is modelled as a continuous vector field rather than as discrete fluxons as in other theories. By so doing, the interactions of the FLL are greatly simplified and more easily modelled. One application of the mean-field flux pinning theory is to predict J_{c} from microstructural data, which we use to determine the optimal Nb-Ti microstructures with (1) alpha -Ti pinning centers and (2) Nb pinning centers. The microstructure is modelled on a grid in which the local values of T_{c} and kappa reflect the spatial distribution of the pinning centers and the superconductor. Using this model, we solve the G-L equations and calculate the pinning potential defined as the vortex free energy as a function of position. We conclude that the ideal Nb-Ti microstructure with alpha-Ti pinning centers would require 40 volume percent of alpha -Ti and have 6nm thick pinning centers. In the Nb pinning center case, the ideal microstructure requires 50 volume percent of Nb and would have 6nm pinning centers. Another application for the mean-field flux pinning theory is to model the FLL as it interacts with the penetrating magnetic fields within lambda of the superconducting surface. Using this theory, we study the effects of sample geometry on the FLL and J _{c} for the thin film geometry. We find that the FLL becomes increasingly distorted as the film thickness is reduced and that J_{c } increases sharply for dimensions less that lambda. These predictions are experimentally evaluated in Nb-Ti thin films. Our results show that J_{c} values as high as 1/3 of J_{d} and a strong orientational

  16. Pinning controllability of complex networks with community structure.

    PubMed

    Miao, Qingying; Tang, Yang; Kurths, Jürgen; Fang, Jian-an; Wong, W K

    2013-09-01

    In this paper, we study the controllability of networks with different numbers of communities and various strengths of community structure. By means of simulations, we show that the degree descending pinning scheme performs best among several considered pinning schemes under a small number of pinned nodes, while the degree ascending pinning scheme is becoming more powerful by increasing the number of pinned nodes. It is found that increasing the number of communities or reducing the strength of community structure is beneficial for the enhancement of the controllability. Moreover, it is revealed that the pinning scheme with evenly distributed pinned nodes among communities outperforms other kinds of considered pinning schemes. PMID:24089950

  17. Electroanalytical devices with pins and thread.

    PubMed

    Glavan, Ana C; Ainla, Alar; Hamedi, Mahiar M; Fernández-Abedul, M Teresa; Whitesides, George M

    2016-01-01

    This work describes the adaptive use of conventional stainless steel pins-used in unmodified form or coated with carbon paste-as working, counter, and quasi-reference electrodes in electrochemical devices fabricated using cotton thread or embossed omniphobic R(F) paper to contain the electrolyte and sample. For some applications, these pin electrodes may be easier to modify and use than printed electrodes, and their position and orientation can be changed as needed. Electroanalytical devices capable of multiplex analysis (thread-based arrays or 96-well plates) were easily fabricated using pins as electrodes in either thread or omniphobic R(F) paper.

  18. Shaft adjuster

    DOEpatents

    Harry, H.H.

    1988-03-11

    Abstract and method for the adjustment and alignment of shafts in high power devices. A plurality of adjacent rotatable angled cylinders are positioned between a base and the shaft to be aligned which when rotated introduce an axial offset. The apparatus is electrically conductive and constructed of a structurally rigid material. The angled cylinders allow the shaft such as the center conductor in a pulse line machine to be offset in any desired alignment position within the range of the apparatus. 3 figs.

  19. Shaft adjuster

    DOEpatents

    Harry, Herbert H.

    1989-01-01

    Apparatus and method for the adjustment and alignment of shafts in high power devices. A plurality of adjacent rotatable angled cylinders are positioned between a base and the shaft to be aligned which when rotated introduce an axial offset. The apparatus is electrically conductive and constructed of a structurally rigid material. The angled cylinders allow the shaft such as the center conductor in a pulse line machine to be offset in any desired alignment position within the range of the apparatus.

  20. Mechanical evaluation of external skeletal fixator-intramedullary pin tie-in configurations applied to cadaveral humeri from red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis).

    PubMed

    Van Wettere, Arnaud J; Redig, Patrick T; Wallace, Larry J; Bourgeault, Craig A; Bechtold, Joan E

    2009-12-01

    Use of external skeletal fixator-intramedullary pin (ESF-IM) tie-in fixators is an adjustable and effective method of fracture fixation in birds. The objective of this study was to determine the contribution of each of the following parameters to the compressive and torsional rigidity of an ESF-IM pin tie-in applied to avian bones with an osteotomy gap: (1) varying the fixation pin position in the proximal bone segment and (2) increasing the number of fixation pins in one or both bone segments. ESF-IM pin tie-in constructs were applied to humeri harvested from red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) (n=24) that had been euthanatized for clinical reasons. Constructs with a variation in the placement of the proximal fixation pin and with 2, 3, or 4 fixation pins applied to avian bone with an osteotomy gap were loaded to a defined displacement in torque and axial compression. Response variables were determined from resulting load-displacement curves (construct stiffness, load at 1-mm displacement). Increasing the number of fixation pins from 1 to 2 per bone segment significantly increased the stiffness in torque (110%) and compression (60%), and the safe load in torque (107%) and compression (50%). Adding a fixation pin to the distal bone segment to form a 3-pin fixator significantly increased the stiffness (27%) and safe load (20%) in torque but not in axial compression. In the configuration with 2 fixation pins, placing the proximal pin distally in the proximal bone segment significantly increased the stiffness in torque (28%), and the safe load in torque (23%) and in axial compression (32%). Results quantified the relative importance of specific parameters affecting the rigidity of ESF-IM pin tie-in constructs as applied to unstable bone fracture models in birds.

  1. Revised dyadic adjustment scale as a reliable tool for assessment of quality of marital relationship in patients on long-term hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Assari, Shervin; Moghani Lankarani, Maryam; Tavallaii, Seyed Abbas

    2009-10-01

    Although the revised dyadic adjustment scale (RDAS) has been widely used as an indicator of the quality of marital relationship, no report is available on the reliability of this measure in patients on hemodialysis. We examined the internal consistency of the RDAS in a group of Iranian patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis. A translated Persian version of the RDAS was self-administered to 135 patients. The internal consistency of the RDAS was tested using the Chronbach alpha coefficient which was 0.898, 0.683, 0.779, 0.827, and 0.836 for the RDAS total score and the dyadic consensus, affective expression, dyadic satisfaction, and dyadic cohesion subdomains, respectively. All of the Chronbach alpha scores were higher in patients with higher income and education level. Using the RDAS to examine marital relationship quality in patients on hemodialysis, the total score and almost all subscores except for dyadic consensus had adequate internal consistency.

  2. The actuated latch pin and its development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawlor, P. J.

    1980-01-01

    An actuated latch pin developed to meet the need for a reusable locking device is described. The unit can function as a pin puller or as a pin pusher latch. Initial prototype testing demonstrated the feasibility of the device with the unit being driven from a 28 V dc supply and using 15 W to drive a 12 mm diameter pin through a stroke of 10 mm with a side load of 100 N in 120 ms. High wear rates with a MOS2 lubrication on the ballscrew and angular contact bearings have necessitated the reduction in the duty cycle from 1000 cycles in air and vacuum to 100 in air and 1000 in vacuum.

  3. Quick-Release Pin With Lever Action

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trevino, Robert C.

    1995-01-01

    Lever-action quick-release pin operated more easily. Mechanism operated with gloved hand. In modified version, lever added to handle to facilitate actuation. Lever action reduces actuation force. Lever-action pin operated by squeezing on any point of moveable ends of lever and handle together between thumb and forefinger or by simply grasping and squeezing handle and lever with entire hand in more natural grasp.

  4. Anisotropic flux pinning in high Tc superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koleśnik, S.; Igalson, J.; Skośkiewicz, T.; Szymczak, R.; Baran, M.; Pytel, K.; Pytel, B.

    1995-02-01

    In this paper we present a comparison of the results of FC magnetization measurements on several PbSr(Y,Ca)CuO crystals representing various levels of flux pinning. The pinning centers in our crystals have been set up during the crystal growth process or introduced by neutron irradiation. Some possible explanations of the observed effects, including surface barrier, flux-center distribution and sample-shape effects, are discussed.

  5. Performance measurements of hybrid PIN diode arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, S.L. ); Arens, J.F.; Jernigan, J.G. . Space Sciences Lab.); Kramer, G. ); Collins, T.; Worley, S. ); Wilburn, C.D. ); Skubic, P. )

    1990-10-01

    We report the successful development of hybrid PIN diode arrays and a series of room-temperature measurements in a high-energy pion beam at FNAL. A PMOS VLSI 256 {times} 256 readout array having 30 {mu}m square pixels was indium-bump bonded to a mating PIN diode detector array. Preliminary measurements on the resulting hybrid show excellent signal-to-noise at room temperature. 3 refs., 5 figs.

  6. Paralogous radiations of PIN proteins with multiple origins of noncanonical PIN structure.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Tom; Brockington, Samuel F; Rothfels, Carl; Graham, Sean W; Stevenson, Dennis; Kutchan, Toni; Rolf, Megan; Thomas, Philip; Wong, Gane Ka-Shu; Leyser, Ottoline; Glover, Beverley J; Harrison, C Jill

    2014-08-01

    The plant hormone auxin is a conserved regulator of development which has been implicated in the generation of morphological novelty. PIN-FORMED1 (PIN) auxin efflux carriers are central to auxin function by regulating its distribution. PIN family members have divergent structures and cellular localizations, but the origin and evolutionary significance of this variation is unresolved. To characterize PIN family evolution, we have undertaken phylogenetic and structural analyses with a massive increase in taxon sampling over previous studies. Our phylogeny shows that following the divergence of the bryophyte and lycophyte lineages, two deep duplication events gave rise to three distinct lineages of PIN proteins in euphyllophytes. Subsequent independent radiations within each of these lineages were taxonomically asymmetric, giving rise to at least 21 clades of PIN proteins, of which 15 are revealed here for the first time. Although most PIN protein clades share a conserved canonical structure with a modular central loop domain, a small number of noncanonical clades dispersed across the phylogeny have highly divergent protein structure. We propose that PIN proteins underwent sub- and neofunctionalization with substantial modification to protein structure throughout plant evolution. Our results have important implications for plant evolution as they suggest that structurally divergent PIN proteins that arose in paralogous radiations contributed to the convergent evolution of organ systems in different land plant lineages.

  7. Paralogous Radiations of PIN Proteins with Multiple Origins of Noncanonical PIN Structure

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, Tom; Brockington, Samuel F.; Rothfels, Carl; Graham, Sean W.; Stevenson, Dennis; Kutchan, Toni; Rolf, Megan; Thomas, Philip; Wong, Gane Ka-Shu; Leyser, Ottoline; Glover, Beverley J.; Harrison, C. Jill

    2014-01-01

    The plant hormone auxin is a conserved regulator of development which has been implicated in the generation of morphological novelty. PIN-FORMED1 (PIN) auxin efflux carriers are central to auxin function by regulating its distribution. PIN family members have divergent structures and cellular localizations, but the origin and evolutionary significance of this variation is unresolved. To characterize PIN family evolution, we have undertaken phylogenetic and structural analyses with a massive increase in taxon sampling over previous studies. Our phylogeny shows that following the divergence of the bryophyte and lycophyte lineages, two deep duplication events gave rise to three distinct lineages of PIN proteins in euphyllophytes. Subsequent independent radiations within each of these lineages were taxonomically asymmetric, giving rise to at least 21 clades of PIN proteins, of which 15 are revealed here for the first time. Although most PIN protein clades share a conserved canonical structure with a modular central loop domain, a small number of noncanonical clades dispersed across the phylogeny have highly divergent protein structure. We propose that PIN proteins underwent sub- and neofunctionalization with substantial modification to protein structure throughout plant evolution. Our results have important implications for plant evolution as they suggest that structurally divergent PIN proteins that arose in paralogous radiations contributed to the convergent evolution of organ systems in different land plant lineages. PMID:24758777

  8. Improved Quick-Release Pin Mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Jay M.

    2007-01-01

    An improved quick-release pin mechanism supplants a prior such mechanism in which the pin bears a shear load to hold two objects together. The prior mechanism, of a ball-locking design, can fail when vibrations cause balls to fall out. The load-bearing pin is an outer tube with a handle at one end (hereafter denoted the near end). Within the outer tube is a spring-loaded inner tube that includes a handle at its near end and a pivoting tab at its far end. The pin is inserted through holes in the objects to be retained and the inner tube is pushed against an offset pivot inside the outer tube to make the tab rotate outward so that it protrudes past the outer diameter of the outer tube, and the spring load maintains this configuration so that the pin cannot be withdrawn through the holes. Pushing the handles together against the spring load moves the locking tab out far enough that the tab becomes free to rotate inward. Then releasing the inner-tube handle causes the tab to be pulled into a resting position inside the outer tube. The pin can then be pulled out through the holes.

  9. Investigating Dynamic Interdomain Allostery in Pin1

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Jeffrey W.

    2015-01-01

    Signaling proteins often sequester complementary functional sites in separate domains. How do the different domains communicate with one another? An attractive system to address this question is the mitotic regulator, human Pin1 (Lu et al. 1996). Pin-1 consists of two tethered domains: a WW domain for substrate binding, and a catalytic domain for peptidyl-prolyl isomerase (PPIase) activity. Pin1 accelerates the cis-trans isomerization of phospho-Ser/Thr-Pro (pS/T-P) motifs within proteins regulating the cell cycle and neuronal development. The early x-ray (Ranganathan et al. 1997; Verdecia et al. 2000) and solution NMR studies (Bayer et al. 2003; Jacobs et al. 2003) of Pin1 indicated inter- and intradomain motion. We became interested in exploring how such motions might affect interdomain communication, using NMR. Our accumulated results indicate substrate binding to Pin1 WW domain changes the intra/inter domain mobility, thereby altering substrate activity in the distal PPIase domain catalytic site. Thus, Pin1 shows evidence of dynamic allostery, in the sense of Cooper and Dryden (Cooper and Dryden 1984). We highlight our results supporting this conclusion, and summarize them via a simple speculative model of conformational selection. PMID:26495045

  10. Self-locking double retention redundant full pin release

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Killgrove, T. O. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A double retention redundant pull pin release system is disclosed. The system responds to a single pull during an intentional release operation. A spiral threaded main pin is seated in a mating bore in a housing, which main pin has a flange fastened thereon at the part of the main pin which is exterior to the housing. Accidental release tends to rotate the main pin. A secondary pin passes through a slightly oversized opening in the flange and is seated in a second bore in the housing. The pins counteract against one another to prevent accidential release. A frictional lock is shared between the main and secondary pins to enhance further locking of the system. The secondary pin, in response to a first pull, is fully retracted from its bore and flange hole. Thereafter the pull causes the main pin to rotate free of the housing to release, for example, a parachute mechanism.

  11. Self-locking double retention redundant pull pin release

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Killgrove, Thomas O. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A double-retention redundant pull pin release system is disclosed. The system responds to a single pull during an intentional release operation. A spiral-threaded main pin is seated in a mating bore in a housing, which main pin has a flange fastened thereon at the part of the main pin which is exterior to the housing. Accidental release tends to rotate the main pin. A secondary pin passes through a slightly oversized opening in the flange and is seated in a second bore in the housing. The pins counteract against one another to prevent accidental release. A frictional lock is shared between the main and secondary pins to enhance further locking of the system. The secondary pin, in response to a first pull, is fully retracted from its bore and flange hole. Thereafter the pull causes the main pin to rotate free of the housing to release, for example, a parachute mechanism.

  12. NMR study of domain wall pinning in a magnetically ordered material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pleshakov, I. V.; Popov, P. S.; Kuz'min, Yu. I.; Dudkin, V. I.

    2016-01-01

    The use of nuclear magnetic resonance in the form of spin echo in combination with magnetic field pulses applied to a magnetically ordered material sample offers a convenient tool for studying characteristics of the centers of domain-wall pinning. Possibilities of this method have been demonstrated in experiments with lithium-zinc ferrite.

  13. The Maize PIN Gene Family of Auxin Transporters

    PubMed Central

    Forestan, Cristian; Farinati, Silvia; Varotto, Serena

    2012-01-01

    Auxin is a key regulator of plant development and its differential distribution in plant tissues, established by a polar cell to cell transport, can trigger a wide range of developmental processes. A few members of the two families of auxin efflux transport proteins, PIN-formed (PIN) and P-glycoprotein (ABCB/PGP), have so far been characterized in maize. Nine new Zea mays auxin efflux carriers PIN family members and two maize PIN-like genes have now been identified. Four members of PIN1 (named ZmPIN1a–d) cluster, one gene homologous to AtPIN2 (ZmPIN2), three orthologs of PIN5 (ZmPIN5a–c), one gene paired with AtPIN8 (ZmPIN8), and three monocot-specific PINs (ZmPIN9, ZmPIN10a, and ZmPIN10b) were cloned and the phylogenetic relationships between early-land plants, monocots, and eudicots PIN proteins investigated, including the new maize PIN proteins. Tissue-specific expression patterns of the 12 maize PIN genes, 2 PIN-like genes and ZmABCB1, an ABCB auxin efflux carrier, were analyzed together with protein localization and auxin accumulation patterns in normal conditions and in response to drug applications. ZmPIN gene transcripts have overlapping expression domains in the root apex, during male and female inflorescence differentiation and kernel development. However, some PIN family members have specific tissue localization: ZmPIN1d transcript marks the L1 layer of the shoot apical meristem and inflorescence meristem during the flowering transition and the monocot-specific ZmPIN9 is expressed in the root endodermis and pericycle. The phylogenetic and gene structure analyses together with the expression pattern of the ZmPIN gene family indicate that subfunctionalization of some maize PINs can be associated to the differentiation and development of monocot-specific organs and tissues and might have occurred after the divergence between dicots and monocots. PMID:22639639

  14. The Maize PIN Gene Family of Auxin Transporters.

    PubMed

    Forestan, Cristian; Farinati, Silvia; Varotto, Serena

    2012-01-01

    Auxin is a key regulator of plant development and its differential distribution in plant tissues, established by a polar cell to cell transport, can trigger a wide range of developmental processes. A few members of the two families of auxin efflux transport proteins, PIN-formed (PIN) and P-glycoprotein (ABCB/PGP), have so far been characterized in maize. Nine new Zea mays auxin efflux carriers PIN family members and two maize PIN-like genes have now been identified. Four members of PIN1 (named ZmPIN1a-d) cluster, one gene homologous to AtPIN2 (ZmPIN2), three orthologs of PIN5 (ZmPIN5a-c), one gene paired with AtPIN8 (ZmPIN8), and three monocot-specific PINs (ZmPIN9, ZmPIN10a, and ZmPIN10b) were cloned and the phylogenetic relationships between early-land plants, monocots, and eudicots PIN proteins investigated, including the new maize PIN proteins. Tissue-specific expression patterns of the 12 maize PIN genes, 2 PIN-like genes and ZmABCB1, an ABCB auxin efflux carrier, were analyzed together with protein localization and auxin accumulation patterns in normal conditions and in response to drug applications. ZmPIN gene transcripts have overlapping expression domains in the root apex, during male and female inflorescence differentiation and kernel development. However, some PIN family members have specific tissue localization: ZmPIN1d transcript marks the L1 layer of the shoot apical meristem and inflorescence meristem during the flowering transition and the monocot-specific ZmPIN9 is expressed in the root endodermis and pericycle. The phylogenetic and gene structure analyses together with the expression pattern of the ZmPIN gene family indicate that subfunctionalization of some maize PINs can be associated to the differentiation and development of monocot-specific organs and tissues and might have occurred after the divergence between dicots and monocots. PMID:22639639

  15. Dynamics and Stability of Pinned-Clamped and Clamped-Pinned Cylindrical Shells Conveying Fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misra, A. K.; Wong, S. S. T.; Païdoussis, M. P.

    2001-11-01

    The paper examines the dynamics and stability of fluid-conveying cylindrical shells having pinned-clamped or clamped-pinned boundary conditions, where ``pinned'' is an abbreviation for ``simply supported''. Flügge's equations are used to describe the shell motion, while the fluid-dynamic perturbation pressure is obtained utilizing the linearized potential flow theory. The solution is obtained using two methods - the travelling wave method and the Fourier-transform approach. The results obtained by both methods suggest that the negative damping of the clamped-pinned systems and positive damping of the pinned-clamped systems, observed by previous investigators for any arbitrarily small flow velocity, are simply numerical artefacts; this is reinforced by energy considerations, in which the work done by the fluid on the shell is shown to be zero. Hence, it is concluded that both systems are conservative.

  16. De-pinning of disordered bosonic chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogt, N.; Cole, J. H.; Shnirman, A.

    2016-05-01

    We consider onset of transport (de-pinning) in one-dimensional bosonic chains with a repulsive boson–boson interaction that decays exponentially on large length-scales. Our study is relevant for (i) de-pinning of Cooper-pairs in Josephson junction arrays; (ii) de-pinning of magnetic flux quanta in quantum-phase-slip ladders, i.e. arrays of superconducting wires in a ladder-configuration that allow for the coherent tunneling of flux quanta. In the low-frequency, long wave-length regime these chains can be mapped onto an effective model of a one-dimensional elastic field in a disordered potential. The standard de-pinning theories address infinitely long systems in two limiting cases: (a) of uncorrelated disorder (zero correlation length); (b) of long range power-law correlated disorder (infinite correlation length). In this paper we study numerically chains of finite length in the intermediate case of long but finite disorder correlation length. This regime is of relevance for, e.g., the experimental systems mentioned above. We study the interplay of three length scales: the system length, the interaction range, the correlation length of disorder. In particular, we observe the crossover between the solitonic onset of transport in arrays shorter than the disorder correlation length to onset of transport by de-pinning for longer arrays.

  17. A double tuned rail damper—increased damping at the two first pinned-pinned frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maes, J.; Sol, H.

    2003-10-01

    Railway-induced vibrations are a growing matter of environmental concern. The rapid development of transportation, the increase of vehicle speeds and vehicle weights have resulted in higher vibration levels. In the meantime vibrations that were tolerated in the past are now considered to be a nuisance. Numerous solutions have been proposed to remedy these problems. The majority only acts on a specific part of the dynamic behaviour of the track. This paper presents a possible solution to reduce the noise generated by the 'pinned-pinned' frequencies. Pinned-pinned frequencies correspond with standing waves whose nodes are positioned exactly at the sleeper supports. The two first pinned-pinned frequencies are situated approximately at 950 and 2200 Hz (UIC60-rail and sleeper spacing of 0.60 m). To attenuate these vibrations, the Department of MEMC at the VUB has developed a dynamic vibration absorber called the Double Tuned Rail Damper (DTRD). The DTRD is mounted between two sleepers on the rail and is powered by the motion of the rail. The DTRD consists of two major parts: a steel plate which is connected to the rail with an interface of an elastic layer, and a rubber mass. The two first resonance frequencies of the steel plate coincide with the targeted pinned-pinned frequencies of the rail. The rubber mass acts as a motion controller and energy absorber. Measurements at a test track of the French railway company (SNCF) have shown considerable attenuation of the envisaged pinned-pinned frequencies. The attenuation rate surpasses 5 dB/m at certain frequency bands.

  18. The effect of temperature on pinning mechanisms in HTS composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sotnikova, A. P.; Rudnev, I. A.

    2016-09-01

    Pinning mechanism in samples of second generation tapes (2G) of high-temperature superconductors (HTS) was studied The critical current and the pinning force were calculated from the magnetization curves measured in the temperature range of 4.2 - 77 K in magnetic fields up to 14 Tesla using vibration sample magnetometer. To determine the pinning mechanism the dependences of pinning force on magnetic field were constructed according to the Dew-Hughes model and Kramer's rule. The obtained dependences revealed a significant influence of the temperature on effectiveness of different types of pinning. At low temperatures the 2G HTS tapes of different manufacturers demonstrated an equal efficiency of the pinning centers but with temperature increase the differences in pinning mechanisms as well as in properties and effectiveness of the pinning centers become obvious. The influence of the pinning mechanism on the energy losses in HTS tapes was shown.

  19. A division in PIN-medicated patterning during lateral organ initiation in grasses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Using phlyogenic and gene synteny analysis we identified an angiosperm PIN clade sister to PIN1, here termed SISter-of-PIN1 (soPIN1), which is present in all sampled angiosperms except for Brassicaceae. Additionally, we identified a conserved duplication of PIN1 in the grasses: PIN1a and PIN1b. In...

  20. Final development report H1632 Adjustable Caster Assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Kibalo, E.F.

    1994-03-01

    The H1632 Adjustable Caster Assembly was developed for use on the H1501B Transportation Accident Resistant Container (TARC). The caster can be raised and lowered via its attached leveling jack or, by removing a locking pin, can be aligned horizontally or removed for transportational purposes. The H1632 is packaged as a single kit that contains two left and two right adjustable caster assemblies along with the required support plates and hardware.

  1. Termination of pinned spirals by local stimuli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jiang-Xing; Guo, Ming-Ming; Ma, Jun

    2016-02-01

    The termination of pinned spirals on a defect by means of local stimuli is studied. On a completely unexcitable defect, the elimination process is discussed and its corresponding mechanism is presented. Especially, the mechanism of unpinning spirals on a partially unexcitable defect, which has not been investigated so far, is explored. With fixed pacing frequency ω L , there exists a maximal radius R max above which the pinned spiral cannot be removed. It is found that the value of R max does not increase as ω L in a dynamical regime, forming a platform in the R\\textit{max}\\text-ωL curves. Based on analyzing the dispersion relation on the spiral tip around the obstacle, the underlying mechanism is clarified. Also, it is found that when multiple spirals are pinned, the value of R max decreases on a partially unexcitable defect while the change is very slight on a completely unexcitable one.

  2. Pin solar cells made of amorphous silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plaettner, R. D.; Kruehler, W. W.

    Investigations leading to solar cells with a structure SnO2-pin and an efficiency up to 9.8% are reviewed. The production of large-surface metal/pin/transparent conductive oxide (TCO)-solar cells is discussed. A two-chamber reactor, grid structure and tinning of cells, and an a-Si-module are described. The production of glass/TCO/pin/metal-solar cells and a-SiGe:H-compounds is outlined. Measurements on solar cells and diodes including the efficiency of a-Si:H-solar cells, spectral sensitivity, diffusion lengths, field effect measurements, and modifications of solar cells (space-charge limited currents, reduction of solar cells aging) are treated.

  3. PINS Testing and Modification for Explosive Identification

    SciTech Connect

    E.H. Seabury; A.J. Caffrey

    2011-09-01

    The INL's Portable Isotopic Neutron Spectroscopy System (PINS)1 non-intrusively identifies the chemical fill of munitions and sealed containers. PINS is used routinely by the U.S. Army, the Defense Threat Reduction Agency, and foreign military units to determine the contents of munitions and other containers suspected to contain explosives, smoke-generating chemicals, and chemical warfare agents such as mustard and nerve gas. The objects assayed with PINS range from softball-sized M139 chemical bomblets to 200 gallon DOT 500X ton containers. INL had previously examined2 the feasibility of using a similar system for the identification of explosives, and based on this proof-of-principle test, the development of a dedicated system for the identification of explosives in an improvised nuclear device appears entirely feasible. INL has been tasked by NNSA NA-42 Render Safe Research and Development with the development of such a system.

  4. Effective pinning energy landscape perturbations for propagating magnetic domain walls

    PubMed Central

    Burn, D. M.; Atkinson, D.

    2016-01-01

    The interaction between a magnetic domain wall and a pinning site is explored in a planar nanowire using micromagnetics to reveal perturbations of the pinning energetics for propagating domain walls. Numerical simulations in the high damping ’quasi-static’ and low damping ’dynamic’ regimes are compared and show clear differences in de-pinning fields, indicating that dynamical micromagnetic models, which incorporate precessionally limited magnetization processes, are needed to understand domain wall pinning. Differences in the micromagnetic domain wall structure strongly influence the pinning and show periodic behaviour with increasing applied field associated with Walker breakdown. In the propagating regime pinning is complicated. PMID:27694953

  5. Effective pinning energy landscape perturbations for propagating magnetic domain walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burn, D. M.; Atkinson, D.

    2016-10-01

    The interaction between a magnetic domain wall and a pinning site is explored in a planar nanowire using micromagnetics to reveal perturbations of the pinning energetics for propagating domain walls. Numerical simulations in the high damping ’quasi-static’ and low damping ’dynamic’ regimes are compared and show clear differences in de-pinning fields, indicating that dynamical micromagnetic models, which incorporate precessionally limited magnetization processes, are needed to understand domain wall pinning. Differences in the micromagnetic domain wall structure strongly influence the pinning and show periodic behaviour with increasing applied field associated with Walker breakdown. In the propagating regime pinning is complicated.

  6. Flows in Pinned Arrays Simulating Brush Seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, R.C.; Kudriavtsev, V. V.; Braun, M. J.; Athavale, M. M.

    1996-01-01

    Flows through idealized pin arrays were investigated using an unstructured grid finite difference model and the simplified Ergun model to predict leakage flows and pressure drops in brush seals. The models are in good agreement in the laminar region with departures in the laminar-turbulent transition region defined by the simplified Ergun model. No local disturbances in the velocity or pressure fields, symptomatic of turbulence were found in the numerical results. The simplified model failed to predict the pressure drop of a 32-pin anisotropic array. Transitional and anisotropic behavior requires

  7. Self-Pinning on a Liquid Surface.

    PubMed

    Antoine, C; Irvoas, J; Schwarzenberger, K; Eckert, K; Wodlei, F; Pimienta, V

    2016-02-01

    We report on the first experimental evidence of a self-pinning liquid drop on a liquid surface. This particular regime is observed for a miscible heavier oil drop (dichloromethane) deposited on an aqueous solution laden by an ionic surfactant (hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide). Experimental characterization of the drop shape evolution coupled to particle image velocimetry points to the correlation between the drop profile and the accompanying flow field. A simple model shows that the observed pinned stage is the result of a subtle competition between oil dissolution and surfactant adsorption.

  8. Lysine63-linked ubiquitylation of PIN2 auxin carrier protein governs hormonally controlled adaptation of Arabidopsis root growth.

    PubMed

    Leitner, Johannes; Petrášek, Jan; Tomanov, Konstantin; Retzer, Katarzyna; Pařezová, Markéta; Korbei, Barbara; Bachmair, Andreas; Zažímalová, Eva; Luschnig, Christian

    2012-05-22

    Cross-talk between plant cells and their surroundings requires tight regulation of information exchange at the plasma membrane (PM), which involves dynamic adjustments of PM protein localization and turnover to modulate signal perception and solute transport at the interface between cells and their surroundings. In animals and fungi, turnover of PM proteins is controlled by reversible ubiquitylation, which signals endocytosis and delivery to the cell's lytic compartment, and there is emerging evidence for related mechanisms in plants. Here, we describe the fate of Arabidopsis PIN2 protein, required for directional cellular efflux of the phytohormone auxin, and identify cis- and trans-acting mediators of PIN2 ubiquitylation. We demonstrate that ubiquitin acts as a principal signal for PM protein endocytosis in plants and reveal dynamic adjustments in PIN2 ubiquitylation coinciding with variations in vacuolar targeting and proteolytic turnover. We show that control of PIN2 proteolytic turnover via its ubiquitylation status is of significant importance for auxin distribution in root meristems and for environmentally controlled adaptations of root growth. Moreover, we provide experimental evidence indicating that PIN2 vacuolar sorting depends on modification specifically by lysine(63)-linked ubiquitin chains. Collectively, our results establish lysine(63)-linked PM cargo ubiquitylation as a regulator of polar auxin transport and adaptive growth responses in higher plants.

  9. Vortex pinning properties in Fe-chalcogenides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leo, A.; Grimaldi, G.; Guarino, A.; Avitabile, F.; Nigro, A.; Galluzzi, A.; Mancusi, D.; Polichetti, M.; Pace, S.; Buchkov, K.; Nazarova, E.; Kawale, S.; Bellingeri, E.; Ferdeghini, C.

    2015-12-01

    Among the families of iron-based superconductors, the 11-family is one of the most attractive for high field applications at low temperatures. Optimization of the fabrication processes for bulk, crystalline and/or thin film samples is the first step in producing wires and/or tapes for practical high power conductors. Here we present the results of a comparative study of pinning properties in iron-chalcogenides, investigating the flux pinning mechanisms in optimized Fe(Se{}1-xTe x ) and FeSe samples by current-voltage characterization, magneto-resistance and magnetization measurements. In particular, from Arrhenius plots in magnetic fields up to 9 T, the activation energy is derived as a function of the magnetic field, {U}0(H), whereas the activation energy as a function of temperature, U(T), is derived from relaxation magnetization curves. The high pinning energies, high upper critical field versus temperature slopes near critical temperatures, and highly isotropic pinning properties make iron-chalcogenide superconductors a technological material which could be a real competitor to cuprate high temperature superconductors for high field applications.

  10. Rotary pin-in-maze discriminator

    DOEpatents

    Benavides, Gilbert L.

    1997-01-01

    A discriminator apparatus and method that discriminates between a unique signal and any other (incorrect) signal. The unique signal is a sequence of events; each event can assume one of two possible event states. Given the unique signal, a maze wheel is allowed to rotate fully in one direction. Given an incorrect signal, both the maze wheel and a pin wheel lock in position.

  11. 49 CFR 230.97 - Crank pins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Crank pins. 230.97 Section 230.97 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Steam Locomotives and Tenders Driving...

  12. Valve for fuel pin loading system

    DOEpatents

    Christiansen, D.W.

    1984-01-01

    A cyclone valve surrounds a wall opening through which cladding is projected. An axial valve inlet surrounds the cladding. Air is drawn through the inlet by a cyclone stream within the valve. An inflatable seal is included to physically engage a fuel pin subassembly during loading of fuel pellets.

  13. Timing analysis of PWR fuel pin failures

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, K.R.; Wade, N.L.; Katsma, K.R.; Siefken, L.J. ); Straka, M. )

    1992-09-01

    This report discusses research conducted to develop and demonstrate a methodology for calculation of the time interval between receipt of the containment isolation signals and the first fuel pin failure for loss-of-coolant accidents (LOCAs). Demonstration calculations were performed for a Babcock and Wilcox (B W) design (Oconee) and a Westinghouse (W) four-loop design (Seabrook). Sensitivity studies were performed to assess the impacts of fuel pin burnup, axial peaking factor, break size, emergency core cooling system availability, and main coolant pump trip on these times. The analysis was performed using the following codes: FRAPCON-2, for the calculation of steady-state fuel behavior; SCDAP/RELAP5/MOD3 and TRACPF1/MOD1, for the calculation of the transient thermal-hydraulic conditions in the reactor system; and FRAP-T6, for the calculation of transient fuel behavior. In addition to the calculation of fuel pin failure timing, this analysis provides a comparison of the predicted results of SCDAP/RELAP5/MOD3 and TRAC-PF1/MOD1 for large-break LOCA analysis. Using SCDAP/RELAP5/MOD3 thermal-hydraulic data, the shortest time intervals calculated between initiation of containment isolation and fuel pin failure are 10.4 seconds and 19.1 seconds for the B W and W plants, respectively. Using data generated by TRAC-PF1/MOD1, the shortest intervals are 10.3 seconds and 29.1 seconds for the B W and W plants, respectively. These intervals are for a double-ended, offset-shear, cold leg break, using the technical specification maximum peaking factor and applied to fuel with maximum design burnup. Using peaking factors commensurate with actual burnups would result in longer intervals for both reactor designs. This document provides appendices K and L of this report which provide plots for the timing analysis of PWR fuel pin failures for Oconee and Seabrook respectively.

  14. Design of an adjustable polarization-independent and wideband electromagnetic absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yun; Jiang, Jianjun; Chen, Mi; Li, Shicai; Miao, Ling; Bie, Shaowei

    2016-03-01

    An adjustable polarization-independent electromagnetic absorber based on a frequency-selective surface is proposed for both C and X microwave-band applications. The design using a symmetric fan-shaped pattern significantly reduces the sensitivity to different polarizations of normal incident microwaves. To achieve adjustability, PIN diodes are connected between patterned unit cells. By incorporating inductors into the metal patterns, an S-shaped series bias provides the bias voltage to PIN diodes. By tuning the working states of the diodes, an adjustable absorption performance from 4.6 to 13 GHz is achieved for both transverse electric and transverse magnetic polarizations in normal incidence.

  15. Auxin transport through PIN-FORMED 3 (PIN3) controls shade avoidance and fitness during competition.

    PubMed

    Keuskamp, Diederik H; Pollmann, Stephan; Voesenek, Laurentius A C J; Peeters, Anton J M; Pierik, Ronald

    2010-12-28

    Plants grow in dense vegetations at the risk of being out-competed by neighbors. To increase their competitive power, plants display adaptive responses, such as rapid shoot elongation (shade avoidance) to consolidate light capture. These responses are induced upon detection of proximate neighbors through perception of the reduced ratio between red (R) and far-red (FR) light that is typical for dense vegetations. The plant hormone auxin is a central regulator of plant development and plasticity, but until now it has been unknown how auxin transport is controlled to regulate shade-avoidance responses. Here, we show that low R:FR detection changes the cellular location of the PIN-FORMED 3 (PIN3) protein, a regulator of auxin efflux, in Arabidopsis seedlings. As a result, auxin levels in the elongating hypocotyls are increased under low R:FR. Seedlings of the pin3-3 mutant lack this low R:FR-induced increase of endogenous auxin in the hypocotyl and, accordingly, have no elongation response to low R:FR. We hypothesize that low R:FR-induced stimulation of auxin biosynthesis drives the regulation of PIN3, thus allowing shade avoidance to occur. The adaptive significance of PIN3-mediated control of shade-avoidance is shown in plant competition studies. It was found that pin3 mutants are outcompeted by wild-type neighbors who suppress fitness of pin3-3 by 40%. We conclude that low R:FR modulates the auxin distribution by a change in the cellular location of PIN3, and that this control can be of great importance for plants growing in dense vegetations.

  16. Effects of Pin Detached Space on Heat Transfer and Pin-Fin Arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Siw, Sin C.; Chyu, Minking K.; Shih, Tom I-P.; Alvin, Mary Anne

    2012-08-01

    Heat transfer and pressure characteristics in a rectangular channel with pin-fin arrays of partial detachment from one of the endwalls have been experimentally studied. The overall channel geometry (W = 76.2 mm, E = 25.4 mm) simulates an internal cooling passage of wide aspect ratio (3:1) in a gas turbine airfoil. With a given pin diameter, D = 6.35 mm = ¼E, three different pin-fin height-to-diameter ratios, H/D = 4, 3, and 2, were examined. Each of these three cases corresponds to a specific pin array geometry of detachment spacing (C) between the pin tip and one of the endwalls, i.e., C/D = 0, 1, 2, respectively. The Reynolds number, based on the hydraulic diameter of the unobstructed cross-section and the mean bulk velocity, ranges from 10,000 to 25,000. The experiment employs a hybrid technique based on transient liquid crystal imaging to obtain the distributions of the local heat transfer coefficient over all of the participating surfaces, including the endwalls and all the pin elements. Experimental results reveal that the presence of a detached space between the pin tip and the endwall has a significant effect on the convective heat transfer and pressure loss in the channel. The presence of pin-to-endwall spacing promotes wall-flow interaction, generates additional separated shear layers, and augments turbulent transport. In general, an increase in detached spacing, or C/D, leads to lower heat transfer enhancement and pressure drop. However, C/D = 1, i.e., H/D = 3, of a staggered array configuration exhibits the highest heat transfer enhancement, followed by the cases of C/D = 0 and C/D = 2, i.e., H/D = 4 or 2, respectively.

  17. Experimental results and wear predictions of petal tools that freely rotate.

    PubMed

    Cordero-Dávila, Alberto; Cabrera-Peláez, Víctor; Cuautle-Cortés, Jorge; González-García, Jorge; Robledo-Sánchez, Carlos; Bautista-Elivar, Nazario

    2005-03-10

    It is difficult to calculate the wear produced by free-pinned tools because their angular movement is not entirely predictable. We analyze the wear produced with free-pinned ring tools, using both simulations and experiments. We conclude that the wear of an incomplete ring is directly proportional to the ring's angular size, independently of the mean radius of the ring. We present an algorithm for calculation of the wear produced by free-pinned petal tools, as they can be considered a linear combination of incomplete free-pinned ring tools. Finally, we apply this result to the enhancement of a defective flat surface and to making a concave spheric surface.

  18. 18. SHEAR PIN, UNIT 24 GORGE POWERHOUSE. THE WICKET GATES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. SHEAR PIN, UNIT 24 GORGE POWERHOUSE. THE WICKET GATES ON THE TURBINE ARE EACH EQUIPPED WITH A SHEAR PIN AND OIL PRESSURE GAUGE. IF A GATE JAMS, THE PIN SMEARS AND THE CHANGE IN OIL PRESSURE TRIGGERS AN ALARM, 1989. - Skagit Power Development, Gorge Powerhouse, On Skagit River, 0.4 mile upstream from Newhalem, Newhalem, Whatcom County, WA

  19. Pinning Control Strategies for Synchronization of Linearly Coupled Neural Networks With Reaction-Diffusion Terms.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jin-Liang; Wu, Huai-Ning; Huang, Tingwen; Ren, Shun-Yan

    2016-04-01

    Two types of coupled neural networks with reaction-diffusion terms are considered in this paper. In the first one, the nodes are coupled through their states. In the second one, the nodes are coupled through the spatial diffusion terms. For the former, utilizing Lyapunov functional method and pinning control technique, we obtain some sufficient conditions to guarantee that network can realize synchronization. In addition, considering that the theoretical coupling strength required for synchronization may be much larger than the needed value, we propose an adaptive strategy to adjust the coupling strength for achieving a suitable value. For the latter, we establish a criterion for synchronization using the designed pinning controllers. It is found that the coupled reaction-diffusion neural networks with state coupling under the given linear feedback pinning controllers can realize synchronization when the coupling strength is very large, which is contrary to the coupled reaction-diffusion neural networks with spatial diffusion coupling. Moreover, a general criterion for ensuring network synchronization is derived by pinning a small fraction of nodes with adaptive feedback controllers. Finally, two examples with numerical simulations are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the theoretical results.

  20. Effects of mesh density and flow conditioning in simulating 7-pin wire wrapped fuel pins.

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J. G.; Babin, B. R.; Pointer, W. D.; Fischer, P. F.

    2008-01-01

    In response to the goals outlined by the U.S. Department of Energy's Global Nuclear Energy Partnership program, Argonne National Laboratory has initiated an effort to create an integrated multi-physics multi-resolution thermal hydraulic simulation tool package for the evaluation of nuclear power plant design and safety. As part of this effort, the applicability of a variety of thermal hydraulic analysis methods for the prediction of heat transfer and fluid dynamics in the wire-wrapped fuel-rod bundles found in a fast reactor core is being evaluated. The work described herein provides an initial assessment of the capabilities of the general purpose commercial computational fluid dynamics code Star-CD for the prediction of fluid dynamic characteristics in a wire wrapped fast reactor fuel assembly. A 7-pin wire wrapped fuel rod assembly based on the dimensions of fuel elements in the concept Advanced Burner Test Reactor [1] was simulated for different mesh densities and domain configurations. A model considering a single axial span of the wire wrapped fuel assembly was initially used to assess mesh resolution effects. The influence of the inflow/outflow boundary conditions on the predicted flow fields in the single-span model were then investigated through comparisons with the central span region of models which included 3 and 5 spans. The change in grid refinement had minimal impact on the inter-channel exchange within the assembly resulting in roughly a 5 percent maximum difference. The central span of the 3-span and 5-span cases exhibits much higher velocities than the single span case,, with the largest deviation (15 to 20 percent) occurring furthest away from the wire spacer grids in the higher velocity regions. However, the differences between predicted flow fields in the 3-span and 5-span models are minimal.

  1. A Biomechanical Comparison Of Pin Configurations Used For Percutaneous Pinning Of Distal Tibia Fractures In Children

    PubMed Central

    Brantley, Justin; Majumdar, Aditi; Jobe, J. Taylor; Kallur, Antony; Salas, Christina

    2016-01-01

    Background Percutaneous pin fixation is often used in conjunction with closed-reduction and cast immobilization to treat pediatric distal tibia fractures. The goal of this procedure is to maintain reduction and provide improved stabilization, in effort to facilitate a more anatomic union. We conducted a biomechanical study of the torsional and bending stability of three commonly used pin configurations in distal tibia fracture fixation. Methods A transverse fracture was simulated at the metaphyseal/diaphyseal junction in 15 synthetic tibias. Each fracture was reduced and fixed with two Kirschner wires, arranged in one of three pin configurations: parallel, retrograde, medial to lateral pins entering at the medial malleolus distal to the fracture (group A); parallel, antegrade, medial to lateral pins entering at the medial diaphysis proximal to the fracture (group B); or a cross-pin configuration with one retrograde, medial to lateral pin entering the medial malleolus distal to the fracture and the second an antegrade, medial to lateral pin entering at the medial diaphysis proximal to the fracture (group C). Stability of each construct was assessed by resistance to torsion and bending. Results Resistance to external rotation stress was significantly higher in group A than group B (P = 0.044). Resistance to internal rotation stress was significantly higher in group C than group B (P = 0.003). There was no significant difference in torsional stiffness when comparing group A with group C. Under a medial-directed load, group B and C specimens were significantly stiffer than those in group A (28 N/mm and 24 N/mm vs. 14 N/mm for A; P = 0.001 and P = 0.009, respectively) Conclusions None of the three pin configurations produced superior results with respect to all variables studied. Group A configuration provided the highest resistance to external rotation forces, which is the most clinically relevant variable under short-cast immobilization. Parallel, retrograde, medial

  2. Characterization of superconductors with artificial pinning microstructures

    SciTech Connect

    Dietderich, D.R.; Scanlan, R.M.

    1994-10-01

    Extension of the APC approach to Nb{sub 3}Sn requires that a second phase be introduced into the Nb{sub 3}S reaction layer with the intent of increasing the volume pinning strength. This can be achieved by either the refinement of the Nb{sub 3}S grains due to the presence of a second phase or by the second phase itself pinning flux. If a bronze-type process is to be used a different addition than Zr is required since internal oxidation of Nb is not possible. The criteria for elements to be candidates for the APC approach are discussed. The results for one of the candidates (Ag) show that it is not incorporated into the Nb{sub 3}S, however, its addition did increase the growth rate.

  3. Dynamics of rotating superfluid systems with pinning

    SciTech Connect

    Sedrakyan, A.D.; Sedrakyan, D.M.

    1995-08-01

    Equations describing the dynamics of motion of superfluid systems with pinning are derived, and analytical solutions of these equations are established for the case where the difference between the angular velocities of the superfluid and normal components is small. The solutions can be used to explain the time-dependent behavior of the angular velocity of the Vela pulsar. It is shown that vortex pinning in the period between two consecutive jumps in the pulsar angular velocity can redistribute the vortex number density so as to produce both the observed jump and the after-jump relaxation of the pulsar. For one thing, the formulas obtained are shown to provide an explanation of the 1988 Christmas discontinuity in the angular velocity of the Vela pulsar. 8 refs.

  4. Scroll waves pinned to moving heterogeneities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ke, Hua; Zhang, Zhihui; Steinbock, Oliver

    2015-03-01

    Three-dimensional excitable systems can self-organize vortex patterns that rotate around one-dimensional phase singularities called filaments. In experiments with the Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction and numerical simulations, we pin these scroll waves to translating inert cylinders and demonstrate the controlled repositioning of their rotation centers. If the pinning site extends only along a portion of the filament, the phase singularity is stretched out along the trajectory of the heterogeneity, which effectively writes the singularity into the system. Its trailing end point follows the heterogeneity with a lower velocity. This velocity, its dependence on the placement of the anchor, and the shape of the filament are explained by a curvature flow model.

  5. Fabrication of NRD-guide PIN switch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serizawa, Y.; Nishida, S.; Yoneyama, T.

    1986-04-01

    A novel type of NRD-guide PIN switch is developed for millimeter wave use. An emphasis is placed on the design of a compact, rigid and reliable diode mount structure. The fabricated switch exhibits 1.5 to 2.0 dB insertion loss and more than 25 dB isolation over 2 GHz bandwidth at center frequency of 35 GHz.

  6. Rotary pin-in-maze discriminator

    DOEpatents

    Benavides, G.L.

    1997-05-06

    A discriminator apparatus and method that discriminates between a unique signal and any other (incorrect) signal are disclosed. The unique signal is a sequence of events; each event can assume one of two possible event states. Given the unique signal, a maze wheel is allowed to rotate fully in one direction. Given an incorrect signal, both the maze wheel and a pin wheel lock in position. 4 figs.

  7. Timing analysis of PWR fuel pin failures

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, K.R.; Wade, N.L.; Katsma, K.R.; Siefken, L.J. ); Straka, M. )

    1992-09-01

    Research has been conducted to develop and demonstrate a methodology for calculation of the time interval between receipt of the containment isolation signals and the first fuel pin failure for loss-of-coolant accidents (LOCAs). Demonstration calculations were performed for a Babcock and Wilcox (B W) design (Oconee) and a Westinghouse (W) four-loop design (Seabrook). Sensitivity studies were performed to assess the impacts of fuel pin bumup, axial peaking factor, break size, emergency core cooling system availability, and main coolant pump trip on these times. The analysis was performed using the following codes: FRAPCON-2, for the calculation of steady-state fuel behavior; SCDAP/RELAP5/MOD3 and TRACPF1/MOD1, for the calculation of the transient thermal-hydraulic conditions in the reactor system; and FRAP-T6, for the calculation of transient fuel behavior. In addition to the calculation of fuel pin failure timing, this analysis provides a comparison of the predicted results of SCDAP/RELAP5/MOD3 and TRAC-PFL/MOD1 for large-break LOCA analysis. Using SCDAP/RELAP5/MOD3 thermal-hydraulic data, the shortest time intervals calculated between initiation of containment isolation and fuel pin failure are 10.4 seconds and 19.1 seconds for the B W and W plants, respectively. Using data generated by TRAC-PF1/MOD1, the shortest intervals are 10.3 seconds and 29.1 seconds for the B W and W plants, respectively. These intervals are for a double-ended, offset-shear, cold leg break, using the technical specification maximum peaking factor and applied to fuel with maximum design bumup. Using peaking factors commensurate widi actual bumups would result in longer intervals for both reactor designs. This document also contains appendices A through J of this report.

  8. Recording dowel pin position with plastic logs.

    PubMed

    Titus, H W; Draheim, R N

    1986-01-01

    Six readily available plastic materials were evaluated for use as a log for locating the ends of die dowel pins. Seven criteria were divided into two main categories of adherence qualities of the material and useability. Cost was the third category evaluated and compared. Color and availability were also considered. Forty-two sophomore dental students accomplished 84 evaluations. Plasticine and Weatherstrip Caulking Cord were found to meet all criteria best. PMID:3511239

  9. Channelized coplanar waveguide pin-diode switches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ponchak, G. E.; Simons, R. N.

    1989-01-01

    Three different types of p-i-n diode, reflective CPW switches are presented. The first two switches are the series and the shunt mounted diode switches. Each has achieved greater than 15 dB of isolation over a broad bandwidth. The third switch is a narrow band, high isolation switched filter which has achieved 19 dB of isolation. Equivalent circuits and measured performance for each switch is presented.

  10. Performance measurements of hybrid PIN diode arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Jernigan, J.G.; Arens, J.F. . Space Sciences Lab.); Kramer, G. ); Collins, T.; Herring, J. ); Shapiro, S.L. ); Wilburn, C.D. )

    1990-05-01

    We report on the successful effort to develop hybrid PIN diode arrays and to demonstrate their potential as components of vertex detectors. Hybrid pixel arrays have been fabricated by the Hughes Aircraft Co. by bump bonding readout chips developed by Hughes to an array of PIN diodes manufactured by Micron Semiconductor Inc. These hybrid pixel arrays were constructed in two configurations. One array format having 10 {times} 64 pixels, each 120 {mu}m square, and the other format having 256 {times} 256 pixels, each 30 {mu}m square. In both cases, the thickness of the PIN diode layer is 300 {mu}m. Measurements of detector performance show that excellent position resolution can be achieved by interpolation. By determining the centroid of the charge cloud which spreads charge into a number of neighboring pixels, a spatial resolution of a few microns has been attained. The noise has been measured to be about 300 electrons (rms) at room temperature, as expected from KTC and dark current considerations, yielding a signal-to-noise ratio of about 100 for minimum ionizing particles. 4 refs., 13 figs.

  11. "CLASPing" tungsten's effects on microtubules with "PINs".

    PubMed

    Adamakis, Ioannis Dimosthenis S; Panteris, Emmanuel; Eleftheriou, Eleftherios P

    2015-01-01

    Tungsten, supplied as sodium tungstate, inhibits root elongation in Arabidopsis thaliana, which has been attributed to a diminishing of PIN2 and PIN3 auxin efflux carriers. In this work, we sought to analyze the effect of tungsten on cortical microtubules and CLASP (Cytoplasmic Linker Associated Protein), which are also involved in the anisotropic cell expansion of root cells. Seedlings grown in a tungsten-free substrate for 4 d and then transplanted into a tungsten-containing substrate exhibited randomly oriented microtubules in a time-dependent manner. While tungsten had no effect on roots treated for 3 h, microtubule alignment was obviously affected in the transition and elongation zones after a 6, 12, 24, 48 h tungsten treatment, at prolonged tungsten administrations and in seedlings grown directly in the presence of tungsten. This change in microtubule orientation may be associated with the reduction of CLASP protein expression induced by tungsten, as evidenced in experiments with plants expressing the CLASP-GFP protein. A possible mechanism, by which the coordinated functions of CLASP, PIN2 and microtubules are affected, as revealed by inhibited root growth, is discussed. PMID:26313814

  12. Gravitropism of Arabidopsis thaliana Roots Requires the Polarization of PIN2 toward the Root Tip in Meristematic Cortical Cells[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Abidur; Takahashi, Maho; Shibasaki, Kyohei; Wu, Shuang; Inaba, Takehito; Tsurumi, Seiji; Baskin, Tobias I.

    2010-01-01

    In the root, the transport of auxin from the tip to the elongation zone, referred to here as shootward, governs gravitropic bending. Shootward polar auxin transport, and hence gravitropism, depends on the polar deployment of the PIN-FORMED auxin efflux carrier PIN2. In Arabidopsis thaliana, PIN2 has the expected shootward localization in epidermis and lateral root cap; however, this carrier is localized toward the root tip (rootward) in cortical cells of the meristem, a deployment whose function is enigmatic. We use pharmacological and genetic tools to cause a shootward relocation of PIN2 in meristematic cortical cells without detectably altering PIN2 polarization in other cell types or PIN1 polarization. This relocation of cortical PIN2 was negatively regulated by the membrane trafficking factor GNOM and by the regulatory A1 subunit of type 2-A protein phosphatase (PP2AA1) but did not require the PINOID protein kinase. When GNOM was inhibited, PINOID abundance increased and PP2AA1 was partially immobilized, indicating both proteins are subject to GNOM-dependent regulation. Shootward PIN2 specifically in the cortex was accompanied by enhanced shootward polar auxin transport and by diminished gravitropism. These results demonstrate that auxin flow in the root cortex is important for optimal gravitropic response. PMID:20562236

  13. Sorting signals for PIN1 trafficking and localization.

    PubMed

    Marcote, María Jesús; Sancho-Andrés, Gloria; Soriano-Ortega, Esther; Aniento, Fernando

    2016-08-01

    PIN-FORMED (PIN) family proteins direct polar auxin transport based on their asymmetric (polar) localization at the plasma membrane. In the case of PIN1, it mainly localizes to the basal (rootward) plasma membrane domain of stele cells in root meristems. Vesicular trafficking events, such as clathrin-dependent PIN1 endocytosis and polar recycling, are probably the main determinants for PIN1 polar localization. However, very little is known about the signals which may be involved in binding the μ-adaptin subunit of clathrin adaptor complexes (APs) for sorting of PIN1 within clathrin-coated vesicles, which can determine its trafficking and localization. We have performed a systematic mutagenesis analysis to investigate putative sorting motifs in the hydrophilic loop of PIN1. We have found that a non-canonical motif, based in a phenylalanine residue, through the binding of μA(μ2)- and μD(μ3)-adaptin, is important for PIN1 endocytosis and for PIN1 traffcking along the secretory pathway, respectively. In addition, tyrosine-based motifs, which also bind different μ-adaptins, could also contribute to PIN1 trafficking and localization. PMID:27603315

  14. Landscape of Pin1 in the cell cycle

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Cheng-Han; Li, Hao-Yi; Lee, Yu-Cheng; Calkins, Marcus J; Lee, Kuen-Haur

    2015-01-01

    Pin1 is a peptidyl-prolyl isomerase which plays a critical role in many diseases including cancer and Alzheimer's disease. The essential role of Pin1 is to affect stability, localization or function of phosphoproteins by catalyzing structural changes. Among the collection of Pin1 substrates, many have been shown to be involved in regulating cell cycle progression. The cell cycle disorder caused by dysregulation of these substrates is believed to be a common phenomenon in cancer. A number of recent studies have revealed possible functions of several important Pin1-binding cell cycle regulators. Investigating the involvement of Pin1 in the cell cycle may assist in the development of future cancer therapeutics. In this review, we summarize current knowledge regarding the network of Pin1 substrates and Pin1 regulators in cell cycle progression. In G1/S progression, cyclin D1, RB, p53, p27, and cyclin E are all well-known cell cycle regulators that are modulated by Pin1. During G2/M transition, our lab has shown that Aurora A suppresses Pin1 activity through phosphorylation at Ser16 and cooperates with hBora to modulate G2/M transition. We conclude that Pin1 may be thought of as a molecular timer which modulates cell cycle progression networks. PMID:25662955

  15. Pinning-Depinning Mechanism of the Contact Line during Evaporation on Chemically Patterned Surfaces: A Lattice Boltzmann Study.

    PubMed

    Li, Qing; Zhou, P; Yan, H J

    2016-09-20

    In this paper, the pinning and depinning mechanism of the contact line during droplet evaporation on chemically stripe-patterned surfaces is numerically investigated using a thermal multiphase lattice Boltzmann (LB) model with liquid-vapor phase change. A local force balance in the context of diffuse interfaces is introduced to explain the equilibrium states of droplets on chemically patterned surfaces. It is shown that when the contact line is pinned on a hydrophobic-hydrophilic boundary, different contact angles can be interpreted as the variation of the length of the contact line occupied by each component. The stick-slip-jump behavior of evaporating droplets on chemically patterned surfaces is well captured by the LB simulations. Particularly, a slow movement of the contact line is clearly observed during the stick (pinning) mode, which shows that the pinning of the contact line during droplet evaporation on chemically stripe-patterned surfaces is actually a dynamic pinning process and the dynamic equilibrium is achieved by the self-adjustment of the contact lines occupied by each component. Moreover, it is shown that when the surface tension varies with the temperature, the Marangoni effect has an important influence on the depinning of the contact line, which occurs when the horizontal component (toward the center of the droplet) of the force caused by the Marangoni stress overcomes the unbalanced Young's force toward the outside.

  16. Pinning-Depinning Mechanism of the Contact Line during Evaporation on Chemically Patterned Surfaces: A Lattice Boltzmann Study.

    PubMed

    Li, Qing; Zhou, P; Yan, H J

    2016-09-20

    In this paper, the pinning and depinning mechanism of the contact line during droplet evaporation on chemically stripe-patterned surfaces is numerically investigated using a thermal multiphase lattice Boltzmann (LB) model with liquid-vapor phase change. A local force balance in the context of diffuse interfaces is introduced to explain the equilibrium states of droplets on chemically patterned surfaces. It is shown that when the contact line is pinned on a hydrophobic-hydrophilic boundary, different contact angles can be interpreted as the variation of the length of the contact line occupied by each component. The stick-slip-jump behavior of evaporating droplets on chemically patterned surfaces is well captured by the LB simulations. Particularly, a slow movement of the contact line is clearly observed during the stick (pinning) mode, which shows that the pinning of the contact line during droplet evaporation on chemically stripe-patterned surfaces is actually a dynamic pinning process and the dynamic equilibrium is achieved by the self-adjustment of the contact lines occupied by each component. Moreover, it is shown that when the surface tension varies with the temperature, the Marangoni effect has an important influence on the depinning of the contact line, which occurs when the horizontal component (toward the center of the droplet) of the force caused by the Marangoni stress overcomes the unbalanced Young's force toward the outside. PMID:27579557

  17. Article mounting and position adjustment stage

    DOEpatents

    Cutburth, R.W.; Silva, L.L.

    1988-05-10

    An improved adjustment and mounting stage of the type used for the detection of laser beams is disclosed. A ring sensor holder has locating pins on a first side thereof which are positioned within a linear keyway in a surrounding housing for permitting reciprocal movement of the ring along the keyway. A rotatable ring gear is positioned within the housing on the other side of the ring from the linear keyway and includes an oval keyway which drives the ring along the linear keyway upon rotation of the gear. Motor-driven single-stage and dual (x, y) stage adjustment systems are disclosed which are of compact construction and include a large laser transmission hole. 6 figs.

  18. Article mounting and position adjustment stage

    DOEpatents

    Cutburth, Ronald W.; Silva, Leonard L.

    1988-01-01

    An improved adjustment and mounting stage of the type used for the detection of laser beams is disclosed. A ring sensor holder has locating pins on a first side thereof which are positioned within a linear keyway in a surrounding housing for permitting reciprocal movement of the ring along the keyway. A rotatable ring gear is positioned within the housing on the other side of the ring from the linear keyway and includes an oval keyway which drives the ring along the linear keyway upon rotation of the gear. Motor-driven single-stage and dual (x, y) stage adjustment systems are disclosed which are of compact construction and include a large laser transmission hole.

  19. Contact stresses in pin-loaded orthotropic plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyer, M. W.; Klang, E. C.

    1984-01-01

    The effects of pin elasticity, friction, and clearance on the stresses near the hole in a pin-loaded orthotropic plate are described. The problem is modeled as a contact elasticity problem using complex variable theory, the pin and the plate being two elastic bodies interacting through contact. This modeling is in contrast to previous works which assumed that the pin is rigid or that it exerts a known cosinusoidal radial traction on the hole boundary. Neither of these approaches explicitly involves a pin. A collocation procedure and iteration were used to obtain numerical results for a variety of plate and pin elastic properties and various levels of friction and clearance. Collocation was used to enforce the boundary and iteration was used to find the contact and no-slip regions on the boundary. Details of the numerical scheme are discussed.

  20. A mechanism to pin skyrmions in chiral magnets.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ye-Hua; Li, You-Quan

    2013-02-20

    We propose a mechanism to pin skyrmions in chiral magnetic thin films by introducing local maxima of magnetic exchange strength as pinning centers. The local maxima can be realized by engineering the local density of itinerant electrons. The stationary properties and the dynamical pinning and depinning processes of an isolated skyrmion around a pinning center are studied. We carry out numerical simulations of the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert (LLG) equation and find a way to control the position of an isolated skyrmion in a pinning center lattice using electric current pulses. The results are verified by a Thiele equation analysis. We also find that the critical current to depin a skyrmion, which is estimated to have order of magnitude 10(7)-10(8) A m(-2), has linear dependence on the pinning strength.

  1. Semiconducting glasses with flux pinning inclusions

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, William L.; Poon, Siu-Joe; Duwez, Pol E.

    1981-01-01

    A series of amorphous superconducting glassy alloys containing 1% to 10% by volume of flux pinning crystalline inclusions have been found to have potentially useful properties as high field superconducting magnet materials. The alloys are prepared by splat cooling by the piston and anvil technique. The alloys have the composition (TM).sub.90-70 (M).sub.10-30 where TM is a transition metal selected from at least one metal of Groups IVB, VB, VIB, VIIB or VIIIB of the Periodic Table such as Nb, Mo, Ru, Zr, Ta, W or Re and M is at least one metalloid such as B, P, C, N, Si, Ge or Al.

  2. Pinning synchronization of discrete dynamical networks with delay coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Ranran; Peng, Mingshu; Zuo, Jun

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the pinning synchronization analysis for nonlinear coupled delayed discrete dynamical networks with the identical or nonidentical topological structure. Based on the Lyapunov stability theory, pinning control method and linear matrix inequalities, several adaptive synchronization criteria via two kinds of pinning control method are obtained. Two examples based on Rulkov chaotic system are included to illustrate the effectiveness and verification of theoretical analysis.

  3. Retractable pin dual in-line package test clip

    DOEpatents

    Bandzuch, Gregory S.; Kosslow, William J.

    1996-01-01

    This invention is a Dual In-Line Package (DIP) test clip for use when troubleshooting circuits containing DIP integrated circuits. This test clip is a significant improvement over existing DIP test clips in that it has retractable pins which will permit troubleshooting without risk of accidentally shorting adjacent pins together when moving probes to different pins on energized circuits or when the probe is accidentally bumped while taking measurements.

  4. Retractable pin dual in-line package test clip

    SciTech Connect

    Bandzuch, G.S.; Kosslow, W.J

    1993-12-31

    This invention is a Dual In-line Package (DIP) test clip for use when troubleshooting circuits containing DIP integrated circuits. This test clip is a significant improvement over existing DIP test clips in that it has retractable pins which will permit troubleshooting without risk of accidentally shorting adjacent pins together when moving probes to different pins on energized circuits or when the probe is accidentally bumped while taking measurements.

  5. Development of 3D pseudo pin-by-pin calculation methodology in ANC

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, B.; Mayhue, L.; Huria, H.; Ivanov, B.

    2012-07-01

    Advanced cores and fuel assembly designs have been developed to improve operational flexibility, economic performance and further enhance safety features of nuclear power plants. The simulation of these new designs, along with strong heterogeneous fuel loading, have brought new challenges to the reactor physics methodologies currently employed in the industrial codes for core analyses. Control rod insertion during normal operation is one operational feature in the AP1000{sup R} plant of Westinghouse next generation Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) design. This design improves its operational flexibility and efficiency but significantly challenges the conventional reactor physics methods, especially in pin power calculations. The mixture loading of fuel assemblies with significant neutron spectrums causes a strong interaction between different fuel assembly types that is not fully captured with the current core design codes. To overcome the weaknesses of the conventional methods, Westinghouse has developed a state-of-the-art 3D Pin-by-Pin Calculation Methodology (P3C) and successfully implemented in the Westinghouse core design code ANC. The new methodology has been qualified and licensed for pin power prediction. The 3D P3C methodology along with its application and validation will be discussed in the paper. (authors)

  6. The Scaling Rule and Fluxon Core Pinning in a High-Field Superconductor with Artificially Introduced Pins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooley, Lance David

    Flux pinning affects virtually every aspect of high-field superconductivity. Its fundamental mechanism(s) are in principle derived from a complicated theory, but are in practice generally accessed through measuring the field dependence of the bulk flux pinning force (F _{p}(B)). The central piece of information is the shape of the F_{p }(B) curve: It is generally accepted that if, and only if, the curve's shape is constant while the temperature or pin dimension changes, one pinning mechanism is dominant (the 'scaling rule'). During the course of this thesis, we established that the shape of F_{p}(B) is affected by the statistical distribution of the elementary pinning forces (f_{p}). Contrary to prior beliefs, it was concluded that the shape of the bulk pinning force curve for fluxon core pinning is constant, when the distribution is broad, only if the microstructure is fractal. The peak of the F_ {p}(B) curve occurs at a lower field prior models predict, regardless of whether the shape of the curve is constant. When the distribution is narrow, a constant shape occurs, and has the shape predicted for core pinning and direct summation. Thus, the bulk pinning force curve and the elementary pinning mechanism are directly related by the scaling rule only when the f_ {p} distribution is narrow. Within this context, core pinning has been investigated with a specially fabricated Nb-Ti composite having artificially introduced pins, for which the f_{p } distribution is as narrow as can be made. By design, core pinning should be dominant; the shape of the F_{p}(B) curve does not, however, have the predicted form. The results can be explained by a new pinning mechanism, which incorporates the proximity effect and an anisotropic fluxon core, as proposed by Gurevich. It is concluded that the shape of the bulk pinning force curve is very sensitive to the proximity effect, and it can have a peak at a higher field than was previously thought possible for core pinning. The scaling

  7. Epigallocatechin-gallate Suppresses Tumorigenesis by Directly Targeting Pin1

    SciTech Connect

    Urusova, Darya V.; Shim, Jung-Hyun; Kim, Dong Joon; Jung, Sung Keun; Zykova, Tatyana A.; Carper, Andria; Bode, Ann M.; Dong, Zigang

    2011-09-01

    The most active anticancer component in green tea is epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG). The human peptidyl prolyl cis/trans isomerase (Pin1) plays a critical role in oncogenic signaling. Herein, we report the X-ray crystal structure of the Pin1/EGCG complex resolved at 1.9 Å resolution. Notably, the structure revealed the presence of EGCG in both the WW and PPIase domains of Pin1. The direct binding of EGCG with Pin1 was confirmed and the interaction inhibited Pin1 PPIase activity. In addition, proliferation of cells expressing Pin1 was inhibited and tumor growth in a xenograft mouse model was suppressed. The binding of EGCG with Arg17 in the WW domain prevented the binding of c-Jun, a well-known Pin1 substrate. EGCG treatment corresponded with a decreased abundance of cyclin D1 and diminution of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-l3-acetate–induced AP-1 or NF-κB promoter activity in cells expressing Pin1. Overall, these results showed that EGCG directly suppresses the tumor-promoting effect of Pin1.

  8. Raytrace procedure for interpretation of ultrasonic examination of bridge pins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parikh, Sanjiv D.; Duke, John C., Jr.; Lozev, Margarit G.

    1998-03-01

    A computer algorithm that uses raytracing to simulate the ultrasonic inspection of a pin with and without scanning will be described. This algorithm allows the users to simulate the location and orientation of a crack, or wear groove, in the pin and model the ultrasonic reflections that will occur during inspection. The procedure is part of a larger effort to improve the reliability and interpretation of ultrasonic inspection results from steel bridge pins. The simulated results are compared with actual scan results obtained using an automated scanning system on a reference pin with slag and crack imperfections.

  9. Thermal analysis of the FSP-1 fuel pin irradiation test

    SciTech Connect

    Lyon, W.F. III.

    1990-07-25

    Thermal analysis of a pin from the FSP-1 fuels irradiation test has been completed. The purpose of the analysis was to provide predictions of fuel pin temperatures, determine the flow regime within the lithium annulus of the test assembly, and provide a standardized model for a consistent basis of comparison between pins within the test assembly. The calculations have predicted that the pin is operating at slightly above the test design temperatures and that the flow regime within the lithium annulus is a laminar buoyancy driven flow. 7 refs., 5 figs.

  10. Positioning and locking device for fuel pin to grid attachment

    DOEpatents

    Frick, Thomas M.; Wineman, Arthur L.

    1976-01-01

    A positioning and locking device for fuel pin to grid attachment provides an inexpensive means of positively positioning and locking the individual fuel pins which make up the driver fuel assemblies used in nuclear reactors. The device can be adapted for use with a currently used attachment grid assembly design and insures that the pins remain in their proper position throughout the in-reactor life of the assembly. This device also simplifies fuel bundle assembly in that a complete row of fuel pins can be added to the bundle during each step of assembly.

  11. 327 to 324 Pin tube shipment quality management process plan

    SciTech Connect

    HAM, J.E.

    1998-11-05

    The B and W Hanford Company's (BWHC) 327 Facility, in the 300 Area of the Hanford Site, is preparing to ship five Pin Tubes to the 324 Facility for storage and eventual disposition. The Pin Tubes consist of legacy fuel pin pieces and drillings. They will be over-packed in new Pin Tubes and transported to 324 in three shipments. Once received at 324, two of the shipments will be combined for storage as a fissionable material batch, and the other shipment will be added to an existing batch.

  12. Optimizing Dynamical Network Structure for Pinning Control.

    PubMed

    Orouskhani, Yasin; Jalili, Mahdi; Yu, Xinghuo

    2016-04-12

    Controlling dynamics of a network from any initial state to a final desired state has many applications in different disciplines from engineering to biology and social sciences. In this work, we optimize the network structure for pinning control. The problem is formulated as four optimization tasks: i) optimizing the locations of driver nodes, ii) optimizing the feedback gains, iii) optimizing simultaneously the locations of driver nodes and feedback gains, and iv) optimizing the connection weights. A newly developed population-based optimization technique (cat swarm optimization) is used as the optimization method. In order to verify the methods, we use both real-world networks, and model scale-free and small-world networks. Extensive simulation results show that the optimal placement of driver nodes significantly outperforms heuristic methods including placing drivers based on various centrality measures (degree, betweenness, closeness and clustering coefficient). The pinning controllability is further improved by optimizing the feedback gains. We also show that one can significantly improve the controllability by optimizing the connection weights.

  13. Optimizing Dynamical Network Structure for Pinning Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orouskhani, Yasin; Jalili, Mahdi; Yu, Xinghuo

    2016-04-01

    Controlling dynamics of a network from any initial state to a final desired state has many applications in different disciplines from engineering to biology and social sciences. In this work, we optimize the network structure for pinning control. The problem is formulated as four optimization tasks: i) optimizing the locations of driver nodes, ii) optimizing the feedback gains, iii) optimizing simultaneously the locations of driver nodes and feedback gains, and iv) optimizing the connection weights. A newly developed population-based optimization technique (cat swarm optimization) is used as the optimization method. In order to verify the methods, we use both real-world networks, and model scale-free and small-world networks. Extensive simulation results show that the optimal placement of driver nodes significantly outperforms heuristic methods including placing drivers based on various centrality measures (degree, betweenness, closeness and clustering coefficient). The pinning controllability is further improved by optimizing the feedback gains. We also show that one can significantly improve the controllability by optimizing the connection weights.

  14. Alignment Tool For Inertia Welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, Gary L.

    1991-01-01

    Compact, easy-to-use tool aligns drive bar of inertia welder over hole in stub. Ensures drive bar concentric to hole within 0.002 in. (0.051 mm.). Holds two batteries and light bulb. Electrical circuit completed, providing current to bulb when pin in contact with post. When pin centered in post hole, it does not touch post, and lamp turns off. Built for use in making repair welds on liquid-oxygen-injector posts in Space Shuttle main engine. Version having suitably modified dimensions used to facilitate alignment in other forests of post.

  15. Apparatus and methods for installing, removing and adjusting an inner turbine shell section relative to an outer turbine shell section

    DOEpatents

    Leach, David; Bergendahl, Peter Allen; Waldo, Stuart Forrest; Smith, Robert Leroy; Phelps, Robert Kim

    2001-01-01

    A turbine includes upper and lower inner shell sections mounting the nozzles and shrouds and which inner shell is supported by pins secured to a surrounding outer shell. To disassemble the turbine for access to the inner shell sections and rotor, an alignment fixture is secured to the lower outer shell section and has pins engaging the inner shell section. To disassemble the turbine, the inner shell weight is transferred to the lower outer shell section via the alignment fixture and cradle pins. Roller assemblies are inserted through access openings vacated by support pins to permit rotation of the lower inner shell section out of and into the lower outer shell section during disassembly and assembly. The alignment fixture includes adjusting rods for adjusting the inner shell axially, vertically, laterally and about a lateral axis. A roller over-cage is provided to rotate the inner shell and a dummy shell to facilitate assembly and disassembly in the field.

  16. DigiPINS: a database for vertebrate exonic single nucleotide polymorphisms and its application to cancer association studies.

    PubMed

    Navratil, Vincent; Penel, Simon; Delmotte, Stéphane; Mouchiroud, Dominique; Gautier, Christian; Aouacheria, Abdel

    2008-04-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), which are the most abundant form of genetic variations in numerous organisms, have emerged as important tools for the study of complex genetic traits and deciphering of genome evolution. High-throughput genome sequencing projects worldwide provide an unprecedented opportunity for whole-genome SNP analysis in a variety of species. To facilitate SNP discovery in vertebrates, we have developed a web-based, user-friendly, and fully automated application, DigiPINS, for genome-wide identification of exonic SNPs from EST data. Currently, the database can be used to the mining of exonic SNPs in six complete genomes (Homo sapiens, Mus musculus, Rattus norvegicus, Canis familiaris, Gallus gallus and Danio rerio). In addition to providing information on sequence conservation, DigiPINS allows compilation of comprehensive sets of polymorphisms within cancer candidate genes or identification of novel cancer markers, making it potentially useful for cancer association studies. The DigiPINS server is available via the internet at http://pbil.univ-lyon1.fr/gem/DigiPINS/query_DigiPINS.php.

  17. Prefoldin and Pins synergistically regulate asymmetric division and suppress dedifferentiation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yingjie; Rai, Madhulika; Wang, Cheng; Gonzalez, Cayetano; Wang, Hongyan

    2016-01-01

    Prefoldin is a molecular chaperone complex that regulates tubulin function in mitosis. Here, we show that Prefoldin depletion results in disruption of neuroblast polarity, leading to neuroblast overgrowth in Drosophila larval brains. Interestingly, co-depletion of Prefoldin and Partner of Inscuteable (Pins) leads to the formation of gigantic brains with severe neuroblast overgrowth, despite that Pins depletion alone results in smaller brains with partially disrupted neuroblast polarity. We show that Prefoldin acts synergistically with Pins to regulate asymmetric division of both neuroblasts and Intermediate Neural Progenitors (INPs). Surprisingly, co-depletion of Prefoldin and Pins also induces dedifferentiation of INPs back into neuroblasts, while depletion either Prefoldin or Pins alone is insufficient to do so. Furthermore, knocking down either α-tubulin or β-tubulin in pins- mutant background results in INP dedifferentiation back into neuroblasts, leading to the formation of ectopic neuroblasts. Overexpression of α-tubulin suppresses neuroblast overgrowth observed in prefoldin pins double mutant brains. Our data elucidate an unexpected function of Prefoldin and Pins in synergistically suppressing dedifferentiation of INPs back into neural stem cells. PMID:27025979

  18. Regulation of Cardiac Hypertrophic Signaling by Prolyl Isomerase Pin1

    PubMed Central

    Toko, Haruhiro; Konstandin, Mathias H.; Doroudgar, Shirin; Ormachea, Lucia; Joyo, Eri; Joyo, Anya Y.; Din, Shabana; Gude, Natalie A.; Collins, Brett; Völkers, Mirko; Thuerauf, Donna J.; Glembotski, Christopher C.; Chen, Chun-Hau; Lu, Kun Ping; Müller, Oliver J.; Uchida, Takafumi; Sussman, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale Cardiac hypertrophy results from the complex interplay of differentially regulated cascades based upon the phosphorylation status of involved signaling molecules. While numerous critical regulatory kinases and phosphatases have been identified in the myocardium, the intracellular mechanism for temporal regulation of signaling duration and intensity remains obscure. In the non-myocyte context, control of folding, activity, and stability of proteins is mediated by the prolyl isomerase Pin1, but the role of Pin1 in the heart is unknown. Objective To establish the role of Pin1 in the heart. Methods and Results Here we show that either genetic deletion or cardiac over-expression of Pin1 blunts hypertrophic responses induced by transaortic constriction and consequent cardiac failure in vivo. Mechanistically, we find that Pin1 directly binds to Akt, MEK and Raf-1 in cultured cardiomyocytes following hypertrophic stimulation. Furthermore, loss of Pin1 leads to diminished hypertrophic signaling of Akt and MEK, while over-expression of Pin1 increases Raf-1 phosphorylation on the auto-inhibitory site Ser259 leading to reduced MEK activation. Conclusions Collectively, these data support a role for Pin1 as a central modulator of the intensity and duration of two major hypertrophic signaling pathways, thereby providing a novel target for regulation and control of cardiac hypertrophy. PMID:23487407

  19. Optical fuel pin scanner. [Patent application; for reading identifications

    DOEpatents

    Kirchner, T.L.; Powers, H.G.

    1980-12-09

    This patent relates to an optical identification system developed for post-irradiation disassembly and analysis of fuel bundle assemblies. The apparatus is designed to be lowered onto a stationary fuel pin to read identification numbers or letters imprinted on the circumference of the top fuel pin and cap. (DLC)

  20. 21 CFR 872.3740 - Retentive and splinting pin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Retentive and splinting pin. 872.3740 Section 872.3740 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3740 Retentive and splinting pin....

  1. 21 CFR 872.3740 - Retentive and splinting pin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Retentive and splinting pin. 872.3740 Section 872.3740 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3740 Retentive and splinting pin....

  2. Heat transfer coefficients for staggered arrays of short pin fins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanfossen, G. J.

    Short pin fins are often used to increase that heat transfer to the coolant in the trailing edge of a turbine blade. Due primarily to limits of casting technology, it is not possible to manufacture pins of optimum length for heat transfer purposes in the trailing edge region. In many cases the pins are so short that they actually decrease the total heat transfer surface area compared to a plain wall. A heat transfer data base for these short pins is not available in the literature. Heat transfer coefficients on pin and endwall surfaces were measured for several staggered arrays of short pin fins. The measured Nusselt numbers when plotted versus Reynolds numbers were found to fall on a single curve for all surfaces tested. The heat transfer coefficients for the short pin fins (length to diameter ratios of 1/2 and 2) were found to be about a factor of two lower than data from the literature for longer pin arrays (length to diameter ratios of about 8).

  3. Heat transfer coefficients for staggered arrays of short pin fins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanfossen, G. J.

    1981-03-01

    Short pin fins are often used to increase the heat transfer to the coolant in the trailing edge of a turbine blade. Due primarily to limits of casting technology, it is not possible to manufacture pins of optimum length for heat transfer purposes in the trailing edge region. In many cases the pins are so short that they actually decrease the total heat transfer surface area compared to a plain wall. A heat transfer data base for these short pins is not available in the literature. Heat transfer coefficients on pin and endwall surfaces were measured for several staggered arrays of short pin fins. The measured Nusselt numbers when plotted versus Reynolds numbers were found to fall on a single curve for all surfaces tested. The heat transfer coefficients for the short pin fins (length to diameter ratios of 1/2 and 2) were found to be about a factor of two lower than data from the literature for longer pin arrays (length to diameter ratios of about 8).

  4. Destabilizing interactions among [PSI(+)] and [PIN(+)] yeast prion variants.

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, Michael E; Liebman, Susan W

    2003-01-01

    The yeast Sup35 and Rnq1 proteins can exist in either the noninfectious soluble forms, [psi-] or [pin-], respectively, or the multiple infectious amyloid-like forms called [PSI+] or [PIN+] prion variants (or prion strains). It was previously shown that [PSI+] and [PIN+] prions enhance one another's de novo appearance. Here we show that specific prion variants of [PSI+] and [PIN+] disrupt each other's stable inheritance. Acquiring [PSI+] often impedes the inheritance of particular [PIN+] variants. Conversely, the presence of some [PIN+] variants impairs the inheritance of weak [PSI+] but not strong [PSI+] variants. These same [PIN+] variants generate a single-dot fluorescence pattern when a fusion of Rnq1 and green fluorescent protein is expressed. Another [PIN+] variant, which forms a distinctly different multiple-dot fluorescence pattern, does not impair [PSI+] inheritance. Thus, destabilization of prions by heterologous prions depends upon the variants involved. These findings may have implications for understanding interactions among other amyloid-forming proteins, including those associated with certain human diseases. PMID:14704158

  5. Cracking Bank PINs by Playing Mastermind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Focardi, Riccardo; Luccio, Flaminia L.

    The bank director was pretty upset noticing Joe, the system administrator, spending his spare time playing Mastermind, an old useless game of the 70ies. He had fought the instinct of telling him how to better spend his life, just limiting to look at him in disgust long enough to be certain to be noticed. No wonder when the next day the director fell on his chair astonished while reading, on the newspaper, about a huge digital fraud on the ATMs of his bank, with millions of Euros stolen by a team of hackers all around the world. The article mentioned how the hackers had 'played with the bank computers just like playing Mastermind', being able to disclose thousands of user PINs during the one-hour lunch break. That precise moment, a second before falling senseless, he understood the subtle smile on Joe's face the day before, while training at his preferred game, Mastermind.

  6. Pin stack array for thermoacoustic energy conversion

    DOEpatents

    Keolian, Robert M.; Swift, Gregory W.

    1995-01-01

    A thermoacoustic stack for connecting two heat exchangers in a thermoacoustic energy converter provides a convex fluid-solid interface in a plane perpendicular to an axis for acoustic oscillation of fluid between the two heat exchangers. The convex surfaces increase the ratio of the fluid volume in the effective thermoacoustic volume that is displaced from the convex surface to the fluid volume that is adjacent the surface within which viscous energy losses occur. Increasing the volume ratio results in an increase in the ratio of transferred thermal energy to viscous energy losses, with a concomitant increase in operating efficiency of the thermoacoustic converter. The convex surfaces may be easily provided by a pin array having elements arranged parallel to the direction of acoustic oscillations and with effective radial dimensions much smaller than the thicknesses of the viscous energy loss and thermoacoustic energy transfer volumes.

  7. Semiconductor P-I-N detector

    DOEpatents

    Sudharsanan, Rengarajan; Karam, Nasser H.

    2001-01-01

    A semiconductor P-I-N detector including an intrinsic wafer, a P-doped layer, an N-doped layer, and a boundary layer for reducing the diffusion of dopants into the intrinsic wafer. The boundary layer is positioned between one of the doped regions and the intrinsic wafer. The intrinsic wafer can be composed of CdZnTe or CdTe, the P-doped layer can be composed of ZnTe doped with copper, and the N-doped layer can be composed of CdS doped with indium. The boundary layers is formed of an undoped semiconductor material. The boundary layer can be deposited onto the underlying intrinsic wafer. The doped regions are then typically formed by a deposition process or by doping a section of the deposited boundary layer.

  8. Flux pinning characteristics and irreversibility line in high temperature superconductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matsushita, T.; Ihara, N.; Kiuchi, M.

    1995-01-01

    The flux pinning properties in high temperature superconductors are strongly influenced by thermally activated flux motion. The scaling relation of the pinning force density and the irreversibility line in various high temperature superconductors are numerically analyzed in terms of the flux creep model. The effect of two factors, i.e., the flux pinning strength and the dimensionality of the material, on these properties are investigated. It is speculated that the irreversibility line in Bi-2212 superconductors is one order of magnitude smaller than that in Y-123, even if the flux pinning strength in Bi-2212 is improved up to the level of Y-123. It is concluded that these two factors are equally important in determination of the flux pinning characteristics at high temperatures.

  9. In vitro analysis of self-shearing retentive pins.

    PubMed

    Collard, E W; Caputo, A A; Standlee, J P; Duncanson, M G

    1981-02-01

    Combining stress, analysis, microscopic examination, mechanical testing of the shear mechanism, and retention of the Reten Pin leads to the following conclusions: 1. The suggested 0.006 inch pin-channel mismatch induces high lateral and apical stresses. Microscopically, this was seen to correlate with injury to the dentin. 2. The degree of retention was increased by using a smaller pin-channel mismatch. This correlates with smaller stresses and reduced dentinal damage. 3. The shear mechanism acts in a uniform manner, with a relatively small variation from the mean. It is suggested that for the best results the manufacturer should supply larger twist drills and pins with a somewhat deeper self-shearing groove to minimize apical involvement during shearing of the handle from the pin.

  10. Flux pinning characteristics and irreversibility line in high temperature superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Matsushita, T.; Ihara, N.; Kiuchi, M.

    1995-04-01

    The flux pinning properties in high temperature superconductors are strongly influenced by thermally activated flux motion. The scaling relation of the pinning force density and the irreversibility line in various high temperature superconductors are numerically analyzed in terms of the flux creep model. The effect of two factors, i.e., the flux pinning strength and the dimensionality of the material, on these properties are investigated. It is speculated that the irreversibility line in Bi-2212 superconductors is one order of magnitude smaller than that in Y-123, even if the flux pinning strength in Bi-2212 is improved up to the level of Y-123. It is concluded that these two factors are equally important in determination of the flux pinning characteristics at high temperatures.

  11. Retrievable fuel pin end member for a nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Rosa, Jerry M.

    1982-01-01

    A bottom end member (17b) on a retrievable fuel pin (13b) secures the pin (13b) within a nuclear reactor (12) by engaging on a transverse attachment rail (18) with a spring clip type of action. Removal and reinstallation if facilitated as only axial movement of the fuel pin (13b) is required for either operation. A pair of resilient axially extending blades (31) are spaced apart to define a slot (24) having a seat region (34) which receives the rail (18) and having a land region (37), closer to the tips (39) of the blades (31) which is normally of less width than the rail (18). Thus an axially directed force sufficient to wedge the resilient blades (31) apart is required to emplace or release the fuel pin (13b) such force being greater than the axial forces on the fuel pins (13b) which occur during operation of the reactor (12).

  12. New Pin Puller Based on SMA Technology for Space Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nava, Nestor; Collado, Marcelo; Cabás, Ramiro

    2014-07-01

    Two different versions of the Pin Puller were designed during this activity, such as one with 100 N and other with 500 N of pull force. The design of both versions is based on spheres which support the pin at the initial position and a compression spring driving once the release takes place by means of the SMA. The mechanical design of the Pin Pullers has been conceived in order to optimize the device's weight, reduce the parts complexity, and achieve a suitable stiffness. A qualification test campaign for the Pin Puller with 500 N of pull force has been developed in order to check the success of the proposed mechanism for space applications. The main performed tests have been thermal-vacuum actuation, thermal-vacuum cycling, sine vibration, and random vibration. The Pin Puller has presented successful results of actuation during the test campaign

  13. PIN-Dependent Auxin Transport: Action, Regulation, and Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Adamowski, Maciek; Friml, Jiří

    2015-01-01

    Auxin participates in a multitude of developmental processes, as well as responses to environmental cues. Compared with other plant hormones, auxin exhibits a unique property, as it undergoes directional, cell-to-cell transport facilitated by plasma membrane-localized transport proteins. Among them, a prominent role has been ascribed to the PIN family of auxin efflux facilitators. PIN proteins direct polar auxin transport on account of their asymmetric subcellular localizations. In this review, we provide an overview of the multiple developmental roles of PIN proteins, including the atypical endoplasmic reticulum-localized members of the family, and look at the family from an evolutionary perspective. Next, we cover the cell biological and molecular aspects of PIN function, in particular the establishment of their polar subcellular localization. Hormonal and environmental inputs into the regulation of PIN action are summarized as well. PMID:25604445

  14. ADJUSTABLE DOUBLE PULSE GENERATOR

    DOEpatents

    Gratian, J.W.; Gratian, A.C.

    1961-08-01

    >A modulator pulse source having adjustable pulse width and adjustable pulse spacing is described. The generator consists of a cross coupled multivibrator having adjustable time constant circuitry in each leg, an adjustable differentiating circuit in the output of each leg, a mixing and rectifying circuit for combining the differentiated pulses and generating in its output a resultant sequence of negative pulses, and a final amplifying circuit for inverting and square-topping the pulses. (AEC)

  15. Three-dimensional pin-to-pin analyses of VVER-440 cores by the MOBY-DICK code

    SciTech Connect

    Lehmann, M.; Mikolas, P.

    1994-12-31

    Nuclear design for the Dukovany (EDU) VVER-440s nuclear power plant is routinely performed by the MOBY-DICK system. After its implementation on Hewlett Packard series 700 workstations, it is able to perform routinely three-dimensional pin-to-pin core analyses. For purposes of code validation, the benchmark prepared from EDU operational data was solved.

  16. Dissecting Pin1 and phospho-pRb regulation.

    PubMed

    Rizzolio, Flavio; Caligiuri, Isabella; Lucchetti, Chiara; Fratamico, Robert; Tomei, Valentina; Gallo, Gaia; Agelan, Alexis; Ferrari, Giovanni; Toffoli, Giuseppe; Klein-Szanto, Andres J; Giordano, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    The activity of the Retinoblastoma protein, the master regulator of the cell cycle, is finely regulated by phosphorylation. CDKs and cyclins are major players in phosphorylation and it has been recently discovered that the prolyl isomerase Pin1 is an essential protein that orchestrates this process. In this article, we report new findings regarding the role of Pin1 in the pRb pathway. Our data suggest that PI3K, CDKs, and the Pin1 axis have a critical role in sustaining the complete phosphorylation of pRb. Furthermore, we analyze the correlation between Pin1 and pRb phosphorylation in vivo. We show that, in human malignant glioma tissue microarrays (TMA) and in Pin1 knockout (KO) mice, there is a positive correlation between Pin1 and pRb phosphorylation. Prospectively, our findings suggest that the synergism between CDKs, Pin1, and PI3K inhibitors hold great promise for targeted pharmacological treatment of cancer patients, with the possibility of reaching high effectiveness at tolerated doses.

  17. Dowel pinning for feline metacarpal and metatarsal fractures.

    PubMed

    Zahn, K; Kornmayer, M; Matis, U

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this retrospective study was to describe dowel pinning, and to compare the results of osteosynthesis and external coaptation of metacarpal and metatarsal fractures in cats. Evaluation of the medical records of 351 cats yielded 63 cats treated with dowel pinning, 35 cats treated with external coaptation and 14 cats treated with both methods within the same limb. All of the cats had been re-evaluated at an average of 2.8 years (six months - 15 years) postoperatively. Dowel pinning was superior to external coaptation when all fractured bones of a limb could be pinned. When internal fixation of multiple fractures was not feasible in all fractured bones due to comminution or fragments that were too short to pin, the outcome was not significantly different from cases treated with external coaptation alone. Malunion was seen in 16% of fractured bones in cats treated with external coaptation and occurred secondary to implant bending in 3% of fractured bones treated with dowel pinning. The latter refers to one operated cat, which had four metacarpal fractures in the same limb. Radiographs taken at re-evaluation showed implant migration within the medullary canal in two cats, although neither showed any signs of non-union or lameness. Non-union was seen in one operated cat, in which the fracture (MC IV) could not be completely reduced with a K-wire. Osteomyelitis did not occur. Dowel pinning is an easy, inexpensive and effective technique for repair of metacarpal and metatarsal fractures in cats.

  18. Reversible ratchet effects for vortices in conformal pinning arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichhardt, C.; Ray, D.; Reichhardt, C. J. Olson

    2015-05-01

    A conformal transformation of a uniform triangular pinning array produces a structure called a conformal crystal which preserves the sixfold ordering of the original lattice but contains a gradient in the pinning density. Here we use numerical simulations to show that vortices in type-II superconductors driven with an ac drive over gradient pinning arrays produce the most pronounced ratchet effect over a wide range of parameters for a conformal array, while square gradient or random gradient arrays with equivalent pinning densities give reduced ratchet effects. In the conformal array, the larger spacing of the pinning sites in the direction transverse to the ac drive permits easy funneling of interstitial vortices for one driving direction, producing the enhanced ratchet effect. In the square array, the transverse spacing between pinning sites is uniform, giving no asymmetry in the funneling of the vortices as the driving direction switches, while in the random array, there are numerous easy-flow channels present for either direction of drive. We find multiple ratchet reversals in the conformal arrays as a function of vortex density and ac amplitude, and correlate the features with a reversal in the vortex ordering, which is greater for motion in the ratchet direction. The enhanced conformal pinning ratchet effect can also be realized for colloidal particles moving over a conformal array, indicating the general usefulness of conformal structures for controlling the motion of particles.

  19. Reversible ratchet effects for vortices in conformal pinning arrays

    DOE PAGES

    Reichhardt, Charles; Ray, Dipanjan; Reichhardt, Cynthia Jane Olson

    2015-05-04

    A conformal transformation of a uniform triangular pinning array produces a structure called a conformal crystal which preserves the sixfold ordering of the original lattice but contains a gradient in the pinning density. Here we use numerical simulations to show that vortices in type-II superconductors driven with an ac drive over gradient pinning arrays produce the most pronounced ratchet effect over a wide range of parameters for a conformal array, while square gradient or random gradient arrays with equivalent pinning densities give reduced ratchet effects. In the conformal array, the larger spacing of the pinning sites in the direction transversemore » to the ac drive permits easy funneling of interstitial vortices for one driving direction, producing the enhanced ratchet effect. In the square array, the transverse spacing between pinning sites is uniform, giving no asymmetry in the funneling of the vortices as the driving direction switches, while in the random array, there are numerous easy-flow channels present for either direction of drive. We find multiple ratchet reversals in the conformal arrays as a function of vortex density and ac amplitude, and correlate the features with a reversal in the vortex ordering, which is greater for motion in the ratchet direction. In conclusion, the enhanced conformal pinning ratchet effect can also be realized for colloidal particles moving over a conformal array, indicating the general usefulness of conformal structures for controlling the motion of particles.« less

  20. Reversible ratchet effects for vortices in conformal pinning arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Reichhardt, Charles; Ray, Dipanjan; Reichhardt, Cynthia Jane Olson

    2015-05-04

    A conformal transformation of a uniform triangular pinning array produces a structure called a conformal crystal which preserves the sixfold ordering of the original lattice but contains a gradient in the pinning density. Here we use numerical simulations to show that vortices in type-II superconductors driven with an ac drive over gradient pinning arrays produce the most pronounced ratchet effect over a wide range of parameters for a conformal array, while square gradient or random gradient arrays with equivalent pinning densities give reduced ratchet effects. In the conformal array, the larger spacing of the pinning sites in the direction transverse to the ac drive permits easy funneling of interstitial vortices for one driving direction, producing the enhanced ratchet effect. In the square array, the transverse spacing between pinning sites is uniform, giving no asymmetry in the funneling of the vortices as the driving direction switches, while in the random array, there are numerous easy-flow channels present for either direction of drive. We find multiple ratchet reversals in the conformal arrays as a function of vortex density and ac amplitude, and correlate the features with a reversal in the vortex ordering, which is greater for motion in the ratchet direction. In conclusion, the enhanced conformal pinning ratchet effect can also be realized for colloidal particles moving over a conformal array, indicating the general usefulness of conformal structures for controlling the motion of particles.

  1. Probing dynamics and pinning of single vortices in superconductors at nanometer scales.

    PubMed

    Embon, L; Anahory, Y; Suhov, A; Halbertal, D; Cuppens, J; Yakovenko, A; Uri, A; Myasoedov, Y; Rappaport, M L; Huber, M E; Gurevich, A; Zeldov, E

    2015-01-01

    The dynamics of quantized magnetic vortices and their pinning by materials defects determine electromagnetic properties of superconductors, particularly their ability to carry non-dissipative currents. Despite recent advances in the understanding of the complex physics of vortex matter, the behavior of vortices driven by current through a multi-scale potential of the actual materials defects is still not well understood, mostly due to the scarcity of appropriate experimental tools capable of tracing vortex trajectories on nanometer scales. Using a novel scanning superconducting quantum interference microscope we report here an investigation of controlled dynamics of vortices in lead films with sub-Angstrom spatial resolution and unprecedented sensitivity. We measured, for the first time, the fundamental dependence of the elementary pinning force of multiple defects on the vortex displacement, revealing a far more complex behavior than has previously been recognized, including striking spring softening and broken-spring depinning, as well as spontaneous hysteretic switching between cellular vortex trajectories. Our results indicate the importance of thermal fluctuations even at 4.2 K and of the vital role of ripples in the pinning potential, giving new insights into the mechanisms of magnetic relaxation and electromagnetic response of superconductors. PMID:25564043

  2. Probing dynamics and pinning of single vortices in superconductors at nanometer scales

    PubMed Central

    Embon, L.; Anahory, Y.; Suhov, A.; Halbertal, D.; Cuppens, J.; Yakovenko, A.; Uri, A.; Myasoedov, Y.; Rappaport, M. L.; Huber, M. E.; Gurevich, A.; Zeldov, E.

    2015-01-01

    The dynamics of quantized magnetic vortices and their pinning by materials defects determine electromagnetic properties of superconductors, particularly their ability to carry non-dissipative currents. Despite recent advances in the understanding of the complex physics of vortex matter, the behavior of vortices driven by current through a multi-scale potential of the actual materials defects is still not well understood, mostly due to the scarcity of appropriate experimental tools capable of tracing vortex trajectories on nanometer scales. Using a novel scanning superconducting quantum interference microscope we report here an investigation of controlled dynamics of vortices in lead films with sub-Angstrom spatial resolution and unprecedented sensitivity. We measured, for the first time, the fundamental dependence of the elementary pinning force of multiple defects on the vortex displacement, revealing a far more complex behavior than has previously been recognized, including striking spring softening and broken-spring depinning, as well as spontaneous hysteretic switching between cellular vortex trajectories. Our results indicate the importance of thermal fluctuations even at 4.2 K and of the vital role of ripples in the pinning potential, giving new insights into the mechanisms of magnetic relaxation and electromagnetic response of superconductors. PMID:25564043

  3. Probing dynamics and pinning of single vortices in superconductors at nanometer scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Embon, L.; Anahory, Y.; Suhov, A.; Halbertal, D.; Cuppens, J.; Yakovenko, A.; Uri, A.; Myasoedov, Y.; Rappaport, M. L.; Huber, M. E.; Gurevich, A.; Zeldov, E.

    2015-01-01

    The dynamics of quantized magnetic vortices and their pinning by materials defects determine electromagnetic properties of superconductors, particularly their ability to carry non-dissipative currents. Despite recent advances in the understanding of the complex physics of vortex matter, the behavior of vortices driven by current through a multi-scale potential of the actual materials defects is still not well understood, mostly due to the scarcity of appropriate experimental tools capable of tracing vortex trajectories on nanometer scales. Using a novel scanning superconducting quantum interference microscope we report here an investigation of controlled dynamics of vortices in lead films with sub-Angstrom spatial resolution and unprecedented sensitivity. We measured, for the first time, the fundamental dependence of the elementary pinning force of multiple defects on the vortex displacement, revealing a far more complex behavior than has previously been recognized, including striking spring softening and broken-spring depinning, as well as spontaneous hysteretic switching between cellular vortex trajectories. Our results indicate the importance of thermal fluctuations even at 4.2 K and of the vital role of ripples in the pinning potential, giving new insights into the mechanisms of magnetic relaxation and electromagnetic response of superconductors.

  4. Fredrickson-Andersen model on Bethe lattice with random pinning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikeda, Harukuni; Miyazaki, Kunimasa

    2015-10-01

    We study the effects of random pinning on the Fredrickson-Andersen model on the Bethe lattice. We find that the nonergodic transition temperature rises as the fraction of the pinned spins increases and the transition line terminates at a critical point. The freezing behavior of the spins is analogous to that of a randomly pinned p-spin mean-field spin glass model which has been recently reported. The diverging behavior of correlation lengths in the vicinity of the terminal critical point is found to be identical to the prediction of the inhomogeneous mode-coupling theory at the A 3 singularity point for the glass transition.

  5. Study of PIN diode energy traps created by neutrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sopko, V.; Sopko, B.; Chren, D.; Dammer, J.

    2013-03-01

    Characterization of radiation defects is still ongoing and finds greater application in the increasing radiation doses on semiconductor detectors in experiments. Studying the changes of silicon PIN diode for high doses of radiation is the fundamental motivation for our measurements. In this article we describe the behavior of the PIN diode and development of the disorder caused by neutrons from a 252Cf and doses up to 8 Gy. The calibration curve for PIN diode shows the effect of disorders as the changes of the voltampere characteristics depending on the dose of neutron irradiation. The measured values for defects are in good agreement with created energy traps.

  6. A division in PIN-mediated auxin patterning during organ initiation in grasses.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Devin L; Runions, Adam; Sluis, Aaron; Bragg, Jennifer; Vogel, John P; Prusinkiewicz, Przemyslaw; Hake, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    The hormone auxin plays a crucial role in plant morphogenesis. In the shoot apical meristem, the PIN-FORMED1 (PIN1) efflux carrier concentrates auxin into local maxima in the epidermis, which position incipient leaf or floral primordia. From these maxima, PIN1 transports auxin into internal tissues along emergent paths that pattern leaf and stem vasculature. In Arabidopsis thaliana, these functions are attributed to a single PIN1 protein. Using phylogenetic and gene synteny analysis we identified an angiosperm PIN clade sister to PIN1, here termed Sister-of-PIN1 (SoPIN1), which is present in all sampled angiosperms except for Brassicaceae, including Arabidopsis. Additionally, we identified a conserved duplication of PIN1 in the grasses: PIN1a and PIN1b. In Brachypodium distachyon, SoPIN1 is highly expressed in the epidermis and is consistently polarized toward regions of high expression of the DR5 auxin-signaling reporter, which suggests that SoPIN1 functions in the localization of new primordia. In contrast, PIN1a and PIN1b are highly expressed in internal tissues, suggesting a role in vascular patterning. PIN1b is expressed in broad regions spanning the space between new primordia and previously formed vasculature, suggesting a role in connecting new organs to auxin sinks in the older tissues. Within these regions, PIN1a forms narrow canals that likely pattern future veins. Using a computer model, we reproduced the observed spatio-temporal expression and localization patterns of these proteins by assuming that SoPIN1 is polarized up the auxin gradient, and PIN1a and PIN1b are polarized to different degrees with the auxin flux. Our results suggest that examination and modeling of PIN dynamics in plants outside of Brassicaceae will offer insights into auxin-driven patterning obscured by the loss of the SoPIN1 clade in Brassicaceae. PMID:24499933

  7. Multi-pin chemiresistors for microchemical sensors

    DOEpatents

    Ho, Clifford K.

    2007-02-20

    A multi-pin chemiresistor for use in microchemical sensors. A pair of free-standing, bare wires is supported by an electrically insulating support, and are oriented parallel to each other and spaced closely together. A free-standing film of a chemically sensitive polymer that swells when exposed to vapors of a volatile chemical is formed in-between the pair of closely-spaced wires by capillary action. Similar in construction to a thermocouple, this "chemicouple" is relatively inexpensive and easy to fabricate by dipping the pair of bare wires into a bath of well-mixed chemiresistor ink. Also, a chemiresistor "stick" is formed by dipping an electrically insulating rod with two or more linear or spiral-wrapped electrical traces into the bath of well-mixed chemiresistor ink, which deposits a uniform coating of the chemically sensitive polymer on the rod and the electrical traces. These "sticks" can be easily removed and replaced from a multi-chemiresistor plug.

  8. Fast rise-time, fiber optic pin

    SciTech Connect

    Roeske, F

    1998-05-12

    A reliable, simple fast-rise-time diagnostic has been developed for measuring the breakout time of the detonation wave in a detonating high explosive. The intrinsic rise time of the signals generated is less than one nanosecond. The technique, called FAT (Fiber Arrival Time), consists of an optical fiber with one end coated with ~1500 Å Aluminum. The coated end is placed in intimate contact with the surface of the explosive. The detonation wave interacting with the Al surface causes a prompt flash of light which is recorded at the output end of the fiber. The active area of the FAT probe end is 100 µm in diameter and centered to within ±10 µm also giving excellent spatial precision. When used in this mode, FAT overcomes difficulties of electronic and past fiber optic pins. When looking at a flyer plate arrival the time response appears to be a function of the metal plate velocity.

  9. A PWR Thorium Pin Cell Burnup Benchmark

    SciTech Connect

    Weaver, Kevan Dean; Zhao, X.; Pilat, E. E; Hejzlar, P.

    2000-05-01

    As part of work to evaluate the potential benefits of using thorium in LWR fuel, a thorium fueled benchmark comparison was made in this study between state-of-the-art codes, MOCUP (MCNP4B + ORIGEN2), and CASMO-4 for burnup calculations. The MOCUP runs were done individually at MIT and INEEL, using the same model but with some differences in techniques and cross section libraries. Eigenvalue and isotope concentrations were compared on a PWR pin cell model up to high burnup. The eigenvalue comparison as a function of burnup is good: the maximum difference is within 2% and the average absolute difference less than 1%. The isotope concentration comparisons are better than a set of MOX fuel benchmarks and comparable to a set of uranium fuel benchmarks reported in the literature. The actinide and fission product data sources used in the MOCUP burnup calculations for a typical thorium fuel are documented. Reasons for code vs code differences are analyzed and discussed.

  10. Superconducting vortex pinning with artificial magnetic nanostructures.

    SciTech Connect

    Velez, M.; Martin, J. I.; Villegas, J. E.; Hoffmann, A.; Gonzalez, E. M.; Vicent, J. L.; Schuller, I. K.; Univ. de Oviedo-CINN; Unite Mixte de Physique CNRS Univ. Paris-Sud; Univ.Complutense de Madrid; Univ. California at San Diego

    2008-11-01

    This review is dedicated to summarizing the recent research on vortex dynamics and pinning effects in superconducting films with artificial magnetic structures. The fabrication of hybrid superconducting/magnetic systems is presented together with the wide variety of properties that arise from the interaction between the superconducting vortex lattice and the artificial magnetic nanostructures. Specifically, we review the role that the most important parameters in the vortex dynamics of films with regular array of dots play. In particular, we discuss the phenomena that appear when the symmetry of a regular dot array is distorted from regularity towards complete disorder including rectangular, asymmetric, and aperiodic arrays. The interesting phenomena that appear include vortex-lattice reconfigurations, anisotropic dynamics, channeling, and guided motion as well as ratchet effects. The different regimes are summarized in a phase diagram indicating the transitions that take place as the characteristic distances of the array are modified respect to the superconducting coherence length. Future directions are sketched out indicating the vast open area of research in this field.

  11. Equilibrium ultrastable glasses produced by random pinning

    SciTech Connect

    Hocky, Glen M.; Reichman, David R.; Berthier, Ludovic

    2014-12-14

    Ultrastable glasses have risen to prominence due to their potentially useful material properties and the tantalizing possibility of a general method of preparation via vapor deposition. Despite the importance of this novel class of amorphous materials, numerical studies have been scarce because achieving ultrastability in atomistic simulations is an enormous challenge. Here, we bypass this difficulty and establish that randomly pinning the position of a small fraction of particles inside an equilibrated supercooled liquid generates ultrastable configurations at essentially no numerical cost, while avoiding undesired structural changes due to the preparation protocol. Building on the analogy with vapor-deposited ultrastable glasses, we study the melting kinetics of these configurations following a sudden temperature jump into the liquid phase. In homogeneous geometries, we find that enhanced kinetic stability is accompanied by large scale dynamic heterogeneity, while a competition between homogeneous and heterogeneous melting is observed when a liquid boundary invades the glass at constant velocity. Our work demonstrates the feasibility of large-scale, atomistically resolved, and experimentally relevant simulations of the kinetics of ultrastable glasses.

  12. PIN proteins and the evolution of plant development.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Tom

    2015-08-01

    Many aspects of development in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana involve regulated distribution of the hormone auxin by the PIN-FORMED (PIN) family of auxin efflux carriers. The role of PIN-mediated auxin transport in other plants is not well understood, but studies in a wider range of species have begun to illuminate developmental mechanisms across land plants. In this review, I discuss recent progress in understanding the evolution of PIN-mediated auxin transport, and its role in development across the green plant lineage. I also discuss the idea that changes in auxin biology led to morphological novelty in plant development: currently available evidence suggests major innovations in auxin transport are rare and not associated with the evolution of new developmental mechanisms.

  13. 24. PIN CONNECTION AT VERTICAL AND BOTTOM CHORD ON CAMELBACK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. PIN CONNECTION AT VERTICAL AND BOTTOM CHORD ON CAMELBACK THROUGH TRUSS. VERTICAL AND BOTTOM CHORD MADE OF HAND-FORGED EYE BARS - New River Bridge, Spanning New River at State Route 623, Pembroke, Giles County, VA

  14. 23. DETAIL VIEW OF SUBMERSIBLE TAINTER GATE, SHOWING TRUNNION PIN, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. DETAIL VIEW OF SUBMERSIBLE TAINTER GATE, SHOWING TRUNNION PIN, GATE ARM AND GATE GAUGE, LOOKING SOUTHEAST - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel, Lock & Dam No. 10, Guttenberg, Clayton County, IA

  15. 21. DETAIL VIEW OF SUBMERSIBLE TAINTER GATE, SHOWING TRUNNION PIN, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. DETAIL VIEW OF SUBMERSIBLE TAINTER GATE, SHOWING TRUNNION PIN, LOOKING NORTH - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel, Lock & Dam No. 8, On Mississippi River near Houston County, MN, Genoa, Vernon County, WI

  16. 8. Detail view (looking east) of pin connection of vertical ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Detail view (looking east) of pin connection of vertical member at the third panel point north from south abutment of Moody Bridge. - Moody Bridge, Spanning South Fork Eel River, Garberville, Humboldt County, CA

  17. 11. Detail view (looking east) of pin connection of vertical ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Detail view (looking east) of pin connection of vertical tensile members between panels nine end ten of Moody Bridge - Moody Bridge, Spanning South Fork Eel River, Garberville, Humboldt County, CA

  18. 9. Detail view (looking east) of pin connection of vertical ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Detail view (looking east) of pin connection of vertical tensile members at the fifth panel point north from south abutment of Moody Bridge. - Moody Bridge, Spanning South Fork Eel River, Garberville, Humboldt County, CA

  19. 10. EYEBAR PIN CONNECTION JOINING VERTICAL SUSPENSION STRINGER WITH LATERAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. EYEBAR PIN CONNECTION JOINING VERTICAL SUSPENSION STRINGER WITH LATERAL BRACING MEMBERS - Spruce Street Bridge, East Spruce Street, 500 Block, spanning Power Canal, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI

  20. 13. UNDERSIDE OF THROUGHWAY SHOWING MAIN CHORDS, SUSPENSION EYEBAR PIN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. UNDERSIDE OF THROUGHWAY SHOWING MAIN CHORDS, SUSPENSION EYE-BAR PIN CONNECTORS, LOWER CHORD EYEBARS AND LATERAL BRACING MEMBERS - Spruce Street Bridge, East Spruce Street, 500 Block, spanning Power Canal, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI

  1. 8. DETAIL OF PIN CONNECTION AND LATTICED CHANNEL VERTICAL AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. DETAIL OF PIN CONNECTION AND LATTICED CHANNEL VERTICAL AND LATERAL MEMBERS. - Slates' Mill Bridge, Township Road 439 spanning South Branch of Tunkhannock Creek in Benton Township, Dalton, Lackawanna County, PA

  2. 7. DETAIL OF INCLINED END POST WITH PIN CONNECTION, EYEBARS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. DETAIL OF INCLINED END POST WITH PIN CONNECTION, EYEBARS AND LATICE PORTAL BRACE. FINIAL DETAILS SEEN ATOP. - Slates' Mill Bridge, Township Road 439 spanning South Branch of Tunkhannock Creek in Benton Township, Dalton, Lackawanna County, PA

  3. Pinning impulsive directed coupled delayed dynamical network and its applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chunnan; Wu, Quanjun; Xiang, Lan; Zhou, Jin

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of the present paper is to further investigate pinning synchronisation of a complex delayed dynamical network with directionally coupling by a single impulsive controller. By developing the analysis procedure of pinning impulsive stability for undirected coupled dynamical network previously, some simple yet general criteria of pinning impulsive synchronisation for such directed coupled network are derived analytically. It is shown that a single impulsive controller can always pin a given directed coupled network to a desired homogenous solution, including an equilibrium point, a periodic orbit, or a chaotic orbit. Subsequently, the theoretical results are illustrated by a directed small-world complex network which is a cellular neural network (CNN) and a directed scale-free complex network with the well-known Hodgkin-Huxley neuron oscillators. Numerical simulations are finally given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control methodology.

  4. Pinning Susceptibility: The Effect of Dilute, Quenched Disorder on Jamming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graves, Amy L.; Nashed, Samer; Padgett, Elliot; Goodrich, Carl P.; Liu, Andrea J.; Sethna, James P.

    2016-06-01

    We study the effect of dilute pinning on the jamming transition. Pinning reduces the average contact number needed to jam unpinned particles and shifts the jamming threshold to lower densities, leading to a pinning susceptibility, χp . Our main results are that this susceptibility obeys scaling form and diverges in the thermodynamic limit as χp∝|ϕ -ϕc∞|-γp where ϕc∞ is the jamming threshold in the absence of pins. Finite-size scaling arguments yield these values with associated statistical (systematic) errors γp=1.018 ±0.026 (0.291 ) in d =2 and γp=1.534 ±0.120 (0.822 ) in d =3 . Logarithmic corrections raise the exponent in d =2 to close to the d =3 value, although the systematic errors are very large.

  5. 48. Fixed Span, Detail of Pinned Connection between End Post ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    48. Fixed Span, Detail of Pinned Connection between End Post & First Segment of Top Chord (Vertical Tension Member goes to 2L); looking E. - Pacific Shortline Bridge, U.S. Route 20,spanning Missouri River, Sioux City, Woodbury County, IA

  6. PIN architecture for ultrasensitive organic thin film photoconductors

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Zhiwen; Wang, Jizheng

    2014-01-01

    Organic thin film photoconductors (OTFPs) are expected to have wide applications in the field of optical communications, artificial vision and biomedical sensing due to their great advantages of high flexibility and low-cost large-area fabrication. However, their performances are not satisfactory at present: the value of responsivity (R), the parameter that measures the sensitivity of a photoconductor to light, is below 1 AW−1. We believe such poor performance is resulted from an intrinsic self-limited effect of present bare blend based device structure. Here we designed a PIN architecture for OTFPs, the PIN device exhibits a significantly improved high R value of 96.5 AW−1. The PIN architecture and the performance the PIN device shows here should represent an important step in the development of OTFPs. PMID:24936952

  7. Criteria for stochastic pinning control of networks of chaotic maps

    SciTech Connect

    Mwaffo, Violet; Porfiri, Maurizio; DeLellis, Pietro

    2014-03-15

    This paper investigates the controllability of discrete-time networks of coupled chaotic maps through stochastic pinning. In this control scheme, the network dynamics are steered towards a desired trajectory through a feedback control input that is applied stochastically to the network nodes. The network controllability is studied by analyzing the local mean square stability of the error dynamics with respect to the desired trajectory. Through the analysis of the spectral properties of salient matrices, a toolbox of conditions for controllability are obtained, in terms of the dynamics of the individual maps, algebraic properties of the network, and the probability distribution of the pinning control. We demonstrate the use of these conditions in the design of a stochastic pinning control strategy for networks of Chirikov standard maps. To elucidate the applicability of the approach, we consider different network topologies and compare five different stochastic pinning strategies through extensive numerical simulations.

  8. Cytokinin response factors regulate PIN-FORMED auxin transporters.

    PubMed

    Šimášková, Mária; O'Brien, José Antonio; Khan, Mamoona; Van Noorden, Giel; Ötvös, Krisztina; Vieten, Anne; De Clercq, Inge; Van Haperen, Johanna Maria Adriana; Cuesta, Candela; Hoyerová, Klára; Vanneste, Steffen; Marhavý, Peter; Wabnik, Krzysztof; Van Breusegem, Frank; Nowack, Moritz; Murphy, Angus; Friml, Jiří; Weijers, Dolf; Beeckman, Tom; Benková, Eva

    2015-11-06

    Auxin and cytokinin are key endogenous regulators of plant development. Although cytokinin-mediated modulation of auxin distribution is a developmentally crucial hormonal interaction, its molecular basis is largely unknown. Here we show a direct regulatory link between cytokinin signalling and the auxin transport machinery uncovering a mechanistic framework for cytokinin-auxin cross-talk. We show that the CYTOKININ RESPONSE FACTORS (CRFs), transcription factors downstream of cytokinin perception, transcriptionally control genes encoding PIN-FORMED (PIN) auxin transporters at a specific PIN CYTOKININ RESPONSE ELEMENT (PCRE) domain. Removal of this cis-regulatory element effectively uncouples PIN transcription from the CRF-mediated cytokinin regulation and attenuates plant cytokinin sensitivity. We propose that CRFs represent a missing cross-talk component that fine-tunes auxin transport capacity downstream of cytokinin signalling to control plant development.

  9. Pinned orbital moments – A new contribution to magnetic anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Audehm, P.; Schmidt, M.; Brück, S.; Tietze, T.; Gräfe, J.; Macke, S.; Schütz, G.; Goering, E.

    2016-05-01

    Reduced dimensionality and symmetry breaking at interfaces lead to unusual local magnetic configurations, such as glassy behavior, frustration or increased anisotropy. The interface between a ferromagnet and an antiferromagnet is such an example for enhanced symmetry breaking. Here we present detailed X-ray magnetic circular dichroism and X-ray resonant magnetic reflectometry investigations on the spectroscopic nature of uncompensated pinned magnetic moments in the antiferromagnetic layer of a typical exchange bias system. Unexpectedly, the pinned moments exhibit nearly pure orbital moment character. This strong orbital pinning mechanism has not been observed so far and is not discussed in literature regarding any theory for local magnetocrystalline anisotropy energies in magnetic systems. To verify this new phenomenon we investigated the effect at different temperatures. We provide a simple model discussing the observed pure orbital moments, based on rotatable spin magnetic moments and pinned orbital moments on the same atom. This unexpected observation leads to a concept for a new type of anisotropy energy.

  10. 6. Pin connection and eye bar nest, lower chord, up ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Pin connection and eye bar nest, lower chord, up river truss, 321-4 Span 3. - Monongahela Connecting Railroad Company, Main Bridge, Spanning Monongahela River at mile post 3.1, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  11. 7. Pin connections and eye bar nest, lower chord, up ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Pin connections and eye bar nest, lower chord, up river truss, 321-4 Span 3. - Monongahela Connecting Railroad Company, Main Bridge, Spanning Monongahela River at mile post 3.1, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  12. 8. Pin connecting and eye bar nest, lower chord, down ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Pin connecting and eye bar nest, lower chord, down river truss 132-0 Span 2 from Hot Metal Bridge. - Monongahela Connecting Railroad Company, Main Bridge, Spanning Monongahela River at mile post 3.1, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  13. Post-refinement multiscale method for pin power reconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, B.; Seker, V.; Downar, T.; Xu, Y.

    2012-07-01

    The ability to accurately predict local pin powers in nuclear reactors is necessary to understand the mechanisms that cause fuel pin failure during steady state and transient operation. In the research presented here, methods are developed to improve the local solution using high order methods with boundary conditions from a low order global solution. Several different core configurations were tested to determine the improvement in the local pin powers compared to the standard techniques based on diffusion theory and pin power reconstruction (PPR). The post-refinement multiscale methods use the global solution to determine boundary conditions for the local solution. The local solution is solved using either a fixed boundary source or an albedo boundary condition; this solution is 'post-refinement' and thus has no impact on the global solution. (authors)

  14. 46. VAL, DETAIL OF 'PILLOW BLOCK' WHERE LAUNCHER BRIDGE PIN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    46. VAL, DETAIL OF 'PILLOW BLOCK' WHERE LAUNCHER BRIDGE PIN SAT AT THE TOP OF THE CONNECTING BRIDGE. - Variable Angle Launcher Complex, Variable Angle Launcher, CA State Highway 39 at Morris Reservior, Azusa, Los Angeles County, CA

  15. 7. DETAIL VIEW OF PIN CONNECTION, NORTH WEB, SHOWING FLOOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. DETAIL VIEW OF PIN CONNECTION, NORTH WEB, SHOWING FLOOR BEANS, STRINGERS, LATTICE BRACING, EYEBARS AND DECKING, LOOKING SOUTH - Four Mile Bridge, Spanning Elk River on County Road 42, Steamboat Springs, Routt County, CO

  16. Selective surface treatment of micro printing pin and its performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Jane Gin Fai; Chen, Zugen; Nelson, Stanley F.; Kim, Chang-Jin

    2006-08-01

    Biological microarray construction relies on the sequential deposition of liquid samples, typically by contact or ink-jet printing. One drawback of contact printing is excessive solution pickup on the pin's outer surface, resulting in inefficiency. The authors combated this problem with a simple method that treats pin surfaces selectively so the outer surface becomes hydrophobic while the inner surface remains hydrophilic. Silicon-micromachined pins were utilized to evaluate the effect. The results demonstrated elimination of preprinting, greater droplet size consistency (e.g., 42±5μm vs 63±13μm), and more spots (˜800 vs ˜300) printed per loading. Consequently, an average spot diameter, between 30 and 100μm, can be controlled, depending on the pin design.

  17. 9. DETAIL VIEW OF PIN CONNECTION, SHOWING INCLINED END POSTS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. DETAIL VIEW OF PIN CONNECTION, SHOWING INCLINED END POSTS, PORTAL BRACING, HIP VERTICALS, LATTICE BRACING AND EYEBARS, LOOKING NORTHEAST - Nepesta Bridge, Spanning Arkansas River on County Road 613, Boone, Pueblo County, CO

  18. Pinning Susceptibility: The Effect of Dilute, Quenched Disorder on Jamming.

    PubMed

    Graves, Amy L; Nashed, Samer; Padgett, Elliot; Goodrich, Carl P; Liu, Andrea J; Sethna, James P

    2016-06-10

    We study the effect of dilute pinning on the jamming transition. Pinning reduces the average contact number needed to jam unpinned particles and shifts the jamming threshold to lower densities, leading to a pinning susceptibility, χ_{p}. Our main results are that this susceptibility obeys scaling form and diverges in the thermodynamic limit as χ_{p}∝|ϕ-ϕ_{c}^{∞}|^{-γ_{p}} where ϕ_{c}^{∞} is the jamming threshold in the absence of pins. Finite-size scaling arguments yield these values with associated statistical (systematic) errors γ_{p}=1.018±0.026(0.291) in d=2 and γ_{p}=1.534±0.120(0.822) in d=3. Logarithmic corrections raise the exponent in d=2 to close to the d=3 value, although the systematic errors are very large. PMID:27341244

  19. Procedure of recovery of pin-by-pin fields of energy release in the core of VVER-type reactor for the BIPR-8 code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordienko, P. V.; Kotsarev, A. V.; Lizorkin, M. P.

    2014-12-01

    The procedure of recovery of pin-by-pin energy-release fields for the BIPR-8 code and the algorithm of the BIPR-8 code which is used in nodal computation of the reactor core and on which the recovery of pin-by-pin fields of energy release is based are briefly described. The description and results of the verification using the module of recovery of pin-by-pin energy-release fields and the TVS-M program are given.

  20. Procedure of recovery of pin-by-pin fields of energy release in the core of VVER-type reactor for the BIPR-8 code

    SciTech Connect

    Gordienko, P. V. Kotsarev, A. V.; Lizorkin, M. P.

    2014-12-15

    The procedure of recovery of pin-by-pin energy-release fields for the BIPR-8 code and the algorithm of the BIPR-8 code which is used in nodal computation of the reactor core and on which the recovery of pin-by-pin fields of energy release is based are briefly described. The description and results of the verification using the module of recovery of pin-by-pin energy-release fields and the TVS-M program are given.

  1. Four-state memory based on a giant and non-volatile converse magnetoelectric effect in FeAl/PIN-PMN-PT structure

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Yanping; Gao, Cunxu; Chen, Zhendong; Xi, Shibo; Shao, Weixia; Zhang, Peng; Chen, Guilin; Li, Jiangong

    2016-01-01

    We report a stable, tunable and non-volatile converse magnetoelectric effect (ME) in a new type of FeAl/PIN-PMN-PT heterostructure at room temperature, with a giant electrical modulation of magnetization for which the maximum relative magnetization change (ΔM/M) is up to 66%. The 109° ferroelastic domain switching in the PIN-PMN-PT and coupling with the ferromagnetic (FM) film via uniaxial anisotropy originating from the PIN-PMN-PT (011) surface are the key roles in converse ME effect. We also propose here a new, four-state memory through which it is possible to modify the remanent magnetism state by adjusting the electric field. This work represents a helpful approach to securing electric-writing magnetic-reading with low energy consumption for future high-density information storage applications. PMID:27417902

  2. Four-state memory based on a giant and non-volatile converse magnetoelectric effect in FeAl/PIN-PMN-PT structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Yanping; Gao, Cunxu; Chen, Zhendong; Xi, Shibo; Shao, Weixia; Zhang, Peng; Chen, Guilin; Li, Jiangong

    2016-07-01

    We report a stable, tunable and non-volatile converse magnetoelectric effect (ME) in a new type of FeAl/PIN-PMN-PT heterostructure at room temperature, with a giant electrical modulation of magnetization for which the maximum relative magnetization change (ΔM/M) is up to 66%. The 109° ferroelastic domain switching in the PIN-PMN-PT and coupling with the ferromagnetic (FM) film via uniaxial anisotropy originating from the PIN-PMN-PT (011) surface are the key roles in converse ME effect. We also propose here a new, four-state memory through which it is possible to modify the remanent magnetism state by adjusting the electric field. This work represents a helpful approach to securing electric-writing magnetic-reading with low energy consumption for future high-density information storage applications.

  3. Four-state memory based on a giant and non-volatile converse magnetoelectric effect in FeAl/PIN-PMN-PT structure.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yanping; Gao, Cunxu; Chen, Zhendong; Xi, Shibo; Shao, Weixia; Zhang, Peng; Chen, Guilin; Li, Jiangong

    2016-01-01

    We report a stable, tunable and non-volatile converse magnetoelectric effect (ME) in a new type of FeAl/PIN-PMN-PT heterostructure at room temperature, with a giant electrical modulation of magnetization for which the maximum relative magnetization change (ΔM/M) is up to 66%. The 109° ferroelastic domain switching in the PIN-PMN-PT and coupling with the ferromagnetic (FM) film via uniaxial anisotropy originating from the PIN-PMN-PT (011) surface are the key roles in converse ME effect. We also propose here a new, four-state memory through which it is possible to modify the remanent magnetism state by adjusting the electric field. This work represents a helpful approach to securing electric-writing magnetic-reading with low energy consumption for future high-density information storage applications. PMID:27417902

  4. Groove refinishing tool

    DOEpatents

    Kellogg, Harvey J.; Holm, Robert O.

    1983-01-01

    A groove refinishing tool which utilizes a finishing wheel which is controlled by an air grinder motor. The air grinder motor is mounted on a main body section which is pivotally attached to a shoe element. The shoe element contains guide pins which guide the shoe element on the groove to be refinished. Application of pressure on the main body element compresses a weight counterbalance spring to extend the finishing wheel through the shoe element to refinish the groove surface. A window is provided for viewing the refinishing operation. Milling operations can also be performed by replacing the finishing wheel with a milling wheel.

  5. Pin and roller attachment system for ceramic blades

    DOEpatents

    Shaffer, J.E.

    1995-07-25

    In a turbine, a plurality of blades are attached to a turbine wheel by way of a plurality of joints which form a rolling contact between the blades and the turbine wheel. Each joint includes a pin and a pair of rollers to provide rolling contact between the pin and an adjacent pair of blades. Because of this rolling contact, high stress scuffing between the blades and the turbine wheel reduced, thereby inhibiting catastrophic failure of the blade joints. 3 figs.

  6. Pin and roller attachment system for ceramic blades

    DOEpatents

    Shaffer, James E.

    1995-01-01

    In a turbine, a plurality of blades are attached to a turbine wheel by way of a plurality of joints which form a rolling contact between the blades and the turbine wheel. Each joint includes a pin and a pair of rollers to provide rolling contact between the pin and an adjacent pair of blades. Because of this rolling contact, high stress scuffing between the blades and the turbine wheel reduced, thereby inhibiting catastrophic failure of the blade joints.

  7. Investigating the interactions of yeast prions: [SWI+], [PSI+], and [PIN+].

    PubMed

    Du, Zhiqiang; Li, Liming

    2014-06-01

    Multiple prion elements, which are transmitted as heritable protein conformations and often linked to distinct phenotypes, have been identified in the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. It has been shown that overproduction of a prion protein Swi1 can promote the de novo conversion of another yeast prion [PSI(+)] when Sup35 is co-overproduced. However, the mechanism underlying this Pin(+) ([PSI(+)] inducible) activity is not clear. Moreover, how the Swi1 prion ([SWI(+)]) interacts with other yeast prions is unknown. Here, we demonstrate that the Pin(+) activity associated with Swi1 overproduction is independent of Rnq1 expression or [PIN(+)] conversion. We also show that [SWI(+)] enhances the appearance of [PSI(+)] and [PIN(+)]. However, [SWI(+)] significantly compromises the Pin(+) activity of [PIN(+)] when they coexist. We further demonstrate that a single yeast cell can harbor three prions, [PSI(+)], [PIN(+)], and [SWI(+)], simultaneously. However, under this condition, [SWI(+)] is significantly destabilized. While the propensity to aggregate underlies prionogenesis, Swi1 and Rnq1 aggregates resulting from overproduction are usually nonheritable. Conversely, prion protein aggregates formed in nonoverexpressing conditions or induced by preexisting prion(s) are more prionogenic. For [PSI(+)] and [PIN(+)] de novo formation, heterologous "facilitators," such as preexisting [SWI(+)] aggregates, colocalize only with the newly formed ring-/rod-shaped Sup35 or Rnq1 aggregates, but not with the dot-shaped mature prion aggregates. Their colocalization frequency is coordinated with their prion inducibility, indicating that prion-prion interactions mainly occur at the early initiation stage. Our results provide supportive evidence for the cross-seeding model of prionogenesis and highlight a complex interaction network among prions in yeast.

  8. Behaviour of irradiated PHWR fuel pins during high temperature heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viswanathan, U. K.; Unnikrishnan, K.; Mishra, Prerna; Banerjee, Suparna; Anantharaman, S.; Sah, D. N.

    2008-12-01

    Fuel pins removed from an irradiated pressurised heavy water reactor (PHWR) fuel bundle discharged after an extended burn up of 15,000 MWd/tU have been subjected to isothermal heating tests in temperature range 700-1300 °C inside hot-cells. The heating of the fuel pins was carried out using a specially designed remotely operable furnace, which allowed localized heating of about 100 mm length of the fuel pin at one end under flowing argon gas or in air atmosphere. Post-test examination performed in the hot-cells included visual examination, leak testing, dimension measurement and optical and scanning electron microscopy. Fuel pins having internal pressure of 2.1-2.7 MPa due to fission gas release underwent ballooning and micro cracking during heating for 10 min at 800 °C and 900 °C but not at 700 °C. Fuel pin heated at 1300 °C showed complete disruption of cladding in heating zone, due to the embrittlement of the cladding. The examination of fuel from the pin tested at 1300 °C showed presence of large number of bubbles; both intragranular as well as intergranular bubbles. Details of the experiments and the results are presented in this paper.

  9. Refixation of osteochondral fractures by ultrasound-activated, resorbable pins

    PubMed Central

    Neumann, H.; Schulz, A. P.; Gille, J.; Klinger, M.; Jürgens, C.; Reimers, N.; Kienast, B.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Osteochondral injuries, if not treated adequately, often lead to severe osteoarthritis. Possible treatment options include refixation of the fragment or replacement therapies such as Pridie drilling, microfracture or osteochondral grafts, all of which have certain disadvantages. Only refixation of the fragment can produce a smooth and resilient joint surface. The aim of this study was the evaluation of an ultrasound-activated bioresorbable pin for the refixation of osteochondral fragments under physiological conditions. Methods In 16 Merino sheep, specific osteochondral fragments of the medial femoral condyle were produced and refixed with one of conventional bioresorbable pins, titanium screws or ultrasound-activated pins. Macro- and microscopic scoring was undertaken after three months. Results The healing ratio with ultrasound-activated pins was higher than with conventional pins. No negative heat effect on cartilage has been shown. Conclusion As the material is bioresorbable, no further surgery is required to remove the implant. MRI imaging is not compromised, as it is with implanted screws. The use of bioresorbable pins using ultrasound is a promising technology for the refixation of osteochondral fractures. PMID:23610699

  10. Self-pinning of a nanosuspension droplet: Molecular dynamics simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Baiou; Webb, Edmund B.

    2016-07-01

    Results are presented from molecular dynamics simulations of Pb(l) nanodroplets containing dispersed Cu nanoparticles (NPs) and spreading on solid surfaces. Three-dimensional simulations are employed throughout, but droplet spreading and pinning are reduced to two-dimensional processes by modeling cylindrical NPs in cylindrical droplets; NPs have radius RNP≅3 nm while droplets have initial R0≅42 nm . At low particle loading explored here, NPs in sufficient proximity to the initial solid-droplet interface are drawn into advancing contact lines; entrained NPs eventually bind with the underlying substrate. For relatively low advancing contact angle θadv, self-pinning on entrained NPs occurs; for higher θadv, depinning is observed. Self-pinning and depinning cases are compared and forces on NPs at the contact line are computed during a depinning event. Though significant flow in the droplet occurs in close proximity to the particle during depinning, resultant forces are relatively low. Instead, forces due to liquid atoms confined between the particles and substrate dominate the forces on NPs; that is, for the NP size studied here, forces are interface dominated. For pinning cases, a precursor wetting film advances ahead of the pinned contact line but at a significantly slower rate than for a pure droplet. This is because the precursor film is a bilayer of liquid atoms on the substrate surface but it is instead a monolayer film as it crosses over pinning particles; thus, mass delivery to the bilayer structure is impeded.

  11. Pinned vortex hopping in a neutron star crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haskell, B.; Melatos, A.

    2016-09-01

    The motion of superfluid vortices in a neutron star crust is at the heart of most theories of pulsar glitches. Pinning of vortices to ions can decouple the superfluid from the crust and create a reservoir of angular momentum. Sudden large-scale unpinning can lead to an observable glitch. In this paper, we investigate the scattering of a free vortex off a pinning potential and calculate its mean free path, in order to assess whether unpinned vortices can skip multiple pinning sites and come close enough to their neighbours to trigger avalanches, or whether they simply hop from one pinning site to its neighbour, giving rise to a more gradual creep. We find that there is a significant range of parameter space in which avalanches can be triggered, thus supporting the hypothesis that they may lie at the origin of pulsar glitches. For realistic values of the pinning force and superfluid drag parameters, we find that avalanches are more likely in the higher density regions of the crust where pinning is stronger. Physical differences in stellar parameters, such as mass and temperature, may lead to a switch between creep-like motion and avalanches, explaining the different characteristics of glitching pulsars.

  12. Vortex structure and dynamics in kagome and triangular pinning potentials

    SciTech Connect

    Laguna, M. F.; Balseiro, C. A.; Dominguez, D.; Nori, Franco

    2001-09-01

    We study the dynamics of thermally driven superconducting vortices in two types of periodic pinning potentials: kagome and triangular. For the first, second, and third matching fields, we obtain the corresponding ground-state vortex configurations and their phase diagrams. We analyze the system properties by looking at the vortex trajectories and the structure factor, as well as the linear and angular diffusion. The temperature versus pinning force phase diagram is analyzed in detail for each matching field. When the temperature is varied, we observe several stages of lattice pinning and melting. In most of the cases we find, for decreasing temperature, first a pinning of vortices and afterwards a freezing transition of the interstitial vortices. The intermediate regime corresponds to interstitial vortices in a confined liquidlike state and pinned vortices. The kagome pinning potential shows interesting behavior at low temperatures: there is a phase with rotating vortex triangles caged by kagome hexagons (''cooperative ring elementary excitations''), and there is geometric frustration for T{yields}0 with a nearly degenerate ground state.

  13. Dipentamethylene thiuram monosulfide is a novel inhibitor of Pin1

    SciTech Connect

    Tatara, Yota; Lin, Yi-Chin; Bamba, Yoshimasa; Mori, Tadashi; Uchida, Takafumi

    2009-07-03

    Pin1 is involved in eukaryotic cell proliferation by changing the structure and function of phosphorylated proteins. PiB, the Pin1 specific inhibitor, blocks cancer cell proliferation. However, low solubility of PiB in DMSO has limited studies of its effectiveness. We screened for additional Pin1 inhibitors and identified the DMSO-soluble compound dipentamethylene thiuram monosulfide (DTM) that inhibits Pin1 activity with an EC50 value of 4.1 {mu}M. Molecular modeling and enzyme kinetic analysis indicated that DTM competitively inhibits Pin1 activity, with a K{sub i} value of 0.05 {mu}M. The K{sub D} value of DTM with Pin1 was determined to be 0.06 {mu}M by SPR technology. Moreover, DTM specifically inhibited peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase activity in HeLa cells. FACS analysis showed that DTM induced G0 arrest of the HCT116 cells. Our results suggest that DTM has the potential to guide the development of novel antifungal and/or anticancer drugs.

  14. Spatially periodic domain wall pinning potentials: Asymmetric pinning and dipolar biasing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metaxas, P. J.; Zermatten, P.-J.; Novak, R. L.; Rohart, S.; Jamet, J.-P.; Weil, R.; Ferré, J.; Mougin, A.; Stamps, R. L.; Gaudin, G.; Baltz, V.; Rodmacq, B.

    2013-02-01

    Domain wall propagation has been measured in continuous, weakly disordered, quasi-two-dimensional, Ising-like magnetic layers that are subject to spatially periodic domain wall pinning potentials. The potentials are generated non-destructively using the stray magnetic field of ordered arrays of magnetically hard [Co/Pt]m nanoplatelets, which are patterned above and are physically separated from the continuous magnetic layer. The effect of the periodic pinning potentials on thermally activated domain wall creep dynamics is shown to be equivalent, at first approximation, to that of a uniform, effective retardation field, Hret, which acts against the applied field, H. We show that Hret depends not only on the array geometry but also on the relative orientation of H and the magnetization of the nanoplatelets. A result of the latter dependence is that wall-mediated hysteresis loops obtained for a set nanoplatelet magnetization exhibit many properties that are normally associated with ferromagnet/antiferromagnet exchange bias systems. These include a switchable bias, coercivity enhancement, and domain wall roughness that is dependent on the applied field polarity.

  15. Antimicrobial efficacy of external fixator pins coated with a lipid stabilized hydroxyapatite/chlorhexidine complex to prevent pin tract infection in a goat model.

    SciTech Connect

    Dejong, E. Schuyler; Deberardino, T. M.; Brooks, D. E.; Nelson, B. J.; Campbell, Allison A.; Bottoni, Craig R.; Pusateri, A. E.; Walton, R. S.; Guymon, C. H.; Mcmanus, Albert T.

    2001-06-01

    Background: Pin tract infection is a common complication of external fixation. An antiinfective external fixator pin might help to reduce the incidence of pin tract infection and improve pin fixation. Methods: Stainless steel and titanium external fixator pins, with and without a lipid stabilized hydroxyapatite/chlorhexidine coating, were evaluated in a goat model. Two pins contaminated with an identifiable Staphylococcus aureus strain were inserted into each tibia of 12 goats. The pin sites were examined daily. On day 14, the animals were killed, and the pin tips cultured. Insertion and extraction torques were measured. Results: Infection developed in 100% of uncoated pins, whereas coated pins demonstrated 4.2% infected, 12.5% colonized, and the remainder, 83.3%, had no growth (p < 0.01). Pin coating decreased the percent loss of fixation torque over uncoated pins (p = 0.04). Conclusion: These results demonstrate that the lipid stabilized hydroxyapatite/chlorhexidine coating was successful in decreasing infection and improving fixation of external fixator pins.

  16. Pin-Hole Luminosity Monitor with Feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norem, James H.; Spencer, James E.

    Previously, the generalized luminosity { L} was defined and calculated for all incident channels based on an NLC e+e- design. Alternatives were then considered to improve the differing beam-beam effects in the e-e-, eγ and γγ channels. Regardless of the channel, there was a large flux of outgoing, high energy photons that were produced from the beam-beam interaction e.g. beamstrahlung that needs to be disposed of and whose flux depended on { L}. One approach to this problem is to consider it a resource and attempt to take advantage of it by disposing of these straight-ahead photons in more useful ways than simply dumping them. While there are many options for monitoring the luminosity, any method that allows feedback and optimization in real time and in a non-intercepting and non-interfering way during normal data taking is extremely important - especially if it provides other capabilities such as high resolution tuning of spot sizes and can be used for all incident channels without essential modifications to their setup. Our "pin-hole" camera appears to be such a device if it can be made to work with high energy photons in ways that are compatible with the many other constraints and demands on space around the interaction region. The basis for using this method is that it has, in principle, the inherent resolution and bandwidth to monitor the very small spot sizes and their stabilities that are required for very high, integrated luminosity. While there are many possible, simultaneous uses of these outgoing photon beams, we limit our discussion to a single, blind, proof-of-principle experiment that was done on the FFTB line at SLAC to certify the concept of a camera obscura for high energy photons.

  17. Alkoxy-auxins Are Selective Inhibitors of Auxin Transport Mediated by PIN, ABCB, and AUX1 Transporters*

    PubMed Central

    Tsuda, Etsuko; Yang, Haibing; Nishimura, Takeshi; Uehara, Yukiko; Sakai, Tatsuya; Furutani, Masahiko; Koshiba, Tomokazu; Hirose, Masakazu; Nozaki, Hiroshi; Murphy, Angus S.; Hayashi, Ken-ichiro

    2011-01-01

    Polar auxin movement is a primary regulator of programmed and plastic plant development. Auxin transport is highly regulated at the cellular level and is mediated by coordinated transport activity of plasma membrane-localized PIN, ABCB, and AUX1/LAX transporters. The activity of these transporters has been extensively analyzed using a combination of pharmacological inhibitors, synthetic auxins, and knock-out mutants in Arabidopsis. However, efforts to analyze auxin-dependent growth in other species that are less tractable to genetic manipulation require more selective inhibitors than are currently available. In this report, we characterize the inhibitory activity of 5-alkoxy derivatives of indole 3-acetic acid and 7-alkoxy derivatives of naphthalene 1-acetic acid, finding that the hexyloxy and benzyloxy derivatives act as potent inhibitors of auxin action in plants. These alkoxy-auxin analogs inhibit polar auxin transport and tropic responses associated with asymmetric auxin distribution in Arabidopsis and maize. The alkoxy-auxin analogs inhibit auxin transport mediated by AUX1, PIN, and ABCB proteins expressed in yeast. However, these analogs did not inhibit or activate SCFTIR1 auxin signaling and had no effect on the subcellular trafficking of PIN proteins. Together these results indicate that alkoxy-auxins are inactive auxin analogs for auxin signaling, but are recognized by PIN, ABCB, and AUX1 auxin transport proteins. Alkoxy-auxins are powerful new tools for analyses of auxin-dependent development. PMID:21084292

  18. Alkoxy-auxins are selective inhibitors of auxin transport mediated by PIN, ABCB, and AUX1 transporters.

    PubMed

    Tsuda, Etsuko; Yang, Haibing; Nishimura, Takeshi; Uehara, Yukiko; Sakai, Tatsuya; Furutani, Masahiko; Koshiba, Tomokazu; Hirose, Masakazu; Nozaki, Hiroshi; Murphy, Angus S; Hayashi, Ken-ichiro

    2011-01-21

    Polar auxin movement is a primary regulator of programmed and plastic plant development. Auxin transport is highly regulated at the cellular level and is mediated by coordinated transport activity of plasma membrane-localized PIN, ABCB, and AUX1/LAX transporters. The activity of these transporters has been extensively analyzed using a combination of pharmacological inhibitors, synthetic auxins, and knock-out mutants in Arabidopsis. However, efforts to analyze auxin-dependent growth in other species that are less tractable to genetic manipulation require more selective inhibitors than are currently available. In this report, we characterize the inhibitory activity of 5-alkoxy derivatives of indole 3-acetic acid and 7-alkoxy derivatives of naphthalene 1-acetic acid, finding that the hexyloxy and benzyloxy derivatives act as potent inhibitors of auxin action in plants. These alkoxy-auxin analogs inhibit polar auxin transport and tropic responses associated with asymmetric auxin distribution in Arabidopsis and maize. The alkoxy-auxin analogs inhibit auxin transport mediated by AUX1, PIN, and ABCB proteins expressed in yeast. However, these analogs did not inhibit or activate SCF(TIR1) auxin signaling and had no effect on the subcellular trafficking of PIN proteins. Together these results indicate that alkoxy-auxins are inactive auxin analogs for auxin signaling, but are recognized by PIN, ABCB, and AUX1 auxin transport proteins. Alkoxy-auxins are powerful new tools for analyses of auxin-dependent development.

  19. Seasonal Temperature and Pin Site Care Regimen Affect the Incidence of Pin Site Infection in Pediatric Supracondylar Humeral Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Mei-Chuan; Lee, Wei-Chun; Yang, Wen-E; Chang, Chia-Hsieh

    2015-01-01

    Pin site infection is a common complication after fracture fixation and bone lengthening, and daily pin site care is recommended. Weather is a strong environmental factor of infection, but few articles studied the issue of weather and pin site infection. We performed a prospective comparative study of 61 children with supracondylar humeral fractures treated by closed reduction and percutaneous pinning. The patients were divided into high-temperature season or low-temperature season by the months they received surgery. The patients within each season were further allocated to 2 groups by the different postoperative pin site care methods of daily care or noncare. The infection rate per patient was significantly higher in the high-temperature season compared to low-temperature season (45% versus 19%, P = 0.045). In the high-temperature season, the infection rate per patient was significantly higher in the daily care group versus the noncare group (70% versus 20%, P = 0.001). In the low-temperature season, the infection rate per patient was not significantly different in the daily care group versus the noncare group (10% versus 27.3%, P = 0.33). We recommend that careful monitoring of infection signs, rather than pin site cleaning, would be appropriate in the treatment of pediatric supracondylar humeral fractures, especially during the summer months. PMID:26064957

  20. SLIT ADJUSTMENT CLAMP

    DOEpatents

    McKenzie, K.R.

    1959-07-01

    An electrode support which permits accurate alignment and adjustment of the electrode in a plurality of planes and about a plurality of axes in a calutron is described. The support will align the slits in the electrode with the slits of an ionizing chamber so as to provide for the egress of ions. The support comprises an insulator, a leveling plate carried by the insulator and having diametrically opposed attaching screws screwed to the plate and the insulator and diametrically opposed adjusting screws for bearing against the insulator, and an electrode associated with the plate for adjustment therewith.

  1. Flux Pinning in Superconducting Niobium-Titanium Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKinnell, James Charles

    1990-01-01

    By studying Nb-Ti alloys from Nb44wt%Ti to Nb62wt%Ti the low field (2T) current density has been raised from 6500A/mm^2 (4.2^ circK) with standard Nb46.5wt%Ti to 7400A/mm ^2 with Nb58wt%Ti. When standard processing sequences were used, the alloys containing more than 46.5wt%Ti exhibited non-uniform microstructures following a precipitation heat treatment and the hardness rose from 200 DPN to over 300 DPN. By increasing the cold work prior to heat treatment the non-uniform precipitation was avoided. The amount of cold work needed prior to heat treatment to suppress non-uniform precipitation increased as the Ti content of the alloy increased. The volume fraction of precipitate produced during a given heat treatment also increased as the Ti content of the alloy increased. As the Ti content increased, the peak in the reduced pinning force curve shifted from b = 0.5 to b = 0.25. In order to determine whether the change in the flux pinning properties was due to the change in microstructure or due to enhanced Delta H_{c} pinning as the Ti content was increased, a set of wires with similar microstructures was developed. Their flux pinning behavior showed that the higher Ti alloys have pinning force curves which peak at progressively lower reduced fields. Thus Delta H_{c} pinning becomes the dominant pinning mechanism as the Ti content is increased.

  2. Alignment Tool For Welding Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, Jeffrey L.; Steffins, Alfred P.

    1992-01-01

    Alignment tool enables accurate positioning of optoelectronic sensor measuring weld penetration. Designed for use on tungsten/inert-gas welding apparatus, used to adjust position of sensor so photodiode puts out maximum signal. Tangs of slotted cap bent slightly inward to provide spring force holding cap snugly on sensor mount. Tool installed and removed without aid of other tools. Length of pointer adjusted with set-screws. Used with variety of gas cup and electrode lengths.

  3. Child Adjustment and Parent Efficacy Scale-Developmental Disability (CAPES-DD): First psychometric evaluation of a new child and parenting assessment tool for children with a developmental disability.

    PubMed

    Emser, Theresa S; Mazzucchelli, Trevor G; Christiansen, Hanna; Sanders, Matthew R

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the psychometric properties of the Child Adjustment and Parent Efficacy Scale-Developmental Disability (CAPES-DD), a brief inventory for assessing emotional and behavioral problems of children with developmental disabilities aged 2- to 16-years, as well as caregivers' self-efficacy in managing these problems. A sample of 636 parents participated in the study. Children's ages ranged from 2 to 15. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses supported a 21-item, three-factor model of CAPES-DD child adjustment with 13 items describing behavioral (10 items) and emotional (3 items) problems and 8 items describing prosocial behavior. Three additional items were included due to their clinical usefulness and contributed to a Total Problem Score. Factor analyses also supported a 16-item, one factor model of CAPES-DD self-efficacy. Psychometric evaluation of the CAPES-DD revealed scales had satisfactory to very good internal consistency, as well as very good convergent and predictive validity. The instrument is to be in the public domain and free for practitioners and researchers to use. Potential uses of the measure and implications for future validation studies are discussed. PMID:26921524

  4. Dynamical contact line pinning and zipping during carbon nanotube coffee stain formation.

    PubMed

    Li, Han; Hain, Tilman C; Muzha, Andreas; Schöppler, Friedrich; Hertel, Tobias

    2014-06-24

    Thin films of single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) can be deposited onto solid substrates by evaporation-induced self-assembly. However, for this process to become more accessible to thin-film-based device fabrication requires optimization and a better understanding of the parameters and mechanisms governing nanoparticle film growth. Here, we focus on the role of contact-line (CL) dynamics at the edge of a receding meniscus for the deposition of thin nanoparticle films from colloidal suspensions. We find that film deposition rates can be increased by up to 2 orders of magnitude over earlier reports if parameters such as SWNT concentration, surfactant concentration, and height of the capillary bridge from which particles are deposited are properly adjusted. Most importantly we have also discovered that CL dynamics leading to the formation of striped films (coffee stains) are best described by dynamical pinning and kink-induced zipping. The existence of critical SWNT and surfactant concentrations as well as their role in determining stripe characteristics can be well accounted for by the proposed dynamical pinning and zipping model. PMID:24827029

  5. Adjustable drill bar replaces complex jigs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coventry, J. H.

    1970-01-01

    Adjustable drill bar incorporates a micrometer screw which, when used in conjunction with standard gage blocks, provides rapid method of drill hole location and reduces time and skill requirements for precision drilling on large surfaces. Device picks up oddly dimensioned tool hole points and acts as sine drill bar.

  6. Remotely Adjustable Hydraulic Pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kouns, H. H.; Gardner, L. D.

    1987-01-01

    Outlet pressure adjusted to match varying loads. Electrohydraulic servo has positioned sleeve in leftmost position, adjusting outlet pressure to maximum value. Sleeve in equilibrium position, with control land covering control port. For lowest pressure setting, sleeve shifted toward right by increased pressure on sleeve shoulder from servovalve. Pump used in aircraft and robots, where hydraulic actuators repeatedly turned on and off, changing pump load frequently and over wide range.

  7. Weighted triangulation adjustment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, Walter L.

    1969-01-01

    The variation of coordinates method is employed to perform a weighted least squares adjustment of horizontal survey networks. Geodetic coordinates are required for each fixed and adjustable station. A preliminary inverse geodetic position computation is made for each observed line. Weights associated with each observed equation for direction, azimuth, and distance are applied in the formation of the normal equations in-the least squares adjustment. The number of normal equations that may be solved is twice the number of new stations and less than 150. When the normal equations are solved, shifts are produced at adjustable stations. Previously computed correction factors are applied to the shifts and a most probable geodetic position is found for each adjustable station. Pinal azimuths and distances are computed. These may be written onto magnetic tape for subsequent computation of state plane or grid coordinates. Input consists of punch cards containing project identification, program options, and position and observation information. Results listed include preliminary and final positions, residuals, observation equations, solution of the normal equations showing magnitudes of shifts, and a plot of each adjusted and fixed station. During processing, data sets containing irrecoverable errors are rejected and the type of error is listed. The computer resumes processing of additional data sets.. Other conditions cause warning-errors to be issued, and processing continues with the current data set.

  8. Tool for Inspecting Alignment of Twinaxial Connectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Christopher R.

    2008-01-01

    A proposed tool would be used to inspect alignments of mating twinaxial-connector assemblies on interconnecting wiring harnesses. More specifically, the tool would be used to inspect the alignment of each contact pin of each connector on one assembly with the corresponding socket in the corresponding connector on the other assembly. It is necessary to inspect the alignment because if mating of the assemblies is attempted when any pin/socket pair is misaligned beyond tolerance, the connection will not be completed and the dielectric material in the socket will be damaged (see Figure 1). Although the basic principle of the tool is applicable to almost any type of mating connector assemblies, the specific geometry of the tool must match the pin-and-socket geometry of the specific mating assemblies to be inspected. In the original application for which the tool was conceived, each of the mating assemblies contains eight twinaxial connectors; the pin diameter is 0.014 in. (.0.35 mm), and the maximum allowable pin/socket misalignment is 0.007 in. (.0.18 mm). Incomplete connections can result in loss of flight data within the functional path to the space shuttle crew cockpit displays. The tool (see Figure 2) would consist mainly of a transparent disk with alignment clocking tabs that can be fitted onto either connector assembly. Sets of circles or equivalent reference markings are affixed to the face of the tool, located at the desired positions of the mating contact pairs. An inspector would simply fit the tool onto a connector assembly, engaging the clocking tabs until the tool fits tightly. The inspector would then align one set of circles positioning a line of sight perpendicular to one contact within the connector assembly. Mis alignments would be evidenced by the tip of a pin contact straying past the inner edge of the circle. Socket contact misalignments would be evidenced by a crescent-shaped portion of the white dielectric appearing within the circle. The tool

  9. Pin-Type Gas Cooled Reactor for Nuclear Electric Propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Steven A.; Lipinski, Ronald J.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes a point design for a pin-type Gas-Cooled Reactor concept that uses a fuel pin design similar to the SP100 fuel pin. The Gas-Cooled Reactor is designed to operate at 100 kWe for 7 years plus have a reduced power mode of 20% power for a duration of 5 years. The power system uses a gas-cooled, UN-fueled, pin-type reactor to heat He/Xe gas that flows directly into a recuperated Brayton system to produce electricity. Heat is rejected to space via a thermal radiator that unfolds in space. The reactor contains approximately 154 kg of 93.15 % enriched UN in 313 fuel pins. The fuel is clad with rhenium-lined Nb-1Zr. The pressures vessel and ducting are cooled by the 900 K He/Xe gas inlet flow or by thermal radiation. This permits all pressure boundaries to be made of superalloy metals rather than refractory metals, which greatly reduces the cost and development schedule required by the project. The reactor contains sufficient rhenium (a neutron poison) to make the reactor subcritical under water immersion accidents without the use of internal shutdown rods. The mass of the reactor and reflectors is about 750 kg.

  10. Stroboscopic phenomena in superconductors with dynamic pinning landscape.

    PubMed

    Jelić, Ž L; Milošević, M V; Van de Vondel, J; Silhanek, A V

    2015-01-01

    Introducing artificial pinning centers is a well established strategy to trap quantum vortices and increase the maximal magnetic field and applied electric current that a superconductor can sustain without dissipation. In case of spatially periodic pinning, a clear enhancement of the superconducting critical current arises when commensurability between the vortex configurations and the pinning landscape occurs. With recent achievements in (ultrafast) optics and nanoengineered plasmonics it has become possible to exploit the interaction of light with superconductivity, and create not only spatially periodic imprints on the superconducting condensate, but also temporally periodic ones. Here we show that in the latter case, temporal matching phenomena develop, caused by stroboscopic commensurability between the characteristic frequency of the vortex motion under applied current and the frequency of the dynamic pinning. The matching resonances persist in a broad parameter space, including magnetic field, driving current, or material purity, giving rise to unusual features such as externally variable resistance/impedance and Shapiro steps in current-voltage characteristics. All features are tunable by the frequency of the dynamic pinning landscape. These findings open further exploration avenues for using flashing, spatially engineered, and/or mobile excitations on superconductors, permitting us to achieve advanced functionalities. PMID:26423610

  11. Grain boundary curvature and grain growth kinetics with particle pinning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahandeh, Sina; Militzer, Matthias

    2013-08-01

    Second-phase particles are used extensively in design of polycrystalline materials to control the grain size. According to Zener's theory, a distribution of particles creates a pinning pressure on a moving grain boundary. As a result, a limiting grain size is observed, but the effect of pinning on the detail of grain growth kinetics is less known. The influence of the particles on the microstructure occurs in multiple length scales, established by particle radius and the grain size. In this article, we use a meso-scale phase-field model that simulates grain growth in the presence of a uniform pinning pressure. The curvature of the grain boundary network is measured to determine the driving pressure of grain growth in 2D and 3D systems. It was observed that the grain growth continues, even under conditions where the average driving pressure is smaller than the pinning pressure. The limiting grain size is reached when the maximum of driving pressure distribution in the structure is equal to the pinning pressure. This results in a limiting grain size, larger than the one predicted by conventional models, and further analysis shows consistency with experimental observations. A physical model is proposed for the kinetics of grain growth using parameters based on the curvature analysis of the grain boundaries. This model can describe the simulated grain growth kinetics.

  12. Stroboscopic phenomena in superconductors with dynamic pinning landscape

    PubMed Central

    Jelić, Ž. L.; Milošević, M. V.; Van de Vondel, J.; Silhanek, A. V.

    2015-01-01

    Introducing artificial pinning centers is a well established strategy to trap quantum vortices and increase the maximal magnetic field and applied electric current that a superconductor can sustain without dissipation. In case of spatially periodic pinning, a clear enhancement of the superconducting critical current arises when commensurability between the vortex configurations and the pinning landscape occurs. With recent achievements in (ultrafast) optics and nanoengineered plasmonics it has become possible to exploit the interaction of light with superconductivity, and create not only spatially periodic imprints on the superconducting condensate, but also temporally periodic ones. Here we show that in the latter case, temporal matching phenomena develop, caused by stroboscopic commensurability between the characteristic frequency of the vortex motion under applied current and the frequency of the dynamic pinning. The matching resonances persist in a broad parameter space, including magnetic field, driving current, or material purity, giving rise to unusual features such as externally variable resistance/impedance and Shapiro steps in current-voltage characteristics. All features are tunable by the frequency of the dynamic pinning landscape. These findings open further exploration avenues for using flashing, spatially engineered, and/or mobile excitations on superconductors, permitting us to achieve advanced functionalities. PMID:26423610

  13. Stroboscopic phenomena in superconductors with dynamic pinning landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jelić, Ž. L.; Milošević, M. V.; van de Vondel, J.; Silhanek, A. V.

    2015-10-01

    Introducing artificial pinning centers is a well established strategy to trap quantum vortices and increase the maximal magnetic field and applied electric current that a superconductor can sustain without dissipation. In case of spatially periodic pinning, a clear enhancement of the superconducting critical current arises when commensurability between the vortex configurations and the pinning landscape occurs. With recent achievements in (ultrafast) optics and nanoengineered plasmonics it has become possible to exploit the interaction of light with superconductivity, and create not only spatially periodic imprints on the superconducting condensate, but also temporally periodic ones. Here we show that in the latter case, temporal matching phenomena develop, caused by stroboscopic commensurability between the characteristic frequency of the vortex motion under applied current and the frequency of the dynamic pinning. The matching resonances persist in a broad parameter space, including magnetic field, driving current, or material purity, giving rise to unusual features such as externally variable resistance/impedance and Shapiro steps in current-voltage characteristics. All features are tunable by the frequency of the dynamic pinning landscape. These findings open further exploration avenues for using flashing, spatially engineered, and/or mobile excitations on superconductors, permitting us to achieve advanced functionalities.

  14. Theoretical studies of thin-film superconductors with pinning centers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Sa Lin

    2001-07-01

    We investigate the effect of a ferromagnetic dot on a thin-film superconductor. We use a real-space method to solve the linearized Ginzburg-Landau equation in order to find the upper critical field, Hc3 . We show that Hc3 is crucially dependent on dot composition and geometry and may be significantly greater than Hc2 . Hc3 is maximally enhanced when: (1) the dot saturation magnetization is large, (2) the ratio of dot thickness to dot diameter is of order unity, and (3) the dot thickness is large. We also report on a study of vortex pinning in nanoscale antidot defect arrays in the context of the London theory. Using a wire network model, we discretize the array with a fine mesh, thereby providing a detailed treatment of pinning phenomena. We use Ewald's trick to efficiently calculate the vector potential of the supercurrent. The use of a fine grid has enabled us to examine both circular and elongated defects. We have given special attention to defects patterned in the form of a rhombus. The rhombic defects display pinning characteristics superior to circular defects constructed with the similar area. We calculate pinning potentials for defects containing zero and single quanta and we obtain a pinning phase diagram for the second matching field H = 2phio.

  15. Irradiation of TZM: Uranium dioxide fuel pin at 1700 K

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdonald, G. E.

    1973-01-01

    A fuel pin clad with TZM and containing solid pellets of uranium dioxide was fission heated in a static helium-cooled capsule at a maximum surface temperature of 1700 K for approximately 1000 hr and to a total burnup of 2.0 percent of the uranium-235. The results of the postirradiation examination indicated: (1) A transverse, intergranular failure of the fuel pin occurred when the fuel pin reached 2.0-percent burnup. This corresponds to 1330 kW-hr/cu cm, where the volume is the sum of the fuel, clad, and void volumes in the fuel region. (2) The maximum swelling of the fuel pin was less than 1.5 percent on the fuel-pin diameter. (3) There was no visible interaction between the TZM clad and the UO2. (4) Irradiation at 1700 K produced a course-grained structure, with an average grain diameter of 0.02 centimeter and with some of the grains extending one-half of the thickness of the clad. (5) Below approximately 1500 K, the irradiation of the clad produced a moderately fine-grained structure, with an average grain diameter of 0.004 centimeter.

  16. Posttranslational modification and trafficking of PIN auxin efflux carriers.

    PubMed

    Löfke, Christian; Luschnig, Christian; Kleine-Vehn, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    Cell-to-cell communication is absolutely essential for multicellular organisms. Both animals and plants use chemicals called hormones for intercellular signaling. However, multicellularity of plants and animals has evolved independently, which led to establishment of distinct strategies in order to cope with variations in an ever-changing environment. The phytohormone auxin is crucial to plant development and patterning. PIN auxin efflux carrier-driven polar auxin transport regulates plant development as it controls asymmetric auxin distribution (auxin gradients), which in turn modulates a wide range of developmental processes. Internal and external cues trigger a number of posttranslational PIN auxin carrier modifications that were demonstrated to decisively influence variations in adaptive growth responses. In this review, we highlight recent advances in the analysis of posttranslational modification of PIN auxin efflux carriers, such as phosphorylation and ubiquitylation, and discuss their eminent role in directional vesicle trafficking, PIN protein de-/stabilization and auxin transport activity. We conclude with updated models, in which we attempt to integrate the mechanistic relevance of posttranslational modifications of PIN auxin carriers for the dynamic nature of plant development.

  17. Flux pinning in high-current-density superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Freyhardt, H.

    1983-05-01

    A major application of superconducting wire materials is the generation of magnetic fields, often in large volumes, with particular strenth, homogeneity, and field gradients. To fabricate superconductors which can carry high current densities at high temperatures and fields, flux pinning, by crystal inhomogeneities, must be understood. This paper attempts to answer two questions about flux pinning. The first addresses the nature and strenght of the elementary interaction force (f) between one flux line (FL) and one obstacle; the second, the correct summation of these elementary interactions between the obstacles in a unit volume and the FL to the (total) volume pinning force F /SUB v/ = B X J /SUB c/ . The discussion is confined to NbTi and A15 superconductors such as Nb/sub 3/Sn and V/sub 3/Ga. Important pinning sites in these superconductors are dislocation walls, precipitates, small inclusions, voids, grain boundaries, and bubbles. A series of mathematical models which have been used in the past are presented and synthesized into a more sophisticated explanation of pinning.

  18. Generation cost frontier analysis, dynamic market adjustment, and strategic gaming: Integrated tools for benchmarking, competitive market analysis, and strategy formulation under conditions of uncertainty in the transition to a competitive electricity market

    SciTech Connect

    Corio, M.R.; Bellucci, J.W.; Boyd, G.A.; Perl, K.E.

    1998-07-01

    The authors describe a three dimensional frontier consisting of: spending, availability/reliability, and utilization/heat rate. To determine optimal behavior in a future deregulated market, one must also find the optimal adjustment path from present to long-run frontier operation, and the optimal strategic action/response as determined by game theory. One can also perform more limited optimizations along either the two dimensional spending/reliability or spending/utilization frontiers. Although the authors mainly discuss optimizing existing domestic plants, frontier analysis could easily be applied to an electric producer's plants or acquisition targets internationally. Efficient operation saves money even in countries where electric markets are still regulated and can also confer indirect environmental benefits. AER is also applying these frontier analysis and game theory techniques to environmental decision-making, specifically to environmental retrofit decisions.

  19. Identification of IAA transport inhibitors including compounds affecting cellular PIN trafficking by two chemical screening approaches using maize coleoptile systems.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Takeshi; Matano, Naoyuki; Morishima, Taichi; Kakinuma, Chieko; Hayashi, Ken-Ichiro; Komano, Teruya; Kubo, Minoru; Hasebe, Mitsuyasu; Kasahara, Hiroyuki; Kamiya, Yuji; Koshiba, Tomokazu

    2012-10-01

    The monocot coleoptile tip region has been generally supposed to be the source of IAA to supply IAA to basal parts by the polar IAA transport system, which results in gravi- and phototropic curvature of coleoptiles. Based on this IAA transport system and gravitropism of maize coleoptiles, we have developed two screening methods to identify small molecules from a large chemical library that inhibit IAA transport. The methods detect molecules that affect (i) gravitropic curvature of coleoptiles; and (ii) the amount of IAA transported from the tip. From 10,000 chemicals, eight compounds were identified and categorized into two groups. Four chemicals in group A decreased IAA transport from the tip, and increased endogenous IAA levels in the tip. The structures of two compounds resembled that of 1-N-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA), but those of the other two differed from structures of known IAA transport inhibitors. Four chemicals in group B strongly inhibited IAA transport from the tip, but IAA levels at the tip were only slightly affected. At higher concentrations, group B compounds inhibited germination of Arabidopsis, similarly to brefeldin A (BFA). Analysis of the cellular distribution of PIN2-green fluorescent protein (GFP) and PIN1-GFP in Arabidopsis revealed that one of the four chemicals in group B induced internalization of PIN1 and PIN2 proteins into vesicles smaller than BFA bodies, suggesting that this compound affects cellular vesicle trafficking systems related to PIN trafficking. The eight chemicals identified here will be a useful tool for understanding the mechanisms of IAA transport in plants. PMID:22875609

  20. Transverse commensurability effect for vortices on periodic pinning arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Reichhardt, Charles; Reichhardt, Cynthia J

    2008-01-01

    Using computer simulations, we demonstrate a type of commensurability that occurs for vortices moving longitudinally through periodic pinning arrays in the presence of an additional transverse driving force. As a function of vortex density, there is a series of broad maxima in the transverse critical depinning force that do not fall at the matching fields where the number of vortices equals an integer multiple of the number of pinning sites. The commensurability effects are associated with dynamical states in which evenly spaced structures consisting of one or more moving rows of vortices form between rows of pinning sites. Remarkably, the critical transverse depinning force can be more than an order of magnitude larger than the longitudinal depinning force.

  1. Impact of Edge-Barrier Pinning in Superconducting Thin Films

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, W. A.; Barnes, P.N.; Mullins, M. J.; Baca, F. J.; Emergo, R. L. S.; Wu, J.; Haugan, T. J.; Clem, J. R.

    2010-12-30

    It has been suggested that edge-barrier pinning might cause the critical current density (J{sub c}) in bridged superconducting films to increase. Subsequent work indicated that this edge-barrier effect does not impact bridges larger than 1 {micro}m. However, we provide a theoretical assessment with supporting experimental data suggesting edge-barrier pinning can significantly enhance J{sub c} for bridges of a few microns or even tens of microns thus skewing any comparisons among institutions. As such, when reporting flux pinning and superconductor processing improvements for J{sub c} comparisons, the width of the sample has to be taken into consideration as is currently done with film thickness.

  2. Electrodynamics of type-II superconductor with periodic pinning array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hung, R. F.; Berco, D.; Shapiro, I. Ya.; Shapiro, B.; Rosenstein, B.

    2011-01-01

    Static and dynamic distribution of the superconducting condensate order parameters and current density is studied by numerical simulation of the 2D time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau equations. The vortex flux lattice in layered type-II superconductors under magnetic field above the lower critical field is described by the order parameters. Moreover, the pinning effect has been considered in this work. The Abrikosov lattice which is hexagonal in the static case is deformed due to the size of pinning centers. The dynamical order parameters distribution shows that the vortex transport (flux flow) is conducted via diffusive motion of the so-called interstitial vortices. The trajectories for interstitial vortices with different sizes of pinning centers are shown.

  3. Practical synchronization on complex dynamical networks via optimal pinning control.

    PubMed

    Li, Kezan; Sun, Weigang; Small, Michael; Fu, Xinchu

    2015-07-01

    We consider practical synchronization on complex dynamical networks under linear feedback control designed by optimal control theory. The control goal is to minimize global synchronization error and control strength over a given finite time interval, and synchronization error at terminal time. By utilizing the Pontryagin's minimum principle, and based on a general complex dynamical network, we obtain an optimal system to achieve the control goal. The result is verified by performing some numerical simulations on Star networks, Watts-Strogatz networks, and Barabási-Albert networks. Moreover, by combining optimal control and traditional pinning control, we propose an optimal pinning control strategy which depends on the network's topological structure. Obtained results show that optimal pinning control is very effective for synchronization control in real applications. PMID:26274112

  4. Dynamical coupled-channels analysis of {sup 1}H(e,e{sup '}{pi})N reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Julia-Diaz, B.; Kamano, H.; Lee, T.-S. H.; Matsuyama, A.; Sato, T.; Suzuki, N.

    2009-08-15

    We have performed a dynamical coupled-channels analysis of available p(e,e{sup '}{pi})N data in the region of W{<=}1.6 GeV and Q{sup 2}{<=}1.45 (GeV/c){sup 2}. The channels included are {gamma}*N, {pi}N, {eta}N, and {pi}{pi}N that has {pi}{delta}, {rho}N, and {sigma}N components. With the hadronic parameters of the model determined in our previous investigations of {pi}N{yields}{pi}N, {pi}{pi}N reactions, we have found that the available data in the considered W{<=}1.6 GeV region can be fitted well by only adjusting the bare {gamma}*N{yields}N* helicity amplitudes for the lowest N* states in P{sub 33}, P{sub 11}, S{sub 11}, and D{sub 13} partial waves. The sensitivity of the resulting parameters to the amount of data included in the analysis is investigated. The importance of coupled-channels effect on the p(e,e{sup '}{pi})N cross sections is demonstrated. The meson cloud effect, as required by the unitarity conditions, on the {gamma}*N{yields}N* form factors are also examined. Necessary future developments, both experimentally and theoretically, are discussed.

  5. Small pinning points increase grounding-line sensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favier, Lionel; Pattyn, Frank; Berger, Sophie; Drews, Reinhard

    2016-04-01

    Initialising prognostic simulations of outlet glaciers relies on geometry and surface velocity, from which data assimilation methods rectify poorly known parameters such as ice stiffness or basal slipperiness. Stemming from the contact between ice shelves and submarine topographic highs, pinning points impact both ice velocity and stiffness but, wherever they are small enough, they can easily be overlooked by satellite observations. Here, we use the ice-sheet model BISICLES to investigate the future ice dynamical behaviour of two neighbouring outlet glaciers in Dronning Maud Land, i.e., Hansenbreen and West Raghnild glacier. The latter is buttressed by a previously uncharted pinning point at the ice shelf front while both are separated by an ice promontory. We also reconstruct ice velocity and geometry fields including the pinning point, which is absent from Antarctic-wide datasets, from data collected on site. The model is initialised with three combinations of ice geometry and stiffness, (i) with or (ii) without the pinning point influence in the assimilation procedure, and (iii) being a variant of (i) but starting with unpinning. We explore two sub-ice shelf melting scenarios of three amplitudes, and two weertmann-type sliding law exponents for each initialisation. The results show the future unstable retreat of Hansenbreen, moderately affected by unpinning. However, ignoring the pinning point in data assimilation overstiffens the ice shelf and highly decreases the timing of the retreat. This study stresses the need of accurate bathymetry and ice velocity, as the current datasets that disregard pinning points tend to stabilise marine sectors of the East Antarctic ice sheet, hence affecting sea-level rise predictions.

  6. Self-pinning of a nanosuspension droplet: Molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Shi, Baiou; Webb, Edmund B

    2016-07-01

    Results are presented from molecular dynamics simulations of Pb(l) nanodroplets containing dispersed Cu nanoparticles (NPs) and spreading on solid surfaces. Three-dimensional simulations are employed throughout, but droplet spreading and pinning are reduced to two-dimensional processes by modeling cylindrical NPs in cylindrical droplets; NPs have radius R_{NP}≅3nm while droplets have initial R_{0}≅42nm. At low particle loading explored here, NPs in sufficient proximity to the initial solid-droplet interface are drawn into advancing contact lines; entrained NPs eventually bind with the underlying substrate. For relatively low advancing contact angle θ_{adv}, self-pinning on entrained NPs occurs; for higher θ_{adv}, depinning is observed. Self-pinning and depinning cases are compared and forces on NPs at the contact line are computed during a depinning event. Though significant flow in the droplet occurs in close proximity to the particle during depinning, resultant forces are relatively low. Instead, forces due to liquid atoms confined between the particles and substrate dominate the forces on NPs; that is, for the NP size studied here, forces are interface dominated. For pinning cases, a precursor wetting film advances ahead of the pinned contact line but at a significantly slower rate than for a pure droplet. This is because the precursor film is a bilayer of liquid atoms on the substrate surface but it is instead a monolayer film as it crosses over pinning particles; thus, mass delivery to the bilayer structure is impeded. PMID:27575186

  7. Flux-pinning mechanism in silicone-oil-doped MgB2 : Evidence for charge-carrier mean free path fluctuation pinning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghorbani, S. R.; Wang, X. L.; Dou, S. X.; Lee, Sung-Ik; Hossain, M. S. A.

    2008-11-01

    Flux-pinning mechanism of MgB2 doped with 10wt% silicone-oil sintered at low and high temperatures has been investigated by magnetic measurements. The field dependence of the critical current density, jc(B) , was analyzed within the collective pinning model. A crossover field, Bsb , from the single vortex to the small vortex bundle-pinning regime was observed. For both types of sintered samples, the temperature dependence of Bsb(T) at low temperature is in good agreement with the δl pinning mechanism, i.e., pinning associated with charge-carrier mean free path fluctuation. At temperatures close to the critical temperature, however, there is evidence for δTc pinning, which is associated with spatial fluctuations of the transition temperature. These results provide strong evidence that the liquid precursor, silicone oil, produces very small pinning centers and enhances the jc(B) .

  8. Method and apparatus for enhancing vortex pinning by conformal crystal arrays

    DOEpatents

    Janko, Boldizsar; Reichhardt, Cynthia; Reichhardt, Charles; Ray, Dipanjan

    2015-07-14

    Disclosed is a method and apparatus for strongly enhancing vortex pinning by conformal crystal arrays. The conformal crystal array is constructed by a conformal transformation of a hexagonal lattice, producing a non-uniform structure with a gradient where the local six-fold coordination of the pinning sites is preserved, and with an arching effect. The conformal pinning arrays produce significantly enhanced vortex pinning over a much wider range of field than that found for other vortex pinning geometries with an equivalent number of vortex pinning sites, such as random, square, and triangular.

  9. Evaluation of stresses caused by dentin pin with finite elements stress analysis method.

    PubMed

    Ersöz, E

    2000-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to show the dimensions and the amount of stresses caused by pins on dentin. Mathematically modelled stainless steel and titanium pins were applied to mandibular first molar teeth with extensive crown destruction. The stress caused by the pins was examined with the finite elements method (FEM). In both types of pin, the maximum diffuse and the dense stress areas were located at the bottom of the pin channel. It is believed that these stresses should be taken into consideration when evaluating the advantages and disadvantages of pin application to teeth with destroyed crowns.

  10. Dosimetric characteristics of a PIN diode for radiotherapy application.

    PubMed

    Kumar, R; Sharma, S D; Philomina, A; Topkar, A

    2014-08-01

    The PIN diode developed by Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) was modified for its use as a dosimeter in radiation therapy. For this purpose the diode was mounted on a printed circuit board (PCB) and provided with necessary connections so that its response against irradiation can be recorded by a standard radiotherapy electrometer. The dosimetric characteristics of the diode were studied in Co-60 gamma rays as well as high energy X-rays. The measured sensitivity of this PIN diode is 4 nC/cGy which is about ten times higher than some commercial diode dosimeters. The leakage current from the diode is 0.04 nA. The response of the PIN diode is linear in the range of 20-1000 cGy which covers the full range of radiation dose encountered in radiotherapy treatments. The non-linearity of the diode response is 3.5% at 20 cGy and it is less than 1.5% at higher dose values. Its repeatability is within 0.5%. The angular response variation is about 5.6% within 6608 with respect to normal beam incidence. The response of the PIN diode at 6 and 18 MV X-rays varies within 2% with respect to its response at Co-60 gamma rays. The source to surface distance (SSD) dependence of the PIN diode was studied for Co-60 beam. It was found that the response of the diode decreases almost linearly relative to given dose for beams with constant collimator setting but increasing SSD (decreasing dose-rate). Within this study the diode response varied by about 2.5% between the maximum and minimum SSD. The dose-rate dependence of the PIN diode for 6 and 15 MV-rays was studied. The variation in response of diode for both energies in the studied dose range is less than 1%. The field size dependence of the PIN diode response is within 1% with respect to the response of ionisation chamber. These studies indicate that the characteristics of the PIN diode are suitable for use in radiotherapy dosimetry.

  11. Fuel pin failure in the PFR/TREAT experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Herbert, R.; Hunter, C.W.; Kramer, J.M.; Wood, M.H.; Wright, A.E.

    1986-01-01

    The PFR/TREAT safety testing programme involves the transient testing of fresh and pre-irradiated UK and US fuel pins. This paper summarizes the experimental and calculational results obtained to date on fuel pin failure during transient overpower (resulting from an accidental addition of resolivity) and transient undercooling followed by overpower (arising from an accidental stoppage of the primary sodium circulating pumps) accidents. Companion papers at this conference address: (I) the progress and future plans of the programme, and (II) post-failure material movements.

  12. Inner shell radial pin geometry and mounting arrangement

    DOEpatents

    Leach, David; Bergendahl, Peter Allen

    2002-01-01

    Circumferentially spaced arrays of support pins are disposed through access openings in an outer turbine shell and have projections received in recesses in forward and aft sections of an inner turbine shell supported from the outer shell. The projections have arcuate sides in a circumferential direction affording line contacts with the side walls of the recesses and are spaced from end faces of the recesses, enabling radial and axial expansion and contraction of the inner shell relative to the outer shell. All loads are taken up in a tangential direction by the outer shell with the support pins taking no radial loadings.

  13. Dosimetric characteristics of a PIN diode for radiotherapy application.

    PubMed

    Kumar, R; Sharma, S D; Philomina, A; Topkar, A

    2014-08-01

    The PIN diode developed by Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) was modified for its use as a dosimeter in radiation therapy. For this purpose the diode was mounted on a printed circuit board (PCB) and provided with necessary connections so that its response against irradiation can be recorded by a standard radiotherapy electrometer. The dosimetric characteristics of the diode were studied in Co-60 gamma rays as well as high energy X-rays. The measured sensitivity of this PIN diode is 4 nC/cGy which is about ten times higher than some commercial diode dosimeters. The leakage current from the diode is 0.04 nA. The response of the PIN diode is linear in the range of 20-1000 cGy which covers the full range of radiation dose encountered in radiotherapy treatments. The non-linearity of the diode response is 3.5% at 20 cGy and it is less than 1.5% at higher dose values. Its repeatability is within 0.5%. The angular response variation is about 5.6% within 6608 with respect to normal beam incidence. The response of the PIN diode at 6 and 18 MV X-rays varies within 2% with respect to its response at Co-60 gamma rays. The source to surface distance (SSD) dependence of the PIN diode was studied for Co-60 beam. It was found that the response of the diode decreases almost linearly relative to given dose for beams with constant collimator setting but increasing SSD (decreasing dose-rate). Within this study the diode response varied by about 2.5% between the maximum and minimum SSD. The dose-rate dependence of the PIN diode for 6 and 15 MV-rays was studied. The variation in response of diode for both energies in the studied dose range is less than 1%. The field size dependence of the PIN diode response is within 1% with respect to the response of ionisation chamber. These studies indicate that the characteristics of the PIN diode are suitable for use in radiotherapy dosimetry. PMID:24325130

  14. On the development of a strength prediction methodology for fibre metal laminates in pin bearing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krimbalis, Peter Panagiotis

    The development of Fibre Metal Laminates (FMLs) for application into aerospace structures represents a paradigm shift in airframe and material technology. By consolidating both monolithic metallic alloys and fibre reinforced composite layers, a new material structure is born exhibiting desired qualities emerging from its heterogeneous constituency. When mechanically fastened via pins, bolts and rivets, these laminated materials develop damage and ultimately fail via mechanisms that were not entirely understood and different than either their metallic or composite constituents. The development of a predictive methodology capable of characterizing how FMLs fastened with pins behave and fail would drastically reduce the amount of experimentation necessary for material qualification and be an invaluable design tool. The body of this thesis discusses the extension of the characteristic dimension approach to FMLs and the subsequent development of a new failure mechanism as part of a progressive damage finite element (FE) modeling methodology with yielding, delamination and buckling representing the central tenets of the new mechanism. This yielding through delamination buckling (YDB) mechanism and progressive FE model were investigated through multiple experimental studies. The experimental investigations required the development of a protocol with emphasis on measuring deformation on a local scheme in addition to a global one. With the extended protocol employed, complete characterization of the material response was possible and a new definition for yield in a pin bearing configuration was developed and subsequently extended to a tensile testing configuration. The performance of this yield definition was compared directly to existing definitions and was shown to be effective in both quasi-isotropic and orthotropic materials. The results of the experiments and FE simulations demonstrated that yielding (according to the new definition), buckling and delamination

  15. Simulation of the vortex dynamics in a real pinning landscape of YBa2Cu3O7-δ coated conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadovskyy, Ivan; Koshelev, Alexei; Glatz, Andreas; Ortalan, Volkan; Rupich, Martin; Leroux, Maxime

    We present a critical current analysis of a real high-temperature superconducting (HTS) sample in a magnetic field by combining state-of-the-art large-scale Ginzburg-Landau simulations with reconstructive three-dimensional scanning transmission electron microscopy tomography of the pinning landscape in Dy-doped YBa2Cu3O7-δ. This methodology provides a unique look at the vortex dynamics in the presence of a complex pinning landscape, responsible for the high current-carrying capacity characteristic of commercial HTS wires. Our method demonstrates very good functional and quantitative agreement of the critical current between simulation and experiment, providing a new predictive tool for HTS wires design. Work was supported by the Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing (SciDAC) program funded by U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Advanced Scientific Computing Research and Basic Energy Sciences.

  16. Manifold tool guide

    DOEpatents

    Djordjevic, A.

    1982-07-08

    A tool guide that makes possible the insertion of cleaning and/or inspection tools into a manifold pipe that will dislocate and extract the accumulated sediment in such manifold pipes. The tool guide basically comprises a right angled tube (or other angled tube as required) which can be inserted in a large tube and locked into a radially extending cross pipe by adjustable spacer rods and a spring-loaded cone, whereby appropriate cleaning tools can be inserted into to cross pipe for cleaning, inspection, etc.

  17. Manifold tool guide

    DOEpatents

    Djordjevic, A.

    1983-12-27

    A tool guide is described that makes possible the insertion of cleaning and/or inspection tools into a manifold pipe that will dislocate and extract the accumulated sediment in such manifold pipes. The tool guide basically comprises a right angled tube (or other angled tube as required) which can be inserted in a large tube and locked into a radially extending cross pipe by adjustable spacer rods and a spring-loaded cone, whereby appropriate cleaning tools can be inserted into the cross pipe for cleaning, inspection, etc. 3 figs.

  18. Manifold tool guide

    DOEpatents

    Djordjevic, Aleksandar

    1983-12-27

    A tool guide that makes possible the insertion of cleaning and/or inspection tools into a manifold pipe that will dislocate and extract the accumulated sediment in such manifold pipes. The tool guide basically comprises a right angled tube (or other angled tube as required) which can be inserted in a large tube and locked into a radially extending cross pipe by adjustable spacer rods and a spring-loaded cone, whereby appropriate cleaning tools can be inserted into to cross pipe for cleaning, inspection, etc.

  19. Analysis of Full-Test tools and their limitations as applied to terminal junction blocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, J. L.

    1983-01-01

    Discovery of unlocked contacts in Deutsch Block terminal junctions in Solid Rocket Booster flight hardware prompted an investigation into pull test techniques to help insure against possible failures. Internal frictional forces between socket and pin and between wire and grommet were examined. Pull test force must be greater than internal friction yet less than the crimp strength of the pin or socket. For this reason, a 100 percent accurate test is impossible. Test tools were evaluated. Available tools are adequate for pull testing.

  20. Simple, Internally Adjustable Valve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burley, Richard K.

    1990-01-01

    Valve containing simple in-line, adjustable, flow-control orifice made from ordinary plumbing fitting and two allen setscrews. Construction of valve requires only simple drilling, tapping, and grinding. Orifice installed in existing fitting, avoiding changes in rest of plumbing.

  1. Self Adjusting Sunglasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Corning Glass Works' Serengeti Driver sunglasses are unique in that their lenses self-adjust and filter light while suppressing glare. They eliminate more than 99% of the ultraviolet rays in sunlight. The frames are based on the NASA Anthropometric Source Book.

  2. Rural to Urban Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abramson, Jane A.

    Personal interviews with 100 former farm operators living in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, were conducted in an attempt to understand the nature of the adjustment process caused by migration from rural to urban surroundings. Requirements for inclusion in the study were that respondents had owned or operated a farm for at least 3 years, had left their…

  3. Self adjusting inclinometer

    DOEpatents

    Hunter, Steven L.

    2002-01-01

    An inclinometer utilizing synchronous demodulation for high resolution and electronic offset adjustment provides a wide dynamic range without any moving components. A device encompassing a tiltmeter and accompanying electronic circuitry provides quasi-leveled tilt sensors that detect highly resolved tilt change without signal saturation.

  4. DEVELOPING AND USING PRODUCTION-ADJUSTED MEASUREMENTS OF POLLUTION PREVENTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes research examining production-adjusted measures of pollution prevention(P2). Under this research, a methodology was developed for applying statistical and graphical tools to assess the accuracy of the factors (called units-of-product) used to adjust P2 measu...

  5. Combining Marriage and Career: The Professional Adjustment of Marital Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rizvi, Afroz Haider

    2016-01-01

    In the paper, the researcher attempted to assess Professional Adjustment status and level of teachers according to their marital status on a sample of 792 teachers. Teachers have been classified into two categories viz. married and unmarried. To evaluate the status of professional adjustment of teachers, a tool viz. "Manual on Teachers…

  6. The stress distribution in pin-loaded orthotropic plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klang, E. C.; Hyer, M. W.

    1985-01-01

    The performance of mechanically fastened composite joints was studied. Specially, a single-bolt connector was modeled as a pin-loaded, infinite plate. The model that was developed used two dimensional, complex variable, elasticity techniques combined with a boundary collocation procedure to produce solutions for the problem. Through iteration, the boundary conditions were satisfied and the stresses in the plate were calculated. Several graphite epoxy laminates were studied. In addition, parameters such as the pin modulus, coefficient of friction, and pin-plate clearance were varied. Conclusions drawn from this study indicate: (1) the material properties (i.e., laminate configuration) of the plate alter the stress state and, for highly orthotropic materials, the contact stress deviates greatly from the cosinusoidal distribution often assumed; (2) friction plays a major role in the distribution of stresses in the plate; (3) reversing the load direction also greatly effects the stress distribution in the plate; (4) clearance (or interference) fits change the contact angle and thus the location of the peak hoop stress; and (5) a rigid pin appears to be a good assumption for typical material systems.

  7. Silicon PIN diode array hybrids for charged particle detection

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, S.L.; Dunwoodie, W.M.; Arens, J.F.; Jernigan, J.G.; Gaalema, S.

    1988-09-01

    We report on the design of silicon PIN diode array hybrids for use as charged particle detectors. A brief summary of the need for vertex detectors is presented. Circuitry, block diagrams and device specifications are included. 8 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  8. 14. Typical pin connection of eye bars, diagonal tension members ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Typical pin connection of eye bars, diagonal tension members and vertical beam found at 2nd and 3rd spans. View is of north side of 2nd span. - Cleves Bridge, Spanning Great Miami River on U.S. Highway 50, Cleves, Hamilton County, OH

  9. Evaluation of Wear between Pin and Bush in Roller Chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noguchi, Shoji; Yoshiba, Hideaki; Nakayama, Satoshi; Kanada, Tohru

    A roller chain is a typical machine element used in bicycles, motorcycles and many other devices for power transmission. The life of a roller chain is determined by elongation. As a rule of thumb, a chain begins to skip cogs on the sprocket wheel when the percentage of elongation reaches approximately 3%. Mechanical wear between pins and bushes causes elongation of the roller chain. However, research on the evaluation of wear of the roller chain is rare and the achievement is unstated. We describe the following initiatives in the study of wear between pins and bushes of a roller chain: (1) development of a wear tester using only two chain links, (2) establishment of a specific evaluation method using a roundness tester, and (3) causal explanation of non-uniform wear using the finite-element method (FEM). The experimental results show that pins and bushes are not in contact at the centerline, and that wear occurs exclusively at the tips of the pins owing to the bending deformation under the condition of tensile load.

  10. 35. View is the underside of a lower chord pin ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. View is the underside of a lower chord pin connection showing the top strut, along with lateral and diagonal members. There are four of these per through truss for a total of eight. - Weidemeyer Bridge, Spanning Thomes Creek at Rawson Road, Corning, Tehama County, CA

  11. PINS Jurisdiction in New York State Today: Critique and Recommendations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevergold, Patricia A.; And Others

    This report proposes a restructuring of the statutory framework for dealing with PINS (persons in need of supervision) defined as children under 16 whom the court has determined to be incorrigible, ungovernable or habitually disobedient and beyond the lawful control of parents or other lawful authority. The proposal, as described in the…

  12. Ultrasonic decontamination of prototype fast breeder reactor fuel pins.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Aniruddha; Bhatt, R B; Behere, P G; Afzal, Mohd

    2014-04-01

    Fuel pin decontamination is the process of removing particulates of radioactive material from its exterior surface. It is an important process step in nuclear fuel fabrication. It assumes more significance with plutonium bearing fuel known to be highly radio-toxic owing to its relatively longer biological half life and shorter radiological half life. Release of even minute quantity of plutonium oxide powder in the atmosphere during its handling can cause alarming air borne activity and may pose a severe health hazard to personnel working in the vicinity. Decontamination of fuel pins post pellet loading operation is thus mandatory before they are removed from the glove box for further processing and assembly. This paper describes the setting up of ultrasonic decontamination process, installed inside a custom built fume-hood in the production line, comprising of a cleaning tank with transducers, heaters, pin handling device and water filtration system and its application in cleaning of fuel pins for prototype fast breeder reactor. The cleaning process yielded a typical decontamination efficiency of more than 99%.

  13. 9. Detail of pin truss and floor board system, from ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Detail of pin truss and floor board system, from Minnesota end of the bridge, looking at the bridge's southwest side - Enloe Bridge No. 90021, Spanning Red River of North between Minnesota & North Dakota on County State Aid Highway 28, Wolverton, Wilkin County, MN

  14. CCD AND PIN-CMOS DEVELOPMENTS FOR LARGE OPTICAL TELESCOPE.

    SciTech Connect

    RADEKA, V.

    2006-04-03

    Higher quantum efficiency in near-IR, narrower point spread function and higher readout speed than with conventional sensors have been receiving increased emphasis in the development of CCDs and silicon PIN-CMOS sensors for use in large optical telescopes. Some key aspects in the development of such devices are reviewed.

  15. BetterThanPin: Empowering Users to Fight Phishing (Poster)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Teik Guan

    The BetterThanPin concept is an online security service that allows users to enable almost any Cloud or Web-based account (e.g. Gmail, MSN, Yahoo, etc) to be protected with "almost" 2-factor authentication (2FA). The result is that users can now protect their online accounts with better authentication, without waiting for the service or cloud provider.

  16. Detail of north abutment of Seventh Street Bridge. Notice pin ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of north abutment of Seventh Street Bridge. Notice pin connection that serves to anchor eye-bar suspension cable after descending below roadway level inside of the compressed lower girder. The bridge is not anchored in the traditional sense. - Three Sisters Bridges, Seventh Street Bridge, Spanning Allegheny River at Seventh Street, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  17. Pinned orbital moments – A new contribution to magnetic anisotropy

    PubMed Central

    Audehm, P.; Schmidt, M.; Brück, S.; Tietze, T.; Gräfe, J.; Macke, S.; Schütz, G.; Goering, E.

    2016-01-01

    Reduced dimensionality and symmetry breaking at interfaces lead to unusual local magnetic configurations, such as glassy behavior, frustration or increased anisotropy. The interface between a ferromagnet and an antiferromagnet is such an example for enhanced symmetry breaking. Here we present detailed X-ray magnetic circular dichroism and X-ray resonant magnetic reflectometry investigations on the spectroscopic nature of uncompensated pinned magnetic moments in the antiferromagnetic layer of a typical exchange bias system. Unexpectedly, the pinned moments exhibit nearly pure orbital moment character. This strong orbital pinning mechanism has not been observed so far and is not discussed in literature regarding any theory for local magnetocrystalline anisotropy energies in magnetic systems. To verify this new phenomenon we investigated the effect at different temperatures. We provide a simple model discussing the observed pure orbital moments, based on rotatable spin magnetic moments and pinned orbital moments on the same atom. This unexpected observation leads to a concept for a new type of anisotropy energy. PMID:27151436

  18. Magnetically Operated Holding Plate And Ball-Lock Pin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monford, Leo G., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Magnetically operated holding plate and ball-locking-pin mechanism part of object attached to, or detached from second object. Mechanism includes tubular housing inserted in hole in second object. Plunger moves inside tube forcing balls to protrude from sides. Balls prevent tube from sliding out of second object. Simpler, less expensive than motorized latches; suitable for robotics applications.

  19. Calculation of fuel pin failure timing under LOCA conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, K.R.; Wade, N.L.; Siefken, L.J.; Straka, M.; Katsma, K.R.

    1991-10-01

    The objective of this research was to develop and demonstrate a methodology for calculation of the time interval between receipt of the containment isolation signals and the first fuel pin failure for loss-of-coolant accidents (LOCAs). Demonstration calculations were performed for a Babcock and Wilcox (B W) design (Oconee) and a Westinghouse (W) 4-loop design (Seabrook). Sensitivity studies were performed to assess the impacts of fuel pin burnup, axial peaking factor, break size, emergency core cooling system (ECCS) availability, and main coolant pump trip on these items. The analysis was performed using a four-code approach, comprised of FRAPCON-2, SCDAP/RELAP5/MOD3, TRAC-PF1/MOD1, and FRAP-T6. In addition to the calculation of timing results, this analysis provided a comparison of the capabilities of SCDAP/RELAP5/MOD3 with TRAC-PF1/MOD1 for large-break LOCA analysis. This paper discusses the methodology employed and the code development efforts required to implement the methodology. The shortest time intervals calculated between initiation of containment isolation and fuel pin failure were 11.4 s and 19.1 for the B W and W plants, respectively. The FRAP-T6 fuel pin failure times calculated using thermal-hydraulic data generated by SCDAP/RELAP5/MOD3 were more conservative than those calculated using data generated by TRAC-PF1/MOD1. 18 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  20. Dynamic characteristics of a magnetorheological pin joint for civil structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yancheng; Li, Jianchun

    2014-03-01

    Magnetorheological (MR) pin joint is a novel device in which its joint moment resistance can be controlled in real-time by altering the applied magnetic field. The smart pin joint is intended to be used as a controllable connector between the columns and beams of a civil structure to instantaneously shift the structural natural frequencies in order to avoid resonance and therefore to reduce unwanted vibrations and hence prevent structural damage. As an intrinsically nonlinear device, modelling of this MR fluid based device is a challenging task and makes the design of a suitable control algorithm a cumbersome situation. Aimed at its application in civil structure, the main purpose of this paper is to test and characterise the hysteretic behaviour of MR pin joint. A test scheme is designed to obtain the dynamic performance of MR pin joint in the dominant earthquake frequency range. Some unique phenomena different from those of MR damper are observed through the experimental testing. A computationally-efficient model is proposed by introducing a hyperbolic element to accurately reproduce its dynamic behaviour and to further facilitate the design of a suitable control algorithm. Comprehensive investigations on the model accuracy and dependences of the proposed model on loading condition (frequency and amplitude) and input current level are reported in the last section of this paper.

  1. Pinned orbital moments - A new contribution to magnetic anisotropy.

    PubMed

    Audehm, P; Schmidt, M; Brück, S; Tietze, T; Gräfe, J; Macke, S; Schütz, G; Goering, E

    2016-01-01

    Reduced dimensionality and symmetry breaking at interfaces lead to unusual local magnetic configurations, such as glassy behavior, frustration or increased anisotropy. The interface between a ferromagnet and an antiferromagnet is such an example for enhanced symmetry breaking. Here we present detailed X-ray magnetic circular dichroism and X-ray resonant magnetic reflectometry investigations on the spectroscopic nature of uncompensated pinned magnetic moments in the antiferromagnetic layer of a typical exchange bias system. Unexpectedly, the pinned moments exhibit nearly pure orbital moment character. This strong orbital pinning mechanism has not been observed so far and is not discussed in literature regarding any theory for local magnetocrystalline anisotropy energies in magnetic systems. To verify this new phenomenon we investigated the effect at different temperatures. We provide a simple model discussing the observed pure orbital moments, based on rotatable spin magnetic moments and pinned orbital moments on the same atom. This unexpected observation leads to a concept for a new type of anisotropy energy. PMID:27151436

  2. 13. Closeup of typical pin connection detailing eyebars as tension ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Close-up of typical pin connection detailing eye-bars as tension members of built-up plates, angles and cross latticing. (Nov. 30, 1988) - University Heights Bridge, Spanning Harlem River at 207th Street & West Harlem Road, New York County, NY

  3. CLOSEUP OF TYPICAL BUILTUP, RIVETED AND PIN CONNECTED DECK TRUSS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CLOSE-UP OF TYPICAL BUILT-UP, RIVETED AND PIN CONNECTED DECK TRUSS LOOKING UP AND NORTHEAST. - Huey P. Long Bridge, Spanning Mississippi River approximately midway between nine & twelve mile points upstream from & west of New Orleans, Jefferson, Jefferson Parish, LA

  4. Double diameter boring tool

    DOEpatents

    Ashbaugh, Fred N.; Murry, Kenneth R.

    1988-12-27

    A boring tool and a method of operation are provided for boring two concentric holes of precision diameters and depths in a single operation. The boring tool includes an elongated tool body, a shank for attachment to a standard adjustable boring head which is used on a manual or numerical control milling machine and first and second diametrically opposed cutting edges formed for cutting in opposite directions. The diameter of the elongated tool body is substantially equal to the distance from the first cutting edge tip to the axis of rotation plus the distance from the second cutting edge tip to the axis of rotation. The axis of rotation of the tool is spaced from the tool centerline a distance substantially equal to one-half the distance from the second cutting edge tip to the axis of rotation minus one-half the distance from the first cutting edge tip to the axis of rotation. The method includes the step of inserting the boring tool into the boring head, adjusting the distance between the tool centerline and the tool axis of rotation as described above and boring the two concentric holes.

  5. Double diameter boring tool

    DOEpatents

    Ashbaugh, F.A.; Murry, K.R.

    1986-02-10

    A boring tool and a method of operation are provided for boring two concentric holes of precision diameters and depths in a single operation. The boring tool includes an elongated tool body, a shank for attachment to a standard adjustable boring head which is used on a manual or numerical control milling machine and first and second diametrically opposed cutting flutes formed for cutting in opposite directions. The diameter of the elongated tool body is substantially equal to the distance from the first flute tip to the axis of rotation plus the distance from the second flute tip to the axis of rotation. The axis of rotation of the tool is spaced from the tool centerline a distance substantially equal to one-half the distance from the second flute tip to the axis of rotation minus one-half the distance from the first flute tip to the axis of rotation. The method includes the step of inserting the boring tool into the boring head, adjusting the distance between the tool centerline and the tool axis of rotation as described above and boring the two concentric holes.

  6. First Tests for the Detection of the LINAC Irradiation Field Using PIN Diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nava, C. E. Ojeda; Ramírez-Jiménez, F. J.; Navarro, L. F. Villaseñor; Cruz, M. Durán

    2008-08-01

    The employment of the technology of semiconductor detectors, in the medical physics environment is of great importance due to its versatility and dependability. In this work we present the first results and the experimental arrangement employed with PIN diodes that are conditioned for the measurement of the field of irradiation of a lineal accelerator (LINAC) used in radiotherapy. In our tests we used a PIN photodiode. In former experiments, this diode presented a response to the intensity of the applied field when it was exposed to an X-ray beam in medical and industrial radiography equipments. This diode is a low cost and easy acquisition one in the field. These characteristics transform it into a serious candidate as detector to be used in electronic arrangements for the detection of radiation fields in radio-therapy with X-rays. Experiments were designed to obtain the response of this diode when it was exposed to X-ray beams of a LINAC used in radiotherapy. Firstly the tests were carried out for a 6 MeV photon beam with a source to surface distance (SSD) of 100 cm, obtaining very encouraging results. We seek to carry out tests for more energy values in order to obtain the energy response of this detector as a radiation sensor device. This device could be applied in the design of working tools, for example, for the quality control in procedures of radiotherapy.

  7. Assemblies with both target and fuel pins in an isotope-production reactor

    DOEpatents

    Cawley, W.E.; Omberg, R.P.

    1982-08-19

    A method is described for producing tritium in a fast breeder reactor cooled with liquid metal. Lithium target material is placed in pins adjacent to fuel pins in order to increase the tritium production rate.

  8. Experimental study on thermal performance of micro pin fin heat sinks with various shapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hua, Junye; Li, Gui; Zhao, Xiaobao; Li, Qihe

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents a visualization experimental study on the heat transfer characteristics of various shapes of micro pin fins, including the circular, ellipse, diamond, square and triangle shape micro pin fin arrays with various equivalent diameters and pin fin density. The influences study of different sizes and shapes of pin fin on Nusselt number and heat transfer coefficient have been conducted. The results show that with the increase of the flow rate, the temperature of the bottom of the experimental section decreases. And the Nusselt number of different shapes of micro pin fins increases with the increase of Re. In which, the heat transfer performance of the ellipse shape pin fin appears better among the other shapes of pin fins. However, the higher pin fin of the ellipse shape density leads to a weaker flow performance. Besides, the micro-scale heat transfer correlation between the Nusselt number and the Reynolds number is fitted based on the experimental data.

  9. Length to diameter ratio and row number effects in short pin fin heat transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brigham, B. A.; Vanfossen, G. J.

    1982-01-01

    The relative effects of pin length to diameter ratio and of pin row geometry on the heat transfer from pin fins, was determined. Array averaged heat transfer coefficients on pin and endwall surfaces were measured for two configurations of staggered arrays of short pin fins (length to diameter ratio of 4). One configuration contained eight streamwise rows of pins, while the other contained only four rows. Results showed that both the 8-row and the 4-row configurations for an L sub p/D of 4, exhibit higher heat transfer than in similar tests on shorter pin fns (L sub p/D of 1/2 and 2). It was also found that for this L sub p/D ratio, the array averaged heat transfer was slightly higher with eight rows of staggered pins than with only four rows.

  10. Length to diameter ratio and row number effects in short pin fin heat transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brigham, B. A.; Vanfossen, G. J.

    1984-01-01

    The relative effects of pin length to diameter ratio and of pin row geometry on the heat transfer from pin fins, was determined. Array averaged heat transfer coefficients on pin and endwall surfaces were measured for two configurations of staggered arrays of short pin fins (length to diameter ratio of 4). One configuration contained eight streamwise rows of pins, while the other contained only four rows. Results showed that both the 8-row and the 4-row configurations for an L sub p/D of 4, exhibit higher heat transfer than in similar tests on shorter pin fins (L sub p/D of 1/2 and 2). It was also found that for this L sub p/D ratio, the array averaged heat transfer was slightly higher with eight rows of staggered pins than with only four rows. Previously announced in STAR as N83-14431

  11. 9. DETAIL VIEW OF BOTTOM CHORD/FLOOR BEAM/IBAR PIN CONNECTION. WELDED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. DETAIL VIEW OF BOTTOM CHORD/FLOOR BEAM/I-BAR PIN CONNECTION. WELDED PLATE AT PIN CONNECTION IS 20TH CENTURY REVISION. - Bucks County Bridge No. 313, Spanning Delaware Canal at Letchworth Avenue, Yardley, Bucks County, PA

  12. Generation of plate tectonics via grain-damage and pinning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bercovici, D.; Ricard, Y. R.

    2012-12-01

    Weakening and shear localization in the lithosphere are essential ingredients for understanding how and whether plate tectonics is generated from mantle convection on terrestrial planets. The grain-damage and pinning mechanism of Bercovici & Ricard (2012) for lithospheric shear--localization proposes that damage to the interface between phases in a polycrystalline material like peridotite (composed primarily of olivine and pyroxene) increases the number of small Zener pinning surfaces that constrain mineral grains to ever smaller sizes regardless of creep mechanism. This effect allows a self-softening feedback in which damage and grain-reduction can co-exist with a grain-size dependent diffusion creep rheology; moreoever, grain growth and weak-zone healing are greatly impeded by Zener pinning thereby leading to long-lived relic weak zones. This mechanism is employed in two-dimensional flow calculations to test its ability to generate toroidal (strike-slip) motion from convective type flow and to influence plate evolution. The fluid dynamical calculations employ source-sink driven flow as a proxy for convective poloidal flow (upwelling/downwelling and divergent/convergent motion), and the coupling of this flow with non-linear rheological mechanisms excites toroidal or strike-slip motion. The numerical experiments show that pure dislocation-creep rheology, and grain-damage without Zener pinning (as occurs in a single-phase assemblages) permit only weak localization and toroidal flow; however, the full grain-damage with pinning readily allows focussed localization and intense, plate-like toroidal motion and strike-slip deformation. Rapid plate motion changes are also tested with abrupt rotations of the source-sink field after a plate-like configuration is developed; the post-rotation flow and material property fields are found to never recover or lose memory of the original configuration, leading to suboptimally aligned plate boundaries (e.g., strike-slip margins non

  13. Transient Pinning and Pulling: A Mechanism for Bending Microtubules

    PubMed Central

    Kent, Ian A.; Rane, Parag S.; Dickinson, Richard B.; Ladd, Anthony J. C.; Lele, Tanmay P.

    2016-01-01

    Microtubules have a persistence length of the order of millimeters in vitro, but inside cells they bend over length scales of microns. It has been proposed that polymerization forces bend microtubules in the vicinity of the cell boundary or other obstacles, yet bends develop even when microtubules are polymerizing freely, unaffected by obstacles and cell boundaries. How these bends are formed remains unclear. By tracking the motions of microtubules marked by photobleaching, we found that in LLC-PK1 epithelial cells local bends develop primarily by plus-end directed transport of portions of the microtubule contour towards stationary locations (termed pinning points) along the length of the microtubule. The pinning points were transient in nature, and their eventual release allowed the bends to relax. The directionality of the transport as well as the overall incidence of local bends decreased when dynein was inhibited, while myosin inhibition had no observable effect. This suggests that dynein generates a tangential force that bends microtubules against stationary pinning points. Simulations of microtubule motion and polymerization accounting for filament mechanics and dynein forces predict the development of bends of size and shape similar to those observed in cells. Furthermore, simulations show that dynein-generated bends at a pinning point near the plus end can cause a persistent rotation of the tip consistent with the observation that bend formation near the tip can change the direction of microtubule growth. Collectively, these results suggest a simple physical mechanism for the bending of growing microtubules by dynein forces accumulating at pinning points. PMID:26974838

  14. Radiation hardness characteristics of Si-PIN radiation detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Manhee; Jo, Woo Jin; Kim, Han Soo; Ha, Jang Ho

    2015-06-01

    The Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) has fabricated Si-PIN radiation detectors with low leakage current, high resistivity (>11 kΩ cm) and low capacitance for high-energy physics and X-ray spectroscopy. Floating-zone (FZ) 6-in. diameter N-type silicon wafers, with <1 1 1> crystal orientation and 675 μm thick, were used in the detector fabrication. The active areas are 3 mm×3 mm, 5 mm×5 mm and 10 mm×10 mm. We used a double deep-diffused structure at the edge of the active area for protection from the surface leakage path. We also compared the electrical performance of the Si-PIN detector with anti-reflective coating (ARC). For a detector with an active area of 3 mm×3 mm, the leakage current is about 1.9 nA and 7.4 nA at a 100 V reverse bias voltage, and 4.6 pF and 4.4 pF capacitance for the detector with and without an ARC, respectively. In addition, to compare the energy resolution in terms of radiation hardness, we measured the energy spectra with 57Co and 133Ba before the irradiation. Using developed preamplifiers (KAERI-PA1) that have ultra-low noise and high sensitivity, and a 3 mm×3 mm Si-PIN radiation detector, we obtained energy resolutions with 122 keV of 57Co and 81 keV of 133Ba of 0.221 keV and 0.261 keV, respectively. After 10, 100, 103, 104 and 105 Gy irradiation, we tested the characteristics of the radiation hardness on the Si-PIN radiation detectors in terms of electrical and energy spectra performance changes. The fabricated Si-PIN radiation detectors are working well under high dose irradiation conditions.

  15. [Apical root pins of high-karat gold alloys for resected roots].

    PubMed

    Handtmann, S; Lindemann, W; Sculte, W

    1989-02-01

    Following earlier studies on corrosion of silver pins in the root canal experience will be presented with the use of high-karat gold pins for apical closure of root amputations. The commercially available standardized Ackermann silver pins were replaced by high-karat gold pins of similar Vicker hardness and inserted in 218 patients with 264 root amputations since 1986. A clinical and radiological follow-up demonstrated a success rate of over 90%.

  16. Optimization of pin bearing joint strength for segmented graphite/epoxy filament wound case in Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munjal, A. K.; Wilks, R. K.

    1984-01-01

    An attempt is made to demonstrate the feasibility of a composite joint in a segmented, graphite/epoxy filament-wound composite case for the Space Shuttle's Solid Rocket Motors. The joint's required ultimate line load is of the of 82,000 lb/in. By optimizing composite layup, and the ratios of pin diameter/specimen thickness, edge distance/pin diameter, and specimen width/pin diameter, a pin bearing joint strength of 85 ksi was obtained. Double pin testing disclosed that the pin close to the composite joint carries a higher load than the outboard pin. Pin bearing strength is noted to vary with matrix resin system.

  17. Expression Analysis of PIN Genes in Root Tips and Nodules of Medicago truncatula.

    PubMed

    Sańko-Sawczenko, Izabela; Łotocka, Barbara; Czarnocka, Weronika

    2016-01-01

    Polar auxin transport is dependent on the family of PIN-formed proteins (PINs), which are membrane transporters of anionic indole-3-acetic acid (IAA(-)). It is assumed that polar auxin transport may be essential in the development and meristematic activity maintenance of Medicago truncatula (M. truncatula) root nodules. However, little is known about the involvement of specific PIN proteins in M. truncatula nodulation. Using real-time quantitative PCR, we analyzed the expression patterns of all previously identified MtPIN genes and compared them between root nodules and root tips of M. truncatula. Our results demonstrated significant differences in the expression level of all 11 genes (MtPIN1-MtPIN11) between examined organs. Interestingly, MtPIN9 was the only PIN gene with higher expression level in root nodules compared to root tips. This result is the first indication of PIN9 transporter potential involvement in M. truncatula nodulation. Moreover, relatively high expression level in root nodules was attributed to MtPINs encoding orthologs of Arabidopsis thaliana PIN5 subclade. PIN proteins from this subclade have been found to localize in the endoplasmic reticulum, which may indicate that the development and meristematic activity maintenance of M. truncatula root nodules is associated with intracellular homeostasis of auxins level and their metabolism in the endoplasmic reticulum. PMID:27463709

  18. Expression Analysis of PIN Genes in Root Tips and Nodules of Medicago truncatula

    PubMed Central

    Sańko-Sawczenko, Izabela; Łotocka, Barbara; Czarnocka, Weronika

    2016-01-01

    Polar auxin transport is dependent on the family of PIN-formed proteins (PINs), which are membrane transporters of anionic indole-3-acetic acid (IAA−). It is assumed that polar auxin transport may be essential in the development and meristematic activity maintenance of Medicago truncatula (M. truncatula) root nodules. However, little is known about the involvement of specific PIN proteins in M. truncatula nodulation. Using real-time quantitative PCR, we analyzed the expression patterns of all previously identified MtPIN genes and compared them between root nodules and root tips of M. truncatula. Our results demonstrated significant differences in the expression level of all 11 genes (MtPIN1–MtPIN11) between examined organs. Interestingly, MtPIN9 was the only PIN gene with higher expression level in root nodules compared to root tips. This result is the first indication of PIN9 transporter potential involvement in M. truncatula nodulation. Moreover, relatively high expression level in root nodules was attributed to MtPINs encoding orthologs of Arabidopsis thaliana PIN5 subclade. PIN proteins from this subclade have been found to localize in the endoplasmic reticulum, which may indicate that the development and meristematic activity maintenance of M. truncatula root nodules is associated with intracellular homeostasis of auxins level and their metabolism in the endoplasmic reticulum. PMID:27463709

  19. Precision adjustable stage

    DOEpatents

    Cutburth, Ronald W.; Silva, Leonard L.

    1988-01-01

    An improved mounting stage of the type used for the detection of laser beams is disclosed. A stage center block is mounted on each of two opposite sides by a pair of spaced ball bearing tracks which provide stability as well as simplicity. The use of the spaced ball bearing pairs in conjunction with an adjustment screw which also provides support eliminates extraneous stabilization components and permits maximization of the area of the center block laser transmission hole.

  20. Adjustable vane windmills

    SciTech Connect

    Ducker, W.L.

    1982-09-14

    A system of rotatably and pivotally mounted radially extended bent supports for radially extending windmill rotor vanes in combination with axially movable radially extended control struts connected to the vanes with semi-automatic and automatic torque and other sensing and servo units provide automatic adjustment of the windmill vanes relative to their axes of rotation to produce mechanical output at constant torque or at constant speed or electrical quantities dependent thereon.

  1. Adjustable vane windmills

    SciTech Connect

    Ducker, W.L.

    1980-01-15

    A system of rotatably and pivotally mounted radially extended bent supports for radially extending windmill rotor vanes in combination with axially movable radially extended control struts connected to the vanes with semi-automatic and automatic torque and other sensing and servo units provide automatic adjustment of the windmill vanes relative to their axes of rotation to produce mechanical output at constant torque or at constant speed or electrical quantities dependent thereon.

  2. Adjustable vane windmills

    SciTech Connect

    Ducker, W.L.

    1982-09-07

    A system of rotatably and pivotally mounted radially extended bent supports for radially extending windmill rotor vanes in combination with axially movable radially extended control struts connected to the vanes with semi-automatic and automatic torque and other sensing and servo units provide automatic adjustment of the windmill vanes relative to their axes of rotation to produce mechanical output at constant torque or at constant speed or electrical quantities dependent thereon.

  3. Adjustable Autonomy Testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, Jane T.; Schrenkenghost, Debra K.

    2001-01-01

    The Adjustable Autonomy Testbed (AAT) is a simulation-based testbed located in the Intelligent Systems Laboratory in the Automation, Robotics and Simulation Division at NASA Johnson Space Center. The purpose of the testbed is to support evaluation and validation of prototypes of adjustable autonomous agent software for control and fault management for complex systems. The AA T project has developed prototype adjustable autonomous agent software and human interfaces for cooperative fault management. This software builds on current autonomous agent technology by altering the architecture, components and interfaces for effective teamwork between autonomous systems and human experts. Autonomous agents include a planner, flexible executive, low level control and deductive model-based fault isolation. Adjustable autonomy is intended to increase the flexibility and effectiveness of fault management with an autonomous system. The test domain for this work is control of advanced life support systems for habitats for planetary exploration. The CONFIG hybrid discrete event simulation environment provides flexible and dynamically reconfigurable models of the behavior of components and fluids in the life support systems. Both discrete event and continuous (discrete time) simulation are supported, and flows and pressures are computed globally. This provides fast dynamic simulations of interacting hardware systems in closed loops that can be reconfigured during operations scenarios, producing complex cascading effects of operations and failures. Current object-oriented model libraries support modeling of fluid systems, and models have been developed of physico-chemical and biological subsystems for processing advanced life support gases. In FY01, water recovery system models will be developed.

  4. The "Good, Bad and Ugly" pin site grading system: A reliable and memorable method for documenting and monitoring ring fixator pin sites.

    PubMed

    Clint, S A; Eastwood, D M; Chasseaud, M; Calder, P R; Marsh, D R

    2010-02-01

    Although there is much in the literature regarding pin site infections, there is no accepted, validated method for documenting their state. We present a system for reliably labelling pin sites on any ring fixator construct and an easy-to-remember grading system to document the state of each pin site. Each site is graded in terms of erythema, pain and discharge to give a 3-point scale, named "Good", "Bad" and "Ugly" for ease of recall. This system was tested for intra- and inter-observer reproducibility. 15 patients undergoing elective limb reconstruction were recruited. A total of 218 pin sites were independently scored by 2 examiners. 82 were then re-examined later by the same examiners. 514 pin sites were felt to be "Good", 80 "Bad" and 6 "Ugly". The reproducibility of the system was found to be excellent. We feel our system gives a quick, reliable and reproducible method to monitor individual pin sites and their response to treatment.

  5. Percutaneous external fixator pins with bactericidal micron-thin sol-gel films for the prevention of pin tract infection.

    PubMed

    Qu, Haibo; Knabe, Christine; Radin, Shula; Garino, Jonathan; Ducheyne, Paul

    2015-09-01

    Risk of infection is considerable in open fractures, especially when fracture fixation devices are used to stabilize the fractured bones. Overall deep infection rates of 16.2% have been reported. The infection rate is even greater, up to 32.2%, with external fixation of femoral fractures. The use of percutaneous implants for certain clinical applications, such as percutaneous implants for external fracture fixation, still represents a challenge today. Currently, bone infections are very difficult to treat. Very potent antibiotics are needed, which creates the risk of irreversible damage to other organs, when the antibiotics are administered systemically. As such, controlled, local release is being pursued, but no such treatments are in clinical use. Herein, the use of bactericidal micron-thin sol-gel films on metallic fracture fixation pins is reported. The data demonstrates that triclosan (2,4,4'-trichloro-2'-hydroxydiphenylether), an antimicrobial agent, can be successfully incorporated into micron-thin sol-gel films deposited on percutaneous pins. The sol-gel films continuously release triclosan in vitro for durations exceeding 8 weeks (longest measured time point). The bactericidal effect of the micron-thin sol-gel films follows from both in vitro and in vivo studies. Inserting percutaneous pins in distal rabbit tibiae, there were no signs of infection around implants coated with a micron-thin sol-gel/triclosan film. Healing had progressed normally, bone tissue growth was normal and there was no epithelial downgrowth. This result was in contrast with the results in rabbits that received control, uncoated percutaneous pins, in which abundant signs of infection and epithelial downgrowth were observed. Thus, well-adherent, micron-thin sol-gel films laden with a bactericidal molecule successfully prevented pin tract infection.

  6. Workplace Counseling Tools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirk, James J.; Woody, Connie; Burns, Naomi; Howard, Sherrie; Rice, Misty

    This publication describes counseling approaches supervisors and human resource professionals can use to help marginal employees become better adjusted and more productive in the workplace. Three case studies are also provided for training purposes. The counseling tools are as follows: (1) Adlerian counseling, involving the belief that humans'…

  7. Simulation of the Vortex Dynamics in a Real Pinning Landscape of YBa2 Cu3 O7 -δ Coated Conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadovskyy, I. A.; Koshelev, A. E.; Glatz, A.; Ortalan, V.; Rupich, M. W.; Leroux, M.

    2016-01-01

    The ability of high-temperature superconductors (HTSs) to carry very large currents with almost no dissipation makes them irreplaceable for high-power applications. The development and further improvement of HTS-based cables require an in-depth understanding of the superconducting vortex dynamics in the presence of complex pinning landscapes. We present a critical current analysis of a real HTS sample in a magnetic field by combining state-of-the-art large-scale Ginzburg-Landau simulations with reconstructive three-dimensional scanning-transmission-electron-microscopy tomography of the pinning landscape in Dy-doped YBa2 Cu3 O7 -δ . This methodology provides a unique look at the vortex dynamics in the presence of a complex pinning landscape responsible for the high-current-carrying-capacity characteristic of commercial HTS wires. Our method demonstrates very good functional and quantitative agreement of the critical current between simulation and experiment, providing a new predictive tool for HTS wire designs.

  8. Modeling and Experiment of Melt Impregnation of Continuous Fiber-reinforced Thermoplastic with Pins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jian-Jun; Xin, Chun-Ling; Tang, Ke; Zhang, Zhi-Cheng; Yan, Bao-Rui; Ren, Feng; He, Ya-Dong

    2016-05-01

    Melt impregnation is a crucial method for continuous fiber-reinforced thermoplastic. It was developed several years ago for thermosetting plastic, but it is very popular now in the thermoplastic matrices, with a much higher viscosity. In this paper, we propose a mathematic model based on Darcy's law, which combined with processing parameters and material physical parameters. Then we use this model to predict the influence of processing parameters on the degree of impregnation of the prepreg, and the trend of prediction is consistent with the experimental results. Therefore, the exhaustive numerical study enables to define the optimal processing conditions for a perfect impregnation. The results are shown to be effective tools for finding optimal pulling speed, pin number and pressure for a given fluid/fibers pair.

  9. Flux pinning mechanism in SiC and nano-C doped MgB2: evidence for transformation from δTc to δℓ pinning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghorbani, S. R.; Farshidnia, G.; Wang, X. L.; Dou, S. X.

    2014-12-01

    Magnetic and transport properties of 10 wt% SiC doped MgB2 and 5 wt% nano-C doped MgB2 were studied by resistance and critical current density measurements. The results showed improvement of the critical current density for the MgB2 superconductor doped with SiC in comparison with the nano-C doped sample. The flux pinning mechanisms of both doped MgB2 superconductors have been investigated based on the collective theory. It was found that the pinning mechanism in MgB2 was transformed by SiC doping from transition temperature fluctuation induced pinning, δTc pinning, to mean free path fluctuation induced pinning, δℓ pinning, while in the MgB2 doped with nano-C, δTc and δℓ pinning coexist. Their contributions are strongly temperature dependent, however. The δℓ pinning is dominant at low temperature, decreases with increasing temperature, and is suppressed completely at temperatures close to Tc. The δTc pinning mechanism shows the opposite trend.

  10. Pinning down the Milky Way's spin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-09-01

    New, very precise measurements have shown that the rotation of the Milky Way is simpler than previously thought. A remarkable result from the most successful ESO instrument HARPS, shows that a much debated, apparent 'fall' of neighbourhood Cepheid stars towards our Sun stems from an intrinsic property of the Cepheids themselves. First Light of the PRIMA Instrument ESO PR Photo 30/08 Cepheids in the Solar Neighbourhood The result, obtained by a group of astrophysicists led by Nicolas Nardetto, will soon appear in the journal Astronomy & Astrophysics. Since Henrietta Leavitt's discovery of their unique properties in 1912, the class of bright, pulsating stars known as Cepheids has been used as a distance indicator. Combined with velocity measurements, the properties of Cepheids are also an extremely valuable tool in investigations of how our galaxy, the Milky Way, rotates. "The motion of Milky Way Cepheids is confusing and has led to disagreement among researchers," says Nardetto. "If the rotation of the Galaxy is taken into account, the Cepheids appear to 'fall' towards the Sun with a mean velocity of about 2 km/s." A debate has raged for decades as to whether this phenomenon was truly related to the actual motion of the Cepheids and, consequently, to a complicated rotating pattern of our galaxy, or if it was the result of effects within the atmospheres of the Cepheids. Nardetto and his colleagues observed eight Cepheids with the high precision HARPS spectrograph, attached to the 3.6-m ESO telescope at La Silla, 2400 m up in the mountains of the Chilean Atacama Desert. HARPS, or the High Accuracy Radial Velocity Planetary Searcher, is best known as a very successful planet hunter, but it can also be used to resolve other complicated cases, where its ability to determine radial velocities - the speed with which something is moving towards or away from us - with phenomenally high accuracy is invaluable. "Our observations show that this apparent motion towards us almost

  11. Effect of dilute strongly pinning impurities on charge density waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okamoto, Jun-ichi; Millis, Andrew J.

    2015-05-01

    We study theoretically the effects of strong pinning centers on a charge density wave in the limit that the charge density wave coherence length is shorter than the average interimpurity distance. An analysis based on a Ginzburg-Landau model shows that long-range forces arising from the elastic response of the charge density wave induce a kind of collective pinning which suppresses impurity-induced phase fluctuations, leading to a long-range ordered ground state. The correlations induced by impurities are characterized by a length scale parametrically longer than the average interimpurity distance. Long-wavelength fluctuations are found to be gapped, implying the stability of the ground state. We also present Monte Carlo simulations that confirm the basic features of the analytical results.

  12. [Results following percutaneous intramedullary pin fixation in distal radius fractures].

    PubMed

    Kirchner, R; Hüttl, T; Krüger-Franke, M; Rosemeyer, B

    1994-01-01

    42 distal radius fractures have been submitted to further examination after percutaneous intramedullary pin fixation. The outcome were 95.3% of very good to good anatomic results and 90.5% of satisfying functional results. This showed the close link between the radiological-anatomical and functional results. The success of the treatment was very acceptable, although the Morbus Sudeck as the major complication--with 7.2%--was still relatively frequently observed. It could be seen that particularly fractures at the risk of dislocation with smash zone constituted an indication for the percutaneous intramedullary pin fixation, that is to say all fractures for which a retention is primarily difficult. It constitutes a supplement, as well as an extension to the therapy of the distal radius fractures. PMID:7516105

  13. Influences of periodic mechanical deformation on pinned spiral waves.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiang-Xing; Peng, Liang; Zheng, Qiang; Zhao, Ye-Hua; Ying, He-Ping

    2014-09-01

    In a generic model of excitable media, we study the behavior of spiral waves interacting with obstacles and their dynamics under the influences of simple periodic mechanical deformation (PMD). Depending on the characteristics of the obstacles, i.e., size and excitability, the rotation of a pinned spiral wave shows different scenarios, e.g., embedding into or anchoring on an obstacle. Three different drift phenomena induced by PMD are observed: scattering on small partial-excitable obstacles, meander-induced unpinning on big partial-excitable obstacles, and drifting around small unexcitable obstacles. Their underlying mechanisms are discussed. The dependence of the threshold amplitude of PMD on the characteristics of the obstacles to successfully remove pinned spiral waves on big partial-excitable obstacles is studied. PMID:25273183

  14. Domain wall pinning in ultra-narrow electromigrated break junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reeve, Robert M.; Loescher, André; Mawass, Mohamad-Assaad; Hoffmann-Vogel, Regina; Kläui, Mathias

    2014-11-01

    The study of magnetic domain walls in constrained geometries is an important topic, yet when dealing with extreme nanoscale magnetic systems artefacts can often dominate the measurements and obscure the effects of intrinsic magnetic origin. In this work we study the evolution of domain wall depinning in electromigrated ferromagnetic junctions which are both initially fabricated and subsequently tailored in-situ in clean ultra-high vacuum conditions. Carefully designed Ni80Fe20 (Permalloy) notched half-ring structures are fabricated and investigated as a function of constriction width by tailoring the size of the contact using controlled in-situ electromigration. It is found that the domain wall pinning strength is increased on reducing the contact size in line with a reduction of the wall energy in narrower constrictions. Furthermore, the angular dependency and symmetry of the depinning field is measured to determine the full pinning potential for a domain wall in a system with a narrow constriction.

  15. Turbine blade and non-integral platform with pin attachment

    DOEpatents

    Campbell, Christian Xavier; Eng, Darryl; Marra, John J.

    2016-08-02

    Platforms (36, 38) span between turbine blades (23, 24, 25) on a disk (32). Each platform may be individually mounted to the disk by a pin attachment (42). Each platform (36) may have a rotationally rearward edge portion (50) that underlies a forward portion (45) of the adjacent platform (38). This limits centrifugal bending of the rearward portion of the platform, and provides coolant sealing. The rotationally forward edge (44A, 44B) of the platform overlies a seal element (51) on the pressure side (28) of the forwardly adjacent blade, and does not underlie a shelf on that blade. The pin attachment allows radial mounting of each platform onto the disk via tilting (60) of the platform during mounting to provide mounting clearance for the rotationally rearward edge portion (50). This facilitates quick platform replacement without blade removal.

  16. Turbine blade and non-integral platform with pin attachment

    DOEpatents

    Campbell, Christian X; Eng, Darryl; Marra, John J

    2015-01-27

    Platforms (36, 38) span between turbine blades (23, 24, 25) on a disk (32). Each platform may be individually mounted to the disk by a pin attachment (42). Each platform (36) may have a rotationally rearward edge portion (50) that underlies a forward portion (45) of the adjacent platform (38). This limits centrifugal bending of the rearward portion of the platform, and provides coolant sealing. The rotationally forward edge (44A, 44B) of the platform overlies a seal element (51) on the pressure side (28) of the forwardly adjacent blade, and does not underlie a shelf on that blade. The pin attachment allows radial mounting of each platform onto the disk via tilting (60) of the platform during mounting to provide mounting clearance for the rotationally rearward edge portion (50). This facilitates quick platform replacement without blade removal.

  17. Cell polarity in plants: a PARspective on PINs.

    PubMed

    Geldner, Niko

    2009-02-01

    Plants have acquired the ability for organized multicellular development independent from animals. Because of this, they represent an independent example in nature for the development of coordinated, complex cell polarity from the simple polarity found in unicellular eukaryotes. Plants display a striking array of polarized cell types, with different axes of polarity being defined in one cell. The most investigated and best understood aspect of plant polarity is the apical-basal polarity of the PIN family of auxin efflux facilitators, which are of crucial importance for the organization of the entire plant body. Striking differences exist between the PAR-polarity modules known in animals and the ways PINs polarize plant cells. Nonetheless, a common regulatory logic probably applies to all polarizing eukaryotic cells, which includes self-reinforcing, positive feedback loops, intricate interactions between membrane-attached proteins, lipid signatures, and the targeting of transmembrane proteins to the correct domains of the plasma membrane. PMID:18993110

  18. Lightning Pin Injection Test: MOSFETS in "ON" State

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ely, Jay J.; Nguyen, Truong X.; Szatkowski, George N.; Koppen, Sandra V.; Mielnik, John J.; Vaughan, Roger K.; Saha, Sankalita; Wysocki, Philip F.; Celaya, Jose R.

    2011-01-01

    The test objective was to evaluate MOSFETs for induced fault modes caused by pin-injecting a standard lightning waveform into them while operating. Lightning Pin-Injection testing was performed at NASA LaRC. Subsequent fault-mode and aging studies were performed by NASA ARC researchers using the Aging and Characterization Platform for semiconductor components. This report documents the test process and results, to provide a basis for subsequent lightning tests. The ultimate IVHM goal is to apply prognostic and health management algorithms using the features extracted during aging to allow calculation of expected remaining useful life. A survey of damage assessment techniques based upon inspection is provided, and includes data for optical microscope and X-ray inspection. Preliminary damage assessments based upon electrical parameters are also provided.

  19. PWC-11 fuel pin development for SP-100

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayre, Edwin D.; Butler, Robert E.; Kangilaski, Mike

    1992-01-01

    GE has developed a high temperature fuel pin for the SP-100 Space Reactor. The Nb-1% Zr alloy PWC-11 was selected over the conventional Nb-1% Ar alloy for the fuel pin cladding because the higher creep strength enables a significant reduction in system mass. PWC-11 has 0.1% carbon to provide the higher creep and tensile strength at the operating temperature. PWC-11 was developed by Pratt and Whitney in the 1960's and it has also been investigated by the Russians. Six small 35 pound ingots were purchased from Teledyne Wah Chang, five by Nasa Lewis Research Center, and one by GE for the SP-100. Since no work had been done during the last two decades, processes had to be developed based on the work done earlier. The tube making process experience at GE is discussed.

  20. Development of prototype pixellated PIN CdZnTe detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narita, Tomohiko; Bloser, Peter F.; Grindlay, Jonathan E.; Sudharsanan, R.; Reiche, C.; Stenstrom, Claudia

    1998-07-01

    We report initial results from the design and evaluation of two pixellated PIN Cadmium Zinc Telluride detectors and an ASIC-based readout system. The prototype imaging PIN detectors consist of 4 X 4 1.5 mm square indium anode contacts with 0.2 mm spacing and a solid cathode plane on 10 X 10 mm CdZnTe substrates of thickness 2 mm and 5 mm. The detector readout system, based on low noise preamplifier ASICs, allows for parallel readout of all channels upon cathode trigger. This prototype is under development for use in future astrophysical hard X-ray imagers with 10 - 600 keV energy response. Measurements of the detector uniformity, spatial resolution, and spectral resolution will be discussed and compared with a similar pixellated MSM detector. Finally, a prototype design for a large imaging array is outlined.

  1. An integrated PIN-array receiver for visible light communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jie-Hui; Huang, Xing-Xing; Ji, Xin-Ming; Chi, Nan; Shi, Jian-Yang

    2015-10-01

    This paper first designs and demonstrates an integrated receiver for a visible light communication (VLC) system based on RGB LED and an array of silicon PIN diode detectors. The system uses a maximal ratio combining (MRC) algorithm to enhance system performance. The novel integrated PIN diode array design yields a high date rate of 1.2 Gbit s-1 by 16QAM-OFDM based on a commercially available RGB LED in a VLC system with bit error rate under a 7% pre-forward-error-correction (FEC) threshold of 3.8 × 10-3 after 30 cm free-space transmission. The results show that the use of integrated antennas in VLC systems will become a trend in the future.

  2. Spectrometry and dosimetry of fast neutrons using pin diode detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaki Dizaji, H.; Kakavand, T.; Abbasi Davani, F.

    2014-03-01

    Elastic scattering of light nuclei, especially hydrogen, is widely used for detection of fast neutrons. Semiconductor devices based on silicon detectors are frequently used for different radiation detections. In this work, a neutron spectrometer consisting of a pin diode coupled with a polyethylene converter and aluminum degrader layers has been developed. Aluminum layers are used as discriminators of different neutron energies for detectors. The response of the converter-degrader-pin diode configuration, the optimum thickness of the converter and the degrader layers have been extracted using MCNP and SRIM simulation codes. The possibility of using this type of detector for fast neutron spectrometry and dosimetry has been investigated. A fairly good agreement was seen between neutron energy spectrum and dose obtained from our configurations and these specifications from an 241Am-Be neutron source.

  3. Extension-block pinning for treatment of displaced mallet fractures.

    PubMed

    Mazurek, Michael T; Hofmeister, Eric P; Shin, Alexander Y; Bishop, Allen T

    2002-11-01

    Mallet injuries are common in active individuals, particularly those who participate in sports such as basketball and football. Although a majority of patients with displaced mallet fractures are treated conservatively with extension splinting, their treatment is often complicated by residual loss of extension and fracture displacement secondary to unfavorable fracture biomechanics and poor patient compliance. An attractive alternative to nonoperative treatment is the minimally invasive technique of extension-block percutaneous pinning. Extension-block percutaneous pinning allows anatomic restoration of the articular surfaces and avoids the complications associated with closed treatment. The technique is easy to perform and is an effective, safe alternative to the conservative treatment of displaced mallet fractures, particularly those associated with joint subluxation.

  4. Pin1 promotes production of Alzheimer's amyloid {beta} from {beta}-cleaved amyloid precursor protein

    SciTech Connect

    Akiyama, Hirotada; Shin, Ryong-Woon; Uchida, Chiyoko; Kitamoto, Tetsuyuki; Uchida, Takafumi . E-mail: uchidat@cir.tohoku.ac.jp

    2005-10-21

    Here we show that prolyl isomerase Pin1 is involved in the A{beta} production central to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. Enzyme immunoassay of brains of the Pin1-deficient mice revealed that production of A{beta}40 and A{beta}42 was lower than that of the wild-type mice, indicating that Pin1 promotes A{beta} production in the brain. GST-Pin1 pull-down and immunoprecipitation assay revealed that Pin1 binds phosphorylated Thr668-Pro of C99. In the Pin1 {sup -/-} MEF transfected with C99, Pin1 co-transfection enhanced the levels of A{beta}40 and A{beta}42 compared to that without Pin1 co-transfection. In COS7 cells transfected with C99, Pin1 co-transfection enhanced the generation of A{beta}40 and A{beta}42, and reduced the expression level of C99, facilitating the C99 turnover. Thus, Pin1 interacts with C99 and promotes its {gamma}-cleavage, generating A{beta}40 and A{beta}42. Further, GSK3 inhibitor lithium blocked Pin1 binding to C99 by decreasing Thr668 phosphorylation and attenuated A{beta} generation, explaining the inhibitory effect of lithium on A{beta} generation.

  5. Performance of a TiN-coated monolithic silicon pin-diode array under mechanical stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    VanDevender, B. A.; Bodine, L. I.; Myers, A. W.; Amsbaugh, J. F.; Howe, M. A.; Leber, M. L.; Robertson, R. G. H.; Tolich, K.; Van Wechel, T. D.; Wall, B. L.

    2012-05-01

    The Karlsruhe Tritium Neutrino Experiment (KATRIN) will detect tritium β-decay electrons that pass through its electromagnetic spectrometer with a highly segmented monolithic silicon pin-diode focal-plane detector (FPD). This pin-diode array will be on a single piece of 500-μm-thick silicon, with contact between titanium nitride (TiN)-coated detector pixels and front-end electronics made by spring-loaded pogo pins. The pogo pins will exert a total force of up to 50 N on the detector, deforming it and resulting in mechanical stress up to 50 MPa in the silicon bulk. We have evaluated a prototype pin-diode array with a pogo-pin connection scheme similar to the KATRIN FPD. We find that pogo pins make good electrical contact to TiN and observe no effects on detector resolution or reverse-bias leakage current which can be attributed to mechanical stress.

  6. Special pinning phenomena in arrays of defects with gradient spatial distributions on niobium film

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Tian-Chiuan; Horng, Lance Wu, Jong-Ching

    2015-05-07

    Flux pinning effect is related to the strong influence by the presence of defects that act as pinning centers. We present transport experiments that investigate the pinning properties in a spacing-graded array of pinning sites. We have found the asymmetric pinning by arrays of defects with modulated gradient spatial distributions on niobium film. One can clearly see the asymmetric pinning effect for the vortex motion. The dc voltage depends on the amplitude of the ac current and that there is a sharp maximum at matching fields. This curve, however, has an interesting sign reversal phenomenon below the first matching field, which will be investigated more in the future. The dc voltage as a function of dc and ac applied current gives evidence that the artificial arrays of gradient pinning site density induce ratchet effect. This effect can be used to control the vortex motion, which will be important for the application of vortex based on electronic devices.

  7. Origin and evolution of PIN auxin transporters in the green lineage.

    PubMed

    Viaene, Tom; Delwiche, Charles F; Rensing, Stefan A; Friml, Jiří

    2013-01-01

    Polarized auxin transport is crucial for many developmental processes in flowering plants and requires the PIN-FORMED (PIN) family of auxin efflux carriers. However, the impact of polar auxin transport and PIN proteins on the development of non-seed plant species and green algal lineages is largely unknown. Using recently available sequence information from streptophyte algae and other non-seed plant species, we have constructed a preliminary phylogenetic framework and present several hypotheses for PIN protein evolution. We postulate that PIN proteins originated in streptophyte algae at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and that plasma membrane localization was acquired during land plant evolution. We also suggest that PIN proteins are evolutionarily distinct from another family of auxin transporters at the ER, the PIN-LIKES (PILS) proteins. PMID:22981345

  8. 29 CFR 1926.301 - Hand tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hand tools. 1926.301 Section 1926.301 Labor Regulations...) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Tools-Hand and Power § 1926.301 Hand tools. (a) Employers shall not issue or permit the use of unsafe hand tools. (b) Wrenches, including adjustable, pipe,...

  9. 29 CFR 1926.301 - Hand tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hand tools. 1926.301 Section 1926.301 Labor Regulations...) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Tools-Hand and Power § 1926.301 Hand tools. (a) Employers shall not issue or permit the use of unsafe hand tools. (b) Wrenches, including adjustable, pipe,...

  10. 29 CFR 1926.301 - Hand tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hand tools. 1926.301 Section 1926.301 Labor Regulations...) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Tools-Hand and Power § 1926.301 Hand tools. (a) Employers shall not issue or permit the use of unsafe hand tools. (b) Wrenches, including adjustable, pipe,...

  11. 29 CFR 1926.301 - Hand tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hand tools. 1926.301 Section 1926.301 Labor Regulations...) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Tools-Hand and Power § 1926.301 Hand tools. (a) Employers shall not issue or permit the use of unsafe hand tools. (b) Wrenches, including adjustable, pipe,...

  12. Pin diode calibration - beam overlap monitoring for low energy cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Drees, A.; Montag, C.; Thieberger, P.

    2015-09-30

    We were trying to address the question whether or not the Pin Diodes, currently installed approximately 1 meter downstream of the RHIC primary collimators, are suitable to monitor a recombination signal from the future RHIC low energy cooling section. A maximized recombination signal, with the Au+78 ions being lost on the collimator, will indicate optimal Au-electron beam overlap as well as velocity matching of the electron beam in the cooling section.

  13. 20. 80 foot pony truss an upper chord pin ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. 80 foot pony truss - an upper chord pin connection at a vertical post other than at the end post. Common to the five 80 foot trusses and similar to the 64 foot truss, there are two pairs per 80 foot truss and one pair on the 64 foot truss for a total of 22. - Weidemeyer Bridge, Spanning Thomes Creek at Rawson Road, Corning, Tehama County, CA

  14. Flexible amorphous silicon PIN diode x-ray detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marrs, Michael; Bawolek, Edward; Smith, Joseph T.; Raupp, Gregory B.; Morton, David

    2013-05-01

    A low temperature amorphous silicon (a-Si) thin film transistor (TFT) and amorphous silicon PIN photodiode technology for flexible passive pixel detector arrays has been developed using active matrix display technology. The flexible detector arrays can be conformed to non-planar surfaces with the potential to detect x-rays or other radiation with an appropriate conversion layer. The thin, lightweight, and robust backplanes may enable the use of highly portable x-ray detectors for use in the battlefield or in remote locations. We have fabricated detector arrays up to 200 millimeters along the diagonal on a Gen II (370 mm x 470 mm rectangular substrate) using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) a-Si as the active layer and PECVD silicon nitride (SiN) as the gate dielectric and passivation. The a-Si based TFTs exhibited an effective saturation mobility of 0.7 cm2/V-s, which is adequate for most sensing applications. The PIN diode material was fabricated using a low stress amorphous silicon (a-Si) PECVD process. The PIN diode dark current was 1.7 pA/mm2, the diode ideality factor was 1.36, and the diode fill factor was 0.73. We report on the critical steps in the evolution of the backplane process from qualification of the low temperature (180°C) TFT and PIN diode process on the 150 mm pilot line, the transfer of the process to flexible plastic substrates, and finally a discussion and demonstration of the scale-up to the Gen II (370 x 470 mm) panel scale pilot line.

  15. Flat photonic surface bands pinned between Dirac points.

    PubMed

    Jukić, Dario; Buljan, Hrvoje; Lee, Dung-Hai; Joannopoulos, John D; Soljačić, Marin

    2012-12-15

    We point out that 2D photonic crystals (PhCs) can support surface bands that are pinned to Dirac points. These bands can be made very flat by optimizing the parameters of the system. Surface modes are found at the interface of two different cladding materials: one is a PhC with Dirac linear dispersion for the TE mode, and the other is a PhC that has a broad TE gap at the Dirac frequency. PMID:23258072

  16. Effect of pin location on stability of pelvic external fixation.

    PubMed

    Kim, W Y; Hearn, T C; Seleem, O; Mahalingam, E; Stephen, D; Tile, M

    1999-04-01

    Pelvic external fixators allow two locations of pin purchase: anterosuperior (into the iliac crest) and anteroinferior (into the supraacetabular dense bone, between the anterior superior and anterior inferior iliac spine). The purpose of this study was to compare the stability of these two methods of fixation on Tile Type B1 (open book) and C (unstable) pelvic injuries. Five unembalmed cadaveric pelves (mean age, 68 years; four males and one female) were loaded vertically in a servohydraulic testing machine in a standing posture. The AO tubular system and Orthofix were used. On each pelvis, a Type B1 injury was simulated. Each external fixator was applied in each location in random order. Cyclic loads were applied through the sacral body to a maximum of approximately 200 N while force and displacement of the pelvic ring were recorded digitally. Sacroiliac joint motion was quantified tridimensionally with displacement transducers, mounted on the sacrum and contacting a target fixed to the posterior superior iliac spine. A Type C injury was created and augmented with two iliosacral lag screws, and the tests were repeated. For the Type B1 injuries with anteroinferior pin purchase, the mean stiffness was 201.2 N/mm for the AO frame and 203.2 N/mm for the Orthofix. For the anterosuperior frames the mean stiffness was 143.9 N/mm for the AO frame and 163.3 N/mm for the Orthofix. For Type B1 and Type C injuries, the anteroinferior location of pin purchase resulted in significantly reduced sacroiliac joint separation. There were no significant differences between the frame types. Dissection of the preinserted anatomic specimen revealed no evidence of injury to the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve after blunt dissection and drilling with protective drill sleeves. It is concluded that the anteroinferior location of external fixation pins is a safe technique with the potential for increased stability of fixation.

  17. Optical modulation by carrier depletion in a silicon PIN diode.

    PubMed

    Marris-Morini, Delphine; Le Roux, Xavier; Vivien, Laurent; Cassan, Eric; Pascal, Daniel; Halbwax, Mathieu; Maine, Sylvain; Laval, Suzanne; Fédéli, Jean Marc; Damlencourt, Jean François

    2006-10-30

    Experimental results for refractive index variation induced by depletion in a silicon structure integrated in a PIN diode are reported. Thermal effect has been dissociated from the electrical contribution due to carrier density variation induced by a reverse bias voltage. A figure of merit V(pi)L(pi) of 3.1 V.cm has been obtained at 1.55mum. Numerical simulations show a good agreement between experimental and theoretical index variations. PMID:19529496

  18. Channelized-Coplanar-Waveguide PIN-Diode Switches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ponchak, G. E.; Simons, R. N.

    1992-01-01

    Three positive/intrinsic/negative (PIN-diode) reflective CPW (coplanar waveguide) switches demonstrated. First includes series-mounted diode to bridge gap in center strip conductor of CPW. Second includes pair of diodes to short center strip conductor to ground planes. Third includes diode to switch between band-pass filter and notch filter. Isolation exceeds 20 dB, while insertion loss is less than 1 dB.

  19. Subsea adjustable choke valves

    SciTech Connect

    Cyvas, M.K. )

    1989-08-01

    With emphasis on deepwater wells and marginal offshore fields growing, the search for reliable subsea production systems has become a high priority. A reliable subsea adjustable choke is essential to the realization of such a system, and recent advances are producing the degree of reliability required. Technological developments have been primarily in (1) trim material (including polycrystalline diamond), (2) trim configuration, (3) computer programs for trim sizing, (4) component materials, and (5) diver/remote-operated-vehicle (ROV) interfaces. These five facets are overviewed and progress to date is reported. A 15- to 20-year service life for adjustable subsea chokes is now a reality. Another factor vital to efficient use of these technological developments is to involve the choke manufacturer and ROV/diver personnel in initial system conceptualization. In this manner, maximum benefit can be derived from the latest technology. Major areas of development still required and under way are listed, and the paper closes with a tabulation of successful subsea choke installations in recent years.

  20. Ultrasonic measurement of stress in pin and hanger connections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Al V.; Hehman, C. S.; Gallagher, D.; Lozev, Margarit G.; Fuchs, P. A.

    1998-03-01

    Pin and hanger connections can sometimes lock up due to corrosion. As the stresses in the connection are cycled due to thermal expansion and contraction of the bridge, fatigue cracking and failure may occur. We constructed an apparatus to simulate a locked-up pin and hanger connection. It consists of a 12 tooth spline bolted to the base of a mechanical testing machine. Hangers were mounted on the spline, which constrains their ends against rotation. The free ends of the hangers were loaded by the test machine's piston. We performed proof of concept tests of a method to detect stresses in pin and hanger connections prior to cracking. The method uses the fact that stress causes change in sound velocity. We propagated shear waves polarized parallel and perpendicular to the hanger axis. The normalized difference in shear wave velocities is called the birefringence. We measured the birefringence near the outer fibers of the hangers, at midsection. We simulated 3 scenarios: continuous monitoring of hanger status; intermittent monitoring from a known initial state; measurement with no a priori knowledge of hanger status. Good agreement with strain gauge data was obtained for all three scenarios.

  1. a Numerical Method for Stability Analysis of Pinned Flexible Mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beale, D. G.; Lee, S. W.

    1996-05-01

    A technique is presented to investigate the stability of mechanisms with pin-jointed flexible members. The method relies on a special floating frame from which elastic link co-ordinates are defined. Energies are easily developed for use in a Lagrange equation formulation, leading to a set of non-linear and mixed ordinary differential-algebraic equations of motion with constraints. Stability and bifurcation analysis is handled using a numerical procedure (generalized co-ordinate partitioning) that avoids the tedious and difficult task of analytically reducing the system of equations to a number equalling the system degrees of freedom. The proposed method was then applied to (1) a slider-crank mechanism with a flexible connecting rod and crank of constant rotational speed, and (2) a four-bar linkage with a flexible coupler with a constant speed crank. In both cases, a single pinned-pinned beam bending mode is employed to develop resonance curves and stability boundaries in the crank length-crank speed parameter plane. Flip and fold bifurcations are common occurrences in both mechanisms. The accuracy of the proposed method was also verified by comparison with previous experimental results [1].

  2. Sequential vortex hopping in an array of artificial pinning centers

    SciTech Connect

    Keay, J. C.

    2010-02-24

    We use low-temperature magnetic force microscopy (MFM) to study the hopping motion of vortices in an array of artificial pinning centers (APCs). The array consists of nanoscale holes etched in a niobium thin film by Ar-ion sputtering through an anodic aluminum-oxide template. Variable-temperature magnetometry shows a transition temperature of 7.1 K and an enhancement of the magnetization up to the third matching field at 5 K. Using MFM with attractive and repulsive tip-vortex interaction, we measure the vortex-pinning strength and investigate the motion of individual vortices in the APC array. The depinning force for individual vortices at low field ranged from 0.7 to 1.2 pN. The motion of individual vortices was found to be reproducible and consistent with movement between adjacent holes in the film. The movements are repeatable but the sequence of hops depends on the scan direction. This asymmetry in the motion indicates nonuniform local pinning, a consequence of array disorder and hole-size variation.

  3. Passive Micro Vibration Isolator Utilizing Flux Pinning Effect for Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibata, Takuma; Sakai, Shin-ichiro

    2016-09-01

    Information related to the origin of space and evolution of galaxy can be obtained using the observation satellites. In recent years, high pointing accuracy is demanded for getting more detailed data about distant stars and galaxies. As a result, vibration isolators that consist of a main structure and a TTM (Tip Tilt Mirror) have been adopted for observation satellites. However, cutting the low frequency vibrations off passively with the conventional methods is difficult. A vibration isolator that uses pinning effect is proposed for solving this problem. The pinning effect is acquired by cooling the type-II superconductor below the critical temperature and it generates a pinning force to maintain the relative distance and attitude between a type- II superconductor and a material that generates magnetic flux. The mission part and the bus part of the satellite are equipped with superconductors and permanent magnets and these parts perform short distance formation flight by applying the effect. This method can cut vibrations from low to high frequency bands off passively. In addition, Meissner effect can prevent collision of the mission and bus parts. In order to investigate the performance of this system, experiments and simulations are carried out and the results are discussed.

  4. Validation of the Greek maternal adjustment and maternal attitudes scale for assessing early postpartum adjustment.

    PubMed

    Vivilaki, Victoria G; Dafermos, Vassilis; Gevorgian, Liana; Dimopoulou, Athanasia; Patelarou, Evridiki; Bick, Debra; Tsopelas, Nicholas D; Lionis, Christos

    2012-01-01

    The Maternal Adjustment and Maternal Attitudes Scale is a self- administered scale, designed for use in primary care settings to identify postpartum maternal adjustment problems regarding body image, sex, somatic symptoms, and marital relationships. Women were recruited within four weeks of giving birth. Responses to the Maternal Adjustment and Maternal Attitudes Scale were compared for agreement with responses to the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale as a gold standard. Psychometric measurements included: reliability coefficients, explanatory factor analysis, and confirmatory analysis by linear structural relations. A receiver operating characteristic analysis was carried out to evaluate the global functioning of the scale. Of 300 mothers screened, 121 (40.7%) were experiencing difficulties in maternal adjustment and maternal attitudes. Scores on the Maternal Adjustment and Maternal Attitudes Scale correlated well with those on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. The internal consistency of the Maternal Adjustment and Maternal Attitudes Scale, Greek version-tested using Cronbach's alpha coefficient-was 0.859, and that of Guttman split-half coefficient was 0.820. Findings confirmed the multidimensionality of the Maternal Adjustment and Maternal Attitudes Scale, demonstrating a six-factor structure. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.610, and the logistic estimate for the threshold score of 57/58 fitted the model sensitivity at 68% and model specificity at 64.6%. Data confirmed that the Greek version of the Maternal Adjustment and Maternal Attitudes Scale is a reliable and valid screening tool for both clinical practice and research purposes to detect postpartum adjustment difficulties.

  5. Improved protease stability of the antimicrobial peptide Pin2 substituted with D-amino acids.

    PubMed

    Carmona, G; Rodriguez, A; Juarez, D; Corzo, G; Villegas, E

    2013-08-01

    Cationic antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have attracted a great interest as novel class of antibiotics that might help in the treatment of infectious diseases caused by pathogenic bacteria. However, some AMPs with high antimicrobial activities are also highly hemolytic and subject to proteolytic degradation from human and bacterial proteases that limit their pharmaceutical uses. In this work a D-diastereomer of Pandinin 2, D-Pin2, was constructed to observe if it maintained antimicrobial activity in the same range as the parental one, but with the purpose of reducing its hemolytic activity to human erythrocytes and improving its ability to resist proteolytic cleavage. Although, the hydrophobic and secondary structure characteristics of L- and D-Pin2 were to some extent similar, an important reduction in D-Pin2 hemolytic activity (30-40 %) was achieved compared to that of L-Pin2 over human erythrocytes. Furthermore, D-Pin2 had an antimicrobial activity with a MIC value of 12.5 μM towards Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus agalactiae and two strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in agar diffusion assays, but it was half less potent than that of L-Pin2. Nevertheless, the antimicrobial activity of D-Pin2 was equally effective as that of L-Pin2 in microdilution assays. Yet, when D- and L-Pin2 were incubated with trypsin, elastase and whole human serum, only D-Pin2 kept its antimicrobial activity towards all bacteria, but in diluted human serum, L- and D-Pin2 maintained similar peptide stability. Finally, when L- and D-Pin2 were incubated with proteases from P. aeruginosa DFU3 culture, a clinical isolated strain, D-Pin2 kept its antibiotic activity while L-Pin2 was not effective.

  6. PIN1 in hepatocellular carcinoma is associated with TP53 gene status.

    PubMed

    Bae, Jun Sang; Noh, Sang Jae; Kim, Kyoung Min; Jang, Kyu Yun; Park, Ho Sung; Chung, Myoung Ja; Park, Byung-Hyun; Moon, Woo Sung

    2016-10-01

    Phosphorylation of proteins on serine/threonine residues that precede proline (pSer/Thr-Pro) is specifically catalyzed by the peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase PIN1. PIN1-mediated prolyl-isomerization induces cell cycle arrest and growth inhibition through the regulation of target proteins, including TP53. We examined whether PIN1 acts in a different manner according to TP53 gene status in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We investigated the expression of PIN1 and TP53 proteins in 119 HCC tissue samples. We also analyzed PIN1 expression in combination with TP53 gene mutation and its correlation with the clinical outcome. In addition, we used synthetic small interfering RNA to silence PIN1 gene expression in TP53 wild-type and TP53 mutant HCC cell lines, and then evaluated cell proliferation, migration and invasion. Expression of PIN1 was strongly associated with expression of TP53 protein or TP53 mutation of HCC samples. PIN1 and TP53 expression in TP53 mutant HCC cell lines was higher than that in TP53 wild-type HCC cell lines. Silencing of PIN1 in HLE cells containing mutant TP53 significantly decreased cell proliferation, migration and invasion. In contrast to PIN1 silencing in HLE cells, PIN1 silencing in HepG2 cells containing functional wild-type TP53 resulted in enhanced tumor cell proliferation. HCC patients bearing PIN1 expression with wild-type TP53 were predicted to demonstrate favorable relapse-free survival. Our results suggest that PIN1 plays a role in cancer cell proliferation, migration and invasion in a different manner according to the TP53 gene mutation status in HCC. In particular, interaction of PIN1 with mutant TP53 can act as a tumor promoter and increase its oncogenic activities in HCC. PMID:27499097

  7. Adolescent Mothers' Adjustment to Parenting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, Valerie Jarvis; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examined adolescent mothers' adjustment to parenting, self-esteem, social support, and perceptions of baby. Subjects (n=52) responded to questionnaires at two time periods approximately six months apart. Mothers with higher self-esteem at Time 1 had better adjustment at Time 2. Adjustment was predicted by Time 2 variables; contact with baby's…

  8. Tailoring the vortex pinning strength of YBCO thin films by systematic incorporation of hybrid artificial pinning centers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jha, Alok K.; Matsumoto, Kaname; Horide, Tomoya; Saini, Shrikant; Mele, Paolo; Ichinose, Ataru; Yoshida, Yutaka; Awaji, Satoshi

    2015-11-01

    The effect of hybrid (columnar and spherical together) artificial pinning centers (APCs) on the vortex pinning properties of YBa2Cu3O7-δ (YBCO) thin films is investigated in detail on the basis of variation of critical current density (J C ) with applied magnetic field and also with the orientation of the applied magnetic field at 65 K and 77 K. Premixed YBCO + BaSnO3 composite targets are used for the deposition of the YBCO films which consist of self-assembled BaSnO3 nanocolumns (1D APCs); on the other hand, for the deposition of the YBCO films with hybrid APCs (BaSnO3 nanocolumns together with Y2O3 nanoparticles), the surface of the premixed YBCO + BaSnO3 composite targets are modified by putting a thin Y2O3 sectored piece on the premixed YBCO + BaSnO3 composite targets by means of silver paste. F pmax value increases systematically with incorporation of 1D and 1D and 3D APCs and it also shifts towards higher applied magnetic fields. Films with 1D APCs exhibit a strong J C peak at Θ = 0° (H//c-axis) whereas films consisting of hybrid APCs exhibit enhanced J C at all the investigated angular regimes. A possible mechanism of vortex pinning in samples with hybrid APCs is also discussed suggesting the role of 1D and 3D APCs.

  9. PPP1, a plant-specific regulator of transcription controls Arabidopsis development and PIN expression

    PubMed Central

    Benjamins, René; Barbez, Elke; Ortbauer, Martina; Terpstra, Inez; Lucyshyn, Doris; Moulinier-Anzola, Jeanette; Khan, Muhammad Asaf; Leitner, Johannes; Malenica, Nenad; Butt, Haroon; Korbei, Barbara; Scheres, Ben; Kleine-Vehn, Jürgen; Luschnig, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Directional transport of auxin is essential for plant development, with PIN auxin transport proteins representing an integral part of the machinery that controls hormone distribution. However, unlike the rapidly emerging framework of molecular determinants regulating PIN protein abundance and subcellular localization, insights into mechanisms controlling PIN transcription are still limited. Here we describe PIN2 PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN 1 (PPP1), an evolutionary conserved plant-specific DNA binding protein that acts on transcription of PIN genes. Consistent with PPP1 DNA-binding activity, PPP1 reporter proteins are nuclear localized and analysis of PPP1 null alleles and knockdown lines indicated a function as a positive regulator of PIN expression. Furthermore, we show that ppp1 pleiotropic mutant phenotypes are partially reverted by PIN overexpression, and results are presented that underline a role of PPP1-PIN promoter interaction in PIN expression control. Collectively, our findings identify an elementary, thus far unknown, plant-specific DNA-binding protein required for post-embryonic plant development, in general, and correct expression of PIN genes, in particular. PMID:27553690

  10. Liquid-metal pin-fin pressure drop by correlation in cross flow

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Zhibi; Kuzay, T.M.; Assoufid, L.

    1994-08-01

    The pin-fin configuration is widely used as a heat transfer enhancement method in high-heat-flux applications. Recently, the pin-fin design with liquid-metal coolant was also applied to synchrotron-radiation beamline devices. This paper investigates the pressure drop in a pin-post design beamline mirror with liquid gallium as the coolant. Because the pin-post configuration is a relatively new concept, information in literature about pin-post mirrors or crystals is rare, and information about the pressure drop in pin-post mirrors with liquid metal as the coolant is even more sparse. Due to this the authors considered the cross flow in cylinder-array geometry, which is very similar to that of the pin-post, to examine the pressure drop correlation with liquid metals over pin fins. The cross flow of fluid with various fluid characteristics or properties through a tube bank was studied so that the results can be scaled to the pin-fin geometry with liquid metal as the coolant. Study lead to two major variables to influence the pressure drop: fluid properties, viscosity and density, and the relative length of the posts. Correlation of the pressure drop between long and short posts and the prediction of the pressure drop of liquid metal in the pin-post mirror and comparison with an existing experiment are addressed.

  11. Tumor suppressive activity of prolyl isomerase Pin1 in renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Teng, Brian L.; Hacker, Kathryn E.; Chen, Shufen; Means, Anthony R.; Rathmell, W. Kimryn

    2011-01-01

    Pin1 specifically recognizes and catalyzes the cis-trans isomerization of phosphorylated-Ser/Thr-Pro bonds, which modulate the stability, localization, and function of numerous Pin1 targets involved in tumor progression. However, the role of Pin1 in cancer remains enigmatic as the gene is located on chromosome 19p13.2, which is a region subject to loss of heterozygosity in several tumors. Since Pin1 protein is frequently under-expressed in kidney cancer, we have explored its role in human clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). Here we show evidence for PIN1 gene deletion and mRNA under-expression as a mechanism of Pin1 reduction in ccRCC tumors. We demonstrate that restoration of Pin1 in cell lines found to be deficient in Pin1 protein expression can attenuate the growth of ccRCC cells in soft agar and a xenograft tumor model. Moreover, this ability of Pin1 to negatively influence tumor growth in ccRCC cells may be dependent on the presence of functional p53, which is infrequently mutated in ccRCC. These observations suggest Pin1 may have a mild tumor suppressive role in ccRCC. PMID:21764651

  12. Tumor suppressive activity of prolyl isomerase Pin1 in renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Teng, Brian L; Hacker, Kathryn E; Chen, Shufen; Means, Anthony R; Rathmell, W Kimryn

    2011-10-01

    Pin1 specifically recognizes and catalyzes the cis-trans isomerization of phosphorylated-Ser/Thr-Pro bonds, which modulate the stability, localization, and function of numerous Pin1 targets involved in tumor progression. However, the role of Pin1 in cancer remains enigmatic as the gene is located on chromosome 19p13.2, which is a region subject to loss of heterozygosity in several tumors. Since Pin1 protein is frequently under-expressed in kidney cancer, we have explored its role in human clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). Here we show evidence for PIN1 gene deletion and mRNA under-expression as a mechanism of Pin1 reduction in ccRCC tumors. We demonstrate that restoration of Pin1 in cell lines found to be deficient in Pin1 protein expression can attenuate the growth of ccRCC cells in soft agar and a xenograft tumor model. Moreover, this ability of Pin1 to negatively influence tumor growth in ccRCC cells may be dependent on the presence of functional p53, which is infrequently mutated in ccRCC. These observations suggest Pin1 may have a mild tumor suppressive role in ccRCC.

  13. PPP1, a plant-specific regulator of transcription controls Arabidopsis development and PIN expression.

    PubMed

    Benjamins, René; Barbez, Elke; Ortbauer, Martina; Terpstra, Inez; Lucyshyn, Doris; Moulinier-Anzola, Jeanette; Khan, Muhammad Asaf; Leitner, Johannes; Malenica, Nenad; Butt, Haroon; Korbei, Barbara; Scheres, Ben; Kleine-Vehn, Jürgen; Luschnig, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Directional transport of auxin is essential for plant development, with PIN auxin transport proteins representing an integral part of the machinery that controls hormone distribution. However, unlike the rapidly emerging framework of molecular determinants regulating PIN protein abundance and subcellular localization, insights into mechanisms controlling PIN transcription are still limited. Here we describe PIN2 PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN 1 (PPP1), an evolutionary conserved plant-specific DNA binding protein that acts on transcription of PIN genes. Consistent with PPP1 DNA-binding activity, PPP1 reporter proteins are nuclear localized and analysis of PPP1 null alleles and knockdown lines indicated a function as a positive regulator of PIN expression. Furthermore, we show that ppp1 pleiotropic mutant phenotypes are partially reverted by PIN overexpression, and results are presented that underline a role of PPP1-PIN promoter interaction in PIN expression control. Collectively, our findings identify an elementary, thus far unknown, plant-specific DNA-binding protein required for post-embryonic plant development, in general, and correct expression of PIN genes, in particular. PMID:27553690

  14. Connection stiffness and dynamical docking process of flux pinned spacecraft modules

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Yong; Zhang, Mingliang Gao, Dong

    2014-02-14

    This paper describes a novel kind of potential flux pinned docking system that consists of guidance navigation and control system, the traditional extrusion type propulsion system, and a flux pinned docking interface. Because of characteristics of passive stability of flux pinning, the docking control strategy of flux pinned docking system only needs a series of sequential control rather than necessary active feedback control, as well as avoidance of hazardous collision accident. The flux pinned force between YBaCuO (YBCO) high temperature superconductor bulk and permanent magnet is able to be given vent based on the identical current loop model and improved image dipole model, which can be validated experimentally. Thus, the connection stiffness between two flux pinned spacecraft modules can be calculated based on Hooke's law. This connection stiffness matrix at the equilibrium position has the positive definite performance, which can validate the passively stable connection of two flux pinned spacecraft modules theoretically. Furthermore, the relative orbital dynamical equation of two flux pinned spacecraft modules can be established based on Clohessy-Wiltshire's equations and improved image dipole model. The dynamical docking process between two flux pinned spacecraft modules can be obtained by way of numerical simulation, which suggests the feasibility of flux pinned docking system.

  15. Connection stiffness and dynamical docking process of flux pinned spacecraft modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yong; Zhang, Mingliang; Gao, Dong

    2014-02-01

    This paper describes a novel kind of potential flux pinned docking system that consists of guidance navigation and control system, the traditional extrusion type propulsion system, and a flux pinned docking interface. Because of characteristics of passive stability of flux pinning, the docking control strategy of flux pinned docking system only needs a series of sequential control rather than necessary active feedback control, as well as avoidance of hazardous collision accident. The flux pinned force between YBaCuO (YBCO) high temperature superconductor bulk and permanent magnet is able to be given vent based on the identical current loop model and improved image dipole model, which can be validated experimentally. Thus, the connection stiffness between two flux pinned spacecraft modules can be calculated based on Hooke's law. This connection stiffness matrix at the equilibrium position has the positive definite performance, which can validate the passively stable connection of two flux pinned spacecraft modules theoretically. Furthermore, the relative orbital dynamical equation of two flux pinned spacecraft modules can be established based on Clohessy-Wiltshire's equations and improved image dipole model. The dynamical docking process between two flux pinned spacecraft modules can be obtained by way of numerical simulation, which suggests the feasibility of flux pinned docking system.

  16. Pin1 enhances adipocyte differentiation by positively regulating the transcriptional activity of PPARγ.

    PubMed

    Han, Younho; Lee, Sung Ho; Bahn, Minjin; Yeo, Chang-Yeol; Lee, Kwang Youl

    2016-11-15

    Pin1 is a peptidylprolyl cis/trans isomerase and it has a unique enzymatic activity of catalyzing isomerization of the peptide bond between phospho-serine/threonine and proline. Through the conformational change of its substrates, Pin1 regulates diverse biological processes including adipogenesis. In mouse embryonic fibroblasts and 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, overexpression of Pin1 enhances adipocyte differentiation whereas inhibition of Pin1 activity suppresses it. However, the precise functions of Pin1 during adipogenesis are not clear. In the present study, we investigated the potential targets of Pin1 during adipogenesis. We found that Pin1 interacts directly with and regulates the transcriptional activity of PPARγ, a key regulator of adipogenesis. In addition, ERK activity and Ser273 of PPARγ, a potential ERK phosphorylation target site, are important for the regulation of PPARγ function by Pin1 in 3T3-L1 cells. Taken together our results suggest a novel regulatory mechanism of Pin1 during adipogenesis, in which Pin1 enhances adipocyte differentiation by regulating the function of PPARγ. PMID:27475846

  17. Endosidin1 defines a compartment involved in endocytosis of the brassinosteroid receptor BRI1 and the auxin transporters PIN2 and AUX1.

    PubMed

    Robert, Stéphanie; Chary, S Narasimha; Drakakaki, Georgia; Li, Shundai; Yang, Zhenbiao; Raikhel, Natasha V; Hicks, Glenn R

    2008-06-17

    Although it is known that proteins are delivered to and recycled from the plasma membrane (PM) via endosomes, the nature of the compartments and pathways responsible for cargo and vesicle sorting and cellular signaling is poorly understood. To define and dissect specific recycling pathways, chemical effectors of proteins involved in vesicle trafficking, especially through endosomes, would be invaluable. Thus, we identified chemicals affecting essential steps in PM/endosome trafficking, using the intensely localized PM transport at the tips of germinating pollen tubes. The basic mechanisms of this localized growth are likely similar to those of non-tip growing cells in seedlings. The compound endosidin 1 (ES1) interfered selectively with endocytosis in seedlings, providing a unique tool to dissect recycling pathways. ES1 treatment induced the rapid agglomeration of the auxin translocators PIN2 and AUX1 and the brassinosteroid receptor BRI1 into distinct endomembrane compartments termed "endosidin bodies"; however, the markers PIN1, PIN7, and other PM proteins were unaffected. Endosidin bodies were defined by the syntaxin SYP61 and the V-ATPase subunit VHA-a1, two trans-Golgi network (TGN)/endosomal proteins. Interestingly, brassinosteroid (BR)-induced gene expression was inhibited by ES1 and treated seedlings displayed a brassinolide (BL)-insensitive phenotype similar to a bri1 loss-of-function mutant. No effect was detected in auxin signaling. Thus, PIN2, AUX1, and BRI1 use interactive pathways involving an early SYP61/VHA-a1 endosomal compartment.

  18. The class characteristic mark of the H&M Mul-T-Lock picking tool in toolmarks examination.

    PubMed

    Volkov, Nikolai; Finkelstein, Nir; Novoselsky, Yehuda; Tsach, Tsadok

    2014-07-01

    Mul-T-Lock is a high security lock cylinder distinguished by the use of a telescoping "pin-in-pin"-tumbler design. Picking the Mul-T-Lock cylinder with a traditional picking tool is highly complicated because it can get stuck between the inner and outer pins. The H&M Mul-T-Lock picking tool was designed to overcome this problem and facilitate the picking of the "pin-in-pin" cylinder. The purpose of this research is to determine whether H&M Mul-T-Lock picking tool leaves class characteristic mark and whether it can be distinguished from traditional picking tools marks and from regular key marks. It also describes and determines the class characteristic mark left on telescopic pins, its origin, recurrence, and its benefit to the toolmarks examiner. When receiving a Mul-T-Lock from a crime scene, a toolmarks examiner can quickly determine whether or not it was picked by an H&M Mul-T-Lock picking tool by noticing the class characteristic mark which this typical tool leaves.

  19. Bridging micro to macroscale fracture properties in highly heterogeneous brittle solids: weak pinning versus fingering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasoya, Manish; Lazarus, Véronique; Ponson, Laurent

    2016-10-01

    The effect of strong toughness heterogeneities on the macroscopic failure properties of brittle solids is investigated in the context of planar crack propagation. The basic mechanism at play is that the crack is locally slowed down or even trapped when encountering tougher material. The induced front deformation results in a selection of local toughness values that reflect at larger scale on the material resistance. To unravel this complexity and bridge micro to macroscale in failure of strongly heterogeneous media, we propose a homogenization procedure based on the introduction of two complementary macroscopic properties: An apparent toughness defined from the loading required to make the crack propagate and an effective fracture energy defined from the rate of energy released by unit area of crack advance. The relationship between these homogenized properties and the features of the local toughness map is computed using an iterative perturbation method. This approach is applied to a circular crack pinned by a periodic array of obstacles invariant in the radial direction, which gives rise to two distinct propagation regimes: A weak pinning regime where the crack maintains a stationary shape after reaching an equilibrium position and a fingering regime characterized by the continuous growth of localized regions of the fronts while the other parts remain trapped. Our approach successfully bridges micro to macroscopic failure properties in both cases and illustrates how small scale heterogeneities can drastically affect the overall failure response of brittle solids. On a broader perspective, we believe that our approach can be used as a powerful tool for the rational design of heterogeneous brittle solids and interfaces with tailored failure properties.

  20. AN Fitting Reconditioning Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lopez, Jason

    2011-01-01

    A tool was developed to repair or replace AN fittings on the shuttle external tank (ET). (The AN thread is a type of fitting used to connect flexible hoses and rigid metal tubing that carry fluid. It is a U.S. military-derived specification agreed upon by the Army and Navy, hence AN.) The tool is used on a drill and is guided by a pilot shaft that follows the inside bore. The cutting edge of the tool is a standard-size replaceable insert. In the typical Post Launch Maintenance/Repair process for the AN fittings, the six fittings are removed from the ET's GUCP (ground umbilical carrier plate) for reconditioning. The fittings are inspected for damage to the sealing surface per standard operations maintenance instructions. When damage is found on the sealing surface, the condition is documented. A new AN reconditioning tool is set up to cut and remove the surface damage. It is then inspected to verify the fitting still meets drawing requirements. The tool features a cone-shaped interior at 36.5 , and may be adjusted at a precise angle with go-no-go gauges to insure that the cutting edge could be adjusted as it wore down. One tool, one setting block, and one go-no-go gauge were fabricated. At the time of this reporting, the tool has reconditioned/returned to spec 36 AN fittings with 100-percent success of no leakage. This tool provides a quick solution to repair a leaky AN fitting. The tool could easily be modified with different-sized pilot shafts to different-sized fittings.

  1. Delay Adjusted Incidence Infographic

    Cancer.gov

    This Infographic shows the National Cancer Institute SEER Incidence Trends. The graphs show the Average Annual Percent Change (AAPC) 2002-2011. For Men, Thyroid: 5.3*,Liver & IBD: 3.6*, Melanoma: 2.3*, Kidney: 2.0*, Myeloma: 1.9*, Pancreas: 1.2*, Leukemia: 0.9*, Oral Cavity: 0.5, Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma: 0.3*, Esophagus: -0.1, Brain & ONS: -0.2*, Bladder: -0.6*, All Sites: -1.1*, Stomach: -1.7*, Larynx: -1.9*, Prostate: -2.1*, Lung & Bronchus: -2.4*, and Colon & Rectum: -3/0*. For Women, Thyroid: 5.8*, Liver & IBD: 2.9*, Myeloma: 1.8*, Kidney: 1.6*, Melanoma: 1.5, Corpus & Uterus: 1.3*, Pancreas: 1.1*, Leukemia: 0.6*, Brain & ONS: 0, Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma: -0.1, All Sites: -0.1, Breast: -0.3, Stomach: -0.7*, Oral Cavity: -0.7*, Bladder: -0.9*, Ovary: -0.9*, Lung & Bronchus: -1.0*, Cervix: -2.4*, and Colon & Rectum: -2.7*. * AAPC is significantly different from zero (p<.05). Rates were adjusted for reporting delay in the registry. www.cancer.gov Source: Special section of the Annual Report to the Nation on the Status of Cancer, 1975-2011.

  2. An Investigation on the Pin Bearings’ Optimization of a Hermetic Reciprocating Compressor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozdemir, A. R.; Hacioglu, B.; Kasapoglu, E.

    2015-08-01

    A hermetic reciprocating compressor is the most energy consuming component of the refrigerators. Therefore performance improvement studies of the compressor play an important role to reduce overall energy consumption of the refrigerators. Design of bearings is one of the major study areas influencing reciprocating compressor performance. In this study crank pin and piston pin bearings in hermetic compressor applications are investigated and optimized. The effect of operating conditions, bearing offset between crank pin and piston pin, bearing clearance and bearing location along the shaft on the friction loss were investigated and optimal bearing designs were developed. Efficiency measurements of the compressor showed that the improved crank pin and piston pin bearing designs provide up to 3.8% increase in the COP as a result of reduction in mechanical loss that is significantly influenced by the length of the bearings, bearing location along the shaft and operating conditions.

  3. Christmas bow pins: a potential inhaled foreign body made safer by industrial modifications.

    PubMed

    Siegel, L G; Mendenhall, H V; Liston, S L

    1981-01-01

    The 3M Company (Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing Company) has produced about three billion plastic Christmas bow pins over 20 years. When it was reported that inhalation of these pins had resulted in two deaths, the company sought otolaryngologic consultation to suggest design modifications which would decrease the risk of aspiration asphyxia. The circular base of the bow pin was modified into the form of a cross so that it would not completely obstruct the airway. Barium was added to render the bow pin radiopaque. When the unmodified bow pin was inserted into the larynx of ten cats, six died. The modified pin caused no deaths in nine cats. We regard this as an example of responsible cooperation between industry and medicine.

  4. The value of ultrasound-assisted pinned resorbable osteosynthesis for cranial vault remodelling in craniosynostosis.

    PubMed

    Freudlsperger, Christian; Castrillon-Oberndorfer, Gregor; Baechli, Heidi; Hoffmann, Juergen; Mertens, Christian; Engel, Michael

    2014-07-01

    Resorbable osteosynthesis is a widespread tool in craniofacial surgery, however only a limited number of studies have focused on ultrasound-assisted pinned resorbable systems in the treatment of craniosynostosis. Thirty-eight children with various types of craniosynostosis including scaphocephaly, trigonocephaly, anterior and posterior plagiocephaly were treated using the Sonic Welding resorbable osteosynthesis system. All patients were evaluated for operation time, stability of the surgical results, rate of local infections and visibility or palpability of the osteosynthesis material in the follow-up ranging from 15 to 21 month. Mean operation time was not significantly higher compared to conventional osteosynthesis material and all remodelled cranial vaults showed immediate stability. Only one patient showed signs of an inflammatory skin reaction, which recovered spontaneously. The number of palpable or visible plates, respectively, increased during the first months with a maximum at 12 months (34 (89%) plates palpable, 26 (68%) plates visible). After this time point, the number decreased continuously until the end of the follow-up period at 21 months when 3 (20%) plates were palpable, 0 (0%) plates were visible). Ultrasound-assisted pinned resorbable systems seem to be a promising tool in craniofacial surgery providing a timesaving and stable osteosynthesis. An initial swelling of the plates during the first 12 months before the complete degradation might result in a palpable and visible bulge.

  5. Frequency Reconfigurable Hybrid Slot Antenna Using PIN Diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiaolin; Sheng, Lili; Lin, Jiancheng; Chen, Gang

    2015-11-01

    This paper introduces a frequency reconfigurable hybrid slot antenna fed by coplanar waveguide (CPW) without complex bias network and DC blocking capacitor chips. In order to add reconfigurablility to the antenna, the PIN diodes are equipped in the slots. The antenna is capable of frequency switching at six different frequency bands between 1.7 GHz to 2.5 GHz, which can be used in multiradio wireless systems, such as DCS-1800, PCS1900, UMTS, Wibro and Bluetooth bands. The simulated and measured return loss, peak gain, together with the radiation patterns are presented and compared. Especially, the radiation patterns are stable at different frequency.

  6. Dynamic phases, pinning, and pattern formation for driven dislocation assemblies

    DOE PAGES

    Zhou, Caizhi; Reichhardt, Charles; Olson Reichhardt, Cynthia J.; Beyerlein, Irene J.

    2015-01-23

    We examine driven dislocation assemblies and show that they can exhibit a set of dynamical phases remarkably similar to those of driven systems with quenched disorder such as vortices in superconductors, magnetic domain walls, and charge density wave materials. These phases include pinned-jammed, fluctuating, and dynamically ordered states, and each produces distinct dislocation patterns as well as specific features in the noise fluctuations and transport properties. Lastly, our work suggests that many of the results established for systems with quenched disorder undergoing plastic depinning transitions can be applied to dislocation systems, providing a new approach for understanding pattern formation andmore » dynamics in these systems.« less

  7. Dynamic phases, pinning, and pattern formation for driven dislocation assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Caizhi; Reichhardt, Charles; Olson Reichhardt, Cynthia J.; Beyerlein, Irene J.

    2015-01-23

    We examine driven dislocation assemblies and show that they can exhibit a set of dynamical phases remarkably similar to those of driven systems with quenched disorder such as vortices in superconductors, magnetic domain walls, and charge density wave materials. These phases include pinned-jammed, fluctuating, and dynamically ordered states, and each produces distinct dislocation patterns as well as specific features in the noise fluctuations and transport properties. Lastly, our work suggests that many of the results established for systems with quenched disorder undergoing plastic depinning transitions can be applied to dislocation systems, providing a new approach for understanding pattern formation and dynamics in these systems.

  8. Method for forming precision clockplate with pivot pins

    DOEpatents

    Wild, Ronald L.

    2010-06-01

    Methods are disclosed for producing a precision clockplate with rotational bearing surfaces (e.g. pivot pins). The methods comprise providing an electrically conductive blank, conventionally machining oversize features comprising bearing surfaces into the blank, optionally machining of a relief on non-bearing surfaces, providing wire accesses adjacent to bearing surfaces, threading the wire of an electrical discharge machine through the accesses and finishing the bearing surfaces by wire electrical discharge machining. The methods have been shown to produce bearing surfaces of comparable dimension and tolerances as those produced by micro-machining methods such as LIGA, at reduced cost and complexity.

  9. Welding fixture for nuclear fuel pin cladding assemblies

    DOEpatents

    Oakley, David J.; Feld, Sam H.

    1986-01-01

    A welding fixture for locating a driver sleeve about the open end of a nuclear fuel pin cladding. The welding fixture includes a holder provided with an open cavity having shoulders for properly positioning the driver sleeve, the end cap, and a soft, high temperature resistant plastic protective sleeve that surrounds a portion of the end cap stem. Ejected contaminant particles spewed forth by closure of the cladding by pulsed magnetic welding techniques are captured within a contamination trap formed in the holder for ultimate removal and disposal of contaminating particles along with the holder.

  10. Welding fixture for nuclear fuel pin cladding assemblies

    DOEpatents

    Oakley, D.J.; Feld, S.H.

    1984-02-22

    A welding fixture is described for locating a driver sleeve about the open end of a nuclear fuel pin cladding. The welding fixture includes a holder provided with an open cavity having shoulders for properly positioning the driver sleeve, the end cap, and a soft, high temperature resistant plastic protective sleeve that surrounds a portion of the end cap stem. Ejected contaminant particles spewed forth by closure of the cladding by pulsed magnetic welding techniques are captured within a contamination trap formed in the holder for ultimate removal and disposal of contaminating particles along with the holder.

  11. A fission gas release correlation for uranium nitride fuel pins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinstein, M. B.; Davison, H. W.

    1973-01-01

    A model was developed to predict fission gas releases from UN fuel pins clad with various materials. The model was correlated with total release data obtained by different experimentors, over a range of fuel temperatures primarily between 1250 and 1660 K, and fuel burnups up to 4.6 percent. In the model, fission gas is transported by diffusion mechanisms to the grain boundaries where the volume grows and eventually interconnects with the outside surface of the fuel. The within grain diffusion coefficients are found from fission gas release rate data obtained using a sweep gas facility.

  12. Effect of transient pinning on stability of drops sitting on an inclined plane.

    PubMed

    Berejnov, Viatcheslav; Thorne, Robert E

    2007-06-01

    We report on new instabilities of the quasistatic equilibrium of water drops pinned by a hydrophobic inclined substrate. The contact line of a statically pinned drop exhibits three transitions of partial depinning: depinning of the advancing and receding parts of the contact line and depinning of the entire contact line leading to the drop's translational motion. We find a region of parameters where the classical Macdougall-Ockrent-Frenkel approach fails to estimate the critical volume of the statically pinned inclined drop.

  13. Size effects of nano-scale pinning centers on the superconducting properties of YBCO single grains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moutalbi, Nahed; Noudem, Jacques G.; M'chirgui, Ali

    2014-08-01

    High pinning superconductors are the most promising materials for power engineering. Their superconducting properties are governed by the microstructure quality and the vortex pinning behavior. We report on a study of the vortex pinning in YBa2Cu3O7-x (YBCO) single grain with defects induced through the addition of insulating nano-particles. In order to improve the critical current density, YBCO textured bulk superconductors were elaborated using the Top Seeded Melt Texture and Growth process with different addition amounts of Al2O3 nano-particles. Serving as strong pinning centers, 0.05% excess of Al2O3 causes a significant enhancement of the critical current density Jc under self field and in magnetic fields at 77 K. The enhanced flux pinning achieved with the low level of alumina nano-particles endorses the effectiveness of insulating nano-inclusions to induce effectives pinning sites within the superconducting matrix. On the other side, we focused on the effect of the size of pinning centers on the critical current density. This work was carried out using two batches of alumina nano-particles characterized by two different particle size distributions with mean diameters PSD1 = 20 nm and PSD2 = 2.27 μm. The matching effects of the observed pinning force density have been compared. The obtained results have shown that the flux pinning is closely dependent on the size of the artificial pinning centers. Our results suggest that the optimization of the size of the artificial pinning centers is crucial to a much better understanding of the pinning mechanisms and therefore to insure high superconducting performance for the practical application of superconducting materials.

  14. The PIN1 family gene PvPIN1 is involved in auxin-dependent root emergence and tillering in switchgrass

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Kaijie; Sun, Fengli; Wang, Yongfeng; Shi, Lili; Liu, Shudong; Xi, Yajun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.; family Poaceae) is a warm-season C4 perennial grass. Tillering plays an important role in determining the morphology of aboveground parts and the final biomass yield of switchgrass. Auxin distribution in plants can affect a variety of important growth and developmental processes, including the regulation of shoot and root branching, plant resistance and biological yield. Auxin transport and gradients in plants are mediated by influx and efflux carriers. PvPIN1, a switchgrass PIN1-like gene that is involved in regulating polar transport, is a putative auxin efflux carrier. Neighbor-joining analysis using sequences deposited in NCBI databases showed that the PvPIN1gene belongs to the PIN1 family and is evolutionarily closer to the Oryza sativa japonica group. Tiller emergence and development was significantly promoted in plants subjected toPvPIN1 RNA interference (RNAi), which yielded a phenotype similar to that of wild-type plants treated with the auxin transport inhibitor TIBA (2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid). A transgenic approach that inducedPvPIN1 gene overexpression or suppression altered tiller number and the shoot/root ratio. These data suggest that PvPIN1plays an important role in auxin-dependent adventitious root emergence and tillering. PMID:27007900

  15. The PIN1 family gene PvPIN1 is involved in auxin-dependent root emergence and tillering in switchgrass.

    PubMed

    Xu, Kaijie; Sun, Fengli; Wang, Yongfeng; Shi, Lili; Liu, Shudong; Xi, Yajun

    2016-03-01

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.; family Poaceae) is a warm-season C4 perennial grass. Tillering plays an important role in determining the morphology of aboveground parts and the final biomass yield of switchgrass. Auxin distribution in plants can affect a variety of important growth and developmental processes, including the regulation of shoot and root branching, plant resistance and biological yield. Auxin transport and gradients in plants are mediated by influx and efflux carriers. PvPIN1, a switchgrass PIN1-like gene that is involved in regulating polar transport, is a putative auxin efflux carrier. Neighbor-joining analysis using sequences deposited in NCBI databases showed that the PvPIN1gene belongs to the PIN1 family and is evolutionarily closer to the Oryza sativa japonica group. Tiller emergence and development was significantly promoted in plants subjected toPvPIN1 RNA interference (RNAi), which yielded a phenotype similar to that of wild-type plants treated with the auxin transport inhibitor TIBA (2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid). A transgenic approach that inducedPvPIN1 gene overexpression or suppression altered tiller number and the shoot/root ratio. These data suggest that PvPIN1plays an important role in auxin-dependent adventitious root emergence and tillering. PMID:27007900

  16. ZmPIN1a and ZmPIN1b Encode Two Novel Putative Candidates for Polar Auxin Transport and Plant Architecture Determination of Maize1[W

    PubMed Central

    Carraro, Nicola; Forestan, Cristian; Canova, Sabrina; Traas, Jan; Varotto, Serena

    2006-01-01

    Shoot apical meristems produce organs in a highly stereotypic pattern that involves auxin. Auxin is supposed to be actively transported from cell to cell by influx (AUXIN/LIKE AUXIN proteins) and efflux (PIN-FORMED proteins) membrane carriers. Current hypotheses propose that, at the meristem surface, PIN proteins create patterns of auxin gradients that, in turn, create patterns of gene expression and morphogenesis. These hypotheses are entirely based on work in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). To verify whether these models also apply to other species, we studied the behavior of PIN proteins during maize (Zea mays) development. We identified two novel putative orthologs of AtPIN1 in maize and analyzed their expression pattern during development. The expression studies were complemented by immunolocalization studies using an anti-AtPIN1 antibody. Interestingly, the maize proteins visualized by this antibody are almost exclusively localized in subepidermal meristematic layers. Both tassel and ear were characterized by a compact group of cells, just below the surface, carrying PIN. In contrast to or to complement what was shown in Arabidopsis, these results point to the importance of internally localized cells in the patterning process. We chose the barren inflorescence2 (bif2) maize mutant to study the role of auxin polar fluxes in inflorescence development. In severe alleles of bif2, the tassel and the ear present altered ZmPIN1a and ZmPIN1b protein expression and localization patterns. In particular, the compact groups of cells in the tassel and ear of the mutant were missing. We conclude that BIF2 is important for PIN organization and could play a role in the establishment of polar auxin fluxes in maize inflorescence, indirectly modulating the process of axillary meristem formation and development. PMID:16844839

  17. Enhancing speed of pinning synchronizability: low-degree nodes with high feedback gains.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ming-Yang; Zhuo, Zhao; Liao, Hao; Fu, Zhong-Qian; Cai, Shi-Min

    2015-01-01

    Controlling complex networks is of paramount importance in science and engineering. Despite recent efforts to improve controllability and synchronous strength, little attention has been paid to the speed of pinning synchronizability (rate of convergence in pinning control) and the corresponding pinning node selection. To address this issue, we propose a hypothesis to restrict the control cost, then build a linear matrix inequality related to the speed of pinning controllability. By solving the inequality, we obtain both the speed of pinning controllability and optimal control strength (feedback gains in pinning control) for all nodes. Interestingly, some low-degree nodes are able to achieve large feedback gains, which suggests that they have high influence on controlling system. In addition, when choosing nodes with high feedback gains as pinning nodes, the controlling speed of real systems is remarkably enhanced compared to that of traditional large-degree and large-betweenness selections. Thus, the proposed approach provides a novel way to investigate the speed of pinning controllability and can evoke other effective heuristic pinning node selections for large-scale systems. PMID:26626045

  18. PIN1-Independent Leaf Initiation in Arabidopsis1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Guenot, Bernadette; Bayer, Emmanuelle; Kierzkowski, Daniel; Smith, Richard S.; Mandel, Therese; Žádníková, Petra; Benková, Eva; Kuhlemeier, Cris

    2012-01-01

    Phyllotaxis, the regular arrangement of leaves and flowers around the stem, is a key feature of plant architecture. Current models propose that the spatiotemporal regulation of organ initiation is controlled by a positive feedback loop between the plant hormone auxin and its efflux carrier PIN-FORMED1 (PIN1). Consequently, pin1 mutants give rise to naked inflorescence stalks with few or no flowers, indicating that PIN1 plays a crucial role in organ initiation. However, pin1 mutants do produce leaves. In order to understand the regulatory mechanisms controlling leaf initiation in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) rosettes, we have characterized the vegetative pin1 phenotype in detail. We show that although the timing of leaf initiation in vegetative pin1 mutants is variable and divergence angles clearly deviate from the canonical 137° value, leaves are not positioned at random during early developmental stages. Our data further indicate that other PIN proteins are unlikely to explain the persistence of leaf initiation and positioning during pin1 vegetative development. Thus, phyllotaxis appears to be more complex than suggested by current mechanistic models. PMID:22723086

  19. Functionally different PIN proteins control auxin flux during bulbil development in Agave tequilana.

    PubMed

    Abraham Juárez, María Jazmín; Hernández Cárdenas, Rocío; Santoyo Villa, José Natzul; O'Connor, Devin; Sluis, Aaron; Hake, Sarah; Ordaz-Ortiz, José; Terry, Leon; Simpson, June

    2015-07-01

    In Agave tequilana, reproductive failure or inadequate flower development stimulates the formation of vegetative bulbils at the bracteoles, ensuring survival in a hostile environment. Little is known about the signals that trigger this probably unique phenomenon in agave species. Here we report that auxin plays a central role in bulbil development and show that the localization of PIN1-related proteins is consistent with altered auxin transport during this process. Analysis of agave transcriptome data led to the identification of the A. tequilana orthologue of PIN1 (denoted AtqPIN1) and a second closely related gene from a distinct clade reported as 'Sister of PIN1' (denoted AtqSoPIN1). Quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-qPCR) analysis showed different patterns of expression for each gene during bulbil formation, and heterologous expression of the A. tequilana PIN1 and SoPIN1 genes in Arabidopsis thaliana confirmed functional differences between these genes. Although no free auxin was detected in induced pedicel samples, changes in the levels of auxin precursors were observed. Taken as a whole, the data support the model that AtqPIN1 and AtqSoPIN1 have co-ordinated but distinct functions in relation to auxin transport during the initial stages of bulbil formation. PMID:25911746

  20. Biological significance of PinX1 telomerase inhibitor in esophageal carcinoma treatment

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Xiang-Kui; Yan, Rui-Hua; Geng, Xiang-Qun; Li, Jing-Shan; Chen, Xiang-Ming; Li, Jian-Zhe

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, to investigate the expression of PinX1 gene and its functional effects in human esophageal carcinoma (Eca)-109 cell line, expression vectors of human PinX1 (pEGFP-C3-PinX1) and its small interfering RNA (PinX1-FAM-siRNA) were constructed and transfected into Eca-109 cells using Lipofectamine 2000. Firstly, the mRNA expression level of PinX1 was examined using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Once successful transfection was achieved, the effects on the mRNA level of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT), telomerase activity, cell proliferation and apoptosis were examined by semi-quantitative RT-PCR, stretch PCR, MTT assay and flow cytometry, respectively. Analysis of restriction and sequencing demonstrated that the recombining plasmids were successfully constructed. The results also indicated that transfection with pEGFP-C3-PinX1 and PinX1-FAM-siRNA into Eca-109 cells significantly increased PinX1 mRNA, decreased hTERT mRNA by 29.9% (P<0.05), and significantly reduced telomerase activity (P<0.05), inhibited cell growth, and increased the cell apoptotic index from 19.27±0.76 to 49.73±2%. The transfected PinX1-FAM-SiRNA exhibited PinX1 mRNA expression levels that were significantly decreased by 70% (P<0.05), whereas the remaining characteristics of Eca-109 cells, including cell growth, mRNA level of hTERT, telomerase activity and cell apoptotic index were not altered. Exogenous PinX1 has been demonstrated to be highly expressed in human Eca. PinX1 can inhibit human telomerase activity and the expression of hTERT mRNA, reduce tumor cell growth and induce apoptosis. Notably, these inhibitory functions were inhibited by silencing PinX1 in Eca with PinX1-FAM-siRNA. PinX1 was successfully increased and decreased in the present study, demonstrating that it may be a potential telomerase activity inhibitor. As PinX1 is an endogenous telomerase inhibitor, it may be used as a novel tumor-targeted gene therapy. PMID

  1. Controlling flux flow dissipation by changing flux pinning in superconducting films

    SciTech Connect

    Grimaldi, G.; Leo, A.; Nigro, A.; Pace, S.; Silhanek, A. V.; Verellen, N.; Moshchalkov, V. V.; Milosevic, M. V.; Casaburi, A.; Cristiano, R.

    2012-05-14

    We study the flux flow state in superconducting materials characterized by rather strong intrinsic pinning, such as Nb, NbN, and nanostructured Al thin films, in which we drag the superconducting dissipative state into the normal state by current biasing. We modify the vortex pinning strength either by ion irradiation, by tuning the measuring temperature or by including artificial pinning centers. We measure critical flux flow voltages for all materials and the same effect is observed: switching to low flux flow dissipations at low fields for an intermediate pinning regime. This mechanism offers a way to additionally promote the stability of the superconducting state.

  2. Functionally different PIN proteins control auxin flux during bulbil development in Agave tequilana.

    PubMed

    Abraham Juárez, María Jazmín; Hernández Cárdenas, Rocío; Santoyo Villa, José Natzul; O'Connor, Devin; Sluis, Aaron; Hake, Sarah; Ordaz-Ortiz, José; Terry, Leon; Simpson, June

    2015-07-01

    In Agave tequilana, reproductive failure or inadequate flower development stimulates the formation of vegetative bulbils at the bracteoles, ensuring survival in a hostile environment. Little is known about the signals that trigger this probably unique phenomenon in agave species. Here we report that auxin plays a central role in bulbil development and show that the localization of PIN1-related proteins is consistent with altered auxin transport during this process. Analysis of agave transcriptome data led to the identification of the A. tequilana orthologue of PIN1 (denoted AtqPIN1) and a second closely related gene from a distinct clade reported as 'Sister of PIN1' (denoted AtqSoPIN1). Quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-qPCR) analysis showed different patterns of expression for each gene during bulbil formation, and heterologous expression of the A. tequilana PIN1 and SoPIN1 genes in Arabidopsis thaliana confirmed functional differences between these genes. Although no free auxin was detected in induced pedicel samples, changes in the levels of auxin precursors were observed. Taken as a whole, the data support the model that AtqPIN1 and AtqSoPIN1 have co-ordinated but distinct functions in relation to auxin transport during the initial stages of bulbil formation.

  3. Effects of Pin1 Loss in Hdh(Q111) Knock-in Mice.

    PubMed

    Agostoni, Elena; Michelazzi, Silvia; Maurutto, Marta; Carnemolla, Alisia; Ciani, Yari; Vatta, Paolo; Roncaglia, Paola; Zucchelli, Silvia; Leanza, Giampiero; Mantovani, Fiamma; Gustincich, Stefano; Santoro, Claudio; Piazza, Silvano; Del Sal, Giannino; Persichetti, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a fatal, dominantly inherited, neurodegenerative disorder due to a pathological expansion of the CAG repeat in the coding region of the HTT gene. In the quest for understanding the molecular basis of neurodegeneration, we have previously demonstrated that the prolyl isomerase Pin1 plays a crucial role in mediating p53-dependent apoptosis triggered by mutant huntingtin (mHtt) in vitro. To assess the effects of the lack of Pin1 in vivo, we have bred Pin1 knock-out mice with Hdh(Q111) knock-in mice, a genetically precise model of HD. We show that Pin1 genetic ablation modifies a portion of Hdh(Q111) phenotypes in a time-dependent fashion. As an early event, Pin1 activity reduces the DNA damage response (DDR). In midlife mice, by taking advantage of next-generation sequencing technology, we show that Pin1 activity modulates a portion of the alterations triggered by mHtt, extending the role of Pin1 to two additional Hdh(Q111) phenotypes: the unbalance in the "synthesis/concentration of hormones", as well as the alteration of "Wnt/β-catenin signaling". In aging animals, Pin1 significantly increases the number of mHtt-positive nuclear inclusions while it reduces gliosis. In summary, this work provides further support for a role of Pin1 in HD pathogenesis. PMID:27199664

  4. Biological significance of PinX1 telomerase inhibitor in esophageal carcinoma treatment

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Xiang-Kui; Yan, Rui-Hua; Geng, Xiang-Qun; Li, Jing-Shan; Chen, Xiang-Ming; Li, Jian-Zhe

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, to investigate the expression of PinX1 gene and its functional effects in human esophageal carcinoma (Eca)-109 cell line, expression vectors of human PinX1 (pEGFP-C3-PinX1) and its small interfering RNA (PinX1-FAM-siRNA) were constructed and transfected into Eca-109 cells using Lipofectamine 2000. Firstly, the mRNA expression level of PinX1 was examined using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Once successful transfection was achieved, the effects on the mRNA level of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT), telomerase activity, cell proliferation and apoptosis were examined by semi-quantitative RT-PCR, stretch PCR, MTT assay and flow cytometry, respectively. Analysis of restriction and sequencing demonstrated that the recombining plasmids were successfully constructed. The results also indicated that transfection with pEGFP-C3-PinX1 and PinX1-FAM-siRNA into Eca-109 cells significantly increased PinX1 mRNA, decreased hTERT mRNA by 29.9% (P<0.05), and significantly reduced telomerase activity (P<0.05), inhibited cell growth, and increased the cell apoptotic index from 19.27±0.76 to 49.73±2%. The transfected PinX1-FAM-SiRNA exhibited PinX1 mRNA expression levels that were significantly decreased by 70% (P<0.05), whereas the remaining characteristics of Eca-109 cells, including cell growth, mRNA level of hTERT, telomerase activity and cell apoptotic index were not altered. Exogenous PinX1 has been demonstrated to be highly expressed in human Eca. PinX1 can inhibit human telomerase activity and the expression of hTERT mRNA, reduce tumor cell growth and induce apoptosis. Notably, these inhibitory functions were inhibited by silencing PinX1 in Eca with PinX1-FAM-siRNA. PinX1 was successfully increased and decreased in the present study, demonstrating that it may be a potential telomerase activity inhibitor. As PinX1 is an endogenous telomerase inhibitor, it may be used as a novel tumor-targeted gene therapy.

  5. Effects of Pin1 Loss in HdhQ111 Knock-in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Agostoni, Elena; Michelazzi, Silvia; Maurutto, Marta; Carnemolla, Alisia; Ciani, Yari; Vatta, Paolo; Roncaglia, Paola; Zucchelli, Silvia; Leanza, Giampiero; Mantovani, Fiamma; Gustincich, Stefano; Santoro, Claudio; Piazza, Silvano; Del Sal, Giannino; Persichetti, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    Huntington’s disease (HD) is a fatal, dominantly inherited, neurodegenerative disorder due to a pathological expansion of the CAG repeat in the coding region of the HTT gene. In the quest for understanding the molecular basis of neurodegeneration, we have previously demonstrated that the prolyl isomerase Pin1 plays a crucial role in mediating p53-dependent apoptosis triggered by mutant huntingtin (mHtt) in vitro. To assess the effects of the lack of Pin1 in vivo, we have bred Pin1 knock-out mice with HdhQ111 knock-in mice, a genetically precise model of HD. We show that Pin1 genetic ablation modifies a portion of HdhQ111 phenotypes in a time-dependent fashion. As an early event, Pin1 activity reduces the DNA damage response (DDR). In midlife mice, by taking advantage of next-generation sequencing technology, we show that Pin1 activity modulates a portion of the alterations triggered by mHtt, extending the role of Pin1 to two additional HdhQ111 phenotypes: the unbalance in the “synthesis/concentration of hormones”, as well as the alteration of “Wnt/β-catenin signaling”. In aging animals, Pin1 significantly increases the number of mHtt-positive nuclear inclusions while it reduces gliosis. In summary, this work provides further support for a role of Pin1 in HD pathogenesis. PMID:27199664

  6. Functionally different PIN proteins control auxin flux during bulbil development in Agave tequilana

    PubMed Central

    Abraham Juárez, María Jazmín; Hernández Cárdenas, Rocío; Santoyo Villa, José Natzul; O’Connor, Devin; Sluis, Aaron; Hake, Sarah; Ordaz-Ortiz, José; Terry, Leon; Simpson, June

    2015-01-01

    In Agave tequilana, reproductive failure or inadequate flower development stimulates the formation of vegetative bulbils at the bracteoles, ensuring survival in a hostile environment. Little is known about the signals that trigger this probably unique phenomenon in agave species. Here we report that auxin plays a central role in bulbil development and show that the localization of PIN1-related proteins is consistent with altered auxin transport during this process. Analysis of agave transcriptome data led to the identification of the A. tequilana orthologue of PIN1 (denoted AtqPIN1) and a second closely related gene from a distinct clade reported as ‘Sister of PIN1’ (denoted AtqSoPIN1). Quantitative real-time reverse transcription–PCR (RT-qPCR) analysis showed different patterns of expression for each gene during bulbil formation, and heterologous expression of the A. tequilana PIN1 and SoPIN1 genes in Arabidopsis thaliana confirmed functional differences between these genes. Although no free auxin was detected in induced pedicel samples, changes in the levels of auxin precursors were observed. Taken as a whole, the data support the model that AtqPIN1 and AtqSoPIN1 have co-ordinated but distinct functions in relation to auxin transport during the initial stages of bulbil formation. PMID:25911746

  7. Enhancing speed of pinning synchronizability: low-degree nodes with high feedback gains

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Ming-Yang; Zhuo, Zhao; Liao, Hao; Fu, Zhong-Qian; Cai, Shi-Min

    2015-01-01

    Controlling complex networks is of paramount importance in science and engineering. Despite recent efforts to improve controllability and synchronous strength, little attention has been paid to the speed of pinning synchronizability (rate of convergence in pinning control) and the corresponding pinning node selection. To address this issue, we propose a hypothesis to restrict the control cost, then build a linear matrix inequality related to the speed of pinning controllability. By solving the inequality, we obtain both the speed of pinning controllability and optimal control strength (feedback gains in pinning control) for all nodes. Interestingly, some low-degree nodes are able to achieve large feedback gains, which suggests that they have high influence on controlling system. In addition, when choosing nodes with high feedback gains as pinning nodes, the controlling speed of real systems is remarkably enhanced compared to that of traditional large-degree and large-betweenness selections. Thus, the proposed approach provides a novel way to investigate the speed of pinning controllability and can evoke other effective heuristic pinning node selections for large-scale systems. PMID:26626045

  8. HTS dual-band bandpass filters using stub-loaded hair-pin resonators for mobile communication systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekiya, N.; Sugiyama, S.

    2014-09-01

    A HTS dual-band bandpass filter is developed to obtain sharp-cut off characteristics for mobile communication systems. The filter is composed of five stub-loaded hair-pin resonators with H-shaped waveguides between them. The main advantage of the proposed filter is to allow independent control of the center frequency of the first and second bands. The bandwidths can be flexibly adjusted using the H-shaped waveguide. An electromagnetic simulator was used to design and analyze the filter, which have a 3.5-GHz center frequency and a 70-MHz (2%) bandwidth for the first band and a 5.0-GHz center frequency and a 100-MHz (2%) bandwidth for the second band. The filter was fabricated using YBa2Cu3Oy thin film on an Al2O3 substrate. Ground plane was fabricated using Au thin film. The measured frequency responses of the filter tally well with the simulated ones.

  9. Effect of Weld Tool Geometry on Friction Stir Welded AA2219-T87 Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Querin, Joseph A.; Schneider, Judy A.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, flat panels of AA2219-T87 were friction stir welded (FSWed) using weld tools with tapered pins The three pin geometries of the weld tools included: 0 (straight cylinder), 30 , and 60 angles on the frustum. For each weld tool geometry, the FSW process parameters were optimized to eliminate defects. A constant heat input was maintained while varying the process parameters of spindle rpm and travel speed. This provided a constant heat input for each FSW weld panel while altering the hot working conditions imparted to the workpiece. The resulting mechanical properties were evaluated from tensile test results of the FSW joint.

  10. Strength of self-pinning in coffee drops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latka, Andrzej; Kawczinski, Kimberly; Nagel, Sidney

    The equilibrium contact angle θe of a liquid drop placed on a solid surface is uniquely determined by a balance of surface tension forces according to Young's Equation, yet is rarely observed in real systems. Due to contact angle hysteresis, liquids can make contact with a surface at any angle between the receding and advancing contact angle: θR <θe <θA . A particularly striking example of this phenomenon is the familiar coffee stain. For coffee θR = 0 , thus as the drop evaporates the contact line remains pinned at its initial location. This results in the majority of the coffee being deposited in a characteristic ring at the drop's original boundary. We investigate how solid particles suspended in a liquid could so strongly influence contact angle hysteresis, by measuring the receding contact angle of a drop at various times during the evaporation process. For low solute concentrations, θR slowly decreases as the drop evaporates, but remains positive. Surprisingly, we find that increasing the solute concentration results in θR = 0 and a fully pinned contact line almost immediately after the drop is deposited.

  11. Diffusion-limited aggregation with power-law pinning.

    PubMed

    Hentschel, H G E; Popescu, M N; Family, F

    2004-01-01

    Using stochastic conformal mapping techniques we study the patterns emerging from Laplacian growth with a power-law decaying threshold for growth R(-gamma)(N) (where R(N) is the radius of the N-particle cluster). For gamma>1 the growth pattern is in the same universality class as diffusion limited aggregation (DLA), while for gamma<1 the resulting patterns have a lower fractal dimension D(gamma) than a DLA cluster due to the enhancement of growth at the hot tips of the developing pattern. Our results indicate that a pinning transition occurs at gamma=1/2, significantly smaller than might be expected from the lower bound alpha(min) approximately 0.67 of multifractal spectrum of DLA. This limiting case shows that the most singular tips in the pruned cluster now correspond to those expected for a purely one-dimensional line. Using multifractal analysis, analytic expressions are established for D(gamma) both close to the breakdown of DLA universality class, i.e., gamma less, similar 1, and close to the pinning transition, i.e., gamma greater, similar 1/2. PMID:14995617

  12. Raman spectroscopy of PIN hydrogenated amorphous silicon solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keya, Kimitaka; Torigoe, Yoshihiro; Toko, Susumu; Yamashita, Daisuke; Seo, Hyunwoong; Itagaki, Naho; Koga, Kazunori; Shiratani, Masaharu

    2015-09-01

    Light-induced degradation of hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) is a key issue for enhancing competitiveness in solar cell market. A-Si:H films with a lower density of Si-H2 bonds shows higher stability. Here we identified Si-H2 bonds in PIN a-Si:H solar cells fabricated by plasma CVD using Raman spectroscopy. A-Si:H solar cell has a structure of B-doped μc-SiC:H (12.5 nm)/ non-doped a-Si:H (250nm)/ P-doped μc-Si:H (40 nm) on glass substrates (Asahi-VU). By irradiating HeNe laser light from N-layer, peaks correspond to Si-H2 bonds (2100 cm-1) and Si-H bonds (2000 cm-1) have been identified in Raman scattering spectra. The intensity ratio of Si-H2 and Si-H ISiH2/ISiH is found to correlate well to light induced degradation of the cells Therefore, Raman spectroscopy is a promising method for studying origin of light-induced degradation of PIN solar cells.

  13. Tungsten disrupts root growth in Arabidopsis thaliana by PIN targeting.

    PubMed

    Adamakis, Ioannis-Dimosthenis S; Panteris, Emmanuel; Eleftheriou, Eleftherios P

    2014-08-15

    Tungsten is a heavy metal with increasing concern over its environmental impact. In plants it is extensively used to deplete nitric oxide by inhibiting nitrate reductase, but its presumed toxicity as a heavy metal has been less explored. Accordingly, its effects on Arabidopsis thaliana primary root were assessed. The effects on root growth, mitotic cell percentage, nitric oxide and hydrogen peroxide levels, the cytoskeleton, cell ultrastructure, auxin and cytokinin activity, and auxin carrier distribution were investigated. It was found that tungsten reduced root growth, particularly by inhibiting cell expansion in the elongation zone, so that root hairs emerged closer to the root tip than in the control. Although extensive vacuolation was observed, even in meristematic cells, cell organelles were almost unaffected and microtubules were not depolymerized but reoriented. Tungsten affected auxin and cytokinin activity, as visualized by the DR5-GFP and TCS-GFP expressing lines, respectively. Cytokinin fluctuations were similar to those of the mitotic cell percentage. DR5-GFP signal appeared ectopically expressed, while the signals of PIN2-GFP and PIN3-GFP were diminished even after relatively short exposures. The observed effects were not reminiscent of those of any nitric oxide scavengers. Taken together, inhibition of root growth by tungsten might rather be related to a presumed interference with the basipetal flow of auxin, specifically affecting cell expansion in the elongation zone.

  14. Temperature dependent simulation of diamond depleted Schottky PIN diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hathwar, Raghuraj; Dutta, Maitreya; Koeck, Franz A. M.; Nemanich, Robert J.; Chowdhury, Srabanti; Goodnick, Stephen M.

    2016-06-01

    Diamond is considered as an ideal material for high field and high power devices due to its high breakdown field, high lightly doped carrier mobility, and high thermal conductivity. The modeling and simulation of diamond devices are therefore important to predict the performances of diamond based devices. In this context, we use Silvaco® Atlas, a drift-diffusion based commercial software, to model diamond based power devices. The models used in Atlas were modified to account for both variable range and nearest neighbor hopping transport in the impurity bands associated with high activation energies for boron doped and phosphorus doped diamond. The models were fit to experimentally reported resistivity data over a wide range of doping concentrations and temperatures. We compare to recent data on depleted diamond Schottky PIN diodes demonstrating low turn-on voltages and high reverse breakdown voltages, which could be useful for high power rectifying applications due to the low turn-on voltage enabling high forward current densities. Three dimensional simulations of the depleted Schottky PIN diamond devices were performed and the results are verified with experimental data at different operating temperatures

  15. Temperature and field dependence of the flux pinning mechanisms in Fe1.06Te0.6Se0.4 single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossaini, S. J.; Ghorbani, S. R.; Arabi, H.; Wang, X. L.; Lin, C. T.

    2016-11-01

    The temperature and magnetic field dependence of the magnetization and critical current density of Fe1.06 Te0.6 Se0.4 single crystal have been investigated, and the flux pinning mechanism has been analyzed. The critical current density results indicate that there are different pinning mechanisms in this crystal. The pinning mechanisms are studied in terms of the pinning model where the normalized volume pinning force, fp, versus h = H /Hirr , where Hirr is the irreversibility, were studied systematically. It was found that a variety of pinning mechanisms including normal point pinning, normal surface pinning, and pinning based on spatial variation in the Ginzburg-Landau parameter (Δk pinning) pinning mechanisms coexist. The effects each of the different pinning mechanisms were obtained. The results show that the contributions of the real pinning mechanisms are dependent on the temperature and magnetic field in this the single crystal.

  16. The kinetics of root gravitropism in PIN mutants suggest redundancy in the signal transduction pathway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolverton, Chris

    As nonmotile organisms, plants rely on differential growth responses to maximize exposure to the resources necessary for growth and reproduction. One of the primary environmental cues causing differential growth in roots is gravity, which is thought to be sensed predominately in the root cap. This gravity perception event is thought to be transduced into information in the form of an auxin gradient across the cap and propagating basipetally toward the elongation zone. The discovery of several families of auxin efflux and influx carriers has provided significant insight into the mechanisms of directional auxin transport, and the identification of mutants in the genes encoding these carriers provides the opportunity to test the roles of these transporters in plant gravitropism. In this study, we report the results of a systematic, high-resolution study of the kinetics of root gravitropism of mutants in the PIN family of auxin efflux carriers. Based on reported expression and localization patterns, we predicted mutations in PIN2, PIN3, PIN4, and PIN7 to cause the greatest reduction in root gravitropism. While pin2 mutants showed severe gravitropic deficiencies in roots as reported previously, several alleles of pin3, pin4 and pin7 remained strongly gravitropic. PIN3 has been localized to the central columella cells, the purported gravisensing cells in the root, and shown to rapidly relocate to the lower flank of the columella cells upon gravistimulation, suggesting an early role in auxin gradient formation. Mutant alleles of PIN3 showed an early delay in response, with just 7 deg of curvature in the first hour compared to approximately 15 deg h-1 in wild-type, but their rate of curvature recovered to near wild-type levels over the ensuing 3 h. Pin3 mutants also showed a slower overall growth rate (124 µm h-1 ), elongating at approximately half the rate of wild-type roots (240 µm h-1 ). PIN4 has been localized to the quiescent center in the root, where it presumably

  17. Mood Adjustment via Mass Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knobloch, Silvia

    2003-01-01

    Proposes and experimentally tests mood adjustment approach, complementing mood management theory. Discusses how results regarding self-exposure across time show that patterns of popular music listening among a group of undergraduate students differ with initial mood and anticipation, lending support to mood adjustment hypotheses. Describes how…

  18. Spousal Adjustment to Myocardial Infarction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziglar, Elisa J.

    This paper reviews the literature on the stresses and coping strategies of spouses of patients with myocardial infarction (MI). It attempts to identify specific problem areas of adjustment for the spouse and to explore the effects of spousal adjustment on patient recovery. Chapter one provides an overview of the importance in examining the…

  19. Parental Divorce and Children's Adjustment.

    PubMed

    Lansford, Jennifer E

    2009-03-01

    This article reviews the research literature on links between parental divorce and children's short-term and long-term adjustment. First, I consider evidence regarding how divorce relates to children's externalizing behaviors, internalizing problems, academic achievement, and social relationships. Second, I examine timing of the divorce, demographic characteristics, children's adjustment prior to the divorce, and stigmatization as moderators of the links between divorce and children's adjustment. Third, I examine income, interparental conflict, parenting, and parents well-being as mediators of relations between divorce and children's adjustment. Fourth, I note the caveats and limitations of the research literature. Finally, I consider notable policies related to grounds for divorce, child support, and child custody in light of how they might affect children s adjustment to their parents divorce.

  20. Heat transfer and pressure drop in a compact pin-fin heat exchanger with pin orientation at 18 deg to the flow direction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, D. A.

    1991-01-01

    The heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics of a novel, compact heat exchanger in helium gas were measured at 3.5 MPa and Reynolds numbers of 450 to 12,000. The pin-fin specimen consisted of pins, 0.51 mm high and spaced 2.03 mm on centers, spanning a channel through which the helium flows; the angle of the row of pins to the flow direction was 18 deg. The specimen was radiatively heated on the top side at heat fluxes up to 74 W/sq cm and insulated on the back side. Correlations were developed for the friction factor and Nusselt number. The Nusselt number compares favorably to those of past studies of staggered pin-fins, when the measured temperatures are extrapolated to the temperature of the wall-fluid interface.

  1. Adjustment versus no adjustment when using adjustable sutures in strabismus surgery

    PubMed Central

    Liebermann, Laura; Hatt, Sarah R.; Leske, David A.; Holmes, Jonathan M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To compare long-term postoperative outcomes when performing an adjustment to achieve a desired immediate postoperative alignment versus simply tying off at the desired immediate postoperative alignment when using adjustable sutures for strabismus surgery. Methods We retrospectively identified 89 consecutive patients who underwent a reoperation for horizontal strabismus using adjustable sutures and also had a 6-week and 1-year outcome examination. In each case, the intent of the surgeon was to tie off and only to adjust if the patient was not within the intended immediate postoperative range. Postoperative success was predefined based on angle of misalignment and diplopia at distance and near. Results Of the 89 patients, 53 (60%) were adjusted and 36 (40%) were tied off. Success rates were similar between patients who were simply tied off immediately after surgery and those who were adjusted. At 6 weeks, the success rate was 64% for the nonadjusted group versus 81% for the adjusted group (P = 0.09; difference of 17%; 95% CI, −2% to 36%). At 1 year, the success rate was 67% for the nonadjusted group versus 77% for the adjusted group (P = 0.3; difference of 11%; 95% CI, −8% to 30%). Conclusions Performing an adjustment to obtain a desired immediate postoperative alignment did not yield inferior long-term outcomes to those obtained by tying off to obtain that initial alignment. If patients were who were outside the desired immediate postoperative range had not been not adjusted, it is possible that their long-term outcomes would have been worse, therefore, overall, an adjustable approach may be superior to a nonadjustable approach. PMID:23415035

  2. Hybrid CMOS SiPIN detectors as astronomical imagers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simms, Lance Michael

    Charge Coupled Devices (CCDs) have dominated optical and x-ray astronomy since their inception in 1969. Only recently, through improvements in design and fabrication methods, have imagers that use Complimentary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) technology gained ground on CCDs in scientific imaging. We are now in the midst of an era where astronomers might begin to design optical telescope cameras that employ CMOS imagers. The first three chapters of this dissertation are primarily composed of introductory material. In them, we discuss the potential advantages that CMOS imagers offer over CCDs in astronomical applications. We compare the two technologies in terms of the standard metrics used to evaluate and compare scientific imagers: dark current, read noise, linearity, etc. We also discuss novel features of CMOS devices and the benefits they offer to astronomy. In particular, we focus on a specific kind of hybrid CMOS sensor that uses Silicon PIN photodiodes to detect optical light in order to overcome deficiencies of commercial CMOS sensors. The remaining four chapters focus on a specific type of hybrid CMOS Silicon PIN sensor: the Teledyne Hybrid Visible Silicon PIN Imager (HyViSI). In chapters four and five, results from testing HyViSI detectors in the laboratory and at the Kitt Peak 2.1m telescope are presented. We present our laboratory measurements of the standard detector metrics for a number of HyViSI devices, ranging from 1k×1k to 4k×4k format. We also include a description of the SIDECAR readout circuit that was used to control the detectors. We then show how they performed at the telescope in terms of photometry, astrometry, variability measurement, and telescope focusing and guiding. Lastly, in the final two chapters we present results on detector artifacts such as pixel crosstalk, electronic crosstalk, and image persistence. One form of pixel crosstalk that has not been discussed elsewhere in the literature, which we refer to as Interpixel Charge

  3. Capillary pinning of immiscible gravity currents in porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, B.; MacMinn, C. W.; Huppert, H. E.; Juanes, R.

    2013-12-01

    Gravity currents in porous media have attracted interest recently in the context of geological carbon dioxide (CO2) storage, where supercritical CO2 is captured from the flue gas of power plants and injected underground into deep saline aquifers. Capillarity can be important in the spreading and migration of the buoyant CO2 after injection because the typical pore size is very small (~10-100 microns), but the impact of capillarity on these flows is not well understood. Here, we study the impact of capillarity on the buoyant spreading of a finite gravity current of non-wetting fluid into a dense, wetting fluid in a vertically confined, horizontal aquifer. We show via simple, table-top experiments using glass bead packs that capillary pressure hysteresis pins a portion of the fluid-fluid interface. The horizontal extent of the pinned portion of the interface grows over time and this is responsible for ultimately stopping the spreading of the buoyant current after a finite distance. In addition, capillarity blunts the leading edge of the buoyant current. We demonstrate through micromodel experiments that the characteristic height of the nose of the current is controlled by the pore throat size distribution and the balance between capillarity and gravity. We develop a theoretical model that captures the evolution of immiscible gravity currents and predicts the maximum migration distance. Our work suggests that capillary pinning and capillary blunting exert an important control on finite-release gravity currents in the context of CO2 sequestration in deep saline aquifers. Gravity driven flow of a buoyant, nonwetting fluid (air) over a dense, wetting fluid (propylene glycol). Starting with a vertical interface between the fluids, the flow first undergoes a lock-exchange process. The process models a finite release problem after the dense fluid hits the left boundary. In contrast to finite release of a miscible current that spreads indefinitely, spreading of an immiscible

  4. Latest Adjustment of the Argentine Height System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piñón, D. A.; Cimbaro, S. R.; Sanchez, R. E.

    2013-05-01

    For over 70 years the National Geographic Institute of Argentina (NGI) has conducted a systematic project to building benchmarks throughout the country, which have been measured with spirit leveling and gravimetry techniques. The measurements were undertaken on a total of approximately 18,000 benchmarks, which define the High Precision Leveling Network of Argentina. The first adjustment of this network took place in 1971. This assignment was given to the Defense Mapping Agency of the United States of America (DMA). Leveling lines that were built and measured after the year 1971 were adjusted to this original network. It was of great importance to perform a new adjustment calculation with modern techniques to update the entire network. Some modern tools worth mentioning are: gravity interpolation using prediction method and topographic correction calculation by the Hammer method using SRTM model. All historical field books were digitalized to retrieve the information corresponding to the spirit leveling, from which it was then possible to calculate geopotential difference between the nodes, using the gravity acceleration values over the benchmarks. Subsequently, by the method of least squares it was possible to calculate the geopotential numbers of the nodes, and then the orthometric height of all the benchmarks. The recommendations of the Working Group III of SIRGAS (Geodetic Reference System for the Americas) were taken into account in relation to this task. The development of this paper shows the results that have been obtained so far in the development of the New Height System for Argentina.

  5. Proposed Design and Operation of a Heat Pipe Reactor using the Sandia National Laboratories Annular Core Test Facility and Existing UZrH Fuel Pins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Steven A.; Lipinski, Ronald J.; Pandya, Tara; Peters, Curtis

    2005-02-01

    Heat Pipe Reactors (HPR) for space power conversion systems offer a number of advantages not easily provided by other systems. They require no pumping, their design easily deals with freezing and thawing of the liquid metal, and they can provide substantial levels of redundancy. Nevertheless, no reactor has ever been operated and cooled with heat pipes, and the startup and other operational characteristics of these systems remain largely unknown. Signification deviations from normal reactor heat removal mechanisms exist, because the heat pipes have fundamental heat removal limits due to sonic flow issues at low temperatures. This paper proposes an early prototypic test of a Heat Pipe Reactor (using existing 20% enriched nuclear fuel pins) to determine the operational characteristics of the HPR. The proposed design is similar in design to the HOMER and SAFE-300 HPR designs (Elliot, Lipinski, and Poston, 2003; Houts, et. al, 2003). However, this reactor uses existing UZrH fuel pins that are coupled to potassium heat pipes modules. The prototype reactor would be located in the Sandia Annular Core Research Reactor Facility where the fuel pins currently reside. The proposed reactor would use the heat pipes to transport the heat from the UZrH fuel pins to a water pool above the core, and the heat transport to the water pool would be controlled by adjusting the pressure and gas type within a small annulus around each heat pipe. The reactor would operate as a self-critical assembly at power levels up to 200 kWth. Because the nuclear heated HPR test uses existing fuel and because it would be performed in an existing facility with the appropriate safety authorization basis, the test could be performed rapidly and inexpensively. This approach makes it possible to validate the operation of a HPR and also measure the feedback mechanisms for a typical HPR design. A test of this nature would be the world's first operating Heat Pipe Reactor. This reactor is therefore called "HPR-1".

  6. Pin1 liberates the human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1): Must we stop it?

    PubMed

    Hou, Hai; Wang, Jing-Zhang; Liu, Bao-Guo; Zhang, Ting

    2015-07-01

    Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is mainly caused by the human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1). To our knowledge, this is the first review focusing on the vital role of Pin1 in the infection of HIV-1 and the development of AIDS. We and others have demonstrated that Pin1, the only known cis-to-trans isomerase recognizing the pThr/pSer-Pro motifs in proteins, plays striking roles in several human diseases. Interestingly, recent evidence gradually indicates that Pin1 regulates several key steps of the life cycle of HIV-1, including the uncoating of the HIV-1 core, the reverse transcription of the RNA genome of HIV-1, and the integration of the HIV-1 cDNA into human chromosomes. Whereas inhibiting Pin1 suppresses all of these key steps and attenuates the replication of HIV-1, at the same time different PIN1 gene variants are correlated with the susceptibility to HIV-1 infection. Furthermore, Pin1 potentially promotes HIV-1 infection by activating multiple oncogenes and inactivating multiple tumor suppressors, extending the life span of HIV-infected cells. These descriptions suggest Pin1 as a promising therapeutic target for the prevention of HIV-1 and highlight the possibility of blocking the development of AIDS by Pin1 inhibitors.

  7. Using the Missing Pin to Challenge Concepts of Refraction and Total Internal Reflection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tamang, Sushmika; Nopparatjamjomras, Suchai; Chitaree, Ratchapak; Nopparatjamjomras, Thasaneeya R.

    2015-01-01

    A container was placed on top of a piece of white paper, and a pin positioned so that it vertically touched an outside wall of the container. Students were asked to predict the image of the pin when it was observed from the top of the container. Two scenarios of either an empty container or a container completely filled with water were considered…

  8. Sputtered pin amorphous silicon semi-conductor device and method therefor

    DOEpatents

    Moustakas, Theodore D.; Friedman, Robert A.

    1983-11-22

    A high efficiency amorphous silicon PIN semi-conductor device is constructed by the sequential sputtering of N, I and P layers of amorphous silicon and at least one semi-transparent ohmic electrode. A method of construction produces a PIN device, exhibiting enhanced physical integrity and facilitates ease of construction in a singular vacuum system and vacuum pump down procedure.

  9. EXFILE: A program for compiling irradiation data on UN and UC fuel pins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayer, J. T.; Smith, R. L.; Weinstein, M. B.; Davison, H. W.

    1973-01-01

    A FORTRAN-4 computer program for handling fuel pin data is described. Its main features include standardized output, easy access for data manipulation, and tabulation of important material property data. An additional feature allows simplified preparation of input decks for a fuel swelling computer code (CYGRO-2). Data from over 300 high temperature nitride and carbide based fuel pin irradiations are listed.

  10. {pi}N transition distribution amplitudes: Their symmetries and constraints from chiral dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Pire, B.; Semenov-Tian-Shansky, K.; Szymanowski, L.

    2011-10-01

    Baryon to meson transition distribution amplitudes (TDAs) extend the concept of generalized parton distributions. Baryon to meson TDAs appear as building blocks in the collinear factorized description of amplitudes for a class of hard exclusive reactions, prominent examples of which being hard exclusive meson electroproduction off a nucleon in the backward region and baryon-antibaryon annihilation into a meson and a lepton pair. We study the general properties of these objects following the underlying symmetries of QCD. In particular, the Lorentz symmetry results in the polynomiality property of the Mellin moments in longitudinal momentum fractions. We present a detailed account of the isotopic and permutation symmetry properties of nucleon to pion ({pi}N) TDAs. This restricts the number of independent leading twist {pi}N TDAs to eight functions, providing description of all isotopic channels. Using chiral symmetry and the crossing relation between {pi}N TDAs and {pi}N generalized distribution amplitudes, we establish soft pion theorems for {pi}N TDAs, which determine the magnitude of {pi}N TDAs. Finally, we build a simple resonance exchange model for {pi}N TDAs considering N and {Delta}(1232) exchange contributions into the isospin-(1/2) and isospin-(3/2) {pi}N TDAs.

  11. Fly-away restraint pin mechanism for the Army's PATRIOT missile system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, F. W.

    1977-01-01

    The development of the longitudinal restraint mechanism for the Army's Patriot missile system is reviewed. The initial design was an ordnance pin puller with a shear plane. Because of reliability problems and a desire to reduce cost, a fly-away restraint mechanism was chosen. After being manually unlocked, the restraint pin disengages the missile during launch by missile motion.

  12. The exocyst complex contributes to PIN auxin efflux carrier recycling and polar auxin transport in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Drdová, Edita Janková; Synek, Lukáš; Pečenková, Tamara; Hála, Michal; Kulich, Ivan; Fowler, John E; Murphy, Angus S; Zárský, Viktor

    2013-03-01

    In land plants polar auxin transport is one of the substantial processes guiding whole plant polarity and morphogenesis. Directional auxin fluxes are mediated by PIN auxin efflux carriers, polarly localized at the plasma membrane. The polarization of exocytosis in yeast and animals is assisted by the exocyst: an octameric vesicle-tethering complex and an effector of Rab and Rho GTPases. Here we show that rootward polar auxin transport is compromised in roots of Arabidopsis thaliana loss-of-function mutants in the EXO70A1 exocyst subunit. The recycling of PIN1 and PIN2 proteins from brefeldin-A compartments is delayed after the brefeldin-A washout in exo70A1 and sec8 exocyst mutants. Relocalization of PIN1 and PIN2 proteins after prolonged brefeldin-A treatment is largely impaired in these mutants. At the same time, however, plasma membrane localization of GFP:EXO70A1, and the other exocyst subunits studied (GFP:SEC8 and YFP:SEC10), is resistant to brefeldin-A treatment. In root cells of the exo70A1 mutant, a portion of PIN2 is internalized and retained in specific, abnormally enlarged, endomembrane compartments that are distinct from VHA-a1-labelled early endosomes or the trans-Golgi network, but are RAB-A5d positive. We conclude that the exocyst is involved in PIN1 and PIN2 recycling, and thus in polar auxin transport regulation.

  13. hPIN/hTAN: Low-Cost e-Banking Secure against Untrusted Computers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shujun; Sadeghi, Ahmad-Reza; Schmitz, Roland

    We propose hPIN/hTAN, a low-cost token-based e-banking protection scheme when the adversary has full control over the user's computer. Compared with existing hardware-based solutions, hPIN/hTAN depends on neither second trusted channel, nor secure keypad, nor computationally expensive encryption module.

  14. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN RIGIDITY OF EXTERNAL FIXATOR AND NUMBER OF PINS: COMPUTER ANALYSIS USING FINITE ELEMENTS

    PubMed Central

    Sternick, Marcelo Back; Dallacosta, Darlan; Bento, Daniela Águida; do Reis, Marcelo Lemos

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the rigidity of a platform-type external fixator assembly, according to different numbers of pins on each clamp. Methods: Computer simulation on a large-sized Cromus dynamic external fixator (Baumer SA) was performed using a finite element method, in accordance with the standard ASTM F1541. The models were generated with approximately 450,000 quadratic tetrahedral elements. Assemblies with two, three and four Schanz pins of 5.5 mm in diameter in each clamp were compared. Every model was subjected to a maximum force of 200 N, divided into 10 sub-steps. For the components, the behavior of the material was assumed to be linear, elastic, isotropic and homogeneous. For each model, the rigidity of the assembly and the Von Mises stress distribution were evaluated. Results: The rigidity of the system was 307.6 N/mm for two pins, 369.0 N/mm for three and 437.9 N/mm for four. Conclusion: The results showed that four Schanz pins in each clamp promoted rigidity that was 19% greater than in the configuration with three pins and 42% greater than with two pins. Higher tension occurred in configurations with fewer pins. In the models analyzed, the maximum tension occurred on the surface of the pin, close to the fixation area. PMID:27047879

  15. Stability of Pin1 as revealed by thermal and spectroscopic studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jing-Zhang; Lin, Tao; Zhu, Guo-Fei; Du, Lin-Fang

    2010-06-01

    Pin1 is a two-domain enzyme which has peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase activity. Pin1 recognizes phospho-Ser/Thr-Pro motifs in cell-signaling proteins, and is both a cancer and an Alzheimer's disease target. The thermal stability of Pin1 was studied intensively by SDS-PAGE, enzymatic activity assay, intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy and circular dichroism spectroscopy. The activity of Pin1 gradually decreased above 40 °C, and the Tm was 57.6 ± 1.0 °C. Fluorescence experiments indicated that heat treatment induced changes in the substructures in Pin1, resulting in that the polarity in the microenvironments of the tryptophan residues increased. It is assumed that the thermal denaturation of Pin1 involved a three-state transition. The intermediate state of Pin1 at about 60 °C was confirmed by fluorescence emission spectra, the synchronous fluorescence spectra and CD measurements. Decreases in α-helix and β-sheet appeared above 40 °C, which was balanced by an enhancement in unordered coil. The Tm values calculated from α-helix transition and β-sheet transition were 54.6 ± 0.6 °C and 70.7 ± 3.3 °C, respectively. Our results illustrated that Pin1 had a relatively high thermal stability and the WW domain had a higher stability than the PPIase domain.

  16. Application of the Pin Diode as a Dosimeter for Dose Measurement of Several Radiation Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sopko, Vit; Dammer, Jiri; Chren, Dominik; Sopko, Bruno; Latal, Frantisek

    2010-04-01

    Experimental PIN diodes produced for measurement of low energy gamma radiation were exposed to neutron, proton and gamma radiation sources, in an attempt to expand the area of their application. Irradiation of the PIN diode resulted in changes of IV curve. The changes of voltage at certain current were recorded and depicted in graphs.

  17. Method and device for determining the position of a cutting tool relative to the rotational axis of a spindle-mounted workpiece

    DOEpatents

    Williams, Richard R.

    1982-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a method and device for determining the location of a cutting tool with respect to the rotational axis of a spindle-mounted workpiece. A vacuum cup supporting a machinable sacrifical pin is secured to the workpiece at a location where the pin will project along and encompass the rotational axis of the workpiece. The pin is then machined into a cylinder. The position of the surface of the cutting tool contacting the machine cylinder is spaced from the rotational aixs of the workpiece a distance equal to the radius of the cylinder.

  18. Method and device for determining the position of a cutting tool relative to the rotational axis of a spindle-mounted workpiece

    DOEpatents

    Williams, R.R.

    1980-09-03

    The present invention is directed to a method and device for determining the location of a cutting tool with respect to the rotational axis of a spindle-mounted workpiece. A vacuum cup supporting a machinable sacrificial pin is secured to the workpiece at a location where the pin will project along and encompass the rotational axis of the workpiece. The pin is then machined into a cylinder. The position of the surface of the cutting tool contacting the machine cylinder is spaced from the rotational axis of the workpiece a distance equal to the radius of the cylinder.

  19. Model of Ni-63 battery with realistic PIN structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munson, Charles E.; Arif, Muhammad; Streque, Jeremy; Belahsene, Sofiane; Martinez, Anthony; Ramdane, Abderrahim; El Gmili, Youssef; Salvestrini, Jean-Paul; Voss, Paul L.; Ougazzaden, Abdallah

    2015-09-01

    GaN, with its wide bandgap of 3.4 eV, has emerged as an efficient material for designing high-efficiency betavoltaic batteries. An important part of designing efficient betavoltaic batteries involves a good understanding of the full process, from the behavior of the nuclear material and the creation of electron-hole pairs all the way through the collection of photo-generated carriers. This paper presents a detailed model based on Monte Carlo and Silvaco for a GaN-based betavoltaic battery device, modeled after Ni-63 as an energy source. The accuracy of the model is verified by comparing it with experimental values obtained for a GaN-based p-i-n structure under scanning electron microscope illumination.

  20. Dynamic interaction of fingertip skin and pin of tactile device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigas, Vytautas; Tolocka, Rymantas T.; Ziliukas, Pranas

    2007-12-01

    The present paper deals with investigations performed with the aim to study transmitting tactile information into the area of mechanoreceptors of the fingertip skin segment and to estimate the dynamic properties and behavior of the skin by performing numerical analysis. A computational finite element model consisting of four main layers of skin was used for transient analysis of contact dynamic interaction when loading the skin by a moving pin, as well as for modal analysis of skin and analysis of skin stress-strain state under harmonic loading (a plane strain case was studied). Material properties of the skin were assumed as linear elastic because of a very small excitation signal level. The efficiency of the regime of the skin dynamic loading in terms of the tactile signal level was defined on the basis of the strain level in the dermis zone where mechanoreceptors are placed. The possibilities of using vibratory control signal were analyzed.

  1. Model of Ni-63 battery with realistic PIN structure

    SciTech Connect

    Munson, Charles E.; Voss, Paul L.; Ougazzaden, Abdallah; Arif, Muhammad; Salvestrini, Jean-Paul; Streque, Jeremy; El Gmili, Youssef; Belahsene, Sofiane; Martinez, Anthony; Ramdane, Abderrahim

    2015-09-14

    GaN, with its wide bandgap of 3.4 eV, has emerged as an efficient material for designing high-efficiency betavoltaic batteries. An important part of designing efficient betavoltaic batteries involves a good understanding of the full process, from the behavior of the nuclear material and the creation of electron-hole pairs all the way through the collection of photo-generated carriers. This paper presents a detailed model based on Monte Carlo and Silvaco for a GaN-based betavoltaic battery device, modeled after Ni-63 as an energy source. The accuracy of the model is verified by comparing it with experimental values obtained for a GaN-based p-i-n structure under scanning electron microscope illumination.

  2. Gratings and Random Reflectors for Near-Infrared PIN Diodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gunapala, Sarath; Bandara, Sumith; Liu, John; Ting, David

    2007-01-01

    Crossed diffraction gratings and random reflectors have been proposed as means to increase the quantum efficiencies of InGaAs/InP positive/intrinsic/ negative (PIN) diodes designed to operate as near-infrared photodetectors. The proposal is meant especially to apply to focal-plane imaging arrays of such photodetectors to be used for near-infrared imaging. A further increase in quantum efficiency near the short-wavelength limit of the near-infrared spectrum of such a photodetector array could be effected by removing the InP substrate of the array. The use of crossed diffraction gratings and random reflectors as optical devices for increasing the quantum efficiencies of quantum-well infrared photodetectors (QWIPs) was discussed in several prior NASA Tech Briefs articles. While the optical effects of crossed gratings and random reflectors as applied to PIN photodiodes would be similar to those of crossed gratings and random reflectors as applied to QWIPs, the physical mechanisms by which these optical effects would enhance efficiency differ between the PIN-photodiode and QWIP cases: In a QWIP, the multiple-quantum-well layers are typically oriented parallel to the focal plane and therefore perpendicular or nearly perpendicular to the direction of incidence of infrared light. By virtue of the applicable quantum selection rules, light polarized parallel to the focal plane (as normally incident light is) cannot excite charge carriers and, hence, cannot be detected. A pair of crossed gratings or a random reflector scatters normally or nearly normally incident light so that a significant portion of it attains a component of polarization normal to the focal plane and, hence, can excite charge carriers. A pair of crossed gratings or a random reflector on a PIN photodiode would also scatter light into directions away from the perpendicular to the focal plane. However, in this case, the reason for redirecting light away from the perpendicular is to increase the length of the

  3. PinBus Interface for Interoperable, Grid-Responsive Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Hammerstrom, Donald J.

    2009-12-02

    A very simple appliance interface was suggested by this author and his co-authors during Grid-Interop 2007. The approach was based on a successful collaboration between utilities, a major appliance manufacture, and the manufacturer of a load control module during the U.S. Department of Energy’s Grid Friendly Appliance project. The suggested approach was based on the assumption that demand-response objectives could be effectively communicated to and from many small electrical loads like appliances by simply agreeing on the meaning of the binary states of several shared connector pins. It was argued that this approach could pave the way for a wave of demand-response-ready appliances and greatly reduced expenses for utilities’ future demand-response programs. The approach could be supported by any of the many competing serial communication protocols and would be generally applicable to most end-use devices.

  4. Using Pin as a Memory Reference Generator for Multiprocessor Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    McCurdy, C

    2005-10-22

    In this paper we describe how we have used Pin to generate a multithreaded reference stream for simulation of a multiprocessor on a uniprocessor. We have taken special care to model as accurately as possible the effects of cache coherence protocol state, and lock and barrier synchronization on the performance of multithreaded applications running on multiprocessor hardware. We first describe a simplified version of the algorithm, which uses semaphores to synchronize instrumented application threads and the simulator on every memory reference. We then describe modifications to that algorithm to model the microarchitectural features of the Itanium2 that affect the timing of memory reference issue. An experimental evaluation determines that while cycle-accurate multithreaded simulation is possible using our approach, the use of semaphores has a negative impact on the performance of the simulator.

  5. High-performance monolithic PIN-MODFET transimpedance photoreceiver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutierrez-Aitken, A. L.; Bhattacharya, P.; Chen, Y. C.; Pavlidis, D.; Brock, T.

    1993-08-01

    The performance characteristics of a transimpedance photoreceiver using an In(0.53)Ga(0.47)As p-i-n photodiode integrated with a 0.1-micron gate length regrown pseudomorphic In(0.60)Ga(0.40)As MODFET grown by MBE were investigated. The regrown MODFET's have extrinsic transconductance values as high as 610 mS/mm and channel currents up to 350 mA/mm at a drain bias of 1.5 V. The measured temporal response of the photoreceiver exhibits a FWHM value of 90 ps, which indicates a bandwidth of approximately 6 GHz and expected 10-Gb/s operation. The transimpedance gain was as high as 55 dB-ohm with an 800-ohm feedback resistor.

  6. Statistical mechanics of homogeneous partly pinned fluid systems.

    PubMed

    Krakoviack, Vincent

    2010-12-01

    The homogeneous partly pinned fluid systems are simple models of a fluid confined in a disordered porous matrix obtained by arresting randomly chosen particles in a one-component bulk fluid or one of the two components of a binary mixture. In this paper, their configurational properties are investigated. It is shown that a peculiar complementarity exists between the mobile and immobile phases, which originates from the fact that the solid is prepared in presence of and in equilibrium with the adsorbed fluid. Simple identities follow, which connect different types of configurational averages, either relative to the fluid-matrix system or to the bulk fluid from which it is prepared. Crucial simplifications result for the computation of important structural quantities, both in computer simulations and in theoretical approaches. Finally, possible applications of the model in the field of dynamics in confinement or in strongly asymmetric mixtures are suggested.

  7. Los Alamos Hot-Cell-Facility modifications for examining FFTF fuel pins

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, B.M.; Ledbetter, J.M.

    1982-01-01

    Commissioned in 1960, the Wing 9 Hot Cell Facility at Los Alamos was recently modified to meet the needs of the 1980s. Because fuel pins from the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL) are too long for examination in the original hot cells, we modified cells to accommodate longer fuel pins and to provide other capabilities as well. For instance, the T-3 shipping cask now can be opened in an inert atmosphere that can be maintained for all nondestructive and destructive examinations of the fuel pins. The full-length pins are visually examined and photographed, the wire wrap is removed, and fission gas is sampled. After the fuel pin is cropped, a cap is seal-welded on the section containing the fuel column. This section is then transferred to other cells for gamma-scanning, radiography, profilometry, sectioning for metallography, and chemical analysis.

  8. Flux pinning in Bi-2212/Ag-based wires and coils

    SciTech Connect

    Fabbricatore, P.; Priano, C.; Sciutti, A.; Gemme, G.; Musenich, R.; Parodi, R.; Goemoery, F.; Thompson, J.R. |

    1996-11-01

    This paper describes a study of pinning forces in Ag/Bi-based wires and small coils. The goal of this analysis is to characterize and to compare the main pinning mechanisms in wires (short samples) and prototype practical devices, e.g., coils (long samples). The effects of thermal activation were found to hinder the straightforward determination of the pinning parameters from the critical current data. However, we succeeded in extracting these parameters from the irreversibility line. The scaling law for the pinning force employing the irreversibility field in virtue of the scale for magnetic fields was derived theoretically. The best fit to the experimentally determined pinning forces gave the flux-creep model corresponding to the power-law current{emdash}voltage dependence {ital J}{proportional_to}{ital E}{sup {ital n}}. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  9. Synchronization for an array of neural networks with hybrid coupling by a novel pinning control strategy.

    PubMed

    Gong, Dawei; Lewis, Frank L; Wang, Liping; Xu, Ke

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, a novel pinning synchronization (synchronization with pinning control) scheme for an array of neural networks with hybrid coupling is investigated. The main contributions are as follows: (1) A novel pinning control strategy is proposed for the first time. Pinning control schemes are introduced as an array of column vector. The controllers are designed as simple linear systems, which are easy to be analyzed or tested. (2) Augmented Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional (LKF) is applied to introduce more relax variables, which can alleviate the requirements of the positive definiteness of the matrix. (3) Based on the appropriate LKF, by introducing some free weighting matrices, some novel synchronization criteria are derived. Furthermore, the proposed pinning control scheme described by column vector can also be expanded to almost all the other array of neural networks. Finally, numerical examples are provided to show the effectiveness of the proposed results.

  10. Prophylactic pinning for slipped capital femoral epiphysis: does it affect proximal femoral morphology?

    PubMed

    Cousins, Gerard R; Campbell, Donald M; Wilson, Neil I L; Maclean, Jamie G B

    2016-05-01

    This study was designed to determine whether prophylactic pinning of the unaffected hip in unilateral slipped capital femoral epiphysis affects the proximal femoral morphology. Twenty-four hips prophylactically pinned were compared with 26 cases observed. The articulotrochanteric distance (ATD) and the trochanteric-trochanteric distance (TTD) were measured. Postoperative radiographs were compared with final follow-up radiographs. The final TTD : ATD ratio was higher (P=0.048) in the pinned group, suggesting relative coxa vara/breva. There was a smaller difference between the two hips in the prophylactically pinned group (0.7) as opposed to those observed (1.47). Prophylactic pinning does not cause growth to stop immediately but alters the proximal femoral morphology.

  11. Vortex pinning vs. superconducting wire network in nanostructured superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vicent, Jose L.

    2014-03-01

    Superconducting films with array of ordered defects allow studying effects which are governed by the interplay between lengths of the nanostructured sample and lengths related to physical parameters, as for example coherence length. When the coherence length and the separation between the defects are similar, the sample can mimic a superconducting wire network. In this situation, applied magnetic fields induce Little-Parks oscillations due to fluxoid quantization constraint. These L-P oscillations vanish when the coherence length is smaller than the ``stripe'' superconducting region between the defects. In superconducting films with array of nanodefects periodic oscillations can also be detected in resistance R(H), critical current Ic(H), magnetization M(H) and ac-susceptibility χac(H) in a broader temperature range than the temperature interval where L-P oscillations are present. Vortex pinning mechanisms are the origin of these oscillations. These oscillations emerge due to matching effects between two lattices: the vortex lattice and the lattice of defects. These oscillations are detected in a broader temperature interval than the temperature interval where L-P oscillations are present. Worth to note that, due to the coherence length divergence at Tc, a crossover to wire network behavior is experimentally found always. Interestingly, both mechanisms coexist close to superconducting critical temperatures; i. e. in the temperature region where the sample mimics superconducting wire network. These overlapping effects can be experimentally separated and both origins can be discriminated. We have analyzed and single out, with magnetotransport measurements, both mechanisms: pinning and fluxoid quantization constraint in superconducting films with arrays of non-magnetic and magnetic dots. Work supported by Spanish MINECO and CAM.

  12. The acidic pH-induced structural changes in Pin1 as revealed by spectral methodologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jing-Zhang; Xi, Lei; Zhu, Guo-Fei; Han, Yong-Guang; Luo, Yue; Wang, Mei; Du, Lin-Fang

    2012-12-01

    Pin1 is closely associated with the pathogenesis of cancers and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Previously, we have shown the characteristics of the thermal denaturation of Pin1. Herein, the acid-induced denaturation of Pin1 was determined by means of fluorescence emission, synchronous fluorescence, far-UV CD, ANS fluorescence and RLS spectroscopies. The fluorescence emission spectra and the synchronous fluorescence spectra suggested the partially reversible unfolding (approximately from pH 7.0 to 4.0) and refolding (approximately from pH 4.0 to 1.0) of the structures around the chromophores in Pin1, apparently with an intermediate state at about pH 4.0-4.5. The far-UV CD spectra indicated that acidic pH (below pH 4.0) induced the structural transition from α-helix and random coils to β-sheet in Pin1. The ANS fluorescence and the RLS spectra further suggested the exposure of the hydrophobic side-chains of Pin1 and the aggregation of it especially below pH 2.3, and the aggregation possibly resulted in the formation of extra intermolecular β-sheet. The present work primarily shows that acidic pH can induce kinds of irreversible structural changes in Pin1, such as the exposure of the hydrophobic side-chains, the transition from α-helix to β-sheet and the aggregation of Pin1, and also explains why Pin1 loses most of its activity below pH 5.0. The results emphasize the important role of decreased pH in the pathogenesis of some Pin1-related diseases, and support the therapeutic approach for them by targeting acidosis and modifying the intracellular pH gradients.

  13. Percussion tool

    DOEpatents

    Reed, Teddy R.

    2006-11-28

    A percussion tool is described and which includes a housing mounting a tool bit; a reciprocally moveable hammer borne by the housing and which is operable to repeatedly strike the tool bit; and a reciprocally moveable piston enclosed within the hammer and which imparts reciprocal movement to the reciprocally moveable hammer.

  14. FORTRAN tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Presser, L.

    1978-01-01

    An integrated set of FORTRAN tools that are commercially available is described. The basic purpose of various tools is summarized and their economic impact highlighted. The areas addressed by these tools include: code auditing, error detection, program portability, program instrumentation, documentation, clerical aids, and quality assurance.

  15. Adjustable Induction-Heating Coil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, Rod; Bartolotta, Paul

    1990-01-01

    Improved design for induction-heating work coil facilitates optimization of heating in different metal specimens. Three segments adjusted independently to obtain desired distribution of temperature. Reduces time needed to achieve required temperature profiles.

  16. Time-adjusted variable resistor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heyser, R. C.

    1972-01-01

    Timing mechanism was developed effecting extremely precisioned highly resistant fixed resistor. Switches shunt all or portion of resistor; effective resistance is varied over time interval by adjusting switch closure rate.

  17. 78 FR 62712 - Rate Adjustment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ... noticing a recent Postal Service filing seeking postal rate adjustments based on exigent circumstances...,'' is ``premised on the recent recession as an exigent event.'' Id. at 1, 2. In Order No. 1059,...

  18. Payload specialist Robert Cenker after adjusting DSO equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Robert J. Cenker, STS 61-C payload specialist, returns a tiny tool to its stowage position after adjusting the inner workings of a device used in one of a number of detailed supplementary objective (DSO) studies for NASA's Space Biomedical Research Institute. The device is a pair of ocular counter-rolling goggles.

  19. 29 CFR 1926.304 - Woodworking tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., except for the minimum arc required to allow proper retraction and contact with the work. When the tool... adjust itself to the thickness of the stock and remain in contact with stock being cut to give maximum... the hood will automatically adjust itself to the thickness of and remain in contact with the...

  20. 29 CFR 1926.304 - Woodworking tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., except for the minimum arc required to allow proper retraction and contact with the work. When the tool... adjust itself to the thickness of the stock and remain in contact with stock being cut to give maximum... the hood will automatically adjust itself to the thickness of and remain in contact with the...