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Sample records for adjustable trigger current

  1. Methods for automatic trigger threshold adjustment

    DOEpatents

    Welch, Benjamin J; Partridge, Michael E

    2014-03-18

    Methods are presented for adjusting trigger threshold values to compensate for drift in the quiescent level of a signal monitored for initiating a data recording event, thereby avoiding false triggering conditions. Initial threshold values are periodically adjusted by re-measuring the quiescent signal level, and adjusting the threshold values by an offset computation based upon the measured quiescent signal level drift. Re-computation of the trigger threshold values can be implemented on time based or counter based criteria. Additionally, a qualification width counter can be utilized to implement a requirement that a trigger threshold criterion be met a given number of times prior to initiating a data recording event, further reducing the possibility of a false triggering situation.

  2. Self-triggering superconducting fault current limiter

    DOEpatents

    Yuan, Xing; Tekletsadik, Kasegn

    2008-10-21

    A modular and scaleable Matrix Fault Current Limiter (MFCL) that functions as a "variable impedance" device in an electric power network, using components made of superconducting and non-superconducting electrically conductive materials. The matrix fault current limiter comprises a fault current limiter module that includes a superconductor which is electrically coupled in parallel with a trigger coil, wherein the trigger coil is magnetically coupled to the superconductor. The current surge doing a fault within the electrical power network will cause the superconductor to transition to its resistive state and also generate a uniform magnetic field in the trigger coil and simultaneously limit the voltage developed across the superconductor. This results in fast and uniform quenching of the superconductors, significantly reduces the burnout risk associated with non-uniformity often existing within the volume of superconductor materials. The fault current limiter modules may be electrically coupled together to form various "n" (rows).times."m" (columns) matrix configurations.

  3. Working-Memory-Triggered Dynamic Adjustments in Cognitive Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jha, Amishi P.; Kiyonaga, Anastasia

    2010-01-01

    Dynamic adjustments in cognitive control are well documented in conflict tasks, wherein competition from irrelevant stimulus attributes intensifies selection demands and leads to subsequent performance benefits. The current study investigated whether mnemonic demands, in a working memory (WM) task, can drive similar online control modifications.…

  4. Method and apparatus to trigger superconductors in current limiting devices

    DOEpatents

    Yuan, Xing; Hazelton, Drew Willard; Walker, Michael Stephen

    2004-10-26

    A method and apparatus for magnetically triggering a superconductor in a superconducting fault current limiter to transition from a superconducting state to a resistive state. The triggering is achieved by employing current-carrying trigger coil or foil on either or both the inner diameter and outer diameter of a superconductor. The current-carrying coil or foil generates a magnetic field with sufficient strength and the superconductor is disposed within essentially uniform magnetic field region. For superconductor in a tubular-configured form, an additional magnetic field can be generated by placing current-carrying wire or foil inside the tube and along the center axial line.

  5. 26 CFR 1.56(g)-1 - Adjusted current earnings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Adjusted current earnings. 1.56(g)-1 Section 1.56(g)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY INCOME TAX INCOME TAXES Regulations Applicable to Taxable Years Beginning in 1969 and Ending in 1970 § 1.56(g)-1 Adjusted current earnings. (a) Adjustment for...

  6. 26 CFR 1.56(g)-1 - Adjusted current earnings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Adjusted current earnings. 1.56(g)-1 Section 1.56(g)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY INCOME TAX INCOME TAXES Regulations Applicable to Taxable Years Beginning in 1969 and Ending in 1970 § 1.56(g)-1 Adjusted current earnings. (a) Adjustment for...

  7. 26 CFR 1.56(g)-1 - Adjusted current earnings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Adjusted current earnings. 1.56(g)-1 Section 1.56(g)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY INCOME TAX INCOME TAXES Regulations Applicable to Taxable Years Beginning in 1969 and Ending in 1970 § 1.56(g)-1 Adjusted current earnings. (a) Adjustment for...

  8. 26 CFR 1.56(g)-1 - Adjusted current earnings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Adjusted current earnings. 1.56(g)-1 Section 1.56(g)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY INCOME TAX INCOME TAXES Regulations Applicable to Taxable Years Beginning in 1969 and Ending in 1970 § 1.56(g)-1 Adjusted current earnings. (a) Adjustment for...

  9. 26 CFR 1.56(g)-1 - Adjusted current earnings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Adjusted current earnings. 1.56(g)-1 Section 1.56(g)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY INCOME TAX INCOME TAXES Regulations Applicable to Taxable Years Beginning in 1969 and Ending in 1970 § 1.56(g)-1 Adjusted current earnings. (a) Adjustment for...

  10. Self field triggered superconducting fault current limiter

    DOEpatents

    Tekletsadik, Kasegn D.

    2008-02-19

    A superconducting fault current limiter array with a plurality of superconductor elements arranged in a meanding array having an even number of supconductors parallel to each other and arranged in a plane that is parallel to an odd number of the plurality of superconductors, where the odd number of supconductors are parallel to each other and arranged in a plane that is parallel to the even number of the plurality of superconductors, when viewed from a top view. The even number of superconductors are coupled at the upper end to the upper end of the odd number of superconductors. A plurality of lower shunt coils each coupled to the lower end of each of the even number of superconductors and a plurality of upper shunt coils each coupled to the upper end of each of the odd number of superconductors so as to generate a generally orthoganal uniform magnetic field during quenching using only the magenetic field generated by the superconductors.

  11. Lightning current observation of an altitude-triggered flash

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saba, Marcelo M. F.; Pinto, Osmar; Solórzano, Natália N.; Eybert-Berard, André

    2005-07-01

    In this work we present some current parameters of an altitude-triggered lightning using a 30-m insulating cable of Kevlar. It was triggered during the summer of 2001-2002 at International Center for Triggered and Natural Lightning Studies (CIPRIN) in Brazil. The flash connected to the tip of a Franklin rod equipped with three different current sensors. Measurements of current intensity, done at sample rate of 100 ns, enabled the study of some characteristics of seven return stroke waveforms. The geometric mean peak current of the altitude flash strokes was 2 to 3 times higher than the values usually reported for classical strokes. Except for the 2 first strokes, which exhibited chopped waveforms, the charge destroyed in each stroke was similar to the geometric mean values usually reported for classical strokes. Most of the other waveform parameters showed significant differences from the usual values presented in the literature for classical triggered flashes. The values presented here are unique and will add information to the very few current data published on altitude-triggered lightning in literature.

  12. Adjustable direct current and pulsed circuit fault current limiter

    DOEpatents

    Boenig, Heinrich J.; Schillig, Josef B.

    2003-09-23

    A fault current limiting system for direct current circuits and for pulsed power circuit. In the circuits, a current source biases a diode that is in series with the circuits' transmission line. If fault current in a circuit exceeds current from the current source biasing the diode open, the diode will cease conducting and route the fault current through the current source and an inductor. This limits the rate of rise and the peak value of the fault current.

  13. Return stroke current reflections in rocket-triggered lightning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caicedo, J. A.; Biagi, C.; Uman, M. A.; Jordan, D. M.; Hare, B.

    2016-03-01

    Ten upward propagating return stroke currents in eight triggered lightning flashes have been observed to reflect downward from 140 to 300 m altitude by way of measurements of the channel base current, close electric field and electric field derivative, and high-speed video. The current reflections appear as dips in the measured channel base current and in the electric fields and as bipolar pulses in the electric field derivative waveforms. The current dips occur 2.7 to 13.9 μs after the initiation of the return stroke current at ground. The observed phenomenon results from a portion of the upward propagating return stroke current wave being reflected from a channel impedance discontinuity apparently associated with an isolated section of unexploded triggering wire, as inferred from high-speed video records. A transmission line model is used to model the close electric field and electric field derivative of the postulated initial and reflected current waves, starting with the measured channel base current, and the results are compared favorably with measurements made at 92 to 326 m. From the measured time between the return stroke current initiation at the ground and the time the current reflection reaches the channel base and produces the current dip, along with the reflection height inferred from the video records, we find the average of the upward and downward reflected return stroke current speed for each of the 10 strokes to be between 0.81 and 2.06 × 108 m s-1.

  14. Superconducting matrix fault current limiter with current-driven trigger mechanism

    DOEpatents

    Yuan; Xing

    2008-04-15

    A modular and scalable Matrix-type Fault Current Limiter (MFCL) that functions as a "variable impedance" device in an electric power network, using components made of superconducting and non-superconducting electrically conductive materials. An inductor is connected in series with the trigger superconductor in the trigger matrix and physically surrounds the superconductor. The current surge during a fault will generate a trigger magnetic field in the series inductor to cause fast and uniform quenching of the trigger superconductor to significantly reduce burnout risk due to superconductor material non-uniformity.

  15. Cutoff and reestablishment of current in rocket-triggered lightning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakov, V. A.; Crawford, D. E.; Kodali, V.; Idone, V. P.; Uman, M. A.; Schnetzer, G. H.; Rambo, K. J.

    2003-12-01

    A total of three negative rocket-triggered lightning flashes without return strokes (two from 1997 and one from 1993) are analyzed in this paper in order to study the processes associated with the disintegration of the triggering wire and its replacement by an air-plasma channel. It appears that the gap resulting from the vaporization of the triggering wire by the upward-positive leader current is bridged by a leader/return-stroke type process. Electric fields at distances of 50, 110, and 500 m, the corresponding magnetic fields at 500 m, and the currents to ground are examined for the two 1997 flashes. The electric field prior to the triggering wire's vaporization in these flashes exhibits a positive (atmospheric electricity sign convention) millisecond-scale ramp due to the upward-extending positive leader. The electric field changes observed at the three distances just prior to wire vaporization are consistent with an equivalent point charge of about 0.3 C at a height of 1.2 to 1.5 km, suggesting that the charge density distribution at that time is strongly skewed toward the upward positive leader tip. The length of the triggering wire at the time of its vaporization was estimated from still photographs to be about 210-220 m. Following the ramp, a microsecond-scale V-shaped negative pulse, which resembles the close electric field signature of a small dart-leader/return-stroke sequence, is observed. The corresponding magnetic field decreases abruptly, simultaneously with the onset of the leading edge of the V-shaped pulse, to values near zero and remains there for tens of microseconds, indicating the attempted interruption (cutoff) of the upward positive leader current flow to ground through the triggering wire as it is vaporized by this current. Following the abrupt decrease, the magnetic field exhibits a rapid increase at a time corresponding to the trailing edge of the V-shaped electric field pulse, suggesting that the vaporized triggering wire is replaced by

  16. Osteoblastic cells trigger gate currents on nanocrystalline diamond transistor.

    PubMed

    Izak, Tibor; Krátká, Marie; Kromka, Alexander; Rezek, Bohuslav

    2015-05-01

    We show the influence of osteoblastic SAOS-2 cells on the transfer characteristics of nanocrystalline diamond solution-gated field-effect transistors (SGFET) prepared on glass substrates. Channels of these fully transparent SGFETs are realized by hydrogen termination of undoped diamond film. After cell cultivation, the transistors exhibit about 100× increased leakage currents (up to 10nA). During and after the cell delamination, the transistors return to original gate currents. We propose a mechanism where this triggering effect is attributed to ions released from adhered cells, which depends on the cell adhesion morphology, and could be used for cell culture monitoring. PMID:25835144

  17. Influence of central set on anticipatory and triggered grip-force adjustments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winstein, C. J.; Horak, F. B.; Fisher, B. E.; Peterson, B. W. (Principal Investigator)

    2000-01-01

    The effects of predictability of load magnitude on anticipatory and triggered grip-force adjustments were studied as nine normal subjects used a precision grip to lift, hold, and replace an instrumented test object. Experience with a predictable stimulus has been shown to enhance magnitude scaling of triggered postural responses to different amplitudes of perturbations. However, this phenomenon, known as a central-set effect, has not been tested systematically for grip-force responses in the hand. In our study, predictability was manipulated by applying load perturbations of different magnitudes to the test object under conditions in which the upcoming load magnitude was presented repeatedly or under conditions in which the load magnitudes were presented randomly, each with two different pre-load grip conditions (unconstrained and constrained). In constrained conditions, initial grip forces were maintained near the minimum level necessary to prevent pre-loaded object slippage, while in unconstrained conditions, no initial grip force restrictions were imposed. The effect of predictable (blocked) and unpredictable (random) load presentations on scaling of anticipatory and triggered grip responses was tested by comparing the slopes of linear regressions between the imposed load and grip response magnitude. Anticipatory and triggered grip force responses were scaled to load magnitude in all conditions. However, regardless of pre-load grip force constraint, the gains (slopes) of grip responses relative to load magnitudes were greater when the magnitude of the upcoming load was predictable than when the load increase was unpredictable. In addition, a central-set effect was evidenced by the fewer number of drop trials in the predictable relative to unpredictable load conditions. Pre-load grip forces showed the greatest set effects. However, grip responses showed larger set effects, based on prediction, when pre-load grip force was constrained to lower levels. These

  18. Trigger of Fast Reconnection via Collapsing Current Sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tenerani, A.; Velli, M.; Rappazzo, A. F.; Pucci, F.

    2015-12-01

    It has been widely believed that reconnection is the underlying mechanism of many explosive processes observed both in astrophysical and laboratory plasmas. However, both the questions of how magnetic reconnection is triggered in high Lundquist (S) and Reynolds (R) number plasmas, and how it can then occur on fast, ideal, time-scales remain open. Indeed, it has been argued that fast reconnection rates could be achieved once kinetic scales are reached, or, alternatively, by the onset of the so-called plasmoid instability within Sweet-Parker current sheets. However, it has been shown recently that a tearing mode instability (the "ideal tearing") can grow on an ideal, i.e., S-independent, timescale once the width a of a current sheet becomes thin enough with respect to its macroscopic length L, a/L ~ S-1/3. This suggests that current sheet thinning down to such a threshold aspect ratio —much larger, for S>>1, than the Sweet-Parker one that scales as a/L ~ S-1/2— might provide the trigger for fast reconnection even within the fluid plasma framework. Here we discuss the transition to fast reconnection by studying with visco-resistive MHD simulations the onset and evolution of the tearing instability within a single collapsing current sheet. We indeed show that the transition to a fast tearing mode instability takes place when an inverse aspect ratio of the order of the threshold a/L ~ S-1/3 is reached, and that the secondary current sheets forming nonlinearly become the source of a succession of recursive tearing instabilities. The latter is reminiscent of the fractal reconnection model of flares, which we modify in the light of the "ideal tearing" scenario.

  19. Fiber-Optic Current Sensor Validation with Triggered Lightning Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Truong X.; Ely, Jay J.; Szatkowski, George N.; Mata, Carlos T.; Mata, Angel G.; Snyder, Gary P.

    2013-01-01

    A fiber optic current sensor based on the Faraday Effect is developed that is highly suitable for aircraft installation and can measure total current enclosed in a fiber loop down to DC. Other attributes include being small, light-weight, non-conducting, safe from electromagnetic interference, and free of hysteresis and saturation. The Faraday Effect causes light polarization to rotate when exposed to a magnetic field in the direction of light propagation. Measuring the induced light polarization rotation in fiber loops yields the total current enclosed. Two sensor systems were constructed and installed at Camp Blanding, Florida, measuring rocket-triggered lightning. The systems were similar in design but with different laser wavelengths, sensitivities and ranges. Results are compared to a shunt resistor as reference. The 850nm wavelength system tested in summer 2011 showed good result comparison early. However, later results showed gradual amplitude increase with time, attributed to corroded connections affecting the 50-ohm output termination. The 1550nm system also yielded good results in the summer 2012. The successful measurements demonstrate the fiber optic sensor's accuracies in capturing real lightning currents, and represent an important step toward future aircraft installation.

  20. Dependence of current rise time on laser-triggered discharge plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Soowon; Kamohara, Takashi; Hosseini, S. Hamid R.; Katsuki, Sunao

    2016-07-01

    A powerful, stable extreme ultraviolet (EUV) source is the most important component for EUV lithography and EUV mask inspection. Here, we investigate the characteristics of laser-triggered discharge plasma at three different current rise times, fast, middle and slow. A height-adjustable coaxial birdcage was used to change circuit inductance. The rise time was varied between 30 ns–55 ns with peak current of 10 kA. The time-integrated EUV (at 13.5 nm in 2% bandwidth) intensity for the fast rise time was found to be 55% stronger than that of the slow rise time despite its lower energy. A high-speed Mach–Zehnder interferogram and visible imaging of the pinch plasma were employed to discuss plasma compression processes qualitatively and quantitatively. Also discharge produced debris was investigated using a silicon-crystal witness plate. The fast rise current was found to have advantages such as lower debris, higher EUV intensity, and possibility of suppressing instability in comparison with the slow rise time. As expected, total debris amounts lessened proportionally to the primary charged energy, as found from a comparison of fast and slow rise currents.

  1. Similar motion of a handheld object may trigger non-similar grip force adjustments

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Fan; Latash, Mark L.; Zatsiorsky, Vladimir M.

    2007-01-01

    The tight coupling between load (L) and grip (G) forces during voluntary manipulation of a hand-held object is well established. The current study is to examine grip-load force coupling when motion of the hand with an object was either self-generated (voluntary) or externally generated. Subjects performed similar cyclic movements of different loads at various frequencies with three types of manipulation: (a) voluntary oscillation, (b) oscillating the right arm via the pulley system by the left leg (self-driven oscillation), (c) oscillating the arm via the pulley system by another person (other-driven oscillation). During the self-generated movements: (a) the grip forces were larger and (b) grip-load force modulation was more pronounced than in the externally generated movements. The G-L adjustments are not completely determined by the mechanics of object motion; non-mechanical factors related to movement performance, for instance perceptual factors, may affect the G-L coupling. Potentially the results of study can be used to provide hand therapists with another way for administering the Rapid Exchange Gripping Test. PMID:17954351

  2. A low-power current self-adjusted VCO using a bottom PMOS current source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhixiong, Sheng; Fengqi, Yu

    2014-09-01

    This paper presents the design and implementation of a current self-adjusted VCO with low power consumption. In the proposed VCO, a bottom PMOS current source instead of a top one is adopted to decrease the tail noise. A current self-adjusted technique without additional external control signals is taken to ensure the VCO starts up in the whole band while keeping the power consumption relatively low. Meanwhile, the phase noise of the VCO at the low frequency (high Cvar) can be reduced by the technique. The circuit is implemented in 0.18 μm CMOS technology. The proposed VCO exhibits low power consumption of < 1.6 mW at a 1.5 V supply voltage and a tuning range from 11.79 to 12.53 GHz. The measured phase noise at 1 MHz offset from the frequency 11.79 GHz is -104.7 dBc/Hz, and the corresponding FOM is -184.2 dBc/Hz.

  3. Photoelectric return-stroke velocity and peak current estimates in natural and triggered lightning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mach, Douglas M.; Rust, W. David

    1989-01-01

    Two-dimensional photoelectric return stroke velocities from 130 strokes are presented, including 86 negative natural, 41 negative triggered, one positive triggered, and two positive natural return strokes. For strokes starting near the ground and exceeding 500 m in length, the average velocity is 1.3 + or - 0.3 X 10 to the 8th m/s for natural return strokes and 1.2 + or - 0.3 X 10 to the 8th m/s for triggered return strokes. For strokes with lengths less than 500 m, the average velocities are slightly higher. Using the transmission line model (TLM), the shortest segment one-dimensional return stroke velocity, and either the maximum or plateau electric field, it is shown that natural strokes have a peak current distribution that is lognormal with a median value of 16 kA (maximum E) or 12 kA (plateau E). Triggered lightning has a medium peak current value of 21 kA (maximum E) or 15 kA (plateau E). Correlations are found between TLM peak currents and velocities for triggered and natural subsequent return strokes, but not between TLM peak currents and natural first return stroke velocities.

  4. Generation of Crowbar Current using the Polarity Effect of the Triggered Vacuum Gaps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugawara, Akira; Tanaka, Tsuyoshi; Itagaki, Kouichi; Abe, Hayato; Zashibo, Toshihito; Samaulah, Hazairin; Kitamura, Hiroshi

    The triggered vacuum gap (TVG) is a closing switch for generating large current pulse and can work in the wide range of voltage for several kV to tens kV. Main electrodes are made of Ag-WC. One of main electrode has a hole for trigger electrode (Mo). The switching time is short, if the polarity of the holed-electrode is negative. It is called polarity effect. We devised a crowbar circuit using the polarity effect of the TVGs. The crowbar current of this circuit was investigated experimentally by varying applied voltage, inductance, capacitance, gap length of TVGs, and trigger current duration. A crowbar current, crest of which is 2.4 kA and 4.9/270µs for example, was observed. The probability of generating the crowbar current was more than about 90 %, in the following condition: the trigger current duration of 6.65 µs and the gap length of 2-6 mm.

  5. Evaluation of lightning field-to-current conversion equations using triggered-lightning data: An update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallick, S.; Rakov, V. A.

    2013-12-01

    Return-stroke peak current can be obtained from measurement of channel-base current at the strike object (which is difficult because of the random occurrence of natural lightning in space and time) or can be estimated from measurement of the corresponding electric or magnetic field at a typical distance of several kilometers or more from the lightning channel. A field-to-current conversion procedure is required for the estimation of lightning return stroke peak currents from measured fields. The following empirical formula was proposed by Rakov et al. [1992] to estimate the return-stroke peak current I from the initial (essentially radiation) electric field peak E and distance r to the lightning channel: I=1.5-0.037rE (1) where I is in kA and taken as negative, E is positive and in V/m, and r is in km. Eq. (1) was derived using data for 28 triggered-lightning strokes acquired by Willett et al. [1989] at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC), Florida. Another approach is the use of the radiation-field-to-current conversion equation based on the transmission-line model [Uman and McLain, 1969]: I= (2πɛ_0 c^2 r)/v E (2) where ɛ0 is the permittivity of free space, c is the speed of light, and v is the return-stroke speed (assumed to be constant). The return-stroke speed is generally unknown and its range of variation from one event to another is typically from c/3 to 2c/3. Both I and E in Eq. (2) are absolute values. Perfectly conducting ground is assumed. Electric field peaks, recorded at the Lightning Observatory in Gainesville (LOG), Florida, for 89 strokes in 22 lightning flashes triggered at Camp Blanding (CB), Florida, in 2008-2010 were used to estimate peak currents based on the two methods outlined above and were compared with peak currents directly measured at CB [Mallick et al., 2012]. The distance between CB and LOG is 45 km. The empirical formula was found to overestimate peak currents with the median absolute errors being 21%. The field-to-current conversion

  6. Looking back: the experience of first sexual intercourse and current sexual adjustment in young heterosexual adults.

    PubMed

    Reissing, Elke D; Andruff, Heather L; Wentland, Jocelyn J

    2012-01-01

    A young person's first consensual sexual intercourse experience is often a remarkable and memorable experience. However, little systematic information exists regarding contextual factors of first intercourse, the affective salience of the experience, possible effects on sexual attitudes and beliefs, and subsequent sexual development and adjustment. This retrospective study aimed to examine these in a sample of 475 young adults. Overall, young men and women experienced intercourse for the first time around age 17, were in a committed relationship, and reported positive affective responses. Affective reactions to the first sexual intercourse experience, sexual self-efficacy, sexual aversion, and age at first intercourse affected individuals' current sexual adjustment; however, only sexual self-efficacy mediated between first intercourse and current sexual adjustment in young men and women. Older age at first intercourse was associated with less sexual self-efficacy and lower current sexual adjustment for women. This study provides initial data to suggest that the first sexual intercourse experience significantly impacts current sexual adjustment by affecting beliefs about sexual self-efficacy. PMID:21161815

  7. Abnormal heat liberation triggered by current in a D/Pd gas-solid system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Xin; Tian, Jian

    2015-08-01

    A relationship was studied among D/Pd gas-solid system current, pressure and producing excess heating in this paper. The results indicated that when the pressure of deuterium is at 9 × 104 Pa, electric current is 8 A and lasting heat is 40 days, the superheating energy is 280 MJ, the maximum superheating power is 80 W and averaging to each palladium atom energy for the superheating energy is 1.7 × 104 eV. Analysis of the sample by SEM (scanning electron microscopy) and EDS (energy dispersive spectrometry) found that after the current triggering the surface of sample was changed and new elements such as Pb, Sn, Ca, and Ag appeared. The results suggested that the superheating appeared come from a nuclear transmutation.

  8. Magnetic Reconnection: Recursive Current Sheet Collapse Triggered by “Ideal” Tearing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tenerani, Anna; Velli, Marco; Rappazzo, Antonio Franco; Pucci, Fulvia

    2015-11-01

    We study, by means of MHD simulations, the onset and evolution of fast reconnection via the “ideal” tearing mode within a collapsing current sheet at high Lundquist numbers (S\\gg {10}4). We first confirm that as the collapse proceeds, fast reconnection is triggered well before a Sweet-Parker-type configuration can form: during the linear stage, plasmoids rapidly grow in a few Alfvén times when the predicted “ideal” tearing threshold S-1/3 is approached from above; after the linear phase of the initial instability, X-points collapse and reform nonlinearly. We show that these give rise to a hierarchy of tearing events repeating faster and faster on current sheets at ever smaller scales, corresponding to the triggering of “ideal” tearing at the renormalized Lundquist number. In resistive MHD, this process should end with the formation of sub-critical (S ≤ 104) Sweet-Parker sheets at microscopic scales. We present a simple model describing the nonlinear recursive evolution that explains the timescale of the disruption of the initial sheet.

  9. Correlated peak relative light intensity and peak current in triggered lightning subsequent return strokes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Idone, V. P.; Orville, R. E.

    1985-01-01

    The correlation between peak relative light intensity L(R) and stroke peak current I(R) is examined for 39 subsequent return strokes in two triggered lightning flashes. One flash contained 19 strokes and the other 20 strokes for which direct measurements were available of the return stroke peak current at ground. Peak currents ranged from 1.6 to 21 kA. The measurements of peak relative light intensity were obtained from photographic streak recordings using calibrated film and microsecond resolution. Correlations, significant at better than the 0.1 percent level, were found for several functional relationships. Although a relation between L(R) and I(R) is evident in these data, none of the analytical relations considered is clearly favored. The correlation between L(R) and the maximum rate of current rise is also examined, but less correlation than between L(R) and I(R) is found. In addition, the peak relative intensity near ground is evaluated for 22 dart leaders, and a mean ratio of peak dart leader to peak return stroke relative light intensity was found to be 0.1 with a range of 0.02-0.23. Using two different methods, the peak current near ground in these dart leaders is estimated to range from 0.1 to 6 kA.

  10. Small Barriers Trigger Liftoff of Unconfined Dilute Heated Laboratory Density Currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fauria, K.; Andrews, B. J.; Manga, M.

    2015-12-01

    Dilute pyroclastic density currents (PDCs) are hot, turbulent, particle-laden flows that propagate because they are denser than air. PDCs can traverse tens to hundreds of kilometers and surmount ridges 100s of m tall, yet the effects of complex topography on PDC liftoff and runout distance are uncertain. Here we used scaled laboratory experiments to explore how barriers affect dilute density current dynamics and the occurrence of liftoff. We created dilute density currents by heating and suspending 20 μm diameter talc in air in an 8.5 x 6.1 x 2.6 m tank. We scaled the currents with respect to Froude, densimetric and thermal Richardson, particle Stokes and Settling numbers such that they were dynamically similar to natural PDCs. While currents were fully turbulent, their Reynolds numbers were not as high as those for natural PDCs. We performed the first set of experiments in a laterally unconfined volume, used laser sheets to illuminate the currents, measured bulk sedimentation rates down the current centerlines, and positioned four to twenty-four cm tall ridge-like barriers in the path of the currents. We found that relatively small barriers (~ half the current height) caused PDC liftoff. By comparison, conservation of kinetic and potential energy predicts that incompressible density currents are able to surmount barriers twice their height. Furthermore, we observed increased sedimentation immediately upstream of barriers and conclude that small barriers initiated buoyancy reversal through a combination of increased air entrainment and sedimentation. We conducted a second set of experiments with the same thermal scaling and mass flux rates but where the currents were laterally confined within a 0.6 m wide channel. We found that small barriers also triggered liftoff of confined currents, but that the body of these currents reattached after liftoff. Those results suggest that lateral confinement inhibits buoyancy reversal by limiting the surface area of the current

  11. Triggered-Lightning Interaction with a Lightning Protective System: Current Distribution and Electromagnetic Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mata, C. T.; Rakov, V. A.; Mata, A. G.

    2010-01-01

    A new comprehensive lightning instrumentation system has been designed for Launch Complex 39B (LC3913) at the Kennedy Space Center, Florida. This new instrumentation system includes the synchronized recording of six high-speed video cameras; currents through the nine downconductors of the new lightning protection system for LC3913; four dH/dt, 3-axis measurement stations; and five dE/dt stations composed of two antennas each. A 20:1 scaled down model of the new Lightning Protection System (LPS) of LC39B was built at the International Center for Lightning Research and Testing, Camp Blanding, FL. This scaled down lightning protection system was instrumented with the transient recorders, digitizers, and sensors to be used in the final instrumentation installation at LC3913. The instrumentation used at the ICLRT is also a scaled-down instrumentation of the LC39B instrumentation. The scaled-down LPS was subjected to seven direct lightning strikes and six (four triggered and two natural nearby flashes) in 2010. The following measurements were acquired at the ICLRT: currents through the nine downconductors; two dl-/dt, 3-axis stations, one at the center of the LPS (underneath the catenary wires), and another 40 meters south from the center of the LPS; ten dE/dt stations, nine of them on the perimeter of the LPS and one at the center of the LPS (underneath the catenary wire system); and the incident current. Data from representative events are presented and analyzed in this paper.

  12. The rocket-and-wire triggering process: Channel-base currents and ground-level electric fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngin, Terry Keo

    Rocket-and-wire triggered lightning flashes were studied from 2011 to 2013 at the International Center for Lightning Research and Testing. Ground-level electric fields and channel-base currents were recorded for 79 rocket launches. An eight-station network of electric field meters along with a milliampere-scale wire-base current measurement and a high-speed video record of the wire ascent allowed the calculation and analysis of the trigger-wire line charge density, generally found to be in the muC m-1 to hundreds of muC m-1 range and to increase quadratically with height. The wire-base currents collected during the wire ascent here are the most comprehensive in the literature to date. The trigger-wire line charge density, electric field at ground level, and characteristics of precursor pulses at the wire tip were examined to determine their usefulness in predicting the success or failure of a triggered-lightning attempt. The usefulness of the PICASSO model of space charge evolution from ground, originally developed by researchers at Paul Sabatier University in the 1980s, as a triggering criterion was also evaluated. An electrostatic model of the corona sheath around the trigger-wire was developed in order to estimate the radial extent of the corona sheath and the charge distribution within the corona sheath as a function of measured electric fields aloft taken from the published literature. The most sensitive measurements to date of channel-base current flowing prior to subsequent return strokes, where the current had generally been considered to be zero, were collected and are analyzed here. The channel-base current before return strokes was found to average 5.3 mA with a 2.8 mA standard deviation prior to 120 measured return strokes.

  13. Recognising triggers for soft-sediment deformation: Current understanding and future directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owen, Geraint; Moretti, Massimo; Alfaro, Pedro

    2011-04-01

    Most of the 16 papers in this special issue were presented at a session entitled "The recognition of trigger mechanisms for soft-sediment deformation" at the 27th IAS Meeting of Sedimentology in Alghero, Sardinia, Italy, which took place from 20th-23rd September 2009. They describe soft-sediment deformation structures that range widely in morphology, age, depositional environment and tectonic setting. In their interpretations, the authors have been asked to focus on identifying the agent that triggered deformation. Our aims in this introductory overview are to: (1) review the definition and scope of soft-sediment deformation; (2) clarify the significance and role of the trigger; (3) set the contributions in context and summarise their findings; and (4) discuss strategies for reliably identifying triggers and make recommendations for future study of this widespread and significant category of sedimentary structures. We recommend a three-stage approach to trigger recognition, combining the assessment of facies, potential triggers, and available criteria. This focus on the trigger for deformation distinguishes this collection of papers on soft-sediment deformation from other important collections, notably those edited by Jones and Preston (1987), Maltman (1994), Maltman et al. (2000), Shiki et al. (2000), Ettensohn et al. (2002b), Van Rensbergen et al. (2003) and Storti and Vannucchi (2007).

  14. Direct current stimulation of prefrontal cortex modulates error-induced behavioral adjustments.

    PubMed

    Mansouri, Farshad A; Fehring, Daniel J; Feizpour, Azadeh; Gaillard, Alexandra; Rosa, Marcello G P; Rajan, Ramesh; Jaberzadeh, Shapour

    2016-07-01

    Commission of errors and conflict between choices might induce behavioral modulations through adjustments in the executive control of behavior and altered patterns of these modulations are detected in neuropsychiatric disorders. We examined the effects of transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) applied over the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) on error- and conflict-induced behavioral modulations. Two separate cohorts of participants performed two clinically relevant tests of executive control, respectively. In the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), the relevant rule for matching items frequently changed and therefore participants had to detect these unannounced changes by trial and error and alter their rule-based behavior. In the Stop task, participants had to rapidly respond to a directional go-signal but inhibit their responses when a stop signal appeared after the go-signal. Each participant received tDCS (sham, cathodal or anodal) in three separate sessions. Errors led to a slower response in the next trial (post-error slowing) in both tasks. The tDCS significantly modulated the post-error slowing in both tasks but did not affect the behavioral adjustments induced by the conflict. The modulation of post-error slowing by tDCS were polarity-dependent and also trial specific appearing immediately after errors. In the WCST and Stop task, the post-error slowing may reflect different processes involved in shifting the behavior-guiding rule and adjustments in inhibitory control of responses, respectively, and we found that the effective tDCS polarity differed between the two tasks. Here, we show that in two separate cognitive tasks direct current stimulation of DLPFC significantly modulated error-induced behavioral modulations. PMID:27207192

  15. Neurally adjusted ventilator assist in very low birth weight infants: Current status

    PubMed Central

    Narchi, Hassib; Chedid, Fares

    2015-01-01

    Continuous improvements in perinatal care have resulted in increased survival of premature infants. Their immature lungs are prone to injury with mechanical ventilation and this may develop into chronic lung disease (CLD) or bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Strategies to minimize the risk of lung injury have been developed and include improved antenatal management (education, regionalization, steroids, and antibiotics), exogenous surfactant administration and reduction of barotrauma by using exclusive or early noninvasive ventilatory support. The most frequently used mode of assisted ventilation is pressure support ventilation that may lead to patient-ventilator asynchrony that is associated with poor outcome. Ventilator-induced diaphragmatic dysfunction or disuse atrophy of diaphragm fibers may also occur. This has led to the development of new ventilation modes including neurally adjusted ventilatory assist (NAVA). This ventilation mode is controlled by electrodes embedded within a nasogastric catheter which detect the electrical diaphragmatic activity (Edi) and transmit it to trigger the ventilator in synchrony with the patient’s own respiratory efforts. This permits the patient to control peak inspiratory pressure, mean airway pressure and tidal volume. Back up pressure control (PC) is provided when there is no Edi signal and no pneumatic trigger. Compared with standard conventional ventilation, NAVA improves blood gas regulation with lower peak inspiratory pressure and oxygen requirements in preterm infants. NAVA is safe mode of ventilation. The majority of studies have shown no significant adverse events in neonates ventilated with NAVA nor a difference in the rate of intraventricular hemorrhage, pneumothorax, or necrotizing enterocolitis when compared to conventional ventilation. Future large size randomized controlled trials should be established to compare NAVA with volume targeted and pressure controlled ventilation in newborns with mature respiratory drive

  16. Neurally adjusted ventilator assist in very low birth weight infants: Current status.

    PubMed

    Narchi, Hassib; Chedid, Fares

    2015-06-26

    Continuous improvements in perinatal care have resulted in increased survival of premature infants. Their immature lungs are prone to injury with mechanical ventilation and this may develop into chronic lung disease (CLD) or bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Strategies to minimize the risk of lung injury have been developed and include improved antenatal management (education, regionalization, steroids, and antibiotics), exogenous surfactant administration and reduction of barotrauma by using exclusive or early noninvasive ventilatory support. The most frequently used mode of assisted ventilation is pressure support ventilation that may lead to patient-ventilator asynchrony that is associated with poor outcome. Ventilator-induced diaphragmatic dysfunction or disuse atrophy of diaphragm fibers may also occur. This has led to the development of new ventilation modes including neurally adjusted ventilatory assist (NAVA). This ventilation mode is controlled by electrodes embedded within a nasogastric catheter which detect the electrical diaphragmatic activity (Edi) and transmit it to trigger the ventilator in synchrony with the patient's own respiratory efforts. This permits the patient to control peak inspiratory pressure, mean airway pressure and tidal volume. Back up pressure control (PC) is provided when there is no Edi signal and no pneumatic trigger. Compared with standard conventional ventilation, NAVA improves blood gas regulation with lower peak inspiratory pressure and oxygen requirements in preterm infants. NAVA is safe mode of ventilation. The majority of studies have shown no significant adverse events in neonates ventilated with NAVA nor a difference in the rate of intraventricular hemorrhage, pneumothorax, or necrotizing enterocolitis when compared to conventional ventilation. Future large size randomized controlled trials should be established to compare NAVA with volume targeted and pressure controlled ventilation in newborns with mature respiratory drive

  17. Entrainment dynamics in self-adjusting gravity currents using simultaneous velocity-density measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balasubramanian, Sridhar; Zhong, Qiang; Fernando, Harindra

    2015-11-01

    Gravity currents can modify their flow characteristic by entraining and mixing with the ambient fluid. The entrainment in such systems may depend on a variety of intrinsic parameters such as, initial density difference, Δρ , total height of the fluid, H, and slope of the terrain, α. Thus, it is imperative to study the entrainment dynamics of a gravity current in order to have a clear understanding of the mixing transitions that govern the flow physics such as the shear layer thickness, δu, and the mixing layer thickness, δρ. Experiments were conducted in a lock-exchange type facility, where a self-adjusting gravity current is formed, for which the only governing parameter is the Reynolds number, Re = uf/H ν, where uf = 0 . 4√{g' H } is the frontal velocity. Simultaneous PIV-PLIF technique is employed to get the velocity and density statistics. A control volume based flux method is used to calculate the flux entrainment coefficient, Ef, for a Reynolds number range of Re=400-12000 used in our experiments. The results show transition at Re 4x103, where the mixing occurs due to Kelvin-Helmholtz billows that promote small scale local mixing, and cause a spike in the flux entrainment velocity. SB acknowledges funds from University of Notre Dame, IIT Bombay.

  18. Two's a Crowd: Phenotypic Adjustments and Prophylaxis in Anticarsia gemmatalis Larvae Are Triggered by the Presence of Conspecifics

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Farley W. S.; Viol, Daniel L.; Faria, Sirlene V.; Lima, Eraldo; Valicente, Fernando H.; Elliot, Simon L.

    2013-01-01

    Defence from parasites and pathogens involves a cost. Thus, it is expected that organisms use this only at high population densities, where the risk of pathogen transmission may be high, as proposed by the "density-dependent prophylaxis" (DDP) hypothesis. These predictions have been tested in a wide range of insects, both in comparative and experimental studies. We think it pertinent to consider a continuum between solitarious and gregarious living insects, wherein: (1) solitarious insects are those that are constitutively solitary and do not express any phenotypic plasticity, (2) the middle of the continuum is represented by insects that are subject to fluctuations in local density and show a range of facultative and plastic changes; and (3) constitutively gregarious forms live gregariously and show the gregarious phenotype even in the absence of crowding stimuli. We aimed to chart some of the intermediary continuum with an insect that presents solitarious aspects, but that is subject to fluctuations in density. Thus, Anticarsia gemmatalis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae reared at higher densities showed changes in coloration, a greater degree of encapsulation, had higher hemocyte densities and were more resistant to Baculovirus anticarsia, but not to Bacillus thuringiensis. Meanwhile, with increased rearing density there was reduced capsule melanization. Hemocyte density was the only variable that did not vary according to larval phenotype. The observed responses were not a continuous function of larval density, but an all-or-nothing response to the presence of a conspecific. As A. gemmatalis is not known for gregarious living, yet shows these density-dependent changes, it thus seems that this plastic phenotypic adjustment may be a broader phenomenon than previously thought. PMID:23626700

  19. College Adjustment Experiences of First-Year Students: Disengaged Athletes, Nonathletes, and Current Varsity Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lubker, John R.; Etzel, Edward F.

    2007-01-01

    The freshman year of college is usually acknowledged as a stressful time of social and academic adjustment. During this period, first-year students face many social and intellectual challenges. For high school athletes, the combined impact of college transition plus disengagement from sport can further complicate first-semester adjustment and may…

  20. Time-synchronized high-speed video images, electric fields, and currents of rocket-and-wire triggered lightning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biagi, C. J.; Hill, J. D.; Jordan, D. M.; Uman, M. A.; Rakov, V. A.

    2009-12-01

    We present novel observations of 20 classically-triggered lightning flashes from the 2009 summer season at the International Center for Lightning Research and Testing (ICLRT) in north-central Florida. We focus on: (1) upward positive leaders (UPL), (2) current decreases and current reflections associated with the destruction of the triggering wire, and (3) dart-stepped leader propagation involving space stems or space leaders ahead of the leader tip. High-speed video data were acquired 440 m from the triggered lightning using a Phantom v7.1 operating at frame rates of up to 10 kfps (90 µs frame time) with a field of view from ground to an altitude of 325 m and a Photron SA1.1 operating at frame rates of up to 300 kfps (3.3 µs frame time) that viewed from ground to an altitude of 120 m. These data were acquired along with time-synchronized measurements of electric field (dc to 3 MHz) and channel-base current (dc to 8 MHz). The sustained UPLs developed when the rockets were between altitudes of 100 m and 200 m, and accelerated from about 104 to 105 m s-1 from the top of the triggering wire to an altitude of 325 m. In each successive 10 kfps high-speed video image, the newly formed UPL channels were brighter than the previously established channel and the new channel segments were longer. The UPLs in two flashes were imaged at a frame rate of 300 kfps from the top of the wire to about 10 m above the wire (110 m to 120 m above ground). In these images the UPL developed in a stepped manner with luminosity waves traveling from the channel tip back toward the wire during a time of 2 to 3 frames (6.6 µs to 9.9 µs). The new channel segments were on average 1 m in length and the average interstep interval was 23 µs. During 13 of the 20 initial continuous currents, an abrupt current decrease and the beginning of the wire illumination (due to its melting) occurred simultaneously to within 1 high-speed video frame (between 3.3 µs and 10 µs). For two of the triggered

  1. Magnetic resonance visualization of conductive structures by sequence-triggered direct currents and spin-echo phase imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Eibofner, Frank; Wojtczyk, Hanne; Graf, Hansjörg E-mail: drGraf@t-online.de; Clasen, Stephan

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Instrument visualization in interventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is commonly performed via susceptibility artifacts. Unfortunately, this approach suffers from limited conspicuity in inhomogeneous tissue and disturbed spatial encoding. Also, susceptibility artifacts are controllable only by sequence parameters. This work presents the basics of a new visualization method overcoming such problems by applying sequence-triggered direct current (DC) pulses in spin-echo (SE) imaging. SE phase images allow for background free current path localization. Methods: Application of a sequence-triggered DC pulse in SE imaging, e.g., during a time period between radiofrequency excitation and refocusing, results in transient field inhomogeneities. Dependent on the additional z-magnetic field from the DC, a phase offset results despite the refocusing pulse. False spatial encoding is avoided by DC application during periods when read-out or slice-encoding gradients are inactive. A water phantom containing a brass conductor (water equivalent susceptibility) and a titanium needle (serving as susceptibility source) was used to demonstrate the feasibility. Artifact dependence on current strength and orientation was examined. Results: Without DC, the brass conductor was only visible due to its water displacement. The titanium needle showed typical susceptibility artifacts. Applying triggered DC pulses, the phase offset of spins near the conductor appeared. Because SE phase images are homogenous also in regions of persistent field inhomogeneities, the position of the conductor could be determined with high reliability. Artifact characteristic could be easily controlled by amperage leaving sequence parameters unchanged. For an angle of 30° between current and static field visualization was still possible. Conclusions: SE phase images display the position of a conductor carrying pulsed DC free from artifacts caused by persistent field inhomogeneities. Magnitude and phase

  2. Low-current hollow-cathode discharge in a trigger unit of a cold cathode thyratron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landl, N. V.; Korolev, Y. D.; Frants, O. B.; Geyman, V. G.; Bolotov, A. V.

    2015-11-01

    The paper deals with the investigations of the effect of cathode emissivity on the regimes of low-current hollow-cathode glow discharge. It is shown that an increase in the emissivity due to the so-called high-emissivity tablet allows the essential decrease in the discharge initiation voltage and the discharge burning voltage. The model of current sustaining for the hollow-cathode discharge, which takes into account the external emission current has been developed. On basis of the model, the current-voltage characteristics of the discharge have been interpreted.

  3. A pulsed-power generator merging inductive voltage and current adders and its switch trigger application example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Lee; Yafeng, Ge; Heqin, Zhong; Bin, Yu; Longjun, Xie

    2013-07-01

    A pulsed-power generator using inductive adder technology is proposed for the case of a discharge gap. The merit of this generator is to merge the pulsed-voltage and pulsed-current adders via the dual secondary windings with special circuit. For the nonlinear impedance in any discharge gap, the standalone voltage-pulse and current-pulse can be outputted successively by this generator. The proposed generator is especially useful for the common resolution of implementing pulse discharge at less cost. As an application example, a compact trigger prototype was developed to compatibly use in the gas-insulated and vacuum switches. Experiments achieved good results that the triggered switches showed stable performance and long life. If the basic circuit of this proposed generator is regarded as a pulsed-generating unit, a certain number of such units connected in parallel can be expected to form a general device with generating greater breakdown-voltage and sustained-current pulses for discharge gaps.

  4. Enhanced QSAR models for drug-triggered inhibition of the main cardiac ion currents.

    PubMed

    Wiśniowska, Barbara; Mendyk, Aleksander; Szlęk, Jakub; Kołaczkowski, Michał; Polak, Sebastian

    2015-09-01

    The currently changing cardiac safety testing paradigm suggests, among other things, a shift towards using in silico models of cellular electrophysiology and assessment of a concomitant block of multiple ion channels. In this study, a set of four enhanced QSAR models have been developed: for the rapid delayed rectifying potassium current (IKr), slow delayed rectifying potassium current (IKs), peak sodium current (INa) and late calcium current (ICaL), predicting ion currents changes for the specific in vitro experiment from the 2D structure of the compounds. The models are a combination of both in vitro study parameters and physico-chemical descriptors, which is a novel approach in drug-ion channels interactions modeling. Their predictive power assessed in the enhanced, more demanding than standard procedure, 10-fold cross validation was reasonably high. Rough comparison with published pure in silico hERG interaction models shows that the quality of the model predictions does not differ from other models available in the public domain, however, it takes its advantage in accounting for inter-experimental settings variability. Developed models are implemented in the Cardiac Safety Simulator, a commercially available platform enabling the in vitro-in vivo extrapolation of the drugs proarrhythmic effect and ECG simulation. A more comprehensive assessment of the effects of the compounds on ion channels allows for making more informed decisions regarding the risk - and thus avoidance - of exclusion of potentially safe and effective drugs. PMID:25559930

  5. A current disruption mechanism in the neutral sheet - A possible trigger for substorm expansions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lui, A. T. Y.; Mankofsky, A.; Chang, C.-L.; Papadopoulos, K.; Wu, C. S.

    1990-01-01

    A linear analysis is performed to investigate the kinetic cross-field streaming instability in the earth's magnetotail neutral sheet region. Numerical solution of the dispersion equation shows that the instability can occur under conditions expected for the neutral sheet just prior to the onset of substorm expansion. The excited waves are obliquely propagating whistlers with a mixed polarization in the lower hybrid frequency range. The ensuing turbulence of this instability can lead to a local reduction of the cross-tail current causing it to continue through the ionosphere to form a substorm current wedge. A substorm expansion onset scenario is proposed based on this instability in which the relative drift between ions and electrons is primarily due to unmagnetized ions undergoing current sheet acceleration in the presence of a cross-tail electric field. The required electric field strength is within the range of electric field values detected in the neutral sheet region during substorm intervals. The skew in local time of substorm onset location and the three conditions under which substorm onset is observed can be understood on the basis of the proposed scenario.

  6. Current Injection Provokes Rapid Expansion of the Guard Cell Cytosolic Volume and Triggers Ca(2+) Signals.

    PubMed

    Voss, Lena J; Hedrich, Rainer; Roelfsema, M Rob G

    2016-03-01

    High-resolution microscopy opens the door for detailed single-cell studies with fluorescent reporter dyes and proteins. We used a confocal spinning disc microscope to monitor fluorescent dyes and the fluorescent protein Venus in tobacco and Arabidopsis guard cells. Multi-barreled microelectrodes were used to inject dyes and apply voltage pulses, which provoke transient rises in the cytosolic Ca(2+) level. Voltage pulses also caused changes in the distribution of Lucifer Yellow and Venus, which pointed to a reversible increase of guard cell cytosolic volume. The dynamic cytosolic volume changes turned out to be provoked by current injection of ions. A reduction of the clamp current, by blocking K(+) uptake channels with Cs(+), strongly suppressed the cytosolic volume changes. Cs(+) not only inhibited the expansion of the cytosol, but also inhibited hyperpolarization-induced elevations of the cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration. A complete loss of voltage-induced Ca(2+) signals occurred when Ca(2+)-permeable plasma membrane channels were simultaneously blocked with La(3+). This shows that two mechanisms cause hyperpolarization-induced elevation of the cytosolic Ca(2+)-concentration: (i) activation of voltage-dependent Ca(2+)-permeable channels, (ii) osmotically induced expansion of the cytosol, which leads to a release of Ca(2+) from intracellular stores. PMID:26902185

  7. A current disruption mechanism in the neutral sheet for triggering substorm expansions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lui, A. T. Y.; Mankofsky, A.; Chang, C.-L.; Papadopoulos, K.; Wu, C. S.

    1989-01-01

    Two main areas were addressed in support of an effort to understand mechanism responsible for the broadband electrostatic noise (BEN) observed in the magnetotail. The first area concerns the generation of BEN in the boundary layer region of the magnetotail whereas the second area concerns the occassional presence of BEN in the neutral sheet region. For the generation of BEN in the boundary layer region, a hybrid simulation code was developed to perform reliable longtime, quiet, highly resolved simulations of field aligned electron and ion beam flow. The result of the simulation shows that broadband emissions cannot be generated by beam-plasma instability if realistic values of the ion beam parameters are used. The waves generated from beam-plasma instability are highly discrete and are of high frequencies. For the plasma sheet boundary layer condition, the wave frequencies are in the kHz range, which is incompatible with the observation that the peak power in BEN occur in the 10's of Hz range. It was found that the BEN characteristics are more consistent with lower hybrid drift instability. For the occasional presence of BEN in the neutral sheet region, a linear analysis of the kinetic cross-field streaming instability appropriate to the neutral sheet condition just prior to onset of substorm expansion was performed. By solving numerically the dispersion relation, it was found that the instability has a growth time comparable to the onset time scale of substorm onset. The excited waves have a mixed polarization in the lower hybrid frequency range. The imposed drift driving the instability corresponds to unmagnetized ions undergoing current sheet acceleration in the presence of a cross-tail electric field. The required electric field strength is in the 10 mV/m range which is well within the observed electric field values detected in the neutral sheet during substorms. This finding can potentially account for the disruption of cross-tail current and its diversion to

  8. Correlated time derivatives of current, electric field intensity, and magnetic flux density for triggered lightning at 15 m

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uman, M. A.; Schoene, J.; Rakov, V. A.; Rambo, K. J.; Schnetzer, G. H.

    2002-07-01

    We present measured current and its time derivative correlated with the corresponding electric field intensity and magnetic flux density and their time derivatives measured at 15 m for two lightning return strokes triggered in 1999 at Camp Blanding, Florida. Lightning was triggered to a vertical 2-m rod mounted at the center of a 70 × 70 m buried metallic grid. The rocket-launching system was located underground at the center of the grid. The experiment was designed to minimize any influence of either the strike object or a finite-conducting Earth (ground surface arcing and propagation effects) on the fields and field derivatives. The measured current derivative waveform and the return stroke portion of the magnetic flux density derivative and electric field intensity derivative waveforms associated with the two strokes are observed to be essentially unipolar pulses that have similar waveshapes for the first 150 ns or so, including the initial rising portion, the peak, and about 50 ns after the peak. The current and magnetic field derivative waveshapes are very similar for their total duration, and both decay to near zero about 200 ns after the peak derivative is reached. The electric field derivative decays more slowly than the current derivative after about 150 ns, taking about 500 ns to decay to near zero. The transmission-line model, the simplest available and most used return stroke model, is employed to calculate the return stroke field derivatives, given the measured current derivative as a model input, for return stroke speeds of 1 × 108 m s-1, 2 × 108 m s-1, and 3 × 108 m s-1 (the speed of light). A reasonable match between calculated and measured field derivative waveshapes is achieved for both strokes for a return stroke speed between 2 × 108 m s-1 and 3 × 108 m s-1. Although the measured field and current derivatives have similar waveshapes for about 150 ns, which might appear to be consistent with the hypothesis that the radiation field component

  9. Simulation of corona at lightning-triggering wire: Current, charge transfer, and the field-reduction effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baba, Yoshihiro; Rakov, Vladimir A.

    2011-11-01

    We have examined, using the finite difference time domain (FDTD) method for solving discretized Maxwell's equations, the effect of upward extending wire, used for artificial lightning initiation from natural thunderclouds, and corona space charge emanated from this wire on the close ground-level electric field (prior to lightning initiation). The wire current and charge transfer are also estimated. The lightning-triggering wire is assumed to be perfectly conducting and extending vertically upward with a constant speed of v = 150 m/s. Owing to the limitations of the FDTD method, the wire radius is set to r = 0.27 m, larger than the actual radius (0.1 mm), but the results are not expected to be much influenced by this assumption. The corona space charge that emanated from the wire surface is represented by a conducting cylindrical sheath of outer radius r = 2, 4, 8, and 16 m, coaxial with the wire (the dynamics of corona discharge are not considered here). Other geometries of the corona space charge sheath are considered as well. It has been found that the results presented here are insensitive to the value of corona sheath conductivity ranging from 10-8 S/m to infinity. The corona space charge layer at the ground is simulated by perfectly conducting cylindrical tubes placed on the ground surface, coaxial with the upward extending conductor. The quasi-static electric field between the thundercloud charge source and the ground is simulated by creating a quasi-uniform, upward directed electric field of 43 kV/m between two parallel conducting plates limiting the FDTD computational domain. The simulated corona space charge at the ground reduced the electric field at the ground surface to 5.5 kV/m, a typical value at the time of rocket launch. The upward directed electric field Ez on the ground surface in the vicinity of triggering wire decreases with increasing the altitude of the wire top. When the wire-top altitude is 200 m, the reduction of Ez at horizontal distance d

  10. Pickup impact on high-voltage multifinger LDMOS-SCR with low trigger voltage and high failure current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Liu; Jin, Xiangliang; Wang, Yang; Zhou, Acheng

    2015-12-01

    The impact of inserting P+ pickup on high-voltage multi-finger laterally diffused metal-oxide-semiconductor-silicon-controlled rectifier (LDMOS-SCR) has been studied in this article. Four-finger LDMOS-SCR structures with finger length of 50 μm using 0.5 μm 18 V complementarily diffused metal oxide semiconductor (CDMOS) process were fabricated and tested. Theoretical analysis is carried out to make detailed comparisons between LDMOS-SCR with and without P+ pickup. It verifies that the multi-finger LDMOS-SCR with P+ pickup has greater electrostatic discharge (ESD) robustness and effectiveness. Furthermore, transmission line pulse (TLP) test has been done and the results show that the trigger voltage (Vt1) of the LDMOS-SCR with P+ pickup remarkably decreases from 46.19 to 35.39 V and the second breakdown current (It2) effectively increases from 8.13 to 10.08 A.

  11. Observation of Abrupt- and Fast-rising SOL Current during Trigger Phase of ELMs in DIII-D Tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    H. Takahashi; E.D. Fredrickson; M.J. Schaffer; M.E. Austin; N.H. Brooks; T.E. Evans; G.L. Jackson; L.L. Lao; J.G. Watkins

    2005-06-27

    Extensive studies to date of edge localized modes (ELMs) have sought their origin inside the separatrix, i.e., MHD instability from steep gradients in the plasma edge, and examined their consequences outside the separatrix, i.e., transport of heat and particles in the scrape-off-layer (SOL) and divertors. Recent measurement by a high-speed scrape-off-layer current (SOLC) diagnostic may indicate that the ELM trigger process lies, in part, in the SOL. Thermoelectrically driven SOLC precedes, or co-evolves with, other parameters of the ELM process, and thus can potentially play a causal role: error field generated by non-axisymmetric SOLC, flowing in the immediate vicinity (approximately 1 cm) of the plasma edge, may contribute toward destabilizing MHD modes. The SOLC, observed concurrently with MHD activity, including ELMs, has been reported elsewhere.

  12. Initial design and results from an ion current collection diagnostic for the triggered plasma opening switch experiment.

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, Daniel Peter Jr.; Seidel, David Bruce; Gilmore, Mark; Mendel, Clifford Will, Jr.

    2005-06-01

    Study of the triggered plasma opening switch (TPOS) characteristics is in progress via an ion current collection diagnostic (ICCD), in addition to offline apparatus. This initial ion current collection diagnostic has been designed, fabricated, and tested on the TPOS in order to explore the opening profile of the main switch. The initial ion current collection device utilizes five collectors which are positioned perpendicularly to the main switch stage in order to collect radially traveling ions. It has been shown through analytical prowess that this specific geometry can be treated as a planar case of the Child-Langmuir law with only a 6% deviation from the cylindrical case. Additionally, magnetostatic simulations with self consistent space charge emitting surfaces of the main switch using the Trak code are under way. It is hoped that the simulations will provide evidence in support of both the analytical derivations and experimental data. Finally, an improved design of the ICCD (containing 12 collectors in the axial direction) is presently being implemented.

  13. Bidirectional current triggering in planar devices based on serially connected VO2 thin films using 965 nm laser diode.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jihoon; Park, Kyongsoo; Kim, Bong-Jun; Lee, Yong Wook

    2016-08-01

    By incorporating a 965 nm laser diode, the bidirectional current triggering of up to 30 mA was demonstrated in a two-terminal planar device based on serially connected vanadium dioxide (VO2) thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition. The bidirectional current triggering was realized by using the focused beams of laser pulses through the photo-thermally induced phase transition of VO2. The transient responses of laser-triggered currents were also investigated when laser pulses excited the device at a variety of pulse widths and repetition rates of up to 4.0 Hz. A switching contrast between off- and on-state currents was obtained as ~8333, and rising and falling times were measured as ~39 and ~29 ms, respectively, for 50 ms laser pulses. PMID:27505740

  14. Plasma jets subject to adjustable current polarities and external magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byvank, Tom; Schrafel, Peter; Gourdain, Pierre; Seyler, Charles; Kusse, Bruce

    2014-12-01

    In the present research, collimated plasma jets form from ablation of a radial foil (Al 20 μm thin disk) using a pulsed power generator (COBRA) with 1 MA peak current and 100 ns rise time. Plasma dynamics of the jet are diagnosed with and without an applied uniform axial magnetic field (1 T) and under a change of current polarities, which correspond to current moving either radially outward or inward from the foil's central axis. Experimental results are compared with numerical simulations (PERSEUS). The influence of the Hall effect on the jet development is observed under opposite current polarities. Additionally, the magnetic field compression within the jet is examined. Further studies will compare the laboratory-generated plasma jets and astrophysical jets with embedded magnetic fields.

  15. Plasma Jets Subject to Adjustable Current Polarities and External Magnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byvank, Tom; Schrafel, Peter; Gourdain, Pierre; Seyler, Charles; Kusse, Bruce

    2014-10-01

    In the present research, collimated plasma jets form from ablation of a radial foil (Al 20 μm thin disk) using a pulsed power generator (COBRA) with 1 MA peak current and 100 ns rise time. Plasma dynamics of the jet are diagnosed with and without an applied uniform external field (1-1.5 T) and under a change of current polarities, which correspond to current moving either radially outward or inward from the foil's central axis. Experimental results are compared with numerical simulations (PERSEUS). The influence of the Hall effect on the jet development is observed under opposite current polarities. Additionally, the magnetic field compression within the jet is examined. Further studies will compare the laboratory-generated plasma jets and astrophysical jets with embedded magnetic fields.

  16. Automated measurement system employing eddy currents to adjust probe position and determine metal hardness

    DOEpatents

    Prince, J.M.; Dodson, M.G.; Lechelt, W.M.

    1989-07-18

    A system for measuring the hardness of cartridge cases employs an eddy current probe for inducing and sensing eddy currents in each cartridge case. A first component of the sensed signal is utilized in a closed loop system for accurately positioning the probe relative to the cartridge case both in the lift off direction and in the tangential direction, and a second component of the sensed signal is employed as a measure of the hardness. The positioning and measurement are carried out under closed loop microprocessor control facilitating hardness testing on a production line basis. 14 figs.

  17. Automated measurement system employing eddy currents to adjust probe position and determine metal hardness

    DOEpatents

    Prince, James M.; Dodson, Michael G.; Lechelt, Wayne M.

    1989-01-01

    A system for measuring the hardness of cartridge cases employs an eddy current probe for inducing and sensing eddy currents in each cartridge case. A first component of the sensed signal is utilized in a closed loop system for accurately positioning the probe relative to the cartridge case both in the lift off direction and in the tangential direction, and a second component of the sensed signal is employed as a measure of the hardness. The positioning and measurement are carried out under closed loop microprocessor control facilitating hardness testing on a production line basis.

  18. The blink reflex magnitude is continuously adjusted according to both current and predicted stimulus position with respect to the face.

    PubMed

    Wallwork, Sarah B; Talbot, Kerwin; Camfferman, Danny; Moseley, G L; Iannetti, G D

    2016-08-01

    The magnitude of the hand-blink reflex (HBR), a subcortical defensive reflex elicited by the electrical stimulation of the median nerve, is increased when the stimulated hand is close to the face ('far-near effect'). This enhancement occurs through a cortico-bulbar facilitation of the polysynaptic medullary pathways subserving the reflex. Here, in two experiments, we investigated the temporal characteristics of this facilitation, and its adjustment during voluntary movement of the stimulated hand. Given that individuals navigate in a fast changing environment, one would expect the cortico-bulbar modulation of this response to adjust rapidly, and as a function of the predicted spatial position of external threats. We observed two main results. First, the HBR modulation occurs without a temporal delay between when the hand has reached the stimulation position and when the stimulus happens (Experiments 1 and 2). Second, the voluntary movement of the hand interacts with the 'far-near effect': stimuli delivered when the hand is far from the face elicit an enhanced HBR if the hand is being moved towards the face, whereas stimuli delivered when the hand is near the face elicit an enhanced HBR regardless of the direction of the hand movement (Experiment 2). These results indicate that the top-down modulation of this subcortical defensive reflex occurs continuously, and takes into account both the current and the predicted position of potential threats with respect to the body. The continuous control of the excitability of subcortical reflex circuits ensures appropriate adjustment of defensive responses in a rapidly-changing sensory environment. PMID:27236372

  19. Parental loss, trusting relationship with current caregivers, and psychosocial adjustment among children affected by AIDS in China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Junfeng; Li, Xiaoming; Barnett, Douglas; Lin, Xiuyun; Fang, Xiaoyi; Zhao, Guoxiang; Naar-King, Sylvie; Stanton, Bonita

    2011-08-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between parental loss, trusting relationship with current caregivers, and psychosocial adjustment among children affected by AIDS in China. In this study, cross-sectional data were collected from 755 AIDS orphans (296 double orphans and 459 single orphans), 466 vulnerable children living with HIV-infected parents, and 404 comparison children in China. The trusting relationship with current caregivers was measured with a 15-item scale (Cronbach's α = 0.84) modified from the Trusting Relationship Questionnaire developed by Mustillo et al. in 2005 (Quality of relationships between youth and community service providers: Reliability and validity of the trusting relationship questionnaire. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 14, 577-590). The psychosocial measures include rule compliance/acting out, anxiety/withdrawal, peer social skills, school interest, depressive symptoms, loneliness, self-esteem, future expectation, hopefulness about future, and perceived control over the future. Group mean comparisons using analysis of variance suggested a significant association (p < 0.0001) between the trusting relationship with current caregivers and all the psychosocial measures, except anxiety and depression. These associations remained significant in General Linear Model analysis, controlling for children's gender, age, family socioeconomic status, orphan status (orphans, vulnerable children, and comparison children), and appropriate interaction terms among factor variables. The findings in the current study support the global literature on the importance of attachment relationship with caregivers in promoting children's psychosocial development. Future prevention intervention efforts to improve AIDS orphans' psychosocial well-being will need to take into consideration the quality of the child's attachment relationships with current caregivers and help their current caregivers to improve the quality of care for

  20. Parental Loss, Trusting Relationship with Current Caregivers and Psychosocial Adjustment among Children Affected by AIDS in China

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Junfeng; Li, Xiaoming; Barnett, Douglas; Lin, Xiuyun; Fang, Xiaoyi; Zhao, Guoxiang; Naar-King, Sylvie; Stanton, Bonita

    2011-01-01

    Objective to examine the relationship between parental loss, trusting relationship with current caregivers, and psychosocial adjustment among children affected by AIDS in China. Methods Cross-sectional data were collected from 755 AIDS orphans (296 double orphans and 459 single orphans), 466 vulnerable children living with HIV-infected parents, and 404 comparison children in China. The trusting relationship with current caregivers was measured with a 15-item scale (Cronbach alpha=.84) modified from the Trusting Relationship Questionnaire (TRQ) developed by Mustillo and colleagues (2005). The psychosocial measures include rule compliance/acting out, anxiety/withdrawal, peer social skills, school interest, depressive symptoms, loneliness, self-esteem, future expectation, hopefulness about future, and perceived control over the future. Results Group mean comparisons using ANOVA suggested a significant association (p<.0001) between the trusting relationship with current caregivers and all the psychosocial measures except anxiety and depression. These associations remained significant in General Linear Model analysis, controlling for children's gender, age, family SES, orphan status (orphans, vulnerable children, and comparison children), and appropriate interaction terms among factor variables. Discussion The findings in the current study support the global literature on the importance of attachment relationship with caregivers in promoting children's psychosocial development. Future prevention intervention efforts to improve AIDS orphans' psychosocial well-being will need to take into consideration the quality of the child's attachment relationships with current caregivers and help their current caregivers to improve the quality of care for these children. Future study is needed to explore the possible reasons for the lack of association between a trusting relationship and some internalizing symptoms such as anxiety and depression among children affected by HIV

  1. "Butterfly effect" in CuO/graphene composite nanosheets: a small interfacial adjustment triggers big changes in electronic structure and Li-ion storage performance.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoting; Zhou, Jisheng; Song, Huaihe; Chen, Xiaohong; Fedoseeva, Yu V; Okotrub, A V; Bulusheva, L G

    2014-10-01

    Generally speaking, excellent electrochemical performance of metal oxide/graphene nanosheets (GNSs) composite is attributed to the interfacial interaction (or "synergistic effect") between constituents. However, there are no any direct observations on how the electronic structure is changed and how the properties of Li-ion storage are affected by adjusting the interfacial interaction, despite of limited investigations on the possible nature of binding between GNSs and metal oxide. In this paper, CuO nanosheets/GNSs composites with a little Cu2O (ca. 4 wt %) were utilized as an interesting model to illustrate directly the changes of interfacial nature as well as its deep influence on the electronic structure and Li-ion storage performance of composite. The interfacial adjustment was successfully fulfilled by removal of Cu2O in the composite by NH3·H2O. Formation of Cu-O-C bonds on interfaces both between CuO and GNSs, and Cu2O and GNSs in the original CuO/GNSs composites was detected. The small interfacial alteration by removal of the little Cu2O results in the obvious changes in electronic structure, such as weakening of covalent Cu-O-C interfacial interaction and recovery of π bonds in graphene, and simultaneously leads to variations in electrochemical performance of composites, including a 21% increase of reversible capacity, degradation of cyclic stability and rate-performance, and obvious increase of charge-transfer resistance, which can be called a "butterfly effect" in graphene-based metal oxide composites. These interesting phenomena could be helpful to design not only the high-performance graphene/metal oxide anode materials but also various advanced graphene-based composites used in the other fields such as sensors, catalysis, fuel cells, solar cells, etc. PMID:25226227

  2. Preconditioning and triggering of offshore slope failures and turbidity currents revealed by most detailed monitoring yet at a fjord-head delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clare, M. A.; Hughes Clarke, J. E.; Talling, P. J.; Cartigny, M. J. B.; Pratomo, D. G.

    2016-09-01

    Rivers and turbidity currents are the two most important sediment transport processes by volume on Earth. Various hypotheses have been proposed for triggering of turbidity currents offshore from river mouths, including direct plunging of river discharge, delta mouth bar flushing or slope failure caused by low tides and gas expansion, earthquakes and rapid sedimentation. During 2011, 106 turbidity currents were monitored at Squamish Delta, British Columbia. This enables statistical analysis of timing, frequency and triggers. The largest peaks in river discharge did not create hyperpycnal flows. Instead, delayed delta-lip failures occurred 8-11 h after flood peaks, due to cumulative delta top sedimentation and tidally-induced pore pressure changes. Elevated river discharge is thus a significant control on the timing and rate of turbidity currents but not directly due to plunging river water. Elevated river discharge and focusing of river discharge at low tides cause increased sediment transport across the delta-lip, which is the most significant of all controls on flow timing in this setting.

  3. Sex differences in relations among remembered parental behavior in childhood, adults' current psychological adjustment, and career indecision.

    PubMed

    Rohner, Ronald P; Rising, David G; Sayre-Scibona, Jessica

    2009-04-01

    The goal was to assess sex differences in career indecision's association with different levels of self-reported psychological adjustment and with different remembrances of maternal and paternal acceptance and behavioral control in childhood. 126 participants responded to the Career Decision Scale, the Adult version of the Parental Acceptance-Rejection/Control Questionnaire, and the Adult version of the Personality Assessment Questionnaire. Results showed that career indecision among women but not men was significantly correlated with remembered maternal and paternal acceptance in childhood, as well as with self-reported psychological adjustment and age. Only women's self-reported psychological adjustment made a unique contribution to variance in reported career indecision. No predictor variables were significantly associated with career indecision among men. PMID:19610486

  4. Syn-eruptive, soft-sediment deformation of dilute pyroclastic density current deposits: triggers from granular shear, dynamic pore pressure, ballistic impacts and shock waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douillet, G. A.; Taisne, B.; Tsang-Hin-Sun, È.; Müller, S. K.; Kueppers, U.; Dingwell, D. B.

    2014-12-01

    Soft-sediment deformation produces intriguing sedimentary structures and can occur in diverse environments and from a variety of triggers. From the observation of such structures and their interpretation in terms of trigger mechanisms, valuable information can be extracted about former conditions. Here we document examples of syn-eruptive deformation in dilute pyroclastic density current deposits. Outcrops from 6 different volcanoes have been compiled in order to provide a broad perspective on the variety of structures: Ubehebe craters (USA), Tungurahua (Ecuador), Soufrière Hills (Montserrat), Laacher See (Germany), Tower Hill and Purrumbete lake (both Australia). Isolated slumps as well as sinking pseudonodules are driven by their excess weight and occur after deposition but penecontemporaneous to the eruption. Isolated, cm-scale, overturned beds with vortex forms have been interpreted to be the signature of shear instabilities occurring at the boundary of two granular media. They may represent the frozen record of granular, pseudo Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities. Their recognition can be a diagnostic for flows with a granular basal boundary layer. The occurrence of degassing pipes together with basal intrusive dikes suggest fluidization during flow stages, and can facilitate the development of Kelvin-Helmholtz structures. The occurrence at the base of flow units of injection dikes in some outcrops compared with suction-driven local uplifts in others indicates the role of dynamic pore pressure. Variations of the latter are possibly related to local changes between depletive and accumulative dynamics of flows. Ballistic impacts can trigger unconventional sags producing local displacement or liquefaction. Based on the deformation depth, these can yield precise insights into depositional unit boundaries. Such impact structures may also be at the origin of some of the steep truncation planes visible at the base of the so-called "chute and pool" structures. Finally

  5. Syn-eruptive, soft-sediment deformation of deposits from dilute pyroclastic density current: triggers from granular shear, dynamic pore pressure, ballistic impacts and shock waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douillet, G. A.; Taisne, B.; Tsang-Hin-Sun, E.; Muller, S. K.; Kueppers, U.; Dingwell, D. B.

    2015-05-01

    Soft-sediment deformation structures can provide valuable information about the conditions of parent flows, the sediment state and the surrounding environment. Here, examples of soft-sediment deformation in deposits of dilute pyroclastic density currents are documented and possible syn-eruptive triggers suggested. Outcrops from six different volcanoes have been compiled in order to provide a broad perspective on the variety of structures: Soufriere Hills (Montserrat), Tungurahua (Ecuador), Ubehebe craters (USA), Laacher See (Germany), and Tower Hill and Purrumbete lakes (both Australia). The variety of features can be classified in four groups: (1) tubular features such as pipes; (2) isolated, laterally oriented deformation such as overturned or oversteepened laminations and vortex-shaped laminae; (3) folds-and-faults structures involving thick (>30 cm) units; (4) dominantly vertical inter-penetration of two layers such as potatoids, dishes, or diapiric flame-like structures. The occurrence of degassing pipes together with basal intrusions suggest fluidization during flow stages, and can facilitate the development of other soft-sediment deformation structures. Variations from injection dikes to suction-driven, local uplifts at the base of outcrops indicate the role of dynamic pore pressure. Isolated, centimeter-scale, overturned beds with vortex forms have been interpreted to be the signature of shear instabilities occurring at the boundary of two granular media. They may represent the frozen record of granular, pseudo Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities. Their recognition can be a diagnostic for flows with a granular basal boundary layer. Vertical inter-penetration and those folds-and-faults features related to slumps are driven by their excess weight and occur after deposition but penecontemporaneous to the eruption. The passage of shock waves emanating from the vent may also produce trains of isolated, fine-grained overturned beds that disturb the surface bedding

  6. Global MHD modeling of ionospheric convection and field-aligned currents associated with IMF By triggered theta auroras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Masakazu; Sakito, Shintaro; Tanaka, Takashi; Shinagawa, Hiroyuki; Murata, Ken T.

    2014-08-01

    Using numerical magnetohydrodynamic simulations, we investigate the evolution of ionospheric convection and field-aligned currents (FACs) when θ auroras are formed in response to interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) By transitions. When the polarity of IMF By switches abruptly during northward IMF periods, the crossbar of the θ aurora is isolated from the flankside auroral oval and drifts into the polar cap. This drift motion is involved in a large round cell associated with new IMF By, with sunward convection residing only on the dayside tip of the crossbar. There exists an IMF By-controlled large-scale FAC system on the crossbar. When the θ aurora is drifting duskward (dawnward), the FACs are located on the dawnside (duskside) boundary of the crossbar adjacent to the "new" lobe. In contrast, the magnetospheric source region of the crossbar FAC system is located on the duskside (dawnside) boundary of the protruded plasma sheet adjacent to the "old" lobe. In the source region, plasma thermal pressure feeds the electromagnetic energy of FACs, and these processes can be interpreted as coupling of slow mode and Alfvén mode disturbances. In the ionosphere, the crossbar-associated FACs close with part of the region 1 currents associated with the new crescent cell. The magnetospheric source of that part of the region 1 FACs is located on the plasma sheet boundary and the magnetopause both adjacent to the new lobe. Dynamo processes in the old-lobe side and the new-lobe side work together to drive the ionospheric drift motion of the crossbar.

  7. Syn-eruptive, soft-sediment deformation of dilute pyroclastic density current deposits: triggers from granular shear, dynamic pore pressure, ballistic impacts and shock waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douillet, Guilhem Amin; Kueppers, Ulrich; Taisne, Benoit; Tsang-Hin-Sun, Ève; Müller, Sebastian K.; Dingwell, Donald B.

    2015-04-01

    Dilute pyroclastic density currents (PDCs) represent peculiar transport mechanisms sharing similarities with turbidity currents, wind-blown transport and granular flows. Outcrops of syn-eruptive, soft-sediment deformation are compiled from seven volcanic centers in order to provide a broad perspective on the variety of structures: Ubehebe craters (USA), Tungurahua (Ecuador), Soufrière Hills (Montserrat), Laacher See (Germany), Lago di Albano (Italy), Tower Hill and Purrumbete lake (both Australia). The interpretation of the variety of triggers enlightens the understanding of the sedimentary environment and basal boundary processes for PDCs: 1/ Isolated, cm-scale, overturned beds with vortex forms have been interpreted to be the signature of shear instabilities occurring at the boundary of two granular media. They may represent the frozen record of granular, pseudo Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities. 2/ The occurrence of degassing pipes together with basal intrusive dikes suggest fluidization during flow stages. This, in turn, can facilitate the development of Kelvin-Helmholtz structures. The occurrence of injection dikes at the base of flow units in some outcrops compared with suction-driven local uplifts in others indicates the role of dynamic pore pressure and local changes between depletive and accumulative dynamics of flows. 3/ Isolated slumps as well as sinking pseudonodules are driven by their excess weight and occur after deposition but penecontemporaneous to the eruption. 4/ Impact of ballistic blocks can trigger local displacement or liquefaction. Based on the deformation depth, these can yield precise insights into depositional unit boundaries. Such impact structures may also be at the origin of some of the steep truncation planes visible at the base of the so-called "chute and pool" structures. 5/ Finally, the passage of shock waves emanating from the vent may be preserved in the form of trains of isolated, fine-grained overturned beds, which may disturb

  8. Adjustable sutures in children.

    PubMed

    Engel, J Mark; Guyton, David L; Hunter, David G

    2014-06-01

    Although adjustable sutures are considered a standard technique in adult strabismus surgery, most surgeons are hesitant to attempt the technique in children, who are believed to be unlikely to cooperate for postoperative assessment and adjustment. Interest in using adjustable sutures in pediatric patients has increased with the development of surgical techniques specific to infants and children. This workshop briefly reviews the literature supporting the use of adjustable sutures in children and presents the approaches currently used by three experienced strabismus surgeons. PMID:24924284

  9. Trigger mechanism for engines

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, L.R.

    1989-02-28

    A trigger mechanism is described for a blower-vacuum apparatus having a trigger mounted within a handle and a small engine comprising: a throttle; a ''L'' shaped lever having first and second legs mounted for rotation about an intermediate pivot within the handle when the trigger is depressed, interconnecting the trigger and the throttle, the second leg having first teeth defined therein, the lever further having idle, full throttle and stop positions; a normally raised latch means adapted to be rotated and axially depressed, the latch means having second teeth situated on a cam to engage the first teeth for holding the lever in an intermediate position between the idle and full throttle positions when the latch means is rotated. The latch means further are cam teeth into potential engagement with the lever teeth when the trigger is depressed, lever is biased to the stop position; and idle adjusting means means for intercepting the second leg for preventing the second leg from reaching the stop position when the latch means is raised.

  10. Contractions in guinea-pig ventricular myocytes triggered by a calcium-release mechanism separate from Na+ and L-currents.

    PubMed Central

    Ferrier, G R; Howlett, S E

    1995-01-01

    amplitude was not proportional to inward current. The shape of this relationship was virtually identical to that of the ryanodine-sensitive component of contraction. 8. This study identifies a component of contraction associated with Ca2+ release from sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) which can be separated from other mechanisms of contraction on the basis of membrane potential. Our observations suggest that this voltage-dependent release mechanism is a true trigger mechanism which activates a portion of cardiac contraction which is attributable to SR Ca2+ release. PMID:7602513

  11. Triggering Klystrons

    SciTech Connect

    Stefan, Kelton D.; /Purdue U. /SLAC

    2010-08-25

    To determine if klystrons will perform to the specifications of the LCLS (Linac Coherent Light Source) project, a new digital trigger controller is needed for the Klystron/Microwave Department Test Laboratory. The controller needed to be programmed and Windows based user interface software needed to be written to interface with the device over a USB (Universal Serial Bus). Programming the device consisted of writing logic in VHDL (VHSIC (Very High Speed Integrated Circuits) hardware description language), and the Windows interface software was written in C++. Xilinx ISE (Integrated Software Environment) was used to compile the VHDL code and program the device, and Microsoft Visual Studio 2005 was used to compile the C++ based Windows software. The device was programmed in such a way as to easily allow read/write operations to it using a simple addressing model, and Windows software was developed to interface with the device over a USB connection. A method of setting configuration registers in the trigger device is absolutely necessary to the development of a new triggering system, and the method developed will fulfill this need adequately. More work is needed before the new trigger system is ready for use. The configuration registers in the device need to be fully integrated with the logic that will generate the RF signals, and this system will need to be tested extensively to determine if it meets the requirements for low noise trigger outputs.

  12. Current-voltage characteristics of single-molecule diarylethene junctions measured with adjustable gold electrodes in solution.

    PubMed

    Briechle, Bernd M; Kim, Youngsang; Ehrenreich, Philipp; Erbe, Artur; Sysoiev, Dmytro; Huhn, Thomas; Groth, Ulrich; Scheer, Elke

    2012-01-01

    We report on an experimental analysis of the charge transport through sulfur-free photochromic molecular junctions. The conductance of individual molecules contacted with gold electrodes and the current-voltage characteristics of these junctions are measured in a mechanically controlled break-junction system at room temperature and in liquid environment. We compare the transport properties of a series of molecules, labeled TSC, MN, and 4Py, with the same switching core but varying side-arms and end-groups designed for providing the mechanical and electrical contact to the gold electrodes. We perform a detailed analysis of the transport properties of TSC in its open and closed states. We find rather broad distributions of conductance values in both states. The analysis, based on the assumption that the current is carried by a single dominating molecular orbital, reveals distinct differences between both states. We discuss the appearance of diode-like behavior for the particular species 4Py that features end-groups, which preferentially couple to the metal electrode by physisorption. We show that the energetic position of the molecular orbital varies as a function of the transmission. Finally, we show for the species MN that the use of two cyano end-groups on each side considerably enhances the coupling strength compared to the typical behavior of a single cyano group. PMID:23365792

  13. ELECTRONIC TRIGGER CIRCUIT

    DOEpatents

    Russell, J.A.G.

    1958-01-01

    An electronic trigger circuit is described of the type where an output pulse is obtained only after an input voltage has cqualed or exceeded a selected reference voltage. In general, the invention comprises a source of direct current reference voltage in series with an impedance and a diode rectifying element. An input pulse of preselected amplitude causes the diode to conduct and develop a signal across the impedance. The signal is delivered to an amplifier where an output pulse is produced and part of the output is fed back in a positive manner to the diode so that the amplifier produces a steep wave front trigger pulsc at the output. The trigger point of the described circuit is not subject to variation due to the aging, etc., of multi-electrode tabes, since the diode circuit essentially determines the trigger point.

  14. Pigment-based skin colour in the blue-footed booby: an honest signal of current condition used by females to adjust reproductive investment.

    PubMed

    Velando, Alberto; Beamonte-Barrientos, René; Torres, Roxana

    2006-09-01

    In monogamous species, the value of present reproduction is affected by the current condition of the mate, and females may use male ornaments to evaluate his condition and adjust their level of investment according. Many animals display colour in fleshy structures which may be accurate indicators of quality due to their potentially rapid response to changes in condition. Here we show that in the blue-footed booby, Sula nebouxii, male foot colour is structurally (collagen arrays) and pigment based. In 48 h foot colour became duller when males were food deprived and brighter when they were re-fed with fresh fish. Variation of dietary carotenoids induced comparable changes in cell-mediated immune function and foot colour, suggesting that carotenoid-pigmentation reveals the immunological state of individuals. These results suggest that pigment-based foot colour is a rapid honest signal of current condition. In a second experiment, we found that rapid variation in male foot colour caused parallel variation in female reproductive investment. One day after the first egg was laid we captured the males and modified the foot colour of experimental males with a non-toxic and water resistant duller blue intensive make-up, mimicking males in low condition. Females decreased the size of their second eggs, relative to the second egg of control females, when the feet of their mates were experimentally duller. Since brood reduction in this species is related to size differences between brood mates at hatching, by laying lighter second eggs females are facilitating brood reduction. Our data indicate that blue-footed booby females are continuously evaluating their mates and can perform rapid adjustments of reproductive investment by using dynamic sexual traits. We suggest that this fine-tuned adjustment may be widespread in socially monogamous animals. PMID:16821015

  15. Triggered plasma opening switch

    SciTech Connect

    Mendel, C W

    1988-02-23

    A triggerable opening switch for a very high voltage and current pulse includes a transmission line extending from a source to a load and having an intermediate switch section including a plasma for conducting electrons between transmission line conductors and a magnetic field for breaking the plasma conduction path and magnetically insulating the electrons when it is desired to open the switch.

  16. Triggered plasma opening switch

    DOEpatents

    Mendel, Clifford W.

    1988-01-01

    A triggerable opening switch for a very high voltage and current pulse includes a transmission line extending from a source to a load and having an intermediate switch section including a plasma for conducting electrons between transmission line conductors and a magnetic field for breaking the plasma conduction path and magnetically insulating the electrons when it is desired to open the switch.

  17. Firearm trigger assembly

    DOEpatents

    Crandall, David L.; Watson, Richard W.

    2010-02-16

    A firearm trigger assembly for use with a firearm includes a trigger mounted to a forestock of the firearm so that the trigger is movable between a rest position and a triggering position by a forwardly placed support hand of a user. An elongated trigger member operatively associated with the trigger operates a sear assembly of the firearm when the trigger is moved to the triggering position. An action release assembly operatively associated with the firearm trigger assembly and a movable assembly of the firearm prevents the trigger from being moved to the triggering position when the movable assembly is not in the locked position.

  18. Pulsed thyristor trigger control circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nola, F. J. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A trigger control circuit is provided for producing firing pulses for the thyristor of a thyristor control system such as a power factor controller. The control circuit overcomes thyristor triggering problems involved with the current lag associated with controlling inductive loads and utilizes a phase difference signal, already present in the power factor controller, in deriving a signal for inhibiting generation of a firing pulse until no load current is flowing from the preceding half cycle and thereby ensuring that the thyristor is triggered on during each half cycle.

  19. Current pulse shaping of the load current on PTS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Minghe; Li, Fengping; Ji, Ce; Wei, Bing; Feng, Shuping; Wang, Meng; Xie, Weiping

    2016-02-01

    The typical rise time of PTS machine is ˜110 ns with about 10 MA peak current under short pulse mode when all 24 modules discharge simultaneously. By distributing the trigger times of 12 laser beams logically and adjusting the statues of the pulse output switches, longer rise-time pulse can be obtained on the PTS facility. Based on the required pulse shape, whole circuit simulations will be used to calculate the trigger times of each laser triggering gas switch and the status of the pulse output switches. The rise time of the current is determined by the time difference between the first and last trigged laser triggering gas switches. In order to trigger the laser triggering gas switch, sufficient laser power is needed to be sent into the gap of the gas switches. The gas pressure and voltage difference on the two electrodes of the gas switches also affect the triggering of the gas switches, and the voltage added on the gas switch is determined by its transition time. Traditionally the trigger time difference should be less than the transition time of the two neighboring modules. A new simulation model of PTS shows one can break this transition time limits. Series of current pulse shaping experiments have been investigated on the PTS (Primary Test Stand). As results, more than 5 MA peak current were successfully achieved on the load with a rise time of 600 ns. This study and experiments of the pulse shaping on PTS demonstrate the adaptable ability of the PTS for offering different waveform of mega ampere current pulse for different research purpose.

  20. Evaluation of Light-Triggered Thyristors for Pulsed Power Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Tully, L K; Fulkerson, E S; Goerz, D A; Speer, R D

    2008-05-20

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has many needs for high reliability, high peak current, high di/dt switches. Solid-state switch technology offers the demonstrated advantage of reliability under a variety of conditions. Light-triggered switches operate with a reduced susceptibility to electromagnetic interference commonly found within pulsed power environments. Despite the advantages, commercially available solid-state switches are not typically designed for the often extreme pulsed power requirements. Testing was performed to bound the limits of devices for pulsed power applications beyond the manufacturers specified ratings. To test the applicability of recent commercial light-triggered solid-state designs, an adjustable high current switch test stand was assembled. Results from testing and subsequent selected implementations are presented.

  1. Adjustment disorder

    MedlinePlus

    American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. 5th ed. Arlington, Va: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013. Powell AD. Grief, bereavement, and adjustment disorders. In: Stern TA, Rosenbaum ...

  2. 77 FR 33773 - Announcement Regarding States Triggering “On” or “Off” in the Emergency Unemployment Compensation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-07

    ... Emergency Unemployment Compensation 2008 (EUC08) Program and the Federal-State Extended Benefits (EB... regarding states triggering ``on'' or ``off'' in the Emergency Unemployment Compensation 2008 (EUC08...., having their current three month average, seasonally adjusted total unemployment rate be at least 110%...

  3. Method for triggering an action

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R.; Bartholomew, David B.; Johnson, Monte L.; Moon, Justin; Koehler, Roger O.

    2006-10-17

    A method for triggering an action of at least one downhole device on a downhole network integrated into a downhole tool string synchronized to an event comprises determining latency, sending a latency adjusted signal, and performing the action. The latency is determined between a control device and the at least one downhole device. The latency adjusted signal for triggering an action is sent to the downhole device. The action is performed downhole synchronized to the event. A preferred method for determining latency comprises the steps: a control device sends a first signal to the downhole device; after receiving the signal, the downhole device sends a response signal to the control device; and the control device analyzes the time from sending the signal to receiving the response signal.

  4. The D0 upgrade trigger

    SciTech Connect

    Eno, S.

    1994-09-01

    The current trigger system for the D0 detector at Fermilab`s Tevatron will need to be upgraded when the Min Injector is installed and the Tevatron can operate at luminosities exceeding 10{sup 32} cm{sup {minus}2}s{sup {minus}1} and with a crossing time of 132 ns. We report on preliminary designs for upgrades to the trigger system for the Main Injector era.

  5. Adjustable microforceps.

    PubMed

    Bao, J Y

    1991-04-01

    The commonly used microforceps have a much greater opening distance and spring resistance than needed. A piece of plastic ring or rubber band can be used to adjust the opening distance and reduce most of the spring resistance, making the user feel more comfortable and less fatigued. PMID:2051437

  6. Shaft adjuster

    DOEpatents

    Harry, Herbert H.

    1989-01-01

    Apparatus and method for the adjustment and alignment of shafts in high power devices. A plurality of adjacent rotatable angled cylinders are positioned between a base and the shaft to be aligned which when rotated introduce an axial offset. The apparatus is electrically conductive and constructed of a structurally rigid material. The angled cylinders allow the shaft such as the center conductor in a pulse line machine to be offset in any desired alignment position within the range of the apparatus.

  7. Weighted triangulation adjustment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, Walter L.

    1969-01-01

    The variation of coordinates method is employed to perform a weighted least squares adjustment of horizontal survey networks. Geodetic coordinates are required for each fixed and adjustable station. A preliminary inverse geodetic position computation is made for each observed line. Weights associated with each observed equation for direction, azimuth, and distance are applied in the formation of the normal equations in-the least squares adjustment. The number of normal equations that may be solved is twice the number of new stations and less than 150. When the normal equations are solved, shifts are produced at adjustable stations. Previously computed correction factors are applied to the shifts and a most probable geodetic position is found for each adjustable station. Pinal azimuths and distances are computed. These may be written onto magnetic tape for subsequent computation of state plane or grid coordinates. Input consists of punch cards containing project identification, program options, and position and observation information. Results listed include preliminary and final positions, residuals, observation equations, solution of the normal equations showing magnitudes of shifts, and a plot of each adjusted and fixed station. During processing, data sets containing irrecoverable errors are rejected and the type of error is listed. The computer resumes processing of additional data sets.. Other conditions cause warning-errors to be issued, and processing continues with the current data set.

  8. Myofascial trigger point pain.

    PubMed

    Jaeger, Bernadette

    2013-01-01

    Myofascial trigger point pain is an extremely prevalent cause of persistent pain disorders in all parts of the body, not just the head, neck, and face. Features include deep aching pain in any structure, referred from focally tender points in taut bands of skeletal muscle (the trigger points). Diagnosis depends on accurate palpation with 2-4 kg/cm2 of pressure for 10 to 20 seconds over the suspected trigger point to allow the referred pain pattern to develop. In the head and neck region, cervical muscle trigger points (key trigger points) often incite and perpetuate trigger points (satellite trigger points) and referred pain from masticatory muscles. Management requires identification and control of as many perpetuating factors as possible (posture, body mechanics, psychological stress or depression, poor sleep or nutrition). Trigger point therapies such as spray and stretch or trigger point injections are best used as adjunctive therapy. PMID:24864393

  9. Asthma triggers (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... asthma triggers are mold, pets, dust, grasses, pollen, cockroaches, odors from chemicals, and smoke from cigarettes. ... asthma triggers are mold, pets, dust, grasses, pollen, cockroaches, odors from chemicals, and smoke from cigarettes.

  10. Asthma triggers (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... common asthma triggers are mold, pets, dust, grasses, pollen, cockroaches, odors from chemicals, and smoke from cigarettes. ... common asthma triggers are mold, pets, dust, grasses, pollen, cockroaches, odors from chemicals, and smoke from cigarettes.

  11. Model Vestibular Nuclei Neurons Can Exhibit a Boosting Nonlinearity Due to an Adaptation Current Regulated by Spike-Triggered Calcium and Calcium-Activated Potassium Channels

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Adam D.

    2016-01-01

    In vitro studies have previously found a class of vestibular nuclei neurons to exhibit a bidirectional afterhyperpolarization (AHP) in their membrane potential, due to calcium and calcium-activated potassium conductances. More recently in vivo studies of such vestibular neurons were found to exhibit a boosting nonlinearity in their input-output tuning curves. In this paper, a Hodgkin-Huxley (HH) type neuron model, originally developed to reproduce the in vitro AHP, is shown to produce a boosting nonlinearity similar to that seen in vivo for increased the calcium conductance. Indicative of a bifurcation, the HH model is reduced to a generalized integrate-and-fire (IF) model that preserves the bifurcation structure and boosting nonliearity. By then projecting the neuron model’s phase space trajectories into 2D, the underlying geometric mechanism relating the AHP and boosting nonlinearity is revealed. Further simplifications and approximations are made to derive analytic expressions for the steady steady state firing rate as a function of bias current, μ, as well as the gain (i.e. its slope) and the position of its peak at μ = μ*. Finally, although the boosting nonlinearity has not yet been experimentally observed in vitro, testable predictions indicate how it might be found. PMID:27427914

  12. Triggered Jovian radio emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calvert, W.

    1985-01-01

    Certain Jovian radio emissions seem to be triggered from outside, by much weaker radio waves from the sun. Recently found in the Voyager observations near Jupiter, such triggering occurs at hectometric wavelengths during the arrival of solar radio bursts, with the triggered emissions lasting sometimes more than an hour as they slowly drifted toward higher frequencies. Like the previous discovery of similar triggered emissions at the earth, this suggests that Jupiter's emissions might also originate from natural radio lasers.

  13. Photo-triggerable Hydrogel-Nanoparticle Hybrid Scaffolds for Remotely Controlled Drug Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Shreyas; Sasmal, Pijus K.; Lee, Ki-Bum

    2014-01-01

    Remotely-triggerable drug delivery systems enable the user to adjust dosing regimens on-demand based on a patient’s physiological response and clinical needs. However, currently reported systems are limited by the non-specific leakage of drugs in the absence of triggering and the lack of repeatability over multiple cycles of release. To this end, we have designed a unique hydrogel-nanoparticle hybrid scaffold that provides a chemically-defined, remotely-triggerable and on-demand release of small molecule drugs. Our hybrid platform consists of three distinct components: 1) a photo-triggerable chemical compound, which serves to release a covalently-bound drug upon photo-irradiation, 2) a nanoparticle, which serves to covalently bind the photo-triggerable compound, and 3) a polymeric hydrogel, which serves to hold the drug-conjugated nanoparticle. Upon photo-irradiation, the activation of the photo-triggerable compound is designed to initiate a series of intramolecular chemical rearrangements, which would cleave the covalently-bound drug and release it from the hydrogel. The combination of these distinct components in a single scaffold proved to be an effective drug delivery system, as demonstrated by the delivery of a model drug to a malignant cancer line. Our hybrid scaffold can be easily tuned for practically any biological application of interest, thus offering immense potential for clinical therapies. PMID:25580246

  14. Smart trigger logic for focal plane arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, James E; Campbell, David V; Holmes, Michael L; Lovejoy, Robert; Wojciechowski, Kenneth; Kay, Randolph R; Cavanaugh, William S; Gurrieri, Thomas M

    2014-03-25

    An electronic device includes a memory configured to receive data representing light intensity values from pixels in a focal plane array and a processor that analyzes the received data to determine which light values correspond to triggered pixels, where the triggered pixels are those pixels that meet a predefined set of criteria, and determines, for each triggered pixel, a set of neighbor pixels for which light intensity values are to be stored. The electronic device also includes a buffer that temporarily stores light intensity values for at least one previously processed row of pixels, so that when a triggered pixel is identified in a current row, light intensity values for the neighbor pixels in the previously processed row and for the triggered pixel are persistently stored, as well as a data transmitter that transmits the persistently stored light intensity values for the triggered and neighbor pixels to a data receiver.

  15. AMPLITUDE DISCRIMINATOR HAVING SEPARATE TRIGGERING AND RECOVERY CONTROLS UTILIZING AUTOMATIC TRIGGERING

    DOEpatents

    Chase, R.L.

    1962-01-23

    A transistorized amplitude discriminator circuit is described in which the initial triggering sensitivity and the recovery threshold are separately adjustable in a convenient manner. The discriminator is provided with two independent bias components, one of which is for circuit hysteresis (recovery) and one of which is for trigger threshold level. A switching circuit is provided to remove the second bias component upon activation of the trigger so that the recovery threshold is always at the point where the trailing edge of the input signal pulse goes through zero or other desired value. (AEC)

  16. Stay away from asthma triggers

    MedlinePlus

    Asthma triggers - stay away from; Asthma triggers - avoiding; Reactive airway disease - triggers; Bronchial asthma - triggers ... to them. Have someone who does not have asthma cut the grass, or wear a facemask if ...

  17. Adjustable Autonomy Testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, Jane T.; Schrenkenghost, Debra K.

    2001-01-01

    The Adjustable Autonomy Testbed (AAT) is a simulation-based testbed located in the Intelligent Systems Laboratory in the Automation, Robotics and Simulation Division at NASA Johnson Space Center. The purpose of the testbed is to support evaluation and validation of prototypes of adjustable autonomous agent software for control and fault management for complex systems. The AA T project has developed prototype adjustable autonomous agent software and human interfaces for cooperative fault management. This software builds on current autonomous agent technology by altering the architecture, components and interfaces for effective teamwork between autonomous systems and human experts. Autonomous agents include a planner, flexible executive, low level control and deductive model-based fault isolation. Adjustable autonomy is intended to increase the flexibility and effectiveness of fault management with an autonomous system. The test domain for this work is control of advanced life support systems for habitats for planetary exploration. The CONFIG hybrid discrete event simulation environment provides flexible and dynamically reconfigurable models of the behavior of components and fluids in the life support systems. Both discrete event and continuous (discrete time) simulation are supported, and flows and pressures are computed globally. This provides fast dynamic simulations of interacting hardware systems in closed loops that can be reconfigured during operations scenarios, producing complex cascading effects of operations and failures. Current object-oriented model libraries support modeling of fluid systems, and models have been developed of physico-chemical and biological subsystems for processing advanced life support gases. In FY01, water recovery system models will be developed.

  18. Causality and headache triggers

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Dana P.; Smitherman, Todd A.; Martin, Vincent T.; Penzien, Donald B.; Houle, Timothy T.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to explore the conditions necessary to assign causal status to headache triggers. Background The term “headache trigger” is commonly used to label any stimulus that is assumed to cause headaches. However, the assumptions required for determining if a given stimulus in fact has a causal-type relationship in eliciting headaches have not been explicated. Methods A synthesis and application of Rubin’s Causal Model is applied to the context of headache causes. From this application the conditions necessary to infer that one event (trigger) causes another (headache) are outlined using basic assumptions and examples from relevant literature. Results Although many conditions must be satisfied for a causal attribution, three basic assumptions are identified for determining causality in headache triggers: 1) constancy of the sufferer; 2) constancy of the trigger effect; and 3) constancy of the trigger presentation. A valid evaluation of a potential trigger’s effect can only be undertaken once these three basic assumptions are satisfied during formal or informal studies of headache triggers. Conclusions Evaluating these assumptions is extremely difficult or infeasible in clinical practice, and satisfying them during natural experimentation is unlikely. Researchers, practitioners, and headache sufferers are encouraged to avoid natural experimentation to determine the causal effects of headache triggers. Instead, formal experimental designs or retrospective diary studies using advanced statistical modeling techniques provide the best approaches to satisfy the required assumptions and inform causal statements about headache triggers. PMID:23534872

  19. AMY trigger system

    SciTech Connect

    Sakai, Yoshihide

    1989-04-01

    A trigger system of the AMY detector at TRISTAN e{sup +}e{sup -} collider is described briefly. The system uses simple track segment and shower cluster counting scheme to classify events to be triggered. It has been operating successfully since 1987.

  20. The LHCb trigger and its upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dziurda, A.

    2016-07-01

    The current LHCb trigger system consists of a hardware level, which reduces the LHC inelastic collision rate of 30 MHz, at which the entire detector is read out. In a second level, implemented in a farm of 20 k parallel-processing CPUs, the event rate is reduced to about 5 kHz. We review the performance of the LHCb trigger system during Run I of the LHC. Special attention is given to the use of multivariate analyses in the High Level Trigger. The major bottleneck for hadronic decays is the hardware trigger. LHCb plans a major upgrade of the detector and DAQ system in the LHC shutdown of 2018, enabling a purely software based trigger to process the full 30 MHz of inelastic collisions delivered by the LHC. We demonstrate that the planned architecture will be able to meet this challenge.

  1. LHCb Topological Trigger Reoptimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Likhomanenko, Tatiana; Ilten, Philip; Khairullin, Egor; Rogozhnikov, Alex; Ustyuzhanin, Andrey; Williams, Michael

    2015-12-01

    The main b-physics trigger algorithm used by the LHCb experiment is the so- called topological trigger. The topological trigger selects vertices which are a) detached from the primary proton-proton collision and b) compatible with coming from the decay of a b-hadron. In the LHC Run 1, this trigger, which utilized a custom boosted decision tree algorithm, selected a nearly 100% pure sample of b-hadrons with a typical efficiency of 60-70%; its output was used in about 60% of LHCb papers. This talk presents studies carried out to optimize the topological trigger for LHC Run 2. In particular, we have carried out a detailed comparison of various machine learning classifier algorithms, e.g., AdaBoost, MatrixNet and neural networks. The topological trigger algorithm is designed to select all ’interesting” decays of b-hadrons, but cannot be trained on every such decay. Studies have therefore been performed to determine how to optimize the performance of the classification algorithm on decays not used in the training. Methods studied include cascading, ensembling and blending techniques. Furthermore, novel boosting techniques have been implemented that will help reduce systematic uncertainties in Run 2 measurements. We demonstrate that the reoptimized topological trigger is expected to significantly improve on the Run 1 performance for a wide range of b-hadron decays.

  2. Common Asthma Triggers

    MedlinePlus

    ... your bedding on the hottest water setting. Outdoor Air Pollution Outdoor air pollution can trigger an asthma attack. This pollution can ... your newspaper to plan your activities for when air pollution levels will be low. Cockroach Allergen Cockroaches and ...

  3. Dealing with Asthma Triggers

    MedlinePlus

    ... smell given off by paint or gas, and air pollution. If you notice that an irritant triggers your ... or other tobacco products around you. If outdoor air pollution is a problem, running the air conditioner or ...

  4. Calorimetry Triggering in ATLAS

    SciTech Connect

    Igonkina, O.; Achenbach, R.; Adragna, P.; Aharrouche, M.; Alexandre, G.; Andrei, V.; Anduaga, X.; Aracena, I.; Backlund, S.; Baines, J.; Barnett, B.M.; Bauss, B.; Bee, C.; Behera, P.; Bell, P.; Bendel, M.; Benslama, K.; Berry, T.; Bogaerts, A.; Bohm, C.; Bold, T.; /UC, Irvine /AGH-UST, Cracow /Birmingham U. /Barcelona, IFAE /CERN /Birmingham U. /Rutherford /Montreal U. /Santa Maria U., Valparaiso /DESY /DESY, Zeuthen /Geneva U. /City Coll., N.Y. /Barcelona, IFAE /CERN /Birmingham U. /Kirchhoff Inst. Phys. /Birmingham U. /Lisbon, LIFEP /Rio de Janeiro Federal U. /City Coll., N.Y. /Birmingham U. /Copenhagen U. /Copenhagen U. /Brookhaven /Rutherford /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Pennsylvania U. /Montreal U. /SLAC /CERN /Michigan State U. /Chile U., Catolica /City Coll., N.Y. /Oxford U. /La Plata U. /McGill U. /Mainz U., Inst. Phys. /Hamburg U. /DESY /DESY, Zeuthen /Geneva U. /Queen Mary, U. of London /CERN /Rutherford /Rio de Janeiro Federal U. /Birmingham U. /Montreal U. /CERN /Kirchhoff Inst. Phys. /Liverpool U. /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Pennsylvania U. /Kirchhoff Inst. Phys. /Geneva U. /Birmingham U. /NIKHEF, Amsterdam /Rutherford /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Rutherford /Royal Holloway, U. of London /AGH-UST, Cracow /Mainz U., Inst. Phys. /Mainz U., Inst. Phys. /Birmingham U. /Hamburg U. /DESY /DESY, Zeuthen /Geneva U. /Kirchhoff Inst. Phys. /Michigan State U. /Stockholm U. /Stockholm U. /Birmingham U. /CERN /Montreal U. /Stockholm U. /Arizona U. /Regina U. /Regina U. /Rutherford /NIKHEF, Amsterdam /Kirchhoff Inst. Phys. /DESY /DESY, Zeuthen /City Coll., N.Y. /University Coll. London /Humboldt U., Berlin /Queen Mary, U. of London /Argonne /LPSC, Grenoble /Arizona U. /Kirchhoff Inst. Phys. /Birmingham U. /Antonio Narino U. /Hamburg U. /DESY /DESY, Zeuthen /Kirchhoff Inst. Phys. /Birmingham U. /Chile U., Catolica /Indiana U. /Manchester U. /Kirchhoff Inst. Phys. /Rutherford /City Coll., N.Y. /Stockholm U. /La Plata U. /Antonio Narino U. /Queen Mary, U. of London /Kirchhoff Inst. Phys. /Antonio Narino U. /Pavia U. /City Coll., N.Y. /Mainz U., Inst. Phys. /Mainz U., Inst. Phys. /Pennsylvania U. /Barcelona, IFAE /Barcelona, IFAE /Chile U., Catolica /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /Rutherford /Barcelona, IFAE /Nevis Labs, Columbia U. /CERN /Antonio Narino U. /McGill U. /Rutherford /Santa Maria U., Valparaiso /Rutherford /Chile U., Catolica /Brookhaven /Oregon U. /Mainz U., Inst. Phys. /Barcelona, IFAE /McGill U. /Antonio Narino U. /Antonio Narino U. /Kirchhoff Inst. Phys. /Sydney U. /Rutherford /McGill U. /McGill U. /Pavia U. /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /Kirchhoff Inst. Phys. /Kirchhoff Inst. Phys. /Mainz U., Inst. Phys. /Barcelona, IFAE /SLAC /Stockholm U. /Moscow State U. /Stockholm U. /Birmingham U. /Kirchhoff Inst. Phys. /DESY /DESY, Zeuthen /Birmingham U. /Geneva U. /Oregon U. /Barcelona, IFAE /University Coll. London /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Birmingham U. /Mainz U., Inst. Phys. /Birmingham U. /Birmingham U. /Oregon U. /La Plata U. /Geneva U. /Chile U., Catolica /McGill U. /Pavia U. /Barcelona, IFAE /Regina U. /Birmingham U. /Birmingham U. /Kirchhoff Inst. Phys. /Oxford U. /CERN /Kirchhoff Inst. Phys. /UC, Irvine /UC, Irvine /Wisconsin U., Madison /Rutherford /Mainz U., Inst. Phys. /CERN /Geneva U. /Copenhagen U. /City Coll., N.Y. /Wisconsin U., Madison /Rio de Janeiro Federal U. /Wisconsin U., Madison /Stockholm U. /University Coll. London

    2011-12-08

    The ATLAS experiment is preparing for data taking at 14 TeV collision energy. A rich discovery physics program is being prepared in addition to the detailed study of Standard Model processes which will be produced in abundance. The ATLAS multi-level trigger system is designed to accept one event in 2/10{sup 5} to enable the selection of rare and unusual physics events. The ATLAS calorimeter system is a precise instrument, which includes liquid Argon electro-magnetic and hadronic components as well as a scintillator-tile hadronic calorimeter. All these components are used in the various levels of the trigger system. A wide physics coverage is ensured by inclusively selecting events with candidate electrons, photons, taus, jets or those with large missing transverse energy. The commissioning of the trigger system is being performed with cosmic ray events and by replaying simulated Monte Carlo events through the trigger and data acquisition system.

  5. Video event trigger and tracking system using fuzzy comparators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Glenn L. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A video observation method and apparatus, the apparatus having a frame storage mechanism, a dividing mechanism, a plurality of fuzzy comparators and a trigger signal mechanism. The frame storage mechanism stores at least one non-current video frame of a viewing field. The dividing mechanism divides a current video frame of the viewing field and the at least one non-current video frame into a plurality of corresponding trigger sections. The plurality of fuzzy comparators each compare and detect a fuzzy logic difference between one trigger section of the current video frame and the corresponding trigger sections of the at least one non-current video frame, the number of fuzzy comparators being selected so that every trigger section of the current video frame is compared. The trigger signal mechanism provides a trigger signal when a fuzzy logic difference is detected between any of the corresponding current and non-current trigger sections. A video observation mechanism and data reducing mechanism may be included with the above apparatus or alone with only a frame storage mechanism, a single generic comparator and a trigger signal mechanism. The video observation mechanism provides a video data stream, wherein each pixel of each frame of a viewing field is provided as multiple bits of data. The data reducing mechanism reduces each set of multiple bits of data which correspond to each pixel to one bit of binary data based on whether the pixel has a level of grey which is above or below a threshold level of grey.

  6. Dynamic Triggering Stress Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez-Huizar, H.; Velasco, A. A.

    2008-12-01

    It has been well established that static (permanent) stress changes can trigger nearby earthquakes, within a few fault lengths from the causative event, whereas triggering by dynamic (transient) stresses carried by seismic waves both nearby and at remote distances has not been as well documented nor understood. An analysis of the change in the local stress caused by the passing of surfaces waves is important for the understanding of this phenomenon. In this study, we modeled the change in the stress that the passing of Rayleigh and Loves waves causes on a fault plane of arbitrary orientation, and applied a Coulomb failure criteria to calculate the potential of these stress changes to trigger reverse, normal or strike-slip failure. We preliminarily test these model results with data from dynamically triggering earthquakes in the Australian Bowen Basin. In the Bowen region, the modeling predicts a maximum triggering potential for Rayleigh waves arriving perpendicularly to the strike of the reverse faults present in the region. The modeled potentials agree with our observations, and give us an understanding of the dynamic stress orientation needed to trigger different type of earthquakes.

  7. The Topo-trigger: a new concept of stereo trigger system for imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Coto, R.; Mazin, D.; Paoletti, R.; Blanch Bigas, O.; Cortina, J.

    2016-04-01

    Imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes (IACTs) such as the Major Atmospheric Gamma-ray Imaging Cherenkov (MAGIC) telescopes endeavor to reach the lowest possible energy threshold. In doing so the trigger system is a key element. Reducing the trigger threshold is hampered by the rapid increase of accidental triggers generated by ambient light (the so-called Night Sky Background NSB). In this paper we present a topological trigger, dubbed Topo-trigger, which rejects events on the basis of their relative orientation in the telescope cameras. We have simulated and tested the trigger selection algorithm in the MAGIC telescopes. The algorithm was tested using MonteCarlo simulations and shows a rejection of 85% of the accidental stereo triggers while preserving 99% of the gamma rays. A full implementation of this trigger system would achieve an increase in collection area between 10 and 20% at the energy threshold. The analysis energy threshold of the instrument is expected to decrease by ~ 8%. The selection algorithm was tested on real MAGIC data taken with the current trigger configuration and no γ-like events were found to be lost.

  8. Optical Spectra of Triggered Lightning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, T. D.; Biagi, C. J.; Hill, J. D.; Jordan, D. M.; Uman, M. A.; Christian, H. J., Jr.

    2009-12-01

    In August 2009, the first optical spectra of triggered lightning flashes were acquired. Data from two triggered lightning flashes were obtained at the International Center for Lightning Research and Testing in north-central Florida. The spectrometer that was used has an average dispersion of 260 Å/mm resulting in an average resolution of 5 Å when mated to a Photron (SA1.1) high-speed camera. The spectra captured with this system had a free spectral range of 3800-8000 Å. The spectra were captured at 300,000 frames per second. The spectrometer's vertical field of view was 3 m at an altitude 50 m above the launch tower, intended to view the middle of the triggering wire. Preliminary results show that the copper spectrum dominated the earliest part of the flash and copper lines persisted during the total lifetime of the detectable spectrum. Animations over the lifetime of the stroke from the initial wire illumination to multiple return strokes show the evolution of the spectrum. In addition, coordinated high speed channel base current, electric field and imagery measurements of the exploding wire, downward leaders, and return strokes were recorded. Quantitative analysis of the spectral evolution will be discussed in the context of the overall flash development.

  9. Cygnus Trigger System

    SciTech Connect

    G. Corrow, M. Hansen, D. Henderson, C. Mitton

    2008-02-01

    The Cygnus Dual Beam Radiographic Facility consists of two radiographic sources (Cygnus 1, Cygnus 2) each with a dose rating of 4 rads at 1 m, and a 1-mm diameter spot size. The electrical specifications are: 2.25 MV, 60 kA, 60 ns. This facility is located in an underground environment at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). These sources were developed as a primary diagnostic for subcritical tests, which are single-shot, high-value events. In such an application there is an emphasis on reliability and reproducibility. A robust, low-jitter trigger system is a key element for meeting these goals. The trigger system was developed with both commercial and project-specific equipment. In addition to the traditional functions of a trigger system there are novel features added to protect the investment of a high-value shot. Details of the trigger system, including elements designed specifically for a subcritical test application, will be presented. The individual electronic components have their nominal throughput, and when assembled have a system throughput with a measured range of jitter. The shot-to-shot jitter will be assessed both individually and in combination. Trigger reliability and reproducibility results will be presented for a substantial number of shots executed at the NTS.

  10. A hypothesis for delayed dynamic earthquake triggering

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsons, T.

    2005-01-01

    It's uncertain whether more near-field earthquakes are triggered by static or dynamic stress changes. This ratio matters because static earthquake interactions are increasingly incorporated into probabilistic forecasts. Recent studies were unable to demonstrate all predictions from the static-stress-change hypothesis, particularly seismicity rate reductions. However, current dynamic stress change hypotheses do not explain delayed earthquake triggering and Omori's law. Here I show numerically that if seismic waves can alter some frictional contacts in neighboring fault zones, then dynamic triggering might cause delayed triggering and an Omori-law response. The hypothesis depends on faults following a rate/state friction law, and on seismic waves changing the mean critical slip distance (Dc) at nucleation zones.

  11. Microfabricated triggered vacuum switch

    DOEpatents

    Roesler, Alexander W.; Schare, Joshua M.; Bunch, Kyle

    2010-05-11

    A microfabricated vacuum switch is disclosed which includes a substrate upon which an anode, cathode and trigger electrode are located. A cover is sealed over the substrate under vacuum to complete the vacuum switch. In some embodiments of the present invention, a metal cover can be used in place of the trigger electrode on the substrate. Materials used for the vacuum switch are compatible with high vacuum, relatively high temperature processing. These materials include molybdenum, niobium, copper, tungsten, aluminum and alloys thereof for the anode and cathode. Carbon in the form of graphitic carbon, a diamond-like material, or carbon nanotubes can be used in the trigger electrode. Channels can be optionally formed in the substrate to mitigate against surface breakdown.

  12. Video Event Trigger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Glenn L.; Lichter, Michael J.

    1994-01-01

    Video event trigger (VET) processes video image data to generate trigger signal when image shows significant change like motion or appearance, disappearance, change in color, change in brightness, or dilation of object. System aids in efficient utilization of image-data-storage and image-data-processing equipment in applications in which many video frames show no changes and are wasteful to record and analyze all frames when only relatively few frames show changes of interest. Applications include video recording of automobile crash tests, automated video monitoring of entrances, exits, parking lots, and secure areas.

  13. TOTEM Trigger System Firmware

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopal, Josef

    2014-06-01

    This paper describes the TOTEM Trigger System Firmware that is operational at LHC since 2009. The TOTEM experiment is devoted to the forward hadronic physics at collision energy from 2.7 to 14TeV. It is composed of three different subdetectors that are placed at 9, 13.5, and 220m from the Interaction Point 5. A time-critical-logic firmware is implemented inside FPGA circuits to review collisions and to select the relevant ones to be stored by the Data Acquisition (DAQ). The Trigger system has been modified in the 2012-2013 LHC runs allowing the experiment to take data in cooperation with CMS.

  14. ADJUSTABLE DOUBLE PULSE GENERATOR

    DOEpatents

    Gratian, J.W.; Gratian, A.C.

    1961-08-01

    >A modulator pulse source having adjustable pulse width and adjustable pulse spacing is described. The generator consists of a cross coupled multivibrator having adjustable time constant circuitry in each leg, an adjustable differentiating circuit in the output of each leg, a mixing and rectifying circuit for combining the differentiated pulses and generating in its output a resultant sequence of negative pulses, and a final amplifying circuit for inverting and square-topping the pulses. (AEC)

  15. Disambiguating Syntactic Triggers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sakas, William Gregory; Fodor, Janet Dean

    2012-01-01

    We present data from an artificial language domain that suggest new contributions to the theory of syntactic triggers. Whether a learning algorithm is capable of matching the achievements of child learners depends in part on how much parametric ambiguity there is in the input. For practical reasons this cannot be established for the domain of all…

  16. Tail reconnection triggering substorm onset.

    PubMed

    Angelopoulos, Vassilis; McFadden, James P; Larson, Davin; Carlson, Charles W; Mende, Stephen B; Frey, Harald; Phan, Tai; Sibeck, David G; Glassmeier, Karl-Heinz; Auster, Uli; Donovan, Eric; Mann, Ian R; Rae, I Jonathan; Russell, Christopher T; Runov, Andrei; Zhou, Xu-Zhi; Kepko, Larry

    2008-08-15

    Magnetospheric substorms explosively release solar wind energy previously stored in Earth's magnetotail, encompassing the entire magnetosphere and producing spectacular auroral displays. It has been unclear whether a substorm is triggered by a disruption of the electrical current flowing across the near-Earth magnetotail, at approximately 10 R(E) (R(E): Earth radius, or 6374 kilometers), or by the process of magnetic reconnection typically seen farther out in the magnetotail, at approximately 20 to 30 R(E). We report on simultaneous measurements in the magnetotail at multiple distances, at the time of substorm onset. Reconnection was observed at 20 R(E), at least 1.5 minutes before auroral intensification, at least 2 minutes before substorm expansion, and about 3 minutes before near-Earth current disruption. These results demonstrate that substorms are likely initiated by tail reconnection. PMID:18653845

  17. Multiple output timing and trigger generator

    SciTech Connect

    Wheat, Robert M.; Dale, Gregory E

    2009-01-01

    In support of the development of a multiple stage pulse modulator at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, we have developed a first generation, multiple output timing and trigger generator. Exploiting Commercial Off The Shelf (COTS) Micro Controller Units (MCU's), the timing and trigger generator provides 32 independent outputs with a timing resolution of about 500 ns. The timing and trigger generator system is comprised of two MCU boards and a single PC. One of the MCU boards performs the functions of the timing and signal generation (the timing controller) while the second MCU board accepts commands from the PC and provides the timing instructions to the timing controller. The PC provides the user interface for adjusting the on and off timing for each of the output signals. This system provides 32 output or timing signals which can be pre-programmed to be in an on or off state for each of 64 time steps. The width or duration of each of the 64 time steps is programmable from 2 {micro}s to 2.5 ms with a minimum time resolution of 500 ns. The repetition rate of the programmed pulse train is only limited by the time duration of the programmed event. This paper describes the design and function of the timing and trigger generator system and software including test results and measurements.

  18. MCCB warm adjustment testing concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdei, Z.; Horgos, M.; Grib, A.; Preradović, D. M.; Rodic, V.

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents an experimental investigation in to operating of thermal protection device behavior from an MCCB (Molded Case Circuit Breaker). One of the main functions of the circuit breaker is to assure protection for the circuits where mounted in for possible overloads of the circuit. The tripping mechanism for the overload protection is based on a bimetal movement during a specific time frame. This movement needs to be controlled and as a solution to control this movement we choose the warm adjustment concept. This concept is meant to improve process capability control and final output. The warm adjustment device design will create a unique adjustment of the bimetal position for each individual breaker, determined when the testing current will flow thru a phase which needs to trip in a certain amount of time. This time is predetermined due to scientific calculation for all standard types of amperages and complies with the IEC 60497 standard requirements.

  19. Optically triggered infrared photodetector.

    PubMed

    Ramiro, Íñigo; Martí, Antonio; Antolín, Elisa; López, Esther; Datas, Alejandro; Luque, Antonio; Ripalda, José M; González, Yolanda

    2015-01-14

    We demonstrate a new class of semiconductor device: the optically triggered infrared photodetector (OTIP). This photodetector is based on a new physical principle that allows the detection of infrared light to be switched ON and OFF by means of an external light. Our experimental device, fabricated using InAs/AlGaAs quantum-dot technology, demonstrates normal incidence infrared detection in the 2-6 μm range. The detection is optically triggered by a 590 nm light-emitting diode. Furthermore, the detection gain is achieved in our device without an increase of the noise level. The novel characteristics of OTIPs open up new possibilities for third generation infrared imaging systems ( Rogalski, A.; Antoszewski, J.; Faraone, L. J. Appl. Phys. 2009, 105 (9), 091101). PMID:25490236

  20. GLAST's GBM Burst Trigger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Band, D.; Briggs, M.; Connaughton, V.; Kippen, M.; Preece, R.

    2003-01-01

    The GLAST Burst Monitor (GBM) will detect and localize bursts for the GLAST mission, and provide the spectral and temporal context in the traditional 10 keV to 25 MeV band for the high energy observations by the Large Area Telescope (LAT). The GBM will use traditional rate triggers in up to three energy bands, and on a variety of timescales between 16 ms and 16 s.

  1. GLAST's GBM Burst Trigger

    SciTech Connect

    Band, D.; Kippen, M.

    2004-09-28

    The GLAST Burst Monitor (GBM) will detect and localize bursts for the GLAST mission, and provide the spectral and temporal context in the traditional 10 keV to 25 MeV band for the high energy observations by the Large Area Telescope (LAT). The GBM will use traditional rate triggers in up to three energy bands, and on a variety of timescales between 16 ms and 16 s.

  2. Neural networks for triggering

    SciTech Connect

    Denby, B. ); Campbell, M. ); Bedeschi, F. ); Chriss, N.; Bowers, C. ); Nesti, F. )

    1990-01-01

    Two types of neural network beauty trigger architectures, based on identification of electrons in jets and recognition of secondary vertices, have been simulated in the environment of the Fermilab CDF experiment. The efficiencies for B's and rejection of background obtained are encouraging. If hardware tests are successful, the electron identification architecture will be tested in the 1991 run of CDF. 10 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Isolating Triggered Star Formation

    SciTech Connect

    Barton, Elizabeth J.; Arnold, Jacob A.; Zentner, Andrew R.; Bullock, James S.; Wechsler, Risa H.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC

    2007-09-12

    Galaxy pairs provide a potentially powerful means of studying triggered star formation from galaxy interactions. We use a large cosmological N-body simulation coupled with a well-tested semi-analytic substructure model to demonstrate that the majority of galaxies in close pairs reside within cluster or group-size halos and therefore represent a biased population, poorly suited for direct comparison to 'field' galaxies. Thus, the frequent observation that some types of galaxies in pairs have redder colors than 'field' galaxies is primarily a selection effect. We use our simulations to devise a means to select galaxy pairs that are isolated in their dark matter halos with respect to other massive subhalos (N= 2 halos) and to select a control sample of isolated galaxies (N= 1 halos) for comparison. We then apply these selection criteria to a volume-limited subset of the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey with M{sub B,j} {le} -19 and obtain the first clean measure of the typical fraction of galaxies affected by triggered star formation and the average elevation in the star formation rate. We find that 24% (30.5 %) of these L* and sub-L* galaxies in isolated 50 (30) h{sup -1} kpc pairs exhibit star formation that is boosted by a factor of {approx}> 5 above their average past value, while only 10% of isolated galaxies in the control sample show this level of enhancement. Thus, 14% (20 %) of the galaxies in these close pairs show clear triggered star formation. Our orbit models suggest that 12% (16%) of 50 (30) h{sup -1} kpc close pairs that are isolated according to our definition have had a close ({le} 30 h{sup -1} kpc) pass within the last Gyr. Thus, the data are broadly consistent with a scenario in which most or all close passes of isolated pairs result in triggered star formation. The isolation criteria we develop provide a means to constrain star formation and feedback prescriptions in hydrodynamic simulations and a very general method of understanding the importance of

  4. Correlated observations of three triggered lightning flashes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Idone, V. P.; Orville, R. E.; Hubert, P.; Barret, L.; Eybert-Berard, A.

    1984-01-01

    Three triggered lightning flashes, initiated during the Thunderstorm Research International Program (1981) at Langmuir Laboratory, New Mexico, are examined on the basis of three-dimensional return stroke propagation speeds and peak currents. Nonlinear relationships result between return stroke propagation speed and stroke peak current for 56 strokes, and between return stroke propagation speed and dart leader propagation speed for 32 strokes. Calculated linear correlation coefficients include dart leader propagation speed and ensuing return stroke peak current (32 strokes; r = 0.84); and stroke peak current and interstroke interval (69 strokes; r = 0.57). Earlier natural lightning data do not concur with the weak positive correlation between dart leader propagation speed and interstroke interval. Therefore, application of triggered lightning results to natural lightning phenomena must be made with certain caveats. Mean values are included for the three-dimensional return stroke propagation speed and for the three-dimensional dart leader propagation speed.

  5. Triggered Codeswitching between Cognate Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broersma, Mirjam

    2009-01-01

    This study shows further evidence for triggered codeswitching. In natural speech from a Dutch-English bilingual, codeswitches occurred more often directly next to a cognate (or "trigger word") than elsewhere. This evidence from typologically related, cognate languages extends previous evidence for triggering between typologically unrelated…

  6. Work Adjustment in Employment and Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mori, John

    1980-01-01

    Posits that the current CETA program has imposed barriers that oppose the goal of increasing the work capabilities of the participants. Employment and training programs have been improperly designed to deal successfully with those having difficulty with work adjustment. (JOW)

  7. A Tool for Modelling the Impact of Triggered Landslide Events on Road Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, F. E.; Santangelo, M.; Marchesini, I.; Malamud, B. D.; Guzzetti, F.

    2014-12-01

    In the minutes to weeks after a landslide trigger such as an earthquake or heavy rain, tens to thousands of landslides may occur across a region, resulting in simultaneous blockages across the road network, which can impact recovery efforts. In this paper, we show the development, application and confrontation with observed data, of a model to semi-stochastically simulate triggered landslide events and their impact on road network topologies. In this model, "synthetic" triggered landslide event inventories are created by randomly selecting landslide sizes and shapes from already established statistical distributions. The landslides are then semi-randomly distributed over the region's road network, where they are more or less likely to land based on a landslide susceptibility map. The number, size and network impact of the road blockages is then calculated. This process is repeated in a Monte Carlo type simulation to assess a range of scenarios. Due to the generally applicable statistical distributions used to create the synthetic triggered landslide event inventories and the relatively minimal data requirements to run the model, the model is theoretically applicable to many regions of the world where triggered landslide events occur. Current work focuses on applying the model to two regions: (i) the Collazzone basin (79 km2) in Central Italy where 422 landslides were triggered by rapid snowmelt in January 1997, (ii) the Oat Mountain quadrangle (155 km2) in California, USA, where 1,350 landslides were triggered by the Northridge Earthquake (M = 6.7) in January 1994. When appropriate adjustments are made to susceptibility in the immediate vicinity of the roads, model results match reasonably well observations. In Collazzone (length of road = 153 km, landslide density = 5.2 landslides km-2), the median number of road blockages over 100 model runs was 5 (±2.5 s.d.), compared to the observed number of 5. In Northridge (length of road = 780 km, landslide density = 8

  8. High Level Trigger Configuration and Handling of Trigger Tables in the CMS Filter Farm

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, G; Behrens, U; Boyer, V; Branson, J; Brett, A; Cano, E; Carboni, A; Ciganek, M; Cittolin, S; O'dell, V; Erhan, S; Gigi, D; Glege, F; Gomez-Reino, R; Gulmini, M; Gutleber, J; Hollar, J; Lange, D; Kim, J C; Klute, M; Lipeles, E; Perez, J L; Maron, G; Meijers, F; Meschi, E; Moser, R; Mlot, E G; Murray, S; Oh, A; Orsini, L; Paus, C; Petrucci, A; Pieri, M; Pollet, L; Racz, A; Sakulin, H; Sani, M; Schieferdecker, P; Schwick, C; Sumorok, K; Suzuki, I; Tsirigkas, D; Varela, J

    2009-11-22

    The CMS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider is currently being commissioned and is scheduled to collect the first pp collision data in 2008. CMS features a two-level trigger system. The Level-1 trigger, based on custom hardware, is designed to reduce the collision rate of 40 MHz to approximately 100 kHz. Data for events accepted by the Level-1 trigger are read out and assembled by an Event Builder. The High Level Trigger (HLT) employs a set of sophisticated software algorithms, to analyze the complete event information, and further reduce the accepted event rate for permanent storage and analysis. This paper describes the design and implementation of the HLT Configuration Management system. First experiences with commissioning of the HLT system are also reported.

  9. What triggers coronal mass ejections ?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aulanier, Guillaume

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are large clouds of highly magnetized plasma. They are ac-celerated from the solar atmosphere into interplanetary space by the Lorentz force, which is associated to their strong current-carrying magnetic fields. Both theory and observations lead to the inevitable conclusion that the launch of a CME must result from the sudden release of free magnetic energy, which has slowly been accumulated in the corona for a long time before the eruption. Since the incomplete, but seminal, loss-of-equilibrium model was proposed by van Tend and Kuperus (1978), a large variety of analytical and numerical storage-and-release MHD models has been put forward in the past 20 years or so. All these models rely on the slow increase of currents and/or the slow decrease of the restraining magnetic tension preceding the eruption. But they all put the emphazis on different physical mechanisms to achieve this preeruptive evolution, and to suddenly trigger and later drive a CME. Nevertheless, all these models actually share many common features, which all describe many individual observed aspects of solar eruptions. It is therefore not always clear which of all the suggested mecha-nisms do really account for the triggering of observed CMEs in general. Also, these mechanisms should arguably not be as numerous as the models themselves, owing to the common occurence of CMEs. In order to shed some light on this challenging, but unripe, topic, I will attempt to rediscuss the applicability of the models to the Sun, and to rethink the most sensitive ones in a common frame, so as to find their common denominator. I will elaborate on the idea that many of the proposed triggering mechanisms may actually only be considered as different ways to apply a "last push", which puts the system beyond its eruptive threshold. I will argue that, in most cases, the eruptive threshold is determined by the vertical gradient of the magnetic field in the low-β corona, just like the usual

  10. BTeV level 1 vertex trigger

    SciTech Connect

    Michael H.L.S. Wang

    2001-11-05

    BTeV is a B-physics experiment that expects to begin collecting data at the C0 interaction region of the Fermilab Tevatron in the year 2006. Its primary goal is to achieve unprecedented levels of sensitivity in the study of CP violation, mixing, and rare decays in b and c quark systems. In order to realize this, it will employ a state-of-the-art first-level vertex trigger (Level 1) that will look at every beam crossing to identify detached secondary vertices that provide evidence for heavy quark decays. This talk will briefly describe the BTeV detector and trigger, focus on the software and hardware aspects of the Level 1 vertex trigger, and describe work currently being done in these areas.

  11. Subnanosecond trigger system for ETA

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, E.G.; Lauer, E.J.; Reginato, L.L.; Rogers D.; Schmidt, J.A.

    1980-05-30

    A high-voltage trigger system capable of triggering 30, 250 kV spark gaps; each with less than +- 1 ns jitter has been constructed. In addition to low jitter rates, the trigger system must be capable of delivering the high voltage pulses to the spark gaps either simultaneously or sequentially as determined by other system requirements. The trigger system consists of several stages of pulse amplification culminating in 160 kV pulses having 30 ns risetime. The trigger system is described and test data provided.

  12. Tau Trigger at the ATLAS Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Benslama, K.; Kalinowski, A.; Belanger-Champange, C.; Brenner, R.; Bosman, M.; Casado, P.; Osuna, C.; Perez, E.; Vorwerk, V.; Czyczula, Z.; Dam, M.; Xella, S.; Demers, S.; Farrington, S.; Igonkina, O.; Kanaya, N.; Tsuno, S.; Ptacek, E.; Reinsch, A.; Strom, David M.; Torrence, E.; /Oregon U. /Sydney U. /Lancaster U. /Birmingham U.

    2011-11-09

    Many theoretical models, like the Standard Model or SUSY at large tan({beta}), predict Higgs bosons or new particles which decay more abundantly to final states including tau leptons than to other leptons. At the energy scale of the LHC, the identification of tau leptons, in particular in the hadronic decay mode, will be a challenging task due to an overwhelming QCD background which gives rise to jets of particles that can be hard to distinguish from hadronic tau decays. Equipped with excellent tracking and calorimetry, the ATLAS experiment has developed tau identification tools capable of working at the trigger level. This contribution presents tau trigger algorithms which exploit the main features of hadronic tau decays and describes the current tau trigger commissioning activities. Many of the SM processes being investigated at ATLAS, as well as numerous BSM searches, contain tau leptons in their final states. Being able to trigger effectively on the tau leptons in these events will contribute to the success of the ATLAS experiment. The tau trigger algorithms and monitoring infrastructure are ready for the first data, and are being tested with the data collected with cosmic muons. The development of efficiency measurements methods using QCD and Z {yields} {tau}{tau} events is well advanced.

  13. Adjusting the Chain Gear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koloc, Z.; Korf, J.; Kavan, P.

    The adjustment (modification) deals with gear chains intermediating (transmitting) motion transfer between the sprocket wheels on parallel shafts. The purpose of the adjustments of chain gear is to remove the unwanted effects by using the chain guide on the links (sliding guide rail) ensuring a smooth fit of the chain rollers into the wheel tooth gap.

  14. Adjustment to Recruit Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Betty S.

    The thesis examines problems of adjustment encountered by new recruits entering the military services. Factors affecting adjustment are discussed: the recruit training staff and environment, recruit background characteristics, the military's image, the changing values and motivations of today's youth, and the recruiting process. Sources of…

  15. Performance and upgrade plans of the LHCb trigger system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gligorov, V. V.; LHCb Collaboration

    2013-08-01

    The trigger of the LHCb experiment consists of two stages: an initial hardware trigger, and a high-level trigger implemented in a farm of parallel-processing CPUs. It reduces the event rate from an input of 15 MHz to an output rate of around 4 kHz. In order to maximize efficiencies and minimize biases, the trigger is designed around inclusive selection algorithms, culminating in a novel boosted decision tree which enables the efficient selection of beauty hadron decays based on a robust partial reconstruction of their decay products. In order to improve performance, the LHCb upgrade aims to significantly increase the rate at which the detector will be read out, and hence shift more of the workload onto the high-level trigger. It is demonstrated that the current high-level trigger architecture will be able to meet this challenge, and the expected efficiencies in several key channels are discussed in context of the LHCb upgrade.

  16. Protons Trigger Mitochondrial Flashes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xianhua; Zhang, Xing; Huang, Zhanglong; Wu, Di; Liu, Beibei; Zhang, Rufeng; Yin, Rongkang; Hou, Tingting; Jian, Chongshu; Xu, Jiejia; Zhao, Yan; Wang, Yanru; Gao, Feng; Cheng, Heping

    2016-07-26

    Emerging evidence indicates that mitochondrial flashes (mitoflashes) are highly conserved elemental mitochondrial signaling events. However, which signal controls their ignition and how they are integrated with other mitochondrial signals and functions remain elusive. In this study, we aimed to further delineate the signal components of the mitoflash and determine the mitoflash trigger mechanism. Using multiple biosensors and chemical probes as well as label-free autofluorescence, we found that the mitoflash reflects chemical and electrical excitation at the single-organelle level, comprising bursting superoxide production, oxidative redox shift, and matrix alkalinization as well as transient membrane depolarization. Both electroneutral H(+)/K(+) or H(+)/Na(+) antiport and matrix proton uncaging elicited immediate and robust mitoflash responses over a broad dynamic range in cardiomyocytes and HeLa cells. However, charge-uncompensated proton transport, which depolarizes mitochondria, caused the opposite effect, and steady matrix acidification mildly inhibited mitoflashes. Based on a numerical simulation, we estimated a mean proton lifetime of 1.42 ns and diffusion distance of 2.06 nm in the matrix. We conclude that nanodomain protons act as a novel, to our knowledge, trigger of mitoflashes in energized mitochondria. This finding suggests that mitoflash genesis is functionally and mechanistically integrated with mitochondrial energy metabolism. PMID:27463140

  17. The Sandia transportable triggered lightning instrumentation facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schnetzer, George H.; Fisher, Richard J.

    1991-01-01

    Development of the Sandia Transportable Triggered Lightning Instrumentation Facility (SATTLIF) was motivated by a requirement for the in situ testing of a munitions storage bunker. Transfer functions relating the incident flash currents to voltages, currents, and electromagnetic field values throughout the structure will be obtained for use in refining and validating a lightning response computer model of this type of structure. A preliminary shakedown trial of the facility under actual operational conditions was performed during summer of 1990 at the Kennedy Space Center's (KSC) rocket-triggered lightning test site. A description is given of the SATTLIF, which is readily transportable on a single flatbed truck of by aircraft, and its instrumentation for measuring incident lightning channel currents and the responses of the systems under test. Measurements of return-stroke current peaks obtained with the SATTLIF are presented. Agreement with data acquired on the same flashes with existing KSC instrumentation is, on average, to within approximately 7 percent. Continuing currents were measured with a resolution of approximately 2.5 A. This field trial demonstrated the practicality of using a transportable triggered lightning facility for specialized test applications.

  18. The Sandia Transportable Triggered Lightning Instrumentation Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Schnetzer, G.H.; Fisher, R.J.

    1991-01-01

    Development of the Sandia Transportable Triggered Lightning Instrumentation Facility (SATTLIF) was motivated by a requirement for the in situ testing of munitions storage bunker. Transfer functions relating the incident flash currents to voltages, currents, and electromagnetic field values throughout the structure will be obtained for use in refining and validating a lightning response computer model of this type of structure. A preliminary shakedown trial of the facility under actual operational conditions was performed during the summer of 1990 at the Kennedy Space Center's (KSC) rocket-triggered lightning test site in Florida. A description is given of the SATTLIF, which is readily transportable on a single flatbed truck or by aircraft, and its instrumentation for measuring incident lightning channel currents and the responses of systems under test. Measurements of return-stroke current peaks obtained with the SATLLIF are presented. Agreement with data acquired on the same flashes with existing KSC instrumentation is, on average, to within {approximately}7 percent. Continuing currents were measured with a resolution of {approximately}2.5 A. This field trial demonstrated the practicality of using a transportable triggered lightning facility for specialized test applications. 5 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  19. High PRF high current switch

    DOEpatents

    Moran, Stuart L.; Hutcherson, R. Kenneth

    1990-03-27

    A triggerable, high voltage, high current, spark gap switch for use in pu power systems. The device comprises a pair of electrodes in a high pressure hydrogen environment that is triggered by introducing an arc between one electrode and a trigger pin. Unusually high repetition rates may be obtained by undervolting the switch, i.e., operating the trigger at voltages much below the self-breakdown voltage of the device.

  20. SLIT ADJUSTMENT CLAMP

    DOEpatents

    McKenzie, K.R.

    1959-07-01

    An electrode support which permits accurate alignment and adjustment of the electrode in a plurality of planes and about a plurality of axes in a calutron is described. The support will align the slits in the electrode with the slits of an ionizing chamber so as to provide for the egress of ions. The support comprises an insulator, a leveling plate carried by the insulator and having diametrically opposed attaching screws screwed to the plate and the insulator and diametrically opposed adjusting screws for bearing against the insulator, and an electrode associated with the plate for adjustment therewith.

  1. CMS Frailty Adjustment Model

    PubMed Central

    Kautter, John; Pope, Gregory C.

    2004-01-01

    The authors document the development of the CMS frailty adjustment model, a Medicare payment approach that adjusts payments to a Medicare managed care organization (MCO) according to the functional impairment of its community-residing enrollees. Beginning in 2004, this approach is being applied to certain organizations, such as Program of All-Inclusive Care for the Elderly (PACE), that specialize in providing care to the community-residing frail elderly. In the future, frailty adjustment could be extended to more Medicare managed care organizations. PMID:25372243

  2. Effector triggered immunity

    PubMed Central

    Rajamuthiah, Rajmohan; Mylonakis, Eleftherios

    2014-01-01

    Pathogenic bacteria produce virulence factors called effectors, which are important components of the infection process. Effectors aid in pathogenesis by facilitating bacterial attachment, pathogen entry into or exit from the host cell, immunoevasion, and immunosuppression. Effectors also have the ability to subvert host cellular processes, such as hijacking cytoskeletal machinery or blocking protein translation. However, host cells possess an evolutionarily conserved innate immune response that can sense the pathogen through the activity of its effectors and mount a robust immune response. This “effector triggered immunity” (ETI) was first discovered in plants but recent evidence suggest that the process is also well conserved in metazoans. We will discuss salient points of the mechanism of ETI in metazoans from recent studies done in mammalian cells and invertebrate model hosts. PMID:25513770

  3. The CMS high level trigger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gori, Valentina

    2014-05-01

    The CMS experiment has been designed with a 2-level trigger system: the Level 1 Trigger, implemented on custom-designed electronics, and the High Level Trigger (HLT), a streamlined version of the CMS offline reconstruction software running on a computer farm. A software trigger system requires a tradeoff between the complexity of the algorithms running on the available computing power, the sustainable output rate, and the selection efficiency. Here we will present the performance of the main triggers used during the 2012 data taking, ranging from simpler single-object selections to more complex algorithms combining different objects, and applying analysis-level reconstruction and selection. We will discuss the optimisation of the triggers and the specific techniques to cope with the increasing LHC pile-up, reducing its impact on the physics performance.

  4. The CMS High Level Trigger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trocino, Daniele

    2014-06-01

    The CMS experiment has been designed with a two-level trigger system: the Level-1 Trigger, implemented in custom-designed electronics, and the High-Level Trigger (HLT), a streamlined version of the CMS offline reconstruction software running on a computer farm. A software trigger system requires a tradeoff between the complexity of the algorithms running with the available computing power, the sustainable output rate, and the selection efficiency. We present the performance of the main triggers used during the 2012 data taking, ranging from simple single-object selections to more complex algorithms combining different objects, and applying analysis-level reconstruction and selection. We discuss the optimisation of the trigger and the specific techniques to cope with the increasing LHC pile-up, reducing its impact on the physics performance.

  5. Remotely Adjustable Hydraulic Pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kouns, H. H.; Gardner, L. D.

    1987-01-01

    Outlet pressure adjusted to match varying loads. Electrohydraulic servo has positioned sleeve in leftmost position, adjusting outlet pressure to maximum value. Sleeve in equilibrium position, with control land covering control port. For lowest pressure setting, sleeve shifted toward right by increased pressure on sleeve shoulder from servovalve. Pump used in aircraft and robots, where hydraulic actuators repeatedly turned on and off, changing pump load frequently and over wide range.

  6. Adaptive periodic event-triggered consensus for multi-agent systems subject to input saturation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Xiuxia; Yue, Dong; Hu, Songlin

    2016-04-01

    This paper investigates the distributed adaptive event-triggered consensus control for a class of nonlinear agents. Each agent is subject to input saturation. Two kinds of distributed event-triggered control scheme are introduced, one is continuous-time-based event-triggered scheme and the other is sampled-data-based event-triggered scheme. Compared with the traditional event-triggered schemes in the existing literatures, the parameters of the event-triggered schemes in this paper are adaptively adjusted by using some event-error-dependent adaptive laws. The problem of simultaneously deriving the controller gain matrix and the event-triggering parameter matrix, and tackling the saturation nonlinearity is cast into standard linear matrix inequalities problem. A convincing simulation example is given to demonstrate the theoretical results.

  7. Triggering with the LHCb calorimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lefevre, Regis; LHCb Collaboration

    2009-04-01

    The LHCb experiment at the LHC has been conceived to pursue high precision studies of CP violation and rare phenomena in b hadron decays. The online selection is crucial in LHCb and relies on the calorimeters to trigger on high transverse energy electrons, photons, π0 and hadrons. In this purpose a dedicated electronic has been realized. The calorimeter trigger system has been commissioned and is used to trigger on cosmic muons before beams start circulating in the LHC. When the LHC will start, it will also provide a very useful interaction trigger.

  8. Trigger and Readout System for the Ashra-1 Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aita, Y.; Aoki, T.; Asaoka, Y.; Morimoto, Y.; Motz, H. M.; Sasaki, M.; Abiko, C.; Kanokohata, C.; Ogawa, S.; Shibuya, H.; Takada, T.; Kimura, T.; Learned, J. G.; Matsuno, S.; Kuze, S.; Binder, P. M.; Goldman, J.; Sugiyama, N.; Watanabe, Y.

    Highly sophisticated trigger and readout system has been developed for All-sky Survey High Resolution Air-shower (Ashra) detector. Ashra-1 detector has 42 degree diameter field of view. Detection of Cherenkov and fluorescence light from large background in the large field of view requires finely segmented and high speed trigger and readout system. The system is composed of optical fiber image transmission system, 64 × 64 channel trigger sensor and FPGA based trigger logic processor. The system typically processes the image within 10 to 30 ns and opens the shutter on the fine CMOS sensor. 64 × 64 coarse split image is transferred via 64 × 64 precisely aligned optical fiber bundle to a photon sensor. Current signals from the photon sensor are discriminated by custom made trigger amplifiers. FPGA based processor processes 64 × 64 hit pattern and correspondent partial area of the fine image is acquired. Commissioning earth skimming tau neutrino observational search was carried out with this trigger system. In addition to the geometrical advantage of the Ashra observational site, the excellent tau shower axis measurement based on the fine imaging and the night sky background rejection based on the fine and fast imaging allow zero background tau shower search. Adoption of the optical fiber bundle and trigger LSI realized 4k channel trigger system cheaply. Detectability of tau shower is also confirmed by simultaneously observed Cherenkov air shower. Reduction of the trigger threshold appears to enhance the effective area especially in PeV tau neutrino energy region. New two dimensional trigger LSI was introduced and the trigger threshold was lowered. New calibration system of the trigger system was recently developed and introduced to the Ashra detector

  9. Unconsciously Triggered Emotional Conflict by Emotional Facial Expressions

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Antao; Cui, Qian; Zhang, Qinglin

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated whether emotional conflict and emotional conflict adaptation could be triggered by unconscious emotional information as assessed in a backward-masked affective priming task. Participants were instructed to identify the valence of a face (e.g., happy or sad) preceded by a masked happy or sad face. The results of two experiments revealed the emotional conflict effect but no emotional conflict adaptation effect. This demonstrates that emotional conflict can be triggered by unconsciously presented emotional information, but participants may not adjust their subsequent performance trial-by trial to reduce this conflict. PMID:23409084

  10. Gully evolution and geomorphic adjustments of badlands to recent afforestation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballesteros-Cánovas, Juan Antonio; Stoffel, Markus; Francisco Martín-Duque, Jose; Corona, Christophe; Lucia, Ana; María Bodoque, Jose

    2016-04-01

    Badlands and gullied areas are among the geomorphic environments with the highest erosion rates worldwide, however records on their evolution are very scarce and often limited to presumed initial conditions and the known present state. In this communication, we present a unique and very dense and annual record and outstanding example of erosion processes in a Mediterranean environment in Central Spain, where badland and gullying processes on sandy slopes of a set of mesas have been presumably triggered by quarrying activities since Medieval times. The gully channel evolution here analyzed provides an exceptional example of a larger setting of geomorphic. Besides the analysis of geomorphic adjustments to historical land-use changes induced by historical quarrying and gullying dynamics, we also quantified the impact of current geomorphic adjustments to 20th century afforestation by combining multiproxy such as aerial photography, historical archives, and large dataset of exposed roots to date, quantify, and reconstruct the morphology of a rapidly evolving channel in a gullied catchment. In this analysis, more than 150 exposed roots were analyzed to quantify and report channel incision; widening and gully retreatment rates during the last decades, as well as to quantify sheet erosion on different soil units. Our results suggest that, rather than stabilizing gully evolution, the afforestation carried out during 1960s has played an important role in water-sediment balance and connectivity and would have triggered the initiation of channel incision processes in the 1980s. Therefore, we observe that the channel incision match with a significant increase of the vegetation cover, which leads a significant decrease in sheet erosion rates. Based on our long-term annual gully reconstruction, we observed that sediment delivery does not correlate with the estimated intensity of precipitation (Fourier index). Instead, we observe abrupt morphological changes in the gully are

  11. The NA62 trigger system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krivda, M.; NA62 Collaboration

    2013-08-01

    The main aim of the NA62 experiment (NA62 Technical Design Report, [1]) is to study ultra-rare Kaon decays. In order to select rare events over the overwhelming background, central systems with high-performance, high bandwidth, flexibility and configurability are necessary, that minimize dead time while maximizing data collection reliability. The NA62 experiment consists of 12 sub-detector systems and several trigger and control systems, for a total channel count of less than 100,000. The GigaTracKer (GTK) has the largest number of channels (54,000), and the Liquid Krypton (LKr) calorimeter shares with it the largest raw data rate (19 GB/s). The NA62 trigger system works with 3 trigger levels. The first trigger level is based on a hardware central trigger unit, so-called L0 Trigger Processor (L0TP), and Local Trigger Units (LTU), which are all located in the experimental cavern. Other two trigger levels are based on software, and done with a computer farm located on surface. The L0TP receives information from triggering sub-detectors asynchronously via Ethernet; it processes the information, and then transmits a final trigger decision synchronously to each sub-detector through the Trigger and Timing Control (TTC) system. The interface between L0TP and the TTC system, which is used for trigger and clock distribution, is provided by the Local Trigger Unit board (LTU). The LTU can work in two modes: global and stand-alone. In the global mode, the LTU provides an interface between L0TP and TTC system. In the stand-alone mode, the LTU can fully emulate L0TP and so provides an independent way for each sub-detector for testing or calibration purposes. In addition to the emulation functionality, a further functionality is implemented that allows to synchronize the clock of the LTU with the L0TP and the TTC system. For testing and debugging purposes, a Snap Shot Memory (SSM) interface is implemented, that can work

  12. Triggering of repeated earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobolev, G. A.; Zakrzhevskaya, N. A.; Sobolev, D. G.

    2016-03-01

    Based on the analysis of the world's earthquakes with magnitudes M ≥ 6.5 for 1960-2013, it is shown that they cause global-scale coherent seismic oscillations which most distinctly manifest themselves in the period interval of 4-6 min during 1-3 days after the event. After these earthquakes, a repeated shock has an increased probability to occur in different seismically active regions located as far away as a few thousand km from the previous event, i.e., a remote interaction of seismic events takes place. The number of the repeated shocks N( t) decreases with time, which characterizes the memory of the lithosphere about the impact that has occurred. The time decay N( t) can be approximated by the linear, exponential, and powerlaw dependences. No distinct correlation between the spatial locations of the initial and repeated earthquakes is revealed. The probable triggering mechanisms of the remote interaction between the earthquakes are discussed. Surface seismic waves traveling several times around the Earth's, coherent oscillations, and global source are the most preferable candidates. This may lead to the accumulation and coalescence of ruptures in the highly stressed or weakened domains of a seismically active region, which increases the probability of a repeated earthquake.

  13. Partial covariate adjusted regression

    PubMed Central

    Şentürk, Damla; Nguyen, Danh V.

    2008-01-01

    Covariate adjusted regression (CAR) is a recently proposed adjustment method for regression analysis where both the response and predictors are not directly observed (Şentürk and Müller, 2005). The available data has been distorted by unknown functions of an observable confounding covariate. CAR provides consistent estimators for the coefficients of the regression between the variables of interest, adjusted for the confounder. We develop a broader class of partial covariate adjusted regression (PCAR) models to accommodate both distorted and undistorted (adjusted/unadjusted) predictors. The PCAR model allows for unadjusted predictors, such as age, gender and demographic variables, which are common in the analysis of biomedical and epidemiological data. The available estimation and inference procedures for CAR are shown to be invalid for the proposed PCAR model. We propose new estimators and develop new inference tools for the more general PCAR setting. In particular, we establish the asymptotic normality of the proposed estimators and propose consistent estimators of their asymptotic variances. Finite sample properties of the proposed estimators are investigated using simulation studies and the method is also illustrated with a Pima Indians diabetes data set. PMID:20126296

  14. Fermi GBM Early Trigger Characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Connaughton, Valerie; Briggs, Michael; Paciesas, Bill; Meegan, Charles

    2009-05-25

    Since the launch of the Fermi observatory on June 11 2008, the Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) has seen approximately 250 triggers of which about 150 were cosmic gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). GBM operates dozens of trigger algorithms covering various energy bands and timescales and is therefore sensitive to a wide variety of phenomena, both astrophysical and not.

  15. Triggering requirements for SSC physics

    SciTech Connect

    Gilchriese, M.G.D.

    1989-04-01

    Some aspects of triggering requirements for high P{sub T} physics processes at the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) are described. A very wide range of trigger types will be required to enable detection of the large number of potential physics signatures possible at the SSC. Although in many cases trigger rates are not now well understood, it is possible to conclude that the ability to trigger on transverse energy, number and energy of jets, number and energy of leptons (electrons and muons), missing energy and combinations of these will be required. An SSC trigger system must be both highly flexible and redundant to ensure reliable detection of many new physics processes at the SSC.

  16. Superconducting FCL using a combined inducted magnetic field trigger and shunt coil

    DOEpatents

    Tekletsadik, Kasegn D.

    2007-10-16

    A single trigger/shunt coil is utilized for combined induced magnetic field triggering and shunt impedance. The single coil connected in parallel with the high temperature superconducting element, is designed to generate a circulating current in the parallel circuit during normal operation to aid triggering the high temperature superconducting element to quench in the event of a fault. The circulating current is generated by an induced voltage in the coil, when the system current flows through the high temperature superconducting element.

  17. Rural to Urban Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abramson, Jane A.

    Personal interviews with 100 former farm operators living in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, were conducted in an attempt to understand the nature of the adjustment process caused by migration from rural to urban surroundings. Requirements for inclusion in the study were that respondents had owned or operated a farm for at least 3 years, had left their…

  18. Self adjusting inclinometer

    DOEpatents

    Hunter, Steven L.

    2002-01-01

    An inclinometer utilizing synchronous demodulation for high resolution and electronic offset adjustment provides a wide dynamic range without any moving components. A device encompassing a tiltmeter and accompanying electronic circuitry provides quasi-leveled tilt sensors that detect highly resolved tilt change without signal saturation.

  19. Self Adjusting Sunglasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Corning Glass Works' Serengeti Driver sunglasses are unique in that their lenses self-adjust and filter light while suppressing glare. They eliminate more than 99% of the ultraviolet rays in sunlight. The frames are based on the NASA Anthropometric Source Book.

  20. Mirror-image trigger thumb in dichorionic identical twins.

    PubMed

    Wang, Eric D; Xu, Xiaoti; Dagum, Alexander B

    2012-06-01

    The congenital vs acquired etiology of pediatric trigger thumb is the subject of considerable debate. Existing case reports of bilateral presentation in identical twins and first-degree familial association support the congenital hypothesis. However, prospective studies have yet to report a neonate presenting with this anomaly at birth. This article describes the first known set of dichorionic, monozygotic identical twins with unilateral trigger thumbs, affecting contralateral (mirror-image) hands and with asynchronous age at presentation (11 months and 18 months, respectively).Pediatric trigger thumb is caused by a mismatch between the flexor pollicis longus tendon and its A1 synovial pulley. Four sets of twins have been previously reported in the literature with trigger thumb. Of these, 3 sets were monozygotic twins who had bilaterally affected thumbs. Together with the absence of trauma, a congenital etiology was suggested. The fact that pediatric trigger thumb is generally seen several months after birth was felt to be due to infants holding their thumbs clutched in their palms until 6 months. However, no confirmed cases of trigger thumb have been diagnosed at birth in several large prospective studies of newborns.In the current case, the asynchronous presentation of unilateral trigger thumbs in identical twins does not support a solely congenital cause. Furthermore, the mirror-image presentation contradicts current embryological understanding of the temporal course of twinning and the determination of laterality. Thus, a multifactorial etiology is supported with both a genetic and acquired component affecting the development of this condition. PMID:22691680

  1. Triggered Release from Polymer Capsules

    SciTech Connect

    Esser-Kahn, Aaron P.; Odom, Susan A.; Sottos, Nancy R.; White, Scott R.; Moore, Jeffrey S.

    2011-07-06

    Stimuli-responsive capsules are of interest in drug delivery, fragrance release, food preservation, and self-healing materials. Many methods are used to trigger the release of encapsulated contents. Here we highlight mechanisms for the controlled release of encapsulated cargo that utilize chemical reactions occurring in solid polymeric shell walls. Triggering mechanisms responsible for covalent bond cleavage that result in the release of capsule contents include chemical, biological, light, thermal, magnetic, and electrical stimuli. We present methods for encapsulation and release, triggering methods, and mechanisms and conclude with our opinions on interesting obstacles for chemically induced activation with relevance for controlled release.

  2. Seismology: dynamic triggering of earthquakes.

    PubMed

    Gomberg, Joan; Johnson, Paul

    2005-10-01

    After an earthquake, numerous smaller shocks are triggered over distances comparable to the dimensions of the mainshock fault rupture, although they are rare at larger distances. Here we analyse the scaling of dynamic deformations (the stresses and strains associated with seismic waves) with distance from, and magnitude of, their triggering earthquake, and show that they can cause further earthquakes at any distance if their amplitude exceeds several microstrain, regardless of their frequency content. These triggering requirements are remarkably similar to those measured in the laboratory for inducing dynamic elastic nonlinear behaviour, which suggests that the underlying physics is similar. PMID:16208360

  3. GLAST Burst Monitor Trigger Classification Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perrin, D. J.; Sidman, E. D.; Meegan, C. A.; Briggs, M. S.; Connaughton, V.

    2004-01-01

    The Gamma Ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST), currently set for launch in the first quarter of 2007, will consist of two instruments, the GLAST Burst Monitor (GBM) and the Large Area Telescope (LAT). One of the goals of the GBM is to identify and locate gamma-ray bursts using on-board software. The GLAST observatory can then be re-oriented to allow observations by the LAT. A Bayesian analysis will be used to distinguish gamma-ray bursts from other triggering events, such as solar flares, magnetospheric particle precipitation, soft gamma repeaters (SGRs), and Cygnus X-1 flaring. The trigger parameters used in the analysis are the burst celestial coordinates, angle from the Earth's horizon, spectral hardness, and the spacecraft geomagnetic latitude. The algorithm will be described and the results of testing will be presented.

  4. Level-2 Calorimeter Trigger Upgrade at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Flanagan, G.U.; /Purdue U.

    2007-04-01

    The CDF Run II Level-2 calorimeter trigger is implemented in hardware and is based on an algorithm used in Run I. This system insured good performance at low luminosity obtained during the Tevatron Run II. However, as the Tevatron instantaneous luminosity increases, the limitations of the current system due to the algorithm start to become clear. In this paper, we will present an upgrade of the Level-2 calorimeter trigger system at CDF. The upgrade is based on the Pulsar board, a general purpose VME board developed at CDF and used for upgrading both the Level-2 tracking and the Level-2 global decision crate. This paper will describe the design, hardware and software implementation, as well as the advantages of this approach over the existing system.

  5. A parallel pipelined dataflow trigger processor

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, C.; Miller, G.; Kaplan, D.M.; Sa, J. ); Hsiung, Y.B. ); Carey, T.; Jeppesen, R. )

    1991-04-01

    This paper describes a parallel pipelined data flow trigger processor which is used in Fermilab E789. E789 is an experiment to study low-multiplicity decays of particles containing b or c quarks. The processor consists of an upstream vertex processor and a downstream track processor. The algorithms which reconstruct the postulated particle paths and calculate particle origin are implemented via interconnected function-specific hardware modules. The algorithm is directly dependent upon the organization of the modules, the specific arrangement of the inter-module cabling, on-board memory data. The processor provides an indication of the presence of at least one interesting particle pair in the current event by asserting Read on its Read/Skip output. The Read assertion is then used as a trigger to capture all of the event's data for subsequent extensive off-line analysis.

  6. A light-triggered protein secretion system

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Daniel; Gibson, Emily S.

    2013-01-01

    Optical control of protein interactions has emerged as a powerful experimental paradigm for manipulating and studying various cellular processes. Tools are now available for controlling a number of cellular functions, but some fundamental processes, such as protein secretion, have been difficult to engineer using current optical tools. Here we use UVR8, a plant photoreceptor protein that forms photolabile homodimers, to engineer the first light-triggered protein secretion system. UVR8 fusion proteins were conditionally sequestered in the endoplasmic reticulum, and a brief pulse of light triggered robust forward trafficking through the secretory pathway to the plasma membrane. UVR8 was not responsive to excitation light used to image cyan, green, or red fluorescent protein variants, allowing multicolor visualization of cellular markers and secreted protein cargo as it traverses the cellular secretory pathway. We implemented this novel tool in neurons to demonstrate restricted, local trafficking of secretory cargo near dendritic branch points. PMID:23671313

  7. LIF bio-aerosol threat triggers: then and now

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeFreez, Richard

    2009-09-01

    Bio-aerosol terrorist attacks have been carried out against civilians in the United States and elsewhere. Unfortunately, recurrence appears inevitable. A fast, reliable, and inexpensive bioaerosol threat detection trigger can be an important tool for detect-to-protect and detect-to-treat countermeasure scenarios. Bio-aerosol threat detection triggers employing light, historically laser light but recently LED light, for induced native- or auto-fluorescence (LIF) have been developed for well over a decade without a generally accepted solution being found. This paper presents a brief history of LIF triggers and reviews many vendor efforts, past and current. Various technical approaches and design considerations are discussed. Triggers from ICx technology, currently available or in development, are also discussed.

  8. Orion Exploration Flight Test-1 Contingency Drogue Deploy Velocity Trigger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gay, Robert S.; Stochowiak, Susan; Smith, Kelly

    2013-01-01

    As a backup to the GPS-aided Kalman filter and the Barometric altimeter, an "adjusted" velocity trigger is used during entry to trigger the chain of events that leads to drogue chute deploy for the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) Exploration Flight Test-1 (EFT-1). Even though this scenario is multiple failures deep, the Orion Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GN&C) software makes use of a clever technique that was taken from the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) program, which recently successfully landing the Curiosity rover on Mars. MSL used this technique to jettison the heat shield at the proper time during descent. Originally, Orion use the un-adjusted navigated velocity, but the removal of the Star Tracker to save costs for EFT-1, increased attitude errors which increased inertial propagation errors to the point where the un-adjusted velocity caused altitude dispersions at drogue deploy to be too large. Thus, to reduce dispersions, the velocity vector is projected onto a "reference" vector that represents the nominal "truth" vector at the desired point in the trajectory. Because the navigation errors are largely perpendicular to the truth vector, this projection significantly reduces dispersions in the velocity magnitude. This paper will detail the evolution of this trigger method for the Orion project and cover the various methods tested to determine the reference "truth" vector; and at what point in the trajectory it should be computed.

  9. Precision adjustable stage

    DOEpatents

    Cutburth, Ronald W.; Silva, Leonard L.

    1988-01-01

    An improved mounting stage of the type used for the detection of laser beams is disclosed. A stage center block is mounted on each of two opposite sides by a pair of spaced ball bearing tracks which provide stability as well as simplicity. The use of the spaced ball bearing pairs in conjunction with an adjustment screw which also provides support eliminates extraneous stabilization components and permits maximization of the area of the center block laser transmission hole.

  10. [The electrical conductivity of triggered lightning channel].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hua-ming; Yuan, Ping; Su, Mao-gen; Lü, Shi-hua

    2007-10-01

    Spectra of return strokes for artificial triggered lightning were obtained by optical multi-channel analyzer (OMA) in Shandong region. Compared with previous spectra of natural lightning, additional lines of ArI 602.5 nm and ArII 666.5 nm were observed. Under the model of local thermodynamic equilibrium, electronic temperatures of the lightning channel plasma were obtained according to the relative line intensities. Meanwhile, with semi-empirical method the electron density was obtained by Halpha line Stark broadening. In combination with plasma theory, electrical conductivity of the lightning channel has been calculated for the first time, and the characteristic of conductivity for lightning channel was also discussed. The relation between the electrical conductivity of channel and the return stroke current was analyzed, providing reference data for further work on computing return stroke current. Results show that the lightning channel is a good conductor, and electrons are the main carrier of channel current. The brightness of artificial triggered lightning channel is usually higher than that of natural lightning, and its current is smaller than that of the natural lightning. PMID:18306764

  11. Unconsciously triggered conflict adaptation.

    PubMed

    van Gaal, Simon; Lamme, Victor A F; Ridderinkhof, K Richard

    2010-01-01

    In conflict tasks such as the Stroop, the Eriksen flanker or the Simon task, it is generally observed that the detection of conflict in the current trial reduces the impact of conflicting information in the subsequent trial; a phenomenon termed conflict adaptation. This higher-order cognitive control function has been assumed to be restricted to cases where conflict is experienced consciously. In the present experiment we manipulated the awareness of conflict-inducing stimuli in a metacontrast masking paradigm to directly test this assumption. Conflicting response tendencies were elicited either consciously (through primes that were weakly masked) or unconsciously (strongly masked primes). We demonstrate trial-by-trial conflict adaptation effects after conscious as well as unconscious conflict, which could not be explained by direct stimulus/response repetitions. These findings show that unconscious information can have a longer-lasting influence on our behavior than previously thought and further stretch the functional boundaries of unconscious cognition. PMID:20634898

  12. Implementation and Performance of the Tau Trigger in the ATLAS Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Bosman, M.; Casado, P.; Dam, M.; Demers, S.; Igonkina, O.; Osuna, C.; Perez, E.; Soluk, R.; Strom, D.; Torrence, E.; Watson, A.; Xella, S.; /Copenhagen U.

    2011-11-15

    Triggering on hadronic taus at the LHC is a difficult task due to the high rate and occupancy of the events. On the other hand, the tau trigger increases the discovery potential of ATLAS in many physics channels, among others the Standard Model or SuperSymmetric Higgs (charged or neutrals) production. In order to cope with the rate and optimize the efficiency on important physics channels, the results of the current simulation studies indicate that the ATLAS tau trigger should be used either with relatively high transverse momentum thresholds alone, or with more relaxed threshold requirements in combination with other triggers, like the missing transverse energy trigger or a leptonic or jet trigger. In this contribution we describe the ATLAS tau trigger, and we present some of the current results from the simulation studies, focusing both on early physics and on physics at high luminosity.

  13. Triggered Reconnection at 1 MA on COBRA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenly, John; Blesener, Kate; Seyler, Charles; Zhao, Xuan

    2013-10-01

    We present new results in the study of magnetic reconnection of flux generated by two parallel currents in exploding Al wires driven to 1 MA by the Cornell COBRA pulser. Magnetic and thermal energy are stored in the system as the current rises in 200 ns. The stored energy is then dissipated in reconnection and outflows triggered at the time of voltage reversal and the decline of external magnetic pressure. Data are presented from a new optical spectroscopy diagnostic with high spatial and spectral resolution. The flows are supersonic. Strongly radiating shocks are associated with the current sheet and outflow boundaries. PERSEUS MHD and XMHD simulations are presented to compare with experiment and characterize the reconnection regime. Work supported by US DOE.

  14. Anthropogenic Triggering of Large Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulargia, Francesco; Bizzarri, Andrea

    2014-08-01

    The physical mechanism of the anthropogenic triggering of large earthquakes on active faults is studied on the basis of experimental phenomenology, i.e., that earthquakes occur on active tectonic faults, that crustal stress values are those measured in situ and, on active faults, comply to the values of the stress drop measured for real earthquakes, that the static friction coefficients are those inferred on faults, and that the effective triggering stresses are those inferred for real earthquakes. Deriving the conditions for earthquake nucleation as a time-dependent solution of the Tresca-Von Mises criterion applied in the framework of poroelasticity yields that active faults can be triggered by fluid overpressures < 0.1 MPa. Comparing this with the deviatoric stresses at the depth of crustal hypocenters, which are of the order of 1-10 MPa, we find that injecting in the subsoil fluids at the pressures typical of oil and gas production and storage may trigger destructive earthquakes on active faults at a few tens of kilometers. Fluid pressure propagates as slow stress waves along geometric paths operating in a drained condition and can advance the natural occurrence of earthquakes by a substantial amount of time. Furthermore, it is illusory to control earthquake triggering by close monitoring of minor ``foreshocks'', since the induction may occur with a delay up to several years.

  15. Anthropogenic triggering of large earthquakes.

    PubMed

    Mulargia, Francesco; Bizzarri, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    The physical mechanism of the anthropogenic triggering of large earthquakes on active faults is studied on the basis of experimental phenomenology, i.e., that earthquakes occur on active tectonic faults, that crustal stress values are those measured in situ and, on active faults, comply to the values of the stress drop measured for real earthquakes, that the static friction coefficients are those inferred on faults, and that the effective triggering stresses are those inferred for real earthquakes. Deriving the conditions for earthquake nucleation as a time-dependent solution of the Tresca-Von Mises criterion applied in the framework of poroelasticity yields that active faults can be triggered by fluid overpressures < 0.1 MPa. Comparing this with the deviatoric stresses at the depth of crustal hypocenters, which are of the order of 1-10 MPa, we find that injecting in the subsoil fluids at the pressures typical of oil and gas production and storage may trigger destructive earthquakes on active faults at a few tens of kilometers. Fluid pressure propagates as slow stress waves along geometric paths operating in a drained condition and can advance the natural occurrence of earthquakes by a substantial amount of time. Furthermore, it is illusory to control earthquake triggering by close monitoring of minor "foreshocks", since the induction may occur with a delay up to several years. PMID:25156190

  16. Anthropogenic Triggering of Large Earthquakes

    PubMed Central

    Mulargia, Francesco; Bizzarri, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    The physical mechanism of the anthropogenic triggering of large earthquakes on active faults is studied on the basis of experimental phenomenology, i.e., that earthquakes occur on active tectonic faults, that crustal stress values are those measured in situ and, on active faults, comply to the values of the stress drop measured for real earthquakes, that the static friction coefficients are those inferred on faults, and that the effective triggering stresses are those inferred for real earthquakes. Deriving the conditions for earthquake nucleation as a time-dependent solution of the Tresca-Von Mises criterion applied in the framework of poroelasticity yields that active faults can be triggered by fluid overpressures < 0.1 MPa. Comparing this with the deviatoric stresses at the depth of crustal hypocenters, which are of the order of 1–10 MPa, we find that injecting in the subsoil fluids at the pressures typical of oil and gas production and storage may trigger destructive earthquakes on active faults at a few tens of kilometers. Fluid pressure propagates as slow stress waves along geometric paths operating in a drained condition and can advance the natural occurrence of earthquakes by a substantial amount of time. Furthermore, it is illusory to control earthquake triggering by close monitoring of minor “foreshocks”, since the induction may occur with a delay up to several years. PMID:25156190

  17. Slow earthquakes triggered by typhoons.

    PubMed

    Liu, ChiChing; Linde, Alan T; Sacks, I Selwyn

    2009-06-11

    The first reports on a slow earthquake were for an event in the Izu peninsula, Japan, on an intraplate, seismically active fault. Since then, many slow earthquakes have been detected. It has been suggested that the slow events may trigger ordinary earthquakes (in a context supported by numerical modelling), but their broader significance in terms of earthquake occurrence remains unclear. Triggering of earthquakes has received much attention: strain diffusion from large regional earthquakes has been shown to influence large earthquake activity, and earthquakes may be triggered during the passage of teleseismic waves, a phenomenon now recognized as being common. Here we show that, in eastern Taiwan, slow earthquakes can be triggered by typhoons. We model the largest of these earthquakes as repeated episodes of slow slip on a reverse fault just under land and dipping to the west; the characteristics of all events are sufficiently similar that they can be modelled with minor variations of the model parameters. Lower pressure results in a very small unclamping of the fault that must be close to the failure condition for the typhoon to act as a trigger. This area experiences very high compressional deformation but has a paucity of large earthquakes; repeating slow events may be segmenting the stressed area and thus inhibiting large earthquakes, which require a long, continuous seismic rupture. PMID:19516339

  18. Electromyogram-triggered neuromuscular stimulation and stroke motor recovery of arm/hand functions: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Bolton, David A E; Cauraugh, James H; Hausenblas, Heather A

    2004-08-30

    Debate persists about the effectiveness of poststroke behavioral interventions for progress toward motor recovery. The current meta-analysis assessed the effect of electromyogram (EMG)-triggered neuromuscular stimulation on arm and hand functions. Computer searches of PubMed and Cochran databases, as well as hand searches of reference lists identified seven EMG-triggered neuromuscular stimulation studies. Outcome measures focused on arm and hand motor capability functions. In addition, the quality of each study was rated on three guidelines: randomization, double blind, and dropouts. After adjusting data for consistency in the arm/hand outcome measures and to avoid bias, five active stimulation studies were included in the analysis. Rehabilitation treatment in each study focused on wrist extension. The total number of individuals in the treatment groups was 47 whereas the control groups had 39 subjects. The meta-analysis revealed a significant overall mean effect size (delta=0.82, S.D.=0.59). A homogeneity test indicated that the pooled standardized effect sizes estimated the same treatment effect. A fail-safe test for null effect findings revealed that 15 studies were required to reduce the large effect (0.82) to a small effect (0.20). These improved wrist extension motor capabilities findings support EMG-triggered neuromuscular stimulation as an effective poststroke protocol. PMID:15337612

  19. Continuously adjustable Pulfrich spectacles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, Ken; Karpf, Ron

    2011-03-01

    A number of Pulfrich 3-D movies and TV shows have been produced, but the standard implementation has inherent drawbacks. The movie and TV industries have correctly concluded that the standard Pulfrich 3-D implementation is not a useful 3-D technique. Continuously Adjustable Pulfrich Spectacles (CAPS) is a new implementation of the Pulfrich effect that allows any scene containing movement in a standard 2-D movie, which are most scenes, to be optionally viewed in 3-D using inexpensive viewing specs. Recent scientific results in the fields of human perception, optoelectronics, video compression and video format conversion are translated into a new implementation of Pulfrich 3- D. CAPS uses these results to continuously adjust to the movie so that the viewing spectacles always conform to the optical density that optimizes the Pulfrich stereoscopic illusion. CAPS instantly provides 3-D immersion to any moving scene in any 2-D movie. Without the glasses, the movie will appear as a normal 2-D image. CAPS work on any viewing device, and with any distribution medium. CAPS is appropriate for viewing Internet streamed movies in 3-D.

  20. Subsea adjustable choke valves

    SciTech Connect

    Cyvas, M.K. )

    1989-08-01

    With emphasis on deepwater wells and marginal offshore fields growing, the search for reliable subsea production systems has become a high priority. A reliable subsea adjustable choke is essential to the realization of such a system, and recent advances are producing the degree of reliability required. Technological developments have been primarily in (1) trim material (including polycrystalline diamond), (2) trim configuration, (3) computer programs for trim sizing, (4) component materials, and (5) diver/remote-operated-vehicle (ROV) interfaces. These five facets are overviewed and progress to date is reported. A 15- to 20-year service life for adjustable subsea chokes is now a reality. Another factor vital to efficient use of these technological developments is to involve the choke manufacturer and ROV/diver personnel in initial system conceptualization. In this manner, maximum benefit can be derived from the latest technology. Major areas of development still required and under way are listed, and the paper closes with a tabulation of successful subsea choke installations in recent years.

  1. Industrial accidents triggered by lightning.

    PubMed

    Renni, Elisabetta; Krausmann, Elisabeth; Cozzani, Valerio

    2010-12-15

    Natural disasters can cause major accidents in chemical facilities where they can lead to the release of hazardous materials which in turn can result in fires, explosions or toxic dispersion. Lightning strikes are the most frequent cause of major accidents triggered by natural events. In order to contribute towards the development of a quantitative approach for assessing lightning risk at industrial facilities, lightning-triggered accident case histories were retrieved from the major industrial accident databases and analysed to extract information on types of vulnerable equipment, failure dynamics and damage states, as well as on the final consequences of the event. The most vulnerable category of equipment is storage tanks. Lightning damage is incurred by immediate ignition, electrical and electronic systems failure or structural damage with subsequent release. Toxic releases and tank fires tend to be the most common scenarios associated with lightning strikes. Oil, diesel and gasoline are the substances most frequently released during lightning-triggered Natech accidents. PMID:20817399

  2. Know Your Smoking Triggers | Smokefree.gov

    Cancer.gov

    Triggers are the things that make you want to smoke. Different people have different triggers, like a stressful situation, sipping coffee, going to a party, or smelling cigarette smoke. Most triggers fall into one of these four categories: Emotional Pattern Social Withdrawal Knowing your triggers and understanding the best way to deal with them is your first line of defense.

  3. Integral magnetic ignition pickup trigger

    SciTech Connect

    King, R.

    1992-10-27

    This patent describes a trigger system for the ignition system of an internal combustion engine having a crankcase with a rotatable crankshaft therein, and a flywheel on one end of the crankcase connected to an end of the crankshaft. It comprises: a nonferromagnetic disk-shaped hub for connection to the crankshaft and rotatable therewith on the end opposite the flywheel; and a stationary sensor mounted adjacent the hub for detecting impulses from the magnetically responsive elements as the hub rotates and utilizing the impulses to trigger the ignition system.

  4. Detector array control and triggering

    SciTech Connect

    Aiello, S.; Anzalone, A.; Bartolucci, M. |

    1998-08-01

    A commercial DSP-based board installed in a host-PC was employed for the fast, on-line and real-time computation of special algorithms, in order to perform event selection and operate as a 2nd level trigger. Moreover an ad hoc build interface, realized using PLDs with a view to connecting the DSP-board to the ADCs and to the data acquisition system, has been tested in order to evaluate the performances of these programmable devices used as a look-up-table and as a decisional part of a 1st level trigger.

  5. 77 FR 40387 - Price Adjustment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-09

    ... Price Adjustment AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a recently filed Postal Service request to adjust prices for several market dominant products... announcing its intent to adjust prices for several market dominant products within First-Class Mail...

  6. Adjusting learning motivation to promote cooperation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Haifeng; Small, Michael; Yang, Hanxin; Wang, Binghong

    2010-11-01

    An evolutionary prisoner’s dilemma game with players adjusting their learning motivation is studied. At each time step, each player can adjust his/her learning motivation according to the difference between the current payoff and payoff aspiration. Greater payoff aspiration means stronger learning motivation, and vice versa. We find that the density of cooperation in a spatial prisoner’s dilemma game is enhanced when the learning motivation mechanism is considered. Meanwhile, we show that proper noise can not only induce the highest cooperation level but also can maintain the cooperation phenomenon even though there is more temptation to defect.

  7. A New Look at Trigger Point Injections

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Clara S. M.; Wong, Steven H. S.

    2012-01-01

    Trigger point injections are commonly practised pain interventional techniques. However, there is still lack of objective diagnostic criteria for trigger points. The mechanisms of action of trigger point injection remain obscure and its efficacy remains heterogeneous. The advent of ultrasound technology in the noninvasive real-time imaging of soft tissues sheds new light on visualization of trigger points, explaining the effect of trigger point injection by blockade of peripheral nerves, and minimizing the complications of blind injection. PMID:21969825

  8. Lightning Return-Stroke Current Waveforms Aloft, From Measured Field Change, Current, and Channel Geometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willett, J. C.; LeVine, D. M.

    2002-01-01

    Direct current measurements are available near the attachment point from both natural cloud-to-ground lightning and rocket-triggered lightning, but little is known about the rise time and peak amplitude of return-stroke currents aloft. We present, as functions of height, current amplitudes, rise times, and effective propagation velocities that have been estimated with a novel remote-sensing technique from data on 24 subsequent return strokes in six different lightning flashes that were triggering at the NASA Kennedy Space Center, FL, during 1987. The unique feature of this data set is the stereo pairs of still photographs, from which three-dimensional channel geometries were determined previously. This has permitted us to calculate the fine structure of the electric-field-change (E) waveforms produced by these strokes, using the current waveforms measured at the channel base together with physically reasonable assumptions about the current distributions aloft. The computed waveforms have been compared with observed E waveforms from the same strokes, and our assumptions have been adjusted to maximize agreement. In spite of the non-uniqueness of solutions derived by this technique, several conclusions seem inescapable: 1) The effective propagation speed of the current up the channel is usually significantly (but not unreasonably) faster than the two-dimensional velocity measured by a streak camera for 14 of these strokes. 2) Given the deduced propagation speed, the peak amplitude of the current waveform often must decrease dramatically with height to prevent the electric field from being over-predicted. 3) The rise time of the current wave front must always increase rapidly with height in order to keep the fine structure of the calculated field consistent with the observations.

  9. Series resonance inverter with triggered vacuum gaps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damstra, Geert C.; Zhang, X.

    1994-05-01

    Series resonance inverters based on semi-conductor switching elements are well-known and have a wide range of application, mainly for lower voltages. For high voltage application many switching elements have to be put in series to obtain sufficient blocking voltage. Voltage grinding and multiple gate control elements are needed. There is much experience with the triggered vacuum gaps as high voltage/high current single shot elements, for example in reignition circuits for synthetic circuit breaker tests. These elements have a blocking voltage of 50 - 100 kV and are triggerable by a light fiber control device. A prototype inverter has been developed that generates 0.1 Hz, 30 kV AC voltages with a flat top for tests on cables and capacitors of many micro farads fed from a low voltage supply of about 600 V. Only two TVG elements are needed to switch the resonant circuit alternatively on the positive or negative supply. The resonant circuit itself consists of the capacitance of the testobject and a high quality inductor that determines the frequency and the peak current of the voltage reversing process.

  10. Efficient circuit triggers high-current, high-voltage pulses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, E. D.

    1964-01-01

    Modified circuit uses diodes to effectively disconnect the charging resistors from the circuit during the discharge cycle. Result is an efficient parallel charging, high voltage pulse modulator with low voltage rating of components.

  11. Current-level triggered plasma-opening switch

    DOEpatents

    Mendel, Clifford W.

    1989-01-01

    An opening switch for very high power electrical pulses uses a slow magnetic field to confine a plasma across a gap between two electrodes. The plasma conducts the electric pulse across the gap while the switch is closed. A magnetic field generated by the pulse repels the slow magnetic field from the negative electrode to push the plasma from the electrode, opening the switch. A plurality of radial vanes may be used to enhance the slow magnetic field.

  12. Current-level triggered plasma-opening switch

    DOEpatents

    Mendel, C.W.

    1987-06-29

    An opening switch for very high power electrical pulses uses a slow magnetic field to confine a plasma across a gap between two electrodes. The plasma conducts the electric pulse across the gap while the switch is closed. A magnetic field generated by the pulse repels the slow magnetic field from the negative electrode to push the plasma from the electrode, opening the switch. A plurality of radial vanes may be used to enhance the slow magnetic field. 5 figs.

  13. Current-level triggered plasma-opening switch

    SciTech Connect

    Mendel, C.W.

    1989-03-14

    An opening switch for very high power electrical pulses uses a slow magnetic field to confine a plasma across a gap between two electrodes. The plasma conducts the electrical pulse across the gap while the switch is closed. A magnetic field generated by the pulse repels the slow magnetic field from the negative electrode to push the plasma from the electrode, opening the switch. A plurality of radial vanes may be used to enhance the slow magnetic field.

  14. Environmental Triggers of Autoimmune Thyroiditis

    PubMed Central

    Burek, C. Lynne; Talor, Monica V.

    2009-01-01

    Autoimmune thyroiditis is among the most prevalent of all the autoimmunities. Autoimmune thyroiditis is multifactorial with contributions from genetic and environmental factors. Much information has been published about the genetic predisposition to autoimmune thyroiditis both in experimental animals and humans. There is, in contrast, very little data on environmental agents that can serve as the trigger or autoimmunity in a genetically predisposed host. The best-established environmental factor is excess dietary iodine. Increased iodine consumption is strongly implicated as a trigger for thyroiditis, but only in genetically susceptible individuals. However, excess iodine is not the only environmental agent implicated as a trigger leading to autoimmune thyroiditis. There are a wide variety of other synthetic chemicals that affect the thyroid gland or have the ability to promote immune dysfunction in the host. These chemicals are released into the environment by design, such as in pesticides, or as a by-product of industry. Candidate pollutants include polyaromatic hydrocarbons, polybrominated biphenols, and polychlorinated biphenols, among others. Infections are also reputed to trigger autoimmunity and may act alone or in concert with environmental chemicals. We have utilized a unique animal model, the NOD.H2h4 mouse to explore the influence of iodine and other environmental factors on autoimmune thyroiditis. PMID:19818584

  15. Environmental triggers of autoimmune thyroiditis.

    PubMed

    Burek, C Lynne; Talor, Monica V

    2009-01-01

    Autoimmune thyroiditis is among the most prevalent of all the autoimmunities. Autoimmune thyroiditis is multifactorial with contributions from genetic and environmental factors. Much information has been published about the genetic predisposition to autoimmune thyroiditis both in experimental animals and humans. There is, in contrast, very little data on environmental agents that can serve as the trigger for autoimmunity in a genetically predisposed host. The best-established environmental factor is excess dietary iodine. Increased iodine consumption is strongly implicated as a trigger for thyroiditis, but only in genetically susceptible individuals. However, excess iodine is not the only environmental agent implicated as a trigger leading to autoimmune thyroiditis. There are a wide variety of other synthetic chemicals that affect the thyroid gland or have the ability to promote immune dysfunction in the host. These chemicals are released into the environment by design, such as in pesticides, or as a by-product of industry. Candidate pollutants include polyaromatic hydrocarbons, polybrominated biphenols, and polychlorinated biphenols, among others. Infections are also reputed to trigger autoimmunity and may act alone or in concert with environmental chemicals. We have utilized a unique animal model, the NOD.H2(h4) mouse to explore the influence of iodine and other environmental factors on autoimmune thyroiditis. PMID:19818584

  16. Suicide Triggers Described by Herodotus

    PubMed Central

    Auchincloss, Stephane; Ahmadi, Jamshid

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to better understand the triggers of suicide, particularly among the ancient Greek and Persian soldiers and commanders. Method: ‘Herodotus:TheHistories’ is a history of the rulers and soldiery who participated in the Greco-Persian wars (492-449 BCE). A new translation (2013) of this manuscript was studied. Accounts of suicide were collected and collated, with descriptions of circumstances, methods, and probable triggers. Results: Nine accounts of suicide were identified. Eight of these were named individuals (4 Greeks and 4 Persians); of whom, seven were male. Only one (not the female) appeared to act in response to a mental disorder. Other triggers of suicide included guilt, avoidance of dishonour/punishment and altruism. Cutting/ stabbing was the most common method; others included hanging, jumping, poison, and burning (the single female). Conclusion: While soldiers at a time of war do not reflect the general community, they are nevertheless members of their society. Thus, this evidence demonstrates that suicide triggered by burdensome circumstances (in addition to mental disorder) was known to the Greek and Persian people more than two millennia ago. PMID:27437010

  17. Host defenses trigger salmonella's arsenal.

    PubMed

    Keestra, A Marijke; Bäumler, Andreas J

    2011-03-17

    Salmonella survives in macrophages by using a molecular syringe to deliver proteins into the host-cell cytosol where they manipulate phagocyte physiology. Arpaia and colleagues (Arpaia et al., 2011) show that deployment of this virulence factor is triggered by the very responses that are intended to confer host resistance. PMID:21402352

  18. Psychosocial adjustment to ALS: a longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Matuz, Tamara; Birbaumer, Niels; Hautzinger, Martin; Kübler, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    For the current study the Lazarian stress-coping theory and the appendant model of psychosocial adjustment to chronic illness and disabilities (Pakenham, 1999) has shaped the foundation for identifying determinants of adjustment to ALS. We aimed to investigate the evolution of psychosocial adjustment to ALS and to determine its long-term predictors. A longitudinal study design with four measurement time points was therefore, used to assess patients' quality of life, depression, and stress-coping model related aspects, such as illness characteristics, social support, cognitive appraisals, and coping strategies during a period of 2 years. Regression analyses revealed that 55% of the variance of severity of depressive symptoms and 47% of the variance in quality of life at T2 was accounted for by all the T1 predictor variables taken together. On the level of individual contributions, protective buffering, and appraisal of own coping potential accounted for a significant percentage in the variance in severity of depressive symptoms, whereas problem management coping strategies explained variance in quality of life scores. Illness characteristics at T2 did not explain any variance of both adjustment outcomes. Overall, the pattern of the longitudinal results indicated stable depressive symptoms and quality of life indices reflecting a successful adjustment to the disease across four measurement time points during a period of about two years. Empirical evidence is provided for the predictive value of social support, cognitive appraisals, and coping strategies, but not illness parameters such as severity and duration for adaptation to ALS. The current study contributes to a better conceptualization of adjustment, allowing us to provide evidence-based support beyond medical and physical intervention for people with ALS. PMID:26441696

  19. Trigger algorithms and electronics for the ATLAS muon new small wheel upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, L.

    2016-01-01

    The New Small Wheel Upgrade for the ATLAS experiment will replace the innermost station of the Muon Spectrometer in the forward region in order to maintain its current performance during high luminosity data-taking after the LHC Phase-I upgrade. The New Small Wheel, comprising Micromegas and small Thin Gap Chambers, will reduce the rate of fake triggers coming from backgrounds in the forward region and significantly improve the Level-1 muon trigger selectivity by providing precise on-line segment measurements with ~ 1 mrad angular resolution. Such demanding precision, together with the short time (~ 1 μs) to prepare trigger data and perform on-line reconstruction, implies very stringent requirements on the design of trigger system and trigger electronics. This paper presents an overview of the design of the New Small Wheel trigger system, trigger algorithms and processor hardware.

  20. Topics in data adjustment theory and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, R.N.

    1988-01-01

    The methodologies of the uncertainty analysis and data adjustment have been well-developed and widely used abroad since the early 70's. With limited amount of covariance data on the differential cross section and the integral experiments available at the time, their accomplishments are, indeed, astounding. The fundamental adjustment equations, however, remain qualitatively unchanged. For the past few year, extensive efforts on these subjects have also begun at ANL in order to utilize the massive amount of integral experiments accumulated over years to provide the basis for improving the reactor parameters encountered in various design calculations. Pertinent covariance matrices and sensitivity matrices of the existing integral experiments have been evaluated and systematically compiled in the data files along with the cross section covariance data derived from the ENDF-B/V for the 21 group structure currently under consideration. A production code GMADJ that provides the adjusted quantities for a large number of cross section types has been developed by Poenitz for routine applications. The primary purpose of the present paper is to improve understanding of the application oriented issues important to the data adjustment theory and the subsequent usage of the adjusted quantities in the design calculations in support of these activities. 30 refs., 12 figs., 5 tabs.

  1. The FORTE receiver and sub-band triggering unit

    SciTech Connect

    Enemark, D.C.; Shipley, M.E.

    1994-08-01

    The FORTE payload receiver and trigger unit represent a significant advance over the currently flying BLACKBEARD payload aboard the ALEXIS satellite. Not only is the polarization sensitive antenna array massive compared to the BLACKBEARD monopole, but the event triggering scheme is completely different. Electromagnetic pulses (EWs) are dispersed when they pass through the ionosphere creating a chirped frequency signal which can be helpful in discriminating between natural and man-made signals. Payloads designed to digitize and store the RF signatures of these signals must include sophisticated triggering circuitry to select events of interest and prevent false alarms from wasting the available memory storage resources. The FORTE wideband receiver tunes from 20 to 320 MHz with eight sub-band trigger channels distributed across the 20 MHz IF bandwidth. The conditions which must be satisfied to generate an event trigger are processor controlled. Early testing of the prototype indicates an ability to reliably trigger on chirped RF signals several dB below the noise level. FORTE is scheduled to be launched with a Pegasus XL vehicle in late 1995.

  2. Longitudinal Adjustment Trajectories of International Students and Their Predictors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirai, Reiko

    2013-01-01

    Despite the increasing number of international students in U.S. universities, the course of adjustment of international students has not been adequately tested and only one study to date has examined multiple trajectories of international students' adjustment. Therefore, the first goal of the current study was to explore multiple trajectories of…

  3. Delay Adjusted Incidence Infographic

    Cancer.gov

    This Infographic shows the National Cancer Institute SEER Incidence Trends. The graphs show the Average Annual Percent Change (AAPC) 2002-2011. For Men, Thyroid: 5.3*,Liver & IBD: 3.6*, Melanoma: 2.3*, Kidney: 2.0*, Myeloma: 1.9*, Pancreas: 1.2*, Leukemia: 0.9*, Oral Cavity: 0.5, Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma: 0.3*, Esophagus: -0.1, Brain & ONS: -0.2*, Bladder: -0.6*, All Sites: -1.1*, Stomach: -1.7*, Larynx: -1.9*, Prostate: -2.1*, Lung & Bronchus: -2.4*, and Colon & Rectum: -3/0*. For Women, Thyroid: 5.8*, Liver & IBD: 2.9*, Myeloma: 1.8*, Kidney: 1.6*, Melanoma: 1.5, Corpus & Uterus: 1.3*, Pancreas: 1.1*, Leukemia: 0.6*, Brain & ONS: 0, Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma: -0.1, All Sites: -0.1, Breast: -0.3, Stomach: -0.7*, Oral Cavity: -0.7*, Bladder: -0.9*, Ovary: -0.9*, Lung & Bronchus: -1.0*, Cervix: -2.4*, and Colon & Rectum: -2.7*. * AAPC is significantly different from zero (p<.05). Rates were adjusted for reporting delay in the registry. www.cancer.gov Source: Special section of the Annual Report to the Nation on the Status of Cancer, 1975-2011.

  4. Interfacing Detectors to Triggers And DAQ Electronics

    SciTech Connect

    Crosetto, Dario B.

    1999-05-03

    The complete design of the front-end electronics interfacing LHCb detectors, Level-0 trigger and higher levels of trigger with flexible configuration parameters has been made for (a) ASIC implementation, and (b) FPGA implementation. The importance of approaching designs in technology-independent form becomes essential with the actual rapid electronics evolution. Being able to constrain the entire design to a few types of replicated components: (a) the fully programmable 3D-Flow system, and (b) the configurable front-end circuit described in this article, provides even further advantages because only one or two types of components will need to migrate to the newer technologies. To base on today's technology the design of a system such as the LHCb project that is to begin working in 2006 is not cost-effective. The effort required to migrate to a higher-performance will, in that case, be almost equivalent to completely redesigning the architecture from scratch. The proposed technology independent design with the current configurable front-end module described in this article and the scalable 3D-Flow fully programmable system described elsewhere, based on the study of the evolution of electronics during the past few years and the forecasted advances in the years to come, aims to provide a technology-independent design which lends itself to any technology at any time. In this case, technology independence is based mainly on generic-HDL reusable code which allows a very rapid realization of the state-of-the-art circuits in terms of gate density, power dissipation, and clock frequency. The design of four trigger towers presently fits into an OR3T30 FPGA. Preliminary test results (provided in this paper) meet the functional requirements of LHCb and provide sufficient flexibility to introduce future changes. The complete system design is also provided along with the integration of the front-end design in the entire system and the cost and dimension of the electronics.

  5. Physical Characteristics of Triggered Lightning Determined by Optical Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, T. D.; Hill, J. D.; Jordan, D. M.; Uman, M. A.; Christian, H.

    2010-12-01

    In the summers of 2009 and 2010, optical spectra of 37 triggered return strokes have been recorded at the International Center for Lightning Research and Testing in north-central Florida. The spectrometer that was used has an average dispersion of 260 Angstroms/mm resulting in an average resolution of 5 Angstroms/pixel when mated to a Photron (SA1.1) high-speed camera. The spectra captured with this system had a free spectral range of 3800-8000 Angstroms and were captured at 300,000 frames per second. The spectrometer's vertical field of view was approximately 2.6 m at an altitude 85 m above the launch tower, intended to view the middle of the triggering wire, and 3 m at 300 m above the launch tower, intended to view the natural portion of the triggered lightning channel. Physical properties of the lightning channel, including temperature, electron number density, and optical luminosity, are coordinated with current measurements at the base of the triggered lightning channel. These physical properties were all found to correlate with changes in the current. Temperature measurements throughout the strokes varied from 8000-34000 K, and electron number densities ranged from 0.2-1.0 x 10^18 cm^-3. The physical characteristics of the copper and natural portions of the triggered lightning channel are compared.

  6. The CDF silicon vertex trigger

    SciTech Connect

    B. Ashmanskas; A. Barchiesi; A. Bardi

    2003-06-23

    The CDF experiment's Silicon Vertex Trigger is a system of 150 custom 9U VME boards that reconstructs axial tracks in the CDF silicon strip detector in a 15 {mu}sec pipeline. SVT's 35 {mu}m impact parameter resolution enables CDF's Level 2 trigger to distinguish primary and secondary particles, and hence to collect large samples of hadronic bottom and charm decays. We review some of SVT's key design features. Speed is achieved with custom VLSI pattern recognition, linearized track fitting, pipelining, and parallel processing. Testing and reliability are aided by built-in logic state analysis and test-data sourcing at each board's input and output, a common inter-board data link, and a universal ''Merger'' board for data fan-in/fan-out. Speed and adaptability are enhanced by use of modern FPGAs.

  7. The L3 energy trigger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bizzarri, R.; Cesaroni, F.; Gentile, S.; Lunadei, G.; Fukushima, M.; Herten, G.; Hebbeker, T.

    1989-11-01

    The L3 first-level energy trigger is based on energy measurements in electromagnetic and hadronic calorimeters and in luminosity monitors. The information from these detectors is evaluated and a decision is taken in about 20 μs (the time between two bunch crossings in LEP is 22 μs). This trigger makes use of 300 CAMAC modules: an arithmetic logic unit (ALU), a BUS multiplexer (BS), a memory lookup table (MLU), a data stack (DS) and a fast encoding and readout ADC (FERA), each of them performing dedicated functions. The data are transmitted via front-panel ECL buses. The CAMAC data-way is used only for initialization and checking purposes. The system operates synchronously with a period of 60 ns.

  8. Polar domain walls trigger magnetoelectric coupling

    PubMed Central

    Fontcuberta, Josep; Skumryev, Vassil; Laukhin, Vladimir; Granados, Xavier; Salje, Ekhard K. H.

    2015-01-01

    Interface physics in oxides heterostructures is pivotal in material’s science. Domain walls (DWs) in ferroic systems are examples of naturally occurring interfaces, where order parameter of neighboring domains is modified and emerging properties may develop. Here we show that electric tuning of ferroelastic domain walls in SrTiO3 leads to dramatic changes of the magnetic domain structure of a neighboring magnetic layer (La1/2Sr1/2MnO3) epitaxially clamped on a SrTiO3 substrate. We show that the properties of the magnetic layer are intimately connected to the existence of polar regions at twin boundaries of SrTiO3, developing at , that can be electrically modulated. These findings illustrate that by exploiting the responsiveness of DWs nanoregions to external stimuli, even in absence of any domain contribution, prominent and adjustable macroscopic reactions of neighboring layers can be obtained. We conclude that polar DWs, known to exist in other materials, can be used to trigger tunable responses and may lead to new ways for the manipulation of interfacial emerging properties. PMID:26387597

  9. Parameters of triggered-lightning flashes in Florida and Alabama

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, R.J.; Schnetzer, G.H.; Thottappillil, R.; Rakov, V.A.; Uman, M.A.; Goldberg, J.D.

    1993-12-20

    Channel base currents from triggered lightning were measured at the NASA Kennedy Space Center, Florida, during summer 1990 and at Fort McClellan, Alabama, during summer 1991. Additionally, 16-mm cinematic records with 3- or 5-ms resolution were obtained for all flashes, and streak camera records were obtained for three of the Florida flashes. The 17 flashes analyzed contained 69 strokes, all lowering negative charge from cloud to ground. Statistics on interstroke interval, no-current interstroke interval, total stroke duration, total stroke charge, total stroke action integral ({integral}i{sup 2}dt), return stroke current wave front characteristics, time to half peak value, and return stroke peak current are presented. Return stroke current pulses, characterized by rise times of the order of a few microseconds or less and peak values in the range of 4 to 38 kA, were found not to occur until after any preceding current at the bottom of the lightning channel fell below the noise level of less than 2 A. A relatively strong positive correlation was found between return stroke current average rate of rise and current peak. There was essentially no correlation between return stroke current peak and 10-90% rise time or between return stroke peak and the width of the current waveform at half of its peak value. Parameters of the lightning flashes triggered in Florida and Alabama are similar to each other but are different from those of triggered lightning recorded in New Mexico during the 1981 Thunderstorm Research International Program. Continuing currents that follow return stroke current peaks and last for more than 10 ms exhibit a variety of wave shapes that the authors have subdivided into four categories. All such continuing currents appear to start with a current pulse presumably associated with an M component. A brief summary of lightning parameters important for lightning protection, is presented in an appendix. 43 refs., 11 figs., 5 tabs.

  10. Astrophysically Triggered Searches for Gravitational Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marka, Zsuzsa

    2010-02-01

    Many expected sources of gravitational waves are observable in more traditional channels, via gamma rays, X-rays, optical, radio, or neutrino emission. Some of these channels are already being used in searches for gravitational waves with the LIGO-GEO600-Virgo interferometer network, and others are currently being incorporated into new or planned searches. Astrophysical targets include gamma-ray bursts, soft-gamma repeaters, supernovae, and glitching pulsars. The observation of electromagnetic or neutrino emission simultaneously with gravitational waves could be crucial for the first direct detection of gravitational waves. Information on the progenitor, such as trigger time, direction and expected frequency range, can enhance our ability to identify gravitational wave signatures with amplitude close to the noise floor of the detector. Furthermore, combining gravitational waves with electromagnetic and neutrino observations will enable the extraction of scientific insight that was hidden from us before. We will discuss the status for astrophysically triggered searches with the LIGO-GEO600-Virgo network and the science goals and outlook for the second and third generation gravitational wave detector era. )

  11. Revisiting nurse turnover costs: adjusting for inflation.

    PubMed

    Jones, Cheryl Bland

    2008-01-01

    Organizational knowledge of nurse turnover costs is important, but gathering these data frequently may not always be feasible in today's fast-paced and complex healthcare environment. The author presents a method to inflation adjust baseline nurse turnover costs using the Consumer Price Index. This approach allows nurse executives to gain current knowledge of organizational nurse turnover costs when primary data collection is not practical and to determine costs and potential savings if nurse retention investments are made. PMID:18157000

  12. Superfund guide: Reportable quantity adjustment for methyl isocyanate (MIC). Fact sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The fact sheet contains a discussion of the reportable quantity (RQ) adjustment and release reporting process, the basis for the current RQ adjustment to 10 pounds for methyl isocyanate (MIC), and information about the facilities that handle MIC.

  13. Investigation of UV Laser Triggered, Nanosecond, Surface Flashover Switches

    SciTech Connect

    Nunnally, W C; Neurath, R; Holmes, C; Sampayan, S; Caporaso, G

    2003-06-03

    Triggered, multi-channel, surface discharges or surface flashover switching have been investigated as a low inductance, low pulse rate switch for conducting large currents. This paper discusses the investigation of UV (355 nm) laser triggered, single channel, low inductance, ns closure and sub-ns jitter switches for applications in switching high dielectric constant, compact pulse forming lines into accelerator loads. The experimental arrangement for evaluating the switch performance and for measuring the high field dielectric constant of the pulse forming lines is presented. Experimental results of delay and jitter measurements versus optical energy on the flashover surface and dc electric field charge.

  14. A framework for decision points to trigger adaptive management actions in long-term incidental take permits

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dalthorp, Daniel; Huso, Manuela

    2015-01-01

    A program of incremental AMAs may be developed to respond to the firing of the short-term trigger. Such a strategy may involve (1) AMAs to reduce the actual fatality rate (λ) incrementally each time the short-term trigger is fired to keep the fatality rate in line with the expected rate (τ) in future years; (2) an intensification of monitoring to increase precision of estimates; or (3) adjustment of τ to align permitted with actual take rates. AMAs that reduce the fatality rate or increase precision are likely to reduce the chances that the short-term trigger will fire in future years if the short-term trigger remains the same. In addition, after the short-term trigger has fired some predetermined number of times, with or without implementation of incremental AMAs, it may be desirable to implement a full-avoidance AMA to avoid further take (as with the long-term trigger).

  15. How cold pool triggers deep convection?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yano, Jun-Ichi

    2014-05-01

    by Moncrieff and Liu (1999). As a whole, in attempting a statistical description of boundary-layer processes, the cold pool is essentially nothing other than an additional contribution to a TKE (turbulent kinetic energy) budget. Significance of trigger of convection by cold pool in context of convection parameterization must also be seen with much caution. Against a common misunderstanding, current convection parameterization is not designed to describe a trigger process of individual convection. In this respect, process studies on cold pool do not contribute to improvements of convection parameterization until a well-defined parameterization formulation for individual convection processes is developed. Even before then a question should also be posed whether such a development is necessary. Under a current mass-flux convection parameterization, a more important process to consider is re-evaporative cooling of detrained cloudy air, which may also be associated with downdraft, possibly further leading to a generation of a cold pool. Yano and Plant (2012) suggest, from a point of view of the convective-energy cycle, what follows would be far less important than the fact the re-evaporation induces a generation of convective kinetic energy (though it may initially be considered TKE). Both well-focused convective process studies as well as convection parameterization formulation would be much needed.

  16. An 'Anomalous' Triggered Lightning Flash in Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamerota, W. R.; Uman, M. A.; Hill, J. D.; Pilkey, J. T.; Ngin, T.; Jordan, D. M.; Mata, C.; Mata, A.

    2012-12-01

    Classical (grounded wire) rocket-and-wire triggered lightning flashes whose leaders do not traverse the path of the wire remnants are sometimes referred to as 'anomalous'. We present high-speed video images captured at 10 kilo-frames per second (kfps), with supporting data, to characterize an 'anomalous' rocket-triggered lightning flash that occurred on 15 May 2012 at the International Center for Lightning Research and Testing (ICLRT) in north-central Florida. The event begins as a classical rocket-triggered lightning flash with an upward positive leader (UPL) initiating from the tip of the wire at a height of about 280 m above ground level. The top 259 m of the trailing wire explodes 2.7 s after the rocket exits the launch tube, while the bottom 17 m of the wire does not explode (does not become luminous). Approximately 1.4 ms after wire explosion, a stepped leader initiates a few meters above the top of the wire remnants and propagates downward, attaching to the top of a grounded utility pole 2.1 ms after initiation and 117 m southwest of the launching facility. Beginning 600 μs prior to this sustained stepped leader development, attempted stepped leaders (luminous steps emanating from the UPL channel above the wire remnants) are observed in three locations: 20 m and 5 m above the top of the wire remnants and at the top of the wire remnants. Correlated electric field derivative (dE/dt), channel-base current, and high-speed video captured at 300 kfps reveal an electrical discharge of peak current 365 A initiating from about 17 m above the launching facility, apparently the top of the unexploded triggering wire, when the stepped leader is no more than 60 m above ground level. There are significant differences between the 'anomalous' triggered lightning flash described here and those observed in New Mexico and in France in the late 1970s and early 1980s: First, the time duration between explosion of our wire and the sustained stepped leader development a few meters

  17. 78 FR 62712 - Rate Adjustment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ... Rate Adjustment AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a recent Postal Service filing seeking postal rate adjustments based on exigent circumstances... On September 26, 2013, the Postal Service filed an exigent rate request with the Commission...

  18. Adjustable holder for transducer mounting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deotsch, R. C.

    1980-01-01

    Positioning of acoustic sensor, strain gage, or similar transducer is facilitated by adjustable holder. Developed for installation on Space Shuttle, it includes springs for maintaining uniform load on transducer with adjustable threaded cap for precisely controlling position of sensor with respect to surrounding structure.

  19. Spousal Adjustment to Myocardial Infarction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziglar, Elisa J.

    This paper reviews the literature on the stresses and coping strategies of spouses of patients with myocardial infarction (MI). It attempts to identify specific problem areas of adjustment for the spouse and to explore the effects of spousal adjustment on patient recovery. Chapter one provides an overview of the importance in examining the…

  20. Mood Adjustment via Mass Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knobloch, Silvia

    2003-01-01

    Proposes and experimentally tests mood adjustment approach, complementing mood management theory. Discusses how results regarding self-exposure across time show that patterns of popular music listening among a group of undergraduate students differ with initial mood and anticipation, lending support to mood adjustment hypotheses. Describes how…

  1. Capitation pricing: adjusting for prior utilization and physician discretion.

    PubMed

    Anderson, G F; Cantor, J C; Steinberg, E P; Holloway, J

    1986-01-01

    As the number of Medicare beneficiaries receiving care under at-risk capitation arrangements increases, the method for setting payment rates will come under increasing scrutiny. A number of modifications to the current adjusted average per capita cost (AAPCC) methodology have been proposed, including an adjustment for prior utilization. In this article, we propose use of a utilization adjustment that includes only hospitalizations involving low or moderate physician discretion in the decision to hospitalize. This modification avoids discrimination against capitated systems that prevent certain discretionary admissions. The model also explains more of the variance in per capita expenditures than does the current AAPCC. PMID:10312010

  2. Gravitational wave triggered searches for failed supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Annis, James; Dark Energy Survey Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    Stellar core collapses occur to all stars of sufficiently high mass and often result in supernovae. A small fraction of supergiant stars, however, are thought to collapse directly into black holes without producing supernovae. A survey of such ``failed'' supernovae would require monitoring millions of supergiants for several years. That is very challenging even for current surveys. With the start of the Advanced LIGO science run, we investigate the possibility of detecting failed supernovae by looking for missing supergiants associated with gravitational wave triggers. We use the Dark Energy Camera (DECam). Our project is a joint effort between the community and the Dark Energy Survey (DES) collaboration. In this talk we report on our ongoing efforts and discuss prospects for future searches.

  3. Triggered vacuum flashover switch for high-power applications

    SciTech Connect

    Kellogg, J.C.; Boller, J.R.; Commisso, R.J.; Jenkins, D.J. ); Ford, R.D. ); Lupton, W.H. ); Shipman, J.D. Jr. )

    1991-11-01

    A command triggered, high-power, surface-flashover closing switch that operates in vacuum has been developed for use on a prototype inductive-storage pulsed power generator, Pawn. This vacuum flashover switch isolates the high-pressure-gas tamped wire fuse from a second opening switch. The switch consists of an insulating ring sandwiched between electrodes. Plasma and ultraviolet light from eight small spark discharges driven by a 5 keV pulse initiate a flashover across the switch insulator. The entire triggering unit resides inside one of Pawn's metallic conductors. The switch can be triggered after holding off voltage for {congruent}15 {mu}s. Normally, switch closure occurs at 22--45 kV. Time to closure at a voltage of {congruent}30 kV is {congruent}320 ns, with a typical jitter of {plus minus}50 ns. Peak current is typically {congruent}1 MA. Current density in the switch is approximately 25 kA/cm{sup 2}. The average risetime of the fuse output current pulse can be varied by a factor of 2 by triggering the switch at different closing voltages.

  4. Risk adjustment: where are we now?

    PubMed

    Newhouse, J P

    1998-01-01

    Risk adjustment is intended to minimize selection of patients or enrollees in health plans. Current efforts generally are recognized as inadequate, but improvement is difficult. The greatest short-term gain will come from introducing diagnostic information, though outpatient diagnosis data are unreliable. Initial efforts may use inpatient data, but this creates incentives to hospitalize people. Even exploiting diagnosis information leaves substantial imperfections. Partial capitation, common in behavioral health, reduces incentives to select patients and stent on services, but current policy resists it, perhaps because policymakers misinterpret the lesson of the Prospective Payment System. Theoretically, not paying plans more for providing additional services is optimal only if consumers are well informed. PMID:9719781

  5. Conflict-Triggered Top-Down Control: Default Mode, Last Resort, or No Such Thing?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bugg, Julie M.

    2014-01-01

    The conflict monitoring account posits that globally high levels of conflict trigger engagement of top-down control; however, recent findings point to the mercurial nature of top-down control in high conflict contexts. The current study examined the potential moderating effect of associative learning on conflict-triggered top-down control…

  6. Trajectories of adjustment to couple relationship separation.

    PubMed

    Halford, W Kim; Sweeper, Susie

    2013-06-01

    To test a stress-diathesis model of adjustment to separation, the current study describes the trajectories of different aspects of separation adjustment in people formerly married or cohabiting, and moderators of those trajectories. A convenience sample of 303 recently separated individuals (169 women; 134 men) completed assessments of their emotional attachment to the former partner, loneliness, psychological distress, and coparenting conflict at two time points 6 months apart. Multilevel modeling of the overlapping multicohort design was used to estimate the trajectories of these different aspects of adjustment as a function of time since separation, marital status, gender, presence of children from the relationship, who initiated separation, social support, and anxious attachment. Attachment to the former partner, loneliness, and psychological distress were initially high but improved markedly across the 2 years after separation, but coparenting conflict was high and stable. Adjustment problems were similar in men and women, and in those formerly married or cohabiting, except that reported coparenting conflict was higher in men than women. Low social support and high anxious attachment predicted persistent attachment to the former partner, loneliness, and psychological distress. Coparenting conflict is a common, chronic problem for many separated individuals, and individuals with certain psychological vulnerabilities also experience chronic personal distress. PMID:23763683

  7. Laser-triggered vacuum switch

    DOEpatents

    Brannon, Paul J.; Cowgill, Donald F.

    1990-01-01

    A laser-triggered vacuum switch has a material such as a alkali metal halide on the cathode electrode for thermally activated field emission of electrons and ions upon interaction with a laser beam, the material being in contact with the cathode with a surface facing the discharge gap. The material is preferably a mixture of KCl and Ti powders. The laser may either shine directly on the material, preferably through a hole in the anode, or be directed to the material over a fiber optic cable.

  8. Star formation and its triggers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Combes, F.

    2016-06-01

    The relation between star formation and gas density appears linear for galaxies on the main sequence, and when the molecular gas is considered. However, the star formation efficiency (SFE) defined as the ratio of SFR to gas surface densities, can be much higher when SF is triggered by a dynamical process such as galaxy interaction or mergers, or even secular evolution and cold gas accretion. I review recent work showing how the SFE can vary as a function of morphological type, environment, or redshift. Physical processes able to explain positive and negative feedback from supernovae or AGN are discussed.

  9. Triggering for charm, beauty, and truth

    SciTech Connect

    Appel, J.A.

    1982-02-01

    As the search for more and more rare processes accelerates, the need for more and more effective event triggers also accelerates. In the earliest experiments, a simple coincidence often sufficed not only as the event trigger, but as the complete record of an event of interest. In today's experiments, not only has the fast trigger become more sophisticated, but one or more additional level of trigger processing precedes writing event data to magnetic tape for later analysis. Further search experiments will certainly require further expansion in the number of trigger levels required to filter those rare events of particular interest.

  10. The Database Driven ATLAS Trigger Configuration System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chavez, Carlos; Gianelli, Michele; Martyniuk, Alex; Stelzer, Joerg; Stockton, Mark; Vazquez, Will

    2015-12-01

    The ATLAS trigger configuration system uses a centrally provided relational database to store the configurations for all levels of the ATLAS trigger system. The configuration used at any point during data taking is maintained in this database. A interface to this database is provided by the TriggerTool, a Java-based graphical user interface. The TriggerTool has been designed to work as both a convenient browser and editor of configurations in the database for both general users and experts. The updates to the trigger system necessitated by the upgrades and changes in both hardware and software during the first long shut down of the LHC will be explored.

  11. Integration of the Trigger and Data Acquisition Systems in ATLAS

    SciTech Connect

    Abolins, M.; Adragna, P.; Aleksandrov, E.; Aleksandrov, I.; Amorim, A.; Anderson, K.; Anduaga, X.; Aracena, I.; Asquith, L.; Avolio, G.; Backlund, S.; Badescu, E.; Baines, J.; Barria, P.; Bartoldus, R.; Batreanu, S.; Beck, H.P.; Bee, C.; Bell, P.; Bell, W.H.; Bellomo, M.; /more authors..

    2011-11-09

    During 2006 and the first half of 2007, the installation, integration and commissioning of trigger and data acquisition (TDAQ) equipment in the ATLAS experimental area have progressed. There have been a series of technical runs using the final components of the system already installed in the experimental area. Various tests have been run including ones where level 1 preselected simulated proton-proton events have been processed in a loop mode through the trigger and dataflow chains. The system included the readout buffers containing the events, event building, level 2 and event filter trigger algorithms. The scalability of the system with respect to the number of event building nodes used has been studied and quantities critical for the final system, such as trigger rates and event processing times, have been measured using different trigger algorithms as well as different TDAQ components. This paper presents the TDAQ architecture, the current status of the installation and commissioning and highlights the main test results that validate the system.

  12. Nitrogen deficiency in barley (Hordeum vulgare) seedlings induces molecular and metabolic adjustments that trigger aphid resistance

    PubMed Central

    Comadira, Gloria; Rasool, Brwa; Karpinska, Barbara; Morris, Jenny; Verrall, Susan R.; Hedley, Peter E.; Foyer, Christine H.; Hancock, Robert D.

    2015-01-01

    Agricultural nitrous oxide (N2O) pollution resulting from the use of synthetic fertilizers represents a significant contribution to anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions, providing a rationale for reduced use of nitrogen (N) fertilizers. Nitrogen limitation results in extensive systems rebalancing that remodels metabolism and defence processes. To analyse the regulation underpinning these responses, barley (Horedeum vulgare) seedlings were grown for 7 d under N-deficient conditions until net photosynthesis was 50% lower than in N-replete controls. Although shoot growth was decreased there was no evidence for the induction of oxidative stress despite lower total concentrations of N-containing antioxidants. Nitrogen-deficient barley leaves were rich in amino acids, sugars and tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates. In contrast to N-replete leaves one-day-old nymphs of the green peach aphid (Myzus persicae) failed to reach adulthood when transferred to N-deficient barley leaves. Transcripts encoding cell, sugar and nutrient signalling, protein degradation and secondary metabolism were over-represented in N-deficient leaves while those associated with hormone metabolism were similar under both nutrient regimes with the exception of mRNAs encoding proteins involved in auxin metabolism and responses. Significant similarities were observed between the N-limited barley leaf transcriptome and that of aphid-infested Arabidopsis leaves. These findings not only highlight significant similarities between biotic and abiotic stress signalling cascades but also identify potential targets for increasing aphid resistance with implications for the development of sustainable agriculture. PMID:26038307

  13. Nitrogen deficiency in barley (Hordeum vulgare) seedlings induces molecular and metabolic adjustments that trigger aphid resistance.

    PubMed

    Comadira, Gloria; Rasool, Brwa; Karpinska, Barbara; Morris, Jenny; Verrall, Susan R; Hedley, Peter E; Foyer, Christine H; Hancock, Robert D

    2015-06-01

    Agricultural nitrous oxide (N2O) pollution resulting from the use of synthetic fertilizers represents a significant contribution to anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions, providing a rationale for reduced use of nitrogen (N) fertilizers. Nitrogen limitation results in extensive systems rebalancing that remodels metabolism and defence processes. To analyse the regulation underpinning these responses, barley (Horedeum vulgare) seedlings were grown for 7 d under N-deficient conditions until net photosynthesis was 50% lower than in N-replete controls. Although shoot growth was decreased there was no evidence for the induction of oxidative stress despite lower total concentrations of N-containing antioxidants. Nitrogen-deficient barley leaves were rich in amino acids, sugars and tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates. In contrast to N-replete leaves one-day-old nymphs of the green peach aphid (Myzus persicae) failed to reach adulthood when transferred to N-deficient barley leaves. Transcripts encoding cell, sugar and nutrient signalling, protein degradation and secondary metabolism were over-represented in N-deficient leaves while those associated with hormone metabolism were similar under both nutrient regimes with the exception of mRNAs encoding proteins involved in auxin metabolism and responses. Significant similarities were observed between the N-limited barley leaf transcriptome and that of aphid-infested Arabidopsis leaves. These findings not only highlight significant similarities between biotic and abiotic stress signalling cascades but also identify potential targets for increasing aphid resistance with implications for the development of sustainable agriculture. PMID:26038307

  14. Earthquake Triggering by High Power Electric Pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novikov, Victor; Konev, Yuri; Zeigarnik, Vladimir

    2010-05-01

    The study carried out by the Joint Institute for High Temperatures in cooperation with the Institute of Physics of the Earth and the Research Station in Bishkek of Russian Academy of Sciences in 1999-2008 showed a response of weak seismicity at field experiments with electric pulsed power systems, as well as acoustic emission of rock specimens under laboratory conditions on high-power electric current pulses applied to the rocks. It was suggested that the phenomenon discovered may be used in practice for partial release of tectonic stresses in the Earth crust for earthquake hazard mitigation. Nevertheless, the mechanism of the influence of man-made electromagnetic field on the regional seismicity is not clear yet. One of possible cause of the phenomenon may be pore fluid pressure increase in the rocks under stressed conditions due to Joule heat generation by electric current injected into the Earth crust. It is known that increase of pore fluid pressure in the fault zone over a critical pressure of about 0.05 MPa is sufficient to trigger an earthquake if the fault is near the critical state due to accumulated tectonic deformations. Detailed 3D-calculaton of electric current density in the Earth crust of the Northern Tien Shan provided by pulsed electric high-power system connected to grounded electric dipole showed that at the depth of earthquake epicenters (over 5 km) the electric current density is lower than 10-7 A/m2 that is not sufficient for increase of pressure in the fluid-saturated porous geological medium due to Joule heat generation, which may provide formation of cracks resulting in the fault propagation and release of tectonic stresses in the Earth crust. Nevertheless, under certain conditions, when electric current will be injected into the fault through the casing pipes of two deep wells with preliminary injection of conductive fluid into the fault, the current density may be high enough for significant increase of mechanic pressure in the porous two

  15. Myofascial trigger points: spontaneous electrical activity and its consequences for pain induction and propagation

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Active myofascial trigger points are one of the major peripheral pain generators for regional and generalized musculoskeletal pain conditions. Myofascial trigger points are also the targets for acupuncture and/or dry needling therapies. Recent evidence in the understanding of the pathophysiology of myofascial trigger points supports The Integrated Hypothesis for the trigger point formation; however unanswered questions remain. Current evidence shows that spontaneous electrical activity at myofascial trigger point originates from the extrafusal motor endplate. The spontaneous electrical activity represents focal muscle fiber contraction and/or muscle cramp potentials depending on trigger point sensitivity. Local pain and tenderness at myofascial trigger points are largely due to nociceptor sensitization with a lesser contribution from non-nociceptor sensitization. Nociceptor and non-nociceptor sensitization at myofascial trigger points may be part of the process of muscle ischemia associated with sustained focal muscle contraction and/or muscle cramps. Referred pain is dependent on the sensitivity of myofascial trigger points. Active myofascial trigger points may play an important role in the transition from localized pain to generalized pain conditions via the enhanced central sensitization, decreased descending inhibition and dysfunctional motor control strategy. PMID:21439050

  16. Final report on LDRD project : advanced optical trigger systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Roose, Lars D.; Hadley, G. Ronald; Mar, Alan; Serkland, Darwin Keith; Geib, Kent Martin; Sullivan, Charles Thomas; Keeler, Gordon Arthur; Bauer, Thomas M.; Peake, Gregory Merwin; Loubriel, Guillermo Manuel; Montano, Victoria A.

    2008-09-01

    Advanced optically-activated solid-state electrical switch development at Sandia has demonstrated multi-kA/kV switching and the path for scalability to even higher current/power. Realization of this potential requires development of new optical sources/switches based on key Sandia photonic device technologies: vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) and photoconductive semiconductor switch (PCSS) devices. The key to increasing the switching capacity of PCSS devices to 5kV/5kA and higher is to distribute the current in multiple parallel line filaments triggered by an array of high-brightness line-shaped illuminators. Commercial mechanically-stacked edge-emitting lasers have been used to trigger multiple filaments, but they are difficult to scale and manufacture with the required uniformity. In VCSEL arrays, adjacent lasers utilize identical semiconductor material and are lithographically patterned to the required dimensions. We have demonstrated multiple-line filament triggering using VCSEL arrays to approximate line generation. These arrays of uncoupled circular-aperture VCSELs have fill factors ranging from 2% to 30%. Using these arrays, we have developed a better understanding of the illumination requirements for stable triggering of multiple-filament PCSS devices. Photoconductive semiconductor switch (PCSS) devices offer advantages of high voltage operation (multi-kV), optical isolation, triggering with laser pulses that cannot occur accidentally in nature, low cost, high speed, small size, and radiation hardness. PCSS devices are candidates for an assortment of potential applications that require multi-kA switching of current. The key to increasing the switching capacity of PCSS devices to 5kV/5kA and higher is to distribute the current in multiple parallel line filaments triggered by an array of high-brightness line-shaped illuminators. Commercial mechanically-stacked edge-emitting lasers have been demonstrated to trigger multiple filaments, but they

  17. Landslides triggered by the earthquake

    SciTech Connect

    Harp, E.L.; Keefer, D.K.

    1990-01-01

    The May 2 earthquake triggered landslides numbering in the thousands. Most numerous were rockfalls and rockslides that occurred mainly on slopes steeper than 60{degree} within sandstone, siltstone, and shale units of Upper Cretaceous and Tertiary strata. Soil falls from cutbank slopes along streams were also numerous. Seven slumps in natural slopes were triggered, and minor liquefaction-induced lateral-spread failures occurred along Los Gatos Creek. Rockfalls and rockslides occurred as far as 34 km northwest, 15 km south, and 26 km southwest of the epicenter. There were few slope failures to the east of the epicenter, owing to the absence of steep slopes in that direction. Throughout the area affected, rockfalls and rockslides were concentrated on southwest-facing slopes; the failures on slopes facing in the southwest quadrant accounted for as much as 93% of all failures in some areas. Rockfalls and rockslides from ridge crests were predominantly from sandstone units. Along steeply incised canyons, however, failures in shale and siltstone units were also common. Small rockslides and soil slides occurred from cut slopes above oil-well pump pads in the oil fields; slumps were common in the outer parts of steep fill slopes of the pump pads. The distribution of seismically induced landslides throughout the entire earthquake-affected area was mapped from true-color airphotos taken on May 3, 1985.

  18. Membrane-triggered plant immunity

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Su-Jin; Lee, Hong Gil; Seo, Pil Joon

    2014-01-01

    Plants have evolved sophisticated defense mechanisms to resist pathogen invasion. Upon the pathogen recognition, the host plants activate a variety of signal transduction pathways, and one of representative defense responses is systemic acquired resistance (SAR) that provides strong immunity against secondary infections in systemic tissues. Accumulating evidence has demonstrated that modulation of membrane composition contributes to establishing SAR and disease resistance in Arabidopsis, but underlying molecular mechanisms remain to be elucidated. Here, we show that a membrane-bound transcription factor (MTF) is associated with plant responses to pathogen attack. The MTF is responsive to microbe-associated molecular pattern (MAMP)-triggered membrane rigidification at the levels of transcription and proteolytic processing. The processed nuclear transcription factor possibly regulates pathogen resistance by directly regulating PATHOGENESIS-RELATED (PR) genes. Taken together, our results suggest that pathogenic microorganisms trigger changes in physico-chemical properties of cellular membrane in plants, and the MTF conveys the membrane information to the nucleus to ensure prompt establishment of plant immunity. PMID:25763708

  19. XI UV Laser Trigger System

    SciTech Connect

    Brickeen, B.K.; Morelli, G.L.; Paiva, R.A.; Powell, C.A.; Sundvold, P.D.

    1999-01-26

    The X1 accelerator project at Sandia National Laboratory/New Mexico utilizes SF6 insulated, multi-stage, UV laser triggered gas switches. A 265 nm UV laser system was designed and built to generate eight simultaneous output pulses of 10 mJ each with a 13 nsec pulse width. A 1061 nm solid-state Nd:Cr:GSGG laser was frequency quadrupled using a two-stage doubling process. The 1061 nm fundamental laser energy was frequency doubled with a KTP crystal to 530 nm, achieving 65% conversion efficiency. The 530 nm output was frequency doubled with KD*P crystal to 265 nm, achieving conversion efficiency of 31%. The 265 nm beam pulse was split into eight parallel channels with a system of partially reflecting mirrors. Low timing jitter and stable energy output were achieved. The entire optical system was packaged into a rugged, o-ring sealed, aluminum structure 10''x19''x2.75''. The size of the electronics was 12''x8''x8''. Subsequent accelerator system requirements dictated a redesign of the triggering system for an output beam with less angular divergence. An unstable, crossed porro prism resonator was designed and incorporated into the system. The beam divergence of the redesigned system was successfully decreased to 0.97 mrad in the UV. The resulting frequency doubling efficiencies were 55% to 530 nm and 25% to 265 nm. The optical output remained at 10 mJ in each channel with an 11 nsec pulse width.

  20. The trigger system of the JEM-EUSO Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galeotti, Piero; Catalan0, Osvaldo; Bertaina, Mario

    JEM-EUSO is a space mission devoted to the investigation of Extreme Energy Cosmic Rays and Neutrinos (energy above 100 EeV) from the International Space Station (ISS) using the atmosphere as a giant detector, which is also the source of the largest fraction of noise (nightglow background). The trigger system should face different major challenging points: a) manage a large number of pixels (about 200k); b) use a very fast, low power consuming, and radiation hard electronics; c) have a high signal-to-noise performance and flexibility in order to lower as much as possible the energy threshold of the detector, adjust the system to a variable nightglow background, and trigger on different categories of events (air showers and neutrinos, lightnings, meteors); d) cope with the limited down-link transmission rate from the ISS to Earth, by operating a severe on-board and on-time data reduction. The general overview of the trigger system of JEM-EUSO will be presented.

  1. A versatile digital camera trigger for telescopes in the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwanke, U.; Shayduk, M.; Sulanke, K.-H.; Vorobiov, S.; Wischnewski, R.

    2015-05-01

    This paper describes the concept of an FPGA-based digital camera trigger for imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes, developed for the future Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA). The proposed camera trigger is designed to select images initiated by the Cherenkov emission of extended air showers from very-high energy (VHE, E > 20 GeV) photons and charged particles while suppressing signatures from background light. The trigger comprises three stages. A first stage employs programmable discriminators to digitize the signals arriving from the camera channels (pixels). At the second stage, a grid of low-cost FPGAs is used to process the digitized signals for camera regions with 37 pixels. At the third stage, trigger conditions found independently in any of the overlapping 37-pixel regions are combined into a global camera trigger by few central FPGAs. Trigger prototype boards based on Xilinx FPGAs have been designed, built and tested and were shown to function properly. Using these components a full camera trigger with a power consumption and price per channel of about 0.5 W and 19 €, respectively, can be built. With the described design the camera trigger algorithm can take advantage of pixel information in both the space and the time domain allowing, for example, the creation of triggers sensitive to the time-gradient of a shower image; the time information could also be exploited to online adjust the time window of the acquisition system for pixel data. Combining the results of the parallel execution of different trigger algorithms (optimized, for example, for the lowest and highest energies, respectively) on each FPGA can result in a better response over all photons energies (as demonstrated by Monte Carlo simulation in this work).

  2. Nonlinear electron magnetohydrodynamics physics. V. Triggered whistler emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Stenzel, R. L.; Strohmaier, K. D.; Urrutia, J. M.

    2008-06-15

    Laboratory experiments on whistler instabilities in the presence of small trigger waves have been performed. The instabilities arise from energizing electrons in magnetic null lines with time-varying magnetic fields. Such fields are created with loop antennas carrying large oscillating currents in the low-frequency whistler branch. X-type and O-type magnetic nulls are produced with electric fields along the toroidal separator. The magnetic field convects in the form of whistler spheromaks and whistler mirrors. Counterpropagating spheromaks merge and form field-reversed configurations (FRCs). Counterpropagating mirrors colliding with an FRC also energize electrons and produce high-frequency whistler emissions. The possibility that these emissions are triggered by incident waves from other null lines in the plasma has been investigated. A controlled experiment on triggered emissions where a test wave has been created with an independent antenna and propagated into the source region to investigate its amplification has also been performed. It is observed that the test wave does not grow but triggers a much larger instability in a spheromak. The enhanced emission has a different magnetic topology and a slightly different frequency from that of the test wave. Space-time measurements in the source region show both convective wave amplification occurs as well as an absolute instability in the current ring.

  3. Adjustable Induction-Heating Coil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, Rod; Bartolotta, Paul

    1990-01-01

    Improved design for induction-heating work coil facilitates optimization of heating in different metal specimens. Three segments adjusted independently to obtain desired distribution of temperature. Reduces time needed to achieve required temperature profiles.

  4. CDF level 2 trigger upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Anikeev, K.; Bogdan, M.; DeMaat, R.; Fedorko, W.; Frisch, H.; Hahn, K.; Hakala, M.; Keener, P.; Kim, Y.; Kroll, J.; Kwang, S.; Lewis, J.; Lin, C.; Liu, T.; Marjamaa, F.; Mansikkala, T.; Neu, C.; Pitkanen, S.; Reisert, B.; Rusu, V.; Sanders, H.; /Fermilab /Chicago U. /Pennsylvania U.

    2006-01-01

    We describe the new CDF Level 2 Trigger, which was commissioned during Spring 2005. The upgrade was necessitated by several factors that included increased bandwidth requirements, in view of the growing instantaneous luminosity of the Tevatron, and the need for a more robust system, since the older system was reaching the limits of maintainability. The challenges in designing the new system were interfacing with many different upstream detector subsystems, processing larger volumes of data at higher speed, and minimizing the impact on running the CDF experiment during the system commissioning phase. To meet these challenges, the new system was designed around a general purpose motherboard, the PULSAR, which is instrumented with powerful FPGAs and modern SRAMs, and which uses mezzanine cards to interface with upstream detector components and an industry standard data link (S-LINK) within the system.

  5. Is osseointegration inflammation-triggered?

    PubMed

    Vitkov, Ljubomir; Hartl, Dominik; Hannig, Matthias

    2016-08-01

    Bioinert endosteal implants cause a foreign body reaction, whereas bioactive ones cause osseointegration. However, the mechanisms responsible for the two modi of host response remain unclear. COX-2(-/-) animal models showed the dependence of osseointegration on prostaglandins. PGE2, a product of COX-2, augments Wnt signalling, a pathway that promotes the regeneration in many types of tissues. Recently, we demonstrated the ability of bioactive implants to recruit neutrophils and to trigger neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), which are a potent source of PGE2. In bioinert implants no PGE2 release has been ascertained. Collectively, these findings suggest that osseointegration might be the host response to bioactive implants, novel and quite different to the so-called foreign body reaction. PMID:27372846

  6. Acoustic properties of triggered lightning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dayeh, M. A.; Evans, N.; Ramaekers, J.; Trevino, J.; Rassoul, H.; Lucia, R. J.; Dwyer, J. R.; Uman, M. A.; Jordan, D. M.

    2014-12-01

    Acoustic signatures from rocket-triggered lightning are measured by a 15m long, one-dimensional microphone array consisting of 16 receivers situated 90 meters from the lightning channel. Measurements were taken at the International Center for Lightning Research and Testing (ICLRT) in Camp Blanding, FL during the summer of 2014. The linear array was oriented in an end-fire position so that the peak acoustic reception pattern can be steered vertically along the channel with a frequency-dependent spatial resolution, enabling us to sample the acoustic signatures from different portions along the lightning channel. We report on the characteristics of acoustic signatures associated with several return strokes in 6 measured flashes (total of 29 return strokes). In addition, we study the relationship between the amplitude, peak frequency, and inferred energy input of each stroke acoustic signature and the associated measured lightning parameters. Furthermore, challenges of obtaining acoustic measurements in thunderstorm harsh conditions and their countermeasures will also be discussed.

  7. A Mechanochemically Triggered "Click" Catalyst.

    PubMed

    Michael, Philipp; Binder, Wolfgang H

    2015-11-16

    "Click" chemistry represents one of the most powerful approaches for linking molecules in chemistry and materials science. Triggering this reaction by mechanical force would enable site- and stress-specific "click" reactions--a hitherto unreported observation. We introduce the design and realization of a homogeneous Cu catalyst able to activate through mechanical force when attached to suitable polymer chains, acting as a lever to transmit the force to the central catalytic system. Activation of the subsequent copper-catalyzed "click" reaction (CuAAC) is achieved either by ultrasonication or mechanical pressing of a polymeric material, using a fluorogenic dye to detect the activation of the catalyst. Based on an N-heterocyclic copper(I) carbene with attached polymeric chains of different flexibility, the force is transmitted to the central catalyst, thereby activating a CuAAC in solution and in the solid state. PMID:26420664

  8. Bars Triggered By Galaxy Flybys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holley-Bockelmann, Kelly; Lang, Meagan; Sinha, Manodeep

    2015-05-01

    Galaxy mergers drive galaxy evolution and are a key mechanism by which galaxies grow and transform. Unlike galaxy mergers where two galaxies combine into one remnant, galaxy flybys occur when two independent galaxy halos interpenetrate but detach at a later time; these one-time events are surprisingly common and can even out-number galaxy mergers at low redshift for massive halos. Although these interactions are transient and occur far outside the galaxy disk, flybys can still drive a rapid and large pertubations within both the intruder and victim halos. We explored how flyby encounters can transform each galaxy using a suite of N-body simulations. We present results from three co-planar flybys between disk galaxies, demonstrating that flybys can both trigger strong bar formation and can spin-up dark matter halos.

  9. Earthquake Simulator Finds Tremor Triggers

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Paul

    2015-03-27

    Using a novel device that simulates earthquakes in a laboratory setting, a Los Alamos researcher has found that seismic waves-the sounds radiated from earthquakes-can induce earthquake aftershocks, often long after a quake has subsided. The research provides insight into how earthquakes may be triggered and how they recur. Los Alamos researcher Paul Johnson and colleague Chris Marone at Penn State have discovered how wave energy can be stored in certain types of granular materials-like the type found along certain fault lines across the globe-and how this stored energy can suddenly be released as an earthquake when hit by relatively small seismic waves far beyond the traditional “aftershock zone” of a main quake. Perhaps most surprising, researchers have found that the release of energy can occur minutes, hours, or even days after the sound waves pass; the cause of the delay remains a tantalizing mystery.

  10. Landslide triggering by rain infiltration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Iverson, Richard M.

    2000-01-01

    Landsliding in response to rainfall involves physical processes that operate on disparate timescales. Relationships between these timescales guide development of a mathematical model that uses reduced forms of Richards equation to evaluate effects of rainfall infiltration on landslide occurrence, timing, depth, and acceleration in diverse situations. The longest pertinent timescale is A/D0, where D0 is the maximum hydraulic diffusivity of the soil and A is the catchment area that potentially affects groundwater pressures at a prospective landslide slip surface location with areal coordinates x, y and depth H. Times greater than A/D0 are necessary for establishment of steady background water pressures that develop at (x, y, H) in response to rainfall averaged over periods that commonly range from days to many decades. These steady groundwater pressures influence the propensity for landsliding at (x, y, H), but they do not trigger slope failure. Failure results from rainfall over a typically shorter timescale H2/D0 associated with transient pore pressure transmission during and following storms. Commonly, this timescale ranges from minutes to months. The shortest timescale affecting landslide responses to rainfall is √(H/g), where g is the magnitude of gravitational acceleration. Postfailure landslide motion occurs on this timescale, which indicates that the thinnest landslides accelerate most quickly if all other factors are constant. Effects of hydrologic processes on landslide processes across these diverse timescales are encapsulated by a response function, R(t*) = √(t*/π) exp (-1/t*) - erfc (1/√t*), which depends only on normalized time, t*. Use of R(t*) in conjunction with topographic data, rainfall intensity and duration information, an infinite-slope failure criterion, and Newton's second law predicts the timing, depth, and acceleration of rainfall-triggered landslides. Data from contrasting landslides that exhibit rapid, shallow motion and slow, deep

  11. Diet and Dermatitis: Food Triggers

    PubMed Central

    Schlichte, Megan

    2014-01-01

    Given increasing awareness of the link between diet and health, many patients are concerned that dietary factors may trigger dermatitis. Research has found that dietary factors can indeed exacerbate atopic dermatitis or cause dermatitis due to systemic contact dermatitis. In atopic dermatitis, dietary factors are more likely to cause an exacerbation among infants or children with moderate-to-severe atopic dermatitis relative to other populations. Foods may trigger rapid, immunoglobulin E-mediated hypersensitivity reactions or may lead to late eczematous reactions. While immediate reactions occur within minutes to hours of food exposure, late eczematous reactions may occur anywhere from hours to two days later. Screening methods, such as food allergen-specific serum immunoglobulin E tests or skin prick tests, can identify sensitization to specific foods, but a diagnosis of food allergy requires specific signs and symptoms that occur reproducibly upon food exposure. Many patients who are sensitized will not develop clinical findings upon food exposure; therefore, these tests may result in false-positive tests for food allergy. This is why the gold standard for diagnosis remains the double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge. In another condition, systemic contact dermatitis, ingestion of a specific food can actually cause dermatitis. Systemic contact dermatitis is a distinct T-cell mediated immunological reaction in which dietary exposure to specific allergens results in dermatitis. Balsam of Peru and nickel are well-known causes of systemic contact dermatitis, and reports have implicated multiple other allergens. This review seeks to increase awareness of important food allergens, elucidate their relationship with atopic dermatitis and systemic contact dermatitis, and review available diagnostic and treatment strategies. PMID:24688624

  12. A novel calorimeter trigger concept: The jet trigger of the H1 experiment at HERA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olivier, Bob; Dubak-Behrendt, Ana; Kiesling, Christian; Reisert, Burkard; Aktas, Adil; Antunovic, Biljana; Bracinik, Juraj; Braquet, Charles; Brettel, Horst; Dulny, Barbara; Fent, Jürgen; Fras, Markus; Fröchtenicht, Walter; Haberer, Werner; Hoffmann, Dirk; Modjesch, Miriam; Placakyte, Ringaile; Schörner-Sadenius, Thomas; Wassatsch, Andreas; Zimmermann, Jens

    2011-06-01

    We report on a novel trigger for the liquid argon calorimeter which was installed in the H1 Experiment at HERA. This trigger, called the "Jet Trigger", was running at level 1 and implemented a real-time cluster algorithm. Within only 800 ns, the Jet Trigger algorithm found local energy maxima in the calorimeter, summed their immediate neighbors, sorted the resulting jets by energy, and applied topological conditions for the final level 1 trigger decision. The Jet Trigger was in operation from the year 2006 until the end of the HERA running in the summer of 2007. With the Jet Trigger it was possible to substantially reduce the thresholds for triggering on electrons and jets, giving access to a largely extended phase space for physical observables which could not have been reached in H1 before. The concepts of the Jet Trigger may be an interesting upgrade option for the LHC experiments.

  13. An experimental comparison of triggered and random pulse train uncertainties

    SciTech Connect

    Henzlova, Daniela; Menlove, Howard O; Swinhoe, Martyn T

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present an experimental comparison of signal-triggered and randomly triggered based analysis algorithms of neutron multiplicity data. Traditional shift register type signal-triggered multiplicity analysis of singles, doubles and triples rates is compared with analysis using randomly triggered gates. Two methods of random gate generation are explored - non-overlapping gates (Feyrunan approach) and periodic overlapping gates (fast accidentals). Using californium sources with low, medium and high rate in combination with AmLi sources (as a surrogate for plutonium) we investigate relative standard deviation (RSD) of data in order to determine if there are parameter spaces in which one of the measurement methods should be preferred. Neutron correlation analysis is a commonly used NDA technique to assay plutonium mass. The data can be collected in two distinct ways: using signal-triggered or randomly triggered counting gates. Analysis algorithms were developed for both approaches to determine singles (S), doubles (D) and triples (7) rates from the measured sample. Currently the most commonly implemented technique to collect neutron coincidence data utilizes shift register based electronics. Shift register uses signal-triggered counting gates to generate foreground multiplicity distribution of correlated+accidental events and a random gate (opened after a predefined long delay following the signal trigger) to generate background multiplicity distribution of accidental events. Modern shift registers include fast accidental option to sample data with a fixed clock frequency. This way a set of overlapping gates is used to generate background multiplicity distributions in order to improve the measurement precision. In parallel to shift register approach the Feynman variance technique is frequently used, which utilizes set of consecutive non-overlapping gates. In general, different user communities (e.g. safeguards, nuclear material accountancy, emergency

  14. Disaster triggers disaster: Earthquake triggering by tropical cyclones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wdowinski, S.; Tsukanov, I.

    2011-12-01

    Three recent devastating earthquakes, the 1999 M=7.6 Chi-Chi (Taiwan), 2010 M=7.0 Leogane (Haiti), 2010 M=6.4 Kaohsiung (Taiwan), and additional three moderate size earthquakes (66 earthquake that occurred in the central mountainous area of Taiwan within three years after the typhoon. The 2009 Morakot typhoon was followed by 2009 M=6.2 Nantou and 2010 M=6.4 Kaohsiung earthquakes; the 1969 Flossie typhoon was followed by an M=6.3 earthquake in 1972; and the 1996 Herb typhoon by the 1998 M=6.2 Rueyli and 1999 M=7.6 Chi-Chi earthquakes. The earthquake catalog of Taiwan lists only two other M>6 main-shocks that occurred in Taiwan's central mountainous belt, one of them was in 1964 only four months after the wet Typhoon Gloria poured heavy rain in the same area. We suggest that the close proximity in time and space between wet tropical cyclones and earthquakes reflects a physical link between the two hazard types in which these earthquakes were triggered by rapid erosion induced by tropical cyclone's heavy rain. Based on remote sensing observations, meshfree finite element modeling, and Coulomb failure stress analysis, we show that the

  15. Triggers for the formation of porphyry deposits in magmatic arcs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkinson, Jamie

    2014-05-01

    Porphyry ore deposits source much of the copper, molybdenum, gold and silver utilized by humankind. They typically form in magmatic arcs above subduction zones via a series of linked processes, beginning with magma generation in the mantle and ending with the precipitation of metals from hydrous fluids in the shallow crust. In this review, a hierarchy of four key "triggers" involved in the formation of porphyry deposits is outlined. Trigger 1 (100-1000 km scale) is a process of cyclic refertilization and enrichment of magmas in metals and volatiles in deep crustal sills trapped for long time periods in compressional tectonic settings. Trigger 2 (10 to 100 km scale) is the process of sulphide saturation in magmas that can both enhance and destroy ore-forming potential by stripping chalcophile metals from silicate melts, but also, in this way, pre-concentrating them. Trigger 3 (1-10 km scale) relates to the efficient transfer of metals into hydrothermal fluids exsolving from porphyry magmas, in particular the potential role of melt reduction in enhancing melt-volatile partitioning. Trigger 4 (1-5 km scale) identifies processes that are currently thought to be critical for the efficient precipitation of ore minerals in the deposit environment. Although all processes are required to a greater or lesser degree, it is argued that trigger 2, as an over-riding mechanism, can best explain the restriction of large porphyry deposits, highly enriched in chalcophile metals and sulphur, to specific arc segments and time periods. Consequently, recognition of the fingerprint of sulphide saturation in igneous rocks may help mineral exploration companies to identify parts of magmatic arcs particularly predisposed to porphyry ore formation.

  16. Submarine landslides: processes, triggers and hazard prediction.

    PubMed

    Masson, D G; Harbitz, C B; Wynn, R B; Pedersen, G; Løvholt, F

    2006-08-15

    Huge landslides, mobilizing hundreds to thousands of km(3) of sediment and rock are ubiquitous in submarine settings ranging from the steepest volcanic island slopes to the gentlest muddy slopes of submarine deltas. Here, we summarize current knowledge of such landslides and the problems of assessing their hazard potential. The major hazards related to submarine landslides include destruction of seabed infrastructure, collapse of coastal areas into the sea and landslide-generated tsunamis. Most submarine slopes are inherently stable. Elevated pore pressures (leading to decreased frictional resistance to sliding) and specific weak layers within stratified sequences appear to be the key factors influencing landslide occurrence. Elevated pore pressures can result from normal depositional processes or from transient processes such as earthquake shaking; historical evidence suggests that the majority of large submarine landslides are triggered by earthquakes. Because of their tsunamigenic potential, ocean-island flank collapses and rockslides in fjords have been identified as the most dangerous of all landslide related hazards. Published models of ocean-island landslides mainly examine 'worst-case scenarios' that have a low probability of occurrence. Areas prone to submarine landsliding are relatively easy to identify, but we are still some way from being able to forecast individual events with precision. Monitoring of critical areas where landslides might be imminent and modelling landslide consequences so that appropriate mitigation strategies can be developed would appear to be areas where advances on current practice are possible. PMID:16844646

  17. The BTeV trigger: Recent developments

    SciTech Connect

    Kasper, Penelope; /Fermilab

    2003-12-01

    BTeV is a collider experiment at the Fermilab Tevatron dedicated to precision measurements of CP violation, mixing and rare decays of beauty and charm hadrons. The detector is a forward spectrometer with a pixel vertex detector inside a dipole magnet. A unique feature of BTeV is the trigger, which reconstructs tracks and vertices in every beam crossing. They present here an overview of the BTeV trigger and a description of recent improvements in trigger timing.

  18. 7 CFR 251.7 - Formula adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Formula adjustments. 251.7 Section 251.7 Agriculture... GENERAL REGULATIONS AND POLICIES-FOOD DISTRIBUTION THE EMERGENCY FOOD ASSISTANCE PROGRAM § 251.7 Formula adjustments. Formula adjustments. (a) Commodity adjustments. The Department will make annual adjustments...

  19. 12 CFR 1209.80 - Inflation adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Inflation adjustments. 1209.80 Section 1209.80... PROCEDURE Civil Money Penalty Inflation Adjustments § 1209.80 Inflation adjustments. The maximum amount of... thereafter adjusted in accordance with the Inflation Adjustment Act, on a recurring four-year cycle, is...

  20. 12 CFR 1209.80 - Inflation adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Inflation adjustments. 1209.80 Section 1209.80... PROCEDURE Civil Money Penalty Inflation Adjustments § 1209.80 Inflation adjustments. The maximum amount of... thereafter adjusted in accordance with the Inflation Adjustment Act, on a recurring four-year cycle, is...

  1. 12 CFR 1209.80 - Inflation adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Inflation adjustments. 1209.80 Section 1209.80... PROCEDURE Civil Money Penalty Inflation Adjustments § 1209.80 Inflation adjustments. The maximum amount of... thereafter adjusted in accordance with the Inflation Adjustment Act, on a recurring four-year cycle, is...

  2. Density-dependent adjustment of inducible defenses

    PubMed Central

    Tollrian, Ralph; Duggen, Sonja; Weiss, Linda C.; Laforsch, Christian; Kopp, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Predation is a major factor driving evolution, and organisms have evolved adaptations increasing their survival chances. However, most defenses incur trade-offs between benefits and costs. Many organisms save costs by employing inducible defenses as responses to fluctuating predation risk. The level of defense often increases with predator densities. However, individual predation risk should not only depend on predator density but also on the density of conspecifics. If the predator has a saturating functional response one would predict a negative correlation between prey density and individual predation risk and hence defense expression. Here, we tested this hypothesis using six model systems, covering a taxonomic range from protozoa to rotifers and crustaceans. In all six systems, we found that the level of defense expression increased with predator density but decreased with prey density. In one of our systems, i.e. in Daphnia, we further show that the response to prey density is triggered by a chemical cue released by conspecifics and congeners. Our results indicate that organisms adjust the degree of defense to the acute predation risk, rather than merely to predators’ densities. Our study suggests that density-dependent defense expression reflects accurate predation-risk assessment and is a general principle in many inducible-defense systems. PMID:26235428

  3. First images of thunder: Acoustic imaging of triggered lightning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dayeh, M. A.; Evans, N. D.; Fuselier, S. A.; Trevino, J.; Ramaekers, J.; Dwyer, J. R.; Lucia, R.; Rassoul, H. K.; Kotovsky, D. A.; Jordan, D. M.; Uman, M. A.

    2015-07-01

    An acoustic camera comprising a linear microphone array is used to image the thunder signature of triggered lightning. Measurements were taken at the International Center for Lightning Research and Testing in Camp Blanding, FL, during the summer of 2014. The array was positioned in an end-fire orientation thus enabling the peak acoustic reception pattern to be steered vertically with a frequency-dependent spatial resolution. On 14 July 2014, a lightning event with nine return strokes was successfully triggered. We present the first acoustic images of individual return strokes at high frequencies (>1 kHz) and compare the acoustically inferred profile with optical images. We find (i) a strong correlation between the return stroke peak current and the radiated acoustic pressure and (ii) an acoustic signature from an M component current pulse with an unusual fast rise time. These results show that acoustic imaging enables clear identification and quantification of thunder sources as a function of lightning channel altitude.

  4. Adjusting capitation rates using objective health measures and prior utilization

    PubMed Central

    Newhouse, Joseph P.; Manning, Willard G.; Keeler, Emmett B.; Sloss, Elizabeth M.

    1989-01-01

    Several analysts have proposed adding adjusters based on health status and prior utilization to the adjusted average per capita cost formula. The authors estimate how well such adjusters predict annual medical expenditures among non-elderly adults. Both measures substantially improve on the variables currently used. If only health measures are added, 20-30 percent of the predictable variance is explained; if only prior use is added, more than 40 percent is explained; if both are added, about 60 percent is explained. The results support including some measure of use in the formula until better health measures are developed. PMID:10313096

  5. Mechanism For Adjustment Of Commutation Of Brushless Motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaefer, Richard E.

    1995-01-01

    Mechanism enables adjustment of angular position of set of Hall-effect devices that sense instantaneous shaft angle of brushless dc motor. Outputs of sensors fed to commutation circuitry. Measurement of shaft angle essential for commutation; that is, application of voltage to stator windings must be synchronized with shaft angle. To obtain correct angle measurement for commutation, Hall-effect angle sensors positioned at proper reference angle. The present mechanism accelerates adjustment procedure and makes it possible to obtain more accurate indication of minimum-current position because it provides for adjustment while motor running.

  6. Parameters of triggered-lightning flashes in Florida and Alabama

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, R. J.; Schnetzer, G. H.; Thottappillil, R.; Rakov, V. A.; Uman, M. A.; Goldberg, J. D.

    1993-12-01

    Channel base currents from triggered lightning were measured at the NASA Kennedy Space Center, Florida, during summer 1990 and at Fort McClellan, Alabama, during summer 1991. Additionally, 16-mm cinematic records with 3- or 5-ms resolution were obtained for all flashes, and streak camera records were obtained for three of the Florida flashes. The 17 flashes analyzed here contained 69 strokes, all lowering negative charge from cloud to ground. Statistics on interstroke interval, no-current interstroke interval, total stroke duration, total stroke charge, total stroke action integral (∫ i2dt), return stroke current wave front characteristics, time to half peak value, and return stroke peak current are presented. Return stroke current pulses, characterized by rise times of the order of a few microseconds or less and peak values in the range of 4 to 38 kA, were found not to occur until after any preceding current at the bottom of the lightning channel fell below the noise level of less than 2 A. Current pulses associated with M components, characterized by slower rise times (typically tens to hundreds of microseconds) and peak values generally smaller than those of the return stroke pulses, occurred during established channel current flow of some tens to some hundreds of amperes. A relatively strong positive correlation was found between return stroke current average rate of rise and current peak. There was essentially no correlation between return stroke current peak and 10-90% rise time or between return stroke peak and the width of the current waveform at half of its peak value. Parameters of the lightning flashes triggered in Florida and Alabama are similar to each other but are different from those of triggered lightning recorded in New Mexico during the 1981 Thunderstorm Research International Program. Continuing currents that follow return stroke current peaks and last for more than 10 ms exhibit a variety of wave shapes that we have subdivided into four

  7. Investigation of firing properties of a vacuum arcs triggered by plasma injection

    SciTech Connect

    Bernardet, H.; Godechot, X.; Riviere, C.

    1996-08-01

    The firing characteristic of a vacuum arc, by means of plasma injection, is described. In this method, a plasma, created from a trigger device, plumes away to the space between the cathode and anode. As the plasma is quasi-neutral, the electrostatic field is concentrated across the sheath at the surface of the cathode, thus, creating a high electrical field. As a result, a vacuum arc fires between the cathode and anode. The authors have investigated the firing rate as a function of the trigger cathode distance, trigger current, the anode-cathode distance and voltage. They found a firing rate between 90 to 100% for a trigger current in the range of 400-1200 A, the trigger pulse length was 4 ps, and the trigger-cathode distance was 1.6 to 3.6 cm. The anode cathode gap length changes the firing rate to a low extent for values between 2 to 5 cm. The anode cathode voltage do not change the firing rate. The effect of a magnetic field applied axially over the trigger have also been investigated. Using a version of a highly reliable trigger, the authors were able to deposit stainless steel, copper, carbon and molybdenum, thin films.

  8. Ischemic Compression After Trigger Point Injection Affect the Treatment of Myofascial Trigger Points

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Soo A; Oh, Ki Young; Choi, Won Hyuck

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of trigger point injection with or without ischemic compression in treatment of myofascial trigger points in the upper trapezius muscle. Methods Sixty patients with active myofascial trigger points in upper trapezius muscle were randomly divided into three groups: group 1 (n=20) received only trigger point injections, group 2 (n=20) received trigger point injections with 30 seconds of ischemic compression, and group 3 (n=20) received trigger point injections with 60 seconds of ischemic compression. The visual analogue scale, pressure pain threshold, and range of motion of the neck were assessed before treatment, immediately after treatment, and 1 week after treatment. Korean Neck Disability Indexes were assessed before treatment and 1 week after treatment. Results We found a significant improvement in all assessment parameters (p<0.05) in all groups. But, receiving trigger point injections with ischemic compression group showed significant improvement as compared with the receiving only trigger point injections group. And no significant differences between receiving 30 seconds of ischemic compression group and 60 seconds of ischemic compression group. Conclusion This study demonstrated the effectiveness of ischemic compression for myofascial trigger point. Trigger point injections combined with ischemic compression shows better effects on treatment of myofascial trigger points in the upper trapezius muscle than the only trigger point injections therapy. But the duration of ischemic compression did not affect treatment of myofascial trigger point. PMID:24020035

  9. The post-adjustable gastric band abdominoplasty.

    PubMed

    Wu, Allan Y; Coon, John L; Huerta, Sergio; Condé-Green, Alexandra; Morrow, David M

    2012-07-01

    Serious complications associated with post-laparoscopic adjustable gastric band (LAGB) abdominoplasty have been reported in the medical literature. Furthermore, others have noted aesthetic problems with closure of the umbilicus due to apparatus port proximity. Currently, no clinical protocol or formal industry guidance for LAGB apparatus management during abdominoplasty is available in the medical literature. In this article, the authors describe their procedure for safe LAGB apparatus management during abdominoplasty and illustrate key surgical principles by presenting unique cases from their series of 20 patients treated with this technique. PMID:22745453

  10. The CDF LEVEL3 trigger

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, T.; Joshi, U.; Auchincloss, P.

    1989-04-01

    CDF is currently taking data at a luminosity of 10{sup 30} cm{sup -2} sec{sup -1} using a four level event filtering scheme. The fourth level, LEVEL3, uses ACP (Fermilab`s Advanced Computer Program) designed 32 bit VME based parallel processors (1) capable of executing algorithms written in FORTRAN. LEVEL3 currently rejects about 50% of the events.

  11. Final RQ adjustments rule issued

    SciTech Connect

    Bergeson, L.L.

    1995-08-01

    On June 12, 1995, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued its long awaited final rule adjusting certain reportable quantities (RQs) for hazardous substances under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). The rule: revises the table of hazardous substances to add 47 individual Clean Air Act (CAA) hazardous air pollutants (HAPs); adjustments their statutory one-pound RQs; adds five other CAA HAPs that are categories of substances and assigns no RQ to the categories; and adjusts RQs for 11 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) listed hazardous wastes. EPA made conforming changes to the Clean Water Act table of hazardous substances and the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA) table of extremely hazardous substances. The rule became effective July 12, 1995.

  12. Nonlinear dynamical triggering of slow slip

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Paul A; Knuth, Matthew W; Kaproth, Bryan M; Carpenter, Brett; Guyer, Robert A; Le Bas, Pierre - Yves; Daub, Eric G; Marone, Chris

    2010-12-10

    Among the most fascinating, recent discoveries in seismology have been the phenomena of triggered slip, including triggered earthquakes and triggered-tremor, as well as triggered slow, silent-slip during which no seismic energy is radiated. Because fault nucleation depths cannot be probed directly, the physical regimes in which these phenomena occur are poorly understood. Thus determining physical properties that control diverse types of triggered fault sliding and what frictional constitutive laws govern triggered faulting variability is challenging. We are characterizing the physical controls of triggered faulting with the goal of developing constitutive relations by conducting laboratory and numerical modeling experiments in sheared granular media at varying load conditions. In order to simulate granular fault zone gouge in the laboratory, glass beads are sheared in a double-direct configuration under constant normal stress, while subject to transient perturbation by acoustic waves. We find that triggered, slow, silent-slip occurs at very small confining loads ({approx}1-3 MPa) that are smaller than those where dynamic earthquake triggering takes place (4-7 MPa), and that triggered slow-slip is associated with bursts of LFE-like acoustic emission. Experimental evidence suggests that the nonlinear dynamical response of the gouge material induced by dynamic waves may be responsible for the triggered slip behavior: the slip-duration, stress-drop and along-strike slip displacement are proportional to the triggering wave amplitude. Further, we observe a shear-modulus decrease corresponding to dynamic-wave triggering relative to the shear modulus of stick-slips. Modulus decrease in response to dynamical wave amplitudes of roughly a microstrain and above is a hallmark of elastic nonlinear behavior. We believe that the dynamical waves increase the material non-affine elastic deformation during shearing, simultaneously leading to instability and slow-slip. The inferred

  13. Global Trigger Upgrade firmware architecture for the level-1 Trigger of the CMS experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahbaran, B.; Arnold, B.; Bergauer, H.; Wittmann, J.; Matsushita, T.

    2015-02-01

    The Global Trigger (GT) is the final step of the CMS Level-1 Trigger and implements the ``menu'' of triggers, which is a set of selection requirements applied to the final list of objects (such as muons, electrons or jets) to trigger the readout of the detector and serve as basis for further calculations by the High Level Trigger. Operational experience in developing trigger menus from the first LHC run has shown that the requirements increased as the luminosity and pile-up increased. The new GT (μGT) is designed based on Xilinx Virtex-7 FPGAs, which combine unsurpassed flexibility with regard to scalability and high robustness. Furthermore, a custom board which receives signals from legacy electronics and basic binary inputs from less complex trigger sources is presented. Additionally, this paper describes the architecture of a distributed testing framework and the Trigger Menu Editor.

  14. Prompt trigger primitives for a self-seeded track trigger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dressanandt, N.; Halgeri, A.; Kamat, M.; Koppal, V.; Newcomer, M.

    2012-10-01

    A viable self-seeded track trigger for a high rate collider detector environment must have excellent angular precision, response times commensurate with beam crossing rate and low mass. We have designed a fast clustering block servicing 128 contiguous strips to be included in an LHC upgrade silicon strip front end ASIC (ABC130) with these objectives in mind. The block is based on the presence of an analog front end with binary (threshold determined) strip readout latched at each beam crossing. Combinatorial logic tests for the presence of one or two adjacent strips over threshold, a qualifying cluster, at each beam crossing and transmits up to two, eight bits clusters descriptors, specifying address and cluster width via a high speed LVDS output. It is envisioned that a correlator chip, presently in conception, receives this data and via look-up tables checks for coincident hits between silicon strip layers. Since the clustering output will report the presence of one or two hit strips, a half strip pitch ( ~ 40 um for the ATLAS detector) resolution may be possible for each cluster. Our timing results show that the combinatorial clustering logic will settle within 6 ns. Assuming a beam crossing rate of 40 MHz, 16 bits of serialized data can be shifted out at 640MHz each crossing. This will allow a beam synchronous update rate providing data for up to two clusters for each bank of 128 strips. The data latency into the correlator chip will be only two crossings. Present power estimates suggest that the fast cluster block with LVDS driver will consume less than 12 mW.

  15. Intrasaccadic perception triggers pupillary constriction.

    PubMed

    Mathôt, Sebastiaan; Melmi, Jean-Baptiste; Castet, Eric

    2015-01-01

    It is commonly believed that vision is impaired during saccadic eye movements. However, here we report that some visual stimuli are clearly visible during saccades, and trigger a constriction of the eye's pupil. Participants viewed sinusoid gratings that changed polarity 150 times per second (every 6.67 ms). At this rate of flicker, the gratings were perceived as homogeneous surfaces while participants fixated. However, the flickering gratings contained ambiguous motion: rightward and leftward motion for vertical gratings; upward and downward motion for horizontal gratings. When participants made a saccade perpendicular to the gratings' orientation (e.g., a leftward saccade for a vertical grating), the eye's peak velocity matched the gratings' motion. As a result, the retinal image was approximately stable for a brief moment during the saccade, and this gave rise to an intrasaccadic percept: A normally invisible stimulus became visible when eye velocity was maximal. Our results confirm and extend previous studies by demonstrating intrasaccadic perception using a reflexive measure (pupillometry) that does not rely on subjective report. Our results further show that intrasaccadic perception affects all stages of visual processing, from the pupillary response to visual awareness. PMID:26339536

  16. Fluid pressure waves trigger earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulargia, Francesco; Bizzarri, Andrea

    2015-03-01

    Fluids-essentially meteoric water-are present everywhere in the Earth's crust, occasionally also with pressures higher than hydrostatic due to the tectonic strain imposed on impermeable undrained layers, to the impoundment of artificial lakes or to the forced injections required by oil and gas exploration and production. Experimental evidence suggests that such fluids flow along preferred paths of high diffusivity, provided by rock joints and faults. Studying the coupled poroelastic problem, we find that such flow is ruled by a nonlinear partial differential equation amenable to a Barenblatt-type solution, implying that it takes place in form of solitary pressure waves propagating at a velocity which decreases with time as v ∝ t [1/(n - 1) - 1] with n ≳ 7. According to Tresca-Von Mises criterion, these waves appear to play a major role in earthquake triggering, being also capable to account for aftershock delay without any further assumption. The measure of stress and fluid pressure inside active faults may therefore provide direct information about fault potential instability.

  17. Emergency Room Validation of the Revised Suicide Trigger Scale (STS-3): A Measure of a Hypothesized Suicide Trigger State

    PubMed Central

    Modi, Janki; Cohen, Lisa J.; Galynker, Igor I.

    2012-01-01

    Background The Suicide Trigger Scale (STS) was designed to measure the construct of an affective ‘suicide trigger state.’ This study aims to extend the inpatient setting validation study of the original Suicide Trigger Scale version 2 to the revised Suicide Trigger Scale version 3 (STS-3) in an acute psychiatric emergency room setting. Methods The 42-item STS-3 and a brief psychological test battery were administered to 183 adult psychiatric patients with suicidal ideation or attempt in the psychiatric emergency room, and re-administered to subjects at 1 year follow up. Factor analysis, linear and logistic regressions were used to examine construct structure, divergent and convergent validity, and construct validity, respectively. Results The STS-3 demonstrated strong internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha 0.94). Factor analysis yielded a three-factor solution, which explained 43.4% of the variance. Principal axis factor analysis was used to identify three reliable subscales: Frantic Hopelessness, Ruminative Flooding, and Near-Psychotic Somatization (Cronbach’s alphas 0.90, 0.80, and 0.76, respectively). Significant positive associations were observed between Frantic Hopelessness and BSI depression and anxiety subscales, between Ruminative Flooding and BSI anxiety and paranoia subscales, and Near Psychotic Somatization and BSI somatization subscales. Suicidal subjects with suicide attempt history had mean scores 7 points higher than those without history of suicide attempts. Frantic hopelessness was a significant predictor of current suicide attempt when only attempts requiring at least some medical attention were considered. Conclusion The STS-3 measures a distinct clinical entity, provisionally termed the ‘suicide trigger state.’ Scores on the STS-3 or select subscales appear to relate to degree of suicidality in terms of severity of ideation, history of attempt, and presence of substantive current attempts. Further study is required to confirm the

  18. Adjustable spacer with rotational lock

    SciTech Connect

    Bowyer, M.L.

    1984-02-28

    A spacing apparatus for tubing conduit in a subterranean well, normally for use with an electric component with a longitudinally extending external electrical cable, permits irrotational adjustment of the length of the tubing conduit. The spacing apparatus comprises telescoping members which are keyed to prevent rotation therebetween. A threaded member, longitudinally fixed relative to one longitudinal member, normally engages threads extending substantially along the entire length of the other telescoping member. Movement of a retaining sleeve permits disengagement of the threaded segments which ratchet along the threads during telescoping movement. The length of the conduit can thus be irrotationally adjusted to remove slack from the electrical cable.

  19. Convective adjustment in baroclinic atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emanuel, Kerry A.

    1986-01-01

    Local convection in planetary atmospheres is generally considered to result from the action of gravity on small regions of anomalous density. That in rotating baroclinic fluids the total potential energy for small scale convection contains a centrifugal as well as a gravitational contribution is shown. Convective adjustment in such an atmosphere results in the establishment of near adiabatic lapse rates of temperature along suitably defined surfaces of constant angular momentum, rather than in the vertical. This leads in general to sub-adiabatic vertical lapse rates. That such an adjustment actually occurs in the earth's atmosphere is shown by example and the magnitude of the effect for several other planetary atmospheres is estimated.

  20. 75 FR 33379 - Railroad Cost Recovery Procedures-Productivity Adjustment; Quarterly Rail Cost Adjustment Factor

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-11

    ... Surface Transportation Board Railroad Cost Recovery Procedures--Productivity Adjustment; Quarterly Rail... Railroads that the Board restate the previously published productivity adjustment for the 2003-2007 averaging period (2007 productivity adjustment) so that it tracks the 2007 productivity adjustment...

  1. Aspirin-triggered metabolites of EFAs.

    PubMed

    Makriyannis, Alexandros; Nikas, Spyros P

    2011-10-28

    Aspirin triggers the biosynthesis of oxygenated metabolites from arachidonic, eicosapentaenoic, and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids. In a preceding issue, Serhan et al. (2011) describe a novel aspirin-triggered DHA pathway for the biosynthesis of a potent anti-inflammatory and proresolving molecule. PMID:22035788

  2. Hierarchical trigger of the ALICE calorimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muller, Hans; Awes, Terry C.; Novitzky, Norbert; Kral, Jiri; Rak, Jan; Schambach, Jo; Wang, Yaping; Wang, Dong; Zhou, Daicui

    2010-05-01

    The trigger of the ALICE electromagnetic calorimeters is implemented in 2 hierarchically connected layers of electronics. In the lower layer, level-0 algorithms search shower energy above threshold in locally confined Trigger Region Units (TRU). The top layer is implemented as a single, global trigger unit that receives the trigger data from all TRUs as input to the level-1 algorithm. This architecture was first developed for the PHOS high pT photon trigger before it was adopted by EMCal also for the jet trigger. TRU units digitize up to 112 analogue input signals from the Front End Electronics (FEE) and concentrate their digital stream in a single FPGA. A charge and time summing algorithm is combined with a peakfinder that suppresses spurious noise and is precise to single LHC bunches. With a peak-to-peak noise level of 150 MeV the linear dynamic range above threshold spans from MIP energies at 215 up to 50 GeV. Local level-0 decisions take less than 600 ns after LHC collisions, upon which all TRUs transfer their level-0 trigger data to the upstream global trigger module which searches within the remaining level-1 latency for high pT gamma showers (PHOS) and/or for Jet cone areas (EMCaL).

  3. The H1 neural network trigger project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiesling, C.; Denby, B.; Fent, J.; Fröchtenicht, W.; Garda, P.; Granado, B.; Grindhammer, G.; Haberer, W.; Janauschek, L.; Kobler, T.; Koblitz, B.; Nellen, G.; Prevotet, J.-C.; Schmidt, S.; Tzamariudaki, E.; Udluft, S.

    2001-08-01

    We present a short overview of neuromorphic hardware and some of the physics projects making use of such devices. As a concrete example we describe an innovative project within the H1-Experiment at the electron-proton collider HERA, instrumenting hardwired neural networks as pattern recognition machines to discriminate between wanted physics and uninteresting background at the trigger level. The decision time of the system is less than 20 microseconds, typical for a modern second level trigger. The neural trigger has been successfully running for the past four years and has turned out new physics results from H1 unobtainable so far with other triggering schemes. We describe the concepts and the technical realization of the neural network trigger system, present the most important physics results, and motivate an upgrade of the system for the future high luminosity running at HERA. The upgrade concentrates on "intelligent preprocessing" of the neural inputs which help to strongly improve the networks' discrimination power.

  4. Visual adjustments to temporal blur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilson, Aaron C.; Mizokami, Yoko; Webster, Michael A.

    2005-10-01

    After observers have adapted to an edge that is spatially blurred or sharpened, a focused edge appears too sharp or blurred, respectively. These adjustments to blur may play an important role in calibrating spatial sensitivity. We examined whether similar adjustments influence the perception of temporal edges, by measuring the appearance of a step change in the luminance of a uniform field after adapting to blurred or sharpened transitions. Stimuli were square-wave alternations (at 1 to 8 Hz) filtered by changing the slope of the amplitude spectrum. A two-alternative-forced-choice task was used to adjust the slope until it appeared as a step change, or until it matched the perceived transitions in a reference stimulus. Observers could accurately set the waveform to a square wave, but only at the slower alternation rates. However, these settings were strongly biased by prior adaptation to filtered stimuli, or when the stimuli were viewed within temporally filtered surrounds. Control experiments suggest that the latter induction effects result directly from the temporal blur and are not simply a consequence of brightness induction in the fields. These results suggest that adaptation and induction adjust visual coding so that images are focused not only in space but also in time.

  5. Self-Adjusting Fluency Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Phillip

    1998-01-01

    Presents a rationale and methodology for a self-adjusting "fluency sensitive" approach to working with children who exhibit overt speech-fluency interruptions and a minimal amount of avoidance behavior. The approach emphasizes repeated experiences of volitional increases and decreases in loudness and pauses. Case examples demonstrate how several…

  6. Adjustable Walker for the Handicapped

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kitts, R. G.

    1984-01-01

    Front legs adjust at touch of lever for use on stairs or ramps. Spring loaded legs extend when lever is depressed by user. Legs lock in position when lever is released. Lever mounted on either side of walker or on both sides, so legs operated independently.

  7. Adjustable Optical-Fiber Attenuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buzzetti, Mike F.

    1994-01-01

    Adjustable fiber-optic attenuator utilizes bending loss to reduce strength of light transmitted along it. Attenuator functions without introducing measurable back-reflection or insertion loss. Relatively insensitive to vibration and changes in temperature. Potential applications include cable television, telephone networks, other signal-distribution networks, and laboratory instrumentation.

  8. Adjustable-Angle Drill Block

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallimore, F. H.

    1986-01-01

    Adjustable angular drill block accurately transfers hole patterns from mating surfaces not normal to each other. Block applicable to transfer of nonperpendicular holes in mating contoured assemblies in aircraft industry. Also useful in general manufacturing to transfer mating installation holes to irregular and angular surfaces.

  9. Economic Pressures and Family Adjustment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haccoun, Dorothy Markiewicz; Ledingham, Jane E.

    The relationships between economic stress on the family and child and parental adjustment were examined for a sample of 199 girls and boys in grades one, four, and seven. These associations were examined separately for families in which both parents were present and in which mothers only were at home. Economic stress was associated with boys'…

  10. Dark matter triggers of supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, Peter W.; Rajendran, Surjeet; Varela, Jaime

    2015-09-01

    The transit of primordial black holes through a white dwarf causes localized heating around the trajectory of the black hole through dynamical friction. For sufficiently massive black holes, this heat can initiate runaway thermonuclear fusion causing the white dwarf to explode as a supernova. The shape of the observed distribution of white dwarfs with masses up to 1.25 M⊙ rules out primordial black holes with masses ˜1019- 1020 gm as a dominant constituent of the local dark matter density. Black holes with masses as large as 1024 gm will be excluded if recent observations by the NuStar Collaboration of a population of white dwarfs near the galactic center are confirmed. Black holes in the mass range 1020- 1022 gm are also constrained by the observed supernova rate, though these bounds are subject to astrophysical uncertainties. These bounds can be further strengthened through measurements of white dwarf binaries in gravitational wave observatories. The mechanism proposed in this paper can constrain a variety of other dark matter scenarios such as Q balls, annihilation/collision of large composite states of dark matter and models of dark matter where the accretion of dark matter leads to the formation of compact cores within the star. White dwarfs, with their astronomical lifetimes and sizes, can thus act as large spacetime volume detectors enabling a unique probe of the properties of dark matter, especially of dark matter candidates that have low number density. This mechanism also raises the intriguing possibility that a class of supernova may be triggered through rare events induced by dark matter rather than the conventional mechanism of accreting white dwarfs that explode upon reaching the Chandrasekhar mass.

  11. JASMONATE-TRIGGERED PLANT IMMUNITY

    PubMed Central

    Campos, Marcelo L.; Kang, Jin-Ho; Howe, Gregg A.

    2014-01-01

    The plant hormone jasmonate (JA) exerts direct control over the production of chemical defense compounds that confer resistance to a remarkable spectrum of plant-associated organisms, ranging from microbial pathogens to vertebrate herbivores. The underlying mechanism of JA-triggered immunity (JATI) can be conceptualized as a multi-stage signal transduction cascade involving: i) pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that couple the perception of danger signals to rapid synthesis of bioactive JA; ii) an evolutionarily conserved JA signaling module that links fluctuating JA levels to changes in the abundance of transcriptional repressor proteins; and iii) activation (de-repression) of transcription factors that orchestrate the expression of myriad chemical and morphological defense traits. Multiple negative feedback loops act in concert to restrain the duration and amplitude of defense responses, presumably to mitigate potential fitness costs of JATI. The convergence of diverse plant- and non-plant-derived signals on the core JA module indicates that JATI is a general response to perceived danger. However, the modular structure of JATI may accommodate attacker-specific defense responses through evolutionary innovation of PRRs (inputs) and defense traits (outputs). The efficacy of JATI as a defense strategy is highlighted by its capacity to shape natural populations of plant attackers, as well as the propensity of plant-associated organisms to subvert or otherwise manipulate JA signaling. As both a cellular hub for integrating informational cues from the environment and a common target of pathogen effectors, the core JA module provides a focal point for understanding immune system networks and the evolution of chemical diversity in the plant kingdom. PMID:24973116

  12. High Resolution Spectroscopy of Rocket Triggered Lightning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, T. D.; Christian, H. J.

    2012-12-01

    In the Summer of 2012, optical spectra of rocket triggered lightning return strokes were recorded at the International Center for Lightning Research and Testing in north-central Florida. The spectra were recorded with a Phantom v710 high speed CMOS camera running at 670 kfps (kiloframes per second) with a 1 microsecond exposure time and a Princeton ProEM high speed CCD camera running at over 1,000 kfps with a 0.5 microsecond exposure time. Three separate volume phase holographic grisms were used during the study and were sensitive in the spectral ranges of 3800-6200 Angstroms, 6400-6700 Angstroms, 7600-7900 Angstroms. The first had a spectral resolution of 5 Angstroms, allowing the separation of singly ionized nitrogen multiplets. These spectra were recorded 50m above the ground with 0.65 m vertical field of view. The second and third spectrometers were recorded with the Princeton ProEM camera and had a resolution of 0.5 Angstroms. These spectra were recorded 50m above ground with 0.06 m vertical field of view. The evolution of important lines in the spectral ranges such as singly ionized nitrogen lines (including spatially resolved 4630 Angstrom multiplet), H-alpha, and a resolved 7774 Angstrom Neutral oxygen triplet will all be presented. The opacity of the lightning channel as well as number density, temperature, and conductivity, will be discussed along with channel base current.

  13. Self-adjusting magnetic bearing systems

    DOEpatents

    Post, R.F.

    1998-07-21

    A self-adjusting magnetic bearing automatically adjusts the parameters of an axially unstable magnetic bearing such that its force balance is maintained near the point of metastable equilibrium. Complete stabilization can be obtained with the application of weak restoring forces either from a mechanical bearing (running at near-zero load, thus with reduced wear) or from the action of residual eddy currents in a snubber bearing. In one embodiment, a torque is generated by the approach of a slotted pole to a conducting plate. The torque actuates an assembly which varies the position of a magnetic shunt to change the force exerted by the bearing. Another embodiment achieves axial stabilization by sensing vertical displacements in a suspended bearing element, and using this information in an electrical servo system. In a third embodiment, as a rotating eddy current exciter approaches a stationary bearing, it heats a thermostat which actuates an assembly to weaken the attractive force between the two bearing elements. An improved version of an electromechanical battery utilizing the designs of the various embodiments is described. 7 figs.

  14. Adjustable electronic load-alarm relay

    DOEpatents

    Mason, Charles H.; Sitton, Roy S.

    1976-01-01

    This invention is an improved electronic alarm relay for monitoring the current drawn by an AC motor or other electrical load. The circuit is designed to measure the load with high accuracy and to have excellent alarm repeatability. Chattering and arcing of the relay contacts are minimal. The operator can adjust the set point easily and can re-set both the high and the low alarm points by means of one simple adjustment. The relay includes means for generating a signal voltage proportional to the motor current. In a preferred form of the invention a first operational amplifier is provided to generate a first constant reference voltage which is higher than a preselected value of the signal voltage. A second operational amplifier is provided to generate a second constant reference voltage which is lower than the aforementioned preselected value of the signal voltage. A circuit comprising a first resistor serially connected to a second resistor is connected across the outputs of the first and second amplifiers, and the junction of the two resistors is connected to the inverting terminal of the second amplifier. Means are provided to compare the aforementioned signal voltage with both the first and second reference voltages and to actuate an alarm if the signal voltage is higher than the first reference voltage or lower than the second reference voltage.

  15. Self-adjusting magnetic bearing systems

    DOEpatents

    Post, Richard F.

    1998-01-01

    A self-adjusting magnetic bearing automatically adjusts the parameters of an axially unstable magnetic bearing such that its force balance is maintained near the point of metastable equilibrium. Complete stabilization can be obtained with the application of weak restoring forces either from a mechanical bearing (running at near-zero load, thus with reduced wear) or from the action of residual eddy currents in a snubber bearing. In one embodiment, a torque is generated by the approach of a slotted pole to a conducting plate. The torque actuates an assembly which varies the position of a magnetic shunt to change the force exerted by the bearing. Another embodiment achieves axial stabilization by sensing vertical displacements in a suspended bearing element, and using this information in an electrical servo system. In a third embodiment, as a rotating eddy current exciter approaches a stationary bearing, it heats a thermostat which actuates an assembly to weaken the attractive force between the two bearing elements. An improved version of an electromechanical battery utilizing the designs of the various embodiments is described.

  16. Study of Tectonic Tremor in Depth: Triggering Stress Observation and Model of the Triggering Mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tien-Huei

    including NVT occur on these sections have slower slip rates than that of the general earthquakes (Rubin, 2008; Ide, 2008). In Azna region, we use envelope and waveform cross-correlation to detect tremor. We investigate the stress required to trigger tremor and tremor spectrum using continuous broadband seismograms from 11 stations located near Anza, California. We examine 44 Mw≥7.4 teleseismic events between 2001 and 2011, in addition to one regional earthquake of smaller-magnitude, the 2009 Mw 6.5 Gulf of California earthquake, because it induced extremely high strain at Anza. The result suggests that not only the amplitude of the induced strain, but also the period of the incoming surface wave, may control triggering of tremor near Anza. In addition, we find that the transient-shear stress (17--35 kPa) required to trigger tremor along the SJF at Anza is distinctly higher than what has been reported for the well-studied SAF (Gulihem et al. 2010). We model slip initiation using the analytical solution of rate-and-state friction. We verify the correctness of this method by comparing the results with that from the dynamic model, implemented using the Multi-Dimensional Spectral Boundary Integral Code (MDSBI) written by Eric M. Dunham from Sanford University. We find that the analytical result is consistent with that of the dynamic model. We set up a patch model with which the source stress and frictional conditions best resemble the current estimates of the tremor source. The frictional regime of this patch is rate-weakening. The initial normal and shear stress, and friction parameters are suggested by previous observations of tectonic tremors both in this and other studies (Brown et al., 2005; Shelly et al., 2006; Miyazawa, 2008; Ben-Zion, 2012). Our dynamic loading first consists of simple harmonic stress change with fixed periods, simplifying the transient stress history to resemble teleseismic earthquakes. We tested the period and amplitude of such periodic loading. We

  17. Current focusing and steering

    PubMed Central

    Bonham, Ben H.; Litvak, Leonid M.

    2008-01-01

    Current steering and current focusing are stimulation techniques designed to increase the number of distinct perceptual channels available to cochlear implant (CI) users by adjusting currents applied simultaneously to multiple CI electrodes. Previous studies exploring current steering and current focusing stimulation strategies are reviewed, including results of research using computational models, animal neurophysiology, and human psychophysics. Preliminary results of additional neurophysiological and human psychophysical studies are presented that demonstrate the success of current steering strategies in stimulating auditory nerve regions lying between physical CI electrodes, as well as current focusing strategies that excite regions narrower than those stimulated using monopolar configurations. These results are interpreted in the context of perception and speech reception by CI users. Disparities between results of physiological and psychophysical studies are discussed. The differences in stimulation used for physiological and psychophysical studies are hypothesized to contribute to these disparities. Finally, application of current steering and focusing strategies to other types of auditory prostheses is also discussed. PMID:18501539

  18. The electric field changes and UHF radiations caused by the triggered lightning in Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kawasaki, Zen-Ichiro; Kanao, Tadashi; Matsuura, Kenji; Nakano, Minoru; Horii, Kenji; Nakamura, Koichi

    1991-01-01

    In the rocket triggered lightning experiment of fiscal 1989, researchers observed electromagnetic field changes and UHF electromagnetic radiation accompanying rocket triggered lightning. It was found that no rapid changes corresponding to the return stroke of natural lightning were observed in the electric field changes accompanying rocket triggered lightning. However, continuous currents were present. In the case of rocket triggered lightning to the tower, electromagnetic field changes corresponding to the initiation of triggered lightning showed a bipolar pulse of a relatively large amplitude. In contrast, the rocket triggered lightning to the ground did not have such a bipolar pulse. The UHF radiation accompanying the rocket triggered lightning preceded the waveform portions corresponding to the first changes in electromagnetic fields. The number of isolated pulses in the UHF radiation showed a correlation with the time duration from rocket launching up to triggered lightning. The time interval between consecutive isolated pulses tended to get shorter with the passage of time, just like the stepped leaders of natural lightning.

  19. Optically triggered high voltage switch network and method for switching a high voltage

    DOEpatents

    El-Sharkawi, Mohamed A.; Andexler, George; Silberkleit, Lee I.

    1993-01-19

    An optically triggered solid state switch and method for switching a high voltage electrical current. A plurality of solid state switches (350) are connected in series for controlling electrical current flow between a compensation capacitor (112) and ground in a reactive power compensator (50, 50') that monitors the voltage and current flowing through each of three distribution lines (52a, 52b and 52c), which are supplying three-phase power to one or more inductive loads. An optical transmitter (100) controlled by the reactive power compensation system produces light pulses that are conveyed over optical fibers (102) to a switch driver (110') that includes a plurality of series connected optical triger circuits (288). Each of the optical trigger circuits controls a pair of the solid state switches and includes a plurality of series connected resistors (294, 326, 330, and 334) that equalize or balance the potential across the plurality of trigger circuits. The trigger circuits are connected to one of the distribution lines through a trigger capacitor (340). In each switch driver, the light signals activate a phototransistor (300) so that an electrical current flows from one of the energy reservoir capacitors through a pulse transformer (306) in the trigger circuit, producing gate signals that turn on the pair of serially connected solid state switches (350).

  20. The magnitude distribution of dynamically triggered earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez, Stephen

    Large dynamic strains carried by seismic waves are known to trigger seismicity far from their source region. It is unknown, however, whether surface waves trigger only small earthquakes, or whether they can also trigger large, societally significant earthquakes. To address this question, we use a mixing model approach in which total seismicity is decomposed into 2 broad subclasses: "triggered" events initiated or advanced by far-field dynamic strains, and "untriggered" spontaneous events consisting of everything else. The b-value of a mixed data set, b MIX, is decomposed into a weighted sum of b-values of its constituent components, bT and bU. For populations of earthquakes subjected to dynamic strain, the fraction of earthquakes that are likely triggered, f T, is estimated via inter-event time ratios and used to invert for bT. The confidence bounds on b T are estimated by multiple inversions of bootstrap resamplings of bMIX and fT. For Californian seismicity, data are consistent with a single-parameter Gutenberg-Richter hypothesis governing the magnitudes of both triggered and untriggered earthquakes. Triggered earthquakes therefore seem just as likely to be societally significant as any other population of earthquakes.

  1. Triggering at a high luminosity hadron collider

    SciTech Connect

    Price, L.E.; Wagner, R.G.; Abolins, M.A.

    1984-01-01

    The extreme interaction rate occurring at the SSC as described in the Reference Design Report poses the principal new challenge for the triggering system compared with detectors at previous accelerators. At SSC we must plan for about 10/sup 8/ interactions per second. If bunch crossings occur each 33 ns, there will be an average of 3 interactions in each bunch crossing. Potential problems for triggering are presented both by the high total rate and by the multiple interactions per bunch crossing, so that triggering events must be selected in the presence of other interactions independent of the inherent speed of either detector elements or triggering electronics. Three principal topics are considered in this report: (1) Practical selections to be made in a first-level trigger to reduce the rate by a factor of 1000. (2) Electronics expected to implement this first-level trigger, and (3) the ultimate trigger selections that must be used to select the approximately 1 Hz that can practically be recorded for detailed analysis. 11 references, 6 figures.

  2. 12 CFR 19.240 - Inflation adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inflation adjustments. 19.240 Section 19.240... PROCEDURE Civil Money Penalty Inflation Adjustments § 19.240 Inflation adjustments. (a) The maximum amount... Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act of 1990 (28 U.S.C. 2461 note) as follows: ER10NO08.001 (b)...

  3. 12 CFR 19.240 - Inflation adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Inflation adjustments. 19.240 Section 19.240... PROCEDURE Civil Money Penalty Inflation Adjustments § 19.240 Inflation adjustments. (a) The maximum amount... Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act of 1990 (28 U.S.C. 2461 note) as follows: ER10NO08.001 (b)...

  4. 12 CFR 19.240 - Inflation adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Inflation adjustments. 19.240 Section 19.240... PROCEDURE Civil Money Penalty Inflation Adjustments § 19.240 Inflation adjustments. (a) The maximum amount... Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act of 1990 (28 U.S.C. 2461 note) as follows: ER10NO08.001 (b)...

  5. Cultural Adjustment and the Puerto Rican.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prewitt-Diaz, Joseph O.

    This review of the literature on cultural adjustment is divided into four sections: the nature of cultural adjustment; acculturation as a model of cultural adjustment; psychological responses to acculturation; and a model of cultural adjustment developed by the author as a result of his immigration from Puerto Rico to the United States mainland.…

  6. Adjusting to University: The Hong Kong Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yau, Hon Keung; Sun, Hongyi; Cheng, Alison Lai Fong

    2012-01-01

    Students' adjustment to the university environment is an important factor in predicting university outcomes and is crucial to their future achievements. University support to students' transition to university life can be divided into three dimensions: academic adjustment, social adjustment and psychological adjustment. However, these…

  7. Remotely triggered earthquakes following moderate main shocks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hough, S.E.

    2007-01-01

    Since 1992, remotely triggered earthquakes have been identified following large (M > 7) earthquakes in California as well as in other regions. These events, which occur at much greater distances than classic aftershocks, occur predominantly in active geothermal or volcanic regions, leading to theories that the earthquakes are triggered when passing seismic waves cause disruptions in magmatic or other fluid systems. In this paper, I focus on observations of remotely triggered earthquakes following moderate main shocks in diverse tectonic settings. I summarize evidence that remotely triggered earthquakes occur commonly in mid-continent and collisional zones. This evidence is derived from analysis of both historic earthquake sequences and from instrumentally recorded M5-6 earthquakes in eastern Canada. The latter analysis suggests that, while remotely triggered earthquakes do not occur pervasively following moderate earthquakes in eastern North America, a low level of triggering often does occur at distances beyond conventional aftershock zones. The inferred triggered events occur at the distances at which SmS waves are known to significantly increase ground motions. A similar result was found for 28 recent M5.3-7.1 earthquakes in California. In California, seismicity is found to increase on average to a distance of at least 200 km following moderate main shocks. This supports the conclusion that, even at distances of ???100 km, dynamic stress changes control the occurrence of triggered events. There are two explanations that can account for the occurrence of remotely triggered earthquakes in intraplate settings: (1) they occur at local zones of weakness, or (2) they occur in zones of local stress concentration. ?? 2007 The Geological Society of America.

  8. Intraplate triggered earthquakes: Observations and interpretation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hough, S.E.; Seeber, L.; Armbruster, J.G.

    2003-01-01

    We present evidence that at least two of the three 1811-1812 New Madrid, central United States, mainshocks and the 1886 Charleston, South Carolina, earthquake triggered earthquakes at regional distances. In addition to previously published evidence for triggered earthquakes in the northern Kentucky/southern Ohio region in 1812, we present evidence suggesting that triggered events might have occurred in the Wabash Valley, to the south of the New Madrid Seismic Zone, and near Charleston, South Carolina. We also discuss evidence that earthquakes might have been triggered in northern Kentucky within seconds of the passage of surface waves from the 23 January 1812 New Madrid mainshock. After the 1886 Charleston earthquake, accounts suggest that triggered events occurred near Moodus, Connecticut, and in southern Indiana. Notwithstanding the uncertainty associated with analysis of historical accounts, there is evidence that at least three out of the four known Mw 7 earthquakes in the central and eastern United States seem to have triggered earthquakes at distances beyond the typically assumed aftershock zone of 1-2 mainshock fault lengths. We explore the possibility that remotely triggered earthquakes might be common in low-strain-rate regions. We suggest that in a low-strain-rate environment, permanent, nonelastic deformation might play a more important role in stress accumulation than it does in interplate crust. Using a simple model incorporating elastic and anelastic strain release, we show that, for realistic parameter values, faults in intraplate crust remain close to their failure stress for a longer part of the earthquake cycle than do faults in high-strain-rate regions. Our results further suggest that remotely triggered earthquakes occur preferentially in regions of recent and/or future seismic activity, which suggests that faults are at a critical stress state in only some areas. Remotely triggered earthquakes may thus serve as beacons that identify regions of

  9. Triggerable electro-optic amplitude modulator bias stabilizer for integrated optical devices

    DOEpatents

    Conder, A.D.; Haigh, R.E.; Hugenberg, K.F.

    1995-09-26

    An improved Mach-Zehnder integrated optical electro-optic modulator is achieved by application and incorporation of a DC bias box containing a laser synchronized trigger circuit, a DC ramp and hold circuit, a modulator transfer function negative peak detector circuit, and an adjustable delay circuit. The DC bias box ramps the DC bias along the transfer function curve to any desired phase or point of operation at which point the RF modulation takes place. 7 figs.

  10. Triggerable electro-optic amplitude modulator bias stabilizer for integrated optical devices

    DOEpatents

    Conder, Alan D.; Haigh, Ronald E.; Hugenberg, Keith F.

    1995-01-01

    An improved Mach-Zehnder integrated optical electro-optic modulator is achieved by application and incorporation of a DC bias box containing a laser synchronized trigger circuit, a DC ramp and hold circuit, a modulator transfer function negative peak detector circuit, and an adjustable delay circuit. The DC bias box ramps the DC bias along the transfer function curve to any desired phase or point of operation at which point the RF modulation takes place.

  11. Attempted Suicide Triggers in Thai Adolescent Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Sukhawaha, Supattra; Arunpongpaisal, Suwanna; Rungreangkulkij, Somporn

    2016-06-01

    The study goal was to describe attempted suicide triggers in Thai adolescents. A descriptive exploratory qualitative study approach was used utilizing in-depth interviews with twelve adolescents who had attempted suicide and six of their parents. Content analysis was conducted. Attempted suicide triggers were (1) severe verbal criticisms and expulsion to die by a significant family member, (2) disappointed and unwanted by boyfriend in first serious relationship, (3) unwanted pregnancy, and (4) mental illness leading to intense emotions and irresistible impulses. These attempted suicide triggers should be of concern and brought into suicide prevention management programs such as emotional management, effective communication for adolescents and family. PMID:27256938

  12. Electronic trigger for the ASP experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, R.J.

    1985-11-01

    The Anomalous Single Photon (ASP) electronic trigger is described. The experiments is based on an electromagnetic calorimeter composed of arrays of lead glass blocks, read out with photo-multiplier tubes, surrounding the interaction point at the PEP storage ring. The primary requirement of the trigger system is to be sensitive to low energy (approx. =0.5 GeV and above) photons whilst discriminating against high backgrounds at PEP. Analogue summing of the PMT signals and a sequence of programmable digital look-up tables produces a ''dead-timeless'' trigger for the beam collision rate of 408 kHz. 6 refs., 6 figs.

  13. The upgrade of the CMS Global Trigger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wittmann, J.; Arnold, B.; Bergauer, H.; Jeitler, M.; Matsushita, T.; Rabady, D.; Rahbaran, B.; Wulz, C.-E.

    2016-02-01

    The Global Trigger is the final step of the CMS Level-1 Trigger. Previously implemented in VME, it has been redesigned and completely rebuilt in MicroTCA technology, using the Virtex-7 FPGA chip family. It will allow to implement trigger algorithms close to the final physics selection. The new system is presented, together with performance tests undertaken in parallel operation with the legacy system during the initial months of Run II of the LHC at a beam energy of 13 TeV.

  14. Introduction to myofascial trigger points in dogs.

    PubMed

    Wall, Rick

    2014-06-01

    In dogs, muscles make up 44%-57% of total body weight and can serve as source of both pain and dysfunction when myofascial trigger points are present. However, rarely is muscle mentioned as a generator of pain in dogs, and even less mentioned is muscle dysfunction. The veterinary practitioner with interest in pain management, rehabilitation, orthopedics, and sports medicine must be familiar with the characteristics, etiology, and precipitating factors of myofascial trigger points. Additionally, the development of examination and treatment skill is needed to effectively manage myofascial trigger points in dogs. PMID:25454375

  15. Status of Fast Interaction Trigger for ALICE Upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karavicheva, T. L.; Kurepin, A. B.; Trzaska, W. H.

    2015-06-01

    As a result of the LHC upgrade after the Long Shutdown 2, the expected luminosity and collision rate during the so called Run 3 will considerably exceed the design parameters for several of the key ALICE detectors systems including the forward trigger detectors. Furthermore, the introduction of a new Muon Forward Tracker significantly reduces the space envelope available for the upgraded Fast Interaction Trigger (FIT) detector on the muon spectrometer side. At the same time, FIT is expected to match and even exceed the functionality and performance currently secured by three ALICE sub-detectors: the time zero detector (T0), the VZERO system, and the Forward Multiplicity Detector (FMD). The harsh conditions of Run 3 would accelerate the ageing and radiation damage (detectable already during Run 1) of the FIT detector if we were to use standard PMTs. The solution came thanks to the latest developments in MCP-PMT technology providing compact photo sensors with excellent characteristics and stability.

  16. Mining machine with adjustable jib

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, D.

    1987-05-26

    A mining machine is described having a pair of crawler tracks, a means for individually driving each of the crawler tracks, a frame mounted on the crawler tracks, an elongated jib carrying a sprocket at each end, an endless cutting chain supported on the sprockets, cutters and loading flights mounted on the endless cutting chain, and means on the frame supporting the elongated jib. The means support the elongated jib consisting of a bridge on the frame, at least one scissors linkage pivotally mounted on the bridge, and arm having a first end attached to the scissors linkage, a front plate mounted on the second end of the arm and means adjustably mounting the elongated jib on the front plate. The means adjustably mount the elongated jib on the front plate including a first means for rotating the elongated jib between a vertical position and a horizontal position.

  17. Data acquisition, triggering, and filtering at the Auger Engineering Radio Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelley, J. L.

    2013-10-01

    The Auger Engineering Radio Array (AERA) is currently detecting cosmic rays of energies at and above 1017 eV at the Pierre Auger Observatory, by triggering on the radio emission produced in the associated air showers. The radio-detection technique must cope with a significant background of man-made radio-frequency interference, but can provide information on shower development with a high duty cycle. We discuss our techniques to handle the challenges of self-triggered radio detection in a low-power autonomous array, including triggering and filtering algorithms, data acquisition design, and communication systems.

  18. Coverage-adjusted entropy estimation.

    PubMed

    Vu, Vincent Q; Yu, Bin; Kass, Robert E

    2007-09-20

    Data on 'neural coding' have frequently been analyzed using information-theoretic measures. These formulations involve the fundamental and generally difficult statistical problem of estimating entropy. We review briefly several methods that have been advanced to estimate entropy and highlight a method, the coverage-adjusted entropy estimator (CAE), due to Chao and Shen that appeared recently in the environmental statistics literature. This method begins with the elementary Horvitz-Thompson estimator, developed for sampling from a finite population, and adjusts for the potential new species that have not yet been observed in the sample-these become the new patterns or 'words' in a spike train that have not yet been observed. The adjustment is due to I. J. Good, and is called the Good-Turing coverage estimate. We provide a new empirical regularization derivation of the coverage-adjusted probability estimator, which shrinks the maximum likelihood estimate. We prove that the CAE is consistent and first-order optimal, with rate O(P)(1/log n), in the class of distributions with finite entropy variance and that, within the class of distributions with finite qth moment of the log-likelihood, the Good-Turing coverage estimate and the total probability of unobserved words converge at rate O(P)(1/(log n)(q)). We then provide a simulation study of the estimator with standard distributions and examples from neuronal data, where observations are dependent. The results show that, with a minor modification, the CAE performs much better than the MLE and is better than the best upper bound estimator, due to Paninski, when the number of possible words m is unknown or infinite. PMID:17567838

  19. Radio AGN in the local universe: unification, triggering and evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tadhunter, Clive

    2016-06-01

    Associated with one of the most important forms of active galactic nucleus (AGN) feedback, and showing a strong preference for giant elliptical host galaxies, radio AGN (L_{1.4 GHz} > 10^{24} W Hz^{-1}) are a key sub-class of the overall AGN population. Recently their study has benefitted dramatically from the availability of high-quality data covering the X-ray to far-IR wavelength range obtained with the current generation of ground- and space-based telescope facilities. Reflecting this progress, here I review our current state of understanding of the population of radio AGN at low and intermediate redshifts (z < 0.7), concentrating on their nuclear AGN and host galaxy properties, and covering three interlocking themes: the classification of radio AGN and its interpretation; the triggering and fuelling of the jet and AGN activity; and the evolution of the host galaxies. I show that much of the observed diversity in the AGN properties of radio AGN can be explained in terms of a combination of orientation/anisotropy, mass accretion rate, and variability effects. The detailed morphologies of the host galaxies are consistent with the triggering of strong-line radio galaxies (SLRG) in galaxy mergers. However, the star formation properties and cool ISM contents suggest that the triggering mergers are relatively minor in terms of their gas masses in most cases, and would not lead to major growth of the supermassive black holes and stellar bulges; therefore, apart from a minority (<20 %) that show evidence for higher star formation rates and more massive cool ISM reservoirs, the SLRG represent late-time re-triggering of activity in mature giant elliptical galaxies. In contrast, the host and environmental properties of weak-line radio galaxies (WLRG) with Fanaroff-Riley class I radio morphologies are consistent with more gradual fuelling of the activity via gas accretion at low rates onto the supermassive black holes.

  20. FPGA Based Wavelet Trigger in Radio Detection of Cosmic Rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szadkowski, Zbigniew; Szadkowska, Anna

    2014-12-01

    Experiments which show coherent radio emission from extensive air showers induced by ultra-high-energy cosmic rays are designed for a detailed study of the development of the electromagnetic part of air showers. Radio detectors can operate with 100 % up time as, e.g., surface detectors based on water-Cherenkov tanks. They are being developed for ground-based experiments (e.g., the Pierre Auger Observatory) as another type of air-shower detector in addition to fluorescence detectors, which operate with only ˜10 % of duty on dark nights. The radio signals from air showers are caused by coherent emission from geomagnetic radiation and charge-excess processes. The self-triggers in radio detectors currently in use often generate a dense stream of data, which is analyzed afterwards. Huge amounts of registered data require significant manpower for off-line analysis. Improvement of trigger efficiency is a relevant factor. The wavelet trigger, which investigates on-line the power of radio signals (˜ V2/ R), is promising; however, it requires some improvements with respect to current designs. In this work, Morlet wavelets with various scaling factors were used for an analysis of real data from the Auger Engineering Radio Array and for optimization of the utilization of the resources in an FPGA. The wavelet analysis showed that the power of events is concentrated mostly in a limited range of the frequency spectrum (consistent with a range imposed by the input analog band-pass filter). However, we found several events with suspicious spectral characteristics, where the signal power is spread over the full band-width sampled by a 200 MHz digitizer with significant contribution of very high and very low frequencies. These events may not originate from cosmic ray showers but could be the result of human contamination. The engine of the wavelet analysis can be implemented in the modern powerful FPGAs and can remove suspicious events on-line to reduce the trigger rate.

  1. FPGA Based Wavelet Trigger in Radio Detection of Cosmic Rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szadkowski, Zbigniew; Szadkowska, Anna

    2014-09-01

    Experiments which show coherent radio emission from extensive air showers induced by ultra-high-energy cosmic rays are designed for a detailed study of the development of the electromagnetic part of air showers. Radio detectors can operate with 100 % up time as, e.g., surface detectors based on water-Cherenkov tanks. They are being developed for ground-based experiments (e.g., the Pierre Auger Observatory) as another type of air-shower detector in addition to fluorescence detectors, which operate with only ˜10 % of duty on dark nights. The radio signals from air showers are caused by coherent emission from geomagnetic radiation and charge-excess processes. The self-triggers in radio detectors currently in use often generate a dense stream of data, which is analyzed afterwards. Huge amounts of registered data require significant manpower for off-line analysis. Improvement of trigger efficiency is a relevant factor. The wavelet trigger, which investigates on-line the power of radio signals (˜V2/R), is promising; however, it requires some improvements with respect to current designs. In this work, Morlet wavelets with various scaling factors were used for an analysis of real data from the Auger Engineering Radio Array and for optimization of the utilization of the resources in an FPGA. The wavelet analysis showed that the power of events is concentrated mostly in a limited range of the frequency spectrum (consistent with a range imposed by the input analog band-pass filter). However, we found several events with suspicious spectral characteristics, where the signal power is spread over the full band-width sampled by a 200 MHz digitizer with significant contribution of very high and very low frequencies. These events may not originate from cosmic ray showers but could be the result of human contamination. The engine of the wavelet analysis can be implemented in the modern powerful FPGAs and can remove suspicious events on-line to reduce the trigger rate.

  2. Medium Moderates the Message. How Users Adjust Their Communication Trajectories to Different Media in Collaborative Task Solving.

    PubMed

    Lisiecka, Karolina; Rychwalska, Agnieszka; Samson, Katarzyna; Łucznik, Klara; Ziembowicz, Michał; Szóstek, Agnieszka; Nowak, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    Rapid development of information and communications technologies (ICT) has triggered profound changes in how people manage their social contacts in both informal and professional contexts. ICT mediated communication may seem limited in possibilities compared to face-to-face encounters, but research shows that puzzlingly often it can be just as effective and satisfactory. We posit that ICT users employ specific communication strategies adapted to particular communication channels, which results in a comparable effectiveness of communication. In order to maintain a satisfactory level of conversational intelligibility they calibrate the content of their messages to a given medium's richness and adjust the whole conversation trajectory so that every stage of the communication process runs fluently. In the current study, we compared complex task solving trajectories in chat, mobile phone and face-to-face dyadic conversations. Media conditions did not influence the quality of decision outcomes or users' perceptions of the interaction, but they had impact on the amount of time devoted to each of the identified phases of decision development. In face-to-face contacts the evaluation stage of the discussion dominated the conversation; in the texting condition the orientation-evaluation-control phases were evenly distributed; and the phone condition provided a midpoint between these two extremes. The results show that contemporary ICT users adjust their communication behavior to the limitations and opportunities of various media through the regulation of attention directed to each stage of the discussion so that as a whole the communication process remains effective. PMID:27337037

  3. Medium Moderates the Message. How Users Adjust Their Communication Trajectories to Different Media in Collaborative Task Solving

    PubMed Central

    Rychwalska, Agnieszka; Samson, Katarzyna; Łucznik, Klara; Ziembowicz, Michał; Szóstek, Agnieszka; Nowak, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    Rapid development of information and communications technologies (ICT) has triggered profound changes in how people manage their social contacts in both informal and professional contexts. ICT mediated communication may seem limited in possibilities compared to face-to-face encounters, but research shows that puzzlingly often it can be just as effective and satisfactory. We posit that ICT users employ specific communication strategies adapted to particular communication channels, which results in a comparable effectiveness of communication. In order to maintain a satisfactory level of conversational intelligibility they calibrate the content of their messages to a given medium’s richness and adjust the whole conversation trajectory so that every stage of the communication process runs fluently. In the current study, we compared complex task solving trajectories in chat, mobile phone and face-to-face dyadic conversations. Media conditions did not influence the quality of decision outcomes or users’ perceptions of the interaction, but they had impact on the amount of time devoted to each of the identified phases of decision development. In face-to-face contacts the evaluation stage of the discussion dominated the conversation; in the texting condition the orientation-evaluation-control phases were evenly distributed; and the phone condition provided a midpoint between these two extremes. The results show that contemporary ICT users adjust their communication behavior to the limitations and opportunities of various media through the regulation of attention directed to each stage of the discussion so that as a whole the communication process remains effective. PMID:27337037

  4. Triggered creep as a possible mechanism for delayed dynamic triggering of tremor and earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shelly, D.R.; Peng, Z.; Hill, D.P.; Aiken, C.

    2011-01-01

    The passage of radiating seismic waves generates transient stresses in the Earth's crust that can trigger slip on faults far away from the original earthquake source. The triggered fault slip is detectable in the form of earthquakes and seismic tremor. However, the significance of these triggered events remains controversial, in part because they often occur with some delay, long after the triggering stress has passed. Here we scrutinize the location and timing of tremor on the San Andreas fault between 2001 and 2010 in relation to distant earthquakes. We observe tremor on the San Andreas fault that is initiated by passing seismic waves, yet migrates along the fault at a much slower velocity than the radiating seismic waves. We suggest that the migrating tremor records triggered slow slip of the San Andreas fault as a propagating creep event. We find that the triggered tremor and fault creep can be initiated by distant earthquakes as small as magnitude 5.4 and can persist for several days after the seismic waves have passed. Our observations of prolonged tremor activity provide a clear example of the delayed dynamic triggering of seismic events. Fault creep has been shown to trigger earthquakes, and we therefore suggest that the dynamic triggering of prolonged fault creep could provide a mechanism for the delayed triggering of earthquakes. ?? 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  5. Software for implementing trigger algorithms on the upgraded CMS Global Trigger System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsushita, Takashi; Arnold, Bernhard

    2015-12-01

    The Global Trigger is the final step of the CMS Level-1 Trigger and implements a trigger menu, a set of selection requirements applied to the final list of trigger objects. The conditions for trigger object selection, with possible topological requirements on multiobject triggers, are combined by simple combinatorial logic to form the algorithms. The LHC has resumed its operation in 2015, the collision-energy will be increased to 13 TeV with the luminosity expected to go up to 2x1034 cm-2s-1. The CMS Level-1 trigger system will be upgraded to improve its performance for selecting interesting physics events and to operate within the predefined data-acquisition rate in the challenging environment expected at LHC Run 2. The Global Trigger will be re-implemented on modern FPGAs on an Advanced Mezzanine Card in MicroTCA crate. The upgraded system will benefit from the ability to process complex algorithms with DSP slices and increased processing resources with optical links running at 10 Gbit/s, enabling more algorithms at a time than previously possible and allowing CMS to be more flexible in how it handles the trigger bandwidth. In order to handle the increased complexity of the trigger menu implemented on the upgraded Global Trigger, a set of new software has been developed. The software allows a physicist to define a menu with analysis-like triggers using intuitive user interface. The menu is then realised on FPGAs with further software processing, instantiating predefined firmware blocks. The design and implementation of the software for preparing a menu for the upgraded CMS Global Trigger system are presented.

  6. Graphics Processing Units for HEP trigger systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ammendola, R.; Bauce, M.; Biagioni, A.; Chiozzi, S.; Cotta Ramusino, A.; Fantechi, R.; Fiorini, M.; Giagu, S.; Gianoli, A.; Lamanna, G.; Lonardo, A.; Messina, A.; Neri, I.; Paolucci, P. S.; Piandani, R.; Pontisso, L.; Rescigno, M.; Simula, F.; Sozzi, M.; Vicini, P.

    2016-07-01

    General-purpose computing on GPUs (Graphics Processing Units) is emerging as a new paradigm in several fields of science, although so far applications have been tailored to the specific strengths of such devices as accelerator in offline computation. With the steady reduction of GPU latencies, and the increase in link and memory throughput, the use of such devices for real-time applications in high-energy physics data acquisition and trigger systems is becoming ripe. We will discuss the use of online parallel computing on GPU for synchronous low level trigger, focusing on CERN NA62 experiment trigger system. The use of GPU in higher level trigger system is also briefly considered.

  7. The new UA1 calorimeter trigger processor

    SciTech Connect

    Baird, S.A.; Campbell, D.; Cawthraw, M.; Coughlan, J.; Flynn, P.; Galagadera, S.; Grayer, G.; Halsall, R.; Shah, T.P.; Stephens, R.

    1989-02-01

    The UA1 First Level Trigger Processor (TP) is a fast digital machine with a highly parallel pipelined architecture of fast TTL combinational and programmable logic controlled by programmable microsequencers. The TP uses 100,000 IC's housed in 18 crates each containing 21 fastbus sized modules. It is hardwired with a very high level of interconnection. The energy deposited in the upgraded calorimeter is digitised into 1700 bytes of input data every beam crossing. The Processor selects in 1.5 microseconds events for further processing. The new electron trigger has improved hadron jet rejection, achieved by requiring low energy deposition around the electro-magnetic cluster. A missing transverse energy trigger and a total energy trigger have also been implemented.

  8. Remotely triggered nonvolcanic tremor in Sumbawa, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, F.; Lupi, M.; Miller, S. A.

    2014-06-01

    We present, for the first time, evidence for triggered tremor beneath the island of Sumbawa, Indonesia. We show triggered tremor in response to three teleseismic earthquakes: the Mw9.0 2011 Tohoku earthquake and two oceanic strike-slip earthquakes (Mw 8.6 and Mw8.2) offshore of Sumatra in 2012. We constrain an apparent triggering threshold of 1 mm/s ground velocity that corresponds to about 8 kPa dynamic stress. Peak tremor amplitudes of about 180 nm/s are observed, and scale with the ground velocity induced by the remote earthquakes. Triggered tremor responds to 45-65 s period surface waves and predominantly correlates with Rayleigh waves, even though the 2012 oceanic events have stronger Love wave amplitudes. We could not locate the tremor because of minimal station coverage, but data indicate several potential source volumes including the Flores Thrust, the Java subduction zone, or Tambora volcano.

  9. The dangers of being trigger-happy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dale, J. E.; Haworth, T. J.; Bressert, E.

    2015-06-01

    We examine the evidence offered for triggered star formation against the backdrop provided by recent numerical simulations of feedback from massive stars at or below giant molecular cloud sizescales. We compile a catalogue of 67 observational papers, mostly published over the last decade, and examine the signposts most commonly used to infer the presence of triggered star formation. We then determine how well these signposts perform in a recent suite of hydrodynamic simulations of star formation including feedback from O-type stars performed by Dale et al. We find that none of the observational markers improve the chances of correctly identifying a given star as triggered by more than factors of 2 at most. This limits the fidelity of these techniques in interpreting star formation histories. We therefore urge caution in interpreting observations of star formation near feedback-driven structures in terms of triggering.

  10. Trigger circuits for the PHENIX electromagnetic calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, S.S.; Britton, C.L. Jr.; Winterberg, A.L.; Young, G.R.

    1997-11-01

    Monolithic and discrete circuits have been developed to provide trigger signals for the PHENIX electromagnetic calorimeter detector. These trigger circuits are deadtimeless and create overlapping 4 by 4 energy sums, a cosmic muon trigger, and a 144 channel energy sum. The front end electronics of the PHENIX system sample the energy and timing channels at each bunch crossing (BC) but it is not known immediately if this data is of interest. The information from the trigger circuits is used to determine if the data collected is of interest and should be digitized and stored or discarded. This paper presents details of the design, issues affecting circuit performance, characterization of prototypes fabricated in 1.2 {micro}m Orbit CMOS, and integration of the circuits into the EMCal electronics system.

  11. Session summary: Electronics, triggering and data acquisition

    SciTech Connect

    Rescia, S.

    1991-12-01

    The session focused on the requirements for calorimetry at the SSC/LHC. Results on new readout techniques, calibration, radiation hard electronics and semiconductor devices, analog and digital front and electronics, and trigger strategies are presented.

  12. The CDF L2 XFT Trigger Upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Lister, Alison; /UC, Davis

    2008-10-01

    We briefly present the eXtremely Fast Tracker stereo track upgrade for the CDF Level 2 trigger system. This upgrade enabled full 3D track reconstruction at Level 2 of the 3-Level CDF online triggering system. Using information provided by the stereo layers of the Central Outer Tracker, we can decrease the trigger rate due to fake tracks by requiring the tracks to be consistent with a single vertex in all three dimensions but also by using the track information to 'point' to the various detector components. We will also discuss the effectiveness of the Level 2 stereo track algorithm at achieving reduced trigger rates with high efficiencies during high luminosity running.

  13. Trigger System Upgrades for the SNO+ Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzec, Eric; Sno+ Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    The SNO+ experiment will explore many topics in neutrino physics including neutrino-less double beta decay, low-energy solar neutrinos, antineutrinos from reactors and natural sources, nucleon decay, and potentially supernova neutrinos. The SNO+ trigger and readout system consists of electronics both inherited from the SNO detector and newly created specifically to address the challenges presented by the addition of scintillation light. Addition of new utilities to the SNO+ trigger system will allow for a flexible calibration interface, more sophisticated use of the existing trigger system, and new, more targeted, background cuts that will improve physics sensitivity. These utilities will largely be orchestrated by a MicroZed System on Chip (SoC), micro-controller. Their range of application includes automatic fault detection, upgrades of SNO utilities, noise reduction, and interfacing between components of the trigger system.

  14. Decision-making triggers in adaptive management.

    PubMed

    Nie, Martin A; Schultz, Courtney A

    2012-12-01

    We analyzed whether decision-making triggers increase accountability of adaptive-management plans. Triggers are prenegotiated commitments in an adaptive-management plan that specify what actions are to be taken and when on the basis of information obtained from monitoring. Triggers improve certainty that particular actions will be taken by agencies in the future. We conducted an in-depth, qualitative review of the political and legal contexts of adaptive management and its application by U.S. federal agencies. Agencies must satisfy the judiciary that adaptive-management plans meet substantive legal standards and comply with the U.S. National Environmental Policy Act. We examined 3 cases in which triggers were used in adaptive-management plans: salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) in the Columbia River, oil and gas development by the Bureau of Land Management, and a habitat conservation plan under the U.S. Endangered Species Act. In all the cases, key aspects of adaptive management, including controls and preidentified feedback loops, were not incorporated in the plans. Monitoring and triggered mitigation actions were limited in their enforceability, which was contingent on several factors, including which laws applied in each case and the degree of specificity in how triggers were written into plans. Other controversial aspects of these plans revolved around who designed, conducted, interpreted, and funded monitoring programs. Additional contentious issues were the level of precaution associated with trigger mechanisms and the definition of ecological baselines used as points of comparison. Despite these challenges, triggers can be used to increase accountability, by predefining points at which an adaptive management plan will be revisited and reevaluated, and thus improve the application of adaptive management in its complicated political and legal context. PMID:22891956

  15. Dynamic stresses, Coulomb failure, and remote triggering

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hill, D.P.

    2008-01-01

    Dynamic stresses associated with crustal surface waves with 15-30-sec periods and peak amplitudes 5 km). The latter is consistent with the observation that extensional or transtensional tectonic regimes are more susceptible to remote triggering by Rayleigh-wave dynamic stresses than compressional or transpressional regimes. Locally elevated pore pressures may have a role in the observed prevalence of dynamic triggering in extensional regimes and geothermal/volcanic systems.

  16. Upgrade of the trigger system of CMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeitler, Manfred; CMS Collaboration

    2013-08-01

    Various parts of the CMS trigger and in particular the Level-1 hardware trigger will be upgraded to cope with increasing luminosity, using more selective trigger conditions at Level 1 and improving the reliability of the system. Many trigger subsystems use FPGAs (Field Programmable Gate Arrays) in the electronics and will benefit from developments in this technology, allowing us to place much more logic into a single FPGA chip, thus reducing the number of chips, electronic boards and interconnections and in this way improving reliability. A number of subsystems plan to switch from the old VME bus to the new microTCA crate standard. Using similar approaches, identical modules and common software wherever possible will reduce costs and manpower requirements and improve the serviceability of the whole trigger system. The computer-farm based High-Level Trigger will not only be extended by using increasing numbers of more powerful PCs but there are also concepts for making it more robust and the software easier to maintain, which will result in better efficiency of the whole system.

  17. Trigger finger, tendinosis, and intratendinous gene expression.

    PubMed

    Lundin, A-C; Aspenberg, P; Eliasson, P

    2014-04-01

    The pathogenesis of trigger finger has generally been ascribed to primary changes in the first annular ligament. In contrast, we recently found histological changes in the tendons, similar to the findings in Achilles tendinosis or tendinopathy. We therefore hypothesized that trigger finger tendons would show differences in gene expression in comparison to normal tendons in a pattern similar to what is published for Achilles tendinosis. We performed quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction on biopsies from finger flexor tendons, 13 trigger fingers and 13 apparently healthy control tendons, to assess the expression of 10 genes which have been described to be differently expressed in tendinosis (collagen type 1a1, collagen 3a1, MMP-2, MMP-3, ADAMTS-5, TIMP-3, aggrecan, biglycan, decorin, and versican). In trigger finger tendons, collagen types 1a1 and 3a1, aggrecan and biglycan were all up-regulated, and MMP-3and TIMP-3 were down-regulated. These changes were statistically significant and have been previously described for Achilles tendinosis. The remaining four genes were not significantly altered. The changes in gene expression support the hypothesis that trigger finger is a form of tendinosis. Because trigger finger is a common condition, often treated surgically, it could provide opportunities for clinical research on tendinosis. PMID:22882155

  18. The Zeus calorimeter first level trigger

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, W.J.

    1989-04-01

    The design of the Zeus Detector Calorimeter Level Trigger is presented. The Zeus detector is being built for operation at HERA, a new storage ring that will provide collisions between 820 GeV protons and 30 GeV electrons in 1990. The calorimeter is made of depleted uranium plates and plastic scintillator read out by wavelength shifter bars into 12,864 photomultiplier tubes. These signals are combined into 974 trigger towers with separate electromagnetic and hadronic sums. The calorimeter first level trigger is pipelined with a decision provided 5 {mu}sec after each beam crossing, occurring every 96 nsec. The trigger determines the total energy, the total transverse energy, the missing energy, and the energy and number of isolated electrons and muons. It also provides information on the number and energy of clusters. The trigger rate needs to be held to 1 kHz against a rate of proton-beam gas interactions of approximately 500 kHz. The summed trigger tower pulseheights are digitized by flash ADC`s. The digital values are linearized, stored and used for sums and pattern tests.

  19. Mimetics of Hormetic Agents: Stress-Resistance Triggers

    PubMed Central

    Sonneborn, Joan Smith

    2010-01-01

    Mimetics of hormetic agents offer a novel approach to adjust dose to minimize the risk of toxic response, and maximize the benefit of induction of at least partial physiological conditioning. Nature selected and preserved those organisms and triggers that promote tolerance to stress. The induced tolerance can serve to resist that challenge and can repair previous age, disease, and trauma damage as well to provide a more youthful response to other stresses. The associated physiological conditioning may include youthful restoration of DNA repair, resistance to oxidizing pollutants, protein structure and function repair, improved immunity, tissue remodeling, adjustments in central and peripheral nervous systems, and altered metabolism. By elucidating common pathways activated by hormetic agent’s mimetics, new strategies for intervention in aging, disease, and trauma emerge. Intervention potential in cancer, diabetes, age-related diseases, infectious diseases, cardiovascular diseases, and Alzheimer’s disease are possible. Some hormetic mimetics exist in pathways in primitive organisms and are active or latent in humans. Peptides, oligonucleotides, and hormones are among the mimetics that activate latent resistance to radiation, physical endurance, strength, and immunity to physiological condition tolerance to stress. Co-activators may be required for expression of the desired physiological conditioning health and rejuvenation benefits. PMID:20221297

  20. Adjustable link for kinematic mounting systems

    DOEpatents

    Hale, L.C.

    1997-07-01

    An adjustable link for kinematic mounting systems is disclosed. The adjustable link is a low-cost, passive device that provides backlash-free adjustment along its single constraint direction and flexural freedom in all other directions. The adjustable link comprises two spheres, two sockets in which the spheres are adjustable retain, and a connection link threadly connected at each end to the spheres, to provide a single direction of restraint and to adjust the length or distance between the sockets. Six such adjustable links provide for six degrees of freedom for mounting an instrument on a support. The adjustable link has applications in any machine or instrument requiring precision adjustment in six degrees of freedom, isolation from deformations of the supporting platform, and/or additional structural damping. The damping is accomplished by using a hollow connection link that contains an inner rod and a viscoelastic separation layer between the two. 3 figs.

  1. Adjustable link for kinematic mounting systems

    DOEpatents

    Hale, Layton C.

    1997-01-01

    An adjustable link for kinematic mounting systems. The adjustable link is a low-cost, passive device that provides backlash-free adjustment along its single constraint direction and flexural freedom in all other directions. The adjustable link comprises two spheres, two sockets in which the spheres are adjustable retain, and a connection link threadly connected at each end to the spheres, to provide a single direction of restraint and to adjust the length or distance between the sockets. Six such adjustable links provide for six degrees of freedom for mounting an instrument on a support. The adjustable link has applications in any machine or instrument requiring precision adjustment in six degrees of freedom, isolation from deformations of the supporting platform, and/or additional structural damping. The damping is accomplished by using a hollow connection link that contains an inner rod and a viscoelastic separation layer between the two.

  2. Operational amplifier with adjustable frequency response.

    PubMed

    Gulisek, D; Hencek, M

    1978-01-01

    The authors describe an operational amplifier with an adjustable frequency response and its use in membrane physiology, using the voltage clamp and current clamp method. The amplifier eliminates feedback poles causing oscillation. It consists of a follower with a high input resistance in the form of a tube and of an actual amplifier with an adjustable frequency response allowing the abolition of clicks by one pole and of oscillation by two poles in the 500 Hz divided by infinity range. Further properties of the amplifier: a long-term voltage drift of 1 mv, a temperature voltage drift of 0.5 mv/degrees K, input resistance greater than 1 GOhm, amplification greater than 80 dB, output +/- 12 v, 25 ma, noise, measured from the width of the oscilloscope track in the presence of a ray of normal brightness, not exceeding 50 muv in the 0-250 kHz band, f1 = 1 MHz. A short report on the amplifier was published a few years ago (Gulísek and Hencek 1973). PMID:149322

  3. Improving Current Balance In Parallel MOSFET's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niedra, Janis M.

    1992-01-01

    Simple circuit makes currents more nearly equal. Addition of diodes and adjustable-tap resistor increases operating range over which drain currents in two unmatched power MOSFET's brought more nearly into balance.

  4. A compact submicrosecond, high current generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovalchuk, B. M.; Kharlov, A. V.; Zorin, V. B.; Zherlitsyn, A. A.

    2009-08-01

    Pulsed current generator was developed for experiments with current carrying pulsed plasma. Main parts of the generator are capacitor bank, low inductive current driving lines, and central load part. Generator consists of four identical sections, connected in parallel to one load. Capacitor bank is assembled from 24 capacitor blocks (100 kV, 80 nF), connected in parallel. It stores 9.6 kJ at 100 kV charging voltage. Each capacitor block incorporates a multigap spark switch, which is able to commute by six parallel channels. Switches operate in dry air at atmospheric pressure. The generator was tested with an inductive load and a liner load. At 17.5 nH inductive load and 100 kV of charging voltage it provides 650 kA of current amplitude with 390 ns rise time with 0.6 Ω damping resistors in discharge circuit of each capacitor block. The net generator inductance without a load was optimized to be as low as 15 nH, which results in extremely low impedance of the generator (˜0.08 Ω). It ensures effective energy coupling with a low impedance load such as Z pinch. The generator operates reliably without any adjustments in 70-100 kV range of charging voltage. Jitter in delay between output pulse and triggering pulse is less than 5 ns at 70-100 kV charging voltage. Operation and handling are very simple, because no oil or purified gases are required for the generator. The generator has dimensions 5.24×1.2×0.18 m3 and total weight about 1400 kg, thus manifesting itself as simple, robust, and cost effective apparatus.

  5. Peer Victimization and Adolescent Adjustment: Does School Belonging Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wormington, Stephanie V.; Anderson, Kristen G.; Schneider, Ashley; Tomlinson, Kristin L.; Brown, Sandra A.

    2016-01-01

    Recent research highlights the role of peer victimization in students' adjustment across a variety of domains (e.g., academic, social), but less often identifies potential mediating variables. In the current study, we tested for direct effects from peer victimization to adolescents' academic behavior and alcohol use, as well as indirect effects…

  6. 7 CFR 4287.112 - Interest rate adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... variable rates to reduce the borrower's interest rate only when the variable rate has a ceiling which is less than or equal to the original fixed rate. (2) Variable rates can be changed to a fixed rate which is at or below the current variable rate. (3) The interest rates, after adjustments, must comply...

  7. Marital Adjustment, Parental Functioning, and Emotional Sharing in War Veterans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, Zahava; Debby-Aharon, Shimrit; Zerach, Gadi; Horesh, Danny

    2011-01-01

    The current study aimed to examine the implications of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms and emotional sharing in marital adjustment and parental functioning among Israeli veterans of the 1982 Lebanon War. The sample consisted of combat stress reaction (CSR) veterans (n = 264) and non-CSR veterans (n = 209). Results show that traumatized…

  8. Parent-Adolescent Conflicts, Conflict Resolution Types, and Adolescent Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branje, Susan J. T.; van Doorn, Muriel; van der Valk, Inge; Meeus, Wim

    2009-01-01

    The current study examined the moderating role of conflict resolution on the association between parent-adolescent conflicts and adolescent problematic adjustment. Participants were 1313 Dutch early and middle adolescents who completed measures on conflict frequency, conflict resolution with parents, and internalizing and externalizing adjustment…

  9. Factorial Invariance of the Dyadic Adjustment Scale across Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South, Susan C.; Krueger, Robert F.; Iacono, William G.

    2009-01-01

    The Dyadic Adjustment Scale (DAS; G. B. Spanier, 1976) is the most widely used inventory of relationship satisfaction in the social sciences, yet the question of whether it is measuring the same concept in men and women has never been addressed. In the current study, the authors examined the factor structure of the DAS in a sample of 900 currently…

  10. 7 CFR 4287.112 - Interest rate adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... variable rates to reduce the borrower's interest rate only when the variable rate has a ceiling which is less than or equal to the original fixed rate. (2) Variable rates can be changed to a fixed rate which is at or below the current variable rate. (3) The interest rates, after adjustments, must comply...

  11. Proactive and Preventive Coping in Adjustment to College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gan, Yiqun; Hu, Yueqin; Zhang, Yiwen

    2010-01-01

    The current study compared the relative importance of proactive coping and preventive coping in the adjustment to university life among 403 freshmen at a Chinese university and evaluated the function of proactive coping in the stress process. Participants completed the Future-Oriented Coping Inventory (Gan, Yang, Zhou, & Zhang, 2007), the…

  12. 50 CFR 648.24 - Framework adjustments to management measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... measures currently included in the FMP, set aside quota for scientific research, regional management, and... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Framework adjustments to management measures. 648.24 Section 648.24 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT,...

  13. Psychosocial Adjustment to Unsuccessful IVF and GIFT Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Susan M.; Clifford, Ellen; Hay, Douglas M.; Robinson, John

    1997-01-01

    Couples for whom in vitro fertilization (IVF) or gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT) treatment failed (N=20) were followed up and compared with successful couples. Current mental-health status, quality of life, and marital adjustment were assessed via questionnaires; experiences were explored by interview. Results and recommendations for…

  14. Adult Adjustment of Recent Graduates of Iowa Mental Disabilities Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Alan R.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    The study investigated the adult adjustment of 318 former special education students labelled mentally retarded, 1 year after graduation. Current living situation, marital status, and leisure activities were examined as were variables related to employment (job type and status, hours worked per week, wages earned), and high school predictor…

  15. Correlates of household seismic hazard adjustment adoption.

    PubMed

    Lindell, M K; Whitney, D J

    2000-02-01

    This study examined the relationships of self-reported adoption of 12 seismic hazard adjustments (pre-impact actions to reduce danger to persons and property) with respondents' demographic characteristics, perceived risk, perceived hazard knowledge, perceived protection responsibility, and perceived attributes of the hazard adjustments. Consistent with theoretical predictions, perceived attributes of the hazard adjustments differentiated among the adjustments and had stronger correlations with adoption than any of the other predictors. These results identify the adjustments and attributes that emergency managers should address to have the greatest impact on improving household adjustment to earthquake hazard. PMID:10795335

  16. Corps of Engineers considers adjustable-speed generation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    The US Army Corps of Engineers and the Bonneville Power Administration recently commissioned a study to assess the various aspects of adjustable-speed generation (also called variable-speed generation). Electronic Power Conditioning Inc., of Corvallis, Oregon, studied the cost, efficiency, and other operating implications of installing the necessary hardware to enable adjustable-speed generation at four Corps hydroelectric plants on the lower Snake River (Ice Harbor, Lower Monumental, Little Goose, and Lower Granite). Results of the study indicate that, while costly, five adjustable-speed options could be installed and operated on a practical basis. The Corps initiated the study to determine the cost for adding adjustable-speed generation at the four projects to improve fish survival. The Northwest Power Planning Council currently is considering proposals to modify operating procedures for hydroelectric projects on the Columbia River and its tributaries, including seasonal adjustments of pool levels behind dams to flush fish through the river system more rapidly. However, dropping pool levels significantly below normal levels may cause a loss in generating efficiency and a corresponding increase in fish mortality. Adjustable-speed generation is seen as a method for solving both problems

  17. Executive functions, depressive symptoms, and college adjustment in women.

    PubMed

    Wingo, Jana; Kalkut, Erica; Tuminello, Elizabeth; Asconape, Josefina; Han, S Duke

    2013-01-01

    Many students have difficulty adjusting to college, and the contribution of academic and relational factors have been considered in previous research. In particular, depression commonly emerges among college women at this time and could be related to poor adjustment to college. This study examined the relationship between executive functions, depressive symptoms, and college adjustment in college women. Seventy-seven female participants from a midsize urban university completed the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence, College Adjustment Scale, Beck Depression Inventory-Second Edition, Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult Version, and four subtests from the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System: the Trail-Making Test, Design Fluency Test, Verbal Fluency Test, and Color-Word Interference Test. After controlling for IQ score, hierarchical regression analyses showed that subjective and objective measures of executive functioning and depressive symptoms were significantly related to college adjustment problems in academic, relational, and psychological areas. The current study provides evidence for a relationship between cognitive abilities, psychiatric symptoms, and college adjustment. PMID:23397999

  18. Adjustable extender for instrument module

    DOEpatents

    Sevec, J.B.; Stein, A.D.

    1975-11-01

    A blank extender module used to mount an instrument module in front of its console for repair or test purposes has been equipped with a rotatable mount and means for locking the mount at various angles of rotation for easy accessibility. The rotatable mount includes a horizontal conduit supported by bearings within the blank module. The conduit is spring-biased in a retracted position within the blank module and in this position a small gear mounted on the conduit periphery is locked by a fixed pawl. The conduit and instrument mount can be pulled into an extended position with the gear clearing the pawl to permit rotation and adjustment of the instrument.

  19. The global return current in a pulsar's magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barzilay, Yudith

    2016-08-01

    An open issue in pulsar's models is the current adjustment between the gap current and the global current that depends on the global structure of the pulsar's magnetosphere. Here I propose a mechanism for the global return current in pulsars.

  20. [Situation-adjusted Treatment of Haemorrhoidal Disease].

    PubMed

    Kersting, S; Berg, E

    2015-12-01

    In addition to the stage several factors influence the treatment of haemorrhoids. The adequate treatment of haemorrhoids is not solely dependent on the stage, thus a situation-adapted therapy should be preferred. Advantages, disadvantages and specific characteristics of different therapy strategies in addition to potential complication risks have to be evaluated in order to obtain an effective and low-risk course. Also requests and personal living conditions of the patient as well as the expertise and experience of the physician have to be considered. A review of the current literature has been performed and a "four columns concept" has been developed that constitutes the fundament of a situation-adjusted treatment of haemorrhoids. The "four columns" that should be considered when therapy strategies are determined are composed of the following key factors: diagnostic findings, treatment alternatives, physician, and patient. PMID:23824620

  1. Assessing geomorphic sensitivity in relation to river capacity for adjustment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, H. E.; Brierley, G. J.

    2015-12-01

    River sensitivity describes the nature and rate of channel adjustments. An approach to analysis of geomorphic river sensitivity outlined in this paper relates potential sensitivity based on the expected capacity of adjustment for a river type to the recent history of channel adjustment. This approach was trialled to assess low, moderate and high geomorphic sensitivity for four different types of river (10 reaches in total) along the Lower Tongariro River, North Island, New Zealand. Building upon the River Styles framework, river types were differentiated based upon valley setting (width and confinement), channel planform, geomorphic unit assemblages and bed material size. From this, the behavioural regime and potential for adjustment (type and extent) were determined. Historical maps and aerial photographs were geo-rectified and the channel planform digitised to assess channel adjustments for each reach from 1928 to 2007. Floodplain width controlled by terraces, exerted a strong influence upon reach scale sensitivity for the partly-confined, wandering, cobble-bed river. Although forced boundaries occur infrequently, the width of the active channel zone is constrained. An unconfined braided river reach directly downstream of the terrace-confined section was the most geomorphically sensitive reach. The channel in this reach adjusted recurrently to sediment inputs that were flushed through more confined, better connected upstream reaches. A meandering, sand-bed river in downstream reaches has exhibited negligible rates of channel migration. However, channel narrowing in this reach and the associated delta indicate that the system is approaching a threshold condition, beyond which channel avulsion is likely to occur. As this would trigger more rapid migration, this reach is considered to be more geomorphically sensitive than analysis of its low migration rate alone would indicate. This demonstrates how sensitivity is fashioned both by the behavioural regime of a reach

  2. The LHCb Data Acquisition and High Level Trigger Processing Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, M.; Gaspar, C.; Jost, B.; Neufeld, N.

    2015-12-01

    The LHCb experiment at the LHC accelerator at CERN collects collisions of particle bunches at 40 MHz. After a first level of hardware trigger with an output rate of 1 MHz, the physically interesting collisions are selected by running dedicated trigger algorithms in the High Level Trigger (HLT) computing farm. This farm consists of up to roughly 25000 CPU cores in roughly 1750 physical nodes each equipped with up to 4 TB local storage space. This work describes the LHCb online system with an emphasis on the developments implemented during the current long shutdown (LS1). We will elaborate the architecture to treble the available CPU power of the HLT farm and the technicalities to determine and verify precise calibration and alignment constants which are fed to the HLT event selection procedure. We will describe how the constants are fed into a two stage HLT event selection facility using extensively the local disk buffering capabilities on the worker nodes. With the installed disk buffers, the CPU resources can be used during periods of up to ten days without beams. These periods in the past accounted to more than 70% of the total time.

  3. The CMS High Level Trigger System: Experience and Future Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, G.; Behrens, U.; Bowen, M.; Branson, J.; Bukowiec, S.; Cittolin, S.; Coarasa, J. A.; Deldicque, C.; Dobson, M.; Dupont, A.; Erhan, S.; Flossdorf, A.; Gigi, D.; Glege, F.; Gomez-Reino, R.; Hartl, C.; Hegeman, J.; Holzner, A.; Hwong, Y. L.; Masetti, L.; Meijers, F.; Meschi, E.; Mommsen, R. K.; O'Dell, V.; Orsini, L.; Paus, C.; Petrucci, A.; Pieri, M.; Polese, G.; Racz, A.; Raginel, O.; Sakulin, H.; Sani, M.; Schwick, C.; Shpakov, D.; Simon, S.; Spataru, A. C.; Sumorok, K.

    2012-12-01

    The CMS experiment at the LHC features a two-level trigger system. Events accepted by the first level trigger, at a maximum rate of 100 kHz, are read out by the Data Acquisition system (DAQ), and subsequently assembled in memory in a farm of computers running a software high-level trigger (HLT), which selects interesting events for offline storage and analysis at a rate of order few hundred Hz. The HLT algorithms consist of sequences of offline-style reconstruction and filtering modules, executed on a farm of 0(10000) CPU cores built from commodity hardware. Experience from the operation of the HLT system in the collider run 2010/2011 is reported. The current architecture of the CMS HLT, its integration with the CMS reconstruction framework and the CMS DAQ, are discussed in the light of future development. The possible short- and medium-term evolution of the HLT software infrastructure to support extensions of the HLT computing power, and to address remaining performance and maintenance issues, are discussed.

  4. Experiments of artificially triggered lightning and its application in Conghua, Guangdong, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yijun; Yang, Shaojie; Lu, Weitao; Zheng, Dong; Dong, Wansheng; Li, Bin; Chen, Shaodong; Zhang, Yang; Chen, Luwen

    2014-01-01

    The Guangdong Comprehensive Observation Experiment on Lightning Discharge (GCOELD) was conducted from 2006 to 2011 in Conghua, Guangdong, China. In GCOELD, the acoustical, optical, electrical and magnetic signals of triggered lightning and natural lightning were measured. For the triggered lightning, the peak current of the return strokes (RSs) ranged from 6.67 to 31.93 kA. The transferred charge within 1 ms after the beginning of the RS ranged from 0.44 to 4.16 C. The peak currents showed different-function correlations with average rate of rise between 10 and 90%, maximum rate of rise, charge transfer and action integral. The 2D propagation speed of the upward positive leader for the triggered lightning was of the order of 104-105 m s- 1. The speed of the downward negative leader involved in altitude-triggered lightning was approximately 105 m s- 1. The characteristics of induced voltages produced by triggered lightning on a power line and signal line of an automatic weather station were measured and analyzed. The maximum induced voltage generated by the RS on the overhead power line (1200 m in length and 2 m above the ground) exceeded 10 kV. The maximum induced voltage on a vertical 10-m signal line was 3.10 kV. The triggered-lightning technique was also used to test the detection efficiency and location precision of the lightning location system (LLS) in Guangdong. It was explored that the Guangdong LLS yielded detection efficiency and location error of 92% and 760 m, respectively, for triggered flashes. For RSs of the triggered lightning, the peak currents given by the LLS deviated from those measured at the base of the lightning channel by 16% on average.

  5. A 250 MHz Level 1 Trigger and Distribution System for the GlueX experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Abbott, David J.; Cuevas, R. Christopher; Doughty, David Charles; Jastrzembski, Edward A.; Barbosa, Fernando J.; Raydo, Benjamin J.; Dong, Hai T.; Wilson, Jeffrey S.; Gupta, Abishek; Taylor, Mark; Somov, S.

    2009-11-01

    The GlueX detector now under construction at Jefferson Lab will search for exotic mesons though photoproduction (10^8 tagged photons per second) on a liquid hydrogen target. A Level 1 hardware trigger design is being developed to reduce total electromagnetic (>200 MHz) and hadronic (>350 kHz) rates to less than 200 kHz. This trigger is dead timeless and operates on a global synchronized 250 MHz clock. The core of the trigger design is based on a custom pipelined flash ADC board that uses a VXS backplane to collect samples from all ADCs in a VME crate. A custom switch-slot board called a Crate Trigger Processor (CTP) processes this data and passes the crate level data via a multi-lane fiber optic link to the Global Trigger Processing Crate (also VXS). Within this crate detector sub-system processor (SSP) boards can accept all individual crate links. The subsystem data are processed and finally passed to global trigger boards (GTP) where the final L1 decision is made. We present details of the trigger design and report some performance results on current prototype systems.

  6. Adjusting the Contour of Reflector Panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, W. B.; Giebler, M. M.

    1984-01-01

    Postfabrication adjustment of contour of panels for reflector, such as parabolic reflector for radio antennas, possible with simple mechanism consisting of threaded stud, two nuts, and flexure. Contours adjusted manually.

  7. 48 CFR 1450.103 - Contract adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract adjustments. 1450.103 Section 1450.103 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR CONTRACT... Contract adjustments....

  8. Two-step pulse triggering of dynistor power switches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorbatyuk, A. V.; Grekhov, I. V.; Korotkov, S. V.

    1985-04-01

    The performance of reversibly switching power dynistors is examined on the basis of physical processes which occur in their structure to determine their dv/dt and di/dt characteristics. Conditions for normal and most efficient operation are established by qualitative and quantiative analysis of available data. Pulse triggering of these thyristor-diode devices is considered, a particularly important parameter here being the lifetime of the high-conductance phase in internal p-N-n(+) diode segments from reverse injection till flow of positive anode current (reverse diode current). The length of this period is calculated according to the conventional simple theory of diffusion with charge storage, which is applied here to a semiinfinite model structure and the transient state with arbitrary waveforms of forward and reverse diode currents. The corresponding equation of ambipolar diffusion is solved for appropriate initial and boundary conditions for the hole concentration and its rate of change. A comparative evaluation of single-step and two-step triggering reveals the advantages of the latter mode with simultaneous uniform injection of initially induced charge.

  9. Theory for substorms triggered by sudden reductions in convection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyons, L. R.

    1996-01-01

    Many substorm expansions are triggered by interplanetary magnetic field changes that reduce magnetospheric convection. This suggests that expansion onsets are a result of a reduction in the large-scale electric field imparted to the magnetosphere from the solar wind. Such a reduction disrupts the inward motion and energization of plasma sheet particles that occur during the growth phase. It is proposed that the resulting magnetic drift of particles and a large dawn to dusk gradient in the ion energies leads to a longitudinally localized reduction in the plasma pressure, and thus, to the current wedge formation. This theory accounts for the rapid development of the expansion phase relative to growth phase, the magnitude of the wedge currents, the speeds of tailward and westward expansion of the current reduction region in the equatorial plane, and the speeds of the poleward and westward motion of active aurora in the ionosphere.

  10. Intraplate Triggered Earthquakes: Observations and Interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hough, S. E.; Seeber, L.; Armbruster, J. G.

    2001-12-01

    We present evidence that at least two of the three principal 1811-1812 New Madrid, mainshocks and the 1886 Charleston, South Carolina, earthquake were associated with remotely triggered earthquakes. In addition to previously published results showing that the New Madrid sequence triggered earthquakes in the northern Kentucky/southern Ohio region, we present evidence suggesting that triggered events might have occurred in the Wabash Valley, to the south of the New Madrid Seismic Zone, and possibly near Charleston, South Carolina region as well. We also discuss evidence that earthquakes might have been triggered in northern Kentucky in the immediate wake of the strong ground motions associated with the 23 January 1812 New Madrid mainshock. After the 1886 Charleston earthquake, accounts suggest that triggered events occurred near Moodus, Connecticut, and in southern Indiana. Thus at least three out of the four known M>=7 earthquakes in the central and eastern United States seem to have triggered earthquakes outside their aftershock zones. We explore the possibility that remotely triggered earthquakes might be common in low strain-rate regions. We suggest that in a low strain-rate environment, permanent, non-elastic deformation might play a relatively more important role in stress accumulation than it does in interplate crust. Using a simple model incorporating both elastic and anelastic strain release, we show that, for realistic parameter values, faults in intraplate crust might remain close to their failure stress for a longer part of the earthquake cycle than faults in high strain-rate regions. Our results furthermore reveal that remotely triggered earthquakes occur preferentially in regions of recent and/or future seismic activity, which suggests that faults tend to be at a critical stress state in only some areas. It is not surprising that triggered earthquakes would serve as beacons that identify regions that are approaching a critical stress state. Their

  11. Silicon vertex tracker: a fast precise tracking trigger for CDF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashmanskas, W.; Bardi, A.; Bari, M.; Belforte, S.; Berryhill, J.; Bogdan, M.; Cerri, A.; Clark, A. G.; Chlanchidze, G.; Condorelli, R.; Culbertson, R.; Dell'Orso, M.; Donati, S.; Frisch, H. J.; Galeotti, S.; Giannetti, P.; Glagolev, V.; Leger, A.; Meschi, E.; Morsani, F.; Nakaya, T.; Punzi, G.; Ristori, L.; Sanders, H.; Semenov, A.; Signorelli, G.; Shochet, M.; Speer, T.; Spinella, F.; Wilson, P.; Wu, Xin; Zanetti, A. M.

    2000-06-01

    The Silicon Vertex Tracker (SVT), currently being built for the CDF II experiment, is a hardware device that reconstructs 2-D tracks online using measurements from the Silicon Vertex Detector (SVXII) and the Central Outer Tracker (COT). The precise measurement of the impact parameter of the SVT tracks will allow, for the first time in a hadron collider environment, to trigger on events containing B hadrons that are very important for many studies, such as CP violation in the b sector and searching for new heavy particles decaying to b b¯ . In this report we describe the overall architecture, algorithms and the hardware implementation of the SVT.

  12. Deterministic Single-Phonon Source Triggered by a Single Photon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Söllner, Immo; Midolo, Leonardo; Lodahl, Peter

    2016-06-01

    We propose a scheme that enables the deterministic generation of single phonons at gigahertz frequencies triggered by single photons in the near infrared. This process is mediated by a quantum dot embedded on chip in an optomechanical circuit, which allows for the simultaneous control of the relevant photonic and phononic frequencies. We devise new optomechanical circuit elements that constitute the necessary building blocks for the proposed scheme and are readily implementable within the current state-of-the-art of nanofabrication. This will open new avenues for implementing quantum functionalities based on phonons as an on-chip quantum bus.

  13. Deterministic Single-Phonon Source Triggered by a Single Photon.

    PubMed

    Söllner, Immo; Midolo, Leonardo; Lodahl, Peter

    2016-06-10

    We propose a scheme that enables the deterministic generation of single phonons at gigahertz frequencies triggered by single photons in the near infrared. This process is mediated by a quantum dot embedded on chip in an optomechanical circuit, which allows for the simultaneous control of the relevant photonic and phononic frequencies. We devise new optomechanical circuit elements that constitute the necessary building blocks for the proposed scheme and are readily implementable within the current state-of-the-art of nanofabrication. This will open new avenues for implementing quantum functionalities based on phonons as an on-chip quantum bus. PMID:27341236

  14. Triggering on electrons, jets and tau leptons with the CMS upgraded calorimeter trigger for the LHC RUN II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zabi, A.; Beaudette, F.; Cadamuro, L.; Mastrolorenzo, L.; Romanteau, T.; Sauvan, J. B.; Strebler, T.; Marrouche, J.; Wardle, N.; Aggleton, R.; Ball, F.; Brooke, J.; Newbold, D.; Paramesvaran, S.; Smith, D.; Baber, M.; Bundock, A.; Citron, M.; Elwood, A.; Hall, G.; Iles, G.; Laner, C.; Penning, B.; Rose, A.; Tapper, A.; Durkin, T.; Harder, K.; Harper, S.; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C.; Thea, A.; Williams, T.

    2016-02-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment has implemented a sophisticated two-level online selection system that achieves a rejection factor of nearly 105. During Run II, the LHC will increase its centre-of-mass energy up to 13 TeV and progressively reach an instantaneous luminosity of 2 × 1034 cm-2 s-1. In order to guarantee a successful and ambitious physics programme under this intense environment, the CMS Trigger and Data acquisition (DAQ) system has been upgraded. A novel concept for the L1 calorimeter trigger is introduced: the Time Multiplexed Trigger (TMT) . In this design, nine main processors receive each all of the calorimeter data from an entire event provided by 18 preprocessors. This design is not different from that of the CMS DAQ and HLT systems. The advantage of the TMT architecture is that a global view and full granularity of the calorimeters can be exploited by sophisticated algorithms. The goal is to maintain the current thresholds for calorimeter objects and improve the performance for their selection. The performance of these algorithms will be demonstrated, both in terms of efficiency and rate reduction. The callenging aspects of the pile-up mitigation and firmware design will be presented.

  15. Triggering the LBL time projection chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Ronan, M.; Millaud, J.; McGathen, T.

    1981-10-01

    A fast digital trigger was built for the LBL Time Projection Chamber (TPC) installed in the PEP-4 detector at SLAC. The TPC is an innovative High Energy Physics detector which will provide particle identification from dE/dx information within the tracking volume. The TPC trigger uses discriminator signals from 2220 dE/dx wire channels to require a track of ionization in the TPC which originates from the colliding beam intersection region. The trigger processing is performed as the ionization drifts onto the proportional wires and is completed 17 ..mu..s after beam crossing. This report describes the basic operation of the TPC detector and its trigger; a pretrigger which uses prompt TPC information from the endcap region; and the electronic implementation. The trigger can be tested with realistic simulated patterns of ionization deposits in the TPC which are stored in local memories. Test results from electronic simulations and first results of a test with cosmic rays are shown.

  16. Trigger points – ultrasound and thermal findings

    PubMed Central

    Cojocaru, MC; Cojocaru, IM; Voiculescu, VM; Cojan-Carlea, NA; Dumitru, VL; Berteanu, M

    2015-01-01

    Rationale: Muscle pain can be elicited by any irritation of the nociceptors in the muscle or central sensitization in the central nervous system. The most frequently described muscle pain syndromes are myofascial pain syndrome and fibromyalgia syndrome. Myofascial pain syndrome has a more localized manifestation, the trigger points. Objective: If there is a correlation between the clinical findings, the ultrasound examination and the thermal pattern of trigger points exist. Material and method: The presence of trigger points can be identified by using clinical criteria. An ultrasound examination was performed to evaluate the trigger point dimensions. The ultrasound showed an ellipsoidal hypoechogenic area in the muscle. A thermography of the low back region was performed in order to observe the thermal pattern of the area. Results: Trigger points are represented by a higher temperature area surrounded by a cooler area, probably caused by a deficit in the blood flow around those points. Discussion: Infrared thermography could be a great asset for the monitoring of neuromusculoskeletal disorders and their dynamics, as well as an important aid for the initial diagnosis of conditions associated with tissue temperature alterations. PMID:26351532

  17. The D/Ø Silicon Track Trigger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinbrück, Georg

    2003-09-01

    We describe a trigger preprocessor to be used by the D Ø experiment for selecting events with tracks from the decay of long-lived particles. This Level 2 impact parameter trigger utilizes information from the Silicon Microstrip Tracker to reconstruct tracks with improved spatial and momentum resolutions compared to those obtained by the Level 1 tracking trigger. It is constructed of VME boards with much of the logic existing in programmable processors. A common motherboard provides the I/O infrastructure and three different daughter boards perform the tasks of identifying the roads from the tracking trigger data, finding the clusters in the roads in the silicon detector, and fitting tracks to the clusters. This approach provides flexibility for the design, testing and maintenance phases of the project. The track parameters are provided to the trigger framework in 25 μs. The effective impact parameter resolution for high-momentum tracks is 35 μm, dominated by the size of the Tevatron beam.

  18. A time-multiplexed track-trigger for the CMS HL-LHC upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, G.

    2016-07-01

    A new CMS Tracker is under development for operation at the High Luminosity LHC from 2025. It includes an outer tracker based on special modules of two different types which will construct track stubs using spatially coincident clusters in two closely spaced sensor layers, to reject low transverse momentum track hits and reduce the data volume before data transmission to the Level-1 trigger. The tracker data will be used to reconstruct track segments in dedicated processors before onward transmission to other trigger processors which will combine tracker information with data originating from the calorimeter and muon detectors, to make the final L1 trigger decision. The architecture for processing the tracker data outside the detector is under study, using several alternative approaches. One attractive possibility is to exploit a Time Multiplexed design similar to the one which is currently being implemented in the CMS calorimeter trigger as part of the Phase I trigger upgrade. The novel Time Multiplexed Trigger concept is explained, the potential benefits for processing future tracker data are described and a feasible design based on currently existing hardware is outlined.

  19. Performance and upgrade of the CMS electron and photon trigger for Run 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauvan, Jean-Baptiste; CMS Collaboration

    2015-02-01

    The CMS experiment implements a sophisticated two-level online trigger selection system that achieves a rejection factor of nearly 105. The first level (L1) trigger is based on coarse information coming from the calorimeters and the muon detectors while the high-level trigger combines fine-grain information from all sub-detectors. In the near future the LHC will increase its centre of mass energy to 13 TeV and progressively reach an instantaneous luminosity of 2 × 1034 cm-2s-1. In order to guarantee a successful and ambitious physics program under this challenging environment, the CMS trigger and data acquisition system must be consolidated. In particular the calorimeter L1 trigger hardware and architecture will be changed. The aim is to maintain the current thresholds and improve performance. This programme will be achieved using the μTCA architecture with fast optical links and latest generation FPGAs. Sophisticated object reconstruction algorithms, as well as online pile-up corrections, are being developed that will make use of these new hardware capabilities. For electron and photon reconstruction and identification, the first version of the new algorithms has been tested against the current algorithms. It shows a reduction of the trigger rate by a factor of two for isolated objects, an improved energy resolution of about 30%, and a position resolution reduced by more than four.

  20. 76 FR 4395 - Postal Service Price Adjustment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-25

    ... Postal Service Price Adjustment AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a recently-filed Postal Service request to establish price adjustments for all market... with the Commission announcing price adjustments, effective April 17, 2011, affecting all...

  1. 12 CFR 1780.80 - Inflation adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inflation adjustments. 1780.80 Section 1780.80... DEVELOPMENT RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Civil Money Penalty Inflation Adjustments § 1780.80 Inflation adjustments. The maximum amount of each civil money penalty within...

  2. 34 CFR 36.2 - Penalty adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Penalty adjustment. 36.2 Section 36.2 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education ADJUSTMENT OF CIVIL MONETARY PENALTIES FOR INFLATION § 36.2..., Section 36.2—Civil Monetary Penalty Inflation Adjustments Statute Description New maximum (and minimum,...

  3. 19 CFR 201.205 - Salary adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Salary adjustments. 201.205 Section 201.205 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION GENERAL RULES OF GENERAL APPLICATION Debt Collection § 201.205 Salary adjustments. Any negative adjustment to pay arising out of an employee's...

  4. 19 CFR 201.205 - Salary adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Salary adjustments. 201.205 Section 201.205 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION GENERAL RULES OF GENERAL APPLICATION Debt Collection § 201.205 Salary adjustments. Any negative adjustment to pay arising out of an employee's...

  5. 34 CFR 36.2 - Penalty adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Penalty adjustment. 36.2 Section 36.2 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education ADJUSTMENT OF CIVIL MONETARY PENALTIES FOR INFLATION § 36.2..., Section 36.2—Civil Monetary Penalty Inflation Adjustments Statute Description New maximum (and minimum,...

  6. 34 CFR 36.2 - Penalty adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Penalty adjustment. 36.2 Section 36.2 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education ADJUSTMENT OF CIVIL MONETARY PENALTIES FOR INFLATION § 36.2..., Section 36.2—Civil Monetary Penalty Inflation Adjustments Statute Description New maximum (and minimum,...

  7. 34 CFR 36.2 - Penalty adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Penalty adjustment. 36.2 Section 36.2 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education ADJUSTMENT OF CIVIL MONETARY PENALTIES FOR INFLATION § 36.2..., Section 36.2—Civil Monetary Penalty Inflation Adjustments Statute Description New maximum (and minimum,...

  8. 34 CFR 36.2 - Penalty adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Penalty adjustment. 36.2 Section 36.2 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education ADJUSTMENT OF CIVIL MONETARY PENALTIES FOR INFLATION § 36.2..., Section 36.2—Civil Monetary Penalty Inflation Adjustments Statute Description New maximum (and minimum,...

  9. 12 CFR 1780.80 - Inflation adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Inflation adjustments. 1780.80 Section 1780.80... DEVELOPMENT RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Civil Money Penalty Inflation Adjustments § 1780.80 Inflation adjustments. The maximum amount of each civil money penalty within...

  10. Adjustment to College in Students with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabiner, David L.; Anastopoulos, Arthur D.; Costello, Jane; Hoyle, Rick H.; Swartzwelder, H. Scott

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To examine college adjustment in students reporting an ADHD diagnosis and the effect of medication treatment on students' adjustment. Method: 1,648 first-semester freshmen attending a public and a private university completed a Web-based survey to examine their adjustment to college. Results: Compared with 200 randomly selected control…

  11. Dimensions of Adjustment among College Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomlinson-Clarke, Saundra

    1998-01-01

    Examines academic, social, and personal-emotional adjustment, as well as institutional attachment for women (N=198) attending a predominantly white coeducational research university. Significant main effects were found on academic achievement for year in college. Students differed on personal-emotional adjustment by race. Academic adjustment and…

  12. Pulse shape adjustment for the SLC damping ring kickers

    SciTech Connect

    Mattison, T.; Cassel, R.; Donaldson, A.; Fischer, H.; Gough, D.

    1991-05-01

    The difficulties with damping ring kickers that prevented operation of the SLAC Linear Collider in full multiple bunch mode have been overcome by shaping the current pulse to compensate for imperfections in the magnets. The risetime was improved by a peaking capacitor, with a tunable inductor to provide a locally flat pulse. The pulse was flattened by an adjustable droop inductor. Fine adjustment was provided by pulse forming line tuners driven by stepping motors. Further risetime improvement will be obtained by a saturating ferrite pulse sharpener. 4 refs., 3 figs.

  13. Child adjustment in joint-custody versus sole-custody arrangements: a meta-analytic review.

    PubMed

    Bauserman, Robert

    2002-03-01

    The author meta-analyzed studies comparing child adjustment in joint physical or joint legal custody with sole-custody settings, including comparisons with paternal custody and intact families where possible. Children in joint physical or legal custody were better adjusted than children in sole-custody settings, but no different from those in intact families. More positive adjustment of joint-custody children held for separate comparisons of general adjustment, family relationships, self-esteem, emotional and behavioral adjustment, and divorce-specific adjustment. Joint-custody parents reported less current and past conflict than did sole-custody parents, but this did not explain the better adjustment of joint-custody children. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that joint custody can be advantageous for children in some cases, possibly by facilitating ongoing positive involvement with both parents. PMID:11915414

  14. An electrically triggered 200 kV rail-gap switch for wide aperture excimer lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endoh, A.; Watanabe, S.; Watanabe, M.

    1984-03-01

    A wide aperture (7 x 7 sq cm), high output energy (5 J in KrF and 13.8 J in XeCl), UV preionized excimer laser is described. A self-breakdown rail gap was employed as an output switch with the maximum voltage and current up to 230 kV and 300 kA, respectively. To solve the switching jitter problem associated with the self-breakdown, an electrical triggering was investigated. The measured minimum switching time delay and gap closing time were 40 and 10 ns, respectively. The number of channels up to 50 was observed with a uniform distribution over the 80-cm electrode length. The triggering jitter was measured to be less than a nanosecond. The maximum operation voltage of the triggered rail gap was 200 kV. The successful trigger operation was obtained in the range 30-98 percent of the self-breakdown voltage.

  15. Use of GPUs in Trigger Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamanna, Gianluca

    In recent years the interest for using graphics processor (GPU) in general purpose high performance computing is constantly rising. In this paper we discuss the possible use of GPUs to construct a fast and effective real time trigger system, both in software and hardware levels. In particular, we study the integration of such a system in the NA62 trigger. The first application of GPUs for rings pattern recognition in the RICH will be presented. The results obtained show that there are not showstoppers in trigger systems with relatively low latency. Thanks to the use of off-the-shelf technology, in continous development for purposes related to video game and image processing market, the architecture described would be easily exported to other experiments, to build a versatile and fully customizable online selection.

  16. BTeV trigger/DAQ innovations

    SciTech Connect

    Votava, Margaret; /Fermilab

    2005-05-01

    BTeV was a proposed high-energy physics (HEP) collider experiment designed for the study of B-physics and CP Violation at the Tevatron at Fermilab. BTeV included a large-scale, high-speed trigger and data acquisition (DAQ) system, reading data from the detector at 500 Gbytes/sec and writing data to mass storage at a rate of 200 Mbytes/sec. The design of the trigger/DAQ system was innovative while remaining realistic in terms of technical feasibility, schedule and cost. This paper will give an overview of the BTeV trigger/DAQ architecture, highlight some of the technical challenges, and describe the approach that was used to solve these challenges.

  17. Adjustment Disorders Are Uniquely Suited for eHealth Interventions: Concept and Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Bachem, Rahel C; Lorenz, Louisa; Moser, Christian T; Berger, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Background Adjustment disorders (also known as mental distress in response to a stressor) are among the most frequently diagnosed mental disorders in psychiatry and clinical psychology worldwide. They are also commonly diagnosed in clients engaging in deliberate self-harm and in those consulting general practitioners. However, their reputation in research-oriented mental health remains weak since they are largely underresearched. This may change when the International Statistical Classification of Diseases-11 (ICD-11) by the World Health Organization is introduced, including a new conceptualization of adjustment disorders as a stress-response disorder with positively defined core symptoms. Objective This paper provides an overview of evidence-based interventions for adjustment disorders. Methods We reviewed the new ICD-11 concept of adjustment disorder and discuss the the rationale and case study of an unguided self-help protocol for burglary victims with adjustment disorder, and its possible implementation as an eHealth intervention. Results Overall, the treatment with the self-help manual reduced symptoms of adjustment disorder, namely preoccupation and failure to adapt, as well as symptoms of depression, anxiety, and stress. Conclusions E-mental health options are considered uniquely suited for offering early intervention after the experiences of stressful life events that potentially trigger adjustment disorders. PMID:26543920

  18. COOPERATION MAINTAINED BY FITNESS ADJUSTMENT

    PubMed Central

    TAYLOR, CHRISTINE; CHEN, JANET; IWASA, YOH

    2008-01-01

    Questions Whether or not cooperation can be enhanced if players with a performance higher than the mean are forced to pay an additional cost in each generation? Mathematical Methods Analysis of replicator dynamics with mutation. The ESS distribution of cooperation level is obtained. Key Assumptions Players engage in cooperative dilemma game, and at the end of each generation, those with higher performance than the mean are forced to pay additional cost. Conclusions Without mutation, the entire population eventually conforms to a single cooperation level determined by the initial composition of the population. With mutation, there is an equilibrium distribution of cooperation level, which has a peak at an intermediate level of cooperation. Whether it is institutionalized such as tax or just a social custom, fitness adjustment based ultimately on people’s emtion of “envy” is able to maintain cooperation. PMID:19079742

  19. Triggering of Aftershocks by Free Oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bufe, C. G.; Varnes, D. J.

    2001-12-01

    Periodicities observed in aftershock sequences may result from earthquake triggering by free oscillations of the Earth produced by the main shock. Using an algorithm we developed to compute spectra of inter-event times, we examine inter-event intervals of teleseismically recorded aftershock sequences from large (M>7.5) main shocks that occurred during 1980-2001. Observed periodicities may result from triggering at intervals that are multiples of normal mode periods. We have focussed our analysis of inter-event times on identification of triggering by free oscillations at periods in the range 6-60 minutes. In this paper we describe our most commonly observed aftershock inter-event times and the free oscillation modes most likely to be the triggers. Because of their separation, the longer period modes are easiest to identify in the aftershock data (0S2 at 53.9 minutes, 0S3 at 35.6 minutes, 0S4 at 25.8 minutes, and 0T2 at 43.9 minutes). Evidence of triggering by 0S2 and 0T2 was also found in the aftershocks of the 1989 Loma Prieta, CA (M 7) earthquake (Kamal and Mansinha, 1996). Because of the plethora of higher modes, shorter inter-event periods are more difficult to identify with a particular mode. Preliminary analysis of the 2001 Bhuj, India (M 7.7) earthquake sequence tentatively identifies a contribution to triggering of the first four large aftershocks by multiples of 0S12 (8.37 minutes).

  20. The CMS High-Level Trigger

    SciTech Connect

    Covarelli, R.

    2009-12-17

    At the startup of the LHC, the CMS data acquisition is expected to be able to sustain an event readout rate of up to 100 kHz from the Level-1 trigger. These events will be read into a large processor farm which will run the 'High-Level Trigger'(HLT) selection algorithms and will output a rate of about 150 Hz for permanent data storage. In this report HLT performances are shown for selections based on muons, electrons, photons, jets, missing transverse energy, {tau} leptons and b quarks: expected efficiencies, background rates and CPU time consumption are reported as well as relaxation criteria foreseen for a LHC startup instantaneous luminosity.

  1. More About The Video Event Trigger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Glenn L.

    1996-01-01

    Report presents additional information about system described in "Video Event Trigger" (LEW-15076). Digital electronic system processes video-image data to generate trigger signal when image shows significant change, such as motion, or appearance, disappearance, change in color, brightness, or dilation of object. Potential uses include monitoring of hallways, parking lots, and other areas during hours when supposed unoccupied, looking for fires, tracking airplanes or other moving objects, identification of missing or defective parts on production lines, and video recording of automobile crash tests.

  2. Subacute Cutaneous Lupus Erythematosus Triggered by Radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Kolm, I.; Pawlik, E.; Eggmann, N.; Kamarachev, J.; Kerl, K.; French, L.E.; Hofbauer, G.F.L.

    2013-01-01

    Background The origin of collagen autoimmune diseases is not fully understood. Some studies postulate a mechanism of molecular mimicry or heterologous immunity following viral infections triggering autoimmunity. Apart from infections, other exogenous factors such as visible light or X-rays have been reported to incite autoimmunity. Case Report We report a case of histologically and serologically confirmed subacute lupus erythematosus (SCLE) following radiotherapy for breast cancer. Discussion The close temporal and spatial correlation between radiotherapy and onset of SCLE in this patient suggests that an autoimmune reaction may have been triggered locally by functionally altering the immune system and breaking self-tolerance. PMID:24019776

  3. THE HIGH ENERGY TRANSIENT EXPLORER TRIGGERING ALGORITHM

    SciTech Connect

    E. FENIMORE; M. GALASSI

    2001-05-01

    The High Energy Transient Explorer uses a triggering algorithm for gamma-ray bursts that can achieve near the statistical limit by fitting to several background regions to remove trends. Dozens of trigger criteria run simultaneously covering time scales from 80 msec to 10.5 sec or longer. Each criteria is controlled by about 25 constants which gives the flexibility to search wide parameter spaces. On orbit, we have been able to operate at 6{sigma}, a factor of two more sensitive than previous experiments.

  4. Remotely triggered nonvolcanic tremor in Sumbawa, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, Florian; Lupi, Matteo; Miller, Stephen

    2015-04-01

    Nonvolcanic (or tectonic) tremor is a seismic phenomenom which can provide important information about dynamics of plate boundaries but the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. Tectonic tremor is often associated with slow-slip (termed episodic tremor and slip) and understanding the mechanisms driving tremor presents an important challenge because it is likely a dominant aspect of the evolutionary processes leading to tsunamigenic, megathrust subduction zone earthquakes. Tectonic tremor is observed worldwide, mainly along major subduction zones and plate boundaries such as in Alaska/Aleutians, Cascadia, the San Andreas Fault, Japan or Taiwan. We present, for the first time, evidence for triggered tremor beneath the island of Sumbawa, Indonesia. The island of Sumbawa, Indonesia, is part of the Lesser Sunda Group about 250 km north of the Australian/Eurasian plate collision at the Java Trench with a convergence rate of approximately 70 mm/yr. We show surface wave triggered tremor beneath Sumbawa in response to three teleseismic earthquakes: the Mw9.0 2011 Tohoku earthquake and two oceanic strike-slip earthquakes (Mw 8.6 and Mw8.2) offshore of Sumatra in 2012. Tremor amplitudes scale with ground motion and peak at 180 nm/s ground velocity on the horizontal components. A comparison of ground motion of the three triggering events and a similar (nontriggering) Mw7.6 2012 Philippines event constrains an apparent triggering threshold of approximately 1 mm/s ground velocity or 8 kPa dynamic stress. Surface wave periods of 45-65 s appear optimal for triggering tremor at Sumbawa which predominantly correlates with Rayleigh waves, even though the 2012 oceanic events have stronger Love wave amplitudes and triggering potential. Rayleigh wave triggering, low-triggering amplitudes, and the tectonic setting all favor a model of tremor generated by localized fluid transport. We could not locate the tremor because of minimal station coverage, but data indicate several

  5. Voltage controlled current source

    DOEpatents

    Casne, Gregory M.

    1992-01-01

    A seven decade, voltage controlled current source is described for use in testing intermediate range nuclear instruments that covers the entire test current range of from 10 picoamperes to 100 microamperes. High accuracy is obtained throughout the entire seven decades of output current with circuitry that includes a coordinated switching scheme responsive to the input signal from a hybrid computer to control the input voltage to an antilog amplifier, and to selectively connect a resistance to the antilog amplifier output to provide a continuous output current source as a function of a preset range of input voltage. An operator controlled switch provides current adjustment for operation in either a real-time simulation test mode or a time response test mode.

  6. Saturated fatty acids trigger TLR4-mediated inflammatory response.

    PubMed

    Rocha, D M; Caldas, A P; Oliveira, L L; Bressan, J; Hermsdorff, H H

    2016-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLR) mediate infection-induced inflammation and sterile inflammation by endogenous molecules. Among the TLR family, TLR4 is the best understood. However, while its downstream signaling pathways have been well defined, not all ligands of TLR4 are currently known. Current evidence suggests that saturated fatty acids (SFA) act as non-microbial TLR4 agonists, and trigger its inflammatory response. Thus, our present review provides a new perspective on the potential mechanism by which SFAs could modulate TLR4-induced inflammatory responses: (1) SFAs can be recognized by CD14-TLR4-MD2 complex and trigger inflammatory pathways, similar to lipopolysaccharide (LPS). (2) SFAs lead to modification of gut microbiota with an overproduction of LPS after a high-fat intake, enhancing this natural TLR4 ligand. (3) In addition, this metabolic endotoxemia leads to an oxidative stress thereby producing atherogenic lipids - oxLDL and oxidized phospholipids - which trigger CD36-TLR4-TLR6 inflammatory response. (4) Also, the high SFA consumption increases the lipemia and the mmLDL and oxLDL formation through oxidative modifications of LDL. The mmLDL, unlike oxLDL, is involved in activation of the CD14-TLR4-MD2 inflammatory pathway. Those molecules can induce TLR4 inflammatory response by MyD88-dependent and/or MyD88-independent pathways that, in turn, promotes the expression of proinflammatory transcript factors such as factor nuclear kappa B (NF-κB), which plays a crucial role in the induction of inflammatory mediators (cytokines, chemokines, or costimulatory molecules) implicated in the development and progression of many chronic diseases. PMID:26687466

  7. High-voltage crowbar circuit with cascade-triggered series ignitrons

    DOEpatents

    Baker, W.R.

    A series string of ignitrons for switching a large current at high voltage to ground is discussed. Switching is initiated by means of a negative trigger pulse applied to the cathode of the lowest voltage level ignitron next to ground to draw ground current through diodes in the ignitor circuit. The trigger pulse is applied thereby to the next higher ignitron cathode and sequentially to the remainder of the ignitrons in the string through diodes in respective ignitor circuits. Full line voltage is held off of nonconducting diodes and ignitrons by means of varistors.

  8. High-voltage crowbar circuit with cascade-triggered series ignitrons

    DOEpatents

    Baker, W.R.

    1980-11-04

    A series string of ignitrons for switching a large current at high voltage to ground. Switching is initiated by means of a negative trigger pulse applied to the cathode of the lowest voltage level ignitron next to ground to draw ground current through diodes in the ignitor circuit. The trigger pulse is applied thereby to the next higher ignitron cathode and sequentially to the remainder of the ignitrons in the string through diodes in respective ignitor circuits. Full line voltage is held off of nonconducting diodes and ignitrons by means of varistors. 1 fig.

  9. High-voltage crowbar circuit with cascade-triggered series ignitrons

    DOEpatents

    Baker, William R. [Orinda, CA

    1980-11-04

    A series string of ignitrons for switching a large current at high voltage to ground. Switching is initiated by means of a negative trigger pulse applied to the cathode of the lowest voltage level ignitron next to ground to draw ground current through diodes in the ignitor circuit. The trigger pulse is applied thereby to the next higher ignitron cathode and sequentially to the remainder of the ignitrons in the string through diodes in respective ignitor circuits. Full line voltage is held off of nonconducting diodes and ignitrons by means of varistors.

  10. Performance of An Adjustable Strength Permanent Magnet Quadrupole

    SciTech Connect

    Gottschalk, S.C.; DeHart, T.E.; Kangas, K.W.; Spencer, C.M.; Volk, J.T.; /Fermilab

    2006-03-01

    An adjustable strength permanent magnet quadrupole suitable for use in Next Linear Collider has been built and tested. The pole length is 42cm, aperture diameter 13mm, peak pole tip strength 1.03Tesla and peak integrated gradient * length (GL) is 68.7 Tesla. This paper describes measurements of strength, magnetic CL and field quality made using an air bearing rotating coil system. The magnetic CL stability during -20% strength adjustment proposed for beam based alignment was < 0.2 microns. Strength hysteresis was negligible. Thermal expansion of quadrupole and measurement parts caused a repeatable and easily compensated change in the vertical magnetic CL. Calibration procedures as well as CL measurements made over a wider tuning range of 100% to 20% in strength useful for a wide range of applications will be described. The impact of eddy currents in the steel poles on the magnetic field during strength adjustments will be reported.

  11. Adjustment Disorder: epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Adjustment Disorder is a condition strongly tied to acute and chronic stress. Despite clinical suggestion of a large prevalence in the general population and the high frequency of its diagnosis in the clinical settings, there has been relatively little research reported and, consequently, very few hints about its treatments. Methods the authors gathered old and current information on the epidemiology, clinical features, comorbidity, treatment and outcome of adjustment disorder by a systematic review of essays published on PUBMED. Results After a first glance at its historical definition and its definition in the DSM and ICD systems, the problem of distinguishing AD from other mood and anxiety disorders, the difficulty in the definition of stress and the implied concept of 'vulnerability' are considered. Comorbidity of AD with other conditions, and outcome of AD are then analyzed. This review also highlights recent data about trends in the use of antidepressant drugs, evidence on their efficacy and the use of psychotherapies. Conclusion AD is a very common diagnosis in clinical practice, but we still lack data about its rightful clinical entity. This may be caused by a difficulty in facing, with a purely descriptive methods, a "pathogenic label", based on a stressful event, for which a subjective impact has to be considered. We lack efficacy surveys concerning treatment. The use of psychotropic drugs such as antidepressants, in AD with anxious or depressed mood is not properly supported and should be avoided, while the usefulness of psychotherapies is more solidly supported by clinical evidence. To better determine the correct course of therapy, randomized-controlled trials, even for the combined use of drugs and psychotherapies, are needed vitally, especially for the resistant forms of AD. PMID:19558652

  12. Leaf onset in the northern hemisphere triggered by daytime temperature.

    PubMed

    Piao, Shilong; Tan, Jianguang; Chen, Anping; Fu, Yongshuo H; Ciais, Philippe; Liu, Qiang; Janssens, Ivan A; Vicca, Sara; Zeng, Zhenzhong; Jeong, Su-Jong; Li, Yue; Myneni, Ranga B; Peng, Shushi; Shen, Miaogen; Peñuelas, Josep

    2015-01-01

    Recent warming significantly advanced leaf onset in the northern hemisphere. This signal cannot be accurately reproduced by current models parameterized by daily mean temperature (T(mean)). Here using in situ observations of leaf unfolding dates (LUDs) in Europe and the United States, we show that the interannual anomalies of LUD during 1982-2011 are triggered by daytime (Tmax) more than by nighttime temperature (T(min)). Furthermore, an increase of 1 °C in Tmax would advance LUD by 4.7 days in Europe and 4.3 days in the United States, more than the conventional temperature sensitivity estimated from T(mean). The triggering role of Tmax, rather than the T(min) or T(mean) variable, is also supported by analysis of the large-scale patterns of satellite-derived vegetation green-up in spring in the northern hemisphere (>30 °N). Our results suggest a new conceptual framework of leaf onset using daytime temperature to improve the performance of phenology modules in current Earth system models. PMID:25903224

  13. Leaf onset in the northern hemisphere triggered by daytime temperature

    PubMed Central

    Piao, Shilong; Tan, Jianguang; Chen, Anping; Fu, Yongshuo H.; Ciais, Philippe; Liu, Qiang; Janssens, Ivan A.; Vicca, Sara; Zeng, Zhenzhong; Jeong, Su-Jong; Li, Yue; Myneni, Ranga B.; Peng, Shushi; Shen, Miaogen; Peñuelas, Josep

    2015-01-01

    Recent warming significantly advanced leaf onset in the northern hemisphere. This signal cannot be accurately reproduced by current models parameterized by daily mean temperature (Tmean). Here using in situ observations of leaf unfolding dates (LUDs) in Europe and the United States, we show that the interannual anomalies of LUD during 1982–2011 are triggered by daytime (Tmax) more than by nighttime temperature (Tmin). Furthermore, an increase of 1 °C in Tmax would advance LUD by 4.7 days in Europe and 4.3 days in the United States, more than the conventional temperature sensitivity estimated from Tmean. The triggering role of Tmax, rather than the Tmin or Tmean variable, is also supported by analysis of the large-scale patterns of satellite-derived vegetation green-up in spring in the northern hemisphere (>30°N). Our results suggest a new conceptual framework of leaf onset using daytime temperature to improve the performance of phenology modules in current Earth system models. PMID:25903224

  14. Psychopathic Traits and Their Association with Adjustment Problems in Girls

    PubMed Central

    Charles, Nora E.; Acheson, Ashley; Mathias, Charles W.; Furr, R. Michael; Dougherty, Donald M.

    2012-01-01

    Rationale Psychopathic traits, and specifically callous-unemotional (CU) traits, are associated with a variety of adverse outcomes in adolescence and adulthood. The majority of research in this area has focused on men and boys, though there is some evidence that psychopathy is expressed differently in girls and women. Objectives The purpose of this study was to test if the relationships of callous-unemotional (CU) traits with adjustment differed between girls and boys at risk for antisocial behavior. Methods Children whose biological father had past or current alcohol or drug problems were recruited for this research. A total of 234 children (116 boys, 118 girls; ages 10–12) were rated by their parent or guardian on CU traits and overall adjustment. Results Boys were generally rated higher on measures of CU traits; however, these traits were more prominently related to adjustment problems among girls. Conclusions These results suggest that expression of psychopathic traits may have more negative effects on adjustment for girls than boys. One possible mechanism by which CU traits could be impacting adjustment in girls is by impairing interpersonal relationships. PMID:22933184

  15. User preference and reliability of bilateral hearing aid gain adjustments.

    PubMed

    Hornsby, Benjamin W Y; Mueller, H Gustav

    2008-02-01

    The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the consistency and reliability of user adjustments to hearing aid gain and the resulting effects on speech understanding. Sixteen bilaterally aided individuals with hearing loss adjusted their hearing aid gain to optimize listening comfort and speech clarity while listening to speech in quiet and noisy backgrounds. Following these adjustments, participants readjusted their aids to optimize clarity and comfort while listening to speech in quiet. These final gain settings were recorded and compared to those provided by NAL-NL1 prescriptive targets. In addition, speech understanding was tested with the hearing aids set at target and user gain settings. Performance differences between the gain settings were then assessed. Study results revealed that although some listeners preferred more or less gain than prescribed, on average, user and prescribed gain settings were similar in both ears. Some individuals, however, made gain adjustments between ears resulting in "gain mismatches." These "mismatches" were often inconsistent across trials suggesting that these adjustments were unreliable. Speech testing results, however, showed no significant difference across the different gain settings suggesting that the gain deviations introduced in this study were not large enough to significantly affect speech understanding. PMID:18669129

  16. Eddy current damper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, R. C.; Fink, R. A.; Rich, R. W.

    1989-01-01

    A high torque capacity eddy current damper used as a rate limiting device for a large solar array deployment mechanism is discussed. The eddy current damper eliminates the problems associated with the outgassing or leaking of damping fluids. It also provides performance advantages such as damping torque rates, which are truly linear with respect to input speed, continuous 360 degree operation in both directions of rotation, wide operating temperature range, and the capability of convenient adjustment of damping rates by the user without disassembly or special tools.

  17. THE STAR LEVEL-3 TRIGGER SYSTEM.

    SciTech Connect

    LANGE, J.S.; ADLER, C.; BERGER, J.; DEMELLO, M.; FLIERL, D.; ET AL

    1999-11-15

    The STAR level-3 trigger is a MYRINET interconnected ALPHA processor farm, performing online tracking of N{sub track} {ge} 8000 particles (N{sub point} {le} 45 per track) with a design input rate of R=100 Hz. A large scale prototype system was tested in 12/99 with laser and cosmic particle events.

  18. Performance of the CMS High Level Trigger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrotta, Andrea

    2015-12-01

    The CMS experiment has been designed with a 2-level trigger system. The first level is implemented using custom-designed electronics. The second level is the so-called High Level Trigger (HLT), a streamlined version of the CMS offline reconstruction software running on a computer farm. For Run II of the Large Hadron Collider, the increases in center-of-mass energy and luminosity will raise the event rate to a level challenging for the HLT algorithms. The increase in the number of interactions per bunch crossing, on average 25 in 2012, and expected to be around 40 in Run II, will be an additional complication. We present here the expected performance of the main triggers that will be used during the 2015 data taking campaign, paying particular attention to the new approaches that have been developed to cope with the challenges of the new run. This includes improvements in HLT electron and photon reconstruction as well as better performing muon triggers. We will also present the performance of the improved tracking and vertexing algorithms, discussing their impact on the b-tagging performance as well as on the jet and missing energy reconstruction.

  19. Thermally triggered degradation of transient electronic devices.

    PubMed

    Park, Chan Woo; Kang, Seung-Kyun; Hernandez, Hector Lopez; Kaitz, Joshua A; Wie, Dae Seung; Shin, Jiho; Lee, Olivia P; Sottos, Nancy R; Moore, Jeffrey S; Rogers, John A; White, Scott R

    2015-07-01

    Thermally triggered transient electronics using wax-encapsulated acid, which enable rapid device destruction via acidic degradation of the metal electronic components are reported. Using a cyclic poly(phthalaldehyde) (cPPA) substrate affords a more rapid destruction of the device due to acidic depolymerization of cPPA. PMID:25991389

  20. Myofacial Trigger Points in Advanced Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Hasuo, Hideaki; Ishihara, Tatsuhiko; Kanbara, Kenji; Fukunaga, Mikihiko

    2016-01-01

    Myofascial pain syndrome is started to be recognized as one of important factors of pain in cancer patients. However, no reports on features of myofascial trigger points were found in terminally-ill cancer populations. This time, we encountered 5 patients with myofascial pain syndrome and terminal cancer in whom delirium developed due to increased doses of opioid without a diagnosis of myofascial pain syndrome on initial presentation. The delirium subsided with dose reductions of opioid and treatment of myofascial pain syndrome. The common reason for a delayed diagnosis among the patients included an incomplete palpation of the painful sites, which led to unsuccessful myofascial trigger points identification. The features of myofascial trigger points included single onset in the cancer pain management site with opioid and the contralateral abdominal side muscles of the non-common sites. Withdrawal reflexes associated with cancer pain in the supine position, which are increasingly seen in the terminal cancer patients, were considered to have contributed to this siuation. We consider that careful palpation of the painful site is important, in order to obtain greater knowledge and understanding of the features of myofascial trigger points. PMID:26962285

  1. FPGA Trigger System to Run Klystrons

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, Darius; /Texas A-M /SLAC

    2010-08-25

    The Klystron Department is in need of a new trigger system to update the laboratory capabilities. The objective of the research is to develop the trigger system using Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) technology with a user interface that will allow one to communicate with the FPGA via a Universal Serial Bus (USB). This trigger system will be used for the testing of klystrons. The key materials used consists of the Xilinx Integrated Software Environment (ISE) Foundation, a Programmable Read Only Memory (Prom) XCF04S, a Xilinx Spartan 3E 35S500E FPGA, Xilinx Platform Cable USB II, a Printed Circuit Board (PCB), a 100 MHz oscillator, and an oscilloscope. Key considerations include eight triggers, two of which have variable phase shifting capabilities. Once the project was completed the output signals were able to be manipulated via a Graphical User Interface by varying the delay and width of the signal. This was as planned; however, the ability to vary the phase was not completed. Future work could consist of being able to vary the phase. This project will give the operators in the Klystron Department more flexibility to run various tests.

  2. Triggered earthquakes and deep well activities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nicholson, C.; Wesson, R.L.

    1992-01-01

    Earthquakes can be triggered by any significant perturbation of the hydrologic regime. In areas where potentially active faults are already close to failure, the increased pore pressure resulting from fluid injection, or, alternatively, the massive extraction of fluid or gas, can induce sufficient stress and/or strain changes that, with time, can lead to sudden catastrophic failure in a major earthquake. Injection-induced earthquakes typically result from the reduction in frictional strength along preexisting, nearby faults caused by the increased formation fluid pressure. Earthquakes associated with production appear to respond to more complex mechanisms of subsidence, crustal unloading, and poroelastic changes in response to applied strains induced by the massive withdrawal of subsurface material. As each of these different types of triggered events can occur up to several years after well activities have begun (or even several years after all well activities have stopped), this suggests that the actual triggering process may be a very complex combination of effects, particularly if both fluid extraction and injection have taken place locally. To date, more than thirty cases of earthquakes triggered by well activities can be documented throughout the United States and Canada. Based on these case histories, it is evident that, owing to preexisting stress conditions in the upper crust, certain areas tend to have higher probabilities of exhibiting such induced seismicity. ?? 1992 Birkha??user Verlag.

  3. Event Reconstruction Algorithms for the ATLAS Trigger

    SciTech Connect

    Fonseca-Martin, T.; Abolins, M.; Adragna, P.; Aleksandrov, E.; Aleksandrov, I.; Amorim, A.; Anderson, K.; Anduaga, X.; Aracena, I.; Asquith, L.; Avolio, G.; Backlund, S.; Badescu, E.; Baines, J.; Barria, P.; Bartoldus, R.; Batreanu, S.; Beck, H.P.; Bee, C.; Bell, P.; Bell, W.H.; /more authors..

    2011-11-09

    The ATLAS experiment under construction at CERN is due to begin operation at the end of 2007. The detector will record the results of proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 14 TeV. The trigger is a three-tier system designed to identify in real-time potentially interesting events that are then saved for detailed offline analysis. The trigger system will select approximately 200 Hz of potentially interesting events out of the 40 MHz bunch-crossing rate (with 10{sup 9} interactions per second at the nominal luminosity). Algorithms used in the trigger system to identify different event features of interest will be described, as well as their expected performance in terms of selection efficiency, background rejection and computation time per event. The talk will concentrate on recent improvements and on performance studies, using a very detailed simulation of the ATLAS detector and electronics chain that emulates the raw data as it will appear at the input to the trigger system.

  4. Triggering of earthquake aftershocks by dynamic stresses.

    PubMed

    Kilb, D; Gomberg, J; Bodin, P

    2000-11-30

    It is thought that small 'static' stress changes due to permanent fault displacement can alter the likelihood of, or trigger, earthquakes on nearby faults. Many studies of triggering in the near-field, particularly of aftershocks, rely on these static changes as the triggering agent and consider them only in terms of equivalent changes in the applied load on the fault. Here we report a comparison of the aftershock pattern of the moment magnitude Mw = 7.3 Landers earthquake, not only with static stress changes but also with transient, oscillatory stress changes transmitted as seismic waves (that is, 'dynamic' stresses). Dynamic stresses do not permanently change the applied load and thus can trigger earthquakes only by altering the mechanical state or properties of the fault zone. These dynamically weakened faults may fail after the seismic waves have passed by, and might even cause earthquakes that would not otherwise have occurred. We find similar asymmetries in the aftershock and dynamic stress patterns, the latter being due to rupture propagation, whereas the static stress changes lack this asymmetry. Previous studies have shown that dynamic stresses can promote failure at remote distances, but here we show that they can also do so nearby. PMID:11117741

  5. Laser trigger system for the Jupiter module

    SciTech Connect

    Paiva, R.; Sundvoid, S.; Morelli, G.; Powell, C.; Hamil, R.; Corley, J.; Pankuch, P.; Law, K.; Alexander, J.

    1995-10-01

    A UV laser trigger system has been designed to trigger the eight SF6 filled high voltage switches in the Jupiter module. The system is compact and modular, allowing for approximately thirty lasers to be triggered simultaneously in the full Jupiter design. The laser will be kinematically mounted near the high voltage section to minimize the path length to the high voltage switches and decrease the sensitivity to misalignment. The laser system is specifically built for the purpose of triggering the Jupiter module. It is a 265 nm UV laser system designed to generate eight simultaneous laser pulses of 10 mJ each with a 13 nsec pulsewidth. A 1061 nm solid-state Nd:Cr:GSGG laser is frequency quadrupled with a two stage doubling process. The 1061 nm fundamental laser energy is frequency doubled with a type II KTP crystal to generate 530 nm energy. The 530 nm output is frequency doubled with a type I KD*P crystal to generate 265 nm energy. The 265 nm pulse is split into eight parallel channels with a system of partially reflecting mirrors. Low timing jitter and a stable energy output level for the system were achieved. The entire optical system was packaged in a rugged, sealed aluminum structure 10 in. {times} 19 in. {times} 2.75 in. The size of the laser electronics unit is 7 in. {times} 8 in. {times} 8 in.

  6. Large Scale Impacts and Triggered Volcanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivanov, B. A.; Melosh, H. J.

    2003-01-01

    The idea of impact induced volcanism continues to blossom ([1-3] and other references). However, this appealing idea is seldom supported with an appropriate physical mechanism. The aim of this publication is to critically examine some frequently cited mechanisms of impact energy transformation into a trigger for terrestrial volcanism and magmatism.

  7. Postdivorce Adjustment and Single Parenting: Exploring the Impact of Culture for Korean Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Sunny Y.

    Formal mental health services offered in traditional Western settings may be neither appropriate for nor accessible to Korean Americans who are adjusting to divorce. This paper presents an overview of current research on postdivorce adjustment and single parenting in the United States, examines various cultural differences (e.g., African, Asian,…

  8. Effects of Peer Victimization on Psychological and Academic Adjustment in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rueger, Sandra Yu; Jenkins, Lyndsay N.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the current study is to investigate the effects of frequency of peer victimization experiences on psychological and academic adjustment during early adolescence, with a focus on testing psychological adjustment as a mediator, as well as differences based on gender and type of victimization. The sample in this short-term longitudinal…

  9. Parents' Promotion of Psychological Autonomy, Psychological Control, and Mexican-American Adolescents' Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sher-Censor, Efrat; Parke, Ross D.; Coltrane, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Mexican-American adolescents are at an elevated risk for adjustment difficulties. In an effort to identify parenting practices that can affect the adjustment of Mexican-American youth, the current study examined parents' promotion of psychological autonomy and parents' psychological control as perceived by Mexican-American early adolescents, and…

  10. Understanding Gender Differences in Children's Adjustment to Divorce: Implications for School Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Joe H.; Portes, Pedro R.

    2006-01-01

    The present paper discusses some of the current issues confronting practitioners and researchers in understanding gender differences in children's adjustment to divorce. Gender differences in children's developmental adjustment to divorce are influenced by pre and post divorce development processes, parent expectation and children's coping…

  11. Theoretic base of Edge Local Mode triggering by vertical displacements

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Z. T.; He, Z. X.; Wang, Z. H.; Wu, N.; Tang, C. J.

    2015-05-15

    Vertical instability is studied with R-dependent displacement. For Solovev's configuration, the stability boundary of the vertical instability is calculated. The pressure gradient is a destabilizing factor which is contrary to Rebhan's result. Equilibrium parallel current density, j{sub //}, at plasma boundary is a drive of the vertical instability similar to Peeling-ballooning modes; however, the vertical instability cannot be stabilized by the magnetic shear which tends towards infinity near the separatrix. The induced current observed in the Edge Local Mode (ELM) triggering experiment by vertical modulation is derived. The theory provides some theoretic explanation for the mitigation of type-I ELMS on ASDEX Upgrade. The principle could be also used for ITER.

  12. A Solar Cell That Is Triggered by Sun and Rain.

    PubMed

    Tang, Qunwei; Wang, Xiaopeng; Yang, Peizhi; He, Benlin

    2016-04-18

    All-weather solar cells are promising in solving the energy crisis. A flexible solar cell is presented that is triggered by combining an electron-enriched graphene electrode with a dye-sensitized solar cell. The new solar cell can be excited by incident light on sunny days and raindrops on rainy days, yielding an optimal solar-to-electric conversion efficiency of 6.53 % under AM 1.5 irradiation and current over microamps as well as a voltage of hundreds of microvolts by simulated raindrops. The formation of π-electron|cation electrical double-layer pseudocapacitors at graphene/raindrop interface is contributable to current and voltage outputs at switchable charging-discharging process. The new concept can guide the design of advanced all-weather solar cells. PMID:26996147

  13. Synthetic mammalian trigger-controlled bipartite transcription factors

    PubMed Central

    Folcher, Marc; Xie, Mingqi; Spinnler, Andrea; Fussenegger, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Synthetic biology has significantly advanced the design of synthetic control devices, gene circuits and networks that can reprogram mammalian cells in a trigger-inducible manner. Prokaryotic helix-turn-helix motifs have become the standard resource to design synthetic mammalian transcription factors that tune chimeric promoters in a small molecule-responsive manner. We have identified a family of Actinomycetes transcriptional repressor proteins showing a tandem TetR-family signature and have used a synthetic biology-inspired approach to reveal the potential control dynamics of these bi-partite regulators. Daisy-chain assembly of well-characterized prokaryotic repressor proteins such as TetR, ScbR, TtgR or VanR and fusion to either the Herpes simplex transactivation domain VP16 or the Krueppel-associated box domain (KRAB) of the human kox-1 gene resulted in synthetic bi- and even tri-partite mammalian transcription factors that could reversibly program their individual chimeric or hybrid promoters for trigger-adjustable transgene expression using tetracycline (TET), γ-butyrolactones, phloretin and vanillic acid. Detailed characterization of the bi-partite ScbR-TetR-VP16 (ST-TA) transcription factor revealed independent control of TET- and γ-butyrolactone-responsive promoters at high and double-pole double-throw (DPDT) relay switch qualities at low intracellular concentrations. Similar to electromagnetically operated mechanical DPDT relay switches that control two electric circuits by a fully isolated low-power signal, TET programs ST-TA to progressively switch from TetR-specific promoter-driven expression of transgene one to ScbR-specific promoter-driven transcription of transgene two while ST-TA flips back to exclusive transgene 1 expression in the absence of the trigger antibiotic. We suggest that natural repressors and activators with tandem TetR-family signatures may also provide independent as well as DPDT-mediated control of two sets of transgenes in

  14. Exploration adjustment by ant colonies

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    How do animals in groups organize their work? Division of labour, i.e. the process by which individuals within a group choose which tasks to perform, has been extensively studied in social insects. Variability among individuals within a colony seems to underpin both the decision over which tasks to perform and the amount of effort to invest in a task. Studies have focused mainly on discrete tasks, i.e. tasks with a recognizable end. Here, we study the distribution of effort in nest seeking, in the absence of new nest sites. Hence, this task is open-ended and individuals have to decide when to stop searching, even though the task has not been completed. We show that collective search effort declines when colonies inhabit better homes, as a consequence of a reduction in the number of bouts (exploratory events). Furthermore, we show an increase in bout exploration time and a decrease in bout instantaneous speed for colonies inhabiting better homes. The effect of treatment on bout effort is very small; however, we suggest that the organization of work performed within nest searching is achieved both by a process of self-selection of the most hard-working ants and individual effort adjustment. PMID:26909180

  15. Exploration adjustment by ant colonies.

    PubMed

    Doran, Carolina; Stumpe, Martin C; Sendova-Franks, Ana; Franks, Nigel R

    2016-01-01

    How do animals in groups organize their work? Division of labour, i.e. the process by which individuals within a group choose which tasks to perform, has been extensively studied in social insects. Variability among individuals within a colony seems to underpin both the decision over which tasks to perform and the amount of effort to invest in a task. Studies have focused mainly on discrete tasks, i.e. tasks with a recognizable end. Here, we study the distribution of effort in nest seeking, in the absence of new nest sites. Hence, this task is open-ended and individuals have to decide when to stop searching, even though the task has not been completed. We show that collective search effort declines when colonies inhabit better homes, as a consequence of a reduction in the number of bouts (exploratory events). Furthermore, we show an increase in bout exploration time and a decrease in bout instantaneous speed for colonies inhabiting better homes. The effect of treatment on bout effort is very small; however, we suggest that the organization of work performed within nest searching is achieved both by a process of self-selection of the most hard-working ants and individual effort adjustment. PMID:26909180

  16. Current sensor

    DOEpatents

    Yakymyshyn, Christopher Paul; Brubaker, Michael Allen; Yakymyshyn, Pamela Jane

    2007-01-16

    A current sensor is described that uses a plurality of magnetic field sensors positioned around a current carrying conductor. The sensor can be hinged to allow clamping to a conductor. The current sensor provides high measurement accuracy for both DC and AC currents, and is substantially immune to the effects of temperature, conductor position, nearby current carrying conductors and aging.

  17. Experimental Investigation of the Trigger Problem in Magnetic Reconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egedal, Jan

    2012-07-01

    Magnetic reconnection releases magnetic energy not only in steady-state, but also in time-dependent and often explosive events requiring a transition from slow reconnection to fast. The question of what causes this transition is known as the ``trigger problem'' and is not well understood. We address the trigger problem using the Versatile Toroidal Facility (VTF) at MIT. We observe spontaneous reconnection events [1] with exponentially growing reconnection rates, and we characterize the 3D dynamics of these events using multiple internal probes. The observed reconnection is asymmetric: it begins at one toroidal location and propagates around in both directions. The spontaneous onset is facilitated by an interaction between the x-line current channel and a global mode in the electrostatic potential. It is this mode which breaks axisymmetry and enables a localized decrease in x-line current. We model the onset using an empirical Ohm's law and current continuity, which is maintained by ion polarization currents associated with the mode. The model reproduces the exponential growth of the reconnection electric field, and the model growth rate agrees well with the experimentally measured growth rate. The onset location is likely determined by small asymmetries in the in-vessel coils. To further investigate this conjecture new coils have been installed, which allow for controlled changes in toroidal asymmetry. The observations are suggestive of solar flare dynamics and are relevant to tokamak research [3]. [1] Egedal, J. et al. Laboratory Observations of Spontaneous Magnetic Reconnection. Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 015003 (2007). [2] Katz, N. et al. Laboratory Observation of Localized Onset of Magnetic Reconnection. Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 255004 (2010). [3] Park, H.K. et al. Self-organized Te redistribution during driven reconnection processes in high-temperature plasmas. Phys. Plasmas 13, 055907 (2006).

  18. Ergonomic evaluation of the Apple Adjustable Keyboard

    SciTech Connect

    Tittiranonda, P.; Burastero, S.; Shih, M.; Rempel, D.

    1994-05-01

    This study presents an evaluation of the Apple Adjustable Keyboard based on subjective preference and observed joint angles during typing. Thirty five keyboard users were asked to use the Apple adjustable keyboard for 7--14 days and rate the various characteristics of the keyboard. Our findings suggest that the most preferred opening angles range from 11--20{degree}. The mean ulnar deviation on the Apple Adjustable keyboard is 11{degree}, compared to 16{degree} on the standard keyboard. The mean extension was decreased from 24{degree} to 16{degree} when using the adjustable keyboard. When asked to subjectively rate the adjustable keyboard in comparison to the standard, the average subject felt that the Apple Adjustable Keyboard was more comfortable and easier to use than the standard flat keyboard.

  19. Efficient Adjustable Reflectivity Smart Window

    SciTech Connect

    D. Morgan Tench

    2005-12-01

    This project addressed the key technical issues for development of an efficient smart window based on reversible electrochemical transfer of silver between a mirror electrode and a localized counter electrode. Effort to provide uniform switching over large areas focused on use of a resistive transparent electrode innerlayer to increase the interelectrode resistance. An effective edge seal was developed in collaboration with adhesive suppliers and an electrochromic device manufacturer. Work to provide a manufacturable counter electrode focused on fabricating a dot matrix electrode without photolithography by electrodeposition of Pt nuclei on inherent active sites on a transparent oxide conductor. An alternative counter electrode based on a conducting polymer and an ionic liquid electrolyte was also investigated. Work in all of these areas was successful. Sputtered large-bandgap oxide innerlayers sandwiched between conductive indium tin oxide (ITO) layers were shown to provide sufficient cross-layer resistance (>300 ohm/cm{sup 2}) without significantly affecting the electrochemical properties of the ITO overlayer. Two edge seal epoxies, one procured from an epoxy manufacturer and one provided by an electrochromic device manufacturer in finished seals, were shown to be effective barriers against oxygen intrusion up to 80 C. The optimum density of nuclei for the dot matrix counter electrode was attained without use of photolithography by electrodeposition from a commercial alkaline platinum plating bath. Silver loss issues for cells with dot matrix electrodes were successfully addressed by purifying the electrolyte and adjusting the cell cycling parameters. More than 30K cycles were demonstrated for a REM cell (30-cm square) with a dot matrix counter electrode. Larger cells (30-cm square) were successfully fabricated but could not be cycled since the nucleation layers (provided by an outside supplier) were defective so that mirror deposits could not be produced.

  20. Three-dimensional adjustment of trilateration data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sung, L.-Y.; Jackson, D. D.

    1985-01-01

    The three-dimensional locations of the monuments in the USGS Hollister trilateration network were adjusted to fit line length observations observed in 1977, using a Bayesian approach, and incorporating prior elevation estimates as data in the adjustment procedure. No significant discrepancies in the measured line lengths were found, but significant elevation adjustments (up to 1.85 m) were needed to fit the length data.

  1. Asian immigrant settlement and adjustment in Australia.

    PubMed

    Khoo, S; Kee, P; Dang, T; Shu, J

    1994-01-01

    "This article provides a broad assessment of the settlement and adjustment of people born in the many countries of Asia who are resident in Australia, based on recently available data from the 1991 Census of Population and Housing. It examines some indicators of economic adjustment such as performance in the labor market, and some indicators of social adjustment, such as acquisition of English language proficiency." PMID:12289777

  2. Pattern-Triggered Immunity Suppresses Programmed Cell Death Triggered by Fumonisin B1

    PubMed Central

    Igarashi, Daisuke; Bethke, Gerit; Xu, Yuan; Tsuda, Kenichi; Glazebrook, Jane; Katagiri, Fumiaki

    2013-01-01

    Programmed cell death (PCD) is a crucial process for plant innate immunity and development. In plant innate immunity, PCD is believed to prevent the spread of pathogens from the infection site. Although proper control of PCD is important for plant fitness, we have limited understanding of the molecular mechanisms regulating plant PCD. Plant innate immunity triggered by recognition of effectors (effector-triggered immunity, ETI) is often associated with PCD. However pattern-triggered immunity (PTI), which is triggered by recognition of elicitors called microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs), is not. Therefore we hypothesized that PTI might suppress PCD. Here we report that PCD triggered by the mycotoxin fumonisin B1 (FB1) can be suppressed by PTI in Arabidopsis. FB1-triggered cell death was suppressed by treatment with the MAMPs flg22 (a part of bacterial flagellin) or elf18 (a part of the bacterial elongation factor EF-Tu) but not chitin (a component of fungal cell walls). Although plant hormone signaling is associated with PCD and PTI, both FB1-triggered cell death and suppression of cell death by flg22 treatment were still observed in mutants deficient in jasmonic acid (JA), ethylene (ET) and salicylic acid (SA) signaling. The MAP kinases MPK3 and MPK6 are transiently activated and inactivated within one hour during PTI. We found that FB1 activated MPK3 and MPK6 about 36–48 hours after treatment. Interestingly, this late activation was attenuated by flg22 treatment. These results suggest that PTI suppression of FB1-triggered cell death may involve suppression of MPK3/MPK6 signaling but does not require JA/ET/SA signaling. PMID:23560104

  3. Photoconductive semiconductor switches: Laser Q-switch trigger and switch-trigger laser integration

    SciTech Connect

    Loubriel, G.M.; Mar, A.; Hamil, R.A.; Zutavern, F.J.; Helgeson, W.D.

    1997-12-01

    This report provides a summary of the Pulser In a Chip 9000-Discretionary LDRD. The program began in January of 1997 and concluded in September of 1997. The over-arching goal of this LDRD is to study whether laser diode triggered photoconductive semiconductor switches (PCSS) can be used to activate electro-optic devices such as Q-switches and Pockels cells and to study possible laser diode/switch integration. The PCSS switches we used were high gain GaAs switches because they can be triggered with small amounts of laser light. The specific goals of the LDRD were to demonstrate: (1) that small laser diode arrays that are potential candidates for laser-switch integration will indeed trigger the PCSS switch, and (2) that high gain GaAs switches can be used to trigger optical Q-switches in lasers such as the lasers to be used in the X-1 Advanced Radiation Source and the laser used for direct optical initiation (DOI) of explosives. The technology developed with this LDRD is now the prime candidate for triggering the Q switch in the multiple lasers in the laser trigger system of the X-1 Advanced Radiation Source and may be utilized in other accelerators. As part of the LDRD we developed a commercial supplier. To study laser/switch integration we tested triggering the high gain GaAs switches with: edge emitting laser diodes, vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs), and transverse junction stripe (TJS) lasers. The first two types of lasers (edge emitting and VCSELs) did activate the PCSS but are harder to integrate with the PCSS for a compact package. The US lasers, while easier to integrate with the switch, did not trigger the PCSS at the US laser power levels we used. The PCSS was used to activate the Q-switch of the compact laser to be used in the X-1 Advanced Radiation Source.

  4. Rate adjusters for Medicare under capitation

    PubMed Central

    Newhouse, Joseph P.

    1986-01-01

    This article addresses three issues related to capitation. First, the average adjusted per capita cost (AAPCC) fluctuates with the mix of risks in the fee-for-service system. More sensitive adjusters in the AAPCC are needed. Second, the AAPCC, as now estimated, exhibits large geographic variance; so-called shrinkage estimators may help. Third, the AAPCC requires new adjusters to yield more homogeneous risk classes. Otherwise, the portion of the Medicare population under capitation may experience access problems at alternative delivery systems: Until such adjusters are developed, it seems better to rely upon a blend of capitation and fee-for-service than the present AAPCC. PMID:10311926

  5. Techniques and applications of adjustable sutures.

    PubMed

    Fells, P

    1987-02-01

    The 'rediscovery' of adjustable sutures some 10 years ago has given the ophthalmic surgeon much more confidence in his ability to correct strabismus. Three methods of use are described: during surgery under general anaesthesia with adjustment during the operation using the 'springback' test to centralise the eye; during surgery under general anaesthesia and subsequent adjustment under local anaesthesia using the patient's subjective responses to obtain optimal positioning; and performance of the operation and adjustment under topical local anaesthesia in one procedure. Full details are given of each technique and the indications for their application to particular problems are discussed. PMID:3297111

  6. Echogenic Glycol Chitosan Nanoparticles for Ultrasound-Triggered Cancer Theranostics

    PubMed Central

    Min, Hyun Su; You, Dong Gil; Son, Sejin; Jeon, Sangmin; Park, Jae Hyung; Lee, Seulki; Kwon, Ick Chan; Kim, Kwangmeyung

    2015-01-01

    Theranostic nanoparticles hold great promise for simultaneous diagnosis of diseases, targeted drug delivery with minimal toxicity, and monitoring of therapeutic efficacy. However, one of the current challenges in developing theranostic nanoparticles is enhancing the tumor-specific targeting of both imaging probes and anticancer agents. Herein, we report the development of tumor-homing echogenic glycol chitosan-based nanoparticles (Echo-CNPs) that concurrently execute cancer-targeted ultrasound (US) imaging and US-triggered drug delivery. To construct this novel Echo-CNPs, an anticancer drug and bioinert perfluoropentane (PFP), a US gas precursor, were simultaneously encapsulated into glycol chitosan nanoparticles using the oil in water (O/W) emulsion method. The resulting Echo-CNPs had a nano-sized particle structure, composing of hydrophobic anticancer drug/PFP inner cores and a hydrophilic glycol chitosan polymer outer shell. The Echo-CNPs had a favorable hydrodynamic size of 432 nm, which is entirely different from the micro-sized core-empty conventional microbubbles (1-10 μm). Furthermore, Echo-CNPs showed the prolonged echogenicity via the sustained microbubble formation process of liquid-phase PFP at the body temperature and they also presented a US-triggered drug release profile through the external US irradiation. Interestingly, Echo-CNPs exhibited significantly increased tumor-homing ability with lower non-specific uptake by other tissues in tumor-bearing mice through the nanoparticle's enhanced permeation and retention (EPR) effect. Conclusively, theranostic Echo-CNPs are highly useful for simultaneous cancer-targeting US imaging and US-triggered delivery in cancer theranostics. PMID:26681985

  7. 48 CFR 1352.271-85 - Documentation of requests for equitable adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Clauses 1352.271-85 Documentation of requests for equitable adjustment. As prescribed in 48 CFR 1371.116..., the contractor shall submit a signed Certificate of Current Cost or Pricing Data. (d)...

  8. 48 CFR 1352.271-85 - Documentation of requests for equitable adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Clauses 1352.271-85 Documentation of requests for equitable adjustment. As prescribed in 48 CFR 1371.116..., the contractor shall submit a signed Certificate of Current Cost or Pricing Data. (d)...

  9. 48 CFR 1352.271-85 - Documentation of requests for equitable adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Clauses 1352.271-85 Documentation of requests for equitable adjustment. As prescribed in 48 CFR 1371.116..., the contractor shall submit a signed Certificate of Current Cost or Pricing Data. (d)...

  10. 48 CFR 1352.271-85 - Documentation of requests for equitable adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Clauses 1352.271-85 Documentation of requests for equitable adjustment. As prescribed in 48 CFR 1371.116..., the contractor shall submit a signed Certificate of Current Cost or Pricing Data. (d)...

  11. An update on botulinum toxin A injections of trigger points for myofascial pain.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jon Y; Wang, Dajie

    2014-01-01

    Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) is a common chronic pain condition that is characterized by distinct "trigger points." Despite current treatments with physical therapy, analgesics, anti-depressants and trigger-point injections, myofascial pain remains a challenging chronic pain condition in clinical practice. Botulinum toxin A (BTX-A) can cause prolonged muscle relaxation through inhibition of acetylcholine release. It may offer some advantages over the current treatments for MPS by providing a longer sustained period of pain relief. Despite numerous clinical trials, the efficacy of BTX-A in alleviating MPS is not well-established due to mixed results from recent clinical trials. Active trigger points are associated with referred pain and greatly impact many aspects of activities of daily living, mood, and health status. This review is designed to analyze the clinical trials regarding the efficacy of BTX-A injection of active trigger points as a treatment for MPS. The literature referenced was obtained via a computer search with Google Scholar, Pubmed, Medline and EMbase. Our search terms included "Botulinum toxin," "myofascial pain," "trigger points," "myofascial trigger points," "chronic pain." Additional references were retrieved from the reference list of the reports found via this search. Studies were considered eligible for inclusion if they were double-blinded, randomized, controlled trials evaluating the efficacy of BTX-A injections into trigger points for pain reduction, and if the trigger point selection in the trial included referred pain and/or local twitch response. Open-label studies, case reports, and other non-randomized studies were excluded. Eight trials were found according to the above criteria and are summarized in Table 1. There are well-designed clinical trials to support the efficacy of trigger-point injections with BTX-A for MPS. However, further clinical trials with considerations of minimizing placebo effect, repeated dosing, adequate

  12. The BTeV trigger architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Michael H.L.S. Wang

    2003-08-21

    BTeV is a high-statistics B-physics experiment that will achieve new levels of sensitivity in testing the Standard Model explanation of CP violation, mixing, and rare decays in the b and c quark systems by operating in the unique environment of a hadron collider. In order to achieve its goals, it will make use of a state-of-the-art Si-pixel vertex detector and a novel 3-level hierarchical trigger that will look at every single beam crossing to detect the presence of heavy quark decays. This talk will describe the trigger architecture focusing on key design aspects that allow the use of commercially available technology in a highly feasible and practical solution that meets the demanding physics requirements of the BTeV experiment.

  13. Insignificant solar-terrestrial triggering of earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Love, Jeffrey J.; Thomas, Jeremy N.

    2013-01-01

    We examine the claim that solar-terrestrial interaction, as measured by sunspots, solar wind velocity, and geomagnetic activity, might play a role in triggering earthquakes. We count the number of earthquakes having magnitudes that exceed chosen thresholds in calendar years, months, and days, and we order these counts by the corresponding rank of annual, monthly, and daily averages of the solar-terrestrial variables. We measure the statistical significance of the difference between the earthquake-number distributions below and above the median of the solar-terrestrial averages by χ2 and Student's t tests. Across a range of earthquake magnitude thresholds, we find no consistent and statistically significant distributional differences. We also introduce time lags between the solar-terrestrial variables and the number of earthquakes, but again no statistically significant distributional difference is found. We cannot reject the null hypothesis of no solar-terrestrial triggering of earthquakes.

  14. Gastroesophageal reflux: a potential asthma trigger.

    PubMed

    Harding, Susan M

    2005-02-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) is a potential trigger of asthma. Approximately 77% of asthmatics report heartburn. GER is a risk factor for asthma-related hospitalization and oral steroid burst use. Asthmatics may be predisposed to GER development because of a high prevalence of hiatal hernia and autonomic dysregulation and an increased pressure gradient between the abdominal cavity and the thorax, over-riding the lower esophageal sphincter pressure barrier. Asthma medications may potentiate GER. Potential mechanisms of esophageal acid-induced bronchoconstriction include a vagally mediated reflex, local axonal reflexes, heightened bronchial reactivity, and microaspiration, all resulting in neurogenic inflammation. Anti-reflux therapy improves asthma symptoms in approximately 70% of asthmatics with GER. A 3-month empiric trial of twice-daily proton pump inhibitor given 30 to 60 minutes before breakfast and dinner can identify asthmatics who have GER as a trigger of their asthma. PMID:15579368

  15. CNS disease triggering Takotsubo stress cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Finsterer, Josef; Wahbi, Karim

    2014-12-15

    There are a number of hereditary and non-hereditary central nervous system (CNS) disorders, which directly or indirectly affect the heart (brain-heart disorders). The most well-known of these CNS disorders are epilepsy, stroke, infectious or immunological encephalitis/meningitis, migraine, and traumatic brain injury. In addition, a number of hereditary and non-hereditary neurodegenerative disorders may impair cardiac functions. Affection of the heart may manifest not only as arrhythmias, myocardial infarction, autonomic impairment, systolic dysfunction/heart failure, arterial hypertension, or pulmonary hypertension, but also as stress cardiomyopathy (Takotsubo syndrome, TTS). CNS disease triggering TTS includes subarachnoid bleeding, epilepsy, ischemic stroke, intracerebral bleeding, migraine, encephalitis, traumatic brain injury, PRES syndrome, or ALS. Usually, TTS is acutely precipitated by stress triggered by various different events. TTS is one of the cardiac abnormalities most frequently induced by CNS disorders. Appropriate management of TTS from CNS disorders is essential to improve the outcome of affected patients. PMID:25213573

  16. Does low atmospheric pressure independently trigger migraine?

    PubMed

    Bolay, Hayrunnisa; Rapoport, Alan

    2011-10-01

    Although atmospheric weather changes are often listed among the common migraine triggers, studies to determine the specific weather component(s) responsible have yielded inconsistent results. Atmospheric pressure change produces air movement, and low pressure in particular is associated with warm weather, winds, clouds, dust, and precipitation, but how this effect might generate migraine is not immediately obvious. Humans are exposed to low atmospheric pressure in situations such as ascent to high altitude or traveling by airplane in a pressurized cabin. In this brief overview, we consider those conditions and experimental data delineating other elements in the atmosphere potentially related to migraine (such as Saharan dust). We conclude that the available data suggest low atmospheric pressure unaccompanied by other factors does not trigger migraine. PMID:21906054

  17. Checkpoint triggering in a computer system

    DOEpatents

    Cher, Chen-Yong

    2016-09-06

    According to an aspect, a method for triggering creation of a checkpoint in a computer system includes executing a task in a processing node of the computer system and determining whether it is time to read a monitor associated with a metric of the task. The monitor is read to determine a value of the metric based on determining that it is time to read the monitor. A threshold for triggering creation of the checkpoint is determined based on the value of the metric. Based on determining that the value of the metric has crossed the threshold, the checkpoint including state data of the task is created to enable restarting execution of the task upon a restart operation.

  18. The ALICE Central Trigger Processor (CTP) upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krivda, M.; Alexandre, D.; Barnby, L. S.; Evans, D.; Jones, P. G.; Jusko, A.; Lietava, R.; Pospíšil, J.; Villalobos Baillie, O.

    2016-03-01

    The ALICE Central Trigger Processor (CTP) at the CERN LHC has been upgraded for LHC Run 2, to improve the Transition Radiation Detector (TRD) data-taking efficiency and to improve the physics performance of ALICE. There is a new additional CTP interaction record sent using a new second Detector Data Link (DDL), a 2 GB DDR3 memory and an extension of functionality for classes. The CTP switch has been incorporated directly onto the new LM0 board. A design proposal for an ALICE CTP upgrade for LHC Run 3 is also presented. Part of the development is a low latency high bandwidth interface whose purpose is to minimize an overall trigger latency.

  19. Triply triggered doxorubicin release from supramolecular nanocontainers.

    PubMed

    Loh, Xian Jun; del Barrio, Jesús; Toh, Pearl Pei Chern; Lee, Tung-Chun; Jiao, Dezhi; Rauwald, Urs; Appel, Eric A; Scherman, Oren A

    2012-01-01

    The synthesis of a supramolecular double hydrophilic block copolymer (DHBC) held together by cucurbit[8]uril (CB[8]) ternary complexation and its subsequent self-assembly into micelles is described. This system is responsive to multiple external triggers including temperature, pH and the addition of a competitive guest. The supramolecular block copolymer assembly consists of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm) as a thermoresponsive block and poly(dimethylaminoethylmethacrylate) (PDMAEMA) as a pH-responsive block. Moreover, encapsulation and controlled drug release was demonstrated with this system using the chemotherapeutic drug doxorubicin (DOX). This triple stimuli-responsive DHBC micelle system represents an evolution over conventional double stimuli-responsive covalent diblock copolymer systems and displayed a significant reduction in the viability of HeLa cells upon triggered release of DOX from the supramolecular micellar nanocontainers. PMID:22148638

  20. Risk-adjusted outcomes in Medicare inpatient nephrectomy patients.

    PubMed

    Fry, Donald E; Pine, Michael; Nedza, Susan M; Locke, David G; Reband, Agnes M; Pine, Gregory

    2016-09-01

    Without risk-adjusted outcomes of surgical care across both the inpatient and postacute period of time, hospitals and surgeons cannot evaluate the effectiveness of current performance in nephrectomy and other operations, and will not have objective metrics to gauge improvements from care redesign efforts.We compared risk-adjusted hospital outcomes following elective total and partial nephrectomy to demonstrate differences that can be used to improve care. We used the Medicare Limited Dataset for 2010 to 2012 for total and partial nephrectomy for benign and malignant neoplasms to create prediction models for the adverse outcomes (AOs) of inpatient deaths, prolonged length-of-stay outliers, 90-day postdischarge deaths without readmission, and 90-day relevant readmissions. From the 4 prediction models, total predicted adverse outcomes were determined for each hospital in the dataset that met a minimum of 25 evaluable cases for the study period. Standard deviations (SDs) for each hospital were used to identify specific z-scores. Risk-adjusted adverse outcomes rates were computed to permit benchmarking each hospital's performance against the national standard. Differences between best and suboptimal performing hospitals defined the potential margin of preventable adverse outcomes for this operation.A total of 449 hospitals with 23,477 patients were evaluated. Overall AO rate was 20.8%; 17 hospitals had risk-adjusted AO rates that were 2 SDs poorer than predicted and 8 were 2 SDs better. The top performing decile of hospitals had a risk-adjusted AO rate of 10.2% while the lowest performing decile had 32.1%. With a minimum of 25 cases for each study hospital, no statistically valid improvement in outcomes was seen with increased case volume.Inpatient and 90-day postdischarge risk-adjusted adverse outcomes demonstrated marked variability among study hospitals and illustrate the opportunities for care improvement. This analytic design is applicable for comparing provider

  1. Psychological and sociocultural adjustment of first-year international students: Trajectories and predictors.

    PubMed

    Hirai, Reiko; Frazier, Patricia; Syed, Moin

    2015-07-01

    Despite the increasing number of international students in U.S. universities, the temporal course of international students' adjustment has not been adequately tested, and only 1 study to date has examined multiple trajectories of adjustment. Therefore, the first goal of the current study was to explore multiple trajectories of adjustment among first-year international students using a broader range of adjustment measures (i.e., psychological distress, positive psychological adjustment, sociocultural adjustment). The second goal was to identify important predictors of trajectories. A wide range of individual and interpersonal predictor variables was examined, including academic stress and perceived control over academic stress, personality, social relationships, and language-related factors. Undergraduate and graduate international students in their first semester at a large midwestern university participated in this 5-wave longitudinal study (N = 248) that spanned 1 academic year. Multiple trajectories emerged, and the trajectories varied across the 3 adjustment measures. Average trajectories masked the trajectories of small groups of students who maintained or increased in terms of adjustment difficulties across outcomes. Contrary to popular theories, the U-shape adjustment trajectory (characterized by initial euphoria, distress, and then recovery) did not emerge. The most consistent predictors of adjustment trajectories were perceived present control over academic stress and Neuroticism. PMID:25961754

  2. Revenge and psychological adjustment after homicidal loss.

    PubMed

    van Denderen, Mariëtte; de Keijser, Jos; Gerlsma, Coby; Huisman, Mark; Boelen, Paul A

    2014-01-01

    Feelings of revenge are a common human response to being hurt by others. Among crime victims of severe sexual or physical violence, significant correlations have been reported between revenge and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Homicide is one of the most severe forms of interpersonal violence. It is therefore likely that individuals bereaved by homicide experience high levels of revenge, which may hamper efforts to cope with traumatic loss. The relationship between revenge and psychological adjustment following homicidal loss has not yet been empirically examined. In the current cross-sectional study, we used self-report data from 331 spouses, family members and friends of homicide victims to examine the relationships between dispositional revenge and situational revenge on the one hand and symptom-levels of PTSD and complicated grief, as well as indices of positive functioning, on the other hand. Furthermore, the association between revenge and socio-demographic and offense-related factors was examined. Participants were recruited from a governmental support organization, a website with information for homicidally bereaved individuals, and members of support groups. Levels of both dispositional and situational revenge were positively associated with symptoms of PTSD and complicated grief, and negatively with positive functioning. Participants reported significantly less situational revenge in cases where the perpetrator was a direct family member than cases where the perpetrator was an indirect family member, friend, or someone unknown. Homicidally bereaved individuals reported more situational revenge, but not more dispositional revenge than a sample of students who had experienced relatively mild interpersonal transgressions. PMID:24910007

  3. I. Specific Nature of Triggering Events.

    PubMed

    Eckert, R

    1965-03-01

    The flash of Noctiluca miliaris occurs only in response to a characteristic all-or-none action potential, the polarity of which is opposite to that of metazoan action potentials, whether recorded internally or externally. Mechanical stimulation evokes a slow, generator-like graded potential which can give rise to the flash-triggering action potential. The flash is all-or-none; it facilitates, summates, and exhibits fatigue, each independently of changes in the amplitude of the action potential. PMID:17790656

  4. Acoustic Manifestations of Natural versus Triggered Lightning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arechiga, R. O.; Johnson, J. B.; Edens, H. E.; Rison, W.; Thomas, R. J.; Eack, K.; Eastvedt, E. M.; Aulich, G. D.; Trueblood, J.

    2010-12-01

    Positive leaders are rarely detected by VHF lightning detection systems; positive leader channels are usually outlined only by recoil events. Positive cloud-to-ground (CG) channels are usually not mapped. The goal of this work is to study the types of thunder produced by natural versus triggered lightning and to assess which types of thunder signals have electromagnetic activity detected by the lightning mapping array (LMA). Towards this end we are investigating the lightning detection capabilities of acoustic techniques, and comparing them with the LMA. In a previous study we used array beam forming and time of flight information to locate acoustic sources associated with lightning. Even though there was some mismatch, generally LMA and acoustic techniques saw the same phenomena. To increase the database of acoustic data from lightning, we deployed a network of three infrasound arrays (30 m aperture) during the summer of 2010 (August 3 to present) in the Magdalena mountains of New Mexico, to monitor infrasound (below 20 Hz) and audio range sources due to natural and triggered lightning. The arrays were located at a range of distances (60 to 1400 m) surrounding the triggering site, called the Kiva, used by Langmuir Laboratory to launch rockets. We have continuous acoustic measurements of lightning data from July 20 to September 18 of 2009, and from August 3 to September 1 of 2010. So far, lightning activity around the Kiva was higher during the summer of 2009. We will present acoustic data from several interesting lightning flashes including a comparison between a natural and a triggered one.

  5. Ratios as a size adjustment in morphometrics.

    PubMed

    Albrecht, G H; Gelvin, B R; Hartman, S E

    1993-08-01

    Simple ratios in which a measurement variable is divided by a size variable are commonly used but known to be inadequate for eliminating size correlations from morphometric data. Deficiencies in the simple ratio can be alleviated by incorporating regression coefficients describing the bivariate relationship between the measurement and size variables. Recommendations have included: 1) subtracting the regression intercept to force the bivariate relationship through the origin (intercept-adjusted ratios); 2) exponentiating either the measurement or the size variable using an allometry coefficient to achieve linearity (allometrically adjusted ratios); or 3) both subtracting the intercept and exponentiating (fully adjusted ratios). These three strategies for deriving size-adjusted ratios imply different data models for describing the bivariate relationship between the measurement and size variables (i.e., the linear, simple allometric, and full allometric models, respectively). Algebraic rearrangement of the equation associated with each data model leads to a correctly formulated adjusted ratio whose expected value is constant (i.e., size correlation is eliminated). Alternatively, simple algebra can be used to derive an expected value function for assessing whether any proposed ratio formula is effective in eliminating size correlations. Some published ratio adjustments were incorrectly formulated as indicated by expected values that remain a function of size after ratio transformation. Regression coefficients incorporated into adjusted ratios must be estimated using least-squares regression of the measurement variable on the size variable. Use of parameters estimated by any other regression technique (e.g., major axis or reduced major axis) results in residual correlations between size and the adjusted measurement variable. Correctly formulated adjusted ratios, whose parameters are estimated by least-squares methods, do control for size correlations. The size-adjusted

  6. CMS High Level Trigger Timing Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, Clint

    2015-12-01

    The two-level trigger system employed by CMS consists of the Level 1 (L1) Trigger, which is implemented using custom-built electronics, and the High Level Trigger (HLT), a farm of commercial CPUs running a streamlined version of the offline CMS reconstruction software. The operational L1 output rate of 100 kHz, together with the number of CPUs in the HLT farm, imposes a fundamental constraint on the amount of time available for the HLT to process events. Exceeding this limit impacts the experiment's ability to collect data efficiently. Hence, there is a critical need to characterize the performance of the HLT farm as well as the algorithms run prior to start up in order to ensure optimal data taking. Additional complications arise from the fact that the HLT farm consists of multiple generations of hardware and there can be subtleties in machine performance. We present our methods of measuring the timing performance of the CMS HLT, including the challenges of making such measurements. Results for the performance of various Intel Xeon architectures from 2009-2014 and different data taking scenarios are also presented.

  7. Trigger chemistries for better industrial formulations.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hsuan-Chin; Zhang, Yanfeng; Possanza, Catherine M; Zimmerman, Steven C; Cheng, Jianjun; Moore, Jeffrey S; Harris, Keith; Katz, Joshua S

    2015-04-01

    In recent years, innovations and consumer demands have led to increasingly complex liquid formulations. These growing complexities have provided industrial players and their customers access to new markets through product differentiation, improved performance, and compatibility/stability with other products. One strategy for enabling more complex formulations is the use of active encapsulation. When encapsulation is employed, strategies are required to effect the release of the active at the desired location and time of action. One particular route that has received significant academic research effort is the employment of triggers to induce active release upon a specific stimulus, though little has translated for industrial use to date. To address emerging industrial formulation needs, in this review, we discuss areas of trigger release chemistries and their applications specifically as relevant to industrial use. We focus the discussion on the use of heat, light, shear, and pH triggers as applied in several model polymeric systems for inducing active release. The goal is that through this review trends will emerge for how technologies can be better developed to maximize their value through industrial adaptation. PMID:25768973

  8. ENSO-triggered floods in South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isla, Federico Ignacio

    2016-04-01

    ENSO-triggered floods altered completely the annual discharge of most watersheds of South America. Anomalous years as 1941, 1982-83 and 1997-98 signified enormous discharges of rivers draining toward the Pacific but also to the Atlantic Ocean. These floods affected large cities as Porto Alegre, Blumenau, Curitiba, Asunción, Santa Fe and Buenos Aires. Maximum discharge months are particular and easily distinguished at those watersheds located at the South American Arid Diagonal. At watersheds conditioned by precipitations delivered from the Atlantic or Pacific anticyclonic centers the ENSO-triggered floods are difficult to discern. The floods of 1941 affected 70,000 inhabitants in Porto Alegre. In 1983, Blumenau city was flooded during several days; and the Paraná River multiplied 15 times the width of its middle floodplain. The Colorado River in Northern Patagonia connected for the last time to the Desaguadero-Chadileuvú-Curacó system and therefore received saline water. ENSO years modify also the water balance of certain piedmont lakes of Southern Patagonia: the increases in snow accumulations cause high water levels with a lag of 13 months. The correlation between the maximum monthly discharges of 1982-83 and 1997-98 at different regions and watersheds indicates they can be forecasted for future floods triggered by same phenomena. South American rivers can be classified therefore into ENSO-affected, and ENSO-dominated, for those within the Arid Diagonal that are exclusively subject to high discharges during these years.

  9. ATP-triggered anticancer drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mo, Ran; Jiang, Tianyue; Disanto, Rocco; Tai, Wanyi; Gu, Zhen

    2014-03-01

    Stimuli-triggered drug delivery systems have been increasingly used to promote physiological specificity and on-demand therapeutic efficacy of anticancer drugs. Here we utilize adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) as a trigger for the controlled release of anticancer drugs. We demonstrate that polymeric nanocarriers functionalized with an ATP-binding aptamer-incorporated DNA motif can selectively release the intercalating doxorubicin via a conformational switch when in an ATP-rich environment. The half-maximal inhibitory concentration of ATP-responsive nanovehicles is 0.24 μM in MDA-MB-231 cells, a 3.6-fold increase in the cytotoxicity compared with that of non-ATP-responsive nanovehicles. Equipped with an outer shell crosslinked by hyaluronic acid, a specific tumour-targeting ligand, the ATP-responsive nanocarriers present an improvement in the chemotherapeutic inhibition of tumour growth using xenograft MDA-MB-231 tumour-bearing mice. This ATP-triggered drug release system provides a more sophisticated drug delivery system, which can differentiate ATP levels to facilitate the selective release of drugs.

  10. Cancer exosomes trigger fibroblast to myofibroblast differentiation.

    PubMed

    Webber, Jason; Steadman, Robert; Mason, Malcolm D; Tabi, Zsuzsanna; Clayton, Aled

    2010-12-01

    There is a growing interest in the cell-cell communication roles in cancer mediated by secreted vesicles termed exosomes. In this study, we examined whether exosomes produced by cancer cells could transmit information to normal stromal fibroblasts and trigger a cellular response. We found that some cancer-derived exosomes could trigger elevated α-smooth muscle actin expression and other changes consistent with the process of fibroblast differentiation into myofibroblasts. We show that TGF-β is expressed at the exosome surface in association with the transmembrane proteoglycan betaglycan. Although existing in a latent state, this complex was fully functional in eliciting SMAD-dependent signaling. Inhibiting either signaling or betaglycan expression attenuated differentiation. While the kinetics and overall magnitude of the response were similar to that achieved with soluble TGF-β, we identified important qualitative differences unique to the exosomal route of TGF-β delivery, as exemplified by a significant elevation in fibroblast FGF2 production. This hitherto unknown trigger for instigating cellular differentiation in a distinctive manner has major implications for mechanisms underlying cancer-recruited stroma, fibrotic diseases, and wound-healing responses. PMID:21098712

  11. Oracle Database Y2K Protection Triggers Generators

    SciTech Connect

    Cribbs, C.A.

    1999-06-02

    I developed PL/SQL code that generates or modifies PL/SQL �BEFORE EACH ROW� triggers to protect database date columns from Y2K non-compliant date input (from all sources) into the database. A function is imbedded in the triggers that uses the �RR� year formatted date conversion. For each table with at least one date column and with INSERT/UPDATE/DELETE trigger(s), my code inserts date conversion code into the existing trigger(s). For INSERT/UPDATE not in a trigger(s), my code creates a trigger for the absent DML command(s). Designed to be: Transferable to other servers with minimum effort; A uniform and consistent problem solution with easy implementation, testing, and configuration management. No need to manually code and edit SQL trigger files: Modifies existing triggers; Creates needed triggers; Self documented (output comments with code); SQL files configuration management ready. Can customize the: Date conversion function; Code modifications for the trigger; Universal lookup/key; �

  12. The ALICE High Level Trigger: status and plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krzewicki, Mikolaj; Rohr, David; Gorbunov, Sergey; Breitner, Timo; Lehrbach, Johannes; Lindenstruth, Volker; Berzano, Dario

    2015-12-01

    The ALICE High Level Trigger (HLT) is an online reconstruction, triggering and data compression system used in the ALICE experiment at CERN. Unique among the LHC experiments, it extensively uses modern coprocessor technologies like general purpose graphic processing units (GPGPU) and field programmable gate arrays (FPGA) in the data flow. Realtime data compression is performed using a cluster finder algorithm implemented on FPGA boards. These data, instead of raw clusters, are used in the subsequent processing and storage, resulting in a compression factor of around 4. Track finding is performed using a cellular automaton and a Kalman filter algorithm on GPGPU hardware, where both CUDA and OpenCL technologies can be used interchangeably. The ALICE upgrade requires further development of online concepts to include detector calibration and stronger data compression. The current HLT farm will be used as a test bed for online calibration and both synchronous and asynchronous processing frameworks already before the upgrade, during Run 2. For opportunistic use as a Grid computing site during periods of inactivity of the experiment a virtualisation based setup is deployed.

  13. Optically triggered solid state driver for shock wave therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duryea, Alexander P.; Roberts, William W.; Cain, Charles A.; Hall, Timothy L.

    2012-10-01

    Shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) represents one of several first-line therapies for the treatment of stones located in the kidneys and ureters. Additional applications for shock wave therapy are also under exploration, including non-urinary calculi, orthopedics, and neovascularization. Except for the elimination of a large water bath in which the treatment is performed, current procedures remain largely unchanged, with one of the original commercial devices (the Dornier HM3) still considered a gold standard for comparison. To accelerate research in this area, Coleman, et al. published an experimental electrohydraulic shock wave generator capable of simulating the acoustic field generated by the HM3. We propose a further update of this system, replacing the triggered spark gap with an optically triggered solid state switch. The new system has better reliability, a wider operating range, and reduced timing jitter allowing synchronization with additional acoustic sources under exploration for improving efficacy and reducing injury. Originally designed for exciting electrohydraulic spark electrodes, the system can also be adapted for driving piezoelectric and electromagnetic sources.

  14. 15 CFR 6.5 - Effective date of adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... INFLATION ADJUSTMENTS § 6.5 Effective date of adjustments. The adjustments made by § 6.4 of this part, of... December 11, 2008, and before the effective date of any future inflation adjustment thereto made...

  15. 15 CFR 6.5 - Effective date of adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... INFLATION ADJUSTMENTS § 6.5 Effective date of adjustments. The adjustments made by § 6.4 of this part, of... December 7, 2012, and before the effective date of any future inflation adjustment thereto made...

  16. 15 CFR 6.5 - Effective date of adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... INFLATION ADJUSTMENTS § 6.5 Effective date of adjustments. The adjustments made by § 6.4 of this part, of... December 11, 2008, and before the effective date of any future inflation adjustment thereto made...

  17. 15 CFR 6.5 - Effective date of adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... INFLATION ADJUSTMENTS § 6.5 Effective date of adjustments. The adjustments made by § 6.4 of this part, of... December 11, 2008, and before the effective date of any future inflation adjustment thereto made...

  18. 15 CFR 6.5 - Effective date of adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... INFLATION ADJUSTMENTS § 6.5 Effective date of adjustments. The adjustments made by § 6.4 of this part, of... December 7, 2012, and before the effective date of any future inflation adjustment thereto made...

  19. 7 CFR 718.110 - Adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adjustments. 718.110 Section 718.110 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FARM... Determination of Acreage and Compliance § 718.110 Adjustments. (a) The farm operator or other...

  20. 7 CFR 718.110 - Adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Adjustments. 718.110 Section 718.110 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FARM... Determination of Acreage and Compliance § 718.110 Adjustments. (a) The farm operator or other...

  1. 7 CFR 718.110 - Adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Adjustments. 718.110 Section 718.110 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FARM... Determination of Acreage and Compliance § 718.110 Adjustments. (a) The farm operator or other...

  2. 45 CFR 84.44 - Academic adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Academic adjustments. 84.44 Section 84.44 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Postsecondary Education § 84.44 Academic adjustments. (a)...

  3. 22 CFR 142.44 - Academic adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Academic adjustments. 142.44 Section 142.44 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE CIVIL RIGHTS NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Postsecondary Education § 142.44 Academic adjustments. (a) Academic requirements. A...

  4. Family Adjustment Measure: Scale Construction and Validation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daire, Andrew P.; Dominguez, Vanessa N.; Carlson, Ryan G.; Case-Pease, Jenene

    2014-01-01

    We administered the Family Adjustment Measure to 368 parents of children with special needs to identify positive adjustment. We randomly split the sample to conduct exploratory factor analysis ("n" = 194) and confirmatory factor analysis ("n" = 174). Results indicated four possible subscales and that explain 51% of the variance.

  5. Marital Adjustment among Housestaff and New Attorneys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spendlove, David C.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    This study, involving 116 housestaff physicians, 106 new attorneys, and the spouses of both groups, identified the factors that significantly affected their marital adjustments. No differences were found. The most important factor associated with adjustment was perceived level of emotional support from one's spouse. (Author/MLW)

  6. 15 CFR 6.6 - Subsequent adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Subsequent adjustments. 6.6 Section 6.6 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce CIVIL MONETARY PENALTY INFLATION... once every four years after October 23, 1996, make the inflation adjustment, described in Section...

  7. Religiousity, Spirituality and Adolescents' Self-Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Japar, Muhammad; Purwati

    2014-01-01

    Religiuosity, spirituality, and adolescents' self-adjustment. The objective of this study is to test the correlation among religiosity, spirituality and adolescents' self-adjustment. A quantitative approach was employed in this study. Data were collected from 476 junior high schools students of 13 State Junior High Schools and one Junior High…

  8. Adjustable Optical Mount Is More Rigid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asbury, Bill G.; Coombs, David S.; Jones, Irby W.; Moore, Alvah S., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Improved mount for lens or mirror in laser offers rigidity similar to that of nonadjustable optical mount. In comparison with older adjustable optical mounts, this one less susceptible to movements and distortions caused by vibrations and by thermal expansions and contractions. Mount contains neither adjustment rods (which grow or shrink as temperature varies) nor springs (which transmit vibrations to mounted optic).

  9. 24 CFR 9.155 - Housing adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Housing adjustments. 9.155 Section 9.155 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban... THE DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT § 9.155 Housing adjustments. (a) The agency...

  10. 15 CFR 6.6 - Subsequent adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Subsequent adjustments. 6.6 Section 6.6 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce CIVIL MONETARY PENALTY INFLATION... once every four years after October 23, 1996, make the inflation adjustment, described in Section...

  11. 15 CFR 6.6 - Subsequent adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Subsequent adjustments. 6.6 Section 6.6 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce CIVIL MONETARY PENALTY INFLATION... once every four years after October 23, 1996, make the inflation adjustment, described in Section...

  12. 15 CFR 6.6 - Subsequent adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Subsequent adjustments. 6.6 Section 6.6 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce CIVIL MONETARY PENALTY INFLATION... once every four years after October 23, 1996, make the inflation adjustment, described in Section...

  13. 15 CFR 6.6 - Subsequent adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Subsequent adjustments. 6.6 Section 6.6 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce CIVIL MONETARY PENALTY INFLATION... once every four years after October 23, 1996, make the inflation adjustment, described in Section...

  14. 14 CFR 254.6 - Periodic adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Periodic adjustments. 254.6 Section 254.6 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS DOMESTIC BAGGAGE LIABILITY § 254.6 Periodic adjustments. The Department of Transportation...

  15. Affect and Status Dimensions of Marital Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fineberg, Beth L.; Joseph Lowman

    1975-01-01

    The interactions of 10 maritally adjusted and 10 maladjusted couples were compared using a coding system based on the Leary circumplex. Major findings are (1) adjusted couples communicated more affection and submission than did maladjusted ones, (2) all couples were more likely to show complementary sequencing patterns with some interesting…

  16. 24 CFR 902.24 - Database adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Database adjustment. 902.24 Section 902.24 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (CONTINUED... PUBLIC HOUSING ASSESSMENT SYSTEM Physical Condition Indicator § 902.24 Database adjustment....

  17. 49 CFR 630.11 - Data adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Data adjustments. 630.11 Section 630.11 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION NATIONAL TRANSIT DATABASE § 630.11 Data adjustments. Errors in the data used...

  18. 24 CFR 902.24 - Database adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Database adjustment. 902.24 Section 902.24 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (CONTINUED... PUBLIC HOUSING ASSESSMENT SYSTEM Physical Condition Indicator § 902.24 Database adjustment....

  19. 49 CFR 630.11 - Data adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Data adjustments. 630.11 Section 630.11 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION NATIONAL TRANSIT DATABASE § 630.11 Data adjustments. Errors in the data used...

  20. 49 CFR 630.11 - Data adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Data adjustments. 630.11 Section 630.11 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION NATIONAL TRANSIT DATABASE § 630.11 Data adjustments. Errors in the data used...