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Sample records for adjustable trigger current

  1. Methods for automatic trigger threshold adjustment

    DOEpatents

    Welch, Benjamin J; Partridge, Michael E

    2014-03-18

    Methods are presented for adjusting trigger threshold values to compensate for drift in the quiescent level of a signal monitored for initiating a data recording event, thereby avoiding false triggering conditions. Initial threshold values are periodically adjusted by re-measuring the quiescent signal level, and adjusting the threshold values by an offset computation based upon the measured quiescent signal level drift. Re-computation of the trigger threshold values can be implemented on time based or counter based criteria. Additionally, a qualification width counter can be utilized to implement a requirement that a trigger threshold criterion be met a given number of times prior to initiating a data recording event, further reducing the possibility of a false triggering situation.

  2. Self-triggering superconducting fault current limiter

    DOEpatents

    Yuan, Xing; Tekletsadik, Kasegn

    2008-10-21

    A modular and scaleable Matrix Fault Current Limiter (MFCL) that functions as a "variable impedance" device in an electric power network, using components made of superconducting and non-superconducting electrically conductive materials. The matrix fault current limiter comprises a fault current limiter module that includes a superconductor which is electrically coupled in parallel with a trigger coil, wherein the trigger coil is magnetically coupled to the superconductor. The current surge doing a fault within the electrical power network will cause the superconductor to transition to its resistive state and also generate a uniform magnetic field in the trigger coil and simultaneously limit the voltage developed across the superconductor. This results in fast and uniform quenching of the superconductors, significantly reduces the burnout risk associated with non-uniformity often existing within the volume of superconductor materials. The fault current limiter modules may be electrically coupled together to form various "n" (rows).times."m" (columns) matrix configurations.

  3. The role of affect and reward in the conflict-triggered adjustment of cognitive control.

    PubMed

    Dreisbach, Gesine; Fischer, Rico

    2012-01-01

    Adapting to changing task demands is one of the hallmarks of human cognition. According to an influential theory, the conflict monitoring theory, the adaptation of information processing occurs in a context-sensitive manner in that conflicts signal the need for control recruitment. Starting from the conflict monitoring theory, here the authors discuss the role of affect in the context of conflict-triggered processing adjustments from three different perspectives: (1) the affective value of conflict per se, (2) the affective modulation of conflict-triggered processing adjustments, and (3) the modulation of conflict adaptation by reward. Based on the current empirical evidence, the authors stress the importance of disentangling effects of affect and reward on conflict-triggered control adjustments.

  4. Method and apparatus to trigger superconductors in current limiting devices

    DOEpatents

    Yuan, Xing; Hazelton, Drew Willard; Walker, Michael Stephen

    2004-10-26

    A method and apparatus for magnetically triggering a superconductor in a superconducting fault current limiter to transition from a superconducting state to a resistive state. The triggering is achieved by employing current-carrying trigger coil or foil on either or both the inner diameter and outer diameter of a superconductor. The current-carrying coil or foil generates a magnetic field with sufficient strength and the superconductor is disposed within essentially uniform magnetic field region. For superconductor in a tubular-configured form, an additional magnetic field can be generated by placing current-carrying wire or foil inside the tube and along the center axial line.

  5. Self field triggered superconducting fault current limiter

    DOEpatents

    Tekletsadik, Kasegn D.

    2008-02-19

    A superconducting fault current limiter array with a plurality of superconductor elements arranged in a meanding array having an even number of supconductors parallel to each other and arranged in a plane that is parallel to an odd number of the plurality of superconductors, where the odd number of supconductors are parallel to each other and arranged in a plane that is parallel to the even number of the plurality of superconductors, when viewed from a top view. The even number of superconductors are coupled at the upper end to the upper end of the odd number of superconductors. A plurality of lower shunt coils each coupled to the lower end of each of the even number of superconductors and a plurality of upper shunt coils each coupled to the upper end of each of the odd number of superconductors so as to generate a generally orthoganal uniform magnetic field during quenching using only the magenetic field generated by the superconductors.

  6. Implement an adjustable delay time digital trigger for an NI data acquisition card in a high-speed demodulation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hongtao; Fan, Lingling; Wang, Pengfei; Park, Seong-Wook

    2012-06-01

    A National Instruments (NI) DAQ card PCI 5105 is installed in a high-speed demodulation system based on Fiber Fabry-Pérot Tunable Filter. The instability of the spectra of Fiber Bragg Grating sensors caused by intrinsic drifts of FFP-TF needs an appropriate, flexible trigger. However, the driver of the DAQ card in the current development environment does not provide the functions of analog trigger but digital trigger type. Moreover, the high level of the trigger signal from the tuning voltage of FFP-TF is larger than the maximum input overload voltage of PCI 5105 card. To resolve this incompatibility, a novel converter to change an analog trigger signal into a digital trigger signal has been reported previously. However, the obvious delay time between input and output signals limits the function of demodulation system. Accordingly, we report an improved low-cost, small-size converter with an adjustable delay time. This new scheme can decline the delay time to or close to zero when the frequency of trigger signal is less than 3,000 Hz. This method might be employed to resolve similar problems or to be applied in semiconductor integrated circuits.

  7. The Current Means for Detection of Migraine Headache Trigger Sites.

    PubMed

    Guyuron, Bahman; Nahabet, Edward; Khansa, Ibrahim; Reed, Deborah; Janis, Jeffrey E

    2015-10-01

    The authors' 15-year experience with migraine surgery has led them to believe that the most common reasons for incomplete response are failure to detect all of the trigger sites or, on rare occasions, inadequate surgery on the trigger sites. Thus, accurate identification of trigger sites is essential. The purpose of this article is to share the authors' current stepwise algorithm for accurately detecting the migraine trigger sites, which has evolved through surgery on nearly 1000 patients. To begin, a thorough history is taken. Each patient's constellation of symptoms can point toward one or multiple trigger points. The patient is asked to point to the most frequent site from which migraine headaches originate with one fingertip, and then the site is explored with a Doppler. If an arterial Doppler signal is identified at the site, it is considered an active arterial trigger site. Response to a nerve block with a local anesthetic in a patient with an active migraine headache confirms the presence of a trigger site. If the patient does not have pain at the time of the office visit, an injection of botulinum toxin A at the suspected trigger site may be considered. Although positive responses to botulinum toxin A and nerve block are very helpful and reliable in confirming the trigger sites, negative responses must be interpreted with extreme caution. In patients with a migraine headache starting from the retrobulbar site, a computed tomography scan of the paranasal sinuses is obtained to look for contact points and other pathology that would confirm rhinogenic trigger sites.

  8. Return stroke current reflections in rocket-triggered lightning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caicedo, J. A.; Biagi, C.; Uman, M. A.; Jordan, D. M.; Hare, B.

    2016-03-01

    Ten upward propagating return stroke currents in eight triggered lightning flashes have been observed to reflect downward from 140 to 300 m altitude by way of measurements of the channel base current, close electric field and electric field derivative, and high-speed video. The current reflections appear as dips in the measured channel base current and in the electric fields and as bipolar pulses in the electric field derivative waveforms. The current dips occur 2.7 to 13.9 μs after the initiation of the return stroke current at ground. The observed phenomenon results from a portion of the upward propagating return stroke current wave being reflected from a channel impedance discontinuity apparently associated with an isolated section of unexploded triggering wire, as inferred from high-speed video records. A transmission line model is used to model the close electric field and electric field derivative of the postulated initial and reflected current waves, starting with the measured channel base current, and the results are compared favorably with measurements made at 92 to 326 m. From the measured time between the return stroke current initiation at the ground and the time the current reflection reaches the channel base and produces the current dip, along with the reflection height inferred from the video records, we find the average of the upward and downward reflected return stroke current speed for each of the 10 strokes to be between 0.81 and 2.06 × 108 m s-1.

  9. Adjustable direct current and pulsed circuit fault current limiter

    DOEpatents

    Boenig, Heinrich J.; Schillig, Josef B.

    2003-09-23

    A fault current limiting system for direct current circuits and for pulsed power circuit. In the circuits, a current source biases a diode that is in series with the circuits' transmission line. If fault current in a circuit exceeds current from the current source biasing the diode open, the diode will cease conducting and route the fault current through the current source and an inductor. This limits the rate of rise and the peak value of the fault current.

  10. Superconducting matrix fault current limiter with current-driven trigger mechanism

    DOEpatents

    Yuan, Xing

    2008-04-15

    A modular and scalable Matrix-type Fault Current Limiter (MFCL) that functions as a "variable impedance" device in an electric power network, using components made of superconducting and non-superconducting electrically conductive materials. An inductor is connected in series with the trigger superconductor in the trigger matrix and physically surrounds the superconductor. The current surge during a fault will generate a trigger magnetic field in the series inductor to cause fast and uniform quenching of the trigger superconductor to significantly reduce burnout risk due to superconductor material non-uniformity.

  11. Cutoff and reestablishment of current in rocket-triggered lightning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakov, V. A.; Crawford, D. E.; Kodali, V.; Idone, V. P.; Uman, M. A.; Schnetzer, G. H.; Rambo, K. J.

    2003-12-01

    A total of three negative rocket-triggered lightning flashes without return strokes (two from 1997 and one from 1993) are analyzed in this paper in order to study the processes associated with the disintegration of the triggering wire and its replacement by an air-plasma channel. It appears that the gap resulting from the vaporization of the triggering wire by the upward-positive leader current is bridged by a leader/return-stroke type process. Electric fields at distances of 50, 110, and 500 m, the corresponding magnetic fields at 500 m, and the currents to ground are examined for the two 1997 flashes. The electric field prior to the triggering wire's vaporization in these flashes exhibits a positive (atmospheric electricity sign convention) millisecond-scale ramp due to the upward-extending positive leader. The electric field changes observed at the three distances just prior to wire vaporization are consistent with an equivalent point charge of about 0.3 C at a height of 1.2 to 1.5 km, suggesting that the charge density distribution at that time is strongly skewed toward the upward positive leader tip. The length of the triggering wire at the time of its vaporization was estimated from still photographs to be about 210-220 m. Following the ramp, a microsecond-scale V-shaped negative pulse, which resembles the close electric field signature of a small dart-leader/return-stroke sequence, is observed. The corresponding magnetic field decreases abruptly, simultaneously with the onset of the leading edge of the V-shaped pulse, to values near zero and remains there for tens of microseconds, indicating the attempted interruption (cutoff) of the upward positive leader current flow to ground through the triggering wire as it is vaporized by this current. Following the abrupt decrease, the magnetic field exhibits a rapid increase at a time corresponding to the trailing edge of the V-shaped electric field pulse, suggesting that the vaporized triggering wire is replaced by

  12. Characteristics of current pulses in rocket-triggered lightning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qie, Xiushu; Jiang, Rubin; Yang, Jing

    2014-01-01

    The waveform parameters of current pulses in negative rocket-triggered lightning are analyzed statistically using recorded channel-base current during Shandong Artificially Triggered Lightning Experiment (SHATLE) from 2005 to 2011. The current pulses are divided into 3 categories, including return strokes, ICC pulses in initial continuous current (ICC) stage and M-components superimposed on the continuing current following the return stroke. The geometric mean values (GM) of peak current, risetime from 10% to 90% peak, half peak width and charge transfer for return strokes are 12.1 kA, 1.0 μs, 14.8 μs, and 0.86 C, respectively. The corresponding parameters for ICC pulses are 0.09 kA, 437 μs, 712 μs, and 0.10 C, respectively, while they are 0.28 kA, 251 μs, 242 μs and 0.10 C for M-components, respectively. There is significant fraction of larger M-components (about 10% of 63 samples) demonstrating peak current of several kilo-amperes, comparable to weak return strokes. The ICC pulses show somewhat lower current peak and slower risetime than the M-components with a difference of roughly 2-3 times, resulting from the lower charge source of ICC pulses. In general, the ICC pulses and M-components show smaller peak current and charge transfer while longer risetime and half peak width than return strokes, differing with 1-2 orders of magnitude. The charge neutralized by an individual triggered lightning flash ranged from 6.3 C to 68.1 C, while the initial stage (IS), lasted about 245 ms (GM) and lowered a GM charge of 21.2 C to the ground. The average IS current in an individual lightning discharge varies from 45.8 A to 140.6 A with a GM value of 86.7 A.

  13. Osteoblastic cells trigger gate currents on nanocrystalline diamond transistor.

    PubMed

    Izak, Tibor; Krátká, Marie; Kromka, Alexander; Rezek, Bohuslav

    2015-05-01

    We show the influence of osteoblastic SAOS-2 cells on the transfer characteristics of nanocrystalline diamond solution-gated field-effect transistors (SGFET) prepared on glass substrates. Channels of these fully transparent SGFETs are realized by hydrogen termination of undoped diamond film. After cell cultivation, the transistors exhibit about 100× increased leakage currents (up to 10nA). During and after the cell delamination, the transistors return to original gate currents. We propose a mechanism where this triggering effect is attributed to ions released from adhered cells, which depends on the cell adhesion morphology, and could be used for cell culture monitoring.

  14. Return Stroke Current Reflections in Rocket-Triggered Lightning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caicedo, J.; Uman, M. A.; Jordan, D.; Biagi, C. J.; Hare, B.

    2015-12-01

    In the six years from 2009 to 2014, there have been eight triggered flashes at the ICLRT, from a total of 125, in which a total of ten return stroke channel-base currents exhibited a dip 3.0 to 16.6 μs after the initial current peak. Close range electric field measurements show a related dip following the initial electric field peak, and electric field derivative measurements show an associated bipolar pulse, confirming that this phenomenon is not an instrumentation effect in the current measurement. For six of the eight flashes, high-speed video frames show what appears to be suspended sections of unexploded triggering wire at heights of about 150 to 300 m that are illuminated when the upward current wave reaches them. The suspended wire can act as an impedance discontinuity, perhaps as it explodes, and cause a downward reflection of some portion of the upward-propagating current wave. This reflected wave travels down the channel and causes the dip in the measured channel-base current when it reaches ground and reflects upward. The modified transmission line model with exponential decay (MTLE) is used to model the close electric field and electric field derivatives of the postulated initial and reflected current waves, starting with the measured channel base current, and the results are compared favorably with measurements made at distances ranging from 92 to 444 m. From the measured time between current impulse initiation and the time the current reflection reaches the channel base and the current dip initiates, along with the reflection height from the video records, we find the average return stroke current speed for each of the ten strokes to be from 0.28 to 1.9×108 ms-1, with an error of ±0.01×108 ms-1 due to a ±0.1 μs uncertainty in the measurement. This represents the first direct measurement of return stroke current speed, all previous return stroke speed measurements being derived from the luminosity of the process.

  15. Influence of central set on anticipatory and triggered grip-force adjustments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winstein, C. J.; Horak, F. B.; Fisher, B. E.; Peterson, B. W. (Principal Investigator)

    2000-01-01

    The effects of predictability of load magnitude on anticipatory and triggered grip-force adjustments were studied as nine normal subjects used a precision grip to lift, hold, and replace an instrumented test object. Experience with a predictable stimulus has been shown to enhance magnitude scaling of triggered postural responses to different amplitudes of perturbations. However, this phenomenon, known as a central-set effect, has not been tested systematically for grip-force responses in the hand. In our study, predictability was manipulated by applying load perturbations of different magnitudes to the test object under conditions in which the upcoming load magnitude was presented repeatedly or under conditions in which the load magnitudes were presented randomly, each with two different pre-load grip conditions (unconstrained and constrained). In constrained conditions, initial grip forces were maintained near the minimum level necessary to prevent pre-loaded object slippage, while in unconstrained conditions, no initial grip force restrictions were imposed. The effect of predictable (blocked) and unpredictable (random) load presentations on scaling of anticipatory and triggered grip responses was tested by comparing the slopes of linear regressions between the imposed load and grip response magnitude. Anticipatory and triggered grip force responses were scaled to load magnitude in all conditions. However, regardless of pre-load grip force constraint, the gains (slopes) of grip responses relative to load magnitudes were greater when the magnitude of the upcoming load was predictable than when the load increase was unpredictable. In addition, a central-set effect was evidenced by the fewer number of drop trials in the predictable relative to unpredictable load conditions. Pre-load grip forces showed the greatest set effects. However, grip responses showed larger set effects, based on prediction, when pre-load grip force was constrained to lower levels. These

  16. Trigger of Fast Reconnection via Collapsing Current Sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tenerani, A.; Velli, M.; Rappazzo, A. F.; Pucci, F.

    2015-12-01

    It has been widely believed that reconnection is the underlying mechanism of many explosive processes observed both in astrophysical and laboratory plasmas. However, both the questions of how magnetic reconnection is triggered in high Lundquist (S) and Reynolds (R) number plasmas, and how it can then occur on fast, ideal, time-scales remain open. Indeed, it has been argued that fast reconnection rates could be achieved once kinetic scales are reached, or, alternatively, by the onset of the so-called plasmoid instability within Sweet-Parker current sheets. However, it has been shown recently that a tearing mode instability (the "ideal tearing") can grow on an ideal, i.e., S-independent, timescale once the width a of a current sheet becomes thin enough with respect to its macroscopic length L, a/L ~ S-1/3. This suggests that current sheet thinning down to such a threshold aspect ratio —much larger, for S>>1, than the Sweet-Parker one that scales as a/L ~ S-1/2— might provide the trigger for fast reconnection even within the fluid plasma framework. Here we discuss the transition to fast reconnection by studying with visco-resistive MHD simulations the onset and evolution of the tearing instability within a single collapsing current sheet. We indeed show that the transition to a fast tearing mode instability takes place when an inverse aspect ratio of the order of the threshold a/L ~ S-1/3 is reached, and that the secondary current sheets forming nonlinearly become the source of a succession of recursive tearing instabilities. The latter is reminiscent of the fractal reconnection model of flares, which we modify in the light of the "ideal tearing" scenario.

  17. Fiber-Optic Current Sensor Validation with Triggered Lightning Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Truong X.; Ely, Jay J.; Szatkowski, George N.; Mata, Carlos T.; Mata, Angel G.; Snyder, Gary P.

    2013-01-01

    A fiber optic current sensor based on the Faraday Effect is developed that is highly suitable for aircraft installation and can measure total current enclosed in a fiber loop down to DC. Other attributes include being small, light-weight, non-conducting, safe from electromagnetic interference, and free of hysteresis and saturation. The Faraday Effect causes light polarization to rotate when exposed to a magnetic field in the direction of light propagation. Measuring the induced light polarization rotation in fiber loops yields the total current enclosed. Two sensor systems were constructed and installed at Camp Blanding, Florida, measuring rocket-triggered lightning. The systems were similar in design but with different laser wavelengths, sensitivities and ranges. Results are compared to a shunt resistor as reference. The 850nm wavelength system tested in summer 2011 showed good result comparison early. However, later results showed gradual amplitude increase with time, attributed to corroded connections affecting the 50-ohm output termination. The 1550nm system also yielded good results in the summer 2012. The successful measurements demonstrate the fiber optic sensor's accuracies in capturing real lightning currents, and represent an important step toward future aircraft installation.

  18. Dependence of current rise time on laser-triggered discharge plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Soowon; Kamohara, Takashi; Hosseini, S. Hamid R.; Katsuki, Sunao

    2016-07-01

    A powerful, stable extreme ultraviolet (EUV) source is the most important component for EUV lithography and EUV mask inspection. Here, we investigate the characteristics of laser-triggered discharge plasma at three different current rise times, fast, middle and slow. A height-adjustable coaxial birdcage was used to change circuit inductance. The rise time was varied between 30 ns-55 ns with peak current of 10 kA. The time-integrated EUV (at 13.5 nm in 2% bandwidth) intensity for the fast rise time was found to be 55% stronger than that of the slow rise time despite its lower energy. A high-speed Mach-Zehnder interferogram and visible imaging of the pinch plasma were employed to discuss plasma compression processes qualitatively and quantitatively. Also discharge produced debris was investigated using a silicon-crystal witness plate. The fast rise current was found to have advantages such as lower debris, higher EUV intensity, and possibility of suppressing instability in comparison with the slow rise time. As expected, total debris amounts lessened proportionally to the primary charged energy, as found from a comparison of fast and slow rise currents.

  19. Dependence of current rise time on laser-triggered discharge plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Soowon; Kamohara, Takashi; Hosseini, S. Hamid R.; Katsuki, Sunao

    2016-07-01

    A powerful, stable extreme ultraviolet (EUV) source is the most important component for EUV lithography and EUV mask inspection. Here, we investigate the characteristics of laser-triggered discharge plasma at three different current rise times, fast, middle and slow. A height-adjustable coaxial birdcage was used to change circuit inductance. The rise time was varied between 30 ns–55 ns with peak current of 10 kA. The time-integrated EUV (at 13.5 nm in 2% bandwidth) intensity for the fast rise time was found to be 55% stronger than that of the slow rise time despite its lower energy. A high-speed Mach–Zehnder interferogram and visible imaging of the pinch plasma were employed to discuss plasma compression processes qualitatively and quantitatively. Also discharge produced debris was investigated using a silicon-crystal witness plate. The fast rise current was found to have advantages such as lower debris, higher EUV intensity, and possibility of suppressing instability in comparison with the slow rise time. As expected, total debris amounts lessened proportionally to the primary charged energy, as found from a comparison of fast and slow rise currents.

  20. Similar motion of a handheld object may trigger non-similar grip force adjustments

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Fan; Latash, Mark L.; Zatsiorsky, Vladimir M.

    2007-01-01

    The tight coupling between load (L) and grip (G) forces during voluntary manipulation of a hand-held object is well established. The current study is to examine grip-load force coupling when motion of the hand with an object was either self-generated (voluntary) or externally generated. Subjects performed similar cyclic movements of different loads at various frequencies with three types of manipulation: (a) voluntary oscillation, (b) oscillating the right arm via the pulley system by the left leg (self-driven oscillation), (c) oscillating the arm via the pulley system by another person (other-driven oscillation). During the self-generated movements: (a) the grip forces were larger and (b) grip-load force modulation was more pronounced than in the externally generated movements. The G-L adjustments are not completely determined by the mechanics of object motion; non-mechanical factors related to movement performance, for instance perceptual factors, may affect the G-L coupling. Potentially the results of study can be used to provide hand therapists with another way for administering the Rapid Exchange Gripping Test. PMID:17954351

  1. 24 CFR 1000.320 - How is Formula Current Assisted Stock adjusted for local area costs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... § 1000.320 How is Formula Current Assisted Stock adjusted for local area costs? There are two adjustment... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How is Formula Current Assisted Stock adjusted for local area costs? 1000.320 Section 1000.320 Housing and Urban Development...

  2. A Catapult (Slingshot) Current Sheet Relaxation Model for Substorm Triggering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machida, S.; Miyashita, Y.; Ieda, A.

    2010-12-01

    Based on the results of our superposed epoch analysis of Geotail data, we have proposed a catapult (slingshot) current sheet relaxation model in which earthward flows are produced in the central plasma sheet (CPS) due to the catapult (slingshot) current sheet relaxation, together with the rapid enhancement of Poynting flux toward the CPS in the lobe around X ~ -15 Re about 4 min before the substrom onset. These earthward flows are characterized by plasma pressure decrease and large amplitude magnetic field fluctuations. When these flows reach X ~ 12Re in the magnetotail, they give significant disturbances to the inner magnetosphere to initiate some instability such as a ballooning instability or other instabilities, and the substorm starts in the inner magnetosphere. The occurrence of the magnetic reconnection is a natural consequence of the initial convective earthward flows, because the relaxation of a highly stretched catapult current sheet produces a very thin current at its tailward edge being surrounded by intense magnetic fields which were formerly the off-equatorial lobe magnetic fields. Recently, Nishimura et al. [2010] reported that the substorm onset begins when faint poleward discrete arcs collide with equatorward quiet arcs. The region of earthward convective flows correlatively moves earthward prior to the onset. Thus, this region of the earthward convective flows seems to correspond to the faint poleward discrete arcs. Interestingly, our statistical analysis shows that the earthward convective flows are not produced by the magnetic reconnection, but they are attributed to the dominance of the earthward JxB force over the tailward pressure associated with the progress of the plasma sheet thinning.

  3. Relationship between critical charge density, holding current, and maximum current density in optically triggered silicon carbide thyristors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuferev, V. S.; Levinshtein, M. E.; Palmour, J. W.

    2013-10-01

    Relationship between critical charge density, holding current, and maximum current density has been studied by using an adequate numerical model for the axisymmetric configuration characteristic of the optical triggering of power silicon carbide thyristors. It is shown that the holding current Ih depends only weakly on the critical charge density of a thyristor, pc. At the same time, the maximum current density in the state corresponding to holding current grows very steeply with increasing pc. It is shown that the maximum current density can substantially increase with decreasing current in the axisymmetric configuration if the switched-on state occupies only a part of the total area of a thyristor.

  4. Photoelectric return-stroke velocity and peak current estimates in natural and triggered lightning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mach, Douglas M.; Rust, W. David

    1989-01-01

    Two-dimensional photoelectric return stroke velocities from 130 strokes are presented, including 86 negative natural, 41 negative triggered, one positive triggered, and two positive natural return strokes. For strokes starting near the ground and exceeding 500 m in length, the average velocity is 1.3 + or - 0.3 X 10 to the 8th m/s for natural return strokes and 1.2 + or - 0.3 X 10 to the 8th m/s for triggered return strokes. For strokes with lengths less than 500 m, the average velocities are slightly higher. Using the transmission line model (TLM), the shortest segment one-dimensional return stroke velocity, and either the maximum or plateau electric field, it is shown that natural strokes have a peak current distribution that is lognormal with a median value of 16 kA (maximum E) or 12 kA (plateau E). Triggered lightning has a medium peak current value of 21 kA (maximum E) or 15 kA (plateau E). Correlations are found between TLM peak currents and velocities for triggered and natural subsequent return strokes, but not between TLM peak currents and natural first return stroke velocities.

  5. Study of recovery phenomena in a high-current pulse-triggered vacuum switch

    SciTech Connect

    Bauville, G.; Delmas, A.; Haddad, N.; Rioux, C. , Batiment 214, 91405 Orsay )

    1989-10-01

    This paper relates to the recovery capacities of a triggered vacuum switch after the crossing of a 25-{mu}s high-current pulse. The recovery time is less than 100 {mu}s. The authors experiment with several electrodes with different gaps, and study the influence of an axial magnetic field on the switch.

  6. Combined Current Measurements and Lightning Mapping Array Observations of Rocket-Triggered Lightning at Langmuir Lab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trueblood, Jacob

    2012-10-01

    Over the 2011 storm season at Langmuir Lab, several rocket-triggered lightning flashes were observed by Langmuir's Lightning Mapping Array (LMA) and by current viewing resistors (CVR). The LMA data allows us to calculate the velocity of the positive leaders from the flashes. The CVR is attached to the wire that is towed behind the rocket allowing us to measure the current at the base of the lightning flash. We are able to compare the current measurements and velocity calculations from the LMA data to provide insights into stages of a triggered flash. We discuss one flash from August 11 as a case study, were we found positive leader velocities to range from 1.4 to 2.4x10^4 m s-1 The faster speeds were found during the initial continuous current (ICC).

  7. Transient current pulses in rocket-extended wires used to trigger lightning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biagi, C. J.; Uman, M. A.; Hill, J. D.; Rakov, V. A.; Jordan, D. M.

    2012-04-01

    We analyze current, electric field, and optical signatures of the sudden electrical breakdown processes (precursors) that occur at the top of the upward extending, grounded, Kevlar-covered copper wires used to artificially trigger lightning. For one launch, before the sustained upward positive leader initiated, we estimate that up to 10,000 precursors occurred (one every few hundred microseconds) with peak currents from 1 to more than 100 A. Luminosity at the wire tip was observed for 339 of 410 precursors examined in detail and, in seven cases, discharge channels developed to lengths of 3 to 8 m over times of several hundred microseconds. The measured propagation speeds of current pulses on the triggering wires were less than the speed of light, and decreased from about 2.8 × 108 m s-1 to about 2.3 × 108 m s-1with increasing wire-top heights from about 80 m to about 340 m. The triggering wire and its grounding system are modeled as uniform transmission lines with model predictions that are consistent with the measured wire-base precursor current signatures. The modeling shows that (1) the characteristic impedance of the triggering wire, the ratio of the propagating precursor voltage pulse to its associated current pulse, is between 600 and 800 Ω; (2) the 25 m ground rod grounding impedance for the peak precursor current is about 100 Ω, while the DC grounding resistance is 20 Ω; and (3) the current reflection coefficient at ground for peak precursor current is ˜0.9.

  8. Evaluation of lightning field-to-current conversion equations using triggered-lightning data: An update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallick, S.; Rakov, V. A.

    2013-12-01

    Return-stroke peak current can be obtained from measurement of channel-base current at the strike object (which is difficult because of the random occurrence of natural lightning in space and time) or can be estimated from measurement of the corresponding electric or magnetic field at a typical distance of several kilometers or more from the lightning channel. A field-to-current conversion procedure is required for the estimation of lightning return stroke peak currents from measured fields. The following empirical formula was proposed by Rakov et al. [1992] to estimate the return-stroke peak current I from the initial (essentially radiation) electric field peak E and distance r to the lightning channel: I=1.5-0.037rE (1) where I is in kA and taken as negative, E is positive and in V/m, and r is in km. Eq. (1) was derived using data for 28 triggered-lightning strokes acquired by Willett et al. [1989] at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC), Florida. Another approach is the use of the radiation-field-to-current conversion equation based on the transmission-line model [Uman and McLain, 1969]: I= (2πɛ_0 c^2 r)/v E (2) where ɛ0 is the permittivity of free space, c is the speed of light, and v is the return-stroke speed (assumed to be constant). The return-stroke speed is generally unknown and its range of variation from one event to another is typically from c/3 to 2c/3. Both I and E in Eq. (2) are absolute values. Perfectly conducting ground is assumed. Electric field peaks, recorded at the Lightning Observatory in Gainesville (LOG), Florida, for 89 strokes in 22 lightning flashes triggered at Camp Blanding (CB), Florida, in 2008-2010 were used to estimate peak currents based on the two methods outlined above and were compared with peak currents directly measured at CB [Mallick et al., 2012]. The distance between CB and LOG is 45 km. The empirical formula was found to overestimate peak currents with the median absolute errors being 21%. The field-to-current conversion

  9. What are the implications of rapid global warming for landslide-triggered turbidity current activity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clare, Michael; Peter, Talling; James, Hunt

    2014-05-01

    A geologically short-lived (~170kyr) episode of global warming occurred at ~55Ma, termed the Initial Eocene Thermal Maximum (IETM). Global temperatures rose by up to 8oC over only ~10kyr and a massive perturbation of the global carbon cycle occurred; creating a negative carbon isotopic (~-4% δ13C) excursion in sedimentary records. This interval has relevance to study of future climate change and its influence on geohazards including submarine landslides and turbidity currents. We analyse the recurrence frequency of turbidity currents, potentially initiated from large-volume slope failures. The study focuses on two sedimentary intervals that straddle the IETM and we discuss implications for turbidity current triggering. We present the results of statistical analyses (regression, generalised linear model, and proportional hazards model) for extensive turbidite records from an outcrop at Zumaia in NE Spain (N=285; 54.0 to 56.5 Ma) and based on ODP site 1068 on the Iberian Margin (N=1571; 48.2 to 67.6 Ma). The sedimentary sequences provide clear differentiation between hemipelagic and turbiditic mud with only negligible evidence of erosion. We infer dates for turbidites by converting hemipelagic bed thicknesses to time using interval-averaged accumulation rates. Multi-proxy dating techniques provide good age constraint. The background trend for the Zumaia record shows a near-exponential distribution of turbidite recurrence intervals, while the Iberian Margin shows a log-normal response. This is interpreted to be related to regional time-independence (exponential) and the effects of additive processes (log-normal). We discuss how a log-normal response may actually be generated over geological timescales from multiple shorter periods of random turbidite recurrence. The IETM interval shows a dramatic departure from both these background trends, however. This is marked by prolonged hiatuses (0.1 and 0.6 Myr duration) in turbidity current activity in contrast to the

  10. A Trigger Mechanism of Magnetic Reconnection and Particle Acceleration during Thinning of the Current Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, S.; Sakai, J. I.

    2006-11-01

    One of the trigger mechanisms of magnetic reconnection in the compressing current sheet is studied by using a two-dimensional full particle-in-cell code modified from the TRISTAN code. In the compressed current sheet, the electrons are heated preferentially perpendicular to the magnetic field due to adiabatic heating. The thinning and anisotropy T⊥/T|| of electrons in the current sheet vigorously enhance the tearing instability with several small-scale magnetic islands. The generated magnetic islands successively coalesce and the magnetic energy is converted into plasma kinetic energy. Through the coalescence, high-energy electrons are quasi-periodically produced. At almost the same time, some ions are accelerated by the magnetosonic shock waves generated around the current sheet. The acceleration sites for the ions move the outside of the current sheet. At the final stage, all magnetic islands merge into a large one whose width is about 10 times larger than the compressed sheet width. The thinning of the current sheet leads to the generation of large-scale magnetic islands and converts the magnetic field energy into kinetic energy of the plasma. The dynamical evolution of current sheets can be applied to solar flares.

  11. Magnetic Reconnection: Recursive Current Sheet Collapse Triggered by “Ideal” Tearing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tenerani, Anna; Velli, Marco; Rappazzo, Antonio Franco; Pucci, Fulvia

    2015-11-01

    We study, by means of MHD simulations, the onset and evolution of fast reconnection via the “ideal” tearing mode within a collapsing current sheet at high Lundquist numbers (S\\gg {10}4). We first confirm that as the collapse proceeds, fast reconnection is triggered well before a Sweet–Parker-type configuration can form: during the linear stage, plasmoids rapidly grow in a few Alfvén times when the predicted “ideal” tearing threshold S‑1/3 is approached from above; after the linear phase of the initial instability, X-points collapse and reform nonlinearly. We show that these give rise to a hierarchy of tearing events repeating faster and faster on current sheets at ever smaller scales, corresponding to the triggering of “ideal” tearing at the renormalized Lundquist number. In resistive MHD, this process should end with the formation of sub-critical (S ≤ 104) Sweet–Parker sheets at microscopic scales. We present a simple model describing the nonlinear recursive evolution that explains the timescale of the disruption of the initial sheet.

  12. Correlated peak relative light intensity and peak current in triggered lightning subsequent return strokes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Idone, V. P.; Orville, R. E.

    1985-01-01

    The correlation between peak relative light intensity L(R) and stroke peak current I(R) is examined for 39 subsequent return strokes in two triggered lightning flashes. One flash contained 19 strokes and the other 20 strokes for which direct measurements were available of the return stroke peak current at ground. Peak currents ranged from 1.6 to 21 kA. The measurements of peak relative light intensity were obtained from photographic streak recordings using calibrated film and microsecond resolution. Correlations, significant at better than the 0.1 percent level, were found for several functional relationships. Although a relation between L(R) and I(R) is evident in these data, none of the analytical relations considered is clearly favored. The correlation between L(R) and the maximum rate of current rise is also examined, but less correlation than between L(R) and I(R) is found. In addition, the peak relative intensity near ground is evaluated for 22 dart leaders, and a mean ratio of peak dart leader to peak return stroke relative light intensity was found to be 0.1 with a range of 0.02-0.23. Using two different methods, the peak current near ground in these dart leaders is estimated to range from 0.1 to 6 kA.

  13. Protocol for measuring the endurance capacity of mice in an adjustable-current swimming pool.

    PubMed

    Mizunoya, Wataru; Oyaizu, Shinichi; Ishihara, Kengo; Fushiki, Tohru

    2002-05-01

    We re-examined the methods used in an adjustable-current swimming pool for evaluating the endurance capacity of mice to improve the sensitivity and reproducibility. We found that the BALB/c strain was most suitable to minimize the variation in time taken to swim to the point of fatigue. We found that precise adjustment of the apparatus and the use of three primary swimming trials to select mice before a study made the swimming time more uniform. This procedure was used to establish a more precise evaluation protocol.

  14. Oceanic adjustment in the presence of mean currents on an equatorial β plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Ping

    1990-09-01

    The oceanic adjustment to variable winds in the presence of mean currents is studied by means of a shallow water model on an equatorial β plane. The waves that are available to affect the adjustment fall into two groups: a discrete, finite or infinite number of equatorially trapped modes, and a continuum of modes that are bounded by turning latitudes and/or critical latitudes. In response to variable winds, adjustment near the equator is very similar to the adjustment in the absence of the mean currents except for modifications to the speeds and structures of the waves that are involved. Off the equator, where the continuum of modes come into play critical layer absorption is a factor provided that the waves have a sufficiently large meridional group velocity to propagate to the critical layers in a reasonable time (before they cross the ocean basin, for example). Winds that are suddenly switched on excite waves with small zonal wave numbers and small meridional group velocities. The waves therefore succeed in effecting the adjustment. In the case of periodic winds, linear critical layer absorption modifies the shadow zones (Ekman response region) and regions of Sverdrup response that characterize the response in the absence of mean currents. In response to the annual harmonic of the wind the western part of the North Equatorial Countercurrent is unlikely to by affected by Rossby waves, because that is a shadow zone. The region between 10°N and 15°N approximately, the southern flank of the North Equatorial Current, is an interesting region because it is effectively a waveguide for modes with a turning latitude to the south and a critical latitude to the north. Wave trains are likely to be evident in that region.

  15. Tiso Adjustable Filter with Controllable Controlled-Gain Voltage Differencing Current Conveyor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jerabek, Jan; Sotner, Roman; Vrba, Kamil

    2014-05-01

    The main aim of this paper is to present solution of triple-input single-output (TISO) filter with independently adjustable pole frequency, quality factor, bandwidth and also gain. Filter is universal, operates in current mode and includes only one active element - the so-called Controlled-Gain Voltage Differencing Current Conveyor (CG-VDCC) with two controllable parameters: transconductance (gm) and gain of output currents (BX ). Implementation of CG-VDCC element in 0.18 μm CMOS technology is also included and this model is used in proposed filter simulations.

  16. Repetitive Adjustment to Estimate the Electric Current Sources in a Nerve Fiber with Magnetic Field Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayami, Takehito; Mishima, Yukuo; Hiwaki, Osamu

    Magnetic field measuring equipment provides us the way to examine the active position of a peripheral nerve without contact or invasion. To develop a process to estimate the position precisely, simulation study of the magnetic field induced by a myelinated nerve fiber was executed. The electric current sources around the active position of a nerve fiber can be approximated as a pair of electric current dipoles, which represent depolarization and repolarization respectively. Therefore the current sources to estimate from the detected pattern of the magnetic field were modeled as a pair of electric current dipoles. A repetitive adjustment process was proposed as an effective method to find the appropriate positions of the dipoles as the sources of the magnetic fields.

  17. Triggered-Lightning Interaction with a Lightning Protective System: Current Distribution and Electromagnetic Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mata, C. T.; Rakov, V. A.; Mata, A. G.

    2010-01-01

    A new comprehensive lightning instrumentation system has been designed for Launch Complex 39B (LC3913) at the Kennedy Space Center, Florida. This new instrumentation system includes the synchronized recording of six high-speed video cameras; currents through the nine downconductors of the new lightning protection system for LC3913; four dH/dt, 3-axis measurement stations; and five dE/dt stations composed of two antennas each. A 20:1 scaled down model of the new Lightning Protection System (LPS) of LC39B was built at the International Center for Lightning Research and Testing, Camp Blanding, FL. This scaled down lightning protection system was instrumented with the transient recorders, digitizers, and sensors to be used in the final instrumentation installation at LC3913. The instrumentation used at the ICLRT is also a scaled-down instrumentation of the LC39B instrumentation. The scaled-down LPS was subjected to seven direct lightning strikes and six (four triggered and two natural nearby flashes) in 2010. The following measurements were acquired at the ICLRT: currents through the nine downconductors; two dl-/dt, 3-axis stations, one at the center of the LPS (underneath the catenary wires), and another 40 meters south from the center of the LPS; ten dE/dt stations, nine of them on the perimeter of the LPS and one at the center of the LPS (underneath the catenary wire system); and the incident current. Data from representative events are presented and analyzed in this paper.

  18. Characteristics of return stroke currents of classical and altitude triggered lightning in GCOELD in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Dong; Zhang, Yijun; Lu, Weitao; Zhang, Yang; Dong, Wansheng; Chen, Shaodong; Dan, Jianru

    2013-07-01

    The currents of 29 return strokes (RSs) involved in 10 classical triggered lightning flashes (TLFs) and an altitude TLF conducted in Guangdong, China from 2008 to 2011 are analyzed for the first time. They have relatively greater peak values (geometric mean (GM) of 16.07 kA), average rate of rise between 10 and 90% (S10-90%, GM of 29.16 kA μs- 1), charge transfer within 1 ms (Q1 ms, GM of 1.36 C) and action integral within 1 ms (AI1 ms, GM of 5.39 × 103 A2 s), compared with those reported in other studies. The current peak value exhibits pronounced exponential relation with S10-90% (determination coefficient (R2) = 0.43) and maximum rate of rise (R2 = 0.77), power relation with Q1 ms (R2 = 0.89), and logarithmic relation with AI1 ms (R2 = 0.93). Additionally, the discharges associated with the processes of initial-stage return strokes (ISRSs) involved in two altitude TLFs, with the peak currents of 10.09 kA and 9.03 kA, respectively, are investigated. Their peak, 10-90% risetime, average rate of rise between 10 and 90% and maximum rate of rise are comparable to those of the RSs. The chopped-shape pulses closely following the ISRSs and the pulses associated with the disintegration and reconnections of the wire's channel are also discussed.

  19. Lateral Vibration Attenuation by the Dynamic Adjustment of Bias Currents in Magnetic Suspension System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizuno, Takeshi; Takasaki, Masaya; Ishino, Yuji

    2016-09-01

    Switching stiffness control is applied to attenuate vibration in the lateral directions in an active magnetic suspension system with electromagnets operated in differential mode. The magnetic suspension system using the attractive force between magnetized bodies is inherently unstable in the normal direction so that feedback control is necessary to achieve stable suspension. In contrast, it can be stable in the lateral directions due to the edge effects in the magnetic circuits. In several applications, such passive suspension is used in combination with the active one to reduce cost and space. However, damping in the lateral directions is generally small. As a result, induced vibrations in these directions are hardly attenuated. To suppress such vibration without any additional actuator (electromagnet), switching stiffness control is applied to an magnetic suspension system operated in the differential mode. The stiffness in the lateral direction is adjusted by varying the bias currents of an opposed pair of electromagnets located in the normal direction simultaneously according to the motion of the suspended object. When the varied bias currents are adjusted for the additive normal forces cancel each other, such control does not affect the suspension in the normal direction. The effectiveness of the proposed control methods is confirmed experimentally.

  20. High current (1300 A) optical triggering of a 12 kV 4H-SiC thyristor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rumyantsev, S. L.; Levinshtein, M. E.; Shur, M. S.; Cheng, L.; Agarwal, A. K.; Palmour, J. W.

    2013-04-01

    Optical triggering of a high-voltage (12 kV class) 4H-SiC thyristor to a current Imax = 1300 A is demonstrated. An amplification step (pilot thyristor) and a mixed resistive-inductive load are used to reduce the current ramp dI/dt. The results obtained show that a decrease in the current density at the end of the first, fastest phase of the switch-on process can be achieved either by improving the homogeneity of the initially turned-on region or by introducing additional amplification steps.

  1. Two's a crowd: phenotypic adjustments and prophylaxis in Anticarsia gemmatalis larvae are triggered by the presence of conspecifics.

    PubMed

    Silva, Farley W S; Viol, Daniel L; Faria, Sirlene V; Lima, Eraldo; Valicente, Fernando H; Elliot, Simon L

    2013-01-01

    Defence from parasites and pathogens involves a cost. Thus, it is expected that organisms use this only at high population densities, where the risk of pathogen transmission may be high, as proposed by the "density-dependent prophylaxis" (DDP) hypothesis. These predictions have been tested in a wide range of insects, both in comparative and experimental studies. We think it pertinent to consider a continuum between solitarious and gregarious living insects, wherein: (1) solitarious insects are those that are constitutively solitary and do not express any phenotypic plasticity, (2) the middle of the continuum is represented by insects that are subject to fluctuations in local density and show a range of facultative and plastic changes; and (3) constitutively gregarious forms live gregariously and show the gregarious phenotype even in the absence of crowding stimuli. We aimed to chart some of the intermediary continuum with an insect that presents solitarious aspects, but that is subject to fluctuations in density. Thus, Anticarsia gemmatalis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae reared at higher densities showed changes in coloration, a greater degree of encapsulation, had higher hemocyte densities and were more resistant to Baculovirus anticarsia, but not to Bacillus thuringiensis. Meanwhile, with increased rearing density there was reduced capsule melanization. Hemocyte density was the only variable that did not vary according to larval phenotype. The observed responses were not a continuous function of larval density, but an all-or-nothing response to the presence of a conspecific. As A. gemmatalis is not known for gregarious living, yet shows these density-dependent changes, it thus seems that this plastic phenotypic adjustment may be a broader phenomenon than previously thought. PMID:23626700

  2. Two's a Crowd: Phenotypic Adjustments and Prophylaxis in Anticarsia gemmatalis Larvae Are Triggered by the Presence of Conspecifics

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Farley W. S.; Viol, Daniel L.; Faria, Sirlene V.; Lima, Eraldo; Valicente, Fernando H.; Elliot, Simon L.

    2013-01-01

    Defence from parasites and pathogens involves a cost. Thus, it is expected that organisms use this only at high population densities, where the risk of pathogen transmission may be high, as proposed by the "density-dependent prophylaxis" (DDP) hypothesis. These predictions have been tested in a wide range of insects, both in comparative and experimental studies. We think it pertinent to consider a continuum between solitarious and gregarious living insects, wherein: (1) solitarious insects are those that are constitutively solitary and do not express any phenotypic plasticity, (2) the middle of the continuum is represented by insects that are subject to fluctuations in local density and show a range of facultative and plastic changes; and (3) constitutively gregarious forms live gregariously and show the gregarious phenotype even in the absence of crowding stimuli. We aimed to chart some of the intermediary continuum with an insect that presents solitarious aspects, but that is subject to fluctuations in density. Thus, Anticarsia gemmatalis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae reared at higher densities showed changes in coloration, a greater degree of encapsulation, had higher hemocyte densities and were more resistant to Baculovirus anticarsia, but not to Bacillus thuringiensis. Meanwhile, with increased rearing density there was reduced capsule melanization. Hemocyte density was the only variable that did not vary according to larval phenotype. The observed responses were not a continuous function of larval density, but an all-or-nothing response to the presence of a conspecific. As A. gemmatalis is not known for gregarious living, yet shows these density-dependent changes, it thus seems that this plastic phenotypic adjustment may be a broader phenomenon than previously thought. PMID:23626700

  3. Magnetic resonance visualization of conductive structures by sequence-triggered direct currents and spin-echo phase imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Eibofner, Frank; Wojtczyk, Hanne; Graf, Hansjörg E-mail: drGraf@t-online.de; Clasen, Stephan

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Instrument visualization in interventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is commonly performed via susceptibility artifacts. Unfortunately, this approach suffers from limited conspicuity in inhomogeneous tissue and disturbed spatial encoding. Also, susceptibility artifacts are controllable only by sequence parameters. This work presents the basics of a new visualization method overcoming such problems by applying sequence-triggered direct current (DC) pulses in spin-echo (SE) imaging. SE phase images allow for background free current path localization. Methods: Application of a sequence-triggered DC pulse in SE imaging, e.g., during a time period between radiofrequency excitation and refocusing, results in transient field inhomogeneities. Dependent on the additional z-magnetic field from the DC, a phase offset results despite the refocusing pulse. False spatial encoding is avoided by DC application during periods when read-out or slice-encoding gradients are inactive. A water phantom containing a brass conductor (water equivalent susceptibility) and a titanium needle (serving as susceptibility source) was used to demonstrate the feasibility. Artifact dependence on current strength and orientation was examined. Results: Without DC, the brass conductor was only visible due to its water displacement. The titanium needle showed typical susceptibility artifacts. Applying triggered DC pulses, the phase offset of spins near the conductor appeared. Because SE phase images are homogenous also in regions of persistent field inhomogeneities, the position of the conductor could be determined with high reliability. Artifact characteristic could be easily controlled by amperage leaving sequence parameters unchanged. For an angle of 30° between current and static field visualization was still possible. Conclusions: SE phase images display the position of a conductor carrying pulsed DC free from artifacts caused by persistent field inhomogeneities. Magnitude and phase

  4. College Adjustment Experiences of First-Year Students: Disengaged Athletes, Nonathletes, and Current Varsity Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lubker, John R.; Etzel, Edward F.

    2007-01-01

    The freshman year of college is usually acknowledged as a stressful time of social and academic adjustment. During this period, first-year students face many social and intellectual challenges. For high school athletes, the combined impact of college transition plus disengagement from sport can further complicate first-semester adjustment and may…

  5. Correlation between the channel-bottom light intensity and channel-base current of a rocket-triggered lightning flash

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, M.; Wang, D.; Wang, J.; Takagi, N.; Gamerota, W. R.; Uman, M. A.; Jordan, D. M.; Pilkey, J. T.; Ngin, T.

    2014-12-01

    The correlations between channel-bottom light intensity and channel-base current of all discharge processes of a rocket-and-wire-triggered lightning flash, including initial continuous current (ICC) pulses, ICC pulse background continuing current (IBCC), return strokes, M components, and M component background continuing currents (MBCC), have been investigated. A rough linear correlation has been found between the current squared and the light intensity for ICC pulses (including peaks of different ICC pulses), IBCC, the initial rising stage (IRS) of return strokes (including current peaks of different strokes), and MBCC. The slopes of the correlation regression lines for the current squared versus light intensity of ICC pulses and IBCC are similar, but they are about 2-3 times smaller than the slopes of MBCC and 5-7 times smaller than the slopes of the IRS of return strokes. In contrast, a rough linear correlation has been found between the current and the light intensity for the later slow decay stage of return strokes and for the M components. The slopes of the correlation regression lines of the current versus the light intensity for these latter two processes are found to be similar. No simple correlation has been found between the current and the light intensity for the initial fast decay stage (IFDS) of return strokes. The duration of the IFDS of return strokes generally lasts from several microseconds to several tens of microseconds and is more or less directly proportional to the corresponding peak return stroke current squared. A time delay ranging from 12 µs to 300 µs has been found between the current and the light intensity of all ICC pulses and M components. The time delay decreases as the corresponding peak current increases.

  6. A pulsed-power generator merging inductive voltage and current adders and its switch trigger application example.

    PubMed

    Li, Lee; Yafeng, Ge; Heqin, Zhong; Bin, Yu; Longjun, Xie

    2013-07-01

    A pulsed-power generator using inductive adder technology is proposed for the case of a discharge gap. The merit of this generator is to merge the pulsed-voltage and pulsed-current adders via the dual secondary windings with special circuit. For the nonlinear impedance in any discharge gap, the standalone voltage-pulse and current-pulse can be outputted successively by this generator. The proposed generator is especially useful for the common resolution of implementing pulse discharge at less cost. As an application example, a compact trigger prototype was developed to compatibly use in the gas-insulated and vacuum switches. Experiments achieved good results that the triggered switches showed stable performance and long life. If the basic circuit of this proposed generator is regarded as a pulsed-generating unit, a certain number of such units connected in parallel can be expected to form a general device with generating greater breakdown-voltage and sustained-current pulses for discharge gaps.

  7. Prolonged time course of glutamate-operated single channel currents in neuromuscular preparations of small crayfish and a membrane current triggered by glutamate channel gating.

    PubMed

    Finger, W; Martin, C; Pareto, A

    1988-08-31

    Single channel currents activated by glutamate were recorded by means of the patch-clamp technique in the abdominal superficial extensor muscle and the claw opener muscle of small (1-3 months old) and large (greater than 16 months old) crayfish. It was found that in small crayfish the time course of glutamate-operated single channel currents was prolonged by a factor of about 4 in these two preparations. In the abdominal superficial extensor muscle, single channel currents activated by 5 mmol/l glutamate had a mean burst length of tau = 2-3 ms in large crayfish and a mean burst length of tau = 8-9 ms in small crayfish. In the claw opener, for large crayfish tau congruent to 0.5 ms and for small crayfish tau = 1.5-2.5 ms resulted (500 mumol/l glutamate). Moreover, single channel currents with long time courses often slowly increased their amplitudes during the open time of the channel and current amplitudes did not decline completely to the baseline after channel closing. In addition, single channel currents with relatively constant amplitude were often followed by a small increasing and decreasing membrane current. The latter results suggest that glutamate channel gating might trigger a membrane current.

  8. A current disruption mechanism in the neutral sheet - A possible trigger for substorm expansions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lui, A. T. Y.; Mankofsky, A.; Chang, C.-L.; Papadopoulos, K.; Wu, C. S.

    1990-01-01

    A linear analysis is performed to investigate the kinetic cross-field streaming instability in the earth's magnetotail neutral sheet region. Numerical solution of the dispersion equation shows that the instability can occur under conditions expected for the neutral sheet just prior to the onset of substorm expansion. The excited waves are obliquely propagating whistlers with a mixed polarization in the lower hybrid frequency range. The ensuing turbulence of this instability can lead to a local reduction of the cross-tail current causing it to continue through the ionosphere to form a substorm current wedge. A substorm expansion onset scenario is proposed based on this instability in which the relative drift between ions and electrons is primarily due to unmagnetized ions undergoing current sheet acceleration in the presence of a cross-tail electric field. The required electric field strength is within the range of electric field values detected in the neutral sheet region during substorm intervals. The skew in local time of substorm onset location and the three conditions under which substorm onset is observed can be understood on the basis of the proposed scenario.

  9. Current Injection Provokes Rapid Expansion of the Guard Cell Cytosolic Volume and Triggers Ca(2+) Signals.

    PubMed

    Voss, Lena J; Hedrich, Rainer; Roelfsema, M Rob G

    2016-03-01

    High-resolution microscopy opens the door for detailed single-cell studies with fluorescent reporter dyes and proteins. We used a confocal spinning disc microscope to monitor fluorescent dyes and the fluorescent protein Venus in tobacco and Arabidopsis guard cells. Multi-barreled microelectrodes were used to inject dyes and apply voltage pulses, which provoke transient rises in the cytosolic Ca(2+) level. Voltage pulses also caused changes in the distribution of Lucifer Yellow and Venus, which pointed to a reversible increase of guard cell cytosolic volume. The dynamic cytosolic volume changes turned out to be provoked by current injection of ions. A reduction of the clamp current, by blocking K(+) uptake channels with Cs(+), strongly suppressed the cytosolic volume changes. Cs(+) not only inhibited the expansion of the cytosol, but also inhibited hyperpolarization-induced elevations of the cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration. A complete loss of voltage-induced Ca(2+) signals occurred when Ca(2+)-permeable plasma membrane channels were simultaneously blocked with La(3+). This shows that two mechanisms cause hyperpolarization-induced elevation of the cytosolic Ca(2+)-concentration: (i) activation of voltage-dependent Ca(2+)-permeable channels, (ii) osmotically induced expansion of the cytosol, which leads to a release of Ca(2+) from intracellular stores.

  10. Circulation patterns related to debris-flow triggering in the Zermatt valley in current and future climates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Heuvel, Floor; Goyette, Stéphane; Rahman, Kazi; Stoffel, Markus

    2016-11-01

    The principal objective of this study was to investigate the types of large-scale meteorological situations that are conducive to the precipitation and temperature conditions most likely to trigger debris flows in the Zermatt valley, Switzerland, under current and future climates. A two-dimensional Bayesian probability calculation was applied to take account of uncertainties in debris-flow triggering. Precipitation quantities exceeding the 95th percentile of daily precipitation amounts were found to have a significantly higher probability to coincide with observed debris flows. A different relationship exists for extreme temperatures, however. Southerly air flows, weak horizontal pressure gradients over Europe, and westerly flows are mostly associated with observed debris flows and 95th precipitation percentile exceedances. These principal flow directions are well represented in the regional climate model (RCM) HIRHAM control simulations for events exceeding the 95th precipitation percentile and the 30th temperature percentile. Under the IPCC A2 emission scenario, westerly and southerly flows are mostly responsible for these precipitation and temperature conditions under the hypothesis of slow adaptation to climate change (HS1/HC1). Under the hypothesis of rapid adaptation to climate change (HS1/HS1), southerly flows and weak horizontal pressure gradients are likely to gain in importance. In both scenarios for the future, southeasterly flows are among the principal flow directions responsible for the joint exceedance of the 95th precipitation percentile and the 30th temperature percentile, while these were absent in observations and the control simulation.

  11. A current disruption mechanism in the neutral sheet for triggering substorm expansions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lui, A. T. Y.; Mankofsky, A.; Chang, C.-L.; Papadopoulos, K.; Wu, C. S.

    1989-01-01

    Two main areas were addressed in support of an effort to understand mechanism responsible for the broadband electrostatic noise (BEN) observed in the magnetotail. The first area concerns the generation of BEN in the boundary layer region of the magnetotail whereas the second area concerns the occassional presence of BEN in the neutral sheet region. For the generation of BEN in the boundary layer region, a hybrid simulation code was developed to perform reliable longtime, quiet, highly resolved simulations of field aligned electron and ion beam flow. The result of the simulation shows that broadband emissions cannot be generated by beam-plasma instability if realistic values of the ion beam parameters are used. The waves generated from beam-plasma instability are highly discrete and are of high frequencies. For the plasma sheet boundary layer condition, the wave frequencies are in the kHz range, which is incompatible with the observation that the peak power in BEN occur in the 10's of Hz range. It was found that the BEN characteristics are more consistent with lower hybrid drift instability. For the occasional presence of BEN in the neutral sheet region, a linear analysis of the kinetic cross-field streaming instability appropriate to the neutral sheet condition just prior to onset of substorm expansion was performed. By solving numerically the dispersion relation, it was found that the instability has a growth time comparable to the onset time scale of substorm onset. The excited waves have a mixed polarization in the lower hybrid frequency range. The imposed drift driving the instability corresponds to unmagnetized ions undergoing current sheet acceleration in the presence of a cross-tail electric field. The required electric field strength is in the 10 mV/m range which is well within the observed electric field values detected in the neutral sheet during substorms. This finding can potentially account for the disruption of cross-tail current and its diversion to

  12. Simulation of corona at lightning-triggering wire: Current, charge transfer, and the field-reduction effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baba, Yoshihiro; Rakov, Vladimir A.

    2011-11-01

    We have examined, using the finite difference time domain (FDTD) method for solving discretized Maxwell's equations, the effect of upward extending wire, used for artificial lightning initiation from natural thunderclouds, and corona space charge emanated from this wire on the close ground-level electric field (prior to lightning initiation). The wire current and charge transfer are also estimated. The lightning-triggering wire is assumed to be perfectly conducting and extending vertically upward with a constant speed of v = 150 m/s. Owing to the limitations of the FDTD method, the wire radius is set to r = 0.27 m, larger than the actual radius (0.1 mm), but the results are not expected to be much influenced by this assumption. The corona space charge that emanated from the wire surface is represented by a conducting cylindrical sheath of outer radius r = 2, 4, 8, and 16 m, coaxial with the wire (the dynamics of corona discharge are not considered here). Other geometries of the corona space charge sheath are considered as well. It has been found that the results presented here are insensitive to the value of corona sheath conductivity ranging from 10-8 S/m to infinity. The corona space charge layer at the ground is simulated by perfectly conducting cylindrical tubes placed on the ground surface, coaxial with the upward extending conductor. The quasi-static electric field between the thundercloud charge source and the ground is simulated by creating a quasi-uniform, upward directed electric field of 43 kV/m between two parallel conducting plates limiting the FDTD computational domain. The simulated corona space charge at the ground reduced the electric field at the ground surface to 5.5 kV/m, a typical value at the time of rocket launch. The upward directed electric field Ez on the ground surface in the vicinity of triggering wire decreases with increasing the altitude of the wire top. When the wire-top altitude is 200 m, the reduction of Ez at horizontal distance d

  13. Observation of Abrupt- and Fast-rising SOL Current during Trigger Phase of ELMs in DIII-D Tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    H. Takahashi; E.D. Fredrickson; M.J. Schaffer; M.E. Austin; N.H. Brooks; T.E. Evans; G.L. Jackson; L.L. Lao; J.G. Watkins

    2005-06-27

    Extensive studies to date of edge localized modes (ELMs) have sought their origin inside the separatrix, i.e., MHD instability from steep gradients in the plasma edge, and examined their consequences outside the separatrix, i.e., transport of heat and particles in the scrape-off-layer (SOL) and divertors. Recent measurement by a high-speed scrape-off-layer current (SOLC) diagnostic may indicate that the ELM trigger process lies, in part, in the SOL. Thermoelectrically driven SOLC precedes, or co-evolves with, other parameters of the ELM process, and thus can potentially play a causal role: error field generated by non-axisymmetric SOLC, flowing in the immediate vicinity (approximately 1 cm) of the plasma edge, may contribute toward destabilizing MHD modes. The SOLC, observed concurrently with MHD activity, including ELMs, has been reported elsewhere.

  14. Pickup impact on high-voltage multifinger LDMOS-SCR with low trigger voltage and high failure current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Liu; Jin, Xiangliang; Wang, Yang; Zhou, Acheng

    2015-12-01

    The impact of inserting P+ pickup on high-voltage multi-finger laterally diffused metal-oxide-semiconductor-silicon-controlled rectifier (LDMOS-SCR) has been studied in this article. Four-finger LDMOS-SCR structures with finger length of 50 μm using 0.5 μm 18 V complementarily diffused metal oxide semiconductor (CDMOS) process were fabricated and tested. Theoretical analysis is carried out to make detailed comparisons between LDMOS-SCR with and without P+ pickup. It verifies that the multi-finger LDMOS-SCR with P+ pickup has greater electrostatic discharge (ESD) robustness and effectiveness. Furthermore, transmission line pulse (TLP) test has been done and the results show that the trigger voltage (Vt1) of the LDMOS-SCR with P+ pickup remarkably decreases from 46.19 to 35.39 V and the second breakdown current (It2) effectively increases from 8.13 to 10.08 A.

  15. Correlation analysis between the channel current and luminosity of initial continuous and continuing current processes in an artificially triggered lightning flash

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Enwei; Lu, Weitao; Zhang, Yang; Zhu, Baoyou; Zheng, Dong; Zhang, Yijun

    2013-07-01

    Using simultaneous high-speed camera records and channel-base current records in an artificially triggered negative lightning event, the correlation between the channel-base current and the integrated luminosity (IL) of the air-ionized part of the lightning channel is analyzed during the periods of the initial continuous current (ICC) process and eight continuing current (CC) processes. Depending on the current's changing trend (ascending or descending) and the luminosity property of the pixels used to calculate the IL from the high-speed camera records (including saturated pixels or not), the ICC and eight CC processes are divided into the saturated ascending stage (Stage-A), the saturated descending stage (Stage-B), the unsaturated ascending stage (Stage-C) and the unsaturated descending stage (Stage-D), including the descending tail stage (Stage-T, in which the channel-base current falls to zero). The analysis shows the following: (1) the IL is linearly correlated with the logarithmic value of the current in both Stage-A and Stage-B of two long CC processes, the ICC process and the CC process after the 7th return stroke, although the regression parameters (intercept and slope) in Stage-B are higher than those in Stage-A. This rule can also be found in most pulses of the long CC processes, where the IL in the descending stage is higher than that in the ascending stage at the same current value, regardless of which threshold index or height range used to calculate the IL are selected and regardless of whether the IL includes saturated pixels or not. (2) In the unsaturated stage of long CC processes, the channel current shows a significant linear correlation with the square root of the IL, and the fit of this relationship is much better than that in the saturated stage. Additionally, in each Stage-T of the eight CC processes following return strokes, the square root of the IL is significantly and linearly correlated with the current, and the regression slope is

  16. Initial design and results from an ion current collection diagnostic for the triggered plasma opening switch experiment.

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, Daniel Peter Jr.; Seidel, David Bruce; Gilmore, Mark; Mendel, Clifford Will, Jr.

    2005-06-01

    Study of the triggered plasma opening switch (TPOS) characteristics is in progress via an ion current collection diagnostic (ICCD), in addition to offline apparatus. This initial ion current collection diagnostic has been designed, fabricated, and tested on the TPOS in order to explore the opening profile of the main switch. The initial ion current collection device utilizes five collectors which are positioned perpendicularly to the main switch stage in order to collect radially traveling ions. It has been shown through analytical prowess that this specific geometry can be treated as a planar case of the Child-Langmuir law with only a 6% deviation from the cylindrical case. Additionally, magnetostatic simulations with self consistent space charge emitting surfaces of the main switch using the Trak code are under way. It is hoped that the simulations will provide evidence in support of both the analytical derivations and experimental data. Finally, an improved design of the ICCD (containing 12 collectors in the axial direction) is presently being implemented.

  17. Minimum gate trigger current degradation in 4.5 kV 4H-SiC commutated gate turn-off thyristor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakayama, Koji; Tanaka, Atsushi; Ogata, Shuji; Izumi, Toru; Hayashi, Toshihiko; Asano, Katsunori

    2014-04-01

    The increment in minimum gate trigger current in a 4H-SiC commutated gate turn-off thyristor after the current stress test is investigated. The recombination at the intersection line of the Shockley-type stacking faults and the pn junction causes a reduction in the level of carrier injection from the anode to the gate. The current gain of the top pnp bipolar junction transistor, therefore, decreases, and the minimum gate trigger current increases. The minimum gate trigger current after the current stress test does not return to that before the current stress test at 200 °C, although the on-state voltage of the degraded thyristor returns to that of the original one when the temperature is increased to more than 150 °C. The Shockley-type stacking faults, which are parallel to the current flow from the anode to the gate and cause the increment in minimum gate trigger current, exist even if the temperature increases.

  18. Bidirectional current triggering in planar devices based on serially connected VO2 thin films using 965 nm laser diode.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jihoon; Park, Kyongsoo; Kim, Bong-Jun; Lee, Yong Wook

    2016-08-01

    By incorporating a 965 nm laser diode, the bidirectional current triggering of up to 30 mA was demonstrated in a two-terminal planar device based on serially connected vanadium dioxide (VO2) thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition. The bidirectional current triggering was realized by using the focused beams of laser pulses through the photo-thermally induced phase transition of VO2. The transient responses of laser-triggered currents were also investigated when laser pulses excited the device at a variety of pulse widths and repetition rates of up to 4.0 Hz. A switching contrast between off- and on-state currents was obtained as ~8333, and rising and falling times were measured as ~39 and ~29 ms, respectively, for 50 ms laser pulses. PMID:27505740

  19. Automated measurement system employing eddy currents to adjust probe position and determine metal hardness

    DOEpatents

    Prince, James M.; Dodson, Michael G.; Lechelt, Wayne M.

    1989-01-01

    A system for measuring the hardness of cartridge cases employs an eddy current probe for inducing and sensing eddy currents in each cartridge case. A first component of the sensed signal is utilized in a closed loop system for accurately positioning the probe relative to the cartridge case both in the lift off direction and in the tangential direction, and a second component of the sensed signal is employed as a measure of the hardness. The positioning and measurement are carried out under closed loop microprocessor control facilitating hardness testing on a production line basis.

  20. Automated measurement system employing eddy currents to adjust probe position and determine metal hardness

    DOEpatents

    Prince, J.M.; Dodson, M.G.; Lechelt, W.M.

    1989-07-18

    A system for measuring the hardness of cartridge cases employs an eddy current probe for inducing and sensing eddy currents in each cartridge case. A first component of the sensed signal is utilized in a closed loop system for accurately positioning the probe relative to the cartridge case both in the lift off direction and in the tangential direction, and a second component of the sensed signal is employed as a measure of the hardness. The positioning and measurement are carried out under closed loop microprocessor control facilitating hardness testing on a production line basis. 14 figs.

  1. A bidirection-adjustable ionic current rectification system based on a biconical micro-channel.

    PubMed

    Chang, Fengxia; Chen, Cheng; Xie, Xia; Chen, Lisha; Li, Meixian; Zhu, Zhiwei

    2015-10-25

    We developed a simple, cheap and bidirectional ionic current rectification system based on the integration of a biconical micro-channel, working electrode and reference electrode. This system may have potential and realistic future value for studying two-way ionic transport in the cell membrane. PMID:26339989

  2. The blink reflex magnitude is continuously adjusted according to both current and predicted stimulus position with respect to the face.

    PubMed

    Wallwork, Sarah B; Talbot, Kerwin; Camfferman, Danny; Moseley, G L; Iannetti, G D

    2016-08-01

    The magnitude of the hand-blink reflex (HBR), a subcortical defensive reflex elicited by the electrical stimulation of the median nerve, is increased when the stimulated hand is close to the face ('far-near effect'). This enhancement occurs through a cortico-bulbar facilitation of the polysynaptic medullary pathways subserving the reflex. Here, in two experiments, we investigated the temporal characteristics of this facilitation, and its adjustment during voluntary movement of the stimulated hand. Given that individuals navigate in a fast changing environment, one would expect the cortico-bulbar modulation of this response to adjust rapidly, and as a function of the predicted spatial position of external threats. We observed two main results. First, the HBR modulation occurs without a temporal delay between when the hand has reached the stimulation position and when the stimulus happens (Experiments 1 and 2). Second, the voluntary movement of the hand interacts with the 'far-near effect': stimuli delivered when the hand is far from the face elicit an enhanced HBR if the hand is being moved towards the face, whereas stimuli delivered when the hand is near the face elicit an enhanced HBR regardless of the direction of the hand movement (Experiment 2). These results indicate that the top-down modulation of this subcortical defensive reflex occurs continuously, and takes into account both the current and the predicted position of potential threats with respect to the body. The continuous control of the excitability of subcortical reflex circuits ensures appropriate adjustment of defensive responses in a rapidly-changing sensory environment. PMID:27236372

  3. "Butterfly effect" in CuO/graphene composite nanosheets: a small interfacial adjustment triggers big changes in electronic structure and Li-ion storage performance.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoting; Zhou, Jisheng; Song, Huaihe; Chen, Xiaohong; Fedoseeva, Yu V; Okotrub, A V; Bulusheva, L G

    2014-10-01

    Generally speaking, excellent electrochemical performance of metal oxide/graphene nanosheets (GNSs) composite is attributed to the interfacial interaction (or "synergistic effect") between constituents. However, there are no any direct observations on how the electronic structure is changed and how the properties of Li-ion storage are affected by adjusting the interfacial interaction, despite of limited investigations on the possible nature of binding between GNSs and metal oxide. In this paper, CuO nanosheets/GNSs composites with a little Cu2O (ca. 4 wt %) were utilized as an interesting model to illustrate directly the changes of interfacial nature as well as its deep influence on the electronic structure and Li-ion storage performance of composite. The interfacial adjustment was successfully fulfilled by removal of Cu2O in the composite by NH3·H2O. Formation of Cu-O-C bonds on interfaces both between CuO and GNSs, and Cu2O and GNSs in the original CuO/GNSs composites was detected. The small interfacial alteration by removal of the little Cu2O results in the obvious changes in electronic structure, such as weakening of covalent Cu-O-C interfacial interaction and recovery of π bonds in graphene, and simultaneously leads to variations in electrochemical performance of composites, including a 21% increase of reversible capacity, degradation of cyclic stability and rate-performance, and obvious increase of charge-transfer resistance, which can be called a "butterfly effect" in graphene-based metal oxide composites. These interesting phenomena could be helpful to design not only the high-performance graphene/metal oxide anode materials but also various advanced graphene-based composites used in the other fields such as sensors, catalysis, fuel cells, solar cells, etc.

  4. "Butterfly effect" in CuO/graphene composite nanosheets: a small interfacial adjustment triggers big changes in electronic structure and Li-ion storage performance.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoting; Zhou, Jisheng; Song, Huaihe; Chen, Xiaohong; Fedoseeva, Yu V; Okotrub, A V; Bulusheva, L G

    2014-10-01

    Generally speaking, excellent electrochemical performance of metal oxide/graphene nanosheets (GNSs) composite is attributed to the interfacial interaction (or "synergistic effect") between constituents. However, there are no any direct observations on how the electronic structure is changed and how the properties of Li-ion storage are affected by adjusting the interfacial interaction, despite of limited investigations on the possible nature of binding between GNSs and metal oxide. In this paper, CuO nanosheets/GNSs composites with a little Cu2O (ca. 4 wt %) were utilized as an interesting model to illustrate directly the changes of interfacial nature as well as its deep influence on the electronic structure and Li-ion storage performance of composite. The interfacial adjustment was successfully fulfilled by removal of Cu2O in the composite by NH3·H2O. Formation of Cu-O-C bonds on interfaces both between CuO and GNSs, and Cu2O and GNSs in the original CuO/GNSs composites was detected. The small interfacial alteration by removal of the little Cu2O results in the obvious changes in electronic structure, such as weakening of covalent Cu-O-C interfacial interaction and recovery of π bonds in graphene, and simultaneously leads to variations in electrochemical performance of composites, including a 21% increase of reversible capacity, degradation of cyclic stability and rate-performance, and obvious increase of charge-transfer resistance, which can be called a "butterfly effect" in graphene-based metal oxide composites. These interesting phenomena could be helpful to design not only the high-performance graphene/metal oxide anode materials but also various advanced graphene-based composites used in the other fields such as sensors, catalysis, fuel cells, solar cells, etc. PMID:25226227

  5. Preconditioning and triggering of offshore slope failures and turbidity currents revealed by most detailed monitoring yet at a fjord-head delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clare, M. A.; Hughes Clarke, J. E.; Talling, P. J.; Cartigny, M. J. B.; Pratomo, D. G.

    2016-09-01

    Rivers and turbidity currents are the two most important sediment transport processes by volume on Earth. Various hypotheses have been proposed for triggering of turbidity currents offshore from river mouths, including direct plunging of river discharge, delta mouth bar flushing or slope failure caused by low tides and gas expansion, earthquakes and rapid sedimentation. During 2011, 106 turbidity currents were monitored at Squamish Delta, British Columbia. This enables statistical analysis of timing, frequency and triggers. The largest peaks in river discharge did not create hyperpycnal flows. Instead, delayed delta-lip failures occurred 8-11 h after flood peaks, due to cumulative delta top sedimentation and tidally-induced pore pressure changes. Elevated river discharge is thus a significant control on the timing and rate of turbidity currents but not directly due to plunging river water. Elevated river discharge and focusing of river discharge at low tides cause increased sediment transport across the delta-lip, which is the most significant of all controls on flow timing in this setting.

  6. Estimation of triggered-lightning dart-stepped-leader currents from close multiple-station dE/dt pulse measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamerota, W. R.; Uman, M. A.; Hill, J. D.; Ngin, T.; Pilkey, J.; Jordan, D. M.

    2015-02-01

    The modified transmission line model is used to derive the vertically propagating leader-step currents necessary to radiate measured dart-stepped-leader dE/dt pulses from triggered lightning at close range (<400 m) and low altitude (<70 m). The model-predicted dE/dt pulses were compared with measured dE/dt pulses at nine locations ranging from 27 to 391 m from the channel base for four dE/dt pulses radiated from two triggered dart-stepped leaders. The dE/dt pulses at the closest station, 27 m, were unipolar, dominated by electrostatic and induction components of the radiated dE/dt, and of opposite polarity to the more distant initial dE/dt peaks. The other, more distant, eight stations exhibited bipolar dE/dt pulses, being more or less dominated by the dE/dt radiation component. The derived leader-step current has a slow front that precedes a fast transition to peak amplitude followed by a slow decay to zero after several microseconds. For the four modeled dE/dt pulses, the estimated causative leader-step current peak amplitudes varied from 0.9 to 1.8 kA, the half-peak widths ranged from 370 to 560 ns, the charge transfers were about 1 mC, and the peak current derivatives were about 10 kA/µs. The upward propagation speeds of the leader-step current were from 1.1 to 1.5 × 108 m/s with exponential spatial current decay constants from 13 to 27 m. One dE/dt pulse is analyzed in more detail by studying changes in model-predicted waveforms versus current initiation altitude and by examining the effect of varying model input parameters.

  7. Dynamic triggering

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hill, David P.; Prejean, Stephanie; Schubert, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic stresses propagating as seismic waves from large earthquakes trigger a spectrum of responses at global distances. In addition to locally triggered earthquakes in a variety of tectonic environments, dynamic stresses trigger tectonic (nonvolcanic) tremor in the brittle–plastic transition zone along major plate-boundary faults, activity changes in hydrothermal and volcanic systems, and, in hydrologic domains, changes in spring discharge, water well levels, soil liquefaction, and the eruption of mud volcanoes. Surface waves with periods of 15–200 s are the most effective triggering agents; body-wave trigger is less frequent. Triggering dynamic stresses can be < 1 kPa.

  8. Syn-eruptive, soft-sediment deformation of dilute pyroclastic density current deposits: triggers from granular shear, dynamic pore pressure, ballistic impacts and shock waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douillet, G. A.; Taisne, B.; Tsang-Hin-Sun, È.; Müller, S. K.; Kueppers, U.; Dingwell, D. B.

    2014-12-01

    Soft-sediment deformation produces intriguing sedimentary structures and can occur in diverse environments and from a variety of triggers. From the observation of such structures and their interpretation in terms of trigger mechanisms, valuable information can be extracted about former conditions. Here we document examples of syn-eruptive deformation in dilute pyroclastic density current deposits. Outcrops from 6 different volcanoes have been compiled in order to provide a broad perspective on the variety of structures: Ubehebe craters (USA), Tungurahua (Ecuador), Soufrière Hills (Montserrat), Laacher See (Germany), Tower Hill and Purrumbete lake (both Australia). Isolated slumps as well as sinking pseudonodules are driven by their excess weight and occur after deposition but penecontemporaneous to the eruption. Isolated, cm-scale, overturned beds with vortex forms have been interpreted to be the signature of shear instabilities occurring at the boundary of two granular media. They may represent the frozen record of granular, pseudo Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities. Their recognition can be a diagnostic for flows with a granular basal boundary layer. The occurrence of degassing pipes together with basal intrusive dikes suggest fluidization during flow stages, and can facilitate the development of Kelvin-Helmholtz structures. The occurrence at the base of flow units of injection dikes in some outcrops compared with suction-driven local uplifts in others indicates the role of dynamic pore pressure. Variations of the latter are possibly related to local changes between depletive and accumulative dynamics of flows. Ballistic impacts can trigger unconventional sags producing local displacement or liquefaction. Based on the deformation depth, these can yield precise insights into depositional unit boundaries. Such impact structures may also be at the origin of some of the steep truncation planes visible at the base of the so-called "chute and pool" structures. Finally

  9. Syn-eruptive, soft-sediment deformation of deposits from dilute pyroclastic density current: triggers from granular shear, dynamic pore pressure, ballistic impacts and shock waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douillet, G. A.; Taisne, B.; Tsang-Hin-Sun, E.; Muller, S. K.; Kueppers, U.; Dingwell, D. B.

    2015-05-01

    Soft-sediment deformation structures can provide valuable information about the conditions of parent flows, the sediment state and the surrounding environment. Here, examples of soft-sediment deformation in deposits of dilute pyroclastic density currents are documented and possible syn-eruptive triggers suggested. Outcrops from six different volcanoes have been compiled in order to provide a broad perspective on the variety of structures: Soufriere Hills (Montserrat), Tungurahua (Ecuador), Ubehebe craters (USA), Laacher See (Germany), and Tower Hill and Purrumbete lakes (both Australia). The variety of features can be classified in four groups: (1) tubular features such as pipes; (2) isolated, laterally oriented deformation such as overturned or oversteepened laminations and vortex-shaped laminae; (3) folds-and-faults structures involving thick (>30 cm) units; (4) dominantly vertical inter-penetration of two layers such as potatoids, dishes, or diapiric flame-like structures. The occurrence of degassing pipes together with basal intrusions suggest fluidization during flow stages, and can facilitate the development of other soft-sediment deformation structures. Variations from injection dikes to suction-driven, local uplifts at the base of outcrops indicate the role of dynamic pore pressure. Isolated, centimeter-scale, overturned beds with vortex forms have been interpreted to be the signature of shear instabilities occurring at the boundary of two granular media. They may represent the frozen record of granular, pseudo Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities. Their recognition can be a diagnostic for flows with a granular basal boundary layer. Vertical inter-penetration and those folds-and-faults features related to slumps are driven by their excess weight and occur after deposition but penecontemporaneous to the eruption. The passage of shock waves emanating from the vent may also produce trains of isolated, fine-grained overturned beds that disturb the surface bedding

  10. Design of a pulse-triggered four-channel functional electrical stimulator using complementary current source and time division multiplexing output method.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hai-Peng; Wang, Zhi-Gong; Lü, Xiao-Ying; Huang, Zong-Hao; Zhou, Yu-Xuan

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, a four-channel pulse-triggered functional electrical stimulator using complementary current source and time division output method is proposed for the research and application of functional electrical stimulation (FES). The high-voltage compliance and output impedance is increased by adopting the complementary current source, which can also realize the linear voltage-to-current conversion and high channel isolation. A high-voltage analog switch chip MAX14803, combined with a FIFO queue algorithm in the microprocessor, is used to setup the H-bridge and multiplexers for the four-channel time division multiplexing output. With this method, the size and cost of the key components are reduced greatly. The stimulating core circuit area is 30 × 50 mm(2). According to the experiments, the stimulator can achieve the four-channel charge-balanced biphasic stimulation with a current range between 0 and 60 mA and a single-phase pulse amplitude up to 60 V.

  11. Syn-eruptive, soft-sediment deformation of dilute pyroclastic density current deposits: triggers from granular shear, dynamic pore pressure, ballistic impacts and shock waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douillet, Guilhem Amin; Kueppers, Ulrich; Taisne, Benoit; Tsang-Hin-Sun, Ève; Müller, Sebastian K.; Dingwell, Donald B.

    2015-04-01

    Dilute pyroclastic density currents (PDCs) represent peculiar transport mechanisms sharing similarities with turbidity currents, wind-blown transport and granular flows. Outcrops of syn-eruptive, soft-sediment deformation are compiled from seven volcanic centers in order to provide a broad perspective on the variety of structures: Ubehebe craters (USA), Tungurahua (Ecuador), Soufrière Hills (Montserrat), Laacher See (Germany), Lago di Albano (Italy), Tower Hill and Purrumbete lake (both Australia). The interpretation of the variety of triggers enlightens the understanding of the sedimentary environment and basal boundary processes for PDCs: 1/ Isolated, cm-scale, overturned beds with vortex forms have been interpreted to be the signature of shear instabilities occurring at the boundary of two granular media. They may represent the frozen record of granular, pseudo Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities. 2/ The occurrence of degassing pipes together with basal intrusive dikes suggest fluidization during flow stages. This, in turn, can facilitate the development of Kelvin-Helmholtz structures. The occurrence of injection dikes at the base of flow units in some outcrops compared with suction-driven local uplifts in others indicates the role of dynamic pore pressure and local changes between depletive and accumulative dynamics of flows. 3/ Isolated slumps as well as sinking pseudonodules are driven by their excess weight and occur after deposition but penecontemporaneous to the eruption. 4/ Impact of ballistic blocks can trigger local displacement or liquefaction. Based on the deformation depth, these can yield precise insights into depositional unit boundaries. Such impact structures may also be at the origin of some of the steep truncation planes visible at the base of the so-called "chute and pool" structures. 5/ Finally, the passage of shock waves emanating from the vent may be preserved in the form of trains of isolated, fine-grained overturned beds, which may disturb

  12. A novel discovery of IK1 channel agonist: zacopride selectively enhances IK1 current and suppresses triggered arrhythmias in the rat.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qing-Hua; Li, Xiao-Li; Xu, Yan-Wu; Lin, Yuan-Yuan; Cao, Ji-Min; Wu, Bo-Wei

    2012-01-01

    Modulation of the inward rectifier K current (IK1) has profound effect on cardiac excitability and underlies new antiarrhythmic strategies. However, IK1-specific pharmacological tools, especially the selective IK1 agonists, are still lacking in the market. Zacopride, a gastrointestinal prokinetic drug, was found to be a selective IK1 channel agonist. By using the whole-cell patch clamp technique, it was found that zacopride (0.1-10 μmole/L) dose dependently enhanced the IK1 current in isolated rat cardiomyocytes, had no effects on other ion channels, transporters, or pumps. At the same dosage range, zacopride hyperpolarized the resting potential and shortened the action potential duration. When applied at the optimal dose of 1.0 μmole/L, zacopride could prevent or eliminate aconitine induced after depolarization and triggered activity in isolated cardiomyocytes. In a rat model of aconitine-induced arrhythmias both ex vivo and in vivo, zacopride (1.0 μmole/L or 25 μg/kg, respectively) treatment apparently protected the heart from ventricular tachyarrhythmias, which compares favorably with 7.5 mg/kg of lidocaine, a classical aconitine antidote. In conclusion, zacopride was found to be a selective IK1 agonist, and agonizing IK1 could prevent or eliminate aconitine-induced arrhythmias in the rat.

  13. Holding current and switch-on mechanisms in 12 kV, 100 A 4H-SiC optically triggered thyristors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levinshtein, M. E.; Rumyantsev, S. L.; Shur, M. S.; Mnatsakanov, T. T.; Yurkov, S. N.; Zhang, Q. J.; Agarwal, A. K.; Cheng, L.; Palmour, J. W.

    2013-01-01

    Temperature dependence of the holding current has been studied in high-voltage (12 kV class) 4H-SiC optically triggered thyristors in the temperature range from 300 to 425 K. The holding current Ih monotonically decreases with increasing temperature T due to two factors: enhanced thermal ionization of comparatively deep Al acceptors in the p+ emitter and increasing carrier lifetime in the blocking p base. The Ih(T) dependence reveals the existence of a ‘weak point’ within the optical window, which is characterized by a substantially smaller critical charge than that within the remaining part of the window. Analysis of the Ih(T) dependence confirms that high-voltage SiC thyristors are switched-on at room temperature only at a high injection level in the blocking base. At elevated temperatures, the same thyristor is switched on by the ‘classical’ mechanism typical of Si thyristors. Effective shunting of the p++-n emitter junction affects the properties of the thyristor. Possible effective-shunting mechanisms are discussed.

  14. Trigger finger

    MedlinePlus

    ... Redness in your cut or hand Swelling or warmth in your cut or hand Yellow or green drainage from the cut Hand pain or discomfort Fever If your trigger finger returns, call your surgeon. You may need another surgery.

  15. Trigger mechanism for engines

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, L.R.

    1989-02-28

    A trigger mechanism is described for a blower-vacuum apparatus having a trigger mounted within a handle and a small engine comprising: a throttle; a ''L'' shaped lever having first and second legs mounted for rotation about an intermediate pivot within the handle when the trigger is depressed, interconnecting the trigger and the throttle, the second leg having first teeth defined therein, the lever further having idle, full throttle and stop positions; a normally raised latch means adapted to be rotated and axially depressed, the latch means having second teeth situated on a cam to engage the first teeth for holding the lever in an intermediate position between the idle and full throttle positions when the latch means is rotated. The latch means further are cam teeth into potential engagement with the lever teeth when the trigger is depressed, lever is biased to the stop position; and idle adjusting means means for intercepting the second leg for preventing the second leg from reaching the stop position when the latch means is raised.

  16. Triggering Klystrons

    SciTech Connect

    Stefan, Kelton D.; /Purdue U. /SLAC

    2010-08-25

    To determine if klystrons will perform to the specifications of the LCLS (Linac Coherent Light Source) project, a new digital trigger controller is needed for the Klystron/Microwave Department Test Laboratory. The controller needed to be programmed and Windows based user interface software needed to be written to interface with the device over a USB (Universal Serial Bus). Programming the device consisted of writing logic in VHDL (VHSIC (Very High Speed Integrated Circuits) hardware description language), and the Windows interface software was written in C++. Xilinx ISE (Integrated Software Environment) was used to compile the VHDL code and program the device, and Microsoft Visual Studio 2005 was used to compile the C++ based Windows software. The device was programmed in such a way as to easily allow read/write operations to it using a simple addressing model, and Windows software was developed to interface with the device over a USB connection. A method of setting configuration registers in the trigger device is absolutely necessary to the development of a new triggering system, and the method developed will fulfill this need adequately. More work is needed before the new trigger system is ready for use. The configuration registers in the device need to be fully integrated with the logic that will generate the RF signals, and this system will need to be tested extensively to determine if it meets the requirements for low noise trigger outputs.

  17. ELECTRONIC TRIGGER CIRCUIT

    DOEpatents

    Russell, J.A.G.

    1958-01-01

    An electronic trigger circuit is described of the type where an output pulse is obtained only after an input voltage has cqualed or exceeded a selected reference voltage. In general, the invention comprises a source of direct current reference voltage in series with an impedance and a diode rectifying element. An input pulse of preselected amplitude causes the diode to conduct and develop a signal across the impedance. The signal is delivered to an amplifier where an output pulse is produced and part of the output is fed back in a positive manner to the diode so that the amplifier produces a steep wave front trigger pulsc at the output. The trigger point of the described circuit is not subject to variation due to the aging, etc., of multi-electrode tabes, since the diode circuit essentially determines the trigger point.

  18. Current-voltage characteristics of single-molecule diarylethene junctions measured with adjustable gold electrodes in solution.

    PubMed

    Briechle, Bernd M; Kim, Youngsang; Ehrenreich, Philipp; Erbe, Artur; Sysoiev, Dmytro; Huhn, Thomas; Groth, Ulrich; Scheer, Elke

    2012-01-01

    We report on an experimental analysis of the charge transport through sulfur-free photochromic molecular junctions. The conductance of individual molecules contacted with gold electrodes and the current-voltage characteristics of these junctions are measured in a mechanically controlled break-junction system at room temperature and in liquid environment. We compare the transport properties of a series of molecules, labeled TSC, MN, and 4Py, with the same switching core but varying side-arms and end-groups designed for providing the mechanical and electrical contact to the gold electrodes. We perform a detailed analysis of the transport properties of TSC in its open and closed states. We find rather broad distributions of conductance values in both states. The analysis, based on the assumption that the current is carried by a single dominating molecular orbital, reveals distinct differences between both states. We discuss the appearance of diode-like behavior for the particular species 4Py that features end-groups, which preferentially couple to the metal electrode by physisorption. We show that the energetic position of the molecular orbital varies as a function of the transmission. Finally, we show for the species MN that the use of two cyano end-groups on each side considerably enhances the coupling strength compared to the typical behavior of a single cyano group.

  19. Pigment-based skin colour in the blue-footed booby: an honest signal of current condition used by females to adjust reproductive investment.

    PubMed

    Velando, Alberto; Beamonte-Barrientos, René; Torres, Roxana

    2006-09-01

    In monogamous species, the value of present reproduction is affected by the current condition of the mate, and females may use male ornaments to evaluate his condition and adjust their level of investment according. Many animals display colour in fleshy structures which may be accurate indicators of quality due to their potentially rapid response to changes in condition. Here we show that in the blue-footed booby, Sula nebouxii, male foot colour is structurally (collagen arrays) and pigment based. In 48 h foot colour became duller when males were food deprived and brighter when they were re-fed with fresh fish. Variation of dietary carotenoids induced comparable changes in cell-mediated immune function and foot colour, suggesting that carotenoid-pigmentation reveals the immunological state of individuals. These results suggest that pigment-based foot colour is a rapid honest signal of current condition. In a second experiment, we found that rapid variation in male foot colour caused parallel variation in female reproductive investment. One day after the first egg was laid we captured the males and modified the foot colour of experimental males with a non-toxic and water resistant duller blue intensive make-up, mimicking males in low condition. Females decreased the size of their second eggs, relative to the second egg of control females, when the feet of their mates were experimentally duller. Since brood reduction in this species is related to size differences between brood mates at hatching, by laying lighter second eggs females are facilitating brood reduction. Our data indicate that blue-footed booby females are continuously evaluating their mates and can perform rapid adjustments of reproductive investment by using dynamic sexual traits. We suggest that this fine-tuned adjustment may be widespread in socially monogamous animals.

  20. Pigment-based skin colour in the blue-footed booby: an honest signal of current condition used by females to adjust reproductive investment.

    PubMed

    Velando, Alberto; Beamonte-Barrientos, René; Torres, Roxana

    2006-09-01

    In monogamous species, the value of present reproduction is affected by the current condition of the mate, and females may use male ornaments to evaluate his condition and adjust their level of investment according. Many animals display colour in fleshy structures which may be accurate indicators of quality due to their potentially rapid response to changes in condition. Here we show that in the blue-footed booby, Sula nebouxii, male foot colour is structurally (collagen arrays) and pigment based. In 48 h foot colour became duller when males were food deprived and brighter when they were re-fed with fresh fish. Variation of dietary carotenoids induced comparable changes in cell-mediated immune function and foot colour, suggesting that carotenoid-pigmentation reveals the immunological state of individuals. These results suggest that pigment-based foot colour is a rapid honest signal of current condition. In a second experiment, we found that rapid variation in male foot colour caused parallel variation in female reproductive investment. One day after the first egg was laid we captured the males and modified the foot colour of experimental males with a non-toxic and water resistant duller blue intensive make-up, mimicking males in low condition. Females decreased the size of their second eggs, relative to the second egg of control females, when the feet of their mates were experimentally duller. Since brood reduction in this species is related to size differences between brood mates at hatching, by laying lighter second eggs females are facilitating brood reduction. Our data indicate that blue-footed booby females are continuously evaluating their mates and can perform rapid adjustments of reproductive investment by using dynamic sexual traits. We suggest that this fine-tuned adjustment may be widespread in socially monogamous animals. PMID:16821015

  1. The LHCb Trigger System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, E.; LHCb Collaboration

    2007-08-01

    The LHCb detector has been conceived to study with high precision CP violation and rare decays of b-flavoured hadrons produced at the LHC. The LHCb trigger is of crucial importance in selecting the collisions of interest for b-physics studies. The trigger is based on a two-level system. The first level, Level-0, is implemented in hardware and uses information from the calorimeter, muon and pile-up systems to select events containing particles with relatively large transverse momentum, typically above 1-2 GeV. The Level-0 trigger accepts events at a rate of 1 MHz. All the detector information is then read out and fed into the High Level Trigger. This software trigger runs in the event-filter farm composed of about 1800 CPU nodes. Events are selected at a rate of 2 kHz and sent for mass storage and subsequent offline reconstruction and analysis. The current status and expected performance of the trigger system are described.

  2. [Structural adjustment, cultural adjustment?].

    PubMed

    Dujardin, B; Dujardin, M; Hermans, I

    2003-12-01

    Over the last two decades, multiple studies have been conducted and many articles published about Structural Adjustment Programmes (SAPs). These studies mainly describe the characteristics of SAPs and analyse their economic consequences as well as their effects upon a variety of sectors: health, education, agriculture and environment. However, very few focus on the sociological and cultural effects of SAPs. Following a summary of SAP's content and characteristics, the paper briefly discusses the historical course of SAPs and the different critiques which have been made. The cultural consequences of SAPs are introduced and are described on four different levels: political, community, familial, and individual. These levels are analysed through examples from the literature and individual testimonies from people in the Southern Hemisphere. The paper concludes that SAPs, alongside economic globalisation processes, are responsible for an acute breakdown of social and cultural structures in societies in the South. It should be a priority, not only to better understand the situation and its determining factors, but also to intervene and act with strategies that support and reinvest in the social and cultural sectors, which is vital in order to allow for individuals and communities in the South to strengthen their autonomy and identify.

  3. Triggered plasma opening switch

    DOEpatents

    Mendel, Clifford W.

    1988-01-01

    A triggerable opening switch for a very high voltage and current pulse includes a transmission line extending from a source to a load and having an intermediate switch section including a plasma for conducting electrons between transmission line conductors and a magnetic field for breaking the plasma conduction path and magnetically insulating the electrons when it is desired to open the switch.

  4. Triggered plasma opening switch

    SciTech Connect

    Mendel, C W

    1988-02-23

    A triggerable opening switch for a very high voltage and current pulse includes a transmission line extending from a source to a load and having an intermediate switch section including a plasma for conducting electrons between transmission line conductors and a magnetic field for breaking the plasma conduction path and magnetically insulating the electrons when it is desired to open the switch.

  5. Firearm trigger assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Crandall, David L.; Watson, Richard W.

    2010-02-16

    A firearm trigger assembly for use with a firearm includes a trigger mounted to a forestock of the firearm so that the trigger is movable between a rest position and a triggering position by a forwardly placed support hand of a user. An elongated trigger member operatively associated with the trigger operates a sear assembly of the firearm when the trigger is moved to the triggering position. An action release assembly operatively associated with the firearm trigger assembly and a movable assembly of the firearm prevents the trigger from being moved to the triggering position when the movable assembly is not in the locked position.

  6. Pulsed thyristor trigger control circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nola, F. J. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A trigger control circuit is provided for producing firing pulses for the thyristor of a thyristor control system such as a power factor controller. The control circuit overcomes thyristor triggering problems involved with the current lag associated with controlling inductive loads and utilizes a phase difference signal, already present in the power factor controller, in deriving a signal for inhibiting generation of a firing pulse until no load current is flowing from the preceding half cycle and thereby ensuring that the thyristor is triggered on during each half cycle.

  7. Evaluation of Light-Triggered Thyristors for Pulsed Power Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Tully, L K; Fulkerson, E S; Goerz, D A; Speer, R D

    2008-05-20

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has many needs for high reliability, high peak current, high di/dt switches. Solid-state switch technology offers the demonstrated advantage of reliability under a variety of conditions. Light-triggered switches operate with a reduced susceptibility to electromagnetic interference commonly found within pulsed power environments. Despite the advantages, commercially available solid-state switches are not typically designed for the often extreme pulsed power requirements. Testing was performed to bound the limits of devices for pulsed power applications beyond the manufacturers specified ratings. To test the applicability of recent commercial light-triggered solid-state designs, an adjustable high current switch test stand was assembled. Results from testing and subsequent selected implementations are presented.

  8. Method for triggering an action

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R.; Bartholomew, David B.; Johnson, Monte L.; Moon, Justin; Koehler, Roger O.

    2006-10-17

    A method for triggering an action of at least one downhole device on a downhole network integrated into a downhole tool string synchronized to an event comprises determining latency, sending a latency adjusted signal, and performing the action. The latency is determined between a control device and the at least one downhole device. The latency adjusted signal for triggering an action is sent to the downhole device. The action is performed downhole synchronized to the event. A preferred method for determining latency comprises the steps: a control device sends a first signal to the downhole device; after receiving the signal, the downhole device sends a response signal to the control device; and the control device analyzes the time from sending the signal to receiving the response signal.

  9. Optical triggering of 4H-SiC thyristors (18 kV class) to high currents in purely inductive load circuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rumyantsev, S. L.; Levinshtein, M. E.; Saxena, T.; Shur, M. S.; Cheng, L.; Palmour, J. W.; Agarwal, A.

    2014-11-01

    Optical switch-on of a very high voltage (18 kV class) 4H-SiC thyristor with an amplification step (pilot thyristor) to the current Imax = 1225 A is demonstrated using a purely inductive load and a calibrated air transformer. Increasing the inductance of the transformer primary winding slows down the turn on process. However, the inductance has little effect during the initial stage of the switch-on process when the voltage drop on the thyristor and its internal resistance is high. The results show that a further switch-on current increase can be only achieved by introducing additional amplification steps in the pilot thyristor.

  10. Shaft adjuster

    DOEpatents

    Harry, H.H.

    1988-03-11

    Abstract and method for the adjustment and alignment of shafts in high power devices. A plurality of adjacent rotatable angled cylinders are positioned between a base and the shaft to be aligned which when rotated introduce an axial offset. The apparatus is electrically conductive and constructed of a structurally rigid material. The angled cylinders allow the shaft such as the center conductor in a pulse line machine to be offset in any desired alignment position within the range of the apparatus. 3 figs.

  11. Shaft adjuster

    DOEpatents

    Harry, Herbert H.

    1989-01-01

    Apparatus and method for the adjustment and alignment of shafts in high power devices. A plurality of adjacent rotatable angled cylinders are positioned between a base and the shaft to be aligned which when rotated introduce an axial offset. The apparatus is electrically conductive and constructed of a structurally rigid material. The angled cylinders allow the shaft such as the center conductor in a pulse line machine to be offset in any desired alignment position within the range of the apparatus.

  12. Identifying asthma triggers.

    PubMed

    McCarty, Justin C; Ferguson, Berrylin J

    2014-02-01

    Asthma has many triggers including rhinosinusitis; allergy; irritants; medications (aspirin in aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease); and obesity. Paradoxic vocal fold dysfunction mimics asthma and may be present along with asthma. This article reviews each of these triggers, outlining methods of recognizing the trigger and then its management. In many patients more than one trigger may be present. Full appreciation of the complexity of these relationships and targeted therapy to the trigger is needed to best care for the patient with asthma.

  13. Weighted triangulation adjustment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, Walter L.

    1969-01-01

    The variation of coordinates method is employed to perform a weighted least squares adjustment of horizontal survey networks. Geodetic coordinates are required for each fixed and adjustable station. A preliminary inverse geodetic position computation is made for each observed line. Weights associated with each observed equation for direction, azimuth, and distance are applied in the formation of the normal equations in-the least squares adjustment. The number of normal equations that may be solved is twice the number of new stations and less than 150. When the normal equations are solved, shifts are produced at adjustable stations. Previously computed correction factors are applied to the shifts and a most probable geodetic position is found for each adjustable station. Pinal azimuths and distances are computed. These may be written onto magnetic tape for subsequent computation of state plane or grid coordinates. Input consists of punch cards containing project identification, program options, and position and observation information. Results listed include preliminary and final positions, residuals, observation equations, solution of the normal equations showing magnitudes of shifts, and a plot of each adjusted and fixed station. During processing, data sets containing irrecoverable errors are rejected and the type of error is listed. The computer resumes processing of additional data sets.. Other conditions cause warning-errors to be issued, and processing continues with the current data set.

  14. Model Vestibular Nuclei Neurons Can Exhibit a Boosting Nonlinearity Due to an Adaptation Current Regulated by Spike-Triggered Calcium and Calcium-Activated Potassium Channels.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Adam D

    2016-01-01

    In vitro studies have previously found a class of vestibular nuclei neurons to exhibit a bidirectional afterhyperpolarization (AHP) in their membrane potential, due to calcium and calcium-activated potassium conductances. More recently in vivo studies of such vestibular neurons were found to exhibit a boosting nonlinearity in their input-output tuning curves. In this paper, a Hodgkin-Huxley (HH) type neuron model, originally developed to reproduce the in vitro AHP, is shown to produce a boosting nonlinearity similar to that seen in vivo for increased the calcium conductance. Indicative of a bifurcation, the HH model is reduced to a generalized integrate-and-fire (IF) model that preserves the bifurcation structure and boosting nonliearity. By then projecting the neuron model's phase space trajectories into 2D, the underlying geometric mechanism relating the AHP and boosting nonlinearity is revealed. Further simplifications and approximations are made to derive analytic expressions for the steady steady state firing rate as a function of bias current, μ, as well as the gain (i.e. its slope) and the position of its peak at μ = μ*. Finally, although the boosting nonlinearity has not yet been experimentally observed in vitro, testable predictions indicate how it might be found. PMID:27427914

  15. Model Vestibular Nuclei Neurons Can Exhibit a Boosting Nonlinearity Due to an Adaptation Current Regulated by Spike-Triggered Calcium and Calcium-Activated Potassium Channels

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Adam D.

    2016-01-01

    In vitro studies have previously found a class of vestibular nuclei neurons to exhibit a bidirectional afterhyperpolarization (AHP) in their membrane potential, due to calcium and calcium-activated potassium conductances. More recently in vivo studies of such vestibular neurons were found to exhibit a boosting nonlinearity in their input-output tuning curves. In this paper, a Hodgkin-Huxley (HH) type neuron model, originally developed to reproduce the in vitro AHP, is shown to produce a boosting nonlinearity similar to that seen in vivo for increased the calcium conductance. Indicative of a bifurcation, the HH model is reduced to a generalized integrate-and-fire (IF) model that preserves the bifurcation structure and boosting nonliearity. By then projecting the neuron model’s phase space trajectories into 2D, the underlying geometric mechanism relating the AHP and boosting nonlinearity is revealed. Further simplifications and approximations are made to derive analytic expressions for the steady steady state firing rate as a function of bias current, μ, as well as the gain (i.e. its slope) and the position of its peak at μ = μ*. Finally, although the boosting nonlinearity has not yet been experimentally observed in vitro, testable predictions indicate how it might be found. PMID:27427914

  16. Asthma triggers (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... common asthma triggers are mold, pets, dust, grasses, pollen, cockroaches, odors from chemicals, and smoke from cigarettes. ... common asthma triggers are mold, pets, dust, grasses, pollen, cockroaches, odors from chemicals, and smoke from cigarettes.

  17. Latent myofascial trigger points.

    PubMed

    Ge, Hong-You; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars

    2011-10-01

    A latent myofascial trigger point (MTP) is defined as a focus of hyperirritability in a muscle taut band that is clinically associated with local twitch response and tenderness and/or referred pain upon manual examination. Current evidence suggests that the temporal profile of the spontaneous electrical activity at an MTP is similar to focal muscle fiber contraction and/or muscle cramp potentials, which contribute significantly to the induction of local tenderness and pain and motor dysfunctions. This review highlights the potential mechanisms underlying the sensory-motor dysfunctions associated with latent MTPs and discusses the contribution of central sensitization associated with latent MTPs and the MTP network to the spatial propagation of pain and motor dysfunctions. Treating latent MTPs in patients with musculoskeletal pain may not only decrease pain sensitivity and improve motor functions, but also prevent latent MTPs from transforming into active MTPs, and hence, prevent the development of myofascial pain syndrome.

  18. Smart trigger logic for focal plane arrays

    DOEpatents

    Levy, James E; Campbell, David V; Holmes, Michael L; Lovejoy, Robert; Wojciechowski, Kenneth; Kay, Randolph R; Cavanaugh, William S; Gurrieri, Thomas M

    2014-03-25

    An electronic device includes a memory configured to receive data representing light intensity values from pixels in a focal plane array and a processor that analyzes the received data to determine which light values correspond to triggered pixels, where the triggered pixels are those pixels that meet a predefined set of criteria, and determines, for each triggered pixel, a set of neighbor pixels for which light intensity values are to be stored. The electronic device also includes a buffer that temporarily stores light intensity values for at least one previously processed row of pixels, so that when a triggered pixel is identified in a current row, light intensity values for the neighbor pixels in the previously processed row and for the triggered pixel are persistently stored, as well as a data transmitter that transmits the persistently stored light intensity values for the triggered and neighbor pixels to a data receiver.

  19. AMPLITUDE DISCRIMINATOR HAVING SEPARATE TRIGGERING AND RECOVERY CONTROLS UTILIZING AUTOMATIC TRIGGERING

    DOEpatents

    Chase, R.L.

    1962-01-23

    A transistorized amplitude discriminator circuit is described in which the initial triggering sensitivity and the recovery threshold are separately adjustable in a convenient manner. The discriminator is provided with two independent bias components, one of which is for circuit hysteresis (recovery) and one of which is for trigger threshold level. A switching circuit is provided to remove the second bias component upon activation of the trigger so that the recovery threshold is always at the point where the trailing edge of the input signal pulse goes through zero or other desired value. (AEC)

  20. College women who had sexual intercourse when they were underage minors (13-15): age of their male partners, relation to current adjustment, and statutory rape implications.

    PubMed

    Leitenberg, Harold; Saltzman, Heidi

    2003-04-01

    In a survey of 1,439 female college students, 24% reported that they had what they considered consensual sexual intercourse between ages 13 and 15 (2% at age 13, 7% at age 14, and 15% at age 15). Contrary to the impression left by studies of teenage mothers, the majority of their male sexual partners were not substantially older than them but instead were more typically "somewhat older" (2-4 years apart) or similar aged (less than 2 years apart). The percentage of "much older" partners (5 or more years older) was 31% for those who had intercourse at age 13, 17% for those who had intercourse at age 14, and 13% for those who had intercourse at age 15. Women who had intercourse at age 13 endorsed more current symptoms of psychological distress than those who first had intercourse at age 14 or 15. There were no significant differences between the groups in current levels of sexual satisfaction. Partner's age difference was not significantly associated with current levels of either psychological distress or sexual satisfaction. The implications of these results were discussed in light of recent calls in the United States for more strict and rigorous enforcement of statutory rape laws.

  1. Myofascial trigger points.

    PubMed

    Lavelle, Elizabeth Demers; Lavelle, William; Smith, Howard S

    2007-03-01

    Painful conditions of the musculoskeletal system, including myofascial pain syndrome, constitute some of the most important chronic problems encountered in a clinical practice. A myofascial trigger points is a hyperirritable spot, usually within a taut band of skeletal muscle, which is painful on compression and can give rise to characteristic referred pain, motor dysfunction, and autonomic phenomena. Trigger points may be relieved through noninvasive measures, such as spray and stretch, transcutaneous electrical stimulation, physical therapy, and massage. Invasive treatments for myofascial trigger points include injections with local anesthetics, corticosteroids, or botulism toxin or dry needling. The etiology, pathophysiology, and treatment of myofascial trigger points are addressed in this article.

  2. Lessons from (triggered) tremor

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gomberg, Joan

    2010-01-01

    I test a “clock-advance” model that implies triggered tremor is ambient tremor that occurs at a sped-up rate as a result of loading from passing seismic waves. This proposed model predicts that triggering probability is proportional to the product of the ambient tremor rate and a function describing the efficacy of the triggering wave to initiate a tremor event. Using data mostly from Cascadia, I have compared qualitatively a suite of teleseismic waves that did and did not trigger tremor with ambient tremor rates. Many of the observations are consistent with the model if the efficacy of the triggering wave depends on wave amplitude. One triggered tremor observation clearly violates the clock-advance model. The model prediction that larger triggering waves result in larger triggered tremor signals also appears inconsistent with the measurements. I conclude that the tremor source process is a more complex system than that described by the clock-advance model predictions tested. Results of this and previous studies also demonstrate that (1) conditions suitable for tremor generation exist in many tectonic environments, but, within each, only occur at particular spots whose locations change with time; (2) any fluid flow must be restricted to less than a meter; (3) the degree to which delayed failure and secondary triggering occurs is likely insignificant; and 4) both shear and dilatational deformations may trigger tremor. Triggered and ambient tremor rates correlate more strongly with stress than stressing rate, suggesting tremor sources result from time-dependent weakening processes rather than simple Coulomb failure.

  3. AMY trigger system

    SciTech Connect

    Sakai, Yoshihide

    1989-04-01

    A trigger system of the AMY detector at TRISTAN e{sup +}e{sup -} collider is described briefly. The system uses simple track segment and shower cluster counting scheme to classify events to be triggered. It has been operating successfully since 1987.

  4. Adjustable Autonomy Testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, Jane T.; Schrenkenghost, Debra K.

    2001-01-01

    The Adjustable Autonomy Testbed (AAT) is a simulation-based testbed located in the Intelligent Systems Laboratory in the Automation, Robotics and Simulation Division at NASA Johnson Space Center. The purpose of the testbed is to support evaluation and validation of prototypes of adjustable autonomous agent software for control and fault management for complex systems. The AA T project has developed prototype adjustable autonomous agent software and human interfaces for cooperative fault management. This software builds on current autonomous agent technology by altering the architecture, components and interfaces for effective teamwork between autonomous systems and human experts. Autonomous agents include a planner, flexible executive, low level control and deductive model-based fault isolation. Adjustable autonomy is intended to increase the flexibility and effectiveness of fault management with an autonomous system. The test domain for this work is control of advanced life support systems for habitats for planetary exploration. The CONFIG hybrid discrete event simulation environment provides flexible and dynamically reconfigurable models of the behavior of components and fluids in the life support systems. Both discrete event and continuous (discrete time) simulation are supported, and flows and pressures are computed globally. This provides fast dynamic simulations of interacting hardware systems in closed loops that can be reconfigured during operations scenarios, producing complex cascading effects of operations and failures. Current object-oriented model libraries support modeling of fluid systems, and models have been developed of physico-chemical and biological subsystems for processing advanced life support gases. In FY01, water recovery system models will be developed.

  5. The LHCb trigger and its upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dziurda, A.

    2016-07-01

    The current LHCb trigger system consists of a hardware level, which reduces the LHC inelastic collision rate of 30 MHz, at which the entire detector is read out. In a second level, implemented in a farm of 20 k parallel-processing CPUs, the event rate is reduced to about 5 kHz. We review the performance of the LHCb trigger system during Run I of the LHC. Special attention is given to the use of multivariate analyses in the High Level Trigger. The major bottleneck for hadronic decays is the hardware trigger. LHCb plans a major upgrade of the detector and DAQ system in the LHC shutdown of 2018, enabling a purely software based trigger to process the full 30 MHz of inelastic collisions delivered by the LHC. We demonstrate that the planned architecture will be able to meet this challenge.

  6. LHCb Topological Trigger Reoptimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Likhomanenko, Tatiana; Ilten, Philip; Khairullin, Egor; Rogozhnikov, Alex; Ustyuzhanin, Andrey; Williams, Michael

    2015-12-01

    The main b-physics trigger algorithm used by the LHCb experiment is the so- called topological trigger. The topological trigger selects vertices which are a) detached from the primary proton-proton collision and b) compatible with coming from the decay of a b-hadron. In the LHC Run 1, this trigger, which utilized a custom boosted decision tree algorithm, selected a nearly 100% pure sample of b-hadrons with a typical efficiency of 60-70%; its output was used in about 60% of LHCb papers. This talk presents studies carried out to optimize the topological trigger for LHC Run 2. In particular, we have carried out a detailed comparison of various machine learning classifier algorithms, e.g., AdaBoost, MatrixNet and neural networks. The topological trigger algorithm is designed to select all ’interesting” decays of b-hadrons, but cannot be trained on every such decay. Studies have therefore been performed to determine how to optimize the performance of the classification algorithm on decays not used in the training. Methods studied include cascading, ensembling and blending techniques. Furthermore, novel boosting techniques have been implemented that will help reduce systematic uncertainties in Run 2 measurements. We demonstrate that the reoptimized topological trigger is expected to significantly improve on the Run 1 performance for a wide range of b-hadron decays.

  7. Revisiting Pneumatic Nail Gun Trigger Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Albers, James; Lipscomb, Hester; Hudock, Stephen; Dement, John; Evanoff, Bradley; Fullen, Mark; Gillen, Matt; Kaskutas, Vicki; Nolan, James; Patterson, Dennis; Platner, James; Pompeii, Lisa; Schoenfisch, Ashley

    2015-01-01

    Summary Use of a pneumatic nail gun with a sequential actuation trigger (SAT) significantly diminishes the risk for acute traumatic injury compared to use of a contact actuation trigger (CAT) nail gun. A theoretically-based increased risk of work-related musculoskeletal disorders from use of a SAT nail gun, relative to CAT, appears unlikely and remains unproven. Based on current knowledge, the use of CAT nail guns cannot be justified as a safe alternative to SAT nail guns. This letter provides a perspective of ergonomists and occupational safety researchers recommending the use of the sequential actuation trigger for all nail gun tasks in the construction industry. PMID:26366020

  8. Common Asthma Triggers

    MedlinePlus

    ... your bedding on the hottest water setting. Outdoor Air Pollution Outdoor air pollution can trigger an asthma attack. This pollution can ... your newspaper to plan your activities for when air pollution levels will be low. Cockroach Allergen Cockroaches and ...

  9. Dealing with Asthma Triggers

    MedlinePlus

    ... smell given off by paint or gas, and air pollution. If you notice that an irritant triggers your ... or other tobacco products around you. If outdoor air pollution is a problem, running the air conditioner or ...

  10. The Topo-trigger: a new concept of stereo trigger system for imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Coto, R.; Mazin, D.; Paoletti, R.; Blanch Bigas, O.; Cortina, J.

    2016-04-01

    Imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes (IACTs) such as the Major Atmospheric Gamma-ray Imaging Cherenkov (MAGIC) telescopes endeavor to reach the lowest possible energy threshold. In doing so the trigger system is a key element. Reducing the trigger threshold is hampered by the rapid increase of accidental triggers generated by ambient light (the so-called Night Sky Background NSB). In this paper we present a topological trigger, dubbed Topo-trigger, which rejects events on the basis of their relative orientation in the telescope cameras. We have simulated and tested the trigger selection algorithm in the MAGIC telescopes. The algorithm was tested using MonteCarlo simulations and shows a rejection of 85% of the accidental stereo triggers while preserving 99% of the gamma rays. A full implementation of this trigger system would achieve an increase in collection area between 10 and 20% at the energy threshold. The analysis energy threshold of the instrument is expected to decrease by ~ 8%. The selection algorithm was tested on real MAGIC data taken with the current trigger configuration and no γ-like events were found to be lost.

  11. Cygnus Trigger System

    SciTech Connect

    G. Corrow, M. Hansen, D. Henderson, C. Mitton

    2008-02-01

    The Cygnus Dual Beam Radiographic Facility consists of two radiographic sources (Cygnus 1, Cygnus 2) each with a dose rating of 4 rads at 1 m, and a 1-mm diameter spot size. The electrical specifications are: 2.25 MV, 60 kA, 60 ns. This facility is located in an underground environment at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). These sources were developed as a primary diagnostic for subcritical tests, which are single-shot, high-value events. In such an application there is an emphasis on reliability and reproducibility. A robust, low-jitter trigger system is a key element for meeting these goals. The trigger system was developed with both commercial and project-specific equipment. In addition to the traditional functions of a trigger system there are novel features added to protect the investment of a high-value shot. Details of the trigger system, including elements designed specifically for a subcritical test application, will be presented. The individual electronic components have their nominal throughput, and when assembled have a system throughput with a measured range of jitter. The shot-to-shot jitter will be assessed both individually and in combination. Trigger reliability and reproducibility results will be presented for a substantial number of shots executed at the NTS.

  12. A hypothesis for delayed dynamic earthquake triggering

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsons, T.

    2005-01-01

    It's uncertain whether more near-field earthquakes are triggered by static or dynamic stress changes. This ratio matters because static earthquake interactions are increasingly incorporated into probabilistic forecasts. Recent studies were unable to demonstrate all predictions from the static-stress-change hypothesis, particularly seismicity rate reductions. However, current dynamic stress change hypotheses do not explain delayed earthquake triggering and Omori's law. Here I show numerically that if seismic waves can alter some frictional contacts in neighboring fault zones, then dynamic triggering might cause delayed triggering and an Omori-law response. The hypothesis depends on faults following a rate/state friction law, and on seismic waves changing the mean critical slip distance (Dc) at nucleation zones.

  13. Microfabricated triggered vacuum switch

    DOEpatents

    Roesler, Alexander W.; Schare, Joshua M.; Bunch, Kyle

    2010-05-11

    A microfabricated vacuum switch is disclosed which includes a substrate upon which an anode, cathode and trigger electrode are located. A cover is sealed over the substrate under vacuum to complete the vacuum switch. In some embodiments of the present invention, a metal cover can be used in place of the trigger electrode on the substrate. Materials used for the vacuum switch are compatible with high vacuum, relatively high temperature processing. These materials include molybdenum, niobium, copper, tungsten, aluminum and alloys thereof for the anode and cathode. Carbon in the form of graphitic carbon, a diamond-like material, or carbon nanotubes can be used in the trigger electrode. Channels can be optionally formed in the substrate to mitigate against surface breakdown.

  14. Video Event Trigger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Glenn L.; Lichter, Michael J.

    1994-01-01

    Video event trigger (VET) processes video image data to generate trigger signal when image shows significant change like motion or appearance, disappearance, change in color, change in brightness, or dilation of object. System aids in efficient utilization of image-data-storage and image-data-processing equipment in applications in which many video frames show no changes and are wasteful to record and analyze all frames when only relatively few frames show changes of interest. Applications include video recording of automobile crash tests, automated video monitoring of entrances, exits, parking lots, and secure areas.

  15. The ZEUS calorimeter first level trigger

    SciTech Connect

    Foudas, C.; Dawson, J.; Krakauer, D.; Talaga, R.; Ali, I.; Behrens, B.; Fordham, C.; Goussiou, A.; Jaworski, M.; Lackey, J.

    1994-12-31

    The authors present results on the efficiency and performance of the ZEUS detector Calorimeter First Level Trigger (CFLT) using data taken during the 1993 HERA physics run. The CFLT is designed to process events in a digital pipeline applying pattern recognition algorithms and fast digital summation techniques in order to collect interesting physics events and reduce background from beam gas interactions. The total FLT efficiency was 98% for neutral current events and 85% for charged current events above Q{sup 2} of 10 GeV{sup 2}. The introduction of the isolated electron trigger increases the CFLT beam gas rejection by a factor of two.

  16. Disambiguating Syntactic Triggers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sakas, William Gregory; Fodor, Janet Dean

    2012-01-01

    We present data from an artificial language domain that suggest new contributions to the theory of syntactic triggers. Whether a learning algorithm is capable of matching the achievements of child learners depends in part on how much parametric ambiguity there is in the input. For practical reasons this cannot be established for the domain of all…

  17. Tail reconnection triggering substorm onset.

    PubMed

    Angelopoulos, Vassilis; McFadden, James P; Larson, Davin; Carlson, Charles W; Mende, Stephen B; Frey, Harald; Phan, Tai; Sibeck, David G; Glassmeier, Karl-Heinz; Auster, Uli; Donovan, Eric; Mann, Ian R; Rae, I Jonathan; Russell, Christopher T; Runov, Andrei; Zhou, Xu-Zhi; Kepko, Larry

    2008-08-15

    Magnetospheric substorms explosively release solar wind energy previously stored in Earth's magnetotail, encompassing the entire magnetosphere and producing spectacular auroral displays. It has been unclear whether a substorm is triggered by a disruption of the electrical current flowing across the near-Earth magnetotail, at approximately 10 R(E) (R(E): Earth radius, or 6374 kilometers), or by the process of magnetic reconnection typically seen farther out in the magnetotail, at approximately 20 to 30 R(E). We report on simultaneous measurements in the magnetotail at multiple distances, at the time of substorm onset. Reconnection was observed at 20 R(E), at least 1.5 minutes before auroral intensification, at least 2 minutes before substorm expansion, and about 3 minutes before near-Earth current disruption. These results demonstrate that substorms are likely initiated by tail reconnection. PMID:18653845

  18. Multiple output timing and trigger generator

    SciTech Connect

    Wheat, Robert M.; Dale, Gregory E

    2009-01-01

    In support of the development of a multiple stage pulse modulator at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, we have developed a first generation, multiple output timing and trigger generator. Exploiting Commercial Off The Shelf (COTS) Micro Controller Units (MCU's), the timing and trigger generator provides 32 independent outputs with a timing resolution of about 500 ns. The timing and trigger generator system is comprised of two MCU boards and a single PC. One of the MCU boards performs the functions of the timing and signal generation (the timing controller) while the second MCU board accepts commands from the PC and provides the timing instructions to the timing controller. The PC provides the user interface for adjusting the on and off timing for each of the output signals. This system provides 32 output or timing signals which can be pre-programmed to be in an on or off state for each of 64 time steps. The width or duration of each of the 64 time steps is programmable from 2 {micro}s to 2.5 ms with a minimum time resolution of 500 ns. The repetition rate of the programmed pulse train is only limited by the time duration of the programmed event. This paper describes the design and function of the timing and trigger generator system and software including test results and measurements.

  19. ADJUSTABLE DOUBLE PULSE GENERATOR

    DOEpatents

    Gratian, J.W.; Gratian, A.C.

    1961-08-01

    >A modulator pulse source having adjustable pulse width and adjustable pulse spacing is described. The generator consists of a cross coupled multivibrator having adjustable time constant circuitry in each leg, an adjustable differentiating circuit in the output of each leg, a mixing and rectifying circuit for combining the differentiated pulses and generating in its output a resultant sequence of negative pulses, and a final amplifying circuit for inverting and square-topping the pulses. (AEC)

  20. Optically triggered infrared photodetector.

    PubMed

    Ramiro, Íñigo; Martí, Antonio; Antolín, Elisa; López, Esther; Datas, Alejandro; Luque, Antonio; Ripalda, José M; González, Yolanda

    2015-01-14

    We demonstrate a new class of semiconductor device: the optically triggered infrared photodetector (OTIP). This photodetector is based on a new physical principle that allows the detection of infrared light to be switched ON and OFF by means of an external light. Our experimental device, fabricated using InAs/AlGaAs quantum-dot technology, demonstrates normal incidence infrared detection in the 2-6 μm range. The detection is optically triggered by a 590 nm light-emitting diode. Furthermore, the detection gain is achieved in our device without an increase of the noise level. The novel characteristics of OTIPs open up new possibilities for third generation infrared imaging systems ( Rogalski, A.; Antoszewski, J.; Faraone, L. J. Appl. Phys. 2009, 105 (9), 091101). PMID:25490236

  1. Optically triggered infrared photodetector.

    PubMed

    Ramiro, Íñigo; Martí, Antonio; Antolín, Elisa; López, Esther; Datas, Alejandro; Luque, Antonio; Ripalda, José M; González, Yolanda

    2015-01-14

    We demonstrate a new class of semiconductor device: the optically triggered infrared photodetector (OTIP). This photodetector is based on a new physical principle that allows the detection of infrared light to be switched ON and OFF by means of an external light. Our experimental device, fabricated using InAs/AlGaAs quantum-dot technology, demonstrates normal incidence infrared detection in the 2-6 μm range. The detection is optically triggered by a 590 nm light-emitting diode. Furthermore, the detection gain is achieved in our device without an increase of the noise level. The novel characteristics of OTIPs open up new possibilities for third generation infrared imaging systems ( Rogalski, A.; Antoszewski, J.; Faraone, L. J. Appl. Phys. 2009, 105 (9), 091101).

  2. Neural networks for triggering

    SciTech Connect

    Denby, B. ); Campbell, M. ); Bedeschi, F. ); Chriss, N.; Bowers, C. ); Nesti, F. )

    1990-01-01

    Two types of neural network beauty trigger architectures, based on identification of electrons in jets and recognition of secondary vertices, have been simulated in the environment of the Fermilab CDF experiment. The efficiencies for B's and rejection of background obtained are encouraging. If hardware tests are successful, the electron identification architecture will be tested in the 1991 run of CDF. 10 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Dopamine triggers heterosynaptic plasticity.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Masago; Otaka, Mami; Huang, Yanhua H; Neumann, Peter A; Winters, Bradley D; Grace, Anthony A; Schlüter, Oliver M; Dong, Yan

    2013-04-17

    As a classic neuromodulator, dopamine has long been thought to modulate, rather than trigger, synaptic plasticity. In contrast, our present results demonstrate that within the parallel projections of dopaminergic and GABAergic terminals from the ventral tegmental area to the nucleus accumbens core (NAcCo), action-potential-activated release of dopamine heterosynaptically triggers LTD at GABAergic synapses, which is likely mediated by activating presynaptically located dopamine D1 class receptors and expressed by inhibiting presynaptic release of GABA. Moreover, this dopamine-mediated heterosynaptic LTD is abolished after withdrawal from cocaine exposure. These results suggest that action-potential-dependent dopamine release triggers very different cellular consequences from those induced by volume release or pharmacological manipulation. Activation of the ventral tegmental area to NAcCo projections is essential for emotional and motivational responses. This dopamine-mediated LTD allows a flexible output of NAcCo neurons, whereas disruption of this LTD may contribute to the rigid emotional and motivational state observed in addicts during cocaine withdrawal.

  4. MCCB warm adjustment testing concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdei, Z.; Horgos, M.; Grib, A.; Preradović, D. M.; Rodic, V.

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents an experimental investigation in to operating of thermal protection device behavior from an MCCB (Molded Case Circuit Breaker). One of the main functions of the circuit breaker is to assure protection for the circuits where mounted in for possible overloads of the circuit. The tripping mechanism for the overload protection is based on a bimetal movement during a specific time frame. This movement needs to be controlled and as a solution to control this movement we choose the warm adjustment concept. This concept is meant to improve process capability control and final output. The warm adjustment device design will create a unique adjustment of the bimetal position for each individual breaker, determined when the testing current will flow thru a phase which needs to trip in a certain amount of time. This time is predetermined due to scientific calculation for all standard types of amperages and complies with the IEC 60497 standard requirements.

  5. Isolating Triggered Star Formation

    SciTech Connect

    Barton, Elizabeth J.; Arnold, Jacob A.; Zentner, Andrew R.; Bullock, James S.; Wechsler, Risa H.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC

    2007-09-12

    Galaxy pairs provide a potentially powerful means of studying triggered star formation from galaxy interactions. We use a large cosmological N-body simulation coupled with a well-tested semi-analytic substructure model to demonstrate that the majority of galaxies in close pairs reside within cluster or group-size halos and therefore represent a biased population, poorly suited for direct comparison to 'field' galaxies. Thus, the frequent observation that some types of galaxies in pairs have redder colors than 'field' galaxies is primarily a selection effect. We use our simulations to devise a means to select galaxy pairs that are isolated in their dark matter halos with respect to other massive subhalos (N= 2 halos) and to select a control sample of isolated galaxies (N= 1 halos) for comparison. We then apply these selection criteria to a volume-limited subset of the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey with M{sub B,j} {le} -19 and obtain the first clean measure of the typical fraction of galaxies affected by triggered star formation and the average elevation in the star formation rate. We find that 24% (30.5 %) of these L* and sub-L* galaxies in isolated 50 (30) h{sup -1} kpc pairs exhibit star formation that is boosted by a factor of {approx}> 5 above their average past value, while only 10% of isolated galaxies in the control sample show this level of enhancement. Thus, 14% (20 %) of the galaxies in these close pairs show clear triggered star formation. Our orbit models suggest that 12% (16%) of 50 (30) h{sup -1} kpc close pairs that are isolated according to our definition have had a close ({le} 30 h{sup -1} kpc) pass within the last Gyr. Thus, the data are broadly consistent with a scenario in which most or all close passes of isolated pairs result in triggered star formation. The isolation criteria we develop provide a means to constrain star formation and feedback prescriptions in hydrodynamic simulations and a very general method of understanding the importance of

  6. Correlated observations of three triggered lightning flashes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Idone, V. P.; Orville, R. E.; Hubert, P.; Barret, L.; Eybert-Berard, A.

    1984-01-01

    Three triggered lightning flashes, initiated during the Thunderstorm Research International Program (1981) at Langmuir Laboratory, New Mexico, are examined on the basis of three-dimensional return stroke propagation speeds and peak currents. Nonlinear relationships result between return stroke propagation speed and stroke peak current for 56 strokes, and between return stroke propagation speed and dart leader propagation speed for 32 strokes. Calculated linear correlation coefficients include dart leader propagation speed and ensuing return stroke peak current (32 strokes; r = 0.84); and stroke peak current and interstroke interval (69 strokes; r = 0.57). Earlier natural lightning data do not concur with the weak positive correlation between dart leader propagation speed and interstroke interval. Therefore, application of triggered lightning results to natural lightning phenomena must be made with certain caveats. Mean values are included for the three-dimensional return stroke propagation speed and for the three-dimensional dart leader propagation speed.

  7. What triggers coronal mass ejections ?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aulanier, Guillaume

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are large clouds of highly magnetized plasma. They are ac-celerated from the solar atmosphere into interplanetary space by the Lorentz force, which is associated to their strong current-carrying magnetic fields. Both theory and observations lead to the inevitable conclusion that the launch of a CME must result from the sudden release of free magnetic energy, which has slowly been accumulated in the corona for a long time before the eruption. Since the incomplete, but seminal, loss-of-equilibrium model was proposed by van Tend and Kuperus (1978), a large variety of analytical and numerical storage-and-release MHD models has been put forward in the past 20 years or so. All these models rely on the slow increase of currents and/or the slow decrease of the restraining magnetic tension preceding the eruption. But they all put the emphazis on different physical mechanisms to achieve this preeruptive evolution, and to suddenly trigger and later drive a CME. Nevertheless, all these models actually share many common features, which all describe many individual observed aspects of solar eruptions. It is therefore not always clear which of all the suggested mecha-nisms do really account for the triggering of observed CMEs in general. Also, these mechanisms should arguably not be as numerous as the models themselves, owing to the common occurence of CMEs. In order to shed some light on this challenging, but unripe, topic, I will attempt to rediscuss the applicability of the models to the Sun, and to rethink the most sensitive ones in a common frame, so as to find their common denominator. I will elaborate on the idea that many of the proposed triggering mechanisms may actually only be considered as different ways to apply a "last push", which puts the system beyond its eruptive threshold. I will argue that, in most cases, the eruptive threshold is determined by the vertical gradient of the magnetic field in the low-β corona, just like the usual

  8. BTeV level 1 vertex trigger

    SciTech Connect

    Michael H.L.S. Wang

    2001-11-05

    BTeV is a B-physics experiment that expects to begin collecting data at the C0 interaction region of the Fermilab Tevatron in the year 2006. Its primary goal is to achieve unprecedented levels of sensitivity in the study of CP violation, mixing, and rare decays in b and c quark systems. In order to realize this, it will employ a state-of-the-art first-level vertex trigger (Level 1) that will look at every beam crossing to identify detached secondary vertices that provide evidence for heavy quark decays. This talk will briefly describe the BTeV detector and trigger, focus on the software and hardware aspects of the Level 1 vertex trigger, and describe work currently being done in these areas.

  9. A Tool for Modelling the Impact of Triggered Landslide Events on Road Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, F. E.; Santangelo, M.; Marchesini, I.; Malamud, B. D.; Guzzetti, F.

    2014-12-01

    In the minutes to weeks after a landslide trigger such as an earthquake or heavy rain, tens to thousands of landslides may occur across a region, resulting in simultaneous blockages across the road network, which can impact recovery efforts. In this paper, we show the development, application and confrontation with observed data, of a model to semi-stochastically simulate triggered landslide events and their impact on road network topologies. In this model, "synthetic" triggered landslide event inventories are created by randomly selecting landslide sizes and shapes from already established statistical distributions. The landslides are then semi-randomly distributed over the region's road network, where they are more or less likely to land based on a landslide susceptibility map. The number, size and network impact of the road blockages is then calculated. This process is repeated in a Monte Carlo type simulation to assess a range of scenarios. Due to the generally applicable statistical distributions used to create the synthetic triggered landslide event inventories and the relatively minimal data requirements to run the model, the model is theoretically applicable to many regions of the world where triggered landslide events occur. Current work focuses on applying the model to two regions: (i) the Collazzone basin (79 km2) in Central Italy where 422 landslides were triggered by rapid snowmelt in January 1997, (ii) the Oat Mountain quadrangle (155 km2) in California, USA, where 1,350 landslides were triggered by the Northridge Earthquake (M = 6.7) in January 1994. When appropriate adjustments are made to susceptibility in the immediate vicinity of the roads, model results match reasonably well observations. In Collazzone (length of road = 153 km, landslide density = 5.2 landslides km-2), the median number of road blockages over 100 model runs was 5 (±2.5 s.d.), compared to the observed number of 5. In Northridge (length of road = 780 km, landslide density = 8

  10. Triggering filamentation using turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eeltink, D.; Berti, N.; Marchiando, N.; Hermelin, S.; Gateau, J.; Brunetti, M.; Wolf, J. P.; Kasparian, J.

    2016-09-01

    We study the triggering of single filaments due to turbulence in the beam path for a laser of power below the filamenting threshold. Turbulence can act as a switch between the beam not filamenting and producing single filaments. This positive effect of turbulence on the filament probability, combined with our observation of off-axis filaments, suggests the underlying mechanism is modulation instability caused by transverse perturbations. We hereby experimentally explore the interaction of modulation instability and turbulence, commonly associated with multiple filaments, in the single-filament regime.

  11. Marital conflict, divorce, and children's adjustment.

    PubMed

    Kelly, J B

    1998-04-01

    This article summarizes current research on children's adjustment after separation and divorce, and then focuses on the contributions of marital conflict, marital violence, and hostile family environments to children's adjustment during marriage and after divorce. Children living in marriages with frequent and intense conflict are significantly more likely to have substantial adjustment problems before parental divorce and compromised parent-child relationships. These findings suggest that the deleterious effects of divorce per se have been overstated, with insufficient attention paid in the clinical and research literature to the damaging effects of highly troubled marriages on children's adjustment.

  12. Subnanosecond trigger system for ETA

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, E.G.; Lauer, E.J.; Reginato, L.L.; Rogers D.; Schmidt, J.A.

    1980-05-30

    A high-voltage trigger system capable of triggering 30, 250 kV spark gaps; each with less than +- 1 ns jitter has been constructed. In addition to low jitter rates, the trigger system must be capable of delivering the high voltage pulses to the spark gaps either simultaneously or sequentially as determined by other system requirements. The trigger system consists of several stages of pulse amplification culminating in 160 kV pulses having 30 ns risetime. The trigger system is described and test data provided.

  13. Tau Trigger at the ATLAS Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Benslama, K.; Kalinowski, A.; Belanger-Champange, C.; Brenner, R.; Bosman, M.; Casado, P.; Osuna, C.; Perez, E.; Vorwerk, V.; Czyczula, Z.; Dam, M.; Xella, S.; Demers, S.; Farrington, S.; Igonkina, O.; Kanaya, N.; Tsuno, S.; Ptacek, E.; Reinsch, A.; Strom, David M.; Torrence, E.; /Oregon U. /Sydney U. /Lancaster U. /Birmingham U.

    2011-11-09

    Many theoretical models, like the Standard Model or SUSY at large tan({beta}), predict Higgs bosons or new particles which decay more abundantly to final states including tau leptons than to other leptons. At the energy scale of the LHC, the identification of tau leptons, in particular in the hadronic decay mode, will be a challenging task due to an overwhelming QCD background which gives rise to jets of particles that can be hard to distinguish from hadronic tau decays. Equipped with excellent tracking and calorimetry, the ATLAS experiment has developed tau identification tools capable of working at the trigger level. This contribution presents tau trigger algorithms which exploit the main features of hadronic tau decays and describes the current tau trigger commissioning activities. Many of the SM processes being investigated at ATLAS, as well as numerous BSM searches, contain tau leptons in their final states. Being able to trigger effectively on the tau leptons in these events will contribute to the success of the ATLAS experiment. The tau trigger algorithms and monitoring infrastructure are ready for the first data, and are being tested with the data collected with cosmic muons. The development of efficiency measurements methods using QCD and Z {yields} {tau}{tau} events is well advanced.

  14. Performance and upgrade plans of the LHCb trigger system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gligorov, V. V.; LHCb Collaboration

    2013-08-01

    The trigger of the LHCb experiment consists of two stages: an initial hardware trigger, and a high-level trigger implemented in a farm of parallel-processing CPUs. It reduces the event rate from an input of 15 MHz to an output rate of around 4 kHz. In order to maximize efficiencies and minimize biases, the trigger is designed around inclusive selection algorithms, culminating in a novel boosted decision tree which enables the efficient selection of beauty hadron decays based on a robust partial reconstruction of their decay products. In order to improve performance, the LHCb upgrade aims to significantly increase the rate at which the detector will be read out, and hence shift more of the workload onto the high-level trigger. It is demonstrated that the current high-level trigger architecture will be able to meet this challenge, and the expected efficiencies in several key channels are discussed in context of the LHCb upgrade.

  15. Trigger point therapy.

    PubMed

    Janssens, L A

    1992-03-01

    Trigger points (TP) are objectively demonstrable foci in muscles. They are painful on compression and trigger pain in a referred area. This area may be the only locus of complaint in humans. In dogs we cannot prove the existence of referred zones of pain. Therefore, we can only diagnose a TP-induced claudication if we cannot find bone, joint, or neurologic abnormalities, and we do find TP that disappear after treatment together with the original lameness. Several methods have been developed to demonstrate TP existence objectively. These are pressure algometry, pressure threshold measurements, magnetic resonance thermography, and histology. In humans, 71% of the TP described are acupuncture points. TP treatment consists of TP stimulation with non-invasive or invasive methods such as dry needling or injections. In the dog, ten TP are described in two categories of clinical patients. First, those with one or few TP reacting favorably on treatment (+/- 80% success in +/- 2-3 weeks). Second, those with many TPs reacting badly on treatment. Most probably the latter group are fibromyalgia patients.

  16. High PRF high current switch

    DOEpatents

    Moran, Stuart L.; Hutcherson, R. Kenneth

    1990-03-27

    A triggerable, high voltage, high current, spark gap switch for use in pu power systems. The device comprises a pair of electrodes in a high pressure hydrogen environment that is triggered by introducing an arc between one electrode and a trigger pin. Unusually high repetition rates may be obtained by undervolting the switch, i.e., operating the trigger at voltages much below the self-breakdown voltage of the device.

  17. The Sandia transportable triggered lightning instrumentation facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schnetzer, George H.; Fisher, Richard J.

    1991-01-01

    Development of the Sandia Transportable Triggered Lightning Instrumentation Facility (SATTLIF) was motivated by a requirement for the in situ testing of a munitions storage bunker. Transfer functions relating the incident flash currents to voltages, currents, and electromagnetic field values throughout the structure will be obtained for use in refining and validating a lightning response computer model of this type of structure. A preliminary shakedown trial of the facility under actual operational conditions was performed during summer of 1990 at the Kennedy Space Center's (KSC) rocket-triggered lightning test site. A description is given of the SATTLIF, which is readily transportable on a single flatbed truck of by aircraft, and its instrumentation for measuring incident lightning channel currents and the responses of the systems under test. Measurements of return-stroke current peaks obtained with the SATTLIF are presented. Agreement with data acquired on the same flashes with existing KSC instrumentation is, on average, to within approximately 7 percent. Continuing currents were measured with a resolution of approximately 2.5 A. This field trial demonstrated the practicality of using a transportable triggered lightning facility for specialized test applications.

  18. A novel diode string triggered gated-PiN junction device for electrostatic discharge protection in 65-nm CMOS technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Li-Zhong; Wang, Yuan; Lu, Guang-Yi; Cao, Jian; Zhang, Xing

    2015-10-01

    A novel diode string-triggered gated-PiN junction device, which is fabricated in a standard 65-nm complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology, is proposed in this paper. An embedded gated-PiN junction structure is employed to reduce the diode string leakage current to 13 nA/μm in a temperature range from 25 °C to 85 °C. To provide the effective electrostatic discharge (ESD) protection in multi-voltage power supply, the triggering voltage of the novel device can be adjusted through redistributing parasitic resistance instead of changing the stacked diode number. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2011CBA00606).

  19. Gravity triggered neutrino condensates

    SciTech Connect

    Barenboim, Gabriela

    2010-11-01

    In this work we use the Schwinger-Dyson equations to study the possibility that an enhanced gravitational attraction triggers the formation of a right-handed neutrino condensate, inducing dynamical symmetry breaking and generating a Majorana mass for the right-handed neutrino at a scale appropriate for the seesaw mechanism. The composite field formed by the condensate phase could drive an early epoch of inflation. We find that to the lowest order, the theory does not allow dynamical symmetry breaking. Nevertheless, thanks to the large number of matter fields in the model, the suppression by additional powers in G of higher order terms can be compensated, boosting them up to their lowest order counterparts. This way chiral symmetry can be broken dynamically and the infrared mass generated turns out to be in the expected range for a successful seesaw scenario.

  20. The CMS high level trigger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gori, Valentina

    2014-05-01

    The CMS experiment has been designed with a 2-level trigger system: the Level 1 Trigger, implemented on custom-designed electronics, and the High Level Trigger (HLT), a streamlined version of the CMS offline reconstruction software running on a computer farm. A software trigger system requires a tradeoff between the complexity of the algorithms running on the available computing power, the sustainable output rate, and the selection efficiency. Here we will present the performance of the main triggers used during the 2012 data taking, ranging from simpler single-object selections to more complex algorithms combining different objects, and applying analysis-level reconstruction and selection. We will discuss the optimisation of the triggers and the specific techniques to cope with the increasing LHC pile-up, reducing its impact on the physics performance.

  1. The CMS High Level Trigger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trocino, Daniele

    2014-06-01

    The CMS experiment has been designed with a two-level trigger system: the Level-1 Trigger, implemented in custom-designed electronics, and the High-Level Trigger (HLT), a streamlined version of the CMS offline reconstruction software running on a computer farm. A software trigger system requires a tradeoff between the complexity of the algorithms running with the available computing power, the sustainable output rate, and the selection efficiency. We present the performance of the main triggers used during the 2012 data taking, ranging from simple single-object selections to more complex algorithms combining different objects, and applying analysis-level reconstruction and selection. We discuss the optimisation of the trigger and the specific techniques to cope with the increasing LHC pile-up, reducing its impact on the physics performance.

  2. SLIT ADJUSTMENT CLAMP

    DOEpatents

    McKenzie, K.R.

    1959-07-01

    An electrode support which permits accurate alignment and adjustment of the electrode in a plurality of planes and about a plurality of axes in a calutron is described. The support will align the slits in the electrode with the slits of an ionizing chamber so as to provide for the egress of ions. The support comprises an insulator, a leveling plate carried by the insulator and having diametrically opposed attaching screws screwed to the plate and the insulator and diametrically opposed adjusting screws for bearing against the insulator, and an electrode associated with the plate for adjustment therewith.

  3. Adaptive periodic event-triggered consensus for multi-agent systems subject to input saturation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Xiuxia; Yue, Dong; Hu, Songlin

    2016-04-01

    This paper investigates the distributed adaptive event-triggered consensus control for a class of nonlinear agents. Each agent is subject to input saturation. Two kinds of distributed event-triggered control scheme are introduced, one is continuous-time-based event-triggered scheme and the other is sampled-data-based event-triggered scheme. Compared with the traditional event-triggered schemes in the existing literatures, the parameters of the event-triggered schemes in this paper are adaptively adjusted by using some event-error-dependent adaptive laws. The problem of simultaneously deriving the controller gain matrix and the event-triggering parameter matrix, and tackling the saturation nonlinearity is cast into standard linear matrix inequalities problem. A convincing simulation example is given to demonstrate the theoretical results.

  4. Trigger and Readout System for the Ashra-1 Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aita, Y.; Aoki, T.; Asaoka, Y.; Morimoto, Y.; Motz, H. M.; Sasaki, M.; Abiko, C.; Kanokohata, C.; Ogawa, S.; Shibuya, H.; Takada, T.; Kimura, T.; Learned, J. G.; Matsuno, S.; Kuze, S.; Binder, P. M.; Goldman, J.; Sugiyama, N.; Watanabe, Y.

    Highly sophisticated trigger and readout system has been developed for All-sky Survey High Resolution Air-shower (Ashra) detector. Ashra-1 detector has 42 degree diameter field of view. Detection of Cherenkov and fluorescence light from large background in the large field of view requires finely segmented and high speed trigger and readout system. The system is composed of optical fiber image transmission system, 64 × 64 channel trigger sensor and FPGA based trigger logic processor. The system typically processes the image within 10 to 30 ns and opens the shutter on the fine CMOS sensor. 64 × 64 coarse split image is transferred via 64 × 64 precisely aligned optical fiber bundle to a photon sensor. Current signals from the photon sensor are discriminated by custom made trigger amplifiers. FPGA based processor processes 64 × 64 hit pattern and correspondent partial area of the fine image is acquired. Commissioning earth skimming tau neutrino observational search was carried out with this trigger system. In addition to the geometrical advantage of the Ashra observational site, the excellent tau shower axis measurement based on the fine imaging and the night sky background rejection based on the fine and fast imaging allow zero background tau shower search. Adoption of the optical fiber bundle and trigger LSI realized 4k channel trigger system cheaply. Detectability of tau shower is also confirmed by simultaneously observed Cherenkov air shower. Reduction of the trigger threshold appears to enhance the effective area especially in PeV tau neutrino energy region. New two dimensional trigger LSI was introduced and the trigger threshold was lowered. New calibration system of the trigger system was recently developed and introduced to the Ashra detector

  5. The NA62 trigger system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krivda, M.; NA62 Collaboration

    2013-08-01

    The main aim of the NA62 experiment (NA62 Technical Design Report, [1]) is to study ultra-rare Kaon decays. In order to select rare events over the overwhelming background, central systems with high-performance, high bandwidth, flexibility and configurability are necessary, that minimize dead time while maximizing data collection reliability. The NA62 experiment consists of 12 sub-detector systems and several trigger and control systems, for a total channel count of less than 100,000. The GigaTracKer (GTK) has the largest number of channels (54,000), and the Liquid Krypton (LKr) calorimeter shares with it the largest raw data rate (19 GB/s). The NA62 trigger system works with 3 trigger levels. The first trigger level is based on a hardware central trigger unit, so-called L0 Trigger Processor (L0TP), and Local Trigger Units (LTU), which are all located in the experimental cavern. Other two trigger levels are based on software, and done with a computer farm located on surface. The L0TP receives information from triggering sub-detectors asynchronously via Ethernet; it processes the information, and then transmits a final trigger decision synchronously to each sub-detector through the Trigger and Timing Control (TTC) system. The interface between L0TP and the TTC system, which is used for trigger and clock distribution, is provided by the Local Trigger Unit board (LTU). The LTU can work in two modes: global and stand-alone. In the global mode, the LTU provides an interface between L0TP and TTC system. In the stand-alone mode, the LTU can fully emulate L0TP and so provides an independent way for each sub-detector for testing or calibration purposes. In addition to the emulation functionality, a further functionality is implemented that allows to synchronize the clock of the LTU with the L0TP and the TTC system. For testing and debugging purposes, a Snap Shot Memory (SSM) interface is implemented, that can work

  6. Remotely Adjustable Hydraulic Pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kouns, H. H.; Gardner, L. D.

    1987-01-01

    Outlet pressure adjusted to match varying loads. Electrohydraulic servo has positioned sleeve in leftmost position, adjusting outlet pressure to maximum value. Sleeve in equilibrium position, with control land covering control port. For lowest pressure setting, sleeve shifted toward right by increased pressure on sleeve shoulder from servovalve. Pump used in aircraft and robots, where hydraulic actuators repeatedly turned on and off, changing pump load frequently and over wide range.

  7. Gully evolution and geomorphic adjustments of badlands to recent afforestation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballesteros-Cánovas, Juan Antonio; Stoffel, Markus; Francisco Martín-Duque, Jose; Corona, Christophe; Lucia, Ana; María Bodoque, Jose

    2016-04-01

    Badlands and gullied areas are among the geomorphic environments with the highest erosion rates worldwide, however records on their evolution are very scarce and often limited to presumed initial conditions and the known present state. In this communication, we present a unique and very dense and annual record and outstanding example of erosion processes in a Mediterranean environment in Central Spain, where badland and gullying processes on sandy slopes of a set of mesas have been presumably triggered by quarrying activities since Medieval times. The gully channel evolution here analyzed provides an exceptional example of a larger setting of geomorphic. Besides the analysis of geomorphic adjustments to historical land-use changes induced by historical quarrying and gullying dynamics, we also quantified the impact of current geomorphic adjustments to 20th century afforestation by combining multiproxy such as aerial photography, historical archives, and large dataset of exposed roots to date, quantify, and reconstruct the morphology of a rapidly evolving channel in a gullied catchment. In this analysis, more than 150 exposed roots were analyzed to quantify and report channel incision; widening and gully retreatment rates during the last decades, as well as to quantify sheet erosion on different soil units. Our results suggest that, rather than stabilizing gully evolution, the afforestation carried out during 1960s has played an important role in water-sediment balance and connectivity and would have triggered the initiation of channel incision processes in the 1980s. Therefore, we observe that the channel incision match with a significant increase of the vegetation cover, which leads a significant decrease in sheet erosion rates. Based on our long-term annual gully reconstruction, we observed that sediment delivery does not correlate with the estimated intensity of precipitation (Fourier index). Instead, we observe abrupt morphological changes in the gully are

  8. Triggering requirements for SSC physics

    SciTech Connect

    Gilchriese, M.G.D.

    1989-04-01

    Some aspects of triggering requirements for high P{sub T} physics processes at the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) are described. A very wide range of trigger types will be required to enable detection of the large number of potential physics signatures possible at the SSC. Although in many cases trigger rates are not now well understood, it is possible to conclude that the ability to trigger on transverse energy, number and energy of jets, number and energy of leptons (electrons and muons), missing energy and combinations of these will be required. An SSC trigger system must be both highly flexible and redundant to ensure reliable detection of many new physics processes at the SSC.

  9. Evaluating Alternative Risk Adjusters for Medicare.

    PubMed

    Pope, Gregory C; Adamache, Killard W; Walsh, Edith G; Khandker, Rezaul K

    1998-01-01

    In this study the authors use 3 years of the Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey (MCBS) to evaluate alternative demographic, survey, and claims-based risk adjusters for Medicare capitation payment. The survey health-status models have three to four times the predictive power of the demographic models. The risk-adjustment model derived from claims diagnoses has 75-percent greater predictive power than a comprehensive survey model. No single model predicts average expenditures well for all beneficiary subgroups of interest, suggesting a combined model may be appropriate. More data are needed to obtain stable estimates of model parameters. Advantages and disadvantages of alternative risk adjusters are discussed.

  10. Superconducting FCL using a combined inducted magnetic field trigger and shunt coil

    DOEpatents

    Tekletsadik, Kasegn D.

    2007-10-16

    A single trigger/shunt coil is utilized for combined induced magnetic field triggering and shunt impedance. The single coil connected in parallel with the high temperature superconducting element, is designed to generate a circulating current in the parallel circuit during normal operation to aid triggering the high temperature superconducting element to quench in the event of a fault. The circulating current is generated by an induced voltage in the coil, when the system current flows through the high temperature superconducting element.

  11. GLAST Burst Monitor Trigger Classification Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perrin, D. J.; Sidman, E. D.; Meegan, C. A.; Briggs, M. S.; Connaughton, V.

    2004-01-01

    The Gamma Ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST), currently set for launch in the first quarter of 2007, will consist of two instruments, the GLAST Burst Monitor (GBM) and the Large Area Telescope (LAT). One of the goals of the GBM is to identify and locate gamma-ray bursts using on-board software. The GLAST observatory can then be re-oriented to allow observations by the LAT. A Bayesian analysis will be used to distinguish gamma-ray bursts from other triggering events, such as solar flares, magnetospheric particle precipitation, soft gamma repeaters (SGRs), and Cygnus X-1 flaring. The trigger parameters used in the analysis are the burst celestial coordinates, angle from the Earth's horizon, spectral hardness, and the spacecraft geomagnetic latitude. The algorithm will be described and the results of testing will be presented.

  12. A light-triggered protein secretion system.

    PubMed

    Chen, Daniel; Gibson, Emily S; Kennedy, Matthew J

    2013-05-13

    Optical control of protein interactions has emerged as a powerful experimental paradigm for manipulating and studying various cellular processes. Tools are now available for controlling a number of cellular functions, but some fundamental processes, such as protein secretion, have been difficult to engineer using current optical tools. Here we use UVR8, a plant photoreceptor protein that forms photolabile homodimers, to engineer the first light-triggered protein secretion system. UVR8 fusion proteins were conditionally sequestered in the endoplasmic reticulum, and a brief pulse of light triggered robust forward trafficking through the secretory pathway to the plasma membrane. UVR8 was not responsive to excitation light used to image cyan, green, or red fluorescent protein variants, allowing multicolor visualization of cellular markers and secreted protein cargo as it traverses the cellular secretory pathway. We implemented this novel tool in neurons to demonstrate restricted, local trafficking of secretory cargo near dendritic branch points.

  13. Level-2 Calorimeter Trigger Upgrade at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Flanagan, G.U.; /Purdue U.

    2007-04-01

    The CDF Run II Level-2 calorimeter trigger is implemented in hardware and is based on an algorithm used in Run I. This system insured good performance at low luminosity obtained during the Tevatron Run II. However, as the Tevatron instantaneous luminosity increases, the limitations of the current system due to the algorithm start to become clear. In this paper, we will present an upgrade of the Level-2 calorimeter trigger system at CDF. The upgrade is based on the Pulsar board, a general purpose VME board developed at CDF and used for upgrading both the Level-2 tracking and the Level-2 global decision crate. This paper will describe the design, hardware and software implementation, as well as the advantages of this approach over the existing system.

  14. Seismology: dynamic triggering of earthquakes.

    PubMed

    Gomberg, Joan; Johnson, Paul

    2005-10-01

    After an earthquake, numerous smaller shocks are triggered over distances comparable to the dimensions of the mainshock fault rupture, although they are rare at larger distances. Here we analyse the scaling of dynamic deformations (the stresses and strains associated with seismic waves) with distance from, and magnitude of, their triggering earthquake, and show that they can cause further earthquakes at any distance if their amplitude exceeds several microstrain, regardless of their frequency content. These triggering requirements are remarkably similar to those measured in the laboratory for inducing dynamic elastic nonlinear behaviour, which suggests that the underlying physics is similar.

  15. Triggered Release from Polymer Capsules

    SciTech Connect

    Esser-Kahn, Aaron P.; Odom, Susan A.; Sottos, Nancy R.; White, Scott R.; Moore, Jeffrey S.

    2011-07-06

    Stimuli-responsive capsules are of interest in drug delivery, fragrance release, food preservation, and self-healing materials. Many methods are used to trigger the release of encapsulated contents. Here we highlight mechanisms for the controlled release of encapsulated cargo that utilize chemical reactions occurring in solid polymeric shell walls. Triggering mechanisms responsible for covalent bond cleavage that result in the release of capsule contents include chemical, biological, light, thermal, magnetic, and electrical stimuli. We present methods for encapsulation and release, triggering methods, and mechanisms and conclude with our opinions on interesting obstacles for chemically induced activation with relevance for controlled release.

  16. Mirror-image trigger thumb in dichorionic identical twins.

    PubMed

    Wang, Eric D; Xu, Xiaoti; Dagum, Alexander B

    2012-06-01

    The congenital vs acquired etiology of pediatric trigger thumb is the subject of considerable debate. Existing case reports of bilateral presentation in identical twins and first-degree familial association support the congenital hypothesis. However, prospective studies have yet to report a neonate presenting with this anomaly at birth. This article describes the first known set of dichorionic, monozygotic identical twins with unilateral trigger thumbs, affecting contralateral (mirror-image) hands and with asynchronous age at presentation (11 months and 18 months, respectively).Pediatric trigger thumb is caused by a mismatch between the flexor pollicis longus tendon and its A1 synovial pulley. Four sets of twins have been previously reported in the literature with trigger thumb. Of these, 3 sets were monozygotic twins who had bilaterally affected thumbs. Together with the absence of trauma, a congenital etiology was suggested. The fact that pediatric trigger thumb is generally seen several months after birth was felt to be due to infants holding their thumbs clutched in their palms until 6 months. However, no confirmed cases of trigger thumb have been diagnosed at birth in several large prospective studies of newborns.In the current case, the asynchronous presentation of unilateral trigger thumbs in identical twins does not support a solely congenital cause. Furthermore, the mirror-image presentation contradicts current embryological understanding of the temporal course of twinning and the determination of laterality. Thus, a multifactorial etiology is supported with both a genetic and acquired component affecting the development of this condition. PMID:22691680

  17. LIF bio-aerosol threat triggers: then and now

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeFreez, Richard

    2009-09-01

    Bio-aerosol terrorist attacks have been carried out against civilians in the United States and elsewhere. Unfortunately, recurrence appears inevitable. A fast, reliable, and inexpensive bioaerosol threat detection trigger can be an important tool for detect-to-protect and detect-to-treat countermeasure scenarios. Bio-aerosol threat detection triggers employing light, historically laser light but recently LED light, for induced native- or auto-fluorescence (LIF) have been developed for well over a decade without a generally accepted solution being found. This paper presents a brief history of LIF triggers and reviews many vendor efforts, past and current. Various technical approaches and design considerations are discussed. Triggers from ICx technology, currently available or in development, are also discussed.

  18. Orion Exploration Flight Test-1 Contingency Drogue Deploy Velocity Trigger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gay, Robert S.; Stochowiak, Susan; Smith, Kelly

    2013-01-01

    As a backup to the GPS-aided Kalman filter and the Barometric altimeter, an "adjusted" velocity trigger is used during entry to trigger the chain of events that leads to drogue chute deploy for the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) Exploration Flight Test-1 (EFT-1). Even though this scenario is multiple failures deep, the Orion Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GN&C) software makes use of a clever technique that was taken from the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) program, which recently successfully landing the Curiosity rover on Mars. MSL used this technique to jettison the heat shield at the proper time during descent. Originally, Orion use the un-adjusted navigated velocity, but the removal of the Star Tracker to save costs for EFT-1, increased attitude errors which increased inertial propagation errors to the point where the un-adjusted velocity caused altitude dispersions at drogue deploy to be too large. Thus, to reduce dispersions, the velocity vector is projected onto a "reference" vector that represents the nominal "truth" vector at the desired point in the trajectory. Because the navigation errors are largely perpendicular to the truth vector, this projection significantly reduces dispersions in the velocity magnitude. This paper will detail the evolution of this trigger method for the Orion project and cover the various methods tested to determine the reference "truth" vector; and at what point in the trajectory it should be computed.

  19. Simple, Internally Adjustable Valve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burley, Richard K.

    1990-01-01

    Valve containing simple in-line, adjustable, flow-control orifice made from ordinary plumbing fitting and two allen setscrews. Construction of valve requires only simple drilling, tapping, and grinding. Orifice installed in existing fitting, avoiding changes in rest of plumbing.

  20. Self Adjusting Sunglasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Corning Glass Works' Serengeti Driver sunglasses are unique in that their lenses self-adjust and filter light while suppressing glare. They eliminate more than 99% of the ultraviolet rays in sunlight. The frames are based on the NASA Anthropometric Source Book.

  1. Rural to Urban Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abramson, Jane A.

    Personal interviews with 100 former farm operators living in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, were conducted in an attempt to understand the nature of the adjustment process caused by migration from rural to urban surroundings. Requirements for inclusion in the study were that respondents had owned or operated a farm for at least 3 years, had left their…

  2. Self adjusting inclinometer

    DOEpatents

    Hunter, Steven L.

    2002-01-01

    An inclinometer utilizing synchronous demodulation for high resolution and electronic offset adjustment provides a wide dynamic range without any moving components. A device encompassing a tiltmeter and accompanying electronic circuitry provides quasi-leveled tilt sensors that detect highly resolved tilt change without signal saturation.

  3. Landslide triggering modeling in Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jafari Manesh, Ahoura; Mignan, Arnaud; Giardini, Domenico

    2016-04-01

    Switzerland is prone to hazard interactions due to its mountainous landscape. Historical earthquakes are known to have triggered aftershocks, landslides, rock falls and avalanches, as well as lake tsunamis. Here we present a simple cellular automaton to simulate landslide footprints triggered by both rain and earthquakes. The method is based on the Sandpile model, which dynamics is controlled by the ground slope. Rain levels are approximated by ground water saturation and earthquake-landslide triggering is evaluated using the concept of Newmark displacement. That concept is then modified to estimate stable slopes during shaking at which locations the landslide stops. The cellular automaton is first tested in a virtual region where a parameter sensitivity analysis is made. Then it is tested in a region of Switzerland, where historic landslides triggered by earthquakes are known to have occurred.

  4. 42 CFR 403.750 - Estimate of expenditures and adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... amount (the unadjusted trigger level dollar amount for the prior FFY) increased by the average consumer... presents the relationship in United States urban areas for the current cost of goods and services...

  5. Stimuli triggering violence in psychoses.

    PubMed

    Pontius, A A

    1981-01-01

    Various behavioral and neurophysiological models are suggested to objectify and quantify the defense of insanity and to assess dangerousness in someone who is being considered for release from custody. Two cases are presented that show a pattern of specific relationships between traumatic experiences in youth and a later trigger stimulus that releases homicidal action. Until a refined classification system and neurophysiological understanding of sudden aggression can be achieved, forensic psychiatrists should be aware of the psychotic trigger reaction within a clinical psychiatric model.

  6. Unconsciously triggered conflict adaptation.

    PubMed

    van Gaal, Simon; Lamme, Victor A F; Ridderinkhof, K Richard

    2010-01-01

    In conflict tasks such as the Stroop, the Eriksen flanker or the Simon task, it is generally observed that the detection of conflict in the current trial reduces the impact of conflicting information in the subsequent trial; a phenomenon termed conflict adaptation. This higher-order cognitive control function has been assumed to be restricted to cases where conflict is experienced consciously. In the present experiment we manipulated the awareness of conflict-inducing stimuli in a metacontrast masking paradigm to directly test this assumption. Conflicting response tendencies were elicited either consciously (through primes that were weakly masked) or unconsciously (strongly masked primes). We demonstrate trial-by-trial conflict adaptation effects after conscious as well as unconscious conflict, which could not be explained by direct stimulus/response repetitions. These findings show that unconscious information can have a longer-lasting influence on our behavior than previously thought and further stretch the functional boundaries of unconscious cognition. PMID:20634898

  7. Precision adjustable stage

    DOEpatents

    Cutburth, Ronald W.; Silva, Leonard L.

    1988-01-01

    An improved mounting stage of the type used for the detection of laser beams is disclosed. A stage center block is mounted on each of two opposite sides by a pair of spaced ball bearing tracks which provide stability as well as simplicity. The use of the spaced ball bearing pairs in conjunction with an adjustment screw which also provides support eliminates extraneous stabilization components and permits maximization of the area of the center block laser transmission hole.

  8. Adjustable vane windmills

    SciTech Connect

    Ducker, W.L.

    1982-09-14

    A system of rotatably and pivotally mounted radially extended bent supports for radially extending windmill rotor vanes in combination with axially movable radially extended control struts connected to the vanes with semi-automatic and automatic torque and other sensing and servo units provide automatic adjustment of the windmill vanes relative to their axes of rotation to produce mechanical output at constant torque or at constant speed or electrical quantities dependent thereon.

  9. Adjustable vane windmills

    SciTech Connect

    Ducker, W.L.

    1980-01-15

    A system of rotatably and pivotally mounted radially extended bent supports for radially extending windmill rotor vanes in combination with axially movable radially extended control struts connected to the vanes with semi-automatic and automatic torque and other sensing and servo units provide automatic adjustment of the windmill vanes relative to their axes of rotation to produce mechanical output at constant torque or at constant speed or electrical quantities dependent thereon.

  10. Adjustable vane windmills

    SciTech Connect

    Ducker, W.L.

    1982-09-07

    A system of rotatably and pivotally mounted radially extended bent supports for radially extending windmill rotor vanes in combination with axially movable radially extended control struts connected to the vanes with semi-automatic and automatic torque and other sensing and servo units provide automatic adjustment of the windmill vanes relative to their axes of rotation to produce mechanical output at constant torque or at constant speed or electrical quantities dependent thereon.

  11. Implementation and Performance of the Tau Trigger in the ATLAS Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Bosman, M.; Casado, P.; Dam, M.; Demers, S.; Igonkina, O.; Osuna, C.; Perez, E.; Soluk, R.; Strom, D.; Torrence, E.; Watson, A.; Xella, S.; /Copenhagen U.

    2011-11-15

    Triggering on hadronic taus at the LHC is a difficult task due to the high rate and occupancy of the events. On the other hand, the tau trigger increases the discovery potential of ATLAS in many physics channels, among others the Standard Model or SuperSymmetric Higgs (charged or neutrals) production. In order to cope with the rate and optimize the efficiency on important physics channels, the results of the current simulation studies indicate that the ATLAS tau trigger should be used either with relatively high transverse momentum thresholds alone, or with more relaxed threshold requirements in combination with other triggers, like the missing transverse energy trigger or a leptonic or jet trigger. In this contribution we describe the ATLAS tau trigger, and we present some of the current results from the simulation studies, focusing both on early physics and on physics at high luminosity.

  12. Anthropogenic triggering of large earthquakes.

    PubMed

    Mulargia, Francesco; Bizzarri, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    The physical mechanism of the anthropogenic triggering of large earthquakes on active faults is studied on the basis of experimental phenomenology, i.e., that earthquakes occur on active tectonic faults, that crustal stress values are those measured in situ and, on active faults, comply to the values of the stress drop measured for real earthquakes, that the static friction coefficients are those inferred on faults, and that the effective triggering stresses are those inferred for real earthquakes. Deriving the conditions for earthquake nucleation as a time-dependent solution of the Tresca-Von Mises criterion applied in the framework of poroelasticity yields that active faults can be triggered by fluid overpressures < 0.1 MPa. Comparing this with the deviatoric stresses at the depth of crustal hypocenters, which are of the order of 1-10 MPa, we find that injecting in the subsoil fluids at the pressures typical of oil and gas production and storage may trigger destructive earthquakes on active faults at a few tens of kilometers. Fluid pressure propagates as slow stress waves along geometric paths operating in a drained condition and can advance the natural occurrence of earthquakes by a substantial amount of time. Furthermore, it is illusory to control earthquake triggering by close monitoring of minor "foreshocks", since the induction may occur with a delay up to several years.

  13. Anthropogenic triggering of large earthquakes.

    PubMed

    Mulargia, Francesco; Bizzarri, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    The physical mechanism of the anthropogenic triggering of large earthquakes on active faults is studied on the basis of experimental phenomenology, i.e., that earthquakes occur on active tectonic faults, that crustal stress values are those measured in situ and, on active faults, comply to the values of the stress drop measured for real earthquakes, that the static friction coefficients are those inferred on faults, and that the effective triggering stresses are those inferred for real earthquakes. Deriving the conditions for earthquake nucleation as a time-dependent solution of the Tresca-Von Mises criterion applied in the framework of poroelasticity yields that active faults can be triggered by fluid overpressures < 0.1 MPa. Comparing this with the deviatoric stresses at the depth of crustal hypocenters, which are of the order of 1-10 MPa, we find that injecting in the subsoil fluids at the pressures typical of oil and gas production and storage may trigger destructive earthquakes on active faults at a few tens of kilometers. Fluid pressure propagates as slow stress waves along geometric paths operating in a drained condition and can advance the natural occurrence of earthquakes by a substantial amount of time. Furthermore, it is illusory to control earthquake triggering by close monitoring of minor "foreshocks", since the induction may occur with a delay up to several years. PMID:25156190

  14. Anthropogenic Triggering of Large Earthquakes

    PubMed Central

    Mulargia, Francesco; Bizzarri, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    The physical mechanism of the anthropogenic triggering of large earthquakes on active faults is studied on the basis of experimental phenomenology, i.e., that earthquakes occur on active tectonic faults, that crustal stress values are those measured in situ and, on active faults, comply to the values of the stress drop measured for real earthquakes, that the static friction coefficients are those inferred on faults, and that the effective triggering stresses are those inferred for real earthquakes. Deriving the conditions for earthquake nucleation as a time-dependent solution of the Tresca-Von Mises criterion applied in the framework of poroelasticity yields that active faults can be triggered by fluid overpressures < 0.1 MPa. Comparing this with the deviatoric stresses at the depth of crustal hypocenters, which are of the order of 1–10 MPa, we find that injecting in the subsoil fluids at the pressures typical of oil and gas production and storage may trigger destructive earthquakes on active faults at a few tens of kilometers. Fluid pressure propagates as slow stress waves along geometric paths operating in a drained condition and can advance the natural occurrence of earthquakes by a substantial amount of time. Furthermore, it is illusory to control earthquake triggering by close monitoring of minor “foreshocks”, since the induction may occur with a delay up to several years. PMID:25156190

  15. Hardware and firmware developments for the upgrade of the ATLAS Level-1 Central Trigger Processor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anders, G.; Bertelsen, H.; Boisen, A.; Childers, T.; Dam, M.; Ellis, N.; Farthouat, P.; Gabaldon Ruiz, C.; Ghibaudi, M.; Gorini, B.; Haas, S.; Kaneda, M.; Ohm, C.; Silva Oliveira, M.; Pauly, T.; Pöttgen, R.; Schmieden, K.; Spiwoks, R.; Xella, S.

    2014-01-01

    The Central Trigger Processor (CTP) is the final stage of the ATLAS first level trigger system which reduces the collision rate of 40 MHz to a Level-1 event rate of 100 kHz. An upgrade of the CTP is currently underway to significantly increase the number of trigger inputs and trigger combinations, allowing additional flexibility for the trigger menu. We present the hardware and FPGA firmware of the newly designed core module (CTPCORE+) module of the CTP, as well as results from a system used for early firmware and software prototyping based on commercial FPGA evaluation boards. First test result from the CTPCORE+ module will also be shown.

  16. Social Phobia and Difficulties in Occupational Adjustment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruch, Monroe A.; Fallon, Melissa; Heimberg, Richard G.

    2003-01-01

    Examines whether social phobics differ from nonanxious controls in occupational adjustment. Results indicated that social phobics were underemployed and believed that their supervisor would rate them as less dependable. Social phobics were more anxious when starting their current job but did not differ in job satisfaction. Discusses results…

  17. Integral magnetic ignition pickup trigger

    SciTech Connect

    King, R.

    1992-10-27

    This patent describes a trigger system for the ignition system of an internal combustion engine having a crankcase with a rotatable crankshaft therein, and a flywheel on one end of the crankcase connected to an end of the crankshaft. It comprises: a nonferromagnetic disk-shaped hub for connection to the crankshaft and rotatable therewith on the end opposite the flywheel; and a stationary sensor mounted adjacent the hub for detecting impulses from the magnetically responsive elements as the hub rotates and utilizing the impulses to trigger the ignition system.

  18. Know Your Smoking Triggers | Smokefree.gov

    Cancer.gov

    Triggers are the things that make you want to smoke. Different people have different triggers, like a stressful situation, sipping coffee, going to a party, or smelling cigarette smoke. Most triggers fall into one of these four categories: Emotional Pattern Social Withdrawal Knowing your triggers and understanding the best way to deal with them is your first line of defense.

  19. Lightning Return-Stroke Current Waveforms Aloft, From Measured Field Change, Current, and Channel Geometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willett, J. C.; LeVine, D. M.

    2002-01-01

    Direct current measurements are available near the attachment point from both natural cloud-to-ground lightning and rocket-triggered lightning, but little is known about the rise time and peak amplitude of return-stroke currents aloft. We present, as functions of height, current amplitudes, rise times, and effective propagation velocities that have been estimated with a novel remote-sensing technique from data on 24 subsequent return strokes in six different lightning flashes that were triggering at the NASA Kennedy Space Center, FL, during 1987. The unique feature of this data set is the stereo pairs of still photographs, from which three-dimensional channel geometries were determined previously. This has permitted us to calculate the fine structure of the electric-field-change (E) waveforms produced by these strokes, using the current waveforms measured at the channel base together with physically reasonable assumptions about the current distributions aloft. The computed waveforms have been compared with observed E waveforms from the same strokes, and our assumptions have been adjusted to maximize agreement. In spite of the non-uniqueness of solutions derived by this technique, several conclusions seem inescapable: 1) The effective propagation speed of the current up the channel is usually significantly (but not unreasonably) faster than the two-dimensional velocity measured by a streak camera for 14 of these strokes. 2) Given the deduced propagation speed, the peak amplitude of the current waveform often must decrease dramatically with height to prevent the electric field from being over-predicted. 3) The rise time of the current wave front must always increase rapidly with height in order to keep the fine structure of the calculated field consistent with the observations.

  20. Efficient circuit triggers high-current, high-voltage pulses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, E. D.

    1964-01-01

    Modified circuit uses diodes to effectively disconnect the charging resistors from the circuit during the discharge cycle. Result is an efficient parallel charging, high voltage pulse modulator with low voltage rating of components.

  1. Current-level triggered plasma-opening switch

    DOEpatents

    Mendel, C.W.

    1987-06-29

    An opening switch for very high power electrical pulses uses a slow magnetic field to confine a plasma across a gap between two electrodes. The plasma conducts the electric pulse across the gap while the switch is closed. A magnetic field generated by the pulse repels the slow magnetic field from the negative electrode to push the plasma from the electrode, opening the switch. A plurality of radial vanes may be used to enhance the slow magnetic field. 5 figs.

  2. Current-level triggered plasma-opening switch

    SciTech Connect

    Mendel, Clifford W.

    1989-01-01

    An opening switch for very high power electrical pulses uses a slow magnetic field to confine a plasma across a gap between two electrodes. The plasma conducts the electric pulse across the gap while the switch is closed. A magnetic field generated by the pulse repels the slow magnetic field from the negative electrode to push the plasma from the electrode, opening the switch. A plurality of radial vanes may be used to enhance the slow magnetic field.

  3. Current-level triggered plasma-opening switch

    SciTech Connect

    Mendel, C.W.

    1989-03-14

    An opening switch for very high power electrical pulses uses a slow magnetic field to confine a plasma across a gap between two electrodes. The plasma conducts the electrical pulse across the gap while the switch is closed. A magnetic field generated by the pulse repels the slow magnetic field from the negative electrode to push the plasma from the electrode, opening the switch. A plurality of radial vanes may be used to enhance the slow magnetic field.

  4. Proportional assist ventilation and neurally adjusted ventilatory assist.

    PubMed

    Kacmarek, Robert M

    2011-02-01

    Patient-ventilator synchrony is a common problem with all patients actively triggering the mechanical ventilator. In many cases synchrony can be improved by vigilant adjustments by the managing clinician. However, in most institutions clinicians are not able to spend the time necessary to ensure synchrony in all patients. Proportional assist ventilation (PAV) and neurally adjusted ventilatory assist (NAVA) were both developed to improve patient-ventilator synchrony by proportionally unloading ventilatory effort and turning control of the ventilatory pattern over to the patient. This paper discusses PAV's and NAVA's theory of operation, general process of application, and the supporting literature.

  5. Resource Utilization by the ATLAS High Level Trigger during 2010 and 2011 LHC Running

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ospanov, Rustem; ATLAS Collaboration

    In 2010 and 2011, the ATLAS experiment successfully recorded data from LHC collisions with high efficiency and excellent data quality. ATLAS employs a three-level trigger system to select events of interest for physics analyzes and detector commissioning. The trigger system consists of a custom-designed hardware trigger at level-1 and software algorithms at the two higher levels. The trigger selection is defined by a trigger menu which consists of more than 300 individual trigger signatures, such as electrons, muons, particle jets, etc. An execution of a trigger signature incurs computing and data storage costs. The composition of the deployed trigger menu depends on the instantaneous LHC luminosity, the experiment's goals for the recorded data, and the limits imposed by the available computing power, network bandwidth and storage space. This paper describes a trigger monitoring framework for assigning computing costs for individual trigger signatures and trigger menus as a whole. These costs can be extrapolated to higher luminosity allowing development of trigger menus for a higher LHC collision rate than currently achievable.

  6. A New Look at Trigger Point Injections

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Clara S. M.; Wong, Steven H. S.

    2012-01-01

    Trigger point injections are commonly practised pain interventional techniques. However, there is still lack of objective diagnostic criteria for trigger points. The mechanisms of action of trigger point injection remain obscure and its efficacy remains heterogeneous. The advent of ultrasound technology in the noninvasive real-time imaging of soft tissues sheds new light on visualization of trigger points, explaining the effect of trigger point injection by blockade of peripheral nerves, and minimizing the complications of blind injection. PMID:21969825

  7. Subsea adjustable choke valves

    SciTech Connect

    Cyvas, M.K. )

    1989-08-01

    With emphasis on deepwater wells and marginal offshore fields growing, the search for reliable subsea production systems has become a high priority. A reliable subsea adjustable choke is essential to the realization of such a system, and recent advances are producing the degree of reliability required. Technological developments have been primarily in (1) trim material (including polycrystalline diamond), (2) trim configuration, (3) computer programs for trim sizing, (4) component materials, and (5) diver/remote-operated-vehicle (ROV) interfaces. These five facets are overviewed and progress to date is reported. A 15- to 20-year service life for adjustable subsea chokes is now a reality. Another factor vital to efficient use of these technological developments is to involve the choke manufacturer and ROV/diver personnel in initial system conceptualization. In this manner, maximum benefit can be derived from the latest technology. Major areas of development still required and under way are listed, and the paper closes with a tabulation of successful subsea choke installations in recent years.

  8. Assessment of Myofascial Trigger Points Using Ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Kumbhare, Dinesh A; Elzibak, Alyaa H; Noseworthy, Michael D

    2016-01-01

    Myofascial pain syndrome is a common musculoskeletal pain disorder characterized by the presence of myofascial trigger points (MTrPs). The diagnosis of myofascial pain syndrome is currently made on clinical grounds. Numerous diagnostic criteria are used to identify myofascial pain syndrome, including the localization of MTrPs. Identifying the presence of MTrPs currently requires the physician to palpate the symptomatic region. Because the interrater reliability of the palpation technique has been found to be poor, numerous groups have been interested in finding objective imaging measures to localize the MTrP. This comprehensive review focuses on summarizing ultrasound imaging techniques that have shown promise in visually localizing the trigger point. The authors' literature search identified three sonographic approaches that have been used in MTrP localization: conventional gray-scale imaging, Doppler imaging, and elastographic ultrasound imaging. This review article explains the basic physics behind the imaging methods and summarizes the characteristics of the MTrP as identified by the ultrasonic techniques.

  9. Environmental Triggers of Autoimmune Thyroiditis

    PubMed Central

    Burek, C. Lynne; Talor, Monica V.

    2009-01-01

    Autoimmune thyroiditis is among the most prevalent of all the autoimmunities. Autoimmune thyroiditis is multifactorial with contributions from genetic and environmental factors. Much information has been published about the genetic predisposition to autoimmune thyroiditis both in experimental animals and humans. There is, in contrast, very little data on environmental agents that can serve as the trigger or autoimmunity in a genetically predisposed host. The best-established environmental factor is excess dietary iodine. Increased iodine consumption is strongly implicated as a trigger for thyroiditis, but only in genetically susceptible individuals. However, excess iodine is not the only environmental agent implicated as a trigger leading to autoimmune thyroiditis. There are a wide variety of other synthetic chemicals that affect the thyroid gland or have the ability to promote immune dysfunction in the host. These chemicals are released into the environment by design, such as in pesticides, or as a by-product of industry. Candidate pollutants include polyaromatic hydrocarbons, polybrominated biphenols, and polychlorinated biphenols, among others. Infections are also reputed to trigger autoimmunity and may act alone or in concert with environmental chemicals. We have utilized a unique animal model, the NOD.H2h4 mouse to explore the influence of iodine and other environmental factors on autoimmune thyroiditis. PMID:19818584

  10. Environmental triggers of autoimmune thyroiditis.

    PubMed

    Burek, C Lynne; Talor, Monica V

    2009-01-01

    Autoimmune thyroiditis is among the most prevalent of all the autoimmunities. Autoimmune thyroiditis is multifactorial with contributions from genetic and environmental factors. Much information has been published about the genetic predisposition to autoimmune thyroiditis both in experimental animals and humans. There is, in contrast, very little data on environmental agents that can serve as the trigger for autoimmunity in a genetically predisposed host. The best-established environmental factor is excess dietary iodine. Increased iodine consumption is strongly implicated as a trigger for thyroiditis, but only in genetically susceptible individuals. However, excess iodine is not the only environmental agent implicated as a trigger leading to autoimmune thyroiditis. There are a wide variety of other synthetic chemicals that affect the thyroid gland or have the ability to promote immune dysfunction in the host. These chemicals are released into the environment by design, such as in pesticides, or as a by-product of industry. Candidate pollutants include polyaromatic hydrocarbons, polybrominated biphenols, and polychlorinated biphenols, among others. Infections are also reputed to trigger autoimmunity and may act alone or in concert with environmental chemicals. We have utilized a unique animal model, the NOD.H2(h4) mouse to explore the influence of iodine and other environmental factors on autoimmune thyroiditis. PMID:19818584

  11. Suicide Triggers Described by Herodotus

    PubMed Central

    Auchincloss, Stephane; Ahmadi, Jamshid

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to better understand the triggers of suicide, particularly among the ancient Greek and Persian soldiers and commanders. Method: ‘Herodotus:TheHistories’ is a history of the rulers and soldiery who participated in the Greco-Persian wars (492-449 BCE). A new translation (2013) of this manuscript was studied. Accounts of suicide were collected and collated, with descriptions of circumstances, methods, and probable triggers. Results: Nine accounts of suicide were identified. Eight of these were named individuals (4 Greeks and 4 Persians); of whom, seven were male. Only one (not the female) appeared to act in response to a mental disorder. Other triggers of suicide included guilt, avoidance of dishonour/punishment and altruism. Cutting/ stabbing was the most common method; others included hanging, jumping, poison, and burning (the single female). Conclusion: While soldiers at a time of war do not reflect the general community, they are nevertheless members of their society. Thus, this evidence demonstrates that suicide triggered by burdensome circumstances (in addition to mental disorder) was known to the Greek and Persian people more than two millennia ago. PMID:27437010

  12. Triggering Reform at Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Andrew P.

    2012-01-01

    An intriguing experiment is afoot in some of the nation's struggling public schools. New "Parent Trigger" laws passed in California and on the agenda in New York, Ohio, Colorado, and Chicago, allow parents of chronically failing schools to unseat the schools' leadership and staff. But the initiative has pitfalls. It's easy to mobilize parents to…

  13. Host defenses trigger salmonella's arsenal.

    PubMed

    Keestra, A Marijke; Bäumler, Andreas J

    2011-03-17

    Salmonella survives in macrophages by using a molecular syringe to deliver proteins into the host-cell cytosol where they manipulate phagocyte physiology. Arpaia and colleagues (Arpaia et al., 2011) show that deployment of this virulence factor is triggered by the very responses that are intended to confer host resistance. PMID:21402352

  14. Adolescent Mothers' Adjustment to Parenting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, Valerie Jarvis; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examined adolescent mothers' adjustment to parenting, self-esteem, social support, and perceptions of baby. Subjects (n=52) responded to questionnaires at two time periods approximately six months apart. Mothers with higher self-esteem at Time 1 had better adjustment at Time 2. Adjustment was predicted by Time 2 variables; contact with baby's…

  15. Trigger algorithms and electronics for the ATLAS muon new small wheel upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, L.

    2016-01-01

    The New Small Wheel Upgrade for the ATLAS experiment will replace the innermost station of the Muon Spectrometer in the forward region in order to maintain its current performance during high luminosity data-taking after the LHC Phase-I upgrade. The New Small Wheel, comprising Micromegas and small Thin Gap Chambers, will reduce the rate of fake triggers coming from backgrounds in the forward region and significantly improve the Level-1 muon trigger selectivity by providing precise on-line segment measurements with ~ 1 mrad angular resolution. Such demanding precision, together with the short time (~ 1 μs) to prepare trigger data and perform on-line reconstruction, implies very stringent requirements on the design of trigger system and trigger electronics. This paper presents an overview of the design of the New Small Wheel trigger system, trigger algorithms and processor hardware.

  16. Interfacing Detectors to Triggers And DAQ Electronics

    SciTech Connect

    Crosetto, Dario B.

    1999-05-03

    The complete design of the front-end electronics interfacing LHCb detectors, Level-0 trigger and higher levels of trigger with flexible configuration parameters has been made for (a) ASIC implementation, and (b) FPGA implementation. The importance of approaching designs in technology-independent form becomes essential with the actual rapid electronics evolution. Being able to constrain the entire design to a few types of replicated components: (a) the fully programmable 3D-Flow system, and (b) the configurable front-end circuit described in this article, provides even further advantages because only one or two types of components will need to migrate to the newer technologies. To base on today's technology the design of a system such as the LHCb project that is to begin working in 2006 is not cost-effective. The effort required to migrate to a higher-performance will, in that case, be almost equivalent to completely redesigning the architecture from scratch. The proposed technology independent design with the current configurable front-end module described in this article and the scalable 3D-Flow fully programmable system described elsewhere, based on the study of the evolution of electronics during the past few years and the forecasted advances in the years to come, aims to provide a technology-independent design which lends itself to any technology at any time. In this case, technology independence is based mainly on generic-HDL reusable code which allows a very rapid realization of the state-of-the-art circuits in terms of gate density, power dissipation, and clock frequency. The design of four trigger towers presently fits into an OR3T30 FPGA. Preliminary test results (provided in this paper) meet the functional requirements of LHCb and provide sufficient flexibility to introduce future changes. The complete system design is also provided along with the integration of the front-end design in the entire system and the cost and dimension of the electronics.

  17. Trigger Finger: Adult and Pediatric Treatment Strategies.

    PubMed

    Giugale, Juan M; Fowler, John R

    2015-10-01

    Trigger fingers are common tendinopathies representing a stenosing flexor tenosynovitis of the fingers. Adult trigger finger can be treated nonsurgically using activity modification, splinting, and/or corticosteroid injections. Surgical treatment options include percutaneous A1 pulley release and open A1 pulley release. Excision of a slip of the flexor digitorum superficialis is reserved for patients with persistent triggering despite A1 release or patients with persistent flexion contracture. Pediatric trigger thumb is treated with open A1 pulley release. Pediatric trigger finger is treated with release of the A1 pulley with excision of a slip or all of the flexor digitorum superficialis if triggering persists. PMID:26410644

  18. Psychosocial adjustment to ALS: a longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Matuz, Tamara; Birbaumer, Niels; Hautzinger, Martin; Kübler, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    For the current study the Lazarian stress-coping theory and the appendant model of psychosocial adjustment to chronic illness and disabilities (Pakenham, 1999) has shaped the foundation for identifying determinants of adjustment to ALS. We aimed to investigate the evolution of psychosocial adjustment to ALS and to determine its long-term predictors. A longitudinal study design with four measurement time points was therefore, used to assess patients' quality of life, depression, and stress-coping model related aspects, such as illness characteristics, social support, cognitive appraisals, and coping strategies during a period of 2 years. Regression analyses revealed that 55% of the variance of severity of depressive symptoms and 47% of the variance in quality of life at T2 was accounted for by all the T1 predictor variables taken together. On the level of individual contributions, protective buffering, and appraisal of own coping potential accounted for a significant percentage in the variance in severity of depressive symptoms, whereas problem management coping strategies explained variance in quality of life scores. Illness characteristics at T2 did not explain any variance of both adjustment outcomes. Overall, the pattern of the longitudinal results indicated stable depressive symptoms and quality of life indices reflecting a successful adjustment to the disease across four measurement time points during a period of about two years. Empirical evidence is provided for the predictive value of social support, cognitive appraisals, and coping strategies, but not illness parameters such as severity and duration for adaptation to ALS. The current study contributes to a better conceptualization of adjustment, allowing us to provide evidence-based support beyond medical and physical intervention for people with ALS. PMID:26441696

  19. The CDF silicon vertex trigger

    SciTech Connect

    B. Ashmanskas; A. Barchiesi; A. Bardi

    2003-06-23

    The CDF experiment's Silicon Vertex Trigger is a system of 150 custom 9U VME boards that reconstructs axial tracks in the CDF silicon strip detector in a 15 {mu}sec pipeline. SVT's 35 {mu}m impact parameter resolution enables CDF's Level 2 trigger to distinguish primary and secondary particles, and hence to collect large samples of hadronic bottom and charm decays. We review some of SVT's key design features. Speed is achieved with custom VLSI pattern recognition, linearized track fitting, pipelining, and parallel processing. Testing and reliability are aided by built-in logic state analysis and test-data sourcing at each board's input and output, a common inter-board data link, and a universal ''Merger'' board for data fan-in/fan-out. Speed and adaptability are enhanced by use of modern FPGAs.

  20. Examining changes in relationship adjustment and life satisfaction in marriage.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Scott M; Ragan, Erica P; Rhoades, Galena K; Markman, Howard J

    2012-02-01

    The current study examined the association between relationship adjustment and life satisfaction before marriage to 6 years into marriage in a sample of 126 couples. Results showed that both premarital relationship adjustment and premarital life satisfaction uniquely predicted marital adjustment 6 years into marriage. Premarital life satisfaction, but not premarital relationship adjustment, predicted life satisfaction 6 years into marriage. While premarital relationship adjustment scores were not uniquely associated with future life satisfaction scores, changes in relationship adjustment were positively associated with future life satisfaction. These findings are supportive of the idea that helping people to improve their relationships may increase overall life satisfaction. The findings also suggest that, while an individual's base level of life satisfaction may set some parameters for the course of relationship adjustment, changes in life satisfaction over time impact marital adjustment. Starting marriage with higher life satisfaction may increase chances for a happier marriage. Overall, the findings suggest that life satisfaction plays a role in marital adjustment over time, and that it is important to consider life satisfaction as not only an outcome associated with relationship adjustment but also as a predictor of relationship adjustment.

  1. Parameters of triggered-lightning flashes in Florida and Alabama

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, R.J.; Schnetzer, G.H.; Thottappillil, R.; Rakov, V.A.; Uman, M.A.; Goldberg, J.D.

    1993-12-20

    Channel base currents from triggered lightning were measured at the NASA Kennedy Space Center, Florida, during summer 1990 and at Fort McClellan, Alabama, during summer 1991. Additionally, 16-mm cinematic records with 3- or 5-ms resolution were obtained for all flashes, and streak camera records were obtained for three of the Florida flashes. The 17 flashes analyzed contained 69 strokes, all lowering negative charge from cloud to ground. Statistics on interstroke interval, no-current interstroke interval, total stroke duration, total stroke charge, total stroke action integral ({integral}i{sup 2}dt), return stroke current wave front characteristics, time to half peak value, and return stroke peak current are presented. Return stroke current pulses, characterized by rise times of the order of a few microseconds or less and peak values in the range of 4 to 38 kA, were found not to occur until after any preceding current at the bottom of the lightning channel fell below the noise level of less than 2 A. A relatively strong positive correlation was found between return stroke current average rate of rise and current peak. There was essentially no correlation between return stroke current peak and 10-90% rise time or between return stroke peak and the width of the current waveform at half of its peak value. Parameters of the lightning flashes triggered in Florida and Alabama are similar to each other but are different from those of triggered lightning recorded in New Mexico during the 1981 Thunderstorm Research International Program. Continuing currents that follow return stroke current peaks and last for more than 10 ms exhibit a variety of wave shapes that the authors have subdivided into four categories. All such continuing currents appear to start with a current pulse presumably associated with an M component. A brief summary of lightning parameters important for lightning protection, is presented in an appendix. 43 refs., 11 figs., 5 tabs.

  2. Polar domain walls trigger magnetoelectric coupling

    PubMed Central

    Fontcuberta, Josep; Skumryev, Vassil; Laukhin, Vladimir; Granados, Xavier; Salje, Ekhard K. H.

    2015-01-01

    Interface physics in oxides heterostructures is pivotal in material’s science. Domain walls (DWs) in ferroic systems are examples of naturally occurring interfaces, where order parameter of neighboring domains is modified and emerging properties may develop. Here we show that electric tuning of ferroelastic domain walls in SrTiO3 leads to dramatic changes of the magnetic domain structure of a neighboring magnetic layer (La1/2Sr1/2MnO3) epitaxially clamped on a SrTiO3 substrate. We show that the properties of the magnetic layer are intimately connected to the existence of polar regions at twin boundaries of SrTiO3, developing at , that can be electrically modulated. These findings illustrate that by exploiting the responsiveness of DWs nanoregions to external stimuli, even in absence of any domain contribution, prominent and adjustable macroscopic reactions of neighboring layers can be obtained. We conclude that polar DWs, known to exist in other materials, can be used to trigger tunable responses and may lead to new ways for the manipulation of interfacial emerging properties. PMID:26387597

  3. Stimulus conflict triggers behavioral avoidance.

    PubMed

    Dignath, David; Eder, Andreas B

    2015-12-01

    According to a recent extension of the conflict-monitoring theory, conflict between two competing response tendencies is registered as an aversive event and triggers a motivation to avoid the source of conflict. In the present study, we tested this assumption. Over five experiments, we examined whether conflict is associated with an avoidance motivation and whether stimulus conflict or response conflict triggers an avoidance tendency. Participants first performed a color Stroop task. In a subsequent motivation test, participants responded to Stroop stimuli with approach- and avoidance-related lever movements. These results showed that Stroop-conflict stimuli increased the frequency of avoidance responses in a free-choice motivation test, and also increased the speed of avoidance relative to approach responses in a forced-choice test. High and low proportions of response conflict in the Stroop task had no effect on avoidance in the motivation test. Avoidance of conflict was, however, obtained even with new conflict stimuli that had not been presented before in a Stroop task, and when the Stroop task was replaced with an unrelated filler task. Taken together, these results suggest that stimulus conflict is sufficient to trigger avoidance.

  4. Stimulus conflict triggers behavioral avoidance.

    PubMed

    Dignath, David; Eder, Andreas B

    2015-12-01

    According to a recent extension of the conflict-monitoring theory, conflict between two competing response tendencies is registered as an aversive event and triggers a motivation to avoid the source of conflict. In the present study, we tested this assumption. Over five experiments, we examined whether conflict is associated with an avoidance motivation and whether stimulus conflict or response conflict triggers an avoidance tendency. Participants first performed a color Stroop task. In a subsequent motivation test, participants responded to Stroop stimuli with approach- and avoidance-related lever movements. These results showed that Stroop-conflict stimuli increased the frequency of avoidance responses in a free-choice motivation test, and also increased the speed of avoidance relative to approach responses in a forced-choice test. High and low proportions of response conflict in the Stroop task had no effect on avoidance in the motivation test. Avoidance of conflict was, however, obtained even with new conflict stimuli that had not been presented before in a Stroop task, and when the Stroop task was replaced with an unrelated filler task. Taken together, these results suggest that stimulus conflict is sufficient to trigger avoidance. PMID:25931151

  5. Longitudinal Adjustment Trajectories of International Students and Their Predictors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirai, Reiko

    2013-01-01

    Despite the increasing number of international students in U.S. universities, the course of adjustment of international students has not been adequately tested and only one study to date has examined multiple trajectories of international students' adjustment. Therefore, the first goal of the current study was to explore multiple trajectories of…

  6. Delay Adjusted Incidence Infographic

    Cancer.gov

    This Infographic shows the National Cancer Institute SEER Incidence Trends. The graphs show the Average Annual Percent Change (AAPC) 2002-2011. For Men, Thyroid: 5.3*,Liver & IBD: 3.6*, Melanoma: 2.3*, Kidney: 2.0*, Myeloma: 1.9*, Pancreas: 1.2*, Leukemia: 0.9*, Oral Cavity: 0.5, Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma: 0.3*, Esophagus: -0.1, Brain & ONS: -0.2*, Bladder: -0.6*, All Sites: -1.1*, Stomach: -1.7*, Larynx: -1.9*, Prostate: -2.1*, Lung & Bronchus: -2.4*, and Colon & Rectum: -3/0*. For Women, Thyroid: 5.8*, Liver & IBD: 2.9*, Myeloma: 1.8*, Kidney: 1.6*, Melanoma: 1.5, Corpus & Uterus: 1.3*, Pancreas: 1.1*, Leukemia: 0.6*, Brain & ONS: 0, Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma: -0.1, All Sites: -0.1, Breast: -0.3, Stomach: -0.7*, Oral Cavity: -0.7*, Bladder: -0.9*, Ovary: -0.9*, Lung & Bronchus: -1.0*, Cervix: -2.4*, and Colon & Rectum: -2.7*. * AAPC is significantly different from zero (p<.05). Rates were adjusted for reporting delay in the registry. www.cancer.gov Source: Special section of the Annual Report to the Nation on the Status of Cancer, 1975-2011.

  7. FPGA based triggers in the Pierre Auger Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szadkowski, Z.

    2008-01-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory is an international project for research on ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECR) above 10 19 eV and currently the world largest "hybrid" experiment. The hybrid technique uses both the detection of particles at the ground in water Cherenkov detectors (WCD) and measurements of fluorescence light generated in the atmosphere by the extensive air showers. This technique offers unique possibilities for cross-calibration and reduction of measurement uncertainties. The surface array will contain 1600 surface detector stations distributed over 3000 km2 in the Southern Hemisphere (under construction in Argentina) and 4000 WCD distributed over 10000 km2 at a Northern Hemisphere site in Colorado (deployment planned for 2008). Four fluorescence stations each containing 6 wide-angle Schmidt telescopes and each equipped with 440 PMTs with 1.5° angle resolution and 30 • 30° of field of view are located on the border of the surface array in the Southern Site. The paper presents implementations of the FPGA used for triggering. The use is illustrated with currently working schemes as well as other possible ideas especially promising for the surface detector in which currently used triggers seems to be not effective enough for very inclined and horizontal showers. Proposed new triggers enlarge a simple 1-bit threshold detection to the online analysis of a FADC trace shape. This corresponds to a charge from PMTs or signal power estimation. The next category is spectral triggers analyzing sequential samples in the frequency domain. Digital sigma-delta filters immunize the trigger circuitry on the pedestal variation as results of huge temperature swings. Presented DCT trigger provides native pedestal independence.

  8. Continuously adjustable Pulfrich spectacles for mobile devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, Ken; Karpf, Ron

    2012-02-01

    Mobile devices present a challenging platform for 3D video because of inherent device limitations. Continuously Adjustable Pulfrich Spectacles for Mobile Devices (CAPS-MD) is a new implementation of the Pulfrich 3D stereoscopic effect. For every scene that contains lateral motion in a 2D movie, CAPS-MD provides realistic 3D. Since it requires minimal additional processing, it is appropriate for mobile devices. 3D movies utilizing the Pulfrich stereoscopic effect have been made for 80 years using passive viewing spectacles. CAPS-MD use active viewing spectacles to overcome the limitations of passive spectacles. 3D movies normally employ the asymmetry of dual images to produce stereopsis. CAPS-MD works on the principle of illumination asymmetry, and only needs to control the differential lens optical densities. CAPS-MD is fabricated from optoelectronic materials that electronically control the lens optical densities. The eye's retinal triggering is used by CAPS-MD to determine the differential lens optical densities. Motion estimation calculations from the digital image processing used to display 2D video on mobile devices are reused to calculate realtime lens adjustments so CAPS-MD always conform to the optical density that optimizes the Pulfrich stereoscopic effect. Only negligible additional processing is necessary for CAPS-MD to show 3D for every scene that contains lateral motion in any 2D movie.

  9. Investigation of UV Laser Triggered, Nanosecond, Surface Flashover Switches

    SciTech Connect

    Nunnally, W C; Neurath, R; Holmes, C; Sampayan, S; Caporaso, G

    2003-06-03

    Triggered, multi-channel, surface discharges or surface flashover switching have been investigated as a low inductance, low pulse rate switch for conducting large currents. This paper discusses the investigation of UV (355 nm) laser triggered, single channel, low inductance, ns closure and sub-ns jitter switches for applications in switching high dielectric constant, compact pulse forming lines into accelerator loads. The experimental arrangement for evaluating the switch performance and for measuring the high field dielectric constant of the pulse forming lines is presented. Experimental results of delay and jitter measurements versus optical energy on the flashover surface and dc electric field charge.

  10. How cold pool triggers deep convection?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yano, Jun-Ichi

    2014-05-01

    by Moncrieff and Liu (1999). As a whole, in attempting a statistical description of boundary-layer processes, the cold pool is essentially nothing other than an additional contribution to a TKE (turbulent kinetic energy) budget. Significance of trigger of convection by cold pool in context of convection parameterization must also be seen with much caution. Against a common misunderstanding, current convection parameterization is not designed to describe a trigger process of individual convection. In this respect, process studies on cold pool do not contribute to improvements of convection parameterization until a well-defined parameterization formulation for individual convection processes is developed. Even before then a question should also be posed whether such a development is necessary. Under a current mass-flux convection parameterization, a more important process to consider is re-evaporative cooling of detrained cloudy air, which may also be associated with downdraft, possibly further leading to a generation of a cold pool. Yano and Plant (2012) suggest, from a point of view of the convective-energy cycle, what follows would be far less important than the fact the re-evaporation induces a generation of convective kinetic energy (though it may initially be considered TKE). Both well-focused convective process studies as well as convection parameterization formulation would be much needed.

  11. An 'Anomalous' Triggered Lightning Flash in Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamerota, W. R.; Uman, M. A.; Hill, J. D.; Pilkey, J. T.; Ngin, T.; Jordan, D. M.; Mata, C.; Mata, A.

    2012-12-01

    Classical (grounded wire) rocket-and-wire triggered lightning flashes whose leaders do not traverse the path of the wire remnants are sometimes referred to as 'anomalous'. We present high-speed video images captured at 10 kilo-frames per second (kfps), with supporting data, to characterize an 'anomalous' rocket-triggered lightning flash that occurred on 15 May 2012 at the International Center for Lightning Research and Testing (ICLRT) in north-central Florida. The event begins as a classical rocket-triggered lightning flash with an upward positive leader (UPL) initiating from the tip of the wire at a height of about 280 m above ground level. The top 259 m of the trailing wire explodes 2.7 s after the rocket exits the launch tube, while the bottom 17 m of the wire does not explode (does not become luminous). Approximately 1.4 ms after wire explosion, a stepped leader initiates a few meters above the top of the wire remnants and propagates downward, attaching to the top of a grounded utility pole 2.1 ms after initiation and 117 m southwest of the launching facility. Beginning 600 μs prior to this sustained stepped leader development, attempted stepped leaders (luminous steps emanating from the UPL channel above the wire remnants) are observed in three locations: 20 m and 5 m above the top of the wire remnants and at the top of the wire remnants. Correlated electric field derivative (dE/dt), channel-base current, and high-speed video captured at 300 kfps reveal an electrical discharge of peak current 365 A initiating from about 17 m above the launching facility, apparently the top of the unexploded triggering wire, when the stepped leader is no more than 60 m above ground level. There are significant differences between the 'anomalous' triggered lightning flash described here and those observed in New Mexico and in France in the late 1970s and early 1980s: First, the time duration between explosion of our wire and the sustained stepped leader development a few meters

  12. Setting the Triggering Thresholds on Swift

    SciTech Connect

    McLean, Kassandra M.; Fenimore, E.E.; Palmer, David; Barthelmy, S.; Gehrels, N.; Krimm, H.; Markwardt, C.; Parsons, A.

    2004-09-28

    The Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) on Swift has two main types of 'rate' triggers: short and long. Short trigger time scales range from 4ms to 64ms, while long triggers are 64ms to {approx_equal} 16 seconds. While both short and long trigger have criteria with one background sample (traditional 'one-sided' triggers), the long triggers can also have criteria with two background samples ('bracketed' triggers) which remove trends in the background. Both long and short triggers can select energy ranges of 15-25, 15-50, 25-100 and 50-350 KeV. There are more than 180 short triggering criteria and approximately 500 long triggering criteria used to detect gamma ray bursts. To fully utilize these criteria, the thresholds must be set correctly. The optimum thresholds are determined by a tradeoff between avoiding false triggers and capturing as many bursts as possible. We use realistic simulated orbital variations, which are the prime cause of false triggers.

  13. A framework for decision points to trigger adaptive management actions in long-term incidental take permits

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dalthorp, Daniel; Huso, Manuela

    2015-12-02

    A program of incremental AMAs may be developed to respond to the firing of the short-term trigger. Such a strategy may involve (1) AMAs to reduce the actual fatality rate (λ) incrementally each time the short-term trigger is fired to keep the fatality rate in line with the expected rate (τ) in future years; (2) an intensification of monitoring to increase precision of estimates; or (3) adjustment of τ to align permitted with actual take rates. AMAs that reduce the fatality rate or increase precision are likely to reduce the chances that the short-term trigger will fire in future years if the short-term trigger remains the same. In addition, after the short-term trigger has fired some predetermined number of times, with or without implementation of incremental AMAs, it may be desirable to implement a full-avoidance AMA to avoid further take (as with the long-term trigger).

  14. Conflict-Triggered Top-Down Control: Default Mode, Last Resort, or No Such Thing?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bugg, Julie M.

    2014-01-01

    The conflict monitoring account posits that globally high levels of conflict trigger engagement of top-down control; however, recent findings point to the mercurial nature of top-down control in high conflict contexts. The current study examined the potential moderating effect of associative learning on conflict-triggered top-down control…

  15. Infrasonic Observations from Triggered Lightning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arechiga, R. O.; Johnson, J. B.; Edens, H. E.; Rison, W.; Thomas, R. J.; Eack, K.; Eastvedt, E. M.

    2009-12-01

    We measured acoustic signals during both triggered and natural lightning. A comparative analysis of simultaneous data from the Lightning Mapping Array (LMA), acoustic measurements and digital high-speed photography operating in the same area was made. Acoustic emissions, providing quantitative estimates of acoustic power and spectral content, will complement coincident investigations, such as X-ray emissions. Most cloud-to-ground lightning flashes lower negative charge to ground, but flashes that lower positive charge to ground are often unusually destructive and are less understood. The New Mexico Tech Lightning Mapping Array (LMA) locates the sources of impulsive RF radiation produced by lightning flashes in three spatial dimensions and time, operating in the 60 - 66 MHz television band. However, positive breakdown is rarely detected by the LMA and positive leader channels are outlined only by recoil events. Positive cloud-to-ground (CG) channels are usually not mapped (or partially mapped because they may have recoil events). Acoustic and electric field instruments are a good complement to the LMA, since they can detect both negative and positive leaders. An array of five stations was deployed during the Summer of 2009 (July 20 to August 13) in the Magdalena mountains of New Mexico, to monitor infrasound (below 20 Hz) and audio range sources due to natural and triggered lightning. The stations were located at close (57 m), medium (303 and 537 m) and far (1403 and 2556 m) distances surrounding the triggering site. Each station consisted of five sensors, one infrasonic and one in the audio range at the center, and three infrasonic in a triangular configuration. This research will provide a more complete picture, and provide further insight into the nature of lightning.

  16. Laser-triggered vacuum switch

    DOEpatents

    Brannon, Paul J.; Cowgill, Donald F.

    1990-01-01

    A laser-triggered vacuum switch has a material such as a alkali metal halide on the cathode electrode for thermally activated field emission of electrons and ions upon interaction with a laser beam, the material being in contact with the cathode with a surface facing the discharge gap. The material is preferably a mixture of KCl and Ti powders. The laser may either shine directly on the material, preferably through a hole in the anode, or be directed to the material over a fiber optic cable.

  17. Star formation and its triggers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Combes, F.

    2016-06-01

    The relation between star formation and gas density appears linear for galaxies on the main sequence, and when the molecular gas is considered. However, the star formation efficiency (SFE) defined as the ratio of SFR to gas surface densities, can be much higher when SF is triggered by a dynamical process such as galaxy interaction or mergers, or even secular evolution and cold gas accretion. I review recent work showing how the SFE can vary as a function of morphological type, environment, or redshift. Physical processes able to explain positive and negative feedback from supernovae or AGN are discussed.

  18. [Catheter ablation of focus triggering ventricular fibrillation in patients with structural heart disease].

    PubMed

    Kautzner, Josef; Peichl, Petr

    2014-12-01

    First experiences with ablation of focus triggering ventricular fibrillation were reported in isolated cases of idiopathic ventricular fibrillation. Later, there were described the options in management of an electrical instability triggered by ectopic activity in patients after myocardial infarction. In both cases it was shown that the sources of extrasystoles originate almost exclusively from conducting system of chambers. Subsequently, isolated cases were also reported in other structural diseases. It is important that the urgent catheter ablation is able to remove focus which triggers electric instability. In many cases it is a lifesaving procedure. This review summarizes the current knowledge of the catheter ablation of focus triggering ventricular fibrillation with structural heart disease.

  19. Integration of the trigger and data acquisition systems in ATLAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abolins, M.; Adragna, P.; Aleksandrov, E.; Aleksandrov, I.; Amorim, A.; Anderson, K.; Anduaga, X.; Aracena, I.; Asquith, L.; Avolio, G.; Backlund, S.; Badescu, E.; Baines, J.; Barria, P.; Bartoldus, R.; Batreanu, S.; Beck, H. P.; Bee, C.; Bell, P.; Bell, W. H.; Bellomo, M.; Benslama, K.; Berge, D.; Berger, N.; Berry, T.; Biglietti, M.; Blair, R. E.; Bogaerts, A.; Bold, T.; Bosman, M.; Boyd, J.; Brelier, B.; B-Chromek, D.; Buttar, C.; Campanelli, M.; Caprini, M.; Carlino, G.; Casadei, D.; Casado, P.; Cataldi, G.; Cimino, D.; Ciobotaru, M; . Clements, D.; Coccaro, A.; Muino, P. C.; Conventi, F.; C-Radu, A.; Costa, M. J.; Torres, R. C.; Cranfield, R.; Cranmer, K.; Crone, G.; Dam, M.; Damazio, D.; Dawson, I.; Dawson, J.; Simoes, J. D. A.; Cecco, S. D.; Santo, A. D.; Della Pietra, M.; Delsart, P.-A.; Demers, S.; Demirkoz, B.; Mattia, A. D.; Dionisi, C.; Djilkibaev, R.; Dobinson, R.; Dobson, M.; Dotti, A.; Dova, M.; Drake, G.; Dufour, M.-A.; Eckweiler, S.; Ehrenfeld, W.; Eifert, T.; Ellis, N.; Emeliyanov, D.; Lima, D. E. F. d.; Ermoline, Y.; Eschrich, I.; Facius, K.; Falciano, S.; Farthouat, P.; Feng, E.; Ferland, J.; Ferrari, R.; Ferrer, M. L.; Fischer, G.; F-Martin, T.; Francis, D.; Gadomski, S.; Elejabarrieta, H. G.; Gaudio, G.; Gaumer, O.; George, S.; Giagu, S.; Goncalo, R.; Gorini, B.; Gorini, E.; Gowdy, S.; G-Bold, I.; Grancagnolo, S.; Green, B.; Haas, S.; Haberichter, W.; Hadavand, H.; Haeberli, C.; Haller, J.; Hamilton, A.; Hansen, J. R.; Hauschild, M.; Hauser, R.; Head, S.; Hillier, S.; Hoecker, A.; Hryn'ova, T.; H-Jones, R.; Huston, J.; Idarraga, J.; Igonkina, O.; Inada, M.; Jain, V.; Johns, K.; Joos, M.; Kama, S.; Kanaya, N.; Kazarov, A.; Kehoe, R.; Khoriauli, G.; Kieft, G.; Kilvington, G.; Kirk, J.; Kiyamura, H.; Klous, S.; Kolos, S.; Kono, T.; Konstantinidis, N.; Korcyl, K.; Kordas, K.; Kotov, V.; Krasznahorkay, A.; Kubota, T.; Kugel, A.; Kuhn, D.; Kurasige, H.; Kuwabara, T.; Kwee, R.; Lankford, A.; LeCompte, T.; Leahu, L.; Leahu, M.; Ledroit, F.; Miotto, G. L.; Lei, X.; Lellouch, D.; Leyton, M.; Li, S.; Lim, H.; Lohse, T.; Losada, M.; Luci, C.; Luminari, L.; Mapelli, L.; Martin, B.; Martin, B. T.; Marzano, F.; Masik, J.; McMahon, T.; McPherson, R.; Medinnis, M.; Meessen, C.; Meirosu, C.; Messina, A.; Mincer, A.; Mineev, M.; Misiejuk, A.; Moenig, K.; Monticelli, F.; Moraes, A.; Moreno, D.; Morettini, P.; Garcia, R. M.; Nagano, K.; Nagasaka, Y.; Negri, A.; Nemethy, P.; Neusiedl, A.; Nisati, A.; Nozicka, M.; Omachi, C.; Osculati, B.; Osuna, C.; Padilla, C.; Panikashvili, N.; Parodi, F.; Pasqualucci, E.; Pauly, T.; Perera, V.; Perez, E.; Reale, V. P.; Petersen, J.; Piegaia, R.; Pilcher, J.; Pinzon, G.; Pope, B.; Potter, C.; Primavera, M.; Radescu, V.; Rajagopalan, S.; Renkel, P.; Rescigno, M.; Rieke, S.; Risler, C.; Riu, I.; Robertson, S.; Roda, C.; Rodriguez, D.; Rogriquez, Y.; Ryabov, Y.; Ryan, P.; Salvatore, D.; Santamarina, C.; Rios, C. S.; Scannicchio, D.; Scannicchio, D. A.; Schiavi, C.; Schlereth, J.; Scholtes, I.; Schooltz, D.; Scott, W.; Segura, E.; Shimbo, N.; Sidoti, A.; Siragusa, G.; Sivoklokov, S.; Sloper, J. E.; Smizanska, M.; Soloviev, I.; Soluk, R.; Spagnolo, S.; Spiwoks, R.; Stancu, S.; Steinberg, P.; Stelzer, J.; Stradling, A.; Strom, D.; Strong, J.; Su, D.; Sushkov, S.; Sutton, M.; Szymocha, T.; Tapprogge, S.; Tarem, S.; Tarem, Z.; T-Dias, P.; Tokoshuku, K.; Torrence, E.; Touchard, F.; Tremblet, L.; Tripiana, M.; Usai, G.; Vachon, B.; Vandelli, W.; Ventura, A.; Vercesi, V.; Vermeulen, J.; Schmitt, J. V. D.; Wang, M.; Watson, A.; Wengler, T.; Werner, P.; W-Ellis, S.; Wickens, F.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wielers, M.; Wilkens, H.; Winklmeier, F.; Woehrling, E.-E.; Wu, S.-L.; Wu, X.; Xella, S.; Yamazaki, Y.; Yu, M.; Zema, F.; Zhang, J.; Zhao, L.; Zobernig, H.; dos Anjos, A.; zur Nedden, M.; Özcan, E.; Ünel, G.

    2008-07-01

    During 2006 and the first half of 2007, the installation, integration and commissioning of trigger and data acquisition (TDAQ) equipment in the ATLAS experimental area have progressed. There have been a series of technical runs using the final components of the system already installed in the experimental area. Various tests have been run including ones where level 1 preselected simulated proton-proton events have been processed in a loop mode through the trigger and dataflow chains. The system included the readout buffers containing the events, event building, level 2 and event filter trigger algorithms. The scalability of the system with respect to the number of event building nodes used has been studied and quantities critical for the final system, such as trigger rates and event processing times, have been measured using different trigger algorithms as well as different TDAQ components. This paper presents the TDAQ architecture, the current status of the installation and commissioning and highlights the main test results that validate the system.

  20. Integration of the Trigger and Data Acquisition Systems in ATLAS

    SciTech Connect

    Abolins, M.; Adragna, P.; Aleksandrov, E.; Aleksandrov, I.; Amorim, A.; Anderson, K.; Anduaga, X.; Aracena, I.; Asquith, L.; Avolio, G.; Backlund, S.; Badescu, E.; Baines, J.; Barria, P.; Bartoldus, R.; Batreanu, S.; Beck, H.P.; Bee, C.; Bell, P.; Bell, W.H.; Bellomo, M.; /more authors..

    2011-11-09

    During 2006 and the first half of 2007, the installation, integration and commissioning of trigger and data acquisition (TDAQ) equipment in the ATLAS experimental area have progressed. There have been a series of technical runs using the final components of the system already installed in the experimental area. Various tests have been run including ones where level 1 preselected simulated proton-proton events have been processed in a loop mode through the trigger and dataflow chains. The system included the readout buffers containing the events, event building, level 2 and event filter trigger algorithms. The scalability of the system with respect to the number of event building nodes used has been studied and quantities critical for the final system, such as trigger rates and event processing times, have been measured using different trigger algorithms as well as different TDAQ components. This paper presents the TDAQ architecture, the current status of the installation and commissioning and highlights the main test results that validate the system.

  1. Final report on LDRD project : advanced optical trigger systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Roose, Lars D.; Hadley, G. Ronald; Mar, Alan; Serkland, Darwin Keith; Geib, Kent Martin; Sullivan, Charles Thomas; Keeler, Gordon Arthur; Bauer, Thomas M.; Peake, Gregory Merwin; Loubriel, Guillermo Manuel; Montano, Victoria A.

    2008-09-01

    Advanced optically-activated solid-state electrical switch development at Sandia has demonstrated multi-kA/kV switching and the path for scalability to even higher current/power. Realization of this potential requires development of new optical sources/switches based on key Sandia photonic device technologies: vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) and photoconductive semiconductor switch (PCSS) devices. The key to increasing the switching capacity of PCSS devices to 5kV/5kA and higher is to distribute the current in multiple parallel line filaments triggered by an array of high-brightness line-shaped illuminators. Commercial mechanically-stacked edge-emitting lasers have been used to trigger multiple filaments, but they are difficult to scale and manufacture with the required uniformity. In VCSEL arrays, adjacent lasers utilize identical semiconductor material and are lithographically patterned to the required dimensions. We have demonstrated multiple-line filament triggering using VCSEL arrays to approximate line generation. These arrays of uncoupled circular-aperture VCSELs have fill factors ranging from 2% to 30%. Using these arrays, we have developed a better understanding of the illumination requirements for stable triggering of multiple-filament PCSS devices. Photoconductive semiconductor switch (PCSS) devices offer advantages of high voltage operation (multi-kV), optical isolation, triggering with laser pulses that cannot occur accidentally in nature, low cost, high speed, small size, and radiation hardness. PCSS devices are candidates for an assortment of potential applications that require multi-kA switching of current. The key to increasing the switching capacity of PCSS devices to 5kV/5kA and higher is to distribute the current in multiple parallel line filaments triggered by an array of high-brightness line-shaped illuminators. Commercial mechanically-stacked edge-emitting lasers have been demonstrated to trigger multiple filaments, but they

  2. Capitation pricing: adjusting for prior utilization and physician discretion.

    PubMed

    Anderson, G F; Cantor, J C; Steinberg, E P; Holloway, J

    1986-01-01

    As the number of Medicare beneficiaries receiving care under at-risk capitation arrangements increases, the method for setting payment rates will come under increasing scrutiny. A number of modifications to the current adjusted average per capita cost (AAPCC) methodology have been proposed, including an adjustment for prior utilization. In this article, we propose use of a utilization adjustment that includes only hospitalizations involving low or moderate physician discretion in the decision to hospitalize. This modification avoids discrimination against capitated systems that prevent certain discretionary admissions. The model also explains more of the variance in per capita expenditures than does the current AAPCC. PMID:10312010

  3. 26 CFR 1.56(g)-1 - Adjusted current earnings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... example, the rules of part V of subchapter P (relating to original issue discount and similar matters) of... relating to the application of this section to foreign corporations. (b) Depreciation allowed. The... property to which paragraph (b)(4) of this section applies (relating to certain property described...

  4. 26 CFR 1.56(g)-1 - Adjusted current earnings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... example, the rules of part V of subchapter P (relating to original issue discount and similar matters) of... relating to the application of this section to foreign corporations. (b) Depreciation allowed. The... property to which paragraph (b)(4) of this section applies (relating to certain property described...

  5. 26 CFR 1.56(g)-1 - Adjusted current earnings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... example, the rules of part V of subchapter P (relating to original issue discount and similar matters) of... relating to the application of this section to foreign corporations. (b) Depreciation allowed. The... property to which paragraph (b)(4) of this section applies (relating to certain property described...

  6. 26 CFR 1.56(g)-1 - Adjusted current earnings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... example, the rules of part V of subchapter P (relating to original issue discount and similar matters) of... relating to the application of this section to foreign corporations. (b) Depreciation allowed. The... property to which paragraph (b)(4) of this section applies (relating to certain property described...

  7. 26 CFR 1.56(g)-1 - Adjusted current earnings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... example, the rules of part V of subchapter P (relating to original issue discount and similar matters) of... relating to the application of this section to foreign corporations. (b) Depreciation allowed. The... property to which paragraph (b)(4) of this section applies (relating to certain property described...

  8. Myofascial trigger points: spontaneous electrical activity and its consequences for pain induction and propagation.

    PubMed

    Ge, Hong-You; Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César; Yue, Shou-Wei

    2011-03-25

    Active myofascial trigger points are one of the major peripheral pain generators for regional and generalized musculoskeletal pain conditions. Myofascial trigger points are also the targets for acupuncture and/or dry needling therapies. Recent evidence in the understanding of the pathophysiology of myofascial trigger points supports The Integrated Hypothesis for the trigger point formation; however unanswered questions remain. Current evidence shows that spontaneous electrical activity at myofascial trigger point originates from the extrafusal motor endplate. The spontaneous electrical activity represents focal muscle fiber contraction and/or muscle cramp potentials depending on trigger point sensitivity. Local pain and tenderness at myofascial trigger points are largely due to nociceptor sensitization with a lesser contribution from non-nociceptor sensitization. Nociceptor and non-nociceptor sensitization at myofascial trigger points may be part of the process of muscle ischemia associated with sustained focal muscle contraction and/or muscle cramps. Referred pain is dependent on the sensitivity of myofascial trigger points. Active myofascial trigger points may play an important role in the transition from localized pain to generalized pain conditions via the enhanced central sensitization, decreased descending inhibition and dysfunctional motor control strategy.

  9. Mood Adjustment via Mass Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knobloch, Silvia

    2003-01-01

    Proposes and experimentally tests mood adjustment approach, complementing mood management theory. Discusses how results regarding self-exposure across time show that patterns of popular music listening among a group of undergraduate students differ with initial mood and anticipation, lending support to mood adjustment hypotheses. Describes how…

  10. Spousal Adjustment to Myocardial Infarction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziglar, Elisa J.

    This paper reviews the literature on the stresses and coping strategies of spouses of patients with myocardial infarction (MI). It attempts to identify specific problem areas of adjustment for the spouse and to explore the effects of spousal adjustment on patient recovery. Chapter one provides an overview of the importance in examining the…

  11. Dynamic Triggering of Microseismic Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, H.; Van der Baan, M.

    2015-12-01

    Microseismic events are commonly recorded during hydraulic fracturing experiments. In microseismic interpretations, each event is often regarded as independent and uncorrelated to neighboring ones. In reality, both the rock deformation (static stresses) and transient wave motion (dynamic stresses) associated with microseismic events add to the stress field together with the external loading (fluid injection). We believe the resulting static and dynamic stress perturbations will influence both the timing and spatial evolution of the microseismic cloud. We study the dynamic triggering of microseismicity using numerical simulations of a biaxial deformation test by means of a bonded particle method (Potyondy and Cundall, 2004), where crack development can be tracked and analyzed independently. Our methodology is to compare the stress changes due to one specific event with the occurrence of the next few events in the numerical simulations. In addition, we compute the dynamic stress perturbations for recorded large events analytically given their (non-double couple) failure mechanisms. Our results show that cracks following a major event tend to form in zones affected by the dynamic stresses by promoting new failure in areas that are critically stressed. This confirms that dynamic triggering during hydraulic fracturing operations but also larger scale seismicity is likely. It also demonstrates the often complex interplay between the dynamic and static stress changes and their effect on the temporal and spatial evolution of rock deformation at all scales.

  12. XI UV Laser Trigger System

    SciTech Connect

    Brickeen, B.K.; Morelli, G.L.; Paiva, R.A.; Powell, C.A.; Sundvold, P.D.

    1999-01-26

    The X1 accelerator project at Sandia National Laboratory/New Mexico utilizes SF6 insulated, multi-stage, UV laser triggered gas switches. A 265 nm UV laser system was designed and built to generate eight simultaneous output pulses of 10 mJ each with a 13 nsec pulse width. A 1061 nm solid-state Nd:Cr:GSGG laser was frequency quadrupled using a two-stage doubling process. The 1061 nm fundamental laser energy was frequency doubled with a KTP crystal to 530 nm, achieving 65% conversion efficiency. The 530 nm output was frequency doubled with KD*P crystal to 265 nm, achieving conversion efficiency of 31%. The 265 nm beam pulse was split into eight parallel channels with a system of partially reflecting mirrors. Low timing jitter and stable energy output were achieved. The entire optical system was packaged into a rugged, o-ring sealed, aluminum structure 10''x19''x2.75''. The size of the electronics was 12''x8''x8''. Subsequent accelerator system requirements dictated a redesign of the triggering system for an output beam with less angular divergence. An unstable, crossed porro prism resonator was designed and incorporated into the system. The beam divergence of the redesigned system was successfully decreased to 0.97 mrad in the UV. The resulting frequency doubling efficiencies were 55% to 530 nm and 25% to 265 nm. The optical output remained at 10 mJ in each channel with an 11 nsec pulse width.

  13. Landslides triggered by the earthquake

    SciTech Connect

    Harp, E.L.; Keefer, D.K.

    1990-01-01

    The May 2 earthquake triggered landslides numbering in the thousands. Most numerous were rockfalls and rockslides that occurred mainly on slopes steeper than 60{degree} within sandstone, siltstone, and shale units of Upper Cretaceous and Tertiary strata. Soil falls from cutbank slopes along streams were also numerous. Seven slumps in natural slopes were triggered, and minor liquefaction-induced lateral-spread failures occurred along Los Gatos Creek. Rockfalls and rockslides occurred as far as 34 km northwest, 15 km south, and 26 km southwest of the epicenter. There were few slope failures to the east of the epicenter, owing to the absence of steep slopes in that direction. Throughout the area affected, rockfalls and rockslides were concentrated on southwest-facing slopes; the failures on slopes facing in the southwest quadrant accounted for as much as 93% of all failures in some areas. Rockfalls and rockslides from ridge crests were predominantly from sandstone units. Along steeply incised canyons, however, failures in shale and siltstone units were also common. Small rockslides and soil slides occurred from cut slopes above oil-well pump pads in the oil fields; slumps were common in the outer parts of steep fill slopes of the pump pads. The distribution of seismically induced landslides throughout the entire earthquake-affected area was mapped from true-color airphotos taken on May 3, 1985.

  14. Measurements of NOX produced by rocket-triggered lightning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, M.; Cooray, V.; Rakov, V. A.; Uman, M. A.; Liyanage, P.; DeCarlo, B. A.; Jerauld, J.; Olsen, R. C.

    2007-02-01

    We present the first direct measurements of NO X generated by specific lightning sources. In July 2005, three negative lightning flashes were triggered using the rocket-and-wire technique at the International Center for Lightning Research and Testing (ICLRT) at Camp Blanding, Florida. The NO X produced by these three rocket-triggered flashes was measured. The NO X production per unit charge was between 2 and 3 . 1020 molecules per meter per coulomb. The data show that the NO X production is primarily from long-duration, steady currents, as opposed to microsecond-scale impulsive return stroke currents. This observation implies that cloud discharges, which transfer, via a steady current of the order of 100 A, larger charges than ground discharges, but do not contain return strokes, are as efficient as (or more efficient than) cloud-to-ground discharges in producing NO X .

  15. Risk adjustment: where are we now?

    PubMed

    Newhouse, J P

    1998-01-01

    Risk adjustment is intended to minimize selection of patients or enrollees in health plans. Current efforts generally are recognized as inadequate, but improvement is difficult. The greatest short-term gain will come from introducing diagnostic information, though outpatient diagnosis data are unreliable. Initial efforts may use inpatient data, but this creates incentives to hospitalize people. Even exploiting diagnosis information leaves substantial imperfections. Partial capitation, common in behavioral health, reduces incentives to select patients and stent on services, but current policy resists it, perhaps because policymakers misinterpret the lesson of the Prospective Payment System. Theoretically, not paying plans more for providing additional services is optimal only if consumers are well informed.

  16. Risk adjustment: where are we now?

    PubMed

    Newhouse, J P

    1998-01-01

    Risk adjustment is intended to minimize selection of patients or enrollees in health plans. Current efforts generally are recognized as inadequate, but improvement is difficult. The greatest short-term gain will come from introducing diagnostic information, though outpatient diagnosis data are unreliable. Initial efforts may use inpatient data, but this creates incentives to hospitalize people. Even exploiting diagnosis information leaves substantial imperfections. Partial capitation, common in behavioral health, reduces incentives to select patients and stent on services, but current policy resists it, perhaps because policymakers misinterpret the lesson of the Prospective Payment System. Theoretically, not paying plans more for providing additional services is optimal only if consumers are well informed. PMID:9719781

  17. Parental Divorce and Children's Adjustment.

    PubMed

    Lansford, Jennifer E

    2009-03-01

    This article reviews the research literature on links between parental divorce and children's short-term and long-term adjustment. First, I consider evidence regarding how divorce relates to children's externalizing behaviors, internalizing problems, academic achievement, and social relationships. Second, I examine timing of the divorce, demographic characteristics, children's adjustment prior to the divorce, and stigmatization as moderators of the links between divorce and children's adjustment. Third, I examine income, interparental conflict, parenting, and parents well-being as mediators of relations between divorce and children's adjustment. Fourth, I note the caveats and limitations of the research literature. Finally, I consider notable policies related to grounds for divorce, child support, and child custody in light of how they might affect children s adjustment to their parents divorce.

  18. Antiviral immune responses: triggers of or triggered by autoimmunity?

    PubMed Central

    Münz, Christian; Lünemann, Jan D.; Getts, Meghann Teague; Miller, Stephen D.

    2010-01-01

    Several common autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and multiple sclerosis, are genetically linked to distinct human MHC class II molecules and other immune modulators. However, genetic predisposition is only one risk factor for the development of these diseases, and low concordance rates in monozygotic twins as well as geographical distribution of disease risk point towards environmental factors in the genesis of these diseases. Among these environmental factors, infections have been implicated in the onset and/or promotion of autoimmunity. In this review, we outline mechanisms by which pathogens can trigger autoimmune disease, and also pathways by which infection and immune control of infectious disease might be dysregulated during autoimmunity. PMID:19319143

  19. Nitrogen deficiency in barley (Hordeum vulgare) seedlings induces molecular and metabolic adjustments that trigger aphid resistance.

    PubMed

    Comadira, Gloria; Rasool, Brwa; Karpinska, Barbara; Morris, Jenny; Verrall, Susan R; Hedley, Peter E; Foyer, Christine H; Hancock, Robert D

    2015-06-01

    Agricultural nitrous oxide (N2O) pollution resulting from the use of synthetic fertilizers represents a significant contribution to anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions, providing a rationale for reduced use of nitrogen (N) fertilizers. Nitrogen limitation results in extensive systems rebalancing that remodels metabolism and defence processes. To analyse the regulation underpinning these responses, barley (Horedeum vulgare) seedlings were grown for 7 d under N-deficient conditions until net photosynthesis was 50% lower than in N-replete controls. Although shoot growth was decreased there was no evidence for the induction of oxidative stress despite lower total concentrations of N-containing antioxidants. Nitrogen-deficient barley leaves were rich in amino acids, sugars and tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates. In contrast to N-replete leaves one-day-old nymphs of the green peach aphid (Myzus persicae) failed to reach adulthood when transferred to N-deficient barley leaves. Transcripts encoding cell, sugar and nutrient signalling, protein degradation and secondary metabolism were over-represented in N-deficient leaves while those associated with hormone metabolism were similar under both nutrient regimes with the exception of mRNAs encoding proteins involved in auxin metabolism and responses. Significant similarities were observed between the N-limited barley leaf transcriptome and that of aphid-infested Arabidopsis leaves. These findings not only highlight significant similarities between biotic and abiotic stress signalling cascades but also identify potential targets for increasing aphid resistance with implications for the development of sustainable agriculture.

  20. Nitrogen deficiency in barley (Hordeum vulgare) seedlings induces molecular and metabolic adjustments that trigger aphid resistance.

    PubMed

    Comadira, Gloria; Rasool, Brwa; Karpinska, Barbara; Morris, Jenny; Verrall, Susan R; Hedley, Peter E; Foyer, Christine H; Hancock, Robert D

    2015-06-01

    Agricultural nitrous oxide (N2O) pollution resulting from the use of synthetic fertilizers represents a significant contribution to anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions, providing a rationale for reduced use of nitrogen (N) fertilizers. Nitrogen limitation results in extensive systems rebalancing that remodels metabolism and defence processes. To analyse the regulation underpinning these responses, barley (Horedeum vulgare) seedlings were grown for 7 d under N-deficient conditions until net photosynthesis was 50% lower than in N-replete controls. Although shoot growth was decreased there was no evidence for the induction of oxidative stress despite lower total concentrations of N-containing antioxidants. Nitrogen-deficient barley leaves were rich in amino acids, sugars and tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates. In contrast to N-replete leaves one-day-old nymphs of the green peach aphid (Myzus persicae) failed to reach adulthood when transferred to N-deficient barley leaves. Transcripts encoding cell, sugar and nutrient signalling, protein degradation and secondary metabolism were over-represented in N-deficient leaves while those associated with hormone metabolism were similar under both nutrient regimes with the exception of mRNAs encoding proteins involved in auxin metabolism and responses. Significant similarities were observed between the N-limited barley leaf transcriptome and that of aphid-infested Arabidopsis leaves. These findings not only highlight significant similarities between biotic and abiotic stress signalling cascades but also identify potential targets for increasing aphid resistance with implications for the development of sustainable agriculture. PMID:26038307

  1. Adjustment versus no adjustment when using adjustable sutures in strabismus surgery

    PubMed Central

    Liebermann, Laura; Hatt, Sarah R.; Leske, David A.; Holmes, Jonathan M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To compare long-term postoperative outcomes when performing an adjustment to achieve a desired immediate postoperative alignment versus simply tying off at the desired immediate postoperative alignment when using adjustable sutures for strabismus surgery. Methods We retrospectively identified 89 consecutive patients who underwent a reoperation for horizontal strabismus using adjustable sutures and also had a 6-week and 1-year outcome examination. In each case, the intent of the surgeon was to tie off and only to adjust if the patient was not within the intended immediate postoperative range. Postoperative success was predefined based on angle of misalignment and diplopia at distance and near. Results Of the 89 patients, 53 (60%) were adjusted and 36 (40%) were tied off. Success rates were similar between patients who were simply tied off immediately after surgery and those who were adjusted. At 6 weeks, the success rate was 64% for the nonadjusted group versus 81% for the adjusted group (P = 0.09; difference of 17%; 95% CI, −2% to 36%). At 1 year, the success rate was 67% for the nonadjusted group versus 77% for the adjusted group (P = 0.3; difference of 11%; 95% CI, −8% to 30%). Conclusions Performing an adjustment to obtain a desired immediate postoperative alignment did not yield inferior long-term outcomes to those obtained by tying off to obtain that initial alignment. If patients were who were outside the desired immediate postoperative range had not been not adjusted, it is possible that their long-term outcomes would have been worse, therefore, overall, an adjustable approach may be superior to a nonadjustable approach. PMID:23415035

  2. Dioxin (TCDD) enhances triggered-afterdepolarizations in rat ventricular myocytes

    PubMed Central

    Xie, An; Walker, Nigel J.; Wang, Desuo

    2007-01-01

    The effects of TCDD (2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin) on action potential and afterdepolarizations were studied in rat ventricular myocytes using nystatin-perforated whole-cell patch-clamp technique. TCDD treatment, in the concentration range of 1 to 100 nM, significantly prolonged action potential duration measured at 90% of repolarization (APD90). The triggered delayed-afterdepolarizations (DADs) was observed in 6 out of 8 cells after exposure of TCDD (10 nM). In the presence of isoproterenol (ISO, 10 nM) or Bay K 8644 (1 μM), TCDD (10 nM) markedly augmented the amplitude and frequency of the arrhythmogenic DADs and triggered sustained spontaneous firings in ventricular myocytes. Voltage-clamp data indicated that TCDD (10 nM) exposure significantly enhanced the transient inward current (Iti). The triggered early-afterdepolarizations (EADs) were evoked only in cells simultaneously exposed to TCDD (10 nM) and ISO (or Bay K 8644). Further study indicated that TCDD treatment increased L-type Ca2+ current. These results indicate that activation of TCDD signaling pathway can prolong action potential duration and cause abnormal triggered afterdepolarizations. These effects may lead to clinically relevant ventricular arrhythmia especially when susceptible individuals are under elevated sympathetic stress or suffering from other myocardiopathies coincided with Ca2+-overload. PMID:17303918

  3. Episodic tremor triggers small earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2011-08-01

    It has been suggested that episodic tremor and slip (ETS), the weak shaking not associated with measurable earthquakes, could trigger nearby earthquakes. However, this had not been confirmed until recently. Vidale et al. monitored seismicity in the 4-month period around a 16-day episode of episodic tremor and slip in March 2010 in the Cascadia region. They observed five small earthquakes within the subducting slab during the ETS episode. They found that the timing and locations of earthquakes near the tremor suggest that the tremor and earthquakes are related. Furthermore, they observed that the rate of earthquakes across the area was several times higher within 2 days of tremor activity than at other times, adding to evidence of a connection between tremor and earthquakes. (Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, doi:10.1029/2011GC003559, 2011)

  4. Earthquake Simulator Finds Tremor Triggers

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Paul

    2015-03-27

    Using a novel device that simulates earthquakes in a laboratory setting, a Los Alamos researcher has found that seismic waves-the sounds radiated from earthquakes-can induce earthquake aftershocks, often long after a quake has subsided. The research provides insight into how earthquakes may be triggered and how they recur. Los Alamos researcher Paul Johnson and colleague Chris Marone at Penn State have discovered how wave energy can be stored in certain types of granular materials-like the type found along certain fault lines across the globe-and how this stored energy can suddenly be released as an earthquake when hit by relatively small seismic waves far beyond the traditional “aftershock zone” of a main quake. Perhaps most surprising, researchers have found that the release of energy can occur minutes, hours, or even days after the sound waves pass; the cause of the delay remains a tantalizing mystery.

  5. Bars Triggered By Galaxy Flybys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holley-Bockelmann, Kelly; Lang, Meagan; Sinha, Manodeep

    2015-05-01

    Galaxy mergers drive galaxy evolution and are a key mechanism by which galaxies grow and transform. Unlike galaxy mergers where two galaxies combine into one remnant, galaxy flybys occur when two independent galaxy halos interpenetrate but detach at a later time; these one-time events are surprisingly common and can even out-number galaxy mergers at low redshift for massive halos. Although these interactions are transient and occur far outside the galaxy disk, flybys can still drive a rapid and large pertubations within both the intruder and victim halos. We explored how flyby encounters can transform each galaxy using a suite of N-body simulations. We present results from three co-planar flybys between disk galaxies, demonstrating that flybys can both trigger strong bar formation and can spin-up dark matter halos.

  6. A Mechanochemically Triggered "Click" Catalyst.

    PubMed

    Michael, Philipp; Binder, Wolfgang H

    2015-11-16

    "Click" chemistry represents one of the most powerful approaches for linking molecules in chemistry and materials science. Triggering this reaction by mechanical force would enable site- and stress-specific "click" reactions--a hitherto unreported observation. We introduce the design and realization of a homogeneous Cu catalyst able to activate through mechanical force when attached to suitable polymer chains, acting as a lever to transmit the force to the central catalytic system. Activation of the subsequent copper-catalyzed "click" reaction (CuAAC) is achieved either by ultrasonication or mechanical pressing of a polymeric material, using a fluorogenic dye to detect the activation of the catalyst. Based on an N-heterocyclic copper(I) carbene with attached polymeric chains of different flexibility, the force is transmitted to the central catalyst, thereby activating a CuAAC in solution and in the solid state. PMID:26420664

  7. CDF level 2 trigger upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Anikeev, K.; Bogdan, M.; DeMaat, R.; Fedorko, W.; Frisch, H.; Hahn, K.; Hakala, M.; Keener, P.; Kim, Y.; Kroll, J.; Kwang, S.; Lewis, J.; Lin, C.; Liu, T.; Marjamaa, F.; Mansikkala, T.; Neu, C.; Pitkanen, S.; Reisert, B.; Rusu, V.; Sanders, H.; /Fermilab /Chicago U. /Pennsylvania U.

    2006-01-01

    We describe the new CDF Level 2 Trigger, which was commissioned during Spring 2005. The upgrade was necessitated by several factors that included increased bandwidth requirements, in view of the growing instantaneous luminosity of the Tevatron, and the need for a more robust system, since the older system was reaching the limits of maintainability. The challenges in designing the new system were interfacing with many different upstream detector subsystems, processing larger volumes of data at higher speed, and minimizing the impact on running the CDF experiment during the system commissioning phase. To meet these challenges, the new system was designed around a general purpose motherboard, the PULSAR, which is instrumented with powerful FPGAs and modern SRAMs, and which uses mezzanine cards to interface with upstream detector components and an industry standard data link (S-LINK) within the system.

  8. Landslide triggering by rain infiltration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Iverson, Richard M.

    2000-01-01

    Landsliding in response to rainfall involves physical processes that operate on disparate timescales. Relationships between these timescales guide development of a mathematical model that uses reduced forms of Richards equation to evaluate effects of rainfall infiltration on landslide occurrence, timing, depth, and acceleration in diverse situations. The longest pertinent timescale is A/D0, where D0 is the maximum hydraulic diffusivity of the soil and A is the catchment area that potentially affects groundwater pressures at a prospective landslide slip surface location with areal coordinates x, y and depth H. Times greater than A/D0 are necessary for establishment of steady background water pressures that develop at (x, y, H) in response to rainfall averaged over periods that commonly range from days to many decades. These steady groundwater pressures influence the propensity for landsliding at (x, y, H), but they do not trigger slope failure. Failure results from rainfall over a typically shorter timescale H2/D0 associated with transient pore pressure transmission during and following storms. Commonly, this timescale ranges from minutes to months. The shortest timescale affecting landslide responses to rainfall is √(H/g), where g is the magnitude of gravitational acceleration. Postfailure landslide motion occurs on this timescale, which indicates that the thinnest landslides accelerate most quickly if all other factors are constant. Effects of hydrologic processes on landslide processes across these diverse timescales are encapsulated by a response function, R(t*) = √(t*/π) exp (-1/t*) - erfc (1/√t*), which depends only on normalized time, t*. Use of R(t*) in conjunction with topographic data, rainfall intensity and duration information, an infinite-slope failure criterion, and Newton's second law predicts the timing, depth, and acceleration of rainfall-triggered landslides. Data from contrasting landslides that exhibit rapid, shallow motion and slow, deep

  9. An experimental comparison of triggered and random pulse train uncertainties

    SciTech Connect

    Henzlova, Daniela; Menlove, Howard O; Swinhoe, Martyn T

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present an experimental comparison of signal-triggered and randomly triggered based analysis algorithms of neutron multiplicity data. Traditional shift register type signal-triggered multiplicity analysis of singles, doubles and triples rates is compared with analysis using randomly triggered gates. Two methods of random gate generation are explored - non-overlapping gates (Feyrunan approach) and periodic overlapping gates (fast accidentals). Using californium sources with low, medium and high rate in combination with AmLi sources (as a surrogate for plutonium) we investigate relative standard deviation (RSD) of data in order to determine if there are parameter spaces in which one of the measurement methods should be preferred. Neutron correlation analysis is a commonly used NDA technique to assay plutonium mass. The data can be collected in two distinct ways: using signal-triggered or randomly triggered counting gates. Analysis algorithms were developed for both approaches to determine singles (S), doubles (D) and triples (7) rates from the measured sample. Currently the most commonly implemented technique to collect neutron coincidence data utilizes shift register based electronics. Shift register uses signal-triggered counting gates to generate foreground multiplicity distribution of correlated+accidental events and a random gate (opened after a predefined long delay following the signal trigger) to generate background multiplicity distribution of accidental events. Modern shift registers include fast accidental option to sample data with a fixed clock frequency. This way a set of overlapping gates is used to generate background multiplicity distributions in order to improve the measurement precision. In parallel to shift register approach the Feynman variance technique is frequently used, which utilizes set of consecutive non-overlapping gates. In general, different user communities (e.g. safeguards, nuclear material accountancy, emergency

  10. Disaster triggers disaster: Earthquake triggering by tropical cyclones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wdowinski, S.; Tsukanov, I.

    2011-12-01

    Three recent devastating earthquakes, the 1999 M=7.6 Chi-Chi (Taiwan), 2010 M=7.0 Leogane (Haiti), 2010 M=6.4 Kaohsiung (Taiwan), and additional three moderate size earthquakes (66 earthquake that occurred in the central mountainous area of Taiwan within three years after the typhoon. The 2009 Morakot typhoon was followed by 2009 M=6.2 Nantou and 2010 M=6.4 Kaohsiung earthquakes; the 1969 Flossie typhoon was followed by an M=6.3 earthquake in 1972; and the 1996 Herb typhoon by the 1998 M=6.2 Rueyli and 1999 M=7.6 Chi-Chi earthquakes. The earthquake catalog of Taiwan lists only two other M>6 main-shocks that occurred in Taiwan's central mountainous belt, one of them was in 1964 only four months after the wet Typhoon Gloria poured heavy rain in the same area. We suggest that the close proximity in time and space between wet tropical cyclones and earthquakes reflects a physical link between the two hazard types in which these earthquakes were triggered by rapid erosion induced by tropical cyclone's heavy rain. Based on remote sensing observations, meshfree finite element modeling, and Coulomb failure stress analysis, we show that the

  11. Submarine landslides: processes, triggers and hazard prediction.

    PubMed

    Masson, D G; Harbitz, C B; Wynn, R B; Pedersen, G; Løvholt, F

    2006-08-15

    Huge landslides, mobilizing hundreds to thousands of km(3) of sediment and rock are ubiquitous in submarine settings ranging from the steepest volcanic island slopes to the gentlest muddy slopes of submarine deltas. Here, we summarize current knowledge of such landslides and the problems of assessing their hazard potential. The major hazards related to submarine landslides include destruction of seabed infrastructure, collapse of coastal areas into the sea and landslide-generated tsunamis. Most submarine slopes are inherently stable. Elevated pore pressures (leading to decreased frictional resistance to sliding) and specific weak layers within stratified sequences appear to be the key factors influencing landslide occurrence. Elevated pore pressures can result from normal depositional processes or from transient processes such as earthquake shaking; historical evidence suggests that the majority of large submarine landslides are triggered by earthquakes. Because of their tsunamigenic potential, ocean-island flank collapses and rockslides in fjords have been identified as the most dangerous of all landslide related hazards. Published models of ocean-island landslides mainly examine 'worst-case scenarios' that have a low probability of occurrence. Areas prone to submarine landsliding are relatively easy to identify, but we are still some way from being able to forecast individual events with precision. Monitoring of critical areas where landslides might be imminent and modelling landslide consequences so that appropriate mitigation strategies can be developed would appear to be areas where advances on current practice are possible.

  12. Submarine landslides: processes, triggers and hazard prediction.

    PubMed

    Masson, D G; Harbitz, C B; Wynn, R B; Pedersen, G; Løvholt, F

    2006-08-15

    Huge landslides, mobilizing hundreds to thousands of km(3) of sediment and rock are ubiquitous in submarine settings ranging from the steepest volcanic island slopes to the gentlest muddy slopes of submarine deltas. Here, we summarize current knowledge of such landslides and the problems of assessing their hazard potential. The major hazards related to submarine landslides include destruction of seabed infrastructure, collapse of coastal areas into the sea and landslide-generated tsunamis. Most submarine slopes are inherently stable. Elevated pore pressures (leading to decreased frictional resistance to sliding) and specific weak layers within stratified sequences appear to be the key factors influencing landslide occurrence. Elevated pore pressures can result from normal depositional processes or from transient processes such as earthquake shaking; historical evidence suggests that the majority of large submarine landslides are triggered by earthquakes. Because of their tsunamigenic potential, ocean-island flank collapses and rockslides in fjords have been identified as the most dangerous of all landslide related hazards. Published models of ocean-island landslides mainly examine 'worst-case scenarios' that have a low probability of occurrence. Areas prone to submarine landsliding are relatively easy to identify, but we are still some way from being able to forecast individual events with precision. Monitoring of critical areas where landslides might be imminent and modelling landslide consequences so that appropriate mitigation strategies can be developed would appear to be areas where advances on current practice are possible. PMID:16844646

  13. Maternal coping styles and adjustment in children.

    PubMed

    Atlas, J G; Rickel, A U

    1988-06-01

    A comprehensive examination of children's social-emotional adjustment as related to maternal coping styles was performed. Subjects were 186 black mothers from lower-income families, and their children who were enrolled in the Detroit Public Schools Area F, Title I Preschool Program. Maternal nurturant and restrictive child rearing practices, life stress, locus of control and marital status were evaluated with respect to each of the child variables of school adjustment, self-concept and social problem solving skills. Maternal life stress was significantly related to children's lower self-concept, higher aggression, use of finagling and nondirective problem-solving strategies. Significant negative relationships were found between maternal nurturance and child moodiness and learning problems in school, further validating the Modified Child Rearing Practices Report. These findings provide support for expanding the current child developmental focus of preventive parenting programs to include maternal coping strategies such as improved communication and assertiveness training.

  14. Architecture of the MEGA detector trigger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Y. K.; Cooper, M. D.; Cooper, P. S.; Dzemidzic, M.; Gagliardi, C. A.; Hogan, G. E.; Hungerford, E. V.; Kim, G. J.; Knott, J. E.; Lan, K. J.; Liu, F.; Mayes, B. W.; Mischke, R. E.; Phelps, R.; Pinsky, L. S.; Stantz, K. M.; Szymanski, J. J.; Tang, L. G.; Tribble, R. E.; Tu, X. L.; Van Ausdeln, L. A.; Von Witsch, W.; Wright, C. S.

    The trigger for the MEGA detector system is based on signals from single, high-energy photons interacting in one of the three MEGA pair spectrometers. The trigger is divided into a fast and a slow stage. The first stage produces a fast output if a specific pattern of detector hits is observed in the scintillators and high-speed wire chambers of a pair spectrometer. The second, slow-stage interrogates drift chamber hit patterns and provides a veto when the pattern fails a minimal requirement for reconstruction of the hits into a pair of circular orbits. The trigger interacts with the photon detector electronics by gating limited sections of the detector during the read-out of an event. This paper describes the two stage trigger system, the photon detector electronics, and the implementation of the trigger outputs to strobe the data acquisition system. The performance of the trigger is compared to Monte Carlo simulations of the photon detector response.

  15. Adjustable Induction-Heating Coil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, Rod; Bartolotta, Paul

    1990-01-01

    Improved design for induction-heating work coil facilitates optimization of heating in different metal specimens. Three segments adjusted independently to obtain desired distribution of temperature. Reduces time needed to achieve required temperature profiles.

  16. Time-adjusted variable resistor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heyser, R. C.

    1972-01-01

    Timing mechanism was developed effecting extremely precisioned highly resistant fixed resistor. Switches shunt all or portion of resistor; effective resistance is varied over time interval by adjusting switch closure rate.

  17. 78 FR 62712 - Rate Adjustment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ... noticing a recent Postal Service filing seeking postal rate adjustments based on exigent circumstances...,'' is ``premised on the recent recession as an exigent event.'' Id. at 1, 2. In Order No. 1059,...

  18. A muon trigger for the MACRO apparatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbarito, E.; Bellotti, R.; Calicchio, M.; Castellano, M.; DeCataldo, G.; DeMarzo, C.; Erriquez, O.; Favuzzi, C.; Giglietto, N.; Liuzzi, R.; Spinelli, P.

    1991-02-01

    A trigger circuit based on EPROM components, able to manage up to 30 lines from independent counters, is described. The circuit has been designed and used in the MACRO apparatus at the Gran Sasso Laboratory for triggering on fast particles. The circuit works with standard TTL positive logic and is assembled in a double standard CAMAC module. It has a high triggering capacity and a high flexibility.

  19. The BTeV trigger: Recent developments

    SciTech Connect

    Kasper, Penelope; /Fermilab

    2003-12-01

    BTeV is a collider experiment at the Fermilab Tevatron dedicated to precision measurements of CP violation, mixing and rare decays of beauty and charm hadrons. The detector is a forward spectrometer with a pixel vertex detector inside a dipole magnet. A unique feature of BTeV is the trigger, which reconstructs tracks and vertices in every beam crossing. They present here an overview of the BTeV trigger and a description of recent improvements in trigger timing.

  20. Remote hydraulic ocean instrument trigger: DIRECTS

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, M.

    1993-05-01

    A robust, reliable, inexpensive, easily operated, remote acting, deep ocean triggering system called DIRECTS (depth-indexed remote-equipment-commanding trigger system) is designed to initiate and power the operation of generic instrumentation at specific depths in the sea. The triggers, hydraulically actuated, are accurate within a few meters of depth and provide important post-retrieval confirmation of depth at the time of operation. The majority of research and commercial endeavors in the sea depend on the ability to accuratesly initiate subsea activities at specifically determined depths. Chemical, physical, and biological oceanographic sampling, commercial fishing, and offshore petroleum resource assessment are among operations requiring depth-accurate triggering capabilities.

  1. First images of thunder: Acoustic imaging of triggered lightning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dayeh, M. A.; Evans, N. D.; Fuselier, S. A.; Trevino, J.; Ramaekers, J.; Dwyer, J. R.; Lucia, R.; Rassoul, H. K.; Kotovsky, D. A.; Jordan, D. M.; Uman, M. A.

    2015-07-01

    An acoustic camera comprising a linear microphone array is used to image the thunder signature of triggered lightning. Measurements were taken at the International Center for Lightning Research and Testing in Camp Blanding, FL, during the summer of 2014. The array was positioned in an end-fire orientation thus enabling the peak acoustic reception pattern to be steered vertically with a frequency-dependent spatial resolution. On 14 July 2014, a lightning event with nine return strokes was successfully triggered. We present the first acoustic images of individual return strokes at high frequencies (>1 kHz) and compare the acoustically inferred profile with optical images. We find (i) a strong correlation between the return stroke peak current and the radiated acoustic pressure and (ii) an acoustic signature from an M component current pulse with an unusual fast rise time. These results show that acoustic imaging enables clear identification and quantification of thunder sources as a function of lightning channel altitude.

  2. Parameters of triggered-lightning flashes in Florida and Alabama

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, R. J.; Schnetzer, G. H.; Thottappillil, R.; Rakov, V. A.; Uman, M. A.; Goldberg, J. D.

    1993-12-01

    Channel base currents from triggered lightning were measured at the NASA Kennedy Space Center, Florida, during summer 1990 and at Fort McClellan, Alabama, during summer 1991. Additionally, 16-mm cinematic records with 3- or 5-ms resolution were obtained for all flashes, and streak camera records were obtained for three of the Florida flashes. The 17 flashes analyzed here contained 69 strokes, all lowering negative charge from cloud to ground. Statistics on interstroke interval, no-current interstroke interval, total stroke duration, total stroke charge, total stroke action integral (∫ i2dt), return stroke current wave front characteristics, time to half peak value, and return stroke peak current are presented. Return stroke current pulses, characterized by rise times of the order of a few microseconds or less and peak values in the range of 4 to 38 kA, were found not to occur until after any preceding current at the bottom of the lightning channel fell below the noise level of less than 2 A. Current pulses associated with M components, characterized by slower rise times (typically tens to hundreds of microseconds) and peak values generally smaller than those of the return stroke pulses, occurred during established channel current flow of some tens to some hundreds of amperes. A relatively strong positive correlation was found between return stroke current average rate of rise and current peak. There was essentially no correlation between return stroke current peak and 10-90% rise time or between return stroke peak and the width of the current waveform at half of its peak value. Parameters of the lightning flashes triggered in Florida and Alabama are similar to each other but are different from those of triggered lightning recorded in New Mexico during the 1981 Thunderstorm Research International Program. Continuing currents that follow return stroke current peaks and last for more than 10 ms exhibit a variety of wave shapes that we have subdivided into four

  3. The CDF LEVEL3 trigger

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, T.; Joshi, U.; Auchincloss, P.

    1989-04-01

    CDF is currently taking data at a luminosity of 10{sup 30} cm{sup -2} sec{sup -1} using a four level event filtering scheme. The fourth level, LEVEL3, uses ACP (Fermilab`s Advanced Computer Program) designed 32 bit VME based parallel processors (1) capable of executing algorithms written in FORTRAN. LEVEL3 currently rejects about 50% of the events.

  4. Investigation of firing properties of a vacuum arcs triggered by plasma injection

    SciTech Connect

    Bernardet, H.; Godechot, X.; Riviere, C.

    1996-08-01

    The firing characteristic of a vacuum arc, by means of plasma injection, is described. In this method, a plasma, created from a trigger device, plumes away to the space between the cathode and anode. As the plasma is quasi-neutral, the electrostatic field is concentrated across the sheath at the surface of the cathode, thus, creating a high electrical field. As a result, a vacuum arc fires between the cathode and anode. The authors have investigated the firing rate as a function of the trigger cathode distance, trigger current, the anode-cathode distance and voltage. They found a firing rate between 90 to 100% for a trigger current in the range of 400-1200 A, the trigger pulse length was 4 ps, and the trigger-cathode distance was 1.6 to 3.6 cm. The anode cathode gap length changes the firing rate to a low extent for values between 2 to 5 cm. The anode cathode voltage do not change the firing rate. The effect of a magnetic field applied axially over the trigger have also been investigated. Using a version of a highly reliable trigger, the authors were able to deposit stainless steel, copper, carbon and molybdenum, thin films.

  5. Ischemic Compression After Trigger Point Injection Affect the Treatment of Myofascial Trigger Points

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Soo A; Oh, Ki Young; Choi, Won Hyuck

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of trigger point injection with or without ischemic compression in treatment of myofascial trigger points in the upper trapezius muscle. Methods Sixty patients with active myofascial trigger points in upper trapezius muscle were randomly divided into three groups: group 1 (n=20) received only trigger point injections, group 2 (n=20) received trigger point injections with 30 seconds of ischemic compression, and group 3 (n=20) received trigger point injections with 60 seconds of ischemic compression. The visual analogue scale, pressure pain threshold, and range of motion of the neck were assessed before treatment, immediately after treatment, and 1 week after treatment. Korean Neck Disability Indexes were assessed before treatment and 1 week after treatment. Results We found a significant improvement in all assessment parameters (p<0.05) in all groups. But, receiving trigger point injections with ischemic compression group showed significant improvement as compared with the receiving only trigger point injections group. And no significant differences between receiving 30 seconds of ischemic compression group and 60 seconds of ischemic compression group. Conclusion This study demonstrated the effectiveness of ischemic compression for myofascial trigger point. Trigger point injections combined with ischemic compression shows better effects on treatment of myofascial trigger points in the upper trapezius muscle than the only trigger point injections therapy. But the duration of ischemic compression did not affect treatment of myofascial trigger point. PMID:24020035

  6. Nonlinear dynamical triggering of slow slip

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Paul A; Knuth, Matthew W; Kaproth, Bryan M; Carpenter, Brett; Guyer, Robert A; Le Bas, Pierre - Yves; Daub, Eric G; Marone, Chris

    2010-12-10

    Among the most fascinating, recent discoveries in seismology have been the phenomena of triggered slip, including triggered earthquakes and triggered-tremor, as well as triggered slow, silent-slip during which no seismic energy is radiated. Because fault nucleation depths cannot be probed directly, the physical regimes in which these phenomena occur are poorly understood. Thus determining physical properties that control diverse types of triggered fault sliding and what frictional constitutive laws govern triggered faulting variability is challenging. We are characterizing the physical controls of triggered faulting with the goal of developing constitutive relations by conducting laboratory and numerical modeling experiments in sheared granular media at varying load conditions. In order to simulate granular fault zone gouge in the laboratory, glass beads are sheared in a double-direct configuration under constant normal stress, while subject to transient perturbation by acoustic waves. We find that triggered, slow, silent-slip occurs at very small confining loads ({approx}1-3 MPa) that are smaller than those where dynamic earthquake triggering takes place (4-7 MPa), and that triggered slow-slip is associated with bursts of LFE-like acoustic emission. Experimental evidence suggests that the nonlinear dynamical response of the gouge material induced by dynamic waves may be responsible for the triggered slip behavior: the slip-duration, stress-drop and along-strike slip displacement are proportional to the triggering wave amplitude. Further, we observe a shear-modulus decrease corresponding to dynamic-wave triggering relative to the shear modulus of stick-slips. Modulus decrease in response to dynamical wave amplitudes of roughly a microstrain and above is a hallmark of elastic nonlinear behavior. We believe that the dynamical waves increase the material non-affine elastic deformation during shearing, simultaneously leading to instability and slow-slip. The inferred

  7. Global Trigger Upgrade firmware architecture for the level-1 Trigger of the CMS experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahbaran, B.; Arnold, B.; Bergauer, H.; Wittmann, J.; Matsushita, T.

    2015-02-01

    The Global Trigger (GT) is the final step of the CMS Level-1 Trigger and implements the ``menu'' of triggers, which is a set of selection requirements applied to the final list of objects (such as muons, electrons or jets) to trigger the readout of the detector and serve as basis for further calculations by the High Level Trigger. Operational experience in developing trigger menus from the first LHC run has shown that the requirements increased as the luminosity and pile-up increased. The new GT (μGT) is designed based on Xilinx Virtex-7 FPGAs, which combine unsurpassed flexibility with regard to scalability and high robustness. Furthermore, a custom board which receives signals from legacy electronics and basic binary inputs from less complex trigger sources is presented. Additionally, this paper describes the architecture of a distributed testing framework and the Trigger Menu Editor.

  8. Trigger Points: An Anatomical Substratum

    PubMed Central

    Akamatsu, Flávia Emi; Ayres, Bernardo Rodrigues; Saleh, Samir Omar; Hojaij, Flávio; Andrade, Mauro; Hsing, Wu Tu; Jacomo, Alfredo Luiz

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to bring the trapezius muscle knowledge of the locations where the accessory nerve branches enter the muscle belly to reach the motor endplates and find myofascial trigger points (MTrPs). Although anatomoclinical correlations represent a major feature of MTrP, no previous reports describing the distribution of the accessory nerve branches and their anatomical relationship with MTrP are found in the literature. Both trapezius muscles from twelve adult cadavers were carefully dissected by the authors (anatomy professors and medical graduate students) to observe the exact point where the branches of the spinal accessory nerve entered the muscle belly. Dissection was performed through stratigraphic layers to preserve the motor innervation of the trapezius muscle, which is located deep in the muscle. Seven points are described, four of which are motor points: in all cases, these locations corresponded to clinically described MTrPs. The four points were common in these twelve cadavers. This type of clinical correlation between spinal accessory nerve branching and MTrP is useful to achieve a better understanding of the anatomical correlation of MTrP and the physiopathology of these disorders and may provide a scientific basis for their treatment, rendering useful additional information to therapists to achieve better diagnoses and improve therapeutic approaches. PMID:25811029

  9. Fluid pressure waves trigger earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulargia, Francesco; Bizzarri, Andrea

    2015-03-01

    Fluids-essentially meteoric water-are present everywhere in the Earth's crust, occasionally also with pressures higher than hydrostatic due to the tectonic strain imposed on impermeable undrained layers, to the impoundment of artificial lakes or to the forced injections required by oil and gas exploration and production. Experimental evidence suggests that such fluids flow along preferred paths of high diffusivity, provided by rock joints and faults. Studying the coupled poroelastic problem, we find that such flow is ruled by a nonlinear partial differential equation amenable to a Barenblatt-type solution, implying that it takes place in form of solitary pressure waves propagating at a velocity which decreases with time as v ∝ t [1/(n - 1) - 1] with n ≳ 7. According to Tresca-Von Mises criterion, these waves appear to play a major role in earthquake triggering, being also capable to account for aftershock delay without any further assumption. The measure of stress and fluid pressure inside active faults may therefore provide direct information about fault potential instability.

  10. 7 CFR 251.7 - Formula adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Formula adjustments. 251.7 Section 251.7 Agriculture... GENERAL REGULATIONS AND POLICIES-FOOD DISTRIBUTION THE EMERGENCY FOOD ASSISTANCE PROGRAM § 251.7 Formula adjustments. Formula adjustments. (a) Commodity adjustments. The Department will make annual adjustments...

  11. 12 CFR 1209.80 - Inflation adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Inflation adjustments. 1209.80 Section 1209.80... PROCEDURE Civil Money Penalty Inflation Adjustments § 1209.80 Inflation adjustments. The maximum amount of... thereafter adjusted in accordance with the Inflation Adjustment Act, on a recurring four-year cycle, is...

  12. 12 CFR 1209.80 - Inflation adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Inflation adjustments. 1209.80 Section 1209.80... PROCEDURE Civil Money Penalty Inflation Adjustments § 1209.80 Inflation adjustments. The maximum amount of... thereafter adjusted in accordance with the Inflation Adjustment Act, on a recurring four-year cycle, is...

  13. 12 CFR 1209.80 - Inflation adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Inflation adjustments. 1209.80 Section 1209.80... PROCEDURE Civil Money Penalty Inflation Adjustments § 1209.80 Inflation adjustments. The maximum amount of... thereafter adjusted in accordance with the Inflation Adjustment Act, on a recurring four-year cycle, is...

  14. Emergency Room Validation of the Revised Suicide Trigger Scale (STS-3): A Measure of a Hypothesized Suicide Trigger State

    PubMed Central

    Modi, Janki; Cohen, Lisa J.; Galynker, Igor I.

    2012-01-01

    Background The Suicide Trigger Scale (STS) was designed to measure the construct of an affective ‘suicide trigger state.’ This study aims to extend the inpatient setting validation study of the original Suicide Trigger Scale version 2 to the revised Suicide Trigger Scale version 3 (STS-3) in an acute psychiatric emergency room setting. Methods The 42-item STS-3 and a brief psychological test battery were administered to 183 adult psychiatric patients with suicidal ideation or attempt in the psychiatric emergency room, and re-administered to subjects at 1 year follow up. Factor analysis, linear and logistic regressions were used to examine construct structure, divergent and convergent validity, and construct validity, respectively. Results The STS-3 demonstrated strong internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha 0.94). Factor analysis yielded a three-factor solution, which explained 43.4% of the variance. Principal axis factor analysis was used to identify three reliable subscales: Frantic Hopelessness, Ruminative Flooding, and Near-Psychotic Somatization (Cronbach’s alphas 0.90, 0.80, and 0.76, respectively). Significant positive associations were observed between Frantic Hopelessness and BSI depression and anxiety subscales, between Ruminative Flooding and BSI anxiety and paranoia subscales, and Near Psychotic Somatization and BSI somatization subscales. Suicidal subjects with suicide attempt history had mean scores 7 points higher than those without history of suicide attempts. Frantic hopelessness was a significant predictor of current suicide attempt when only attempts requiring at least some medical attention were considered. Conclusion The STS-3 measures a distinct clinical entity, provisionally termed the ‘suicide trigger state.’ Scores on the STS-3 or select subscales appear to relate to degree of suicidality in terms of severity of ideation, history of attempt, and presence of substantive current attempts. Further study is required to confirm the

  15. Density-dependent adjustment of inducible defenses

    PubMed Central

    Tollrian, Ralph; Duggen, Sonja; Weiss, Linda C.; Laforsch, Christian; Kopp, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Predation is a major factor driving evolution, and organisms have evolved adaptations increasing their survival chances. However, most defenses incur trade-offs between benefits and costs. Many organisms save costs by employing inducible defenses as responses to fluctuating predation risk. The level of defense often increases with predator densities. However, individual predation risk should not only depend on predator density but also on the density of conspecifics. If the predator has a saturating functional response one would predict a negative correlation between prey density and individual predation risk and hence defense expression. Here, we tested this hypothesis using six model systems, covering a taxonomic range from protozoa to rotifers and crustaceans. In all six systems, we found that the level of defense expression increased with predator density but decreased with prey density. In one of our systems, i.e. in Daphnia, we further show that the response to prey density is triggered by a chemical cue released by conspecifics and congeners. Our results indicate that organisms adjust the degree of defense to the acute predation risk, rather than merely to predators’ densities. Our study suggests that density-dependent defense expression reflects accurate predation-risk assessment and is a general principle in many inducible-defense systems. PMID:26235428

  16. Two aspects of feedforward postural control: anticipatory postural adjustments and anticipatory synergy adjustments

    PubMed Central

    Klous, Miriam; Mikulic, Pavle

    2011-01-01

    We used the framework of the uncontrolled manifold hypothesis to explore the relations between anticipatory synergy adjustments (ASAs) and anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) during feedforward control of vertical posture. ASAs represent a drop in the index of a multimuscle-mode synergy stabilizing the coordinate of the center of pressure in preparation to an action. ASAs reflect early changes of an index of covariation among variables reflecting muscle activation, whereas APAs reflect early changes in muscle activation levels averaged across trials. The assumed purpose of ASAs is to modify stability of performance variables, whereas the purpose of APAs is to change magnitudes of those variables. We hypothesized that ASAs would be seen before APAs and that this finding would be consistent with regard to the muscle-mode composition defined on the basis of different tasks and phases of action. Subjects performed a voluntary body sway task and a quick, bilateral shoulder flexion task under self-paced and reaction time conditions. Surface muscle activity of 12 leg and trunk muscles was analyzed to identify sets of 4 muscle modes for each task and for different phases within the shoulder flexion task. Variance components in the muscle-mode space and indexes of multimuscle-mode synergy stabilizing shift of the center of pressure were computed. ASAs were seen ∼100–150 ms prior to the task initiation, before APAs. The results were consistent with respect to different sets of muscle modes defined over the two tasks and different shoulder flexion phases. We conclude that the preparation for a self-triggered postural perturbation is associated with two types of anticipatory adjustments, ASAs and APAs. They reflect different feedforward processes within the hypothetical hierarchical control scheme, resulting in changes in patterns of covariation of elemental variables and in their patterns averaged across trials, respectively. The results show that synergies

  17. Hierarchical Trigger of the ALICE Calorimeters

    SciTech Connect

    Muller, Hans; Awes, Terry C

    2010-05-01

    The trigger of the ALICE electromagnetic calorimeters is implemented in 2 hierarchically connected layers of electronics. In the lower layer, level-0 algorithms search shower energy above threshold in locally confined Trigger Region Units (TRU). The top layer is implemented as a single, global trigger unit that receives the trigger data from all TRUs as input to the level-1 algorithm. This architecture was first developed for the PHOS high p{sub T} photon trigger before it was adopted by EMCal also for the jet trigger. TRU units digitize up to 112 analogue input signals from the Front End Electronics (FEE) and concentrate their digital stream in a single FPGA. A charge and time summing algorithm is combined with a peakfinder that suppresses spurious noise and is precise to single LHC bunches. With a peak-to-peak noise level of 150 MeV the linear dynamic range above threshold spans from MIP energies at 215 up to 50 GeV. Local level-0 decisions take less than 600 ns after LHC collisions, upon which all TRUs transfer their level-0 trigger data to the upstream global trigger module which searches within the remaining level-1 latency for high p{sub T} gamma showers (PHOS) and/or for Jet cone areas (EMCaL).

  18. Hierarchical trigger of the ALICE calorimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muller, Hans; Awes, Terry C.; Novitzky, Norbert; Kral, Jiri; Rak, Jan; Schambach, Jo; Wang, Yaping; Wang, Dong; Zhou, Daicui

    2010-05-01

    The trigger of the ALICE electromagnetic calorimeters is implemented in 2 hierarchically connected layers of electronics. In the lower layer, level-0 algorithms search shower energy above threshold in locally confined Trigger Region Units (TRU). The top layer is implemented as a single, global trigger unit that receives the trigger data from all TRUs as input to the level-1 algorithm. This architecture was first developed for the PHOS high pT photon trigger before it was adopted by EMCal also for the jet trigger. TRU units digitize up to 112 analogue input signals from the Front End Electronics (FEE) and concentrate their digital stream in a single FPGA. A charge and time summing algorithm is combined with a peakfinder that suppresses spurious noise and is precise to single LHC bunches. With a peak-to-peak noise level of 150 MeV the linear dynamic range above threshold spans from MIP energies at 215 up to 50 GeV. Local level-0 decisions take less than 600 ns after LHC collisions, upon which all TRUs transfer their level-0 trigger data to the upstream global trigger module which searches within the remaining level-1 latency for high pT gamma showers (PHOS) and/or for Jet cone areas (EMCaL).

  19. Aspirin-triggered metabolites of EFAs.

    PubMed

    Makriyannis, Alexandros; Nikas, Spyros P

    2011-10-28

    Aspirin triggers the biosynthesis of oxygenated metabolites from arachidonic, eicosapentaenoic, and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids. In a preceding issue, Serhan et al. (2011) describe a novel aspirin-triggered DHA pathway for the biosynthesis of a potent anti-inflammatory and proresolving molecule. PMID:22035788

  20. The post-adjustable gastric band abdominoplasty.

    PubMed

    Wu, Allan Y; Coon, John L; Huerta, Sergio; Condé-Green, Alexandra; Morrow, David M

    2012-07-01

    Serious complications associated with post-laparoscopic adjustable gastric band (LAGB) abdominoplasty have been reported in the medical literature. Furthermore, others have noted aesthetic problems with closure of the umbilicus due to apparatus port proximity. Currently, no clinical protocol or formal industry guidance for LAGB apparatus management during abdominoplasty is available in the medical literature. In this article, the authors describe their procedure for safe LAGB apparatus management during abdominoplasty and illustrate key surgical principles by presenting unique cases from their series of 20 patients treated with this technique. PMID:22745453

  1. An empirical profile of VLF triggered emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J. D.; Spasojevic, M.; Inan, U. S.

    2015-08-01

    The Siple Transmitter Experiment operated from 1973 to 1988 and generated a wealth of observations of nonlinear wave-particle interactions including extensive recordings of triggered emissions generated by VLF signals injected into the magnetosphere from the transmitter at Siple Station, Antarctica. Due to their complex appearance and immensely varied behavior, triggered emissions remain poorly described and understood. This work provides a comprehensive statistical description of observed triggered emissions and establishes statistical bounds on triggered emission type (fallers, risers, and positive and negative hooks) and behavior (frequency changes between 1 kHz and 2.5 kHz with initial sweep rates between -2.5 kHz/s and 2.5 kHz/s, with risers undergoing a median frequency change of 556 Hz and fallers a median frequency change of -198 Hz). The statistical study also reveals an apparent dependence of the triggered emission behavior on the transmitted signal itself. Long tones and rising ramps generate more risers and positive hooks, while short tones and falling ramps produce more fallers and negative hooks. Triggered emissions also appear to favorably initiate with sweep rates similar to that of the triggering element, with the 1 kHz/s rising ramps triggering initial risers with a median sweep rate of 1.03 kHz/s and -1 kHz/s triggering initial fallers with a median sweep rate of -0.73 kHz/s. These results improve observations of wave modification resulting from wave-particle interactions in the radiation belts and can be used to validate numerical simulations of triggered emissions.

  2. JASMONATE-TRIGGERED PLANT IMMUNITY

    PubMed Central

    Campos, Marcelo L.; Kang, Jin-Ho; Howe, Gregg A.

    2014-01-01

    The plant hormone jasmonate (JA) exerts direct control over the production of chemical defense compounds that confer resistance to a remarkable spectrum of plant-associated organisms, ranging from microbial pathogens to vertebrate herbivores. The underlying mechanism of JA-triggered immunity (JATI) can be conceptualized as a multi-stage signal transduction cascade involving: i) pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that couple the perception of danger signals to rapid synthesis of bioactive JA; ii) an evolutionarily conserved JA signaling module that links fluctuating JA levels to changes in the abundance of transcriptional repressor proteins; and iii) activation (de-repression) of transcription factors that orchestrate the expression of myriad chemical and morphological defense traits. Multiple negative feedback loops act in concert to restrain the duration and amplitude of defense responses, presumably to mitigate potential fitness costs of JATI. The convergence of diverse plant- and non-plant-derived signals on the core JA module indicates that JATI is a general response to perceived danger. However, the modular structure of JATI may accommodate attacker-specific defense responses through evolutionary innovation of PRRs (inputs) and defense traits (outputs). The efficacy of JATI as a defense strategy is highlighted by its capacity to shape natural populations of plant attackers, as well as the propensity of plant-associated organisms to subvert or otherwise manipulate JA signaling. As both a cellular hub for integrating informational cues from the environment and a common target of pathogen effectors, the core JA module provides a focal point for understanding immune system networks and the evolution of chemical diversity in the plant kingdom. PMID:24973116

  3. Multi-line triggering and interdigitated electrode structure for photoconductive semiconductor switches

    DOEpatents

    Mar, Alan; Zutavern, Fred J.; Loubriel, Guillermo

    2007-02-06

    An improved photoconductive semiconductor switch comprises multiple-line optical triggering of multiple, high-current parallel filaments between the switch electrodes. The switch can also have a multi-gap, interdigitated electrode for the generation of additional parallel filaments. Multi-line triggering can increase the switch lifetime at high currents by increasing the number of current filaments and reducing the current density at the contact electrodes in a controlled manner. Furthermore, the improved switch can mitigate the degradation of switching conditions with increased number of firings of the switch.

  4. Study of Tectonic Tremor in Depth: Triggering Stress Observation and Model of the Triggering Mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tien-Huei

    including NVT occur on these sections have slower slip rates than that of the general earthquakes (Rubin, 2008; Ide, 2008). In Azna region, we use envelope and waveform cross-correlation to detect tremor. We investigate the stress required to trigger tremor and tremor spectrum using continuous broadband seismograms from 11 stations located near Anza, California. We examine 44 Mw≥7.4 teleseismic events between 2001 and 2011, in addition to one regional earthquake of smaller-magnitude, the 2009 Mw 6.5 Gulf of California earthquake, because it induced extremely high strain at Anza. The result suggests that not only the amplitude of the induced strain, but also the period of the incoming surface wave, may control triggering of tremor near Anza. In addition, we find that the transient-shear stress (17--35 kPa) required to trigger tremor along the SJF at Anza is distinctly higher than what has been reported for the well-studied SAF (Gulihem et al. 2010). We model slip initiation using the analytical solution of rate-and-state friction. We verify the correctness of this method by comparing the results with that from the dynamic model, implemented using the Multi-Dimensional Spectral Boundary Integral Code (MDSBI) written by Eric M. Dunham from Sanford University. We find that the analytical result is consistent with that of the dynamic model. We set up a patch model with which the source stress and frictional conditions best resemble the current estimates of the tremor source. The frictional regime of this patch is rate-weakening. The initial normal and shear stress, and friction parameters are suggested by previous observations of tectonic tremors both in this and other studies (Brown et al., 2005; Shelly et al., 2006; Miyazawa, 2008; Ben-Zion, 2012). Our dynamic loading first consists of simple harmonic stress change with fixed periods, simplifying the transient stress history to resemble teleseismic earthquakes. We tested the period and amplitude of such periodic loading. We

  5. Convective adjustment in baroclinic atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emanuel, Kerry A.

    1986-01-01

    Local convection in planetary atmospheres is generally considered to result from the action of gravity on small regions of anomalous density. That in rotating baroclinic fluids the total potential energy for small scale convection contains a centrifugal as well as a gravitational contribution is shown. Convective adjustment in such an atmosphere results in the establishment of near adiabatic lapse rates of temperature along suitably defined surfaces of constant angular momentum, rather than in the vertical. This leads in general to sub-adiabatic vertical lapse rates. That such an adjustment actually occurs in the earth's atmosphere is shown by example and the magnitude of the effect for several other planetary atmospheres is estimated.

  6. Optically triggered high voltage switch network and method for switching a high voltage

    DOEpatents

    El-Sharkawi, Mohamed A.; Andexler, George; Silberkleit, Lee I.

    1993-01-19

    An optically triggered solid state switch and method for switching a high voltage electrical current. A plurality of solid state switches (350) are connected in series for controlling electrical current flow between a compensation capacitor (112) and ground in a reactive power compensator (50, 50') that monitors the voltage and current flowing through each of three distribution lines (52a, 52b and 52c), which are supplying three-phase power to one or more inductive loads. An optical transmitter (100) controlled by the reactive power compensation system produces light pulses that are conveyed over optical fibers (102) to a switch driver (110') that includes a plurality of series connected optical triger circuits (288). Each of the optical trigger circuits controls a pair of the solid state switches and includes a plurality of series connected resistors (294, 326, 330, and 334) that equalize or balance the potential across the plurality of trigger circuits. The trigger circuits are connected to one of the distribution lines through a trigger capacitor (340). In each switch driver, the light signals activate a phototransistor (300) so that an electrical current flows from one of the energy reservoir capacitors through a pulse transformer (306) in the trigger circuit, producing gate signals that turn on the pair of serially connected solid state switches (350).

  7. Triggered tremor sweet spots in Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gomberg, Joan; Prejean, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    To better understand what controls fault slip along plate boundaries, we have exploited the abundance of seismic and geodetic data available from the richly varied tectonic environments composing Alaska. A search for tremor triggered by 11 large earthquakes throughout all of seismically monitored Alaska reveals two tremor “sweet spots”—regions where large-amplitude seismic waves repeatedly triggered tremor between 2006 and 2012. The two sweet spots locate in very different tectonic environments—one just trenchward and between the Aleutian islands of Unalaska and Akutan and the other in central mainland Alaska. The Unalaska/Akutan spot corroborates previous evidence that the region is ripe for tremor, perhaps because it is located where plate-interface frictional properties transition between stick-slip and stably sliding in both the dip direction and laterally. The mainland sweet spot coincides with a region of complex and uncertain plate interactions, and where no slow slip events or major crustal faults have been noted previously. Analyses showed that larger triggering wave amplitudes, and perhaps lower frequencies (<~0.03 Hz), may enhance the probability of triggering tremor. However, neither the maximum amplitude in the time domain or in a particular frequency band, nor the geometric relationship of the wavefield to the tremor source faults alone ensures a high probability of triggering. Triggered tremor at the two sweet spots also does not occur during slow slip events visually detectable in GPS data, although slow slip below the detection threshold may have facilitated tremor triggering.

  8. Performance of the ATLAS trigger system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casadei, Diego

    2012-12-01

    The ATLAS trigger has been used very successfully to collect collision data during 2009-2011 LHC running at centre of mass energies between 900 GeV and 7 TeV. The three-level trigger system reduces the event rate from the design bunch-crossing rate of 40 MHz to an average recording rate of about 300 Hz. The first level uses custom electronics to reject most background events, in less than 2.5 μs, using information from the calorimeter and muon detectors. The upper two trigger levels are software-based triggers. The trigger system selects events by identifying signatures of muon, electron, photon, tau lepton, jet, and B meson candidates, as well as using global event signatures, such as missing transverse energy. We give an overview of the performance of these trigger selections based on extensive online running during the 2011 LHC run and discuss issues encountered during 2011 operations. We describe how the trigger has evolved with increasing LHC luminosity coping with pile-up conditions close to LHC design luminosity.

  9. The magnitude distribution of dynamically triggered earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez, Stephen

    Large dynamic strains carried by seismic waves are known to trigger seismicity far from their source region. It is unknown, however, whether surface waves trigger only small earthquakes, or whether they can also trigger large, societally significant earthquakes. To address this question, we use a mixing model approach in which total seismicity is decomposed into 2 broad subclasses: "triggered" events initiated or advanced by far-field dynamic strains, and "untriggered" spontaneous events consisting of everything else. The b-value of a mixed data set, b MIX, is decomposed into a weighted sum of b-values of its constituent components, bT and bU. For populations of earthquakes subjected to dynamic strain, the fraction of earthquakes that are likely triggered, f T, is estimated via inter-event time ratios and used to invert for bT. The confidence bounds on b T are estimated by multiple inversions of bootstrap resamplings of bMIX and fT. For Californian seismicity, data are consistent with a single-parameter Gutenberg-Richter hypothesis governing the magnitudes of both triggered and untriggered earthquakes. Triggered earthquakes therefore seem just as likely to be societally significant as any other population of earthquakes.

  10. The electric field changes and UHF radiations caused by the triggered lightning in Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kawasaki, Zen-Ichiro; Kanao, Tadashi; Matsuura, Kenji; Nakano, Minoru; Horii, Kenji; Nakamura, Koichi

    1991-01-01

    In the rocket triggered lightning experiment of fiscal 1989, researchers observed electromagnetic field changes and UHF electromagnetic radiation accompanying rocket triggered lightning. It was found that no rapid changes corresponding to the return stroke of natural lightning were observed in the electric field changes accompanying rocket triggered lightning. However, continuous currents were present. In the case of rocket triggered lightning to the tower, electromagnetic field changes corresponding to the initiation of triggered lightning showed a bipolar pulse of a relatively large amplitude. In contrast, the rocket triggered lightning to the ground did not have such a bipolar pulse. The UHF radiation accompanying the rocket triggered lightning preceded the waveform portions corresponding to the first changes in electromagnetic fields. The number of isolated pulses in the UHF radiation showed a correlation with the time duration from rocket launching up to triggered lightning. The time interval between consecutive isolated pulses tended to get shorter with the passage of time, just like the stepped leaders of natural lightning.

  11. Adjustable-Angle Drill Block

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallimore, F. H.

    1986-01-01

    Adjustable angular drill block accurately transfers hole patterns from mating surfaces not normal to each other. Block applicable to transfer of nonperpendicular holes in mating contoured assemblies in aircraft industry. Also useful in general manufacturing to transfer mating installation holes to irregular and angular surfaces.

  12. Economic Pressures and Family Adjustment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haccoun, Dorothy Markiewicz; Ledingham, Jane E.

    The relationships between economic stress on the family and child and parental adjustment were examined for a sample of 199 girls and boys in grades one, four, and seven. These associations were examined separately for families in which both parents were present and in which mothers only were at home. Economic stress was associated with boys'…

  13. Intraplate triggered earthquakes: Observations and interpretation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hough, S.E.; Seeber, L.; Armbruster, J.G.

    2003-01-01

    We present evidence that at least two of the three 1811-1812 New Madrid, central United States, mainshocks and the 1886 Charleston, South Carolina, earthquake triggered earthquakes at regional distances. In addition to previously published evidence for triggered earthquakes in the northern Kentucky/southern Ohio region in 1812, we present evidence suggesting that triggered events might have occurred in the Wabash Valley, to the south of the New Madrid Seismic Zone, and near Charleston, South Carolina. We also discuss evidence that earthquakes might have been triggered in northern Kentucky within seconds of the passage of surface waves from the 23 January 1812 New Madrid mainshock. After the 1886 Charleston earthquake, accounts suggest that triggered events occurred near Moodus, Connecticut, and in southern Indiana. Notwithstanding the uncertainty associated with analysis of historical accounts, there is evidence that at least three out of the four known Mw 7 earthquakes in the central and eastern United States seem to have triggered earthquakes at distances beyond the typically assumed aftershock zone of 1-2 mainshock fault lengths. We explore the possibility that remotely triggered earthquakes might be common in low-strain-rate regions. We suggest that in a low-strain-rate environment, permanent, nonelastic deformation might play a more important role in stress accumulation than it does in interplate crust. Using a simple model incorporating elastic and anelastic strain release, we show that, for realistic parameter values, faults in intraplate crust remain close to their failure stress for a longer part of the earthquake cycle than do faults in high-strain-rate regions. Our results further suggest that remotely triggered earthquakes occur preferentially in regions of recent and/or future seismic activity, which suggests that faults are at a critical stress state in only some areas. Remotely triggered earthquakes may thus serve as beacons that identify regions of

  14. Remotely triggered earthquakes following moderate main shocks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hough, S.E.

    2007-01-01

    Since 1992, remotely triggered earthquakes have been identified following large (M > 7) earthquakes in California as well as in other regions. These events, which occur at much greater distances than classic aftershocks, occur predominantly in active geothermal or volcanic regions, leading to theories that the earthquakes are triggered when passing seismic waves cause disruptions in magmatic or other fluid systems. In this paper, I focus on observations of remotely triggered earthquakes following moderate main shocks in diverse tectonic settings. I summarize evidence that remotely triggered earthquakes occur commonly in mid-continent and collisional zones. This evidence is derived from analysis of both historic earthquake sequences and from instrumentally recorded M5-6 earthquakes in eastern Canada. The latter analysis suggests that, while remotely triggered earthquakes do not occur pervasively following moderate earthquakes in eastern North America, a low level of triggering often does occur at distances beyond conventional aftershock zones. The inferred triggered events occur at the distances at which SmS waves are known to significantly increase ground motions. A similar result was found for 28 recent M5.3-7.1 earthquakes in California. In California, seismicity is found to increase on average to a distance of at least 200 km following moderate main shocks. This supports the conclusion that, even at distances of ???100 km, dynamic stress changes control the occurrence of triggered events. There are two explanations that can account for the occurrence of remotely triggered earthquakes in intraplate settings: (1) they occur at local zones of weakness, or (2) they occur in zones of local stress concentration. ?? 2007 The Geological Society of America.

  15. Adjustable electronic load-alarm relay

    DOEpatents

    Mason, Charles H.; Sitton, Roy S.

    1976-01-01

    This invention is an improved electronic alarm relay for monitoring the current drawn by an AC motor or other electrical load. The circuit is designed to measure the load with high accuracy and to have excellent alarm repeatability. Chattering and arcing of the relay contacts are minimal. The operator can adjust the set point easily and can re-set both the high and the low alarm points by means of one simple adjustment. The relay includes means for generating a signal voltage proportional to the motor current. In a preferred form of the invention a first operational amplifier is provided to generate a first constant reference voltage which is higher than a preselected value of the signal voltage. A second operational amplifier is provided to generate a second constant reference voltage which is lower than the aforementioned preselected value of the signal voltage. A circuit comprising a first resistor serially connected to a second resistor is connected across the outputs of the first and second amplifiers, and the junction of the two resistors is connected to the inverting terminal of the second amplifier. Means are provided to compare the aforementioned signal voltage with both the first and second reference voltages and to actuate an alarm if the signal voltage is higher than the first reference voltage or lower than the second reference voltage.

  16. Self-adjusting magnetic bearing systems

    DOEpatents

    Post, Richard F.

    1998-01-01

    A self-adjusting magnetic bearing automatically adjusts the parameters of an axially unstable magnetic bearing such that its force balance is maintained near the point of metastable equilibrium. Complete stabilization can be obtained with the application of weak restoring forces either from a mechanical bearing (running at near-zero load, thus with reduced wear) or from the action of residual eddy currents in a snubber bearing. In one embodiment, a torque is generated by the approach of a slotted pole to a conducting plate. The torque actuates an assembly which varies the position of a magnetic shunt to change the force exerted by the bearing. Another embodiment achieves axial stabilization by sensing vertical displacements in a suspended bearing element, and using this information in an electrical servo system. In a third embodiment, as a rotating eddy current exciter approaches a stationary bearing, it heats a thermostat which actuates an assembly to weaken the attractive force between the two bearing elements. An improved version of an electromechanical battery utilizing the designs of the various embodiments is described.

  17. Self-adjusting magnetic bearing systems

    DOEpatents

    Post, R.F.

    1998-07-21

    A self-adjusting magnetic bearing automatically adjusts the parameters of an axially unstable magnetic bearing such that its force balance is maintained near the point of metastable equilibrium. Complete stabilization can be obtained with the application of weak restoring forces either from a mechanical bearing (running at near-zero load, thus with reduced wear) or from the action of residual eddy currents in a snubber bearing. In one embodiment, a torque is generated by the approach of a slotted pole to a conducting plate. The torque actuates an assembly which varies the position of a magnetic shunt to change the force exerted by the bearing. Another embodiment achieves axial stabilization by sensing vertical displacements in a suspended bearing element, and using this information in an electrical servo system. In a third embodiment, as a rotating eddy current exciter approaches a stationary bearing, it heats a thermostat which actuates an assembly to weaken the attractive force between the two bearing elements. An improved version of an electromechanical battery utilizing the designs of the various embodiments is described. 7 figs.

  18. Status of Fast Interaction Trigger for ALICE Upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karavicheva, T. L.; Kurepin, A. B.; Trzaska, W. H.

    2015-06-01

    As a result of the LHC upgrade after the Long Shutdown 2, the expected luminosity and collision rate during the so called Run 3 will considerably exceed the design parameters for several of the key ALICE detectors systems including the forward trigger detectors. Furthermore, the introduction of a new Muon Forward Tracker significantly reduces the space envelope available for the upgraded Fast Interaction Trigger (FIT) detector on the muon spectrometer side. At the same time, FIT is expected to match and even exceed the functionality and performance currently secured by three ALICE sub-detectors: the time zero detector (T0), the VZERO system, and the Forward Multiplicity Detector (FMD). The harsh conditions of Run 3 would accelerate the ageing and radiation damage (detectable already during Run 1) of the FIT detector if we were to use standard PMTs. The solution came thanks to the latest developments in MCP-PMT technology providing compact photo sensors with excellent characteristics and stability.

  19. A highly reliable trigger for vacuum ARC plasma source

    SciTech Connect

    Bernardet, H.; Godechot, X.; Jarjat, F.

    1996-08-01

    The authors have developed a reliable electrical trigger and its associated circuitry to fire vacuum arc plasma or ion source. They tested different embodiments of the trigger device in order to get a highly reliable one, which is able to perform more than 1.2 x 10{sup 6} shots at 60 A and 6.5 ps pulse length. The evolution of the ion current emitted has been recorded as a function of the number of shots. They have also investigated in which direction the plasma jet is emitted : axially or radially. This device can be used to fire a vacuum arc plasma or ion source by plasma injection. It has obvious advantage to be placed outside the cathode and therefore would ease maintenance of vacuum arc devices.

  20. The ATLAS level 2 trigger supervisor.

    SciTech Connect

    Abolins, M.; Blair, R. E.; Dawson, J. W.; Owen, D.; Pope, B. G.; Schlereth, J. L.; Weber dos Santos, R.

    1997-04-03

    This paper presents an overview of the hardware and software proposed for the ATLAS level 2 Trigger ROI Builder/Supervisor. The essential requirements of this system are that it operate at the design Level 1 Trigger rate of 100kHz and that it support the technical requirements of the architectures suggested for the ATLAS Level 2 Trigger. Commercial equipment and software support are used to the maximum extent possible, with support from dedicated hardware. Timing requirements and latencies are discussed and simulation results are presented.

  1. Introduction to myofascial trigger points in dogs.

    PubMed

    Wall, Rick

    2014-06-01

    In dogs, muscles make up 44%-57% of total body weight and can serve as source of both pain and dysfunction when myofascial trigger points are present. However, rarely is muscle mentioned as a generator of pain in dogs, and even less mentioned is muscle dysfunction. The veterinary practitioner with interest in pain management, rehabilitation, orthopedics, and sports medicine must be familiar with the characteristics, etiology, and precipitating factors of myofascial trigger points. Additionally, the development of examination and treatment skill is needed to effectively manage myofascial trigger points in dogs. PMID:25454375

  2. Attempted Suicide Triggers in Thai Adolescent Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Sukhawaha, Supattra; Arunpongpaisal, Suwanna; Rungreangkulkij, Somporn

    2016-06-01

    The study goal was to describe attempted suicide triggers in Thai adolescents. A descriptive exploratory qualitative study approach was used utilizing in-depth interviews with twelve adolescents who had attempted suicide and six of their parents. Content analysis was conducted. Attempted suicide triggers were (1) severe verbal criticisms and expulsion to die by a significant family member, (2) disappointed and unwanted by boyfriend in first serious relationship, (3) unwanted pregnancy, and (4) mental illness leading to intense emotions and irresistible impulses. These attempted suicide triggers should be of concern and brought into suicide prevention management programs such as emotional management, effective communication for adolescents and family. PMID:27256938

  3. Electronic trigger for the ASP experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, R.J.

    1985-11-01

    The Anomalous Single Photon (ASP) electronic trigger is described. The experiments is based on an electromagnetic calorimeter composed of arrays of lead glass blocks, read out with photo-multiplier tubes, surrounding the interaction point at the PEP storage ring. The primary requirement of the trigger system is to be sensitive to low energy (approx. =0.5 GeV and above) photons whilst discriminating against high backgrounds at PEP. Analogue summing of the PMT signals and a sequence of programmable digital look-up tables produces a ''dead-timeless'' trigger for the beam collision rate of 408 kHz. 6 refs., 6 figs.

  4. Introduction to myofascial trigger points in dogs.

    PubMed

    Wall, Rick

    2014-06-01

    In dogs, muscles make up 44%-57% of total body weight and can serve as source of both pain and dysfunction when myofascial trigger points are present. However, rarely is muscle mentioned as a generator of pain in dogs, and even less mentioned is muscle dysfunction. The veterinary practitioner with interest in pain management, rehabilitation, orthopedics, and sports medicine must be familiar with the characteristics, etiology, and precipitating factors of myofascial trigger points. Additionally, the development of examination and treatment skill is needed to effectively manage myofascial trigger points in dogs.

  5. Triggerable electro-optic amplitude modulator bias stabilizer for integrated optical devices

    DOEpatents

    Conder, Alan D.; Haigh, Ronald E.; Hugenberg, Keith F.

    1995-01-01

    An improved Mach-Zehnder integrated optical electro-optic modulator is achieved by application and incorporation of a DC bias box containing a laser synchronized trigger circuit, a DC ramp and hold circuit, a modulator transfer function negative peak detector circuit, and an adjustable delay circuit. The DC bias box ramps the DC bias along the transfer function curve to any desired phase or point of operation at which point the RF modulation takes place.

  6. Triggerable electro-optic amplitude modulator bias stabilizer for integrated optical devices

    DOEpatents

    Conder, A.D.; Haigh, R.E.; Hugenberg, K.F.

    1995-09-26

    An improved Mach-Zehnder integrated optical electro-optic modulator is achieved by application and incorporation of a DC bias box containing a laser synchronized trigger circuit, a DC ramp and hold circuit, a modulator transfer function negative peak detector circuit, and an adjustable delay circuit. The DC bias box ramps the DC bias along the transfer function curve to any desired phase or point of operation at which point the RF modulation takes place. 7 figs.

  7. A novel HBT trigger SCR in 0.35 μm SiGe BiCMOS technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Changjun, Liao; Jizhi, Liu; Zhiwei, Liu

    2016-09-01

    The silicon-controlled rectifier (SCR) device is known as an efficient electrostatic discharge (ESD) protection device due to the highest ESD robustness in the smallest layout area. However, SCR has some drawbacks, such as high trigger voltage and low holding voltage. In order to reduce the trigger voltage of the SCR device for ESD protection, a new heterojunction bipolar transistor (HBT) trigger silicon controlled rectifier (HTSCR) device in 0.35 μm SiGe BiCMOS technology are proposed. The underlying physical mechanisms critical to the trigger voltage are demonstrated based on transmission line pulsing (TLP) measurement and physics-based simulation results. The simulation results prove that the trigger voltage of the HTSCR is decided by the collector-to-emitter breakdown voltage of the HBT structure in floating base configuration. The ESD experiment test results demonstrate the HTSCR can offer superior performance with a small trigger voltage, an adjustable holding voltage and a high ESD robustness. In comparison to the conventional MLSCR, the trigger voltage of the fabricated HTSCR can reduce to less than 50% of that of the MLSCR, and the I t2 of the HBT trigger SCR is 80% more than that of the MLSCR. Project supported by the Central Universities Fundamental Research Project (No. ZYGX2015J035) and the Sichuan Science and Technology Support Project (No. 2016GZ0115).

  8. Data acquisition, triggering, and filtering at the Auger Engineering Radio Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelley, J. L.

    2013-10-01

    The Auger Engineering Radio Array (AERA) is currently detecting cosmic rays of energies at and above 1017 eV at the Pierre Auger Observatory, by triggering on the radio emission produced in the associated air showers. The radio-detection technique must cope with a significant background of man-made radio-frequency interference, but can provide information on shower development with a high duty cycle. We discuss our techniques to handle the challenges of self-triggered radio detection in a low-power autonomous array, including triggering and filtering algorithms, data acquisition design, and communication systems.

  9. Radio AGN in the local universe: unification, triggering and evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tadhunter, Clive

    2016-06-01

    Associated with one of the most important forms of active galactic nucleus (AGN) feedback, and showing a strong preference for giant elliptical host galaxies, radio AGN (L_{1.4 GHz} > 10^{24} W Hz^{-1}) are a key sub-class of the overall AGN population. Recently their study has benefitted dramatically from the availability of high-quality data covering the X-ray to far-IR wavelength range obtained with the current generation of ground- and space-based telescope facilities. Reflecting this progress, here I review our current state of understanding of the population of radio AGN at low and intermediate redshifts (z < 0.7), concentrating on their nuclear AGN and host galaxy properties, and covering three interlocking themes: the classification of radio AGN and its interpretation; the triggering and fuelling of the jet and AGN activity; and the evolution of the host galaxies. I show that much of the observed diversity in the AGN properties of radio AGN can be explained in terms of a combination of orientation/anisotropy, mass accretion rate, and variability effects. The detailed morphologies of the host galaxies are consistent with the triggering of strong-line radio galaxies (SLRG) in galaxy mergers. However, the star formation properties and cool ISM contents suggest that the triggering mergers are relatively minor in terms of their gas masses in most cases, and would not lead to major growth of the supermassive black holes and stellar bulges; therefore, apart from a minority (<20 %) that show evidence for higher star formation rates and more massive cool ISM reservoirs, the SLRG represent late-time re-triggering of activity in mature giant elliptical galaxies. In contrast, the host and environmental properties of weak-line radio galaxies (WLRG) with Fanaroff-Riley class I radio morphologies are consistent with more gradual fuelling of the activity via gas accretion at low rates onto the supermassive black holes.

  10. FPGA Based Wavelet Trigger in Radio Detection of Cosmic Rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szadkowski, Zbigniew; Szadkowska, Anna

    2014-09-01

    Experiments which show coherent radio emission from extensive air showers induced by ultra-high-energy cosmic rays are designed for a detailed study of the development of the electromagnetic part of air showers. Radio detectors can operate with 100 % up time as, e.g., surface detectors based on water-Cherenkov tanks. They are being developed for ground-based experiments (e.g., the Pierre Auger Observatory) as another type of air-shower detector in addition to fluorescence detectors, which operate with only ˜10 % of duty on dark nights. The radio signals from air showers are caused by coherent emission from geomagnetic radiation and charge-excess processes. The self-triggers in radio detectors currently in use often generate a dense stream of data, which is analyzed afterwards. Huge amounts of registered data require significant manpower for off-line analysis. Improvement of trigger efficiency is a relevant factor. The wavelet trigger, which investigates on-line the power of radio signals (˜V2/R), is promising; however, it requires some improvements with respect to current designs. In this work, Morlet wavelets with various scaling factors were used for an analysis of real data from the Auger Engineering Radio Array and for optimization of the utilization of the resources in an FPGA. The wavelet analysis showed that the power of events is concentrated mostly in a limited range of the frequency spectrum (consistent with a range imposed by the input analog band-pass filter). However, we found several events with suspicious spectral characteristics, where the signal power is spread over the full band-width sampled by a 200 MHz digitizer with significant contribution of very high and very low frequencies. These events may not originate from cosmic ray showers but could be the result of human contamination. The engine of the wavelet analysis can be implemented in the modern powerful FPGAs and can remove suspicious events on-line to reduce the trigger rate.

  11. FPGA Based Wavelet Trigger in Radio Detection of Cosmic Rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szadkowski, Zbigniew; Szadkowska, Anna

    2014-12-01

    Experiments which show coherent radio emission from extensive air showers induced by ultra-high-energy cosmic rays are designed for a detailed study of the development of the electromagnetic part of air showers. Radio detectors can operate with 100 % up time as, e.g., surface detectors based on water-Cherenkov tanks. They are being developed for ground-based experiments (e.g., the Pierre Auger Observatory) as another type of air-shower detector in addition to fluorescence detectors, which operate with only ˜10 % of duty on dark nights. The radio signals from air showers are caused by coherent emission from geomagnetic radiation and charge-excess processes. The self-triggers in radio detectors currently in use often generate a dense stream of data, which is analyzed afterwards. Huge amounts of registered data require significant manpower for off-line analysis. Improvement of trigger efficiency is a relevant factor. The wavelet trigger, which investigates on-line the power of radio signals (˜ V2/ R), is promising; however, it requires some improvements with respect to current designs. In this work, Morlet wavelets with various scaling factors were used for an analysis of real data from the Auger Engineering Radio Array and for optimization of the utilization of the resources in an FPGA. The wavelet analysis showed that the power of events is concentrated mostly in a limited range of the frequency spectrum (consistent with a range imposed by the input analog band-pass filter). However, we found several events with suspicious spectral characteristics, where the signal power is spread over the full band-width sampled by a 200 MHz digitizer with significant contribution of very high and very low frequencies. These events may not originate from cosmic ray showers but could be the result of human contamination. The engine of the wavelet analysis can be implemented in the modern powerful FPGAs and can remove suspicious events on-line to reduce the trigger rate.

  12. 77 FR 45380 - Announcement Regarding States Triggering “On” and “Off” in the Emergency Unemployment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-31

    ... Emergency Unemployment Compensation 2008 (EUC08) Program and the Federal-State Extended Benefits (EB... regarding states triggering ``on'' and ``off'' in the Emergency Unemployment Compensation 2008 (EUC08... average, seasonally adjusted total unemployment rate for Nevada (11.7%), New Jersey (9.1%), and...

  13. Triggered creep as a possible mechanism for delayed dynamic triggering of tremor and earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shelly, D.R.; Peng, Z.; Hill, D.P.; Aiken, C.

    2011-01-01

    The passage of radiating seismic waves generates transient stresses in the Earth's crust that can trigger slip on faults far away from the original earthquake source. The triggered fault slip is detectable in the form of earthquakes and seismic tremor. However, the significance of these triggered events remains controversial, in part because they often occur with some delay, long after the triggering stress has passed. Here we scrutinize the location and timing of tremor on the San Andreas fault between 2001 and 2010 in relation to distant earthquakes. We observe tremor on the San Andreas fault that is initiated by passing seismic waves, yet migrates along the fault at a much slower velocity than the radiating seismic waves. We suggest that the migrating tremor records triggered slow slip of the San Andreas fault as a propagating creep event. We find that the triggered tremor and fault creep can be initiated by distant earthquakes as small as magnitude 5.4 and can persist for several days after the seismic waves have passed. Our observations of prolonged tremor activity provide a clear example of the delayed dynamic triggering of seismic events. Fault creep has been shown to trigger earthquakes, and we therefore suggest that the dynamic triggering of prolonged fault creep could provide a mechanism for the delayed triggering of earthquakes. ?? 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  14. Software for implementing trigger algorithms on the upgraded CMS Global Trigger System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsushita, Takashi; Arnold, Bernhard

    2015-12-01

    The Global Trigger is the final step of the CMS Level-1 Trigger and implements a trigger menu, a set of selection requirements applied to the final list of trigger objects. The conditions for trigger object selection, with possible topological requirements on multiobject triggers, are combined by simple combinatorial logic to form the algorithms. The LHC has resumed its operation in 2015, the collision-energy will be increased to 13 TeV with the luminosity expected to go up to 2x1034 cm-2s-1. The CMS Level-1 trigger system will be upgraded to improve its performance for selecting interesting physics events and to operate within the predefined data-acquisition rate in the challenging environment expected at LHC Run 2. The Global Trigger will be re-implemented on modern FPGAs on an Advanced Mezzanine Card in MicroTCA crate. The upgraded system will benefit from the ability to process complex algorithms with DSP slices and increased processing resources with optical links running at 10 Gbit/s, enabling more algorithms at a time than previously possible and allowing CMS to be more flexible in how it handles the trigger bandwidth. In order to handle the increased complexity of the trigger menu implemented on the upgraded Global Trigger, a set of new software has been developed. The software allows a physicist to define a menu with analysis-like triggers using intuitive user interface. The menu is then realised on FPGAs with further software processing, instantiating predefined firmware blocks. The design and implementation of the software for preparing a menu for the upgraded CMS Global Trigger system are presented.

  15. The dangers of being trigger-happy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dale, J. E.; Haworth, T. J.; Bressert, E.

    2015-06-01

    We examine the evidence offered for triggered star formation against the backdrop provided by recent numerical simulations of feedback from massive stars at or below giant molecular cloud sizescales. We compile a catalogue of 67 observational papers, mostly published over the last decade, and examine the signposts most commonly used to infer the presence of triggered star formation. We then determine how well these signposts perform in a recent suite of hydrodynamic simulations of star formation including feedback from O-type stars performed by Dale et al. We find that none of the observational markers improve the chances of correctly identifying a given star as triggered by more than factors of 2 at most. This limits the fidelity of these techniques in interpreting star formation histories. We therefore urge caution in interpreting observations of star formation near feedback-driven structures in terms of triggering.

  16. The new UA1 calorimeter trigger processor

    SciTech Connect

    Baird, S.A.; Campbell, D.; Cawthraw, M.; Coughlan, J.; Flynn, P.; Galagadera, S.; Grayer, G.; Halsall, R.; Shah, T.P.; Stephens, R.

    1989-02-01

    The UA1 First Level Trigger Processor (TP) is a fast digital machine with a highly parallel pipelined architecture of fast TTL combinational and programmable logic controlled by programmable microsequencers. The TP uses 100,000 IC's housed in 18 crates each containing 21 fastbus sized modules. It is hardwired with a very high level of interconnection. The energy deposited in the upgraded calorimeter is digitised into 1700 bytes of input data every beam crossing. The Processor selects in 1.5 microseconds events for further processing. The new electron trigger has improved hadron jet rejection, achieved by requiring low energy deposition around the electro-magnetic cluster. A missing transverse energy trigger and a total energy trigger have also been implemented.

  17. Graphics Processing Units for HEP trigger systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ammendola, R.; Bauce, M.; Biagioni, A.; Chiozzi, S.; Cotta Ramusino, A.; Fantechi, R.; Fiorini, M.; Giagu, S.; Gianoli, A.; Lamanna, G.; Lonardo, A.; Messina, A.; Neri, I.; Paolucci, P. S.; Piandani, R.; Pontisso, L.; Rescigno, M.; Simula, F.; Sozzi, M.; Vicini, P.

    2016-07-01

    General-purpose computing on GPUs (Graphics Processing Units) is emerging as a new paradigm in several fields of science, although so far applications have been tailored to the specific strengths of such devices as accelerator in offline computation. With the steady reduction of GPU latencies, and the increase in link and memory throughput, the use of such devices for real-time applications in high-energy physics data acquisition and trigger systems is becoming ripe. We will discuss the use of online parallel computing on GPU for synchronous low level trigger, focusing on CERN NA62 experiment trigger system. The use of GPU in higher level trigger system is also briefly considered.

  18. Trigger System Upgrades for the SNO+ Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzec, Eric; Sno+ Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    The SNO+ experiment will explore many topics in neutrino physics including neutrino-less double beta decay, low-energy solar neutrinos, antineutrinos from reactors and natural sources, nucleon decay, and potentially supernova neutrinos. The SNO+ trigger and readout system consists of electronics both inherited from the SNO detector and newly created specifically to address the challenges presented by the addition of scintillation light. Addition of new utilities to the SNO+ trigger system will allow for a flexible calibration interface, more sophisticated use of the existing trigger system, and new, more targeted, background cuts that will improve physics sensitivity. These utilities will largely be orchestrated by a MicroZed System on Chip (SoC), micro-controller. Their range of application includes automatic fault detection, upgrades of SNO utilities, noise reduction, and interfacing between components of the trigger system.

  19. Remotely triggered nonvolcanic tremor in Sumbawa, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, F.; Lupi, M.; Miller, S. A.

    2014-06-01

    We present, for the first time, evidence for triggered tremor beneath the island of Sumbawa, Indonesia. We show triggered tremor in response to three teleseismic earthquakes: the Mw9.0 2011 Tohoku earthquake and two oceanic strike-slip earthquakes (Mw 8.6 and Mw8.2) offshore of Sumatra in 2012. We constrain an apparent triggering threshold of 1 mm/s ground velocity that corresponds to about 8 kPa dynamic stress. Peak tremor amplitudes of about 180 nm/s are observed, and scale with the ground velocity induced by the remote earthquakes. Triggered tremor responds to 45-65 s period surface waves and predominantly correlates with Rayleigh waves, even though the 2012 oceanic events have stronger Love wave amplitudes. We could not locate the tremor because of minimal station coverage, but data indicate several potential source volumes including the Flores Thrust, the Java subduction zone, or Tambora volcano.

  20. 20 CFR 345.118 - Adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... calendar year because of an error that does not constitute a compensation adjustment as defined in... compensation adjustment as defined in paragraph (b) of this section, the employer shall adjust the error by... compensation, proper adjustments with respect to the contributions shall be made, without interest,...

  1. 20 CFR 345.118 - Adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... calendar year because of an error that does not constitute a compensation adjustment as defined in... compensation adjustment as defined in paragraph (b) of this section, the employer shall adjust the error by... compensation, proper adjustments with respect to the contributions shall be made, without interest,...

  2. Adjusting to University: The Hong Kong Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yau, Hon Keung; Sun, Hongyi; Cheng, Alison Lai Fong

    2012-01-01

    Students' adjustment to the university environment is an important factor in predicting university outcomes and is crucial to their future achievements. University support to students' transition to university life can be divided into three dimensions: academic adjustment, social adjustment and psychological adjustment. However, these…

  3. 12 CFR 19.240 - Inflation adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inflation adjustments. 19.240 Section 19.240... PROCEDURE Civil Money Penalty Inflation Adjustments § 19.240 Inflation adjustments. (a) The maximum amount... Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act of 1990 (28 U.S.C. 2461 note) as follows: ER10NO08.001 (b)...

  4. 12 CFR 19.240 - Inflation adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Inflation adjustments. 19.240 Section 19.240... PROCEDURE Civil Money Penalty Inflation Adjustments § 19.240 Inflation adjustments. (a) The maximum amount... Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act of 1990 (28 U.S.C. 2461 note) as follows: ER10NO08.001 (b)...

  5. 12 CFR 19.240 - Inflation adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Inflation adjustments. 19.240 Section 19.240... PROCEDURE Civil Money Penalty Inflation Adjustments § 19.240 Inflation adjustments. (a) The maximum amount... Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act of 1990 (28 U.S.C. 2461 note) as follows: ER10NO08.001 (b)...

  6. Sensor-trigger device for explosion barrier.

    PubMed

    Liebman, I; Duda, F; Conti, R

    1979-11-01

    A flame sensor-trigger device was developed for use with barriers to suppress coal dust explosions in undergound mines. Principal feature of the device is a dual infrared flame sensor combined with a pressure-arming element. This combination prevents false and premature triggering of the barrier. With minor modifications, the device can also be used with barriers for protection in other facilities against gas explosions and explosions involving dusts other than coal.

  7. Dynamic stresses, Coulomb failure, and remote triggering

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hill, D.P.

    2008-01-01

    Dynamic stresses associated with crustal surface waves with 15-30-sec periods and peak amplitudes 5 km). The latter is consistent with the observation that extensional or transtensional tectonic regimes are more susceptible to remote triggering by Rayleigh-wave dynamic stresses than compressional or transpressional regimes. Locally elevated pore pressures may have a role in the observed prevalence of dynamic triggering in extensional regimes and geothermal/volcanic systems.

  8. Decision-making triggers in adaptive management.

    PubMed

    Nie, Martin A; Schultz, Courtney A

    2012-12-01

    We analyzed whether decision-making triggers increase accountability of adaptive-management plans. Triggers are prenegotiated commitments in an adaptive-management plan that specify what actions are to be taken and when on the basis of information obtained from monitoring. Triggers improve certainty that particular actions will be taken by agencies in the future. We conducted an in-depth, qualitative review of the political and legal contexts of adaptive management and its application by U.S. federal agencies. Agencies must satisfy the judiciary that adaptive-management plans meet substantive legal standards and comply with the U.S. National Environmental Policy Act. We examined 3 cases in which triggers were used in adaptive-management plans: salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) in the Columbia River, oil and gas development by the Bureau of Land Management, and a habitat conservation plan under the U.S. Endangered Species Act. In all the cases, key aspects of adaptive management, including controls and preidentified feedback loops, were not incorporated in the plans. Monitoring and triggered mitigation actions were limited in their enforceability, which was contingent on several factors, including which laws applied in each case and the degree of specificity in how triggers were written into plans. Other controversial aspects of these plans revolved around who designed, conducted, interpreted, and funded monitoring programs. Additional contentious issues were the level of precaution associated with trigger mechanisms and the definition of ecological baselines used as points of comparison. Despite these challenges, triggers can be used to increase accountability, by predefining points at which an adaptive management plan will be revisited and reevaluated, and thus improve the application of adaptive management in its complicated political and legal context. PMID:22891956

  9. Trigger finger, tendinosis, and intratendinous gene expression.

    PubMed

    Lundin, A-C; Aspenberg, P; Eliasson, P

    2014-04-01

    The pathogenesis of trigger finger has generally been ascribed to primary changes in the first annular ligament. In contrast, we recently found histological changes in the tendons, similar to the findings in Achilles tendinosis or tendinopathy. We therefore hypothesized that trigger finger tendons would show differences in gene expression in comparison to normal tendons in a pattern similar to what is published for Achilles tendinosis. We performed quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction on biopsies from finger flexor tendons, 13 trigger fingers and 13 apparently healthy control tendons, to assess the expression of 10 genes which have been described to be differently expressed in tendinosis (collagen type 1a1, collagen 3a1, MMP-2, MMP-3, ADAMTS-5, TIMP-3, aggrecan, biglycan, decorin, and versican). In trigger finger tendons, collagen types 1a1 and 3a1, aggrecan and biglycan were all up-regulated, and MMP-3and TIMP-3 were down-regulated. These changes were statistically significant and have been previously described for Achilles tendinosis. The remaining four genes were not significantly altered. The changes in gene expression support the hypothesis that trigger finger is a form of tendinosis. Because trigger finger is a common condition, often treated surgically, it could provide opportunities for clinical research on tendinosis. PMID:22882155

  10. The CDF level 2 calorimetric trigger upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Bhatti, A.; Canepa, A.; Casarsa, M.; Convery, M.; Cortiana, G.; Dell'Orso, M.; Donati, S.; Flanagan, G.; Frisch, H.; Fukun, T.; Krop, D.; /Chicago U., EFI /INFN, Pisa /Pisa U. /Pisa, Scuola Normale Superiore

    2009-01-01

    CDF II upgraded the calorimeter trigger to cope with the higher detector occupancy due to the increased Tevatron instantaneous luminosity ({approx} 2.8 x 10{sup 32} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}). While the original system was implemented in custom hardware and provided to the L2 trigger a limited-quality jet clustering performed using a reduced resolution measurement of the transverse energy in the calorimeter trigger towers, the upgraded system provides offline-quality jet reconstruction of the full resolution calorimeter data. This allows to keep better under control the dependence of the trigger rates on the instantaneous luminosity and to improve the efficiency and purity of the trigger selections. The upgraded calorimeter trigger uses the general purpose VME board Pulsar, developed at CDF II and already widely used to upgrade the L2 tracking and L2 decision systems. A battery of Pulsars is used to merge and send the calorimeter data to the L2 CPUs, where software-implemented algorithms perform offline-like clustering. In this paper we review the design and the performance of the upgraded system.

  11. The Zeus calorimeter first level trigger

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, W.J.

    1989-04-01

    The design of the Zeus Detector Calorimeter Level Trigger is presented. The Zeus detector is being built for operation at HERA, a new storage ring that will provide collisions between 820 GeV protons and 30 GeV electrons in 1990. The calorimeter is made of depleted uranium plates and plastic scintillator read out by wavelength shifter bars into 12,864 photomultiplier tubes. These signals are combined into 974 trigger towers with separate electromagnetic and hadronic sums. The calorimeter first level trigger is pipelined with a decision provided 5 {mu}sec after each beam crossing, occurring every 96 nsec. The trigger determines the total energy, the total transverse energy, the missing energy, and the energy and number of isolated electrons and muons. It also provides information on the number and energy of clusters. The trigger rate needs to be held to 1 kHz against a rate of proton-beam gas interactions of approximately 500 kHz. The summed trigger tower pulseheights are digitized by flash ADC`s. The digital values are linearized, stored and used for sums and pattern tests.

  12. Commissioning of the CMS High Level Trigger

    SciTech Connect

    Agostino, Lorenzo; et al.

    2009-08-01

    The CMS experiment will collect data from the proton-proton collisions delivered by the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at a centre-of-mass energy up to 14 TeV. The CMS trigger system is designed to cope with unprecedented luminosities and LHC bunch-crossing rates up to 40 MHz. The unique CMS trigger architecture only employs two trigger levels. The Level-1 trigger is implemented using custom electronics, while the High Level Trigger (HLT) is based on software algorithms running on a large cluster of commercial processors, the Event Filter Farm. We present the major functionalities of the CMS High Level Trigger system as of the starting of LHC beams operations in September 2008. The validation of the HLT system in the online environment with Monte Carlo simulated data and its commissioning during cosmic rays data taking campaigns are discussed in detail. We conclude with the description of the HLT operations with the first circulating LHC beams before the incident occurred the 19th September 2008.

  13. A compact submicrosecond, high current generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovalchuk, B. M.; Kharlov, A. V.; Zorin, V. B.; Zherlitsyn, A. A.

    2009-08-01

    Pulsed current generator was developed for experiments with current carrying pulsed plasma. Main parts of the generator are capacitor bank, low inductive current driving lines, and central load part. Generator consists of four identical sections, connected in parallel to one load. Capacitor bank is assembled from 24 capacitor blocks (100 kV, 80 nF), connected in parallel. It stores 9.6 kJ at 100 kV charging voltage. Each capacitor block incorporates a multigap spark switch, which is able to commute by six parallel channels. Switches operate in dry air at atmospheric pressure. The generator was tested with an inductive load and a liner load. At 17.5 nH inductive load and 100 kV of charging voltage it provides 650 kA of current amplitude with 390 ns rise time with 0.6 Ω damping resistors in discharge circuit of each capacitor block. The net generator inductance without a load was optimized to be as low as 15 nH, which results in extremely low impedance of the generator (˜0.08 Ω). It ensures effective energy coupling with a low impedance load such as Z pinch. The generator operates reliably without any adjustments in 70-100 kV range of charging voltage. Jitter in delay between output pulse and triggering pulse is less than 5 ns at 70-100 kV charging voltage. Operation and handling are very simple, because no oil or purified gases are required for the generator. The generator has dimensions 5.24×1.2×0.18 m3 and total weight about 1400 kg, thus manifesting itself as simple, robust, and cost effective apparatus.

  14. A compact submicrosecond, high current generator.

    PubMed

    Kovalchuk, B M; Kharlov, A V; Zorin, V B; Zherlitsyn, A A

    2009-08-01

    Pulsed current generator was developed for experiments with current carrying pulsed plasma. Main parts of the generator are capacitor bank, low inductive current driving lines, and central load part. Generator consists of four identical sections, connected in parallel to one load. Capacitor bank is assembled from 24 capacitor blocks (100 kV, 80 nF), connected in parallel. It stores 9.6 kJ at 100 kV charging voltage. Each capacitor block incorporates a multigap spark switch, which is able to commute by six parallel channels. Switches operate in dry air at atmospheric pressure. The generator was tested with an inductive load and a liner load. At 17.5 nH inductive load and 100 kV of charging voltage it provides 650 kA of current amplitude with 390 ns rise time with 0.6 ohms damping resistors in discharge circuit of each capacitor block. The net generator inductance without a load was optimized to be as low as 15 nH, which results in extremely low impedance of the generator (approximately 0.08 ohms). It ensures effective energy coupling with a low impedance load such as Z pinch. The generator operates reliably without any adjustments in 70-100 kV range of charging voltage. Jitter in delay between output pulse and triggering pulse is less than 5 ns at 70-100 kV charging voltage. Operation and handling are very simple, because no oil or purified gases are required for the generator. The generator has dimensions 5.24x1.2x0.18 m(3) and total weight about 1400 kg, thus manifesting itself as simple, robust, and cost effective apparatus. PMID:19725652

  15. A compact submicrosecond, high current generator.

    PubMed

    Kovalchuk, B M; Kharlov, A V; Zorin, V B; Zherlitsyn, A A

    2009-08-01

    Pulsed current generator was developed for experiments with current carrying pulsed plasma. Main parts of the generator are capacitor bank, low inductive current driving lines, and central load part. Generator consists of four identical sections, connected in parallel to one load. Capacitor bank is assembled from 24 capacitor blocks (100 kV, 80 nF), connected in parallel. It stores 9.6 kJ at 100 kV charging voltage. Each capacitor block incorporates a multigap spark switch, which is able to commute by six parallel channels. Switches operate in dry air at atmospheric pressure. The generator was tested with an inductive load and a liner load. At 17.5 nH inductive load and 100 kV of charging voltage it provides 650 kA of current amplitude with 390 ns rise time with 0.6 ohms damping resistors in discharge circuit of each capacitor block. The net generator inductance without a load was optimized to be as low as 15 nH, which results in extremely low impedance of the generator (approximately 0.08 ohms). It ensures effective energy coupling with a low impedance load such as Z pinch. The generator operates reliably without any adjustments in 70-100 kV range of charging voltage. Jitter in delay between output pulse and triggering pulse is less than 5 ns at 70-100 kV charging voltage. Operation and handling are very simple, because no oil or purified gases are required for the generator. The generator has dimensions 5.24x1.2x0.18 m(3) and total weight about 1400 kg, thus manifesting itself as simple, robust, and cost effective apparatus.

  16. Medium Moderates the Message. How Users Adjust Their Communication Trajectories to Different Media in Collaborative Task Solving.

    PubMed

    Lisiecka, Karolina; Rychwalska, Agnieszka; Samson, Katarzyna; Łucznik, Klara; Ziembowicz, Michał; Szóstek, Agnieszka; Nowak, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    Rapid development of information and communications technologies (ICT) has triggered profound changes in how people manage their social contacts in both informal and professional contexts. ICT mediated communication may seem limited in possibilities compared to face-to-face encounters, but research shows that puzzlingly often it can be just as effective and satisfactory. We posit that ICT users employ specific communication strategies adapted to particular communication channels, which results in a comparable effectiveness of communication. In order to maintain a satisfactory level of conversational intelligibility they calibrate the content of their messages to a given medium's richness and adjust the whole conversation trajectory so that every stage of the communication process runs fluently. In the current study, we compared complex task solving trajectories in chat, mobile phone and face-to-face dyadic conversations. Media conditions did not influence the quality of decision outcomes or users' perceptions of the interaction, but they had impact on the amount of time devoted to each of the identified phases of decision development. In face-to-face contacts the evaluation stage of the discussion dominated the conversation; in the texting condition the orientation-evaluation-control phases were evenly distributed; and the phone condition provided a midpoint between these two extremes. The results show that contemporary ICT users adjust their communication behavior to the limitations and opportunities of various media through the regulation of attention directed to each stage of the discussion so that as a whole the communication process remains effective. PMID:27337037

  17. Medium Moderates the Message. How Users Adjust Their Communication Trajectories to Different Media in Collaborative Task Solving

    PubMed Central

    Rychwalska, Agnieszka; Samson, Katarzyna; Łucznik, Klara; Ziembowicz, Michał; Szóstek, Agnieszka; Nowak, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    Rapid development of information and communications technologies (ICT) has triggered profound changes in how people manage their social contacts in both informal and professional contexts. ICT mediated communication may seem limited in possibilities compared to face-to-face encounters, but research shows that puzzlingly often it can be just as effective and satisfactory. We posit that ICT users employ specific communication strategies adapted to particular communication channels, which results in a comparable effectiveness of communication. In order to maintain a satisfactory level of conversational intelligibility they calibrate the content of their messages to a given medium’s richness and adjust the whole conversation trajectory so that every stage of the communication process runs fluently. In the current study, we compared complex task solving trajectories in chat, mobile phone and face-to-face dyadic conversations. Media conditions did not influence the quality of decision outcomes or users’ perceptions of the interaction, but they had impact on the amount of time devoted to each of the identified phases of decision development. In face-to-face contacts the evaluation stage of the discussion dominated the conversation; in the texting condition the orientation-evaluation-control phases were evenly distributed; and the phone condition provided a midpoint between these two extremes. The results show that contemporary ICT users adjust their communication behavior to the limitations and opportunities of various media through the regulation of attention directed to each stage of the discussion so that as a whole the communication process remains effective. PMID:27337037

  18. The global return current in a pulsar's magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barzilay, Yudith

    2016-08-01

    An open issue in pulsar's models is the current adjustment between the gap current and the global current that depends on the global structure of the pulsar's magnetosphere. Here I propose a mechanism for the global return current in pulsars.

  19. Transient triggering of near and distant earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gomberg, J.; Blanpied, M.L.; Beeler, N.M.

    1997-01-01

    We demonstrate qualitatively that frictional instability theory provides a context for understanding how earthquakes may be triggered by transient loads associated with seismic waves from near and distance earthquakes. We assume that earthquake triggering is a stick-slip process and test two hypotheses about the effect of transients on the timing of instabilities using a simple spring-slider model and a rate- and state-dependent friction constitutive law. A critical triggering threshold is implicit in such a model formulation. Our first hypothesis is that transient loads lead to clock advances; i.e., transients hasten the time of earthquakes that would have happened eventually due to constant background loading alone. Modeling results demonstrate that transient loads do lead to clock advances and that the triggered instabilities may occur after the transient has ceased (i.e., triggering may be delayed). These simple "clock-advance" models predict complex relationships between the triggering delay, the clock advance, and the transient characteristics. The triggering delay and the degree of clock advance both depend nonlinearly on when in the earthquake cycle the transient load is applied. This implies that the stress required to bring about failure does not depend linearly on loading time, even when the fault is loaded at a constant rate. The timing of instability also depends nonlinearly on the transient loading rate, faster rates more rapidly hastening instability. This implies that higher-frequency and/or longer-duration seismic waves should increase the amount of clock advance. These modeling results and simple calculations suggest that near (tens of kilometers) small/moderate earthquakes and remote (thousands of kilometers) earthquakes with magnitudes 2 to 3 units larger may be equally effective at triggering seismicity. Our second hypothesis is that some triggered seismicity represents earthquakes that would not have happened without the transient load (i

  20. The LHCb Data Acquisition and High Level Trigger Processing Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, M.; Gaspar, C.; Jost, B.; Neufeld, N.

    2015-12-01

    The LHCb experiment at the LHC accelerator at CERN collects collisions of particle bunches at 40 MHz. After a first level of hardware trigger with an output rate of 1 MHz, the physically interesting collisions are selected by running dedicated trigger algorithms in the High Level Trigger (HLT) computing farm. This farm consists of up to roughly 25000 CPU cores in roughly 1750 physical nodes each equipped with up to 4 TB local storage space. This work describes the LHCb online system with an emphasis on the developments implemented during the current long shutdown (LS1). We will elaborate the architecture to treble the available CPU power of the HLT farm and the technicalities to determine and verify precise calibration and alignment constants which are fed to the HLT event selection procedure. We will describe how the constants are fed into a two stage HLT event selection facility using extensively the local disk buffering capabilities on the worker nodes. With the installed disk buffers, the CPU resources can be used during periods of up to ten days without beams. These periods in the past accounted to more than 70% of the total time.

  1. Self-adjustable glasses in the developing world.

    PubMed

    Gudlavalleti, Venkata S Murthy; Allagh, Komal Preet; Gudlavalleti, Aashrai Sv

    2014-01-01

    Uncorrected refractive errors are the single largest cause of visual impairment globally. Refractive errors are an avoidable cause of visual impairment that are easily correctable. Provision of spectacles is a cost-effective measure. Unfortunately, this simple solution becomes a public health challenge in low- and middle-income countries because of the paucity of human resources for refraction and optical services, lack of access to refraction services in rural areas, and the cost of spectacles. Low-cost approaches to provide affordable glasses in developing countries are critical. A number of approaches has been tried to surmount the challenge, including ready-made spectacles, the use of focometers and self-adjustable glasses, among other modalities. Recently, self-adjustable spectacles have been validated in studies in both children and adults in developed and developing countries. A high degree of agreement between self-adjustable spectacles and cycloplegic subjective refraction has been reported. Self-refraction has also been found to be less prone to accommodative inaccuracy compared with non-cycloplegic autorefraction. The benefits of self-adjusted spectacles include: the potential for correction of both distance and near vision, applicability for all ages, the empowerment of lay workers, the increased participation of clients, augmented awareness of the mechanism of refraction, reduced costs of optical and refraction units in low-resource settings, and a relative reduction in costs for refraction services. Concerns requiring attention include a need for the improved cosmetic appearance of the currently available self-adjustable spectacles, an increased range of correction (currently -6 to +6 diopters), compliance with international standards, quality and affordability, and the likely impact on health systems. Self-adjustable spectacles show poor agreement with conventional refraction methods for high myopia and are unable to correct astigmatism. A limitation

  2. The ATLAS trigger - commissioning with cosmic rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyd, J.

    2008-07-01

    The ATLAS detector at CERN's LHC will be exposed to proton-proton collisions from beams crossing at 40 MHz. At the design luminosity there are roughly 23 collisions per bunch crossing. ATLAS has designed a three-level trigger system to select potentially interesting events. The first-level trigger, implemented in custom-built electronics, reduces the incoming rate to less than 100 kHz with a total latency of less than 2.5μs. The next two trigger levels run in software on commercial PC farms. They reduce the output rate to 100-200 Hz. In preparation for collision data-taking which is scheduled to commence in May 2008, several cosmic-ray commissioning runs have been performed. Among the first sub-detectors available for commissioning runs are parts of the barrel muon detector including the RPC detectors that are used in the first-level trigger. Data have been taken with a full slice of the muon trigger and readout chain, from the detectors in one sector of the RPC system, to the second-level trigger algorithms and the data-acquisition system. The system is being prepared to include the inner-tracking detector in the readout and second-level trigger. We will present the status and results of these cosmic-ray based commissioning activities. This work will prove to be invaluable not only during the commissioning phase but also for cosmic-ray data-taking during the normal running for detector performance studies.

  3. Molecular mechanisms of RNA-triggered gene silencing machineries.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhonghan; Rana, Tariq M

    2012-07-17

    Gene silencing by RNA triggers is an ancient, evolutionarily conserved, and widespread phenomenon. This process, known as RNA interference (RNAi), occurs when double-stranded RNA helices induce cleavage of their complementary mRNAs. Because these RNA molecules can be introduced exogenously as small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), RNAi has become an everyday experimental tool in laboratory research. In addition, the number of RNA-based therapeutics that are currently in clinical trials for a variety of human diseases demonstrate the therapeutic potential of RNAi. In this Account, we focus on our current understanding of the structure and function of various classes of RNAi triggers and how this knowledge has contributed to our understanding of the biogenesis and catalytic functions of siRNA and microRNA in mammalian cells. Mechanistic studies to understand the structure and function of small RNAs that induce RNAi have illuminated broad functions of the ancient RNAi machinery in animals and plants. In addition, such studies have provided insight to identify endogenous physiological gene silencing RNA triggers that engage functional machineries similar to siRNAs. Several endogenous small RNA species have been identified: small noncoding RNAs (microRNAs), piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs), and endogenous siRNAs (endo-siRNAs). microRNAs are the most widespread class of small RNAs in mammalian cells. Despite their importance in biology and medicine, the molecular and cellular mechanisms of microRNA biogenesis and function are not fully understood. We provide an overview of the current understanding of how these molecules are synthesized within cells and how they act on gene targets. Interesting questions remain both for understanding the effects of modifications and editing on microRNAs and the interactions between microRNAs and other cellular RNAs such as long noncoding RNAs. PMID:22304792

  4. Adjustable link for kinematic mounting systems

    DOEpatents

    Hale, Layton C.

    1997-01-01

    An adjustable link for kinematic mounting systems. The adjustable link is a low-cost, passive device that provides backlash-free adjustment along its single constraint direction and flexural freedom in all other directions. The adjustable link comprises two spheres, two sockets in which the spheres are adjustable retain, and a connection link threadly connected at each end to the spheres, to provide a single direction of restraint and to adjust the length or distance between the sockets. Six such adjustable links provide for six degrees of freedom for mounting an instrument on a support. The adjustable link has applications in any machine or instrument requiring precision adjustment in six degrees of freedom, isolation from deformations of the supporting platform, and/or additional structural damping. The damping is accomplished by using a hollow connection link that contains an inner rod and a viscoelastic separation layer between the two.

  5. Adjustable link for kinematic mounting systems

    DOEpatents

    Hale, L.C.

    1997-07-01

    An adjustable link for kinematic mounting systems is disclosed. The adjustable link is a low-cost, passive device that provides backlash-free adjustment along its single constraint direction and flexural freedom in all other directions. The adjustable link comprises two spheres, two sockets in which the spheres are adjustable retain, and a connection link threadly connected at each end to the spheres, to provide a single direction of restraint and to adjust the length or distance between the sockets. Six such adjustable links provide for six degrees of freedom for mounting an instrument on a support. The adjustable link has applications in any machine or instrument requiring precision adjustment in six degrees of freedom, isolation from deformations of the supporting platform, and/or additional structural damping. The damping is accomplished by using a hollow connection link that contains an inner rod and a viscoelastic separation layer between the two. 3 figs.

  6. A 250 MHz Level 1 Trigger and Distribution System for the GlueX experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Abbott, David J.; Cuevas, R. Christopher; Doughty, David Charles; Jastrzembski, Edward A.; Barbosa, Fernando J.; Raydo, Benjamin J.; Dong, Hai T.; Wilson, Jeffrey S.; Gupta, Abishek; Taylor, Mark; Somov, S.

    2009-11-01

    The GlueX detector now under construction at Jefferson Lab will search for exotic mesons though photoproduction (10^8 tagged photons per second) on a liquid hydrogen target. A Level 1 hardware trigger design is being developed to reduce total electromagnetic (>200 MHz) and hadronic (>350 kHz) rates to less than 200 kHz. This trigger is dead timeless and operates on a global synchronized 250 MHz clock. The core of the trigger design is based on a custom pipelined flash ADC board that uses a VXS backplane to collect samples from all ADCs in a VME crate. A custom switch-slot board called a Crate Trigger Processor (CTP) processes this data and passes the crate level data via a multi-lane fiber optic link to the Global Trigger Processing Crate (also VXS). Within this crate detector sub-system processor (SSP) boards can accept all individual crate links. The subsystem data are processed and finally passed to global trigger boards (GTP) where the final L1 decision is made. We present details of the trigger design and report some performance results on current prototype systems.

  7. Radiation Hardness of Trigger Electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zawisza, Irene; Safonov, Alexei; Gilmore, Jason; Khotilovich, Vadim

    2011-10-01

    As the maximum intensity of particle accelerators increases, probing the most basic questions of the Universe, detectors and electronics must be designed to insure reliability in high-radiation environments. As the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) beam intensity is increased, it is necessary to upgrade the electronics in the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS). To select interesting events, CMS utilizes fast electronics, which are installed in the experimental cavern. However, much higher post-upgrade levels of radiation in the cavern set tight requirements on the radiation hardness of the new electronics. Damaging effects of high and low energy radiation leads to disruption of digital circuits and accumulated degradation of silicon components. Quantifying the radiation exposure is required for the design of a radiation-tolerant system, but current simulation studies suffer from large uncertainties. We compare simulation predictions with measured performance in two different experimental studies, which evaluate component performance for pre and post irradiation determining the survivability of electronics in the harsh CMS environment. Funded by DOE and NSF-REU Program.

  8. Theory for substorms triggered by sudden reductions in convection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyons, L. R.

    1996-01-01

    Many substorm expansions are triggered by interplanetary magnetic field changes that reduce magnetospheric convection. This suggests that expansion onsets are a result of a reduction in the large-scale electric field imparted to the magnetosphere from the solar wind. Such a reduction disrupts the inward motion and energization of plasma sheet particles that occur during the growth phase. It is proposed that the resulting magnetic drift of particles and a large dawn to dusk gradient in the ion energies leads to a longitudinally localized reduction in the plasma pressure, and thus, to the current wedge formation. This theory accounts for the rapid development of the expansion phase relative to growth phase, the magnitude of the wedge currents, the speeds of tailward and westward expansion of the current reduction region in the equatorial plane, and the speeds of the poleward and westward motion of active aurora in the ionosphere.

  9. Psychosocial Adjustment to Unsuccessful IVF and GIFT Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Susan M.; Clifford, Ellen; Hay, Douglas M.; Robinson, John

    1997-01-01

    Couples for whom in vitro fertilization (IVF) or gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT) treatment failed (N=20) were followed up and compared with successful couples. Current mental-health status, quality of life, and marital adjustment were assessed via questionnaires; experiences were explored by interview. Results and recommendations for…

  10. Proactive and Preventive Coping in Adjustment to College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gan, Yiqun; Hu, Yueqin; Zhang, Yiwen

    2010-01-01

    The current study compared the relative importance of proactive coping and preventive coping in the adjustment to university life among 403 freshmen at a Chinese university and evaluated the function of proactive coping in the stress process. Participants completed the Future-Oriented Coping Inventory (Gan, Yang, Zhou, & Zhang, 2007), the…

  11. 75 FR 9087 - Trade Adjustment Assistance for Farmers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-01

    ... FR 42799, August 25, 2009) during the proposed rule comment period which ran from August 25, 2009 through September 24, 2009. The comments focused on the following areas: Payment Limitations and Adjusted Gross Income Three respondents expressed concern with limitations currently capped at $65,000 per...

  12. Marital Adjustment, Parental Functioning, and Emotional Sharing in War Veterans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, Zahava; Debby-Aharon, Shimrit; Zerach, Gadi; Horesh, Danny

    2011-01-01

    The current study aimed to examine the implications of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms and emotional sharing in marital adjustment and parental functioning among Israeli veterans of the 1982 Lebanon War. The sample consisted of combat stress reaction (CSR) veterans (n = 264) and non-CSR veterans (n = 209). Results show that traumatized…

  13. Parent-Adolescent Conflicts, Conflict Resolution Types, and Adolescent Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branje, Susan J. T.; van Doorn, Muriel; van der Valk, Inge; Meeus, Wim

    2009-01-01

    The current study examined the moderating role of conflict resolution on the association between parent-adolescent conflicts and adolescent problematic adjustment. Participants were 1313 Dutch early and middle adolescents who completed measures on conflict frequency, conflict resolution with parents, and internalizing and externalizing adjustment…

  14. Factorial Invariance of the Dyadic Adjustment Scale across Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South, Susan C.; Krueger, Robert F.; Iacono, William G.

    2009-01-01

    The Dyadic Adjustment Scale (DAS; G. B. Spanier, 1976) is the most widely used inventory of relationship satisfaction in the social sciences, yet the question of whether it is measuring the same concept in men and women has never been addressed. In the current study, the authors examined the factor structure of the DAS in a sample of 900 currently…

  15. 76 FR 74625 - Civil Monetary Penalties Inflation Adjustment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-01

    ... current division of regulations between DHS and EOIR. See 68 FR 9824-01 (Feb. 28, 2003). Pursuant to that... accordance with the Adjustment and Improvement Acts. See 64 FR 47099 (Aug. 30, 1999). The final rule, however... 68 FR 9824 (Feb. 28, 2003). To ensure that all relevant authority relating to the...

  16. 7 CFR 4287.112 - Interest rate adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... variable rates to reduce the borrower's interest rate only when the variable rate has a ceiling which is less than or equal to the original fixed rate. (2) Variable rates can be changed to a fixed rate which is at or below the current variable rate. (3) The interest rates, after adjustments, must comply...

  17. 7 CFR 4287.112 - Interest rate adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... variable rates to reduce the borrower's interest rate only when the variable rate has a ceiling which is less than or equal to the original fixed rate. (2) Variable rates can be changed to a fixed rate which is at or below the current variable rate. (3) The interest rates, after adjustments, must comply...

  18. 7 CFR 4287.112 - Interest rate adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... variable rates to reduce the borrower's interest rate only when the variable rate has a ceiling which is less than or equal to the original fixed rate. (2) Variable rates can be changed to a fixed rate which is at or below the current variable rate. (3) The interest rates, after adjustments, must comply...

  19. 7 CFR 4287.112 - Interest rate adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... variable rates to reduce the borrower's interest rate only when the variable rate has a ceiling which is less than or equal to the original fixed rate. (2) Variable rates can be changed to a fixed rate which is at or below the current variable rate. (3) The interest rates, after adjustments, must comply...

  20. 7 CFR 4287.112 - Interest rate adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... variable rates to reduce the borrower's interest rate only when the variable rate has a ceiling which is less than or equal to the original fixed rate. (2) Variable rates can be changed to a fixed rate which is at or below the current variable rate. (3) The interest rates, after adjustments, must comply...

  1. Deterministic Single-Phonon Source Triggered by a Single Photon.

    PubMed

    Söllner, Immo; Midolo, Leonardo; Lodahl, Peter

    2016-06-10

    We propose a scheme that enables the deterministic generation of single phonons at gigahertz frequencies triggered by single photons in the near infrared. This process is mediated by a quantum dot embedded on chip in an optomechanical circuit, which allows for the simultaneous control of the relevant photonic and phononic frequencies. We devise new optomechanical circuit elements that constitute the necessary building blocks for the proposed scheme and are readily implementable within the current state-of-the-art of nanofabrication. This will open new avenues for implementing quantum functionalities based on phonons as an on-chip quantum bus.

  2. Deterministic Single-Phonon Source Triggered by a Single Photon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Söllner, Immo; Midolo, Leonardo; Lodahl, Peter

    2016-06-01

    We propose a scheme that enables the deterministic generation of single phonons at gigahertz frequencies triggered by single photons in the near infrared. This process is mediated by a quantum dot embedded on chip in an optomechanical circuit, which allows for the simultaneous control of the relevant photonic and phononic frequencies. We devise new optomechanical circuit elements that constitute the necessary building blocks for the proposed scheme and are readily implementable within the current state-of-the-art of nanofabrication. This will open new avenues for implementing quantum functionalities based on phonons as an on-chip quantum bus.

  3. Deterministic Single-Phonon Source Triggered by a Single Photon.

    PubMed

    Söllner, Immo; Midolo, Leonardo; Lodahl, Peter

    2016-06-10

    We propose a scheme that enables the deterministic generation of single phonons at gigahertz frequencies triggered by single photons in the near infrared. This process is mediated by a quantum dot embedded on chip in an optomechanical circuit, which allows for the simultaneous control of the relevant photonic and phononic frequencies. We devise new optomechanical circuit elements that constitute the necessary building blocks for the proposed scheme and are readily implementable within the current state-of-the-art of nanofabrication. This will open new avenues for implementing quantum functionalities based on phonons as an on-chip quantum bus. PMID:27341236

  4. Triggering on electrons, jets and tau leptons with the CMS upgraded calorimeter trigger for the LHC RUN II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zabi, A.; Beaudette, F.; Cadamuro, L.; Mastrolorenzo, L.; Romanteau, T.; Sauvan, J. B.; Strebler, T.; Marrouche, J.; Wardle, N.; Aggleton, R.; Ball, F.; Brooke, J.; Newbold, D.; Paramesvaran, S.; Smith, D.; Baber, M.; Bundock, A.; Citron, M.; Elwood, A.; Hall, G.; Iles, G.; Laner, C.; Penning, B.; Rose, A.; Tapper, A.; Durkin, T.; Harder, K.; Harper, S.; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C.; Thea, A.; Williams, T.

    2016-02-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment has implemented a sophisticated two-level online selection system that achieves a rejection factor of nearly 105. During Run II, the LHC will increase its centre-of-mass energy up to 13 TeV and progressively reach an instantaneous luminosity of 2 × 1034 cm-2 s-1. In order to guarantee a successful and ambitious physics programme under this intense environment, the CMS Trigger and Data acquisition (DAQ) system has been upgraded. A novel concept for the L1 calorimeter trigger is introduced: the Time Multiplexed Trigger (TMT) . In this design, nine main processors receive each all of the calorimeter data from an entire event provided by 18 preprocessors. This design is not different from that of the CMS DAQ and HLT systems. The advantage of the TMT architecture is that a global view and full granularity of the calorimeters can be exploited by sophisticated algorithms. The goal is to maintain the current thresholds for calorimeter objects and improve the performance for their selection. The performance of these algorithms will be demonstrated, both in terms of efficiency and rate reduction. The callenging aspects of the pile-up mitigation and firmware design will be presented.

  5. The D/Ø Silicon Track Trigger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinbrück, Georg

    2003-09-01

    We describe a trigger preprocessor to be used by the D Ø experiment for selecting events with tracks from the decay of long-lived particles. This Level 2 impact parameter trigger utilizes information from the Silicon Microstrip Tracker to reconstruct tracks with improved spatial and momentum resolutions compared to those obtained by the Level 1 tracking trigger. It is constructed of VME boards with much of the logic existing in programmable processors. A common motherboard provides the I/O infrastructure and three different daughter boards perform the tasks of identifying the roads from the tracking trigger data, finding the clusters in the roads in the silicon detector, and fitting tracks to the clusters. This approach provides flexibility for the design, testing and maintenance phases of the project. The track parameters are provided to the trigger framework in 25 μs. The effective impact parameter resolution for high-momentum tracks is 35 μm, dominated by the size of the Tevatron beam.

  6. Dietary aspects of migraine trigger factors.

    PubMed

    Rockett, Fernanda C; de Oliveira, Vanessa R; Castro, Kamila; Chaves, Márcia L F; Perla, Alexandre da S; Perry, Ingrid D S

    2012-06-01

    The significance of dietary factors as triggers for migraines is controversial, and the assessment of this topic is complex and inconclusive. In order to evaluate the published evidence on dietary triggers, a critical review of the literature was performed by conducting a search for food item descriptors linked to migraines in the PubMed and SciELO databases. Reviews and relevant references cited within the articles that resulted from the search were also included. Of the 45 studies reviewed, 16 were population studies that involved the association between migraines and eating habits or the prevalence of related dietary factors; 12 involved interventions or analyzed observational prospective cohorts; and 17 were retrospective studies. Approximately 30 dietary triggers were explored in total, although only seven of these were addressed experimentally. In the prospective studies, patients were instructed to keep a diary; two of these studies involved dietary interventions. Conclusions that are based on nonpharmacological prophylactic strategies with a scientific basis and that show an association between certain dietary factors and the triggering of migraines are limited by the lack of prospective studies with clear experimental designs. Nevertheless, the high frequency of possible specific dietary triggers validates efforts to elucidate the involvement of food-related factors in precipitating migraines.

  7. CMS muon detector and trigger performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piccolo, Davide; CMS Collaboration

    2011-02-01

    In the CMS experiment at the LHC proton-proton collider, a key role will be played by the muon system that is embedded inside the iron yoke used to close the magnetic flux of the CMS solenoid. The muon system of the CMS experiment performs three main tasks: triggering of muons, identifying muons, and assisting the central tracker in order to measure the momentum and charge of high-pt muons in the pseudorapidity region |η|≤2.4. The system is composed by a central barrel and two closing endcaps. Three independent technologies are used to reconstruct and trigger muons: Drift Tubes (DT) in the barrel, Cathode Strips Chambers (CSC) in the endcaps and Resistive Plate Chambers (RPC) in both barrel and endcap regions. All the detectors will contribute to the tracking and triggering of muons. Towards the end of 2008 and in 2009 the CMS experiment was commissioned with many millions of cosmic rays. These data have been fundamental to check the performance of the three sub-detectors and of the trigger response. In this paper the results in terms of the detection and trigger performance at the level of each sub-detector and at the level of the full muon system will be reported.

  8. Corps of Engineers considers adjustable-speed generation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    The US Army Corps of Engineers and the Bonneville Power Administration recently commissioned a study to assess the various aspects of adjustable-speed generation (also called variable-speed generation). Electronic Power Conditioning Inc., of Corvallis, Oregon, studied the cost, efficiency, and other operating implications of installing the necessary hardware to enable adjustable-speed generation at four Corps hydroelectric plants on the lower Snake River (Ice Harbor, Lower Monumental, Little Goose, and Lower Granite). Results of the study indicate that, while costly, five adjustable-speed options could be installed and operated on a practical basis. The Corps initiated the study to determine the cost for adding adjustable-speed generation at the four projects to improve fish survival. The Northwest Power Planning Council currently is considering proposals to modify operating procedures for hydroelectric projects on the Columbia River and its tributaries, including seasonal adjustments of pool levels behind dams to flush fish through the river system more rapidly. However, dropping pool levels significantly below normal levels may cause a loss in generating efficiency and a corresponding increase in fish mortality. Adjustable-speed generation is seen as a method for solving both problems

  9. Adjustable extender for instrument module

    DOEpatents

    Sevec, J.B.; Stein, A.D.

    1975-11-01

    A blank extender module used to mount an instrument module in front of its console for repair or test purposes has been equipped with a rotatable mount and means for locking the mount at various angles of rotation for easy accessibility. The rotatable mount includes a horizontal conduit supported by bearings within the blank module. The conduit is spring-biased in a retracted position within the blank module and in this position a small gear mounted on the conduit periphery is locked by a fixed pawl. The conduit and instrument mount can be pulled into an extended position with the gear clearing the pawl to permit rotation and adjustment of the instrument.

  10. Assessing geomorphic sensitivity in relation to river capacity for adjustment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, H. E.; Brierley, G. J.

    2015-12-01

    River sensitivity describes the nature and rate of channel adjustments. An approach to analysis of geomorphic river sensitivity outlined in this paper relates potential sensitivity based on the expected capacity of adjustment for a river type to the recent history of channel adjustment. This approach was trialled to assess low, moderate and high geomorphic sensitivity for four different types of river (10 reaches in total) along the Lower Tongariro River, North Island, New Zealand. Building upon the River Styles framework, river types were differentiated based upon valley setting (width and confinement), channel planform, geomorphic unit assemblages and bed material size. From this, the behavioural regime and potential for adjustment (type and extent) were determined. Historical maps and aerial photographs were geo-rectified and the channel planform digitised to assess channel adjustments for each reach from 1928 to 2007. Floodplain width controlled by terraces, exerted a strong influence upon reach scale sensitivity for the partly-confined, wandering, cobble-bed river. Although forced boundaries occur infrequently, the width of the active channel zone is constrained. An unconfined braided river reach directly downstream of the terrace-confined section was the most geomorphically sensitive reach. The channel in this reach adjusted recurrently to sediment inputs that were flushed through more confined, better connected upstream reaches. A meandering, sand-bed river in downstream reaches has exhibited negligible rates of channel migration. However, channel narrowing in this reach and the associated delta indicate that the system is approaching a threshold condition, beyond which channel avulsion is likely to occur. As this would trigger more rapid migration, this reach is considered to be more geomorphically sensitive than analysis of its low migration rate alone would indicate. This demonstrates how sensitivity is fashioned both by the behavioural regime of a reach

  11. A time-multiplexed track-trigger for the CMS HL-LHC upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, G.

    2016-07-01

    A new CMS Tracker is under development for operation at the High Luminosity LHC from 2025. It includes an outer tracker based on special modules of two different types which will construct track stubs using spatially coincident clusters in two closely spaced sensor layers, to reject low transverse momentum track hits and reduce the data volume before data transmission to the Level-1 trigger. The tracker data will be used to reconstruct track segments in dedicated processors before onward transmission to other trigger processors which will combine tracker information with data originating from the calorimeter and muon detectors, to make the final L1 trigger decision. The architecture for processing the tracker data outside the detector is under study, using several alternative approaches. One attractive possibility is to exploit a Time Multiplexed design similar to the one which is currently being implemented in the CMS calorimeter trigger as part of the Phase I trigger upgrade. The novel Time Multiplexed Trigger concept is explained, the potential benefits for processing future tracker data are described and a feasible design based on currently existing hardware is outlined.

  12. Performance and upgrade of the CMS electron and photon trigger for Run 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauvan, Jean-Baptiste; CMS Collaboration

    2015-02-01

    The CMS experiment implements a sophisticated two-level online trigger selection system that achieves a rejection factor of nearly 105. The first level (L1) trigger is based on coarse information coming from the calorimeters and the muon detectors while the high-level trigger combines fine-grain information from all sub-detectors. In the near future the LHC will increase its centre of mass energy to 13 TeV and progressively reach an instantaneous luminosity of 2 × 1034 cm-2s-1. In order to guarantee a successful and ambitious physics program under this challenging environment, the CMS trigger and data acquisition system must be consolidated. In particular the calorimeter L1 trigger hardware and architecture will be changed. The aim is to maintain the current thresholds and improve performance. This programme will be achieved using the μTCA architecture with fast optical links and latest generation FPGAs. Sophisticated object reconstruction algorithms, as well as online pile-up corrections, are being developed that will make use of these new hardware capabilities. For electron and photon reconstruction and identification, the first version of the new algorithms has been tested against the current algorithms. It shows a reduction of the trigger rate by a factor of two for isolated objects, an improved energy resolution of about 30%, and a position resolution reduced by more than four.

  13. Voltage controlled current source

    DOEpatents

    Casne, Gregory M.

    1992-01-01

    A seven decade, voltage controlled current source is described for use in testing intermediate range nuclear instruments that covers the entire test current range of from 10 picoamperes to 100 microamperes. High accuracy is obtained throughout the entire seven decades of output current with circuitry that includes a coordinated switching scheme responsive to the input signal from a hybrid computer to control the input voltage to an antilog amplifier, and to selectively connect a resistance to the antilog amplifier output to provide a continuous output current source as a function of a preset range of input voltage. An operator controlled switch provides current adjustment for operation in either a real-time simulation test mode or a time response test mode.

  14. Explosively triggered gas-dielectric crowbar switch.

    PubMed

    Higgins, P B; Mathews, F H

    1979-04-01

    A gas-insulated gap switch with an unusually high standoff-to-trigger voltage ratio is described. Designed to standoff 500 kV when pressurized with SF(6) at 1.5 MPa (212 psi), the switch was triggered with as little as 19.3 kV across the gap by firing a shaped charge from one electrode toward the opposite electrode. Similar air-insulated and SF(6)-insulated gaps pressurized to 83 kPa (12 psi) and designed to standoff 50 and 150 kV, respectively, were triggered with 15.4 kV across the gap by firing an ordinary RP-2 detonator from one electrode toward the other.

  15. Use of GPUs in Trigger Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamanna, Gianluca

    In recent years the interest for using graphics processor (GPU) in general purpose high performance computing is constantly rising. In this paper we discuss the possible use of GPUs to construct a fast and effective real time trigger system, both in software and hardware levels. In particular, we study the integration of such a system in the NA62 trigger. The first application of GPUs for rings pattern recognition in the RICH will be presented. The results obtained show that there are not showstoppers in trigger systems with relatively low latency. Thanks to the use of off-the-shelf technology, in continous development for purposes related to video game and image processing market, the architecture described would be easily exported to other experiments, to build a versatile and fully customizable online selection.

  16. Paroxysmal discharges triggered by hearing spoken language.

    PubMed

    Tsuzuki, H; Kasuga, I

    1978-04-01

    We examined the modality of EEG activation by various kinds of acoustic stimulation in a middle-aged Japanese female with epilepsy. Paroxysmal discharges were triggered in the right frontal area (F4) by verval stimulation. For the activation of EEG, concentration of attention on the stimulation was essential; therefore paroxysmal discharges were triggered most easily by verbal stimuli when someone spoke to the patient directly. Stronger responses than usual were triggered by specific words, and apparently reflected the interest and concern of the patient. The latency from stimulation to paroxysmal discharges ranged from 230 to 1,300 msec, suggesting that the responses may have been a function of the perception and recognition of acoustic stimuli. "Heard-word epilepsy" or "Angesprochene Epilepsie" is suggested in this case.

  17. BTeV trigger/DAQ innovations

    SciTech Connect

    Votava, Margaret; /Fermilab

    2005-05-01

    BTeV was a proposed high-energy physics (HEP) collider experiment designed for the study of B-physics and CP Violation at the Tevatron at Fermilab. BTeV included a large-scale, high-speed trigger and data acquisition (DAQ) system, reading data from the detector at 500 Gbytes/sec and writing data to mass storage at a rate of 200 Mbytes/sec. The design of the trigger/DAQ system was innovative while remaining realistic in terms of technical feasibility, schedule and cost. This paper will give an overview of the BTeV trigger/DAQ architecture, highlight some of the technical challenges, and describe the approach that was used to solve these challenges.

  18. Earthquake triggering by transient and static deformations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gomberg, J.; Beeler, N.M.; Blanpied, M.L.; Bodin, P.

    1998-01-01

    Observational evidence for both static and transient near-field and far-field triggered seismicity are explained in terms of a frictional instability model, based on a single degree of freedom spring-slider system and rate- and state-dependent frictional constitutive equations. In this study a triggered earthquake is one whose failure time has been advanced by ??t (clock advance) due to a stress perturbation. Triggering stress perturbations considered include square-wave transients and step functions, analogous to seismic waves and coseismic static stress changes, respectively. Perturbations are superimposed on a constant background stressing rate which represents the tectonic stressing rate. The normal stress is assumed to be constant. Approximate, closed-form solutions of the rate-and-state equations are derived for these triggering and background loads, building on the work of Dieterich [1992, 1994]. These solutions can be used to simulate the effects of static and transient stresses as a function of amplitude, onset time t0, and in the case of square waves, duration. The accuracies of the approximate closed-form solutions are also evaluated with respect to the full numerical solution and t0. The approximate solutions underpredict the full solutions, although the difference decreases as t0, approaches the end of the earthquake cycle. The relationship between ??t and t0 differs for transient and static loads: a static stress step imposed late in the cycle causes less clock advance than an equal step imposed earlier, whereas a later applied transient causes greater clock advance than an equal one imposed earlier. For equal ??t, transient amplitudes must be greater than static loads by factors of several tens to hundreds depending on t0. We show that the rate-and-state model requires that the total slip at failure is a constant, regardless of the loading history. Thus a static load applied early in the cycle, or a transient applied at any time, reduces the stress

  19. Whole Heart Coronary Imaging with Flexible Acquisition Window and Trigger Delay

    PubMed Central

    Kawaji, Keigo; Foppa, Murilo; Roujol, Sébastien; Akçakaya, Mehmet; Nezafat, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Coronary magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) requires a correctly timed trigger delay derived from a scout cine scan to synchronize k-space acquisition with the quiescent period of the cardiac cycle. However, heart rate changes between breath-held cine and free-breathing coronary imaging may result in inaccurate timing errors. Additionally, the determined trigger delay may not reflect the period of minimal motion for both left and right coronary arteries or different segments. In this work, we present a whole-heart coronary imaging approach that allows flexible selection of the trigger delay timings by performing k-space sampling over an enlarged acquisition window. Our approach addresses coronary motion in an interactive manner by allowing the operator to determine the temporal window with minimal cardiac motion for each artery region. An electrocardiogram-gated, k-space segmented 3D radial stack-of-stars sequence that employs a custom rotation angle is developed. An interactive reconstruction and visualization platform is then employed to determine the subset of the enlarged acquisition window for minimal coronary motion. Coronary MRI was acquired on eight healthy subjects (5 male, mean age = 37 ± 18 years), where an enlarged acquisition window of 166–220 ms was set 50 ms prior to the scout-derived trigger delay. Coronary visualization and sharpness scores were compared between the standard 120 ms window set at the trigger delay, and those reconstructed using a manually adjusted window. The proposed method using manual adjustment was able to recover delineation of five mid and distal right coronary artery regions that were otherwise not visible from the standard window, and the sharpness scores improved in all coronary regions using the proposed method. This paper demonstrates the feasibility of a whole-heart coronary imaging approach that allows interactive selection of any subset of the enlarged acquisition window for a tailored reconstruction for each branch

  20. Parenting Perfectionism and Parental Adjustment.

    PubMed

    Lee, Meghan A; Schoppe-Sullivan, Sarah J; Kamp Dush, Claire M

    2012-02-01

    The parental role is expected to be one of the most gratifying and rewarding roles in life. As expectations of parenting become ever higher, the implications of parenting perfectionism for parental adjustment warrant investigation. Using longitudinal data from 182 couples, this study examined the associations between societal- and self-oriented parenting perfectionism and new mothers' and fathers' parenting self-efficacy, stress, and satisfaction. For mothers, societal-oriented parenting perfectionism was associated with lower parenting self-efficacy, but self-oriented parenting perfectionism was associated with higher parenting satisfaction. For fathers, societal-oriented parenting perfectionism was associated with higher parenting stress, whereas higher levels of self-oriented parenting perfectionism were associated with higher parenting self-efficacy, lower parenting stress, and greater parenting satisfaction. These findings support the distinction between societal- and self-oriented perfectionism, extend research on perfectionism to interpersonal adjustment in the parenting domain, and provide the first evidence for the potential consequences of holding excessively high standards for parenting. PMID:22328797

  1. More About The Video Event Trigger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Glenn L.

    1996-01-01

    Report presents additional information about system described in "Video Event Trigger" (LEW-15076). Digital electronic system processes video-image data to generate trigger signal when image shows significant change, such as motion, or appearance, disappearance, change in color, brightness, or dilation of object. Potential uses include monitoring of hallways, parking lots, and other areas during hours when supposed unoccupied, looking for fires, tracking airplanes or other moving objects, identification of missing or defective parts on production lines, and video recording of automobile crash tests.

  2. THE HIGH ENERGY TRANSIENT EXPLORER TRIGGERING ALGORITHM

    SciTech Connect

    E. FENIMORE; M. GALASSI

    2001-05-01

    The High Energy Transient Explorer uses a triggering algorithm for gamma-ray bursts that can achieve near the statistical limit by fitting to several background regions to remove trends. Dozens of trigger criteria run simultaneously covering time scales from 80 msec to 10.5 sec or longer. Each criteria is controlled by about 25 constants which gives the flexibility to search wide parameter spaces. On orbit, we have been able to operate at 6{sigma}, a factor of two more sensitive than previous experiments.

  3. Remotely triggered nonvolcanic tremor in Sumbawa, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, Florian; Lupi, Matteo; Miller, Stephen

    2015-04-01

    Nonvolcanic (or tectonic) tremor is a seismic phenomenom which can provide important information about dynamics of plate boundaries but the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. Tectonic tremor is often associated with slow-slip (termed episodic tremor and slip) and understanding the mechanisms driving tremor presents an important challenge because it is likely a dominant aspect of the evolutionary processes leading to tsunamigenic, megathrust subduction zone earthquakes. Tectonic tremor is observed worldwide, mainly along major subduction zones and plate boundaries such as in Alaska/Aleutians, Cascadia, the San Andreas Fault, Japan or Taiwan. We present, for the first time, evidence for triggered tremor beneath the island of Sumbawa, Indonesia. The island of Sumbawa, Indonesia, is part of the Lesser Sunda Group about 250 km north of the Australian/Eurasian plate collision at the Java Trench with a convergence rate of approximately 70 mm/yr. We show surface wave triggered tremor beneath Sumbawa in response to three teleseismic earthquakes: the Mw9.0 2011 Tohoku earthquake and two oceanic strike-slip earthquakes (Mw 8.6 and Mw8.2) offshore of Sumatra in 2012. Tremor amplitudes scale with ground motion and peak at 180 nm/s ground velocity on the horizontal components. A comparison of ground motion of the three triggering events and a similar (nontriggering) Mw7.6 2012 Philippines event constrains an apparent triggering threshold of approximately 1 mm/s ground velocity or 8 kPa dynamic stress. Surface wave periods of 45-65 s appear optimal for triggering tremor at Sumbawa which predominantly correlates with Rayleigh waves, even though the 2012 oceanic events have stronger Love wave amplitudes and triggering potential. Rayleigh wave triggering, low-triggering amplitudes, and the tectonic setting all favor a model of tremor generated by localized fluid transport. We could not locate the tremor because of minimal station coverage, but data indicate several

  4. Adjusting the Contour of Reflector Panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, W. B.; Giebler, M. M.

    1984-01-01

    Postfabrication adjustment of contour of panels for reflector, such as parabolic reflector for radio antennas, possible with simple mechanism consisting of threaded stud, two nuts, and flexure. Contours adjusted manually.

  5. Research Design in Marital Adjustment Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Croake, James W.; Lyon, Rebecca S.

    1978-01-01

    The numerous marital adjustment studies which exist in the literature are confounded by basic design problems. Marital stability should be the baseline for data. It is then possible to discuss "happiness,""success,""adjustment," and "satisfaction." (Author)

  6. Generalized adjustment by least squares ( GALS).

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elassal, A.A.

    1983-01-01

    The least-squares principle is universally accepted as the basis for adjustment procedures in the allied fields of geodesy, photogrammetry and surveying. A prototype software package for Generalized Adjustment by Least Squares (GALS) is described. The package is designed to perform all least-squares-related functions in a typical adjustment program. GALS is capable of supporting development of adjustment programs of any size or degree of complexity. -Author

  7. Self-reported adjustment of teenagers at soccer training centers: the Soccer Trainee Adjustment Scale.

    PubMed

    Laurin, Raphaël; Nicolas, Michel; Labruère-Chazal, Catherine; Lacassagne, Marie-Françoise

    2008-08-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a questionnaire to measure adjustment of teenagers at soccer training centers, particularly newcomers. The Soccer Trainee Adjustment Scale was adapted from the Institutional Integration Scale and assesses the trainee's adjustment to operating and social activities. The scale was tested on a sample of 136 trainees from four soccer centers. Exploratory analysis indicated that the 13 items formed five factors: peer adjustment, boarding supervisor adjustment, soccer adjustment, scholastic adjustment, and boarding adjustment. These factors had internal consistency reliability ranging from .76 to .94.

  8. Saturated fatty acids trigger TLR4-mediated inflammatory response.

    PubMed

    Rocha, D M; Caldas, A P; Oliveira, L L; Bressan, J; Hermsdorff, H H

    2016-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLR) mediate infection-induced inflammation and sterile inflammation by endogenous molecules. Among the TLR family, TLR4 is the best understood. However, while its downstream signaling pathways have been well defined, not all ligands of TLR4 are currently known. Current evidence suggests that saturated fatty acids (SFA) act as non-microbial TLR4 agonists, and trigger its inflammatory response. Thus, our present review provides a new perspective on the potential mechanism by which SFAs could modulate TLR4-induced inflammatory responses: (1) SFAs can be recognized by CD14-TLR4-MD2 complex and trigger inflammatory pathways, similar to lipopolysaccharide (LPS). (2) SFAs lead to modification of gut microbiota with an overproduction of LPS after a high-fat intake, enhancing this natural TLR4 ligand. (3) In addition, this metabolic endotoxemia leads to an oxidative stress thereby producing atherogenic lipids - oxLDL and oxidized phospholipids - which trigger CD36-TLR4-TLR6 inflammatory response. (4) Also, the high SFA consumption increases the lipemia and the mmLDL and oxLDL formation through oxidative modifications of LDL. The mmLDL, unlike oxLDL, is involved in activation of the CD14-TLR4-MD2 inflammatory pathway. Those molecules can induce TLR4 inflammatory response by MyD88-dependent and/or MyD88-independent pathways that, in turn, promotes the expression of proinflammatory transcript factors such as factor nuclear kappa B (NF-κB), which plays a crucial role in the induction of inflammatory mediators (cytokines, chemokines, or costimulatory molecules) implicated in the development and progression of many chronic diseases. PMID:26687466

  9. High-voltage crowbar circuit with cascade-triggered series ignitrons

    DOEpatents

    Baker, W.R.

    1980-11-04

    A series string of ignitrons for switching a large current at high voltage to ground. Switching is initiated by means of a negative trigger pulse applied to the cathode of the lowest voltage level ignitron next to ground to draw ground current through diodes in the ignitor circuit. The trigger pulse is applied thereby to the next higher ignitron cathode and sequentially to the remainder of the ignitrons in the string through diodes in respective ignitor circuits. Full line voltage is held off of nonconducting diodes and ignitrons by means of varistors. 1 fig.

  10. High-voltage crowbar circuit with cascade-triggered series ignitrons

    DOEpatents

    Baker, W.R.

    A series string of ignitrons for switching a large current at high voltage to ground is discussed. Switching is initiated by means of a negative trigger pulse applied to the cathode of the lowest voltage level ignitron next to ground to draw ground current through diodes in the ignitor circuit. The trigger pulse is applied thereby to the next higher ignitron cathode and sequentially to the remainder of the ignitrons in the string through diodes in respective ignitor circuits. Full line voltage is held off of nonconducting diodes and ignitrons by means of varistors.

  11. High-voltage crowbar circuit with cascade-triggered series ignitrons

    DOEpatents

    Baker, William R. [Orinda, CA

    1980-11-04

    A series string of ignitrons for switching a large current at high voltage to ground. Switching is initiated by means of a negative trigger pulse applied to the cathode of the lowest voltage level ignitron next to ground to draw ground current through diodes in the ignitor circuit. The trigger pulse is applied thereby to the next higher ignitron cathode and sequentially to the remainder of the ignitrons in the string through diodes in respective ignitor circuits. Full line voltage is held off of nonconducting diodes and ignitrons by means of varistors.

  12. Perceived triggers of asthma: key to symptom perception and management.

    PubMed

    Janssens, T; Ritz, T

    2013-09-01

    Adequate asthma management depends on an accurate identification of asthma triggers. A review of the literature on trigger perception in asthma shows that individuals vary in their perception of asthma triggers and that the correlation between self-reported asthma triggers and allergy tests is only modest. In this article, we provide an overview of psychological mechanisms involved in the process of asthma triggers identification. We identify sources of errors in trigger identification and targets for behavioural interventions that aim to improve the accuracy of asthma trigger identification and thereby enhance asthma control.

  13. The assessment of social adjustment. A review of techniques.

    PubMed

    Weissman, M M

    1975-03-01

    Interest in the community adjustment of psychiatric patients has led to the development of rating techniques for its evaluation. Selection of an appropriate scale for the task should include a review of its item content, anchor points, coverage, method of obtaining information, informant, psychometric properties, precision, cost, scoring, and instructional material. While no scale is without limitations, this report describes 15 currently available scales that meet many of the important criteria for assessing social adjustment and are sufficiently developed to be useful in evaluative research. This review also contains a list of pertinent references to the scales and guide to the literature on behavioral rating scales.

  14. Diagnosis-Based Risk Adjustment for Medicare Capitation Payments

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Randall P.; Pope, Gregory C.; Iezzoni, Lisa I.; Ayanian, John Z.; Bates, David W.; Burstin, Helen; Ash, Arlene S.

    1996-01-01

    Using 1991-92 data for a 5-percent Medicare sample, we develop, estimate, and evaluate risk-adjustment models that utilize diagnostic information from both inpatient and ambulatory claims to adjust payments for aged and disabled Medicare enrollees. Hierarchical coexisting conditions (HCC) models achieve greater explanatory power than diagnostic cost group (DCG) models by taking account of multiple coexisting medical conditions. Prospective models predict average costs of individuals with chronic conditions nearly as well as concurrent models. All models predict medical costs far more accurately than the current health maintenance organization (HMO) payment formula. PMID:10172666

  15. Pulse shape adjustment for the SLC damping ring kickers

    SciTech Connect

    Mattison, T.; Cassel, R.; Donaldson, A.; Fischer, H.; Gough, D.

    1991-05-01

    The difficulties with damping ring kickers that prevented operation of the SLAC Linear Collider in full multiple bunch mode have been overcome by shaping the current pulse to compensate for imperfections in the magnets. The risetime was improved by a peaking capacitor, with a tunable inductor to provide a locally flat pulse. The pulse was flattened by an adjustable droop inductor. Fine adjustment was provided by pulse forming line tuners driven by stepping motors. Further risetime improvement will be obtained by a saturating ferrite pulse sharpener. 4 refs., 3 figs.

  16. Eddy current damper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, R. C.; Fink, R. A.; Rich, R. W.

    1989-01-01

    A high torque capacity eddy current damper used as a rate limiting device for a large solar array deployment mechanism is discussed. The eddy current damper eliminates the problems associated with the outgassing or leaking of damping fluids. It also provides performance advantages such as damping torque rates, which are truly linear with respect to input speed, continuous 360 degree operation in both directions of rotation, wide operating temperature range, and the capability of convenient adjustment of damping rates by the user without disassembly or special tools.

  17. 19 CFR 201.205 - Salary adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Salary adjustments. 201.205 Section 201.205 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION GENERAL RULES OF GENERAL APPLICATION Debt Collection § 201.205 Salary adjustments. Any negative adjustment to pay arising out of an employee's...

  18. 19 CFR 201.205 - Salary adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Salary adjustments. 201.205 Section 201.205 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION GENERAL RULES OF GENERAL APPLICATION Debt Collection § 201.205 Salary adjustments. Any negative adjustment to pay arising out of an employee's...

  19. 24 CFR 5.611 - Adjusted income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adjusted income. 5.611 Section 5... Serving Persons with Disabilities: Family Income and Family Payment; Occupancy Requirements for Section 8 Project-Based Assistance Family Income § 5.611 Adjusted income. Adjusted income means annual income...

  20. 34 CFR 36.2 - Penalty adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Penalty adjustment. 36.2 Section 36.2 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education ADJUSTMENT OF CIVIL MONETARY PENALTIES FOR INFLATION § 36.2..., Section 36.2—Civil Monetary Penalty Inflation Adjustments Statute Description New maximum (and minimum,...

  1. 34 CFR 36.2 - Penalty adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Penalty adjustment. 36.2 Section 36.2 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education ADJUSTMENT OF CIVIL MONETARY PENALTIES FOR INFLATION § 36.2..., Section 36.2—Civil Monetary Penalty Inflation Adjustments Statute Description New maximum (and minimum,...

  2. 34 CFR 36.2 - Penalty adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Penalty adjustment. 36.2 Section 36.2 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education ADJUSTMENT OF CIVIL MONETARY PENALTIES FOR INFLATION § 36.2..., Section 36.2—Civil Monetary Penalty Inflation Adjustments Statute Description New maximum (and minimum,...

  3. 34 CFR 36.2 - Penalty adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Penalty adjustment. 36.2 Section 36.2 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education ADJUSTMENT OF CIVIL MONETARY PENALTIES FOR INFLATION § 36.2..., Section 36.2—Civil Monetary Penalty Inflation Adjustments Statute Description New maximum (and minimum,...

  4. 12 CFR 1780.80 - Inflation adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Inflation adjustments. 1780.80 Section 1780.80... DEVELOPMENT RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Civil Money Penalty Inflation Adjustments § 1780.80 Inflation adjustments. The maximum amount of each civil money penalty within...

  5. 12 CFR 1780.80 - Inflation adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inflation adjustments. 1780.80 Section 1780.80... DEVELOPMENT RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Civil Money Penalty Inflation Adjustments § 1780.80 Inflation adjustments. The maximum amount of each civil money penalty within...

  6. Child adjustment in joint-custody versus sole-custody arrangements: a meta-analytic review.

    PubMed

    Bauserman, Robert

    2002-03-01

    The author meta-analyzed studies comparing child adjustment in joint physical or joint legal custody with sole-custody settings, including comparisons with paternal custody and intact families where possible. Children in joint physical or legal custody were better adjusted than children in sole-custody settings, but no different from those in intact families. More positive adjustment of joint-custody children held for separate comparisons of general adjustment, family relationships, self-esteem, emotional and behavioral adjustment, and divorce-specific adjustment. Joint-custody parents reported less current and past conflict than did sole-custody parents, but this did not explain the better adjustment of joint-custody children. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that joint custody can be advantageous for children in some cases, possibly by facilitating ongoing positive involvement with both parents.

  7. Current sensor

    DOEpatents

    Yakymyshyn, Christopher Paul; Brubaker, Michael Allen; Yakymyshyn, Pamela Jane

    2007-01-16

    A current sensor is described that uses a plurality of magnetic field sensors positioned around a current carrying conductor. The sensor can be hinged to allow clamping to a conductor. The current sensor provides high measurement accuracy for both DC and AC currents, and is substantially immune to the effects of temperature, conductor position, nearby current carrying conductors and aging.

  8. Prospectively ECG-Triggered Sequential Dual-Source Coronary CT Angiography in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation: Influence of Heart Rate on Image Quality and Evaluation of Diagnostic Accuracy

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lin; Xu, Lei; Schoepf, U. Joseph; Wichmann, Julian L.; Fox, Mary A.; Yan, Jing; Fan, Zhanming; Zhang, Zhaoqi

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the effects of mean heart rate (HR) and heart rate variation (HRV) on image quality and diagnostic accuracy of prospectively ECG-triggered sequential dual-source coronary CT angiography (CCTA) in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). Methods Eighty-five patients (49 women, 36 men; mean age 62.1±9.5 years) with persistent AF underwent prospectively ECG-triggered sequential second-generation dual-source CCTA. Tube current and voltage were adjusted according to body mass index (BMI) and iterative reconstruction was used. Image quality of coronary segments (four-point scale) and presence of significant stenosis (>50%) were evaluated. Diagnostic accuracy was analyzed in 30 of the 85 patients who underwent additional invasive coronary angiography (ICA). Results Only 8 of 1102 (0.7%) segments demonstrated poor image quality. No significant impact on image quality was found for mean HR (94.9±21.8 bpm; r=0.034, p=0.758; F=0.413, p=0.663) or HRV (67.5±22.8 bpm; r=0.097, p=0.377; F=0.111, p=0.895). On per-segment analysis, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) were 89.7% (26/29), 99.4% (355/357), 92.9% (26/28), and 99.2% (355/358), respectively, with excellent correlation (kappa=0.91) with ICA. Mean effective dose was 3.3±1.0 mSv. Conclusions Prospectively ECG-triggered sequential dual-source CCTA provides diagnostic image quality and good diagnostic accuracy for detection of coronary stenosis in AF patients without significant influence by HR or HRV. PMID:26221952

  9. Leaf onset in the northern hemisphere triggered by daytime temperature.

    PubMed

    Piao, Shilong; Tan, Jianguang; Chen, Anping; Fu, Yongshuo H; Ciais, Philippe; Liu, Qiang; Janssens, Ivan A; Vicca, Sara; Zeng, Zhenzhong; Jeong, Su-Jong; Li, Yue; Myneni, Ranga B; Peng, Shushi; Shen, Miaogen; Peñuelas, Josep

    2015-01-01

    Recent warming significantly advanced leaf onset in the northern hemisphere. This signal cannot be accurately reproduced by current models parameterized by daily mean temperature (T(mean)). Here using in situ observations of leaf unfolding dates (LUDs) in Europe and the United States, we show that the interannual anomalies of LUD during 1982-2011 are triggered by daytime (Tmax) more than by nighttime temperature (T(min)). Furthermore, an increase of 1 °C in Tmax would advance LUD by 4.7 days in Europe and 4.3 days in the United States, more than the conventional temperature sensitivity estimated from T(mean). The triggering role of Tmax, rather than the T(min) or T(mean) variable, is also supported by analysis of the large-scale patterns of satellite-derived vegetation green-up in spring in the northern hemisphere (>30 °N). Our results suggest a new conceptual framework of leaf onset using daytime temperature to improve the performance of phenology modules in current Earth system models. PMID:25903224

  10. Thermally triggered degradation of transient electronic devices.

    PubMed

    Park, Chan Woo; Kang, Seung-Kyun; Hernandez, Hector Lopez; Kaitz, Joshua A; Wie, Dae Seung; Shin, Jiho; Lee, Olivia P; Sottos, Nancy R; Moore, Jeffrey S; Rogers, John A; White, Scott R

    2015-07-01

    Thermally triggered transient electronics using wax-encapsulated acid, which enable rapid device destruction via acidic degradation of the metal electronic components are reported. Using a cyclic poly(phthalaldehyde) (cPPA) substrate affords a more rapid destruction of the device due to acidic depolymerization of cPPA.

  11. Osmotic pressure-triggered cavitation in microcapsules.

    PubMed

    Shang, Luoran; Cheng, Yao; Wang, Jie; Yu, Yunru; Zhao, Yuanjin; Chen, Yongping; Gu, Zhongze

    2016-01-21

    A cavitation system was found in solid microcapsules with a membrane shell and a liquid core. By simply treating these microcapsules with hypertonic solutions, cavitation could be controllably triggered without special equipment or complex operations. A cavitation-formed vapor bubble was fully entrapped within the microcapsules, thus providing an advantageous method for fabricating encapsulated microbubbles with controllable dimensions and functional components. PMID:26659708

  12. Triggering of earthquake aftershocks by dynamic stresses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kilb, Debi; Gomberg, J.; Bodin, P.

    2000-01-01

    It is thought that small 'static' stress changes due to permanent fault displacement can alter the likelihood of, or trigger, earthquakes on nearby faults. Many studies of triggering in the nearfield, particularly of aftershocks, rely on these static changes as the triggering agent and consider them only in terms of equivalent changes in the applied load on the fault. Here we report a comparison of the aftershock pattern of the moment magnitude MW = 7.3 Landers earthquake, not only with static stress changes but also with transient, oscillatory stress changes transmitted as seismic waves (that is, 'dynamic' stresses). Dynamic stresses do not permanently change the applied load and thus can trigger earthquakes only by altering the mechanical state or properties of the fault zone. These dynamically weakened faults may fail after the seismic waves have passed by, and might even cause earthquakes that would not otherwise have occurred. We find similar asymmetries in the aftershock and dynamic stress patterns, the latter being due to rupture propagation, whereas the static stress changes lack this asymmetry. Previous studies have shown that dynamic stresses can promote failure at remote distances, but here we show that they can also do so nearby.

  13. Event reconstruction algorithms for the ATLAS trigger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    F-Martin, T.; Abolins, M.; Adragna, P.; Aleksandrov, E.; Aleksandrov, I.; Amorim, A.; Anderson, K.; Anduaga, X.; Aracena, I.; Asquith, L.; Avolio, G.; Backlund, S.; Badescu, E.; Baines, J.; Barria, P.; Bartoldus, R.; Batreanu, S.; Beck, H. P.; Bee, C.; Bell, P.; Bell, W. H.; Bellomo, M.; Benslama, K.; Berge, D.; Berger, N.; Berry, T.; Biglietti, M.; Blair, R. R.; Bogaerts, A.; Bold, T.; Bosman, M.; Boyd, J.; Brelier, B.; Burckhart, C. D.; Buttar, C.; Campanelli, M.; Caprini, M.; Carlino, G.; Casadei, D.; Casado, P.; Cataldi, G.; Cimino, D.; Ciobotaru, M.; Clements, D.; Coccaro, A.; Conde, M. P.; Conventi, F.; Corso, R. A.; Costa, M. J.; Coura, T. R.; Cranfield, R.; Cranmer, K.; Crone, G.; Dam, M.; Damazio, D.; Dawson, I.; Dawson, J.; DeAlmeida Simoes, A. J.; DeCecco, S.; DeSanto, A.; Della Pietra, M.; Delsart, P.-A.; Demers, S.; Demirkoz, B.; Di Mattia, A.; Dionisi, C.; Djilkibaev, R.; Dobinson, R.; Dobson, M.; Dotti, A.; Dova, M.; Drake, G.; Dufour, M.-A.; Eckweiler, S.; Ehrenfeld, W.; Eifert, T.; Ellis, N.; Emeliyanov, D.; Enoque Ferreira de Lima, D.; Ermoline, Y.; Eschrich, I.; Facius, K.; Falciano, S.; Farthouat, P.; Feng, E.; Ferland, J.; Ferrari, R.; Ferrer, M. L.; Fischer, G.; Francis, D.; Gadomski, S.; Garitaonandia, E. H.; Gaudio, G.; Gaumer, O.; George, S.; Giagu, S.; Goncalo, R.; Gorini, B.; Gorini, E.; Gowdy, S.; Grabowska, B. I.; Grancagnolo, S.; Green, B.; Haas, S.; Haberichter, W.; Hadavand, H.; Haeberli, C.; Haller, J.; Hamilton, A.; Hansen, J. R.; Hauschild, M.; Hauser, R.; Head, S.; Hillier, S.; Hoecker, A.; Hryn'ova, T.; Hughes, J. R.; Huston, J.; Idarraga, J.; Igonkina, O.; Inada, M.; Jain, V.; Johns, K.; Joos, M.; Kama, S.; Kanaya, N.; Kazarov, A.; Kehoe, R.; Khoriauli, G.; Kieft, G.; Kilvington, G.; Kirk, J.; Kiyamura, H.; Kolos, S.; Kono, T.; Konstantinidis, N.; Korcyl, K.; Kordas, K.; Kotov, V.; Krasznahorkay, A.; Kubota, T.; Kugel, A.; Kuhn, D.; Kurasige, H.; Kuwabara, T.; Kwee, R.; Lankford, A.; LeCompte, T.; Leahu, L.; Leahu, M.; Ledroit, F.; Lehmann, M. G.; Lei, X.; Lellouch, D.; Leyton, M.; Li, S.; Lim, H.; Lohse, T.; Losada, M.; Luci, C.; Luminari, L.; Mapelli, L.; Martin, B.; Martin, B. T.; Marzano, F.; Masik, J.; McMahon, T.; Mcpherson, R.; Medinnis, M.; Meessen, C.; Meirosu, C.; Messina, A.; Mincer, A.; Mineev, M.; Misiejuk, A.; Moenig, K.; Monticelli, F.; Moraes, A.; Moreno, D.; Morettini, P.; Murillo, G. R.; Nagano, K.; Nagasaka, Y.; Negri, A.; Nemethy, P.; Neusiedl, A.; Nisati, A.; Nozicka, M.; Omachi, C.; Osculati, B.; Osuna, C.; Padilla, C.; Panikashvili, N.; Parodi, F.; Pasqualucci, E.; Pauly, T.; Perera, V.; Perez, E.; Perez Reale, V.; Petersen, J.; Piegaia, R.; Pilcher, J.; Pinzon, G.; Pope, B.; Potter, C.; Primavera, M.; Radescu, V.; Rajagopalan, S.; Renkel, P.; Rescigno, M.; Rieke, S.; Risler, C.; Riu, I.; Robertson, S.; Roda, C.; Rodriguez, D.; Rogriquez, Y.; Ryabov, Y.; Ryan, P.; Salvatore, D.; Santamarina, C.; Santamarina, R. C.; Scannicchio, D.; Scannicchio, D. A.; Schiavi, C.; Schlereth, J.; Scholtes, I.; Schooltz, D.; Scott, W.; Segura, E.; Shimbo, N.; Sidoti, A.; Siragusa, G.; Sivoklokov, S.; Sloper, J. E.; Smizanska, M.; Soloviev, I.; Soluk, R.; Spagnolo, S.; Spiwoks, R.; Stancu, S.; Steinberg, P.; Stelzer, J.; Stradling, A.; Strom, D.; Strong, J.; Su, D.; Sushkov, S.; Sutton, M.; Szymocha, T.; Tapprogge, S.; Tarem, S.; Tarem, Z.; Teixeira, D. P.; Tokoshuku, K.; Torrence, E.; Touchard, F.; Tremblet, L.; Tripiana, M.; Usai, G.; Vachon, B.; Vandelli, W.; Ventura, A.; Vercesi, V.; Vermeulen, J.; Von Der Schmitt, J.; Wang, M.; Watson, A.; Wengler, T.; Werner, P.; Wheeler, E. S.; Wickens, F.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wielers M, M.; Wilkens, H.; Winklmeier, F.; Woehrling, E.-E.; Wu, S.-L.; Wu, X.; Xella, S.; Yamazaki, Y.; Yu, M.; Zema, F.; Zhang, J.; Zhao, L.; Zobernig, H.; dos Anjos, A.; zur Nedden, M.; zcan, E.; nel, G.

    2008-07-01

    The ATLAS experiment under construction at CERN is due to begin operation at the end of 2007. The detector will record the results of proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 14 TeV. The trigger is a three-tier system designed to identify in real-time potentially interesting events that are then saved for detailed offline analysis. The trigger system will select approximately 200 Hz of potentially interesting events out of the 40 MHz bunch-crossing rate (with 109 interactions per second at the nominal luminosity). Algorithms used in the trigger system to identify different event features of interest will be described, as well as their expected performance in terms of selection efficiency, background rejection and computation time per event. The talk will concentrate on recent improvements and on performance studies, using a very detailed simulation of the ATLAS detector and electronics chain that emulates the raw data as it will appear at the input to the trigger system.

  14. Performance of the CMS High Level Trigger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrotta, Andrea

    2015-12-01

    The CMS experiment has been designed with a 2-level trigger system. The first level is implemented using custom-designed electronics. The second level is the so-called High Level Trigger (HLT), a streamlined version of the CMS offline reconstruction software running on a computer farm. For Run II of the Large Hadron Collider, the increases in center-of-mass energy and luminosity will raise the event rate to a level challenging for the HLT algorithms. The increase in the number of interactions per bunch crossing, on average 25 in 2012, and expected to be around 40 in Run II, will be an additional complication. We present here the expected performance of the main triggers that will be used during the 2015 data taking campaign, paying particular attention to the new approaches that have been developed to cope with the challenges of the new run. This includes improvements in HLT electron and photon reconstruction as well as better performing muon triggers. We will also present the performance of the improved tracking and vertexing algorithms, discussing their impact on the b-tagging performance as well as on the jet and missing energy reconstruction.

  15. Histopathology of tenosynovium in trigger fingers.

    PubMed

    Uchihashi, Kazuyoshi; Tsuruta, Toshiyuki; Mine, Hiroko; Aoki, Shigehisa; Nishijima-Matsunobu, Aki; Yamamoto, Mihoko; Kuraoka, Akio; Toda, Shuji

    2014-06-01

    Stenosing flexor tenosynovitis, trigger finger, is a common clinical disorder causing painful locking or contracture of the involved digits, and most instances are idiopathic. This problem is generally caused by a size mismatch between the swollen flexor tendon and the thickened first annular pulley. Although hypertrophic pulleys have been histologically and ultrasonographically detected, little is known about the histopathology of the tenosynovium covering the tendons of trigger fingers. We identified chondrocytoid cells that produced hyaluronic acid in 23 (61%) fingers and hypocellular collagen matrix in 32 (84%) fingers around the tenosynovium among 38 specimens of tenosynovium from patients with trigger fingers. These chondrocytoid cells expressed the synovial B cell marker CD44, but not the chondrocyte marker S-100 protein. The incidence of these findings was much higher than that of conventional findings of synovitis, such as inflammatory infiltrate (37%), increased vascularity (37%), hyperplasia of synovial lining cells (21%), or fibrin exudation (5%). We discovered the following distinctive histopathological features of trigger finger: hyaluronic acid-producing chondrocytoid cells originated from fibroblastic synovial B cells, and a hypocellular collagen matrix surrounding the tenosynovium. Thus, an edematous extracellular matrix with active hyaluronic acid synthesis might increase pressure under the pulley and contribute to the progression of stenosis. PMID:24965110

  16. THE STAR LEVEL-3 TRIGGER SYSTEM.

    SciTech Connect

    LANGE, J.S.; ADLER, C.; BERGER, J.; DEMELLO, M.; FLIERL, D.; ET AL

    1999-11-15

    The STAR level-3 trigger is a MYRINET interconnected ALPHA processor farm, performing online tracking of N{sub track} {ge} 8000 particles (N{sub point} {le} 45 per track) with a design input rate of R=100 Hz. A large scale prototype system was tested in 12/99 with laser and cosmic particle events.

  17. Triggered earthquakes and deep well activities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nicholson, C.; Wesson, R.L.

    1992-01-01

    Earthquakes can be triggered by any significant perturbation of the hydrologic regime. In areas where potentially active faults are already close to failure, the increased pore pressure resulting from fluid injection, or, alternatively, the massive extraction of fluid or gas, can induce sufficient stress and/or strain changes that, with time, can lead to sudden catastrophic failure in a major earthquake. Injection-induced earthquakes typically result from the reduction in frictional strength along preexisting, nearby faults caused by the increased formation fluid pressure. Earthquakes associated with production appear to respond to more complex mechanisms of subsidence, crustal unloading, and poroelastic changes in response to applied strains induced by the massive withdrawal of subsurface material. As each of these different types of triggered events can occur up to several years after well activities have begun (or even several years after all well activities have stopped), this suggests that the actual triggering process may be a very complex combination of effects, particularly if both fluid extraction and injection have taken place locally. To date, more than thirty cases of earthquakes triggered by well activities can be documented throughout the United States and Canada. Based on these case histories, it is evident that, owing to preexisting stress conditions in the upper crust, certain areas tend to have higher probabilities of exhibiting such induced seismicity. ?? 1992 Birkha??user Verlag.

  18. Triggering of earthquake aftershocks by dynamic stresses.

    PubMed

    Kilb, D; Gomberg, J; Bodin, P

    2000-11-30

    It is thought that small 'static' stress changes due to permanent fault displacement can alter the likelihood of, or trigger, earthquakes on nearby faults. Many studies of triggering in the near-field, particularly of aftershocks, rely on these static changes as the triggering agent and consider them only in terms of equivalent changes in the applied load on the fault. Here we report a comparison of the aftershock pattern of the moment magnitude Mw = 7.3 Landers earthquake, not only with static stress changes but also with transient, oscillatory stress changes transmitted as seismic waves (that is, 'dynamic' stresses). Dynamic stresses do not permanently change the applied load and thus can trigger earthquakes only by altering the mechanical state or properties of the fault zone. These dynamically weakened faults may fail after the seismic waves have passed by, and might even cause earthquakes that would not otherwise have occurred. We find similar asymmetries in the aftershock and dynamic stress patterns, the latter being due to rupture propagation, whereas the static stress changes lack this asymmetry. Previous studies have shown that dynamic stresses can promote failure at remote distances, but here we show that they can also do so nearby.

  19. FPGA Trigger System to Run Klystrons

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, Darius; /Texas A-M /SLAC

    2010-08-25

    The Klystron Department is in need of a new trigger system to update the laboratory capabilities. The objective of the research is to develop the trigger system using Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) technology with a user interface that will allow one to communicate with the FPGA via a Universal Serial Bus (USB). This trigger system will be used for the testing of klystrons. The key materials used consists of the Xilinx Integrated Software Environment (ISE) Foundation, a Programmable Read Only Memory (Prom) XCF04S, a Xilinx Spartan 3E 35S500E FPGA, Xilinx Platform Cable USB II, a Printed Circuit Board (PCB), a 100 MHz oscillator, and an oscilloscope. Key considerations include eight triggers, two of which have variable phase shifting capabilities. Once the project was completed the output signals were able to be manipulated via a Graphical User Interface by varying the delay and width of the signal. This was as planned; however, the ability to vary the phase was not completed. Future work could consist of being able to vary the phase. This project will give the operators in the Klystron Department more flexibility to run various tests.

  20. Cough in asthma triggered by reflux episodes.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Devendra; He, Zhaoping; Padman, Raj

    2014-05-01

    With combined pH and impedance monitoring, non-acid, as well as acid reflux episodes, are more commonly detected immediately prior to cough in asthma in children. Gastroesophageal reflux should be evaluated as a trigger for cough in difficult childhood asthma.

  1. Myofacial Trigger Points in Advanced Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Hasuo, Hideaki; Ishihara, Tatsuhiko; Kanbara, Kenji; Fukunaga, Mikihiko

    2016-01-01

    Myofascial pain syndrome is started to be recognized as one of important factors of pain in cancer patients. However, no reports on features of myofascial trigger points were found in terminally-ill cancer populations. This time, we encountered 5 patients with myofascial pain syndrome and terminal cancer in whom delirium developed due to increased doses of opioid without a diagnosis of myofascial pain syndrome on initial presentation. The delirium subsided with dose reductions of opioid and treatment of myofascial pain syndrome. The common reason for a delayed diagnosis among the patients included an incomplete palpation of the painful sites, which led to unsuccessful myofascial trigger points identification. The features of myofascial trigger points included single onset in the cancer pain management site with opioid and the contralateral abdominal side muscles of the non-common sites. Withdrawal reflexes associated with cancer pain in the supine position, which are increasingly seen in the terminal cancer patients, were considered to have contributed to this siuation. We consider that careful palpation of the painful site is important, in order to obtain greater knowledge and understanding of the features of myofascial trigger points. PMID:26962285

  2. Event Reconstruction Algorithms for the ATLAS Trigger

    SciTech Connect

    Fonseca-Martin, T.; Abolins, M.; Adragna, P.; Aleksandrov, E.; Aleksandrov, I.; Amorim, A.; Anderson, K.; Anduaga, X.; Aracena, I.; Asquith, L.; Avolio, G.; Backlund, S.; Badescu, E.; Baines, J.; Barria, P.; Bartoldus, R.; Batreanu, S.; Beck, H.P.; Bee, C.; Bell, P.; Bell, W.H.; /more authors..

    2011-11-09

    The ATLAS experiment under construction at CERN is due to begin operation at the end of 2007. The detector will record the results of proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 14 TeV. The trigger is a three-tier system designed to identify in real-time potentially interesting events that are then saved for detailed offline analysis. The trigger system will select approximately 200 Hz of potentially interesting events out of the 40 MHz bunch-crossing rate (with 10{sup 9} interactions per second at the nominal luminosity). Algorithms used in the trigger system to identify different event features of interest will be described, as well as their expected performance in terms of selection efficiency, background rejection and computation time per event. The talk will concentrate on recent improvements and on performance studies, using a very detailed simulation of the ATLAS detector and electronics chain that emulates the raw data as it will appear at the input to the trigger system.

  3. Natural and unnatural triggers of myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Kloner, Robert A

    2006-01-01

    Previous analyses have suggested that factors that stimulate the sympathetic nervous system and catecholamine release can trigger acute myocardial infarction. The wake-up time, Mondays, winter season, physical exertion, emotional upset, overeating, lack of sleep, cocaine, marijuana, anger, and sexual activity are some of the more common triggers. Certain natural disasters such as earthquakes and blizzards have also been associated with an increase in cardiac events. Certain unnatural triggers may play a role including the Holiday season. Holiday season cardiac events peak on Christmas and New Year. A number of hypotheses have been raised to explain the increase in cardiac events during the holidays, including overeating, excessive use of salt and alcohol, exposure to particulates, from fireplaces, a delay in seeking medical help, anxiety or depression related to the holidays, and poorer staffing of health care facilities at this time. War has been associated with an increase in cardiac events. Data regarding an increase in cardiac events during the 9/11 terrorist attack have been mixed. Understanding the cause of cardiovascular triggers will help in developing potential therapies.

  4. A Solar Cell That Is Triggered by Sun and Rain.

    PubMed

    Tang, Qunwei; Wang, Xiaopeng; Yang, Peizhi; He, Benlin

    2016-04-18

    All-weather solar cells are promising in solving the energy crisis. A flexible solar cell is presented that is triggered by combining an electron-enriched graphene electrode with a dye-sensitized solar cell. The new solar cell can be excited by incident light on sunny days and raindrops on rainy days, yielding an optimal solar-to-electric conversion efficiency of 6.53 % under AM 1.5 irradiation and current over microamps as well as a voltage of hundreds of microvolts by simulated raindrops. The formation of π-electron|cation electrical double-layer pseudocapacitors at graphene/raindrop interface is contributable to current and voltage outputs at switchable charging-discharging process. The new concept can guide the design of advanced all-weather solar cells. PMID:26996147

  5. A Solar Cell That Is Triggered by Sun and Rain.

    PubMed

    Tang, Qunwei; Wang, Xiaopeng; Yang, Peizhi; He, Benlin

    2016-04-18

    All-weather solar cells are promising in solving the energy crisis. A flexible solar cell is presented that is triggered by combining an electron-enriched graphene electrode with a dye-sensitized solar cell. The new solar cell can be excited by incident light on sunny days and raindrops on rainy days, yielding an optimal solar-to-electric conversion efficiency of 6.53 % under AM 1.5 irradiation and current over microamps as well as a voltage of hundreds of microvolts by simulated raindrops. The formation of π-electron|cation electrical double-layer pseudocapacitors at graphene/raindrop interface is contributable to current and voltage outputs at switchable charging-discharging process. The new concept can guide the design of advanced all-weather solar cells.

  6. On near-source earthquake triggering

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsons, T.; Velasco, A.A.

    2009-01-01

    When one earthquake triggers others nearby, what connects them? Two processes are observed: static stress change from fault offset and dynamic stress changes from passing seismic waves. In the near-source region (r ??? 50 km for M ??? 5 sources) both processes may be operating, and since both mechanisms are expected to raise earthquake rates, it is difficult to isolate them. We thus compare explosions with earthquakes because only earthquakes cause significant static stress changes. We find that large explosions at the Nevada Test Site do not trigger earthquakes at rates comparable to similar magnitude earthquakes. Surface waves are associated with regional and long-range dynamic triggering, but we note that surface waves with low enough frequency to penetrate to depths where most aftershocks of the 1992 M = 5.7 Little Skull Mountain main shock occurred (???12 km) would not have developed significant amplitude within a 50-km radius. We therefore focus on the best candidate phases to cause local dynamic triggering, direct waves that pass through observed near-source aftershock clusters. We examine these phases, which arrived at the nearest (200-270 km) broadband station before the surface wave train and could thus be isolated for study. Direct comparison of spectral amplitudes of presurface wave arrivals shows that M ??? 5 explosions and earthquakes deliver the same peak dynamic stresses into the near-source crust. We conclude that a static stress change model can readily explain observed aftershock patterns, whereas it is difficult to attribute near-source triggering to a dynamic process because of the dearth of aftershocks near large explosions.

  7. Performance of An Adjustable Strength Permanent Magnet Quadrupole

    SciTech Connect

    Gottschalk, S.C.; DeHart, T.E.; Kangas, K.W.; Spencer, C.M.; Volk, J.T.; /Fermilab

    2006-03-01

    An adjustable strength permanent magnet quadrupole suitable for use in Next Linear Collider has been built and tested. The pole length is 42cm, aperture diameter 13mm, peak pole tip strength 1.03Tesla and peak integrated gradient * length (GL) is 68.7 Tesla. This paper describes measurements of strength, magnetic CL and field quality made using an air bearing rotating coil system. The magnetic CL stability during -20% strength adjustment proposed for beam based alignment was < 0.2 microns. Strength hysteresis was negligible. Thermal expansion of quadrupole and measurement parts caused a repeatable and easily compensated change in the vertical magnetic CL. Calibration procedures as well as CL measurements made over a wider tuning range of 100% to 20% in strength useful for a wide range of applications will be described. The impact of eddy currents in the steel poles on the magnetic field during strength adjustments will be reported.

  8. [Long-term experience with adjustable gastric banding].

    PubMed

    Kasalický, M; Michalský, D

    2005-06-01

    Obesity is the most common multifactorial metabolic disorder defined as an increased portion of the adipose tissue in the human body. The latest WHO report mentions a pandemia of the obesity. In the Czech Republic, its prevalence is currently 25.7% in females and 22.4% in males. A conservative approach is the main treatment method in the morbid obese patients. In case it fails, a surgical treatment is yet another option. The authors have conducted bariatric surgery (the surgical management of obesity) in the 1st Surgical Clinic since 1984. In 1993 they performed the first non-adjustable gastric bandage (NGB) using laparoscopy and since 1997 they have also performed adjustable bandages (AGB) in selected patients. From 1993 to 2004 they performed 734 procedures for morbid obesity. 647 (88%) obese patients had the gastric non-adjusable bandage applied and 87 (12%) of the obese patients had the adjustable bandage applied.

  9. A large aperture laser triggered intensified charge coupled device using second-harmonic laser light triggering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamauchi, Toshihiko; Dimock, Dirck

    1997-06-01

    For application to a ruby laser Thomson scattering system, we have developed a laser triggered intensified charge coupled device (CCD) with 80 mm aperture, two stages of intensification, and 80 ns gating. To improve the dynamic range, the CCD is cooled and read out slowly (1 s). To obtain a good extinction ratio (>1.1×107), the zoom electrode of the first intensifier is gated using a ˜10 kV laser triggered spark gap. The stability of this spark gap has been greatly improved by frequency doubling the laser trigger light.

  10. Adjustment Disorder: epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Adjustment Disorder is a condition strongly tied to acute and chronic stress. Despite clinical suggestion of a large prevalence in the general population and the high frequency of its diagnosis in the clinical settings, there has been relatively little research reported and, consequently, very few hints about its treatments. Methods the authors gathered old and current information on the epidemiology, clinical features, comorbidity, treatment and outcome of adjustment disorder by a systematic review of essays published on PUBMED. Results After a first glance at its historical definition and its definition in the DSM and ICD systems, the problem of distinguishing AD from other mood and anxiety disorders, the difficulty in the definition of stress and the implied concept of 'vulnerability' are considered. Comorbidity of AD with other conditions, and outcome of AD are then analyzed. This review also highlights recent data about trends in the use of antidepressant drugs, evidence on their efficacy and the use of psychotherapies. Conclusion AD is a very common diagnosis in clinical practice, but we still lack data about its rightful clinical entity. This may be caused by a difficulty in facing, with a purely descriptive methods, a "pathogenic label", based on a stressful event, for which a subjective impact has to be considered. We lack efficacy surveys concerning treatment. The use of psychotropic drugs such as antidepressants, in AD with anxious or depressed mood is not properly supported and should be avoided, while the usefulness of psychotherapies is more solidly supported by clinical evidence. To better determine the correct course of therapy, randomized-controlled trials, even for the combined use of drugs and psychotherapies, are needed vitally, especially for the resistant forms of AD. PMID:19558652

  11. Current multiplication by using multiple thyristors.

    PubMed

    Liu, Z; Pemen, A J M; Van Heesch, E J M; Winands, G J J

    2008-07-01

    This paper presents a circuit topology to obtain current multiplication by using multiple thyristors. To gain insight into this technique, an equivalent circuit model is introduced. Proper operation of the topology was demonstrated by experiments on a small-scale setup including three thyristors. One thyristor is triggered by a trigger circuit; the other two are autotriggered and require no external trigger circuit. The three thyristors could be synchronized automatically in sequence. During the closing process, the discharging of the energy storage capacitors via the thyristors is prevented. The discharging starts when all thyristors are closed, and the currents through each thyristor are simultaneous and identical. The output current is exactly three times the switching current.

  12. Psychopathic traits and their association with adjustment problems in girls.

    PubMed

    Charles, Nora E; Acheson, Ashley; Mathias, Charles W; Michael Furr, R; Dougherty, Donald M

    2012-01-01

    Psychopathic traits, and specifically callous-unemotional (CU) traits, are associated with a variety of adverse outcomes in adolescence and adulthood. The majority of research in this area has focused on men and boys, though there is some evidence that psychopathy is expressed differently in girls and women. Accordingly, the purpose of this study was to test if the relationships of callous-unemotional (CU) traits with adjustment differed between girls and boys at risk for antisocial behavior. The sample was composed of children whose biological father had past or current alcohol or drug problems. A total of 234 children (116 boys, 118 girls; ages 10-12) were rated by their parent or guardian on CU traits and overall adjustment. Boys were generally rated higher on measures of CU traits; however, these traits were more prominently related to adjustment problems among girls. These results suggest that expression of psychopathic traits may have more negative effects on adjustment for girls than boys. One possible mechanism by which CU traits could be impacting adjustment in girls is by impairing interpersonal relationships.

  13. Postdivorce Adjustment and Single Parenting: Exploring the Impact of Culture for Korean Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Sunny Y.

    Formal mental health services offered in traditional Western settings may be neither appropriate for nor accessible to Korean Americans who are adjusting to divorce. This paper presents an overview of current research on postdivorce adjustment and single parenting in the United States, examines various cultural differences (e.g., African, Asian,…

  14. Understanding Gender Differences in Children's Adjustment to Divorce: Implications for School Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Joe H.; Portes, Pedro R.

    2006-01-01

    The present paper discusses some of the current issues confronting practitioners and researchers in understanding gender differences in children's adjustment to divorce. Gender differences in children's developmental adjustment to divorce are influenced by pre and post divorce development processes, parent expectation and children's coping…

  15. Effects of Peer Victimization on Psychological and Academic Adjustment in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rueger, Sandra Yu; Jenkins, Lyndsay N.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the current study is to investigate the effects of frequency of peer victimization experiences on psychological and academic adjustment during early adolescence, with a focus on testing psychological adjustment as a mediator, as well as differences based on gender and type of victimization. The sample in this short-term longitudinal…

  16. Photoconductive semiconductor switches: Laser Q-switch trigger and switch-trigger laser integration

    SciTech Connect

    Loubriel, G.M.; Mar, A.; Hamil, R.A.; Zutavern, F.J.; Helgeson, W.D.

    1997-12-01

    This report provides a summary of the Pulser In a Chip 9000-Discretionary LDRD. The program began in January of 1997 and concluded in September of 1997. The over-arching goal of this LDRD is to study whether laser diode triggered photoconductive semiconductor switches (PCSS) can be used to activate electro-optic devices such as Q-switches and Pockels cells and to study possible laser diode/switch integration. The PCSS switches we used were high gain GaAs switches because they can be triggered with small amounts of laser light. The specific goals of the LDRD were to demonstrate: (1) that small laser diode arrays that are potential candidates for laser-switch integration will indeed trigger the PCSS switch, and (2) that high gain GaAs switches can be used to trigger optical Q-switches in lasers such as the lasers to be used in the X-1 Advanced Radiation Source and the laser used for direct optical initiation (DOI) of explosives. The technology developed with this LDRD is now the prime candidate for triggering the Q switch in the multiple lasers in the laser trigger system of the X-1 Advanced Radiation Source and may be utilized in other accelerators. As part of the LDRD we developed a commercial supplier. To study laser/switch integration we tested triggering the high gain GaAs switches with: edge emitting laser diodes, vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs), and transverse junction stripe (TJS) lasers. The first two types of lasers (edge emitting and VCSELs) did activate the PCSS but are harder to integrate with the PCSS for a compact package. The US lasers, while easier to integrate with the switch, did not trigger the PCSS at the US laser power levels we used. The PCSS was used to activate the Q-switch of the compact laser to be used in the X-1 Advanced Radiation Source.

  17. Exploration adjustment by ant colonies

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    How do animals in groups organize their work? Division of labour, i.e. the process by which individuals within a group choose which tasks to perform, has been extensively studied in social insects. Variability among individuals within a colony seems to underpin both the decision over which tasks to perform and the amount of effort to invest in a task. Studies have focused mainly on discrete tasks, i.e. tasks with a recognizable end. Here, we study the distribution of effort in nest seeking, in the absence of new nest sites. Hence, this task is open-ended and individuals have to decide when to stop searching, even though the task has not been completed. We show that collective search effort declines when colonies inhabit better homes, as a consequence of a reduction in the number of bouts (exploratory events). Furthermore, we show an increase in bout exploration time and a decrease in bout instantaneous speed for colonies inhabiting better homes. The effect of treatment on bout effort is very small; however, we suggest that the organization of work performed within nest searching is achieved both by a process of self-selection of the most hard-working ants and individual effort adjustment. PMID:26909180

  18. Psychosocial adjustment to recurrent cancer.

    PubMed

    Mahon, S M; Cella, D F; Donovan, M I

    1990-01-01

    This descriptive study of the perceptions and needs of people with recurrent malignancies asks three questions: How do patients describe the meaning of a recurrence of cancer? Do individuals perceive the diagnosis of recurrence and the initial diagnosis of cancer differently? What are the key psychosocial problems associated with recurrent cancer? The theoretical framework was based on Lazarus and Folkman's theory of stress, appraisal, and coping. Subjects completed the Impact of Event Scale (IES), the Psychosocial Adjustment to Illness Scale--Self-Report (PAIS), and a semistructured qualitative interview. The interview elicited perceptions of the event of recurrence and differences between the diagnosis of recurrence and the initial diagnosis. The convenience sample included 40 patients diagnosed with recurrent cancer within the last 30 days. Many subjects (78%) reported that the recurrence was more upsetting than the initial diagnosis. Scores on both the IES and the PAIS were high when compared to normative samples of patients with cancer suggesting that this sample of patients experienced a lot of psychological distress as well as problems at home, work, and in their social lives. These concerns often were unknown to caregivers. Although more research is needed, the authors propose that, with more accurate assessment, more effective intervention could be implemented and the quality of life improved for patients with recurrent cancer.

  19. Echogenic Glycol Chitosan Nanoparticles for Ultrasound-Triggered Cancer Theranostics.

    PubMed

    Min, Hyun Su; You, Dong Gil; Son, Sejin; Jeon, Sangmin; Park, Jae Hyung; Lee, Seulki; Kwon, Ick Chan; Kim, Kwangmeyung

    2015-01-01

    Theranostic nanoparticles hold great promise for simultaneous diagnosis of diseases, targeted drug delivery with minimal toxicity, and monitoring of therapeutic efficacy. However, one of the current challenges in developing theranostic nanoparticles is enhancing the tumor-specific targeting of both imaging probes and anticancer agents. Herein, we report the development of tumor-homing echogenic glycol chitosan-based nanoparticles (Echo-CNPs) that concurrently execute cancer-targeted ultrasound (US) imaging and US-triggered drug delivery. To construct this novel Echo-CNPs, an anticancer drug and bioinert perfluoropentane (PFP), a US gas precursor, were simultaneously encapsulated into glycol chitosan nanoparticles using the oil in water (O/W) emulsion method. The resulting Echo-CNPs had a nano-sized particle structure, composing of hydrophobic anticancer drug/PFP inner cores and a hydrophilic glycol chitosan polymer outer shell. The Echo-CNPs had a favorable hydrodynamic size of 432 nm, which is entirely different from the micro-sized core-empty conventional microbubbles (1-10 μm). Furthermore, Echo-CNPs showed the prolonged echogenicity via the sustained microbubble formation process of liquid-phase PFP at the body temperature and they also presented a US-triggered drug release profile through the external US irradiation. Interestingly, Echo-CNPs exhibited significantly increased tumor-homing ability with lower non-specific uptake by other tissues in tumor-bearing mice through the nanoparticle's enhanced permeation and retention (EPR) effect. Conclusively, theranostic Echo-CNPs are highly useful for simultaneous cancer-targeting US imaging and US-triggered delivery in cancer theranostics. PMID:26681985

  20. Electro-responsive macroporous polypyrrole scaffolds for triggered dexamethasone delivery.

    PubMed

    Seyfoddin, A; Chan, A; Chen, W-T; Rupenthal, I D; Waterhouse, G I N; Svirskis, D

    2015-08-01

    Corticosteroids such as dexamethasone are first line ophthalmic treatment for non-infectious posterior uveitis. Corticosteroids are often administered via intravitreal injection to treat this condition with frequent injections associated with poor treatment adherence and complications such as endophthalmitis. Current ocular implants provide sustained corticosteroid release at predetermined rates and lack the ability for dose individualisation. This study describes the successful fabrication of electrically responsive macroporous polypyrrole (PPy) thin films, and their subsequent application to triggered dexamethasone release. Colloidal crystal films composed of 370nm polymethylmethacrylate colloids were first deposited on ITO coated glass substrates, and subsequently used as sacrificial templates for the fabrication of high surface area, 3-dimensionally ordered macroporous PPy inverse opal (PPy IO) thin films. SEM, UV-Vis reflectance and cyclic voltammetry measurements established that the redox state of the PPy IO films could be controlled via electrical stimulation, which in turn influences both porosity and optical properties of the films. Incorporation of the anti-inflammatory corticosteroid, dexamethasone phosphate (DexP), in the PPy IO films during their fabrication resulted in an effective delivery platform for triggered DexP release. A sustained release profile was observed for the PPy IO-DexP films, bursts of release could be triggered by electrical stimulation. The amount of DexP released from the PPy IO-DexP films was significantly higher than that released from the conventional non-porous PPy-DexP films of comparable mass. Results suggest that electrically responsive PPy IO structures are highly suitable for on-demand drug delivery applications. This technology may enable physicians to fine-tune the required dose according to disease state and patients' needs to enhance the safety and efficacy of corticosteroid treatment. PMID:26141345

  1. Level-1 pixel based tracking trigger algorithm for LHC upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, C.-S.; Savoy-Navarro, A.

    2015-10-01

    The Pixel Detector is the innermost detector of the tracking system of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment at CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) . It precisely determines the interaction point (primary vertex) of the events and the possible secondary vertexes due to heavy flavours (b and c quarks); it is part of the overall tracking system that allows reconstructing the tracks of the charged particles in the events and combined with the magnetic field to measure their momentum. The pixel detector allows measuring the tracks in the region closest to the interaction point. The Level-1 (real-time) pixel based tracking trigger is a novel trigger system that is currently being studied for the LHC upgrade. An important goal is developing real-time track reconstruction algorithms able to cope with very high rates and high flux of data in a very harsh environment. The pixel detector has an especially crucial role in precisely identifying the primary vertex of the rare physics events from the large pile-up (PU) of events. The goal of adding the pixel information already at the real-time level of the selection is to help reducing the total level-1 trigger rate while keeping an high selection capability. This is quite an innovative and challenging objective for the experiments upgrade for the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) . The special case here addressed is the CMS experiment. This document describes exercises focusing on the development of a fast pixel track reconstruction where the pixel track matches with a Level-1 electron object using a ROOT-based simulation framework.

  2. Echogenic Glycol Chitosan Nanoparticles for Ultrasound-Triggered Cancer Theranostics

    PubMed Central

    Min, Hyun Su; You, Dong Gil; Son, Sejin; Jeon, Sangmin; Park, Jae Hyung; Lee, Seulki; Kwon, Ick Chan; Kim, Kwangmeyung

    2015-01-01

    Theranostic nanoparticles hold great promise for simultaneous diagnosis of diseases, targeted drug delivery with minimal toxicity, and monitoring of therapeutic efficacy. However, one of the current challenges in developing theranostic nanoparticles is enhancing the tumor-specific targeting of both imaging probes and anticancer agents. Herein, we report the development of tumor-homing echogenic glycol chitosan-based nanoparticles (Echo-CNPs) that concurrently execute cancer-targeted ultrasound (US) imaging and US-triggered drug delivery. To construct this novel Echo-CNPs, an anticancer drug and bioinert perfluoropentane (PFP), a US gas precursor, were simultaneously encapsulated into glycol chitosan nanoparticles using the oil in water (O/W) emulsion method. The resulting Echo-CNPs had a nano-sized particle structure, composing of hydrophobic anticancer drug/PFP inner cores and a hydrophilic glycol chitosan polymer outer shell. The Echo-CNPs had a favorable hydrodynamic size of 432 nm, which is entirely different from the micro-sized core-empty conventional microbubbles (1-10 μm). Furthermore, Echo-CNPs showed the prolonged echogenicity via the sustained microbubble formation process of liquid-phase PFP at the body temperature and they also presented a US-triggered drug release profile through the external US irradiation. Interestingly, Echo-CNPs exhibited significantly increased tumor-homing ability with lower non-specific uptake by other tissues in tumor-bearing mice through the nanoparticle's enhanced permeation and retention (EPR) effect. Conclusively, theranostic Echo-CNPs are highly useful for simultaneous cancer-targeting US imaging and US-triggered delivery in cancer theranostics. PMID:26681985

  3. An update on botulinum toxin A injections of trigger points for myofascial pain.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jon Y; Wang, Dajie

    2014-01-01

    Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) is a common chronic pain condition that is characterized by distinct "trigger points." Despite current treatments with physical therapy, analgesics, anti-depressants and trigger-point injections, myofascial pain remains a challenging chronic pain condition in clinical practice. Botulinum toxin A (BTX-A) can cause prolonged muscle relaxation through inhibition of acetylcholine release. It may offer some advantages over the current treatments for MPS by providing a longer sustained period of pain relief. Despite numerous clinical trials, the efficacy of BTX-A in alleviating MPS is not well-established due to mixed results from recent clinical trials. Active trigger points are associated with referred pain and greatly impact many aspects of activities of daily living, mood, and health status. This review is designed to analyze the clinical trials regarding the efficacy of BTX-A injection of active trigger points as a treatment for MPS. The literature referenced was obtained via a computer search with Google Scholar, Pubmed, Medline and EMbase. Our search terms included "Botulinum toxin," "myofascial pain," "trigger points," "myofascial trigger points," "chronic pain." Additional references were retrieved from the reference list of the reports found via this search. Studies were considered eligible for inclusion if they were double-blinded, randomized, controlled trials evaluating the efficacy of BTX-A injections into trigger points for pain reduction, and if the trigger point selection in the trial included referred pain and/or local twitch response. Open-label studies, case reports, and other non-randomized studies were excluded. Eight trials were found according to the above criteria and are summarized in Table 1. There are well-designed clinical trials to support the efficacy of trigger-point injections with BTX-A for MPS. However, further clinical trials with considerations of minimizing placebo effect, repeated dosing, adequate

  4. An update on botulinum toxin A injections of trigger points for myofascial pain.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jon Y; Wang, Dajie

    2014-01-01

    Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) is a common chronic pain condition that is characterized by distinct "trigger points." Despite current treatments with physical therapy, analgesics, anti-depressants and trigger-point injections, myofascial pain remains a challenging chronic pain condition in clinical practice. Botulinum toxin A (BTX-A) can cause prolonged muscle relaxation through inhibition of acetylcholine release. It may offer some advantages over the current treatments for MPS by providing a longer sustained period of pain relief. Despite numerous clinical trials, the efficacy of BTX-A in alleviating MPS is not well-established due to mixed results from recent clinical trials. Active trigger points are associated with referred pain and greatly impact many aspects of activities of daily living, mood, and health status. This review is designed to analyze the clinical trials regarding the efficacy of BTX-A injection of active trigger points as a treatment for MPS. The literature referenced was obtained via a computer search with Google Scholar, Pubmed, Medline and EMbase. Our search terms included "Botulinum toxin," "myofascial pain," "trigger points," "myofascial trigger points," "chronic pain." Additional references were retrieved from the reference list of the reports found via this search. Studies were considered eligible for inclusion if they were double-blinded, randomized, controlled trials evaluating the efficacy of BTX-A injections into trigger points for pain reduction, and if the trigger point selection in the trial included referred pain and/or local twitch response. Open-label studies, case reports, and other non-randomized studies were excluded. Eight trials were found according to the above criteria and are summarized in Table 1. There are well-designed clinical trials to support the efficacy of trigger-point injections with BTX-A for MPS. However, further clinical trials with considerations of minimizing placebo effect, repeated dosing, adequate

  5. The BTeV trigger architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Michael H.L.S. Wang

    2003-08-21

    BTeV is a high-statistics B-physics experiment that will achieve new levels of sensitivity in testing the Standard Model explanation of CP violation, mixing, and rare decays in the b and c quark systems by operating in the unique environment of a hadron collider. In order to achieve its goals, it will make use of a state-of-the-art Si-pixel vertex detector and a novel 3-level hierarchical trigger that will look at every single beam crossing to detect the presence of heavy quark decays. This talk will describe the trigger architecture focusing on key design aspects that allow the use of commercially available technology in a highly feasible and practical solution that meets the demanding physics requirements of the BTeV experiment.

  6. Checkpoint triggering in a computer system

    DOEpatents

    Cher, Chen-Yong

    2016-09-06

    According to an aspect, a method for triggering creation of a checkpoint in a computer system includes executing a task in a processing node of the computer system and determining whether it is time to read a monitor associated with a metric of the task. The monitor is read to determine a value of the metric based on determining that it is time to read the monitor. A threshold for triggering creation of the checkpoint is determined based on the value of the metric. Based on determining that the value of the metric has crossed the threshold, the checkpoint including state data of the task is created to enable restarting execution of the task upon a restart operation.

  7. Does low atmospheric pressure independently trigger migraine?

    PubMed

    Bolay, Hayrunnisa; Rapoport, Alan

    2011-10-01

    Although atmospheric weather changes are often listed among the common migraine triggers, studies to determine the specific weather component(s) responsible have yielded inconsistent results. Atmospheric pressure change produces air movement, and low pressure in particular is associated with warm weather, winds, clouds, dust, and precipitation, but how this effect might generate migraine is not immediately obvious. Humans are exposed to low atmospheric pressure in situations such as ascent to high altitude or traveling by airplane in a pressurized cabin. In this brief overview, we consider those conditions and experimental data delineating other elements in the atmosphere potentially related to migraine (such as Saharan dust). We conclude that the available data suggest low atmospheric pressure unaccompanied by other factors does not trigger migraine.

  8. Insignificant solar-terrestrial triggering of earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Love, Jeffrey J.; Thomas, Jeremy N.

    2013-01-01

    We examine the claim that solar-terrestrial interaction, as measured by sunspots, solar wind velocity, and geomagnetic activity, might play a role in triggering earthquakes. We count the number of earthquakes having magnitudes that exceed chosen thresholds in calendar years, months, and days, and we order these counts by the corresponding rank of annual, monthly, and daily averages of the solar-terrestrial variables. We measure the statistical significance of the difference between the earthquake-number distributions below and above the median of the solar-terrestrial averages by χ2 and Student's t tests. Across a range of earthquake magnitude thresholds, we find no consistent and statistically significant distributional differences. We also introduce time lags between the solar-terrestrial variables and the number of earthquakes, but again no statistically significant distributional difference is found. We cannot reject the null hypothesis of no solar-terrestrial triggering of earthquakes.

  9. The ALICE Central Trigger Processor (CTP) upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krivda, M.; Alexandre, D.; Barnby, L. S.; Evans, D.; Jones, P. G.; Jusko, A.; Lietava, R.; Pospíšil, J.; Villalobos Baillie, O.

    2016-03-01

    The ALICE Central Trigger Processor (CTP) at the CERN LHC has been upgraded for LHC Run 2, to improve the Transition Radiation Detector (TRD) data-taking efficiency and to improve the physics performance of ALICE. There is a new additional CTP interaction record sent using a new second Detector Data Link (DDL), a 2 GB DDR3 memory and an extension of functionality for classes. The CTP switch has been incorporated directly onto the new LM0 board. A design proposal for an ALICE CTP upgrade for LHC Run 3 is also presented. Part of the development is a low latency high bandwidth interface whose purpose is to minimize an overall trigger latency.

  10. CNS disease triggering Takotsubo stress cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Finsterer, Josef; Wahbi, Karim

    2014-12-15

    There are a number of hereditary and non-hereditary central nervous system (CNS) disorders, which directly or indirectly affect the heart (brain-heart disorders). The most well-known of these CNS disorders are epilepsy, stroke, infectious or immunological encephalitis/meningitis, migraine, and traumatic brain injury. In addition, a number of hereditary and non-hereditary neurodegenerative disorders may impair cardiac functions. Affection of the heart may manifest not only as arrhythmias, myocardial infarction, autonomic impairment, systolic dysfunction/heart failure, arterial hypertension, or pulmonary hypertension, but also as stress cardiomyopathy (Takotsubo syndrome, TTS). CNS disease triggering TTS includes subarachnoid bleeding, epilepsy, ischemic stroke, intracerebral bleeding, migraine, encephalitis, traumatic brain injury, PRES syndrome, or ALS. Usually, TTS is acutely precipitated by stress triggered by various different events. TTS is one of the cardiac abnormalities most frequently induced by CNS disorders. Appropriate management of TTS from CNS disorders is essential to improve the outcome of affected patients. PMID:25213573

  11. Does low atmospheric pressure independently trigger migraine?

    PubMed

    Bolay, Hayrunnisa; Rapoport, Alan

    2011-10-01

    Although atmospheric weather changes are often listed among the common migraine triggers, studies to determine the specific weather component(s) responsible have yielded inconsistent results. Atmospheric pressure change produces air movement, and low pressure in particular is associated with warm weather, winds, clouds, dust, and precipitation, but how this effect might generate migraine is not immediately obvious. Humans are exposed to low atmospheric pressure in situations such as ascent to high altitude or traveling by airplane in a pressurized cabin. In this brief overview, we consider those conditions and experimental data delineating other elements in the atmosphere potentially related to migraine (such as Saharan dust). We conclude that the available data suggest low atmospheric pressure unaccompanied by other factors does not trigger migraine. PMID:21906054

  12. Modeling seismic swarms triggered by aseismic transients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llenos, Andrea L.; McGuire, Jeffrey J.; Ogata, Yosihiko

    2009-04-01

    The rate of earthquake occurrence varies by many orders of magnitude in a given region due to variations in the stress state of the crust. Our focus here is on variations in seismicity rate triggered by transient aseismic processes such as fluid flow, fault creep or magma intrusion. While these processes have been shown to trigger earthquakes, converting observed seismicity variations into estimates of stress rate variations has been challenging. Essentially aftershock sequences often obscure changes in the background seismicity rate resulting from aseismic processes. Two common approaches for estimating the time dependence of the underlying driving mechanisms are the stochastic Epidemic Type Aftershock Sequence model (ETAS) [Ogata, Y., (1988), Statistical models for earthquake occurrences and residual analysis for point processes, J. Am. Stat. Assoc., 83, 9-27.] and a physical approach based on the rate- and state-model of fault friction [Dieterich, J., (1994), A constitutive law for rate of earthquake production and its application to earthquake clustering, J. Geophys. Res., 99, 2601-2618.]. The models have different strengths that could be combined to allow more quantitative studies of earthquake triggering. To accomplish this, we identify the parameters that relate to one another in the two models and examine their dependence on stressing rate. A particular conflict arises because the rate-state model predicts that aftershock productivity scales with stressing rate while the ETAS model assumes that it is time independent. To resolve this issue, we estimate triggering parameters for 4 earthquake swarms contemporaneous with geodetically observed deformation transients in various tectonic environments. We find that stressing rate transients increase the background seismicity rate without affecting aftershock productivity. We then specify a combined model for seismicity rate variations that will allow future studies to invert seismicity catalogs for variations in

  13. Moon origin - The impact-trigger hypothesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartmann, William K.

    1986-01-01

    Arguments in favor of the impact-trigger model of lunar origin are presented. Lunar properties favoring this hypothesis include: (1) lunar iron and volatile deficiency; (2) angular momentum of the earth-moon system; and (3) similar O isotopes, bulk iron contents, and densities of earth's mantle and the moon. It is shown that the intense early bombardment averaged during earth's formation was several billion times the present meteoritic mass flux, consistent with a giant impact.

  14. Acoustic Manifestations of Natural versus Triggered Lightning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arechiga, R. O.; Johnson, J. B.; Edens, H. E.; Rison, W.; Thomas, R. J.; Eack, K.; Eastvedt, E. M.; Aulich, G. D.; Trueblood, J.

    2010-12-01

    Positive leaders are rarely detected by VHF lightning detection systems; positive leader channels are usually outlined only by recoil events. Positive cloud-to-ground (CG) channels are usually not mapped. The goal of this work is to study the types of thunder produced by natural versus triggered lightning and to assess which types of thunder signals have electromagnetic activity detected by the lightning mapping array (LMA). Towards this end we are investigating the lightning detection capabilities of acoustic techniques, and comparing them with the LMA. In a previous study we used array beam forming and time of flight information to locate acoustic sources associated with lightning. Even though there was some mismatch, generally LMA and acoustic techniques saw the same phenomena. To increase the database of acoustic data from lightning, we deployed a network of three infrasound arrays (30 m aperture) during the summer of 2010 (August 3 to present) in the Magdalena mountains of New Mexico, to monitor infrasound (below 20 Hz) and audio range sources due to natural and triggered lightning. The arrays were located at a range of distances (60 to 1400 m) surrounding the triggering site, called the Kiva, used by Langmuir Laboratory to launch rockets. We have continuous acoustic measurements of lightning data from July 20 to September 18 of 2009, and from August 3 to September 1 of 2010. So far, lightning activity around the Kiva was higher during the summer of 2009. We will present acoustic data from several interesting lightning flashes including a comparison between a natural and a triggered one.

  15. CMS muon detector and trigger performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sung Keun; CMS Collaboration

    2011-06-01

    The CMS muon system has been in full operation since its commissioning with several million events of cosmic ray data. The muon system of the CMS experiment consists of three independent detectors: Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) both in the barrel and the endcap, Drift Tubes (DTs) in the barrel, and Cathode Strip Chambers (CSCs) in the endcap region. In this report, the performance of each of these muon detectors and their trigger response are presented.

  16. Religious commitment, adult attachment, and marital adjustment in newly married couples.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Jamie L; Riggs, Shelley A; Pollard, Sara E; Hook, Joshua N

    2011-04-01

    Existing literature on the role of religiosity in marital functioning is often difficult to interpret due to the frequent use of convenience samples, statistical approaches inadequate for interdependent dyadic data, and the lack of a theoretical framework. The current study examined the effects of religious commitment and insecure attachment on marital adjustment. Newly married couples who did not have children (N = 92 couples, 184 individuals) completed measures of religious commitment, adult attachment, and marital functioning. There was a small positive association between religious commitment and marital adjustment. Religious commitment buffered the negative association between attachment avoidance and marital adjustment, but exacerbated the negative association between attachment anxiety and marital adjustment.

  17. Ergonomic evaluation of the Apple Adjustable Keyboard

    SciTech Connect

    Tittiranonda, P.; Burastero, S.; Shih, M.; Rempel, D.

    1994-05-01

    This study presents an evaluation of the Apple Adjustable Keyboard based on subjective preference and observed joint angles during typing. Thirty five keyboard users were asked to use the Apple adjustable keyboard for 7--14 days and rate the various characteristics of the keyboard. Our findings suggest that the most preferred opening angles range from 11--20{degree}. The mean ulnar deviation on the Apple Adjustable keyboard is 11{degree}, compared to 16{degree} on the standard keyboard. The mean extension was decreased from 24{degree} to 16{degree} when using the adjustable keyboard. When asked to subjectively rate the adjustable keyboard in comparison to the standard, the average subject felt that the Apple Adjustable Keyboard was more comfortable and easier to use than the standard flat keyboard.

  18. On the complexity of triggering evolutionary radiations.

    PubMed

    Bouchenak-Khelladi, Yanis; Onstein, Renske E; Xing, Yaowu; Schwery, Orlando; Linder, H Peter

    2015-07-01

    Recent developments in phylogenetic methods have made it possible to reconstruct evolutionary radiations from extant taxa, but identifying the triggers of radiations is still problematic. Here, we propose a conceptual framework to explore the role of variables that may impact radiations. We classify the variables into extrinsic conditions vs intrinsic traits, whether they provide background conditions, trigger the radiation, or modulate the radiation. We used three clades representing angiosperm phylogenetic and structural diversity (Ericaceae, Fagales and Poales) as test groups. We located radiation events, selected variables potentially associated with diversification, and inferred the temporal sequences of evolution. We found 13 shifts in diversification regimes in the three clades. We classified the associated variables, and determined whether they originated before the relevant radiation (backgrounds), originated simultaneously with the radiations (triggers), or evolved later (modulators). By applying this conceptual framework, we establish that radiations require both extrinsic conditions and intrinsic traits, but that the sequence of these is not important. We also show that diversification drivers can be detected by being more variable within a radiation than conserved traits that only allow occupation of a new habitat. This framework facilitates exploration of the causative factors of evolutionary radiations.

  19. Transdermal anaesthesia for percutaneous trigger finger release.

    PubMed

    Yiannakopoulos, Christos K; Ignatiadis, Ioannis A

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficiency of transdermal anaesthesia using eutectic mixture of lidocaine and prilocaine (EMLA) in patients undergoing percutaneous trigger finger release and to compare it with lidocaine infiltration. In this prospective, randomised study percutaneous release of the A1 annular pulley was performed to treat stenosing tenosynovitis (trigger finger syndrome) in 50 patients (50 fingers). The procedure was performed either under transdermal anaesthesia using EMLA applied transcutaneously 120 minutes prior to the operation (Group A, n = 25) or using local infiltration anaesthesia using lidocaine (Group B, n = 25). Pain experienced during administration of anaesthesia and during the operation was assessed using a 10-point Visual Analogue Pain Scale (VAPS), while all patients rated the effectiveness of anaesthesia with a 5-point scale. There were no significant differences between the two groups in the VAPS during the operation (1.33 +/- 0.52 versus 1.59 +/- 0.87) and the satisfaction scores (4.6 +/- 0.2 versus 4.4 +/- 0.3). The VAPS score during the administration of anaesthesia was statistically significantly less in the EMLA group (0 versus 5.96 +/- 2.41). All patients were satisfied with the final result of the operation. Percutaneous trigger finger release can be performed as an office procedure with the use of EMLA avoiding the use of injectable local infiltration anaesthesia. PMID:17405199

  20. ENSO-triggered floods in South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isla, Federico Ignacio

    2016-04-01

    ENSO-triggered floods altered completely the annual discharge of most watersheds of South America. Anomalous years as 1941, 1982-83 and 1997-98 signified enormous discharges of rivers draining toward the Pacific but also to the Atlantic Ocean. These floods affected large cities as Porto Alegre, Blumenau, Curitiba, Asunción, Santa Fe and Buenos Aires. Maximum discharge months are particular and easily distinguished at those watersheds located at the South American Arid Diagonal. At watersheds conditioned by precipitations delivered from the Atlantic or Pacific anticyclonic centers the ENSO-triggered floods are difficult to discern. The floods of 1941 affected 70,000 inhabitants in Porto Alegre. In 1983, Blumenau city was flooded during several days; and the Paraná River multiplied 15 times the width of its middle floodplain. The Colorado River in Northern Patagonia connected for the last time to the Desaguadero-Chadileuvú-Curacó system and therefore received saline water. ENSO years modify also the water balance of certain piedmont lakes of Southern Patagonia: the increases in snow accumulations cause high water levels with a lag of 13 months. The correlation between the maximum monthly discharges of 1982-83 and 1997-98 at different regions and watersheds indicates they can be forecasted for future floods triggered by same phenomena. South American rivers can be classified therefore into ENSO-affected, and ENSO-dominated, for those within the Arid Diagonal that are exclusively subject to high discharges during these years.

  1. CMS High Level Trigger Timing Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, Clint

    2015-12-01

    The two-level trigger system employed by CMS consists of the Level 1 (L1) Trigger, which is implemented using custom-built electronics, and the High Level Trigger (HLT), a farm of commercial CPUs running a streamlined version of the offline CMS reconstruction software. The operational L1 output rate of 100 kHz, together with the number of CPUs in the HLT farm, imposes a fundamental constraint on the amount of time available for the HLT to process events. Exceeding this limit impacts the experiment's ability to collect data efficiently. Hence, there is a critical need to characterize the performance of the HLT farm as well as the algorithms run prior to start up in order to ensure optimal data taking. Additional complications arise from the fact that the HLT farm consists of multiple generations of hardware and there can be subtleties in machine performance. We present our methods of measuring the timing performance of the CMS HLT, including the challenges of making such measurements. Results for the performance of various Intel Xeon architectures from 2009-2014 and different data taking scenarios are also presented.

  2. Another look at aircraft-triggered lightning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clifford, D. W.

    1980-01-01

    There is positive evidence that a rapidly moving aircraft charged to high potentials by triboelectric processes can trigger lightning discharges by passage through freezing precipitation. The freezing zone in a nonstormy rain cloud is shown to be an electrically volatile region because of the potent charge exchange mechanisms which are active in agitated mixtures of supercooled water droplet and ice. Several intensifying effects are suggested which can be produced by the passage of an aircraft through this precipitation, resulting in a highly-ionized wake which acts like a trailing conductor. If weak charge centers are present in the cloud, the ionized wake acts to short out the gradient field resulting in very high potentials at the aircraft. The high potentials explain the electrical activity at the aircraft described by pilots, including intense corona, sparks and radio interference terminating in a loud discharge. Lightning strikes to naval aircraft towing gunnery targets at the end of long steel cables are described, showing that the same triggering mechanism may be involved in those cases. Recommendations are made to include triggering experiments in government flight programs now in progress.

  3. ATP-triggered anticancer drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mo, Ran; Jiang, Tianyue; Disanto, Rocco; Tai, Wanyi; Gu, Zhen

    2014-03-01

    Stimuli-triggered drug delivery systems have been increasingly used to promote physiological specificity and on-demand therapeutic efficacy of anticancer drugs. Here we utilize adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) as a trigger for the controlled release of anticancer drugs. We demonstrate that polymeric nanocarriers functionalized with an ATP-binding aptamer-incorporated DNA motif can selectively release the intercalating doxorubicin via a conformational switch when in an ATP-rich environment. The half-maximal inhibitory concentration of ATP-responsive nanovehicles is 0.24 μM in MDA-MB-231 cells, a 3.6-fold increase in the cytotoxicity compared with that of non-ATP-responsive nanovehicles. Equipped with an outer shell crosslinked by hyaluronic acid, a specific tumour-targeting ligand, the ATP-responsive nanocarriers present an improvement in the chemotherapeutic inhibition of tumour growth using xenograft MDA-MB-231 tumour-bearing mice. This ATP-triggered drug release system provides a more sophisticated drug delivery system, which can differentiate ATP levels to facilitate the selective release of drugs.

  4. Clinical implication of latent myofascial trigger point.

    PubMed

    Celik, Derya; Mutlu, Ebru Kaya

    2013-08-01

    Myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) are hyperirritable points located within a taut band of skeletal muscle or fascia, which cause referred pain, local tenderness and autonomic changes when compressed. There are fundamental differences between the effects produced by the two basic types of MTrPs (active and latent). Active trigger points (ATrPs) usually produce referred pain and tenderness. In contrast, latent trigger points (LTrPs) are foci of hyperirritability in a taut band of muscle, which are clinically associated with a local twitch response, tenderness and/or referred pain upon manual examination. LTrPs may be found in many pain-free skeletal muscles and may be "activated" and converted to ATrPs by continuous detrimental stimuli. ATrPs can be inactivated by different treatment strategies; however, they never fully disappear but rather convert to the latent form. Therefore, the diagnosis and treatment of LTrPs is important. This review highlights the clinical implication of LTrPs.

  5. Aspartame as a dietary trigger of headache.

    PubMed

    Lipton, R B; Newman, L C; Cohen, J S; Solomon, S

    1989-02-01

    Many dietary factors have been implicated as possible precipitants of headache. There have been recent differences of opinion with regard to the effect of the artificial sweetener aspartame as a precipitant of headache. To assess the importance of aspartame as a dietary factor in headache, 190 consecutive patients of the Montefiore Medical Center Headache Unit were questioned about the effect of alcohol, carbohydrates and aspartame in triggering their headaches. Of the 171 patients who fully completed the survey, 49.7 percent reported alcohol as a precipitating factor, compared to 8.2 percent reporting aspartame and 2.3 percent reporting carbohydrates. Patients with migraine were significantly more likely to report alcohol as a triggering factor and also reported aspartame as a precipitant three times more often than those having other types of headache. The conflicting results of two recent placebo-control studies of aspartame and headache are discussed. We conclude that aspartame may be an important dietary trigger of headache in some people.

  6. Predicting asthma control: the role of psychological triggers.

    PubMed

    Ritz, Thomas; Bobb, Carol; Griffiths, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Asthma triggers have been linked to adverse health outcomes in asthma, but little is known about their association with asthma control. Because trigger avoidance is an integral part of successful asthma management, psychological triggers in particular may be associated with suboptimal asthma control, given the difficulty of controlling them. We examined cross-sectional and longitudinal associations of perceived asthma triggers with self-report of asthma control impairment, symptoms, and spirometric lung function (forced expiratory volume in the 1st second, [FEV1]) in 179 adult primary care asthma patients. Perceived asthma triggers explained up to 42.5% of the variance in asthma control and symptoms, but not in FEV1 alone. Allergic triggers explained up to 12.1% of the asthma control and symptom variance, three nonallergic trigger types, air pollution/irritants, physical activity, and infection, explained up to 26.2% over and above allergic triggers, and psychological triggers up to 9.5% over and above all other triggers. Psychological triggers alone explained up to 33.9% of the variance and were the only trigger class that was consistently significant in all final multiple regression models predicting control and symptoms. Psychological triggers also predicted lower asthma control 3-6 months later, although controlling for initial asthma control eliminated this association. In free reports of individually relevant triggers, only psychological triggers were associated with suboptimal asthma control. Trigger factors are important predictors of self-reported asthma control and symptoms but not actual lung function. Particular attention should be directed to psychological triggers as indicators of patients' perceptions of suboptimal asthma control.

  7. Oracle Database Y2K Protection Triggers Generators

    SciTech Connect

    Cribbs, C.A.

    1999-06-02

    I developed PL/SQL code that generates or modifies PL/SQL �BEFORE EACH ROW� triggers to protect database date columns from Y2K non-compliant date input (from all sources) into the database. A function is imbedded in the triggers that uses the �RR� year formatted date conversion. For each table with at least one date column and with INSERT/UPDATE/DELETE trigger(s), my code inserts date conversion code into the existing trigger(s). For INSERT/UPDATE not in a trigger(s), my code creates a trigger for the absent DML command(s). Designed to be: Transferable to other servers with minimum effort; A uniform and consistent problem solution with easy implementation, testing, and configuration management. No need to manually code and edit SQL trigger files: Modifies existing triggers; Creates needed triggers; Self documented (output comments with code); SQL files configuration management ready. Can customize the: Date conversion function; Code modifications for the trigger; Universal lookup/key; �

  8. Efficient Adjustable Reflectivity Smart Window

    SciTech Connect

    D. Morgan Tench

    2005-12-01

    This project addressed the key technical issues for development of an efficient smart window based on reversible electrochemical transfer of silver between a mirror electrode and a localized counter electrode. Effort to provide uniform switching over large areas focused on use of a resistive transparent electrode innerlayer to increase the interelectrode resistance. An effective edge seal was developed in collaboration with adhesive suppliers and an electrochromic device manufacturer. Work to provide a manufacturable counter electrode focused on fabricating a dot matrix electrode without photolithography by electrodeposition of Pt nuclei on inherent active sites on a transparent oxide conductor. An alternative counter electrode based on a conducting polymer and an ionic liquid electrolyte was also investigated. Work in all of these areas was successful. Sputtered large-bandgap oxide innerlayers sandwiched between conductive indium tin oxide (ITO) layers were shown to provide sufficient cross-layer resistance (>300 ohm/cm{sup 2}) without significantly affecting the electrochemical properties of the ITO overlayer. Two edge seal epoxies, one procured from an epoxy manufacturer and one provided by an electrochromic device manufacturer in finished seals, were shown to be effective barriers against oxygen intrusion up to 80 C. The optimum density of nuclei for the dot matrix counter electrode was attained without use of photolithography by electrodeposition from a commercial alkaline platinum plating bath. Silver loss issues for cells with dot matrix electrodes were successfully addressed by purifying the electrolyte and adjusting the cell cycling parameters. More than 30K cycles were demonstrated for a REM cell (30-cm square) with a dot matrix counter electrode. Larger cells (30-cm square) were successfully fabricated but could not be cycled since the nucleation layers (provided by an outside supplier) were defective so that mirror deposits could not be produced.

  9. Three-dimensional adjustment of trilateration data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sung, L.-Y.; Jackson, D. D.

    1985-01-01

    The three-dimensional locations of the monuments in the USGS Hollister trilateration network were adjusted to fit line length observations observed in 1977, using a Bayesian approach, and incorporating prior elevation estimates as data in the adjustment procedure. No significant discrepancies in the measured line lengths were found, but significant elevation adjustments (up to 1.85 m) were needed to fit the length data.

  10. Optically triggered solid state driver for shock wave therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duryea, Alexander P.; Roberts, William W.; Cain, Charles A.; Hall, Timothy L.

    2012-10-01

    Shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) represents one of several first-line therapies for the treatment of stones located in the kidneys and ureters. Additional applications for shock wave therapy are also under exploration, including non-urinary calculi, orthopedics, and neovascularization. Except for the elimination of a large water bath in which the treatment is performed, current procedures remain largely unchanged, with one of the original commercial devices (the Dornier HM3) still considered a gold standard for comparison. To accelerate research in this area, Coleman, et al. published an experimental electrohydraulic shock wave generator capable of simulating the acoustic field generated by the HM3. We propose a further update of this system, replacing the triggered spark gap with an optically triggered solid state switch. The new system has better reliability, a wider operating range, and reduced timing jitter allowing synchronization with additional acoustic sources under exploration for improving efficacy and reducing injury. Originally designed for exciting electrohydraulic spark electrodes, the system can also be adapted for driving piezoelectric and electromagnetic sources.

  11. The ALICE High Level Trigger: status and plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krzewicki, Mikolaj; Rohr, David; Gorbunov, Sergey; Breitner, Timo; Lehrbach, Johannes; Lindenstruth, Volker; Berzano, Dario

    2015-12-01

    The ALICE High Level Trigger (HLT) is an online reconstruction, triggering and data compression system used in the ALICE experiment at CERN. Unique among the LHC experiments, it extensively uses modern coprocessor technologies like general purpose graphic processing units (GPGPU) and field programmable gate arrays (FPGA) in the data flow. Realtime data compression is performed using a cluster finder algorithm implemented on FPGA boards. These data, instead of raw clusters, are used in the subsequent processing and storage, resulting in a compression factor of around 4. Track finding is performed using a cellular automaton and a Kalman filter algorithm on GPGPU hardware, where both CUDA and OpenCL technologies can be used interchangeably. The ALICE upgrade requires further development of online concepts to include detector calibration and stronger data compression. The current HLT farm will be used as a test bed for online calibration and both synchronous and asynchronous processing frameworks already before the upgrade, during Run 2. For opportunistic use as a Grid computing site during periods of inactivity of the experiment a virtualisation based setup is deployed.

  12. FAST ACTING CURRENT SWITCH

    DOEpatents

    Batzer, T.H.; Cummings, D.B.; Ryan, J.F.

    1962-05-22

    A high-current, fast-acting switch is designed for utilization as a crowbar switch in a high-current circuit such as used to generate the magnetic confinement field of a plasma-confining and heat device, e.g., Pyrotron. The device particularly comprises a cylindrical housing containing two stationary, cylindrical contacts between which a movable contact is bridged to close the switch. The movable contact is actuated by a differential-pressure, airdriven piston assembly also within the housing. To absorb the acceleration (and the shock imparted to the device by the rapidly driven, movable contact), an adjustable air buffer assembly is provided, integrally connected to the movable contact and piston assembly. Various safety locks and circuit-synchronizing means are also provided to permit proper cooperation of the invention and the high-current circuit in which it is installed. (AEC)

  13. Techniques and applications of adjustable sutures.

    PubMed

    Fells, P

    1987-02-01

    The 'rediscovery' of adjustable sutures some 10 years ago has given the ophthalmic surgeon much more confidence in his ability to correct strabismus. Three methods of use are described: during surgery under general anaesthesia with adjustment during the operation using the 'springback' test to centralise the eye; during surgery under general anaesthesia and subsequent adjustment under local anaesthesia using the patient's subjective responses to obtain optimal positioning; and performance of the operation and adjustment under topical local anaesthesia in one procedure. Full details are given of each technique and the indications for their application to particular problems are discussed. PMID:3297111

  14. Compact SCR trigger circuit for ignitron switch operates efficiently

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, L. E.

    1965-01-01

    Trigger circuit with two series-connected SCR triggers an ignitron switch used to discharge high-energy capacitor banks. It does not require a warmup period and operates at relatively high efficiency.

  15. Risk-adjusted outcomes in Medicare inpatient nephrectomy patients

    PubMed Central

    Fry, Donald E.; Pine, Michael; Nedza, Susan M.; Locke, David G.; Reband, Agnes M.; Pine, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Without risk-adjusted outcomes of surgical care across both the inpatient and postacute period of time, hospitals and surgeons cannot evaluate the effectiveness of current performance in nephrectomy and other operations, and will not have objective metrics to gauge improvements from care redesign efforts. We compared risk-adjusted hospital outcomes following elective total and partial nephrectomy to demonstrate differences that can be used to improve care. We used the Medicare Limited Dataset for 2010 to 2012 for total and partial nephrectomy for benign and malignant neoplasms to create prediction models for the adverse outcomes (AOs) of inpatient deaths, prolonged length-of-stay outliers, 90-day postdischarge deaths without readmission, and 90-day relevant readmissions. From the 4 prediction models, total predicted adverse outcomes were determined for each hospital in the dataset that met a minimum of 25 evaluable cases for the study period. Standard deviations (SDs) for each hospital were used to identify specific z-scores. Risk-adjusted adverse outcomes rates were computed to permit benchmarking each hospital's performance against the national standard. Differences between best and suboptimal performing hospitals defined the potential margin of preventable adverse outcomes for this operation. A total of 449 hospitals with 23,477 patients were evaluated. Overall AO rate was 20.8%; 17 hospitals had risk-adjusted AO rates that were 2 SDs poorer than predicted and 8 were 2 SDs better. The top performing decile of hospitals had a risk-adjusted AO rate of 10.2% while the lowest performing decile had 32.1%. With a minimum of 25 cases for each study hospital, no statistically valid improvement in outcomes was seen with increased case volume. Inpatient and 90-day postdischarge risk-adjusted adverse outcomes demonstrated marked variability among study hospitals and illustrate the opportunities for care improvement. This analytic design is applicable for comparing

  16. Risk-adjusted outcomes in Medicare inpatient nephrectomy patients.

    PubMed

    Fry, Donald E; Pine, Michael; Nedza, Susan M; Locke, David G; Reband, Agnes M; Pine, Gregory

    2016-09-01

    Without risk-adjusted outcomes of surgical care across both the inpatient and postacute period of time, hospitals and surgeons cannot evaluate the effectiveness of current performance in nephrectomy and other operations, and will not have objective metrics to gauge improvements from care redesign efforts.We compared risk-adjusted hospital outcomes following elective total and partial nephrectomy to demonstrate differences that can be used to improve care. We used the Medicare Limited Dataset for 2010 to 2012 for total and partial nephrectomy for benign and malignant neoplasms to create prediction models for the adverse outcomes (AOs) of inpatient deaths, prolonged length-of-stay outliers, 90-day postdischarge deaths without readmission, and 90-day relevant readmissions. From the 4 prediction models, total predicted adverse outcomes were determined for each hospital in the dataset that met a minimum of 25 evaluable cases for the study period. Standard deviations (SDs) for each hospital were used to identify specific z-scores. Risk-adjusted adverse outcomes rates were computed to permit benchmarking each hospital's performance against the national standard. Differences between best and suboptimal performing hospitals defined the potential margin of preventable adverse outcomes for this operation.A total of 449 hospitals with 23,477 patients were evaluated. Overall AO rate was 20.8%; 17 hospitals had risk-adjusted AO rates that were 2 SDs poorer than predicted and 8 were 2 SDs better. The top performing decile of hospitals had a risk-adjusted AO rate of 10.2% while the lowest performing decile had 32.1%. With a minimum of 25 cases for each study hospital, no statistically valid improvement in outcomes was seen with increased case volume.Inpatient and 90-day postdischarge risk-adjusted adverse outcomes demonstrated marked variability among study hospitals and illustrate the opportunities for care improvement. This analytic design is applicable for comparing provider

  17. The trigger card system for the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, William; Anderson, John; Howe, Mark; Meijer, Sam; Wilkerson, John; Majorana Collaboration

    2014-09-01

    The aim of the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR is to demonstrate the feasibility of providing low enough background levels to search for neutrinoless double-beta decay (0 νββ) in an array of germanium detectors enriched to 87% in 76Ge. Currently, it is unknown if this decay process occurs; however, observation of such a decay process would show that lepton number is violated, confirm that neutrinos are Majorana particles, and yield information on the absolute mass scale of the neutrino. With current experimental results indicating a half-life greater than 2 x 1025 years for this decay, the minimization of background events is of critical importance. Utilizing time correlation, coincidence testing is able to reject multi-detector events that may otherwise be mistaken for 0 νββ when viewed independently. Here, we present both the hardware and software of the trigger card system, which provides a common clock to all digitizers and the muon veto system, thereby enabling the rejection of background events through coincidence testing. Current experimental results demonstrate the accuracy of the distributed clock to be within two clock pulses (20 ns) across all system components. A test system is used to validate the data acquisition system. The aim of the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR is to demonstrate the feasibility of providing low enough background levels to search for neutrinoless double-beta decay (0 νββ) in an array of germanium detectors enriched to 87% in 76Ge. Currently, it is unknown if this decay process occurs; however, observation of such a decay process would show that lepton number is violated, confirm that neutrinos are Majorana particles, and yield information on the absolute mass scale of the neutrino. With current experimental results indicating a half-life greater than 2 x 1025 years for this decay, the minimization of background events is of critical importance. Utilizing time correlation, coincidence testing is able to reject multi-detector events that may

  18. Revenge and psychological adjustment after homicidal loss.

    PubMed

    van Denderen, Mariëtte; de Keijser, Jos; Gerlsma, Coby; Huisman, Mark; Boelen, Paul A

    2014-01-01

    Feelings of revenge are a common human response to being hurt by others. Among crime victims of severe sexual or physical violence, significant correlations have been reported between revenge and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Homicide is one of the most severe forms of interpersonal violence. It is therefore likely that individuals bereaved by homicide experience high levels of revenge, which may hamper efforts to cope with traumatic loss. The relationship between revenge and psychological adjustment following homicidal loss has not yet been empirically examined. In the current cross-sectional study, we used self-report data from 331 spouses, family members and friends of homicide victims to examine the relationships between dispositional revenge and situational revenge on the one hand and symptom-levels of PTSD and complicated grief, as well as indices of positive functioning, on the other hand. Furthermore, the association between revenge and socio-demographic and offense-related factors was examined. Participants were recruited from a governmental support organization, a website with information for homicidally bereaved individuals, and members of support groups. Levels of both dispositional and situational revenge were positively associated with symptoms of PTSD and complicated grief, and negatively with positive functioning. Participants reported significantly less situational revenge in cases where the perpetrator was a direct family member than cases where the perpetrator was an indirect family member, friend, or someone unknown. Homicidally bereaved individuals reported more situational revenge, but not more dispositional revenge than a sample of students who had experienced relatively mild interpersonal transgressions. PMID:24910007

  19. Revenge and psychological adjustment after homicidal loss.

    PubMed

    van Denderen, Mariëtte; de Keijser, Jos; Gerlsma, Coby; Huisman, Mark; Boelen, Paul A

    2014-01-01

    Feelings of revenge are a common human response to being hurt by others. Among crime victims of severe sexual or physical violence, significant correlations have been reported between revenge and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Homicide is one of the most severe forms of interpersonal violence. It is therefore likely that individuals bereaved by homicide experience high levels of revenge, which may hamper efforts to cope with traumatic loss. The relationship between revenge and psychological adjustment following homicidal loss has not yet been empirically examined. In the current cross-sectional study, we used self-report data from 331 spouses, family members and friends of homicide victims to examine the relationships between dispositional revenge and situational revenge on the one hand and symptom-levels of PTSD and complicated grief, as well as indices of positive functioning, on the other hand. Furthermore, the association between revenge and socio-demographic and offense-related factors was examined. Participants were recruited from a governmental support organization, a website with information for homicidally bereaved individuals, and members of support groups. Levels of both dispositional and situational revenge were positively associated with symptoms of PTSD and complicated grief, and negatively with positive functioning. Participants reported significantly less situational revenge in cases where the perpetrator was a direct family member than cases where the perpetrator was an indirect family member, friend, or someone unknown. Homicidally bereaved individuals reported more situational revenge, but not more dispositional revenge than a sample of students who had experienced relatively mild interpersonal transgressions.

  20. Spontaneous and trigger-associated substorms compared: Electrodynamic parameters in the polar ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jun-Ming; Zhang, Bei-Chen; Kamide, Y.; Wu, Zhen-Sen; Hu, Ze-Jun; Yang, Hui-Gen

    2011-01-01

    An attempt is made to study the difference, if any, between the response of the polar ionosphere to spontaneous substorms and that to trigger-associated substorms in terms of electrodynamic parameters including ionospheric current vectors, the electric potential, and the current function. The results show that, in the first approximation, the ionospheric parameters for the two types of substorms are quite similar. It is therefore conceived that spontaneous substorms are not very different from trigger-associated substorms in the development of substorm processes in the magnetosphere-ionosphere system. We demonstrate, however, that spontaneous substorms seem to have a more clearly identifiable growth phase, whereas trigger-associated substorms have a more powerful unloading process. Changes in the current intensity and the electric potential drop across the polar cap in the recovery phase are also quite different from each other. Both the current intensity and the cross-polar cap potential drop show a larger decrease in the recovery phase of trigger-associated substorms, but the potential drop decreases only slightly and the currents in the late morning sector are still strong for spontaneous substorms. We interpret these findings as an indication of the relative importance of the unloading process and the directly driven process in conjunction with the north-south polarity of the interplanetary magnetic field. There still exists a strong directly driven process in the recovery phase of spontaneous substorms. For trigger-associated substorms, however, both the directly driven process and the unloading process become weak after the peak time.

  1. Psychological and sociocultural adjustment of first-year international students: Trajectories and predictors.

    PubMed

    Hirai, Reiko; Frazier, Patricia; Syed, Moin

    2015-07-01

    Despite the increasing number of international students in U.S. universities, the temporal course of international students' adjustment has not been adequately tested, and only 1 study to date has examined multiple trajectories of adjustment. Therefore, the first goal of the current study was to explore multiple trajectories of adjustment among first-year international students using a broader range of adjustment measures (i.e., psychological distress, positive psychological adjustment, sociocultural adjustment). The second goal was to identify important predictors of trajectories. A wide range of individual and interpersonal predictor variables was examined, including academic stress and perceived control over academic stress, personality, social relationships, and language-related factors. Undergraduate and graduate international students in their first semester at a large midwestern university participated in this 5-wave longitudinal study (N = 248) that spanned 1 academic year. Multiple trajectories emerged, and the trajectories varied across the 3 adjustment measures. Average trajectories masked the trajectories of small groups of students who maintained or increased in terms of adjustment difficulties across outcomes. Contrary to popular theories, the U-shape adjustment trajectory (characterized by initial euphoria, distress, and then recovery) did not emerge. The most consistent predictors of adjustment trajectories were perceived present control over academic stress and Neuroticism. PMID:25961754

  2. Psychological and sociocultural adjustment of first-year international students: Trajectories and predictors.

    PubMed

    Hirai, Reiko; Frazier, Patricia; Syed, Moin

    2015-07-01

    Despite the increasing number of international students in U.S. universities, the temporal course of international students' adjustment has not been adequately tested, and only 1 study to date has examined multiple trajectories of adjustment. Therefore, the first goal of the current study was to explore multiple trajectories of adjustment among first-year international students using a broader range of adjustment measures (i.e., psychological distress, positive psychological adjustment, sociocultural adjustment). The second goal was to identify important predictors of trajectories. A wide range of individual and interpersonal predictor variables was examined, including academic stress and perceived control over academic stress, personality, social relationships, and language-related factors. Undergraduate and graduate international students in their first semester at a large midwestern university participated in this 5-wave longitudinal study (N = 248) that spanned 1 academic year. Multiple trajectories emerged, and the trajectories varied across the 3 adjustment measures. Average trajectories masked the trajectories of small groups of students who maintained or increased in terms of adjustment difficulties across outcomes. Contrary to popular theories, the U-shape adjustment trajectory (characterized by initial euphoria, distress, and then recovery) did not emerge. The most consistent predictors of adjustment trajectories were perceived present control over academic stress and Neuroticism.

  3. Precision Adjustable Liquid Regulator (ALR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meinhold, R.; Parker, M.

    2004-10-01

    A passive mechanical regulator has been developed for the control of fuel or oxidizer flow to a 450N class bipropellant engine for use on commercial and interplanetary spacecraft. There are several potential benefits to the propulsion system, depending on mission requirements and spacecraft design. This system design enables more precise control of main engine mixture ratio and inlet pressure, and simplifies the pressurization system by transferring the function of main engine flow rate control from the pressurization/propellant tank assemblies, to a single component, the ALR. This design can also reduce the thermal control requirements on the propellant tanks, avoid costly Qualification testing of biprop engines for missions with more stringent requirements, and reduce the overall propulsion system mass and power usage. In order to realize these benefits, the ALR must meet stringent design requirements. The main advantage of this regulator over other units available in the market is that it can regulate about its nominal set point to within +/-0.85%, and change its regulation set point in flight +/-4% about that nominal point. The set point change is handled actively via a stepper motor driven actuator, which converts rotary into linear motion to affect the spring preload acting on the regulator. Once adjusted to a particular set point, the actuator remains in its final position unpowered, and the regulator passively maintains outlet pressure. The very precise outlet regulation pressure is possible due to new technology developed by Moog, Inc. which reduces typical regulator mechanical hysteresis to near zero. The ALR requirements specified an outlet pressure set point range from 225 to 255 psi, and equivalent water flow rates required were in the 0.17 lb/sec range. The regulation output pressure is maintained at +/-2 psi about the set point from a P (delta or differential pressure) of 20 to over 100 psid. Maximum upstream system pressure was specified at 320 psi

  4. L1Track: A fast Level 1 track trigger for the ATLAS high luminosity upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerri, Alessandro

    2016-07-01

    With the planned high-luminosity upgrade of the LHC (HL-LHC), the ATLAS detector will see its collision rate increase by approximately a factor of 5 with respect to the current LHC operation. The earliest hardware-based ATLAS trigger stage ("Level 1") will have to provide a higher rejection factor in a more difficult environment: a new improved Level 1 trigger architecture is under study, which includes the possibility of extracting with low latency and high accuracy tracking information in time for the decision taking process. In this context, the feasibility of potential approaches aimed at providing low-latency high-quality tracking at Level 1 is discussed.

  5. Data flow analysis of a highly parallel processor for a level 1 pixel trigger

    SciTech Connect

    Cancelo, G.; Gottschalk, Erik Edward; Pavlicek, V.; Wang, M.; Wu, J.

    2003-01-01

    The present work describes the architecture and data flow analysis of a highly parallel processor for the Level 1 Pixel Trigger for the BTeV experiment at Fermilab. First the Level 1 Trigger system is described. Then the major components are analyzed by resorting to mathematical modeling. Also, behavioral simulations are used to confirm the models. Results from modeling and simulations are fed back into the system in order to improve the architecture, eliminate bottlenecks, allocate sufficient buffering between processes and obtain other important design parameters. An interesting feature of the current analysis is that the models can be extended to a large class of architectures and parallel systems.

  6. New shower maximum trigger for electrons and photons at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Amidei, D.; Burkett, K.; Gerdes, D.; Miao, C.; Wolinski, D.; Byrum, K.; Dawson, J.; Nodulman, L.; Wicklund, A.B.

    1994-07-28

    For the 1994 Tevatron collider run, CDF has upgraded the electron and photo trigger hardware to make use of shower position and size information from the central shower maximum detector. For electrons, the upgrade has resulted in a 50% reduction in backgrounds while retaining approximately 90% of the signal. The new trigger also eliminates the background to photon triggers from single-phototube spikes.

  7. A tunable CMOS constant current source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thelen, D.

    1991-01-01

    A constant current source has been designed which makes use of on chip electrically erasable memory to adjust the magnitude and temperature coefficient of the output current. The current source includes a voltage reference based on the difference between enhancement and depletion transistor threshold voltages. Accuracy is +/- 3% over the full range of power supply, process variations, and temperature using eight bits for tuning.

  8. Proteomics of effector-triggered immunity (ETI) in plants

    PubMed Central

    Hurley, Brenden; Subramaniam, Rajagopal; Guttman, David S; Desveaux, Darrell

    2014-01-01

    Effector-triggered immunity (ETI) was originally termed gene-for-gene resistance and dates back to fundamental observations of flax resistance to rust fungi by Harold Henry Flor in the 1940s. Since then, genetic and biochemical approaches have defined our current understanding of how plant “resistance” proteins recognize microbial effectors. More recently, proteomic approaches have expanded our view of the protein landscape during ETI and contributed significant advances to our mechanistic understanding of ETI signaling. Here we provide an overview of proteomic techniques that have been used to study plant ETI including both global and targeted approaches. We discuss the challenges associated with ETI proteomics and highlight specific examples from the literature, which demonstrate how proteomics is advancing the ETI research field. PMID:25513776

  9. Magnetic Field Triggered Multicycle Damage Sensing and Self Healing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Anansa S.; Ramanujan, R. V.

    2015-09-01

    Multifunctional materials inspired by biological structures have attracted great interest, e.g. for wearable/ flexible “skin” and smart coatings. A current challenge in this area is to develop an artificial material which mimics biological skin by simultaneously displaying color change on damage as well as self healing of the damaged region. Here we report, for the first time, the development of a damage sensing and self healing magnet-polymer composite (Magpol), which actively responds to an external magnetic field. We incorporated reversible sensing using mechanochromic molecules in a shape memory thermoplastic matrix. Exposure to an alternating magnetic field (AMF) triggers shape recovery and facilitates damage repair. Magpol exhibited a linear strain response upto 150% strain and complete recovery after healing. We have demonstrated the use of this concept in a reusable biomedical device i.e., coated guidewires. Our findings offer a new synergistic method to bestow multifunctionality for applications ranging from medical device coatings to adaptive wing structures.

  10. Magnetic Field Triggered Multicycle Damage Sensing and Self Healing.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Anansa S; Ramanujan, R V

    2015-01-01

    Multifunctional materials inspired by biological structures have attracted great interest, e.g. for wearable/ flexible "skin" and smart coatings. A current challenge in this area is to develop an artificial material which mimics biological skin by simultaneously displaying color change on damage as well as self healing of the damaged region. Here we report, for the first time, the development of a damage sensing and self healing magnet-polymer composite (Magpol), which actively responds to an external magnetic field. We incorporated reversible sensing using mechanochromic molecules in a shape memory thermoplastic matrix. Exposure to an alternating magnetic field (AMF) triggers shape recovery and facilitates damage repair. Magpol exhibited a linear strain response upto 150% strain and complete recovery after healing. We have demonstrated the use of this concept in a reusable biomedical device i.e., coated guidewires. Our findings offer a new synergistic method to bestow multifunctionality for applications ranging from medical device coatings to adaptive wing structures.

  11. Proteomics of effector-triggered immunity (ETI) in plants.

    PubMed

    Hurley, Brenden; Subramaniam, Rajagopal; Guttman, David S; Desveaux, Darrell

    2014-01-01

    Effector-triggered immunity (ETI) was originally termed gene-for-gene resistance and dates back to fundamental observations of flax resistance to rust fungi by Harold Henry Flor in the 1940s. Since then, genetic and biochemical approaches have defined our current understanding of how plant "resistance" proteins recognize microbial effectors. More recently, proteomic approaches have expanded our view of the protein landscape during ETI and contributed significant advances to our mechanistic understanding of ETI signaling. Here we provide an overview of proteomic techniques that have been used to study plant ETI including both global and targeted approaches. We discuss the challenges associated with ETI proteomics and highlight specific examples from the literature, which demonstrate how proteomics is advancing the ETI research field. PMID:25513776

  12. 1990 Sandia rocket-triggered lightning field tests at Kennedy Space Center, Florida

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, R.J.; Schnetzer, G.H.

    1991-03-01

    During 1990, the Sandia Transportable Triggered Lightning Instrumentation Facility (SATTLIF) was designed, fabricated, and fielded at the Kentucky Space Center (KSC) rocket-triggered lighting test range in Florida. In preparation for lighting tests of a specially fitted munitions storage bunker during 1991, instrumentation for directly measuring lightning channel currents and response currents in structures was evaluated and demonstrated to function well. A set of 77-mil-thick 2024-T3 aluminum and 35-mil-thick 4130 steel metallic samples was exposed to measured triggered lighting flash currents. The resultant damage spots on these specimens represent the first such data points produced by known lighting currents. They are intended for use as benchmarks against which to improve and quantify the fidelity of laboratory simulations of lightning penetration. Two particularly significant results were obtained. In the first, a damage spot of approximately 0.3-inch diameter and >0.01-inch depth was produced by a continuing current of well less than median-level severity that transferred less than 13.6 coulombs of charge. In the second case, one of the steel samples was virtually burned through under a return-stroke/continuing current combination transferring an eightieth percentile charge of approximately 49 coulombs. Photographic evidence of upward-going streamers preceding return strokes initiated by dart leaders was also obtained and is presented. 17 refs., 34 figs., 4 tabs.

  13. 15 CFR 6.5 - Effective date of adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... INFLATION ADJUSTMENTS § 6.5 Effective date of adjustments. The adjustments made by § 6.4 of this part, of... December 7, 2012, and before the effective date of any future inflation adjustment thereto made...

  14. 15 CFR 6.5 - Effective date of adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... INFLATION ADJUSTMENTS § 6.5 Effective date of adjustments. The adjustments made by § 6.4 of this part, of... December 7, 2012, and before the effective date of any future inflation adjustment thereto made...

  15. 15 CFR 6.5 - Effective date of adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... INFLATION ADJUSTMENTS § 6.5 Effective date of adjustments. The adjustments made by § 6.4 of this part, of... December 11, 2008, and before the effective date of any future inflation adjustment thereto made...

  16. 15 CFR 6.5 - Effective date of adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... INFLATION ADJUSTMENTS § 6.5 Effective date of adjustments. The adjustments made by § 6.4 of this part, of... December 11, 2008, and before the effective date of any future inflation adjustment thereto made...

  17. 15 CFR 6.5 - Effective date of adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... INFLATION ADJUSTMENTS § 6.5 Effective date of adjustments. The adjustments made by § 6.4 of this part, of... December 11, 2008, and before the effective date of any future inflation adjustment thereto made...

  18. 42 CFR 416.200 - Payment adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) AMBULATORY SURGICAL SERVICES Adjustment in Payment Amounts for New Technology... the amount of the payment adjustment for classes of new technology IOLs through proposed and final... approved as belonging to a class of new technology IOLs for the 5-year period of time established for...

  19. 42 CFR 416.200 - Payment adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) MEDICARE PROGRAM AMBULATORY SURGICAL SERVICES Adjustment in Payment Amounts for New Technology Intraocular... amount of the payment adjustment for classes of new technology IOLs through proposed and final rulemaking... approved as belonging to a class of new technology IOLs for the 5-year period of time established for...

  20. 42 CFR 416.200 - Payment adjustment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) AMBULATORY SURGICAL SERVICES Adjustment in Payment Amounts for New Technology... the amount of the payment adjustment for classes of new technology IOLs through proposed and final... approved as belonging to a class of new technology IOLs for the 5-year period of time established for...